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BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

Supplement to the general synopsis of birds Latham, John, 1740-1837 1787

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The Bulwer Collection
Gift of
Mrs. Henry A. Bulwer
to the
General synopsis
L   O   N   D   o "x:
Printed for L%]i & SotLeby,
York' Street,Covent Garden.
A ■ A H E Author of the following fheets intends, by the pub
■^    lication of them, to fulfil his promifes to the public o
doling therewith his General Synopsis of Birds.
In order to form this fupplemental Volume, every fpecies in
the former ones has been revifed j and to fuch of them as
wanted correction, or where any new remark feemed neceflary to
be added, it has been done.: after which, thofe defcribed as new
follow, at the end of each Genus; making in the whole work not
fewer than 3000 birds j a number never imagined, by former
writers in ornithology, to exift in nature.
It has been by fome thought, that fuch an undertaking as the
prefent might have been rendered more complete, if fhort generic
and fpecific defcriptions had been added; but as fuch, if joined to
the work, could not, with propriety, have been placed any where
except at the head of the defcriptions at large, it would not, in the
author's opinion, have elucidated the fubjecT; in the fame propor-
a tion
tion as it muft have added to the bulk of the volumes,
formance of this kind, therefore, to be of real utility, mi
a feparate publication;  as, in that cafe, the description;
compreffed into a fmaller fpace, might be curforily perufed,
the fame manner as in the Syjlema Nature of Linnaus, after whofe
elegant model it fhould alfo be formed.
This, however, cannot be in a very little compafs, as it muft
exceed the limits of theornithologic part of that author's work,
in the fame proportion as the fpecies defcribed in this Synopjis do
thofe in the Syjlema; for at the time of Linnaus's writing, the
number of birds treated of by him did not greatly exceed 900,
for all of which (excepting between 30 and 40 which were new,
and defcribed by him as fuch) he was able to refer to one or
, more writers who had given a full account of them ; but in the
prefent undertaking more than 2000 others have likewife been defcribed, the greater part of which has been noticed by various
writers fince the laft edition of Linnaus's workj the reft, between
5 and 600 in number, only to be found in the feveral volumes
of this work.
That   concife   generic and fpecific defcriptions   have   been
thought neceflaiy, need not, in this place, be further infilled on,
when it is known that the author of thefe fheets haftily penned
4 fuch,
fuch, for his own ufe, as faft as the volumes were publifhed; but
to give them a fufficient revifal, fo as to merit the public infpec-
tion, would, perhaps, require more time than he has immediately in his power to fpare for the purpofe.
For the prefent, he will only add moft fincere thanks to his
former friends for the continuation of their affiftance, as well as.
to thofe feverally mentioned in the prefent Supplement, who have
contributed theirs, and by whofe means he has been enabled to
add defcriptions of many new and curious fubjecls. Rejoicing
not a little to have at laft finilhed his promifed tafk, he wifhes
nothing more than to find hereafter, that his well-intended
labours may be received by the Public with its former candour.
Hartford, May i, 1787.
B    I    R    D    |
Order  I.    RAPACIOUS.
Genus I.     VULTURE.
N°i8*. Plaintive V.        N'ai. Pondicherry V.
19. Cheriway V. 22. Indian V.
20. Crowned V. 23. Gingi V.
Condur 'V". Gen. Syn. vol. i. p. 4.
Laemmer-geyer, Dec, Ruff. ii. pi. 8. in p. 387 ?
THE Laemmer-geyer is mentioned by feveral authors as a
moft voracious and deftruftive bird, and that, among other
things, it preys on calves and Jbeep, and is common about Ghilan,
in Perjia -, but they differ greatly in fize. Gmelin calls the length
only four feet, and the breadth five. Sprungli defcribed it as
weighing twelve pounds, and extending, from wing to wing,
* The fpecies in this Supplement, not before defcribed in the Synopjts, will be
placed at the head of their refpective genus, as in that work,
Sitppl. B eight
etajffrt feet three Quarters; but obfervel, that a VuTture^ts bee»
killed in Switzerland, meafuring twelve feet from the tip of one
wing to that of the others however, it Hill-remains dubious whether the Laemmer-geyer be the fame with the Condur, or a mere
variety of the Bearded Vulture, as tbme think; for the firft is not
mentioned as having a comb on the head, which travellers furnifh
the Condur with. In Spil&urgen's Voyage *, it is faid,. that " in
" the ifland Louhes>-\, they took two fowls, in beak, wings, and
"talons, refembling "an -Eagle; and combs on their heads, like
" Cocks, They were two ells high, and three in breadth, from_
" wing to wing, when ftretcfred out."—-It is much to be feared,,
that other authors, as well as myfelf, have greatly confounded'the
fpecies of Vultures; for being, like the Falcon-tribe, long-lived,,
their plumage puts on a great variety of drefs, fufficient to deceive thofe Who have hitherto attempted to difcriminate them-
Carrion  Vulture,   Gen. Syn.  vol. i. p. i
Voy. ii. pt. zd, p. 6j.
Strunt-vogel, or Dung-Bird, Kolb. Cap. ii
.—Ara. Zool. N° 86.-
p.136 ?
T~\AMPIER obferves, that the fcent of this bird is fo nice, that
very foon after a beaft is killed, two or three hundred will
flock together from all parts in lefs than an hour's time, though
before not one was to be feen thereabouts.
Kolben remarks, that an hundred, or more will attack an Ox or
Cow retired from labour, fick, and faint; and falling all at once
upon him, foon devour him: they begin by making a hole in the
* See Harris, Coll. Voy. vol. i. p. 35.
f This is not far diftant from Peyta, i
1 South Amtri
belly, and, thrufting in their heads, pick the fleflifrom the bone§3
itill leaving the ikinto cover them.
Alpine V. Gen. Syn. vol. u p. 12. N» 7. 7.
Vultur percnopterus, Linnai,Faun.Jrag.-p.6-;. ALPINE V.
"DUILDS in high rocks, about Arragon in Spain: is called
there Roleta: is fometimes driven by tempeft from Perfia to
AJtrachan, in the Ruffian dominions,-  as fome  have been fhot
Cinereous V. Gen. Syn. i. p. 14. N"8. 9.
Vultur totus fufcus, Faun. Arag. p. 67. CINEREOUS Vr..
"C* O U N D in Arragon: faid to vary, fometimes of a blackifh colour : called in Spain, Vuitre.
Bengal V, Gen. Syn. i. p. 19. N° 16. pL u ,6.
Vultur percnopterus (fem.) Hafelq. Foy.p. 194. (Eng.ed.)? BENGAL V.
TT has been hinted to me, that this bird is no other than the
female of the above-quoted, from Haffelquift *, which appears
not unlikely. This author obferves, that it has an horrid appearance : the face naked and' wrinkled : the eyes large and black :
the beak black and hooked : the talons large: the whole body
polluted with filth. He adds, that they are bold birds; and that
all the places round Cairo are filled with the dead bodies of Ajjes
and Camels, and thoufands of thefe birds fly about, and devour
* Not the W. percneperus-oi Linnaws,—My etf>y-eokuft(k#.. p. 1 $■, is mofl pro*,
bably. the- mak to thai oft H^elquifi.
B 2 the
 T   U   R   E.
the carcafes before they putrify and fill the air with noxious exhalations.
, sf*
. p. 20. N°'17. pi. 25.
m. Voy. i. p. 15+.
J)R. Spar
tan fays, that this is not a fhy bird; but whea
firft tries to fave itfelf by hopping and fcudding
very fwiftly ; and, if this method fails, takes to flight. It feizes
Serpents, by firft holding the point of one wing forward to parry
off the bite ; fometimes fpurning and treading upon it; at other-
times taking it on its pinions, and throwing it into the air; and
after wearying out the adverfary, kills and fwallows it at leifure,
without danger. The above account, Dr. Sparrman does not
doubt the truth of, though it did not fall under his own obferva?-
Plaintive Eagle, Gen. Syn. i. p. 34.
Sr. Muf.
T ENGTH two feet four inches. Bill two inches long, and
not greatly hooked, the colour black; the cere extends to
within one inch and a quarter of the tip, and the noftrils are placed
obliquely near the top; the bare part extends backward round the
eyes, almoft to the top of the head; and the colour of the whole of
the bare parts yellow: the fore-part of the neck is nearly deftitute
of feathers: the top of the head and hind part of the neck are
brown : the upper part of the body barred brown and white: the
wings brown: the tail white, crofted with blackifh bars, and the
end, for one inch, of this laft colour; the bafe of the four firft
quills marked as the tail: the legs yellow; claws black, moderately hooked, and blunt at the tips.
The above defcription I was enabled to draw up from a fpeci-
men preferved in fpirits, now in the BritiJh Mufeum ; whereby I
have full afiurance of its belonging to the Vulture genus, and
feems to be no other than my Plaintive Eagle before defcribed.
F'alco cheriway, Jacq. Vogel. p. 17. t. 4.
T ENGTH two feet and a half, or more.   Bill pale blue : head   Description.
and neck very pale yellow : hind-head crefted: cere and
round the eyes rofe-colour : general colour of the plumage on the
upper parts ferruginous, beneath pale, vent white 1 the two middle tail feathers barred with dufky; the lateral ones, and quills,
dufky black: legs pale yellow.
Inhabits the ifland of Aruba, on the coaft of Venetzuela, in South Place.
Crefted V. Gen. Syn. i. p. 61 20.
Vultur coronatus, Jacq. Fog. p. f| N- n. CROWNED V.
'TpHIS is very probably a variety of the crefted Vulture, as it is   Description.
faid to be of the fame fize. The bill is black : the head of
a reddifh grey, and. adorned with a creft compofed of feveral feathers, fix inches long at leaft: part of the wings, the neck, and
breaft, are black : belly white : thighs white, fpotted with black r
tail long, black and white mixed : legs very ftrong and yellow.
This was met with near St. Magdalen River, in New Grenada:        Place.
"Whea it ftands erecl, it is two feet and a half in height.
Le Vautour Royal de Pondichery, Son. Voy. Ind. ii. p. 182. pi. 104..
CIZ E of a large Goofe. The bill black, pretty hooked, but rather fhort; the bafe covered with a naked fkin ; the noftrils
pervious: the forehead is flat, and the head large: the head and
neck flefh-coloured : the hind part of the head, and thefpace between the bill and eyes, covered with flefh-coloured down : the
fore part of the neck and breaft fparingly befet with fine feathers
of the fame colour, placed in tufts; on the neck is a flefhy red
membrane, very fmall, bare of feathers, which begins beneath the
ears, and reaches to the loweft part of the neck : the back, belly,
wings, and tail, are black : the legs yellow.
Inhabits Pondicherry, in the Eaft Indies, and parts adjacent.
Le grand Vautour des Indes, Son. Voy. Ind. vol. it. p. 183. pi. 105..
CIZ E of a Goofe. Bill black : iridesred: the head and neck
bare of feathers, and of a rufous colour ; the head furnifhed
with a ftraggling down, refembling hair; the neck long in proportion, and befet with tufts of very fine feathers: the feathers of
the breaft fhort, and appear as if clipped or fhaved ; thofe of the
lower part of the neck behind are long, narrow, and pointed, and
of a bright rufous colour.: the wing coverts, back, and rump, the
colour of umber, each feather tipped with a pale band : quills, tail,
and legs, black.
This inhabits- India, and is very voracious : found in the daytime on the banks of thef&a, waiting for the dead fijh which are
there thrown up: fond of putrid carcafes, which it often: dJgs
up out of the ground: it flies heavily, though the wings are very
ftrong. I $
Le Vautour de Gingi, Son. Voy. Ind. ii. p. I#4»
CIZ E of a Turkey.   In the bill not unlike that bird, and grey :
noftrils pervious : irides red: the forehead, cheeks, and throat,
are covered with a reddifti fkin : the feathers of the hind part of
the head and neck, long,.-narrow, and white: the wing coverts,
back, belly>and tail, of the fame colour; fee^uills black: legs
This inhabits-the coaft of Coromandel, wftere the inhabitants call
it the Wiid Turkey.
This perhaps is the Vulture mentioned in the Effais Philofo-
phiques, faid to be almoft wholly white: the head and neck covered with fine, fhort, briftly feathers : quills long, and towards
the ends of a blackifh grey. This bird is faid to fly quick and
light, to be very voracious and timid; and moftly found fingly
on fome hillock in the-rrrar3b.es ^where it fee#s, Which it does on?
carrion; but prefers reptiles, when to be had.
Another is alfo mentioned in the fame book*, of the fize of a
Turkey: the male of a marbled brown; the female, iron-grey:
head and half the neck naked, wrinkled, and covered with reddiflx
yellow excrefcences, with fcattered hairs between. This may perhaps have fome relation to the other, as it is faid to be very like-
the King Vulture, though not the fame bird. It is often met witfo
in flocks of twenty or thirty, eating the flefh of a dead beaft.
* Ef. Philof. p. 58.
 t  8  3
Genus II.     FALCON.
N° gg. Plain F.
ioo. Black-necked F.
101. White-riecked F.
102. Afiatic F.
103. Leverian F.
104. Johanna F.
105. Madagafcar F,
106. Cheela F.
107. Rufous-headed F.
108. Arabian K.
N° 109. Streaked F.
110. Notched F.
in. Rhomboidal F.
112. Behree F.
113. Greenland F.
114. Plumbeous F.
115. Dubious F.
116. American F.
117. Criard F.
118. Tiny F.
Black Eagle, Gen. Syn. i. p. 28. N° z.—Arii. Zool. ii. N« 87.
T T is very probable that my Black and Ring-tailed Eagles differ
only from climate, as they feem to vary chiefly in having the
breaft plain, or marked with white fpots. Both inhabit Hudfon's
Bay, appearing firft in March : they build on the tops of trees,
hatch two young in May, and depart in Autumn. That called the
Black Eagle is known by the name of Kethewuck-michefue; the
Ring-tail, Apijk-michefue. Mr. Hut chins, to whom I owe this 1 aft
remark, obferves, that the Black, Ring-tail, and White-headed
Eagles of America, are inferior in fize to thofe of North Britain.
Bald Eagle, Gen. Syn. i. p. 29. N° 3. 3.
White-headed Eagle, Ara. Zool. ii. N° 89. +- B ALD E,
'TpHIS was met with by our voyagers at Nootka Sound* and
Kamtfchatka f; is common in America: at Hudfon's Bay,
called Wapaw-Eftequan-Mtckefue : faid to be the fmalleft Eagle
which frequents that place: comes in May: builds on the higheft
trees: the neft compofed of flicks and grafs, of a very large fize :
has two young ones, though frequently only one J.
Sea Eagle, Gen. Syn. i. p. 30. N°4.—Ar3. Zool. ii. p. 194. 86. A. 4.
Falco offifraga, Brun. Orn. p. 3. N° 13.—Mutter, p. 9. N°6o. £j SEA E«
Bone-breaker, Kolb. Cap. ii. p. 137 ?
'T'HIS fpecies is obferved to be larger in North America than in
Europe.    It is common in RuJJia and Sibiria; found in fum-
mereven on the arSlic coaft, and no lefs frequent about the Cafpian
If a conjecture may be had of its being the bird mentioned by
Kolben, is found alfo at the Cape of Good Hope, where he fays it feeds
on the land tortoifes, carrying them to a great height in the air,
and letting them fall upon fome rock, in order to break the fhells,
whereby it may get the more eafily at the meat.
• Cook's Loft Voy. ii. p. 296.
f Id. iii. p. 346.—The Eaglets faid to be as white as fnow.
% Mr. Hutchins,
Golden Eagle, Gen. Syn. i. p. 31.—Ara. Zool. ii. 214. A.
Falco chryfaetos, Mutter, N° 59.—Faun. Arag. p. 6y.
HPKIS fpecies is common in Sweden and Denmark; met with
at Aftrachan ; at Orenbourg often expofed to fale, as the Kir-
guftans make ufe of it in falconry, to take the Wolf, Fox, and Antelope : good ones fell dear, as not unfrequently a horfe is given
in exchange for this bird, while only a Jheep is thought fufficient
for one of another fort*.
6. Ring-tailed E. Gen. Syn. I. p. 32.
RING-TAILED Black Eagle, Ara, Zool. ii. p. 195.
Falco fulvus, Georgi Reife, p. 164.
"INHABITS various parts of Ruffia: found about Wor»-
nefch, on the river Don, in vaft numbers, where it makes the
neft on the tops of the loftieft trees, breaking off large branches
for the purpofe with its ftrong bill; or when deficient of trees, on
the rocks themfelves : is a great enemy to birds, rats, &c. and
will at times kill Jheep and calves f. Both varieties found at
AJkaehan%, and made ufe of in falconry by the Calmucs, as well
as the laft fpecies ||; known there by the name of Birkout §. The
feathers of the tail are much efteemed for pluming their arrows %.
This fpecies alfo inhabits North America, being found at Hudfon's
Bay, where it is known by the name of Afffi-ffliokefue.
* Dec Ruff. ii. p. 142.—iii. p. 117. f '?A L p. 8
I Id. iii. p, 303. $ Ruffia, vol, ii. p. 196, 269.
% Id. ii. p. 142.
% Ara. Zool.
Cinereous Eagle, Gen. Syn. i. p. 33. N° 8.—Ara. Zool. ii. p. 214. 8.
Vultur albicilla, Brun. Orn. N° 12.—Mutter, N° 58.—Faun. Groenl. p. 53.        CINEREOUS E.
rTs HIS fpecies is very common on the continent of Europe; the
fouthern parts of Rujfia, particularly about the Wolga; in
Sweden and Denmark \ alfo in Iceland and Lapmark. In Greenland
it is found, the whole year, among the iflands and rocks, from
which laft it darts on the feveral diving birds the moment of their
rife to the furface of the water, the place of which it is enabled to
afcertain by the bubbles : attempts now and then to prey on a live
Seal, when, having fixed the talons too faft to be difentangled, the
Seal draws the Eagle under water, to its deftruction : feeds alfo on
fifh, efpecially the Lump-fijh, and a fort of Trout. In a neftof one
of thefe birds, near Kefwick, in Cumberland, was found a Grey or
Hulfewater Trout, of above twelve pounds weight. Dr. Heyjham,
who informed me of this, added to the obfervation, that he obtained the bird alive, and had kept it above ten years, at the time
of his communicating to me the account; and that it was either
iix or leven years before the tail became white.
Black-cheeked E. Gen. Syn. i. p. 196. N° 10,—Ara. Zool. ii. p. 196. N° 88. 10.
OlZE of the Ring-tail Eagle.   Bill dufky and blue; cere yel- ED E'
low: head, neck, and breaft, deep afh-colour: each cheek      inscription.
marked with a broad black bar, paffmg from the corner of the
mouth beyond the eyes: back, belly, wings, and tail, black : legs
yellow, feathered below the knees.
Inhabit North America, Pla*x.
C a Jeaa
Jean le blanc, Gen. Syn. i. p. 39, N» 17.
HpHIS fpecies is pretty frequent in the fouthern parts of Ruffia,
efpecially about the rivers Don and Volga, though not met
with in Sibiria: is ufed in falconry by the Calmucs *.
New Holland White E. Gen. Syn. i. p. 40. N° 18.
A   Specimen of this is in the collection of Sir Jofeph Banks*
The whole plumage is white,  the quills not excepted; in
which it differs from the Louifiane, p. 36.   The quills reach only
to the beginning of the tail.
Pondicherry E. Gen. Syn. i. p. 41. N° 21.
Aigle Malabarre, Eff. Phil. p. 55.
HpHIS is frequent both on the Coromandel and Malabar coafb,
and is fo common on the latter, that it is by fome called the
Malabar Eagle : it refembles, in many circumftances, the manner
of the Kite; is a very bold bird, though not of fo docile a race as
to be ufed in falconry : it is called at Indoftan, Tchil; and in the
Tamoul language, known by the name of Kueronden; by the
French called Oifeau-brame, and by the Englijh, Bramary Kite; being held facred by all, in compliance with the refpecl paid it by
the Bramins of India.
• Decowv, Ruff. iii. p. 303,
White-crowned E. Gen. Syn. i. p. 42. N° 23,
HPHIS fpecies is the fmalleft of the Eagles, being not much
larger than the Jean-le-blanc : is only met with on the rivers
towards the Cafpian fea, breeding along with the Sea-Eagles on the
higheft trees *.
Ofprey, Gen. Syn. i. p. 45. N° 26.—Ara. Zool. N° 91.
Falco haliastus, Mull. Prod. 'N"66.—Georgi Reife, p. 16.
p. 137?
-Kolb. Cap, ii.
HPHIS bird and its varieties are far fpread, being met with in
various parts of the old continent: frequent in Kamtfchatka,
and parts ftill more northward, in the fummer; migrating, as the
winter approaches, towards thefouthf: in all fituations, is the
procurer of food for the White-tailed and other Eagles. If Kolbenrs
bird be really our Ofprey, he obferves that it is, of all birds, the
moft deftructive to the Flying-fijh, taking them up during their rife
from the water J.
* Mr. Pennant,
f Found about Baikal: common at Afrachan, Dee. Ruff. vol. i|. p. 142.
% Kolben afferts for f&&, that one foot is made like that of a Goofe; but his
having been impofed on, cannot alter the faft of its being otherwife. See Syn*
vol.L p.45.
Common Buzzard, Gen. Syn. i. p. 48. N° zB.—Ara. Zool. ii. N° 103.
Falco buteo, Brun. Orn. p. 5.—Mutter, N° C^.—Georgi Reife,  p. 164.—
Faun. Arag. p. 68. 3.
A Very common bird on the continent of Europe. In France,
known by the name of Goiran ; is moft plentiful, in winter,
about Lyons, where it is dreffed for the table, and even thought
good food, being at that feafon as fat as afowl. The eggs are faid
to be cinereous, marked with deeper-coloured fpots*. Inhabits
both the northern and fouthern parts of' Rujffia, though lefs frequent
than fome other fpecies: is more abundant about Aftrachan:
common in Spain: called in the province of Aragon, Alferraz.
Honey Buzzard, Gen. Syn.
Falco apivorus, Brun. p. 5,
. p. 52. N° 33.—Ara. Zool. ii. p. 224.1.
-Mutter, N°68.
HPHFS fpecies is not very common, either in England or on the
continent of Europe, though inhabiting various parts of it:
is feen as far north as Sondmor, in Norway -, common in the open
parts of RuJJia and Sibiria, near woods; and feeds much on Lizards f. It alfo is fond of Mice, being a great enemy to them,
and hunting after them in the manner of the Ow/J. The
eggs are of a very deep red-brown, with ferruginous blotches of
chefnut R.
• Hift. de Lyons, i. p. 198.—I have never feen the eggs, but am informed by
Mr. Boys, that they are of a blueifh white, marked with irregular rufous fpots;
the fhape of the egg almoft globular; ufually three in the neft.
f Ara. Zool.
% Brunnicb.—Hence called MufcHog and Mufebaage.
jj Portland Mufeum.
Moor Buzaard, Gen. Syn. i. p. 53. N° 34—^rtf. Zool. ii. p. 225. L. ^ MOOR BUZ-
Falco asruginofus, Brun. p. 5.—Mutter, N° 69.—Faun. Arag. p. 69.6.— ZARD.
Stpp. Fag. pi. in p. 1 c.
A Female will weigh fometimes twenty-feven ounces. Inhabits
England j found chiefly on the moors: builds on the ground;
the neft compofed of dried fticks, intermixed with dry fedges or
decayed leaves ; the laft chiefly within: the eggs of a blueifh
white *. Common alfo on the continent of Europe, and found as
far north as. the laft fpecies; is a common bird in the fouth of
Ruffia, but not met with in Sibiria f.
Collared F. Gen. Syn. i. p. 56. N°tf.—Ara. Zool. ii. p. 222. G.
Falco rufticolus, Faun. Groenl. N° 34.
HP HIS inhabits Greenland, but is feldom met with, as it frequents the moft remote places : is called by the natives Mil-
lekulartok, fignifyaag fpotied. In the defert and open places between the Don and Wolga, in the Ruffian dominions, it isalfo teen;
buf is not a common bird J.
* Sepf.—If the bird known-in France by the name of FauxPerdrieux, is faid ta
build on the tops of high trees which grow fingly, efpecially at Auvergne and
Forea.o—Hift. de Lyons, i. N° 203.
f .rfrtf. Zool. % Dec. Ruff, 1, p. 314,
G ofliawk;,
 T   A   L   C   O   N,
39- , '
Gofhawk, Gen. Syn
. i. p. 58. N° 39.—Ara. Zool. N° 99.
Falco palumbarius
, Mutter, N° ■jo.—Georgi Reife, p. 164
HP HE Gojhawk is common in Denmark, all over Ruffia, and in
Sibiria, about the L«&? Baikal: is ufed by the Calmucs in
falconry : a variety found fometimes quite white, but it is very
rare*; on the contrary, in Kamtfchatka every individual is white,
with hardly any fpots ; and thefe are faid to prove the beft of all
for the fport of falconry f.
The American one feems larger than that of Europe; known at
Hudfon's Bay by the name of Komijhark-papanafew : it builds a
neft in lofty trees, of flicks laid acrofs, lined with bay and feathers ; and lays four white eggs ; the young hatched in the beginning of July: frequents plains and woods indifferently; is
continually on the wing, and a great enemy to the Partridges and
other birds J.
I have feen the Gojhawk in drawings done in China, as well as
in thofe from India, and have been affured that it is a native of
the laft, where the male is known by the name of Bauge.
The female differs in being fomewhat larger, and paler on the
upper parts, marked beneath with oval fpots of duflcy black, giving it the appearance of the Gentil Falcon. This fex is called in
India, Jurra. The young males are greatly fimilar to the females,
and do not attain their full plumage for feveral moults. The
young male is called Mudge Bauge, and the young female, Mudge
Thefe, among others, are ufed in India fox falconry.
* Dec Ruff. iii. p. 303. f Ar8. Zwl, % Mr. Hutcbins.
Kite, Gen. Syn. i. p.6i. N° 4.3.-—Ara. Zool. ii. N° 223. H.
F. milvus, Brun. Na 3.—Mutter, N° 61—Georgi Reife, p. 164.
HPHIS bird, fo well known in England, is pretty common on
the continent of Europe, but does not frequent the colder
parts, except in the hotter months, being migratory : it is found
with us at all feafons, but obferved to be more in number in winter in the fouthern counties : preys on chickens and other poultry
while young, failing over the barn-yards for the purpofe of darting upon the firft unwary ftraggler: will fometimes tzx.fijh, as it
has been found feeding on the remains of one at the fide of a
pond, having perhaps beaten off the firft poffeffor; for we would
not fufpecf. its taking the water itfelf, a circumftance in which the
Ofprey perhaps ftands unrivalled. The egg of the Kite is of a
blueifh white, inclining to red at one end, blending itfelf with the
white by fmall markings *.
Gentil Falcon, Gen. Syn. i. p. 64. N° 48.—Ara. Zool. ii. N" 98.
Falco Gentilis, Brun. N° 6.—-Mutter, N° 62.
HPHIS fpecies inhabits the north of Scotland, and builds in
rocks near Invercauld, and in Glen-more f; is met with in the
north of Europe, as far as Finmark J; but we do not hear of it
farther fouth than Aftrachan ||: was formerly ufed in England in
falconry, as it is now on the continent. Is alfo found in America,
but is there larger than-in Europe: one fhot in the province of
New Tork meafured two feet two inches.
* Portland Mufeum.
X Ar8. Zool.
f Flor. Scot. I. p. 17.
il Dec. Ruf, ii. p. 142.
D Peregrine
 N°52.—Ara. Zool. N° 97.
HPHIS bird breeds in fome high rocks not far from Giljland, irt
Cumberland; alfo in fome of the mountains about Kefwick.
A female, killed May 1781, weighed thirty-fix ounces and a quarter, was nineteen inches in length, and forty-two in breadth. Is
very deftruflive to game : near the neft were found the remains of
Moor-game, Partridges, Plovers, &c. Is very noify and clamorous.
The young in the neft were three in number, and the male fed them
for a week or ten days after the female was killed *..
The Peregrine Falcon is alfo common on the continent of Europe in fummer; is frequent in Kamtfchatka \ wanders in fummer
to the very Arfiic circle, but returns to the fouth in winter. Inhabits alfo America, from Carolina to Hudfon's Bay, where it is of a
larger fize : at the laft place known by the name of Papana.
few Kaycake: it varies extremely at different periods of age f.
Rough-legged Falcon, Gen. Syn. i. p. 75. N054«—Ara. Zool. N°92.
A Bird greatly refembling this fpecies, and which I am inclined
to think a variety, is in my collection : it meafures one foot
ten inches, and differs chiefly in the tail, the ground of which is a
cream-coloured white; near the tip is a bar of brown above an
inch in breadth ; above that, a fecond of about half an inch broad;
and above thefe, each feather has a fpot upon it in the middle.
mimicking, when fpread,
a third bar
; befides which,
* Dr
t It
s not improbable but m
y N° 49.
E.and F. ma
y prove
Var. E. is in my own collection ;
it is certainly greatly
like th
F. but j
s a much hrger bird.
outer feathers on each fide are marked with a few irregular fpots
of brown, almoft the whole of their length, on the outer webs.
The above was prefented to me by the Rev. Dr. Wilgrefs, of
Eltham, who fhot it in Suffolk. I received, on another occafion,
from the fame gentleman, a fecond, which differed in being of a
larger fize, and having a greater proportion of brown in the tail.
Placentia Falcon, Gen. Syn. i. p. 76. N° 57.
Bay Falcon, Gen. Syn. i. p. 54. N° 34. Var. A.
Chocolate F. Ara. Zool. N° 94.
T ENGTH twenty-feven inches. Bill black; cere yellow:
the feathers of the head, neck, and breaft, brown, with the
edges reddifh white: back and wing coverts brown, edged with
pale rufous : the under part of the bird of a fine deep chocolate-
brown ; acrofe the breaft nearly white; between the legs cream-
colour : thighs fine tawny yellow, ftreaked with chocolate; the
feathers very long : the quills are of a deep brown ; the firft five
are, for two-thirds from the bafe, quite white; the others the
fame, but the white marked with irregular bars of brown : the
upper tail coverts white, with a large chocolate fpot at the tip of
each feather: the tail deep chocolate; bafe of the feathers yel-
lowifh white; the end of each of a deeper chocolate than the reft
of the feather; the very tip and the fhafts of a dirty white : the
wings and tail nearly of equal lengths : the legs are feathered to
the toes ; the laft are of a greenifh yellow : claws black, large,
and hooked.
The above is defcribed from a fpecimen in my own collection.
It feems a larger bird than that from which Mr, Pennant took his
D 2 defcription;
defcription ; but there is fcarce a doubt of its being the fame bird.
It inhabits both Hudfon's Bay and Newfoundland; preys much on
Ducks 5 fits on a rock and watches their rifing, when it inftantly
ftrikes at them *.
Sacre, Gen. Syn. i. p. 77. N° 59.—Ara. Zool. N° 96.
HPHIS Sacre is ufed in Tartary for falconry ; and is a courageous, ftrong fpecies, attacking every thing that comes in its
way.    Inhabits Hudfon's Bay, where, if we do not miftake the
fpecies, it is known by the name of Papanafeu Kacakef.
Crefted Indian Falcon, Gen. Syn. i. p. 80. N° 63.
AMONG fome drawings belonging to the late Dr. FothergiW,
I find one of thefe figured ; it differs from that defcribed by
me, in having a broad bar of black acrofs the breaft, and another
on the wing coverts.
Black and White Falcon, Gen. Syn. i. p. 81. N° 65 ?
Le Faucon a collier des Indes, Son. Voy. Ind. ii. p. 182.—Zool. Ind. p. 12.
pi. 2*        .
T ENGTH fixteen inches. Bill black : irides rufous: yellow
head: throat, hind part of the neck, and back, black : breaft,
belly, thighs, and rump, white : the lefTer wing coverts white;
the middle ones black; greater ones and fecondary quills filvery
afh-colour; prime quills black: tail pale filvery grey : legs rufous
? Ara. Zool.
t The Peregrine F. goes by this name.   See p. 18.
The female is fomewhat bigger than the male:, general colour
filvery grey : on the wing coverts are three round black fpots, and
three others on the outer webs of the fecond quills: primaries
black: fides of the belly, thighs, and vent, white; tranfverfly
ftriated with a rufous red.
Inhabits India: feems much allied to my Black and White Falcon, N° 6$. if not the fame bird : is called in India, Chouama, or
Rat-killer *.
White Gyrfalcon, Gen. Syn. i. p. 83. N° 69.—Ara. Zool. ii. p. 121. F.
pOMMON at Hudfon's Bay, where it is called Paupune nay
fue.    Length twenty-three inches : weight forty-five ounces
Troy : varies much in colour f.
Brown Lanner, Gen. Syn. i„-.p. 86. N° 72.—Ara. Zool. ii. p. 225. K.
Falco lanarius, Brun. p.i. N" I, 2.—Mutter, N° 67.
HP HE Lanner inhabits Iceland and the Ferroe Ijles, Denmark,
and Sweden; frequent in the Tartarian deferts and the Ba-
raba; none in the northern or eaftern part of Sibiria t: well
known about Aftrachan, and builds in all the deferts, among the
fhrubs and low trees; is ufed by the Calmucs in falconry \. In
fome parts is migratory, but flays in France the whole year §.
* Being a great enemy to Rats; as alfo to MitP, Lizards, and other vermin*
t Mr. Hut chins. j Mr. Pennant. || Dec Ruff. iii. p. 303.
§ Hijl. de Lyons, i. p. 206.
Henharrier, Gen. Syn. i. p. 82. N° 74.—Will. Orn. p. 72. pi. 7.
Falco torquatus, Brun. N° 14.—Kram. El. p. 330. N° 13.
Ringtail, Gen. Syn. i. p. 89. N°75.—Ara. Zool. ii. N° 106.
Falco cyaneus, Mutter, N° 74.—Faun. Arag. p. 62.—Kram.El. p. 329.
TJOWEVER certain I have prefumed to be in the Synopfis,
that the Henharrier and Ringtail were different fpecies, I have
lately had occafion to fufpend that opinion, for the reafons below
mentioned, of which the candid reader is left to judge for him-
felf, whether there may be foundation or not for retratling it.
At the time of our fuppofing that the two birds above mentioned were of different fpecies, we departed from the opinion of
that faithful and obfervant naturalift, M. Briffon, who joins the
two without hefitation, as well as the authority of Ray and Wil-
Jughby, with fome others of leffer note,, who likewife efteemed
them as one and the fame ; but we were induced fo to do from
the teftimony of Mr. Pennant having found a Ringtail of the male
fex, feconded by a fimilar circumftance falling under our own ob-
fervation, which naturally led us to fufpecf the pofBbility of the
above-mentioned writers having been miftaken.
As the firft flep towards a further enquiry, let us compare the
two birds together; when we fhall find, that,
1. The irides in both are yellow.
a. The wreath of fhort ftiff feathers, furrounding the head, appears equally the fame in the Henharrier as in the Ringtail.
3. The form of the bill, length of the wings, fize and colour of
.the legs, are the fame in both.
4- All
4. All the Henharriers are nearly of the fame fize, viz. about
twelve ounces in weight, and feven inches in length. All the
Ringtails likewife correspond in fize, viz. about eighteen ounces
in weight, and twenty inches in length. Some fort of proof
of the difference in fex, the male in the Falcon genus being ever
the fmalleft. Added to which, Dr. Heyjham obferves, that as
thefe birds are in plenty about him, he has opened many, and that
the Henharriers have ever proved to be males, and the Ringtail's'- ■
turned out to be females. This very obfervation Kramer has
likewife made, having diffected feveral of each; from which he
hefitates whether the two birds in queftion be not the fame,
againft the common opinion of the fportfmen of Auftria, who
think them to be different *. Dr. H. adds, that the Duke of
Buccleugh's game-keeper has deftroyed fome hundreds, and has
frequently fhot both 02*?/*? and female from the fame neft. Lord
Carlijle's game-keeper likewife avers the fame.
In one of this laft gentleman's letters to me, in anfwer to what
might be urged in behalf of the two birds being different in fpecies, he hints the great difficulty that there fometimes is in afcer-
taining the fex, except in pairing time, when the difference is vi-
fible even to a fuperficial oblerver. He likewife takes notice of
their varying in colour at different ages, a matter not unfrequent
in feveral of the Falcon genus. What then if this fhould be the
fingle point which has occafioned the difference of opinion  in
* His words are, " Venatores unanimi. confenfu diftindtas fpecies ftatuunr,
" cum nulla ill is accipitrini generis prater tinnunculum fpecies innotefcat, cujus
" fcemina a mare colore diftingnitur. Ego plures duodecimae f & decimse ter-
•** rise X fpecier examinavi, fed 12 conftanter marem,  13 fceminam reperivi."
t Henharrier
various authors ? I have alfo had my doubts about it, from ob-
ferving a Ringtail, which had the back changing to a blueifh lead-
colour ; but what has ftrengthened me in the opinion of its being fo, is an obfervation of a very learned naturalift *, to the following purport. " The Ringtail h extremely common in Ruffia-
t( as well as Sibiria: in more temperate and open countries is
" certainly not to be diftinguifhed from the Henharrier: both are
" found as far as the Lake Baikal; and I have obferved, more
" than once, birds that were changing colours, and getting the
<f white feathers. The truth is, that the firft year all are dark-
" coloured, very differently variegated ; but "at the fecond change
" of feathers, chiefly the males grow whitifh; and fuch are the au-
" gural birds of the Monguls and Calmucs"
Here then feems the difficulty folved, and may perhaps ferve
to reconcile the contrarieties of opinion hitherto entertained on
this fubje£l. That Ringtails have turned out males, on diffection,
has been clearly proved, certainly owing to fuch having been
young birds before their change of plumage : but I do not hear of
a fingle Henharrier having been met with of the oppofite fex ; till
that circumftance fhall happen, may we not fairly conclude, that
both the one and the other have at firft the Ringtail plumage, and
that in a feries of years, more or lefs, the male gains the lead-
colour, approaching neareft to white in proportion to its age;
and that, notwithftanding the females get paler by age alfo, yet
they are never without fome mixture of ferruginous ? It may indeed require fome time, though this matter may be afcertained by
taking the young birds from the neft, keeping them for a requi-
* Dr. Pallas, in his manufcript catalogue of birds of the Ruffian empire, fur-
nifhed to me by Mr. Pennant.
fite number of years; and till this is done, the fact may be by
fome flill held in doubt.
One thing.however fhould not efcape notice, which is, that no
author, which has fallen under my obfervation, mentions the Henharrier as a bird of the American continent, or ifles adjacent,
though the Ringtail and its varieties are common throughout.
That the ferruginous brown colour may not change, in the warmer
climates, as Carolina, and parts more fouthward, as Jamaica, &c.
is not furprifing; but towards the north, as at Hudfon's Bay, where
it is frequently feen in other birds, appears lingular. Let this
be confidered, and reafons given why fuch change-fhould happen
in Great-Britain, and various parts of the old continent, and not
in the new; for my part I know of none.
The reader will, it is to be hoped, pardon this long digreflion,
as it is meant to clear up a point hitherto held in controverfy. The
above hints may urge others to make further obfervations, in
order to obtain a certainty in this; and may at the fame time
lead us to difcriminate other birds, fuppofed of different fpecies,
perhaps proving, on a more intimate acquaintance, to be merely
owing to oppofition of fex.
Keftril, Gen. Syn. i. p. 94. N° jg.—Ara. Zool. ii. p
Falco tinnunculus, Brun. N° 4, 5.—Mutter, N°65.
. Arag. N9 4.
HPHIS fpecies is not uncommon in many parts of the continent
of Europe.   The female faid to lay four eggs *, of a pale ferruginous colour, marked ^with many irregular fpots of a deeper
hue f.
1 Hijl, de Lyon, i. p. 207.
f Portland Muf.
RED-THROAT- Red-throated Falcon, Gen. Syn. i. p. 97. N"82.
Female. Y ENGTH one foot eleven inches. Bill one inch and a half
long; yellow, with the bafe and cere dufky: eyelids fur-
nifhed with ftrong black lafhes : throat and fides of the head very
bare of feathers, fprinkled only with narrow ones almoft like
hairs : the fkin of a dirty purple : the general colour of the plumage gloffy blue, changing to a greenifh black, except the lower
belly and thighs, which are white: the tail is ten inches in
length, even at the end : legs yellow : claws black.
This, I make no doubt, is the fame with that defcribed in my
Synopfis; but as the one here mentioned is at leaft five inches
longer, we may fuppofe it to be the female. It-came under my
inflection among a collection of birds brought from Cayenne.
85- Sparrow Hawk, Gen. Syn. i. p. 99. N° 8c—Ara. Zool. ii. p. 226. N.
\ HAWK™ ™<° |f f f| N° ptpg W- N° 7-
HPHIS is found as high as Sondmor, and in the Ferroe I/lands;
in the fouth of RuJJia, but not in Sibiria * : feems fpread almoft throughout the old continent, from the above-named
places to the Cape of Good Hope -, and perhaps extends to China
likewife, as we have obferved a bird among fome CBinefe drawings fo exactly like as to appear as a mere variety, not more differing than individuals of this fpecies do from each other in this
This bird builds in various manners and places: often in the
deferted nefts of other birds; alfo in pollard trees, and among
* Ara, Zool.-
rocks i.no\ruins: lays four or five eggs, of a dufky white, marked
with ruft-coloufed blotches, of irregular fizes and fhap.es *. In
former times has been ufed in falconry f.
Pigeon Hawk, Gen. Syn. i. p. 101. N° 86.
HPHIS breeds at Hudfon's Bay, making the neft of flicks and
grafs, lined with feathers, in the hollow of a tree : lays from
two to four white eggs, thinly marked with red fpots : the young
fly in Augufl: is known by the name of Pecufijh J.
Ingrian Falcon, Gen, Syn. i. p. 102. N° 88.
Falco vefpertinus, Georgi Reife, p. 164.
HPHIS fpecies is common about the lake Baikal: is known at
Aftrachan by the name of Kober \.    It has much of the manners of the Kejlril, but extends farther eaft than either that bird or
the Hobby, though lefs common than either §.
Great-billed Falcon, Gen. Syn. i. p. 103. ^89.
T N a collection of birds from Cayenne, I met with the following,
which I fuppofe to be allied to this bird. Length to the rump
twelve inches: bill very large in proportion to the fize of the
bird, at leaft of twice the ufual proportion; upper mandible
black, the under yellow: about the eyes almoft bare of fea-
* Portland Muf.
he. Ruff ii. p. u
f Will. Orn. p. 8(
§ Mr. Pennant.
% Mr. Hutcbin.
thers: the plumage on the upper parts brown, each feather margined with ferruginous: behind the neck a crefcent of white:
chin and fore part of the neck rufous; near the end of each feather
a bar of black : the under parts of the body white ; lower belly
and thighs barred rufous and white. The tail was wanting. This
is perhaps the bird that Buffon has defcribed*; but in the PL
Enl. f, to which he refers, the bill is not larger than common.
9°-                              Hobby, Gen. Syn. i. p. 203. N° go.—Ara. Zool. ii. p. 227. O.
+- HOBBY. Fako fubbute0j Brun% No IOj j! Mutter, N° 63.
HPHIS bird feems not to venture fo far north as many others :
is not met with in any part of Sweden, except the mod
fouthern provinces %: migrates fouth in autumn ; winters about
Woronefch and Aftrachan \: is moft common in the open country,
particularly in the deferts of Tartary and Sibiria, whenever fmall
trees are at hand in which it may breed §. We believe this to be
the moft rapid in flight of all the Hawks. Larks will not truft
to their wings while the Hobby is in fight; and we remember once
to have feen a Swallow purfued and overtaken,, while on the wing,,
by this bird..
ORANGE- Orange-breafted Hobby, Gen. Syn. i. p. 103. N° 91.
J HAVE met with two of thefe birds, which I fufpect to be
males; the one in length only nine inches, the other fcarcely
ten : in the firft, the bars on the back were not very confpicuous.:
* Vol. i. p. 237. t 464-
X Scarcely beyond the province of Schonen.   Ara. Zool.
!| Dec. Ruff. ii. p. 142, § Mr. Pennant.      .
the throat only orange : chin plain white: fpace round the eyes
fparingly covered with feathers.
The fecond had a large rufous patch on the throat, in the middle of which was a fpot of white: the upper parts brown black,
barred with blueifh: breaft and belly the fame, but croffed with
narrow bars of white : lower belly, thighs, and vent, rufous: legs.
Both the above came from Cayenne*
.  Merlin, Gen. Syn. i. p. 106. N° 93.
TT has been fuppofed that the Merlin does not flay with us in
fummer; but I am affured by Dr. Heyjham that it breeds in
Cumberland, and that he has met with two nefts, in each of which
were four young, placed on the ground like that of the Ringtail.
The bird fuppofed to feed at a diftance from the neft. Thefe
birds vary much in colour: in fome, the back and wings are not
of a blueifh afh-colour, but ferruginous. Their manner of building alfo varies, a pair of them having built in an old Crow's neft,
near Cowbit, in Lancajhire: of thefe it was obferved, that when
they firft came, they were perpetually making a noife; but after
the hen had hatched, became quite filent *. Is met with on the .
continent of Europe, but we believe no where common : obferved
now and then in the Cafpian Defert and Barabaf. The egg is of
a plain chocolate-brown, roundifh, one inch and a quarter in
length J.    The male and female both alike ||.
• Gent. Mag. 1766.
X Portland Muf.
f Mr. Pennant.
|| Hift. de Lyon, i
Plain Falcon, Ara. Zool. ii. N° 104.
Y ENGTH two feet one inch. Bill black: head dufky : nape
fpotted with white: back, wing coverts, and tail, uniform
deep brown: under fide of the neck, breaft, belly, and thighs,
deep brown, flightly fpotted with white : primaries dufky ; inner
webs marked with great oval fpots of white, mottled with brown:
middle feathers of the tail plain brown; inner webs of the reft
mottled with white; exterior webs and ends flightly edged with
the fame: legs ftrong, yellow: wings nearly the length of the
Inhabits Hudfon's Bay.
Lev. Muf.
T ENGTH one foot eleven inches. Bill black: general colour rufous, tranfverfely barred with black; the bars very
narrow on the belly and thighs : behind the eye a ftreak of black :
on the fore part of the neck a large patch of black : top of the
head and neck longitudinally ftriped with black: belly fhaded
with chefnut: quills black : end of the tail dufky : legs yellow :
claws black.
Inhabits Cayenne.
T ENGTH one foot ten inches.    Bill black : head, neck,
back, between the wings, and all beneath, white: on the
lower part of the neck behind fome lozenge-fhaped black fpots:
wing coverts black, fpotted with white: quills black half way
from the bafe, fpotted with white within ; fecondaries tipped with
white : legs flout, yellow: claws black.
Inhabits Cayenne.
T ENGTH twenty-one inches. General markings of the body
and wings greatly fimilar to the common Buzzard, but
much lefs in fize : bill blueifh black : breaft cream colour, dafh-
ed down the fhafts with dufky black : belly, thighs, and vent,
white : quills grey, barred with dufky black : on the fecondaries
a bar of the fame near the end : baftard wing and greater coverts
the fame : tail nine inches and a half long, rounded, of a pale filvery grey ; on the outer feather five or fix irregular dufky bars,
or rather blotches, down the fhaft, not very diftinct, the others
plain; the upper coverts white: legs yellow, feathered on the
fore part below the knees.
Inhabits China.    In pofTeffion of' Sir J'oj"eph Banks.
Leverian Falcon, Ara. Zool. N° 101.
Lev. Muf.
ClZE much lefs than the Ofprey.    Bill dufky blue, flout, and   Des(
hooked : the head, neck, and under parts, white: crown of
the head mixed brown and white : upper parts of the body brown,
the feathers margined and tipped with white : on each fide of the
head a dufky markj fituated as in the Ofprey: tail barred brown
and white, except the two middle feathers, which are brown and
black; the fhafts white : legs yellow.
Inhabits Carolina. I
OIZE uncertain.    Bill black; bafe of the under mandible yellow : head, neck, and under parts of the body, ferruginous,
marked with black linear fpots: quills and   tail black brown;
the laft cuneiform in fhape; its coverts whitifh: legs yellow.
Inhabits India, the ifland of Johanna.    The defcription taken
from a manufcript in the pofifeffion of the late Dr. Fothergill.
MADAGASCAR        L'Autour a ventre raye de Madagafcar, Son. Voy. Ind. ii. p. 101. pi. 103.
IZE of a Pheafant. Bill black, curved from the bafe: the
eye furrounded.with a naked yellow fkin, reaching from the
bafe of the bill to the hind head ; irides yellow: the top of the
head, neck, back, and wing coverts, pale cinereous grey; the
larger coverts marked with black near the tips: quills white,
within half way from the bafe barred with dufky black, the end
half black : under part of the wings ftriated white and black:
breaft, belly, and rump, white, marked with curved black bands :
tail black, crofted about the middle with a band of white dotted
with black : legs yellow.
Inhabits Madagafcar, where it is called by the French Aigle
raye. The-manners are not faid; but, from the bill being lefs
hooked in the plate than mentioned in the defcription, from the
fides of the head being fo very bare, and the claws very little
hooked, I have my fufpicions of its rather belonging to the Vulture genus, than that of the Falcon.
CIZE large, and of a very ftout make: length two feet or
more. Bill blue at the bafe, black at the tip : irides pale yellow : general colour of the plumage deep brown; before the
eyes marked with white : the head feathers are fomewhat elongated, but fcarcely fo much as to be called a creft: wing coverts
marked with fmall white fpots: quills darker than the reft of the
plumage : tail the fame, croffed in the middle with a bar of white
about an inch and a half broad: thighs and belly of a paler
brown than the upper parts; the firft marked with a few white
fpots, the laft plain : legs of a pale yellow, fcaly : claws black.
Inhabits India, where it is not uncommon : known there by the
name of Cheela *.
T ENGTH nineteen inches. Bill black-brown; cere yellow :
head and neck rufous, each feather dafhed with brown ;
throat and behind the eyes marked with narrow ftripes of black :
back and rump brown : fcapulars clouded, cinereous-grey barred
with brown : chin pale rufous yellow : under parts of the body
dirty white, croffed with numerous bars of afh-colour : feathers
on the fides of the tail black and white mixed : tail feven inches
long, the four middle feathers croffed with a buff-coloured bar
an inch and a half from the end ; the others marked with five or
fix of the fame, the tips alfo buff-coloured : quills cream-colour,
barred with narrow black lines, the ends blackifh; fecondaries
the fame, but barred only on the inner webs.
Inhabits Cayenne.
* Mr. Middleton.
Falco, Faun. Arab. p. 1.
OMALLER than our Kite:  length eighteen   inches.    Bill
and cere yellow : the feathers of the head narrow, and of a ru
fous brown,, dafhed with black down the fhafts : back and wing
coverts   cinereous,  with  brown fhafts:  quills  brown without,
within grey, fafciated with brown; the ends black: the tail the
length of the body, and forked, the wing, when clofed, not reach
ing to the end of it; the feathers cinereous, banded with brown :
legs yellow;  half of the fhins covered  with feathers:   claws
'   '
black. :y^**}\
This is faid to be frequent in Egypt in the fummer, and the
Arabic name Hadddi.
Lev. Muf.
CIZE of a Rook:   length fifteen  inches and  a half.    Bill
black;   cere yellow:   head and  neck white,  each feather
marked with a black ftreak down the fhaft; through the eye a
black ftreak : back and wing coverts black, fpotted with white:
quills plain black : tail black, croffed with a confpicuous white
bar about the middle, and a few fpots of the fame on the inner
webs of fome of the outer feathers: the under parts of the body
white: legs yellow ; claws black.
Inhabits Cayenne.
T ENGTH fourteen inches.   Bill brown; the under mandible-
yellow, the upper one furnifhed with a double notch about
the middle; the plumage on the upper parts blueifh blacks:
3                                   breaft.
breaft and belly rufous, the laft clouded with white : vent white:
quills barred with white within : tail deep lead-colour, marked
with three bars of a paler colour on the outer webs, and on the
inner as many of white placed oppofite: legs yellow.
Inhabits Cayenne: Place.
Y ENGTH nineteen inches.   Bill dufky blue : head, and hind   dESCriptiow.
part of the neck, black; fore part of the neck very light
brown : back and wings grey, barred with black: belly pale
reddifh brown, marked with rhomboidal fpots of black: tail
grey, croffed with eleven or twelve bars of black, placed obliquely : legs pale yellowifh green.
Inhabits the river Ganges, in India, and other places in that        Place.
Y ENGTH nineteen inches. Bill pale blue: colour of the
plumage blackifh brown above, white beneath; the black
curves forward towards the throat, and the white paffes backwards above it, not unlike the diftribution of thofe colours in the
black Falcon: breaft, belly, and thighs, marked with cordated
black fpots flatted at top: tail croffed with indiftinct bars of a
paler-colour : legs yellow: claws black.
The younger bird is marked fomewhat different:  the general colour, on the upper parts, pale reddifh brown : the throat,
and a patch behind the eye, white: fore part of the neck and
breaft marbled with pale brown and white: belly, thighs, and
F i vent,-
vent, white: tail pale brown, croffed with narrow indiftinct white
Paace.. This fpecies inhabits India, and is called Behree *..
Falco fufcus, Faun. Groen. N* 34. b.
Grey Falcon, Crantx, u. 78.—Egede, 64.
Dufky F. Ara. Zool. ii. p. 220. E.
T ESS than the Collared Falcon. Cere and legs lead-colour:
irides dufky: crown brown, fpotted with white: nape and
throat white: breaft and belly yellowifh white, ftreaked downwards with dufky: back dufky, tinged with blue; the ends of
the feathers lighteft, and: fprinkled over with a few white fpots,
efpecjally towards the rump : tail dufky, croffed very faintly with
paler bars; the under fide whitifti: the tail of the young is black,,
with great brown fpots on the exterior webs.
This fpecies inhabits Greenland throughout, and is feen on the
Ice Iflands remote from fhore. In the breeding feafon retires inland : lays from three to five fpotted1 eggs r preys on various
birds, darting on them like an arrow out of a bow; and gives battle to the Raven, but feldom proves victorious, as the laft, by its
fcreams, brings together others to its aid, which in concert drive
off the enemy. The flefh is fometimes, though rarely, eaten.
The fkins ufed for garments.    It alfo inhabits Iceland:
Fabricius thinks this bird to be a variety or young of the Coh-
lared Falcon -[.—In the Arclic Zoology it is confidered as a diftinct,
• Mr. Middlettn. f Vol. i. p. 56.
T ENGTH thirteen inches and a half. Plumage on the upper
parts lead-colour : round the eye fomewhat bare: wings and
tail darkeft; the laft fixinchesin length, and nearly black, croffed
near the bafe and the middle with two narrow lines of white, but,
except the two middle ones, only on the inner webs; beneath
white, traafverfely marked with narrow afh-coloured bars : chin
pale cinereous white: juft round the eye bare of feathers : between the legs white : legs long and yellow.
Inhabits Cayenne.      '^t^?^
Dubious Falcon, Ara. Zool. ii. N° 112..
1 ENGTH ten inches: weight fix ounces. Bill dufky: cere
and irides yellow-: head dufky, ftreaked with ruft-colour:
back and wing coverts brown, edged with ruft: primaries dufky
affr-colour, barred with black, the inner webs marked tranfverfely
with oval ferruginous fpots : breaft and belly dirty white, marked
with oblong ftreaks of brown, not unlike the.Englifh Merlin : tail
long, of a deep cinereous, croffed with four bars of black, refem<-
blingthat of the Sparrow-Hawk. ^&<||||
Inhabits New -Tork and Carolina .\ not improbably a variety of
the Pigeon-Hawk *.
* Ara. Zool.-
■It is alfo greatly fimilar to my American Brown Hawk.   Syn,
Dufky Falcon, Ara. Zool. ii. N° 113.
Y ESS than the Dubious F. Bill blueifh; upper mandible
armed with a fharp procefs ; cere yellow : head, back, wing
coverts, and thofe of the tail, dufky brown, flightly edged with
ferruginous : hind part of the neck fpotted with white : primaries
dufky; inner webs marked with oval fpots of a pale ruft-colour :
tail fhort, tipped with white, and barred with four broad dufky
ftrokes, and the fame number of narrow ones of white: from the
chin to the tail whitifh, ftreaked downwards with diftinct lines of
black: legs deep yellow.
Inhabits New Tork.
La petite Bufe Criarde, Son. Voy. Ind. ii. p. 184.
CIZE of a Wood-Pigeon. Bill fhort: hides yellow; eyes fur-
rounded with a naked red fkin; the eyelids furnifhed with
true eye-lafhes: top of the head, hind part of the neck, back,
rump, and tail, cinereous grey: lefler wing coverts black; the
middle ones cinereous grey ; the greater, greyifh black : throat
and under parts white: legs yellow: claws black; the middle
one large.
This inhabits the coaft of Coromandel: met with frequently in
the rice-fields, where there are great quantities of fmall Frogs, on
which it is fuppofed to feed: is a fhy bird; and, as it cries out
aloud when any one appears in fight, it has obtained the name of
Lev. Muf
j  ENGTH from bill to rump fix inches.    Bill dufky: plu-   Desce.
mage on the upper parts cinereous brown: crown of the head
dufky white : under parts of the body of this laft colour, barred
with dufky : legs yellow.    The tail was wanting.
This minute fpecies was brought from Cayenne, and is by much Pl
the fmalleft I ever met with.
 I 40 ]
Genus III.     OWL.
•eared owls.
i|. a. Chinefe E. O.
115. b. Coromandel E. O.
41. Wapacuthu O.
42. Spectacle O.
43. Mountain O.
Great Eared Owl, Gen. Syn. 1. p. 116. N° i.—Jra. Zool. ii. N° 114.
Strix Bubo, Mutter, p. 10.—Georgi Reife, p. 164.—Faun. Arag. p. 70,
HPHIS fpecies is faid to inhabit various places on the old continent, extending even to the artlic region, and is common
alfo at Kamtfchatka. Is feen alfo at AJlrachan, to the fouth ; and
mentioned, among others, as frequenting Aleppo. Is now and then
feen with us, one being fhot by the game-keeper of the Rev.
Mr. Hare, at Hurftmonceaux, in Sujfex, in the year 1784.
Virginian Eared Owl, Gen. Syn. 5. p. 119. N° 2.
HPHIS is fmaller than the European fpecies; but, from itsgreat
fimilarity thereto, is by fome efteemed a variety of that bird.
It is common both to South and North America; not unfrequent
at Hudfon's Bay, where it frequents the woods, and builds the neft
in March; it is compofed of a few flicks laid acrofs, for the moft
part placed on the fine trees.  The young fly in June.   The eggs
 O   W   L;
are two in number, of a dull white.    The bird is called by the
natives Natowokey Omiffew *.
The Ow/was accounted a bird of ill omen by the Egyptians and
Romans, and is held to this day in fuperftitious fear by the American favages. By the Athenians it was held facred; and, from
its appearance of gravity, fuppofed emblematic of wifdom, and in
courfe dedicated to the goddefs Minerva. Particular veneration
was obferved to be paid to it in Oneeheow by our circumnavigators f; and the fame thing was alfo mentioned by Dampier, in
refpect to the natives of the weft fide of New Holland. The
Owl is called by the inhabitants of the Friendly IJles, Looloo J.
Ceylonefe Qxgl^,Gets.. Syn. i. p. 120. N° 4.
1 T is obferved by Mr. Marfden, that feveral Owls are found in
Sumatra J, and in particular the great horned one; by which he
moft probably means this fpecies.
An Owl, the fize of a Hen, is alfo faid to be common to India;
of a grey colour, with the end of each feather marked with concentric circles of pearly grey of different fhades. This laft is faid
to be not fhy, and is fometimes feen flying in the day time §.
* Hutchins, f Cook's Laft Voy. vol. ii. p.
II Hift.Sumatr.p.gS.
§ Eff Phil. p. 61—Whether this is the fame, or
determined, as no horns are mentioned.
219. X Id' Append.
a djjrerent fpecies, cannot be
Long-eared Owl, Gen. Syn. i. p. 121. Na $.--Ara. Zool. ii. N° 115.
Strix otus, Brun. N° 16.—Mutter, p. 10.—Faun. Arag. p. 71.
HPHIS fpecies is found in various parts of Europe, being met
with in Sweden, and far north in the Ruffian dominions, to
the fouth at AJlrachan, and even to Egypt*. We likewife remember to have feen fuch a one among- fome Chinefe drawings, where,
from its relative fize to others in the fame collection, it could
be no other than this fpecies. It is likewife an inhabitant of
America; but how fix fouth, has not come to our knowledge. It
is, however, common at Hudfon's Bay, where it flays the year
round. The weight of a male is eight ounces and a half: the
breadth twenty-eight inches. Is not met with, except at aconfi-
derable diftance from the fea; and feldom feen in the day, but of
nights is very clamorous. It breeds in trees, and lays four white
eggs in April. The young fly the end of May. It goes by the
name of Amifk Oho f.
Red Owl, Gen. 5>'w. i. p. 123. N° 8.—Ara. Zool. N° 117. pi. ir.
Strix Afio, Faun. Groenl. N° 37.
HPHIS is found in the fouthern parts of Greenland, efpecially
about Tunnudliorbick; and is probably the one known there
by the name of Siutitok.
* Ara. Zool. f Mr. Hutcbins.
Short-eared Owl, Gen. Syn.
124. N° 9.
HPHIS fpecies is very common in the northern and woody parts
of Sibiria: comes blindly bold to the night fires, and affaults
men, fo as often to be killed with flicks. Has been met with
at Falkland IJlands, fo probably is common to South as well as
North America *. It vifits Hudfon's Bay inMay; makes a neft of
dry grafs on the ground. The eggs are white. It departs fouth
in September. Known to the Englifh by the name of Moufe Hawk.
By the natives called Thothofecaufewf. Is known to fome in
England by .the name of Woodcock Owl, as it is fuppofed to appear and retreat with that bird. Is very fierce and courageous.
One having been fhot in Derbyfhire in the wing, would not fuffer
itfelf to be taken up, as it flew at the perfon with furprifing fury,
and was obliged to be difpatched before it could be fecured J. It
is far from uncommon; but, as far as my obfervation leads me, is
not met with fo often as the long-eared fpecies.
Scops E. Owl, Gen. Syn. 1. p. 129.
HPHIS is pretty common in the fouth of Rujffia, and weftern
parts of Sibiria; but not obferved eaftward \.
* Ara. Zool. f Mr. Hutcbins.
X Mr. Tunftall.—l have alfo heard a fimilar ioftance confirmed to me by another hand.
B Mr. Pennant.
G  2
la Chine, Son. Voy. Ind. i
Bill black : top of the head, hind
part of the neck, back, rump, wing coverts, and tail, rufous
brown, marked- with fine undulated black lines : quills the fame *
befides which, the fecond quills have four tranfverfe bands of a
pale rufous colour, and the outer webs of the greater ones are
fpotted with rufous white % the forehead is white : fore part of
the head pale rufous : on each feather of the throat is a dafh of
black down the fhaft, broadeft near the end : breaft, belly, amtl
thighs, of a deeper rufous, with a darker ftreak down! the middle
of each feather, croffed by band* of w&ite it legs black.
Inhabits China.
COROMANDEL ^e V™*1 Hibou de la Cote de Coromandel,. Son. Voy. Ind. ii. p. 186..
E. O.
Description THIS *S °ne th'rd le*"S than thg laft' B*11 blaCk : if'ldeS 7^"
low: the cheeks are white: the head and upper parts rufous grey, fpotted with rufous white : fecond quills the fame, and
croffed with rufous white bands, one of which is at the ends s
prime quills darker, fpotted on the outer web like the others: the
tail alfo is fimilar, and croffed with three bands: the under parts
of the body reddifh, tranfverfely markedwith curved bands of
black : legs reddifh, and feathered to the claws.
Place. Inhabits the coaft of Coromandel.    Whether this or the laft-has-
the eared feathers, Js-MOT-faid; but by the name RfltUit- being applied, it fhould feem to belong to the eared fpecies. In fome
drawings at Sir Jofepb Banks's I met with one correfponding
exactly as to colour; and the length in the drawing was twenty
inches. This had vaft ears {Landing upright over the forehead,
i **WITH
 O   W   L.
-S»wy Owl, Gen. Syn. i. p. 132. N° 17.—Ara. Zool. N° 1
Strix nyftea,  Georgi Reife, p. 164.—Mutter.—Brun. p
. fig. in frontifp.
7.—Faun. Groenl.
HP HE length of this is two feet, but varies exceedingly: weight
* ftStrt One pound and a half to three pounds. Is a fcarce bird^
in Ruffia; but more frequent in the Uralian mountains, as it is all
over the north and eaft of Sibiria : is very numerous in Kamtf-
chatka *. It is known in Sweden by the name of Harfang f, and
goes under the fame appellation at Aftrachan J, where it is not
unfrequent. Is alfo common as high as Greenland, and builds in
the hollows of rocks, at a diftance from habitations : lives chiefly
on Ptarmigans and Hares, which it drops on by flealth; though
obferved at Hudfon's Bay to feed likewife on Mice and fmall Birds.
This is there called Wapacuthu [(,
Cinereous Owl, Gen. Syn. i. p. 134. N° 19.
Sooty Owl, Ara. Zool. ii. N° 120.
HPHE male of this bird is two feet in length, and weighs three
pounds.   Irides yellow: from the breaft to the vent is a
fpace about an inch in breadth, quite bare of feathers.  Is not un-
* Ara. Zool. f Faun. Suec.
X Dec. Ruff. ii. p. 142.—Thofe feen about Woronefcb, on the river Don, faid to<
be deep-coloured in fummer, and white in winter.   Id, i. p. 91,
ft Mr. Hutcbins.
 4* O   W   L.
«ommon in the woods at Hudfon's Bay, where it is a conflant inhabitant : it builds the neft on zpine tree the middle of May, with
a few loofe flicks, lined with feathers: lays two eggs, marked
with darkifh-coloured fpots : the young fly the end of July. Moft-
ly feen in pairs : the chief food Mice and Rabbits : flies low, yet
with great force, often ftriking itfelf into the fnow a foot deep
when in chafe after its prey : is fo ftrong as to be able to fly off
with an American Hare alive in its talons : is called at Hudfon's
Bay, Omijfew Athinetou, or Speckled Owl*.
Syn. i. p. 138. N° 26.—Ara. Zool. N° 124.
x. flammea, Mutter,
HPHIS is common both to North and South America, as well as
various parts of the continent of Europe, though not found fo
far north as fome others.
It is faid to inhabit Affrachan-f; and we have alfo feen it
painted among other birds from China. It is likewife a native of
various parts of India, and far from uncommon. At Hindoftan it
is known by the name of Ulu, and in the Perfian language is called
Bum J.
obferved, that the male was larger than the
,._-i as we have feen, it was ever 4he fame, in
this differing from the reft of the rapacious tribe.
f Dec. Ruff, ii. p. 142. x Mr. Middlettn.
* Mr. Hutcbins.—This gentlem:
female ; and in fuch of the Oiul
 O   W   L.
Brown Owl, Gtn. Syn. i. p. 140. 28.—Ar3. Zool. N° 125.
Strix ulula, Brun. N° 19.—Mutter, p. 11.—Georgi Reife,
HPHIS bird is lefs common in Ruffia than the reft of the continent of Europe: not known in Sibiria*; but mentioned by
Gmelin as frequenting Aftrachan f: it is alfo found at Newfoundland.
The Brown Owl, being fond of Mice, may be decoyed within
- gunfhot, by any perfon's imitating the fqueaking of one : is obferved feldom to eat more than the fore quarters of its prey, leaving the hind untouched in the neft J: is faid now and then to
burrow like a Rabbit ||. The eggs are five in number, and
white §.
M.-Fam.    -t-BROWNO.
Canada Owl, Gen. Syn.'i. p. 142
Strix funerea, Mutter, p. 11.
N° 29.—Hawk Owl, Ara. Zool. N° 234.
VX/'E have reafon to think that it is found both in Europe and
America %: in the laft is very common, in the woods at
Hudfon's Bay, and makes the neft in March, in trees, of flicks and
X Gen. Direaory, p. 142.-
11. p. 142.
:e are male and female ef what he calls
xleffer eared Owl, that I hefitate about
* Ara. Zool. f D^ RuJ"-
|| Hift. de Lyons, i. p. 199.
§ Sepf. Vog. pi. in p. 63.—In this plat
Strix ulula; but thefe feem fo very like ou
the identity of the fpecies.
q In the Araic Zoology, the Canada, Hawk, Cafpian, 'and Ural Owls, are
thought to be one and the fame. The two firft feem to me much allied ; and the
Cafpian Owl I have ever thought to be very fimilar : yet Dr. Pallas, in his description of the two laft, thought them diftinft fpecies; and it was the opinion of
. fo diftinguifhed a naturalift which induced me to place them, according to his
fcntiments, in the Synopffs,
 48 OWL.
grafs, with a lining of feathers: the eggs are white : the young,
fly in June : its food often Mice. It is a bold bird, and frequents
the fires made by the natives in the night *.
New Zealand Owl,   Gen. Syn. i. p. 149. N° 39.
T ENGTH eleven inches. Noftrils and cheeks fulvous, the
laft paleft : the upper parts of the body brown, the feathers
margined with fulvous: the lower part of the back and rump
plain brown : the breaft and belly not unlike the upper parts, but
paler: vent pale brown : the thighs brown, fpotted with white :
legs feathered to the toes, fulvous and brown clouded : tail
brown, croffed with bands of pale brown, the tip very pale.
I mention this again here, as I have had the opportunity of de-
fcribing it more fully, from one in the collection of Sir Jofepb
ttle Owl, Gen. Syn. i. p
rix pafferina,   Brun. §
Sepp. Vog. pi. in p. (
;o. N° 40.—Ara. Zool. N° 126.
o.—Mutter,   N° 83.—Georgi Re
•wFqun.Jhrag. p. 71.
, p. 164.—
HpHIS is obferved to vary in fize : that of Hudfon's Bay weighs
four ounces and a half, and the length eight inches and a
half; breadth twenty: it lives at all times among the pine trees,
on which it builds a neft, half way up", made of grafs, in May:
lays two white eggs; and the young fly the beginning of July: is
not a plentiful fpecies, and folitary to an extreme: very a<5tive of
nights, but is drowfy, and feldom moves in the dav,when it is not
uncommon for the Indian children to fteal towards them and feize
them. It is common in Ruffia, but not met with in Sibiria *. I
have alfo met with this fpecies among fome drawings done in
India-f; but the ground colour of the bird was a clay-coloured
brown, much paler than in the European one, the white fpots much
- the fame, and the tail croffed with three or four whitifh bars.
Wapacuthu Owl, ArS, Zool. ii. N° 119.
|" ENGTH two feet, breadth four; weight five pounds. Bill
m black: irides yellow: fpace between the eyes, the throat,
and cheeks, white: the ends of the feathers of the head black:
fcapulars and wing coverts white, elegantly barred with dufky
reddifh marks pointing downwards: primaries, fecondaries, and
tail feathers, irregularly fpotted and barred with pale red and
black: back and tail coverts marked with a fe*w dufky fpots i
breaft and belly dirty white, croffed with innumerable reddifh
lines : vent white: legs feathered to the toes, which are covered
with hairs.
This inhabits the woods about Hudfon's Bay -, makes the neft PL
on the dry moffy ground; the eggs from five to ten in number^,
snd white: the young hatched in May: called by the natives
•Wapacuthu, and by them confounded with the Snowy Owl -, but
Mr. Hutchins affures me that they are diftinct fpecies.
* Ara. Zool. + In poffeflion of Mr. Middleton.
\ So Mr. Hutchins expreffes; but, if no miftake, it is vaftly different from the
other fpecies.
 JO V    W     Lu.
SPECTACLE 0. Lev. Muf.
Pl. CVII.       HPHIS is lefs flout than the Cinereous Owl:  length twenty-
Discription. one inches.    The bill ftrong, hooked, yellow, and half co
vered with reflected black.briflles : the head fmall in proportion,
not fb fully clothed with feathers, giving it the air of a Hawk :
the colour of the head and neck white, and the feathers on thofe
parts appear woolly : on each fide of the head a large patch of
black brown furrounding the eyes : the chin is alfo of the fame
colour: the upper parts of the body are red brown, and a bar of
the fame croffes the breaft: the under parts of the body rufous
white: the quills and tail brown, croffed with narrow bars of a
paler brown; tip of the laft white: the legs are feathered to the
toes with yellowifh white feathers: the claws horn-colour.
[Placi. I found this Angular fpecies among a collection of birds which
were brought from Cayenne, and the fpecimen is now in the Leve-
rian collection. A label affixed to the leg named it Le Plon-
HPHIS bird in colour fomewhat refembles the Aluco Owl, but
is certainly a different fpecies. The bill and irides are yellow : the general colour of the plumage cinereous: chin and
fpace round the eyes black : the outermoft quill, and half the next,
ferrated on the outer edge : the tail rather long.
This inhabits Sibiria, but only found in the mountains lathe
eafternvpans.-~Mr. Pennant.
-'    V
  [   5i   3
Order  II.
Genus IV.    SHRIKE.
N° 50. Leffer Grey Shr.
51. Black capped Shr.
52. Nootka Shr.
N° 53. Malabar Shr.
54. Boulboul Shr.
55. Orange Shr.
Great cinereous Shrike, Gen. Syn. i. p. 160. 4.—Ara. Zool. N° 12;
Lanius excubitor,Fatyi.tArag. p. ji.—Sepp. Vog. pi. in p. 121..
HPHIS fpecies breeds at Hudfon's Bay, building half way up a
pine or juniper tree, in April.    The hen fits fifteen days.    It
is there known by the name of Wapaw Wifky John, or White
Whijkfjohn *. &&.£*!
FerruginiasAeHie&Sirifie,^*. %«ti^f>. 163. 8.
IN thejxdlection of the late Mr. Boddam this fpecies is entitled
Canary-biter, or Fifchal-Bird..,.
Red-backed Shrike, Gen. Syn.'u p. 167. N" i$.—Ar&. Zool. N« 131,.
- RED-BACK- Lanius Collurio, Brun. N° 23, 24.—Faun. Arag. p. 71.—-Sett- ^"i' P^» "*
p. 127.
HPHIS is found in the temperate and open parts of Rujffia, but
not in Sibiria *; and is pretty common in France and Italy*
as well as many other parts of. the continent, migrating according to the feafon : with us comes infpring and departs in autumn..
Luzonian Shrike, Gen. Syn. i. p. 172. N*zu
Y ENGTH eight inches. Bill black: through the eyes a
black ftreak r crown of the head, and upper part of the neck
and body, afh-colour, verging to tawny on the back : breaft and
belly white: wings black, croffed with tawny: on the prime-
quills a white fpot: tail black, tipped with chefnut: legs-
Inhabits India. It feems much allied both to my chefnut-
backed Shrike, N°3, and the Luzonian above mentioned; but
from the fize it moft approaches the latter; infomuch as to apologize for my placing it as a variety of that fpecies.—Defcribed
from the drawings of Lady Impey*
• ArS. ZtoL
Jocofe Shrike, Gen. Syn. i. p. 175. N° 26. 2g,
Le petit Merle huppe de la Chine, Buf. Oif. iii. p. 318. JOCOSE SHR J
Le petit Merle huppe des Indes, Son. Voy, Ind. ii. p. 189. pi. in p. ion-
AMONG fome drawings in pofleffion of the late Dr. Father*
gill, one of thefe birds was figured with the throat black, and
the breaft and belly of a pale brown.
That of Sonnerat differs in being rather fmaller, the creft much
elongated and pointed at the top,, and the black ftreak at the
corner of the mouth not diftinguifhed.
This bird frequents the coafts of Malabar, Bengal, and Coro~        Place.
tnandel.   At the laft place it is called BoulbouL
Grey Shrike, Gtu. Syn A. p. 183. N° 36,
Letter Grey Shrike, Ara. Zool. ii
p. 240. A.
HP HIS fpecies inhabits Rujfia and Sibiria, in the forefts, the whole
winter: is taken and tamed hy the fowlers for the fake of
the diverfion it affords, by (ticking the birds which are given to it
for food on a pointed wire, or flick, placed for the purpofe, in the
manner related under the article of our great cinereous Shrike.
It has been before mentioned as inhabiting the warmer parts of
America', and we have obferved a variety which came from
Cayenne. This was only feven inches in length : the under parts,
from the breaft, yellowifh white : the tail feathers not tipped with
white, only the outer edge of the firft marked with grey.
ICayenne Shrike, Gen
189. N°4i. A.
I N the collection of Colonel Davies is a bird of this kind, differing in having the forehead of a pale buff-colour, a rufous
fpot on the ears, and the belly of a plain grey-colour.
Magpie Shrike, Gen. Syn. i. p. 192. N° 49,
HPHIS bird inhabits Sou$uAmerica,
of one which came from Cayenne w
which  I   apprehe,
known by.
On a label tied to the leg
written Vale Savane,
be the name which  the bird  is there
Pie-grifche d'ltalie, Btf. Of. i. p, z9?..—Pl. Enl, 32.
Letter Grey Shrike, ArB. Zool. ii. p. 241. B.
HP HE forehead is black : acrofs the eyes a line of black : the^
head, hind part and fides of the neck, the back, and wing
coverts, cinereous, paleft on the rump ; ridge of the wing white:
prime quills black, with a fpot of white near the bafe ; fecondaries black, with white tips : throat white : breaft and belly tinged
with rofe-colour : tail feathers black; the ends of all but the two
middle ones tipped with white.
This is found both in Spain and Italy; it alfo inhabits Rujfa,
but not Sibiria.
Y ENGTH fix inches.    Bill one inch, hooked at the tip, colour dufky : the head much crefted; the feathers of it three
quarters of an inch long: the head, and all the forepart of the neck
quite to the middle of the belly, black: the upper part of the
body of a greyifh afh-colour; between the wings mottled-with
brown : wing coverts tipped with white, hence the wing appears
barred with white; the outer edge of the fecond quills white: the
upper tail coverts and tail tipped with white; on the outer feather two white fpots: legs black.
One along with the above, fuppofed to be the female, wanted
the creft : the crown was blackifh : chin and throat afh-colour:
the upper part of the body much like the other; between the
fhoulders mottled with white : the tail feathers the fame as in the
male, but the outer margins white.
Thefe were brought from Cayenne.
Nootka Shrike, Ara. Zool. ii. N° 130.
Y ENGTH feveninches and a quarter. Bill black, except the
upper half of the lower mandible : crown, lower part of the
neck behind, and the back, black: over the eye a white line, exr
tending quite to the nape ; beneath that, one of black ; from this
to the chin wholly white: a narrow white circle encompaffes the
neck: leffer wing coverts black; greater white, more or lefs
dafhed down the fhafts with black; prime quills dufky, edged
with yellowifh brown; fecondaries black, edged and tipped with
white : tail black, a little rounded ; the four outer feathers tipped with white: rump cinereous, the edges of the feathers grey :.
legs black.
■   This was brought from Nootka-'Soujid, in North America.
Le grand Gobe-mouches de la Cote de Malabar, Son. Voy'. JSwfcii. p. 195.
Drongo de Malabar, JBuf. Oif. iv. p. 587.
Lev. Muf.
CIZE of the Mijfel Thrujh: length feventeen inches and a
half. Bill one inch, hooked at the tip, pretty flout, and
black; at the bafe feveral briftles pointing forwards : irides red :
general colour of the plumage black ; but the head, neck, back,
and rump, have a .glofs of blue: the feathers of the head and
neck are narrower than the reft, and fharp at the ends : the tail in
general is of a moderate length, but the outmoft feather on each
fide is three times the length of the others, and has, near fix
inches of its length, the fhaft naked, being webbed only for
about an inch and a half at the end, and that only on the outer
fide : the legs are ftrong and black.
This inhabits the coaft of Malabar, and other parts of India.
It flies heavily, and is only feen of evenings. That in theLeve-
rian Mufeum anfwers the above defcription. But I find a bird very
fimilar, if not the fame, among the drawings of Lady Impey.
This is nearly as large as a Jackdaw. The whole bird black,
gloffed with blue : on the fore part of the head a vaft creft, riling
high and bending backwards; before it fome loofe feathers:
thofe of the hind part of the neck are alfo long and loofe. The tail
exactly correfponds with that of the laft defcribed.
This laft is called the Great-crefted Blackbird. The Indian
name Bmmrauge. It is found in various parts of India, efpe-
cially on the hills of the kingdom of Aracan.
CIZE of a Fieldfare. Bill yellow, and a trifle crooked at the
end : head, neck, back, primaries, and tail, black: breaft and
belly changing to afh-colour: leffer wing coverts dufky; greater
and fecondaries brown, croffed with two whitifh tranfverfe bars:
legs yellow.
Inhabits India; called the Greater Boulbonl.
T ENGTH {even inches. Bill one inch, black: the top of
the head, and each fide of it, parallel with the under jaw, and
nape, black : upper parts of the neck and body yellow ; beneath,
the fame, but lefs bright: the chin and breaft inclined to rufous:
wing coverts brown -, quills and tail the fame, but darker: legs
Inhabits Cayenne.
 E   5'8    3
Genus V.   PARROT.
N9 134. Pennantian P. N0i37. Orange-bellied P,
135. Buff-fronted P. 138. Peregrine P.
136. Dubious P.
139. Bankian Cockatoo.
140. Eaftern Parrot.
I4.i, Grilled Ft
142. Blue-cheeked P.
143. Cochin-china P.
144. Amber P.
145. Solitary P.
146. Blue-rumped P.
147. Red-naped'F.
Military Maccaw, Gen. Syn. i. p. 202. N° 3.
Y Met with one of thefe at the houfe of the late Taylor White,
Efq; preferved on paper by his daughter, after the manner recommended by Mr. Edwards, in his Hiftory of Birds; which is
now to be feen among others in the Leverian Collection.
9* Brazilian Green Maccaw, Gen. Syn. i. p. 208. N° o.
BRASILIAN J       f *
GRECAWMAC"   Y ENGTH feventeen inches.   Bill black: general colour of
Description. the plumage on the upper parts green j crown inclining to
blue; the rump to yellow : the fore part of the neck dufky aft**
colour: breaft and belly yellow green : between the legs of a
deep crimfon approaching to chefnut: quills blue, fringed on the
outer edges with green: tail greatly cuneiform; the two middle
feathers eight inches long; all the feathers of a yellow green, wi$F
chefnut fhafts: legs black.
I faw this among a collection which came from Cayenne, perhaps the female of that before defcribed.
Blue-bellied Parrot;, Gen. Syn. i. p. 213. 'f
HPHIS variety differs merely in having five or fix fpots of red      PARROIV
tipped with yellow on the fcapulars and inner bend of the
wing, and the blue bounded with reddifh at the nape.
I obferved it among the drawings of Colonel Davies.
Y Saw this among fome Chinefe drawings, where it was named
Uefhek uang._
Caroline Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. p. 227. N° 29.
T T is not improbable that this and my Orange-headed P. N' 111.
are one and the fame. The conjectures of a friend on this
head lead me to think fo; but Mr. Du Pratz's imperfect de-
fdripSton of the laft muft ever leave conjecture to fupply the place
of fact; nor has Mr. de Buffon been able to fupply the deficiency,
taking it up only on the authority of the firft defcriber.
I 2
T Can
. 32«
f Can rtb longer doubt the exiftence of this bird in the ftraits of
PARROT. Magalhaen, fince it is averred that flocks innumerable, of a
fmaller kind of Parrot, were feen at Port Famine, in latitude 53*
rakeet,  Gen. Syn. i. p. 234. N° 37.—Haffelq. Voy. p. 196.
TJASSELQUIST obferves, that this bird is brought by the
Ethiopians to Cairo for fale; that it has a piercing fhrill note,
and can eafily be taught to articulate, though not very diftinctly.
He adds, that its chief food confifts of the feeds of thefaffower iv
39. Malacca Parrakeet, Gen.Syn.i. p. 241. N°39. Var. C.
HP HE name of this bird among the Chinefe appears to be Sing-
PARRAKEET. fa, as it was fo called in a painting which came under my
Scarlet Lory, Gen. Syn. i. p. 270. N*j6. B.
SCARLET      HPHIS bird is known in China by the name of Ty-pawn.
io3' Crimfon-winged Parrot, Gen. Syn.i. p.zog. N° 103.
ROT. A  " COME fpecimens of this bird meafure thirteen  inches
I Ara. Zool. ii. p. 244.
f Carthamus tinftorius, Lin.
The female differs from the male, in having a green back, and
the wing coverts green, except a few of the greater ones, which
are fcarlet.
Inhabits New South Wales.—Mr. Pennant.
Y ENGTH fifteen inches. Head, lower part of the back, and
all the under parts of the body, fcarlet: chin of a rich blue :
upper part of the back, and fcapulars, deep brown, or black,
edged with fcarlet: leffer coverts pale blueifh green: ends and
interior fides of the quills dufky, marked on the inner webs with
a fingle white fpot: fides deep blue : tail very long, the middle
feathers dufky; the exterior and upper part of the interior fides
blue; the other parts of a fine green; tips of the exterior feathers white.
Inhabits New South Wales: communicated by Mr. Pennant.
This varies in having the crown of a blood-colour: back and
belly green : thighs and vent red.
Lev. Muf.
Y ENGTH ten inches: fize of a Lark in the body. Bill dufky:
the forehead is buff-colour: crown of the head blue, which
blends itfelf with the green at the back part of the head: the
whole bird befides is green on the upper parts of the body, and
yellowifh green beneath: the quills are blue, with greenifh edges:
tail cuneiform, of the fame green with the upper parts: legs
dufky red.
 The above was for fome time alive in the poffefuon of Lady
Read: now in good prefervation in the Leverian Mufeum. Native place uncertain.
Y ENGTH nine inches. Bill and legs pale horn-colour; from
the bafe to the eye, and round the laft, bare, and of the fame
colour: head and chin green : the whole neck pale rufous: upper parts of the body and wings green ; under parts the fame, but
paler: the outer edge of the baftard wing, and quills, blue :
tail cuneiform, but fhort, the colour a yellowifh green; the four
middle feathers blue at the ends, where they are pointed in fhape;
the four outer ones on each fide tipped with brown.
Native place uncertain.
Y ENGTH feven inches and a half; breadth twelve. Bill
yellowifh green : head, breaft, upper part of the body, and
leffer wing coverts, dull green ; greater coverts rich blue on the
exterior fides; the interior dufky, marked with a wjiite fpot:
lower belly orange: tail green; ends of the four outmoft feathers
fine yellow : legs greenifh.
Native place uncertain.   Communicated by Mr. Pennant.
CIZE rather bigger than the Guinea Parrakeet: length eight
inches.    Bill red : general colour of the plumage green, beneath inclining to yellow : the middle of the wing coverts pale
10 brown,
brown, appearing as a broad band down the wing: tail ihort,
cuneiform : legs of a pale red.
I met with this at the late Mr. Boddants, and it was faid to have
been brought from the South Seas.
TP'HE Great Variety of the Cockatoo with a yellow creft, was feen
in vaft flocks in New South Wales, making an horrible noife..
The Cockatoo is found in Sumatra, and called there Kaykay.
The name of the Leffer White Cockatoo, in China, is Ting-Mew.
CIZE of the K-ed? and Blue Maccaw: length twenty-two inches.
Bill very large, of a horn-colour, with a black tip: general
colour of the plumage black: the feathers of the head pretty long,
but in a quiefcent flate lie flat on the head;, on each, juft at the
tip, is a fpot of pale buff-colour : the wing coverts are alfo marked in the fame manner near the tips: the feathers of the upper
part of the breaft and vent are margined with buff; the lower
part of the breaft and the belly barred with darker and lighter
buff-colour: the tail is pretty long, and a little rounded at the
end ; the two middle feathers are black; the others the fame at
^the bafe and ends; the middle of them, for about one third, of a
fine deep crimfon, inclining to orange, croffed with five or fix bars
of black, about one third of an inch in breadth, and fomewhat irregular, efpecially the outer ones, in which the bars are broken
and mottled : legs black.
: '39-
Inhabits New Holland.    In the collection of Sir Jvfepb Banks,
who brought it with him from thence into England, on his return
from his voyage round the world.    It moft certainly differs from
the Ceylogefe Black Cockatoo ; but is probably the fame with that
mentioned by Mr. Parkinfon, in his voyage*.
CIZE of the Amazon's Parrot. Bill red, tip yellow: general colour of the plumage green : ridge of the wing and prime quills
pale blue: towards the end of the tail black and blue, the tip
yellow: legs yellow.
Inhabits India.—Lady Impey.
La grande Perruche de la Chine, Son. Voy. Ind. vol. ii. p. 212,
HPHIS is a trifle fmaller than the Amazon's Parrot.    The bill
is as large as the head, and red : irides blueifh : the head and
breaft are of a pale greenifh grey : hind part of the neck, back,
wings, and tail, grafs green : the leffer wing coverts yellow : legs
Inhabits China.
T ENGTH eleven inches and a half.    Bill and crown of the
head ftraw-colour: cheeks fine light blue : upper part of the
back black, ftreaked with yellow; the lower, pale yellow : fcapu-
lars black : wing coverts and quills rich deep blue, tinged with
* P. 144.
green :
green : breaft and belly green: vent red: exterior feathers of the
tail, blue, tinged with, and marked near the fhafts with rows of
fmall dark fpots; the middle ones of a duller green: legs dufky.
Communicated by Mr. Pennant.   Native place uncertain.
"DILL yellow: crown of the head, part of the neck, breaft,
back, thighs, and vent, of a fine mazarine blue: nape fcarlet,
bounded below with blue: forehead, chin, throat, breaft, middle of
the belly, coverts of the wings, fcarlet; a black bar croffes the
coverts; the reft of the wings, and tail, black; the laft even at
the end: legs black.
Inhabits Cocbin-Cffina.—-Lady Impey.
HPHE bill in this bird is dufky : fore part of the head crimfon;   Description.
back part of it, and nape, dufky; reft of the neck green,
marked with yellow ftreaks: belly the fame, but paler: wings
and tail green : thighs red : legs afh-colour.
Inhabits Batavia.—Lady Impey. Place.
CIZE of a Starling.   The bill and legs yellowifh ; the tip of     PARR°T.
the firft reddifh: irides fulvous: the hind part of the neck, Description.
back, wings, and tail, a moft brilliant green: top of the head,
part of the belly and fides, and thighs, purplifh blue : the reft of
the head, and fore part of the neck, crimfon : the breaft and upper part of the belly red and fulvous mixed: tail fhort, very little
rounded at the end.
Suppl. K This
Place. This inhabits the ifland of Fetjee, in the Pacific Ocean, from
whence it is brought into Tongo-taboo and Otabeite, for the fake of
the red and yellow feathers in the plumage. It is alfo now and
then feen alive and tame in Tongo-taboo *. Its manners are foli-
tary f. This bird, from the defcription, appears not unlike the
Blue-crefted Parrot%; but as the above is greatly fuperior in fize,
and has an even tail, I rather fuppofe it to be a diftindt fpecies.
146. Le petit Perruche de Malacca, Son. Voy. Ind. ii. p. 212.
PARRAKEET. o IZE of the common Parrakeet. Bill violet grey : irides red :
forehead blue : head, neck, and upper part of the breaft, grafs-
green : lower part of the breaft and belly yellowifh green : rump
blue: wing coverts pale green ; fecond quills deep green ; prime
quills blue on the outer webs as far as the middle; the reft of a
deep green : under wing coverts crimfon: tail deep green, yet-
lowifh beneath : legs brown.
Place. Inhabits Malacca.
ClZEfmall.    General colour of the plumage green: on the
forehead over the eye crimfon : at the back part of the head a
crefcent of the fame : the throat, fore part of the neck^ and-breaft,.
are alfo crimfon : tail plain green.
I defcribed this from the drawings of Colonel Davies, but know
not from whence it came.
* At Otabeite and the Friendly ifles, Parrots in general are called Kakaa ; and
the Parrakeets, Hainga.—Cooi; Laft Voy. Apf.
f Mr. Avderfon's MS. J Syn. i. p. 254.
 [  $7  3
Genus VI.    TOUCAN.
16. Smooth-billed T.
e Toucan, Gen. Syn. i. p. 334. N° 11.
A Variety of the female of this fpecies has lately come under
my inflection. The bill horn-colour, with a bar of black
near the end, and two others near the edge; the ridge is alfo
black : the head, neck, and under parts of the body, of a fine
deep cinnamon-colour: on the ear a fpot of yellow, and between
the legs the fame colour : the back, wings, and tail, green; the
laft rounded, and tipped with brown": vent crimfon. The yellow
crefcent at the back of the neck wholly wanting.
I met with this bird in the collection of Sir Jofepb Banks, who
informed me that it came from Rio Janeiro.
Lev. Muf.
CIZE of the Green Toucan: length twelve inches. Bill an inch
and three quarters long, and one thick at the bafe; the upper
mandible yellowifh brown, the lower black; the edges not fer-
rated, but perfectly fmooth; noftrils not covered with feathers :
eyes placed in a bare fkin: the head and neck are chefnut, the
top of the head darkeft: upper parts of the body dark green j
rump crimfon : lower part of the neck, the breaft, and belly, of a
pale greenifh yellow : thighs green ; infide of the thighs dufky :
legs brown.
K a Two
Two of thefe were brought from Cayenne, one of which is now
in the Leverian collection. It bears much refemblance to the female of the Green Toucan, and might be placed as a variety of that
bird, did not the total want of ferratures, as well as fize of thfir
bill, forbid the fuppofition.
 Genus VII.     HORNBILL.
13. Gingi H.
14. New Holland H.
N°i5. GreyH.
16. Green-winged H»
Rhinoceros Hornbill, Gen. Syn. i. p. 342. N>i-
HPHIS fpecies is not uncommon at Sumatra, where a full-grown
one meafures full four feet in length from the point of the
bill to that of the tail: extent of wing four, feet fix inches : the
bill in length ten inches arid a half; in depth, including the horn,
fix inches and a half: length of the neck one foot: the beak
whitifh : the horn yellow and red : irides red : the body black :
tail white, ringed with black : rump, and feathers on the thigh's,
down to the heels, white.—Mr. Marfden likewife obferves, that in
an Hen Chick the irides. were whitifh, and there was no appearance
©f a horn on the upper mandible. The food of this bird is not
mentioned, but the flefh of it is faid to be eaten with boiled rice,
and is thought tender and good.    The natives call i
Pied Hornbill, Gen. Syn. i. p. 349. N° 6.
Calao de la Cote de Coromandel, Son. Voy. Ind. ii. p. 215. pi. 12.1..
"I N this variety the bill is white; on the upper part of the upper mandible an appendage, extending from the bafe to the middle, the
ifoape of it oval, being rounded at both ends as well as the fides; the
• Hift. Sutnat. p. 99..
colour of it black, with a crefcent of white at the back part ■: irides
red brown : between the bill and eye bare and black: under the
throat, from eye to eye, a bare white fpace: the head, neck, and
•upper parts of the body, are black: on the coverts two white feathers : the fecond quills black, the end half white; greater quills
black : two middle tail feathers black at the bafe, and white the
reft of their length; the others entirely white : breaft, belly,
thighs, and vent, white: legs black.
This feems to differ both from my former defcription and that
of Buffon following it, though I efleem them the fame : but the
variation of the tail feathers is lingular. I have likewife obferved a
further variety, in the mufeum of the late Mr. Boddam, two feet fix
inches in length, wherein the two middle tail feathers were black,
and all the others white; the quills white only at the tips. Mr.
Boddam's bird came from Bengal, where it is called Cherry deanijh,
or Bird of Knowledge.
I have lately feen one of thefe among fome drawings from India, wherein all the tail feathers were black, with the ends white;
and two large patches of white, the one larger, than the other, at
the bafe of the under jaw. It is faid to feed on rice and fruits:
hence called the Mafter of Rice.
■eathed Hornbill, Gen. Syn, i. p. 358. -N° 12.—Damp, Voy. vol. iii. pt. 2.
p. 165. pi. 3.
AM PIER met with this bird at the ifland of Ceram and New
Guinea, and defcribes it nearly in the following words : " One
of my matter's mates killed two fowls as big as Crows, of a
black colour, excepting that the tails were all white: their
" necks
I   L   L.
1 necks were pretty long, one of which was of a faffron-colour,
" the other black : they had very large bills, much like a ram's
" horn : their legs were ftrong and fhort, and their claws like a
,f pigeon's: their wings of an ordinary length; yet they make a
" great noife when they fly, which they do heavily. They feed
" on berries, and perch on the higheft trees. Their flefh is
" fweet."
In a defcription of the fame, with which I was favoured by
Mr. Pennant, I find that the colour of the bill is yellowifh, with a
black fpot at the bafe of the lower mandible: beyond the eye a
naked blueifh fkin : crown black : head, neck, back, and coverts
of the wings, dark grey, clouded with black: primaries black,
their ends white: tail black, outmoft feather on each fide white on
the upper half: legs ftrong, fhort, and blueifh.
This was met with in the ifland of Ceylon, and fuppofed to be a
young bird.
I have met with the fegments of the appendage of the bill, from
four to feven in number, in different fpecimens, which may lead
one to think that the number increafes with the age of the bird.
Dampier does not fay the number on the bill in his figure, but I
think feven may be counted ; and if fo, perhaps it was an adult
bird.    That defcribed by Mr. Pennant had only five fegments.
Calao de Gingi, Son. Voy. Ind. ii. p. 214. pi. 121.
Y ENGTH two feet.    The bill long and bent; on the top, as
common in this genus, an appendage which points forward,
and is fharp at the end, appearing not unlike a fmaller bill placed
on the top of a larger; edges of the mandibles jagged; the colour
<of the bilLJblack; towards the point white : the head, neck, back,
and wings, are dirty grey: from the gape of the bill a broad band
of black paffes beneath the eye and a little beyond it: the breaft
and belly are white; the quills black: the tail eleven inches long,
and cuneiform in fhape; the two middle feathers are dirty rufous
grey, with a band of black at the end ; the others black for three
quarters of their length, then brown, and finally terminated with
white : the legs are black; the outer toe united to the middle as
far as the third joint, and to the inner as far as the firft.
Inhabits the coaft of Coromandel.
CIZE lefs than the Jay. Bill convex, carinated, very gibbous
at the bafe, and covered with a naked fkin; noftrils fmall,
pervious, placed one third from the bafe, about which are feveral
fhort briftles: region of the eyes naked, wrinkled, cinereous: co-
Jour of the plumage in general dufky on the upper parts: fhafts of
the wings and tail dufky above, white beneath : toes divided to
their origin.
Inhabits New Holland. The ends of the quills and tail had
been clipped by a pair of fciffars, therefore it could not be afcer-
tained whether thofe parts differed from the reft of the plumage.-—
Mr. Pennant.
jD ILL yellow ; at the bafe a fpot of black, round which, and at
the corner of the eyes, are tufts of hairs: behind the eye a
naked blue fkin: on the upper part of the bill is a procefs which
10 flopes
Slopes on the fore part, is abrupt behind, and only reaches the
forehead: the crown of the head is black ; the reft of the head,
neck, breaft, and back, grey: the wings part grey, part black;
the ends of the quills white: tail long; the middle feathers
black ; the lower part of the fide ones the fame, the reft of the
length white.
15ILL pale yellow; on the top a prominence, which is abrupt
at each end ; the further half part yellow, part black; bafe
of the lower mandible black ; near that a naked fpot of a blueifh
white: beneath the eye a tuft of black hairs: plumage of the
head, neck, back, wings, and tail, black; wings gloffed with
green : the outmoft feathers of the tail, and upper part of the
quills, and belly, white: legs blueifh.
The native place of this and the laft not certain.—Mr. Pennant.
From the infpection of feveral individuals of the Hornbill genus, as well as the drawings of others, I have much reafon to fup-
pofe, that they not only vary among one another in the adult
flate, but more particularly fo at various periods of age; from
which we may conclude, that feveral of the above-mentioned are
of the fame fpecies, though defcribed as diftinct; a circumftance
only to be determined hereafter, -by fuch obfervant naturalifts as
may chance to refide where thefe birds frequent,
 i   74   ]
Genus XII.     CROW.
N*42. White-eared Jay.
43. Purple-headed Crow.
N° 44. Macao Cr.
45. Rufous Cr.
Raven, Gen. Syn. 1. p. 367. N° l.—ArB. Zool. N° 134.
Corvus Corax, Brun. N° 27.—Georgi Reife, p..164.—Faun. Arag. p. 72;
HP HE Raven is found every where in Rufjia and Sibiria, except
within the artlic. circle ; alfo in Kamtfchatka, and in the adjacent iflands* It has been noticed before as arrAmertcan fpecies ;
known at Hudfon's Bay by the name of Kakakew. It lays from
three to five greenifh eggs, and the young fly in July. The natives thereabouts deteft this bird *; yet among the American fa^
vages it is held as an emblem of return of health: hence their
magicians, when they vifit the fick, invoke the Raven, and mimic
its voicef. Our circumnavigators met with it in the Sandwich
Iflands, two being feen in the village of Kakooe, and alfo at
Owhyhee; and fuppofed to be adored there, as they were called
Eatoas J. It may be taught to fpeak like a Parrot, and even to
fing, if we may credit the account of a late author ||.
X Cook's Laft Voy. iii. p. 163.
* Mr..Hutchins. t Ara. Zool.
Ell. Narr. ii.  142. M
|| " The moft extraordinary of all is,.-that he can be taught to fing like a
" man.. I have heard a Raven fing the Black Joke with great diftinanefs, truth,
<c and humour ! "    See Goldfmitb's Animated Nature, vol. v. p. 226.
 €   R   O   Wo
South-Sea Raven, Gen. Syn. i. p. 369. N° 2.
Br, Muf.
ANE of thefe is in the Britifh Mufeum. The bill is ridged and
arched on the top of the upper mandible, greatly fimilar to
that of the Ani, but not fharp-edged : the general colour of the
plumage black; but the whole of the hind part of the neck in this
fpecimen is white, coming forwards, and making almoft a crefcent
on the fore part. Whether this bird is an accidental variety or
not, can fcarce be determined; or whether the effect of the adult
ftate: perhaps the laft, as the bill is fo confiderably larger than in
that defcribed before. I obferve alfo, that in the prefent one the
legs are remarkably fcaly and rough, and the claws large; a ftrong
prefumption of its being an old bird.
Carrion Crow, Gen. S
Corvus Corone, Bru,
Faun. Arag. p. 72
n. i. p. "370. N° 1.—ArB. Zool. N° 13;. v
! N029.—Mulkr, N° 87 Georgi Reife, p. 165.—    +=■ CARRION
HPHIS fpecies is common in many parts of the old continent,
but fcarce in Rujfia; only in the northern parts : grows more
common in Sibiria, efpecially beyond the Lena; where the Hooded
Crow is not feen: about the Lake Baikal pretty common; but
moft of all plentiful about Aftrachan, where, in company with
others of the genus, they do immenfe damage to the vineyards, fo
as to oblige the owners to hire perfons to drive them off with
clappers, &c. * ; extends alfo to China, as I have feenit in draw-
* Dec. Ruff. ii. p. 143.
L 2 ings
76 e r o w.
ings brought from thence. In the north of America, about Hud±
' fon's Bay, called Hahafeu : obferved to be moft plenty inland, fel-
dom appearing on the coafts *. Our voyagers met with both
Crows and Ravens at Nootka Sounds, where the firft is called.
Kaenne, or Koenai \.
A Crew like our Carrion Crow was obferved at Botany Bay, in
New Holland\.   This fpecies.is not found in Ireland.%.
Rook, Gen. Syn. i. p. 372. N°4.—Ara. Zool. ii. p. 250. A.   ■
HPHIS ufeful fpecies feems much more confined than the laft-.
It is not mentioned, by either Brunnich orMuller, as inhabiting
Denmark, nor in the lift of Georgi, as frequenting the Lake Baikal.
It is however faid to be met with about Aftracban %: is not uncommon in Rujfia, and the weftern part of Sibiria, particularly in
the more fouthern latitudes. I do not find it any where, mentioned-as an American fpecies.
This and the Crow by common obfervers are not eafily diftin-
guifhed : but in the common Crow the upper mandible is much
larger, fharper, and more curved, and reaches farther over the under one than in the Rook, in which the point appears blunt, and
fcarcely projects over the inferior **'. The bill is obferved to be
weaker in the Rook than in the Crow, and of not fo deep a black:
the ends of the tail feathers in the Rook are broad and rounded,
but thofe of the Crow are acute ft-    Like the Raven and Crow,
* Mr. Hutchins. f Ellis Nar. ii. p. 143. X Cook's Laft Voy. App.
|| Ara. Zool.       § Mr. Jackfon.        fl Dec. Ruff. ii. p. I43.      *• Mr. Tunftall.
•ft Ara, Zool.
 C   R   O   W.
this fpecies is fometimes found of a pure white. Mr. Tunftall has
one of thefe. in his collection, in which the bill was white alfo. I
have feenothers black and white, and one quite brown, the colour of a Jay*
Hooded Crow, Gen. Syn.
Corvus comix, Brun. N° '
p. 374. N° 5.—Ara. Zool. ii. p. 251
3.—Mutter, N° ii.—Georgi Reife, p.
HPHIS bird is very common throughout Rujffia and Sibiria, but
not beyond the Lena.    Migrates to Woronefch, and paffes the .
winter there : grows very large beyond the Ob, and often varies to
tntenfe bfacknefs *..
Found, with feveral others of this genus, at Aleppo f, and common about the Lake Baikal; and moft likely extends to other
parts of Aft a, as I have been informed that in fome parts of India
they are common, and fo bold as to fnatch the food from the difhes
while the fervants are carrying them acrofs the court-yards, except they are kept off by beating J.
It is faid that the culture of the cinnamon-tree, in Ceylonj is owing to Crows, but what fpecies is uncertain. They are faid to eat
the quick-tafted, and red fruit of this tree, and with the fruit to
fwallow the kernels, and fcatter them every where about with
their excrements. On this account, none dares to fhoot a Crow,,
under a fevere penalty ||.
* Ara. Zool. f Ruff Alep. p. 69. X Mr. Pennant.
|| Life and Adventures of J. Chriftian Wolf.—This circumft ance is attribu ted to
ihe White Nutmeg Pigeon..   See vol. iv. p. 638. Note *.
Jackdaw, Gen. Syn. i. p. 378. N° g.—Arfi. Zool. ii. p. 251. C.
Corvus monedula, Brun. N° 32.—-Mutter, N° 89.—Georgi Reife, p. 165.
HPHIS is common all over Rujfia and the weft of Sibiria: is
migratory, remaining in winter only in the fouthern part of
Ruffia.    A few feen beyond Lake Baikal.    Is apt to vary, like
many of the Croiv fpecies.
Philippine Crow, Gen. Syn. i. p. 381. N° 12.
TN the collection of Sir Jofeph Banks is a variety which has the
breaft, and the infide of the ridge of the wing, near the fhoul-
der, clouded with white.
I alfo obferved a fecond variety among the drawings of Lady
Impey, in which the belly is flate-coloured.
' New Guinea Crow, Gen. Syn.
.N° 13.
#"\NE greatly fimilar to this fpecies has lately been defcribed to
me. Length thirteen inches; body flout. Bill dufky, a few
briftles covering the bafe : irides reddifh : head and neck blueifh
afh-colour: the upper parts of the body and wings the fame, but
darker : the eye placed in a large bed of black, lengthening into a
point at the back part: breaft, belly, and vent, pale ferruginous:
quills and tail dufky; the laft pretty long, and rounded at the
end : the legs red brown,, very fcaly and rough.
Native place uncertain. -
Fare-necked Crow, Gen. Syn. i. p. 382. N° i$*
Y ENGTH fifteen inches. Bill yellowifh; tip black; noftrils
broad, expofed, without any reflected briftles : the outmoft
quills black; the reft of the prime quills black -within, but without obliquely grey to near the tips: wing coverts and fecond
quills pale grey : tail fix inches long, even at the end : legs dufky
The above in the mufeum of the late Dr. Hunter. It does not
clearly belong to the Crow genus; perhaps might with more propriety be placed with the Grakles. As I had the opportunity of
examining it before it was put into attitude, I obferved that the
hind toe was placed more inward than in many other birds, but no
membrane between that and the inner toe; nor in my opinion had
nature ever intended it to be ufed forwards, as Buffon feems to
Jay, Gen. Syn. i.p. 384. N« lg.—Ara. Zool. ii. p. 252. E-
Corvus glandarius, Brun. N° 33.—Mutter, N° 90.—Georgi Reife, p. 165.—
Faun. Arag.—Sept- Vogel.. pi. in p. I.
HPHIS fpecies is common in the woods both of Rujfia and Sibiria, but none beyond the Lena *; Georgi mentions it as frequenting the Lake Baikal, and Ruffel records it as an Aleppo fpecies y\ I have a fufpicion alfo that it extends to China, as it is to
be feen in the drawings of birds from that country.
It is called by the name of Jay about Arragon, in Spain, as in
f Hift. Alet. p. 69,
England. In the laft it is not efteemed as food ; but in the firft
it is expofed in the markets for fale along with other birds* It
is alfo eaten in Sweden f.
Cayenne Jay, Gen. Syn. i. p. 388. N° 22.
BETWEEN that figured by Brijfon, and one in the Leverian
Mufeum, I obferve a fmall difference. In Briffon's figure of
it, the white goes round in the fhape of a crefcent. In the Leverian fpecimen, the whole front to behind the eyes is black, only a
fmall perpendicular dafh of white under the ear.
Red-billed Jay, Gen. Syn. i. p. 390. N° 24.
name of Shan-naw.
XTNOWN in China by the
Magpie, Gen. Syn. i. p. 392. N°29.—Ara. Zool. ii. N° 136.
Corvus Pica,  Brun. N° ^.—Mutter, N° 92.—Georgi Reife, p. 165.—Faun.
Arag. p. jz.—Sepp. Vog. pi. in p. 3.
T Find this bird to extend much farther on the continent than I
once fuppofed. It is mentioned by Ruffe I as common at Alep-
po\; in Georgi's lift of birds frequenting the Lake Baikal, and
from thence to China. I had long fufpected the laft circumftance,
from feeing it, among others, in Chinefe drawings; but the matter is now beyond doubt, having lately met with one of thefe birds,
brought from China, in the collection of Sir Jofeph Banks. It is
fomewhat fmaller than that ufually feen in England.
* Faun. Arag.
X Hift. Alep. p. 69.
I find
I find by Mr. Hutchins, that in fome part of Hudfon's Bay it goes
by the name of She pecum memewuck. It is not unfrequent at all
feafons in the interior parts, but feldom met with near the fettle-
ments. He obferved, that one being caught in a Martin trap at
York Fort, was thought a rarity, fuch a circumftance not having
happened for twenty years before.
Surinam Crow, Gen. Syn. i. p. 397. N° 35.
Corvus argyropthalmus, Jacj. Vog. N° 1. *•*:
HPHIS is faid to be of the fize of a Jay.    General colour of the   Desi
plumage black : irides filver white : above and beneath the
eye a fpot of blue : breaft and outer part of the wing the colour
ofPruffian blue : tip of the tail white : bill and legs black.
This inhabits Cartbagena, in New Spain, and is called Oifeau de Plac
Plata.    It has a monotonous voice, frequents woods, and, being
eafily tamed, is often kept in houfes.
tailed Crow, Gen. Syn. i. p. 398. N° if.
ivede Malacca, Son. Voy. Ind. ii, p. 190. pi.
HPHIS varies from thofe before defcribed, chiefly in having the        Var.D.
head and back part of the neck black: a greenifh ftreak over   Descriptk
the eye, bounded beneath with blue: chin white : fore part of the
neck and back green: belly rufous : vent red.
Inhabits Malacca. Place.
La Br«ve de la Cote de Malabar, Son. Voy. Ind.'ii. p. 191.
HPHIS variety differs principally in having the whole of the
head and neck black: down the crown paffes a longitudinal
rufous ftripe: chin white : breaft pale rufous: belly, thighs, and
vent, red.
Inhabits the coaft of Malabar.
AMONG the drawings of the late Dr. FotbergUl I find a further
variety. Grown rufty brown: through the eye and round the
head a ftreak of black; under this a collar of white: the upper
parts of the body green j the under white : on the middle of the
belly a fpot of red : vent crimfon : quills black: tail green, tipped with black: legs pale red.
Inhabits China.
3$- Nutcracker, Gen. Syn. j. p. 400. N° -$i.—Ara. Zool. ii. p. 2^2. D.
NUTCRACKER. Com» caryocataftes, Brun. N« 34.— Mutter, N° 91 .—Georgi Reife, p. 165.
HP'HIS is met with as high north as Sondmor j is common in the
pine forefts of Ruffta and Sibiria, and all over Kamtfcbatka.
Muller mentions two varieties; the one rufous, the other fpotted
black and white.
a- RE3D-LEG- Red-legged Crow, Gen. Syn. i. p. 401. N° 35*
GED CROW. Corvus graculus var. Faun. Arag. p. 75.
HPHIS is common about all high rocks of the foufhern latitudes of Sibiria; alfo about mount Caucafus and thofe of
- Perfta.
Perfta. The bill and legs in thofe parts are found to be black in
young birds *. The eggs are larger than thofe of a Jackdaw,
of a cinereous white, marked with irregular dufky blotches f.
Le petit Geay de la Chine, Son. Voy. Ind. ii. p, ;88.
Lev. Muf
CIZE of the Blue Jay: length eleven inches. BUT black, an
inch long, fcarcely curved, end blunt, the ridge of the upper
mandible fharp-edged : irides rufous yellow : the feathers round
the bafe of the bill, the throat, and fore part of the neck, are
black : the top of the head blueifh afh-colour, the feathers long
enough to form a creft : between the black and afh-colour on the
forehead are a few white feathers: on the ears a large patch of
white: the colour of the body, wing coverts, and tail, brownifh
afh-colour: the quills blackifh, edged with grey: tail four inches
long, a trifle rounded in fhape, and rather curves downward:
legs long, of a pale brown: hind claw large, and much incurvated.
Inhabits China. Common at Canton. Seen in flocks in Dean's
Ifland, Wampoo River, picking up food on the mud of the fhore.
"DILL lead-colour; noftrils covered with reflected feathers:
upper parts of the body pale rufous, beneath yellow, the head
inclining to purple : quills and tail black; the laft pretty long:
legs flefh-colour.
Suppofed to inhabit China.    I found this among the drawings
of the late Dr. Fother gill.
* Mr. Pennant. \ Portland Mufeurn.
La Pie de Macao, Son. Voy. Ind. ii. p. 187, '   ~?^*  "'
HPHIS is one third lefs than our Magpie.    Bill and forehead
black: irides yellowifh: top of the head cinereous grey :
neck and breaft dirty grey : belly and thighs the fame, but paler:
back, and wing coverts, rufous : rump cinereous grey : vent ru
fous : fecond quills greenifh black; prime ones black; on the
firft two white fpots, one of them within, the other without: tail
and legs black.
Inhabits the ifland of Macao, in China.
La Pie rouflede la Chine, Son. Voy. Ind. ii. p. 186. pi. 106.   '
CIZE of a Blackbird. Bill black : irides rufous yellow: head
and neck brown, the laft paleft: breaft and belly rufous
white : back and rump yellowifh, inclining to rufous: leffer wing
coverts dirty rufous; the others pale grey: fecond quills grey
without and brown within ; the prime ones brownifh black : tail
cuneiform, grey ; the two middle feathers brown at the ends; the
others grey as far as the middle; the reft of the length brown,
with white tips: legs black.
Inhabits China*
 E  85  3
Genus XIII.     ROLLER.
N917. Black R.
18. African R.
19. Black-headed R.
N° 20. Grey-tailed R.
ai. Fairy R.
Garrulous Roller, G«». Syn. i. p. 406. N° 1
Coracias garrula, Brun. N° 35.—Mutter, N
-^r<?. Zw/. ii. p. 253. G.
ill broad and flout, and a little
HPHIS is met with in Ruffta; but only from the fouthern parts
to the neighbourhood of the Irtijh* : builds in the holes Or
old oaks, about Woronefcb. Screams without ceafing. It is obferved never to be feen on the ground 7. The birch-tree, however, feems to be its favourite habitation, and in which it moft
frequently builds the neft, laying as far as five eggs, of a clear
green, fprinkled with innumerable dark fpecka.
T ENGTH fixteen	
curved at the tip : noftrils fmall, placed on the fore part of a
long depreflion at the bafe, covered by a membrane : at the bafe
of the bill a few flight briftles: general colour of the plumage
tlack • tail feven inches in length : legs black.
I met with the above preferved in fpirits in the Britijh Mufeum.
Native place uncertain.
• Ara. Zool. t Dec. Ruff. i. p. ioS.
Br. Muf.
T ENGTH eight inches and a half.    Bill very flout, and bent
at the tip; the colour yellow : plumage on the upper parts
pale cinnamon i beneath, fine pale reddifh lilac: vent, and under
the tail, pale blue green : quills of a deep blue; the margins of
the inner webs, and the tips, black : tail blackifti blue ; the ends
of the two middle feathers black, the others pale blue green, tipped with black : legs brown.
The above is in fine prefervation in the Brttifh Mufeum, and was
brought from Africa.   It feems a very ftout bird, in refpect to its
ClZE of a Jay.    Bill red : head and neck black;  but the hind
head is greyifh : the upper part of the body is blueifh purple;
the under, white-: quills brown; the two middle tail feathers
blue, and the reft purplifh;   all   of them tipped with white:
legs red.
Suppofed to inhabit China, as I met with it among fome fine
drawings from that country,
ClZEof a Jay : length feventeen inches.  Bill black: head and
neck the fame: back, and part of the wing coverts, tawny
brown; the reft of the coverts, and fecondaries, white: greater quills
black: breaft and belly afh-colour: tail very long, cuneiform;
colour of it pale grey, with the end black : legs afh-colour.
Inhabits India.—From the drawings of Lady Impey, in which
it is called the Vagabond.                           •*•*& ^
10                                                         SIZE
CIZE of a Jackdaw. Bill ftout, curved at the point, and fur-
nifhed with hairs on the bafe; colour black : the hind part of
the head, the nape, and middle of the neck, blue: back, leffer
wing coverts, rump, and vent, the fame; the colour very fplen-
did: the reft of the wing black, marked with three fmall blue
fpotsi the fides and front of the neck, the breaft, and belly, black:
tail dull blue : legs black.
Inhabits India, where it is known by the name of the Blue Fairy
Bird.—From the drawings of Lady Impey,
 Genus XIV.     ORIOLE.
N° 46. Yellow-throated O.
N°47. RuftyO.
- White.-headed:Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. p. 422. N° 4.
T ENGTH nine inches and a half; breadth thirteen and a
half; weight an ounce and three quarters. The head white,
except a fpot of black on the crown : neck and breaft gloffy black,
fpotted with white : leffer wing coverts the fame, but more faint:
baftard wing fpotted white and black ; the ourer quills white : the
reft of the bird brownifti black: legs pale flefh-colour.
This was brought to Mr. Hutchins, while at Hudfon's Bay, by
the name of Wawpawchou Chuckithou, in the month of July, 1781;
faid to refort among other Blackbirds, but not common. I fufpect
it to be a variety of my White-headed Oriole.
Another fimilar to this is mentioned in the Arclic Zoology*,
which was about an inch fhorter: head and throat white: ridge
of the wing, firft primary, and thighs, the fame ; and a few oblong
ftrokes of white on the breaft : the reft of the bird dufky, gloffed
in parts with green. This likewife is moft probably a fecond variety of the White-headed Oriole, being found at Hudfon's Bay.
* Hudfonian White-headed Oriole.—Ara. Zool. ii. p. 260.
 O    R   I    O
Golden Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. p. 449. N° 4;
Oriolus galbula, Georgi Reife, p. 165.—Se
. Fog. pi. in p. 19.
OINCE the firft publication of my Synopfis, this bird has twice
been fhot in England. One of the fpecimens is now in my
collection. The Var. A. of this fpecies is common in India,
where it is called Mango-bird, as it appears firft at the ripening of
that fruit, and is at that feafon in great plenty *.
Yellow-throated Oriole, Ara. Zool. ii. N° 150. ,g#
T ENGTH nine inches, breadth fifteen and a half. Bill dufky: THROATED o.
over the eye a bright yellow flroke : cheeks and throat the   Description.
fame: the reft of the plumage tinged with green : fome of the
wing coverts tipped with white: legs dufky.
Shot at Hudfon's Bay. Place.
Rufty Oriole, Ara. Zool. ii. N° 156.
T ENGTH between feven and eight inches. Bill dufky: head, RUSTY °-
and hind part of the neck, of a blackifh purplifh hue; the ESCRI*"rioN.
edges of the feathers ruft-coloured: from the bill, over and beneath the eyes, extends a black fpace, reaching to the hind part of
the head: throat and under fide of the neck, the breaft, and back,
black, edged with pale ruft: belly dufky: wings and tail black,
gloffed with green.
This appears, the latter end of October, in New-York, and makes        Place.
a very fhort flay there, probably on its way foutherly from Hud-
Jon's Boy, where it is alfo found.
* Lady Impey,
 E 90 3
Genus XV.    G  R  A   K   L   E.
12. Yellow-faced Gr. )
Minor Grakle, Gen. Syn. ii. p. 455. N° it
T AM doubtful whether the Minor is a native of China, although
we fee it fo frequently in Cbinefe paintings, as I am informed,
by a perfon who has been at Canton, that he purchafed feveral at
Java, where they are common, and fold them to the Cbinefe at the
rate of five fhillings each, for the purpofe of keeping them in
cages.   In India it is called the Hill Moina*
Purple Grakle, Gen. Syn. ii. p. 462. N°-6.
Y N the Leverian Mufeum is a beautiful variety.    The bill is
pale, with a dufky tip: the head white : back, fhoulders, and
breaft, white, mottled with black : quills and tail black; the laft
cuneiform : fome of the outer feathers white juft at the tips.
Crefted Grakle, Gen. SymH. p. 464. N«7»
T Believe this fpecies, as well as the Minor, is known by the name
of Lefkoa, or Leuauoy ; as I am informed by Mr. Tunflall that
he had one of thefe alive, which, among other words, often repeated the word Leuquoy, and that the perfon he bought it of
called it by that name,   Mr, Marfden, after mentioning that the
Minor, called Teeong, has the faculty of imitating-the human
fpeech in greater perfection than any of the feathered tribe, ob-
ferves, that there are two forts of them, the black and the yellow*:
it fhould therefore feem that more than one or two birds pafs un-
der the name of Leuqucy.
In the neighbourhood of the Ganges the Crefted Grakle is no
doubt plentiful; as, among fome drawings done in India, I find
it named the Sarroo of the Ganges f.
Dial Grakle, Gen. Syn. ii. p. 465. N» 8.
HPHED/W, called Maori, is faid to have a-pretty, but fhort
note J; and that it is ufed by the Achenefe for the purpofe of*
fighting, in the fame manner as the Cock; but attacks in a different
manner, frequently engaging one another on the wing, and drop
to the ground in the ftruggle |J.
"DILL compreffed; noftrils ovated: region of the eyes fine yel-
low, naked and wrinkled: head, neck, back, wings, and tail,
black: wing coverts croffed with a white line:  neck  black:
breaft, belly, and vent, white : legs yellow, and very fcaly.
Inhabits New Holland.—Communicated by Mr. Pennant. Place.
* Hift. Sumat. p. 90. f sir Flijab Imfey.
X Hift. Sumat.   The author obferves, that there is no bird on the ifland of
'Sumatra which fmgs. .\\ Id. p. 238.
 t   9*   3
N° 9. White-winged P. B.
ED P. B.
Y ENGTH twenty-five inches or more. Bill one inch long,
almoft ftrait, black j the feathers on the chin nearly reach the
end of the bill: the general colour of the plumage black: the
back part of the neck gloffed with copper : quills white, with the
outer edges black: the tail confifts of ten feathers ; the two
middle ones nineteen or twenty inches long; the fecond, fixteen
1 inches; the third, twelve inches; the fourth, nine; and the outer
ones only feven. The wings, when clofed, reach about three
inches on the tail.
I met with the above in the collection of the late Mr. Boddam,
of Bulls-Crofs. I am in doubt whether the plumage had any variable luflre, as is the cafe in fome others of the genus; for as the
bird was unluckily fixed in an obfcure corner of the room, this
circumftance could not be determined.
 E   93   3
Genus XVII.     C   U   R  U   C   U   I.
N° 8. Blue-cheeked <
N° 9- Indian C,
Fafciated Curucui, Gen. Syn. ii. p. 492.
Trogon Ceylon ends, Brif. Orn. vol. ii. ,
. 91. N°7. 8vo. edit.
HPHIS bird, with very little variation, I find defcribed by Brif-
fon, as above quoted; but the neck and breaft are afh-colour.
Among the drawings of Mr. Middleton I find one which differs
in a much greater degree. Length in the drawing fourteen
inches. Bill hooked, befet with many hairs at the bafe ; colour
of it, and the bare fpace round the eyes, blue : irides red : head,
neck, and back, pale brownifh clay-colour : wing coverts barred
with fine lines of black and brown: quills reddifh chocolate-
brown, fome of the outer edges white : tail greatly cuneiform ;
the ends of fome of the feathers white, of others black, with half
of the outer webs white: acrofs the breaft a white bar; from
thence to the vent the belly is red : legs fhort, of a pale red.
The fame bird is likewife figured among the drawings of Lady
Impey. It fcarcely differs, except that the white band acrofs the
breaft is very narrow.
Y ENGTH nine inches.    Forehead red, bounded by a white
line: crown, and hind part of the neck, red, bounded below
by a line of white, and on the fides by black : from each eye a
narrow red line pointing upwards: throat blue, marked with a
 94 C   U   R   U   C   U   I.
fpot of red at the bottom: the reft of the body, wings, and tail,
a rich green, except the quills, which are black: the legs green.
Place. Inhabits India.—L&dy Impey.
Description. "D ILL blueifh, very hooked : head and neck black, ftripedwith
white: from the corners of the mouth, juft beneath the
cheeks, a whitifh ftripe: back and wings dufky, marked with
round rufty fpots: breaft and belly yellowifh white, barred with
dufky: tail very long, cuneiform, croffed with narrow dufky
bars: legs afh-colour.
Place. Inhabits India.   Called Bungummi.—'L.Q.dy Impey.
 I   9$   J
Genus XVIIL    B   A  R  B  E  T.
N" 18. Indian B.
Spotted-bellied Barbet, Gen. Syn. ii. p. 494. N° 1.
|N one fpecimen of this fpecies I obferved a flight trace of white
beneath the eye.    The name it goes by among the French, at
Cayenne, is Agaubue de Terre.
Grand Barbet, Gen. i
11. p. 50$•
A MO NG the drawings of Lady Impey is a bird, which I fufpect
to be the female of this fpecies. The length ten inches.
Bill reddifh brown, and flout, with fix or eight briftles at the
bafe; the noftrils are alfo hairy: round the eye bare, and of a reddifh colour: general colour of the plumage a dull green: the
breaft and belly pale whitifh green: quills black : tail fhort,.
green: legs of a pale yellow.
Inhabits India, where it goes by the name of Honeft Face.
Yellow-cheeked Barbet, Gen. Syn. ii. p. 506. N° 15.
HP HIS inhabits Ceylon and Batavia: called, by the Cingalefe,
Kottorea.    It perches on high trees, and cooes like a Turtle,
but louder; and it is from this noife that the natives have formed
the name it is known by *.
* Mr. PennanU
 95 BARBET.-
It is alfo a native of India, as I met with it among the drawings
of Lady Impey,
Doubtful Barbet, Gen.Syn.ii. p.506. N° 16.
Br. Muf
T N the Britifh Mufeum is a fine fpecimen of this bird, which differs fomewhat from my former defcription. The bill is wholly
of a pale yellowifh_ colour ; the under mandible fmooth, without
any tranfverfe channels: the crown has a mixture of crimfon feathers, which pafs behind each eye, and afterwards extend forwards
to blend with the crimfon on the fore parts: the greater wing coverts are tipped with crimfon, forming an oblique bar of the fame
acrofs the wing: on the middle of the back is a patch of white,
and a thick tuft of filky white feathers, fquare at the ends : all the
under parts are red ; but the chin, juft under the bill, is black,
and a fpot of the fame juft at the bafe of the under mandible: the
general colour of the bird is blueifh black : the quills brown.
The above fpecimen came from Africa, but what part thereof
Red-billed Crow, Gen. Syn. i. p. 403.
CayenneBlack Cuckovv, Id. i. p. 543.
Le Coucou noir de Cayenne, Buf. Oif, •
Lev. Muf
ri6.—PI. Enl. 512.
1 T is but lately that a perfect fpecimen of this bird has come under my infpection; from which I am clear that the above two
are one and the fame with this Barbet.   I have only here to add,
that the toes are not quite divided to the bottom: at the bend of
the wing, juft within, is placed a horn-coloured fpine, about one
eighth of an inch long, and blunt at the end : the tail compofed of
ten feathers, and the wings, when clofed,- reach on it about an
CIZE of the Bulfinch: length fix inches. Bill blue, hooked,
befet with very long hairs at the bafe, exceeding the end of the
bill: irides white : general colour of the-plumage green : forehead red : round the eye and chin yellow : the reft of the head
black: the under parr of the body white, ftreaked with green,
palling on each fide the neck in acrefcent, and bounding the yellow chin : beneath this, it is red, and below it a fpot of yellow,
except which, the reft of the under part is white : the quills are
dark afh-colour: legs red.
This inhabits India, and is called Buffenbuddoo. Taken from
the drawings of Mr. Middleton. It feems greatly allied to the
Red-crowned Barbet*, and is a beautiful fpecies.
* Syn. vol. ii. p. 505.,
 E 9»  3
Genus XIX.    C  U  C  K  O  W.
N°47. Grey-headed C.
N° 48. Sonnerat's C.
Common Cuckow, Gen. Syn. ii. p. 509, N° 1—Ara. Zool. ii. p. z66. A.
Cuculus canorus, Brun. N° 36.—Mutter,"^0 95.—Georgi Reife, p. 165.-*.
Sett Veg. pi. in p. 117—Faun. Arag. p. 73.
T AM informed, by an accurate obferver of Englifh birds, and their
manners*, that the time of the Cuckow's coming is almoft to
a certainty on the tenth or twelfth of April, and that the males arrive firft. In the flomach of thefe he has more than once obferved feveral of the caterpillars of the Fox Moth t, which is large,
and no doubt a delicate morfel.
Of the birds of the firft year, fcarce two feem alike : in fome
the bars are doubly more numerous than in others; and in one I
obferved this year, fent to me by Mr. Boys, of Sandwich, the
ground-colour was of a brownifh blue. I have alfo been informed, that now and then a bird has been met with, at the very firft
coming in fpring, in which the ferruginous ground-colour of the
plumage was yet manifeft on the upper parts of the body.
The egg figured by Sepp is certainly not that of the Cuckow,
being in fhape fimilar to that of a Hawk: it is very like the Jackdaw's in fize and fhape, of a greenifh white, fpeckled with brown;
whereas the true Cuckowys egg is not much bigger than that of a
1 Mr. Green, of Lambeth.
\ Phalarne Rubu—Lin
Hedge Sparrow, greatly elongated in fhape, the ground-colour not
unlike it, and mottled all over with ferruginous purple *.
I have mentioned before the circumftanee of my having heard
the Cuckow call in the night. This happened again to me, the
loth of May, 1783, when, being in my own garden, between eleven and twelve at night, I heard one call feveral times together
very diftincT:ly. It may not be amifs to obferve, that not only the
laft night, but the others in which I heard it, was bright moonlight.
The Cuckow extends to India, I have twice feen it in drawings
from thence.
JEaftern Black Cuckow, Gen. Syn
• p. 518.
CIZE of a Magpie: length fixteen inches. Bill whitifh, pretty
ftrong: general colour of the plumage black; acrofs the
wings three narrow bars of white, and near the end of the tail the
fame: legs pale blue.
Inhabits India; called Coweel.--L.ady Impey.
I find that there are two or three fpecies of Cuckows in India,
which are known by the name of Kuill, or Coweel; one as large as
a Jay, and all of them frequenting woods. They for the moft,
part fly in fmall flocks, rarely fingly : the food infects. Thefe are
held in veneration by the Mahometans; but by others the flefti is
accounted delicate, a fingle bird being fometimes fold to the lovers of good eating for twenty-four livres. It is faid to fing very
'finely, as a Nightingale -f.
* Portland Mufeum. \ Eff Philof, p. 68,
O  2 Honey
 C   U   C   K   O   W,
+- CRESTED    ' Crefted Black Cuckow> Gen- &*• * P- 519- N» 1 1.
BLACK U Cuculus ferratus, Sfarrwr. Muf, Ca-rlf. pi. in.
1\/TR. Sparrman takes his trivial name from the fhape of the-
white fpot on the wing being not unlike the teeth of a faw
at the back part of it; this arifes from the obliquity of the white
on each quill, which, when they are fomewhat open, may give it
fuch an appearance. It is not, however, the cafe in my fpecimen,,
as it merely appears as an. irregular patch on the wing.
Egyptian Cuckow, Gen, Syn. ii. p. 523. Var. B-
IZE of the Rain Cuckow: length nineteen inches and a halfl
ill an inch and a half long, flout, curved, and of a black colour ; noftrils almoft covered with fhort feathers: upper eyelid
furnifhed with eight or nine briftles: the head and neck dufky
brown, and the feathers narrow ; the fore part, asfar as-the breaft,
marked down the fhafts with indiftinct pale fpots and bars; the
hind part plain : wing coverts deep rufous, obfcurely barred with
dufky: quills barred rufous and blackifh, alternate, about twenty
of each: tail ten inches long, cuneiform; the outer feather only
five inches in length; colour of the feathers black, barred with
numerous oblique dufky white lines, not correfponding on each
fide the fhafts : the belly, thighs, upper and under tail coverts,
dufky, croffed with numerous white lines: legs fhort, flout,
rough; the inner hind toe furnifhed with a ftrait claw, like that
of a Lark, and one inch in length : on the infide of the bend of the
wing a fhort blunt fpur-
" Inhabits.
o  w.
Inhabits China. The above fpecimen in the collection of Sir
Jofeph Banks. It feems greatly to coincide with my fhort defcription of the fecond variety, the Egyptian Cuckow *, if not the
fame bird.
I obferve one greatly fimilar among the drawings of Lady Impey, ferving to afcertain its inhabiting the coaft of Coromandel; but
this feems to have the neareft refemblance to my firft variety, the
plumage being black'throughout, except the wings, which are of
a bright ferruginous flame-colour; the prime quills barred with
black. This is known in India by the name of Crow-Pbeafant. I
fuppofe it to be a voracious bird, as the Indian name fignifies Devour er-with the Mouth.
'   Honey Cuckow, Gen. Syn. ii. p.
Gnat-Snapper, Kolb. Cap, vol.
533. N° 31-.
HP HE male bird is faid to have the bafe of the bill (capiftrum)
encircled with black f.
Lobos, in his Voyage to Abjffmia %, fpeaks of a bird called Mo-
roc, which has the inftinct of d'ifcover'mghoney : but from his account, it is that which is collected by the Ground Bees; as he fays-
that they keep their holes in the ground extremely clean; that,
though common in the highways, they are feldom found, except
by the Moroc's affiftance. The Rate! (a fpecies of Weefel)\\, at
times profits by the Honey Cuckow, watching the motion of that
bird on all occafions; when, if the bird directs him to that which
is collected under ground, it is enabled to get at it fufficiently
eafy : on the contrary, if the Bee's neft is in a tree, the difappointed
vol.ii. p. 523. B.       -J- Sparrm.Foy.
|| Hift. guadr. N° 220.
animal, not able to get up to it, begins to gnaw the tree at the
bottom, whereby the Hottentots have a fecond method of difcover-
ing fuch as contain honey *.    Dr. Sparrman obferves, that no one
kept bees about the Cape, while he was there, except the fon of a
colonift; who ufed to fet out empty chefts and boxes, into which the
wild fwarms would frequently enter j and he has no doubt, from
this circumftance, but that hives might be ufed there, as in other
countries, with advantage.
There is great probability of this bird proving the Gnat-Snapper
of Kolben: of which he fays the note is not fo fine as that of a Tit-
moufe; andthat it is a guide to the Hottentots, by directing them
to the honey which the bees lay up in the clefts of the rocks.
T  ENGTH ten inches.   Head and neck pale grey : breaft and
belly white, croffed with pale grey bars: wings deep afh,
fome of the feathers edged with ruft: tail almoft even at the end;
white, croffed with equidiftant dufky bars : legs pale brown.
Inhabits India.—Lady Impey.—Perhaps a variety of my Pa-
nay an Cuckow-\.
he petit Coucou des Indes, Son. Voy. Ltd. ii. p. 211.
CIZE of a Blackbird.    Bill and irides yellow : head, hind part
of the neck, back, and wings, red brown, croffed with ftreaks
of black: fore part of the neck, breaft, and belly, white, barred
with black : tail brown, fpotted on each fide of the fhafts irregularly with black: legs yellow.
Inhabits India.
» Sparm, Voy, ii, p. 183,194.           f Syn, ii. p. 527.
 D   »3  I
Genus  XX.    WRYNECK.
Wryneck, Gtn. Syn. ii. p. 548 ^n?. ZW. ii. p. 267. B.
Yunx torquilla, Brun. N* 37.—Mutter, N° $6,—Faun. Arag. p. 73.
TT has been before obferved, that this bird is met with in vari~
ous places between Bengal and Kamtfchatka; added to which,
I cannot help thinking that it is alfo found at the Cape of Good
Hope, as Kolben * mentions a bird by the name of Long Tongue*
which inhabits that place.
f fflft.Catefii, p. 15I
 I    IP4   ]
, a. Malacca W.
Great I
Picus rr
lack Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. ii. p. 552. 1
irtius, Brun. N° 38.—Mutter, N° gj.
. p. 276. A.
HPHIS is common in Rujfia, frequenting the woods, from St.
Peterjburgh to Ochotjk on the eafternocean, and toLapmark on
the'weft*.    Is not an inhabitant of Kamtfchatka.
This fpecies is fo very deftructive to Bees, that the Bafchirians,
in the neighbourhood of the river Ufa, as well as the inhabitants of other parts, who form holes in the trees twenty-five or
thirty feet from the ground, wherein the Bees may depofit their
flore, take every precaution to hinder the accefs of this bird ; and
in particular are cautious to gua'rd the mouth of the hive with
fharp thorns ; notwithftanding which, the Woodpecker finds means
to prove a very deftructive enemy: and'it is obferved to be in
moft plenty where the Bees are in the greateft numbers f.
I have heard mention made of this fpecies having been once
feen in the fouthern parts of this kingdom ; and Mr. Tunftall-tells
me, that he has been informed, by a fkilful ornithologift, of its
feeing fometimes feen in Devonfhire. .
* Ara. Zool. f Dec Ruff. iv. p. 9. 17.        , §§§
White-billed Woodpecker,  Gen. Syn.
. K°2.—A,-a. Zool.
T ENGTH twenty inches. Bill' the colour of the whiteft
ivory, and very blunt at the end : general colour of the plumage deep black: the head is crefted at the back part, and finifhes
in a point; the whole of the top of the head, as well as the creft,
black: from the hind part of the eye begins a line of white, which
paffes down on each fide of the neck and back; at the lower part
of the laft, the two ftripes unite in a point: the firft four quills
are plain black ; the fifth is alfo black, with a white tip, and two
fpots of white on the inner web; the fixth and feventh black,
with the ends and whole of the inner webs white; all the other
quills wholly white : the under wing coverts are white : the tail
black, very ftiff, and the feathers greatly incurvated : legs dufky
blue: claws black.
I apprehend this to be the female of the white-billed fpecies,
from its having no red about it; a circumftance not uncommon in
that fex of the Woodpecker tribe,
I met with the fpecimen at Mr. Humphries's, dealer in curiofi-
ties, in Long-Acre, among others, in a collection which came from
Carolina. ?& ■-.- Yffsd.ii^fti
Pileated Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. ii. p. 554. N° 3.—Ara. Zool. ii. IS
JN Mr. Hutchins's manufcript I obferve a Woodpecker fimilar to
this.    Length feventeen inches and a half; breadth twenty-
eight and a half; weight nine ounces and a quarter, Troy.    Bill
lead-colour:  forehead  greenifh yellow :   crown crimfon :   lore
"Suppl.   . P ftraw-
 io$ W O  O   D   F   E   C   K  E  R.
ftraw-coloured, pafiing over the eyes and down the fides of the
neck : from the lower mandible a ftreak of black, communicating
with the fore part of the neck,- which is black : the back, wing:
coverts, fcapulars, lower part of the belly, and tail, black : upper
half of the quills and fecondaries white; the reft black : the belly
and thighs the fame, marked with faint tranfverfe bars of white r
legs black.
Place. This was found near four hundred miles up the river Albany,.
in North America, in the month of January. It is called May-
May -, and is moft probably a variety of the Pileated Woodpecker,
differing chiefly in the under parts being ftriated with white.
Red-breafted Woodpecker, Gen. Syn: ii.-p.-562.-N0 9.
HP HE tail of this bird is-wholly black, except one of the middle feathers, which has three fpots of white on one fide of the
fhaftr   The whole length of the bird eight inches and a half.
Such a bird as this, if not the fame, was met with in Nootka
Sound, on the coaft of North America. • It is faid to be " Lefs
" than a Thrufh, of a black colour above, with white fpots on the
" wing; a crimfon head, neck, and breaft, and a yellowifh olive-
" coloured belly ; from which laft circumftance it might perhaps
" not improperly be called the Yellow-bellied Woodpecker*."
* Cook's Laft Voyage, ii. p. 297.
Greater Spotted Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. ii. p. 564. N° 12.—Ara. Zool. ii. 12.
tsj. *                  *                    3             a ^ 4- GREATER
*   1&z' SPOTTED W,
Picus major, Brun. N° 40.—Mutter, N°. gg.—Georgi Reife, p. 165.—SV//,
Fog.pl. in p. 41.
FOUND in Ruffia, and other parts of Europe, as high as Z^>-
»z«r£; extends alfo to the moft eaftern parts of Sibiria. Inhabits Aftrachan*. I have never feen the egg of this bird; but
obferve, in Sepp's figure of it, that the colour is a greyifh white,
mottled with minute dufky fpecks.
Notwithftanding we can afcertain at leaft five fpecies of Woodpeckers in England, yet I amaffured, by avery intelligent naturaliftf,
that not a fingle one is found in Ireland.
Middle Spotted Woodpecker,  Gen. Syn. ii. p. 565. N° 13.—Ara. Zool. ii.
Picus medius,
'run. No 41.—Mutter, W lOO—Georgi Reife, p. 165.
HPHIS bird is met with on the continent, being found in Denmark and Ruffia.    It alfo frequents the neighbourhood of
the lake Baikal, and is likewife found at Aftrachan %.
Leffer Spotted Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. ii. p. 566. N° \\.*±~Ara. Zool. ii. 14.
n ,,o p 4- LESSER
Picus minor, Mutter, N°101.
H^HIS fpecies is feen as far north as either of the twolaft-named
fpecies, and likewife extends to the moft eaftern parts of Sibiria.
* Dec. Ruff. ii. p. 143.
&ff. ii. p. 143.
f Thomas Jackfon, Efq; of Lin
It has alfo been noticed on the other fide of the equator, a drawing
of one having been received from the ifland of Ceylon, in the
Eaft Indies *.
CMALLER than the Little Woodpecker. Bill blueifh: forehead and whole of the cheeks white : on the beginning of the
crown a rich crimfon fpot; the hind part black and flightly
crefted: from the lower mandible begins a black line, which entirely furrounds the lower part of the cheeks, and joins the hind
part of the neck, which is alfo black : back and fcapulars black,
marked with lunated white fpots : wing coverts ftriped downwards, and fpotted with white on a black ground : primaries and
tail barred regularly with black and white : under part of the
body white.
Collected by Mr. Lot en : communicated by Mr. Pennant.
Hairy Woodpecker, Gen. SyniM. p. 572. N° 18.—Ara. Zool. ii. N« 164.
HPHIS fpecies has lately been found in the north of England,
where it does not appear to be very uncommon. I had the
fatisfact.ion of feeing a pair in the collection of the late Dutchefs
Dowager of Portland. Her Grace informed me, that they were
fent to her by Mr. Bolton, who fhot them not far diftant from Halifax, in Yorkfhire. On comparing the male with one from North
America, I obferved a flight interruption on the middle of the red
band on the hind head ; in other points, they were exactly fimilar.
The female coincided with the American one in every particular.
I am informed that it is not uncommon at Hudfon's Bay, where
it is called Paupaftaow *.
Little Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. ii. p. 573. N° 19.
Downy Woodpecker, Ara. Zool. ii. N° 165.
HP HE female of this fpecies has the hind head croffed with
white, which in the male is red.
Yellow-bellied Woodpecker,  Gen. Syn. ii. p. 574. N° 20.—Ara. Zool. i
N° 166.
Picus varius, Georgi Reife, p. 165.
WHETHER this inhabits any part of the European continent I cannot determine ; but it is ranked by Georgi among
the birds frequenting the Lake Baikal, in Afia.
The name given to it by the natives of Hudfon's Bay is Meki-
fewe Paupaftaow f.    -
Little Brown Woodpecker, Gen. Syn, ii. p. 577. N°24.
"J HAVE fcarce a doubt but this fpecies inhabits India, as I
found a drawing of one in the collection of Mr. Middleton,-
which did not materially differ.    The length was five inches.
The bill pale : the head white, except the crown, and a large
f Ibid.
patch under the eye, both of which were brown : the upper parts
of the body and tail brown black, fparingly fpotted with white*
the under parts wholly white : legs blue.
een Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. ii. p. 577. N° 25.—Ara. Zool. ii. p. 277. I
:us viridis,  Brun.  N° 39.—-Mutter, N° 98.—Sepp. Fog. pi. in p. 43.-
Faun. Arag. p. 73.
HPHIS fpecies frequents many parts of the continent of Europe: among others, the weft of Ruffia; but difappears towards Sibiria. Is found as high north as Lapmark, where it is
called Zhiaine*.
The egg in Sepp's plate is of a greyifh or yellowifh white,
•marked with irregular lines of pale yellowifh brown.
The ftraw-coloured fpecimen in the Leverian Mufeum was fhot
at Belvoir-Chafe, the feat of the Duke of Rutland.
Pafferine Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. ii. p. 588- N° 37,
COME of thefe birds from Cayenne came under my inflection.
Thofe which were called males anfwered to my former defcription. One marked as a female had the crown brown, otherwife
like the male. In this laft I obferved the tail feathers to be exceedingly worn at the ends; but in the others they were more
rounded and pliant.
* Ara. Zool.
Cayenne Woodpecker, Gen. Syn
Lev. Muf.
ii. p. 590. N° 40,
T Obferve in fome fpecimens a crimfon ftreak on each fide of the
lower jaw, which is moft probably the characteriftic of the
male bird.
Rufous Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. ii. p. 594. N°45.
T HAVE feen more than one of this fpecies which had a ftreak
of crimfon on each fide of the under jaw.
In a collection brought from Cayenne were others, of an intermediate fize between this and the Red-cheeked*. Thefe had a large
patch of crimfon under the eyes, and the bars of the breaft fo
much broader than on the reft of the under parts, as-to give the
appearance of a.black breaft on the firft infpection. It feems,.
therefore, not improbable that the Red-cheeked and Rufous Wood*
peckers proceed from age orfexual difference merely, and that the
prefent is a connecting variety.
iged Woodpecker, Gen, Syn. ii. p. 597. N° 49.
£|AFT. Cook, in.his laft voyage, found this bird at Nootka, winged w.
LePicde Malacca, Son. Foy,. Ind, ii. p.:
Y  ESS than the Green Woodpecker.    Bill black: irides red : top   Des<
of the head dull crimfon; the feathers long, forming a flight
t  Foy. ii. p. 297.
creft: the throat and fore part of the neck rufous yellow: leffer
wing coverts crimfon : quills dufky red on the outer, and brown
marked with roundifh white fpots on the inner webs : the breaft,
belly, and vent, are rufous white, croffed with black bands : the
back dirty reddifh grey : rump pale greenifh yellow, croffed with
black bands: tail black; the feathers remarkably ftiff, and the
fhafts prominent: legs black.
Inhabits Malacca.
-f- THREE-
Three-toed Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. ii. p. 600. N° 51.
Picus -tridadylus, Georgi Reife, p. 165.
\7L7E are informed, that this fpecies is found as low on the European continent as Woronefch on the river Don, though in
lefs plenty than the other kinds. The female is faid to have the
crown white, where the ynale is red, and has more white about her
in the other parts of the body*. In Sibiria it is almoft as common
as other fpecies.    Inhabits the parts about the Lake Baikal \.
I have received feveral from Hudfon's Bay, which vary much in
fize; the largeft is nine inches and three quarters in length.
Some had the fides of the belly barred tranfverfely with black and
White, others not: fome had the back plain black, in others it
was fpotted with white; but all were probably of one fex, as the
heads were yellow.
* Die. Ruff. i. p. 100.
t Georgi.
 C   "3   3
Genus XXII.    J  A  C  A M  A R,
N' 4. White-billed J.
Paradife Jacamar, Gen. Syn. ii. p. 605. N° 3.
TN a collection of birds from Cayenne was one of thefe, which
had the crown of the head brown, and the general colour of the
plumage more dull than ufual.   This was moft likely the fe-
QlZE fmaller than the Green Jacamar: length feven inches.
The bill quite ftrait, fcarcely an inch and a half long, and
white, except the bafe of the upper mandible, which is dufky: on
each fide of the noftrils are three or four ftiff briftles: the plumage on the upper parts of the body is deep gloffy green: on the
chin a triangular white fpot; juft under the bill, within the fpot,
pale rufous : the^under parts of the body rufous, but deeper: the
tail fhort, even at the end; the two middle feathers green, the
others rufous: legs black.
I met with this in the collection of the late Tit, Hunter, fuppofed to have been brought from South America,
 E  »4 3
N° 35. a. Amazonian K.
Cape Kingsfilher, Gen. Syn. ii. p. 610. N°2.
HPHIS, no doubt, inhabits China, as well as the Cape of Good
Hope, as I met with a drawing of one among other Cbinefe
birds. The name given to it was Tye-tzoy. It likewife is a native of India, as I have feen it painted in three different collections
of drawings from thence.
Sacred Kingsfilher, Gen. Syn. ii. p. 621. N° 12.
A Further variety of this fpecies is faid to inhabit New Zealand. This has the crown of the head greenifh black; a
ftreak over the eyes, whitifh before, greenifh behind : round the
neck a white collar : back dufky black: wing coverts pale green,,
with yellowifh edges: quills and tail black, edged with blue : the
under parts of the body whitifh, tinged with dufky yellow on the
breaft : vent and'Under wing coverts very pale yellow. This is
known at New Zealand byct&e.vflame of Poopoo, whouroo roa.
The Kingsfijher at Otaheite and the Friendly  Iftes is called
Koato-o-00 *r
* Cook's Laft Voyage, Appendix.
 K -I   NGiSF   IS   H   E  R.
Black-capped Kingsfilher, Gen. Syn* ii. p. 624. N# 15, 15.
Var. C.
LENGTH eleven inches.   Bill four inches, colour a deep red:   BLACK-CAP-
the head and all the upper parts of the body deep blue : wing
coverts dufky black: quills the fame, with the inner webs of
many white, and the tips of all black: the under parts of the body
are white, running back at the lower part of the neck like a cref-
cent: legs black.
I met with this in the collection of the late Mr. Boddam. It
appeared to me as a variety of my Black-capped Kingsftjher, if not
of a different fex.
Common Kingsfilher, Gen. Syn. ii. p. 626. N° 16.—Ara. Zool. ii. p. 280. A. 16.
Alcedo ifpida, Mutter, N° 105.—Faun. Arag. p. 73. f COMMON K|
HPHIS is found only in the temperate parts of Ruffia and Sibiria : not common in Denmark. A fpecimen I met with from
China was precifely the fame, though lefs than ours : the name
given it was Ju-loang. I have feen it alfo exactly painted in
collections of drawings from India.
Blue-headed Kingsfilher, Gen. Syn. ii. p. 631. N° 20.
Lev. Muf.
CIZE of the Blue-headed one.  Bill red: crown of the head barred
blue and black; the edges of the feathers fringed with rufous;
the reft of the head and neck, as far as the breaft, rufous yellow:
Q^2 back,
 n6 K  I  N   G   S  F  I   S   H  E   R.
back, and wing coverts, fine blue: quills and tail rufous brown :
belly white : legs red.
Native place uncertain.
Belted Kingsfilher, Gen. Syn. ii. p. 637. N° 27.—Ara. Zool. ii. N° 169.
HPHIS fpecies inhabits Hudfon's Bay, and makes the neft in the
banks of rivers, the hole running a long way horizontally inwards : lays four white eggs; and the young are hatched the end
of June. It has the fame manners, in refpect to catching its prey,
as the European fpecies, being often feen fluttering above the fur-
face of the water; when, darting down on a fudden, it feldom fails
to bring up a fifti in its bill. The Indian name is Kifkeman, or
Kifkemanafue *.
Captain Cook met with this fpecies at Nootka Sound f.
QIZE of the Belted Kingsfijber, if not bigger: length thirteen
inches. Bill three inches long, ftrait, and black; the under
mandible yellow at the bafe: upper parts of the body fhining
green : chin, throat, and belly, white, pafling backwards in a
ring to the nape : fides of the body and over the thighs mottled
with green : the breaft is alfo clouded with the fame : quillsfpot-
ted with white : the two middle tail feathers are green; the others
the fame, but darker, and fpotted on each fide of the web with
white: legs black.
Inhabits Cayenne.
• Mr. Hutchins. +, Laft Foy. ii. p. 296,
 E   117  ]
N° 8. Black-headed N.
9. Leaft N.
N° 10. CapeN.
11. Long-billed N.
European Nuthatch, Gen. Syn. ii. p. 648. N° 1.—Ara. Zool. ii. p. 281 ?
Sitta Europea, Brun. N° 42.—Mutter, p. 165.
HPHIS bird is pretty common in England, but rather fcarce in
France * ; though it extends pretty far north on the continent, being met with in the forefts of Ruffia, Sibiria, and Kamtf
cbatka, as well as in Sweden, and Sondmor in Norway. It alfo inhabits India -f.
I have been informed, that it has at times a kind of whiflle,
fomewhat imitating that of a man, which may be heard at fome
diftance t.
Nuthatch, Var. B. Gen.Syn. ii. p.650.
Black-headed Nuthatch, Ara. Zool. ii. N° 171.
Y Believe this bird to be a diftinct fpecies, and not a variety of
the Common Nuthatch, as I once thought.
Mr. Hutchins informs me, that one with a black head (probably this fpecies), is not uncommon at Hudfon's Bay in fummer, retiring fouth ward in winter, and is there called Nemifcu-Apethayjhijh.
The firft word fignifies thunder; and the bird fo named, as it is
fuppofed to be moft noify before the approach of it.
* Dr. Brouffonet.        + Lady Imfey's drawings. X Rev. Dr. Wilgrefs.
Nuthatch, Var. C. Gen. Syn. ii. p. 651.
LEHATCHJT" Ldl Nuthatch> ArB' ZM' "* N° J72"
Description.    HPHE length of this minute fpecies (for I find it to be diftinct)
is only three inches and a half.    The bill blueifh ; the bafe
of the under mandible pale : the head moufe-colour : upper parts
of the body, and two middle tail feathers, cinereous ; the others
dufky black ; the under parts of the body dufky white.
I met with feveral of the above at Mr. Humphries's, of Long-
Acre, who received them in a collection from North America.
Spar. Muf. Carlf. pi. 4.
Description. Y ENGTH nine inches. Bill three quarters of an inch, ftrait,
blueifh black : the forehead, hind part of the neck, and back,
are brown and yellow mixed : fides of the head, neck, breaft, and
under parts, dufky yellow; the tips and margins of the quills the
fame : the tail feathers are ten in number; above dufky black,
beneath olive, and the tips dufky yellow; the two middle feathers
longer than the others : legs black : claws yellow.
-   Place. Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope.
LONG-BILLED   j ENGTH eight inches.    Bill above an inch in length, and
n black ; the bafe pale, almoft white : from the mouth to the
eye a black line, and thence along the fides of the neck, which,
with the cheeks and forehead, are white: the crown, and whole of
the upper parts of the body, and wings, very light blue grey : tips
of the prime quills brown : belly pale tawny : legs pale brown.
Place. Inhabits Batavia. Defcribed from the drawings of Lady Impey.
 C  »9  3
N°2i. Coromandel B. E.
Common Bee-eater, Gen. Syn. ii. p. 667. N» 1.
Merops Apiafter, Faun. Arag. p-73-
HPHIS bird is nowhere more frequent than in the fouthern latitudes of Ruff a; chiefly about the Don, Wolga, and Jaick.
Some are met with about Tobolfchi, on the Irtifch, though few or
none farther in Sibiria. They are migratory, and firft feen about
Woronefcb, and neighbouring parts, about the 24th of April, coming in vaft flocks ; and make the neft in the clayey banks, which
they perforate obliquely, to the depth of half a foot; the entrance
of the hole is large, but grows fmaller at the bottom ; and the
hills are in many places fo full of them, that they appear like a
honey-comb. The time of their departure into other countries is
about the month of September, being obferved by thoufands in
their flight fouthward*. Thefe birds are obferved to come to
Gibraltar in March, in fmall flocks, not exceeding three or four,
and feldom reft more than a few hours: their note is a little
whiffle, not unlike that of a Whiftling Duck. When the fun fhines
upon them in their flight, they are a pleafing object, as they appear gilded f.
* See Dec. Ruff i. p. ioj.-~Ruffa, vol. iv. p. 340, &c.        f Col. Davies..
 B  E  E-E  A T  E   R.
Var. E
Indian Bee-eater, Gen. Syn.t ii. p. 670. N° 2.
Y FIND this bird fubject to great variety. One among the
drawings of Lady Impey has a yellow forehead and a deep blu<=
throat; the reft as in the Indian fpecies. Thefe are not uncom
mon in India, where they are often feen flying to and fro, anc
feem fond of plantanes.
In the Britifh Mufeum is alfo a bird not greatly differing: the
general colour of the plumage pale green ; the under parts light-
eft : forehead inclining to orange : chin and throat black, mottled on each fide of the under jaw with an obfcure trace of blue :
tail even at the end. This, perhaps, may be a young bird of the
Indian Bee-eater, which is often feen in vaft flocks in India; arriving the beginning of autumn.
Moho, Ellis Narr. ii. p. 156.
T Believe the bird mentioned in Ellis's Narrative*, of the long
tail feathers of which the natives of Sandwich Iflands makefty-
flaps, to be this very fpecies. He obferves, that the name of the
bird is Moho; and that the handle is not unfrequently made of an
arm or leg bone of one of their enemies flain in battle.
Le Guepier jaune de la Cote de Coromandel, Son. Foy. Ind. ii. p. 213.
pi. 119.
on.    "DILL black: irides pale rufous: head and hind part of the
neck pale yellow : from the bill through the eye a ftreak of
' Vol. ii. p. 156.—Cook's Laft Fey. iii. p. 120.
black, finifhing behind it: throat pale green: fore part of the
neck, breaft, and belly, greenifh yellow: fides of the neck deep
yellow, undulated with greenifh blue: quills and tail deep yellow;
all but the two middle feathers of the laft tipped with black:
legs black.
Inhabits the coaft of Coromandel.
 [     122     ]
Red-billed Pr.
N° io. Blue Pr.
1. Common Hoopoe, Gen. Syn. ii. p. 687. N° l.—Ara. Zool. ii. p. 283. A.
- COMMON H. TJpupa epops, Brun. N° 43.—Mutter, N° 103.—Georgi Reife, p. 165.—Sett
Fog. pi. in p. 129.—Faun. Arag. p. -j^.—Kolb. Cat. ii. p. 157.
Y Believe the Hoopoe * to be met with, and even to breed in England, oftener than is generally fuppofed, as I have had them
feveral times fent to me; and have been able to collect various in-
flances in fupport of this opinion, which I can depend on, added
to others of lefs certain authority; not that this bird is conftant
in its migrations into this ifland, there being in fome years many to
be met with; in others, few or none. The year 1783 feems to have
been more abundant in thefe birds than any I have yet heard of;
one of them being fhot near Orford, on the coaft of Suffolk, in May,
and another feen near the fame place the 24th of June following :
thefe, no doubt, had bred thereabouts. The place where thefe
were feen was a remarkable barren fpot. In the month of September of the fame year two were fhot at Holdernefs, and many
were feen in various other parts of Yorkfhire, and as far north as
Scotland f. One was fhot the 10th ofSeptember, atCam inGloucefter-
Jhire, another on Epping Foreft, and a third in Surrey. A few years
fince, a pair had begun to make a neft in Hampjbire; but being
* In the Synopfts the tail by miftake is faid to be white, m
whereas it fhould have been expreffed exactly the contrary.
f Mr. Tunftall. 1
rked with black;
too much difturbed, forfook it, and went elfewhere*. -The laft
year, 1786, a young bird was fent to me, the 10th of May, full
fledged, fhot near Southfteet, in Kent t; but the old birds had not
been obferved.
In Sepp's plate of the neft of this bird, I find it placed in the
hollow of a tree, compofecr"of foft bents, and fmooth within. The
eggs four in number, of a blueifh white, marked with pale brown
. I find this bird, though very common in the deferts of Rujfia and
Tartary, to be much more fcarce beyond the river Ob; however,
fome are found beyond the Lake Baikal. Dr. Pallas confirms the
account of the filthy manners of this fpecies, as he met with an
inftance of a pair breeding in the privy of an uninhabited houfe in
the fuburbs of Tzaritzin J.
I am informed by Colonel Davies, that they every year are feen
in Gibraltar in March, in fmall flocks often or twelve; hence are
called there March Cocks. They are fuppofed to come from
Africa, and to be on their paffage north to fome other place, as
they only-ftay a few hours to reft themfelves ; and it is not uncommon to fee five or fix flocks in a week, during the time of
their paffage. He did not obferve them to have any note ; but
that they had a dipping kind of flight, not unlike a Woodpecker.
I have obferved this bird to be among paintings both from China
and India; it is therefore, no doubt, common to both thofe
* Mr. TmJ
t By Mr.~Goddeu, of that place.
t Ara, Zool.
CIZ E of the Hoopoe : length fifteen inches. Bill two inches and
a half long, curved, as in that bird, but ftouter; colour red ;
noftrils oval, placed near the bafe. The head is pretty full of feathers, which do not lay fmooth, being fomewhat difhevelled, as in
fome of the Paradife Birds : the colour of the head, neck, breaft,
and back, black, with a glofs, in fome lights of red, and in others
of green: the belly velvet black: wing coverts black, gloffed with
green : quills and tail gloffy blue black : on the inner webs of the
firft fix prime quills is an oval fpot of white, almoftan inch and a
half from the tip : the tail is cuneiform ; the longeft feathers
eight inches, the fhorteft or outer ones only three inches, in
length; the two middle ones are plain black throughout, the
others marked with a fpot of white on each fide of the web, about
an inch from the end; thefe fpots are nearly oval in fhape, and
placed obliquely, but not quite oppofite to each other ; the legs '
are an inch long, and flout, as are the toes, the outer one united
to the middle pretty deeply ; the colour of the legs and toes red ;
the legs feathered half way down; claws hooked, and black.
This curious fpecies I firft faw in the collection of the late
Dutchefs Dowager of Portland, who informed me, that the perfon fhe had it from reported it to have come from Africa. It is
now in the poffeffion of Colonel Davies. Among the drawings of
Captain Paterfon I likewife obferve a figure of this bird, differing
only in having the bill dufky inftead of red. The drawing was
made from a fpecimen met with in India.
QjZE of the laft : length twelve inches.    Bill two inches long,
ftouter than in the Hoopoe, and more curved, the colour black :
wj^//,/ /<A
general colour of the plumage blue, paleft about the head and under parts of the body : the tail more than four inches long, and
fomewhat cuneiform : legs pale lead-colour.
I met with a reprefentation of this bird among the drawings of
Captain Paterfon, and have been informed that it is a native of
fome part of India, Til". --
Gen us
 [     126
Tufted Cr.
Red-billed Cr.
Yellow-winged Cr.
Long-billed Cr.
Barred-tail Cr.
Black-tailed Cr.
Genus XXVIII.     C   R   E
N° 50. Snuff-coloured Cr.
51. Afh-bellied Cr.
52. Indigo Cr.
53. Blue-rumped Cr.
54. Yellow-bellied Cr.
55. Red-backed Cr.
$6. Orange-backed Cr.
Common Creeper, Gen. Syn. ii. p. 698. N° 1.—Ara. Zool. ii. N° 174.
Certhia familiaris, Brun. p. 12.—Mutter, N° 104.—Sepp Fog. pi. in p. 59.
HPHIS is found, but very rarely, in theforefts of Ruff a and Sibiria : is a conftant inhabitant of Sweden, and extends as far
north as Sondmor. A variety of this is found in North America,
which is considerably larger. This country alfo contains the common fort.
Great Hook-billed Creeper, Gen. Syn. ii. p. 703. N° 3.
HPHIS fpecies is common at Owbyhee, and called by the natives
Hoohoo *.
._ Hook-billed Green Creeper, Gen. Syn. ii. p. 703. N°4.
ED GREEN CR. HPHIS is moft probably the bird that is called at Owbyhee,
Akaiearooa f,
* Cook's Laft Voyage, iii.p, 119.
f Id. ib.
, Born. Phryf. p. 76. pi. 2i
/~)UR people firft met with thefe birds at the ifland of Atcoi,
though they are common in all the Sandwich Iflands, where
they are faid to be gregarious, though not met with alive by any
of our people. Thofe with a variegated plumage are young
birds. The general name for them is Eee-eve, though they called
them at Atooi, Heoro-taire f.
African Creeper, Gen. Syn. ii. p. 717. N° 18.
Br. Muf,
T ENGTH five inches and a half. Bill an inch anda quarter,
moderately bent, and black: head, throat, and breaft, green,
gloffed with copper bronze, appearing in fome lights purple:
leffer wing coverts and back fine gilded green : tail coverts the
fame, very long, reaching almoft to the end of the tail: acrofs the
breaft a narrow band of vermilion, not gloffy: belly and vent
dufky black: the greater wing coverts and quills are brown,
tinged with green : tail feathers the fame, fringed on the edges
with green : legs black.
Inhabits Africa.    I fufpect this to be a mere variety of the
African Creeper.
• Var. C.
* Our African Creeper,
likewife called Polytmus.
t See Cook's Laft Foyage
vol. ii. p. 717. A. is figured in the fame plate, and
, ii. p. 207, 227,—iii. p. 119. andApp.
Famous Creeper, Gen. Syn. ii. p. 720. N° 21.
A Specimen of this, in the collection of the late Mr. Boddam,.
was called by the name of Sugar-Bird.
Black and Blue Creeper, Gen. Syn. ii. p. 724. N° 26.
A Specimen of this, in the collection of Mr. Green, of Lambeth,
was of a dirty green colour; but the yellow markings on the
wings the fame.    Whether a female, or a young bird, is uncertain.
Blue Creeper, Gen. Syn. ii. p. 725. N° 27.
f\ N E of thefe, in poffeflion of Mr. Jones, of Bermondfey, has the
bill and legs red.
Cayenne Creeper, Gen. Syn. ii. p. 728. N° 29.
N the Leverian Mufeum are two birds which I fufpect to be varieties of this fpecies, or rather the young not arrived at perfect
plumage. The one meafures in length five inches: general colour of the plumage palifh green; the under parts lighteft, and
marked with perpendicular ftreaks of white on the chin, throat,
and breaft: over the eye a pale ftreak, and beneath it one of
black: quills and tail dark green, with pale edges. The other
is not quite fo long: general colour of the plumage green : fides
of the head, chin, and throat, as far as the breaft, dafhed with perpendicular green ftreaks : quills and tail darker than the reft of
the plumage.
Wall Creeper, Gen. Syn. ii. p. 730. N°32.
Certhia muraria, Faun. Arag. p. 74.
HPHIS is found in Spain, particularly about Jacca, in the province of Arragon, where it is called Paxaco aranero. It has
been obferved about the Caucajian rocks in Afia, but not elfe-
where in that neighbourhood. It feems, in every place where it
has been yet found, to be a fcarce bird.
Wattled Creeper, Gen. Syn. ii. p. 732. N° 34.
TN the account of Cook's laft voyage, after defcribing the bird, i
is obferved that it was the only finging one found at Tongo-
taboo ; and that it compenfated a good deal for the want of the
notes of others by the ftrength and melody of its own, which fill
the woods at dawn, in the evening, and at the breaking up of
bad weather *. It is faid alfo to be found at others of the Friendly
Ifles, and known by the name of Foulebaioo f.
Mocking Creeper, Gen. Syn, ii. p. 735. N9 39.
HPHE note of this fpecies is faid not to be unlike that of the
Foe Bird.    Is found in greateft plenty in Queen Charlotte's
Sound, and called there Negbo barra.
EN GTH eight inches and a half. Bill an inch and a quar- loured cr.
ter, not much bent; the colour a black brown: the head,   Description,
• Cook's Laft Foyage^ i. p. 334
Suppl. S
f Id. App.
neck, and back, are of a deep cinnamon, or fnuff-colour: beneath
the body green : under wing coverts yellow: the two middle tail
feathers are double the length of the reft, being two inches and a
half long; the others of a moderate length, even at the ends, and
of a blackifh green colour: legs black.
I met with a fpecimen of the above at the late Mr. Boddam's.
Native place uncertain.
Br. Muf.
Y ENGTH five inches and a half. Bill fcarce an inch long,
and black : tongue bifid: top of the head green : the upper
parts of the neck, body, and wings, pale olive green; the under
very pale afh-colour : quills and tail brown, edged with green:
legs black.
Inhabits Africa,,
Le Roffignol de Muraille des Indes, Son. Foy. Ind. vol. ii. p. 2©8,
CIZE of the Fig-eater. Bill black: irides rufous yellow: the
top of the head, neck behind, the back, wings, and tail, are of
a pale indigo blue : over the eye a white ftreafo and a fecond of
black pafiing under? the eye to th&bind head : the throat is white %
the breaft, belly, and vent, rufous: legs rufous yellow.
Inhabits India.
Le Grimpereau verd du Cap de B. Efperance, Son. Foy. Ind. vol. ii. p. 208. «g.
Pi. 116. f. 2. bwb-STumped
C1ZE of the Canary Bird.   Bill bent, and black: head, neck,   Descrittion.
back, and wing coverts, light changeable green : quills and
tail reddifh, or gloffy rufous: rump BqNblue : throat red: legs
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope,and has an agreeable note. Place.
Le Grimpereau de Malacca, Son. Foy. Ind. vol. ii. p. 209. pi. 116. f. 1.
glGGER than the laft. Bill black : irides red : the forehead
deep changeable green: behind the eye is a dirty greenifh
band, palling half way down the fide of the neck, where it is
rounded at the end; parallel to, and beneath this, is a fecond, of
gloffy violet, which arifes at the gape, and is continued on to
the wing : the throat is red brown ! the leffe'r wing coverts violet, with a metalline glofs; the others the fame, inclining to red:
the quills dirty brown: the back, rump, and tail, are changeable
violet: breaft, belly, and thighs, yellow : legs brown.
A flight variety of this is in the collection of Colonel Davies.
Length four inches. Head, neck, and all above, violet purple :
fides of the head, beneath the eyes, greenifh brown: chin and
throat inclining to red : wing coverts, fcapulars, and rump, gloffy
violet purple: quills brown, edged with dufky olive: tail black,
edged with gloffy purple : beneath, from the breaft, yellow.
Le Grimpereau a Dos rouge de la Chine, Sox. Foy. Ind. vol. ii. p. 209.
pi.117. f.i.
HPHIS is probably the leaft of its race, being only three inches
in length.    The bill is a trifle bent, and black : irides red :
the top of the head, hind neck, back, and rump, are crimfon :
from the noftrils a black band paffes through the eye to the wing:
the throat, breaft, and belly, are rufous, white : the wing coverts
dark green, almoft black: quills, tail, and legs, black.    A fpeci
men is in the collection of Sir Jofepb Banks, which came from
China.   I obferve it alfo among the Indian drawings of Lady
Le Grimpereau fifHeur de la Chine, Son. Voy. Ind. vol. ii. p. 210. pL 117..
f. 2.
CIZE of the laft,    Bill and irides the fame : the upper parts of
"the plumage are blue-grey: throat and fore part of the neck
the fame, but paler : on the upper part of the back is a fpot of
orange yellow: the breaft and belly are alfo orange yellow 1 the
vent pale yellow : legs black.
Inhabits China^
T ENGTH four inches.   Bill black, incurvated: headi neck,
and back, deep olive; the feathers edged with dufky: prime
quills brown : belly and tail black : on each- fide of the'breaft'a
tuft of yellow feathers: legs black*   .
Inhabits Bengal,
GIZE very fmall; length fcarcely more than three inches.   Bill
red, tipped with black : crown of the head,, part of the neckj
and back,.olive: breaft and belly white: wings, tail, and legs,
Inhabits India.
Ol ZE fmall.    Bill black : head and neck varied with dufky and
gold : tongue long, capable of being darted into flowers, like
that of a Humming Bird: wing coverts of a fine yellow: quills,
tail, and legs, black.
Inhabits Bengal.
HPOTAL length five inches.    Bill an inch and a half: tongue LONG-BILLED
long and miflile, as in the laft defcribed : crown and hind
part of the neck light green : back, wings,, and tail, dufky, edged
with olive green : fore part of the neck and breaft white : belly-
and vent pale yellow : legs blueifh.
Inhabits Bengal.    I am indebted to the drawings of Lady lm-        Plaice.
fey for the four laft defcribed.
Le Grimpereau gris de la Chine, Son. Voy. Ind. vol.iLp. 210. pi. 117. f. 3.
CIZE of a Titmoufe.    Bill yellow : the top of the head-, neck,
back, and wings, are cinereous grey: throat, breaft, and belly,
very pale rufous : quills dirty brown: tail compofed of ten feathers, and cuneiform in fhape i, the two middle ones are brown,,
4 with.
with a black band at the end; the others grey, with a curved
band of black near the tip: legs yellow.
?i,acs. Inhabits China.
£2. Certhia melanura, Sparrm. Muf. Carlf. pi. 5.
BLACK-TAILED CR. T ENGTH feven inches.    Bill black: head and back violet:
Description. breaft and belly inclining to green: wing coverts brown,
margined with olive; fome of the quills have the outer margins
greenifh : tail pretty long, a little forked in fhape, and black:
legs black: claws yellow.
Place.            Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope.
  [    *3$   1
N° 61. Patch-necked H. B.
ClZEof the others.    Upper parts of the body brownifh green: .18.
throat and fore part of the neck green: breaft and belly vio-   jvjanGO H. 1
let: vent white : tail as in the two others of this fpecies.
In the collection of Colonel Davies.
Harlequin Humming Bird, Gen. Syn. ii. p. 760. N° 20.
H. B.
AMONG the drawings of Colonel Davies, I obferve one of
thefe which meafures full five inches.    The colours of the       Pl" CXI*
plumage are much the fame as before defcribed, except that beneath the black at the back part of the neck is a narrow band of
blue green : the wing coverts and upper part of the back incline
to green; and the under part of the tail verges to purple.
The plate herewith given is a good reprefentation.
Ruffed Humming Bird, Ara. Zool. ii. N° 177. 56.
HPHIS fpecies is called, at Nootka Sound, Sqfinneir Safin*.
H. B.
CIZ E of the Red-throated Humming Bird.   Bill long, flender,       ed H. B.
black: the crown of the head, taking in the eyes, hind part of   Description.
* Cook's Laft Voy, ii. p. 297. and Append,
the neck, upper part of the body, wings, and tail, are deep brown:
irides, fore part of the neck, and all beneath, white: fides of the
neck marked with dufky fpots; befides which is a gloffy crimfon
patch, almoft as big as a tare: legs black.
Defcribed from the drawings of Sir A. Lever.
 [    *37    J
Genus  XXX.     STARE..
• Common Stare, Gen. Syn. iii. p.
Sturnus vulgaris, Sepp Fog. pi. ii
, N° I!—Ara. Zool. ii. p. 331. A.
p. 25.—Faun. Arag. p. 84.
INHABITS Europe, as high as Salten, in the diocefe of Dron-
theim,- in Norway ; and in great numbers in Nafne Helgeland, in
Feroe, and in Iceland*.    In the north of England is called Cbepfter,
and Chep-Starling f.
Silk Stare, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 10. N" 8.
T ENGTH eight inches. Bill purplifh red, the end dufky:
the whole head and fore part of the neck yellowifh white, inclined to dufky on the crown : upper part of the body fine pale
afh-colour : wings and tail gloffy black ; bafe of the quills white,
forming" a fpot on the outer part of the wing: baftard wing white:
tail two inches and a half long, even at the end : the under parts
of the body of the fame colour as the upper, but paler, and approaching to white at the vent: legs reddHh, or pale yellow.
The female is brown where the male is black : the crown of the
head is black ; forehead mixed black and white; fides of the head
and behind the eye white : the back as in the male: wings gloffy
f Mr. Tunftall.
 i3§ STARE.
brown, inclining to afh-colour; bafe of the quills not white:
rump white: tail as the quills, the tips of the feathers white for
a quarter of an inch, but deeper on the inner webs; the outer
feather plain : legs brown.
Place. I met with both the above in the collection of Sir Jofepb Banks,
who received them, about two years fince, from China. Mr,
Tunftall informs me, that he had a male bird a confiderable time
alive in his menagery, and that it had all the actions of the common Starling.
 C  *39 ]
Genus  XXXI.     THRUSH.
N* 123. Margined Thr.
124. Hudfonian Thr.
125. New York Thr.
126. Gingi Thr.
N° 127. Perfian Thr.
128. Dauma Thr.
129. Orange-headed Thr.
130. Black and Scarlet Thr.
Throitle, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 18.—Ara. Zool. ii. p. 342. C.
Turdus muficus, Faun. Arag. p. 85.
Turdus iliacus minor, Sett Fog. pi. in p. 23.
N the north is fometimes heard to fing in the month of December*.
Little Thrufli, Gen. Syn.'ui. p. 20. N° ^.—Ara. Zool. ii. N" 201.
HPHIS fpecies is found in Jamaica^.
Redwing, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 22. N°7-'—Ara. Zool. ii. p. 342. D.
Turdus iliacus, Faun. Arag. p. 84.—Sept ^°i' p'* in p. 21.     ,.   x *
OUCH numbers of thefe birds, Throftles, and Fieldfares, are
killed for the market in Polijh Pruffia, that excife was paid at
Dantzick for thirty thoufand pairs, befides what were fmuggled, or
paid duty in other places %.
* Mr. Tunftall,
f Ara. Zool.
HP HI S is, without doubt, the fame bird with my Ruby-throat
Warbler, vol. iv. p. 463.
Pagoda Thrufh, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 30. N* 20.
T HAVE met with feveral of thefe in drawings from India and
China, but they feem to differ both in fize and markings ; moft
of them have a long black creft, and the fpace round the eye bare :
the colour of the back and wing coverts blue grey : the whole
of the neck, breaft, and belly, of a brownifh rufous-colour; the
neck feathers ftreaked down the middle with white : the quills
and tail black ; the outer feathers of the laft tipped with white.
In fome fpecimens the neck and breaft are plain rufous : the
back, wings, and tail, light grey: quills black.—In my former
defcription, the bird is faid to be fcarcely bigger than a Sparrow ;
but the above birds are nearly as large as a Starling. They are
chiefly kept in cages, on account of their fong, and are known by
the name of Powee.
Malabar Thrufh, Gen. Syn. iii, p. 30.
HPHIS feems rather fmaller than the laft, and is greatly fimilar
in the markings : the length feven inches. It chiefly differs
i.) the head being of the fame colour as the body, and not furnifhed
with a creft. It is alfo called Powee, and kept in cages as the
laft.    I have my doubts, whether it is a diftinct fpecies.
5 Reed
 Reed Thrufh, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 32. N» 28.
J unco, Sepp Fog. pi. in p.
HP HE neft, as figured by Sepp, is compofed of the tops of reeds,
mixed with very fine fibres.  The eggs are five in number, of
a yellowifh white, fpotted with brown, and rather bigger than
thofe of a Sparrow.
Chinefe Thrufh, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 35. N° 32.
HPHIS, as well as the Crying Thrufh, inhabits India.    Called at
Bengal the Five Brothers, being for the moft part feen in
fmall flocks of five together.
Blackbird, Gen.. Syn.
Turdus merula, Feu
ii. p. 43. N° 46.—Ara. Zool. ii. p. 345. I.
. Arag. p. i 5.—Sepp Fog. pi. in p. 17.
COMETIMES heard  finging before Chriftmas.
Ring Ouzel, Get,
Turdus torquatu
Syn. iii. p. 46. N° 49.
,.Faun. Arag, p. 85.
-Ara. Zool. ii. p. 46. N° 49.
HP HIS bird is met with in Europe, as high as Lapmark, but does
not inhabit either Ruffia or Sibiria. It is perhaps more common with us than is fuppofed, being frequently miflaken for the
Blackbird. Is feldom met with, except in fpring and autumn, when
thefe birds are on their journey backwards and forwards to other
places; at which times they may be feen in fmall flocks of five or
fix; and, when difturbed, fly out of a hedge, one by one,
making a chattering noife,,whereby the obferving ornithologift will
eafily diftinguifh them from Blackbirds.. One killed in September
laft had its craw full of hawthorn berries.
Water Ouzel, Gen. Syn. iii, p. 48. N° 50.—Ara. Zool. ii. p. 332. B.
Sturnus cinclus, Faun. Arag. p. 84.—Sepp Vog, pi. in p. 25.
"pOUND in Europe, as high as Feroe and Finmark *; in the
Ruffian empire, as far as .Kamtfchatka;  in Chriftianfoe and
Norway ; alfo in Jutland; but only in the winter feafon f.
White-tailed Thrufh, Gen. Syn. iii.. p.49.N° 51. pi. 38.
Corvus totus niger et reftricibus bafi albis, Faun. Arag. p. 72,
HP HIS fpecies is found in Aragonia, in Spain.
Rofe-coloured Thrufh, Gen.Syn. iii. p. 50. N° 52.— Ar3..Zool.u. p. 344. G.
P XT EN DS to Mia.    Sir Jofeph Banks is in poffeflion of one
of this fpecies, which was brought from Bombay*
Blue Thrufh, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 51. N" 53.
HPHIS probably inhabits India, as I met with one, which ap»
peared to me as the fepale, among the drawings of Lady
* Ara. Zool f Brmnicb.
Shining Thrufh, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 50. N° 60. A. ^c
HPHIS bird correfponds fo very nearly with the Blue and Green       yAR< A>
Daw of Edw. pi. 320. that I have fcarce a doubt of its being the fame.
White-fronted Thrufh, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 71. N° 91. A. 9,#
HPHIS bird inhabits New Zealand, and is faid to be very tame FRONTED THR.
and familiar. Var- Ai
Yellow-crowned Thrufh, Gen. Syn. iii. p, 74. N* g.6.—-Brown Illuftr. p, 50. 96.
pi. 22. YELLOW-
Ceylonefe Starling, •Gen. Syn. iii. p. 11. N° 11.
Y HAVE the greateft reafon to think that this and the Ceylonefe
Starling are one and the fame fpecies.
Turdus Africanus, Jacq. Vog. p. 29-. t. 14.
■CIZE of a Blackbird.    Bill yellow;  point black :  general colour of the plumage black : the fore part of the neck, breaft,   Description.
and belly,  margined with rufous brown ; towards the vent with
white : the edge of the wings, and the legs,, pale.
Inhabits' Africa. Place.
Hudfonian Thrufh, Ara. Zool. i
Lev. Muf.
N° 204.
ENGTH feven inches and a half.    Bill black: general co-   Description.
lour of the plumage deep blueifh afh : crown, nape, wing co-
11 verts*
verts, and primaries, more or lefs edged with pale chefnut:
coverts of the tail of the fame colour; the tail itfelf deep afh,
rounded at the end : legs black.
Inhabits Hudfon's Bay.—I was favoured with a fpecimen from
the fame place by Mr. Hutchins.
THR.     -
New York Thrufh, Ara. Zool. N° 205.
CIZE of our Blackbird. Bill dufky, ftrong ; length of it half an
inch: head, neck, and breaft, mottled with light ruft-colour
and black : back very gloffy, and the edges of the feathers ferruginous : from the bill, above and beneath each eye, extends to the
hind part of the head a band of black : belly dufky : wings and
tail black, gloffed with green :  tail rounded:  legs black.
Appears in the province of New York the latter end of OcJober,
in its way from its more northern breeding place.
Le petit Martin de Gingi, Son. Voy. Ind. ii. P.J94.
CIZE of a Thrufh. Bill yellow : irides red : head black, and a
little crefted : from the bafe of the upper mandible a bare yellow fpace, which reaches beyond the eye : the neck, back, rump,
and belly, are grey : wing coverts and fecond quills greenifh ; the
greater ones have the bafe half pale rufous, from thence to the
end black : the tail black, the ends rufous; this laft colour deepeft
on the outer feathers: the under coverts pale rufous: legs yellow.
Inhabits the coaft of Coromandel."
"DIGGER than the EnglifhBlackbird, but not unlike it: length
eleven inches. Bill an inch and a half long, orange-colour,
rather ftouter than in the Blackbird, and a trifle more bent; the
bafe befet with a few hairs: general colour of the plumage black:
beneath the eye a white dot: wings brown: primaries black:
belly and vent afh-colour: tail even at the end, two inches and a
half long : legs and claws dull yellow.
Defcribed from the drawings of Lady Impey ; faid to have come
from Perfla.    It is ranked among the finging birds.
"DILL dufky : cheeks white: crown, hind parts of the neck, and   dksce.,PTioN.
back, brown, marked with curved black fpots: leffer wing
coverts black, chequered with white: outmoft primary black ;
the reft of them rufty brown, tipped with afh: fore part of the
neck, breaft, and belly, white, barred with curved black marks:
tail dufky : legs yellowifh.
Inhabits India.—Lady Impey.  It is called Cowal, from its note Place.
imitating that word. Gorges fruit till torpid, and, after a time,
flings up the flones. The Emperor forbids his army to keep the
field when this bird appears.
, neck,
Y ENGTH eight inches and a half.    Bill dufky: head, ....
breaft, and belly, orange : back, wings, and tail, grey : vent
white: on the leffer wing coverts a fpot of the fame: legs whitifh.
Inhabits India,*— Lady Impey, Place.
BLACK AND    CIZE of the Song-Thrujh: length eight inches and a half.  Bill
SCARLET THR.       dufky black, a little bent at the tip : the head, neck, upper
Description.    part 0f t^c back, leffer wing coverts, prime and fecond quills, and
two middle tail feathers, black: the under parts of the body
from the throat, the lower part of the back, the middle wing coverts, and the reft of the tail feathers, a rich deep fcarlet: there
are alfo three fpots of the fame near the tips of three of the fecond
quills: the tail is rounded in fhape : the legs black.
Fla.ce. Inhabits India,*— Lady Impey,
10. Red-winged Ch.
Br. Muf.
D winged  T***^ *s *"^ ^e *"ize °*" a Lark in ^e kocty: length feven
CH. inches and a half.    Bill  black, notched at the tip; the
Description,    length, to the gape, three quarters of an inch; but the feathers
come remarkably forward over the noftrils: the general colour of
the plumage is blue black, with a glofs of polifhed fteel: the
leffer wing coverts of a moft beautiful crimfon ; the loweft order
of a reddifh yellow : the tail is four inches long: legs black.
Place. Inhabits Africa..
 [   147    3
Genus  XXXIII.     C    O    L    Y.
N° 6. Green C.       N° J. Indian C.
QlZE of the Redwing Thrufh: length more than twelve inches.
Bill black : forehead, and edges of the eyelids, covered with
black velvet-like feathers: whole plumage of a deep gloffy
green : quills and tail dufky; the laft cuneiform, and feven inches
and a quarter in length.
Inhabits New Holland.—Communicated by Mr. Pennant.
T ENGTH fourteen inches. Bill black; bafe of both mandibles of a dull red : the lore, and a fpace round the eye, of the
fame colour: the crown of the head and hind part of the neck
pale cinereous grey : forehead and chin yellow: fides, front of
the neck, and all beneath, pale rufousi paleft at the vent: back,
wings, and tail, cinereous lead colour; the laft greatly cuneiform
in fhape, and feven inches in length : legs red: claws black.
Inhabits India,   From the drawings of Captain Paterfon,
U  2
 [    «48    ]
N° 86. Afh-headed Gr.
87. Eaftern Gr.
N° 88. Flamingo Gn
89. Totty Gr.
White-winged Crofsbill, Gen.Syn.iiu p. 108. N°2.
Crofsbill, Ara. Zool. ii. Na 208.
TV/TR. Hutchins informs me, that a Crofsbill, which is moft likely
this fort, comes to Hudfon's Boy in March; and in May
builds a. neft of grafs, mud, and feathers, generally about half way
up a pine-tree, and lays five white eggs, marked with yellowifh
fpots. The young fly about the end of June. It flays till the
end of November, after which it difappears; fuppofed to retire inland.    It is known there by the name of Afitchou Achajhijh.
4. Hawfinch, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 109. N°4.—Ara. Zool. ii. p. 354. C
- HAWFINCH. L0Xia coccothrauftes, Faun. Arag. p. is.—Sepp Vog. pi. in p. 137.
TN Sepp's figure of the neft- of this bird, it appears to be of a
very loofe texture, and carelefsly made.   It is placed on an
oak.    The eggs of a pale purple, fpotted with brown.
e Grofbeak, Gen. Syn.
. N° $.—Ara. Zool. ii. N0209.
HPHIS fpecies inhabits North America: not unfrequent at Hudfon's Bay from April to September, frequenting the groves of
pines and junipers •, makes a neft in the trees, in May, with flicks*
 G   R   O   S
E   A   K.
lined with feathers, at a fmall height from the ground. Theeggs
are four in number, and white. The young are hatched the middle of June. Though this bird, when adult, is beautiful in colour, the young brood for fome time remain of a plain dull blue.
The natives of the Bay call it Wufcunithow *.
Mr. Pennant obferves, that he has feen them in the pine forefts,
near Invercauld, in the county of Aberdeen, in Scotland, in the
month of Auguft; and therefore fufpects that they breed there \,
Cape Grofbeak, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 113. N° 7.
TV/jTR. Sparrman, in his voyage, after talking of being treated
with a rare and delicate difh of broiled Sparrows (Loxia ca-
penfis, Lin.^) adds, that they do much damage to the cornfields;
-and that at the approach of fummer, they always change their
yellow for a blood-red hue.
Goldbacked Grofbeak, Gen. Syn.
15. N°9.
TV/TR. Tunftall informs me, that he has two or three times been
in poffeflion of this fpecies, and in particular had once a
pair of them together. The female was of a dark brown. The
cocks changed twice in a year, and in winter were nearly of the colour of the hens. One of the cocks lived nine or ten years, and
died not long fince. Neither of them had what could be called
a fong.
* Mr. Hutchins. f Ara. Zool.
X Foy. i. p. 174.—Should not this rather be Loxia orix, Lin. which is of a
beautiful red colour in fummer, and of a plain a(h-colour in the winter feafo.i ?
7 Cardinal
 G   R   O   S
Cardinal Grofbeak, Gen. Syn.;
-Ara. Zool. ii. N°;
% Relation of Mr. Tunftall's had a pair of thefe birds, which
built a neft in an orange-tree placed in the aviary, and laid
eggs; but while the hen was fitting, an high wind blew down
the neft, whereby the eggs were broke: young birds were found
in them.
Madagafcar Grofbeak, Gen. Syn. iii, p. 119. N° 15.
HPHIS beautiful fpecies inhabits India: but in the drawings of
Lady Impey, which afcertain the circumflance, the bill is
white : the head, neck, back, breaft, and belly, are of a full
crimfon : the greater part of the wings and tail brown. Whereas,
in that defcribed by Briffon*, the middle of each feather of the
back is dafhed with brown, and a black mark between the bill
and eye.  It is known in India by the name of the Common Totty.
Paradife Grofbeak, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 122. N°
TV/fR. Tunft all has twice been fuccefsful in hatching young ones
of this fpecies in his aviary, each time bringing one to perfection. One of them lived a week, the other a fortnight; but
they were forfaken by the mother at laft; fuppofed to have happened from being too much difturbed. While the hen was fitting, if any one looked on her, it threw her into flrange agitation, writhing herfelf into a form almoft horrid, and feeming to
* Vol. iii. p. 112.
4 be
be falling into convulfions. The cock frequently fang, and would
do it almoft at command, but in fo low a note, as fcarce to be
heard, except quite clofe to the cage.
Dominican Grofbeak, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 123. N° 20.
Y With pleafure give way to the fentiments of my attentive friend
Mr. Tunftall, when he informs me, that he has had both the
Dominican and Crefted Grojbeak in his poffeffion, and is of opinion
that they are feparate fpecies. Of the firft, he has had feveral,
fome of which have lived many years, but never could afcertain the
cocks from the hens; nor did any of them attempt to fing in the
leafl. As to the Crefted one, it feemed to differ both in manners
and fize, and is a much fcarcer bird; never more than three known
at the time he had his. It lived with him at leafl fourteen years,
and appeared worn out with age, and died in the time of moult.
It now and then called out, but never had what might be termed
Java Grofbeak, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 129. N° 29-
Y HAVE my fufpicions, that the want of white on the cheeks is
not the characterise mark of the female, but is more probably
the effect of immature age, as I met lately with a number of thefe
in a cage juft imported, wherein the ufual white fpace on the
cheeks was mottled brown and white, appearing as if in the
change towards perfection. Mr. Tunftall has alfo obferved a fi-
milar circumftance in a bird in his own collection.
36- Green Grofbeak, Gen. Syn. iii. p. J34. N° 36.
GREEN GR. Loxk chloris> Brmu N„ 2+2> 2+3._jvw*. ^^ ^6.—Sepp Fog. pi. in
"J T has been faid, and I believe upon pretty good authority, that
this bird has produced with the Canary-Bird.
MALACCA GR. Malacca Grofbeak, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 141. Var. A.
INHABITS India : known there by the name of Mungul.
Bulfinch, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 143. N°5i.
Loxia pyrrhula, Faun. Arag. p. i6.—Sepp Fog. pi. in p. 133.
nRUNNICH * mentions two varieties, the one larger than the
•° other.
Mr. Tunftall has feveral times attempted to breed thefe birds,
but did not fucceed ; the cock, for the moft part, falling a victim
$0 the fury of his mate.
Thick-billed Grofbeak, Gen. Syn.ni. p. 148. N° 61.
TN the Leverian Mufeum is a bird anfwering to this defcription,
with the addition of a beautiful crimfon crown, indented on the
back part, not unlike that of the Blue-backed Manakinf.
f Syn, vol.iv. p, 520,
Hamburgh Grofbeak, Gen: Syn. iii. p. 149. N» 64.
PROM the information given me, concerning this bird, by
Mr. Tunftall, I have good reafon to fuppofe it nothing elfe
than our Mountain or Tree Finch. The above gentleman, inquifi-
tive to know what this bird really was, fcnt on purpofe to a friend
at Hamburgh for a fpecimen; when, to his aftonifhment, the
bird fent proved no other than the Tree Sparrow; nor could he
learn that any other, more likely to prove the bird in queftion,
which he meant to have, exifted thereabouts; and, to fay the
truth, the defcriptions of both agree greatly upon paper, however
Briffon and Albin may have thought to the contrary.
Black-bellied Grofbeak, Gen. Syn. ii
.N» 75.
T DO not recoiled feeing this bird, except in Mr. Tunftall's collection.     He informs me, that it lived with him for fome
time, and moulted twice in a year.    In winter it was brown.
Aiiatic Grofbea
.p. 155. N° 76.
Y ENGTH feven inches. Bill flout, a little bent; the colour
reddifh orange, with a dufky point: irides red : the whole of
the head is black: the upper part of the neck, body, and leffer
wing coverts, blueifh afh-colour; beneath, afh-colour, but paler,
inclining to orange under the wings : the greater wing coverts,
quills, and tail, black; the laft forked in fhape; the prime quills,
fecondaries; and two of the middle tail feathers, tipped with
white : legs red.
* 'Suppl. X Defcribed
Defcribed from fome fine drawings done in China, in poffeflion
of Sir Jofepb Banks,
Brown-cheeked Grofbeak, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 155. N° 77.
\X7AS in the fame collection with the laft but one, for fome
time.    It proved a very lively pretty bird, but was not obferved to change the colour of the plumage at any feafon.
Fafciated Grofbeak, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 256. N° 80.
HPHE bird  here mentioned was  alive, in the poffeflion of
Mr. Tunftall, for a considerable time ; after which he prefent-
ed it to a friend.    I never heard of a fecond fpecimen in any collection.
Dwarf Grofbeak, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 158. N° 84.
Loxia minima, Jacq. Fog. p. 28. N° 13.
Lev. Muf.
HPHIS is a common bird both in India and China. I have obferved the following differences:
One in the Leverian Mufeum, three -inches and a half in length.
The general colour olive brown : the under parts cinereous white:
between the bill and eye yellowifh, as is the edge of the wing :
bill and legs black.
In a fecond, in Lady Impey's drawings, the body and tail are
brown: rump, breaft, and belly, white: bill dufky: legs very
CIZE fmall.    Bill blue: head and neck flaty afh-colour: ASH-headed
back, wings, and tail, dufky j  the laft tipped with white:   dBSCription
breaft and belly dirty white: legs blue.
Inhabits India.—*Lady Impey. Place.
CIZE of the Cowry Grofbeak : length fix inches.    Bill dufky, EASTERN GR.
fhort, and flout, as in the Bulfinch: head, neck, and back, red   Description!
brown ; beneath, from the breaft, white, undulated with dufky :
vent yellowifh: tail pale reddifh afh-colour : legs dufky.
I met with this among fome drawings from the Eaft, in the col- Place.
lection of Mrs. Wheeler; but whether inhabiting India or China,
it was not certain.
Loxia Flamengo, Sparmm-, Muf. Carlf. pi. 17. FLAMINGO
T? ILL reddifh, furroundedat the bafe with feathers tipped with
black t forehead and fpace round the eyes white: the reft of
the head above fine rofe-colour: fides of the head and neck the
fame, but deeper: fore part of the neck, breaft, and belly, pale
rofe-colour: the third and fourth quills black: the tips of the
lower order of wing coverts dufky, forming a bar of the fame on
the wing : on the rump a fpot of black : the upper furface of the
tail pale foot-colour : the reft of the body, viz. back, thighs, under part of the tail, and the reft of the wing, white: legs fangui-
This is faid to be of the fize and flature of the Bulfinch, and the
probability of its being a variety of that bird is likewife hinted:
X a but
 156 G   R   O   S   B   E   A   K..
but as the figure in the plate is of the natural fize, and meafures--
very little fhort of eight inches in length, it can fcarcely be a variety of the Bulfinch, which does not meafure fix. This fpecimea-.
was caught at Upfal, in Sweden, alive, and was kept a whole year
in a cage, but did not alter the colour during the time of its confinement.
Loxia totta, Sparrm. Muf. Carlf. pi. 18.
Y ENGTH four inches. Bill nearly white: forehead greenifh,
brown: the crown of the head, hind part of the neck, fpace
between the fhoulders, and upper wing coverts, teftaceous brown:
the under parts of the body brownifh white: the quills and taiL
black, and all the feathers of both tipped with white; the tail a
trifle forked at the end : fhins yellowifh : feet black.
Found in the Hottentots country, in the neighbourhood of the
Cape of Good Hope. It is met with alfo in India; as I find it,
with very little difference, among the drawings of "L.ady.Impey^
It is known in the laft place by the name of Totty.
 c m 3
N° 64. Maelby B. N° 6$. Gaur B.
Snow Bunting, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 161. N° I.—Ara. Zool. ii. N°222.
HPHIS is known at Hudfon's Bay by  the name Wapathecur
Ortolan Bunting, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 166. N0^.—Ar3. Zool. ii. p. 367. D. ,
Emberiza hortulana, Brun. p. 68.—Sept Fog. pi. in p. 145. ORTOLAN B.
HPH E neft, as figured by Sepp, is compofed of dry bents, mixed
with leaves.  The eggs are of a very, pale purple, dafhed with'
minute dufky fpecks..
Yellow Bunting, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 17x5. N° 7 Ara. Z00I..U. p. 36.7. C. 7..
Emberiza citrinella, Brun-. N° 249, 250.—Sepp Fog. pi. in p. 115.—Faun..   +- YELLOW B.-
Arag. p. 86.
"*HIS fpecies is found as far north as Sondmor ;■ in Ruffia, and.
the weft of Sibiria-;. but none in the wilds of the Eaft.
Read Bunting, Gen. Syn-. iii. p. 173. N° g.—Arff: Zool. ii. p. 368. E.
Emberiza fchseniclus, Sepp Fog. pi. in p. 8.
H^HIS is common in the fouth of Ruffia and Sibiria..   I fhould
fuppofe that it varies the method of placing the neft :  it is
• ufually
 i£% B   U   N   T   I   N   G.
iifually fattened to four reeds -, but in Sepp's plate it is in the fork
of a tree near the ground.
BT ap-k- Black-throated Bunting, <?m Syn. Hi. p. 197, Na 37. pi, ^.—Ara. Z00U
THROATED B. N°zz%' P1-17-
A Bird was defcribed to me by Mr. Hutchins, very fimilar to
this, if not the fame. The length feven inches and a half;
breadth thirteen and a half; weight from ten drams to thirteen .
and a half, Troy. Bill black: forehead yellowifh, paffing over
the eye in a ftreak: between the bill and eye black, paffing beneath the eye, and ending in a patch below the ear: above the
forehead a black crefcent, the horns turning backwards: crown
and upper parts of the plumage brown : quills tipped with white :
tail coverts reddifh brown : the two middle tail feathers brown j
the three next on each fide black, edged with pale brown at the
tip ; the next white on the outer web; and the outer one white,
both the outer web and tip : the throat is yellow, with a triangular mark of black in the middle : belly and vent blueifh white:
legs black.
Place, This frequents Hudfon's Bay, where it is called Outatapafeu.  Its
note at all times merely a chirp. It builds there, making the
neft on the ground ; and lays four or five white eggs, fpotted with
black. It appears at times in fmall flocks, often accompanying
the Geefe;  and at other times feen with the Snow Buntings.
ting, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 200. N°44.—Ara. Zool. ii. N°22i,
HPHIS bird is called at Hudfon's Bay by the name of Cufab at a-   CROWNED I
Jbijb.   It has a melodious fbng when perched, but in flight
it is filent *.
Black-crowned Bunting, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 202. N° 49.—'Ara. Zool.
N° 230.
TN Cook's laft voyage-f*, I find an obfervation  concerning this
bird, viz. that the male was black on the upper part of the
breaft : that the female had alfo black on the breaft, but no fpot
of yellow on the crown.
, Var. Gen. Syn,
. 204. N°5.—Ara. Zool. N°233.
HP HE bill in this bird is yellow : head, back, and wings, ruft- CINEREOUS B,
coloured, each feather deeply and elegantly edged with pale   Description.
grey : fome of the greater coverts edged with paler ruft; primaries and tertials with white : throat, breaft, and fides, white, fully
fpotted with ruft : middle of the belly white : middle feathers of
the tail brown ; exterior white, each feather truncated obliquely.
Inhabits New York. Place,
Painted Bunting, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 206. N? 54.—Ara. Zool. ii. N*2z6.
Y HAVE hitherto doubted that this bird had bred in England;
but Mr. Tunftallaffures me to the contrary.    Two pairs have
made nefts and laid eggs in the orange-trees, .in a menagery of a
relation of his, at Holdernefs, in Yorkfhire; but in this inftance the
young were not hatched. The above gentleman has kept many,
•but feems to think that they gain their full plumage fooner than
the third year.
•    fy. Emberiza maelbyenfis, Sparr. Muf. Carlf.W 21.
Description. CIZE of'aYellowbammer. Bill and legs pale rufous : the eyelids, fpot between the bill and eye, the chin, upper part of the
throat, and fides of the neck and vent, dufky white: forehead,
crown, lower part of the neck before, and upper part of the breaft,
blueifh afh-colour : lower part of the breaft, belly, and thighs, ferruginous: back ferruginous, marked with acute black fpots:
wing coverts black, edged with ferruginous : under wing coverts
brimftone : quills dufky, with pale ferruginous margins : tail feathers ten in number, black; the four outer ones, half way from
the tips, white, the outer margins black.
The above was met with in Sweden, at Maelby, a feat of Count
Carlfon, in Sodermanland*.
CIZE fmall: length four inches and a half.    Bill pale rofe-colour : head, neck, back, breaft, and belly, cinereous, paleft
beneath:   wings and tail brown, with paler edges:   legs pale
1   Inhabits the Eaft Indies, and is called Gaur.—Lady Impey.
* I have my doubts whether this is not related to our Pine Bunting, Synopfis,
yol. iii. p. 203. N* 50. being a female, or young bird, of that fpecies.
7 Genus
 [   i6i   3
Genus XXXVI.    T   A   N   A   G   E   R.
N° 45. Capital T.
Olive Tanager, Gen. Syn. iii. p.218. N°4.—Ara. Zool. ii. ^237.
Lev. Muf.
Y ENGTH fix inches. Bill black: upper parts of the olive
green : beneath, as far as the upper part of the belly, of a fine
yellow : lower belly and vent white : from the bill, paffing over
the eye, a ftreak of white j and a fecond in the direction of the
lower jaw: tail longifh, and even at the end: legs black.
The native place of the above is uncertain ; but I fufpect it to
be a mere variety of the Olive Tanager.
Chinefe Tanager, Gen. Syn.
Chinefe Finch, Gen. Syn. p. 277
p. 229.
Y MUCH fufpect that the bird defcribed by this name is no
other than the female of my Cbinefe Finch; but as the bill in
Colonel Davies's fpecimen feems to be that of a Tanager, I fhould
think it better to range what is faid in both places under this
fous-throated Tan;
ingilla rufo-barbeta
ret, Gen. Syr,
Jacq. Vog. p
"THE general colour of this bird is gloffy black, with the chin
rufous: fpace between the bill and eye deep black.
Suppl. Y This
Place. This is faid to be found in plenty at Martinico, and others o£_-
the Caribbee iflands, and to feed on feeds, grafs, fruits, and infects. I have not a doubt of its being the fame with my Rufous--
throated Tanager, though the fize is not mentioned.
45„ Lev. Muf.
'pl. CXII. °     T ENGTH  five  inches.    Bill flout,   and of a dufky flefh-
■*-'   __i    ^i._i j    ^1 ..    1   -11 .l- r_„ -_r-i__ i_
colour : the head, throat, and all the fore part of the neck,.
as far* as the breaft, black :• the upper half of the neck behind, the
fides of it, and all the under parts, of a fine yellow, inclining to-
orange on the breaft: the reft of the bird pale olive-green : wings-,
and tail darker, edged with yellow : legs flefh-colour.
I met with this among the drawings of Sir AJhton Lever.. Na-r-
tive place uncertain.
   [   i«3   3
N* 97. Yellow-throated F.
98. Lovely F.
99, Carthagena F.
100. Imperial F.
' 101. Oker F,
102. Teftaceous F.
103. Rufty-coloured F.
104. Nootka F.
Houfe Sparrow, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 248. N° i.—Ara. Zool. ii. p. 382. G.
Fringilla domeflica, Brun. N° 264, 265,—&?// Fog. pi. in p. yy.—Faun.
TYLACK Sparrows are not uncommon, but all which I have
feen have been of a dull colour. Mr. Tunftall mentions one
which came under his inflection, which was of as deep and glofty
a black as that of a Crow. Mr. Sparrman, in his account of the
Carlfonian Mufeum, defcribes a Finch * which was wholly white,
the bill and legs not excepted. This was probably a white Howfe
Sparrow, though he fays that the bill was fomewhat larger in proportion.
Tree Finch, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 252
Fringilla montana, Sepp Vog. pi.
N° 2.—Ara. Zool. ii. N° 246.
HPHE neft in the above author is placed in the hollow of a tree,
compofed of bents, mixed with a few feathers.    The eggs
five in number, of a pale brown, marked with fpots of deep
• N° 20.
 164 FINCH.
Place* Mr. Hutchins informs me, that this bird, or one greatly fimi-
Jar, comes into Hudfon's Bay in April, and departs in September.
Is called by the Nepetberway Indians, Nepin apethafijh. He
thinks it not unlikely, that my Mountain Finch, N° 16 *, may be
the fame fpecies. His bird differs fomewhat in the placing, as
well as the conflruction, of the neft ; for it is made on the ground
among the grafs, and compofed of mud without, andftraw within, lined with foft hair or down. The eggs are the fame in number and colour.
Black-faced Finch, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 253. N° 3.—Ara. Zool. ii. N° 255.
,HPHE circumftance of the fecond figure, \nPl. Enl. 181, being
female to the other in the fame plate, feems to be doubted by
Mr. Pennant f.
The fuppofed female is certainly found in Carolina; the other
probably only inhabits Cayenne. I am the lefs capable of judging,
as neither of the birds in queflion has come under my inflection.
Ring Sparrow, Gen. Syn.
. p. 254. N»4.
TVfl'R. Tunftall informs me, that he had thefe birds living for
fome time, but never could find that they had any cry or
note.    The ring on the breafts of fome was much brighter than
in others, and probably fuch were the male birds.
* See obfervations on the above bird in Ara. Zool, vol. ii. p. 373.
t Ara. Zool.
 FINCH. 165
Chaffinch, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 257. N« 10 Ara. Zool. ii. p. 381. F
Fringilla ccelebs, Sepp Vog. pi, in p. 141.—Faun, Arag, p. 87.
HP HE Chaffinch is fometimes feen with coal-black legs, fuch an
one being fhot near London *.    Called by fome, in the north
of England, White Linnet and Flax-Finch; by others, Spink f,
from its cry.
Gloffy Finch, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 267. N" 21. Var. A.
Fringilla iEthiops, Jacq. Vog. p. 10. N°7.
CIZE and fhape of a Chaffinch.    The irides of a rufous colour :   D
the whole plumage, without exception, of a deep black.
This is found in the woods of Carthagena.   Its note very weak; Pl
and to produce it, requires great exertion, as the head feathers,
during the time of finging, as well as thofe of the neck, appear
erect.    It feeds on fruits and feeds, is eafily tamed, and when in
a cage will eat bread.
Cowpen Finch, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 269. N° z^.—Ara. Zool. ii. N° 241.
HPHE defcription in the Artlic Zoology fays, that the male has the    Dbscr1
head and neck dufky brown : back, wings, body, and tail,
fine black, gloffed with green and blue.
The female deep brown :   breaft  and  belly light cinereous
brown : chin white: wings and tail dufky, edged with brown.
This fpecies arrives at New York in May; lays five eggs in
June, and migrates fouthward in Auguft.
* Mr. Tunftall.       f Can this be corrupted from the word Pincon ? Id.
"F   I   N   C   H.
White-throated Finch, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 272. N° 32.—^-c?. Zool. ii. N°"24$.
' HPHIS fpecies has been feen in fmall flocks at New York in January, and is met with in fummer in Newfoundland.    Some
of them have the orange fpot at the bafe of the bill very obfcure,
and want the white fpot on the chin; from which circumftance
fuch may be fuppofed to be females*.
n Goldfinch, Gen. Syn. iii..p. 28S
-Ara. Zool. ii. N»:
'TPHESE birds are moftly called York Yellows, as coming
moftly from the neighbourhood of New York.
Mr. Tunftall affures me, that having kept feveral of them, both
male and female conftantly lot their yellow in the winter feafon,
and became exactly of the colour of my var. B. of the Sijkin-f, and
as conftantly recovered their original plumage in the fpring.
Sifkin, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 289. N° 58.--^?. Zool. ii. p. 383. I,
Fringilla fpinus, Sepp Vog. pi. in p. 135.
HPHE above author has delineated the neft in the fame plate
with the bird. It is placed in the fork of a tree, compofed
of dry bents mixed with leaves, and lined within with feathers of
various colours, and very full of them. The eggs are three in
number, of a longifh form, and of a dull white.
* Ara. Zool.
f iii. p. 291. Le Tarin de la Nouvelle York, Buf. Oif. iv. p. 231.—PI. Ed.
292. f. 1, 2.
Lepid Finch, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 299. N° 6j.-
Fringilla Iepida, Jacq. Vog. p. 7. N0^. pi. 2.
T.N Jacquin's figure of the bird, the plumage inclines much to
green : the under parts from the breaft,. and one or more of
the outer tail feathers, white. It has alfo the fulvous ftreak above,
but not beneath the eye: the chin is fulvous, furrounded by
dufky black, and the breaft of the fame colour. The total"
length fcarcely four inches..
Greater Redpole, Gen. Syn. iii. p.
Fringilla cannabina, Sepp Vog. pi. i
-Ara. Zool. ii. N»:
157.—Faun. Arag.
HP HE neft appears in Sepp's work. It is placed on the ground,
compofed of fibres of roots mixed with dry bents, and a little portion of mofs, in texture pretty compact. The eggs are
three in number, of a blueifh white, a little mottled with yellow,,
and fpeckled with brown.
Leffer Redpole, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 30;. N° -j^.—Afa. Zool. ii. N° 262,..
TiL/TR. Boys, of Sandwich, informs me, that this fpecies comes
over, the beginning of November, in great numbers, along
the coaft of Kent; and at their firft arrival are either fo fatigued
or familiar, that the children.about Deal and Tbanet catch them,
with their hands *..
* At this time, the wind being ftrong at foutb-eaft, come over Woodcocks*.
€eefe,&nd other wildfowl.—Mr. B.
3. Amaduyadfiv
 4- AMADU-
Amaduvade Finch, Gen. Syn. iii, p. 311. N°82.
TN fome drawings from India, I obferve two of thefe birds, the
one marked as ufual, the other olive; and, I make no doubt,
defigned for different fexes. Mr. Tunftall informs me, that he has
kept them often, and obferved that they became more fpotted, in
proportion to their age; and that one in particular, which feemed
as it were powdered with white, when firft in his poffeffion, had
fcarce any white fpots about it.
Yellow*throated Finch, Ara. Zool. ii. N° 249.
T> ILL and legs blueifh grey : head and upper parts of the body
cinereous: primaries dufky, edged with pale brown : chin
white : on the throat a pale yellow fpot: belly dirty white.
Inhabits New York.
CIZE of a Sifkin.    Bill red: general colour of the plumage
Description. green : chin and fore part of the neck inclining to yellow:
belly and vent elegantly barred with black and white : tail dufky
black : legs pale red.
Place. Inhabits India.    I met with the above among the drawings of
Lady Impey ; as alfo in fome others, in poffeffion of Mrs. Wheeler.
I have my fufpicions that it is either a young bird, or a female of
the Beautiful Finch*, as it differs very little therefrom in colour,
except in the forehead and throat, which are not red, as in that
* Vol. iii. p. 266.
 F   I   N   C   H.
bird : yet, as it is much fmaller in fize, and the rump and tail not
chefnut, it may poffibly be a diftinct fpecies.
Fringilla Carthaginienfis, Jacq. Vog. p. 8. N" 5, 99,
CIZE a trifle bigger than a Canary-Bird.    Bill pale brown: F-
general colour of the plumage cinereous, fpotted with brown Description.
and yellow : legs the colour of the bill.
This is found in the woods of Carthagena, in South America, and Place.
has a note not unlike that of a Chaffinch.    Feeds on feeds.
CIZE of the Amaduvade Finch: length three inches and a half.
Bill dufky red : crown, and all the under parts of the body, yellow ; the upper parts pale ferruginous rofe-colour: quills and
tail dufky; the laft fhort : legs pale dufky red.
Inhabits China.—Defcribed from fome drawings in poffeffion of
Sir Jofeph Banks.
Fringilla alba-ocracea, Jacq. Vog. p. 19. N° 14. t. 5.
CI Z E of a Chaffinch.    The bill and legs yellow : general colour
of the plumage white, except the head, fore part of the neckr
breaft, and wing coverts, which are more or lefs of the colour of
yellow oker.
This was defcribed from a living fpecimen in an aviary, faid to
have been caught in Auftria. It feems to me rather a variety of
fome of the Finch tribe, than a diftinct fpecies.
 F   I   N   C   H,
Fringilla teftacea, Jacq. Vog. p. 27. N° ai. t. i*.
•TENGTH five inches and a half.  Bill pale red : irides black:
head, neck, and   back,  ferruginous,  mottled   with black:
breaft and belly the fame, but paler: wings and tail brown : legs
Brought from Portugal to Vienna.
RUSTY-COL-   CIZE uncertain.    General colour brown, with  a ferruginous
lared f.     O collar_
PiAca. Inhabits Terra del Fuego.
jNOOTKA F.    CIZE uncertain.    General colour black, with a white bill.
Place. Inhabits Nootka Sound, where it is called Mamat *.
• Cook's Laft Voy. App.
 E   17 r   ]
N*79. Phoebe FL
80. Golden-throat Fl,
81. NitidFk
8a-Leffer Crefted Fl.
83. Hanging Fl.
N" 84. Society FL
85. White-fronted Fl.
86. Pafferine Fl.
87.. African Fl.
B6urbon Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 330. N° 7,
HPHE head ofthe femalei& afh- coloured*.
Flammeous Flycatcher, Gen. Syn.-i
Br. Muf.
. p. 338. Njj26,
A FINE fpecimen of the male is in the poffeffion of Slrjoftph
Banks. The length fix inches. The bill black, with a flight
notch near the tip : the plumage on the upper parts black : rump
and upper tail coverts a fine glowing orange : chin, throat, and
fides of the head,, beneath the eye, black: from the breaft to the
legs orange : vent yellowifh white : thighs black : tail very cuneiform in fhape; the two middle feathers three inches in
length ; the outer one but an inch and a half; colour black; the
ends of all, except the four middle feathers, more or lefs orange-
coloured : legs black,   *
Black Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 338. N° 28,
CIZE and fhape of the Goldfinch. Bill black, with whitifh
edges : head, neck, breaft, belly, and tail, black: wings the
fame, marked with a fingle white fpot in the middle : the ends of
the greater coverts ferruginous: fome of the prime quills and fecondaries edged with yellow : legs black.
Inhabits India.    Called Grey Peedaw.—Lady Impey.
• Asmrft Sfyt&chsn Qen. SynK m. p. 339. N° 20.
Y Obferve one of thefe figured among Mr. Middleton's India
drawings. The general colour indigo blue. The bill very
hooked at the point, and the bafe befet with long hairs, fome of
them reaching beyond the tip : irides yellow, furrounded with
black : the top of the head mottled with black : on the lower
part of the neck a narrow black crefcent: belly white.
This is not uncommon about Calcutta and other parts of'India*
and feeds on files.
Paradife Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 345. N° 44. and Var.
HAVE twice met with thi&bird in drawings done in India, in
which the cinnamon-coloured one was expreffed as the female of
the white one. The name given to them was Shawbul, which
means the King of Singing Birds, as the bird is faid to have a moft
delightful note *.
• Lady Imfey.
Cayenne Flycatcher, Gen, Syn. iii. p. 355. N° 58.
Yellow-bellied.Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. iii, p. 359. N° 65.
DLEASE to make thefe two only one fpecies.
Dufky Flycatcher, Ara. Zool. li. N» 275.
T-JE AD dufky : back of a dull cinereous olive : quills and fe-   Description.
condaries dufky; the laft edged with white : breaft pale afh-
colour: belly whitifh yellow: tail dufky; exterior web of the
outer feather white : legs black.
;  Sent from New York, by the name of fmall or common Phaby Place andMan*
Bird, or Bee-Eater.    Appears the latter end of March, or begin- NERS*
ning of April.   Lays five fmall white eggs.   Difappears in Auguft.
Eats bees.
Golden-throat Flycatcher, Ara. Zoo!, ii. N° 276. 8a#
PROWN of the head, upper part of the neck and body, dirty THROAT FL.
olive: throat and ridge of the wing of a very rich yellow; Description.
breaft and belly white, tinged with yellow: primaries and tail
bright olive green.
Inhabits New York. Pl&cf.
CIZE fmall.   Bill black: plumage pale green: coverts edged
with white : quills and tail dufky, with yellowifh edges i legs
Inhabits China.—Mrs. Wheeler.
F   L Y  C   A T   C   HE  K.-
Leffer Crefted Flycatcher, Ara. Zool. ii. N° 268.
T5 ACK part of the head crefted: head, neck, and back, of z
dirty light cinereous green : breaft and belly whitifh, tinged,
with yellow: wings and tail dufky: coverts croffed with two>
bars of white: fecondaries edged with white : legs black.
Inhabits Nova- Scotia.—In the collection of Colonel Davies.
Green Flycatcher, Ar3~ Zool. ii. N" 274.
Y-TE AD cinereous green : on each fide of the bill a yellow fpotr
back and wing coverts pale green ; acrofs. the laft two white
bars : primaries and tail dufky, edged with green :. throat pale
afh-colour : middle of the belly white : fides of a fine yellow.
Inhabits New York, and is a fcarce fpecies. Comes in May;
breeds, and retires in Auguft. Was fent to England.hy the name-
of Small Green Hanging Bird.
Mufcicapa nigra, Sfarr. Muf. Carlf. pi. 23.
T ENGTH fix inches. Bill nearly an inch, flout at the bafe,
and a trifle curved towards the point-; the bafe befet with*
briftles. The whole bird is black; but the bill, head, fpace between the fhoulders,.and legs, are of a much deeper colour than-
the reft.    The wings reach one third on the tail.
Inhabits Otaheite, and other iflands contiguous thereto. I find
one fimilar to this among the papers of Sir Jofepb Banks, recorded
by Mr. Anderfon. His bird has a lead-coloured bill, and the back.
.and wing coverts inclining to brown ; otherwife it is black,
Alfo a fecond is there mentioned, fuppofed to be the female; the
whole of the plumage of which is of an uniform black brown.
Mufcicapa albifrons, Sparrm. Muf Carlf. N° 24.
Y  ENGTH five inches and three quarters.   Bill black, flender,
a trifle curved at the point, and a few hairs at the bafe : forehead dufky white: hind head, nape, fhoulders, wing coverts, and
. fecond quills, footy black : prime quills brown, edged with ferruginous : fore part of the neck and breaft dufky white ; the fhafts
of the feathers brown : belly pale ferruginous : tail two inches in
length ; all the feathers of an uniform black : legs black.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope.    Is greatly fimilar to the Cold- Paace.
finch; but differs in wanting the white on the wings, and the tail
feathers being all of one colour.
CIZE uncertain.    Colour of the plumage on the upper parts of  Description.
the body dufky black; beneath whitifh : tail black.
Inhabits the ifland of Tanna.—Defcribed from drawings in the P»ace,
poffeffion of Sir Jofeph Banks.
Mufcicapa ochracea, Sparrm, Muf. Carlf. pi. 22, g^-.
Y ENGTH eight inches and  a half.    Bill pale:   head and   Desbriptk
back brownifh : neck and breaft ferruginous afh-colour; the
feathers narrowband fharp at the ends: the region of the ears   C.'j^,
$ covered
covered with a tuft of longifh narrow feathers : belly the colour
of rufty oker: quills, wing coverts, and tail, black at the tips and
inner fides; the outer edge white : tail the length of the body:
legs black : claws yellow.
Place. Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope.   It feems much to refemble.
the Ajh-coloured Flycatcher.
Genu 4
 I 177 ]
Genus XXXIX.     LARK.
Black Lark, Gen. Syn. iv. p. 380. N° 13.
Tanagra Sibirica, Sparrm. Muf. Carlf. N» 19-.
HPHIS I apprehend to be the fame with my Black Lark; and
have fome reafon to think that the Mutable Lark* is a variety,,
and not a diftinct fpecies, of the firft named.
,  Gen. Syn.
■.p. 84.
( p. 382. N° 15.—-Ara, Zoolrn. N* 280.—
HPHIS bird inhabits India, if not China alfo;   in refpedt to
the firft, the drawings of Lady Impey affirm it.  We have alfo
feen it reprefented in other drawings, which were faid to have
come from the laft-named place.
! Vol. iv, p. 381. N° 14.
 C  178  3
Genus XL.     WAGTAIL.
White Wagtail, Gen. Syn. iy. p. 395. N° i.—Ara. Zool. i
Motacilla alb's, Sepp Fog. pi. in p. 119.—Faun. Arag. p.
, p. 396. E.
HPHIS is found as high as Iceland, the Feroe ifles, and Dron-
theim; is alfo common in Ruffia, Sibiria, and Kamtfchatka,
but does not extend to the more northern regions.
This bird, as well as the following fpecies, alfo inhabits India;
a drawing of both birds being in the collection of Lady Impey, done
on the fpoL*
Grey Wagtail, Gen. Syn. iv. p. 398. N° 4.
Motacilla boarula, Faun. Arag. p. 89.
HPHIS fpecies, I havereafon to think, is not feen in the fouth of
England in the fummer feafon; nor have I been able to af-
certain its breeding-place nearer than Cumberland, which Dr. Hey-
Jham affures me it does every year, making its firft appearance
there about April. He has never met with the neft, but has fhot
the young ones in June more than once, and thinks that it departs
fouthward in Otlober, about the time it appears with us in
Kent; for I do not recollect ever feeing it before the 8th or
9th of that month.—Mr, Jackfon informs me, that it breeds in
Yellow Wagtail, Gen. Syn. iv, p. 400. N° 6.—Ara. Zool. i:
Motacilla flava, Sepp Vog. pi. in p. 103,—Faun^Arag. p. 8
p. 396. F.
TN Sepp's plate the eggs are white, mottled with red brown
fpots.   Is faid to inhabit Sweden, but not higher.    Common
in all parts of Ruffia, Sibiria, and even Kamtfchatka.
 Genus XLI.    W
R   B   L   E   R.
' 150. Awatcha W. N° 154. Equinoctial W.
151. Reed Wren. 155. Black-necked W.
152. Leffer White Throat.       156. Plumbeous W.
153. Van-Diemen's W.
Nightingale, Gen. Syn.
Motacilla lufcinia, Bru
. p. 408. N° 1.—Ara. Zool. p. 416. A.
N° 2jo.—Sepp Vog. pi. in p. 123.—Fa
^TEITHER this bird, nor the Blackcap, inhabit Ireland; nor
is the Redftart known to be there for certain *.
Sedge Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. p.430. N°2i.—Ara. Zool.ii. p. 419. M.
Junco minor, Sepp Vog. pi. in p. 99 ?
HP HE bird figured in this author is fo much like the Sedge
Warbler, that I think them one and the fame fpecies. The
neft is fmaller than that of the Reed Wren of Mr. Lightfoot; but
compofed of much the fame materials, though lefs deep. It is
not tied to the reeds in the manner of that of the Reed Wren, but
the whole of the fides of the neft invelopes the reed which fup-
ports it. The eggs are three in number, of a pale yellowifh
In the fame author I find a bird, by the name of Arundinacea
minima, but no reference to any author.    The neft of this is
» Mr. Jackfon.
 W   A   R   B   L   E   R.
fattened round three forks of branches; is of a downy texture.
The eggs five in number, like thofe of the Junca 'minor, but
fpeckled with minuter brown fpots.
Dartford Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. p. 435. N°2-7.
I AM informed by an intelligent obferver of Englijh birds *, that
he has never met with this fpecies in the neighbourhood of
London, except in winter; and that it difappears before the end of
April. Should this be the general fact, I can by no means reconcile the circumftance of its breeding in France f, as all migratory
birds go northward to breed, not to a warmer climate; and fhould
rather fuppofe, that if it does not quit England in fummer, it will
hereafter be found in the northern parts of it, as has been obferved
in refpect to the Grey Wagtail.
Long-legged Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. p. 465. N° 74. 74,
T^HIS fpecies varies: fometimes the colour is brown inftead of       GED w'
green.    As to fize, it muft be extremely minute, as one
weighed by Mr. Anderfon equalled no more than 120 grains J.
Var. A,
CIZE very fmall: length three inches.    Bill and legs yellow-    Description,
ifh: general colour brownifh: the under parts of the body
dufky white.
Inhabits Van Diemen's land.   Suppofed to be a variety of the        Place.
* Mr. Green.     + Hift. des Of. vol. v. p. 158.      X MS. at Sir Jof. Banks's.
Wheat-ear, Gen. Syn. iv. p. 465. N° y^.—Ara. Zcol. ii. p. 420. P.
Motacilla oenanthe, Sepp Vog. pi. in p. 163.
HPHIS is met with at the Cape of Good Hope*.    The birds
which we fee in our quarters are probably on their paffage to
the parts where they breed.   Are firft met with on our downs and
commons in fmall numbers, about the middle of April; and after
flaying a fortnight or more, depart elfewhere, and are not feen
again till their return in Auguft..   I cannot fay that I have obferved
them in the fame places on their return more than once or twice in
my life, though I have remarked them every year at their coming 5
but Mr. Boys informs me, that he has feen them in plenty about
Sandwich, on the 10th of Auguft.    I have been told, that when
they breed in the rabbit burrows, a circumftance not unfrequent,
the neft is placed fo far therein, as fcarcely to be within the reach*
©f a man's arm f.
Ceylon Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. p. 474. N0^.
•   Green Indian Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. p. 474. N° 90.
JAM informed that thefe two birds differ only in fex.
Yellow-rumped Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. p. 481 - N° \o\.—Ara. Zool. iL
N» 286.
A  BIRD fimilar to this, if not the fame, is feen in fummer at
Hudfon's Bay.   Length five inches; breadth fix inches and.a
• Mr. Pennant.                      f Mr. Green.
half; weight five drams. Irides blue; orbits white: lore and
ears black : on each fide of the head a ftreak of white : throat
and belly light yellow: breaft and thighs ftreaked longitudinally
black and yellow: vent white: back black, ftreaked .with dull
green : fcapulars green and dove-colour: leffer wing coverts
grey; greater white, longitudinally ftreaked with black: quills
black, edged with grey : tail coverts yellow, tipped with black
neareft the tail: tail feathers black, edged with White; all the
' feathers, except the two middle ones, marked with a large fpot of
white on the inner web : legs black.
This comes into Hudfon's Bay in fummer; builds in the wil- Pl
lows a neft compofed-of grafs and feathers ; lays four eggs ; the
young hatched in July ; feeds on flies; cries againft rain, or at
leaft has a fhrill fong, which it lengthens out confiderably againft
rain; from which circumftance the natives give it the name of
Kimmewan apaykutejhijh *.
Yellow-poll Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. p. 515. N° 148. 148.
"JV/TR. Pennant fuppofes the two birds, defcribed under this title, w*
to be diftinct fpecies; and mentions the fecond under the
title ofOlive Warblerf. Mr. Hutchins informs me, that the 2"el-
low-Poll comes into Hudfon's Bay in June, and that the irides are
blue. It is feen chiefly among the willows in woods, and is perpetually flying from tree to tree, and makes a foft noife. The
neft feems well put together, and compofed of mofs, grafs, hair,
and feathers, interwoven : fometimes placed at a fmall height up
,* Mr. Hutchins. f Ara. Zeal. ^307.
 i«4 W   A   R. B   L   E   R.
a tree, at other times near the bottom. It lays from three to five
white eggs, marked with rufty-coloured fpots. Is called at
Hudfon's Bay, Sowow pethayfijh.
150. Awatcha Warbler, Arfi^. Zool. ii. p. 4Z2. T.
Description.    *TPHE crown of this bird, the upper part of the neck and body,
are deep brown: primaries edged with white : lower part of
the five outmoft feathers of the tail deep orange, ends brown; the
two middle feathers wholly brown : throat and breaft white ; the
fides of the firft, and all the laft, fpotted with black : from the
upper mandible to each eye an oblique white line: fides pale ruft-
colour: middle of the belly white.
Place. Inhabits Kamtfchatka.
Motacilla arundinacea, Phil. Tranf. vol. Ixxv. p. 8. pi. ly
CIZE of the Willow Wren: weight feven pennyweights nine
grains. Length of the male feven inches and a half; of the
female, fix and three quarters. Bill half an inch, of a dark horn-
colour; the under mandible flefh-colour; infide of the mouth
orange : irides olive brown : eyelafhes dirty white : from the bill
to the eye a broad ftreak of tawny white : the general colour of
the plumage greenifh olive brown : quills and tail brown, with
paler edges; the laft fomewhat cuneiform in fhape: the chin-
white ; the reft of the under part tawny white; bafe of all the
feathers black : the legs are of a light olive : foles of the feet
bright greenifh yellow.   The male and female much alike.
j The-
The neft is compofed externally of dry flalks of grafs, lined for pL.
the moft part with the flowery tufts of the common reed ; but
fometimes with fmall dead graffes, and a few black horfe-hairs to
cover them. The neft is ufually fufpended, or fattened on, like a
hammock, between three or four flalks of reeds, by means of dead
grafs, &c.; but the bird does not always confine herfelf to the
reeds, as inftances are feen of the neft being made on the branches
of a water-dock; or, as was the cafe in that from which the drawing was taken, in a trifurcated branch of a fhrub near the water.
The eggs are commonly four, of a dirty white, flained all over
with dull olive fpots, chiefly at the largeft end, where are generally feen two or three fmall irregular black fcratches.
The above bird frequents the river Coin, in Buckinghamjhire,
and no doubt other rivers and watery places where reeds grow. It
is a pretty fhy bird, and not often taken, though the neft is frequently met with. It may eafily be miftaken for the Sedge Bird,
but is certainly a different fpecies ; the circumftance of its having
the bafe of the bill much broader than in the Sedge Bird, were
there no other .characteriftic, muft alone determine the difference
between them.
Motacilla fylvia, Lin, Syft. i. p. 230. N° 9.?•
:. N° 250 ?
C'IZE of die Yellow Wren, and of the fame flender fhape:
length fcarcely five inches. Bill half an inch long, flender,
and dufky; bafe c: the under mandible pale yellow : irides dark :
the upper parts of the plumage in general pale cinereous brown,
fbmewhat darker on the crown; the under parts, from the chin
to the vent, dufky white : the tail two inches in length, of the
■Suvtl. B b fame
 Place andMan-
W  A   R
L   E   R.
fame colour as the body, except the outer feather, which is paler
on the outer web; the two middle feathers are a trifle fhorter than*
the reft, making the tail appear fomewhat forked when fpread :.
the wings reach rather more than one third thereon, when at
reft : legs deep brown.
Male and female much alike-   ■
The bird was firft introduced to my notice by the Reverend
Mr. Lightfoot; who informed me, that it is found in May and
June near Bulftrode, in Buckingham/hire; and that it builds in
bramble and other low bufhes. The neft is compofed of dry
bents mixed with wool, within lined with bents of a finer texture,
and here and there a few white hairs of a horfe or cow, though not
fufficient to form a lining. The eggs are white*, marked with
fmall dots of brown, and larger irregular blotches of the fame towards the larger end; alfo fome other blotches of a paler brown
mixed with the laft ; the fmall end quite plain.
I have much reafon to think that the above has not been defcribed by authors as a Britijh fpecies; and I greatly fufpect that
it differs very little from the Motacilla Jylvia of Linnaus, if not the
fame bird. That Linnaus's bird is not our White-throat, I be-
Keve is manifeft, both from fize and colours. That author ex-
prefsly fays, that the fize fcarcely exceeds that of the Yellow Wren f,
and that it bears great affinity to the Sedge Bird%. But that the
bird in queftion is neither the Yellow Wren, nor Sedge Bird, I am
clear, as I have all the three now before me.
* There were only three in the nefl which came under my infpe£lion.:
f Vix Motacilla'trochila major.
X He fays of the Salicaria, tit Sedge Bird— Avis valde affinis Sylvia, modo
non fcxu tantum diftintta.   Faun, Snec, N° 249, 250.
T EN G T H fix inches and a half.   Bill the length of the head,
colour black: forehead marked with white ftrise : fpace over Des<
the eyes, and the cheeks, whitifh : back brown, mixed with white:
wings pale brown; the edges of moft-of the feathers fulvous on
the outer edges, forming a fpot of the fame on the wing : tail
fhorter than the body, fomewhat cuneiform in fhape; the outer
margin of the feathers, half way from the bafe, pale fulvous; the
two outer ones on each fide marked with a white fpot within, at
the tips : the under parts of the body white : the breaft and vent
ftriped longitudinally with white : legs black.
Inhabits Van Diemen's Land.—Defcribed from the papers of
Mr. Anderfon.
CIZE nearly that of ^Sparrow.   Bill dufky: general colour
teftaceous brown, paleft on the rump; under parts of the body
white : quills and tail brown ; the laft a trifle round, and croffed
with obfolete bars.
Inhabits Chriftmas Ijle. Sings with a fhort warble, which is not
unpleafingjfomewhatlikethatof the Babbling Warbler.—Defcribed
from the fame papers as the laft.
XJ ILL yellow, the bafe blue : crown and hind part of the neck ED W.
black; the feathers longifh, fo as to form a creft at will:   Description.
fides of the neck, breaft,  and belly, reddifh white: back and
wing coverts light grey■: primaries and tail black: legs yellow.
Inhabits India. Place;
Bb 8 le1*.
Lev. Muf.
CIZE fmall: length three'inches  and three quarters.   Bill
fhort, dufky brown : plumage above deep lead-colour, nearly
black;  beneath, pale afh-colour:  quills and tail dufky:  legs
deep brown.
Native place uncertain.
Genus  XLIL    M   A   N   A   K   I   N.
Striped-headed Manakin, Gen. Syn. iv. p. 526. N° ri.
T HAVE been hitherto at a lofs for the native place of this
bird.    Mr. Anderfon's papers inform me, that it is a native of
Van Diemen's Land.    I think it not an improbable iuppofition,
that the Brown Shrike* may be the other fex of this fpecies.
Gsn u s
 [   W   5
'    Azure Titmoufe, Gen. Syn. iv. p. 538. N° i.—Ara. Zool. ii. p. 426. C.
Parus Saebyenfis, Sparrm. Muf. Carlf. pi. 25.
HPHIS beautiful fpecies inhabits the northern parts of Europe.
It is found in Sudermania *; alfo met with in great abundance
in the northern woods of Sibiria and Ruff a, and about Synbirfk, in
the government of Cafan. It is migratory, appearing in winter
converfant about the houfes in St. Peterfburgh. It twitters like a
Sparrow, but with a fofter and fweeter note f.
Marfh Titmoufe, Gen. Syn. iv. p. 541. N° 8.—Ara. Zool. ii. p. 427. E.
Parus paluftris, Brun. N° 2ii.—Sept Vog. pi. in p. 47.
TN my Synopfis it has not appeared clear to me, whether the Cole-
moufe and this were different fpecies. I find it to be the opinion of Sepp, that they form but one, being both figured in the
fame plate, as male and female. In one of them is a fpot of white
on the hind head, and the fides of the head are white : the throat
black. The other has the top of the head wholly black, and the
black fpot of the throat wanting. The neft feems here compofed
of fedge, mixed with large cat's tail, lined with down and feathers ; furnifhed with five white eggs, mottled with red brown-..
* Muf. Carlf.
f Ara. Zool.
 T   I   T   M   O   U
moufe, Ga.Syn.iv. j}. sso
Sepp Vog. pi. in p. 49,
? li.—Ara. Zool. ii. p. 428. G.
TN my Synopfis I have faid, that this bird had been brought
from Jamaica. I think it neceffary here to inform the reader,
that my friend, who related to me the circumftance, was led into
the error, from receiving it among fome other birds which were
natives of that place; but was afterwards informed that it had
been added to them in England, after their arrival.
Bearded Titmoufe, Gen. Sjn. iv
Parus biarmicus, Sepp Vog. pi. i
552. N° 20.—Ara. Zool. ii. p. 428. H.
. i*.—Brun. p. 8. {Lanius.)
I HAVE never yet been able myfelf to afcertain the neft and
eggs. In Sepp's plate the neft is placed on the ground among
the fedges. It is of a very loofe texture, compofed of the tops of
dry grafs, mixed with the feed-heads of rufhes and reeds, with narrow leaves intermixed. The eggs four in number, of a reddifh
White, marked with fmall brown fpots.
This fpecies is found in Schonen, in Sweden; but rarely. Is
very common about the Cafpian Sea and Palus Maotis, and among
the rufhes of the rivers which fall into them; but in no high latitudes in Afia.    None in Sibiria *.
24. Hudfon's Bay Titmoufe, Gen. Syn. iv. p. 557. N° 4.—Ara. Zool. ii. p. 425.
To HPHIS fpecies has fcarce any note beyond a chirp.    Is feen
among juniper plains the whole year.   In winter, fly in fmall
flocks, a little way at a time. Builds in the junipers in June, and
makes a neft of grafs, lined with feathers. The young fly the
beginning ofJuly. In the fummer its food is flies of all kinds;
and is very fond of mojkitoes, with which it alfo brings up its
young; but in winter, is obliged to fubfift on berries and feeds,
and at times on the infides of juniper and pine buds, faid to be
ftored up for the purpofe *.
Great-headed Titmoufe, Gen. Syn. iv. p. 557. N° 25, 2r.
A Variety, met with in Norfolk Iftand, differed in having the        ED T.
breaft of a beautiful crimfon, inftead of orange-f. "Var. A,
f Anderfon's MS..
 [ m 3
Genus  XLIV.    SWALLOW.
Chimney Swallow, Gen. Syn. iv. p. 561. N" \.—Ara. Zool. ii. N° 330.
Hirundo domeftica, Sepp Vog. pi. in p. 31.—Faun, Arag. p. 90.
HPHE American one differs from the European fpecies, in having
the under fide ferruginous; which circumftance is alfo ob-
fervable in thofe which are found beyond the Jenifei, and in all
the north-eaft part of Sibiria *. The Votiaks, a Finnifh nation,
pay great refpect to the Swallow; for " he that kills one of
thefe, a Lapwing, Pigeon, or Wagtail, expofes himfelf to all forts
of misfortunes in his flock. They even build nefts for the Swallows f,"
1, Gen. Syn. iv. p. 564. N° 3
io urbica, Sepp Vog. pi. in p
-Ara. Zool. ii. N°33i.
33.—Faun. Arag. p. 90.
TV/TR. Hutchins informs me, that the Martin is called, at Hudfon's Bay, Shafhywinepefioew; but I am not certain that it
quite anfwers to the defcription of the Englijh fpecies : perhaps it
may be the Black-rumped one, mentioned in the Philofophical
Tranfatlions J.
* Ara. Zool.        f Ruffia, vol. i
J Vol. lxii. p. 1
Ambergris Swallow, Gen. Syn. iv. p. 568. N° 9.
Y ENGTH five inches.  General colour above, not unlike that
of the SandrMartin; beneath, cinereous white: tail long,
and greatly forked.
I met with this in the collection.of Sir Jofepb Banks, fuppofed
to have come from China. It is moft likely a variety, if not different in fex, from the Ambergris Swallow,
 [    -94   ]
N° 16. Bombay G.
N° 17. Indian G.
5. European Goatfucker, Gen. Syn. iv. p. 593. N° 5.—Ara. Zool. ii. p. 437. A.
h EUROPEAN Caprimulgus europsus, Sepp Vog. pi. in p. 39.—Brun. N° 293.—Faun.Arag.
p. 91.
HPHIS fpecies is found all overiSibiria and Kamtfchatka.    It
lives not only in forefts, but alfo in open countries, where it
finds rocks or high banks for fhelter.
6. Virginia Goatfucker, Gen. Syn. iv. p. 595. N°6.—Ara, Zool. ii. N° 337.
f-VIRGINIA G. Long-winged Goatfucker, Ara. Zool. N° 337.
HPHE fexes feem to vary in this bird, as in the European fpecies.
One of thefe, prefented to me by Mr. Wavel, was eight inches
in length : the fpot on the chin rather paler than the reft of the
plumage, but by no means white: no fpot of white on either
quills or tail feathers, by which I judge it to be the female, of
which that defcribed by me is the male.
It fhould feem to be the fame with the Mofcbito Hawk of Hudfon's Bay; but Mr. Hutchins's manufcript makes it nine inches and
a half in length, twenty-three inches in breadth, and an ounce and
three quarters when the bowels are taken out. It is known at
Hudfon's Bay by the name of PayJk, or Peefik, from the note, and is
there migratory : faid to be very numerous in the interior parts,,
and feeds on mufkiioes and flies.
Sfaarp'tailed Goatfucker, Gen. Syn* iv. p. 6oO. N° 13.
T^HE circumftance of the tail feathers of this bird being fharp
at the ends, was omitted in the defcription given of it in the
Synopfis. The fhafts of each feather are bare of webs at the tips,
as in the Thorn-tailed Warbler*; but fhorter, as in the Aculeated
Swallow f.
Buffon obferres, that birds of this genus mix frequently with the
Bats; which is not fingular, fince their appearance of mornings
and evenings is at the fame hours, and the food of both precifely
alike. I well remember meeting with the bodies of Cockchafers J
in the flomach of the Horfe-fhoe Bat§ ; and, on further enquiry,
found that the animal ate the body of that infect only, rejecting
the other parts of it; as quantities of heads, corfelets, and wings,
were found ftrewed on the ground about its haunts.
CIZE of the Virginia Goatfucker: length eight inches and a half.
Bill dufky : general colour of the plumage not unlike that of
the Sibirian Owl, being a beautiful mixture of pale afh-colour,
mottled with black and ferruginous: the top of the head is pale afh-
colour, mottled with dufky down the middle of the crown: on each
fide of the under jaw is a pale ftreak; and on the throat, a whitifh
fpot: the breaft croffed with numerous cinereous bars: between
the legs pale rufous : the quills are dufky, barred with rufous $
the firft the fhorteft; four of the greater quills have a fpot of
white on the inner web: the tail marked the fame as the quills;
* Syn. vol. iv. p. 463. N° 71. f Id.p. 583, N° 32.
Melolontha>  Lin. \\ Hift. Quadr. ii. p. 559. N°4o6.
Cc 2
t s«
but the two middle feathers are likewife mottled, as the back;
the two outer ones on each fide have the ends white for about an
inch, but the white extends higher up on the outer webs : the
middle toe is greatly pectinated.
Place. Inhabits Bombay, in the Eaft Indies.—The defcription taken
from one in the poffeflion of Sir Jofeph Banks.
PROWN and back whitifh afh-colour, elegantly marked with
minute dufky lines: cheeks, breaft, wing coverts, and fecondaries, beautifully marked in the fame manner with lines and
large fpots of ruft: prime quills dufky: middle feathers of the
tail light afh, croffed with a few black bars; outmoft feather rufty
and black.
Inhabits India,— Lady Impey,
 [   197   1
Genus  XLVI.     PIGEON.
N° 60. a. Grey P. N° 60. b. Purple-fhouldered P.
Stock Pigeon, Gen: Syn. iv. p. 604. N° 1.—Ara. Zool. ii. p. 329. A. 1.
Columba oenas, Sepp Vog. pi. in p. 13.—Faun. Arag. p. 83. +* STOCK P-
HPHE Pigeon is very common in the fouthern parts of Ruffia,
and in Sweden; but is always obferved to migrate fouthward,
as the winter approaches ; but none are feen in Sibiria, till you
come beyond the Lake Baikal, where a very fmall variety with the
white rump breed in plenty among the rocks. Not a fingle fpecies is to be found in Kamtfchatka *.
Partridge Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv. p. 615. N* 3. 3-
T HAVE a fufpicion that this bird is found in St. Helena; as I
find, in Mr. Anderfon's catalogue, one fet down under the name
. of Columba perdix, which is faid to be common in that ifland.
White-wingedFigeon, Gen. Syn. iv. p. 617. N° 6. 6.
HPHIS is faid, by Jacquin^, to be found in Carthagena,  in ED p-
South America : as alfo another, the fize of a Turtle; colour
• Ar-3. Zool, f Vog. p. 38. N° 27. Columba leucoptera.
3 brown,
brown, black, and white, mixed; with a fcalloped neck and breaft,
and black eyes.
Pompadour Pigeon, Gen, Syn. iv. p.624. N* iz.
YN HABITS various parts of India.   Common up the country
about Bengal, where it is called Coucla.   It has a whittling kind
of note, not unlike that of a 'Thrujh, very different from that of
other Pigeons.—Mr. Middleton.
Green-winged Pigeon, Gen. Syn, iv. p. 625. N° 14.
Columba indica, Jacq. Vog. p. 35. N° 29. pi. 16.
A  Variety is here mentioned, with the quills and tail feathers
green ; wing coverts violet; and the rump and vent blue.
Ring Pigeon, Gen. Syn. iv, p. 635. N° 29.—Ara. Zool. ii. p. 329. B.
Columba palumbus, Sepp Vog. pi. in p.      .—Faun. Arag. p. 83.
T HAVE hitherto been uncertain whether the Ring Pigeon bred
twice in the year, or not; but have now authority to fay, that
it frequently, if not generally, does fo. A letter from my friend
and relation Mr. L. Porter of Chertfey, in Surrey, runs thus I
The Ring Dove, no doubt, breeds twice in the year; the neft
being found, in the middle and end of Auguft, very commonly,
in the heads of willows, where they delight to build; and, fome
years fince, I faw a female fhot as fhe left the neft, the 2ad of
September; when, getting up to the neft, which was placed on
a pollard oak, two eggs were found with young in them."
 P   I   G   E
0   N.
s very common in
the Ruffian
but very
fcarce in
and none feen in the north-eaft
: vifits
Sweden in
departing in autumn : not
in Norway *
tailed Pigeon, Gen. Syn.
iv. p. 639. N°
T N this
pba caribtea, Jacq. Vog.
p. 30. N°24.
bare, and of a dirty yellow : the tail cuneiform, and about the
length of the body. It differs from that defcribed by Briffon, in
not having a white belly, nor the bar on the tail.
This is found in all the woods of the Caribbee Iflands ; is pretty
tame, but never fufficiently fo to be at large; though it will lay
eggs when confined in a cage. It is greatly efteemed for food,
infomuch that each bird fells for a dollar.
Common Turtle, Gen. Syn. iv. p. (
Columba Turtur, Sepp Vog. pi. in
4. N°4o.
11.—Faun. Arag.
HPHIS is extremely frequent in the fouth of Ruffia, and in the
rocky country beyond the Lake Baikal. It is highly favoured
in the Turkijh dominions, where it is extremely plentiful, government allowing a certain rate per cent, in refpect to the duty on
corn, on their account. A crowd of thefe birds conftantly alight
on the veffels which crofs the port of'Conftantinople, and carry this
commodity uncovered, either to the magazine or mills, and the
boatmen never oppofe their greedinefs. This permiflion to feaft
on the grain brings them in great numbers, and familiarizes them
to fuch a degree, that they are feen ftanding on the fhoulders of
the rowers, watching for a vacant place where they might fill,
their crops in turn *.
I believe this to be fufficiently common in China, and various
farts of India, as I have met with drawings of both it, and the
Spotted-necked, from thence feveral times. In Sir Jqfeph Banks's.
collection is one from the firft-named, which feems a trifle larger
than our Britijh fpecimens, and. the colour much higher, though,
identically the fame in every other particular.
Barred-tail Pigeon,. Gen. Syn. iv. p. 65.0. NP44.
Columba ftriata, Jacq. Vog. p. 32. pi. 15.
HP HI S is frequent at Malacca; alfo in great plenty in the ifland'
of St. Helena.    Jacquin likewife records it among the birds,
inhabiting the neighbourhood of Venetzuela,\n South America.
Blue-headed Turtle, Gen. Syn. iv. p. 651. N5 45.
BLUE-HEADED Columba cyanocephala, Jacq. Vog. p. 36. N°30. t. 17.
HPHIS is very common in the ifland of Cuba, where it is caught
in traps, and brought into the markets in quantities for eating.    It may be kept tame, but will not propagate in that ftate,.,
having been tried in an aviary, without effect, for fome time.
£9,. Ground Turtle, Gen. Syn. iv. p. 659. N° t,g.—Ara. Zool. ii. N° 191.
f- GROUND T:, Columba pafferiha, Jacq. Vog. p. 32. N° 26.
HPHIS fpecies is plentiful in all the Caribbee Iflands, where itjs-
common at every table, being much efteemed..   It frequents-
* Mem. of the Baron de Tott..
, 45*
ftony places, under the bufhes. The French call it Ortolan; the
Englifb, Ground Dove; the Dutch, Steen Duifje; and the Spaniards',
Palomito. The voice is plaintive and weak, very like that of our
Turtle. At Carthagena, on the SouthAmerican continent, are fome
varieties bigger than others, having few brown fpots, and the
belly notfcalloped ; and others with the belly fcalloped in a different manner from the others- It will propagate in a ftate of
k domefticity, the circumftance having been tried at Vienna.
Columba corenfis, Jacq, Vog. p. 31. N" 25-.
CIZE-of the Common Pigeon. The eyes are red, furrounded
with a naked fkin fpotted with black : general colour of the
body grey : the feathers on the lower part of the neck appear
changeable in different lights, as if fcalloped, though really not
of different colours: the tail even at the end.
Inhabits Coro, in the diftrict of Venetzuela, in South America,   Is>-
prized by the jnhabitants for food, being eaten young.
60.  a.
CIZE of the Common Pigeon. Bill flout, dufky; edges pale:
head and neck olive yellow: between the neck and back afh-
colour : back and wing coverts olive ; the leffer coverts pale purple ; greater coverts and fecondaries ftriped longitudinally with
black and white : the prime quills are black, but the outer-edges-
of the three firft are white : breaft and belly pale afh : lower part
of the tail.olive green ; the end dufky : legs pale orange yellow.
Inhabits India. Lady Impey.—It feems much allied to the
Pompadour Pigeon, N° 12.
Suppi/. D d LENGTH*
60. u..
T ENGTH eleven inches. Bill blueifh at the bafe; towards
the tip white: head afh-colour: neck pale yellowifh green *
lower part of the neck all round, the middle of the wing near the
fhoulder, and all the under parts, white : the whole of the outer
edge of the wing, and the quills, black, with whitifh edges:
body above, and tail, greenifh afh-colour; end of the tail dufky:
legs blueifh : claws black.
Inhabits India.   Mr. Middleton.=—l obferve one of the above in
the drawings of Mrs. Wheeler, in which the legs were yellow.
 C  203  3
Wild Turkey, Ara. Zool. ii. N» 178.—Faun. Arag. p. 80.
HPHESE are cultivated in Sweden, and even in Norway; bat
they degenerate in fize.    They are alfo common in all parts
of Ruffia, but will not thrive in Sibiria *.
Horned Turkey, Gen. Syn. iv. p. 680. N° 2.
Y HAVE lately had an opportunity ofTeeing a male of this beautiful fpecies in moft perfect, plumage, brought from India by
Mrs. Wheeler. I cannot add any thing to the defcription before
given of that fex, further than to obferve, that the tail is rounded
in fhape, and compofed of twenty feathers, which are blackifh at
the ends.
In the Leverian Mufeum is a moft beautiful and perfect fpecimen of the female. This fex is without the horns, fo confpicuous
in the male. The feathers of the head and part of the neck are
filky black, with a blue glofs, marked on the fides of the throat
with an irregular patch of red : the feathers on the back part of
the head and nape are crimfon ; and the whole top of the head furnifhed with long loofe feathers, tending backwards : the markings
on the body much like thofe of the male, but fcarce fo bright: the
back, and part of the wing coverts, befides the fpots of white, are
in both moft beautifully intermixed with ftreaks of black and crimfon upon 4 fillemot ground : the rump and tail feathers fomewhat
* Ara. Zool.
D d 2 fimilar,
Similar, the crimfon decreafing towards the tail, the ends of which
are dufky black: the legs are furnifhed with a blunt fpur behind.
Mrs. Wheeler informs me, that fhe has had both fexes alive in
her poffeffion ; and, had it notj been for an accident on board the
fhip, fhould have brought the above-mentioned male to England.
This bird, when alive, had the faculty of dilating and lengthening
the flap on the throat, fo as almoft to hang over the breaft, much
in the fame manner as the Cock Turkey does the caruncles on the
neck and flap of the forehead, at which time the colours were
.greatly heightened, appearing of a beautiful deep blue, barred
acrofs with crimfon.
Thefe birds are by no means common, though not unfrequent
in paintings done in India; and are particularly well figured in
thofe of Mr. Middleton and Lady Impey. Sir Elijah informs me,
that it is known in India by two names, the one Singhee Moory, or
Marbled Fowl; the other, Moory Manmoor ei, or Bright Fowl.
Genus XL1X.     PINTADO.
Guinea Pintado, Gen. Syn.iv. p. 6S$,—HaJelq. Voy. Eng.ed. p. 202. N° 42.
T*\R. Sparrman* informs us, that it is common in the neighbourhood of the Cape of Good Hope, having found them in
flocks in the road from Zee-cow River to Sunday River; and that
they were very fhy, flying low and ftrait forwards, like the Partridge; and that they refted on trees of nights, in large companies, infomuch that Dr. Sparrman once killed fix of them at one
•fhot, befides feveral others wounded.
 Genus L.     C   U   R   A   S   S   O   W.
N° 5. Cumana C. N° 7. Galeated C.
6. Piping C.
Crax cumanenfis, Jacq. Vog. N° 19. p. 25. t. 10. ;.
CIZE of a hen Turkey.    Bill dufky : general colour of the plu-   Description.
mage black : the feathers of the crown white and long, forming a creft, which hangs down behind : the breaft marked with
fpots of white : legs red : claws black.
Inhabits the neighbourhood of the river Oronooko, in South        Place.
America; particularly Cumana.
Crax pipile, Jacq. Vog. N° 20. p. 26. t. 21. 6#
HPHIS bird, in fize and general colour of the plumage, is not   dESCription
unlike the laft. The cere, orbits, and top of the head, are
white, but the head not crefted : beneath the throat a wattle of a
deep blue colour : the back is of a red brown, fpotted with black:
on the greater wing coverts a great mixture of white : the belly
is black : the legs red.
This is found in the fame places as the laft, of which it may, Placb.
on our more familiar acquaintance, prove a variety or fexual difference.    It has a low piping kind of voice.
£    20$    1
Le Hocco a tete calleufe, BriJ. Orn. 8vo. i. p. 87.
CIZE almoft of a Turkey. General colour black, except the
vent and under tail coverts, which are white: on the crown of
the head is a horny fubftance, about two inches in height, broad
at bottom; ending at top in a blunt point, not unlike a helmet i
the bill and legs are red.
Inhabits Curaffao.
 I *o7 ]
Genus  LI.    PHEASANT.
N° 11. ImpeyanPh.
1 a. Coloured Ph.
N° 13. African Ph.
Domeftic Cock, Gen. Syn. iv. p. 700.
HPHE changes in the plumage of hen birds has been mentioned
in the Synopfis; but I find that the circumftance does not
happen merely in thofe females which have done laying or fitting.
Mr. L. Porter informs me, that he once had a black Game Hen,
which one year grew fpotted, and the following year quite white.
Spurs were obferved to grow on her legs, and fhe crowed at intervals like a Cock. Notwithftanding this, fhe laid eggs and bred
for fome years after. As to age, the common poultry would, no
doubt, if permitted, live a long while. A Hen was living, at a
place called Highberries, in Cumberland, in 1777, then thirty years
old, full in feather, and very fat; but had not laid any eggs for fix
or feven years paft *.
The Darking fowls are obferved to be much larger than thofe
from other places in England, being frequently known to weigh
from feven to eight pounds when plucked, though they will now
and then weigh much beyond this. A friend of mine fent a cargo
of thefe fowls into Scotland, one of the Cocks of which weighed
nearly fourteen pounds.
• Mr. Tunftall-.
Y HAVE fcarce a doubt but thefe birds will hereafter become
full as plentiful in this kingdom as the Common Pheafant. Ic
is well known that feveral noblemen and gentlemen have turned
out many pairs into their neighbouring woods, for the purpofe of
breeding. I have heard of feveral being met with at large by the
fportfmen in various parts of Kent; two inftances of this having
laft year come under my own infpection..
Lev. Muf.
JARGER than a Dunghill Fowl: length two feet. B'ilB
brown, two inches long, much curved, the .upper mandible
hanging confiderably over the under, which is hid thereby : round.'
the eye bare, and of a greenifh blue: on the head is an erect creft,
confifting of feventeen or eighteen feathers of different fizes, the
longeft three inches and a half in length; they confift of little
more than fhafts, except at the end, where they are oval, with &
fpear-fhaped point: the feathers of the neck are lorig and loofe,.
not unlike thofe of a Cock; thofe of the head and throat are-
green bronze ; of the middle of the neck purple, with a copper-
gfofs, and the lower part of it a yellow copper bronze; all of them
exceedingly brilliant, and changeable in different reflexions of
light r the back and wing coverts are rich purple, tipped with
green bronze : prime quills black : the under parts of the bodyr
from.chin to vent, are dull black, with here and there a greenifh'
glofs : thighs the fame: the legs feathered below the knees : tail'
brownifh cinnamon-colour,, with.the end dufky, and rounded in
fhape ; the feathers fourteen in number :. legs flout, rough, and
 P   H   E   A
fcaly; the colour a dark brown : toes long; between them, at the
bafe, a flight membrane : at the back part of the legs a thick,
fhort fpur.
The female is fmaller than the male, and of a lefs elegant fhape;
the length twenty-one inches. The bill, and bare fpace round the
eye, as in the male: the general colour of the plumage brown ;
the middle of each feather paler, or buff-coloured, mottled and
barred with dark brown, appearing not-greatly different from the
back of the Great Eared Owl: beneath the eye is a broad dufky
white band: the prime quills are black ; the fecond quills barred
black and ferruginous : the tail very fhort, hardly exceeding the
quills in length; the colour of the feathers of it fimilar to the
back : the legs as in the male, but furnifhed with a blunt knob in
place of the fpur.
Thefe birds inhabit India, but in no great plenty, being Pl,
brought from the hills in the northern parts of Hindoftan, to Calcutta, as curiofities. Lady Impey attempted, with great probability of fuccefs, to bring over with her fome of them to England ; but, after living on board the fhip in health for two months,
they caught a diforder from the reft of the poultry, fimilar to the
fmall-pox, and died in confequence. The food given them,
during the paffage, was rice in the hufk. Sir Elijah informs me,
that thefe birds are known in India by the name of Monaul, which
is foolifhly tranflated Mouth-Piece; that the male is called by
fome the Golden Fowl. They bear cold, but are impatient of
heat. The cock was never obferved to crow, but had a ftrong,
hoarfe cackle, not unlike that of a Pbeafant. Specimens of
the male birds are now in the Leverian Mufeum.
CIZE of a Fowl: length twenty-two inches. Bill greenifh
white, and pretty much hooked in fhape: fides of the head
naked, carunculated, and red, much in the fame manner as in the
Pencilled Pheafant: the feathers at the back part of the head much
elongated, forming a creft, which hangs down behind: the head,
throat, and hind part of the neck, are black : the back, rump, and
'. wing coverts, the fame, flightly-edged with white: prime quills
dufky brown : tail rather large, even at the end, and black : the
fore part of the neck, breaft, and belly, covered with longifh fharp-
pointed feathers, which are black in the middle, deeply edged on
the fides with white: thighs black: legs brown black; at the back
of each a fpur of a moderate length : claws curved and black.
Inhabits India, where it is called the Coloured Fowl.—From the
drawings of Lady Impey.
Br. Muf.
Y ENGTH nineteen inches. Bill exactly formed as in the
Crefted Pheafant*, being flout, fhort, and of a yellow colour :
the head is likewife crefted, as in that bird; each feather which
compofes it is brown in the middle, and white on the fides: the
top of the head is blackifh: back blueifh afh-colour, each feather dafhed with a blackifh ftripe down the fhaft: chin and fore
part of the neck rufly brown : fides of the neck whitifh, a little
mottled with dark brown : breaft and belly white, dafhed down
the fhafts with black : wings blueifh afh, fhafts and tips blackifh :
baftard wing black: the eight firft quills are white on the inner
* Syn. vol. iv. p. 720. pi, lxiv.
webs half way from the bafe; the two next white next the bafe;
the reft of their length, and the whole of all the reft, lead-coloured brown: the tail is nine inches and three quarters long, and
, rounded at the end; the two middle feathers brown, with the
ends black; the others wholly black : legs black.
This fpecimen is in good prefervation in the Britifh Mufeum,
and was brought from Africa. It had but ten feathers in the tail;
but, from the appearance of it when fpread out, it feemed to have
originally confifted of a greater number.
E e a
 Genus  LIII.     G   R   O   U   S.
N° 17. a. Rehufak Gr. N° 17. c. Helfingian Gr.
17. b. Rock Gr.
Sharp-tailed Grous, Ara. Zool. ii. N° 181.
HPHE tailin this bird confifts of eighteen feathers. I obferve
in fome birds the two middle ones of the tail are an inch and
a half, or more, longer than the reft, and in others fcarce exceeding half an inch; a diftinction incident to fex or age. The female faid to differ from the.male, in having lefs of the red naked
fkin above the eyes.
Thefe birds keep in pairs, or fmall flocks, in the juniper plains
the whole year, feeding on the buds and berries alternately :
moftly feen on the ground; but, when difturbed, fly to the tops
of the higheft trees. They lay on the ground, and make a loofe
neft of grafs, lined with feathers: the eggs white,, marked with
fpots, and are hatched the middle of June. Said to make a noife
with the feathers of the tail, like the cracking of a fan. The flefh
is of a light brown colour, plump, and very juicy *..
 G   R   O   U   S.
Black Grous, Gen. Syn. iv. p. 733.
Tetrao tetrix, Sepp Vog. pi. in p. 165.
HPHIS bird, as I have been lately informed, becomes gradually
more fcarce all over the north of England, as well as in Scotland, owing to various caufes; viz. the great improvement made
in the art of floating flying, introduced within thefe few years : the
cuftom of inclofing many moors and commons, added to the mif-
chief done by burning the heath on the moors, in order to fertilize them, and which it is difficult to prevent, being commonly
fet on fire in the night, and will often extend for feveral miles ;
and, as it is chiefly done in the fpring, many nefls, with the old
ones upon- them, are deftroyed thereby. Perhaps the great facility of conveying thefe birds to the metropolis, or the great
trading towns,, by means of the numberlefs wheel-carriages, may
likewife contribute greatly to their fcarcity.
Thefe birds will, live in menageries in a confined ftate, but have-
not been known to breed therein..
The flefh of feveral of the Grous kind is more or lefs inclined
to brown; notwithftanding, it is well-tafted : but in this bird part
of the flefh of the breaft is white, and called, in the north, the
White Mufcle, appearing as a lingular contrail to the furrounding
parts, which are deep coloured. This circumftance is not obferved in the Wood Grous, whofe breaft is equally darkrcoloured.
throughout; nor in any other of this fpecies that we know of.
Neither this fpecies, nor the Ptarmigan, are at prefent in Ireland, though the Red Grous is found in. plenty among the moun-;
tains and bogs of that kingdom..
Spurious .
Spurious Grous,
Tetrao hybrid us;
i. Syn. iv. p. 734.—Ara. Zool. i
zrrm.Muf. Carlf.pl. 15.
\X7*E have been hitherto much in-the dark concerning this bird.
Dr. Sparrmetn, to our prefent obfcure knowledge of it, adds,
the following obfervations :—That it is of the fize of the female
Great or Wood Grous, and fuppofed to have been produced
from that bird and the male Black Grous : that it varies greatly in
colour, fcarce two being found exactly correfponding; and that
it is a remarkably ftupid bird. Its note refembles moft that of
the Wood Grous, but louder, harfher, and every way more dif-
agreeable. This gentleman likewife remarks, that the birds hitherto met with, whether affociating with the male birds or females,
are ever of the male fex. This fpecies is not uncommon in the.
woods of Sweden and Finland.
Mr. Tunftall informs me, that he was told by fome old Scotch
gentlemen, that both the Wood Grous, as well as the Spurious
Grous, were extant in Scotland within their memory.
Spotted Grous, Gen. Syn. v. p. 735. N° 6.
TV/TR. Hutchins has lately added to my collection a moft beautiful
variety of this bird. Length fixteen inches. General colour
of the plumage ferruginous cream-colour, marbled and ftriated
acrofs with brown and yellow clay-colour : fore part of the neck
and breaft moft inclined to yellow : under parts of the body
white, marked with broken bars of cinereous brown : quills plain
brownifh cream-colour: tail yellowifh brown, prettily mottled
with darker; the tips of all the feathers ferruginous, but pale.
Ruffed Grous, Gen. Syn. iv. p. 73^8. N» 8.—Ara. Zool. ii. N« 179.
Shoulder-knot Grous, Gen. Syn. iv. p. 737. N° 7.
"VX^E beg leave here to retract our opinion of the Ruffed and
. Shoulder-knot Grous being of different fpecies. Mr. Pennant's obfervations on this head have their due weight with us,
and are fupported by our having lately received fpecimens of
both of them by the affiftance of Mr. Hutchins.
We have been informed, that both fexes vary much at different
ftages of life. The ground-colour of the plumage is not unlike
in both fexes; but the tail in both is exactly fimilar. The male
only has the ruff and creft, which the female has no traces of; in
return, the female only has the black at the bafe of the wing or
Namaqua Grous, Gen. Syn. iv. p. 750. N» 15.
T*^R. Sparrman* mentions his having met with two fpecies of
Tetrao, near the Hottentots' Holland's warm bath, both of the
fize of our Partridge; one of them called a Partridge, the other
a Pheafant. He obferves, that they live in flocks, and are not
difficult to come at, efpecially of mornings and evenings, at which
time they difcover their abode by a fhrill kurring noife. One of
thefe fpecies is moft probably the Namaqua Grous; the otherj for
want of defcription, cannot be determined.
• Voy. i. p. 153.
as, Gen. Syn.
-.p. 746.
YAM informed, that the neareft approach of this fpecies towards the fouth, in this kingdom, is Stafford/hire*; but it has
every where diminifhed in quantity, from the fame caufes as the,
Black Grous. It-is not fo commonly eaten in London as the laft-
mentioned, as the flefh much fooner corrupts. The ufual weight
of a male is eighteen or nineteen ounces; but one has been killed,
near Richmond in Yorkfloire, which weighed twenty-five *. This
fpecies has been known to breed in the menagerie of that noble
and intelligent naturalift and collector the late Dutchefs Dowager .
of Portland. It was obferved to me, that fhe effected this, in fome
meafure, by caufing frefh pots of ling or heath to be placed in the
menagerie almoft every day.
Rehufac Grous, Ara. Zool. ii. p. 316. E.
CIZE of a fmall Hen. Neck ruft-coloured, fpotted with black:
back and tail coverts black, varied with rufly ftreaks : breaft
divided from the lower part of the neck by a dark fhade ; the reft
of the breaft and vent white.
The Hen is fpotted with yellow: primaries white : tail black,
end whitifh: thighs white, marked with fome rufly fpots : legs
feathered down to the toes, which are covered with large brown
Inhabits the woods and alps of Lapland; lays thirteen or fourteen reddifh eggs, marked with long brown fpots: when difturb-
Ir. Tunftall.
ed, flies away with a loud noife, like a coarfe laugh. The Keren,
or common Ptarmigan, on the contrary, is filent, and inhabits the
Alps only.
Rock Grous, Ara. Zool. ii. N° 184.
AT Hudfon's Bay a White Grous, feemingly of a different fpecies
from the common, is obferved.    In fize it is lefs by one
third.    It is exactly like the other in colour, excepting that it has
a black line from the bill to the eye.
The manners differ fomewhat, as it inhabits rocky places or^'a-
niper plains, at all feafons. It frequently ftretches the neck out,
and makes a croaking kind of noife. They are very numerous at
the two extremes of the Bay, but never vifit the middle fettle-
ment, except in very fevere weather. This is called by the natives Ufcathachijh, by the Englifh, Rock-Partridge; whereas the
other is diftinguifhed by the name of Wapatbeu.
17. h.
Tetrao canus, Sparr. Muf. Carlf. N° 16. j-   c
YE N G T H fifteen inches.    Bill black: the whole plumage of      grous.
a hoary white, obfcurely undulated with brown, the ends of  Description.
the feathers being of that colour: wing coverts brownifh, marked
with a whitifh fpot at the ends: vent white: the tail clouded
above with hoary, white, and brown : legs black.
A fpecimen of the above bird was fent to the author from the        Place.
province of Helfingia, in Sweden; and is faid to be pretty frequent
in a particular fpot.   From the colour of the tail, it cannot be a
variety of the Ptarmigan in any ftage; nor does the author think
Suppl. F f it
 G   R   O   U   S.
it related to the Hafel Grous, though fomewhat fimilar: it is
therefore moft probably a diftinct fpecies.
I find a Grous with feathered legs (the colour brown, variegated with black) in the manufcript of Mr. Anderfon, mentioned
as a native of Terra del Fuego; likewife another with naked legs,
of the fame colours, met with in New Caledonia : but the fize of
neither is mentioned.
219    1
Genus LIV.    P   A
R   T
I   D
G   E.
*   WITH
a. Chittygong P.
36. c.
Hudfonian Quail,
b. Aragonian P.
Pintado Partridge,
G/». Syn. i
r. p. 76
Var. A.
half w
rH eleven inches.
Irides brown :
the head, nape, and
ay down the back
of the
the feathers
dafhed down the fhafts with dufky: fides of the head and chin
plain rufous: the lower part of the neck, all round the breaft, and
all beneath, brownifh black; each feather marked with three
fpots of white on each web: lower part of the back and rump
brown, croffed with numerous lines of white over the thighs; and
the middle of the belly the fame, but the lines broader: wing coverts brownifh black, fpotted as the under parts; but the fpots
are rufous inftead of white : tail fhort, dufky blackifh brown ; the
two middle feathers croffed with pale rufous lines near the bafe:
legs red.
I met with a fpecimen, anfwering to the above defcription, at
Sir Jofeph Banks's, who informed me, that he received it from
Bombay. It appears a variety or fexual difference of the Pintado
Ff 2
J 2. Guernfey Partridge, Gen. Syn. iv. p. 768.
Var. A.
-♦-GUERNSEY P. ]pROM this fpecies being now and then met with at large ira
this kingdom, one might be induced to think that it may be
by degrees naturalized thereto. Several gentlemen, and efpecially
the late Duke of Northumberland, have turned out many brace for
thepurpofe. It has alfo been mentioned, that fo far back as the
time of Charles the Second, feveral pairs were turned out about
Windfor, for the purpofe of increafing; but it is fuppofed that
they at laft perifhed, though fome of them, or their defcendants,
were feen a few years afterwards. Indeed they feem to thrive fuf-
ficiently well in a confined ftate, as I myfelf have known them to
do; but have been informed, that, on their being put out afterwards to fhift for themfelves, they died foon after, as was the cafe
with fome in the poffeflion of Mr. Tunftall. Is not then this climate of too moift or too chilly a nature for this bird, or perhaps
both ? I have once tailed their flefh, and thought it very delicate, as do the inhabitants of every place to which they are indigenous, efpecially in France, where they are made into pies, and
efteemed greatly.
A bird fimilar to the above, or rather the Greek Partridge, inhabits India, but feems fomewhat larger, being fourteen inches in
length. I learn this from various drawings, efpecially thofe of
Lady Impey and Mr. Middleton. This laft-named gentleman informs me, that it is far from uncommon, and often kept tame. It
is known in India by the name of Cheucquoir: is called by the
Englifh, Firelock, as it will peck at fparks of fire on the ground.
Mr. Boys, of Sandwich, lately informed me, that fome Partridges
were received not long fince from Bofion, in New England, by a
perfon, who turned them into the fields at large; and that they
moft certainly have bred, as a covey of them was afterwards feen.
The fpecies he could not afcertain from his own knowledge, not
having feen them.
Pondicherry Partridge, Gen. Syn. iv. p. 774, N" 17.
Y ENGTH ten inches. Bill black : the chin, round the eye,
and beneath it, yellow; the reft of the head, neck, and breaft,
pale brownifh white, marked with large roundifh black fpots : a
bar, compofed of narrow lines of black and white, divides the middle of the breaft, beneath which it is white : the belly is brown,
marked with fhort tranfverfe bars of black : back whitifh brown,
croffed with narrow tranfverfe dafhes of black, pointed at each
end : the prime quills are black at the tips : tail reddifh clay-coloured brown, croffed with nine or ten oblique bars.of black; tips
of the feathers white: legs very pale before, the hind part and
toes black : hind claw very fmall: legs not furnifhed with fpurs.
Inhabits India, where it is called Ghoori tetur, or Rock-Pigeon. Place andM
It is met with for the moft part in pairs, feldom in covies; nor «£**»
indeed is it very common. It is fhy, flies high, and is not eafily
fhot. It is called by fome a Partridge, but its cry is very unlike
that bird*. From the great fimilarity in markings to the Pondicherry Partridge, and its not having a fpur, I apprehend it to be
the female of that fpecies.
• Mr, Middleton,
 PA   RTR   I   D   G   E.
Common Quail, Gen. Syn. iv, p. 779. N° 24.
Tetraocoturnix, Sepp Fog. pi. in p. 143.—Faun. Arag. p. 83.—•Haffelq. Voy,
Eng. ed. p. 203. N°44.
Lev. Muf.
YN the Leverian Mufeum is a variety. The crown of the head
brown : over the eyes, and round them to the hind head, white,
dotted with black: the reft of the neck pale rufous yellow, dafhed
with white down the fhafts : the lower part of the neck, all round
the back, between the wings, the breaft, belly, and cuter edge of
the wing, white: wing coverts and fcapulars yellow brown, barred
with dark brown, and each feather dafhed with yellow down the
fhaft: quills yellow brown : tail mottled brown, towards the end
chefnut, the tips very pale and mottled, the two outer feathers
white : legs yellow.
36. a.
CIZ E of a Pheafant: length feventeen inches. Bill pale afh-
colour : a broad oval fpace round the eyes, naked, and of a
pink-colour, beginning at the noftrils, and ending in a point behind ; noftrils placed in a kind of cere: the head and neck white,
marked with black lines: on the ear a brown patch : back and
wings moft beautifully marked with bars and lines of black and
pale brown, and edged and tipped with white : breaft black,
marked with femilunar lines of white: belly pale reddifh brown,
edged with white, and marked irregularly in the middle with
dufky: tail mottled white and pale brown, croffed with bars
or zigzag lines of black and white : legs the colour of the bill,
and not furnifhed with a fpur behind.
1 This
This bird inhabits India; and is there, by the lefs informed, fuppofed to be the female of the Impeyan Pheafant, but falfely, as it
comes from a different part of the country. It is common in the
lower parts of Bengal, and in the province of Cbittygong.—Mr.
Middleton. I likewife find the fame among the drawings of Lady
Impey. It is a moft beautiful bird, and, if one might hazard a
fuppofition, may poffibly hereafter prove to be the female of the
Ceylon Partridge *, the true fize of which has not hitherto been
Tetrao pedibus
. Arag. p.- 8r. N° 3. pi. 7. f. 2.
QlZE bigger than the Common Partridge.    Bill black: head   ;
afh-colour: throat black: round the neck ferruginous : breaft
rufous, croffed with a band of black : back variegated brown and
ferruginous : belly, thighs, and quills, black 1 wing coverts ferruginous ; beneath them white : tail cuneiform, cinereous brown;
the outer feathers tipped with white: vent- white, fpotted with
ferruginous: legs afh-coloured, hairy on the fore part, and furnifhed with a fpur behind.
The female differs in having a grey breaft, and the band thereon narrower than in the male-..
The above inhabits the neighbourhood of Saragofa, in Arago-
via, and makes a neft on the ground, laying four or five teftaceous-
coloured eggs, fpotted with brown ; and is known by the name of
* Syn. vol.iv. p. 758,
3-6. b,
36. e.
Lev. Muf.
HPHIS is the fmalleft of its race, meafuring in length only five
inches. The bill dufky brown: general colour of the plumage a pale brownifh cream-colour, marked at the back part of
the neck and over the thighs with irregular fpots of white: the
wings, back, and tail, croffed fparingly with lines of white,
bounded on their lower part with black: the under parts of the
body are paler than the upper, and unfpotted: legs dufky
I received a fpecimen of this from Hudfon's Bay, from which
place, I am informed, that in the Leverian Mufeum alfo came.
 C   225   3
Genus LV.     TRUMPETER.
2. Undulated Tr.
Pfophia undulata, Jacq. Vog. p. 24. N* 18. t. 9.
CI Z E of a Goofe. The bill dufky blue: general colour of the
plumage on the head, and the upper parts of the body, fome-
what like that of the Buftard, being of a pale reddifh brown, beautifully undulated with black : the feathers at the back part of the
head long, forming a dependent creft: beneath the ears begins a
lift of black, which paffes down on each fide of the neck, widening as it defcends, and meeting on the lower part before, where
the feathers become greatly elongated, and hang loofely, fome-
what fimilar to the breaft feathers of the Demoifelle; excepting
this, all the under parts are,white: the legs in colour not unlike
that of the bill.
This fpecies inhabits Africa.    The fpecimen from which the
above account was drawn up was brought from Tripoli.
 [     226     ]
Genus LVI.     BUSTARD.
10. Paffarage B.
Little Bufterd, Gen. Syn. iv. p. 799. N°2,
Otis tetrax, Faun. Arag. p. 79.
HPHIS fpecies is faid to be not uncommon in Spain as well as
France, and the flefh is by fome thought to tafte moft like
that of an Hare. Mr. Tunftall has one of thefe in his mufeum,
which was fhot in Suffex, which, he informs me, proved a male on
diffection, although the black on the neck, the characteriftic of
that fex, Was wholly wanting, and fuppofed, before it was opened,
to have been a female. This is very frequent in the fouthernand
fouth*weft plains of Ruffia, and in fmall flocks when it migrates.
It continues a good way into the deferts of Tartary, but is never
feen in Sibiria *.
Arabian Buftard, Gen. Syn. iv. p. 8of. N» 3.
Le Paon fauvage de 1'Ifle de Lucon, Son. Voy.*}. 85. t. 49.
Y ENGTH three feet. The bill long, pointed, ftrait, and a
little enlarged at the end; colour dufky black: the head,
neck, and breaft, are light grey, marked with femicircular
lines of black: on the head is a long tuft of feathers ending in a
point, which the bird carries horizontally : the fuperior feathers
of this creft are black; thofe below grey, banded with black:
back, wings, and tail, brown : baftard wing white, margined with
grey: belly white: toes three in number, all placed forwards,^
and united to the firft joint.
This bird inhabits all the Philippine Iflands and the Cape of
Good Hope. It is called Peacock by the natives, but on what account is very uncertain; or whether its actions or attitudes cor-
refpond with thofe of that bird. The above is Sonnerat's defcription, by which it feems to me clearly to be the Arabian Buftard,
and not a diftinct fpecies.
White-eared Buftard, Gen. Syn, iv. p. 802. N° 4.
HPHIS bird (the Knorrhane) has the art of concealing itfelf perfectly till one comes pretty near it; when on a fudden it foars
aloft and almoft perpendicular into the air, with a fharp, hafty,
quavering fcream of korrh, korrb, which is an alarm to the animals throughout the whole neighbourhood *.
Our laft voyagers met with a Buftard on the coaft of New Holland, in Buftard Bay, which weighed fixteen pounds ; but we have
no other account of it, than its having a black band acrofs the
breaft. We can likewife add, on the authority of the late Captain King, that he met with great flocks of a large kind of Buftard
on the plains near Norton Sound, north latitude 64f. No defcription whatever could be obtained of the fpecies, as they were very
fhy, ran very faft, and for a confiderable time before they took
wing, fo that he could never get one fhot at themf.
Sparrm. Voy. i
p. 153-
t Ara. Zool.
Indian Buftard, Gen. Syn. iv, p. 804. N° 5.
HPHIS bird, which is called in India, Churge, weighs from twelve
to fourteen pounds. The male has the head, neck, breaft, and
under parts, black, but the latter incline to afh-colour: the back
beautifully mottled with reddifh brown and black, as in our Buftard: wing coverts white: quills black: bill and legs pale afh-
The female is very like our female Buftard. The general colour pale afh, clouded and undulated with darker and blackifh:
head, neck, and belly, plain.
Thefe are found in plenty in various parts of India, where they
are eaten, and much efteemed *. I ftill retain an idea of the
probability of this and my White-eared Buftard being the fame,
as they differ very little, except in the white patch on the ear,
one from the other.
PASSARAGE B. g IZE of the UttU Buftard: length eighteen inches.   Bill long
Description. ancj flenrjer, brown and white: the head, neck, breaft, and
belly, black: on the ears a large white patch: junction of the^
neck and back white: the whole back, wings, and tail, black,
with a net-work of the fineft lines of black and brown furround-
ing the mefhes of black : the greater wing coverts are white : on
the hind head are four pairs of capillary feathers ; each pair of different lengths, and dilating at their ends into a lance-fhaped tuft;
the longeft four inches, the fhorteft fcarce rifing in fight: the legs^-
are ftrong, and of a pale yellow: toes divided to their origin.
\ Mr. Middleton.
Inhabits India. Called Paffarage Plover*. The fimilarity
of markings in this and my White-eared Buftard are worth obferva-
tion, as one drawing might almoft ferve to reprefent both birds j
but the laft defcribed, being much fmaller in fize, with the
addition of the long capillary feathers on the ears, feem to
determine its being a different fpecies.
In the poffeflion of Mrs. Wheeler I find a fpecimen of a bird,
which I fuppofe to be the female of the above. It is nineteen
inches or more in length, and the plumage not unlike that of the
Little Buftard, but lefs delicate in its markings. I find that it is
known in India by the name of Oorail; by fome of the Englijb
called Flercher. It is much efteemed, confequently greatly
fought'after ; but though it is not uncommon, very few are taken,
as it is a very fhy bird. The flefh of the breaft is part white, part
brown, and is accounted a great delicacy.
* Lady Imfey.
 [   -*3°   ]
Order VI.    S T  R  U  T  H   I  O  U  S.
TT\ R. Sparrman * is of opinion that the male and female Oftrich fit
on the eggs by turns, as in one of his journies, in the month
of December, he frightened a male from the neft, which was made
only on the bare fand, on which the eggs lay fcattered and loofe;
they were in number eleven. In another neft fifteen were found;
and he reafonably concludes, that from fixteen to twenty is the
common number. The ufual weight of the fhell is eleven
ounces ; the depth fix inches and a half; and contains five pints
and a quarter of liquid ; and that the weight of a frefh egg does
not greatly exceed this. The Hottentots eat the flefh of the
birds, and the colonifts at the Cape ufe the eggs in pancakes.
The tame Oftriches at theCape have ftrength fufficient to run
along with any one on their back, without feeming to be impeded
by his weight. In the tame flate, they are apt to be mifchievous,
and will frequently kill the poultry by trampling them under their
feet; and he mentions an inftance of one that was obliged to be
killed, having trampled fheep to death in the fame manner.
* Sfarrm, Voy, i. p. 121, 122.
  I 232  ]
Genus  LXV.
N° 80. African H.
81. Lohaujung H.
N° 82. Yellow-necked H.
Indian Crane, Gen. Syn. v. p. 38. N° 4.
HPHIS bird is very common in great flocks north of Cal-
Pl. CXV.
Gigantic Crane, Gen. Syn. v. p. 45. N» 8.
T HAVE three or four times met with this bird in paintings
done in the country which it inhabits; but the moft faithful
reprefentation will be found in the drawings of Lady Impey, under
whofe infpection it was done from the life in India. The fize is
allowed to be from five to feven feet in length, and, when Handing erect, it is five feet high. The bill of a vaft fize, fharp-
pointed, compreffed on the fides, of a yellowifh white colour, and
opens very far back into the head; the noftrils, a flit placed high
up near the bafe : the whole head and neck are naked j the front
is yellow; the fore part of the neck the fame, but more dull; the
hind part of the head and neck red, with here and there a warty
excrefcence, mixed with a few ftraggling hairs curled at the ends:
the craw hangs down on the fore part of the neck, like a pouch,
and twines round the back part; the lower part of it furnifhed
with hairs, like the reft of the neck, but at the bottom are in
greater number, and of a triangular form : the upper part of the
back and ihoulders are furrounded with white downy feathers; the
back itfelf and wing coverts deep blueifh afh-colour: fecond
quills dufky brown: prime quills and tail deep blackifh lead-
colour ; the laft fcarcely exceeds the quills in length; the feathers of it are ten inches long, and twelve in number: the feathers
of the fides beneath the wings, and thofe of the vent and under
tail coverts, are long and downy, fome of them meafuring near a
foot, and of a dufky white colour, as are all the under parts of the
body: the legs are long and black, naked far above the knees,
and very fcaly: the toes are webbed at the bafe: the claws
This lingular fpecies is not unfrequent at Bengal, where it ar- Fl
rives before the rainy feafon comes on, and is called Argala, or
Adjutant *. It has alfo, from its immenfe gape, gained the name
of Large Throat; and, from its fwallowing bones, the Bone-eater,
or Bone-taker. It is allowed on all hands to be a moft neceffary
animal, as it picks up vermin from every quarter; fuch as fnakes,
lizards, frogs, and other noxious reptiles; and, its fize requiring a
vaft fupply, proves the moft ufeful inhabitant, which the natives
of Africa and other places acknowledge by their holding it in
great eftimation.
I find that the downy feathers above mentioned have been made
ufe of, in the manner of thofe of the Oftrich, in the head-drefs of the
ladies, to which purpofe they feem well appropriated, being of the
moft delicate texture, and floating with every breath of windf;
* I have been told, that the bird has obtained this laft name from its appearing, when looked on in front at a diftance, like a man having a white waiftcoat
and breeches.
f A good idea may be formed of their exceflive lightnefs, from my having
weighed one of th»m, which was eleven inches and three quarters in length, and
feven in breadth, and balanced only eight grains.
Suppi.. H h but
:e andMa:
234 HERON,
but their prefent fcarcity in England has hitherto prevented their
appearing in common. In the Britifh Mufeum is a complete tail,*
with the under tail coverts annexed, in good prefervation.
White Stork, Gen. Syn. v. p. 47. N° 9.
HPWO inftances have been mentioned, in our former volumes,,
of this bird having been met with in England: in addition
to which, Mr. Boys informs me, that one has been picked up dead,,
but frefh, on the fhore of Sandwich Bay. Another was alfo fhot,.
in the winter of 1785, at Southfleet, in Kent*, but perifhed before
I had notice of it. ' ^|$mB
Night Heron, Gen. Syn. v. p. 52. N9 13.
Ardea hyfticorax, Sepp Vog. pi. in p. 151.
''HE neft in Sepp's plate is made, in an artlefs manner,- of drj
flicks ; and the eggs are of a pale blue,
17. Bittern, Gen. Syn. v. p. 56. N° 17.
4- BITTERN. Ardea ftellaris, Sepp Vog. pi. in p. 74.
T Believe that this bird may be met with in the marfhes about us
at all feafons, yet is obferved to be moft frequent in winter.
Mr. Boys informs me, that it is never feen about Sandwich, except
in very cold weather ; and that in particular, in thefevere feafon
in January 1784, great numbers were fhot thereabouts.
The Bittern with us feems to be rifing into efteem for the ufe of
? Communicated by Mr, Macretb..
 HERON. ajj
the table, being, as well as the Heron, feen expofed for fale in the
London markets; but the palates of our filler kingdom feem to
relifh it greatly, as I have been informed, that fometimes half a .
guinea is given for one in Dublin *. This fpecies is found on the
continent, in various parts of Ruffia, and in Afia; in Sibiria, as far
north as the river Lena, and is continued confiderably to the
north f. We have reafon to think, that it is likewife an inhabitant of moft of the milder parts of the old continent; and not improbably met with alfo in fome part of India and China, as we
have feen it reprefented in paintings from thofe parts, though not
fo commonly as the Heron; which laft, we are informed, is very
frequent at Bengal, where it is called Aunjun J,
Little Bittern, Gen. Syn. v. p. 65. N° 27, j7_
Ardeola, Sepp Vog. pi, in p. 57. LITTLE BIT
YN Sep$ the neft is placed on the ground, and compofed of fhort
bits of flicks, with here and there a flag leaf interfperfed. The
■eggs four in number;  the fize of thofe of a Blackbird, and
Cinnamon Heron, Gen. Syn. V. p. 77. N°43. 43.
Y? Y fome fine Chinefe drawings which came under my infpection,
I find the tail to be of a bright ferruginous chefnut, rather
deeper than the colour of the back.   It alfo inhabits India.
* Mr. Jackftm. f Ara. Zool. J Mr. Middleton.
Hh 2 Snowy
HE   R   O   N.
Snowy Heron, Gen. Syn. v. p. 92. N° 61.
Ardea nivea, &c. Jacq. Vog, p. 18. N° 13.
HPHIS is one third lefs than the Bittern. The bill black:
irides yellow: the whole plumage as white as fnow: the
hind head, back part of the neck, fides of the breaft, and the
back, covered with long narrow hair-like feathers, flowing very
beautifully with every puff of wind; but thofe of the hind head .
longer than the reft, forming a penfile creft: the legs are black :
the toes yellow.
This bird inhabits the parts near Carthagena, in South America j
called, by the Spaniards, Gar fa blanca. The voice is loud and dif-
agreeable. Is fometimes eaten by the Indians. This is, no
doubt, the fame bird with my Snowy Heron, which I alfo find is
not uncommon in India *, as well as other parts of the old continent before defcribed.
I find alfo, in the drawings of Mr. Middleton, a fmaller Heron,
wholly white; the length fixteen inches: bill three, pretty flout,
and yellow : irides orange : legs black. This is faid to inhabit
Bengal, where it is called Caboga. It feems to be greatly allied
to the Little White Heron, but I will not determine it to be the
fame fpecies.
Violet Heron, Gen. Syn, v. p. 97. N° 69.
HPHIS bird is faid to be very common in the Eaft Indies.   In
fome drawings from thence, the bill was black, tinged with
• Lady Imfey.
red on the fides: the crown of the head, the whole body, and tail,
black: the neck, vent, and under tail coverts, of a pure white:
legs dirty yellow; in fome fpecimens red.
This bird is called, at Bengal, Monickjore; at Hindojtan, Lug-
lug. It is reckoned pretty good eating, and ufed for fport in fal-
conry, in the manner that the Heron formerly was in this kingdom*.
Coromandel Heron, Gen. Syn, v. p. 102. N° 78.
Y Obferve this bird among the drawings both of Lady Impey and
Mr. Middleton. In addition to the defcription of the bill in the
Synopfis, I obferve that the ends of the two mandibles much re-
femble a pair of pincers, being broad at that part, and not pointed, as in the Pondicherry Heron. In this circumftance, fo greatly
different from all others of the genus, as to juftify the nice orni-
thologift in forming a new one.
I find it to be common on the Ganges, but more fo on the
Gumpta; and that it is known by the name of Gounghill.
■M '' '
Lev. Muf. 80.
CIZE fmaller than our Common Heron: length nearly three feet,   description.
Bill feven inches long, of a dufky yellow; the end black or
dufky : the head and greater part of the neck are of a pale
ferruginous colour: chin and throat white: the top of the
head black, and the feathers elongated into a creft almoft three
inches in length: on the back part of the neck is a lift or ftripe
 238 Fl   E   R   O   N.
-of black, reaching two thirds of the way down : oneach fide, beginning behind the eye, another, continuing on each fide to the
breaft : the feathers of the lower part of the neck before are long,
narrow, and loofe, as is moft of the Heron tribe; the colour
of them, and the lower part of the neck, a deep afh: the breaft
ferruginous chefnut: back very deep afh-colour : quills and tail
black: the loofe feathers on the rump much like thofe on the
fore part of .the neck, with a mixture of ferruginous: the belly
pale ferruginous afh-colour: legs dull yellow; the fore part of
them, the toes, and claws, black.
Place. Th*s fpecies inhabits Africa, from whence a fpecimen has been
received into the Leverian Mufeum. A fecond fpecimen is like-
wife in the fame collection, which was fhot in AJhdown Park, near
Lotnbourn, Berks, belonging to Lord Craven.
LOHAUJUNG   CIZE large; length three feet.    Bill nine inches long, black,
_ ftrait, pointed ; lower mandible fomewhat convex; noftrils a
Description. r
flit near the bafe : the fore part of the head, as far as the throat,
and fides, of a rich green : crown of the head, and neck, deep
brown, marked with a few great green fpots: upper part of the
back brown; the  lower like the neck:   wing coverts white;
ridge and lower parts pale brown : fecondaries fine deep green :
breaft, belly, and primaries, white : tail black : legs long, fcaly,
reddifh : toes webbed at the bafe : claws fhort.
Place. Inhabits India, where it is not uncommon, and called Lobau-
jung.    Defcribed from Lady Impey's drawings.—Among thefe
I alfo obferve another, which differs in having the beginning of
the back mottled brown and white, and the white on other parts
not pure, I have likewife feen this bird in other drawings, in
which the whole of the upper part of the back, and the under
parts, were of a pure white. I apprehend that thefe diftinctions
mark the fex of the bird.
CIZ E of the Blue Gaulding.- length two feet.   Bill three inches    Ni
and a half long, dufky brown : at the back part of the neck   De
hangs a long black creft: fides of the neck pale yellow ; the fore
part of it bright bay, edged with white and black • back, wings*.
belly, tail, and legs, black.
Inhabits India. Met with in plenty in the province of Oude,
and in other parts, in low watery places; but is not accounted
good food *.
* Mr. Middleion*
 [    24o    ]
Genus LXVI.     J    B   I   S.
N" 20. Black-headed I.
N° 21. Coco I.
White-headed Ibis,
CIZE of a Heron, if not bigger. Bill long, very flout at the
bafe, and not greatly curved; in length one foot or more:
the fore part of the head and cheeks bare and yellow, as is the
bill itfelf: general colour of the plumage greyifh white: wing
coverts black, margined with white: outer edge of the wing, the
quills, and tail, black : rump and tail coverts as long as the tail,
and of a pink colour, concealing the tail, and hanging over it:
legs long, of a pale pink or flefh-colour.
In one of thefe birds the wing coverts have a mixture of brown,
and a bar of brown acrofs the breaft, which I am informed is a
This inhabits India; is very common on the Ganges, and called
Jamghill. The pink feathers of the rump are ufed not unfre-
qucntly, like thofe of the Oftricb, as ornaments, by the ladies*.
CIZE of a Cur,
* bill fix inches
length twenty-one inches. Irides brown :
, very flout, much curved, and black: fpace
between the bill and eye, and round the laft, bare and black:
head black : nape and hind part of the neck marked with fmall
' Lady Impey.
fpots of the fame : the reft of the plumage whfte : legs black:
between the toes a membrane : hind claw long.
Inhabits India.    Called Buttore *.
Tantalus Coco, Jacq. Vog. N° 18. p. 24.
CIZE of the White Ibis.  Bill fix inches long, and flefh-colour:
the bare fpace on each fide of the head the fame : general colour of the plumage a greyifh white; the three outer quills black
at the tips : legs flefh-colour.
Inhabits the Caribbee Iflands, and is called by the natives Pef- 1
cbeur, as it feeds on fijh in the wild flate. It is now and then
kept tame, and will then eat flejh, both raw and boiled. Its note
imitates the word Ko, which the bird frequently repeats ; hence
the name given to it. It is thought to be tolerable eating. I
Should fufpect this to be no other than a variety of the White Ibis.
[     242     ]
Genus  LXVII.     CURLEW.
N° 11. Hudfonian C.
Common Curlew, Gen. Syn. v. p. 119. N° 1.
Scolopax arquata, Sett ^"S- P*1 *n P« 109'
HPHIS bird appears both in Chinefe drawings, and thofe from
India; we may therefore conclude it to inhabit both thofe
White-headed Curlew, Gen. Syn. v. p. 123. N° 5 ?
New Species of Tantalus, Sparrm. Voy. i. p. 281.
. Sparrman defcribes a bird very fimilar, if not the fame
with this fpecies. The bill is five inches long, black at the
tip and lower neb ; the upper neb red: the neck afh-colour; back
the fame, with a caft of green and a little yellow : the wings dark
beneath, and above of a blue colour, inclining to black : the leffer
wing coverts violet: the tail wedge-fhaped, twice the length of
the bill, and the body fomewhat larger than that of a Hen : thighs
afh-colour: feet, legs, and membrane between, blackifh. In
other refpects it had all the characterise marks of the Tantalus *.
This inhabits the neighbourhood of the Cape of Good Hope, and
is called by the colonifts Hagedafh and Hadeldet fuppofed from
* Does he mean that the face was naked ?   If fo, it fhould certainly be ranked with the Tantalus, or Ibis; but it is not mentioned in his defcription.
q the
the bird's note. Met with in great numbers about Zwart-kops-
rivier : the fame called by the Hottentots, Takaikene. It lives on
bulbs and roots, which it digs up with the bill. Is fhy, and roofts
on trees of nights. It is faid to be a fign of rain, if this bird flies
in great flocks againft the wind.
II  :
E&imaux Curlew, Ara. Zool. ii. ^364,
Y ENGTH feventeen inches. Bill nearly four; colourblack;
the upper mandible hangs over the lower: the head, neck,
and breaft, whitifh: the chin, and before the eye, plain ; the reft
dafhed with brown ftreaks, moft fo on the breaft : top of the head
deep chocolate brown, divided down the middle by a white line,
and the fides of it above the eyes bounded with white: between
the bill and eye brown : region of the ears brownifh : the upper
part of the body and wings brown, mottled with white; but the
back and fcapulars are alfo marked with fpots of white; thofe on
the rump are more numerous, and incline to ferruginous: belly,
thighs, and vent, white : fides croffed with narrow bars of brown :
quills brown, the inner margins fpotted with dufky white, fhafts
white : the wings and tail even ; the laft brown, "croffed with feven or eight blackifh bars, a quarter of an inch broad : legs
blueifh black : toes divided to their origin.
Inhabits Hudfon's Bay, from whence I was favoured with a fpecimen procured by Mr. Hutchins.
This is the Efkimaux Curlew of the ArtJic Zoology, but not that
of the Philofophical TranfaSiions *, defcribed by Dr. Forfter. This
I am well affured of, having both of them in my collection; as alfo
the variety ofour Common Curlew, as defcribed before in its place f.
j Vol. lxii, p,4U.    See Gen. Syn. v. p. 125.        f Gen. Syn.
See Gen. Syn. v. p. :
I i 1
p. 120.
G E N * S
 [    244    3
Genus LXVIII.     S „ N   I   P   E.
N9 33. Marbled Godwin N° 34. Hudfonian Godwit.
Cape Snipe, Gen, Syn. v, p. 138. N° 9.
HPHIS Snipe is called, at the Cape, Keuvitt-,  as it fcreams our,
in the dufk of the evening, in a kind of difagreeable found,
imitating the name it bears*L
"D ILL yellow, fwelling at the ends of both mandibles ; the cor-
lour yellowifh green : crown dufky : eyes large and black;.
round each a circle of yellow feathers, pointing, in a line behind :.
cheeks and throat white :. back flaty blue, fpotted with black, and
bounded the whole length by a yellow line : fcapulars moft elegantly marked with narrow black lines on. a. blueifh ground, and
the feathers edged with femicircular lines of blueifh and black;
the reft of the wing tawny, with.olack femicircles, pointing the re-
verfe to the former : tail like the fcapulars, but marked with largp
tawny fpots:_ breaft brown above, black beneath: belly, vent,,
and thighs, white : legs pal-e afh.
Inhabits the Eaft Indies 7,
1 Dr. Spar
fhzdy Impey.
mon Godwit, Gen. Syn. v. p. 144. N° 14.
HP HE bill in different birds differs* extremely, having been met
with from two inches and a half to four and a quarter in
length ; and the weight from fix ounces and three quarters to
twelve ounces, and even more.
It is known at Hudfon's Bay by the name of Wafawuckape*--
Greenfhank, Gen. Syn. v. p. 147. N° 18.
■THE Greenjhank inhabits both India and China. In the former,
is known by the name of Chaha.
Redfhank, Gen. Syn. v. p. 150. N^o.
YT is lingular to obferve the very great difference of this bird in
ihefummer and winter drefs. In the latter feafon, I have obferved it fo lean, as to weigh only four ounces.: the bird is then of
the ufual colours, though paler; but the white fpots, generally
feen on the upper parts of the body, in a manner obliterated: the
wing coverts very flightly fringed with white.
The Chinefe Redfhank, a variety of this, is frequent in India,
where it is known by the name of Teetaree..
Y  ENGTH nineteen inches.    Bill nearly four inches ; colour      G
a dull orange; towards the end black: all the upper parts   Db*
* Mr. Hutchins.
"brown, more or lefs ftreaked and fpotted with rufous white: between
the bill and eye, alfo the chin, white : on the back the marks are
pale rufous, and pretty numerous, arifing from each feather having
five or fix tranfverfe bars of that colour on the margins : the wing
coverts have lefs brown in them, appearing at a diftance fcarce.ly
marked with it: the quills are rufous cream-colour, dotted with
minute fpecks of brown ; the four firft have the outer webs and
ends of a dufky black ; the fhaft of the outmoft one white: under wing coverts pale rufous : the breaft and fides are of this laft
colour, but much paler, and tranfverfely barred with dufky waved
lines, broadefl on the fides : the middle of the belly and thighs
plain : vent nearly white : tail rufous, croffed with fix or feven
bars of brown on each feather ; the three outer ones quite irregular ; the two middle ones paleft : legs black, and bare for an inch
and a quarter above the knee.
Inhabits Hudfon's Bay.    Given to me by Mr. Hutchins.
T ENGTH feventeen inches. Bill three inches long, turning
upwards; the bafe half pale, the reft black : top of the head
blackifh, fpotted or ftreaked with dufky white : fides of the head
and back part of the neck much the fame: lore dufky : over the
eyes, from the bill, a white ftreak : chin nearly white : back and
fcapulars dufky brown, fpotted with rufous white, one fpot being
placed on each fide of the fhaft, for the moft part, though in the
large feathers two : wing coverts brown, fome of the middle ones
mixed with paler, with the addition of fome white fpots; larger
coverts plain afh-colour : quills black, the fhafts white ; the bafe
of all, from the fourth, white to about one third of their length:
rump, and upper tail coverts, white : the under parts of the bird,
the whole way from the throat to the vent, fine rufous chefnut,
waved acrofs with dufky lines, each feather having a narrow line
near the tip : the tail feathers white at the bafe, taking up moft
fpace as the feathers approach outwards ; the reft of their length
dufky black : legs black : wings and tail of equal lengths.
I received this, with the former, from Mr. Hutchins*
Gin us
 I  248   3
N° 38. Greenwich S.
39. Brown S. 40. Black S.
Swifs Sandpiper, Gen. Syn. v. p. 167. N° 10.
/"\NE of thefe, from Hudfon's Bay, given to me as the female of
this fpecies, had the upper parts brown, mottled with dufky
white, not unlike the male, but lefs bright: fides of the head and
fore part of the neck white, fparingly marked with brown fpots:
belly white, marked with longifh ftreaks of black; the ends of
the feathers being black for fome length : the quills, rump, and
tail, as in the male : in both, the fides of the body have feveral
black feathers, above two inches in length, arifing at the junction
of the wing. In both, the bill and legs are black, and a fpur
ferves inftead of a hind toe. In fhort, this reputed female is fo like
the Grey Sandpiper, that, the belly excepted, which in the Englijb
one is not marked with black, one muft fuppofe them to be mere
varieties of each other.
Grey Sandpiper, Gen. Syn. v. p.*i68. N° 11.
I N the roof of the mouth of this bird is a double row of fpinous
appendages pointing inwards : tongue the length of the bill;
under the wing the fame long black feathers, eight or nine in
number, as obferved above of the Swifs Sandpiper: and no back
toe, only a fpur, much as in the Petrel.
Dunlin, Gen. Syn. v. p. 185. N» 33.
HP HE Dunlin I have received, by favour of Mr. Hutchins, from
Hudfon's Bay; which differs fo little from the Britijh one, that
a defcription is unneceffary.
Southern Sandpiper, Gen. Syn. v. p. 187. N° 35.
HPHIS I received from Hudfon's Bay with the laft fpecies.    It
differs very little from the defcription of it in my Synopfis, except in being, in the whole, one inch longer; and the bill only an
inch and a quarter in length.
Turnflone, Gen. Syn. v. p. 188. N° 37.
Ht^HESE inhabit theeoafts of Kent, but not in great plenty. I
received a male from Mr. Boys, of Sandwich, fhot near that
place, Auguft 1785.
The Hudfon's Bay natives know this fpecies by the name of
Mijhee quafqua ropajhijh*.
4- TURN-
CIZE of the Redjhank:  weight near eight ounces:  length
twelve inches and a half.    Bill an inch and a half long, black:   Dj-scri
crown of the head reddifh brown, ftreaked with black: nape,
cheeks, and neck, afh-colour; the middle of the feathers dufky
down the fhaft: lower part of the neck and back black; the fea-
* Mr. Hutchins.
Su.ppl. Kk thers
thers margined on the fides with pale ferruginous, and fome of
thofe of the 'back at the tips alfo: chin nearly white : fore part of
the neck very pale afh-colour, as far as the breaft, which is of a
dufky white: belly, fides, vent, and upper tail coverts on each
fide, and whole of the under ones, white I leffer wing coverts afh-
colour ; the greater, the fame, obfcurely margined with pale ferruginous ; greateft tipped with white ; under wing coverts pure
white:, prime quills dufky, the fhafts more or lefs white ; fecondaries and fcapulars nearly the colour of the back; the fecondaries
and primaries very little differing in length : the lower part of
the back, rump,-and middle of the tail coverts, afh-colour: tail
a little rounded at the end, brownifh afh-colour, fomewhat mottled with brownifh near the tips, and fringed near the end with
pale ferruginous: legs dufky olive green, bare an inch above the
knee: the outer and middle toe connected at the bafe.
The above was fhot at Greenwich, on the 5th of Auguft, 1785,
by Dr. Leitb, who did me the favour to add it to my collection. I
efteem it a new fpecies.
Brown Sandpiper, Br. Zool. ii. N° 195.
CIZE of a Jackfnipe. Bill black : the head, upper part of the
neck, and back, of a pale brown, fpotted with black: coverts
of the wings dufky, edged with dirty white : under fide of the
neck white, ftreaked with black : the belly white : tail cinereous:
legs black.
In the colledion of Mr. Tunftall. Bought in the London
 A   N   D   P   I
E   H,
Black Sandpiper, Br. Zool. ii. N° 197.
CIZE of a Thrujh. Bill fhort, blunt at the point, and dufky ;
noftrils black: irides yellow: the head fmall, and flatted at
top; the colour white, moft elegantly fpotted with grey : the
neck, fhoulders, and back, mottled in the fame manner, but
darker, being tinged with brown; in fome lights thefe parts appeared of a perfect black, and gloffy : the wings were long; the
quill feathers black, croffed near their bafe with a white line : the
throat, breaft, and belly, white, with faint brown and black fpots,
of a longifh form, irregularly difperfed 5 but on the belly become
larger, and more round : the tail fhort, entirely white, except the
two middle feathers, which are black: the legs long and flender,
and of a reddifh brown colour.
This was fhot in Lincolnjhire; and cdmmunicated to Mr. Pennant by Mr. Bolton.
 E  252  3
Gurus LXX.    PLOVER,
N° 24. a. Indian PI.
Golden Plover, Gen, Syn. v, p. 193, N° 1.
T HAVE mentioned in my Synopfis, that this fpecies varied in
having the belly fometimes black, and at other times black and
white. I have been lately informed, that this is entirely owing to
the feafon. About the beginning of March, the appearance of
black on the breaft is firft feen, increafing by degrees till that part
becomes of a full black; but after the time of incubation, this colour again difappears*. It is feen. at times on the coafts of Kent,
but we believe is far lefs plenty there than towards the north of
England. It, no doubt, is a native of India, as I have feen it in
drawings from thence.    It is called   there, Bugadee\,
Long-legged Plover, Gen. Syn. v. p. 195. N° 3.
Y ENGTH fourteen inches. Bill two inches and a half longr
ftrait and black : upper part of the head,, and hind part of th&
neck, afh-eoloured; the edges of the feathers pale: back reddifh-
brown : wings purplifh black : round the eye, and all the under
parts, white: the wings exceed the tail in length : legs very long,
and red.
1 Mr. Jackfon.
t Mn+1Vbeeler~
Inhabits India, and not uncommon: met with in flocks, and frequent in company with the Teetaree, or Chinefe Redfhank.
I apprehend the above to be no other than the Long-legged
Plover in its juvenile flate ; the more fo, as that bird is not
unfrequent in India. Mrs. Wheeler informs me,, that it is there
known by the name of Crakoli.
Sanderling, Gen. Syn. v. p. 197. N°"4.
HPHESE are met with on the coafts of Kent, we believe, at all
feafons. I have received them from my intelligent friend
Mr. Boys, of Sandwich, both in January and in Auguft. This
bird, like the Purre, and fome others, varies confiderably, either
' from age, or with the feafon; for thofe received in Auguft, had the
upper parts dark afh-coloured, and the feathers deeply edged with
ferruginous; but others, fent to me in January, were of a plain
dove-coloured grey : they differed alfo in fome other trifling particulars. I am informed, that they are feen in autumn in fmall
flights, and not unfrequently along with the Purres, and both of
them indifcrkninately called- Ox. Birds.
TPjR. Heyjham'mforms me, that he once received fome Dotterel's
eggs from Kefwick, in Cumberland; alfo, that a female Dot- •
terel was killed upon the very top of the mountain Skiddow, in the
breeding feafon.
"Le petit Pluvier des Indes, Brifci$rn,%
234. N8 16.
"^TEARLY the fize of a Lark: length fix inches. Bill nine
lines long, and blackifh: the upper part of the body is
brown; the under, dufky.white: on the breaft two tranfverfe
brown bands: the prime quills brown; the fecondaries dufky:
tail feathers white at the bafe; the reft of their length brown:
wings and tail of equal length whenclofed : legs dufky black.
Inhabits .the Eaft Indies.
loured Plover, Gen. Syn
: p. 217. N° zt;.
A Bird of this curious and Angular fpecies was fhot near St. Allan's, in Eaft Kent, the feat of William Hammond, Efq; who
prefented it to me with the following account. He firft met with
it running upon fome light land ; and fo little fearful was it, that,
after having fent for a gun, one was brought to him, wfeich did
not readily go off, having been charged fome time, and in confe-
quence miffed his aim. The report frightened the bird awayj
bur, after making a turn or two, it again fettled within a hundred
yards of him, when he was prepared with a fecond fhot, which dif-
patched it. It was obferved to run with incredible fwiftnefs, and,
at intervals, to pick up fomething from the ground; and was fo
bold, as to render it difficult to make it rife from the ground,
in order to take a more fecure aim on the wing. The note was
not like any kind of Plover's, nor indeed to be compared with
that of any known bird.
i m ]
Genus LXXIII.     RAIL.
Troglodyte Rail, Gen. Syn. v. p. 229. N" 3. *j
Rallus auftralis, Sparrm. Muf. Carlf. pi. 14. TROGLODYTE
HP HE figure in the above work anfwers to my defcription of it,
except that it wants the white ftreak over the eye.
Philippine Rail, Gen. Syn. v. p. 230. N° 4. 4.
Var. D.
g IZ E of our common Water Rail.   Bill red, with a white tip:    PHILIPPINE
the crown of the head, and hind part of the neck, as far as the ^
beginning of the back, of a reddifh* rufous colour; the back darker,
fpotted acrofs with white : wings nearly the fame; the quills not
fpotted : the under parts, from the chin to the beginning of the
belly, pale afh-colour; from thence to the vent white: legs of a
pale green.
Another fpecimen had a purplifh bill: wings dark brown; each
feather croffed with lines of white and black: lower belly, thighs,
and vent, croffed with black: legs brown.
Both the above were met with in drawings from India, where it
is known by the name of Chaba. It feems to be a fpecies which
varies exceedingly.
 [    2S6    ]
Genus LXXIV.     J   A   C   A   N   A.
N" 10. Indian J.
Luzonian Jacana, Gen. Syn. v. p. 245. N° 6.
A MON-G-the drawings of Lady Impey I find the above bird.
The fize nearly that of the Chinefe Jacana. The bill is of a
pale green, and fhaped much like that of a Gull: the crown of the
head, hind part of the neck, and back, brown: above the eyes
white: along the fide of the neck a yellow-ftripe, divided from
the fore part by another of black, which finifhes on the .breaft ;
excepting this, all the under parts from the chin are white : the
wing coverts are white, croffed with a few brown bars: prime
quills black, ending in two projecting narrow feathers: tail cuneiform, brown.: legs as, in other Jacanas, and of a pea green.
This inhabits/^/'*?, where it is called a Plover*.
Chinefe Jacana, Gen. Syn. v. p. 246. N° S.
gIZE of the Gold Pheafantv length two feet.    Bill blueifh:
front of the head, cheeks, fore part :and fides of the neck,
white; hind part of the head black, defcending in a line on each
fide of the neck to the breaft: the back part of the neck, behind
-* I have much fufpicion that it is related to my Chinefe Jacana ; as I was informed, that, when perfect, the.tvvo middle tail-feathers are greatly longer thaa
-the-others, as in that bird.   '&Hf^l
this, of a yellow buff-colour: between the neck and back gilded
brown: all the under parts, from the breaft, deep purple : back
. and fcapulars reddifh brown : wing covefts white: quills brown;
the fecondaries edged with white ; the ends of fome of the primaries grow very narrow towards the tips, and end almoft in a point;
at the bend of the wing a fhort, fharp, horn-coloured fpur: the
two middle tail feathers half the length of the bird, and fhaped
like thofe of the Gold Pheafant; one of them longer than the
other, ending in a point; the adjoining one lefs fharp at the end,
and marked near the tip with an oval fpot of white* : legs green:
toes and claws very long, as ufual in this genus.
Inhabits India, where it is called Vuppi-pi. From the drawings
of Lady Impey.—It is, no doubt, alfo known by another name, as
I obferved one of them, among fome drawings fhown to me by
Major Roberts, which was called Sohna.
CIZ E of the common Water Hen. Bill yellow; bafe of the upper mandible dufky blue; near the gape a red fpot: head,
neck, and under parts, deep blueifh black : back and wings dirty
cinereous brown: quills the fame, but darker, and inclining to
violet: over the eye, and reaching fome way beyond it, a broad
white ftreak: legs dirty luteous brown : toes and claws long, and
fhaped as in others of this genus.
Inhabits India.    Called, at Bengal, Peepee and Mowa; at Hin-
dqftan, Coudey.    It is called alfo Dullpee, from its living in a
* I apprehend that there fhould be four long tail feathers, and that the two
middle ones are alike, as well as their adjoining ones; efpecially as I do not
recollect, any bird in which the tail feathers do not arife by pairs,
Suppi. L1 floating
floating manner.    It is a fhy bird, and frequents ftagnant Jakes,,
- where it is not eafily come at.    It builds the neft upon floating
iflands, among weeds, pretty clofe to the banks.   Male and female
much alike.—Mr. MJddleton.
Genus  LXXV.    G   A   L   L  I   N   U   L   E.
Martinico Gallinule, Gen. Syn. v. p. 255. N° 7.
Fulica martipicenfis, Jacq. Vog. p. 12. t. 3.
*£ACQUINobferves, that it is plentiful in the fwamps of Mar-
•** tinico, where the flefh is valued for food ; and that its voice is
fine and foft, though feldom exerted.
 [  *59   3
Order  VIII.    With Pinnated Feet.
Genus  LXXVIII.     COOT.
Common Coot, Gen. Syn. v. p. 275. N° 1.
Fulica atra, Sepp Vog. pi. in p. 61.—Hajfelq. Voy. Eng. -ed. p. 200.
Y HAVE feen this twice reprefented in drawings from India.
In one fet of them it was figured of a much fuperior fize,
which leaves room to think that the greater fpecies may likewife
inhabit that part of the world.
Fulica leucoryx,~S/<wr. Muf. Carlf. pi. 12. 1.
Var. A.
HPHIS variety has the eyelids pale, and the whole of the wing   Description.
white; but the fhafts of the prime quills black: in other
things, like the common fpecies.
This was found dead in the park at Stockholm. Place.
Fulica jEthiops, Sparrm. Muf. Carlf. pi. 13. 1.
Var. B.
CIZE of the common one, and differs only in having the fea-   Description.
thers of the breaft and belly ferruginous, undulated with
Place not mentioned.
LI 2
 £    26t>   3
.. Pl. CXVIII.
Genus LXXIX,    GREBE.
Red-necked Grebe, Gen. Syn. v.-p. 288. N° 7.
Colymbus fubcriflatus, Jacq. Vog. p. 37. pl. 18.
Colymbus parotis, Sparrm. Muf Carlf pl. 9.
Y ENGTH eighteen inches; to the end of the toes twenty-
four; weight feventeen ounces. Bill nearly two inches long;
fides of the bafe of both mandibles, for three quarters of an inch,
of a fine orange yellow; the reft black : lore brown or blackifh:
irides fine orange red : the crown, and fides of the head above the
eyes,'nearly black, and the feathers a little elongated : the hind
part of the neck, the back, and wings, dark brown; fix of the
middle fecondaries white, a little mottled with dufky at the tips;
the two or three next outward ones more or lefs white near the
tips and inner webs : the chin, fides under the eyes, and fore part
of the neck, for above an inch, pale afh-colour; the reft of the
neck ferruginous chefnut, mottled on the breaft withdufky: from
thence, to the vent, white, like fattin, mottled on the fides with
dufky irregular fpots : legs black.
I received a perfect fpecimen of the male of this-bird from Major Hammond, who informed me, that the end of April, the year
1786, two of them alighted in a farm-yard, near his houfe in Eaft',
Kent, and- were taken alive.
I have alfo met with two other fpecimens ; the firft fent to me,
January 28, 1786, by Mr. Martin, of Teingmouth, a gentleman to
whom I owe many other obligations : his fpecimen had not come
to perfection, as the colours of the head and neck were much
blended, and the ferruginous on the neck only juft breaking forth.
Mr. Boys, of Sandwich, alfo obliged me with a third, the beginning of laft October: his bird, he informed me, weighed nineteen
ounces and a half; the length twenty-one inches and a half;
breadth twenty-eight. The bill yellow at the bafe, dufky olive
towards the tip: lore dufky: irides pale brown: head quite
fmooth. The defcription differed not much; but the ferruginous colour of the neck w*as much blended with dufky; the white
on the under parts greatly mottled with the fame: legs, without,
dufky; within, greenifh yellow: the middle toe united to the
-inner, as far as the firft joint; and to the outer, to the middle of
the fecond *.
The two laft-mentioned are, no doubt, birds not in full plumage. That defcribed by Dr. Sparrman is clearly under the fame
predicament; perhaps a flill younger bird than either of the
others, as the cinereous parts on the throat appear white, with
three or four lines of black, and acfofs the lower part of the
neck is a band of white. The bird figured in Jacquin feems air
* This circumftance appears t» prevail throughout the genus, and. fhould be
added to the characters of it.
 I do not recollect, that, among any of the drawings from India
•or China, which have come under my* inflection, I have met
with a fingle fpecies of the Grebe genus ; yet feveral have been
noticed as inhabitants of the warmer as well as colder parts of
America. Indeed we remark a variety of our Little Grebe, or
what is efteemed as fuch, from the Philippine Iflands, recorded
•by Buffon; and I have not a doubt but future obfervers will find
the Continent of AJia likewife. not to be deficient therein.
It was fuppofed alfo by former authors, that.the Jacana genus
■was confined to Brafil and its environs, hence the whole of that
race known were called Brajilian Water-hens. But later obfer-
vations have pointed out to us no fewer than four of that genus,
•which inhabit Africa and Afia.—One proof, among the many
•others, how much we have yet to learn in Ornithology.
 I    **3
Order IX,    WEB-FOOTED.
Genus LXXX.  A V O S E T...
Scooping Avofet, Gen. Syn. v. p. 293. N° 1.
Recurviroftra avocetta, Sepp Vog. pl. in p. 6g.
HPHE weight of this*bird is frequently fourteen ounces and a
half, Troy: length twenty-two inches; breadth thirty inches:
length of the naked part of the legs feven inches. The Avq/ef:
appears on the coaft of Kent about the middle of April, and departs for the moft part the beginning of September*.
Gen.us LXXX1L.   FLAMING   O..
Red Flamingo, Gen. Syn. v. p. 299. N* 1.
T7\R'. Sparrm an -f met with large flocks of Flamingoes between
Table and Simon's Bay, near Alphen, in the month of April,
feeking their food in pools and puddles that were beginning to
dry up. He informs us, that thefe were of a fnow-white colour,
and.the wings of a flaming rofy hue.
* Mr. Boys.. + Voy. i. p. 30.
£ **w.it.h:
 i  **+ 3
* * W I T H   SHORT   LEGS.
Genus  LXXXIV.
U    K.
' Razor-bill, Gen. Syn. v. p. 319. N° 5.
HPHE method that this bird takes in fifhing is rather fingular,
often diving and catching feveral fmall fi-fh, which it is observed to range on each fide of the bill, with the head in the
mouth, and the tails hanging out on each fide of the bill; and
when the mouth can hold no more, the bird retires to the rocks
to fwallow them at leifure.
 C  *6$  3
Foolifh Guillemot, Gen. Syn. vi. p. 329. N" 1.
A Singular circumftance has been obferved of this bird, which
is, that when taken out of fight of the fea, and turned loofe,
it does not attempt to fly ; but as foon as carried within reach of
the fea, it flies thereto very readily; and if it is put into frefh water, it will fwim about, but feems unwilling to dive, or, if forced
thereto, does not to any great depth, and directly rifes again to
the furface: whether this is owing to the want of proper food contained in the water, or repugnant to it as an element unpleafing
to its nature, cannot be determined. This bird, like the Razorbill, carries the fifh with the tails hanging out of the bill *.
Black Guillemot, Gen.Syn. vi, p. 332. N?3«
HP HE Black Guillemoth common in the Bay of Dublin, which it
does not forfake the wfeefe year f.
1 Mr. Jackfon.
t Id.
M m
Gen xi s
 E   266  J
Genus  LXXXVIII.     TERN.
N° 24. Philippine T..
Sandwich Tern, Gen. Syn. vi. p. 356. N° 9.
YAM informed, that this fpecies is equally common on the-
fhores of Suffolk in the fummer, as on thofe of Kent; and that
it may be diftinguilhed from others both by its fuperior fize while
flying, as well as the difference in note *.
Mr.-j9<7y.rhas obferved to me, that it has a fhorter fcream than
that of the Common Tern, though more like it than the note of any
other. It is foynd to affociate with the Common Tern, for the moft
part, while the Black Tern is in diftinct flights, and all of the above
confiderably more numerous than the Little Tern. The Sandwicfr
Tern generally is feeri in the neighbourhood of Romney about the-
17th of April, and departs about the 5th of S
White Tern, Gen. Syn. vi. p. 363. N° 17;
Sterna alba, Sparrm. Muf. Carlf. pl. 11..
HPEIIS author, in whofe work I firft obferve a figure of the
bird, remarks, that it inhabits the Eaft Indies, and the Cape
of Good Hope, as well as various parts of the South Seas.
• Rev. Dr. Wilgrefs.
Black Tern, Gen. Syn.
Sterna nigra, Sepf Vog. pl.
'"THIS fpecies is obferved to appear on the coafts of Kent in a
few days after the other Terns; and, as they differ fomewhat
in their manners, do not affociate. The Black Tern never depofits
the eggs on the fea beach, as the others do, but breeds and feeds
in the flows within land. It is a lefs fhy bird, and the note much
fhriller than that of the other Terns.
Le petit Fouquet des Philippines, Son. Voy. p. 125. t. 85.
HP HIS is double the fize of the Common Tern. The bill bent
black, ,and pointed at the end : the upper part of the head
even with the eye is white : at the bafe of the bill is a narrow
ftripe of black, which furrounds the eye, and finifhes in a point:
neck, breaft, and belly, vinaceous grey; above, the fame, but
deeper: quills, tail, and legs, black.
Inhabits the Philippine Ifies -, often found at a great diftance
from land.
e m 3
Genus LXXXIX.     GULL.
Black-headed Gull, Gen. Syn.vi
Larus ridibundus, Sepp Vog. pl.
p. 380. N» 9.
n p. 153. M. and Fern.
HPHIS appears firft about Romney, on the coaft of Kent, about
the 17 th of April, and departs the beginning of September.   A
few appear again in the winter*.
Black-toed Gull, Gen. Syn. vi. p. 387. N° 15.
HPHE beginning of September laft, I was prefented with one of
thefe by Mr. Jackfon, which was fhot at Fieldplace, near
Horfbam, in Suffex. It differs from that defcribed in my Synopfis
in a few particulars. It is fixteen inches in length. The whole
plumage darker coloured, and mixed with ferruginous; the quills
marked at the tips with the fame : breaft mottled with white:
the fhape of the tail a trifle rounded at the end : the quills, when
clofed, reach an inch beyond the tip of it "j\
Tarrock Gull, Gen. 1
vi. p. 393. N° 18.
T Received this variety, killed near Teingmouth, in the county of
Devon, November 1785 %.
* Mr. Boys.
+ The tail in my fpecimen had but ten feathers; that of'Briffbn contained
twelve: I therefore fufpeft my bird to have been deficient therein.
% Mr. Martin.
Ge v u s
 £   a°o   3
Genus XC.     P   E
Shearwater, Gen. Syn, vi. p. 406. N° n.
HPHE Shearwater is obferved to fly in an undulating manner,
defcending fo as almoft to touch the furface of the water, and.
then rifing again alternately. When fwimming on the water, it
appears to raife itfelf with the greateft difficulty from the furface;
and, in the effort, the head preponderates for fome diftance, when
the bill is feen to cut the water; hence the name of Cutwater,
or Shearwater, has perhaps been given to the bird *.
Stormy Petrel, Gen. Syn. v:
HPHIS bird vifits the ifle of Thanet early in the winter; fometimes in the month of October. One killed there in January f.
In the middle of Oclober laft, one of thefe was feen on the banks of
the Thames, near Northfieet\, when a boy threw a ftone at it, and
ftunned it, fo as to take it with the hand. This was fent to me,
and, as it appeared not hurt, I endeavoured to keep it alive, but
it would by no means feed. It would dip its bill into a cup of
water, when placed in the cage by it, but refufed all kind of food,
and died the third day after I received it. It feemed to walk in a
tripping manner, and with fome difficulty, when on its feet; and
would frequently fit down, refting the body on the whole length
of the hind part of the legs.
* Mr. Jackfon. f Mr. Boys. % Mr. Macheth.
 E  270  ]
Genus  XCI.     MERGANSER.
Dun-Diver, Gen. Syn. vi. p. 420. N°2.
Mergus ferratus, Brun. Orn. N° 96 *.
TN confirmation of what I before advanced f, concerning the
probability of this bird and the Goofander being different fpe- .
cies, I have been lately informed by Dr. Hey/bam, that he fome
time fince diffected two Dun-Divers; the one weighing about
two pounds : this proved a female; the eggs numerous, and appearing very diftinct. The other bird, being much larger,
weighed full three pounds. The creft in this was longer than that
of the other, and the belly of a bright buff-colour. This proved,
on diffection, a male ; and the teftes were fufficientry apparent, and
beginning to grow turgid. At this time he obferved, that he
could not obtain a fingle Goofander, though fome were feen about,
and fometimes in company with, the Dun-Divers $.
■ The Dun-Diver inhabits Ireland, and breeds upon the iflands of
the Shannon, near Killaloo, and is frequently feen there the whole
fummer through ||.
The Goofander, Red-breafted Goofander, and Smew, appear about
Sandwich in winter §.
my Synopfis, for the Red-breafted Goofander; but
eant the Mergus caftor of Linnaus, a fmall va-
"iftatus,   N°94, 95. he j
* I have quoted the above, i
I am now clear that Brunnich
riety of this fpecies. His M.
f Synopfis, vol. vi, p. 421^ 422.
\ My friend does not fay whether he obferved a labyrinth
II  Mr. Jackfon. % Mr. Boys.
s the Red breafted
 Red-breafted Merganfer, Gen.
Mergus criflatus M. & Fei
TNa male of one of thefe, which was fhot near Sandwich, in
Kent, I obferved that the feathers which compofe the creft were
fimply black; alfo down the middle of the crown, as well as the
fpace before the eye, and beneath the chin and throat; but in the
reft of the neck the black had a glofs of green. This fex is furnifhed with a curious and large labyrinth. The windpipe, about
two inches from its entrance above, fwells out into an oval form,
of three times the width it before occupied, and continues fo for
about two inches; after which it refumes its firft fhape and fize,
and fo continues, to the divarication into the lungs; at which
place it paffes through, and communicates with a bony labyrinth,
in fhape not unlike a heart, two inches and a quarter long by two
in breadth; one fide of which is perforated with two holes,
one of which is double the fize of the other, and both covered
with a pellucid membrane which is dilatable, and ferves to enlarge the cavity of the labyrinth at the will of the bird.
Smew, Gen. Syn. vi. p..428. N° 5.
T HAVE once found a fevtjhrimps in the ftomach of one of
thefe birds.   Mr. Jackfon informs me, that he has found it perfectly diftended with them, and that they are fuppofed to be its
chief food.
 Genus  XCII.     DUCK.
N" 99. Pink-headed D.
N* 100. Barred-headed D.
wan, Gen. Syn. vi. p. 433. N° :
HPHIS bird fometimes weighs twenty-five pounds*.
The trachea, or windpipe, enters the breaft-bone; the keellike procefs of which, in moft other birds, is flat and fharp, but in
this fpecies is very large and hollow. It is into this cavity that
the windpipe enters, and, after making a turn, comes out again at
the orifice where it entered f.
In America they are not uncommon, efpecially on the borders
of the upper lakes, as they breed in the lagoons and marfhy inlets,
and migrate to the fouthern provinces with their young, in incredible numbers, about the beginning of Otlober \.
Black-backed Goofe, Gen. Syn. vi. p. 449. N* 13.
HPO the defcription given before in the Synopfis, the following
may be added. The male differs from the female in having
the excrefcence at the bafe of the bill full as prominent and rounded as in the King Duck; it is likewife flatted at top in the fame
manner; but in the female it is confiderably fmaller : the glofs on
the plumage is alfo more inclining to the green and blue reflections in the male.    Both fexes have a long and dangerous fpur on
* Mr. Boys.
t Dr. Heyfhar,
% Colonel Davies.
the fhoulder of the wing, which, as it is a ftrong bird, renders it a
formidable enemy. It is found north of the Ganges, but is not very
common.    It is known by the name of Nuckdab.—'Communicated
by Mr. Middleton.
Ruddy Goofe, Gen. Syn. vi. p. 456. N"
C AID to be common in Crim Tartary. The Baron de Tott, in
his Memoirs, obferves, that among the various fpecies of aquatic birds which abound in the Crimea, the moft remarkable is a
kind of Wild Goofe, with longer legs than ours, and a plumage of
a bright brick-colour. The Tartars pretend, that the flefh is exceedingly dangerous : " I tailed it (fays he) and only found it
" exceedingly good-for-nothing."
Grey-headed Duck, Gen. Syn. vi. p. 45U. N" 19.
TN the fpecimen in the Leverian Mufeum may be perceived a
blunt knob a little below the bend of the wing.
Tame Goofe, Gen. Syn.vi. p. 461.
Anas Anfer, Brun. N" 55.
T AM informed by a friend*, that the Geefe, in their journey from
the diftant counties to London, will walk from eight to ten
miles a day on an average, travelling from three in the morning
till nine at night; and as it happens that fome of the weaker ones
are much fatigued thereby, in fuch cafe they are fed with oats in-
ftead ofbarley, the ufual food on the journey.
* Mr. Jones.
N n
Eider Duck, Gen. Syn. vi. p. 470. N° 29.
Anas Molliffima, Brun. N° 57—-66.—Sparrm. Muf. Carlf, pl. 6,
HPHIS very feldom vifits the fouthern part of this ifland ; yet
Mr. Boys, informs me, that he had a defcription of. a bird (hot
in the Ifland of Thanet, March 1786, which could be no other than
a male of this fpecies.
Velvet Duck, Gen. Syn. vi. p. 482. N" 37.
HPHE Scoter and Velvet Duck are greatly fimilar in plumage, the
laft chiefly differing from the former ia having the white
mark beneath the eye, and a band of the fame acrofs the wing;
but internally they differ much : the male of the Scoter is totally
without a labyrinth, or enlargement of the windpipe, in any part;
but the Velvet Duck has a very confpicuous fwelling, of a roundifh
form, about the fize of a finall walnut, at about two thirds of its
length; though at the entrance into the lungs there is no real labyrinth, only an enlargement.
Red-billed Whittling Duck, Gen. Syn. vi. p. 498. N° 47.
Anas autumnalis, Jacq. Vog. p. 6. N» 4.
HPHE bill in young birds is black. This fpecies is very common at New Grenada, in South America, and is frequently
kept tame in the farm-yards between the tropics, but is apt to be
quarrelfome, and will often fly away. The Spaniards call the bird
Pifefic, from its voice; the Englifh, Main-Duck. This is frequently brought into Europe, and has propagated in an aviary at
Sbonbrun, in Sweden,
Shieldrake, Gen. Syn. vi. p. 504. N° 51.
TV/T  Daubenton * talks of a mixed breed between the Shieldrake
and Common Duck; but fays that the produce was not
Spanifh Duck, Gen. Syn. vi. p. 525. N°69.
Anas viduata, Jacq. Vog. p. 3. 1.1.
HPHIS fpecies  inhabits Carthagena,  in South America.    The
word Vindila, as written by Linnaus, is certainly an error of
the prefs; it fhould have been viudita, which fignifies a little widow, and was intended to be fo called f.
It has-been obferved to me, that the White-headed Duck of Sco-
poli%, and the Ural Duck of Dr. Pallas\\, are the fame with this
bird, notwithftanding the above authors confider them as new fpecies §. The Spanifh Duck was firft defcribed by Linnaus, and I
mull confefs that the defcription of the three birds in queflion
agree with each other exceedingly.
Weftern Duck, Gen. Syn. vi. p. 532. N° 74.
Anas difpar, M. & Fern. Sparrm. Muf. Carlf. pl. j.
HPHE male has been before defcribed.
The female has the whole plumage mixed brown and ferruginous, not unlike that of the Woodcock. The quills are all flrait,
and of a dufky colour; the fecondaries haye fome of them white
* Encyclopedii methodique
''rav. ii.p.713.
*. Pennant.
Nn :
t Jacqui
X Ann. i. ^79.
 276 DUCK.-
tips, making a fpot on the wing: fome of the wing coverts have
alfo white tips, forming a large fpot of white forwards:. the legs-
are black.
A pair of thefe were fhot at one time, on a river in Ofirogothia,
in Sweden.
88. Common Teal, Gen. Syn. vi. p. 551. N° 88.
- COMMON Anas Crecca, Sepp Vog. pl. in p. 147. M. and Fem.
"O O T H the Garganey and this bird are found on the coafts of
Kent in the winter *. The Teal is now known to breed in the-
moffes about Carlifle, in Cumberland -j-. Both the Garganey and
Teal extend to India, as I have met with them in drawings done
in that country. I likewife find, that the Wild Duck, the Sboveler,
and the Gadwal, inhabit the coaft. of Coromandel, and, no doubt>
other parts of India*
PINK-HEADED giZE of the Black-billed Whiftling Duck: length twenty-one
Pl CXIX inches..   Bill two inches and a half in length, a trifle bent at
_ .   -     the point; colour of that, the whole of the head, and half the
Description. r ' 3
neck, a fine pink ; and, as far as that colour extends, the feathers
are fhort and" downy : irides red: the lower part of the neck, and
the reft of the plumage, a dufky deep chocolate brown, except a
kind of fpeculum, formed of three or four of the quills, which are
of a pale red, or ruft-colour : fome of the lower wing coverts are
curved downwards at.the ends, as in the male of the WefternDuck\:-
the tail is two inches in length, and the wings reach near one third j
* Mr. Boys. f Dx.HeyJhatn. $ Gen. Syns yi. P..532.
» thereon:.
   D   U   C   K.
thereon : the legs are blue grey, and rather longer than in many
of the genus.    The female fcarce differs-from the male.
Inhabits various parts of'India; moft frequent in the province
of Oude. Is feldom feen in flocks, for the moft part, only two being found together;    I& often kept tame -*..
glZE of a-Tame Goofe: length twenty-fix inches.    Bill two    HEADED G*.
inches long, and of a bright yellow; nail black : the head,   Description^
throat, and hind part of the neck, are white: at the back part of
the head, below the eye, a crefcent of black, the horns curving upwards towards-the eye ; below this is a fecond; and under this,
moft part of the back of the neck is black alfo : the back is of a
fine pale grey ; the edges of the feathers lighteft: wings pale afh-
colour ; edges of the prime quills dufky : lower part Of the neck
before, breafiv and upper part of the belly, a moft elegant pale
afh-colour, edged with white: lower belly deep brown, edged
with white : rump and vent,fnow white: tail fine light grey, tipped with white : legs reddifh yellow.
Inhabits India.    I am informed, that this fpecies is often met Placed.
with by hundreds in a flock in the winter months, and is very deftructive to the corn.. Suppofed to come from Thibet, and other
parts towards the north, departing again as the fummer approaches.    Its flefh is much efteemed f,
•■ Mr. Middleton. f Major Roberts..
 C  273  ]
Cape Pengui
. p. 566. N° 5.
W^E find by Mr. Sparrman*, that at prefent the little ifland of
Malagas, in Falfe Bay, is particularly reforted to by the Penguins and Seals *aa& although Robben or Seal Ifland (otherwife
called Penguin Ifland) in Table Bay, bears the name of the bird,
they have been feldom found there fince the ifland has been inhabited, ^fojpirf
* Voy, i. p. 24,
 C  279  J
Genus  XCIV.
!orvorant, Gen. Syn. vi. p. 593. N» 13.—Sepp Vog. pi. in p.
T is difficult to make the Corvorant rife from the water, efpecially if followed, and obliged to dive many times, as its feathers imbibe much wet. On this account, it is obferved, that
when it comes out of the water, it expands and flaps the wings as
foon as poflible, that the feathers may the fooner dry. Mr. Jack-
fon obferved to me, that having once made a great noife beneath
the neft of a Corvorant which had built in the rocks, he frightened out three young, Which not being fledged enough to fly, dropped into the water, but immediately fwam about, and dived without the leafl difficulty, as if they had been ufed to that element-
Both Corvorant and Shag are called about Sandwich by the name
of Cole-Goofe *►
Spotted Shag, Gen. Syn.
Pelkanus pun&atus, Spt
vi. p. 602. N° 18.
rm. Muf. Carlf. pl, 10;
HP HIS, like the Corvorant, and many other birds, has, no doubt,
two manners of building, each fuited to its prefent convenience.    It is faid ufually to build among the rocks; but we are
told by Dr. Sparrmam, .that it makes the neft in the trees alfo..
* Mr. Boys*
Gannet, Gen. Syn.
. N» 25.
(Find that it is not the Pelecanus Sula of Linnatts, but the Sula
Hoieri, a different bird, and a mere variety of our Common Gannet, which is now and then found in this kingdom*. It chiefly
varies in having fome of the fecond quills, and fome of the tail
feathers, "black.
Mr. Martin, of Teingmouth, in Devon/hire, fufpedts that the
Gannet breeds thereabouts, as he has feen the old birds in the
fummer feafon.
Leffer Gannet, Gen. Syn. vi. p. 611. N° 26 ?
Lev. Muf.
OIZE of a Duck: length twenty inches. Bill fir ait, as In the
Gannet, and fhaped like it; colour reddifh brown, with a dufky
or black point; the bafe, and fkin round the eye, of a deep red.
The plumage is wholly white, except the wings, fcapulars, and
middle of the back, which are dufky, and the quills black: the
tail is even at the end: legs blood red.
I apprehend this bird to be a variety of the Leffer Gannet. It
differs chiefly in being fmaller, and in having the tail feathers
white throughout, which in the other are only white at the bafe,
the reft of the length being black.
• Syn. vol. vi. p. 6ii.—Ara.'Zool. vol. ii, p, 583.
 A    LIST   of the   Birds   of Great   Britain ;
Comprehending all fuch as either vifit us at uncertain Seafons, or are ufually
domefticated, as well as thofe which are known to be conftant Inhabitants.
Explanation   of   the   Marks,
:he Summer Seafon.
f Thofe which are found with
* Such as are Winter Inhabitai
X Thofe which breed with n
Division   I.
Division II.
Div.    I.    Order    I.    RAPACIOUS,
Genus    II.
Sea Eagle*
Golden E. b
Ringtail E. e
Cinereous E. 4
Ofprey       —
Common Buzzard -
Honey B.     —     -
Moor B.     —
Gofhawke      —   -
Kitef —
Gentil Falcon s     -
Peregrine F.
H Spotted F. h
Br. Zool.     |
I.  p.   30
 ' 3>
— p.    9
I. N° 44
—— 11
- 46
,   74
- 50
F   A   L   1
Offifragus     -
Chryfaetos     ■
Fulvus        —
Albicilla (r,fe
Buteo        —
Apivorus      -
Milvus        —
DanUus       —
0 4
- 125
- 123
- 129
- 130
-   id.
-   —
- 126
-    —
a In the North of England and in Scotland, alfo in Ireland. b Caernarvon/hire, Snoivdon, Ireland.
Frequent in Scotland, and called the Black Eagle—In the Peak of Derbyjbire. d In Scotland, and the
rknies 1 conftantly breeds in Cumberland. ' Scotland, Ireland. f Nut feen in the Northern
8 The Gentil F. is probably only the young of the Gojbaiuk. h Shot at
Halifax, in Yorkjb
|| Rough-legged F. ;
U   Grey F. "
White Jerfalcon 1    ■
Brown Lannerm    —
Hen-Harrier a        —
Ring-tail      —      —
Keftril        —
Sparrow-Hawk       —
Hobby •      —
Merlin p       —     -
Grifeus        -
Cyaneus     -
I- P- 75
i   82
-p. 18
II. p. 622
I. N°49
• 106
. 129. N°
-126 —
Genus    III.
|| Great eared O. '
Long-eared O.
* Short-eared O.'
White O. —
Tawny O. —
Brown O. —•
I Little O.s
■—  40
■ 121
1           7°
Otus       -
131 —
132 —
i Not very common.    I have twice received it from Suffolk. Has alfo been fhot near London. k Once '"
fhot at Halifax, in York/hire. 1 Inhabits the North of Scotland. ■** Once caught in a decoy in
Lincolnjhire. n By fome late obfervations it fhould feem that the Hen-Harrier and Ringtail differ only
in fex. ° The Hobby fuppofed to migrate hence in Oaober. P The Merlin does not appear in
the South till towards the vjinter : breeds in Scotland, allp in Cumberland. 1 This fpecies is very
rarely feen in England. ' Appears with us in Oaober—faid to come and go with the Woodcock? hence
fcy fome called the Woodcock Owl. * Exceedingly rare in England.
 fGreatcinereous Sh.'II. p. 160
fRed-backed Sh. tt -    167
t Wood Chat *      —'
Raven —
Crow       ■—
Rook —
* Hooded Cr. *
Tackdaw —
Jay -
Magpie —
|| Nutcracker *
Red-legged Cr.
'■ 75
■   78I
II. p. 625
I. N° 80
Corax v—
Corone —
Frugilegus    —
Monedula    •—■
Pica        —
Graculus    —«
|| Garrulous R. r
Genus   XIII.
I || ||    Couc
-.4o6| —- 85IIII. p. 6241| Garrula      —
— I -159 "
Orioh,     j              I
|| Golden O. *       — |LI. p. 449I .	
Genus   XtV*
II II     O r t 0 t u s.     J
p.626||Galbula     —       — | —t6o -•
' This fpecies not
and the laft breed with us, bu
»yet met with it, w
months. x Scarce
. kingdom, * 15 now a
moft fo in the South of England.    Only feen in fu
Jreeds both in Scotland and Ireland.   Not f<
er met with in England. y Ha
i then met with in England.
Oo 2
:eedingly fcarce. I never
n the South, except in .thp ivinter
ly once or twice been fhot in this
Genus    XIX.
CUCKOW. j   Synopfis.   I   Supplem.   II  Br. Zool.   II        CuCUHS
f Common C.       —jll. p. 509I —p. 98II I. N° 82||Canorus    —
Genus   XX.
Wryneck.    I    .          I               j| || Y u n x.
f Common Wr.    -|  548]  io3||   83||Torquilla    —
Genus    XXI.
J     Syft. Nat. I.
—]  p. 168.  N"   I
I Great black W. a
Greater fpotted W.
Middle fpotted W. b
LefTer fpotted W.    -
|| Hairy W. c
Green W.
Common  K. —I
European N. —
y Common H. d
Common Cr. ,
—173 —    1
—176 — 17
    — 18
    — 19
—175 — 16
    — 12
Genus    XXIII.
j ji ||        A   L   C   E   D   O.       j
—626)          iijfll   88Jflfpida       — —| —179 —   3
Genus    XXIV.
I               11               ||        S 1 T t a. I
-6481 '< 117U —— 89||Europasa     — —| —177 —    1
Genus   XXVII.
I              ||              ||      U p u p a. I
-687I  122II   9ol|Epops        — —I —183 —    1
Genus    XXVIII.
701]    126||
h in the South of England :
||        C E R T H I
-184 ■
< Has been met with in the South of England : now and then faid to have been feen in Devonjhire.
•> This is a fcarce fpecies. = Lately found to inhabit York/hire. d Oftener met with m
England than is generally fuppofed; J have had more than one or two proofs of its breeding here.
 smmmmmm,     em**-
Order    III.
Genus    XXX.
STARE. I    Synopfis.   I   Supplem.   II   Br. Zool.   ||        S  1
Common St. —JUL p. 2[— p. 137H1. N° 104H Vulga
Genus    XXXI.
ISyft. Nat
p. 29(3-1
Miffel Thr. —
Throftle     — -
* Redwing —
* Fieldfare -
Blackbird — —
Ring Ouzel - —
Water O.f —
ptofe-coloured Thr.*
Chatterer.    J
I Waxen Ch. h       —|
II. p. 627
Forquatus —
Cinclus (Sturnus, Lin.)
Rofeus        —.        —
Genus    XXXII.
! |j ||       Amp e lis,
|— 29i
• 291
* 295 -
• 290 -
• 294 -
— 1
~    4
— 3
Genus    XXXIV.
Common Crofsbill *
Hawfinchk             —
Pine Grofbeak1     —
Greenfinch             —
Bulfinch        —.     —
-115 Curviroftra    —
—113 Coccoth rauftes
-1,4 Enucleator
-117  Chloris       —
-116 Pyrrhula    —
— 304 *
300 ■
•    3
■ 27
= Breeds in the North of England; in Wales and Scotland; feen in the South only injuring and autumn, during
its migrations. 4 Inhabits chiefly the northern parts of this kingdom. S Rare in England; has
been (hot in Norfolk, Lancajhire,. and once near London. *> Not commonly met with in the South, yet
more frequent than the laft-named. i  Sometimes vifits us in valt flocks. k Now and then met
with in England, perhaps may fometimes breed here, as it has been feen in the fummer months.        * Inhabits
Scotland only, breeding in thepine-foxe&i,
G 5>N U S
Snow B. ar
Tawny  B. n
Mountain  B. °     .
Yellow  B.
Common B.
Reed B.      —
|| Green-headed B.
G e n u .s   XXXV.
- p.157
Br. Zool.
. N° 122
Nivalis       —
Frigida       —
Montana      —
Citrinella      —
Miliaria      —
Solitaria      —■
Syft. Nat. I.
p. 308. N° 1
- 3°9 —   5
-308-   3
— 3" — 17
Genus'. XXXVII.
Houfe Sparrow
Tree Sparrow <l
Chaffinch     —
Goldfinch     —     ■
* Sifkin        —      •
Common Linnet
Greater Redpole    •
Leffer D°     —       ■
Mountain Linnet •
Var. A. Twite
Montana    •
Spinus        -
— 323 "
— 324 •
* 37
' 3
' 4
' 7
■ 25
— 322 — 28
-   — 29
t Spotted Fl.
t Pied Fl.    —     -
Genus   XXXVIII.
 134 Grifola       -       -\- 3*8 ■
 135 Atricapilla     —     —— 326 •
™ n ° Moftly found in the North of England; rarely in the South. 1
near London. 1 Chiefly found in Lancajbire, Lincoln/hire, and Ytrk/hir,
into England in vaft flocks, and mixes With the Gbaffincbest
Genus   XXXIX.
Sky Lark —
Wood L.
TitL. —
Field L. —
|| Red L. »
|| Leffercrefted L.    -
Supplem.   I
Br. Zoo.,    j
I. N° 136
1 375
^rvenfis      —        —I
Atrborea      —        —
Genus    XL.
White W.
Grey W. t     _     _
t Yellow W —
 395   -
 398  -
— id.
4°o| -
— — — 331 — *i
Genus    XLI.
Warb IrES.
+ Nightingale        —
t Greater Pettychaps
t Leffer D° —
Hedge W — —
+ Redftart — —
■j* White-throat —
t Grafshopper W. -
t Sedge W. —
*? Dartford W. * —
Red breaft   —       —
—— id.
SYLVIA {Motacilla, Lin.)
Lufcinia     —        —
Simplex       —        —
Modularis     —     —
Phcenicurus —
Trivialis {Alauda, Lin.)
Dartfordienfis —
Rubecula      —     —
■ 328 — I
• 33° — 7
■ 329 — 3
• 335 — 34
* Now and then met with in the neighbourhood of London ; but more common in America. } Breeds
i the North of England ; only feen in the South during the winter months. ■» This is probably only a
writer inhabitant, at leafl: it has not yet been feen in the .fummer feafon in the South of England.
• W A R B L E R
Stone Chat
Whin Chat
t Wheat Ear
T Grey D°.    Vai
Common Wren
Gold-crefted Wr.
t Yellow Wr.
I D° Var.
t Reed Wr. '
: tLefferWhite-throat
|   Synopfis.
Br. Zool.
r. N° 159I
i '57
1 154
Syft. Nat. I.
p. 332. N° 17
    — 15
id.   (3.          —
■-    — id.
— 337 — 46
Regulus       <mr*
- 338 - 48
    — 49
Genus    XLIII.
Great T.
Colemoufe x
Marfh  T.
Blue T.
Bearded T.
f Chimney Sw. —
T Martin —
t Sand M. —
T Swift       — —
—r- ,89
1  543
|  166
Ater —
|— 34» —   3
-   —   7
    —   5
• 343 —    *
■ 344 —   3
Goatsucker.   |
t- European G.      —j-
Genus    XLV.
1|! || Caprimulgus. I
 x94.ll  i72||Europsus —|— 346 —
» v Newly-difcovered fpecies.    I apprehend the latter to be the Motacilla Sylvia of Linnaeus, rather  than
the White throat,  as is by fome fuppofed. x It is l-y many held in doubt, whether or not this and the
; aext srtre diftinft fpeciesi f No doubt breeds in England, as I have met with it at all feafons.
Order    IV.       COLUMBINE.
Genus    XLVI.
Stock P.
Ring P.      —
T Common Turtle •
t Spotted-necked D°
r Supplem.
|   Br. Zool.   I
p.   197
I. N° 101
— 199
O   R
t Crefted P.
er    V.        GALLINACEOUS.
Genus    XLVII.
—I  668|    ——    ||  278||Criftatus     —       —|— 267
Genus    XLVIII.
Oenas       — —
Turtur       —
Turkey.      I
% Common T.        —J  676J  203}
Genus    XLIX.
Pintado.      I               j               || jj      N u m i d a.
I Guinea P. — |  685I  204II  28o||Meleagris
Genus    LI.
— — 268 —   1
•J; Cock and Varieties
Gallus       —
Pheafant                  —
Ring D°. Var. z    —
J Painted Ph. a      —
'Piaus        —
% Pencilled Ph.      —
,70 —   I
|— 271 —   3
z A beautiful variety. Has been many times fhot at large, and no doubt will foon become as plentiful as the
common fpecies. a Has been found at  large  feveral  times, and  poffibly may hereafter become
S u p P l. J                     P £»                                                    Genus
| Wood Gr. b
Black Gr.
| Spurious Gr,
Genus    LIII.
Synopfis.  .
Supplem.    11  Br." Zool.
 2l6       94 j
p. 273. N°
■ 274 --
Lagopus      — 274—4
Partr id g e.
Common  P.
jl Guernfey P. •     -
Common  Quail
G e
||PERDIX (.Tetr,
- 96||Cinerea
- Rufa        —
• 97 Coturnix
- — 276 — 13
  276 —  12
  278 — 20
Gteat B.
|| Little B. *
Thick-kneed B.    —
Genus    LVI.
Tarda —
Tetrax —
Oedicnemus ifibar,
 264 —   1
i — 255 — 10
* This Genus, for the moft part, inhabits only the more Northern counties ; the firft fpecies found only in
Highlands of Scotland, where at this prefent it is very rare.
« <J Now and then met with at large in England; but as both of them prefer the warmer climate^ ii »
fcarce probable that they will ever become common in this ifland,
div. n.
D i v.      II.
Order   VII.    With Cloven Feet.
| White Sp. j
|| Common Crane f -
It-White Stork s —
1 Night Heron h —
Bittern — -
|| Little B. * -
Common Heron     —
| Egret *     -        -
|| Great Wh. Heron
- II African m    -—    —
Genus    LX.
Synopfis.   I   Supplem.   ||   Br. Zool.    ||       P LA TALE A.
V. p. 13I —p.     jjll. p. 634II Leucorodia
Genus    LXV.
I     Syft. Nat
I  P-23I-  •
— id.
- id.
-N° 174
—N° 173
— p. 631
N» 175
Grus        —
Stellaris       -
Minuta       -
Alba -
— 234
— 239
— 4
~ 7
— 21
— 26
— 13
— 24
1 Gloffy  I. H
Common C.
Whimbrel     —
II Pygmy •    —
Genus    LXVI.
\    Tantalus.
Genus    LXVII.
Arquatus — *t-
Phaeopus — —
Pygmscu,     -        -
—p. 242
— 3
— 4
> Very rare.    A flock of theni migrated into the marfhes near Yarmouth, in 1774. t Said to he
union in England many years ago, now fcarce ever met with. 8 Has twice been met with in this
kingdom. h One fhot near London In i7Sz. i Only two or three times feen in England.        k 1 Once
faid to be plentiful here, now very rarely met wifh. <n One (hot in AJbdown Park, Berks; an African
fpecies ? ■> Chiefly inhabits Ruffia; one in the Leverian Mufeum, fhot in Cornwall. ° Two
only upon record j one met with in Holland, the other fhot laft year near Sandwich, in Kent. The weight of
this fpecimen was almoft % ounces, length %\ inches, breadth 15* inches, bill i| inch • the edges of all the
feathers a very pale oker inftead of white. Dr. Leitb feems to think that he has met with this bird in the
marfhes near Greenwich, in the month of Auguft.
Ppa Genu*
 :ST   OF   THE
Genus    LXVIII.
|| Great Snipe p
* Common Snipe
*Jack Sn.
j1. Red God wit i
Common G.
H Cinereous G. r
|| Cambridge G.s
|| Jadreka Sn.
|| Spotted Sn.
Redfhank     —
— P--
Rufticola    —
Media        —
Gallinula      —
Cineracea —
Limofa —
Glottis —
Totanus —
Calidris       —
iSyft. Nat. F.
p. 243. N* 6
—  246  —  15,
" 245 *
" 245  *
Genus    LXIX.
T.Ruff        —
Lapwing     —
|| Gambet -
*Grey  S.
* Green  S.
 Var. A.
* Afh-coloured S.
t Common S.
|| "Spotted S.
Purre —
 Var. A
II Little S.
Dunlin      —
Red S.        —
t Knot       —
 Var. A.
II.   205
I 193
Pugnax       —
Cinclus       -
Pufilla       -
Alpina        —
Canutus      -
is twice been fhot in Kent, and once in Lancafbire : is a very
th twice in England. • A Cngle fpecimen- fhot "
—247 —
—248 —
—252 —
—250 —
—250 —
—249 —
—251 —
— 252 —
—249 —
—251 —
—248 —
—248 —
I Greenwich*
 OF   G R E A
[Greenwich S.1
j Brown S. u
|| Black S.T
Golden PI. *—
|| Long-legged Pl. -
Sanderling — —
f Ringed Pl. —
f Dotterel —.
 Var. A. —
V. p. -
— p. 249   II. —
—250N —195
—2511 —197-
j  *97
- '  ■-
 211 '
■ 210
|j Cream-coloured Pl.w[ ——217I  254II        \\Curfo
Genus    LXXI
Genus    LXX.
* With  a ftraight Bill.
IPluvialis        — —
Himantopus —
Calidris      — —
Hiaticula       — ,—
Morinellus —
* * With  a curved  Bill
Oyster-Catcher. I
Pied O. C. —|
Water R.
f Crake G. —
Common G. —
1 Spotted G. —
||| ||    Hjematopus.    j
-—   ||  2i3||Oftralegus —j —257 —   1
Genus    LXXII.
j[ ||       Railus.      I
I    ——    II -—2i4]|Aquaticus —|— 262 ■"-  .2
Genus    LXXV.
■ —258
Gall inula
(Rallus & Fulica, Lin.)
CreX   (Rallus)
Chloropus (Fulica)     —j
Porzana (Rallus)      —
I— 261 — I
258 - 4
262, —   3
* A fingle fpecimen fhot near Greenwich, in Kent. ** Once met with in the London market.
v A bird of this fpecies was fhot in Lincolnfiire. v Two only on record have been met v
Eurofe, the one in France, the other in England, fhot in Kent, and in my own collection.
Order    VIII.       With Pinnated Feet.
Genus    LXXVII.
|| Red Ph. *
|| Grey Ph.
V. p.271
Br. Zool. P HAL AROP US,
(Tringa, Li».)
II.N°2I9  Fulicarius -
——218  Lobatus      —       —■
p. 249. N° 10
Common C."
Greater C.
Genus    LXXVIII.
-275 —p. 259
—257 —
Genus    LXXIX.
Crefted Gr. *
Tippet Gr. •
Eared Gr.     ■—
Dufky Gr.
I) Red-necked Gi
Little Gr.
|| Black-chin Gr.e -
x 7 Both of thefe extremely rare
es, the laft not in full plumage,
tet with, sxcept in the Hebrides.
1 260
—222 •
—223 -
1 this kingdom. z a Thefe two are probably «nly one fpe-
b But lately difcovered in this kingdom, c Not hitherto
 Order    IX
* With long Legs.
G e n u s    LXXX.
AVOSBT. |   Synopfis.   |  Supplem.   II  Br. Zool.  II  RkCURVIROSTRA
Scooping Av.       —|V. p. 293I— p.-263!|[I.N0228||Avofetta     —
* *   With fhort Legs,
u s    LXXXIV.
fl Great A.
Puffin        —
Razor-billed A,
Black-billed A.<-    —
Little A.     —
Foolifh G.f
Leffer G. *
Black G.     —     -
■—Spotted Var.
1  334
UrIA,  (Colymbus, Lin.)
p". 210.
211 -
210 •
211 •
•  220 —     I
ft Northern D.
Imber D.     —     -
Speckled D.
U Black-throated D.
Red-throated D.    -
Glacialis —
Immer —
Stellatus —
Ar&icus —
•< • Thefe two are one and the fame fpecies, the latter being a young bird. «" g Thtfe t
birds are likewife fuppofed to be the fame, in different ftages of life", the laft not in full phi mage.
t Sandwich T h
t Var. A.
t Common T.
+ Leffer T.
t Black T.
BTOwn T. k
v p- 356
— p.266
Br. Zool.   ||
II. N" 254
Syft. Nat. I.
p. 228. N° 5?
227 —   2
228 —   4
—   —   7
u s    LXXXIX.
Black-backed G. '   —
Herring G. m          —
Wagel n      —        —
Common G.           —
Black-headed G. ° —
Red-legged G. p    —
 Var. A.
j| Brown-headed G. *•
Winter G.              —
Skua        —            —
1| Black-toed G.'   —
Ardic   G.               —
Tarrock =    —        —
 Var. A.       —
Kittiwakec            —
Marinus      -
Nsevius       -
Canus        '—
- 225
- 224
- 225
- 224
- 226
- 226
- 224
Genus   XC.
Fulmar P.
Shearwater P.
Stormy P.     -
• —403
1 —-4^
1  2591
Glacialis     -
Puffinus       —
I— 212, —
i Till lately was   confounded with the other Terns ; i is the young bird. k A  doubtful
es. 1 m ** Thefe three may poflibly hereafter prove to be of the fame fpecies, of which, the
s either the female, or young bird in imperfeft plumage. ° P Thefe two differ alfo from age s
= is a bird of the firft year, as this fpecies does not gain its black head till the fecond. i A rare
pecies; at firft fight differs not greatly from the black-headed, but on examination feems diftinS. r Very
are ; one recorded to have been  fhot near Oxford, and another killed near Horfham, in Sujfex •• now m my
wlle&ion, ' r, Probably only differing in fex or age.
Red-breafted M.
Smew        —
Minute M.
— p. 270
— 271
— id.
Br. Zool.
II. N°26o
— f
 202 !
:us        —
- p. 208 N° 2
 209 — 4
- - 208 - 3
- — 209 — 5
.   — id. — 6
Genus    XCII.
II Whiffling Swa*  -
•J Mute Swan
% China Goofe
t Canada G. ' -
4 Egyptian-G.      -
|| Red-breafted G.Z
% Grey lag G.        —
* White-fronted G.
* Bean G.     —     -
* Bernacle     —     -
* Brent       —
| Eider G.
t Mofchovy
* Scoter      —        —
* Velvet D.
t Mallard — -
% Hook-billed
* Scaup D.
Shieldrake     —      -
Shoveler      —
|| Red-breafted D°    ■
* Gad wall     —     -
* Wigeon — -
•|| Bimaculated D. ■
* Pochard — -
|| Ferruginous        —
 43 b
,  264
: —265
Cvgnus (ferus)
liflima     ■_     _
1 " The Goofander
ering in fex, as ge
t with in England. _
S U P P t.
ecoy in England.
* Pintail D.
|| Long-railed D.
* Golden-eye
* Morillon
* Tufted D.
* Garganey
Teal —
1   Synopfis.
|   528
Br. Zool.   |
II. p. 282 j
•— *90J
—p. 276
Acuta —
Hyemalis —
Clangula —
Crecca       —
• 29
■ 201
— 201 — 26
— 207 — 45
— 203 — 32
— 204 ~ 33
Shag       —
Crefted Sh.
Soland G.
 Var. A.
Genus    XCIV.
_ 608  28>
Carbo       —
• 216 —    3
OR      THE
T     E
V RONTISPIECE.    Kamstchatka Thrush.
CVII. Spectacle Owl        -    To face Page    50
CVIII. Malabar Shrike                - -56
CIX. Bankian Cockatoo            - -    63
CX. Red-billed Promerops           - - 124
CXI. Harlequin  Humming-Bird - 135
.   CXII. Capital Tanager             - - 162
CXIII. Lesser White-throat         - - 185
CXIV. Impeyan Pheasant            - - 208
CXV. Gigantic Crane               - - 232
CXVL Cream-coloured Plover        - - 254
CXVII. Chinese Jacana                - - 256
CXVIII. Red-necked Grebe            - | *• 260
CXIX. Pink-headed Duck            - - 276
o   v
T     H    O
R    S.
T>ORN.  Phyf.    Phyfikalifche Arbeiten der eintrachtigen Freunde in
**-**    Wien.—Ignaz von Born. Wien, 4to 1783.
Faun. Arag.—Jntroductio in Oryctographiam et Zoologiam Aragoniav
accedit enumeratio ftirpium in eadem regione noviter detectarum.—
8vo 1784.
Haffelq. Voy. Eng. ed. Voyages and Travels in the Levant, in the Years-
1749, 50, 51, 52, by the late Fred. Haffelquifl, M. D.—London,
8vo 1766.
facquin Vog.—Jofeph Franz von Jacquin Beytrage zur Gefchichte der.
Vogel.    Wien. 4to 1784.
Sparrm. Muf. Carlf. Mufeum Carlfonianum, in quo novas et fe-
leclas Aves coloribus ad vivum, brevique defcriptione illuftratas, juffu
et fumptibus generofiffimi poffefforis, exhibet Andreas Sparrman, Faf-
ciculus 1.    Holmiae, fol. 1786.
Sparrm. Voy. A Voyage to the Cape of Good Hope, toward* the antarctic polar circle, and round the World, but chiefly into the country,
of the Hottentots and Caffres, from the year 1772 to 1776, by Andrew
Sparrman, M. D. &c. 6cc.    2 vols. 410. London, 1785.
468, ■
498, ■
504, •
584. •
ead No.
ter Lark, add Br. Zool. N
for      23;,     read      335.
.t the end, add tips of the.
for iii. p. 344. read v. p. 342.
     340,     342.
  s> •
■ 272,
. Creft,
VOL.   V.
- «47-
3j 429, 249.
19, after doubly read ferrated.
VOL.   VI.
  232,        read    222.
after Goofander, » Br. Zool.
for   462,                    ■ 472.
 — 77» 78»  ! P- 2i-
- N* 9.1, " p. 21.
Omitted in the Index, Tringa fufca, p. 225
ERRATA in the Supplement.
98, in the Note, for Phalane, read Phalana.
161,   line   hi,    for barbet a,   read barb at a.
 I    N
Jt\    Agabue de terre
Blackbird          —
crefted          —
A^gle, Malabarre        —
Boleta                 _
raye             —
Bone-breaker           —
Akaiearooa             —
eater            —
Alcedo ifpida           —
taker            —
Alferraz                —
Boulboul               —
Amaduvade              —
Brothers five             •-
Amifk aho                —
Bugadee               —
Anas anfer             —
Bum                  —
autumnalis       —
Bumrauge             —
crecca            —
Bungummi              —
molliffima       —
Bunting,   black-crowned
viduata            —
Aplfk-mikefue         —
cinereous       —.
Ardea nivea            —
Gaur         —
nycticorax       —
Maelby       —
ftellaris    '       —
Ardeola               —
painted          —
Argala                —
reed            —
Afitchou achafhifh       —
fncw          —
Aunjun               —
' white crowned
Avofet                —
•fellow        —
Autour a ventre raye
— '
Bufe criarde             —
Buffenbuddoo           —
Buftard, Arabian         —
Barbet, doubtful         —
little            —
grand           -
Paffarage        —
Indian         : —
Buttore               —
wax-billed        —
Buzzard, common        —
honey         -
Bauge               _
Bee-eater, common
Indian   •    —
Bittern      '        —
Calao de Coromandel
little           —
de Gingi        —
— —     ib.
N       D       EX.
■■Canary-biter             —
page      51    Cowpen               ——
(page   165
—    194    Crakoli                —
—   253
Certhia familiaris        —
—    126    Crane, gigantic        —
—    134                Indian            —
—    ib.
muraria       —
—    129    Crax Cumanenfis        —
—    205
Chaffinch               —
—    165              pipile           —
—    ib.
Chaha               —
— 245-255    Creejper, African        —
—    127
Chatterer, red-winged
—    146                    a(h-bellied       —
—    '30
Cheela                 —
—      33                   barred-tail      —
—    133
Chep-ftarling            —
— 137                  black and blue
— ib.                  blue           —
—    128
Chepfter                —
—     ib.
Cherry deanifh             —
—      70                           rumped
—    131
Cheucquoir              —
—    220                 common       —
—    126
Chouama              —
—      21                   famous           —
—   128
Churge                 —
—   228                  hook-billed
Churre                 —
—    223                   indigo            —
—    130
Cockatoo                —
—     6S                 long-billed
— m
Cock, domeftic        —
—    207                 .mocking       —
— 129
Columba Caribsea       —
—    199                  orange-backed
— 132
corenfis         —
—    201                  red backed
—     ib.
—    200                         billed       —
—    133
Indica        —
—    j 98                 -fnuff-coloured
—    129
—    197                    tufted           ~r.
—    198                  wall           —
—    129
pafferina      —
—    zoo                  wattled            —
—     ib.
In r
—    197                 yellow-bellied
—    131
—    x33
turt-ur         —
—    199    Crofsbill               —
—    148
Coly, green             —
—    147    Crow, bare-necked      —
—     79
Indian            —
—     ib.                 carrion         —
—     7S
(Colvmbus             —
—   260               hooded         —
Condur                 —
—        1                Macao           —
—     84
Coot                 —
—    259                New Guinea
Coracias garrula       —
—      85                 pheafant          —
—     IOI
—    279                 Philippine        —
Corvus argyropthalrmis
—      81                 purple-headed
-     83
—     82                red-billed        —
—     96
corax           —
—     74                       legged       —
—     82
.comix          —
_     77                rufous  '        —
—     84
—      75                fhort-tailed
—      79                Surinam        —
—    ib.
—     82    Cuckow, black        —
•rnonedula       —
—      78                     common        —
—     98
-pica             —
—      80                    crefted       —
totus niger     —
—    142                  Egyptian      —
—     ib.
Coucou noir          —
■—96—102                   grey-headed
—    102
-Goudey                —
—   257                  honey         —
—    10
-Cowal                —
—    145                    Sonncrat's
—    102
Coweel              —
—       9   Cuculusxanorus       —
—     98
D       E       X.
Gounghill           —
Gull, black-headed    —
Grakle, crefted         —
toed       —
dial             —
tarrock          —
minor          —
purple         —
ye How-faced
Grebe, red-necked       —
Greenfhank             —
Haudai                —
Grimpereau il dos rouge
Hadelde                 —
de Malacca
Hagedafch             —.
Hainga               —
verd       —
Hanging-bird           —
Grofbeak, afh-headed
Harfang              -
Afiatic        —
Hawfinch             —
Hawk, inoufe          —
pigeon          —
Cape         —
fp arrow         ~
■cardinal      —
Heoro-taire           —
Heron, African        —
dwarf        —
cinnamon        —
«aftern        —
Coromandel      —
Lohaujung        —
night           _
fno*y            _
green        —
Java        -
Hibou de Coromandel
de la Chine      —
Hirundo domeftica      —
paradife   . —
urbica        —
pine         —
Hobby                —
Totty        —
Hocco                —
Grous, black           —
Honeft-face            —
Helfingian       —
Hoohoo               —
long-tailed        —
Hoopoe               —
Namaqua          —
Hornbill,   Gingi_      —
red             —
Rehufak        —
grey           —
rock            —
New Holland
ruffed            —
pied            —
fliarp-tail         —
fpotted          —
wreathed       —
fpurious         —
Humming-bird, harlequi
1      —
Guepierjaune          —
Guillemot, black        —
foolifh       —
J.    Jabiru,
 Jabiru, Indian
Lark, black           —
Jacana, Chinefe          —
Larus ridibundus
Indian           —
Laemmer geyer           —
Luzonian        —
Lanius collurio        —
Jackdaw                —
excubitor         —
Jaunghill               —
Lanner                  —
Jay                 _
Lefkoy, or Leuquoy
Cayenne            —
red-billed          —
Lohaujung             —
white-eared        —
Long-tongue             —
Ibis, black-headed       —
Looloo                 —
coco              —
Lory, fcarlet           —
white-headed       —
Loxia chloris             —
Jean le blanc           —
Jerfalcon                —
flamengo             —
Ju-loang               -
minima            —
pyrrhula           —
Jurra                    —
totta               —
Kakakew           —
Maccaw, BrafilJan
Kaykay                —
military        —
Keftril            —           —
Magpie               —
Mamat                —
Keuvitt               —
Manakin, ftriped-headed
Mango-bird           —
Kingsfifher, Amazonian
Martin                   —
belted        —
Matter of Rice         —
May-may               —
. —
Mekifewe paupaftaow
Cape         —
Merganfer               —
Mergus caftor           —
facred        —
criftatus         —■
Kifkemanafue        —
ferratus             —
— 76 Mifhee quafquj
— 16 Moho
— 05 Moina
— 12 Monaul       —
— 99 Monichjore
•opa fhifh       —   24c
N       D
E       X.
Cuculus ferratus       —
page    ioo
Emberiza citrinella   —
Curaffow, Cumana      —
—   205
galeated       —
—    206
piping         —
—    205
Curlew, common        —
—    242
ang               —
Efkimaux        —
—    243
Hudfonian      —
—     ib.
—    242
Curucui, blue-cheeked
fafciated        —
—     ib.
0   eeruginofus        —■
%frv     1*               Indian          —
—     ib.
Cufabatafhifh           —
~    159
buteo            >■—
Cheriway        _
chryfaetos         —•
cyaneus          —
fulvus            —
Dotterel   •            —
—    253
fufcus            —
Dove, ground            —
—    201
gentilis           —
Drongo                —
—     56
haliastus         —
Duck, barred-headed
—   277
lanarius        —
Eider             —
—   274
milvus           —
—   273
nifus            —
—   274
offifraga         —
—   276
Spanifh          —
—•   275
rufticolus        —
'     velvet            —
—   274
fubbuteo       —
weftern          —
—   275
whittling        -
—   274
torquatus        —
Dullpee                —
—    257
Dungbird             —
—       2
Falcon, American        —
Dun-diver            —
—   270
Afiatic         —
bay             -
Behree         —
black and white
3°           pS||p^
Eagle, bald            —
—        9
Cheela        —
-   black         —
— 8-10 -
chocolate       —
—      11
collared         —
cinereous        —
—     ib.
crefted          —
golden           —
criard            —
Malabar          —
—      12
dubious        —
plaintive         —
—        4
dufky            -
Pondicherry      —
gentil          -
-XBr "■
ring tailed         —
—      10
fea             —
—       9
Greenland        —
white           —
grey                 —
ib.        JJ•11.',■
—      !3
—       9
Ingrian        —
—    127
 Fdlcor", Levcrian        —
notched —
plain —
ftreaked        —
tiny —
mcon a collier —
jux perdrieux        —
neh, ^maduvade
tiful — _
Flycatcher, paradife
Phcebe      —
Foule haioo           —
Fouquet, petit           —
Fowl, coloured         —
golden              —
Fringilla JEth'iops        —
albo ocracea
ccelebs         —
lepida         -
rufo barbata
fpinus          _
teflacea        —
Fulice iEthiops          —
gloffy —
gold —
imperial        —
lepid —
4ove!y —
Nootka.        —
oker —
tfiftaceous.       —
Jfifchal- bird —
Flamingo —
Flycatcher, African
-^ black       —
leffer crefled.
Gallinule, Martinic
Geay de la Chine       —
Ghoori tetur —
Gnat-fnapper —
Goat-fucker, Bombay
Indian -
fharp tailed
Gobe-mouches —
Godvvit, common —
marbled        —
Goofe, black-backed
— 258
— 237
— i6q-
 Sandpiper, Greenwich
249    Strix nyftea —
fouthern     —
pafferina       —
Swifs         —
Sarroo                 —
Struns-vogel           —
Safineer fafi-n             —
Sturnus cinclus         —
Scolopax arquata        —
vulgaris         —
Shag, fpotted            —
Sugar bird            —
Shannaw                —
Swallow, ambergris
Shawbul                 —
She pecum memewuck
Shieldrake             —
Shrike, black-capped
Boulboul         —
cinereous        —
Takaikene              —.
'     ferruginous-bellied
Tanager, capital
grey            —
Chinefe        —
jocofe            —
olive          —
Luzonian         —■
magpie          —
Malabar       —
Tchil                 —
Nootka          —
Teal                     —
orange            —
Teetaree               —
red-backed       —
Teeong             —
fpotted          —
Tern,   black             —
Sing-fie                  —
Sifkin                    —
Sitta caffra             —
white        —
Europasa            —
Tetrao hybridus
Siutitok                —
canus           —
Smew                    —
tetrix        —
Snipe, Cape             —
Throat, large          —
Throttle                —
Sparrow,  hawk       —
Thrufh, black and fcarle
blue            —
ring           —
Chinefe       —
Spink                —
Dauma       —
Stare, Chinefe        —
common          —
filk               —
Sterna alba           —
little        —
nigra           —
Malabar        —
Stork, white         —
Strix afio              —
bubo                —
flammea          —
Perfian        —
funerea          —
reed           —
fh, rofe-coloured
fhining         _
oufe, azure '
Hudfon's bay
in, piperine
m               —
ipeter            _
is African us
Tye-Pawn -
Tye-tzoy —
Wagtail —
Wapacuthu —
—    249    Warbl
Wapathei ^^^^
Wapaw whifky John 	
 r, Awatcha      —        —
black-necked _
Ceylonefe __
Dartford        —        —
- de Girig
grand d«
Whifky Jc
hn          —
White- thr.
Dat, leffer
er, black
 Moori —
Moory —
Moroc —
Motacilla alba —
91    Owl, Ceylonefe
—       —    178
eared, Chinefe
great        —
. Mouth-piece
New Zealand
fnowy        —
— ~43
Negho barra —
Nepin-apethafifli —
Nightingale —
Nuckdah —
Nutcracker —
Nuthatch, black-headed
leaft —
Oifeau brame
de Plata
Omiffew Athinet.
Oriole, golden
fpeftacle        —
white —
Ox-bird —
-     46
Oriolus galbul
Owl, brown
fe B. white-winged
ceet, Alexandrine
lory             -
, amber            —
Caroline         —
eaftern          —
emerald            —
grifled          -
folitary            —
' Ceylon
E       X.
Partridge, Chittygong
Pintado                 —
Pnefic            —
Plpngeur             —
Plover, cream-coloured
rock            —
golden           —
parus biarmtcus
Indian       —
paluflris        —
Polyt»u»               —
Pau pune nay fue        —
Poopoo, whouroo roa
Powee                  —
"Peacock              —
Promerops, blue
Pecufifh               _
Peedaw           —
Pfophia undulata
Peepee                 —
— page   204
-    269
Quail, common
rouffe di
Indian —
tail —
•flock        —
Rail, Philippine       —
—    255
troglodyte        —
—     ib.
Rallus auftralis           —
—     ib.
Raven                —
Razor-bill           —
—    264
Redpole            —
—    167
Redfhank              —
—   24.5
Redwing              -
—    139
Ringtail            —
Roller, African           —
—      86
black           —
—      85
—      86
fairy             —
-      87
—     85
—     86
198 Sanderling        —
199 Sandpiper black
Woodpecker, pileated page    105
—* page     63
fpotted. — 107    Yunx torquilla            —>         ~    103
white-billed — 105
yellow-bellied — 109
Wren, reed        .— — 184                                 Z.
Wryneck               — — 103
Wufcunithou        ~- — 149    Zhiaine                —               —    no
F   I   N   I   S.
  - v JSES^aagrLiS
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