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A general synopsis of birds. Vol. III. Pt. 1st Latham, John, 1740-1837 1785

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  THE LIBRARY
THE UNIVERSITY OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA
The Bulwer Collection
Gift of
Mrs. Henry A. Bulwer
 
THE UNIVERSITY OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA
WOODWARD HISTORICAL
COLLECTION
  General Synopsl
of
Vol.III.pt lft
o   x  »   o isf:
Printed for Leigh & Sotheby;
York Street,CoventGarden.
MDCCLXXXV.
  PREFACE.
TH E contents of" the prefent volume, added to thofe of the
former ones, will, it is to be hoped-, make good the pro-
mife made in the firft, viz. the giving <c a concife account of all
the Birds hitherto known -,"—to attain the knowledge of which,
every afliftance has been given to me by my various friends, and
no trifling labour beftowed by myfelf.
Enough has been mentionedjjxi^-*^^^^^-^^* of tne nature
of ii«-^w^erraTangTwhich will occafion very little to be added in
the prefent; a few things, however, feem neceflary to be here
mentioned> which are briefly the following.
The Reader will remark the occafional references made to the
Britifih Mufeum, as well as to that of Sir AJhtoh Lever:—'but it
muft be obferved, that fuch references could relate to thofe Birds
only which Were found there reflectively at the time when each
Genus was penned ; and will account for feveral others, now feen
In thofe repofltoriesj not to be fbundin this work, which at firft
-fight might appear to have been overlooked, though in reality
occafioned merely by the additions made to each, fince the particular parts were written.
Thofe found in the private collections of feveral of my friends
have been referred to in their places; but, in refpecT to thofe in
my own ppfieffion,it is neceflary here to remark> that fuch are
Vol. III. a meant
 meant to be pointed out to the reader by the mark •
fore the trivial names in the margin.
• added be*-
In regard to Plates, fo neceflary an appendage to a work of
this nature, it might perhaps have been wifhed that they had
been executed in a more mafterly fti-le; but I have been led to
think, that where a juft reprefentation is only meant, the excellence
of the artrft is lefs neceflary, and a correct, outline the greateft
recommendation r on this confideration I have been induced to
make the attempt, by etching the plates myfelf, from drawings
of my own, for the moft part taken from the fubjecTs themfelves.
How I have fucceeded m-sJxic matter, I will leave to the Public
to determine j all I dare fay on this head^TsTtTrar-ch-cy ^re pretty
accurate reprefentations, and perhaps will not be thought an
unacceptable addition to the text, efpecially as many of them ai*e
of fubjedts not to be found in any other work, being figures of
fuch as were difcovered by our navigators to the South Seas, and
thofe who have lately made refearches towards the- North Pole.
I have, for the moft part, included the Birds which have lately
come under infpection in one or other of the Genera of former
authors; but fome few have notwithftanding arifen, which could
not be reconciled to any Genus yet formed-, viz. the Wattle-
Bird *, Tinamou f, and Sheathbill j\ It muft likewife be
here owned, that here and there a Bird will be met with inter-
fperfed in thefe Iheets, in refpect to the placing of which much
difficulty has occurred; but, having one or more ftrong leading
• Vol. I. p. 364.
t Vol. II, p. 724.
% Vol. III. p. 268.
characters*
 PREFACE.
characters, I have judged it more proper to place it at the heels
of the Genus it feemed to have moft relation to, rather than to
then the memory by creating a new one.
It may not be amifs here to mention, that having ftill much
matter remaining in manufcript, not only in addition to what has
already been publifhed, but alfo belonging to the prefent fheets,
which came too late to be brought into the proper place, it will
occafion me hereafter to publifh fuch remainder by way of Appendix, as foon as a proper addition of materials, which I have
now in view before me, Ihall have accrued, fufficient in confe-
quence, as well as in quantity, to merit attention. Thia^however,
will require fome time -Jai*t!-*wreTrTall be taken that no unnecef-
fary delay fhall be made in bringing to view what further I have
to add on the fubject..
Having faid thus much, nothing will remain but to conclude
with my moft grateful thanks for the favours of the Friends who
have affifted me in my purfuits, and of the Public in general who*
have encouraged them—content, myfelf, with having made fome
fmall addition to the labours of former times, not without the
hopes of being found worth the notice of future writers in this-
branch of Natural Hifiory, when the author of the prefent work
fhall be no more.
Dartford,
May 2,  1785.
JOHN  LATHAM.
BIRDS.
    BIRDS. 
Order VI.    STRUTHIOUS.
. Genus   LVII.   DODO.
N° i. Hooded D. 3. Nazarene D.
2. Solitary D.
BILL-Large. hmding inwards at the middle of the upper
mandible, marked with two oblique ribs, and much hooked
at the end.
Noftrils placed obliquely near the edge, in the middle of the
bill.
Legs fhort, thick, feathered a little below the knees: toes, -
three forward, one backward.
Didus Ineptus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 267. j„
Le Dronte, Brifi. Orn. v. p. i^.—Buf. Oif. i. p. 480.—Bont. Ind. or. pl. in.      HOODED D.
p. 70.
Dod-eerfen^ or Valgh-vogel, Herbert. Trav. p. 382. pl. in p. 383.
Dodo, Rail Syn. p. 37. 3.—Will. Orn. p. 153. pl. 27.—Ediv.pl. 294.
HPHIS uncouth being is rather bigger than a Swan, and not     De»cS.iptioh.
far fhort of three feet in length*.  The bill is ftrong, large,
• See a painting in the Britifh Mufeur,
Vol. III. B
and
 DODO.
and hooked at the end j the gape ftretches beyond the eyes; the
colour of it a very pale blue, except the end of the upper mandible, which is yellowifh, and a red fpot on the bend of it *, the
end of the lower blackifh : irides white : the general colour of
the plumage is cinereous, and foft to the touch; the belly and
thighs whitifh: the head large, and feems as it were covered with
a black hood or cowl: the wings are very fhort, and of a yellowifh
afh-colour: the tail feathers curled, ftand up on the rump, and
incline to yellow, like the wings : the legs have four toes, three
before and one behind; are very ftout, fhort, and yellowifh : claws,
black.
This is the account from Edwards, and a painting of it is now
in the Britifh Muf*um.
Herbert, in his Travels, feems to give an .account as having
feen it, though his figure is a bad one. He fays, that it " feldom
*c weighs lefs than fifty pounds. The bill hooked, and bent down-
" wards; the thrill or breathing-places in the midft; from which
tc part to the end the colour is of a light green, mixed with paler
" yellow : eyes round and bright: has fine down inftead of fea-
" thers : the train (like to a China-beard) is no more than three
cc or four fhort feathers : the head varioufly dreft, one half being
" hooded with down of a dark colour, the other half naked, and
<c of a white hue, as if lawn were drawn over it: the legs thick
" and black; and the talons great." We likewife learn from him,
that " the pace is flow, and the body round and fat; by fome
" eaten as meat, but is more pleafurable to look than feed upon -.
" andher ftomach fo fiery that it can eafily digeft ftones; in that
" and fhape not a little refembling the Oftrich."
This awkward figure inhabits the iflands of Mauritius (or
01 the
MPigM*!LI»waUUt
 DODO* 5
the  Ifle  of France), and  that of Bourbon *,  in the Indian
ocean.
Le Solitaire, Buf. Oif i. p. 48$.—!#«*/. Voy. i. p. 98.--.pl. in <\*. SOLITARY D
'T'HIS is a large bird, and the male is faid to weigh fometimes     Description*
forty-five pounds : it has fome relation to the Turkey, as the
bill and legs are like that bird's; but the bill is more bent, and
it ftands higher on the legs. The neck is of a proportionable
length, and the eye black and lively: the head is not crefted, and
the general colour of the plumage is grey and brown mixed:
it has fcarce any tail; and the baftard wing fwells out into a
round knob : the wings are too thwt-PSr flight, and the hind
parts are rounded like a Horfe's rump, being cloathed with feathers, which may be termed coverts.
The females are covered with fometimes brown and fometimes Female.
light yellow feathers, and appear very beautiful. This fex has
alfo a kind of widow's peak above the bill; and the feathers on
each fide of the breaft enlarge into two white tufts, fomewhat
refembling the bofom of a woman : the feathers of the thighs are
rounded at the end, like fhells* and, according to Legual, the
bird has all together a noble and elegant gait.
This is an inhabitant of the Ifle of Rodrigue, where it is not       Place an a
t • ,   •    n    1      r        ■> 1 Manners.
Uncommon ; but not met with in flocks, fcarcely more than two
being found together.    It makes the neft in bye places, of leaves
* Thefe cannot be the only parts where they are found, and muft have been
imported into them from others, fince it is faid, that the Porluguefe, who firft
d-rfcwrered them, found neither land bird nor Quadruped in either.   See Hift. det
Oif.  VOL V. p. 280.
B 2 of
 DODO.
of the palm, a foot and a half in thicknefs; and lays one egg,
bigger than that of a Goofe. The male fits in his turn; and does
not fuffer any bird to approach within two hundred yards of the
fpot- while the hen is fitting, which is feven weeks. The young
is fome months before it can fhift for itfelf; the old ones, in the
mean time, are affectionate to it, and faithful to each other afterwards, though they occafionally may mix with others of their
kind. It is faid that a ftone is always found in the gizzard;
which perhaps, if the cafe be known, may turn out no more than
may be found in all g'ranivorous birds, ferving merely to prove it
to be of that race. The young birds, though timid, are ftupid
enough to fuffer the approach of any one; but when grown up,
are more fhy, and will not be tamed. Two of them were
fhipped from Bourbon, but foon died, as they refilled all fuite-
nance. They are chafed in the winter-feafon, viz. from March-
to September, being then fat, and the young birds are much
efteemed for the table*
NAZARENE D.
L'Oifeau de N
Oifeau de Nai
reth, Buf. Oif. i. p. 485.—Cauche Madag. p. 130.
, Id. ibid.
HPHIS is a large bird, bigger than a Swan. The bill is a little
bent downwards, and large: inftead of feathers the whole
body is covered over with a black down', but the wings are feathered, and it has fome frizzled ones upon the rump, which
ferve inftead of a tail: the legs are long and fcaly, and there are
three toes on each foot.
This was met with in the Ifie of France,, and defcribed as above
by Fr. Cauche; who adds, that the female only lays one egg,
which
P3W35PH5PHI
ugiiyat
 D
0
which is white, and as big as a penny loaf, and that there is-
always found with it a white ftone of the fize of a Hen's egg-
that it makes the neft of leaves and dry herbs, in the forefts, on
the ground; and that there is likewife found a grey ftone in the
gizzard of the young bird.
The three laft-defcribed birds feem to have much affinity to-
each other j if, on further obfervation, they do not prove the
fame fpecies^ differing only in age or fex.
 C  6  3
Genus   LVIII.     OSTRICH.
N8 i. Black Oftrich.
THE bill in this fpecies is ftrait, depreffed like that of a
Duck, and rounded at the end.
Wings fmall, in proportion to the fize of the body, and ufelefs
for flight.
Legs naked above the knee.
Toes two in number, and both placed forwards.
This and the following, with a third, which late obfervations
have proved to be of a far different family, were placed by Lin-.
n<eus under one genus. From the very diffimilar characters, we
have thought right again to feparate them, according to BriJfon,
who has thus done in his Ornithology.
BLACK O.
Pl. LXXI.
Struthio Camelus, Lin. Syft> i. p. 265.—Scop. Ann. i. N" 16s;
L'Autruche, Brif. Orn. v. p. 3. pl. 1. f. i.—Buf. Oif. i. p. 398. pl. 29.-*-
Pl. Enl. 457. (the female).
Oftrich, Raii Syn. p. 36. i.—Will. Orn. p. 149. pl. 2t.—-Albin. iii.pl. 53.
—Gent. Mag. xviii. pl. in p. 580.
• Black Oftrich, Brown, llluftr. pl. 16. (the male).
Lev. Muf
Description.    'T'HIS is, without doubt, the largeft bird in the creation : it
is near eight feet in length, and when ftanding upright is
from
wmm^gmmmm
 WmJ   (l,/r,r//f
 ■I... UWL«««M  JIMUL1L ^JJJg!WWaPP^W^»
 OSTRICH.
from fix to eight feet in height *. It has a fmall head, not
much unlike that of a Goofe; the bill is alfo fomewhat fimilar,
but lefs deprefled, and four inches and a half in length, horn-
coloured, with a dufky tip: irides hazel *, eyelids befet with
hairs: the head, and greateft part of the neck, are bare of feathers, of a flefh-colour, here and there befet with a few fcattered
hairs : the lower parts of the neck and body are covered with
black feathers, which are Angularly loofe in their webs, and
totally unlike thofe of any other bird : the quill feathers, and
thofe ofthe tail, are of a perfect fnowy white, fome of them here
and there fringed or tipped with black, and are long and beautifully waved in fhape : on each wing are two fpurs, about an.
inch in length ; and on the breaft is a callous, bare> and hard
fubftance, ferving the bird to reft on when it firft bends forwards-
to fit on the ground : the thighs and fides of the body are
naked: the legs are ftrong, of a greyifh brown, and furnifhed
with two toes only, the outer one of which is very fhort, and
without a claw.
The female differs from the male in having thofe feathers
brown, which are black in the male.
This bird inhabits Africa, and the parts of Afia adjoining to
it, with the feveral iflands in the neighbourhood, and is in very
great plenty about the Cape of Good Hope. The egg of this correfponds well with the fize of the bird, being as big as a child's
head, and white in colour -j-: the female is fuppofed to lay fifty
* Two Oflricbes were fiiewn in London in the year 1750 ; the male was ten feet
in height, and weighed three hundred weight and a quarter.-r—See Gent. Mag-
vol. xx. p. 536.
f See a figure in Klein, Ov. pl. 1.
 OSTRICH.
or more in a feafon ; thefe fhe is faid to bury in the fand, and to
be hatched by the heat of the fun only, and that the young
run as foon as they come out of the egg : though others deny
this ; for Kolben fays, that the male and female fit on them by
turns, and that he has feen them hatching their eggs hundreds
of times, and as often driven them off, and took the eggs, to
feaft himfelf and his friends (and fome of them were near hatching) ; one of them proves a meal for three or four perfons, and
they are faid to be very good. The young, he fays, cannot run
at firft, but are fupplied by the old ones with grafs and wafer,
and defended by them, till they can take care of themfelves, fo
furioufly as to render it dangerous to go near them at fuch
times.   If the eggs be touched, the old ones will forfake them *.
This bird, as well asflze, is alfo endued with firength in
proportion; for inftances are recorded where one has borne two
men on its back, and has run along with them with the greateft
eafe f-
The food ofthe Oftrich is of the vegetable kind, grafts, fruits,
grain, &c. befides which it is frequently obferved to fwallow
many foreign articles, as bits of iron, copper, glafis, lead, and the
like ; but though this is often done with impunity, yet it is feen
* Buffon allows that the Oftrich fcarce ever lofes fight ofthe eggs; but that it
is only in the more northern parts that the female has occafion to fit on them ;
in the torrid zone, the fun alone being fully fufficient. This may account for
the pofitive affertion of Kolben, that the Oftrich hatches her own eggs, as well
as the opinion of others, who maintain the contrary.
t Adanfon.—Ue thinks that their pace is fwifter than that ofthe fleeted horfe.
Voy. Seneg. p. 87.—" Whilft I wa; here (at Vintain), I faw an Oftrich with a
man riding on it's back, who was going down to the fort, it being a prefent to
the Governor."    Moore's Trav. into Africa, p. 318.
 OSTRICH.
in the end to prove fatal *, as it can by no means digeft them.
Some authors fay, that the young birds are pretty good food.
The natives catch them by following at a diftance for two or
three days, when the birds, fatigued by being perpetually har-
raffed, and wanting time to take food, are very eafily overtaken,
and knocked on the head with clubs: others conceal themfelves
in a fkin of one of thefe birds, and by that means approach near
enough to furprize them ; and it is not unufual to hunt them on
horfeback with dogs, and after overtaking them, the huntfman approaches near enough to apply the hooked end of a ftaff round
the legs, which throwing them down, they are knocked on the
head T-t or taken alive.
The ufes which the Oftrich is put tn are various. The Jkins
are very thick, and are fubftituted for leather by the Arabians :
as to feathers, the value of them, and the purpofes they are put
to, need not be mentioned. The fiat£ is of medicinal ufe among
the Arabians, for the palfy and rheumatifim, and is alfo prefcribed
inwardly. The eggs ferve for drinking-cups, and other utenfils,
and are often fet in gold for that purpofe j they are very hard
and durable, and equal in appearance to the moft beautiful
ivory. In the Eaft alfo, the fhells both of the Oftrich and Caffowary ferve as a medicine §.
* Pitfield's Hem. p. 226.
•J- I remember to have feen a painting, which reprefented this method very
juftly.
X " They have a method of putting the dead hody of the Oftrich in motion,
'« in fuch a manner, as to make the fat diflblve into a kind of oil, which they
•• fell as a drug, and is called the fat ofthe Ofirich." Pocock. Trav. i. p. 209.—
Thevenot, in his Voyages, mentions the fame thing.
§ See Faun. Arab. Mater. Med. N" 6.
Vol. III.
 [  io ]
LIX.    CASSOWARY.
N° i. Galeated Caffowary.
THIS genus has a ftraight depreffed bill, which is pointed
at the end.
At the top of t4e head an elevated horn or helmet: on the
middle of the neck, two carunculated pendent wattles.
Wings very fmall, without feathers, and ufelefs for flight.
Thighs bare of feathers above the knee.
Toes three in number, and all placed forwards*
p. 265. 2.—Frifch. pl. 105.
. pl. 1. f. z.—Buf. Oif i. p. 464.—Pl.
-Will. Orn. p. 151. pl. 25	
..—Gent. Mag. xiii. pl. in p.
Struthio cafuarinsj Lin. Syft.
Le Cafoar, Brif. Orn. v. p.
Enl. 313.
Emeu, Eme, or CaiTowary, .&»'/' Syn. p. 36.
Albin.  ii. pl. 60.—J. F. Miller,  pl.
HT HIS is a large bird, and not greatly inferior to an Oftrich
in bulk, though, from having a much fhorter neck, is not
near fo tall : the length is about four! feet*, but from the bill to
the end of the claws five feet and a half. The bill is four inches
and a half long, grey brown, a little notched at the end, the gape
very wide : irides the colour of a topaz ; eyelids befet with
hairs: the noftrils oblong, placed near the end of the bill: the
ears large and open : on the top of the head is a kind of helmet,
beginning
PWP
   CASSOWARY.
beginning at the bafe of the bill, and reaching to the middle of
the crown ; this is three inches high, and one inch broad at the
bafe, but gradually grows thinner, fo as the upper part is not
more than a quarter of an inch thick ; this is yellowifh at the
back, but blackifh on the fore part: the fides of the head are
naked, being, as well as the neck, covered only with a wrinkled
reddifh fkin, thinly befet with hairs, and tinged with a eaft of
both blue and purple : on the lower part on each fide, forwards,
are placed two flefhy membranes, one inch and a half long, and
three quarters broad, part red part blue, and take rife about the
middle ofthe neck, where they are very flender: on the breaft is
a callous bare part, on which the bird refts its body when on the
' ground : the body in general is covered with brownifh black
loofe-webbed feathers, two of which arife from one fhaft for the
moft part; on the rump thefe feathers are fourteen inches long
at leaft, and hang downw'ards, in place of a tail, for the bird is
deftitute of one : the wing, or what is in the place of it, is not
furnifhed with feathers, having only five bare fhafts like the
quills of a Porcupine, the longeft ten or eleven inches, and of a
dufky colour; at the end of the laft joint a kind of claw : the
legs have all the three toes placed forwards, and each furnifhed
with a claw, which is almofl: ftraight, and pointed, the inner one
the longeft : the colour of the legs and toes greyifh brown :
claws black.
This fpecies inhabits the eaftern parts of Afta, towards the
fouth, being found in the Molucca iflands, thofe of Banda, Java,
Sumatra, and parts correfponding, but no where in plenty, nor
ever met with beyond the limits of the torrid zone. It cannot
fly, but runs very faft. The egg is fmaller and longer than
' Vol. III. C 2. that
Place /
Manne
 CASSOWARY.
that of the Oftrich, of a greenifh grey, inclining to afh-colour,
and marked with elevated * fmall deep green fpots. The bird
is very fierce in the wild ftate; grunts like an Hog; and kicks
with the legs like an Horfe.
The food, in the ftate of nature, is no doubt vegetable -, for it
will eat bread, apples, and fuch like, when in confinement; all
which it fwallows whole, not bruifing it with the bill; and is faid
alfo to gorge ftones, iron, and any thing which is offered to it, in-
difcriminately, like the Oftrich.
* Linnaut calls the fpots
the egg in Klein. Ov. pl. 2,
'ndented;  Ova punilis excavate*.    See a figui
Div.
 I    -3   1
Div. II.    WATER   BIRDS.
Order VII.    With  CLOVEN   FEET.
Genus   LX.    SPOONBILL.
N° i. White Sp.
Var. A.
Var. B.
N° 2. Rofeate Sp.
Var. A. Scarlet Sp.
3. Dwarf Sp.
B
ILL long, broad, flat, and thin ; the end widening into a
roundifh form, not unlike a fpoon.
Noftrils fmall, placed near the bafe.
Tongue fmall and pointed.
Feet femipalmated.
Platalea leucorodia, Lin. Syft. i. p. 231. 1.—Muf Adolph. ii. p. 26.—
160.—Scop. Ann.
115.—Brun. Om. 46.—Muller*
La  Spatule,   Brif. Orn.  v. p.   352.— Buf.  Oif. vii. p. 448. pl. 24.—-
Pl. Enl. 405.
Pelicane or Spoon-bill, Rail Syn.  102.  1.—Will.  Orn. p. 288. pl. 52.—•
Kolb. Cape, ii. p. 142. pl. vii. f. 5.—Albin. ii. pl. 66.—Br. Zool. ii.
App. pl. 9.—Aril. Zool. p. 441.    A.
Br. Muf.   Lev. Muf.
C I Z E of the Heron, but fhorter in both neck and legs: length     Description,
two feet eight inches.    The bill is  fix inches  and a half
leng, very flat, and broadens out into the fhape of a fpoon at
the
 SPOON-BILL.
the extremity; it is in colour various, in fome birds black, in
others brown, and is alfo feen fpotted ; from the bafe to tswo-
thirds of its length it is croffed with feveral indentations, the
rifing parts of which are dark-coloured : the tongue fhort, and
heart-fhaped : irides grey: the lore, round the eyes, and the
throat, the fkin is bare and black; that of the laft very dilatable * : the whole plumage is white, though in fome fpecimens
the quills are tipped with black : the legs are black, or of a
greyifh brown colour: between the toes a membrane, connected
to the outer one as far as the fecond, and to the inner as far as
the firft joint.
This bird is found in various parts of the old continent, and
from the Ferro IJles f, near Iceland, to the Cape of Good Hope J:
it frequents the neighbourhood of the fea, and has been met
with on the coafts of France \; at Seitenhuys, near Ley den, once
in great plenty, annually breeding in a wood there §. The neft
is placed on high trees near the fea-fide. The female lays three
or four white eggs, powdered with a few pale red fpots, and of
the fize of thofe of an Hen. They are very noify during breeding-time, like our Rooks; are feldom found high up the rivers,
chiefly frequenting the mouths of them. Their food is fifih,
which they are faid not unfrequently to take from other birds **,
in the manner of the Bald Eagle; alfo muficles, and other Jhell
fifth, being found in greateft numbers where thefe are plenty • and
will alfo devour frogs and fnakes, and even grafs and weeds,,
* Decouv. Ruff. i. p. 164. + Brunnich. % Kolben.
jj This circumftance is mentioned as rare by Salerne, Orn. p. 317.
§ Ray,Willughby.—This wood'is'now deftroyed.   Br, Zool.
*■* Worm. Muf 31c
% which
 SPOON-BILL.
which grow in the water, as well as the roots of reeifs *. Are
migratory, retiring to the warmer parts as the winter approaches:
rarely feen in England f. Their flefh; is;faid to have the flavour
of a Goofe, and is eaten by fome, and the young birds have
been thought good food £. By many authors they are called
Pelicans.
La Spatule blanche de rifle de Lucon, Son. Voy. p. 89. t. 51.
C I Z E of the rofeate fpecies.    Bill reddifh brown : general' colour of the plumage white;   the feathers of the wings part
black, part white : legs reddifh yellow.
Inhabits the Philippine Iflands.
La Spatule huppee de-^l'Ifle de Lucon, Son. Voy. p. 90. t. 52.
CIZE of the laft, but differs in being entirely white, the quills
not excepted : it is alfo furnifhed with a long creft, compofed
of feathers whofe webs are very loofe, and feparated from one
another: the bill is rufous grey, with red edges : legs of a dull
pale red. £'?*-$ *ji
Found with the laft.
* Salerne.
f A flock of them migrated into the marfhes, near Yarmouth, in Norfolk,
April 1774.    Br. Zool.
I Before they can fly ; for- Willughby talks of their being fhaken out of the
-neft- with a crook fattened to the end of a pole.    See Qrn. p. 289.
 SPOON-BILL,
Platalea Ajaja, Lin. Syft.i. p. 231. 2.
La Spatule couleur de Rofe, Brif. Orn. v. p. 356, 2. pl. 30.—Pl. Enl.
165.
La Spatule, ou Palette, Pernet Voy. i. p. 184.. pl. 2. f. 3.—-Hift. de Louif. 11.
J>ESCR1PTI0N.
Pl. lxxiii.
Bee a cuiller, Ferm. Surin. ii. p. 153.—Bajon Cayenne, ii. p. 257.
Brafilian Spoon- bill, called Ajaja, mil. Orn. p. z8g.—Raii Syn. p. 102. 3.
—Harris, Coll. Voy. i. p. 728.
*Tp H I S is a trifle lefs than the firft: length two feet three
inches. The bill fix * inches in length, and fhaped like
that of the former ; it is marked all round with a furrow parallel
to the edge, and is of a greyifh white, fomewhat tranfparent, fo as
to fhew the ramification ofthe blood-veffels belonging to it: the
forehead, between the bill and eyes, and throat, are bare and
whitifh : the plumage is a fine rofe-colour, deepeft on the wings :
the legs are grey; and the claws blackifh; the toes furnifhed
With membranes, as in the white fpecies.
Var. A,
SCARLET SP.
Platalea Ajaia, Lin. Syft. i. p. 231. 2. 8.
Le Spatule rouge, Brif. Orn. v. p. 359. 3.
Tlauhquechul, or Mexican Spoon-bill, Will. Orn. p. 289. N° 2.—Rail Syn,
p. 102. 2.
Scarlet Spoon-bill, Sloan. Jam. ii. p. 316.—Bancr. Guian. p. 170.
Dbscrjptjon.    '"pHIS is   like the laft, but is wholly of a beautiful red
colour, with a collar of black at the lower part of the neck:
irides red.   It is moft likely the laft-defcribed bird in full plu-
' The Hift. de la Louif. fays 8.
 Ik
wr^m
Mo^c^^onM,.
  SPOON-BILL.
mage. In this ftate has been fhot in Jamaica, Guiana, Mexico,
and other parts. It is faid to be of a blackifh chefnut the firft
year, rofe-coloured the fecond, and of a deep fcarlet the third.
It lives on the leffer kind of fijh; and, if like the white, alfo on
frogs, fnakes, and other reptiles.
Platalea pygmea, Lin. Syft. i
Guian. p. 171.
CIZE of a Sparrow. The bill is black, longer than the
head, and flat at the end, not of a rounded form, as in the
others, but fpread out almoft at right angles, fo as to be nearly
of a rhomboidal form ; the angles and tip of the upper mandible
are white : the tongue frnooth : che body is brown above, and
white beneath : the quills have white fhafts : the tail is rounded
in fhape, fhort, and of a brownifh white : the feet have four
toes, are cloven ; the claws pointed.
Bancroft's defcription varies fomewhat. He fays, that the
bill is flattifh, dilated, orbiculated, and flat at the point, and that
the toes are palmated.
Inhabits Surinam and Guiana.
Vol. III.
 C   18   1
Genus  LXI.     SCREAMER.
N» i. Horned Scr.
N° 2. Crefted Scr.
BILL bending down at the point, with a horn, or with a
tuft of feathers erect near the bafe of it".
Noftrils oval.
Toes divided almoft to their origin, with a fmall membrane
between the bottoms of each.
Description.
Pl. LXXIV.
Palamedea cornuta, Lin.
Le Kamichy, Brif. Orn.
Pl. £»/. 451.
Anhima, Rail Syn. p. 96.
Aigle d'eau cornu, Defer.
-Bufi.Oif. vii. p. 33;. pl. 18.—
-Will. Orn. p.
■n. ii. p. 143.
276. pl. 47.
Camoucle, Mem. fur Cayen. ii. p. :
>. pl. 4.
QlZE of a Turkey : length three feet four inches. The bill
two inches and a quarter long, and black; the upper mandible a little gibbous at the bafe, the under fhutting beneath it,
as in the gallinaceous tribe : the noftrils oval and pervious, and
placed near the middle of the bill: from the crown of the head
fprings a flender horn of more than three inches in length, and
pointed at the end : the irides are the colour of gold : the plumage on the head, neck, and upper part of the body, is black,
margined with grey on the firft, and downy : fome ofthe feathers
round the neck are likewife edged with the fame : the under
5 parts
mi
 aCom^ •fZcTt
^med, iy,cyreajm&rY
  SCREAMER.
parts of the wings are pale rufous, appearing on the fhoulders and
edges of them, when clofed: at the bend of the wing are two
ftrong, fharp, horny, yellow fpurs, one above another, the upper-
moft an inch and a half in length: the belly, thighs, and vent are
white : the tail eight inches and a half long, and black : the legs
flout and dufky: the fore claws moderately bent; the hind one
nearly ftraight, not unlike that of a Lark, and one inch in length,
The female is faid to be like the male.
They are obferved to be always met with in pairs, and if one
dies, the other mourns to death for the lofs. They frequent
places near the water, make a large neft of mud, in the fhape
of an oven, upon the ground *, and lay two eggs, the fize of
thofe of a Goofe. The young are brought up in the neft till able
to fhift for themfelves : they have but one neft in a year, which
is in January or February, except the firft eggs are taken away, in
which cafe they make a fecond in April or May. The young birds
are frequently eaten by the natives, though the colour of the flefh
is very dark; that of the old ones is tough, and ill tafted. By
fome authors this fpecies is faid to feed on crabs and birds, fuch
as pigeons, poultry, and even to attack fheep and goats; but this
is denied by others, who fay that its principal food is reptiles. In
the ftomach of one which M. Bajon differed, there were only
found herbs and feeds of plants; however he adds, that the bird
has no gizzard. This is a rare fpecies, is found in certain dif-
tricts in Cayenne, Guiana, Surinam, and other parts of South America, chiefly in the marfhes and wet favannas, and for the moft
• Authors differ. Bajon fays, that it makes the neft both in thickets, at fome
diftance from the ground, and often among the rufhes. Fermin tells us, that it
builds on high trees.    See Mem. fur Cay. and Defer. Sarin.
D 2 part
1
I
 SCREAMER.
part near the fea. Thefe fhould feem to be the birds mentioned
by Ulloa *, which are called by the inhabitants of Quito, Difper-
tadores, or Awakeners, from their giving notice to others of the
approach of danger; as on hearing the leaft noife, or feeing any
one, though at a great diftance, they rife from the ground, and
make a loud chattering, like a Magpie, continuing the noife, and
hovering over the object which caufed the alarm, whereby the
reft of the birds, taking the hint, are able in time to efcape the
impending danger. This fcreaming noife, which fome authors
relate as being exceedingly loud and terrible t*. has occafioned '
Mr. Pennant to give the genus the name annexed to it.
In the Hunterian Mufeum is a fine fpecimen of this bird, brought
from Cayenne.
2. Palamedea criftata, Lin. Syft. i. p. 232. 2.
CRESTED SCR. Le Cariama, Brif Orn. p. 516. i.—Buf. Oif. vii. p. 325.-
p. 96. 6.—Will. Orn. p. 276. pl. 51.
O I Z E of an Heron. The bill fhort, bent like that of a bird of
prey, and of a yellowifh brown: irides gold-colour : on the
forehead, juft above the bill, is a tuft of black feathers, variegated
with afh-colour : the head, neck, and body, are grey, mixed with
rufous and brown, moft inclining to the laft on the wings and
tail: the wings are not furnifhed with fpurs: the legs pretty long,
• Voy. vol. ii. p. 243—Ulloa makes their fize no bigger than that of a Cock.
He fays, that the head is adorned with a tuft of feathers. Perhaps he may mean
the next fpecies.
t Tcuibili voce clamitans.   Linnaus.
 SCREAMER.
of a dull yellow: claws brown; the hind toe placed high up, fo
as not to touch the ground in walking.
This bird inhabits Braftl. Linnaus makes it to belong to the
Screamer genus, perhaps from its cry, for it is faid to be heard
far off, and is not unlike that of an hen Turkey. None of our later
writers feem to have feen it, all of them relying on Marcgrave
both for defcription and figure *. It is faid to feed on the fame
food as the Heron tribe : the flefh is good, and the bird by fome
kept tame.
Place  and
Manners..
' That referred to in Willughly is copied from this author,
GZ BBS
 I    44    1
Genus   LXII.    JABIRU.
i. American J.
BILL long and large, both mandibles bending upwards; the
upper triangular.
Noftrils fmall.
No tongue *.
Toes divided.
AMERICAN J.
Description
Pi.-. LXXV.
My&eria Americana, Lin. Syft. i. p. 232.
La Cicogne du Brefil, Brif. Orn. v. p. 371. 4.
Le Jabiru, Buf. Oif. vii. p. 280. pl. 13.--Pl.Enl. 817.—Rail Syn. p. 96,;
^.—Will. Orn. p. 275. pl. 47 t-
Le Cicogne de la Guiane, Brif. Orn. v. p. 373.
Jabiru-guacu, Nhandhu-apoa, Rail Syn. p. 96. ^.—-Will. Orn. p. 276.
Touyouyou, Mem. fur Cayenne, vol. ii. p. 263. pl. 3.
*"p HIS bird in fize yields only to the Oftrich, and is in length %
not far from fix feet. The bill is thirteen inches long, flout,
not unlike that of a Sperk, and bends upwards; the colour is
black: the whole plumage is white, except the head, and about two-
thirds of the neck, which are bare of feathers, and of a blackifh
colour; the remainder is alfo bare, and of a fine red: on the
* Marcgrave.
f By this reference is meant the bill at the bottom of the plate.—See alfo
Grtvo'sMufit. v. f. 1.
t Barren fays fix feet in height as it ftands.   See Fr. Ef. 133.
hind-
M
 ^L^ca^M^
  JABIRU.
hind-head are a few greyifh feathers: the legs are ftrong, of a
great length, and covered with black fcales: wings and tail even
at the end.
This bird is found in all the favannas of Cayenne, Guiana, and
other parts of South America. It makes its neft in great trees,
which grow on the borders; lays two eggs, and brings up the
young in the neft till they can defcend to the earth. The food
is fijh. The colour of the young birds is grey; the fecond year
it changes to rofe-colour, and the third pure white: they are faid
to be very voracious, taking great quantities of fifh to fatisfy
them. In their nature are very wild. The flefh is good to eat,
but that of young birds only, as the old ones are hard and oily.
M. Bajon is inclined to think that this bird is the American
Oftrich of authors * -, and indeed, on canvaffing matters, I cannot
with-hold my aflent to the fame opinion, for many reafons : in the
firft place, there is no figure of that bird extant, writers referring
to that of Nuremberg f, which is clearly the Caffowary : fecondly,
the very great fimilarity of names in the birds quoted by authors,
•viz. Nhandhuguacu, for the Oftrich of America, by Marcgrave %;
Jabiru-guacu, and Nhandhu-apoa ||, for a greater Jabiru ; again,
Jabiru %, for a fmaller fpecies. Thefe names feem to run much
into one another; the laft is alfo, according to Barrere, called
Aoudrou, by the inhabitants of Guiana.    This author alfo likens
4J
Placb   AND
Manners:
• Struthio Rhea, Lin. Syft. i. p. 266. 3—Thouyou, Brif Om. v. p. j
Buf. Oif. i. 452.—Nhanduguacu, or American Oftrich, Rait Syn. p. 36. :
Will. Orn. p. 150.
t Hift. p. 118—See the fame fig. in Aldrov. iii. p. 541,
t Hift. Braf. p. 290.    Pifon. Hift. Nat. N° 84.
I Mar eg. p. 200. § Ibid.
 JABIRU.
the Nhandhuguacu,  or  the fuppofed Oftrich of America,  to  a
Crane *.
It feems however to have gained univerfally the name of
Oftrich by the Europeans, but unfortunately fcarce any two have
given the fame account: Marcgrave fays, it has three toes furnifhed with claws forwards, and one without a claw behind;
Fermin, that it has only two toes, joined by a membrane -f-; but
Bajon % aflbresus that it has four, all placed as in the Heron genus.
However this be, we meet with birds called Oftriches, on the
whole ofthe American continent, from Guiana to the moft fouthern
coaft of the continent; at Rio Grande ||, about Buenos Ayres §,
and fo on to the coafts of Patagonia **: indeed many other voyagers have mentioned, but none defcribed the bird fufficient to
afcertain the fpecies. Dampier \\ alfo talks of Oftriches being
found to the fouth of Bahia in great plenty, though not fo large
as thofe of Africa, and found chiefly in the fouthern parts of Braftl,
efpecially among the large favannas near the river Plate, and
from thence further fouth, as far as the ftreights of Magellan.
* Grus cinerea fe rivora; but adds, that it has fomewhat the appearance of an
. Oftrich.    He calls it likewife, in other places, an Heron.
t Defer. Surin. ii. p. 142.—He adds, that the bird has two fpurs on each
wing, like the Hedge-hog's quills, but confefles that he has never feen one. He
is right, however, in faying that it ftands from four to five feet in height.
J Mem. fur Cay.
■y Klein, p. 17.
§ Falk. Patag. p. 52 Said t
•* See Falk. Pat. p   5Z, 53,
if taking  them,  and  fays  the
abound in this neighbourhc
01, 109, 126, where he me
name is Choique.     See
ntions the methods
alfo Wallis's Voy.
tt Vol. :
. p. 76.
The
 J   A   B   I   R   U.
The above fubject. wants further elucidation; and it is to be
hoped, that future navigators will pay fome attention to it, and-
ufe their endeavours to procure a fpecimen ; which appears, from
the relations of the feveral voyagers, not to be attended with the
utmoft difficulty.
Vol. IH.
 i a<5 }
Genus  LXIII.     BOAT-BILL.
N° i.  Crefted B.
Var. A.  Spotted B.
Var.
Brown I
THE bill in this genus is broad, with a keel along the middle, like a beat reverfed.
Noftrils fmall, lodged in a furrow.
Tongue fmall.
Toes divided.
Cancroma cochlearia, Lin. Syft. i. p. 233. N° 1,
La Cuilliere, Brif. Orn. v. p. 506.
Le Savacou, Buf. Oif. vii. p. 443. pl. 23.—iV. Enl. 38.
Boat-bill, Brown, Illuftr. p. g2. pl. 36.
Lev. Muf.
CIZE of a fowl: "length twenty-two inches. The bill is four
inches long, and of a lingular form, not unlike a'boat with
the keel uppermoft, or, as fome think, like the bowls of two
fpoons, placed with the hollow parts together; the upper mandible has a prominent ridge at the top, and on each fide of this a
long channel, at the bottom of which the noftrils are placed j
thefe are oval, and fituated obliquely; the general colour of the
bill is dufky, or in fome fpecimens dark brown; the fkin between the under jaw capable of diftenfion : from the hind head
7 fprings
 rW./rr/M^^^
 !§■
 BOAT-BILL. 27
fprings a long black creft, the feathers which compofe it narrow,
and end in a point j the middle ones are fix inches in length, the
others leflen by degrees, the outer ones being not more than one
inch: between the bill and eye the fkin is bare and dufky; the
plumage on the forehead white; the reft of the bird of a pale
blueifh afh-colour : acrofs the lower part of the neck behind is a
tranfverfe band of brownifh black, which paffes forwards on each
fide towards the breaft, ending in a point, but does not encompafs
it: the fore part of the neck, and under parts, are blueifh white,
•except the belly and thighs, which are rufous : the feathers
which hang over the breaft are loofe, like thofe of the Heron: the
tail is three inches and a half long, and the wings, when clofed,
reach nearly to the end of it : the leg is three inches in
length; and the thigh, from its infertion to the knee, four; the
middle toe two inches and a half; the bare part above the knee
one inch and a half: the colour of the bare parts yellowifh
-brown; claws black: the toes are connected at the bafe by a
membrane, which, as in the Umbre, is deepeft in the outer one.
This defcription is taken from a fine fpecimen now in the
Leverian Mufeum.
La Cuilliere tachetee, Brif. Orn. v. p. 508. A. yAR* a..
SPOTTED B,
\ Hp HI S differs from the laft, in being varied with fpots of
brown,
E 2
 BOAT-BILL,
rAR# -g Cancroma cancrophaga, Lin. Syft. i. p. 233. 2.
OWN B. La Cuilliere brune, Brif. Orn. v. N° 509. z.—Buf. Oif. vii. p. 443.——
Pl. Enl. 869.
Tamatia, Rail Syn, p. 116. iz.—Will. Orn. p. 318. pl. 78.
Lev. Muf.
CRiPTioN.    CIZE of the laft.    Head and creft the fame : the upper parts,
inftead of afh-colour, are of a pale rufous brown: the tail
rufous afh : the under parts wholly of a cream-colour: bill and
legs yellow brown.   *
I find thefe birds vary much : in the firft place, the crefts are
by no means of equal lengths; fince the cinereous one, mentioned
by Buffon, had a fhorter creft than the brown fort j whereas m
thofe which came under rhy inflection, it was juft the contrary j
and in one fpecimen the creft was fcarcely manifeft : the bills
too vary in colour; fome are bkck, others brown, and in one
which I faw it appeared to have been yellow. If I may be allowed a conjecture, it is, that the cinereous, or firft-defcribed, is-
the male, the plain brown one the female, and the fpotted variety
of Briffon a young male; and that the crefts of both are equal;
when in an adult ftate. In the Pl. Enl. I obferve a patch of
grey in the middle of the greater wing coverts, which is not in
any fpecimen that I have feen. The figure referred to in Brown
is not good,being too fhort andfquat; that in Hift. des Oif. much:'
worfe, though the bill and creft are well expreffed: both thofe
in the Pl. Enl. are fufficiently expreflive; and it is to be hoped.,
that our reprefentation will likewife give a juft idea of fo curious
a bird.
This
 B O A T - B I L L.
This fpecies, for I refer all that has been treated of above to
me only, inhabits Cayenne, Guiana, and Brafiil, and chiefly frequents fuch parts as are near the water: in fuch places it perches
on the trees which hang over the ftreams, and, like the Ktngs-
fjjher, drops down on the fifh which fwim beneath. It has been
thought to live on crabs, likewife, whence the Lirmaan name j
but this is not clear, though it cannot be denied; yet we are certain that fifh is the moft common if not the only food*
2§
Place ani
Manners-,
 B
[   *o   ]
Genus    LXIV.      U   M   B   R  E.
N° i. Tufted Umbre.
ILL ftrong, thick, compreffed, the upper mandible appearing to be compofed of feveral pieces.
Noftrils linear, and placed obliquely.
Toes divided, furnifhed with a flight membrane at the bafe.
L'Ombrette, Brif. Om. v. p. 503.—Buf. Oif vii. p. 440.
■   > — du Senegal, Pl. Enl. 796.
The Umbre, Brovjn. llluftr. p. go. pl. 35;
CIZE of a Crow : length twenty inches. The bill is three
inches and a half in length, and compreffed on the fides;
along each fide of the upper mandible is a furrow, running
lengthwife, about one-eighth of an inch from the ridge, beginning
at the bafe, and finifhing about half an inch before it comes to
the point of the bill, which is fomewhat bent downwards; at the
bafe of it are the noftrils, which are a mere flit, placed at a fharp
angle with the furrow, and about half an inch in length ; the
under mandible is lefs deep at the bafe than the upper, grows
fmaller towards the end, is there a little truncated, and when
clofed, fhuts in beneath the upper one ; the colour of both
brown: from the hind head fprings a creft of loofe feathers?
exceeding full, and four inches in length j this, as well as the
whole
   UMBRE.
whole body, is of an uniform brown colour, moft like that of
Umber, but rather paleft beneath, and the neck feathers paleft
down the fhafts : the wings and tail are even ; the laft is barred
with three or four bars of deeper brown, and tipped for about an
inch with the fame : the legs are long, and the thighs bare for
two-thirds of the length ; the colour of both dufky : between
each toe is a membrane, about a quarter of an inch deep between
the middle and outer, and fomewhat lefs between that and the
inner : the claws are fmall and bent. .
I fufpect. the bird figured in the Pl. Enluminees to be a female,
as there does not appear the leaft rudiment of a creft. The tail
in this bird is of a paler brown, and croffed with five narrow
bars of darker brown, with the tip of this laft colour. That defcribed by Brijfon is alfo without a creft. The bird figured in
Brown's work, gives a falfe idea ; it there appears a heavy, fquat>
uncouth figure, the legs much too fhort, and the membrane
between the toes nearly as much webbed as in a Duck.
At Sir Jofeph Banks's is a moft perfect fpecimen of the male,
which came from the Cape of Good Hope. Buffon's bird came from
Senegal. tk-j^Tili
 C   32   1
Genus   LXV
HERON,
1. Crowned H.
N° 22. Zigzag B.
2. Demoifelle H.
23. Brafilian B.
3. Sibirian Crane.
24. Tiger B.
4. Indian Cr.
25. Lineated B.
Var. A.
26. Yellow B.
5. Common Cr.
.27. Little B.
Var. A. Japan
Cr.
28. Minute B.
6. Hooping Cr.
29. Senegal B.                      .* >
7. Brown Cr.
.30. Green H.
8. Gigantic Cr.
Var. A.
9. White Stork.
Var. B.
10. American St.
31. Spotted H.
11. Black St.
32. Gardenian H.
id. Collared H.
33. Cinereous H.
13. Night H.
34, New Guinea H.
14. Jamaica Night
H.
35. Philippine H.
15. Caledonian N.
H.
36. Squaiotta H.
16. Cayenne N. H
37. Chefnut H.
17. Bittern.
38. Red-legged H.
Var. A.
Var. A.
18. Greater B.
39. Squacco H.
Var. A.
Var. A.
19. Rufous B.
40. Caftaneous H.
20. Swabian B,
41. Ferruginous H.
21. Rayed B.
42. Dwarf H.
43. Cinnamon
 HER
0   N,                                                    3>
N° 43. Cinnamon H.                  £
0 61. Snowy H.
44. Malacca H.
62. Sacred H.
45. Blue H.
Var. A.
Var. A.
63. Little White H.
Var. B.
Var. A.
Var. C
Var. B.
46. Yellow-crowned H.
64. Black H.
47. Louifiane H.
65. Crefted Purple H.
48. Striated H.
66. Purple H.
49. Wattled H.
67. Mexican H.
50. Common H.
68. Cracra H.
51. Great H.
69. Violet H.
5 2. Red-fhouldered H.
70. Agami H.
53. Rufly-crowned H.
71. Cocoi H.
54. Afh-coloured H.
72. Rufous H.
55. Streaked H.
73. Chinefe H.
56. Reddifh Egret.
74. Johanna H.
57. Demi Egr.
75. Dry H.
58. Great Egr.
76. Houhou H.
59. Little Egr.
77. Pondicherry H.
60. Great White H.
78. Coromandel H.
VAR.A.Black-creftedH.
79. Scolopaceous H.
J"1p H E characters of this genus are :
A    A long, ftrong, fharp-pointed bill.
Noftrils linear.
Tongue pointed.
Toes connected by a membrane
as far as the firft joint: the
middle claw of fome of the fpecies
pectinated.
Vol, 111.
F                                      Ardea
 HERON.
CROWNED H.
41. (the female.)-—Buf. Oif.
ale).
• P- 275- Pl- 48.—Sloan. Jam.
Ardea Pavonina, Lin. Syft.i. p. 233. 1.
L'Oifeau Royal, Brif. Orn. v. p. 511.  1.  pl.
vii. p. 317. pl. 16.—Pl. Enl. 265. (the n
Balearic Crane, Rail Syn. p. 95. *.—Wilt. On
P- 3H-
Peacock, Kolb. Cape, ii. p. 245. pl. 7. f, 4.
Crowned African Crane, Edvj. pl. 192.
Crown Bird, Voy. to Guinea, p. 25s. pl. 11.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
■*TP HIS is as large as the common Heron; the length two feet
nine inches. The bill is two inches and a half long, ftrait, and
of a brownifh colour: irides grey: the crown of the head covered
with foft black feathers, like velvet; on the hind part is a tuft
compofed of hair, or rather briftles, arifing near each other at the
bafe, and fpreading out on all fides in a globular form j this is
four inches in length, and of a reddifh brown colour : the fides
of the head are bare of feathers, being covered only by a flefhy
membrane, of a reddifh colour at the lower part, and in fhape
not unlike a kidney: on each fide of the throat hangs a kind of
wattle : the general colour of the bird, blueifh afh. The feathers
on the fore part of the neck are very long, and hang over the
breaft: wing coverts white; the greater ones incline to rufous,
and thofe fartheft from the body to black : the greater quills
and tail are black, and the fecondaries chefnut: the legs, and
the bare part above the knee, are dufky.
The female is black, where the male is blue afh: and the
wattles on the throat are wanting : the long feathers on the breaft
are alfo lefs confpicuous.
This
 HERON.
This beautiful fpecies is an inhabitant of Africa, particularly
the Coaft of Guinea *, as far as Cape Verd; at this laft place they
are faid to be wonderfully tame, and will often come into the
court-yards to feed with the poultry.
Why the name of Balearic Crane has been given to this bird,
is not well afcertained, as it is certainly not met with in the Balearic Iflands f at this day. Thefe birds are often kept in our
menageries, and, with fhelter of nights, often live a good while.
Their chief food fuppofed to be worms, and fuch other things as
the Heron tribe ufually feed on; alfo vegetables of all kinds.
Often fleeps on one leg; runs very faft; and is faid not only to
fly well, but to fuftain it for a long time together. The flefh of
this bird is faid to be very tough J.
Ardea Virgo, Lin. Syft. i. p. 234. 2.
La Grue de Numidie, ou Demoifelle,
vii. p. 313. pl. 15.—Pl.Enl. 241.
Numidian Crane, Albin iii. pl. 83.
Demoifelle of Numidia, Edw. pl. 134.
Br. Muf.   Le-
rif. Orn. v. p. 388. lz.—Buf. Oif.   *H DEMOISELLE
•.Muf.
CIZE of the Crane:   length three feet three inches.  The bill     Descru
flrait; two inches and a half long; greenifh at the bafe, then
yellowifh, with the tip red : irides crimfon. The crown of the
head is afh-colour; the reft of the head, the upper part of the
• Common about the whole country of Ardra; a few at and about Acra; and
feveral at Wbidab.—Bofman.
+ Majorca and Minorca.
% Kolben.
F 2 neck
 HERON.
neck behind, and all the under parts, to the breaft, black ; on the
laft, the feathers are long, and hang downwards: the back, rump,
and tail, and all the under part from the breaft, are of a blueifh
afh-colour : behind each eye fprings a tuft of long white feathers,
which decline downwards, and hang in an elegant manner: the
quills and tail are black at the ends: the legs black.
This fpecies is found in many parts of Africa and Afiia. In the
firft, has been met with on the Coaft of Guinea*; but is moft plenti-
- ful about Bildulgerid (the ancient Numidia), and Tripoli; from
thence along the coafts of the Mediterranean Sea; and pretty common in Egyptf. They are alfo at Aleppo J, and in the fouthern
plain about the Black and Cafpian Seas; and are feen frequent
beyond Lake Baikal, about the rivers Selenga and Argun, but never
venture to the northward ||. In all places found to prefer marfhes
and neighbour-hood- of rivers, as the food is fifh, like moft of the
Heron genus.
It is frequently kept in menageries, being endowed with great
gentlenefs of ^manners, added to its being an elegant bird.
At various times puts itfelf into Arrange and uncouth attitudes,
and efpecially thofe which imitate dancing: and Keyfler mentions
one in the Great. Duke's Gallery, at Florence, which had been
taught to dance to a certain tune, when played or fung to it§^
The name this bird is known by in the eaft is Kurki, or Gfuerky.
Sometimes will breed in confinement: one is recorded to have
• Hift des Oif.
% Rvffel. Alep. p. 6g.
.   § See Trav. vol. ii.  j
Trav. vol. ii, p. 207.
t Haffela. p. 287.
I) Mr. Pennant.
34.—Called by Pococke, the Dancing Bird.   See his
 HERON,
lived twenty-four years   at Verfailles,   which had  been raifed
there*.
37
isLeucogeranos, Pall. Trav. ii.
rian Crane, Arc!. Zool. p. 455.
a4. 30. t. 1.—Georgi Reife, p. 171.
fpHIS is a very large fpecies, being four feet fix inches high,
when ftanding erect. The bill fhaped like that of a crane,
but bigger, and of a red colour; the mandibles ferrated at the
edges near the tip : the face naked beyond the eyes ; rugofe, of a
red colour, and fprinkled with numerous rufous tubercles : irides
white: the plumage white as fnow, except the ten firft greater
quills, with the coverts of them, which are black : the fcapulars
fhorter than in the Crane: tail pretty even, confifting of twelve
feathers : legs long, red.
In old birds the hind part of the neck is yellowifh: young
birds of the firft year are wholly of an oker colour; with the
face, bill, and legs of a greenifh brown.
This fpecies inhabits the vaft marfhes and lakes in Sibiria,
efpecially thofe about the If him, and along the rivers Ob and
Irtifh. Makes the neft among the reeds, feldom acceffible by
man, upon rifing green grafly tufts, made up of herbs and grafs
heaped together : lays two afh-coloured eggs of the fize of thofe
of a Goofe, and fpotted with brown.
Thefe are fhy birds, and always upon their guard againft an
enemy; having a centinel to warn them of an approach : on the
leaft alarm cry aloud, not unlike the Swan, and fly off directly.
• Hift. des Oif
The
 38 HERON.
Thefportfman finds, in courfe,much difficulty in approaching them
within gunfhot; for, as they ftand near five feet high from the
ground, they-are enabled to efpy him at a great diftance. Sometimes indeed he approached them under cover of a ftalking-
horfe, or other object; at other times a fmall dog will divert their
attention, as they will without fear attack the dog, while his
mafter gets within reach. In breeding-time, however, they are
more bold, as they will defend their young even againft men, fo
as to make it dangerous to come near their haunts. The male
and female faid to guard the neft alternate.
The more northern parts are thofe of the fummer refidence,
and to which they come in fpring; departing fouth in autumn, probably winter about the Cafpian Sea, and parts beyond.
Fly always in pairs *. A bird fimilar to this, if not the fame,
we often fee depicted in Chinefe hangings. I rather think this, as
I have more than once met with it in fome drawings of Chinefe
birds.
The food is frogs, fmall fifh, lizards, and fuch-like. The
Ruffians know it by the name of Sterchi; and if the bird hinted
at as Chinefe be the fame, it is called by them Tzew-ting-ha.
INDIAN
CRANE.
Ardea Antigone, Lin. Syft. i. p. 235. 6.
La Grue des Indes Orientates, Brif. Orn. v. p. 378. 7.
Greater Indian Crane, Edw. 45.
*Tn HIS is a larger bird than the common Crane, being in height
five feet.   The bill is of a greenifh yellow, dufky at the tip :
irides of a bright reddifh hazel:  crown of the head bare and
" Decouv. Ruff. ii. p. 145.
white j
 HERON.
white; on each fide of the head, about the ears, is a bare white
fpot; the reft ofthe head, and a fmall part ofthe neck, covered with
a fine red fkin, and is alfo deftitute of feathers : the plumage of
the bird is afh-colour, lighted: about the neck : the quills are
black: tail and fecondaries afh-colour; thofe neareft the body are
pointed at the ends, longer than the quills, and hang over them :
the legs, and bare fpace above the knee, are red : the claws white;
the middle and outer toe connected by a membrane as far as the
firft joint.
This fpecies inhabits the Eaft Indies, alfo the Mongolian Defarts; from whence it migrates into that part of the Ruffi.m dominions which lies beyond Lake Baikal, keeping chi<-fly within
the plains below the rivers Onon and Argun, which is the wefterrt
extremity ofthe Gobean Plain *.
La Grue a Collier, Buf. Oif. vii. p. 307.—?/. Enl. 86y.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf
C I Z E very large: length four feet three inches and a half.
Bill long and black: the head, and neck for above half its
length, are almoft naked, being covered with a reddifh white
down ; round the middle of the neck is a collar of red : the lower
part ofthe neck, and the reft of the body, of a blueifh afh-colour :
on the rump is a tuft of flowing feathers, which hang over the
ends of the wings and tail, "as in the common Crane: the tail is
black : the legs dufky.
Inhabits the Eaft Indies.
\ Mr. Pennant.
 HERON.
COMMON
CRANE.
i.  234. 4.—Faun. Sue
- Muller, p. 22 Kran
.   161.—Scop. Ann.i.
El. p. i^.—Frifcb.
Ardea  Grus, Lin. Syft.
N° 123.—Brun. p. 1
pl. 194.
La Grue, Brif. Orn. v. p. 375. 6.—Buf. Oif. vii. p. 287.   pl.   14— Pl.
Enl. 769.
The Crane, Rail Syn. p. 95, A. i.—Will. Orn. p. 274. pl. 4^.—Kolben, Hift.
Cap. ii. p.  141.—Albin.  ii. pl.  65.—Br. Zool. app. .p. 629, pl. 6,—
Ara. Zool. p. 453.
' Lev. Muf.
•TPHIS is a large bird, not unfrequently weighing ten pounds,
and meafures more than five feet in length. The bill is almoft
four inches and a quarter long, and of a greenifh black: the forehead, to the middle of the crown, covered with black down or
hairs; the hind part bare and red, with a few fcattered hairs:
on the nape, below this, is a bare fpace of two inches, and of an
afh-colour : the fides ofthe head, behind the eyes, and the hind
part of the neck, are white: between the bill and eyes, the
cheeks beneath them, and the fore part of the neck, are of a
blackifh afh-colour : the lower part of the neck, and the reft of
the body, fine afh-colour, deepeft on the tail coverts : the greater
wing coverts are blackifh; and thofe fartheft from the body,
with the baftard wing, and quills, black: from the pinion of
each wing fprings an elegant tuft of loofe feathers, curled at the
ends, which may be erected at will, but in a quiefcent ftate hang
over and covi r the tail: the legs are black.
This fpecies feems far fpread, being met with in great flocks
throughout northern Europe, and Afia; in Sweden, Ruffia throughout, and Sibiria as far as the river Anadyr, migrating even to the
arctic circle.   In Kamtfchatka only feen on the fouthern promon-
9 tory :
"mm
 HERON.
tory * : are migratory, returning northward to breed in the
fpring, and generally choofing the fame places which had been
occupied by them the feafon before t- In the winter inhabiting
the warmer regions, fuch as Egypt %, Aleppo ||, India, &c. : alfo
met with at the Cape of Good Hope, changing place with the
feafon. In their migrations frequently fly fo high as not to be
vifible; their paffing only being known by the noife they make,
being louder than any other bird §. In France they are feen
fpring and autumn; but for the moft part are mere paffengers.
. We are told that they frequented the marfhes' of Lincolnfhire
and Cambridgefhire, in vaft flocks, formerly ; but the cafe is
altered, as of late none have been met with, except, a few years
fince, a fingle bird fhot near Cambridge.
We are told that they make the neft in the marfhes, and lay
two blueifh eggs. The young birds are thought very good
food. They feed on reptiles of all kinds, and in turn on green
corn -, of which laft they are faid to make fo great havock, as to
ruin the farmers, wherever the flocks of thefe depredators
alight.
* Ara. Zool.—One ofthe reafons fuppofed to be, the want of frogs, toads, and
ferpents ;   none being found in Kamtfcbaika—Hift. of Kamtfcb. They have
however plenty of lixards.
•f Amcen. Acad. iv. p. 589.
% Id. note (m.)—WUlughby met with them at Rome in the winter feafon.
|| Ruff. Alep. p. 69.
§ Suppofed to arife from the lingular conformation of the wind-pipe, which,
" entering far into the breaft-bone, which has a great cavity to receive it, and
being there thrice reflected, goes out again at the fame hole, and fo turns down
to the lungs."—Will. Orn. p. 274. pl. 48.—The above ftrufture" is not very
unlike that of the Parraaua Pheafant.   See vol. ii. part 2. p. 722. of this Worlc.
Vol. III. G Le
1
 HERON.
JAPAN. CR
Descriftio
Le Grue du Japon, Brif Om. v. p. 381.9.
CIZE and fhape of the laft. Bill "and legs dull green: the
upper part of the head covered with a red fkin, fprinkled
with a few briftly feathers: fore part of the neck black: the
hind part of the reft of the plumage in general white, except
the greater quills, which are black : fome of the fecondaries are
pointed at the ends, and fo long as almoft to reach the end of
the tail.
Inhabits Japan". I obferve this bird to be frequent in Chinefe
paintings and paper-hangings; as alfo reprefented in china ware:
in all thefe the loofe feathers which hang over the tail are
black.
HOOPING CR.
Ardea Americana, Lin. Syft. \. p. 234. 5.
La Grue d'Amerique, Brif. Orn. v. p. 382. \o.—Pl. Enl. 889. j?
   blanche, Buf. Oif. vii. p. 308.
Hooping Crane, Cat eft. Car. i. pl. 75.—Edw. p. 132.—Ara. Zool. N° 339.
T ENGTH four feet fix inches ; and to the end of the claws
five feet feven inches. Bill fix inches, toothed at the edges
near the end, and of a yellow brown colour: the top of the
head, and under the eyes, covered with a red fkin, befet with
black hairs, which are placed fo thick next the bill as to appear
nearly black; this ends in a point nearly beneath the ears: behind the crown, on the nape, is a triangular black mark : the
general colour ofthe plumage white; except the bend ofthe wing,
which is of a pale rofe-colour; the nine firft quills are black ;
the tenth black and white; and the reft white: the legs, and
bare
 H   E   R   O   N.
bare part of the thighs, black : on the rump the feathers are
tufted, and hang curved downwards, as in the common Crane.
This is an American fpecies, often feen at the mouths of the
Savanna, Aratamaha, and other'rivers nearer St. Auguftine: in
fpring going to the north to breed, like the common Crane, and
returning, like that bird, to the fouth in autumn. In the fummer are found in Hudfon's Bay, at which place they arrive in
May, and retire in September; and are chiefly met with in unfrequented places, in the neighbourhood of lakes, where they
breed. The neft is made on the ground, compofed of grafs and
feathers. They lay two white eggs, like thofe of the Swan, and
fit twenty days: the young are at firft yellow, changing to
white by degrees. Thefe birds have a loud long note, which
may be heard at a great diftance : the food is chiefly worms
and-infects, which it fearches for at the bottoms of ponds. The
natives of Hudfon's Bay call it Wapaw-uchechauk *,
Ardea Canadenfis, Lin. Syft. i. p. 234. 3.
La Grue de la Baye d'Hudfon, Brif. Orn. v. p. 3S5. 11.
Blue Crane, Phil. Tranf. vol. lxii. p. 409.
Brown and alh-coloured Crane, Edw. pl. i«~.—Ara. Zool. N° 340.
Lev. Muf.
T  ENGTH three feet three inches: weight feven pounds and
a half.    Bill three inches and three quarters, and dufky;
* For the vernacular name of this, as well as many other birds of North America, as alfo the manners of many fpecies, I am indebted to the obfervations
of Mr. Hutchins, of the Hudfon's Ray Company, an intelligent and communicative
Naturalift.
l&ifiiA G 2 but
 HERON,
but the tip of the under mandible is pale flefh-colour: the top
of the head covered with a red fkin thinly befet with hairs: cheeks
and throat whitifh: the hind head and neck are cinereous : the
upper part of the back, fcapulars, and wing coverts, pale rufous, margined with brown; the lower and rump cinereous : the
breaft, belly, thighs, and fides, afh-colour, changing to white at
. the vent: the greater wing covert fartheft from the body, blackifh brown; thofe neareft the body grey, forming a band on
the wing: the greater quills dark brown, with white fhafts;
the fecondaries pale rufous: fome of thefe laft are long and
narrow, and reach beyond the greater quills : the tail of a deep
afh-colour: legs and bare part of the thighs black.
Scarce any difference between the male and female:
This is likewife a fpecies peculiar to America; migrating at the
different feafons, as the former. Seen by Kalm fo early as the 7 th
of February, paffing over New Jerfey and Penfylvania; but he fays
they are feen in much fewer numbers than formerly. Come into
the parts about Hudfon's Bay in May: lay two eggs, and have the
fame manners as the laft : will alfo eat corn, and at times do damage by eating the maize*. The flefh is thought good by
many. Called at Severn River the Blue Crane, by the natives
Samak-uchechauk.
This is probably Willughby's Indian Crane *\ ; which he fays is
lefs than the common one, but the bill larger in proportion : the
top ofthe head red, fet with long hairs : the body afh-colour;
and the tail fhort, being hid by the feathers. Ray fuppofes it
to be the Toquilcoyotl of Hernandez, which is a Mexican fpecies t.
* Ara. Zool.
% Syn. p. 95. ;
t Orn. p. 275.
—See alfo la Grue du Mexique, Brif. v. p. 380.
Argill,
—Pi
«PS1
 HERON.
Argill, or Hurgill, Ives's Voy. p. 183.
*"pHE bird here quoted feems to be ofthe Heron tribe, and is
a very large fpecies; from tip to tip ofthe wings meafuring
fourteen feet ten inches; and from the tip ofthe bill to the claws,
feven feet and a half: the bill fixteen inches round at the bafe,
of different colours, and nearly of a triangular fhape: the feathers ofthe back and wings very ftrong, and of an iron-colour;
thofe of the breaft long : over the belly a great deal of down, of
a dirty white: the legs and half the thighs naked; the naked
parts full three feet in length.
This monfter, as Ives terms it, inhabits Bengal, and is alfo
found at Calcutta ; at the laft place called Hurgill, or Argill. It
majeftically ftalks along before one, and appears at firft like a
naked Indian. The common opinion is, that the fouls of the
Bramins poflefs thefe birds. " On opening one of thefe, a Terapiw,
or land Tortoife, ten inches long, was found in its craw, and a
large male black cat was found intire in its ftomach V
I have fcarce a doubt of the above being the fame as a fpecies
remarked by Mr. Smeatbman in Africa, while refident there; an
adult one of which will often meafure full 7 feet, when ftanding
erect.. He defcribes the plumage much the fame as in Mr. Ives's
bird; adding, that the gape-is-monftroufly wide: the head covered
with white down, thinly difperfed, appearing not unlike a greyheaded man:   on the middle of the neck before, a long, conic
* In Sumatra is faid to be a great variety of the Stork kind ; fome of a prodigious fize, and otherwife curious; as the Boorong Combing and Booring-oolar.
—See Marfd. Sumatr. p. 98.
membrane,
 H   E
O   N,
membrane, like a bladder, fprinkled very thinly with fhort down,
rifing or falling as the animal moves the beak, and always appearing inflated.
Thefe birds are met with in companies; and when feen at a
diftance, near the mouths of rivers, coming towards an obferver,
which they do with the wings extended, may well be taken for
canoes, upon the furface of a frnooth fea: when on the fand
banks, for men and women picking up fhell-fifh or other things on
the beach.
One of thefe, a young bird, about five feet in height, was
brought up tame, and prefented to the Chief of the Bananas,
where Mr. Smeathman lived; and being aCcuftomed to be fed in
the great hall, foon became familiar *, duly attending that place
at dinner-time, placing itfelf behind its mafter's chair, frequently
before any of the guefts entered. Th^ /..ivants were obliged to
watch it narrowly, and to defend the provifions with fwitches in
their hands; but, notwithftanding this, it would frequently
fnatch off fomewhat or other, and was known once to have purloined a whole boiled fowl, which it fwallowed in an inftant. Its
courage is not equal to its voracity; for a child of eight or ten
years old foon puts it to flight with afwitch, though at firft it
feems to ftand upon its defence, by threatening with its enormous bill, widely extended, and crying out with a loud hoarfe
voice, like a bear or tiger. It is an enemy to fmall quadrupeds^
as well as birds and reptiles, and deftroys fowls and chickens,
though it dare.not attack a hen with her young openly : it preys
alfo on rats, young kittens, and the like ; and has been known,to
fwallow a cat whole : a bone of afihin of beef being broken afun-
der, ferves it but for two morfels.
The
»■
**Pi
 HERON.
The individual above mentioned ufed to fly about the ifland,
and rooft very high among the filk cotton trees ; from whence, at
two or three miles diftance, it could fpy the dinner carrying
acrofs the yard; when, darting from its ftation, it would enter
promifcuoufly with the women who carried in the difhes. When
fitting, it was obferved to reft itfelf on the whole length of the
hind part of the leg. It fometimes flood near, for half an hour
after dinner, with the head turning alternately, as if liftening to
the converfation; and during this time would every three or
four minutes void the excrements, which were liquid, and whitifh;
and took care always to do this on his legs, by wheeling the
back parts round over one or the other, and this regularly on
different legs ; for if he had muted on the left leg laft, he would
be fure to do the fame on the right the next time ; never making
any miftake.—As to the reft of its manners, fuch as incubation,
&c. my friend is filent.
Ardea Ciconia, Lin. Syft. i.~p. 235. 7.—Faun.
N° 123.—Brun. N° 154.—Muller, p. 22.
La Cicogne blanche, Brif Om. v. p. 365. pl.
Oif. vii. p. 253. pl. 12.
White Stork, Rail Syn. p. 97. A. l.—Will. Om
pl. 64..—Ara. Zool- p. 455-
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
6z
.—Scop. Ann. i.
9-
+- WHIT
I.
Enl. 866.—Buf.
STORK.
p. 286. pl. 52.—Albin
CIZE of a Turkey, or larger: length three feet three inches.
Bill feven inches and three quarters ; the colour of it a fine
red : the plumage is wholly white, except the orbits of the eyes,
which are bare and blackifh: fome of the fcapulars, the greater
7 coverts,
 HERON.
coverts, and quills, are black: the fkin, legs, and bare part of
the thighs, are red *.
Male and female much alike.
This familiar fpecies inhabits in turn the various parts ofthe
old continent; but avoiding alike the extremes of heat and
cold, being never met with between the tropics, nor fcarce ever
feen more north than Sweden, or in Ruffia beyond 50 degrees.
It never frequents Sibiria, though fometimes feen in Bucharia,
where it makes its neft; tending towards the fouth in autumn, to
winter in Egypt. It has fcarce ever been met with in England' f ;
though it is well known, that in Lorrain and Alface, in France, as
well as in Holland, they every where build on the tops ofthe hpufes,
and the good-natured inhabitants provide boxes for them to make
their nefts in ; this they not only do, but are particularly careful
that the birds fuffer no injury, refenting it as done to them-
felves. At Bagdad Ives faw a neft of thefe, June 13, on a dome
of a decayed mofque ; and fays that hundreds are to be feen on
every houfe, wall, and tree, quite tame J. At Perfiepolis, or
Chilmanar, in Perfia, the remains of the pillars ferve them to
build on, " every pillar having a neft of them ||." They are common at Aleppo %; and in plenty at Seville ** in Spain.   Thought
' The bill and legs are fometimes hrovm. Salerne.—Such a variety I recollect to have feen in the collection of that well-informed naturalift, Marmaduke
Tunftall, Efq; whofe- liberal communications on Ornithology I beg leave to
acknowledge.
+ Two inftances only are on record : Willughby mentions one being fliot in
Norfolk; and Albin a fecond in Middlefex.
J. Ives's Voy. p. 299, 307. || Fryer's Trav. p. 251.       § Ruffel Alep. p. 69.
** In the winter feafon Storks are very numerous in Seville; almoft every tower
 HERO   N.
to have two broods in a year; the firft towards the north, the
latter one in the warmer places. Are feen in vaft flocks during
their migrations. Shaw faw three flights of them leaving Egypt,
paffing over mount Carmel, towards the north-eaft, in the
middle of April, each of them half a mile in breadth, and they
were three hours paffing over *. Said to remain the whole year
in Japan f, and, if I miftake not Haffelquift J, at Alexandria
likewife.
The female makes a large neft, compofed of flicks ; and lays
from two to four eggs, which are of a dirty yellowifh white, the
fize of thofe of a goofe, but a trifle longer. The young are
hatched in a month, and at firft are brown : the male and female
faid to watch them by turns, till they are fit to take care of
themfelves. The Stork fleeps on one leg, and fnaps with its bill
in a lingular manner ||. The food confifts of frogs, fnakes, and
other reptiles : hence the veneration of all fects for this ufeful
bird, which frees them from thefe pefts; added to the flefh being
in the city is peopled with them, and they return annually to the fame nefts.
They deftroy all the vermin on the tops of the houfes, and peck up a great
number of fnakes; fo that they are welcome guefts to the inhabitants, and
looked upon with particular veneration.—Dillon Trav. p. 308.
* Trav. p. 428.—Some perfons have fuppofed this to be the Ibis of the an-
tients, with full as good reafon as any other bird. It is certain that the Egyptians embalmed the bodies of birds ; and it is as certain that birds ofthe Stork
kind make a part of them. That in Edw. pl. 10c, feems to be that of the Ibis
or Curlew genus.—Compare PocockeTrav. i. pl. 64. G.
f K&mpfer. % Voy. p. 9.
U In doing this the head is turned backwards, the upper part of the bill
placed on the rump, and the under, fet into the quicker! motion, made to aft
on the other.—Ives's Voy. p. 307.
Vol. III. H no
 5o HERON.
no temptation as a food, as it is allowed on all hands to be
unfavoury.
AMERICAN
ST.
LaCigogne d'Americme, Brif. Om. v. p. 369. 3.
Le Maguari, Buf. Oif. vii. p. 275.
Ciconia Americana,  American   Stork,  Rail Syn.  p. 9.7.  3.—Will.  Orn.
p. 287..
CIZE of the laft. Bill nine inches long ; the bafe half of a
yellowifh green, the reft of a blueifh afh-colour: irides filver-
coloured;. orbits red ; and between the bill and eyes a bare fkin
ofthe fame colour: the plumage in general is white: the feathers
on the lower part of the neck before, long and loofe : the tail is-
white; but the feathers above it are black: the greater fcapulars, greater coverts, and quills, are alfo black; and thofe neareft
the body as long as the quills: the legs, and bare part of the
thighs, are red: claws broad and flat..
This fpecies is found in the warmer parts of America, efpecially Brafil, and is accounted good food: is faid to fnap with
the bill, like the common Stork.
Ardea nigra, Lin. Syft. i. p. 235. 8.—Faun. Suec. 163.—Scop. Ann. L
N° 124.—Brun. N° 157.—Muller, p. 22.—Georgi Reife, p. 171.
La Cicogne brnne, Brif. Orn. v. p. 362. pl. *i.—Pl. Enl. igg.
 noire, Buf.  Oif vii. p. 271.
Black Stork, Rail Syn. p. 97. A. 2.—Will. Orn. p. 286. pl. ^z.—Albin, iii.
pl. 82.—Ara. Zool. p. 456.
CIZE of a fmall Turkey : length two feet nine inches.   Bill
five inches   and   a   half long,  of a greenifh grey,  with a
whitifh tip :
6
the top of the head is  brown,, gloffed with violet
and
 HERON.
and green: throat and neck brown, dotted with white, but the
lower part of the neck is gloffed with violet, and dotted with
o-rey brown * : back, wing coverts, and fcapulars, violet brown,
gloffed with green : rump plain brown : from the breaft to the
vent white: quills brown, gloffed with green and violet; thofe
neareft the body, narrow, and as long as the greater when the
wing is clofed : tail rounded in fhape : legs of a dull red': claws
broad and flat.
This fpecies inhabits many parts of Europe; but is lefs common than the white, and like that migrates fouth in autumn. It
is not familiar with man; but retires to the thick forefts and
marfhes, at a diftance from habitations, in order to breed, beinga
folitary bird. Is pretty common in Poland, Lithuania, Pruffm,
and Switzerland; and migrates much farther north than the
white fpecies. In the more temperate parts of Ruffia and Sibiria
not uncommon; and is plentiful all along the Don. It perches
on trees, and makes the neft on them in the depths of forefts.
From its being lefs common, we hear of it among authors fel-
domer than the former : it is however ranked by authors among
thofe frequenting the Cafpian Sea f ; and by Ruffel as a bird of
Aleppo. Like the White Stork, it feeds on reptiles and fifh: the
flefh is faid to be no better tailed.
* This is not conftant; fome birds have no fpot.
t See Georgi.—Dec. Ruff. ii. p. 7 7.
trig-on.
 HERON.
12, Le Heron noir a collier, Brif. Om. v. p. 440.
COLLARED H. Ardea? congener, Rail Syn. p. 102. 19.
The bird akin to the Heron, Will. Orn. p. 282. pl. 50.
CIZ E of a Curlew. ^  Bill fhort*, yellow; marked at the end
and. in the middle with a black fpot: plumage black, except a ring of white round the neck : legs black.
Found about Bologna in Italy*
13. Ardea nyfticorax, Lin. Syft.
- NIGHT H. Le Bihoreau, Brif. Orn. v.
Male. pl. 22.—Pl. Enl. 758.
Ardea Kwaka, N. C. Petr. xv. p. 452. t. 14.
Leffer alh-coloured Heron, or Night Raven, Rail Syn. p. 99
p. 279. pl. ^g.—AIbin, ii. pl. 67.—Ara. Zool. N° 356
Lev. Muf.
>. 23;. 9.—Scop. Ann, i. p. 116.
493- 45-  Pl- Z9-—B"f- Qif- vii. p.  435-
I.—Will. Orn.
>"pHIS elegant fpecies is in length twenty inches. The bill is
flout, three inches and three quarters long; black, with the
bafe yellowifh : irides orange: lore, and round the eye, green: the
crown ofthe head is greenifh black, extending a little way down
the back part of the neck," and there ends in a point: from the
hind head fpring three very narrow feathers, near fix inches in
length, of a pure white, with dufky tips : the hind part of the
neck, and fides, are afh-colour: the upper part of the back dull
* In Willughby's plate the bill is curved, not mnch lefs than in the bird called
Ibis, in pl. 49.    I therefore fufipea that this bird does not belong to the Heron-
 HERON.
green: the lower part, rump, wings, and tail, pale afh-colour :
the forehead, and reft of the body, white : legs yellowifh green :
claws dufky.
S3
Ardea Grifea, Lin. Syft. i. p. 239. 22.
Le Heron gris, Brif. Orn. v. p. 412. 9.
Femelle du Bihoreau, Pl. Enl. 759.
C IZ E of the laft. Bill the fame: lore white: crown of the
head brown and gloffy: the upper parts of the body the fame,
but with a tinge of grey; the hind parts of the neck paleft, and
ftreaked with darker brown down the fhaft; and the lower part
ofthe back and rump almoft grey : over the eye, from the noftrils, is a whitifh ftreak, mixed wich brown : the cheeks are of a
mixed white and brown colour : the chin is white; but the fore
part of the neck is grey, marked with a yellowifh ftreak down
each fhaft; the feathers towards the bottom of the neck longer
than the others : the reft of the under parts grey, growing white
on the belly and vent: the wings are grey brown, ftreaked
with yellowifh white; fome of the greater coverts tipped with
white: the quills are cinereous grey; and the eighteen firft have,
white tips : tail the fame colour; all, except the two middle feathers, marked more or lefs with white at the ends: legs grey
brown.
This bird is common both to Europe and America; but, except
in a fingle inftance, I do not hear of its having been met with in
it is moft likely not met with fo far north as Sweden^
* One of thefe, a male, is in the Lei
many miles from London, in the month of
terian Mufeut.
May, 1782.
which was fhot, 1
- NIGHT H.
EfiMALE.
 HERON,    -
or Linnaus would have mentioned it in his Fauna. Pretty common in Ruffia, particularly on the river Don, where it builds on
trees : is met with alfo at Aftrachan during fummer * : formerly
in plenty at Sevenhuys, near Ley den, along with the Spoon-bills and
other birds f; but the wood that grew there is now no more 4.
It migrates, like many ofthe fpecies, being found at Aleppo; and
I have often feen figures of it in Chinefe drawings \. In America
it is met with at New York and Rhode Ifland, and probably common to other parts of that continent. It is faid to make the
neft in the alders, and to lay three or four white eggs; but
fometimes builds among the rocks. The food confifts of frogs,
reptiles, and fifh; and is faid not to be palatable food.
The Germans call it Nachtrab, or Night Raven, from its uncouth, rough voice, like a perfon ftraining to vomit §. By the
Ruffians it is called Kwaka, from its cry.
-•-JAMAICA
NIGHT H.
T ENGTH one foot eleven inches Bill four inches long, and
dufky; the upper mandible bends a trifle downwards at the
point; the colour dufky •, the ridge of the upper part blackifh :
the irides pale ftraw-colour: between the eye, and round it,
bare and greenifh: the head is fomewhat crefted ; the crown
dark brown; each feather is ftreaked down the middle
with ferruginous: neck the fame, but the colours duller and
paler: chin and throat white: neck feathers pretty loofe:   the
' Dec. R.ff. ii. p.   .46.
it. Zool.
frem
t Willughby.
|| I met with a fpecimen ofthe female, at Sir Jofeph
China -, but in this every feather of the wings was tipped with white, and th<
fpots were more diftinft than in the European fpecies.—Said alfo by Pernetty U
have been met with in Falkland's Ifles.    See Voy. auxMalouin. vol. ii. p. 26.
§ Willughby.
uppe;
 H   E ; R   O    N.
wpper part ofthe back darker than the reft; the reft of the
back, and fcapulars, yellowifh brown; fome of the laft tipped
with white : wing coverts like the back; but the lower order of
them much paler, giving the appearance of a broad bar : all the
coverts white down the fhaft, which fpreads out to the tip,
and forms a longifh triangular fpot: quills the colour of the leffer
coverts: the primaries and baftard wing tipped with white; the
fecondaries plain: breaft and belly white, ftreaked with obfcure
pale brown : vent white : legs brown.
This bird I received from Jamaica, where it goes by the name
of Clucking Hen*: it frequents woods, contrary to the generality of
the genus, which haunt moraffes : is a fcarce bird, and very fhy*
Has a great affinity to the female Night Heron, but is larger.
Jill flrait, fhaped like that    CALEDONIAN
u . j Lm,        NIGHT H.
between the eye and bill
T ENGTH twenty-two inches. 1
of the Night Heron, and black:
bare, and green: irides yellow: from the nape behind fpring
three long feathers, as in the abovementioned bird : the crown of
the head is black: over the eye, between that and the creft, a
ftreak of white : the general colour of the plumage ferruginous,
inclining to brown ;, neck the paleft; the feathers of it loofe on,
the fore part: breaft, belly, and under parts, white :. legs yellow:
claws dufky.
Inhabits New Caledonia \.
* Dumpier obferves,. that there are many clocking Hens in the Bay of Campeachy,
and elfewhere in the Weft Indies, which make a noife like our brood Hens,
when they have chickens ; but does not determine the fpecies.
t See Cook's Voy. vol. ii. p. m. pl. 50.—I do not find it there defcribed,
but Dr. Forfter was fo obliging as to fupply that defect-..
 Mm
S6
HERON.
16.
CAYENNE
NIGHT H.
Le Bihoreau de Cayenne, Buf. Oif. vii. p. 439.—P/. Enl. 899.
-*"PHIS is as big as the European fpecies, but more flender, and
the legs longer : length twenty-one inches. The bill black:
the lore pale green: the crown of the head white; and a ftreak of
white from the noftrils paffes beneath the eye, towards the hind
head ; the reft of the head is black, which ends in a point on the
back part of the neck : from the back part of the head fprings
a creft, compofed of fix long feathers of unequal lengths; half of
them white, the reft black: the general colour of the reft of the
'plumage a blueifh afh-colour, but darkeft on the back and wings,
which are marked with a blackifh ftreak down the middle of
each fhaft: the quills are black: it is high mounted on its legs;
and the thighs are bare a great way up: the colour of the bare
part and legs is yellowifh.
This is found at Cayenne.
17. Ardea ftellaris, Lin. Syft. i. p. 239. 21.—Scop. Ann. i. p. 125.—Brun. N°
+-BITTERN. i5s.—Muller, p. 22.—Kram. El. pl.  \\8.—Frifch. pl. 205.—Georgi
Reife, p. 171.
Le Butor, Brif. Orn. v. p. 444. 24. pl. 37. fig. i.—Buf. Oif.  vii. p. 411.
pl. 21— Pl. Enl. 789.
Bittour, or Bittern, Raii Syn. p. 100. A. 11.—Will. Orn. p. 282. pl. 50.
$2.—Albin,i. pl. 68.—Br. Zool. ii. N° 174.—Ara. Zool. N° 357.
Br. Muf.   Lev. Muf.
Description.    ^pHlS is an elegant fpecies, and is fomewhat lefs than the Heron : length two feet fix inches.    The bill brown, beneath
inclining to green: irides yellow: the head feathers are long 5
and
***m
 HERON.
and thofe of .the neck loofe and waving : the crown of the head
black; the lower jaw on each fide dufky : the plumage in general is beautifully variegated; the ground a ferruginous yellow,
paleft beneath, marked with numerous bars, ftreaks, and zigzag
lines of black: the legs are pale green; claws long and flender;
and the inner edge on the middle claw ferrated.
The female is lefs, darker coloured, and the feathers on the
head arid neck lefs flowing than in the male.
This is a common bird in our iflands, and we believe in moft
of the temperate parts of the continent: in fome of the colder
migratory*; with us it remains the whole year. Frequents
marfhy places, and efpecially where reeds grow, among which it
makes the neft, in April, which is chiefly compofed of a bed of
rufhes, &c. The female lays four or five eggs, of a pale greenifh
afh-colour; the young are hatched in twenty-five days. It is an
indolent bird, ftirring very little in the day, unlefs difturbed;
though, if once roufed, is not difficult to fhoot, as it flies heavily. In the evening, after fun-fet, is feen to foar aloft in a fpiral
afcent, till quite out of fight, and this chiefly in autumn, making
a lingular kind of noife : it has alfo another noife, like that of a
bellowing Bull, beginning in February, and ceafing after breeding-
time ; but this is done while on the ground. If attacked by
dogs or men, defends itfelf well; and is faid to ftrike at the
eyes of the enemy. The food is frogs, mice, and other reptiles,
which it fwallows whole, as well as fifh; as I well remember to
have found two middle-fized trouts in the ftomach of one, perfectly whole.    It is reckoned pretty good eating.
* For inftance Sweden.—Amcen. Acad. iv. p. 588.
Vol. III. I Le
57
 HERON*
LeButor delaBayed'Hudfon, Brif. Orn. v. p. 449. 25.—Buf. Oif. vii. p. 430s,
Bittern from Hudfon's Bay, Edw. pl. 136.—Phil. Tranf. vol. lxii. p. 410.
Placi
Man
'TpHIS is fmaller than the common Bittern, and is two feet three
inches in length: it is very like that in all refpe&s; but the
ground colour is darker, more inclined to brown, and the bill
longer than in our fpecies.
This inhabits Hudfon's Bay, and appears a mere variety of
ours. It appears at Severn River the beginning of June, and
makes the neft in the fwamps, laying four cinereous green eggs.
The neft is compofed of water plants, placed on fome dry fpot
among the long grafs. The young are at firft black. Departs
in Otlober. Said to be delicate eating. The natives call it
Mokohofue.
Le grand Butor, Brif. Om. v. p. 455. 28.—Buf. Oif vii. 422.
Greater fpeckled, or red Heron, Rail Syn. p. 100. 13.—Will. Orn. p. 283.
^yHIS is confiderably bigger than the common Bittern: length
three feet nine inches. Bill eight inches long, and yellowifh : irides yellow: lore, and fpace round the eye, naked and yellow : feathers of the head black, and pretty long : the upper part
of the neck and body, wings and tail, cinereous brown : fides
of the neck rufous, marked with a ftreak of black : throat
and fore part of the neck white, dafhed with black, and rufous-
white ftreaks : feathers on the breaft long and pendent: the colour ofthe under parts of the body rufous : fcapulars the fame,
and very narrow : thighs white : legs brown.
Found
 HERO   N.
Found in the marfhes of Italy, and in fome parts known by
the name, of Ruffey*. Said alfo to inhalit Aftrachan during the
fummer feafon f.
Ardea botaurus major, N. C. Petr. xv. p. 482. N° 22. t. 24. (Gmelin.)
J ENGTH four feet fix inches. Bill yellow: eye-lids naked, of
a yellowifh blue: irides faffron-colour: head black, and
crefted : temples yellow, partly dotted with black : head beneath
white: neck chefnut, marked with three narrow longitudinal
bands of black; the lower part chefnut, fpotted with black, and
black and white: back of a deep afh-colour; the feathers on
the loweft part long, broad, and red; the longeft white at the
ends.: rump grey brown : under parts ofthe body black and red
mixed: wing coverts cinereous; fome of the feathers tipped
with yellowifh: edge of the wing ferruginous: quills and tail
black: thighs chefnut: legs reddifh brown: claws pale brown;
middle one ferrated within.
This fpecies, if diftinct from the laft-defcribed, is found at
Aftrachan in May, migrating from, the fouth. It lays three
frnooth plain green eggs, the fize of thofe of a Hen; and is
found in the marfhes, where the other Herons refort.
iii. p. 408.—This author fnfpe&s it to be a mixed breed betwees
1 Heron and Bittern.
t Dec. Ruff.lit. p. 146.
 HERON.
Le Butor roux, Brif. Om. v. p. 458. 29.—Buf. Oif. vii. p. 42;.
Ardeae ftellaris tertium genus Aldrov. Rail Syn. p. 100. 12.
Aldrovandus's 3d fort of Speckled Heron, Will. Orn. p. 283.
.Quoimeau, Salerne Om. p. 315.
TRIFLE bigger than the Swabian Bittern.    Bill blackifh,
horn-coloured beneath:   irides yellow:   crown of the head
black; the reft ofthe head, throat, and neck, ferruginous: back,
fcapulars, and rump, blackifh: from the breaft to the vent pale ruing coverts ferruginous and white, mixed: greater quills
1, the leffer ones ferruginous: tail blackifh : legs brown,
is faid to inhabit the neighbourhood of Bologna.    Salerne
t may probably prove the  bird called Quoimeau, which is
not unfrequent about Sologne in France.    This defcription was
from a young bird •, and, if fo, it is fcarcely clear whether it was a
diftinct fpecies or not.
Le petit Butor, Brif. On
. p. 452. 26.—j
.6.—Buf. Oif. vii. p.
The irides
f~TK HIS is much lefs  than the  common Bittern.
whitifh : bare fpace between the bill and eye yellow: the
head, and upper part of the neck, breaft, belly, fides, rump,
and tail coverts, are rufous, flriated with brown : the back is
much the fame; but the ftrias are broader, and more numerous :
throat and fore part ofthe neck white : upper part ofthe thighs
brownifh white: quills pale brown, croffed with bars of deeper
brown : tail whitifh : legs pale yellow.
Inhabits the banks oftheDanube.
■■P-Jli
 II
 HERON.
Le Butor raye, Brif. Om. v. p. 454. 27.
1 brun raye, Buf. Oif. vii. p. 424.
CIZE of the laft. Bill brown, yellowifh beneath : lore naked
and yellow: all the upper parts of the body, the belly,
and vent, croffed with lines of brown, black, and pale rufous,
mixed irregularly, fo as at a diftance to appear wholly brown:
the fore part of the neck and breaft are whitifh : legs and claws
grey.
Found on the banks ofthe Danube, with the laft.
. Le petit Butor de Cayenne, Buf. Oif. vii. p. 430.—Pl. Enl. 763.
T ENGTH thirteen inches. Bill brown; under mandible pale:
lore blueifh : the whole plumage is of a yellowifh or rufous
grey, croffed with narrow ftreaks of black brown; thefe are pretty
regular on the back, but elfewhere undulated, and in a zigzag
manner: the top of the head is black, and the feathers on the
neck exceeding full, fo as to appear nearly of the fame fize as
the body : the fore part of the neck is paleft, and has fewer
brown markings than the upper part: and the belly and thighs
have only a few irregular zigzags : the legs are yellow.
This is a moft beautiful fpecies, and is found at Cayenne.
 m
H   E   R   O   N.
23.
Ardea Brafilienfis, Lin. Syft. i. p. 239. 23.
BRASILIAN B.
Le Heron du Brefil, Brif. Orn. v. p. 441. 23.
L'Onoie de Bois, Buf. Oif. vii. p. 433.
Soco, Rait Syn. p. loo. 14,—Will. Orn. p. 284, pl. 51,
Brafilian Bittern, Brown's III. p. 88. pl. 34.—Gent. Mag.
vol
pl. in do.
Clucking Hen, Brown Jam. p. 478.-
-Damp. Voy. iii. p* 1. p. 75 ?
T ENGTH two feet eight inches. Bill black : irides yellow :
the head an4 neck are brown, marked with fmall black fpots:
throat and fore part ofthe neck white, marked with longitudinal
black and brown fpots: the upper and under parts of the body, and
leffer wing coverts, are blackifh, fpotted all over with yellow;
but the greater coverts are plain : the quills and tail are blackifh:
the legs brown.
This is found in various parts of South America. A different
defcription is given of this bird in the Gent. Mag. *; which obferves, that it is a quarter lefs than in the common Heron. The bill
reddifh yellow : head and upper part of the body deep orange
red, finely barred with black: chin whitifh red : fore part of the
neck pale red, with oblong black fpots; the feathers long and
loofe: belly white, fpotted with yellow: thighs barred with
dufky: quills black, tipped with white : rump and tail coverts
dafhed with white, black, and yellow narrow lines : tail black,
croffed with a few white lines, and tipped with the fame: legs
dull ruft-colour.
A fecond differed in fome refpects. The long neck feathers
were white on their lower parts: breaft and fides white, marked
• The defcription likewife in Brown's III. differs not materially from this.
■—*■
*mm
 HERON.
with regular rows of large black fpots: middle of the belly
white : quills like the other, and befides fpotted on the exterior
web with white : legs pale brown.
The above were probably male and female, and inhabit the
lakes and rivers of the hot parts of North America and new-ceded
ifles of the Weft Indies. Feed on fifh, yet are reckoned good
eating, efpecially the young birds. The fowlers watch in the
fedges, and fhoot them.
63
-L'Onore, Buf. Oif. vii. p. 431.
Heron Tigre, Fermin Surin. ii.
Lev. Muf.
-Pl. Enl. 790.
'"PHIS is about two feet fix inches in length. The bill is
greenifh : irides yellowifh : the top of the head black: the
throat and fides of the neck pale rufous, marked with regular
fpots of black ; and the neck feathers very long : the reft of the
plumage deep rufous, marked with black, like the fkin of a tiger:
the chin is white : the under parts much as the upper, but the
ground yellowifh white: vent plain white: the tail black, barred
with four narrow bars of white : legs green.
This inhabits Cayenne, Surinam, and other parts of South America, and does not appear to be a very rare fpecies, as I have met
with feveral. It lays feven or eight rounded whitifh eggs, fpotted
with green; making the neft on the ground. It hides itfelf in
the reeds, like our European Bittern, and frequents the fame kind
of places. It is a moft beautiful fpecies. It feems much allied
to the laft.
+- TIGER
BITTERN.
Description.,
 6*4
HERON.
LINEATE
Descripti
L'Onore raye, 'Buf Oif vii. p. 432.—Pl. Enl. 860.
Lev. Muf.
HpHIS fpecies is rather larger than the laft : in length two feet
fix inches. The bill and lore are both blue; the laft bare the
whole breadth of the bafe ofthe mandibles: the upper parts ofthe
head and'heck are bright rufous, croffed with numerous brown
lines: down the fore part paffes a ftreak of white, beginning at
the chin; this is bounded half way by dafhes of brown, and
the lower half mixed along with the white itfelf: the upper parts
of the body are croffed with fine waved lines of rufous, pale yellow, and brown : the under parts of the body dirty white : quills
and tail black : legs yellow.
This frequents the banks of the rivers at Cayenne, with the laft:
moftly found fingle. Like our fpecies, when one is fhot it
makes great defence, throwing out the neck fuddenly, when it
can ftrike at the enemy with advantage, efpecially at the eyes.
One of thefe kept tame, was of fingular ufe in deftroying rats,
watching them with all the attention ofthe houfe cat, and even
with better fuccefs.
Le Butor du Brefil, Brif. Orn. v. p. 4
 jaune du Brefil, Buf. Oif v
5o. 30.
i. p. 429.
ilis, Rail Sj
Will. Om.
Ardea bras, roftro ferrato, cinerea; fimilis, Rail Syn. p. 101. 16.
Brafilian Bittern, with a ferrated bill
CIZE of a Duck: length two feet three inches.    Bill four inches
and a half long, ferrated next the point;  brown, with a pale
green bafe: irides golden:  the head and hind part of the neck
are pale yellow, ftreaked with black : back brown, with yellowifh
ftreaks:
 HERO   N.
ftreaks : throat white :   the fore part of the neck, breaft, and
belly, are white, waved with brown ; the laft edged with yellow:
quills black and green mixed, tipped with white : the tail like
the quills, but croffed with white lines : the legs of a dark grey.
Inhabits Brafil, and is accounted good eating.
Ardea minuta, Lin. Syft. i. p.  240. 26. &.—Kram. El.  p.  -^.—Frijcb. 27.
pl. 206. 207. LITTLE B,
Le Blongios, Brif Orn. v. p. 498. 46. Male.
Blongiosde Suiffe, Pl. Enl. 323.— Buf Of. vii. p. 395.
Boo-onk, or Long-neck, Shaw Trav. pl. in p. zs5-—Ruff Alep. p. 71.
pl. 10.— Edw. p. 275.
Little Bittern, Br. Zool. App. p. 663. pl. 8.—Ara. Zool. N° 359.
Lev. Muf.
Pip HE fize of this bird fcarce exceeds that of a Thrujh: length    Descriptio
fifteen inches. The bill is of a greenifh yellow; the upper
mandible black at the tip; the edges jagged: the top of the
head, the back, and tail, dull green: the neck very long; the
fore part of it, breaft, and thighs, buff-colour * : belly and vent
white: the hind part of the neck bare of feathers, but covered
by thofe growing on the fides of it: at the fetting-on of the
wing is a large chefnut fpot: the leffer wing coverts yellowifh
buff; the greater whitifh: the web of that next the back half
buff, half black: quills black : legs dufky : thighs feathered to
the knees: middle claw ferrated.
* In the Pl. Enl. and Briffon's defcription and figure, the upper part ofthe
belly is fpotted with black.
Vol. Ill,
 f
HERON.
LITTLE B. Ardea minuta, Lin. Syft. i. p. 240. 26.
Female. Le Blongios tachete, Brif Orn. v. p. 497. 47.—Buf. Oif. vii. p. 39;.
Little Brown Bittern, Edw. pl. 275.
Description. CIZE of the former. The crown blackifh green : the feathery
on the upper part of the body brown, margined with pale
rufous; beneath, the fame, but paler, and the feathers more
deeply margined with rufous : forehead edged with chefnut:.- the
feathers on the fore part of the neck long, as in the other : belly
white: tail blackifh green, margined with fulvous at the ends :
legs greenifh..
Place and This and the former are by moft authors confidered as the
fame fpecies, of which the laft is fuppofed to be the female.
They have been found frequently in Switzerland, and met with*
alfo in Arabia, but fcarce in other parts. We learn in the Britifh Zoology, that the male has been once fhot, perched on one
of the trees of the public walks in Shrewjbury; and another killed
in 1773, near Chrifichurch in Hampjhire, now in the Mufeum of
Mr. Tunftall. In France they are likewife rare, only now and
then one being met with by accident. We are told that they
are common on the river Coic, near Aleppo; and that they are obferved frequently to fland with the neck ftretched flrait upwards *.
4- MINUTE B.   CIZE of a Thrufh in the body: length eleven inches and a half.
Description. Bill two inches long, greenifh, with a pale point: irides ftraw-
 HERON.
colour : crown of the head dark rufous chefnut: fides of the
neck rufous; the feathers pretty long, and meeting behind, where
it is nearly bare : chin and fore part of the neck white, with a
feries of feathers on each fide the white, of a pale ferruginous
colour; each feather marked with a blackifh line down the fhaft:
on the lower part of the neck the feathers are long and loofe;
fome of them nearly white, and hang over the breaft, which is
brownifh black, 'this colour paffing upwards on each fide as a
crefcent to the back; but the feathers on each fide have whitifh
margins : the back is rufous chefnut, with pale yellow margins :
the firft and third order of wing coverts like the back, but plain ;
the middle ones ferruginous, with a dufky line down each fhaft:
quills black; fome of the inner prime ones marked with chefnut
at the tips ; fecondaries the fame, with fome few of them wholly
chefnut: belly, thighs, and vent, white: tail black: legs green,
bare for three quarters of an inch above the knee.
Inhabits Jamaica, where it is a rare bird.
Le petit Butor du Senegal, Buf. Oif. vii. p. 426.
Petit Heron roux du Senegal, Pl, Enl. 315.
T ENGTH twelve inches. Bill rufous brown, yellow beneath:
upper part of the head, neck, and back, rufous: fore part of
the neck the fame, but very pale, and each feather marked with
a black ftreak down the fhaft; but the loofe feathers which hang
over the breaft are plain, and darker than the reft: down the
middle of the wing, from the fhoulder, reddifh ; the reft of the
wing, without and within, white; but fome ofthe inner quills are
K 2 the
 H
R   O   N.
the fame colour as the back : the under parts of the body and
tail are white : the legs yellow.
Inhabits Senegal.
Ardea virefeens, Lin. Syft. i. p. 238. 20.
Le Crabier verd, Brif. Orn. v. p. 486. 43. pl. 38. fig. I. (male).
. tachete, Brif Om. v. p. 490. 44. pl. 38. fig. 2. (fe
Le Crabier verd, Buf. Oif. vii. p. 404. (male).
 tachete, Id. p. 405.— Pl. Enl. 912. (female).
Small Bittern, Cateft. Car. i. pl. 80.
ti Her
in, Ara. Zool.  N" 349.
Br. Muf.
. Muf.
ClZEof a fmall Fowl: length eighteen inches. The bill is
greenifh brown; the under mandible yellowifh next the bafe;
between that and the eye bare and yellow : irides yellow : the
crown ofthe head of a blackifh gold green, mixed with a glofs
of copper in fome lights, and the feathers elongated, forming a
handfome creft: neck ferruginous bay: chin and throat white:
the reft ofthe neck before ftreaked with white : in the direction
ofthe under jaw, beneath it, a ferruginous ftreak: back, tail, and
wings, dufky brown, with a tinge of lead-colour : the leffer wing
coverts and prime quills the colour of the back, edged with buff-
colour: the middle and larger wing coverts gloffy dark green, with
ferruginous edges : the breaft and belly dufky: the feathers on ths
lower part of the neck are narrow, and fall over the breaft; thofe
0f the back the fame, covering the rump: the legs greenifh.
The female has the crown dufky;  the feathers of it fcarcely
elongated:   feathers   of the  neck   pale  brown,   ftreaked  with
white: back and fcapulars brown; the laft marked with white
o juft
mmm
*P-B*
 HERON.
juft at the tip: all the wing coverts have a triangular white
fpot at the tip : the laft row of wing coverts are tipped like
the others, and margined with the fame: fecondary quills dufky
green, with pale edges ; the greater brown, gloffed with green,
and tipped with white: the under parts of the body pale afh-
colour : bill and legs as in the male.
Inhabits New Tork, and other parts of North America; as alfo
Jamaica, and other Weft India Iflands. I have received thefe from
both places, and obferve that the Jamaica one is higheft coloured. Suppofed to breed in Carolina, as they are found there
only in fummer. It feeds on fmall fifh, frogs, and crabs. Sits
with the head drawn in between the fhoulders for a long time
together, on a branch of a tree hanging over the water; from
whence it may poffibly dart on a fifh, in the fame manner as the
belted Kingfifher *; which likewife is known by the name of Crab-
catcher in Jamaica.
Place
Mann
Le Crabier gris a. tete & queue vertes, Buf. Oif. vii. p. 408.
Crabier de Cayenne, Pl. Enl. 908.
CIZE ofthe laft. Bill "black: the crown of the head crefted,
and coloured as in that bird : general colour of the plumage
pale flate-colour: fore part of the neck white, marked with longitudinal ferruginous ftreaks: chin pure white: wing coverts
blackifh green, margined with rufous : tail fhort, of the fame
colour as the creft: legs yellow.
Found at Cayenne.    This is moft certainly a mere variety of
the laft, if not of a different fex.
* Vol. i. p. 637. 27. A.
Description.
Le
 HERON.
Le Butor tachete d'Ameriq
L'Etoile, Buf. Oif. vii. p. 4
A fmall Bittern, Raii Syn. j
Crab-catcher, Brown Jam.
Brown Bittern, Catefi. Car.
le, Brif. Orn. v. p. 464. 32.
-o7«w7<m». p. 31s-5.pl. 263•
.pl.78.
. Muf.
T ENGTH twenty inches. Bill greenifh black, beneath pale
green : lore naked, and of the fame colour : irides gold-colour : general colour of the plumage brown; paleft beneath:
wings fpotted with white: tail of a blueifh afh-colour: legs
greenifh yellow.,
This inhabits Jamaica, Carolina, and other parts of North
America. We believe it to be a mere variety of the firft-de-
fcribed, and a female of the Green; having received all of them
from Jamaica and North America. They certainly differ, as Briffon
has defcribed them; but by comparifon no one can fail of being
ofthe opinion here advanced.
SPOTTED H.
Le Butor tachete, ou le Pouacre, Brif. Orn.
eiger, Frifch. ii. pl. 9.
p. 462. 31.—Buf. Of. vii.
p. 427
Der Schwar
CIZE of a Crow: length eighteen inches and a quarter. Bill
brown; beneath greenifh yellow: lore naked, greenifh: general colour brown, paleft beneath : the upper parts fpotted with
white, except the lower part of the back, which is plain: quills
deep brown, marked with white at the tips : tail plain brown:
legs greenifh brown.
This frequents the marfhes; feeds on frogs and fijh.
6 Le
***m
 HERON.
Le Pouacre de Cayenne, Pl. Enl. 939.
Gardenian Heron, ArQ. Zool. N° 35 5 ?
GARDENIAN H.
np HIS is much like the laft, and of the fame  fize: length
twenty-two inches. Bill ftrong, dufky: it differs in having the
ground of the plumage more inclined to black on the back : the
fore parts whitifh, dafhed with brown.
This inhabits Cayenne, and has alfo been fent from South Carolina.
Le Heron cendre d'Amerique, Brif. Orn. v. p. 406. 6. ,,,
Le Crabier cendre', Buf. Oif. vii. p. 401. CINEREOUS H.
A  T RIFLE bigger than the laft.    Bill two inches and a half     Description.:
long, blue with a black tip : bare fpace between the bill and
eye blue: the head, and all the upper parts, are pale afh-colour :
the wing coverts mixed with black : the under parts of the body
are white: quills part black, part white: legs blueifh.
Inhabits America. Place.
Le Crabier
Crabier de
oir, Buf. Oif v
1 Nouvelle Guii
P« 394-
, Pl. Enl. c
NEW GUINEA
H.
T   ENGTH ten inches.    Bill brown: between that and the
eye bare and greenifh : irides yellow: the general colour of
the plumage black.
This fpecies is fouad at New Guinea*.
 HERON.
PHILIPPINE H.
Le Crabier des Philippines, Brif. Orn
Le petit Crabier, Buf. Oif. vii. p. 39
• P- 474* 38- pl- 37- fig
-Pl. Enl. 898.
CIZE fmall: length eleven inches. Bill greenifh yellow:
between that and the eye bare, green: the top of the head,
.and all the upper parts ofthe neck, rufous brown, moft inclining
to brown on the head : the back is croffed with tranfverfe rufous
and brown lines : the wings black, edged with rufous white :
quills and tail black: the fore part of the neck dirty rufous
white: tjelly, thighs, and vent, white: legs yellow.
Inhabits the Philippine Ifiles.
36.
SQUAIOTTA H.
SqUi
rn. v. p. 466. 33.
B,f. Oif. vii. p. 389.
• P- 99' 9-—WilUOrn. p. 281. pl. 50.
T ENGTH about eighteen inches. The bill three inches and
three quarters, yellow, with a black tip : between the bill
and eye, bare and yellow : it has a tuft on the head confifting
of thirty feathers, the middle one white, the outer ones black:
befides thefe, the general colour of the plumage is a fine chefnut:
the fcapulars are long and narrow, and white at the bafe: legs
green.
Inhabits Italy, about Bologna, where it is called Sauaiotta,
 HERON.
Le Crabier marron, Brif. Orn. v. p. 468. 34.
■ roux, Buf. Oif. vii. p. 390.
C IZE of a Crow. The bill four inches in length, and brown :
irides pale yellow: the head and upper parts are chefnut: the
under parts of a dirty white: there is alfo a ftreak of pure
white down all the fore part of the neck and breaft, quite to
the belly: the wing-coverts incline to blue: the quills black:
tail chefnut* : legs red.
This is met with in Silefia; builds  in high trees, and feeds
on fifh, infects, &c.
CHESNUT H.
Description.
Le Crabier roux, Brif. Orn. v. p. 469. 35.
 . marron, Buf. Oif. vii. p. 390.
Ardea h-ematopus, feu Cirris, Rati Syn. p. 99. 7.—Will.*l0rn. p. 281.
pl.So.
CIZE of the Green Heron. Neck fhort: bill blue and green,
with a black tip: irides yellow, incircled with red: head
crefted; the colour yellow and black: throat, neck, and whole
body, faffron-colour, inclining to chefnut, paleft above : tail very
fhort: legs of a deep red, like thofe of a Pigeon : claws black.
Inhabits Italy, chiefly about Bologna.
* This colour mould more properly be termed rufous, as Schwenefield, who
foft mentioned it, calls it ardea rubra.—Hift. des Oif.
Vol. III.
 74
HERON.
Le Crabier roux tachete, Brif. Orn, v. p. 471.
T IKE the laft, except the neck, which is fpotted with black
on the fides; and the legs yellowifh inftead of red.
This is a mere variety of the laft, if not a young bird.
39. Ardea comata, Pall. Trav. iii. p. 715- N° 31,
SQUACCO H. Le Crabier jaune, Brif. Orn. v. p. 472. 37.
Le Guacco, Buf. Oif. vii. p. 392.
Crabier de Mahon, Ibid. p. 393.—PL Enl. 348.
Sguacco, Rati Syn. p. 99. 8.—Will. Om. p. 381. 8.
Lev. Muf.
Description. C IZ E of the blue Heron. Bill of a livid red, with a brown tip :
lore greenifh: irides yellow : crown of the head much crefted, fix of the feathers hanging quite down to the back; thefe are
narrow, white margined with black: the neck and breaft pale
ferruginous; the feathers on the firft very long and loofe : back
ferruginous, inclining to violet, and furnifhed with long narrow
feathers, which reach beyond the wings when clofed, and fall
over them: wings, rump, tail, belly, and vent, white; the tail
pretty long: legs ftout, of a greenifh.yellow; claw of themid-r
die toe ferrated within.
Place. This is an elegant fpecies, and inhabits the bays ofthe Cafpian*
Sea, and the flow ftreams ofthe fouthern Defert. It is alfo met
with in Italy, about Bologna, where it is called Sguacco, and is
faid to be a bold and courageous bird.
 HERON.
Le Crabier de la Cote de Coromandel, Buf. Oif vii. p. 393.— Pl. Enl. 910.
T ENGTH twenty-one inches. The bill is yellow : between
the bill and eyes bare and grey : the head not crefted : general colour of the plumage white : the upper part of the head,
and hind part of the neck, inclining to rufous; as are the long
feathers which hang over the breaft; there is alfo a rufous tinge
on the back and wing coverts : the legs are yellow.
Inhabits the coaft of Coromandel. It feems to be a variety of
the laft, if not differing in fex.
In the Br. Muf. is one anfwering in moft refpects to this,
except in having a creft compofed of feveral long feathers, ftriped
dufky and white, and reaching to the middle of the neck : the
feathers of the lower part of the back are narrow and long, and
reach beyond the tail: legs brown. I judge this to be a variety
of the male of the above-defcribed.
Ardea caftanea, N. C. Petr. x
Ardea ralloides, Scop. Ann. i.
•P-454.9**- *S' (G-tBtu)
CASTANEOUS
T ENGTH one foot ten inches and a half. Bill near three
inches long, black, the bafe of it livid : between the bill and
eye green: irides faffron-colour: creft reaching to the middle
of the neck: throat white: fides of the head yellowifh; neck
the fame, inclining to chefnut: back rufous-chefnut, covered
with long narrow feathers: breaft, belly, wings, rump, thighs,
and tail, white, tinged with yellow in fome parts: the inner
webs of fome of the quills have a few fpots of black, and the
L 2 tips
 76
FERRUGINOUS
HERON.    .
tips ofthe tail feathers are alfo marked with black : legs faffron-
colour : claws black, and much bent, except the hinder one.
This bird inhabits Ruffia, about the River Don, coming thereto
from the Black Sea, and Arabia*; but does not ftray far inland.
It builds in trees.    It feems a mere variety of the Sguacco, if not
differing in fex. Scopoli obferves, that at a certain time of the
, year it emits an agreeable fmell.
Ardea ferruginea, N. C. Petr. xv. p. 456. t. 16.
T ENGTH twenty-one inches and a half. Bill flrait, fharp -
the bafe greenifh flefh-colour, the end brownifh; the upper mandible fomewhat bent at the tip: between that and the
eyes, and over them, naked and green : irides faffron-colour:
feathers of the head, neck, and back, longifh, black tipped
with ferruginous; thofe on the crown fomewhat elongated : chin
yellowifh white: wing coverts black brown; the outer ones have
ferruginous tips; thofe neareft the body varied with rufous and
white : quills black: rump, breaft, and belly variegated with ferruginous, whitifh, cinereous, and brown; thighs, with rufous, and
cinereous white: the wings, when clofed, reach a trifle beyond
the tail: legs green.
This fpecies is found about the river Don, in the fummer
only ; as it is migratory, coming * from the Black Sea, and departing to it again in autumn. Feeds on fifh and infects. Frequently met with along with the laft fpecies.
• Dec Ruff.i. 164.
•**•»■
 HERON,
77
Ardea pumila, N. C. Petr. xiv. p. 502. pl. 14. I.
T ENGTH nineteen inches and a half. Bill three inches,
black, with yellow edges] the lower mandible yellowifh
white, with a dufky bafe: lore and irides yellow : head, hind
part of the neck, and fides, white; fometimes rufous white, with
dull chefnut margins and white tips: throat white; from it a
longitudinal ftripe of the fame colour paffes down the fore part
of the neck to the breaft, which with the belly is yellowifh white:
the fcapulars, leffer wing coverts, and back, are chefnut• the
other coverts mixed white and pale yellow : the two firft quills
are afh-colour on the outer webs, the reft only at the tips, ob-
fcurely fhaded with rufous and white: rump and tail white: legs
dufky: claws blackifh.
Inhabits the borders of the Cafpian Sea.
DWARF H.
Description
C IZE of the Green Heron: length to rump * one foot. Bill
two inches and a half long, and yellow: general colour of
the plumage cinnamon-colour, verging to chefnut, much paler
on the under parts : chin and vent almoft white: down the middle of the fore part of the neck ftreaked with brown : on each
fide of" the throat, under the jaw, a fmall patch of white : legs
yellow.
Inhabits China.
CINNAMON H.
Description,
' The tail is wanting-
 MALACCA H.
HERON.
lane et brun, Buf. Oif. v
eMalac,  Pl. Enl. oil.
T ENGTH nineteen inches. Bill dufky, with the fides near
the bafe yellow : between the bill and eye, and beyond, bare
•and grey : the head and neck are ftreaked brown and white; the
whole of the feathers long, narrow, and loofe: the back is brown:
wings, under parts of the body, and tail, white: legs yellow.
This came from Malaeca.
Ardea csrulea, Lin. Syft. i. p. 238. 17.
Le Crabier bleq, Brif. Om. v. p. 484. 42.—Buf. Oif vii. p. 398.
Black, or blue Gaulding, Rail Syn. p. 189. 3.—Sloan Jam. p. 315. pl. 263.
f. 3.-Brown Jam. p. 478.
Blue Heron, Cateft. Car. pl. 76.—Ara. Zool. N° 351.
Lev. Muf.
CIZE rather lefs than a Crow; weight fifteen ounces : length
near eighteen inches. Bill three inches ; colour blue, yellowifh beneath : irides yellow: round the eye, and between that and
the bill, bare and yellowifh : the head feathers are fomewhat crefted, and thofe of the breaft elongated : the general colour of the
plumage deep blue, inclining to lead-colour: head and neck,
changeable purple ; the back covered with narrow, long, filky
feathers, hanging near four inches beyond the tail: legs green.
The female has the head and neck of a dull purple: chin
white, paffing in a ftreak half-way down the neck before; the
lower part mixed white and black in ftreaks : the head is fcarcely
crefted : the back lead-coloured ; and the long filky feathers of
it, fo confpicuous in the male, wholly wanting.
Inhabits
 HERON.
Inhabits America. Found in Carolina in fpring: in winter inhabits Jamaica, and other iflands of the Weft Indies. It has alfo
been met with at Otaheite, and other iflands of the South Seas,
where it is much refpected*.
T
Le Crabier bleu a Cou brun, Buf. Oif. vii. p. 399.*
Heron bleuatre de Cayenne, Pl.Enl. 349.
HE length of this bird is nineteen inches.    The bill is deep
ellow : between the bill and eye bare and reddifh : head and
neck rufous brown: at the hind head fpring two long feathers,
which reach almoft two-thirds down the neck : the reft of the .
body, wings, and tail, deep blue: legs brown.
This inhabits Cayenne.
C< IZ E of the laft: length eighteen inches. Bill two inches and
a half; colour yellow: the bare fkin between that and the eye
the fame: the irides alfo pale yellow : the head feathers loofe,
and fomewhat elongated at the back part: general colour of the
plumage pale blue green : chin and throat white -. legs yellow :
claws black.
Inhabits Queen Charlotte's Sound, where the natives call it Ma-
took.
* •' So far are the Otaheitans from eating all kinds of birds,, that they have
** a kind of fuperftitious regard for Herons and Kingftjhers, almoft like that
" which is paid to the Stork, the Robin-red-breaft, Swallow, and other harmlefs
I familiar birds in England."—Forft. Obf p. 207.—Parkinfon talks of & grey Heron being facred at Ethooa, p. 70,
 Description.
HERON.-
Le Crabier da Brefil, Brif. Orn. v. p. 479. 40.
i chalybe, Buf. Oif. vii. p. 404.
Ardeola brafilienfis Marcgr. Rail Syn. p. 101. 18.
A fmall brafilian Bittern of Marcgrave, Will. Om. p. 285.
nr HI S is fcarce as big
bill two  inches  and
1 Pigeon: length fixteen inches. The
half long, dufky, the under part.
white : irides, and bare fkin round the eyes, yellow : the general
colour of the plumage is black, with a polifhed fteel glofs, mixed
with a little brown on the head, and brown and yellowifh on
the back, with the addition of afh-colour on the wing coverts:
a*ll the under parts are white, variegated with cinereous and
pale yellow feathers: the quills are greenifh, with a white fpot
near the tips: the tail the fame, but not marked with white:
legs yellow.
This inhabits Braftl, and is a ftately fpecies, walking erect: it
is by the natives called Cocoi.
YELLOW-
CROWNED H.
Ardea violacea, Lin. Syft. i. p. 2
Le Crabier de Bahama, Brif. Om.
  gris-de-fer, Buf. Oif. vi
Ardea casrulea, Rail Syn. p. 189. 2
Grey-crefted Gaulding, Brown Ja>
Crefted Bittern, Cateft. Car. i. pl.
38. 16.
. p. 399.
—Sloan. Jam. p. 3-14. pl. 264. fig. 5.
■- P- 478-
'g.—Ara. Zool. N° 352.
T ENGTH fifteen inches and a half: weight half a pound.
The bill near two inches and three quarters long, and black :
irides red; the bare fkin round them green: crown of the head
yellow, ending in a creft, which elongates into four or five white
feathers, the longeft near fix inches; the reft of the head is
blue black; on each fide is a white ftreak from the corner of the
mouth,
^P8P
 HERON.
mouth, tending towards the hind head : the back ftreaked black
and white; and from the lower part are long narrow feathers,
which hang over the tail, as in many of the Heron genus: the
whole of the under parts, from the chin to the vent, is of a dufky
blue : the quills are blueifh brown : tail dull blue: legs yellow : claws dufky.
This fpecies is found in Carolina, in the rainy feafon ; but at
the Bahama Iflands they breed among the rocks, in. the bufhes
on the banks: at this laft place they are called Crab-catchers;
and are in fo great plenty, that one may load a boat with the
young ones in a few hours; being fo far from fhy, that they
will fcarce get out of the way of thofe who mean to take them.
They are accounted pretty good eating.
Le Crabier roux a tete & queue vertes, Buf. Oif. vii. p. 407. 47.
Crabier de la Louifiane, Pl. Enl. 909.—Ara. Zool. N° 350. LODISIANE H.
T   ENGTH fixteen  inches.     Bill dufky: lore pale yellow:     Description.
top of the head of a deep green, and lengthened into a creft
at the nape: the reft of the head and neck rufous-, the fore part
of it white, marked'with long rufous fpots : the back cinereous,
with a tinge of purple, and the feathers long and narrow : the
belly rufous brown : wing coverts dull green, with fulvous edges :
quills blackifh, many of them tipped with white: tail blackifh
green*: legs yellow: claws black.
Inhabits Louifiana. Pla-;e.
 RON,
48. Ardea ftriata, Lin. Syft. i. p. 19.
STRIATED H. Heron of Guiana, Bancr. Guian. p. 171.
Description.     C IZ E of the common Heron.   Bill flrait, compreffed, furrowed
on the fides': head flightly crefted ; crown  black :. hind part
of the  neck and back hoary : fore part of the neck ferruginous :
wings brown : fecondaries black at the points.
This is Bancroft's defcription.    Linnaus fays, that the back in
his bird is hoary, and ftriated; and that the fecondarjefc' are white
on the margins, at the tip.
Place.   \ Inhabits Guiana and Surinam: faid alfo to be at Aftrachan* in
March.
LED H.
£XVM.
CIZE of the Stork: length five feet fix inches. Bill red and
carunculated for one third next the bafe; the reft of its
length dufky black : round the eye bare and red : irides pale red :
top of the head blue grey; the reft of the head and neck white:
under the chin are two appendages like wattles, covered with
white feathers, as the reft of the neck : the back and wings are
blue grey : on the back hang fome long narrow feathers, as
in many other Herons : the quills are black, and about even
with the tail: breaft, belly, and under parts, black : legs dufky
blue grey.
Inhabits Africa, but is not a common bird. One of them met
with tame, in the Company's gardens, at the Cape of Good Hope,
from which a drawing was taken, now in the collection of Sir
J. Banks.
V. Ruff. ;
. I46.
   HERON.
Ardea major, Lin. Syfi. i. p. 256. iz.—Scop. Ann. i. N° iij.—Kram. El. 50.
p. 346. N» ^.-Frifch. t. 399. 4-COMMON H.
Le Heron hupe, Brif. Orn. v. p. 396. 2. pl. 35.—Buf. Oif. vii. p. 34Z.— Male.
Pl. Enl. 75 ;.
Common Heron, Rail Syn. p. 98. A. 1.—Will. Om. 277. pl. 49.
Crefted Heron, Albin, i. pl. 67.—Br. Zool. N° 173.—«/,-*. Z«/. N° 343.
Ardea cinerea, Lin. Syft. i. p. 256.  11.—.?W.  Sarc.   165.—Scop. Ann. i.
N° 117.—Brun. p. 156.—Muller, p. 22.—Frifch. t. 198.
Le Heron, 5r;y.'  0™. v. p. 392. 1. pl. 34.^Buf. Oif. vii. p. 342. pi. 19.
—Pl. Enl. 787.
Common Heron, Albin, iii. pl. 78.—Br. Zool. N° 173. pl. 61.—Ara. Zool.
N° 343-
£/■.«#    Lev. Muf.
Hp H IS is a beautiful though common fpecies.
The Male weighs about three pounds and a half: length
three feet three inches. Bill fix inches long, colour dufky, beneath at the bafe yellowifh: round the eye greenifh, and bare of
feathers; irides yellow: forehead and crown white; fides of it
over the eye black: all the feathers of the crown long, two in
particular being eight inches in length ; on the whole forming a
moft elegant creft * : the neck white ; the fore part of it marked
with a double row of black fpots : wing coverts blueifh grey :
outer edges of the wing white : baftard wing, and greater quills,
black: middle of the back almoft bare, covered by the fcapulars,
which are grey and white, of a loofe texture, long and narrow :
• Thefe are ufed as ornaments in the Eaft, and bear a con;
believe that this appendage is found only in males of a full aj
old birds.
lfiderable price,
r perhaps
We
M 2
the
 HERON.
the feathers ofthe lower part ofthe neck before are alfo of the
fame texture, and hang loofe over the breaft: on each fide, under
the wing, a bed of black feathers : breaft and under parts white:
legs dirty green : inner edge of the middle claw ferrated.
The Female has little or no creft: the head grey: feathers
over the breaft fhort: fcapulars of not fo loofe a texture as in
the Male; but in other things much refembles that fex.
This fpecies is very common in thefe kingdoms; and frequently
found, except in breeding-time, difperfed throughout the marfhy
places, and edges of ftreams, where it may be feen motionlefs
for hours together, waiting the paffing of afijh*, which it may
fnap up for food; in this interval the head is crouched between
the fhoulders, and the body frequently refting on one leg. Befides
fifh, it will eat frogs, and at times feed on vegetables. In flying
it draws in the head between the fhoulders, the legs hanging
down. In breeding-time unite together in large focieties, and
build in the higheft trees f; making a neft of flicks, lined with a
few rufhes and wool, or feathers. The eggs are pale greenifh
blue, four or five in number. It may be brought up tame, if
taken young, but when old birds are captured, they fhortly pine
away, and will refufe nourifhment. Sometimes make the neft
in high cliffs over the fea.
Heron-hawking was formerly a favourite diverfion, and  a pe-
* They are great deftroyers offift. We remember to have feen a fijh of ten
inches long, taken out ofthe ftomach of onje. Others are mentioned to have
feventeen Carps at once found within them ; and a tame one has been known
to eztftfty  fmall Roaches   and  Dace, one  day with  another.—Genf. Recreat,
bo many as eighty in one tree.-
nalty
 HERON.
nalty of twenty Jhillings incurred on taking the eggs; but now out
of efteem, as is in a great meafure their flefh, though rated at a
great price in former times, equal to that of a Peacock*.
There is fcarce a place, either in the old world or in the new,
where this bird has not been met with: witnefs the relations of
numberlefs voyagers ; yet few talk of its migrations. Indeed
M. Ekmarck f mentions the difappearing of the whole of the
Heron tribe from Sweden, in autumn : and this fpecies is faid
i only to be feen in New Tork from May till Oblober %.
Ardea Herodias, Lin. Syft.i.p. 237. 15.—Scop. Ann. i. N° ifl
Le Heron hupe.de Virginie, Brif Om. v. p. 416. 10.
Le grand Heron d'Amerique, Buf. Oif. vii
Largeft crefted Heron, Catefe. Car. App. pl
io, fig. 1.—Ara. Zool. N° 34I.
npHIS is a very large fpecies: length more than five feet. Bill
full eight inches long; colour of it brown, inclining to yellow
on the fides: the head is crefted; fome of the feathers which
compofe it are five inches in length :' between the bill and eye
bare, of a pale yellow : the neck and breaft are rufous;. the fore
part of them fpotted with brown: all the upper parts of the
,body, belly, tail, and legs, brown : quills black §.
* " At PRINCIPAL Feafts.—Item, it is thought in likewyze that Hearon-
sewys be bought for my Lordes own mees; fo that they be at'xiid a pece."—
Welikewife here fee the value, by the comparifon : a Goofe felling for $d. or 4A
at moft : Partridges 2 d. apiece : Woodcocks 1 d. or \\d. ; Snipes three for a penny i
alfo that the Herons, Bytters, Pacocks, Fefaunts, and Curlews, were all of equal
• value.—North Houf. Book, p. 104.
+ Amain. Acad. iv. p. 588. % Ar3. Zool.
% Scopoli fays, that the tail is black, and the vent rufous.   Perhaps his bird is a
flight variety 2
-Lin,
adds, that the thighs
rufou
Inhabits-
 86*
R    O    N.
PLAce. Inhabits Virginia,  frequenting the lakes and rivers: feeds c
lizards, frogs, and ftjh.
- RED-SHOUL
DERED H.
Ardea Hoi
Le Heron
•lias, Lin. Syft. i. p. 258. 18.
la Baye de Hudfon, Brif Orn
Afh-coloured Hei
N° 342.
.07. 7.—Buf. Off. vii.
pl. 135.— Ar8& Zasd,
Lev. Muf.
' jj HHIS is alfo a large fpecies:
three feet three  inc
[ though lefs than the laft: length
Bill five inches and a half long ;
the upper mandible black; the under orange : the crown ofthe
head black, and crefted; the longeft feathers four inches in
length: between the bill and eye naked, of a greenifh yellow :
fides and under part of the head white : neck covered with
long flender feathers, marked with dufky bars on the hind part,
and before with broad white dafhes down the middle of each
feather: the back and. upper part of the body cinereous brown :
wing coverts paleft : inner edge of the wing reddifh: breaft
white, marked with long fpots of black: thighs reddifh brown :
belly and vent white: legs dufky: middle claw pectinated; hind
claw very long.
Inhabits North America, from New York to Hudfon's Bay, frequenting the inland lakes ofthe laft place in fummer. By fome
fuppofed to be the female ofthe laft*.
* Ara. Zool.     -
Rufty-
 HERON.
Rufty-crowried Heron, Ar3. Zool. N° 358.
Lev. Muf.
CIZE of the common Bittern. Head frnooth, flightly crefted:
bill feven inches long, flender, yellow : irides the fame: forehead dufky : throat white : creft and back part of the neck deep
ferruginous ; on the fore part four ftreaks of black : feathers of
the breaft long and loofe: a dark line paffes from the breaft upwards to the back of the neck : back and wing coverts deep ferruginous, marked with a few black fpots: quills dufky: tail
fhort, lead-coloured : belly and breaft dirty white, ftriped with
black : legs dirty yellow.
Inhabits North America.
Aft-coloured Heron, Ara. Zool. N° 353.
T ENGTH two feet one inch. Bill ftrong, black: cheeks
and chin whitifh : neck pale cinereous brown, ftreaked before with white : back, wings, and tail, cinereous, clouded round
each feather with dufky : feathers on the fides of the -back long
and broad, hanging over the ends of the wings: belly white:
legs yellowifh.
Inhabits New York: arrives in May; breeds, and leaves the
country in Oblober.
RUSTY-
CROWNED H.
L
Streaked Heron, Ara. Zool. N° 354. 55.   ■
Lev. Muf. STREAKED H.
ENGTH feventeen inches.    Bill two inches: crown dufky:     Description.
cheeks
and hind part of the neck rufly and black:   chin,
throat,
 REDDISH
EGRET.
HERON,
throat, and fore part of the neck, white ; the laft ftreaked with
black : wing coverts ftreaked black and pale buff-colour : outer
edge of the wing white: quills dufky : legs greenifh.
Another of thefe, fuppofed to differ in fex, has a white line on
each jaw: fcapulars and greater wing coverts dufky, fpotted
with white at the ends.
Inhabits North America.
L'Aigrette roufle,  Buf.   Off.
N° 348.
378.—Pl. Enl.  goz.—Ara.  Z00L
T ENGTH two feet. Bill yellowifh, with a dufky point:
lore and round the eye green: the head and neck are covered with loofe long feathers of a rufty rufous colour: the long
narrow feathers of the back of the fame colour: the reft of the
body blackifh grey: legs black.
Inhabits Louifiana.
DEMI EGRET.
La Demi-Aig
Heron bleuati
te, Buf. Oif. ^
• P- 37»-
1 Cayenne, Pl. Enl. 350.
T ENGTH fcarcely two feet. Bill dufky yellow; between
that and the eye bare, and of the fame colour : the head and
neck, as far as the breaft, and the upper parts, wings, and tail,
are deep blue black: the under parts of the body, and thighs,
white : the legs yellowifh : at the hind head hang two long feathers, of the fame colour with the head: and on the lower part of
the back are a few long narrow rufous feathers, which fall over
the tail, which is very fhort.
Inhabits
P5*
 HERON.
Inhabits Cayenne. I met with one of thefe in a collection
from that part: it was two feet in length: bill yellow; tip
black : creft long, and white : head and neck inclining to violet:
chin and throat mottled with rufous white: long feathers over
the rump grey : legs, brown : in other things it anfwered to the
above defcription.'
La grande Aigrette, Buf. Oif.
- N° 346.
Guiratinga, Raii Syn. p. loi. 17!
ii. p. 377.—Pl. Enl. 925.—Ara. Zool.
-Will. Orn. p. 285 ?
npHIS is double the fize ofthe European Egret, and the head
is not crefted as in that fpecies. The bill is of a dirty yellow ; with the top and end dufky : the whole plumage white :
the narrow feathers which fpring from the back are much longer
in this bird, and fuller, fo as to hang beyond the tail: the legs
are black.
This is found at Cayenne, Guiana, and other parts of South
America; alfo at St. Domingo and Louifiane: at the firft-named
place is frequent, among the Wets in the vtetfiavannas ; not on the
borders of'J"alt-water rivers, nor the fea; but only near flagnant
waters or rivers, where it can fhelter itfelf among the reeds. They
do not collect in flocks, and are very fhy, though not uncommon. Bougainville * alfo met with Egrets in Falkland Iflands,
and took them at firft for common Herons. Towards night they
made a harfh barking noife, not unlike that of the wolf which
frequents thofe parts.
* Voy. p. 67—It is moll likely to prove this, rather than the following, from
the fize.
•    Vol. III. , N Ardea
 HERON.
LITTLE
Ardea Garzetta, Lin. Syft. i. p.
EGRET.
L'Aigrette, Brif. Orn. v. p. 43
Enl. go i.
Ardea alba minor, feu Garzett
Egiet, Br. Zool. App. pl. 7.—'
37. i^.—Kram. El. p. 346. 3.
16.—Buf. Oif. vii. p. 372. pl. 23.—-Pl.
Garzetta, Rail Syn. p. gg. 5.—Will. Orn. p. 280.
Zool. N° 347.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
, CIZE of a Fowl: length near a foot: weight one pound. Bill
black: irides pale yellow: the hind head crefted; two of
the feathers are five inches in length, and narrow, hanging down
behind in an elegant manner: between the bill and eye bare and
green: the whole plumage is of a pure whiter there are alfo on
the back a fet of long loofe feathers, which cover and hang over
the rump : the legs are greenifh black : claws black.
This fpecies is almoft a general inhabitant, being found in all
the moderate and warm pares of the globe. Once in plenty in
thefe realms*, now extinct:   at leafl one being fhot in Angle-
fea has been thought a rarity f- In many parts of Europe and
Afta not uncommon. Found in Africa, Ifles of Madagafcar and
Bourbon; alfo in great plenty in Siam £. On the American
continent are met with at New York and Long Ifland, fome of
the Weft India Iflands, and Cayenne §.
* No lefs than one thoufand were in the lift of the famous feaft of Archbifliop
Nevil.—Leland It.
f Br. Zool. App. p. 631.
% Seem to be the Oriel Herons mentioned by P. Tachard, which he fays fwarm
in the trees, fo as to be taken for bloflbms at a diftance; the white mingled
with the green rendering it a pleafing fight.—Harris Coll. Voy. vol. ii. p. [46b].
§ Mem. fur Cay. ii. p. 257 The author obferves, that the Egret is flace-co-
loured For the firft year ; grey, fpotted with white, the fecond ; and pure white
as fnow the third, which it retains ever fter.
This
■*-**
*****
 HERON.
This fpecies, like others ofthe Heron tribe, frequents marfhes
and banks of ftreams, and feeds on fifh.
Ardea alba, Lin. Syft.  i. p.  23
N° iz6.—Kram. El. p. 346,
Le Heron  blanc,  Brif. Orn. v.
Enl. 886.
Great white Gaulding, Sloan Jc
—Rail Syn. p. 189. I.
Great white Heron, Rail Syn. p. 99. A.
Br.-Zool. ii. N° 175.—Ara. Zool. N|
Br. Muf.   Lev. Muf.
■4,—Faun.  Suec.   166.—Scop. Ann.  i.
428. 15.—Buf. Oif. vii. p. 365.— Pl.
). 314. pl. 266.—Brown Jam. p. 478.
[.—Will. Orn. p. 279. pl. 49.—
344-
60.
+- GREAT
WHITE H.
'"PHIS fpecies meafures three feet fix inches in length, and is
of a fize proportionate.    The bill is above fix inches long,
and yellow : irides pale yellow: the plumage wholly of a pure
white : legs black, inclining to green on the thighs.
This bird is very rarely found in England*; but is fufficiently
common on the continent of Europe. Not very plenty in Sweden.
Found about the Cafpian and Black Seas, the lakes of Great Tar-
tary, and the river Irtifch, and fometimes as high as lat, $3 -j-.
Alfo met with in the fouthern parts of America. Migrates northward in fpring. Found at New York from June to October; at
other times found in Jamaica % and Brajil% : found alfo by our
circumnavigators at New Zealand^.
* One of them was fliot not many years ago in Cumberland.—Dr. Heyfham.
t Ara. Zool.
X Where it haunts yea marfhes, fait ponds, &c. and feeds on fmall fifties and
filh fry.—Sloane.
§ L'Heron blanc du Brefil, Brif. Orn. v. p. 434.—This is not fo long by fix
inches.
|| In Dvjky Bay.   Cook's Voy. i. p. 87.— Forft. Voy. i. p. 177.
N   2 Le
 HERON,
BLACK CRESTED WHITE H.
Description.
ri blanc a calotte noire, Buf. Oif. v
- hupe de Cayenne, Pl. Enl. 907.
r"pHI S meafures two feet in length;  and the plumage is totally white, except a patch of black on the top of the head;
the hind part of which has a pendent creft, compofed of fix long
narrow feathers.
It is faid to frequent the rivers of Guiana, and is a rare fpecies.
SNOWY H.
Description
Ardea nivea, N, C. Petr. xv. p. 458. t. 17.
'"PHE length exceeds two feet. Bill flout, ftrait, three inches
and a half long, and black: fkin round the eyes of a yellowifh blue : plumage in general white : the head is frnooth, but
on the neck are fome feathers Handing out; and thofe of the
lower part hanging over the breaft : back terminated with very
long narrow feathers of a yellowifh white: legs black: toes
faffron-colour :  claws black.
The female is lefs, and the neck and back feathers fhorter.
This is found about the river Don in fpring, coming from the
Black Sea*; and returns again to the fouth in autumn. It builds
the neft in high trees. I have feen a fpecimen of this bird
which came from China.
SACRED H.
Description.
CIZE of the little Egret? length two feet three inches.    General colour ofthe plumage white: bill four inches long, dufky
brown : on the middle of the crown a few obfcure dufky ftreaks
• Probably alfo from Egypt, Arabia, or Greece,—Dec, Ruff. i. p. 16.
down
 HERON.
down the fhafts of fome of the feathers: feveral of thofe of
the back, wing, and tail coverts, marked in the fame manner:
fcapulars dafhed with black: greater quills more or lefs dufky
at the tips : the tail feathers marked with dufky down the fhafts,
from the tip, an inch and a half upwards; except the outer feather, which is plain : legs yellow.
Inhabits Otaheite, and the neighbouring ifles, where it is held
facred.
In the collection of Sir Jofeph Banks.
Wf IT H the above is one not far different. The crown of a
plain white: fcapulars fome white, fome black : on the
fore part of the neck fome loofe long feathers, black and white
mixed; hanging over the. breaft ; and fome others ofthe fame loofe
texture, and mixed colours, falling on the tail: the wing coverts
have likewife fome black feathers intermixed: the quills plain
white; and the tail the fame, except one feather wholly black:
legs black*
63.
4- LITTLE
WHITE H.
Ardea vEquinodtialis, Lin. Syft. i. p. 240. z*.
Le Heron blanc de la Caroline, Brif Orn. v. p. 435. 18-.
Le Crabier blanc a bee rouge, Buf. Oif. vii. p. 401.
Little White Heron, Catejb. Car. i. pl. 77.—Ara. Zool. N° 345.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
'X'HIS meafures eighteen inches in length.    The bill is two    Description;.
inches and three quarters long,  and red;   as is the bare
fpace between the  bill  and eye
univerfally white : legs green.
irides yellow:   the plumage
 H
ERG   K.-
Inhabits Carolina in fpring, and is believed to breed there.
Not feen in winter. Is common at New York, and I have alfo
received it from Jamaica ; but at both thefe ^places the bill is
black, though in my fpecimen the lore was of a brownifh or
faded red colour. I obferve alfo that in fome fpecimens feveral
of the fecondaries have the ends brown.
Le petit Heron blanc, Brif. Om v. p. 438. 20.
La Garzette blanche, Buf. Oif. vii   p. 371.
Third fmall white Heron of Aldrovand, Will.  Orn. p   z8o.—Raii  Syn.
p. 99. 6.
TN this the bill is fmall, thick, and yellow : lore and irides the
fame: the top of the head and neck nearly of a faffron-colouf;
breaft the fame, but paler: the reft of the plumage white : legs
faffron-colour.
Found at Bologna, in Italy.
Var. B,
Description.
Place
Le Heron blanc du Mexique, Brif. Orn. v. p. 437. 19.—Buf. Oif. vii. p. 406.
Ardea Mexic. minim, candidiff. Rail Syn. p. 102. 22.
CIZE of a Pigeon,    Bill and legs purple: lore yellow: the
whole plumage pure white.
Inhabits Mexico, where the natives call it Hoitzilaztatl.
Le Heron noir, Brif Orn. v. p. 439. 21.—Buf. Oif. vii. p. 368.
CIZE of the common Heron.    Bill black : general colour ofthe
plumage the fame, with a glofs of blue on the wings : the
fpace between the bill and eyes covered with a bare black fkin :
the
 -HERON.
the legs are black : the middle and outer toe connected at the
bafe by-a membrane.
Inhabits Silefia.
Ardea pui
Le Heron.
Le Heron
, Buf. Oif.
. p. 424. pl. 36. f
Sg.—Pl. Enl. 788.
"OAT HER lefs than the common Heron: length two feet ten
inches and a half. Bill fix inches, brown, with a dufky
point; beneath yellowifh : the top of the head is crefted with
narrow pointed black feathers, fome of them near five inches in
length : round the eyes bare and yellowifh : from the gape to the
hind head a_ narrow ' ftreak of black : chin white: the neck for
half the length is rufous, marked with three longitudinal black
lines, the reft of the neck cinereous olive behind, rufous on the
fides, and rufous white before, where each feather is dafhed
with black, and is long and narrow, hanging over the breaft; the
loweft of thefe are white at the ends : the upper parts ofthe body
are gloffy olive: fome of the fcapulars long and narrow, ending in
a point, with rufous tips : the under parts are of a bright purplifh
chefnut, with a band of black from the middle of the breaft to
the vent: under tail coverts white, mixed with rufous, and
tipped with black : thighs rufous : edge of the wing the fame:
wing coverts bright dark olive, fome of them edged with rufous ;
the greater ones fartheft from the body dark afh-colour : quills
dark : tail cinereous olive : legs greenifh : claws dufky.
Inhabits the fouthern latitudes, towards and about the Cafpian
and Black Seas;   as alfo  the lakes of Great Tartary, and the
6 river
6c.
CRESTED
PURPLE H.
 f
96 HERON.
river Irtifch; but not farther eaft in Sibiria; nor ever ventures
beyond 50 degrees north latitude *.
55< Le Heron pourpre, Brif. Om. v. p. 420. 12.—Buf. Oif. vii. p. 369.
PURPLE H. ,,,,,,-„
_ CI Z E of the common Heron, but has a longer head and bill;
the upper mandible yellowifh green; the under yellowifh:
fpace between the bill and eye bare and yellowifh: the crown is
blackifh afh-colour: neck the fame, marked behind with fmall
blackifh lines ; the fore part fpotted with dull yellow: the upper
part of the body and wings purplifh chefnut:   belly,  fides, and
thighs,  afh-colour, paleft near the vent: greater wing coverts
fartheft from the body blackifh brown : quills much the fame:
legs brown: outer and middle toe joined at the bafe.
Place. Inhabits the banks of the Danube.
g_ Le Heron pourpre du Mexique, Brif. Orn. v. p. 422. 13.
MEXICAN H. Le Crabier pourpre, Buf. Oif. vii. p. 402.
Ardea Mexicana, feu Avis Xoxouquihoactli, Seba, i. pl. 64. fig. 2.
Description.     CIZE of a Crow: length twelve inches.    Crown ofthe head
black;   the reft of it pale chefnut:   general  colour of the
bird purplifh chefnut, paleft beneath ; quills and tail chefnut.
Place. Inhabits Mexico.
68.
CRACRA H.
Le Crabier d'Amerique, Brif. Orn. v. p. 477. 39.
Le Cracra, Buf. Oif. vii. p. 403.
Description.
CIZE of a large Fowl.    Bill black; beneath yellowifh brown :
irides of a golden yellow:   the bare fkin round the eye pale
* Mr. Pennant.
yellow:
 HERON.
yellow: crown ofthe head blueifh afh-colour : the nape and hind
part-of the neck brown, mixed with fillemot: the back and rump,
like the crown, mixed with dull green and rufous: the under
parts are white, fpotted with fillemot as far as the breaft; from
thence to the vent afh-colour: the leffer wing coverts are dull
green, with rufous edges; the greater and quills black, edged
with white : the tail greenifh black : legs yellow : claws black.
This fpecies is found in Chili, and other parts of America, on
the banks of rivers at a diftance from the fea. It is called by
fome Cra-cra, from its cry, which it exhibits in its flight. The
natives call it Jaboutra.    It is met with alfo at Martinico.
Le Heron violet,
de Coroma
Buf. Oif. vi
idel, Pl. Enl. go6.
.p. 370.
fpHIS is thirty-three inches in length. The bill is dufky
brown : the top of the head, the lower part of the neck, the
body, wings, and tail, of a blueifh black, gloffed with violet; the
reft ofthe head and neck white: the vent and under tail coverts
the fame : legs reddifh brown.
Inhabits the Coromandel coaft.
Le Heron Agami, Buf. Oif. vii. p. 382.—Pl. Enl. 859.
T ENGTH thirty-one inches. Bill long, dufky : the crown
of the head blue black : the nape a light blue; from this
hang fix or eight long narrow feathers, the largeft almoft the
whole length ofthe neck : back, wings, and tail, deep blue : the
neck and under parts ofthe body rufous; but the lower half of
Vol. III. O the
AGAMI H.
Description.
 HERON.
the neck and the fides of it are covered with loofe blue feathers,
hanging longer and loofe on the breaft : from the lower part of
the back are long flender feathers, which hang loofe, and reach the
end of the tail: on the fides of the head, and juft above the eye,
the parts are white, paffing a little way in a line on each fide of
the neck : legs yellow.
This is a moft beautiful fpecies, and inhabits Cayenne. One of
thefe, which I fuppofe to be a female, is in the collection of
Colonel Davies. The bill is five inches and three quarters long,
and blackifh ; the bafe of the under mandible pale: the crown,
creft, and hind part ofthe neck, blueifh afh-colour: chin white :
fides of the neck, as far as the middle, fine rufous; down the
middle of this a beautiful white and rufous line, bounded on
each fide with black : the breaft covered with long, loofe, black- .
ifh feathers: thofe on the back part of the neck black, but
ftreaked down the middle of the fhaft with white: the upper
parts of the body, wings, and tail, fine green, like that of a
Duck's head, and gloffy; the under parts deep rufous: quills
black: tail brown. I have never feen the male; but by Buffon's
defcription it muft be ftill more beautiful than the female, and is
certainly the moft elegant of the genus.
Ardea Cocoi, Lin. Syft. i. p. 237. 14.
Le Heron hupe de Cayenne, Brif. Orn. v. p. 400. 3.
Le Soco, Buf Oif. vii. p. 379.
Cocoi, Rail Syn. p. 100. 15.—Will. Orn. p. 284. pl. 51.
Blue Heron, Albin. iii. pl. 7gi
>pHlS
of a gree
a large fpecies, in length above three feet.    The bill
:nifh yellow :  irides of a gold-colour: top of the
«PSM
 HERON.
head cinereous ; the' fides of the upper part black; the feathers
of the hind head are cinereous, very long and narrow, forming a
handfome creft, being about five inches and a half in length * :
between the bill and eye bare and cinereous: cheeks, throat, and
neck, white; the fore part of the laft marked with a double row
of longifh dufky fpots ; the feathers ofthe lower part very long,
and hang over the breaft: the reft of the bird fine pale afh-colour : on the back the feathers are long and narrow, and hang
down behind, like many of this genus: the legs are afh-colour.
Inhabits Brafil and Cayenne.   Said to be pretty good eating in
the rainy feafon, at which time it is fat.
Ardea rufa, Scop. Ann. i. N° 119.—Kram. El. p. 347. N° 6.
T ESS than the common Heron. Bill feven inches long: from
the eye to the nape on each fide a black ftreak : head, neGk,
belly, quills, and tail, black: breaft rufous: temples and thighs-
ferruginous: lower part ofthe neck whitifh, marked with longitudinal brownifh fpots: the upper part of the neck, the back,
and wings, cinereous brown : legs brown.
Inhabits the Auftrian dominions.
RUFOUS H.
CIZE fmall.    Bill long, pale yellow: upper part of the plumage brown, dafhed with a paler brown ;   under parts the
fame, but more dilute : quills and tail black: legs green.
Inhabits China, and called Soy-ie.   The defcription taken from!
a collection of Chinefe drawings.
■ • Only two of the feathers are of this length.—Willughby.
O 2 SIZE
CHINESE PL
 HERON.
JOHANNA H.
Description.
CIZE not mentioned. Bill yellowifh: between that and the
eye bare, and of a yellowifh green : on the crown a fhort
pendant black creft : plumage on the upper parts grey, the under white : the feathers on the fore part of the neck long and
loofe, marked with longitudinal black fpots : quills all black : legs
brownifh : infide of the middle toe ferrated.
Inhabits the ifland  of Johanna.     Taken from fome Chinefe
drawings formerly in the poffeffion of the late Dr. Fothergill.
Le Heron hope du Mexique, Brif. Orn. v. p. 418. 11.
L'Hofti, Buf. Oif. vii. p. 382.
Hoactli, or Dry Bird, Rail Syn. p. 179. 8.—Will. Orn. p. 389. (the male.)
Hoafton, Will. Orn. p. 391.   (the female.)
T ENGTH two feet three inches. Bill five inches; black, the
fides of it yellow: irides yellow: eyelids red: the head
crefted and black : forehead from eye to eye white: between the
bill, and eye bare and yellowifh : the upper parts of the neck and
body are greenifh black : wing coverts greenifh afh-colour: all
the under parts of the body white: the quills and tail afh-co-
loured: legs yellow.
The female has the upper parts brown, mixed with white: the
under white, varied with brown : otherwife like the male.
Inhabits the lakes of Mexico, and breeds among the reeds :
it bites hard, and has a loud flat voice. The Spaniards call this
bird Martinete Peficador*, but this muft be from its catching fifh,
for it cannot otherwife be called a Kingfifher,
* Kingsfilher.
 HERON*
Le Heron cendre du Mexique, Brif. Orn. v. p. 504. 5.
Hohou, Buf. Oif. vii p. 384.
Xoxoukqui Hoactli, Hoa&on, feu ardea ciuerea minor mexicana criftata,
Rail Syn. p. 102. 21.
T ENGTH two feet three inches. Bill feven inches, black:
the fore part of the head is variegated with white and black,
the reft of the head purple; at the back part a creft of the fame
colour: the general colour of the bird cinereous: edges ofthe
wings white : wing coverts blue and afh-colour, mixed : the fecond quills nearly of equal length with the prime ones: legs
variegated with brown, black, and yellowifh.
Inhabits the wet places of Mexico, but is fcarce, being only
feen at intervals.
Buffon gives it the name Houhou, from its fuppofed cry being
like that word *.
76.
HOUHOU H.
Le Bee ouvert, Buf. Oif. vii. p. 409.—ZY. Enl. g~2. PONDICHERRY
H.
'"pHIS is a fingular fpecies, and meafures in length fourteen     description.
inches and a half. The bill is as long as in the Heron tribe,
very thick and flout at the bafe, for about one fourth of its length,
it then.becomes flender, and finifhes in a point; the under mandible is lefs flout, and gradually leflens to the end, but is curved
inward the whole length, fo that the mandibles only touch at the
bafes and tips, ftanding hollow from each other in the middle *,
the colour of both is yellow, but towards the head dufky: the
* The fame nan
vol. i. p. 522. N°
is alfo g
. of thii
1 by Buffon
a Cuckovm   See ASgyptian Cuckoi
 HERON.
fpace between the bill and eye, and round the laft, is quite covered with feathers : the general colour of the bird is a dirty,
cinereous grey; but the quills are black, and greatly exceed the
tail in length : the legs are yellowifh, and teflellated their whole
length, as is the bare part of the thighs: the claws are fmall and
black, the middle claw not ferrated.
Inhabits Pondicherry, and other parts of the Eaft Indies.
Le Bec-ouvert des Indes, Son. Voy. Ind vol. ii. p. 219. pl. 219.
1~\IFFERS from the laft, in that the edge of the upper mandible is ferrated from the middle to the end, the toes united
at the bafe to the firft joint, and the wings reach only to the
tail: the head, rump, belly, and wing coverts, are white; thofe
of the head are fhort, narrow, and erect: the back, quills, and
tail, black: from the bafe of the bill to the eye, bare and black;
this black bare fpace alfo extends round the throat: the bill is
rufous yellow : irides red : legs rufous yellow.
Found on the coaft of Coromandel, in September, Obtober, and
November. Frequents, like the Heron, the borders of rivers and
ponds, for the fake of fifh and reptiles, which are its food.
Le Com
, ou C01
, Buf. Oif. vii. p. 442.—PL Enl. 848.
•*T'H IS is a large bird, almoft equalling an Heron in fize: the
length twenty-five inches. Bill four inches long, reddifh**
with a blueifh point; it is rather flout at the bafe, and nearly
flrait, but inclines downward towards the tip: on the upper,
mandible is a long furrow two thirds of the length of the bill,
in which the noftrils are placed, thefe feem to be a flit only :
round
 HERON.
round the eye bare * of feathers, and of a reddifh brown colour :
the plumage in general is brown, gloffed with a reddifh copper-
colour on the quills and tail: moft of the feathers of the upper
part have the edges paler than the reft of the feathers; and thofe
of the neck and breaft are ftreaked with white down the fhaft:
the chin white: the naked parts of the thighs and legs are white:
the toes are not joined by a membrane at the bafe, but the middle claw is pectinated on the inner margin, where it rifes into an
edge.
This inhabits Cayenne, and is a doubtful fpecies, hanging between the Heron and Curlew, but feems moft allied to the
former.
• Not clear, it feems to be fo in the Pl. Enl.
 [   io4   3
Genus LXVI.    IBIS.
i. Wood Ibis.
N° 11. Black I.
2. Scarlet I.
12. Bay I.
3. Cayenne I.
Var. A.
4. Mexican I.
13. Green I.
5. Black-faced I.
14. Gloffy I.
6. White-necked I.
15. White-headed I
7. Grey I.
16. Bald I.
8. Brown I.
17. Manilla I.
9. White I.
18. Leffer I.
0. Egyptian I.
19. Crefted I.
B
ILL long, thick at the bafe, incurvated.
Face, and fometimes the whole head, naked.
Noftrils linear.
Tongue fhort.
Toes connected at the bafe by a membrane.
Tantalus loculator, Lin. Syft. i. p. 240. i>
Le grand Conrli d'Amerique, Brif. Orn. v. p. 335. 8-
Couricaca, Buf. Oif. vii. p. 276.—PL Enl.  868.—Raii Syn. p. 103. 4.—
Will. Orn. p. 295. pl. 54.—Damp. Voy. iii. pl. in p. 96. fig-,2.
Wood Pelican, Catefi. Car. i. pl. 81.—Ara. Zool. N° 360.
CIZE of a Goofe: length three feet.    The bill is flout, nine
inches in length, and bends downwards towards the tip; the
colour of it yellowifh brown: irides pale rufous: the fore part
8 of
■^^P
 IBIS.
ofthe head, and round the eyes, covered with a blue fkin: from
the head to the middle of the neck the fkin is alfo bare of feathers, but rough and warty, and of a brown or blackifh colour:
beneath the jaw is a pouch holding at leaft half a pint:.the
whole plumage of the bird is white, except the quills and tail,
which are black: the bare part of the thighs is four inches, the
legs above a foot long, the colour of both dufky: between the
toes a membrane.
Themale and female are much alike.
Birds of this fpecies are found in Carolina, and in various parts
of South America, where they frequent the open favannas, which
are under water during the fummer; but retire from the firft in
November. They often fit on the tall Cyprefs-trees in numbers
together, retting their ponderous bills on their breafts: are
ftupid birds, and eafily fhot when once met with. They feed on
fifh and reptiles, but are accounted pretty good eating. Are
known at Brafil by the name of Curicaca, and are called by the
Portuguefe, Mafarino.
In the Mufeum of the late Dr. W. Hunter is a fine fpecimen,
which came from Cayenne. The bird referred to in Dampier was
met with at Sharks Bay, New Holland.
Tol. III.
 io6*
IBIS;
Tantalus ruber, Lin. Syft. i. p. 241. N° t.—Scop. Ann. i. N° 130.'
Le- Courly rouge du Brefil, Brif Om. v.  p.   344. 12.  pl.  29. fig. 1. 2-
—Buf. Oif. viii. p. 35.—Pl. Enl. p. 81.   (the old bird.)—Pl. Enl. 80.
(one of the fecond year.)
Guara, Rait Syn. p. 104. 6.—Pernett. Voy. i.p. 183.
. -or Indian Curlew, Will. Om. p. 296. pl. 54.—Sloan. Jam. p. 317-
N° 8.—Harr. Coll. Voy. i. p. 728.
Red Curlew, Cateft. Car. i. pl. 84.—Bancr. Guian* p. 172.
Scarlet Ibis, Ara. Zool. N° 361.
Br. Muf.   Lev. Muf.
¥ ENGTH twenty-one inches. Bill between fix and feven.
inches long, and of a pale red: eyes black : the bafe of
the bill paffes a little way back on the forehead: the fides of
the head, quite beyond the eyes, are bare, and of a pale red:
the whole plumage is of a glowing fcarlet, except four of the
outer prime quills, which are of a gloffy blue black at the ends:
the fhafts of the quills and tail are white: legs pale red.
The female differs in the colours being fomewhat lefs lively.
This beautiful fpecies is met with in moft parts of America
within, the tropics ;, alfo pretty common in Eaft Florida, and a few
are feen in the fouth of Carolina; in fome of the Weft India iflands
in great plenty, efpecially the Bahamas. It generally frequents
the borders of the fea, and fides of the neighbouring rivers, and.
lives on fmall fry of fifh,. and infects, which it picks up when
the fea retires from the fhore. Thefe birds frequently perch on.
the trees in great numbers, but lay their eggs on the ground *>-
on a bed of leaves; the eggs are of a greenifh colour : the young,.
• Pemetty fays that the female lays her eggs c
of walls.—Voy. i. p. 183.
i the houfe-tops, and the holes
when.
 IBIS.
when hatched, are black, in a little time after grey, but are nearly
white before they are able to fly; from this they change to red
by degrees f> but it is not till the third year that the red colour
is complete, and in many birds even at that time many of the
neck feathers are found mixed with brown. It is moftly feen in
numbers together, and the young birds and old ones keep in fe-
parate flocks : is frequently domefticated, in the parts where it
naturally inhabits, and I have alfo known it brought to England
for the fame purpofe. I have one now by me, which lived for
fome time among the poultry; but it grew fickly, loft all the
brilliancy of plumage, and before it died faded to a dull rofe-
colour.   By fome it is efteemed for food.
i®7
Le Courlis des Bois, Buf. Oif. viii. p, 42.
.  verd de Cayenne, Pl. Enl. 820.
T> A T H E R lefs than the laft : length twenty-two inches.
The bill bent, five inches and a half long, and dufky; the
bafe, and round the eye, bare, and of a dufky pale red: the general colour of the plumage is black, with a greenifh glofs in
fome lights; the quills and tail deepeft : legs brownifh yellow.
In fome birds the top of the head and nape have the middle
of each feather dafhed with deep black, without any reflection
of green, and the legs almoft black; at firft fight this may be
taken for the young bird of the Scarlet Ibis; but in the one here
t Ulloa is faid to have met with large flights of Curlews wijthin_ twenty or
thirty leagues of Juan Fernandez ; thefe were moftly white, except the breaft and
upper part of the wings, whic^;w.ere of a rofe-col°ur.~See Voy, ii. p. 228. Moft
likely they were this fpecies.
Pa
defcribed,
 IBIS.
defcribed, the legs are only, eight inches in length, whereas in
the Scarlet Ibis they are twelve at leaft ; in the firft they do not
reach to the end of the tail, but in the laft much beyond it.
This is met with at Cayenne, but not in numbers; always in
pairs: perches on the decayed trees which float down with the
ftream, in order to fifh, generally at fome diftance from the fea:
and is called by the people at Cayenne, Flammant des Bois.
MEXICAN I.
LeCourly varied u K
L'Acalot, Buf. Oif. viii. p. 45.
Acacalotl, Rail Syn. p. 104. 5.
AcacalotI, or Water Raven, Will.
Brif. Orn. v. p. 333.
^pHIS is a large fpecies, being
bill eight inches, and blueifh:
three feet in length. The
irides red : between the bill
and eyes, and round them, bare and reddifh : the head and neck
covered with dufky, white, and green feathers, with a few yellow ones intermixed: back and rump black, gloffed with green
and purple j breaft and belly brown, with a little mixture of red :
the wing coverts are green ; and the quills and tail green bronzed
with copper : legs black.
This inhabits Mexico, frequenting the lakes,* and feeding on
fifh: it breeds in thofe places, and is accounted pretty good
food.
BLACK-FACED
I.
PL. LXXIX.
Description.
CIZE large, not much inferior to the Wood Ibis: length twenty-
eight inches, breadth forty-nine inches and a half.    Bill fix
inches, and black: tongue triangular, ciliated at the back part:
irides reddifh: the whole face, quite beyond the eyes, is bare of
feathers.
 WE$S
  IBIS.
feathers, black, and warty, particularly round the eyelids: under the chin hangs a loofe, wrinkled, bare fkin, forming a pouch : .
the crown of the head is deep fulvous yellow, and the feathers
at the back part longifh: the reft of the neck and breaft pale
yellow: the back and fcapulars are cinereous, margined with
brown: acrofs the breaft a band of the fame : the middle of the
feathers of the back brown: the wing coverts blueifh afh-colour,
margined with brown: the quills, fides, thighs, vent, and tail,
are greenifh black; the laft confifts of twelve feathers, and is
rounded in fhape: the legs feven inches long, rough, naked but
a little way above the knee, and red: claws black.
This fpecies was found by Dr. Forfter on New Year's Ifland,
near Staten Land*. It builds the neft in inacceffible places in
the rocks. The fpecimen is in the collection of Sir Jof.
Banks.
Le grand Courlis de Cayenne, Buf. Oif. viii. p. 47.
Courlis a Cou blanc, Pl. Enl. 976.
'"pHIS is much bigger than the common Curlew: length twenty-
feven inches. Bill black : the head and neck rufous white ;
the firft deepeft : between the bill and eyes bare: general colour
of the plumage brown, undulated with grey, and gloffed with
green: the greater wing coverts white : legs red.
Inhabits Cayenne,
WHITE-NECKED I.
1 See Ferft. Voy. vol. i
 ibis, -m
Le petit Courly d'Amerique, Brif. Orn. r. p. 337. 9,
Le Matuitui des Rivages, Buf. Oif. viii. p. 46.
Matuitui, Will. Orn. p. 196 *.
CIZE of a Fowl. Bill reddifh brown: irides rufous: round
the bill and eyes bare and black: hind part of the head and
neck grey : the reft of the plumage whitifh : but the lower part
of the back and rump, quills, and tail, are greenifh black: legs
of a pale red : claws black.
Inhabits BrafiL
Tantalus fufcus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 242. 7.
Le Courly brun du Brefil, Brif. Orn. v. p. 341. 1 u
—————— a front rouge, Buf. Oif. viii. p. 42.
Brown Curlew, Catefb. Car. i. pL 83—ArB. Zool. N° 362.
T ENGTH near two feet. Bill fix inches: colour pale red,
as is the bare fkin between that and the eye: irides grey :
the head, neck and back, wings, and tail, are cinereous brown, the
two firft paleft: the lower part of the back, rump, and under
parts from the breaft, white : legs pale red: claws brown : the
fkin and fat are yellow.
Male and female alike.
Inhabits the warmer parts of America, Cayenne, Guiana, &c.
and is frequently met with in Carolina in the fummer, departing
to the fouth in winter. This affociates with the White Ibis, but
is a much fcarcer bird.
* See a Kingsfifter of this name in vol. i. p. 640, of this work.
 IBIS.
Tantalus albus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 242. 6,
Le Courly blanc du Brefil, Brif. Orn. v. p. 339. 10.—Buf. Oif viii.. p. 41.
—Pl.Enl. 915.
White Curlew, Catefi. Car. i. pl. 82.—Ar3. Zool. N° 363.
C IZ E of the Whimbrel.: length twenty-two inches. The bill
is fix inches and a half long, and of a pale red: from the bill
round the eyes and chin bare, and ofthe fame colour: irides grey :
the reft of the body of a pure white: the ends of the four firft
quills are greenifh black : legs red-
Male and female much alike.
Thefe birds are met with in the low watery lands in Carolina,
in great numbers, about the latter end of fummer, and feed on
fijh and water infebls: they remain for about fix weeks, and then
depart, returning every autumn. The fat and flefh of this bird
is faid to be as yellow as. faffron : it is eaten by fome, but not
greatly efteemed.
Tantalus Ibis, Lh
Ann. i  N° I2l
L'Ibis blanc, Brif. Orn. v. p. 349. 14.—j
Enl. 389.
Emfeefy, or Ox bird, Show's Trav. p. 2.55
p. 24T.4.—Haffelq. Voy. p. 248. N° 25.*-Sap.
'uf. Oif. viii. p. 14. pl. l.—Pl.
-TTHIS is a large bird, fomewhat exceeding the Stork, and
•saeafures from thirty to forty inches in length. The bill is
feven inches long; the colour yellow, growing reddifh towards
the tip; it is flightly curved, and ends in a blunt point: the fore
part of the head, all round as far as the eyes, is naked and red-
difh: the fkin wader the throat Is alfo bare and dilatable: the-
plumage
 IBIS.
plumage reddifh white, moft inclining to red on the back and
wings: quills and tail black : the legs are long, and the thighs
bare for three parts of their length; the colour of them red :
the toes united as far as the firft joint. Haffelquift adds, that the
irides are whitifh, and the end of the bill, and the legs, black :
and that it is found in Lower Egypt in great plenty, in places
juft freed from the inundations ofthe Nile. It lives on frogs and
infebls: feen in gardens, morning and evening, and fometimes
in fo great plenty, that whole palm-trees are covered with them :
when at reft they fit quite erect, their tail touching the legs.
This author believes it to be the Ibis recorded by the antients ;
firft, becaufe it is both common as well as peculiar to Egypt:
fecondly, as it eatsferpents as well as other things : and thirdly,
becaufe the urns, which contain the remains of embalmed birds,
found in the fepulchres along with the mummies, feem to contain
fuch as are of this fize.
I fufpect it to be the Emfeefy or Ox Bird of Shaw. He defcribes
it as wholly white, except the bill and legs, which are of a fine
red : and fays it feeds in the meadows, with cattle: but the flefh is
unfavoury, and foon corrupts.
L'Ibis, Brif. Orn. v. p. 347. 13
 noir, Buf. Oif. viii. p. ;
Ibis of Bellonius, Rati Syn. p. <
-Will. Orn. p. 288. pi. 44.
"D ATHER lefs than the Curlew.    Bill red: the fore part of
the head and behind the eyes bare, and of the fame colour : the general colour of the plumage black : legs red.
The black Ibis, like the white, is an inhabitant of Egypt, and
the more ftrictly fo, as it is never found out of it, none being
met
 IBIS.
met with, except in the neighbourhood of Damietta*. It is by
fome fuppofed to be the fame with the white fpecies; which it
probably may, if we allow it to be the young one, as fome white
birds are black before they come to maturity of plumage f : authors have however been able to hand us down fo little concerning it, that we fhall perhaps remain for a long time, before we
afcertain the circumftance.
Tantalus falcinelli
—Scop. Ann. i. N° 131
Le Courly verd, Brif. Orn.
p. 29.
Syft. i. p. 241. 2.—Brun. 167.—Muller, N* 178.
■Kram. El. p. 350. 2.
p. 326.  4- Pl-  27- fig- 2.—Buf. Of. viii.
Courlis d'ltalie, Pl. Enl. 819.
Falcinellus, or Sithe-bill, Rati Syn. p.  103. A.  3.—Will. Orn. p.  295.
pl. 54.
Bay Ibis, Ara. Zool. p. 460. A.
Lev. Muf.
C I Z E of our Curlew: length one foot nine inches. Bill near
four inches long, and brown : from the bill, all round the
eye, bare, and dufky green : the head and neck are chefnut, verging to brown on the head, where the feathers have pale edges :
the upper parts of the body are gloffy green, appearing bronzed
in different lights : the breaft, belly, and under parts, are brown,
with a glofs of green gold on the breaft : quills and tail darker
than the back, and with very little glofs : legs dufky blue : between each toe a fmall membrane at the bafe.
* Circa Pehfeum tantum  nigra eft, caeteris omnibus locis Candida.—Plin.
f Inftanced in the Egret, Red Ibis, and many others.
Vol. III. Q^ This
 U4
IBIS.
Plack. This- inhabits Italy, fome parts of Germany, and is alfo very-
common about the Cafpian and Black Seas, attending up the rivers to breed. Frequent in flocks .about the lakes; but none feen
in Sibiria, though faid to be met with in Denmark*, where it is
called Ryle-Domfneppe.
,2. Le Courly marron, Brif. Orn.-v. p. 329. 5.
Var. A.
Description.    HpHE plumage in this is moftly of a gloffy chefnut, and the
breaft has a green tinge.    It is moft likely a variety of the
laft defcribed, and found on the fhores of the Danube.
Numenius viridis, N. C. Petr. xv. p. 462. t. 19. (Gmelin.)
GREEN I.
_ CIZE of the Curlew: length nineteen inches and a half.    Bill
three inches and a half; much bent, frnooth, and of a lead-
coloured brown; the lower mandible flefh-colour at the fides,
and beneath : irides pale ; between the bill and eyes black, rough,
and naked : under the chin the fkin is dilatable, forming a fmall
pouch : above the eye a white fpot, beginning behind, and tending to the hind head : on the crown two or three irregular fpots
of the fame; excepting thefe fpots the head is blackifh, the feathers margined with a pale colour: chin blackifh, marked with
fmall whitifh fpots: neck greyifh black; on the upper part before three tranfverfe whitifh bands, with a fourth beneath them,
but lefs diftinct: back and tail green gold: rump, breaft, belly,
and thighs, blackifh brown : wing coverts and quills deep fhining
green, gloffed with blue : legs and claws deep black.
* Muller.   Rrunnich.
This
 IBIS.
This has the fame haunts as the next fpecies, and feeds in the
fame manner, being often found together; but differs in not
foaring fo high, rather fkimming along the air, fomewhat in the
nature of the Swallow. It feems to have great affinity to the
Bay Ibis.
m
Numenius igneus, N. C. Petr. xv. p. 460. 1.18. {Gmelin).
Lev. Muf.
T ENGTH almoft two feet. Bill five inches, frnooth, roundifh, much bent, green, fading to olive when dead: eye-lids
brown: irides olive: eyes placed in a white fpace: under the
chin a fmall dilatable pouch : head and neck black; the feathers
fringed with white : the reft ofthe body variegated with blackifh
blue, green, and vinaceous, and in general very gloffy ; hence the
bird, in flying, appears gilded when the fun fhines upon it:
quills.green gold, and when clofed reach the end of the tail:
wing coverts next the body reddifh and blue mixed; the next
feries black, red, and green; the laft, and quills, green gold :
tail the fame, gloffed in different lights with red and violet: legs
very long, of a bright green : claws crooked, black.
This inhabits Ruffia, chiefly the fhores of the Don, and about
the Choper: lives on fifh and infects: flies in flocks, and builds
on trees. In the Leverian Mufeum is one of thefe,.which was
fhot in Cornwall.
CL-2
 IBIS.
WHITE-HEAD-
ilus leucocephalus, Zool. Ind. p. 20. t. 10.
:-headed Ibis, Ind. Zool. p. 11. pl. 10.
hJ
ARGER than our Curlew. Bill yellow, very long, and
thick at the bafe, and a little incurvated : noftrils very narrow, and placed near the head: all the fore part of the head,
quite behind the eyes, covered with a bare yellow fkin, which
feems a continuation of the bill; the reft of the head, neck, back,
belly, and fecondaries, white : acrofs the breaft a tranfverfe broad
band of black: the quills and wing coverts. black : tail coverts
very long; and of a fine pink-colour; thefe fall over, and conceal
the tail: the legs and thighs very long, and of a dull flefh-colour :
the feet connected by webs as far as the firft joint.
This bird was taken in the Ifile of Ceylon, and kept tame for
fome time at Colombo: it made a fnapping noife with the bill,
like a Stork; and, what was remarkable, its fine rofy feathers loft
their colour during the rainy feafon.
Courly a
:, Buf. Oif. v
-. Muf.    Lev
• P- 32
Muf.
-PL Enl. 867.
CIZE of the common Curlew : length from twenty-fix to thirty-
one inches. Bill five inches and three quarters long, and of a
red colour : the head and part of the neck bare of feathers, and
tuberculated at the back part; the whole crown is red, the reft
white: fkin of the throat flaccid, dilatable, and bare of feathers : irides brown: the plumage in general black, gloffed with
green on the wing coverts; the tips of them gloffed with copper;
the
*-w-mm
 IBIS. i
the tail confifts of twelve feathers, and is feven inches long : the
wings reach almoft to the end of it: legs pale red. '
The female fcarcely differs, except in having the top of the Female.
head more fiat.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope, and  other parts of Africa. Place.
Found near watery places.   Not difficult to be tamed, as one was
kept for a time in the Company's garden at the Cape..
Le Courly brun de l'Ifle de Lucon, Son. Voy. p. 85. pl.  47.—Buf.  Oif. 17.
viii. p. 31. '     MANILLA
CIZE of our Curlew.   Bill greenifh : eye encircled with a naked      Descriptk
greenifh fkin : irides bright red : general colour of the plumage rufous brown : legs the colour of red lake.
Inhabits the ifland of Luconia. Place.
Tantalus minutu
Leffer Ibis, Edw
'An. Syft. :
•356.
CIZE of the Whimbrel, or lefs. Bill two inches and a half long,
blue at the bafe, black at the point: fides, between the bill
and eyes, and round them, bare : plumage on the upper parts of
the body and tail dufky brown : the feathers of the breaft loofe,
and longer than the reft: rump and under parts white: legs
dark lead-colour: claws black.
Inhabits Surinam.
 IBIS.
Le Courly hupe de Madagafcar, Pl. Enl. 8\\.—Buf. Oif. viii. p. 33.
rp HIS is a moft beautiful fpecies: in length twenty inches.
The bill is four inches long, not greatly bent, and of a
brownifh yellow : fides of the head, round the eye's, bare of feathers, and of a pale colour: the head and part of the neck are
black; -the back part furnifhed with a tuft of very long feathers,
half of them white, half black; the reft of the neck and the
body are ferruginous : the whole wing dirty white: vent and
tail black : legs pale yellow brown.
This inhabits Madagafcar.
Tj£NUS
 C   "9   ]
Genus-LXVII.   CURLEW.
' i. Common C.
2. Madagafcar C.
3. Luzonian C.
4. Otaheite C.
5. White-headed C.
N° 6. Whimbrel.
7. Brafilian Wh.
8. Efquimaux C.
9. Cape C.
10. Pygmy C.
B
ILL long, incurvated.
Face covered with feathers.
Noftrils linear, longitudinal near the bafe.
Tongue fhort, fharp-pointed.
Toes connected as far as the firft joint by a membrane.
Seolopax arquata, Lin. Syfl. i.'p. 242. ■-.—Faun. Suec. 168.—Brun. N° 158.
Muller, p. 22.—Kram. El. p. 350. l.—Frifch. t. 229.
Le Courly, Brif. Orn. v. p. 311. l.—Buf. Oif. viii. p. ig.—Pl. Enl. 818.
The Curlew, Rail Syn. p. 103. A. i.—Will. Orn. p. 294. pl. c^.—AIbinyi.
pl. 79.—Br. Zool. N° 176. pl. 63.—Ara. Zool. p. 462. A.
Br. Muf    Lev. Muf.
■THE common Length of this bird is two feet, but it is apt to
vary much in fize. Bill feven inches, brown, near the end
black; bafe of the under mandible flefh-colour : the feathers of
the head, neck, and wing coverts, pale brown, dafhed down the
middle with black: round the eye, on the fore part, white: back
white, ftreaked with black : breaft and belly white, marked
with narrow longifh lines of black : quills, black, fpotted on the
6 inner
 CURLEW.
inner webs with white: tail reddifh white, barred with black:
legs dufky blue.
Male'and female much alike.
This fpecies is pretty common in England, where it is to be
met with at all feafons: in the winter haunting the fea coafts and
fens; repairing in fummer to the mountains and more inland
parts, to breed. The female in April lays four eggs, of a pale
olive-colour, marked with brownifh fpots. The food, while in the
neighbourhood ofthe fea, confifts of worms, marine, cruftaceous,
and other infects • at other times it feeds on flugs and worms, which
it draws out ofthe earth morning and evening with its long bill.
It is often met with in large flocks, and flies rather fwiftly. It
is by many accounted good food, but is apt to have a rank
tafte *. It is alfo found in moft parts of Europe; but in general'
retiring north to breed, and returning to the fouth as autumn
approaches. Met with in Italy and Greece, and perhaps much
farther to the fouth, as flocks are feen paffing over the ifland of
Malta fpring and autumn f. To the north it is found in plenty,
in all the plains and open marfhes, or heath grounds, of Ruffia '
and Sibiria ; alfo in Kamtfchatka, and in Europe as high as Lap-
mark and IcelandJ.
HP H E Curlew is alfo found in America, but differs in fome
particulars; weighing from fourteen to eighteen ounces, and
twenty inches in length.    The bill is a trifle longer in proportion : the ground colour  of the plumage pale rufous brown:
• I believe only when on the fea coafts; feveral which I have tafted, killed
inland, were very good.
t Hift. des Oif. % Ara. Zool.
 CURLEW.
the crown of the head dufky black: the chin very pale: neck
dafhed with ftreaks of black: back and fcapulars black; the
feathers of the firft margined, and of the laft fpotted on the
edges with the ground colour: the wing coverts dafhed down
the fhafts with black, ending in a point: the three firft prime
quills black; the fourth barred within; the reft, on both fides the
fhafts, with black; as are the rump, tail coverts, and tail: the
under parts, from the breaft, very pale reddifh brown, or cream-
colour : legs black.
I received a fpecimen of this from New York. Sir Ajhton
Lever is likewife in poffeffion of a fecond from Hudfon's Bay,
where it is feen on the coafts and marfhes, the end of May: when
the rivers are open, returns to the plains. It fcrapes a few fcat-
tered leaves together by way of neft, on which it lays as far as
three eggs, of a light blue fpotted with black: the young hatched
In July. They retire again to the marfhes the middle of Auguft;
and leave the coaft on the appearance of winter. Our laft
voyagers met with the Curlew at Hervey's Ifland in the South
Seas *.
Scolopax Madagafcarienfis, Lin. Syft. p. 242,
Le Courly de Madagafcar, Brif. Om. v. p. 3
21. 3, pl. 28.-
CIZE of our Curlew. The bill much the fame, but very little
bent, except towards the tip : on the head, netk, and upper
parts, the feathers are chiefly brown, with grey margins: the
upper tail coverts rufous grey, marked with fome tranfverfe
bands of grey, and others parallel to the margin: chin, belly,
l. Enl. 198.    MADAGASCAR
C.
Vol. III.
1 Cook's laft Voy. i
 CURLEW.
thighs, and vent, white: breaft and fides yellowifh, dafhed with
brown ; the laft barred tranfverfely with the fame : the three
firft quills are plain black; the fourth fpotted on the inner web;
and the others on both webs; the fecondaries much the fame,
but the ground colour grey : tail grey, barred with brown : legs
red brown.
This inhabits Madagafcar,  and  feems  very fimilar   to our
fpecies.
LUZONIAN C.
OTAHEITE C.
Description.
Le Courlis tachete  de l'Ifle de Lucon, Sonn. Voy. p. 85. pl. 48.—Buft'Oif.
viii. p. 32.
Hp HIS is much lefs than the common Curlew. The top of the
head black ; the reft of the head, neck, and breaft, white,
marked with narrow longitudinal ftreaks of black: the belly,
with tranfverfe femicircular bands of the fame : wing coverts
and back the colour of amber; on the margin of every feather
from two to fix white fpots : greater quills black: tail vinaceous
grey, croffed with black lines.
Inhabits the ifland of Luconia.
"KJEARLY the fize of the common Curlew : length twenty
• inches. Bill four inches long, moderately bent, and brown;
bafe reddifh : the head and neck pale reddifh white, marked with
numerous dufky lines, perpendicularly placed: crown ofthe head
brown : over the eye a pale ftreak : back dufky black, the feathers-
margined with pale reddifh white, appearing waved : the under
parts, from the breaft, of this laft colour, with a few mottled
marks. I
  *^^/uu^&rt<*i,
 CURLEW.
marks over the thighs : the wing coverts reddifh white and dufky
mixed: quills dufky, with pale edges : tail of a dirty yellow;
the bafe half marked with irregular dufky fpots; the end half
barred acrofs with the fame: legs blue grey : claws black.
This  inhabits Otaheite, where it is known by the name of
Tevrea.    In the collection of Sir Jofeph Banks.
CIZE and fhape ofthe common Curlew.    Bill pretty long, and
red : the head and part of the neck white : the reft of the
plumage of a very deep blue, except the quills, which are black :
legs cinereous grey.
This was. met with at the Cape of Good Hope.    From the
drawings of Sir Jofeph Banks.
WHITE-HEADED C.
PL. LXXX.
Scolopax Phseopus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 243. if.—-Faun. Suec. p.  i6g.-—Scop.
-   Ann. i. N° 132.—Brun.  N° i$g.—Muller, p. 22,—Kram. El. p. 350.
6.
+- WHIMBREL
—Georgi Reife, 171.
Corlieu, ou petit Courly, Brif. Orn. v. p. 317. 2. pl. 27. fig. i.—Buf. Oif.
viii. p. 27.—-Pl. Enl. 842.
Whimbrel, Raii Syn. p. 103. A. 2.—Will. Om. p. 2g\.—Edw. pl. 307.—
Br. Zool. ii. N° 177. pl- 6\.—Ara. Zool. p. 462. B.
Lev. Muf.
T ENGTH feventeen inches; breadth twenty-nine: weight
fourteen ounces and a half. The bill three inches long,
black; the bafe of the under mandible pale red : the head, neck,
and breaft,. pale brown, ftreaked with dufky brown : chin white :
the fides ofthe head are alfo fomewhat paler than the reft; and
between the bill and eye is a dufky ftreak : all the upper parts of
the body and wing coverts are pale brown, ftreaked with dufky,.
R 2 each
 CURLEW.
each feather being fo marked down the fhaft; befides which>-
many of them are margined or marked on the edge with pale
fpots: the lower part of the back and rump are white : the
upper tail coverts white, barred with dufky : tail brown, croffed
with feven or eight darker bars : quills dufky black.,, marked on
the inner webs with femicircular fpots of dufky-white ; the, fhafts..
white : belly, thighs, and vent, dufky white : legs black. Such
is the defcription of my fpecimen, which is the largeft we
have hitherto feen, the ufual length being about fifteen inches ;.
though Mr. Pennant mentions one which meafured fixteen : in
this the bill was only two inches. Hence it feems to vary in a*
great degree in refpect to fize.
The Whimbrd has much the fame manners as the Curlew, but
is lefs common in England, and is migratory; at leafl paffes-''
from one part of the kingdom to another, according to the feafon.. In. the. neighbourhood of Spalding, in Lincolnjhire, it is. met
with in vaft flocks, from April to May, on its paffage to the
north*, where it is faid to breed. It is alfo feen in flocks about
the fame time on the Kentijh coafts : and it may be that the major part pafs elfewhere ; yet many remain, as I had the fatif-
faction of receiving the one from which the above defcription
was taken, from our intelligent friend Mr. Boys of Sandwich.
This was fhot at Romney in the month of Auguft, where it is.
called a Jackf; with the affurance that many of them flay orr
thofe coafts throughout the fummer, and breed thereabouts.
* Breeds
the heath of the Highland hills, near Inv
n Scold. 8vo. p. 108.—Br. Zool.
ercauld.—Flor
Scot, i
bly called the Jack Curlew, from its be
to the common Curlew; in the fame manner
ng lefs in fize
as two of our«
, though
^nipes are
This
 CURLEW.
This bird is alfo found in America; but feems to differ much
in the fame manner as the Curlew of that country does from the
European one, being darker coloured.
Scolopax Guarauna, j
Le Courly brun d'Ami
Le Gouarona, Buf. O,
Guarauna, Rail Syn.
in. Syff. i. p. 242.
ique, Brif. Om. i
p. 104. 7
—Will. Or
p. 330. 6.
. p. 292. pl. 5.3.
BRASILIAN WH-
C I Z E'of the Whimbrel: length twenty-one inches. Bill four:
colour brown, with a yellow bafe : the head and neck are
brown ; the feathers margined with whitifh : the back, and under
parts, from the breaft, of a chefnut brown : fcapulars, rump, upper
and under tail coverts, and tail, bright brown, gloffed with
green : wing coverts the fame; but the greater ones, farther?
from the body, are brown within : the qujlls are brown ; the outer
edges gloffy green brown : legs grey brown : claws blackifh.
This is found at Braftl, Guiana,  and  other parts of South
America-,
Scolopax borealis, Efkim
Zool. N° 364 ?
x Curlew, Phil. Tranf vol. Ixi
•. Mkf. ' Lev'Muf.
p. 411.—Ara.
-ESK-IMAUXC.
A LITTLE more than half the fize of the Whimbrel.- length
thirteen inches ; breadth twenty-one. Bill two inches long,
bent, remarkably flender, and blackifh; the under mandible rufous at the bafe : head pale, marked with longitudinal brown
lines : forehead deep brown, with pale fpots : neck, breaft, belly,
and vent,, yellowifh. white;   the  two  firft dafhed with brown-
flender
 CURLEW.
flender lines: the feathered part of the thighs yellowifh white,
fpotted with brown : fides under the wings rufous, tranfverfely
fafciated with brown : back deep brown, the feathers margined-
with greyifh white : wings brown : fhafts of the prime quills
white : fecondaries and leffer coverts margined with grey : lower
coverts ferruginous, tranfverfely fafciated with brown: rump
brown, the feathers edged and fpotted with whitifh: tail fhort,
brown, croffed with whitifh bands : legs blueifh black.
Inhabits the fens of Hudfon's Bay. Appears near Albany the beginning of May -, going further north, and returning to Albany
in Auguft: it flays there till September, when it departs for the
South. It lays four eggs, and appears in flocks, young and old
together, till their departure. Found in flocks in Nova Scotia in
October and November. Feeds on the Black-berried Heath, and
may be heard at a fmall diftance, by a kind of whiffling note.
Met with alfo in Newfoundland: called there Curlew. The natives of Hudfon's Bay call it Wee-kee-me-nafe-fu. It is eftemed for
its delicacy of flavour. In the Britifh Mufeum is one of thefe,
which came from Rio Janeiro in South America.
This is certainly a diftinct fpecies.
Lev. Muf.
T ESS than the common Snipe. Bill long and bent, but lefs
fo than in the Curlew; colour blackifh brown : the crown of
the head, hind part of the neck, and upper parts of the body,
are cinereous: the face, as far as the eyes, the chin, fore part of;
the neck, rump, and belly, white : breaft cinereous, fpotted with
ferruginous: quills brown, with white fhafts: from the firft to
9 the
 CURLEW.
127
the fourth plain ; from the fifth to the ninth white on the outer
margins : the fecond coverts  tipped with white: edge of the
wing white and grey mixed : legs black.
This bird inhabits the marfhes and other moift grounds of the
Place.
Cape of Good Hope; and flies in flocks.
Pygmy Curlew, Gen. Birds, p. 64. pl. 11.
10.
PYGMY C.
C IZ E of a Lark.    Bill black ; bent like that of the Curlew :
head, back, and coverts of the wings,  mixed with brown,
Description.
ferruginous,  and white:   primaries dufky, edged with white:
breaft, belly, and rump, white : tail dufky; the exterior feathers
edged with white : legs black.                                         ilpiipi
Inhabits Holland.
Place.
 C    «8    ]
Genus   LXVIII.    SNIPE.
[° i. Woodcock.
N° 15. Cinereous G.
2. Little W.
16. Cambridge G.
3. Savanna W.
17. Jadreka Sn.    ■
4. Great Snipe.
18. Greenfhank.
5- Cayenne Sn.
19. Spotted Sn.
6. Common Sn.
Var. A.
7. Finmark Sn.
20. Redfhank.
8. JackSn.
Var. A. Chinefe R
9. Cape Sn.
ax. White R.
Var. A.
22. Semipalmated Sn.
Var. B.
23. Stone Sn.
Var. C.
24. Yellowfhanks.
Var. D.
25. Nodding Sn.
10. Madras Sn.
26. Black Sn.
11. White Indian Sn.
27. Red-breafted Sn.
12. American Godwit.
28. Brown Sn.
13. Red G.
29. Afh-coloured Sn.
Var. A.
30. Dufky Sn.
14', Common G.
31. Terek Sn.
Var. A.
32. Caurale Sn.
"DILL more than one inch and a half in length, flender, ftrair,
weak.
Noftrils linear, lodged in a furrow.
Tongue pointed, flender.
Toes divided, or flightly connected j back toe fmall.
Scolopax
 SNIPE.
Scolopax rufticola, Lin. Syft. i. p. 243. 6.—Faun, Suee. 170.—Scop. Ann. i.
N° 134.— Brun. N° 164.—-Muller, p. 2*.—Kram. El. p. tfi.—Frifch.
pl. 226. 227.—Georgi Reife, p. 171.
LaBecafle, Brif. Orn. v. p. 292.  i.—Buf. Oif. vii. p. 462. pl. 25.—ZY.
Enl. 885.
Woodcock, Rail Syn. p. 104. A. i.—Will. Orn.
Cornw.p. 245. pl. 24. fig. 12.—Albin, i. pl.
pi. 65.—Ara. Zool. p. 470.
Br. Muf    Lev. Muf.
28.9.   pl.  S3-—Borlafi
-Br. Zool. ii. N° 178.
T ENGTH fifteen inches. Bill three inches ; the upper mandible hangs over the lower: noftrils placed at the bafe;
from thence is a furrow the whole length of the bill: forehead
cinereous : from the bill to the eyes a line of black : crown of
the head, and the upper parts of the neck, back, and wing coverts, mixed and barred with ferruginous, black, and grey;
crown of the head darkeft: the under eyelid white : the chin pale
afh-colour : fqre part of the neck yellowifh, marked with dufky
minute dafhes : the under parts of the body dufky white, barred
with numerous dufky lines : quills dufky, marked on the outer
web with triangular rufous fpots, and the fame on the inner
web clofe to the fhaft: tail rounded, tipped with afh-colour,
and rufous on the outer web : legs pale flefh-coloured brown.
This bird inhabits England during the winter feafon, coming
in with the Redwings : thofe which are with us during that time,
fuppofed to come from Sweden, their appearance and difappear-
ance from thence coinciding: about the beginning of Oblober
they are firft feen, but continue coming till December: do not
come in flights, but fingly, or at moft two together, and chiefly
Vol. III. S of
 S." N   I   P
of evenings, or very mifty weather*, in general proceed inland
immediately on their arrival; but fhould the wind be againft
them, and the paffage over difficult, take a day's reft on the
firft land they make, and in this cafe have been met with fo fa-
tio-ued as to be taken by the hand. About the middle of March
all tend towards the coafts for their departure; but if the wind
be not favourable for their flight, multitudes are collected together, and the fportfman, availing himfelf of the circumftance,
finds plenty of fport. Though Woodcocks 'in general leave this
kingdom, yet a few are known every year to remain : Mr. Pennant
mentions that a few breed in Cafe Wood near Tunbridge annually :
a brace of them were fhot in Chellenden Wood, by the gamekeeper to Horace Mann, efquire, May i, 1769, and another brace
the day before; they were fitting on their young. A friend of
mine met "with a female fitting on the eggs, and the male clofe at
hand; fhe was fo tame as to fuffer him to ftroke her without
rifing; this was in a wood near Farntngham, Kent: and about
three years fince, in the fame wood, a brace of old birds, with
five young ones in company, full fledged, were found ; three ofthe
young were, taken, and given to a lady in the neighbourhood ;
one of them foon died, and is now in my poffeffion : other instances alfo have been noticed by authors. They are ftupid birds,
and often taken in nets placed at the openings where they come
out of the woods and return to them of evenings, which they do
in particular paths ; they are alfo caught infpringes placed on the
ground, or near it, fometimes by the legs, at other times by the
neck; for, as thefe birds will not walk over the leafl obftacle which,
projects in their way, it is ufual to place a range of ftones, and
in the avenues between to fet fpringes, by which means many are
often
 SNIPE.
often taken. Thefe birds are found alfo in the warmer parts of
Europe, as well as Africa and Afta; in France, Italy, Greece, and
Barbary; on the Gold Coaft, and that of Guinea; as well as in
China and Japan : in thefe places inhabit the plains in the winter, retiring in fummer to the fummit of the.higheft mountains
to breed. To the north inhabit Sweden and Rujfia throughout,
and Kamtfchatka, as well as Iceland; hence a general inhabitant of
the old continent, and its ifles. -Few need be told that its flefh
is delicious, and much fought after; and, that nothing may
be loft, the entrails are not drawn out, being thought a necef-
fary appendage as fauce to the bird."
It makes an artlefs kind of neft on the ground, compofed of
a few dried fibres and leaves, generally againft an old flump, or
great root of a tree : the eggs four or five in number, rather
bigger than thofe of a Pigeon, of a rufous grey, marked with
dufky blotches: the young run as foon as hatched, but, as they
cannot immediately provide for themfelves, the male and female
accompany them for fome time.
We have obferved three varieties : in the firft, the head of a
pale red: body white: wings brown. The fecond, of a dun, or
rather cream-colour : and the laft, of a pure white. Specimens
of which may be feen in the Leverian Mufeum, and in the collection of Mr. Tunftall.
Little Woodcock, Ara. Zool. p. 463.
Lev. Muf
J ENGTH eleven inches and a half.    Bill two inches and a
half long, the under mandible much the fhorteft : forehead
cinereous: hind part black, with four tranfverfe yellowifh bars :
S 2 from
 132
SNIPE.
from the bill to the eye a dufky line : chin white: under fide of
the neck, breaft, belly, and thighs, of a dull yellow, paleft on
the belly : hind part of the neck black, edged with yellowifh
red : back, and leffer coverts, the fame; the reft of the coverts
marked with zigzags of black and dull red: primaries dufky :
inner coverts ruft-coloured : tail black, tipped with brown : legs
fhort, pale brown.
This fpecies is American, and appears in New York at the
end of April, or beginning of May, when they lay eight or more
eggs, in fwampy woods: while the hen is fitting, the male, of an
evening often flies up perpendicular to a great height, and returns
flrait. down to the fame fpot, and from the moment of its de-
fcent begins an agreeable kind of whiftle, and continues it till
it alights on the ground, and after flaying a little time, repeats
the fame for feveral times together, and this fometimes even after
it is dark. It lays the eggs on the ground, or fomc-decayed flump
of a tree, very clofe to it. Have been found in Carolina in September.
The flefh thought to be as excellent as that ofthe European fpecies.
SAVANN
WOODCOl
La Becaffe des Savanes, de Cayenne, Pl. Enl. 895 —Buf. Oif. vii. p. 481.
rT* HI S is one fourth lefs than the common Woodcock, but has the
bill longer in proportion ; colour of it brown r over the eye
is a black ftripe, and between the bill and eye another: the upper .
parts of the plumage rufous, varied with black, fomewhat in the
manner of our Woodcock, but more diftinct: the under parts are
dufky white, and the black marks the fame; but thofe from the
breaft to the vent are tranfverfe blotches, not lines, as in the Woodcock. It feems a fpecies between our great Snipe and Woodcock,
but is moft allied to the latter.    The legs are brown.
This.
 SNIPE.
This inhabits the mo'iftfavannas of Cayenne; in the rainy feafon moves into the higheft fituation to breed. It makes the neft
on fome 'rifing ground, choofing a cavity, and lining it with
dried leaves : lays two eggs; and makes two nefts in a year, the
laft in July : does not fancy the woods, like that of Europe, but
the marfhes only, like the Snipe.
The flefh of thefe thought to be as good as the European
fpecies.
-33
Scolopax media, Frifch. t
Great Snipe, Br. Zool. ii.
—Ar3. Zool. p. 470. E
GREAT SNIPE.
CIZE between the Woodcock and Snipe: weight eight ounces :
length fixteen inches. Bill four inches long, and like that of
the Woodcock : crown of the head black, divided down the middle by a pale ftripe • over and beneath each eye another of the
fame : the upper parts of the body very like the common Snipe:
beneath white : the feathers edged with dufky black on the
neck, breaft, and fides; and thofe of the belly fpotted with the
fame, but the middle of it is plain white : quills dufky : tail
reddifh, the two middle feathers, plain, the others barred with
black: legs black.
This is a rare fpecies: a fine fpecimen of it has been fhot in
Lancafhire, now in the Leverian Mufeum : faid alfo to have been
met with in Kent. It is found likewife in Germany, and inhabits
the Arblic region of Sibiria. I once faw this among a parcel of
birds from Cayenne, and have no reafon to fuppofe otherwife than
that it came from that part.
LENGTH
 SNIPE.
CAYENNE SN
Description.
T ENGTH thirteen inches. Bill flrait, flout, a trifle bent at
the end; colour dufky, reddifh at the bafe : plumage on
the upper part of the body pale cinereous brown, mottled with
pale buff-colour: greater wing coverts dirty white ; fome of the
outer ones edged with brown: bafe of the quills white, the reft
of their length brown, and fome of the inner ones white at I
the tips: baftard wing brown : under wing coverts mottled
dufky and white : all the under part of the neck and body white;
but the fore part of the firft a little mottled with dufky: rump
white: tail the fame as the reft of the upper parts, barred and
tipped with dufky : legs brown.
Inhabits Cayenne.
6.
- COMMON
SNIPE.
>Cf 173.—Scop, Ann. i.
El. p.   i,*2.-—Frifch.
Buf. Oif. vii. p. 4831
Scolopax Gallinago, Lin. Syft. i. p. 244.7.—Faun.
138.—Brun. 160. 161.— Midler, p. 23.—Kra.
pl. 229.—Georgi Reife, 182.
La Becaffine, Brif. Orn. v. p. 298. 2. pl. 26. fig. 1
pl. 26.—Pl. Enl. 883.
Snipe or Snite, Rail Syn. p. 105. A. 2—Will. Om. p. 290. pl. 53.—Albin,
i. pl. 71.—Br. Zool. ii. p. 187. pl. 68.— Ara. Zool. N° 366.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
\X7"EIGHT four ounces: length near twelve inches. Bill
three inches long, colour dufky; flat at the end, and i
rough : the head is divided by two black lines lengthwife, and
three of red ; one of the laft paffing down the middle of the
head, and one above each eye : between the bill and eye is a
dufky line: chin white : neck varied with brown and red: the
fcapulars are beautifully marked with black and yellow: quills
dufky j
 N   I   P   E.
dufky; the edge of the firft, and tips of the fecondaries, white ;.
and thofe next the back barred with black and pale red : breaft
and belly white : tail coverts long, of a reddifh brown, and almoft cover the tail, which confifts of fourteen feathers, black on
their lower part, then croffed with a bar of deep orange, another
narrow one of black, and the ends white or pale orange : the vent
of a dull yellow : legs pale green : toes divided to their origin.
We fcarce know of any bird which is fo univerfally fpread
over the furface of the globe as this fpecies -, being mentioned
by moft voyagers, as well as brought into England from fuch
variety of places. It is feen throughout the old continent from
the arctic regions of Sibiria to the Cape of Good 'Hope, at which,
laft place it is pretty common. It alfo inhabits the iflands of
Ceylon and Japan. In America it is met with almoft without exception, particularly in South Carolina, where it fwarms *. I have
alfo feen a fpecimen which came from Cayenne, and been informed, that it is likewife at Surinam. I have received it myfelf
from Jamaica. Said to be extremely common in Falkland
Iflands, even more fo than in England \.
With us it difappears as the fpring advances; but we have
juft reafon to fuppofe that the whole of them do not depart
England, the neft being frequently found in the fens and marfhes
in many parts of this kingdom J. The neft is compofed of dried
plants, with a few feathers.    The eggs, four or five in number,
* Ara. Zool.
f Penrofe Hift. Falkland IJ1. p. «6.—Boug. Voy.— Cook's laft Voy. i. p. 15 I.
J Both this and the Jack Snipe are to be found the whole year through in
Cumberland. Dr. Heyjham.—ln the fens of Lincolnjbire, Wolmar Foreft, Bodmyn
Downs. Barring. Mifc. p. 211.—I ha*e been informed that it breeds in feveral of
the iilets, called Aytes, of the river Thames.
q oblong,
 FINMARK SN.
SNIPE.
oblong, of a dirty olive-colour, marked with dufky fpots. When
difturbed, in the breeding feafon, foars to a vaft height, making
a fingular bleating kind of noife; and when they defcend, dart
down with vaft rapidity. The male alfo (while his mate fits on
the eggs) often poifes himfelf on his wings, making fometimes a
whiffling, and fometimes a drumming noife*. They feed on
fmall worms, "and other infects, which they find in the moift
ground; as alfo on fmall finails; having found the laft whole
in the ftomachs of both this and the next fpecies. They are
dreffed without exenterating, as the Woodcock, and are accounted
delicate.
Scolopax gallinaria, Muller,p. 23. N° 183.
Finmark Snipe, Ara. Zool. p. 471. D.
\7ERY like the common Snipe, and the bill tuberculated in
the fame manner; but differs in the head being entirely
grey: legs yellow.
Inhabits Finmark.
8. Scolopax Gallinula, Lin. Syft. i. p. 244. 8.—Scop. Ann.i, N° iig.—Brun.
4- JACK SNIPE. p. i6*.—Muller, p. 23. N° i8g.—Frifch. t. 231.
La petite Becafline,  Brif. Orn. v. p. 303. 3. pl. 26. fig. 2.—Buf. Oif vii.
p. 490.—PA Enl. 884.
Gid, Jack Snipe, or Judcock, Rail Syn. p. 105. A. 3.—Will. Om. p. 291.
—Albin, iii. pl. 86.—Br. Zool. ii. N° 189. pl. 68.—Ara. Zool. N° 367.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
^p HIS is half as big as the former, and weighs fcarce two
1
ounces : length eight inches and a half.    Bill above ;
• Br. Zool.
inch
and
 SNIPE.
and a half long, and black: crown of ^ the head black, tinged
with ruft-colour: over each eye a yellow ftreak: neck varied
with white, brown, and pale red: fcapulars narrow, long, and of
a brown colour, margined with yellbw : the rump of a gloffj
blueifh purple : belly and vent white : greater quills dufky
tail brown, with tawny edges, and confifls of twelve feathers
legs cinereous green.
This fpecies is either lefs common than the former, or not fo
well afcertained by the different voyagers; as I cannot trace it
more fouth than Aleppo, where it is not uncommon *, and to the
north as far as lat. 80. 27 -\. It is found both in Europe and
North America. I fufpect likewife, from a paffage in Fermin J,
that it inhabits Surinam. The manners are much like thofe of
the laft fpecies.
* Ruffel Jlep. p. 65.
t Pbypps mentions a low flat ifle oft" Waygats, which " abounds with a fmall
Snipe, fimilar to the Jack Snipe in England.'*    See Voy. p. 53.
% Hift. Surin. vol. ii. p. 189, 190.—He there talks of a large and a fmall
Snipe : the firft is rufous, black, and afh-colour, mixed : bread and belly afti-
colour : it is fmaller than the Partridge, and flies flowly, but runs quick. The
fmall one he defcribes much like ours; and fays, they are feen by thoufands oa
the fea fhores ; that it muft be a bad markfman that does not kill fixty at once,
with fine ftiot; and that he has killed eighty-five with a (ingle charge. The
flefti of both is accounted very delicate; but the laft is fo fmall that a man may
ftfely eat twenty at a meal.
Vol. III.
Scolopax
 138
S   N   IP   E.
Scolopax Capenfis, Lin. Syft. i. p. 246. 14.
La Becaffine du Cap de B. Efperance, Brif. Orn. App. p. 143. gl. 6.—Buf.
Oif. vii. p. 494.—Pl. Enl. 270.
CIZE of our Snipe: length ten inches. Bill one inch and three
quarters ; colour of it reddifh brown r the crown ofthe head
is afh-colour, croffed with ftreaks of black: down the middle is-
a pale band from the bafe ofthe bill to the hind head ? round the*
eyes white, ending in a ftreak behind : the under part is bounded.
by a black line ; the reft ofthe head and neck rufous : at the top
of the breaft a narrow band of black.; from this all the under
parts are dufky white : the upper part of the body, wings, and
tail, are afh-colour, tranfverfely waved and croffed' with black %
moft regular on the wing coverts, each feather of which is
marked with four or five yellowifh bars on the inner web, and as
many round fpots of the fame on the outer: the tail feathers
are alfo' marked in the fame manner; the four middle feather*
having bars ofthe yellowifh colour, and the four outer ones on
each fide fpots, as in the quills : the inner edge of the wing,, in;
the courfe of the fcapulars, ftreaked with white :.- legs dufky.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope.
Var. A.
l. LXXXI.
'SCRLPTION.
*TpHE top ofthe head, throat, and fore part of the neck, are
rufous chefnut: chin almoft white: the eye furrounded with
black, and placed in a large bed of white, pointing to the hind
head; the reft of the head, neck, and breaft, black : the back,
rump, wing coverts, and fecond quills, dark olive green, elegantly mottled and barred with dufky : fcapulars white : the two*
7 middle
 <%t~Snfa. |;i;
  SNIPE.
middle tail feathers like the back ; the others, and greater quills,
dufky black, marked with large'orange fpots, five or fix on each
feather : belly, thighs, and vent, white : bill and legs pale brown.
The defcription and figure of this variety is taken from a
painting by the late Mr. Edwards, now in my poffeffion.
La Becafline de la Chine, Buf. Oif vii, p. 495.—Pk Enl. 881.
CMALLER than the eommon Snipe: length ten inches. Bill
yellow, with a dufky tip: top ofthe head brown, mixed with
black: down the middle of the crown, and over each eye, a ftripe
of white: the chin white: the reft of the head and neck mixed
grey and pale brown : the fore part of the neck is ftreaked perpendicularly; and the back part, and all round the bottom, tranfverfely : the upper part of the body and wings delicately mixed
and waved with blueifh grey, brown, pale rufous, and black :
breaft and under parts white : quill's dufky, marked with oval
cream-coloured fpots : tail blue grey and dufky mixed, with
three or four roundifh cream-coloured fpots on each feather, furrounded with black : legs grey.
Inhabits China.
La Becafline de Madagafcar, Buf. Oif. vii. p. 495.—TV. Enl. 922.
T ENGTH ten inches. Bill of a brownifh red ; flrait, except
towards the end, where it bends a trifle downwards: round
the eye white, paffing a little way down the neck on each fide ;
above this a black ftreak : the chin white : reft of the head and
neck rufous: the lower part of the neck and back undulated
T 2 with
 SNIPE;
with black and grey: wing coverts finely undulated black and
afh-colour: the fecond quills and tail are undulated grey and
black, with three or four oval fpots of a pale rufous, encircled
with black: the great quills are banded with rufous and black
alternately: the under part of the body white : legs the colour of
the bill.
Inhabits Madagafcar.
Rallus Benghalenfis, Lin. Syft. i. p. 263. 8.
Le Chevalier de Bengale, Brif. Om. v. p. 209. 9.
 vert, Buf. Oif. vii. p. 520.
Bengal Water Rail, Albin, iii. pl. 90.
CI Z E of the laft : length eight inches and a half. Bill fhorter
than in the others; colour of it and the irides yellow:
crown of the head white: round the eyes the fame, paffing
towards the hind head, and ending in a point: fides of the
head, throat, and neck, deep brov/n : upper part of the back,,
the fcapulars, and wing coverts, green: lower part of the back
and rump, the upper tail coverts, and under parts of the body,
white: prime quills purple; the outer webs marked with five
orange fpots : the fecondaries are green, and as long as the
greater quills; the one neareft the body white: tail purple,.
marked with orange fpots: legs of a greenifh yellow.
Inhabits Bengal.   I have fcarce a doubt of this being a further
variety of the Cape fpecies.
 snip e:x
La Beccafine de Madraft, Brif. Om. v. p. 308. 4.—Buf. Oif. vii. p. 4-96.
Partridge Snipe, RairSyn. p. 193. pl. 1. fig. 2.
'TpHIS has a pale rufous bill: the upper parts mixed withful-
vousand blackifh : down the middle of the crown a blackifh. brown ftripe ; and on each, fide of the head, behind the eye,
another : on the back are two black brown bands : the throat
and fore part of the neck fulvous, marked with blackifh fpots:
the reft ofthe under parts white, except a band of black acrofs
the breaft : the quills and tail are variegated with black, fulvous, and grey : the hind toe of equal length with, the fore ones.
Inhabits Madras.
La Becca-ffine Blanche des Indes, Son. Foy. Ind. vol. ii. p. 218,
T ESS than ours. Bill black: the head white, tinged with
very pale dirty grey : through the eye a grey ftreak, reaching almoft to the hind head : a little beneath the eye is another
of the fame colour : throat white : neck and breaft dirty white,
marked with fpots and longitudinal ftreaks of dirty grey : the
haGk, rurap, wing coverts, fecondaries,. and tail, dirty grey,
croffed with waved bands of the colour of umber: the leffer wing
coverts are almoft white on the outer web; and the greater ones
deep dirty grey: the belly and vent are white : the fides of the
belly croffed with pale dirty grey bands : legs black.
Inhabits India.
WHITE INDIAN
SN.
Description.
Scolopai
 SNIPE..
Scolopax fedoa, Lin. Syft. i. p. 244. 9.
La Barge rouffe d'Amerique, Brif. Orn. v. p. 287. 7.
 de la Baye d'Hudfon, Buf. Oif. vii. p. 507.
Greater American Godwit, Edw. pl. 137.—Ara. Zool. N° 371.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
CIZE of our Godwit: length fixteen inches. Bill fix inches
long; colour of it yellow, towards the point black: eyes
placed far back in the head : over the eye a white line: from
bill to eye a dufky line : beneath the throat white : head and neck
mottled with dufky and light brown : breaft barred with black:
belly brown : back and wing coverts varied with rufty brown and
dufky: quills ferruginous on the outer webs: tail barred light
brown and black: legs long, black, naked high above the knees :
the outer and middle toes connected to the firft joint.
Inhabits Hudfon's Bay, where it is called a Curlew.
RED GODWIT.
Scolopax Lapponica, Lin. Syft. i. p.   146. 15.—Faun. Suet. 174.—Brun.
N° i6c,.—Muller, N° 186.—Phil. Tranf. vol. lxii. p. 411.
La Barge rouffe, Brif. Orn. v. p 281. 5. pl. 25. fig. I.—Buf. Oif. vii.p. 504.
—Pl. Enl. 900.
Red-breafted Godwit,  Edw.  pl.   138.—Br. Zool. N° 181. pl. 77.—Arff.
Zool. N° 37Z.
Br. Muf.   Lev. Muf.
T  ENGTH eighteen inches: weight  12 ounces.    Bill   three
inches and three quarters, rather inclining upwards;  colour
dufky, inclining to yellow next the head: the head, neck, breaft, ,
and upper part ofthe back, are ferruginous, ftreaked with black,
except the neck, which is plain : over the eyes a ftreak of a paler
colour:
 S   N   I   P   E.
eolour: Tower part of the back and rump rufous white; the feathers dufky down the fhafts: the upper tail coverts are barred
rufous, white, and brown: the leffer wing coverts are brown,
fringed with white; the greater ones plain, and of a darker brown;
fome of them tipped with white, forming a bar on the wing:
greater quills black on the outer webs, white towards the bafe
within: the fecondaries half white, half black : the tail of the
fame colours : legs black-
This fpecies feems to be moft plentiful in America, being
found in numbers in the fens about Hudfon's Bay, where they
breed, and then retire fouthward. The natives know it by the
name of Pufquatiftiifhue. It now and then appears in England,.
but is very rare*. It is however more plentiful on the continent.
Is found in Laplandf. Appears about the Cafpian Sea in fpring;.
but is never feen in Sibiria, nor in the north of Afia %. It is faid
to be a fine-flavoured bird.
Lev. Muf.
A TRIFLE bigger than the laft. The bill four inches and
a half in length, and turns much upwards; colour dufky,
with the bafe reddifh, and the point nearly black: the upper
parts of the body plain brown: head and neck cinereous: chin
nearly white: over the eye a pale ftreak: breaft mottled with
red: from thence to the vent white : tail as in the laft defcribed:
legs dufky.
* The Br. Zool. mentions its being once fhot ntaxHull; and Mr. Tunftall has
a fpecimen in his collection which came out of Derfetflffrfr,-
1 Linnaus. % Ara. Zool.-
The
Var. A.
Description.
 SNIP   E.
The above fpecimen came from Gibraltar, and appears to be,
a variety : and I fufpect it may, alfo be a young bird, from the
want of fullnefs of colour on the breaft *.
Scolopax --egocepha'a, Lin. Syft. i. p. 146. 16.
La grande Barge grife, Brif, Om. v. p. 272, 3. pi. 24. fig. 2.
 '— aboyeufe,  Buf. Of. vii. p. 501.— Pl. Enl, 876.
Godwit, Yarwhelp, or Yarwip, Rail Syn. p. 105. A. 4.—Will. Om. p. 292.
—Albin, ii. pl. 70.—Br. Zool. ii. N° I7g.—Ara. Zool. N° 373.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf
LENGTH fixteen inches: weight twelve ounces. Bill four
inches long, bending a little upwards; the bafe half pale
purple, from thence to the end black; the under mandible fhort.-
eft; from the bafe, paffing over the eye, a whitifh ftreak: the-
head, neck, and upperparts, reddifh brown, each feather marked
down the middle with a dark fpot: belly and vent white: the.
fix prime quills are black; the inner edges reddifh brown; the
fhaft of the firft white, moft of the others brown j the outer
margins pale, and clouded with pale brown ; the inner webs
whitifh, banded with greyifh brown : the tail feathers are white;
the two middle barred with brown > the others the fame on the
outer web, and the inner likewife towards the tips only: legs
dufky. In fome birds the rump is white, and the chin nearly fo.
This bird is found-in England, at the fame time with the Ruffs,
and taken with them promifcuoufly, a Stale-Bird being placed as
for the others; but the Godwit continues with us the winter
through, walking on the open fands, like the Curlew, and feeds on
• This circumftance has alfo been obferved by Mr. Pennant, in the Br. Zool.,
but thinks it may be mere variety.
infects.
 SNIPE.
infects *.   It is likewife met with in various parts of the continent of Europe and Afia, as well as in America.
La grande Barge rouffe, Brif. Orn. v. p. 284. 6.—Buf. Oif, vii. p. 505.—
Pl. E„l. 916.
Barbary Godwit, Shaw's Trav. p. 255.
ATTHIS bird is fifteen inches long, and has a bill like the laft.
It is dufky on the upper parts; the feathers edged with rufous : over the eyes a ftreak of rufous white: the throat and
neck are rufous: lower part of the back and rump white,
marked with dufky fpots : upper tail coverts and tail barred
black and white : under parts from the breaft white : under tail
coverts and fides marked with tranfverfe black fpots: thighs
plain: fome of the outer wing coverts edged at the ends with
white: quills black, with the fhafts white; the three firft marked
with a tranfverfe white fpot one third from the end : fecondaries
edged and tipped with rufous : legs greenifh brown.
Said to inhabit England. It is probably a mere variety of the
laft. I have obferved them to vary much; and this feems to
differ in fex: at leafl: there are two birds in the Leverian Mufeum, which were there placed as male and female, and anfwer to
the defcription of thefe laft birds : one of them has the breaft of
a pure white, the other pale rufous.
Description.
Cinereous Godwit, Br. Zool. ii. N° 180. pl. 66.
CINEREOUS G.
CIZE of the Greenfhank.    Bill two inches and a half long, but    Description,
thicker than in that bird: the head, neck, and back, va-
* Br. Zool—I have feen them i
Vol. III.
the London markets,
u
 n
146 .    SNIPE.
negated with afh-colour and white: tail flightly barred with cinereous : throat and breaft white; the laft marked with a few
afh-coloured fpots : legs long, flender, and afh-coloured.
.Place. A fpecimen fhot near Spalding ia Lincolnfhire.
CAMBRIDGE G.
Description-
Cambridge Godwit, Br. Zool. ii. N° 185.
T ARGER than the common Redjhank. Head, upper part of
the neck, and back, cinereous brown : leffer wing coverts
brown, edged with dull white, and barred with black : primaries
dufky, whitifh on their inner fides : fecondaries barred dufky
and white : under fide of the neck and breaft dirty white : belly
and vent white: tail barred cinereous and black : legs orange.
Shot near Cambridge.     In  the collection of the  Rev. Mr.
Green.
l7, Scolopax limofa, Lin. Syft.i. p. 245. 13.—Faun. Suee. 172.—Faun. Groenh
JADREKA SN. N° 72.—Muller, N° 190.—Georgi Reife, 171.
La Barge, Brif Orn. v. p. 262. i.—Buf. Oif. vii. p. 500. pl. 27.— Pl. EnL
874.
Stone Plover, Rail Syn. p. 105. A. ".
Second fort of Godwit, Will. Orn. p. 293. pl. 53.
Leffer Godwit, Br. Zool. ii. N° 182.
Jadreka, Olaf. Icel. ii. p. 201. t. 48.—Arfi. Zool. N° 375. ,
Description.     T  ENGTH feventeen inches : weight nine ounces.    Bill near
four inches long, dufky, the bafe yellowifh: irides white : the
head and neck are cinereous : cheeks and chin white :' back brown :
on the wings a line of white : rump and vent white : two middle -
tail feathers black, the others white at the ends; which increafes
 SNIPE.
on the outer feathers, fo as the exterior ones are white for nearly
the whole length : legs dufky.
This inhabits Iceland, Greenland, and Sweden. Migrates in
flocks in the fouth of Ruffia. Seen about lake Baikal; and is
faid alfo to have been met with in England.
Scolopax glottis, Lin. Syft. i. p. 24
N° 137.—Brun. 167.—Muller, p. 23.
La Barge grife, Brif. Orn. v. p. 267. 2. pl. 23. fig. 1.
■ variee, Buf. Oif. vii. p. 503.
Pluvialis major, Rail Syn. p. 106. A. 8.
Greater Plover of Androvand, Will. Orn. p. 106. pl. 5;.-
317. 9. pl. 268 I—Rail Syn. p. 190. 6 i
Green-legged Horfeman, Albin, ii. pl. 69.
Greenlhank, Br. Zool. N° 183.—^n?. Zool. N° 379.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
a.—Faun.'^Suec. 171.—Scop. Ann
-Sloan Jan
CIZE ofthe Redfhank: length fourteen inches: weight fix ounces.
Bill two inches and a half long, black, and flender; the upper
mandible is flrait, but bends a trifle downwards at the tip ; the
under curves in the fame manner upwards: the head, hind part
of the neck, and back, are pale afh-colour, marked down the
fhafts with brown; the laft colour deepeft on the back, and occupying moft of the middle feathers : over the eye is a ftreak of
white: fcapulars as the back: the lower part of the back, and
all the under parts from the breaft, white: quills dufky, marked
on the inner webs with white fpots; the five outer ones darkeft :
tail white, croffed with dufky bars : legs dufky green, pretty long :
the outer toe united to the middle one as far as the firft joint:
claws black.
Thefe birds are fometimes in tolerable plenty on our coafts,
.    U 2 being;
 SPOTTED
SNIPE.
SNIPE.
being met with in fmall flocks in the winter feafon, as well as in
marfh lands in the neighbourhood of the fea. Sometimes fent up
to the London markets, where I have bought them, and thought
their flefh to be well flavoured. Their fummer refidence is no
doubt to the northward, fince they are met with in Sweden, and
other parts*, and are in plenty in Rujfia and Sibiria. Inhabits
alfo the province of New York~f. Sloane calls his bird a Curlew,
but fays the bill is flrait; and no doubt means this very fpecies:
that it is in Jamaica is certain, as I have received it from
thence.
Scolopax totanus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 245. 12.—Brun.N0 157.—Muller, 187.
—Georgi Reife, 171.
Totanus alter, Rail Syn. p. 106. 11—Will. Orn. p. 299.
Barker, Albin, ii. pl. 71 ?
Spotted Redfhank, Br. Zool. N° 186.
C I Z E of the Greenfhank. The head of a pale afh-colour,
marked with oblong ftreaks of black: back dufky, varied
with triangular white fpots: wing coverts afh-coloured, fpotted in the fame manner : quills dufky : breaft, belly, and thighs,
white; the firft thinly fpotted with black: the middle feathers of
the tail afh-coloured; the fide feathers whitifh, barred with
black : legs long, and of a bright red.
Inhabits various parts ofthe continent of Europe; and has been
met with, though rarely, in England.
* Sondmaer, Strom. 235.
f ArS. Zool.
Spotted
 Spotted Woodcock, Phil. Tranf. vol. Ixii. p. 410.
Spotted Snipe, Ar3. Zool. N° 374.
Lev. Muf.
>"pHIS is larger and longer than the Greenfhank: in length
near fixteen inches. The bill, more than two inches long,
and brown : orbits, chin, and throat, white: from the bill to the
eye a line of white : cheeks and fore part of the neck white,
with fhort dufky ftreaks : crown and upper part of the neck
brown, ftreaked with white: wings black, marked with elegant
triangular fpots of white: breaft and belly white : legs long, and
in the living bird of a rich yellow ; fometimes red.
This is found in North America, and is common at Hudfon's
Bay: comes into the neighbourhood of Albany fort, the end of
April or beginning of May, and departs the end of September.
Frequents the banks of rivers, feeding on fmall fhell-fifh and
worms. On its return towards the fouth flops • at New York for
a time, but proceeds more fouthward, in order to pafs the winter.
The natives call this fpecies Sa-fia-Jhew ; the Englijh, Yellow-legs.
This, and feveral other fpecies of Snipes and Sandpipers, are called, in North America, Humilities*.
My fpecimen feems ftronger marked ; with lefs white about
the head than in the above, and the fpots on the wings very dif-
tinct; but the prime quills are dufky, and not fpotted : the bill
is two inches and a quarter long, brown, fhaped exactly as that
of the Greenfhank: the legs yellowifh brown. I received this
from Hudfon's Bay, and efteem it as differing in fex only from the
laft defcribed.
j Ara. Zool.
Scolopaj
 •f- REDSHANK.
SNIPE.
lopax calidris, Lin. Syft. i. p. 24c. n.—Muller, N°  186.—Kratn. EI.
P* 353-—Frifich. ii. 240.
totanus, Faun. Suec.  167.
Le Chevalier, Brif Orn. v. p. 188. 4. pl. 17. fig. I.
————— aux pieds rouges, Buf. Oif. vii. p. 513.
Redfhank, or Pool-Snipe, Rail Syn. p. 107. A. 1.—Will. Orn. p. 299.—
Albin, iii. pl. 87.—Br. Zool. N° 184. pl. 65.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf
T ENGTH twelve inches. Bill almoft two; bafe reddifh; end
dufky black: irides reddifh hazel: head and hind part of
the neck dufky afh-colour: back and fcapulars gloffy greenifh
brown : wing coverts afh-colour, mixed with dufky and brown,
and marked with whitifh fpots : ends of all the fecondaries, except the two inner ones, white for an inch at the tip : quills
dufky; four or five of the inner ones more or lefs tipped with
white, with dufky margins : over the eye a ftreak of white; and
between the bill and eye a dufky mark: chin and fore part of
the neck marked with fhort dufky ftreaks: the under parts from
the breaft, and the lower part of the back and rump, white, I
marked with minute dufky fpecks: tail coverts and tail croffed
with numerous bars of black, twelve or thirteen on each feather:
legs orange : claws black. In fome birds both the rump and
belly are of a pure white.
The Redfhank is pretty common in this kingdom, but grows
fcarcer towards the north. It breeds, like many others of this
genus, in the marfhes ;.and lays four whitifh eggs, tinged with
olive, and marked with irregular black fpots, moft numerous at
the large end. When diilurbed it has the actions of a Lapwing,
flying round its qeft, which it is faid to do in a circular manner,
and
 SNIPE.
and this regular, with the neft in the centre, be the circuit larger
or fmaller; infomuch that an attentive obferver will often find it
out by this circumftance. It is common alfo in many parts
of Europe, as high as Finmark; and is likewife found in Sibiria* :
is indigenous alfo to the American continent.
T> ILL black; bare, reddifh, as in the Redfhank: irides blue :
head, hind part ofthe neck, and back, greyifh : chin, throat,
breaft, and belly, white; fides of the three firft marked with
fmall dufky fpots : over the eyes a line of white : wings dufky:
the outer webs of the coverts and fecondaries barred with white
and black; fhaft of the outer quill white : rump and tail barred
black and white : legs orange red.
Inhabits the marfhes ofChina.    From the drawings ofthe late
Dr. Fothergill.
Var. A.
CHINESE
REDSHANK.
Scolopax Candida, Lin. Syft. i. p. 247.
Le Chevalier blanc, Brif. Orn. v. p. 2>
White Redfhank, Edw. pl. 139.
■- 8.—Buf. Oif. vii. p. 519.
WHITE
REDSHANK.
CIZE of the Redfhank: length eleven inches. Bill almoft two,
of an orange-colour, with the tip black : the upper part of
the head, neck, back, fcapulars, leffer wing, and upper tail coverts, are white, varied with tranfverfe rufous grey ftreaks: fore
part of the head, throat, and from thence to the vent, as alfo
the rump, pure white : greater wing coverts dirty white : prime
quills grey: fecondaries and tail white," fpotted tranfverfely with
rufous grey: legs orange.
This
 152 SNIPE.
Place. This was met with at Hudfon's Bay; and, on our further ac
quaintance with it, is not unlikely to prove a mere variety of the
Redfhank.
SEMIPALMAT-
ED SN.
Semipalmated Snipe, Ara. Zool. N° 380.
T ENGTH fourteen inches. Bill two inches long, dufky:
head and neck ftreaked black and white: breaft white,
marked with round black fpots : belly and fides white; the laft
croffed with tranfverfe bars of brown : back and wing coverts
cinereous, with great fagittal fpots of black : primaries dufky,
croffed with a white bar : fecondaries white : the middle feathers
of the tail cinereous, barred with black; outmoft white: legs
dufky: toes femipalmated.
Inhabits New York.
STONE SN.
Description-
Stone Snipe, Ara. Zool, N° 376.
''TWICE the fize of a Snipe.    Bill black: head, neck, breaft,
back, fcapulars, and greater coverts, fpotted black and white:
rump and tail barred with the fame : primaries dufky : legs long
and yellow.
Obferved in autumn, feeding on the fands on the lower part
of Chateaux Bay, and are called Stone Curlews.    Are perpetually ■
nodding their heads.
YELLOW-
SHANKS.
Yellowfhanks, Ara. Zool. N" 378.
T   ENGTH eleven inches.    Bill flender, black, a little bent
at the end : head, hind part of the neck, back, and greater
6 wing
 SNIPE.
wing coverts, dirty white, fpotted with black: leffer coverts plain
brown : primaries dufky : breaft and fore part of the neck fpotted black and white: belly and tail coverts white: tail barred,
brown and white: legs yellow.
Appears in the province of New York in autumn.
Nodding Snipe, Ara. Zool. N° 370.
CIZE of the common Snipe. Bill flender, long, black: crown
and upper part of the back dufky, ftreaked with red :- cheeks
cinereous, ftreaked with black: neck and breaft cinereous, mixed
. with ruft-colour, and marked with obfcure dark fpots: belly
white : thighs fpotted with black : lefler-^wing coverts afh-coloured ; greater dufky, edged with brown: quills dufky; the fecondaries tipped with white: lower part of the back white, fpotted
with black: tail barred black and white; tip reddifh: legs greenifh : the toes bordered by a narrow plain membrane.
Obferved in Chateaux Bay, on the coaft of Labrador, in September.   Are perpetually nodding their heads.
NODDING SN.
Description.
Black Snipe, Ara. Zool. N" 381.
"DILL and legs red: plumage moft intenfely black.
Obferved by Steller in the iflands towards America.
26.
BLACK SN.
Description.])
Place.
Red-breafted Snipe, Ara. Zool. N° 368. 27.
RED-BREASTED
SIZE of the common Snipe. Billlike that bird; above two inches     *»,,„„„'  ,„„
XJ £ S C KIP TIQJ* •
long:  head,   neck, and   fcapulars, varied with black, afh-
colour, and red: fore part of the neck and breaft ferruginous,
Vol. III.
thinly
 SNIPE*
thinly fpotted with black: coverts and fecondaries dark cinereous ; the laft tipped with white: back and rump white, concealed
by the fcapulars : tail barred dufky and white : legs dark green %
middle and outer toe connected by a fmall web.
Inhabits the coafts of New York.
28.        !
BROWN SN.
n Snipe, Ara. Zool. N°
Lev. Muf.
Q IZ E of the laft : length eleven inches. Bill two inches and
a half long, and brown: between the bafe of it and the eye
a white bar; and above the eye a fpeck of white : the head, neck,
and fcapulars, of a fine uniform cinereous brown, marked in a few
places with black; fides of the head and fore part of the neck
paleft : wing coverts and prime quills dark brown ; fhaft of the
firft quill white: fecondaries pale brown, edged with white :
back white : rump and tail barred black and white : breaft mottled
white and brown : belly white: legs dark brown : hind toe placed
high up, and pretty long.
Found with the former.
ASH-COLOURED SN.
T ENGTH eleven inches. Bill more than an inch and a
half long, ftrait, except at the tip, where it is a trifle bent;
colour black: upper part of the head, neck, and body, afh-colour : between the bill and eye a whitifh mark : chin and fore
part of the neck white, mottled a little with brown on the
throat: breaft and fides of the body afh-colour: middle of the
belly white: legs yellowifh green.
Inhabits.
 SNIPE.
Inhabits Eimeo and Palmer ft on Ifles.    In  the collection of Sir
Jofeph Banks.
Scolopax fufca, Lin. Syft. i. p. 243. 5.
La Barge brune, Brif. Orn. v. p.  276. 4. pl. 23. fig. 2.—Buf. Oif. vii.
p. 508.—Pl. Enl. 875.
Dufky Snipe, Ara. Zool. p- 471. 6.
T ENGTH almoft twelve inches. Bill two inches and one third,
a little bent downwards at the point; colour black; the bafe
of the lower mandible pale: plumage on the upper part of the
body dufky black; the edges of the feathers whitifh: crown
darkeft, and plain : fcapulars and leffer wing coverts marked with
whitifh fpots on the margins: lower part of the back and rump
white: cheeks, throat, and fore part ofthe neck, deep afh-colour:
from thence to the vent the fame, but growing lighter as it approaches the laft, and here and there mixed and edged with
white : quills brown, paleft within, and fpotted with grey on the
outer margin, and fome of the fecondaries on both webs : the
two middle tail feathers dufky brown, marked with tranfverfe
whitifh ftreaks; the others brown, croffed in the fame manner with
white: legs brown.
Breeds within the Arttic circle.    Migrates into Ruffia and Sibiria.
Scolopax cinerea, N. C. Petr. vol.
Terek Avofet, Ara. Zool. p. 502.
19. (J. Gueldenftaedt.)
T  ENGTH nine inches.    The bill bends upwards from the    Descriptk
bafe,
and a little downwards at the tip, and is nearly two
X 2 inches
 i56 SNIPE.
inches in length; colour of it black : irides brown: the plumage
on the upper parts is wholly cinereous; the middle of each feather brown, which is in ftreaks on the head and neck, on the back
oblong, and on the rump tranfverfe : the under parts white ; but
the throat and breaft ftreaked with afh-colour: wings afh-colour, croffed with a bar of white: quills brown; the fhaft of
the firft white, the fecond cinereous: fecondaries tipped with
white: the two middle tail feathers are cinereous; the reft
the fame, varied with whitifh, but not banded: legs reddifh
brown : toes fomewhat palmated at the bafe : claws blackifh.
Male and female alike.
Place and This inhabits, during the fummer, the neighbourhood ofthe
Manners. Cafpian Sea, particularly about the mouth of the river Terek,
where it breeds. Met with in flocks in the marfhes, efpecially
on the borders of fait lakes, and feeds on infects. This feems
not perfectly confonant to any genus: feems a link between the
Snipe and Avofet: but, in our opinion, the bill turning downwards at the point, feems to forbid the placing it with the latter ; though the feet being palmated gives it great affinity.
32. Le Caurale, ou petit Paon des Rofes, Buf. Oif. viii. p. 169. pl. 14.—Pl.
CAURALESN. Enl. 782.
Lev. Muf.
Dkscription. '"PHIS is a moft beautiful fpecies: is about the fize of the
Whimbrel, and meafures fifteen inches in length. The bill is
near two inches long, of a yellowifh green, and bends a very trifle
downwards : the head and fides below the eyes are black : over
the eye is a ftreak of white; and the black is bounded beneath
by white, paffing from the chin and throat to the hind head; in
the
 SNIPE.
the middle of this white, on each fide, in the direction of the
jaw, is a black flender line: the neck and breaft .are rufous,
ftriated tranfverfely with flender black lines: back the fame, but
more grey, croffed with broad bars of black : fcapulars grey,
banded with white : the wings are cream-colour, mottled with
black near the fhoulder, and beautifully banded with rufous red;
in the middle, and at fome diftance from the end of the quills, in
both places accompanied with black : the tail is grey, mottled
and ftriated acrofs with black interrupted bands; and near the end
croffed with a broad bar of black, bounded above with rufous
red : the belly, thighs, and vent, are white: legs yellow, and rather ftiort for the fize of the bird.
This inhabits the interior parts of Guiana, but is not common.
It frequents the fides of rivers : is a folitary bird, and known by
a kind of plaintive whiffle, which the natives imitate, in order to
decoy the bird within reach. The fpecimen in the Leverian
Mufeum is a moft perfect and fine-coloured one. I have feen
three or four others, which were lefs brilliant in their plumage.
Hence we may fufpect that the male may differ from the female
merely by this circumftance; and that Sir AJhton Lever's bird
is a male. The inhabitants of Guiana give this fpecies the name
of Paon des Rofes. One which came under my infpection had a
label affixed, with the name of le Par d.
*57
 £    -5*   3
Genus  LXIX.    SANDPIPER.
0 i. Ruff.
N° 20.
Grilled S.
2. Lapwing.
21.
Striated S.
3. Greater D°.
Var. A.
4. Red-legged
Sandpiper.
22.
Afh-coloured S.
5. Cayenne S.
23-
Common S.
6. Louifiane S.
24.
Spotted S.
Var. A.
25-
New York S.
7. Goa S.
26.
Streaked S.
8. Senegal S.
27.
Boreal S.
9. Gambet S.
28.
Newfoundland S,
10. Swifs S.
29.
Variegated S.
11. Grey S.
30.
Purre.
Var. A.
Var. A.
12. Green S.
3k
Red-necked S.
Var. A.
32-
Little S.
Var. B.
33-
Dunlin.
13. Wood S.
34-
RedS.
14. White-winged S.
3S-
Southern S.
15. Selninger S.
36.
Knot.
16. Waved S.
37-
Turnftone.
17. Uniform S.
Var. A.
18. Dufky S.
Var. B.
19. Freckled S.
Var. C.
rHE bill in this genus is flrait, flender, and an inch and a
half long, or under.
Noftrils fmall.
Tongue
 SANDPIPER,
Tongue flender.
Toes divided, or very flightly connected at the bafe by a men>
brane: hind toe weak.
*S9
Tringa pugnax, Lit
,.  Syft.
i. p.  147. 1.—Faun,
i Suec. 171
N° 140.—Brut,
\.   168.
169.—Kram. p.  352
—Frifch.
Georgi Reife, p.
172.
232,
235-
Le Combattant, ou Paon de Mer, Brif Orn. v. p. 240. 18. pl. 22. fig. 1. 2.
—Buf. Oif viz. p. 521. pl. 29. 30—Pl. Enl. 305. 306.
Ruffe, Rail Syn. p. 107. A. *.—Will. Orn. p. 302. pl. 56.
Ruff and Reeve, Albin, i. pl. 72. 73.—Br. Zool. N° 192.pl. 6g.—Ar3. Zool.
p. 479. A.
Br. Muf    Lev. Muf.
T ENGTH one foot. Bill more than one inch, yellowifh;
in fome black: the whole face covered with numerous
yellow pimples: irides hazel: the back part of the head, and
the neck, are furnifhed with very long feathers, Handing out
in a remarkable manner, not unlike the ruff worn by our an-
ceftors; a portion of this fet of feathers flands up over each
eye, imitating ears : the ruff is of as many different colours
as there are birds who wear it, no two being alike; in general it
is barred with black, yet I have feen many white, or of one plain
colour; and I obferve, that of whatever colour the ruff may be,
the breaft is very little different; and the tranfverfe markings on
the upper parts of the plumage fomewhat correfpond : the ground
colour, however, is moftly brown; the feathers in general barred
with black, and many of them marked with concentric circles of
black : quills dufky: lower belly, vent, and upper tail coverts,
white; the laft pretty long: the four middle tail feathers barred
9 not
 S A N D P I P E R-
not  unlike the back ; the others plain brown: the legs in all
are dull yellow: claws black.
The female, or Reeve, wants the ruff on the neck, and is lefs
than the male. General colour brown : the middle of each feather dufky, in fome parts almoft black; the edges of the feathers very pale : primaries dufky or black: fecondaries barred
rufous brown and black: belly, vent, and upper tail coverts,
white: tail dufky : legs as in the male.
The male bird does not gain the ruff till the fecond feafon,
being till then like the female; as he alfo is from the end of
June till the feafon of love commences, when nature clothes him
with the ruff, and the red pimples break out on the face ; but after
the time of incubation the long feathers fall off, and the caruncles
fhrink in under the fkin, fo as not to be difcerned.
Thefe birds inhabit the north of Europe in fummer, as far as
Iceland, as well as the northern marfhes of Ruffia and Sibiria. I
They arrive in England in the fpring, chiefly in Lincolnjhire *, the
ifle of Ely, and the Eaft Riding of Yorkfhire. The males are in
much greater number than the females; hence the continual I
battles for the fake of poffeflion. The male chufes a ftand on fome
dry bank near a fplafh of water, running round a particular fpot
fo often as to make a bare circular path : the moment a female
appears, all the males within a given diftance begin fighting, at
which time the fowlers catch them, by means of nets, in great
numbers *f.    They are alfo caught by means of Stale Birds, but
• Chiefly in the Weft Fen.    Tour in Scot/.
f By placing a clap-net, fourteen yards long and four broad, over night, forty-
four birds have been caught at one, pull, the morning following; and in all fix
dozen in the courfe ofthe morning.—A fowler has caught between forty and
fifty dozen in one feafon.—Br. Zool.
 SANDPIPER.
in much lefs quantity. It is ufual to fat thefe birds for the
table by means of bread and milk, mixed with hemp-feed, and
fometimes boiled wheat, to thefe by many fugar is added;
which laft in a fortnight's time will caufe them to be one lump
of fat, when they will fetch from two fhillings to half a crown
each. The Reeve lays four eggs in a tuft of grafs, the beginning of
May, they are white, marked with large rufly fpots: and the
young are hatched in about a month. It is not known for certain where this fpecies pafs the winter, and perhaps it may be
fome time before we do; for, as the bird has the characteriftic
marks of the Ruff only in breeding-time, it may poffibly pafs
unheeded among the feveral others of this genus. In the Leverian Mufeum is a variety of the female, being wholly white, except the wings, which have much the fame marking as ufual,
except of a very pale colour.
Tringa vanellus, Lin.  Syft. i. p. 248. z.—Faun. Suec. 176—Scop. Ann. i.
N°   141.—Brun.   N°   170.—Muller,   N°  ig2.—Kram. El. p.  353 —
Frifich. ii. 213.—Olin. Uc. pl. in p. 21.—Georgi Reife, p. 172.
Le Vanneau,  Brif. Orn. v. p. 94. 1. pl. 8. fig.  l.—Buf. Oif. viii. p. 48.
pl. 4.—Pl. Enl. 242.
Lapwing, or Baftard Plover,  Rail Syn. p.  no. A.  1.—Will. Orn. 307.
pl. 57-—Albin, i. pl. 74.—Br. Zool. N° 190.—Ara. Zool. p. 480. D.
Lev. Muf.
T ENGTH thirteen inches and a half: weight eight ounces.
Bill one inch or more, and black: irides hazel: the crown
of the head is gloffy greenifh black; at the back part fprings a
creft compofed of narrow feathers, fome of which are four inches
in length, and turn upwards at the ends: round the eye and the
Vol. III. Y fides
 SANDPIPER.
fides of the neck white : beneath the eye a ftreak of black : fore
part ofthe neck, as far as the breaft, black; hind part white and
brown : the back and wings green ; the firft gloffed with purple,
the laft with blue : quills black; the four firft have a white fpot
at the tip: the bafe half of the fecondaries white: breaft and
belly white : upper tail coverts and vent pale rufous: tail white,
for halfway next the bafe; the end half black; the outer feathers
almoft wholly white: legs brownifh red.
Male and female alike, but the laft is rather fmaller.
This fpecies is pretty common in England, where it remains
the whole year. They lay their eggs on the ground, fcraping
together a little dried grafs for a bed; they are four in number,
of a dirty olive, fpotted with black. The hen fits about three
weeks : the young run within two or three days after they are
hatched. The female has great addrefs in decoying the curious
impertinent from the neft or young, bfing many ftratagems of
deceit; flying over the head of any one with great noife : is faid
to be moft clamorous when fartheft from the neft; and will even
feign to run along the ground, as if lame, in order to decoy. .
Towards winter both young and old collect in flocks of four or
five hundred, or more, and are feen on our heaths; and in fome
places are taken in nets, for the ufe of the table *. Their eggs are
alfo thought a delicacy, and fetch a good price f.
Thefe are alfo common in moft parts of Europe, as far as
* In the provinces of Brie and Champaign, in France, are feen in vaft flock*   '
of thoufands, and decoyed into the nets by the playing of a mirror, with the
addition of fome fluffed birds, with here and there a live" one intermixed.
Hip- des Oif.
t Three Ihillings per dozen.—Br. Zool.
6 Iceland*,
 SANDPIPER.
Iceland; and on. the continent. Change place according to the
feafon; being met with in the winter in Perfia and Egypt. We
have alfo feen a fpecimen from China. The chief food of the
bird in its wild ftate is worms, which it draws out of the ground
morning and evening. It is frequently kept in gardens, of which
it is a ufeful inhabitant, freeing them from worms and flugs, and
in time becoming tolerably familiar. I have feen this bird approach a worm eaft, turn it afide, and after making two or three
turns about, by way of giving motion to the ground, the worm
came out, and the watchful bird feizing hold of it drew it
forth. During frofty and hard weather, this pretty gardener will
feed on bits of pudding, meat, and fuch like ; but ever-forfaking
thefe when worms can be had, its moft efteemed food.
Le grand Vanneau de Bologne, Brif. Orn. v. p. 110. 5.
T? IGGER than a Lapwing. Bill yellowifh, with the tip black:
head and hind part of the neck chefnut: back, wings, fcapulars, and rump, black: throat, fore part of the neck, and
breaft, white, marked with ferruginous fpots: belly, fides, and
thighs, white: quills and tail black: legs the colour of yellow
oker.
Inhabits Italy, about Bologna, where it is called Ginccchiella.
GREATER LAPWING.
Tringa erythropus, Scop. Ann. i. 146.
"DIGGER than the Ruff.   Bill black: forehead rufous white:
the upper parts of the body and wings cinereous brown : the
fecond quills white; the firft feven prime ones black: belly foot-
Y 2 colour:
RED-LEQGJHJ
SANDPIPER.
 SANDPIPER.
colour: rump and tail rufous white, the laft croffed with a black
band at the tip : the thighs naked for the greateft part of their
length : legs red.
Native place uncertain.
LOUISIANE S.
Le Vanneau arme de Cayenne, Buf. Oif v
Vanneau, Defer. Surin. ii. p. 193.
\.p.66.—Pl.Enl. 836.
T ESS than our Lapwing : length eight inches and a half. The
bill is red, three quarters of an inch long, with the tip black:
the forehead and throat are black: the middle of the crown afh-
colour : hind head brown; from it fpring five or fix blackifh
long feathers, forming a creft not unlike that of the Lapwing : the
neck is dufky white : on the breaft a broad band of black : belly
and vent white : the back of a greenifh purple : the outfide of
the wing, for fome way from the fhoulder, white; near the bend
a fhort, brown, fharp fpur, rather bent: the bafe half of the tail
is white; the end half black; the tip fringed with white: legs
reddifh : toes of moderate length : claws black.
Inhabits Cayenne.   Met with commonly in the marttiy favannas,
and lives on infects.
Le Vanneau arme de la Louifiane, Brif. Orn. v. p. 114. 7. pl. 8. fig. 2.—
Buf. Oif. vii. p. 65.—PA Enl. 835.
Armed Sandpiper, Ara. Zool. N° 395.
CIZE of the Lapwing: length eleven inches.    Bill orange; at
the bafe of it a naked fkin ofthe fame colour, which rifes up
on the forehead, takes in the eyes, and hangs on each fide ofthe
mandible like a wattle: the top ofthe head is black : the reft of
the
 SANDPIPER. 165
the upper parts grey brown : the under yellowifh white :  at the
bend of the wing a fharp fpur: quills chiefly black-jnixed more
or lefs with grey : tail yellowifh white, tipped with black: legs
red: claws black.
Inhabits Louiftana. Place.
... Syft. i. p. :
eSt. Domin
ie, Brif. Orn.
CIZE of the laft. Bill yellow, the bafe of it furrounded with a
yellow fkin, as in that bird: the head and upper parts pale
yellow : the under yellowifh white, inclining to rofe-colour : tail
as the back, but the fide feathers incline to rofe-colour on the
inner webs : legs yellow.
Inhabits feveral ofthe warmer parts ofAmerica and St. Domingo-.
arme de Goa, Pl. Enl. 807-
 des Indes, Buf. Oif. viii
p. 64.
T   ENGTH thirteen inches.   Bill dufky : head and neck black:     Description.
before the eye, and round it, carunculated and red : from the
back part of the eye a ftripe of white, paffing down on each fide
the neck, and communicating with the breaft, which, as well as
the under parts ofthe body, is white : the back and wing coverts
are rufous brown : greater coverts white: quills black : the bafe
©f the tail for one third is white, the middle black, and the end
brown : legs yellow : it has four toes, all of a moderate length:
on the fore part ofthe wing, near the joint, is a fhort fharp fpur.
This came from Goa. Place.
 i66
SANDPIPER.
Parra SetCgalla, Lin. Syft. i. p. 259. 2.
Le Vanneau  arme du Senegal, Brif. Orn. v. p. ill. 6. pl. 10. fig. 2.—
Buf. Oif. viii. p. 62.—Pl. Enl. 362.
CIZE of the Lapwing: length twelve inches. Bill yellowifh
green, with the tip black : the forehead covered with a yellow fkin, as in the Louifiane fpecies, but not taking in the eye:
the forehead is white : chin and throat black:'the head and upper
parts of the neck, body, and leffer wing coverts, grey brown: the"
under parts the fame, but paler: lower part of the belly, upper
and under tail coverts, dirty white : the greater wing coverts the
fame: quills black, more or lefs white at the bottom: at the
bend of the wing a black fpur: tail, half way from the bafe,
dirty white; the reft ofthe length black, with pale rufous tips.
This fpecies inhabits Senegal.
It was perhaps thefe that interrupted Mr. Adanfon's fhooting,
as they alarmed all the birds within hearing by their cries. The
Negroes called them Uett Uett; the French, Squallers; becaufe,
as foon as they fee a man, they fet up a loud fcreaming, on which |
all other birds take the hint, and fly off. He fays that they
always fly in pairs, and have a fpur on each wing *.
• See Voy. 8vo. p. 77.
Tringa
 SANDPIPER.
167
Tringa gambetta, Lin.  Syft.  i.  p.   248.  3.--Faun. Suee.  177. —Scop.
Ann. i. 142.
Tringa varieg&ta, Brun. N° i8i.--Ma//«r,N0 204.
Le Chevalier rouge, Brif. Orn. v. p. 192. 4.
La Gambette, Pl. Enl. 845.
Gambetta, Rail Syn. p. 107. 2.—Will. Orn. p. 300.
Red-legged Horfeman, Albin, ii. pl. 68.
Gambet, Br. Zool. N° 198. pl. 70.—Ar&. Zool. N" 394.
CIZE of the Greenfhank: length twelve inches. Bill of a reddifh
colour, with a black tip: the irides yellowifh green : head,
back, and breaft, cinereous brown, fpotted with dull yellow:
wing coverts and fcapulars cinereous, edged with dull yellow:
prime quills dufky ; fhaft ofthe firft white: tail dufky, bordered
with yellow : legs yellow.
This inhabits England, but is not common: has been fhot on
the coaft of Lincolnfhire. Known in France; but is there a rare
bird. Has a note not unlike the whiftle of a Woodcock ; and the
flefh is efteemed. Inhabits Scandinavia and Iceland -, called in
the laft Stelkr. It has alfo been taken in the Frozen Sea, between
Afia and America.
Tringa Helvetica, Lin. Syft. i. p. 250. iz.—Pbil. Tranf. vol. Ixii. p. 412.
Vanneau de Suiffe, Brif. Orn. v. p.  106, 4. pl. 10. fig. i.—Buf. Oif viii. SVi
p. 60.—Pl. Enl. 853.
Swifs Sandpiper, Ara. Zool. N° 396.
Br. Muf.   Lev. Muf.
CIZE ofthe Lapwing: length eleven inches.   Bill one inch    Desci
and a quarter, and black, fwelling at the point:   forehead
and neck white; the feathers of the laft dafhed with brown down
the
 SANDPIPER,
the fhafts: hind part ofthe head fpotted with black and white:
cheeks, fore part of the neck, breaft, and belly, black: thighs
and vent white: back and wing coverts white, fpotted with
black: prime quills black : tail white, croffed with narrow
bars of black, which are leaft in number on the outer feathers: legs black: hind toe fmall. The bird defcribed in the
Philofophical Tranfablions had a mixture of white lunated fpots
with the black on the under parts; which Dr. Forfter fufpects
may prove the young bird.
This fpecies inhabits the coafts of Connecticut and Hudfon's
Bay: vifits the laft in fpring; and feeds on berries, infects, and
worms. Common throughout the fouth of Rujfia, and Sibiria:
fuppofed to breed in the arctic flats of the laft. It is alfo found
in France and Switzerland; but never many of them together.
Tringa fquatarola, Lin. Syft. i. p. 252. 23.—Faun. Suec. 186.—Scop. Ann. i.
N° 144.—Brun. N° 176.—Muiier, p. 25.—Georgi Reife, p. 172.
Le Vanneau gris, Brif. Orn. v. p. 100. 2. pl. 9. fig. 1.—Pl. Enl. 854.
Le Vanneau pluvier, Buf. Oif. viii. p. 68.
Grey Plover, Raii Syn. p. in. A. 3.—Will. Orn. p. 309. pl. 57.—Brown
Jam.p.V*.—Albin, i.pl. 76.
Grey Sandpiper, Br. Zool. N° 191.— Ara. Zool. N" 393.
Lev. Muf.
CIZE of the Golden Plover: weight feven ounces: length
twelve inches. Bill one inch and a quarter in length, black :
the head, back, and wing coverts, black, edged with greenifh afh-
colour, with fome white: cheeks and throat white, marked with
oblong dufky fpots : belly and thighs white: outer webs ofthe
quills black; the lower part of the inner webs of the four firft
white:
 SANDPIPER.
white : rump white: tail barred black and white *: legs dirty
green : back toe fmall.
This is now and then feen on the coafts of England, in the winter
time, in fmall flocks. Found in Carolina in great numbers. Alfo
common in Sibiria -, appearing there in autumn in great flocks,
coming from the extreme north, where they breed f.
Tringa varia, Lin Syft. 5. p. 252. 21.
Le Vanneau varie, Brif Orn. v. p. 103. 3. pl. 9. i
-Pl. Enl. 923.
CIZE ofthe laft. Bill black: the head, hind part of the neck,
back, and fcapulars, are brown; the feathers fpotted and
margined with white : rump the fame, but the fpots are yellowifh : upper tail coverts.white, edged with grey and pale yellow:
throat white : fore part of the neck grey brown; margins of the
feathers white: from thence to the vent white: the wing coverts
like the back; fome of the outer greater ones dufky, margined
at the ends with white : baftard wing dufky : quills the fame ;
from the fifth to the ninth edged with white at the tips; the
others incline to grey brown, edged outwardly with white; the
fix inner ones fpotted on the margins with white : the tail feathers
barred with brown and white; the outer one all white, except a
brown longitudinal ftreak on the outer web: legs black.
* Linnaus obferves, that the outer feather has but one black bar, the others-
Vol. III.
Tringa
 SANDPIPER,
Tringa ochropus, Lin. Syft.. i. p.  250- 13.—Faun. Suec.  180.—Mutter,
p. 2S-—Brun. N° 18*.—Frifch. ii. 239.
Le Beccaffeau, ou Cul blanc, Brif. Orn. v. p. 177. 1. pl. 16. fig. i.—Bufi.
Oif. vii. p. S34-—«• E»l- 843-
Tringa of Aldrovand, Rail Syn. p. 108. A. 7.—Will. Orn. p. 300. pl. c6fr
(Cinclus Bellonii.)
Tringa tertia Aldrov. £«// 6>. p. 109. 8.—Will. Om. 301. pl. $6.
Green Sandpiper, .&-. ZW. N° zoi.—Ara. Zool. N° 389.
Lev. Muf.
T ENGTH ten inches. Bill one inch and a half long, black r
top of the head and hind part of the neck dufky afh-colour t
over the eye a pale ftreak ; and between the bill and eye dufky :
back and wings greenifh gloffy brown; the edges of the feathers-
fpotted with dirty white : chin white : fore part of the neck.
dufky white, marked with dark ftreaks : from thence to the vent
white; as are the upper and lower tail coverts: quills and outer
edge of the wing plain dufky brown : fecondaries nearly as long.
as the quills: under the wings dufky, the feathers barred with
white, the bars meeting obliquely, and forming the fhape of the
letter V: the tail is white, the feathers more or lefs barred with
dufky; the outer one leaft of all: the legs are of a greenifh lead-
colour, flender: the outer and middle toes united at the bafe by
a membrane.
This bird is common to many parts of Europe, and is for
the moft part a folitary fpecies. It frequents frefh waters and
ftreams. Is very plenty in the watery places of Ruffia and Sibiria ; and is found as far as Iceland. It is alfo in England, though
rather fcarce; and I am not clear that it is feen, except in the
winter feafon, having never heard of the circumftance : nor is it
7 ever
 SANDPIPER.
ever met with in greater numbers than four or five together. Is
found alfo in America. This has a mufky kind of fmell, not unlike fome of the Petrel genus..
m
Tringa littorea, Lin. Syft. i. p. 251. N° 17.—Faun. Sv.ec. N° 185.—Brun.
N° 177. 178.—-Mutter, N° 200.
Le Chevalier cendre, Brif. Orn. v. p. 203. 7. pl. 17. fig. 2.
 varie, Buf. Oif. vii. p. 517.—Pl. Enl. 300.
Mr. Oldham's white Heron, Albin, iii. pl. 89.
Shore Sandpiper, Ara. Zool. p. 481. F.
*"F* HIS differs not materially from the other. The fpots on the
back are ferruginous inftead of white : the fhaft of the firft
quill is white, as in that bird; and the fecondaries have white
tips : the legs are brown.
This bird is faid to migrate from Sweden into England at the
approach of winter*.
Brunnich mentions a further variety, wherein the firft quill has
a black fhaft, and the fpots on the back and wings lefs: and obferves, that they differ in age and fex.
T ENGTH ten Inches. Bill one inch and a quarter long, and
black: head and hind part of the neck pale afh-colour:
through the eye a dufky ftreak : forehead white : over the eye a
line ofthe fame : back and wings cinereous, marked with whitifh
fpots, not very confpicuous: fides of the head, and under parts,
dirty white; acrofs the breaft verging to afh-colour: quills
dufky: tail the fame ; all but the two middle feathers barred with
white on the outer webs: legs dufky green.
* Atnten. Acad. iv. p. 590.
Z 2 Inhabits
 I
SANDPIPER.
Inhabits King George's Sound.   In the collection of Sir Jofeph
Banks.
Tringa glareola, Faun. Sueo. N°
Wood Sandpiper, Ara. Zool. p.
84.
.82. G.
'T1 H I S is faid to equal a Starling in fize.    Back brown, dotted
with white : rump and belly white : quills brown; the fhaft
of the firft white: fecondaries white at the tips : tail banded,
brown and white ; the outer feathers leaft brown in them.
Inhabits the moift woods of Sweden.
WHITE-WINGED S.
A  TRIFLE bigger than the Purre: length eight inches and a I
half. Bill one inch, cinereous : irides dufky brown: over
the eye a pale ftreak : the head, hind part ofthe neck, back, and
wings, are brownifh black : leffer wing coverts dufky black: from
the bend of the wing an oblique ftreak paffes over the wing coverts ; the greater ones mixed ferruginous and black: quills
black, and reach almoft to the end of the tail: the throat, breaft,
belly, and rump, are rufous: vent dirty yellow: the two middle
tail feathers deep blackifh brown; the others barred black and
rufous; the outer feathers only on the exterior webs: legs dufky
green.
This inhabits Otaheite, near the rivers, and is called Torowe.
Alfo met with at Eimeo, or York Ifie, and is there called Te-te.
This bird varies. In one fpecimen which came under my view,
the crown of the head was dufky : the line over the eye ferruginous ; and a tinge of the fame was vifible throughout the whole
of the plumage : bill and legs yellowifh,
6   I In
  -ik^m^J^Me^
 SANDPIPER.
In another all the leffer wing coverts were white: four of the
middle tail feathers plain; the others barred as ufual: but all
had the ftreak over the eye.
-tinge
laritima, Brun. N° 182.-
r Sandpiper, Ara. Zool.
■Mutter, N° 206.-
>. 480. C.
s Lap. N° 254.
C I Z E of a Starling.    Upper parts varied with grey and black:
middle of the back tinged with violet: fore part ofthe neck
dufky : under part of the body white : tail dufky : the four outer
feathers fhorteft, and edged with white : legs yellow.
Inhabits Norway and Iceland.    Lives about the fea fhores, and
emits a piping note.
Tringa undata, Brun. Om. p. 55. N° 183.
Waved Sandpiper, Ara. Zool. p. 481. E.
r^ ENERAL colour dufky, undulated with luteous and white:
wing  coverts   and   fecondaries   tipped  with  white: rump
white: tail cinereous, and margined with black at the tip : the
firft prime quill has a white fhaft.
Inhabits Denmark and Norway.
Tringa rOftro brevi nigro, tota dilute
Uniform Sandpiper, Ara. Zool. p, 4!
:a, Mutter, N° 205.
'"pHlS fpecies has a fhort black bill; and the whole of the    Description.
plumage of an uniform pale afh-colour.
Inhabits Iceland.
Tringa
 SANDPIPER.
Tringa calidris, Lin. Syft. i
La Manbeche, Brif.  Orn.
p. 529. pl. 31.
p. 226.  14
fig. 1 Buf. Oif. •
CIZE ofthe Redfhank: length nine inches and a quarter. Bill
one inch and a half, and black, with the bafe pale : the
plumage on the upper parts is brownifh black, the feathers margined with pale chefnut: the rump cinereous brown, tranfverfely
ftreaked with black, the margins of the feathers white : the under
parts ofthe body chefnut*: fides tranfverfely ftreaked with pale
chefnut and white : tail greyifh brown ; all except the two middle feathers margined with white : legs brown : the outer and
middle toe united to the firft joint.
This fpecies is fpoken of by authors as a bird of both France
and Germany; but is not, as we hear of, in England. It frequents
the fea fhores, picking up the food there : further than this the
manners are unknown. We have feen one quite correfponding
with the above defcription, except that the under parts wenM
white: this came from Gibraltar.
•hetee, Brif, Orn, v. p.
-Pl. Enl. 365.
ler, Ara. Zool. p. 480. ]
. fig. l.—Buf. om
A  TRIFLE lefs than the Redfhank: length nine inches.    Bill
dufky :   the  upper parts of  the body afh-colour,   fpotted
with red and black; the laft gloffed with violet: beneath reddifh
* - Linneeus calls it olive.
 SANDPIPER,
white, varied with dufky and chefnut fpots : the two middle tail
leathers cinereous, edged with white; the reft the fame, but
darker: the outer feathers marked lengthways on the exterior
web with a white line : legs greenifh.
Inhabits France, the north of Ruffia, and Sibiria.
La Manbeche grife, Brif. Orn. *
p. s*,i.—Pl. Enl. *66.
p. 233, 16.pl. 21. fig. 2.—Buf. Oif vii.
CIZE of the freckled Sandpiper: length nine inches and a
quarter. Bill more than one inch, and black: the plumage
above is grey, the feathers with paler edges ; but thofe of the
upper part of the back and fcapulars plain grey; of the rump
pale grey, marked with a double brown band parallel to the
margin, which is white : the under parts are white; but the feathers of the neck, breaft, and fides, marked with a waved brown
band parallel to the edge; and thofe of the belly with a longitudinal brown line near the end : quills brown, edged with a paler
colour; the ten firft with white fhafts : the fecondaries grey; and
the five next the body marked with a brown band parallel to- the
margin : tail grey, with white margins; and parallel to them a
deep grey band: the legs black.
Inhabits   Europe:, found   among   its congenera  on the fea
coafts.
Tringa.
 j76
SANDPIPER.
Tringa ftriata, Lin. Syft. i. p. 248.   5.—Mutter, N° 194.—Faun. Groeitl.
N° 73.
Le Chevalier raye,   Brif. Orn. v. p. 196. 5. pl. i3. fig. i.—Buf.   Oif vii.
p. si6.—Pl.Enl. 827.
Striated Sandpiper, Ara. Zool. N° 383.
CIZE of a Starling: length ten inches and three quarters. Bill
one inch and a half long; the'bafe half red, the end black : the
upper part of the body undulated with dufky and cinereous : fore
part of the neck dufky: breaft and belly white : primaries and
fecondaries black, the laft tipped with white : tertials white, with
a ftripe of black: tail black : the feathers on the fide cinereous,
edged with white : legs orange.
Linnaus fays, the rump and tail are white; the laft fafciated with
brown : and that the under parts are white, marked with both
longitudinal and tranfverfe ftripes : poflibly this may differ in fex,
if the fame bird.
This inhabits the colder parts of Europe; being found in Sweden i
and Norway. Is found, but lefs frequent, in Rujfia and Sibiria, though it is met with even in Iceland and Greenland: in the
laft place the winter throughout; running backwards and forwards
on the fhore, according as the waves approach or recede, feeding
on fuch infects as are left on the beach. Often fkims along the
furface of the water, like a Swallow, catching infects; riling and
falling with the waves, but ever avoiding coming in contact with
them. In breeding-time retires within fhore, and lays from four
to fix eggs, a little bigger than thofe of the Starling, marked
with pale obfcure fpots.  Twitters like the Swallow.  Is not a very
fhy
 SANDPIPER.
fhy bird: often caught in fnares j and the flefh is accounted good
food.   The feathers ufed for fluffing, like other feathers.
m
Le Chevalier tachete, Brif. Orn. v. p. aoo, 6.
»y HI S is fmaller than the laft. The upper parts of the head,
neck, and back, are blackifh, margined with rufous grey:
fcapulars the fame, but barred with grey on the fides: lower part
of the back and rump white: fore part, as far as the breaft, mixed
black and white; verging to rufous on the fides: breaft and
belly white, marked with minute black fpots: lower belly plain
white: wing coverts grey brown; fome of them croffed at the
end with rufous grey and black: quills dufky, within hoary j
fhaft of the firft white: upper and under tail coverts; the fides,
and tail, barred black and white. This feems much allied to the
laft, though varying fomewhat in defcriptions Briffon's two figures feem to differ not fufficiently to form two diftinct fpecies.
:.''.
Tringa cinerea, Brun. N° 179-—Mutter, N° zoz.---Frifch. t. 237.
Afh-coloured Sandpiper, Br. Zool. ii; p. 194.—.^?. Zool. N° 386.
T ENGTH ten inches: weight five ounces. The head is afh-
colour, fpotted with black: neck the fame, marked with
dufky ftreaks: back and wing coverts finely varied with concentric femicircles of black, afh-colour, and white: coverts of the
tail barred black and white: tail cinereous; edged with white :
breaft and belly white; the firft fpotted with black: legs dufky
green : toes bordered With a narrow finely-fcolloped membrane.
Vol. III. A a This
ASH-COLOURED S.
 178 SANDPIPER.
Place. This fpecies is feen on the fhores of Flintjhire, in the winter
time, in vaft flocks. Suppofed to breed in Denmark. It alfo inhabits America. Seen in great numbers on Seal Iflands, near Chateaux Bay. Breeds at Hudfon's Bay, continuing the whole fum- ;
mer* ; and is there called Safiaua pifqua nijhijh.
Tringa hypoleucos,   Lin.  Syft. i. p.  250.  14.—Faun. Suec.   182.—Scop.
Ann, i. N° 143.—Brun. N° 174.—Mutter, p. 25.—Kratn. El. p. 353.
La Guignette, BriJ. Orn. v. p. 183. 2. pl. 16. fig. 2.—Buf. Oif vii. p. 540.
Petite Alouette de Mer, Pl. Enl. 850.
Sandpiper, Rail Syn. p. 108. A. 6.—Will. Orn. p. 301. pl. 55. —£r.
Zool. ii. N° 204. pl. 71.—Ara. Zool. N* 388.
Br. Muf    Lev. Muf.
CIZE of the Purre: length feven inches and a half: weight
two ounces. Bill brown : irides hazel: the plumage on the
upper parts very gloffy : the head brown, ftreaked with black :
over each eye a white ftreak: neck dull afh-colour : back and
wings greenifh brown, croffed with dufky narrow lines: the breaft I
and under parts white: quills brown; the firft plain; on the nine
following a white fpot on the inner web: tail rounded, of a
greenifh gloffy brown ; the four middle feathers croffed with fine
blackifh lines *,the two next on each fide the fame, with the tips
white ; the laft but one fpotted white on the edges; and the outer-
one white, marked on the inner web. with brown bars: legs
greenifh brown f.
This fpecies is not uncommon with us in the fummer feafon,
* Ara. Zool.
f Scopoli adds, that the toes are femipalmated..
 SANDPIPER.
but none are Teen late in autumn. They breed with us, and the
eggs are five in number; the female lays them in fome convenient hole in the bank of the river which fhe frequents : the colour
of them dirty yellowifh white, with numerous dufky markings,
moftly round; and a few large ones of a paler colour, moft at
the large end. The bird is known at fome diftance by its piping
note, which it frequently emits, and often flirts up its tail.
It is frequently met with alfo in France, into which it comes
"in May, and departs in September. It is alfo found in the northern
latitudes of Sibiria, as far as Kamtfchatka; and is alfo not uncommon in America, inhabiting Chateaux Bay to the north. The
American fpecies differs very little, except in the colour of the
legs, which are yellowifh.
One of thefe, which came under my infpection from Cayenne,
had fewer fpots on the back: a white bar acrofs the wings :
quills and tail brown: beneath wholly white, except here and
there a little dufky mottling on the breaft: the legs very pale.
-19
Tringa macularia, Lin. Syft. i. p. 249. 7.
La Grive d'Eau, Brif. Orn. v. N" 20.—Buf. Oif. viii. p. 140.
Spotted Tringa, Edw. pl. 277. fig. 2.
Spotted Sandpiper, Br. Zool. ii. N° 196.—Ara. Zool. N° 385.
Lev. Muf.
T ENGTH near eight inches: fize of a Thrujh. Bill dufky,
towards the bafe reddifh : over the eye a white ftreak : the
upper parts of the bird greenifh brown : head marked with fmall
longifh dufky fpots : thefe increafe on the neck to the back,
where they are much larger : the rump plain: the fhoulders and
wings marked with the fame colour; but the fpots are tranfverfe:
A a 2 the
 i8o
PlACH  Al
Mannei
SANDPIPER.
the under fide of the body is white, marked with dufky fpots:
the two middle tail feathers greenifh brown; the others white,
croffed with dufky lines : legs dufky flefh-colour.
The female differs in not" having the under parts of the body
fpotted.
This fpecies inhabits America, from Penfylvania to Hudfon's
Bay, .where it arrives in May; and after breeding there, departs
again in September. Is known there by the name of Chechljha-.
Jhifh. It has alfo been met with in England; the bird from-
whence Mr. Edwards took his figure and defcription being fhot
in Effex.
NEW YORK S.
Description.
New York Sandpiper, Ara. Zool. N° 387.
^p H E leffer wing coverts are dufky, edged with white: the
back dufky; the edges of the feathers cinereous : fecondaries
the fame : tail coverts barred black and white : under fide of the
neck and body white : the breaft fpotted with brown : fides beneath the wings ftreaked with the fame :' tail cinereous.
Inhabits the province of New York.
STREAKED S.
Description.
CIZE of the common Snipe. Bill one inch and a quarter long,
dufky : head and neck white, marked with numerous longitudinal dufky ftreaks : back dufky, the feathers edged with white r
fcapulars dufky, margined and mottled with ferruginous: lower
part of the back and tail dufky afh-colour: wing coverts afh-colour:
quills dufky : upper tail coverts, and all the under parts, white :
fides fpotted with dufky: legs dufky, with a tinge of yellow.
Inhabits Sandwich Sound,
xq SIZE
 SANDPIPER.
CIZE uncertain. Bill fhort, flout, and a little fwelling at the
--point; colour dufky brown, with a black tip: the upper part
of the plumage cinereous, mottled on the fides of the neck
with a paler colour, which comes forward on the breaft : over the
eye a ftreak of white : chin, under parts of the body, and upper
tail coverts, white : quills and tail dufky : legs deep brown.
Inhabits King George's Sound.
BOREAL S,
Description.
CIZE uncertain.    Bill black: upper part of the neck and body
dufky black, the feathers edged with ferruginous: beneath cinereous white: baftard wing, quills, and tail, black: legs cinereous.
Inhabits Newfoundland.     From the drawings of Sir Jojeph
Banks.
NEWFOUNDLAND S.
Lev. Muf.
C I Z E of the Purre. Bill one inch and a half long, and dufky:
upper parts of the head, neck, and body, variegated with
brown, black, and rufous: forehead and throat pale : fore part
of the neck and breaft dirty white, longitudinally ftreaked with
black; acrofs the breaft a dufky mottled bar: fides of the body
much the fame: middle of the belly and thighs white : tail fhort,
brown; the inner coverts white on the inner webs: legs dufky.
Inhabits King George's Sound,
Tringa
 SANDPIPER.
!l
Tringa cinclus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 251. 18.—Georgi Reife, p. 172.
L'AIouette de Mer, Brif. Om. v. p. 211. 10. pl. 19. fig. i.—Buf. Oif. vii.
p. 548.—Pl. Enl. 851.
Stint, or Ox Eye, Rail Syn. p. 110. A. I*.—Will. Orn. p. 305.
Leaft Snipe, Rail Syn. p. 190. II—Sloan Jam. p. 320. i4.pl. 265. 4.
Wagtail, Kolb. Cape, ii. p. 152 ?—Brown Jam. p. 477.
Sanderling, Albin, iii. pl. 88.
Purre, Br. Zool. N° 206. pl. 71 Ara. Zool. p. 390.
Lev. Muf.
T ENGTH feven inches and a half. Bill one inch and a quarter, black : the head and hind part ofthe neck are pale afh-
colour, ftreaked with dufky : from bill to eye a white line: back
and wing coverts brownifh afh-colour; greater, coverts darker,
tipped with white: fore part of the neck, breaft, and belly,
white; the firft mixed with brown: tail cinereous; the two-
middle feathers darkeft, the others edged with white : legs dufky
green.
. This fpecies is common to moft parts of Europe; and, if the
bird meant by Kolben, at the Cape of Good Hope : is alfo common
in America, at New York; from thence as far as Jamaica, and
other Weft India Iflands, and Cayenne. It only frequents thefe
kingdoms in winter; when they may be feen on the coafts in vaft
flocks, flying in large circles, alternately taking in the water and
land: are fhot fometimes in great numbers, and thought very
good to eat. Formerly known by the name of Stints ; in fome
parts called Ox-birds. I have much fufpicion that thefe breed on
the coafts of Kent, as I had fome birds fent to me by Mr. Boys of
Sandwich, fhot at Romney in the month of Auguft, which fcarcely
differed
 SANDPIPER.
differed from the defcription, except in having the margins of the
feathers on the upper parts of a pale ferruginous colour.
L'Alouette de Mer a collier, Brif. Orn. v. p. 216. 11. pl. 19. fig. 2.
Le Cincle, Buf. Oif. vii. p. 553.—PA Enl. 852.
Lev. Muf.
T ESS than the Purre: length fix inches and three quarters.
Bill black: on the upper parts of the head, neck, and body,
the feathers are dufky or black in the middle, with pale rufous
or whitifh margins : throat and fore part of the neck white, minutely dafhed with brown down the fhafts : breaft and fides
brown, edged with white: the reft of the under parts white:
the wing coverts are grey brown, dafhed down the fhafts with a
deeper colour, the edges pale ; fome of the greater ones white at
the tips: the quills brown; the nine firft have the end half of
the fhafts white; the others more or lefs edged with white : the
tail feathers are grey; the two middle ones brown on the inner
webs ; the others white within, and have the fhafts white : the
legs are brown-.
This bird has much affinity with the Purre, and is often found
in company with that bird : probably a fexual difference, or that
of age.
183
Tringa ruficollis, Pall. Tr. iii. p. 700.
CIZE of the Purre.    The bill is fhorter than the head : the
crown and hind part of the  neck ftriated ferruginous and
black: fore part of the neck, as far as the breaft, deep ferruginous : the reft not unlike the Purre: legs black.
This
RED-NECKED
P. S.
Description.
 SANDPIPER.
This is pretty common about the fait lakes of the province of
Dauria, in fpring. It is gregarious, and often found in company
with other fpecies.
Tringa pufilla, Lin. Syft. i. p. 252. 20.
La petite Alouette de Mer de St. Domingue, Brif Om. v. p. 22Z< pl. 25.
fig- 2.-
Little Sandpiper, Br. Zool. ii. N° 207.—Gen. Birds, p. 65. pl. I2i—Arm
Zool. N" 397.
CIZE of a Hedge Sparrow: length five inches and eight lines*
Bill brown, with a black tip : the head and all the upper parts
brown, edged with black and pale rufty brown : greater wing coverts and all the quills dufky, tipped with white: tail dufky:
breaft and belly white : legs black.
This bird is found in England, though not very frequent. The
Britifh Zoology mentions one having been fhot near Cambridge iri
September.
It is alfo met with in St. Domingo, but differs in the white on
the Under parts being tinged with rufous; the^Ehree outer tail
feathers having white fhafts; and the rump a little mottled.
Our circumnavigators found it in Nootka Sound. It is likewife
met with in the northern parts of Europe -, and is both in Iceland
and Greenland.
Tringa
 SANDPIPER.
Tringa Alpina,  Lin. Syft. i. p. 429.  11.—Faun. Suec. N°  181.— Brun.
N" 167 ? 173.—Mutter, 197.—Frijcb. t. 241.—Faun. Groenl. N° 77.
La Becafline d'Angleterre, Brif. Orn. v. p. 309. 5.
La Brunette, Buf. Oif. vii. p. 493.
Dunlin, Rati Syn. p. 109. A. 12.—Will. Orn. p. 305.—i?r. Zool. ii. N0 205.
—Ara. Zool. N° 391.
Br. Muf.   Lev. Muf.
CIZE of the Jack Snipe. Bill black, rather fwelling out at the
end: the upper parts ofthe plumage ferruginous, marked with
large fpots of black, and a little white : wing coverts brownifh
afh-colour: throat, fore part of the neck, and breaft, white,
ftreaked with dufky: belly, thighs, and vent, white; the firft
irregularly marked with black in the middle : the tail has the
two middle feathers brown, marked with rufous ; the others very
pale brown : legs black : toes divided to their origin.
This fpecies inhabits the northern parts of England: has been
met with on the York/hire coaft, and on the fhores of Flintjhire,
both in May and Auguft*. Said to lay four dirty white eggs,
blotched with brown round the thicker end; with a few leffer
ones at the fmaller. It is alfo found in Greenland, Iceland, Scandinavia, the alps of Sibiria; and in its migration the coafts of
the Cafpian Sea.
Vol. III.
Tringa
 SANDPIPER.
Tringa Icelandica, Lin. Syft. i. Addend.
Tringa ferruginea, Brun. N° 180.—Mutter, N° 203.
Scolopax fubarquata, N. C. Petr. xix. p. 471. t. 18.
Red Sandpiper, Br. Zool. K. N° 202. pl. 7z.—Ara. Zool. N» 392.
Aberdeen D°, Br. Zool. 203.
T ENGTH from eight to ten inches. Bill brown, one inch
and a half long, and a little bent downwards: head, hind
part of the neck, and beginning of the back, dufky, marked with
red : fore part of the neck and breaft cinereous, mixed with ruft-
colour, and obfcurely fpotted with black: leffer wing coverts cinereous: quills dufky: fecondaries tipped with white: the two-
middle tail feathers dufky ; the others cinereous: legs long and
black.
Linnaus likens his bird to the Woodcock on the upper part; and
fays, that the under parts are rufo-ferruginous : rump whitifh, undulated with black: and that the fhafts of the quills and tail-
feathers are white. The Aberdeen Sandpiper has the breaft reddifh
brown, mixed with dufky : belly and vent white : elfe little differing in defcription from the Red, of which it is fuppofed to be
the female, or a young bird.
The Red Sandpiper has appeared in great flocks on the coafts
of Effex, on the eftate of Col. Schutz: the Aberdeen one in
Scotland. They have alfo been met with on the coafts of New
York, Labrador, and Nootka Sound; and are alfo found in Iceland. In the fummer frequent the neighbourhood of the Cafpian Sea; alfo the river Don; but particularly about the mouth
of the Choper. It is perpetually running up and down on the
fandy banks, picking up infects and fmall worms, on which
it feeds.
Lev.
 SANDPIPER.
1&7
Lev. Muf
T ENGTH eleven inches. Bill one inch and a half long, and
black: crown of the head ftreaked with brown: the upper
part of the neck, back, and wings, afh-colour, mottled with
brown, and fparingly fpotted with buff-colour, moft numerous on the fcapulars: throat, fore part ofthe neck, and breaft,
pale rufous: belly dirty white : rump the fame, croffed with
dufky bars: quills and tail dufky; the laft paleft : the upper tail
coverts very long, almoft reaching to the end of the tail: legs
black.
Inhabits Cayenne.
SOUTHERN S.
Tringa canutus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 2ji. i^.—F&un. Suee. 183.-
—Brun. N° 182.
3*5-
Le Canut, Brif. Om. v. p. 258. 21.—Buf. Of. viii. p. 142
KNOT.
The Knot, Rail Syn. p.  108. A. $.—Will. Orn. p. 302.
pl. 56.—Edna.
pl. 276.—Br. Zool. ii. N° 193.—Flor. Scot. p. 34. pl.
$.—*Ara. Zool.
N° 384.
Lev. Muf.
"\X7EIGHT four ounces and a half: length nine inches, or
more. Bill one inch and a quarter; colour dufky afh :
irides hazel: from the bill to the eye a dufky line; over the eye
a-white one : the top of the head, neck, back, and wings, alh-
colour: lower order of coverts tipped with white, and edged a
little way up with the fame, making a bar acrofs the wing;
greater quills darker, with white fhafts : lower part of the back
and tail coverts dark afh-colour, mixed with white, forming
fpots like crefcents: tail afh-coloured : the under part, from the
throat to the vent, white, with fmall dufky fpots on the throat and
breaft: the fides under the wings, the belly, thighs, and vent,
B b 2 croffed
 SANDPIPER-
croffed with dufky lines : ridge of the wing white : legs blueifh
afh-colour.
Thefe birds vary. That in the Britifh Zoology has the forehead, chin, and fore part of the neck, cinereous brown: back
and fcapulars brown; the feathers margined with afh-colour:
tail afh-colour; the outer feather on each fide white: toes divided to the bottom. We have alfo feen other inconfiderable
varieties.
Thefe birds frequent the coafts ofLincolnshire in great numbers, and are caught in nets by means of Stale Birds; fourteen
dozen have thus been taken at once *: the feafon, from Auguft
to November. In general difappear with the firft frofts ; yet
Edwards's bird was bought in the London markets in the hard
froft 1740, which did not commence till Chrifimas 1739. Are
fatted as the Ruffs, and are by fome even preferred to thofe
birds f.
This fpecies has alfo been obferved about Lake Baikal; and
Mr. Pennant mentions a fpecimen which came from New York.
248.
Tringa interpres, Lin. Syft. i. p
N° 175.—Muller, N° 193.
Le Coulon-chaud, Brif. Orn. v. p.
Le Tourne-pierre, Buf. Oif. viii. p. 130
Turnftone, or Sea Dotterel, Rait Syn.  j
pl. 58. (bad figure).—Edw. pl. 141
Hebridal Sandpiper, Br. Zool. ii. N° 2
Ara. Zool. N° 382.
Lev. Muf.
-Faun
N°  178 Brur.
2. x.—Pl. Enl. 856.
30. pl. 10.
p.  112. A. 5.—Will. Orn.
. Scot. N° 152. pl. 3.-
CIZE of a Thrujh: length eight inches and a quarter.    Bill
nearly one inch; colour  black, and turns a trifle upwards :
* Br. Zool. f They were fatted with bread and milk.   Willughby.
forehead,
 SANDPIPER.
forehead, throat, and belly, white ; breaft black: neck furrounded with a black collar; from thence another bounds the fides of
the neck, and paffes over the forehead : head and lower part of the
neck behind white; the firft ftreaked with dufky lines : back ferruginous mixed with black: coverts ofthe tail white, croffed with
a black bar: tail black; tipped with white: coverts of the wings
cinereous brown; the lower order edged with white : primaries
and fecondaries black; the ends of the laft white : tertials ferruginous and black : legs rather fhort, and of a full orange.
Male and female much alike.
In Edwards's bird the lower part of the back and rump are
white. In that defcribed by Willughby no mention is made of
any white on the forehead or chin; and the middle of the back
is white : yet in other things it fcarcely differs.
Thiefe birds appear in flocks on the weftern fhores of England,
about Penzance and Cornwall, and Aberdaren in Merionethjhire,
three or four in company ; alfo frequent on the fhores of Norfolk,
and in Shropfhire. Are met with likewife in America. Appears in
Hudfon's Bay in May, and departs in September. Makes a flight
neft on the dry ground, and lays four olive-coloured eggs, fpotted
with, black, and hatches early. The young feen the middle of
July.    The natives call it Gega-waftme.
The name of Turnfione has arifen from the method of fearching
for infects, by turning up the ftones they lurk under with their
bills, which are flout for that purpofe.
 SANDPIPER.
. Tringa morinella, Lin. Syft. i. p. 249. 6.
Le Coulon-chaud cendre, Brif Om. v. p. 137. 2. pl. 11. fig. 2.
Turnfione, or Sea Dotterel, Catefb. Car. pl. 72.—Br. Zool. ii. N° 199.
CIZE of the other. The upper part ofthe head and neck, back,
wings, and fcapulars, are greyifh brown ; the feathers of the
laft pale on the edges: two of the fcapulars white: forehead, chin,
and throat, white : fore part of the neck and breaft deep brown,
variegated with white on the fides : lower part ofthe back, rump,
belly, thighs, and.under the tail, white: upper tail coverts part
white, part brown : quills brown, with white fhafts; fome of them '
edged with white ; and the bafe of all, from the fourth, white ■
increafing to the nineteenth, which, with the reft, is wholly;
white: the tail, half way from the bafe, is white; the two.'
middle feathers brown from thence to the end, with the tips
white; the four on each fide the fame, but the brown part narrower, as the feathers are more outward ; the exterior feather
wholly white, except a brown fpot on the inner web : legs red.
The laft defcribed is moft certainly a  mere  variety   of the/
others.    The few which I have feen feem to vary much: hence
the difagreement of the authors who have defcribed them.
The above is found in Scotland, and its iflands, as well as in
North America.
Coulon-chaud de Cayenne, Pl. Enl. 340.
T> ILL formed as in the others; colour dull yellow; tip black:
plumage on all the upper parts mottled brown and white;
the patches largeft on the back: chin, throat, fore part of the
neck,
 SANDPIPER.
neck, and all the under parts, white: on the wings a bar of white
obliquely placed, and a fecond acrofs the greater coverts: the
prime quills and tail dufky black : fecondaries edged with white:
legs red.
Coulon-chaud gris de Cayenne, Pl. Enl. 857.
"DILL black: upper parts not much unlike the laft: fides of
the head mixed with more white : under the eye a dufky
ftreak : forehead, chin, and throat, nearly white : breaft mottled
with fmaller fpots : from thence all the under parts are white :
wings and tail as in the other; the margins and tips ofthe laft
white: legs dufky.
Both the above are defcribed from the Planches Enluminees.
Whether the bafes ofthe quills and tail are white, cannot be af-
certained. Both inhabit Cayenne; and it is- very probable that
they are mere varieties of the Turnfione firft defcribed.
 I  192 3
Genus  LXX.    PLOVER.
N° 1.
Golden Pl.
N° 13.
Mongolian Pl,
Var. A.
14.
Dotterel.
2.
Ruddy Pl.
Var. A.
|
Long-legged PI,
Var. B.
4.
Sanderling.
i5-
Black-crowned Pl.
Var. A.
16.
Dufky PL
.5-
Alwargrim Pl.
17.
Fulvous Pl.
6.
Noify Pl.
Var. A.
Var. A.
18.
White-bellied Pl,
7-
Collared Pl.
19.
Red-necked PL
S.
Ringed Pl.
20.
Spur-winged Pl.
Var. A.
Var. A.
9-
Alexandrine Pl.
Var. B.
Var. A.
21.
Hooded PL
Var. B.
22.
Wreathed Pl.
Var. C.
*3«
Wattled PL
10.
New Zealand Pl.
24.
Black-headed PL
11.
Gregarious Pl.
25.
Cream-coloured Pl
12.
Afiatic Pl.
26
Coromandel Pl.
B
ILL flrait, for the moft part not longer than the head*.
Noftrils linear.
Toes three in number, all placed forwards.
• The long-legged, N° 3, is an exception, as the bill is nearly of twice that
likewife differ in the bills, [being curved at the
length.   The two laft fpecies
end,
The
 PLOVER.
The birds of this genus feem to run much into one another
in refpect to plumage, fo as to make it quite uncertain where to
draw the fpecific line; and we are perfuaded that, on a further in-
veftigation of the individuals, many which are here placed as
diftinct, will turn out to be varieties only.
7.—Faun. Suec.   190.—Brun.
t. 217.
fig. 1—Buf Oif. viii. p. 81.
Charadrius pluvialis, Lin. Syft. L p.  254.
N° 187—Kram. El. p. 354. i.—Frifih.
Le Pluvier dore, Brif. Orn. v. p. 43. 1. pl. 4
pl. 5.—Pl. Enl, 904.
Le petit Pluvier dore, Brif Orn. v. p. 47. N° 2.
Green Plover, Rati Syn. p. m. A, 2. 190. 9.—Will, Orn. 308. pl. 57.-—
Sloan. Jam. p.  318.   10.  pl.   269.   1.—Albin,   i. pl. 75.--Br. Zool.
N° 208. pl. 72.—Ara. Zool. N° 399.
Br. Muf.   Lev. Muf
T ENGTH ten inches and a half. Bill one inch, dufky : irides
dull red: the upper part of the plumage dufky, fpotted
with greenifh yellow : round the eyes and the chin almoft white :
fides of the head, the neck, and fides of the body, the fame as
the upper parts, but much paler: middle of the belly dufky
white: the greater quills are dufky : tail barred dufky and dull
yellow : legs black.
Individuals of this fpecies vary in colour : in fome the belly is '
black, in others black and white; and the fmall claw is fometimes obferved in lieu of an hind toe.
The male and female differ very little. In young birds the fpots
are not of a full yellow colour, inclining more to grey.
This elegant fpecies inhabits England the whole year, and
breeds on feveral of our unfrequented mountains; is very com-
Vol. III. C c mon
 PLOVER,
mon on thofe of the Ifie of Rum, and the loftier Hebrides*. Alfo
on the Grampian, and all the heathy hills of the iflands and
highlands of Scotland f. They make a fhrill whiffling noife, and
may be indeed within gun-fhot by a fkilful imitator of their
voice. The eggs are four in number, two inches and one eighth
in length, more pointed in fhape than thofe of the Lapwing; of a
pale cinereous olive, blotched with blackifh fpots. On the continent they are met with in Sweden, Denmark, Lapland, Iceland,
and other northern parts : to the fouth as far as Aleppo J ; and, if
the fpecies be not miftaken, in the ifland of Batavia^, as well
as in China: our laft voyagers met with them at Owbyhee^, and
York Iflands, in the South Seas, but of a fmaller fize.
In America met with on the coaft of Labrador, and Hudfon's
Bay ^[; from thence to New York, as low as Carolina; migrating
from one to the other according to the feafons : and, if the fol- -
lowing be admitted as a variety, at the ifland of Saint Domingo, .
and in Cayenne**.
Le Pluvier dore de Saint Domingue, Brif. Orn. v. p. 48. pl. 6. fig. 1.
C IZE of the laft: length nine inches and three quarters.   Bill
the fame : the feathers round the bafe of it and the throat
rufous white : the plumage on all the upper parts dufky, marked I
% Ruffel, p. 71. § Hawtefik
Alfo at Tongataboo.—Cook's laft
* Br. Zool. f Flor. Scot. i. p. 35.
Voy. iii. p. 782. || Ellis Nar. ii.  p. [95
^y-i-P-334*
f Mr. Hutchins defcribed to us a bird which we fufpect. to be this, or very
like it, called by the natives Wupujkapethayifh.
•* One from the laft place, in the collection of Colonel Davies, meafures near
twetvfc inches in length.
5 with
 PLOVER.
with yellowifh fpots : upper tail coverts brown, ftreaked tranfverfely with pale yellow : fore part of the neck and breaft pale
grey, the feathers edged with pale yellow: belly, fides, and thighs,
white: prime quills brown, with white fhafts : tail brown, the feathers fpotted on the margins with yellowifh white : legs grey.
Inhabits Saint Domingo.
Ruddy Plover, Ara. Zool. N° 404.
15 IL L flrait, one inch long, and black: head, neck, breaft,
fcapulars, wing coverts, and thofe of the tail, of a ruddy colour, fpotted with black, and powdered with white: in the fcapulars and wing coverts the black prevails : the outer webs of the
four firft quills are brown ; the inner white, tipped with brown "-
the upper part of the others white ; the lower brown : the two
middle tail feathers are brown, edged with ruft; the others of a
dirty white : legs black : toes divided to their origin.
Inhabits Hudfon's Bay, where it is known by the name of Mift-
chaychekijkawejhijh.
195
I Hafelq. Iter. 253. N<* 29.
'ufOif. viii. p. 114.
fig.  \.---V/ill.   Orn.
Charadrius himantopus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 25
—Scop. Ann. i. N° 148.
L'EchafTe, Brif.  Orn.  v. p. 33.   1. pl. 3. fig- I-—
pl. 8.—Pl. Enl. 878.
•Himantapps, Rati Syn. p.   106.   9.   p.   193. pl-  1
p. 297. pl. 54.
Long legs, Rail Syn. p. 190. 7.—Sloan Jam. ii. p. 316. 6. pl. 267.
Long-legged Plover, Br. Zool. N° 2og.—Flor. Scot. i. p. 35- pl- t^.—Ara.
Zool. N° 405.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
1 H I S is a fingular bird, on account of its great length of
legs : it meafures, from the end of the bill to that of the tail,
C c 2 thirteen
RUDDY PL.
Description.
+. LONG-
LEGGED PL.
 io6 P   L   O   V   E   R.
thirteen inches, but to the claws nearly one foot and a half. The
bill is two inches and a half long, flender,. and black : irides
red : the forehead, round the eye, and all the under parts, are
white: the crown of the head, back, and wings, gloffy black:
the hind part of the neck marked with dufky fpots: rump white:
tail the fame, inclining to grey ; the outer feather quite white :
legs red : the outer and middle toes connected at the bafe.
Place. This is now and then met with in England, but is far from
common. Sir R. Sibbald- mentions two being fhot in Scotland;
the Britifh Zoology, one killed near Oxford -, and Mr. White of s
Fleet-ftreet is in poffeffion- of another, which was fhot out of a
flock of fix or feven, in Frencham ponds, in Hampjhire. The
plumage of this bird was- wholly white, except the wings, and
< the back as far as the rump, which are black : bill and legs as
the other. We believe this to differ in fex merely; the more fo-,
as two birds, anfwering to the above defcriptions, are placed in
the Leverian Mufeum as male and female.
It is common in Egypt, and is found in the marfhes there i»
Obfober; the food faid to be chiefly flies. It is likewife plentiful .
about the fait lakes, and often on the fhores of the Cafpian fea,;
as well as the rivers which empty themfelves into it; and in the
fouthern defarts of Independent Tartary: we have alfo feen it in
Chinefe paintings; and it is known to be at Madras, in the-Eaft
Indies *.
In the warmer parts of America it is fufficiently plentiful; and
is feen as far north as Conneflicut. We have, received it from-.
Jamaica, where Shane tells us it is not uncommon.    The fpe-
% Ray.—-It is there defcribed under the name of Red-legged Crane.
 PLOVER,
cumens from this, place, as well as thofe from the Eaft Indies,
differ, in having not only the crown, but all the hind part of the
neck,, black;, and meafure fifteen inches in length*.
Ueharadrius calidris, Lin. Syft. i,
Tringa arenaria, Lin. Syft. i. p.
La petite Maubeche grife, Brif Om. v.
La Sanderling, Buf. Oif. vii. p. 532.
Sanderling, or Curwillet, Rail Syjt. p. 109. A.
Albin, ii. p^4..—Br. Zool. N° 212. pl. 73.
Lev. Muf.
25;. 9.—Georgi Reife, p. 172
1. 16?
p. 236. 17. pl. 2b. fig.
11.—Will. Om. p. 303.-
-Ara. Zool. N° 403.
T ENGTH eight inches: weight one ounce and three
quarters: body flender. Bill one inch long, and black : the
fore part of the head, fides under the eyes, and beneath, from
chin to vent, white : through the eyes a greyifh ftreak : the upper part of the head, neck, and body, ftreaked. with black : back
and fcapulars brownifh grey, edged with dirty white: wing coverts
and quills dufky : tail afh-colour, with pale margins : legs hlack.
The female is paler in fome parts than the male.
This fpecies is found in flocks on the fea-coafts of Cornwall,.
and has alfo been fhot in Lancajhire. Not frequent on the continent, except in the neighbourhood of Lake Baikal; but is more
plenty in North America, as it abounds in the Seal Iflands on the
coaft of Labrador..
iIZE of a.
5111 one inch long, black : upper parts
gl
brownifh afh-colour, mixed with brown, and ftreaked with
' This is thecafe wita.the Mexican one ; fee l'Echaffe du Me.
ique, BriJ.
black-:
 P   L   O   V   E   R.
black :  forehead and under parts cinereous  white:   leffer and
middle wing coverts black, fringed with afh-colo*ar ; the greater
cinereous, with whkifh edges : quills and tail dufky : legs black.
Inhabits Newfoundland, and is gregarious.
ALWARGRIM
PI*     ■
Charadrius  apricarius,   Lin. Syft. i. p.  254.
Brun.  N°   186.—Mutter,  N°  212.—Fau,
Reife, p. 172.
Le Pluvier dore de la Baye de Hudfon, Brif. Orn.
Le Pluvier dore a gorge noire, Buf. Oif. viii. p. 85
Spotted Plover, Edw. pi. 140.—Bancr. Guian. p. J
Alwargrira Plover, Ara. Zool. N° 398.
Lev. Muf.
<.—Faun. Suec. N" 189—
.   Groenl.   N°  79.—Georgi
C IZ E of the Golden Plover. Bill one inch long, and black:
eves large : irides brown : eyelids black : the plumage on all
the upper parts is black, fpotted with orange : at the bafe of the
tipper mandible the feathers are black : the forehead between the
eyes white, which paffes over each eye in a line, down the fides of
the neck, to the breaft, uniting to form a band of the fame acrofs
the latter: all the fore parts of the neck, breaft, and under parts,
are likewife black, except where the white band crofles : the vent
fpotted with white: fecondaries, quills, and tail, barred brown
and black : legs black.
The male differs in having the temples black; but in the female
they are dufky or brown.
This inhabits the northern parts of Europe, Sweden, Denmark®,
the Ifie of Oeland*, Iceland, and Greenland.   In the laft it is found,
* Known there by the name of'Al-wargrim, and is faid to frequent the barren
heaths,—Faun. Suec.
though
 PLOVER.
though not in plenty, in all the fouthern lakes, feeding on mol-
lufica, and the buds of black-berried heath: it arrives in fpring;
and after breeding retires fouthward. It is alfo found in all the
arctic parts of Rujfia and Sibiria. In America, at Hudfon's Bay, it
is well known by the name of Hawk's Eye. Comes to New York
in May; breeds there, departing in collected flocks the end of
Oclober. It is probably met with alfo in Guiana, where Bancroft
fays it is feen in vaft flocks near the mouths of rivers. The flefh
is thought to be delicious.
Charadrius vociferus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 253. 3.
Le Pluvier a collier de Virginie, Brif. Om. v.
Kildir, Buf. Oif. viii. p. 96.
Chattering Plover, or Kill-deer, Catejb. Car. i
Noify Plover, Ara. Zool. N° 4C0.
Br. Muf.   Lev. Muf.
C IZ E of a Snipe : length nine inches and three quarters. Bill
above an inch long, and black : eyelids red : eyes black: the
forehead is white: between the eyes, acrofs the head, a bar of
black, paffing on each fide to the hind head : the chin and fore
part ofthe neck is white; at the lower part ofthe neck the white
encircles it like a ring, and is accompanied by a bar of black all
round: on the breaft is another black bar; and, except thefe, all
the under parts are white : the hind part of the head, neck, and
upper part of the body and wings, are dufky brown : rump rufly
orange ; the feathers very long : fome of the feathers which fall
over the greater quills fringed with white; the laft black; a
few of the outer ones have white fhafts: tail the colour of the
rump*
 PLOVER.
rump, much rounded in fhape ; near the end barred with black ;
the tip white : legs pale yellow.
Male and female much alike.
This fpecies is confined to America ; and is found at New York,
Virginia, and Carolina: remains in Virginia throughout the year;
is there called Kill-deer, from the note refembling that word-
Migrates to New York in fpring, where it breeds, and lays three
-or four eggs: returns fouth in autumn.
This is a very clamorous, reftlefs fpecies ; and, like the Jay in
England, fets up its cry the moment any one approaches, to the
entire difappointment of thofe who carry a gun.
6.
Charadrius
torquatus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 255. 8.
R. A.
Le Pluvier
a collier de  Saint Domingue, Brif. Orn.
fig-   2
—Pl. Enl. 286.
10. pl. 6-
with a black tip: the forehead white, paffing through the I
eyes on each fide, and ending at fome diftance behind them:'.
behind the white on the forehead, between the eyes, is a black
fpot: the reft of the head grey brown, edged with rufous : the
chin, throat, and fore part ofthe neck, white, paffing round the
laft as a collar : beneath this is a collar of black, broad on the
fore part: the reft of the under parts white, except a bar of
black mixed with white on the breaft: the back and fcapulars
grey brown, like the head : the rump and upper tail coverts,
rufous: the four middle tail feathers brown, with rufous tips;
the others rufous, except the outer one, which is white; and all,
except the two middle ones, croffed with a black bar near the ends:
fome of the wing coverts are edged with rufous, and others with
white;
 PLOVER.
white: greater quills black on the outer webs, and marked with
white on the fhafts near the ends: legs blue grey.
Inhabits Saint Domingo.
Le Pluvier a Collier de la Jamaique, Brif. Orn. v,
Larger grey Snipe with a white neck, Brown Jar.
Greateft Snipe, Rail Syn. p. 190. 10.—Sloan. J a,
(bad figure.)
p. 7;. 11.
• P- 477-
(. p. 318. pl. 265. fig. 3.
CIZE a little fmaller than the noify Plover: length eight inches. Bill one inch, black: irides orange : the upper part
of the head, neck, body, and wings, are dull brown: throat,
fore part of the neck, belly, thighs, and vent, white ; at the lower
part of the neck the white paffes round as a collar: breaft fpotted black and white: quills dull brown : tail whitifh, varied
with rufous and blackifh : legs white, the joints dufky : claws
black.
Inhabits Jamaica, where it frequents the banks of rivers.
Charadrius
:ula,
.i.N°
.   Syft.  i.  p.   253.   1.—Faun. Sut
184.—Mutter, N° 2og.—Krc
:.  187.—Scop.
El. p. 354. 2.
,1. N° 78.
p. 63. 8. pl. s« fig- 2.—PI.
. p. 310. pl. 57.—
—Frifch. t. 214.—Georgi Reife, p. 172
Le petit Pluvier a Collier, Brif. Om. v.
Enl. 921.
Le Pluvier a Collier, Buf Oif. viii. p. 90. pl. 6.
Sea Lark, Rail Syn. p. uz. A. 6. 190. it,.—Witt. O,
Sloan. Jam. p. 319. 13. pl. 269. fig. 2.—-Albin. i. pl. 80.
Ringed Plover, Br. Zool. N° 211.—Ara. Zool. N° 401.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
r   ENGTH from fix to feven inches and upwards.   Bill orange4
the end half black: irides hazel: the bafe of the upper
Vol. III. D d mandible,
• RINGED PL.
 PLOVER.
mandible, and from thence through the eyes, and behind them
to the ears, black : forehead white: behind this, from eye to eye,
black : the reft of the head pale brown : chin and throat white,
paffing round the neck in a broad collar: beneath this, on the
lower part of the neck, is a fecond of black, encircling the
neck behind, but growing narrow as it paffes backward: breaft
and all the under parts white : back and wing coverts pale brown :
quills dufky, mixed with fome white on the inner webs : the two
middle feathers of the tail greyifh brown, growing almoft black
towards the ends ; the three next on each fide the fame, with the
tips white; the laft but one is white, with a brown band: the
outer one white, marked with a fpot only: legs orange-colour :
claws black.
In the male the white on the forehead takes up more fpace
than in the female, there is a greater portion of white in the
wings, and the plumage inclines more to afh-colour.
Thefe birds migrate into England in the fpring, and depart in
autumn: frequent our fhores during the fummer. They lay
four eggs, an inch and a half in length, of a pale afh-colour,
fpotted and blotched with black, leaft fo at the fmall end : thefe
they lay on the ground, under fome fhelter, but make no neft.
They run very faft, fometimes taking fhort flights, twittering loud
at the fame time, then alight and run again, and if much difturbed,
either fly quite off, or creep into fome hole till the danger is
over.
Found alfo in feveral parts of the continent, and in Greenland,
as well as in various parts of America, in the fouthern as wefl as
the northern extremes. Vifits Hudfon's Bay the middle of June,
and departs in September.   Has the fame manners there as in
England.
 P   L   O   V   E ,R.
Is a folitary bird; and obferved, on any one's approaching near the neft, to ufe many ftratagems to decoy the
perfon from it, by drawing off his attention. Called at Hudfon's
Bay, Kifiqua the napijhifh.
g IZ E of the laft : length fix inches and a half. Bill black :
forehead, and before as far as the breaft, white, paffing round
the lower part of the neck as a collar: the reft of the plumage
pale dufky afh-colour : the end half of the tail dufky black, the
tip fringed with rufous : legs pale.
Inhabits Cayenne. I have alfo feen this pale-coloured variety
brought from Owhyhee, and have one of the fame which came
from Hudfon's Bay. We believe it to be a variety only of the
laft; and feems to be at leaft as plentiful on the American continent as the dark-coloured one.
Syft.  i.   p.  253.  2.
-Hajfelq. It. p. 25
6-                 9.
Brun. App. p. 77.
ALEXANDRINE
PL.
Charadrius Alexandrinus, Lin
N"' -o.—Muller, N° 210.-
Le Pluvier a Collier, Brif. On
CIZE of a Lark. Bill black: forehead white, paffing backwards in a ftreak over the eye : from the bafe of the bill a
ftreak of black runs through the eye, and reaches behind to the
ears: the top of the head, the back, and wings, brown : round
the neck a collar of white * : belly white: the quills blackifh
grey j the firft has a white fhaft; from the fifth to the eighth
each feather has an oblong white fpot on the outer web : fecondaries and larger coverts tipped with white: the four middle tail
* Briffon's bird has a black collar beneath the white one.
D d 2 feathers
ill
 P   L   O   V
R.
feathers are dufky brown ; the two next on each fide dirty white,
tipped with brown ; and the two exterior ones white*: fhape of
the tail much rounded: legs black.
Inhabits Egypt, on the canal of the Nile. Feeds on infects
and fmall Frogs. Found alfo in the diocefe of Drontheim, and
Norway, and common about the fait lakes between the rivers
Argun and Onon, but not obferved elfewhere in the Ruffian dominions.
Var.
Descrip
Var
Descri
Charadrius JE
; IZ E of a Thrufh.
i. p. 254. 4.-
Irides black : from the forehead a line of
white paffes over the eye to the hind head : the crown, fides
ofthe head, and middle ofthe back, black : on the breaft a band
of black, paffing backwards, and ending in a point on the back:
breaft, fides of the belly, thighs, and vent, yellowifh white :
throat and middle ofthe belly white: fides ofthe back and
fhoulders hoary : quills white, croffed with a band of black in
the middle and tip : tail even at the end; colour of the feathers
hoary ; near the ends a bar of black, the tips white : legs blue :
claws black.
Inhabits the funny plains of Egypt, and feeds on infects.
Lev. Muf.
T   ENGTH eleven inches and a half.    Bill half black, half
orange : crown black : over the eyes a white ftreak, paffing
* The eight middle feathers are brown, blackifh near the ends, and white at the
tips; the two outer ones white : on the outer web of the exterior feather a brown
fpot, and on the inner web of the laft but one a few dufky fpoU.—BriJon.
on
 PLOVER.
on each fide backwards to the hind head as a wreath ; this is again
bounded by black : all the upper parts pale brown : chin white:
fore part of the neck dufky white : on the breaft a bar of black:
belly and vent white: quills dufky black; fome of the inner
ones have the margins white : tail white, croffed with a bar of
black, an inch broad, near the end; the tip white: legs long
and red.
In the Leverian Mufeum it is called the red-eyed Plover • one
of thefe is alfo in the collection of Sir Jofeph Banks, brought
from the Cape of Good Hope. It is the opinion of fome, that the
five laft defcribed are mere varieties*; which we cannot abfolutely
deny ; but, till the circumftance can be more fully afcertained, we
have fuffered them to ftand as above. The following may, we
think, fafely be admitted as a further variety of the Alexandrine
fpecies.
Petit Pluyie a collier de L'ifle de Lucon, Son. Voy. p. 84. t. 46.
CIZE of the Alexandrine Plover. Bill black : irides yellow :
on the forehead is a fpot of white: from thence beyond the
eye, and the fides, black; this laft is bounded by a brown line,
paffing from behind one eye to the other acrofs the head : the
hind head and nape, back, and wings, brown, the colour of umber : tail black, tipped with white : the throat, fore part of the
neck, and belly, white; which is continued on each fide below
the nape, fo as nearly to furround the neck: below this is a
collar of black, paffing quite round the neck : legs blackifh.
This bird is found in the marfhy places of the ifle of Lu-
fonia, efpecially fuch as are  enriched  by  the   dung  of cattle
• Buffon.
o that
 206 PLOVER.
that feed there, which, by fertilifing the fpot, perhaps may contribute to increafe the produce of infects, which are its food.
NEW-ZEALAND
PL.
Description.
Pl. LXXXIII.
A TRIFLE bigger than the Ringed Plover: length eight
inches. Bill one inch long, red, with a black tip: irides
blue grey : eye-lids red : the fore part of the head, taking in the
eye, chin, and throat, black, paffing backwards in a collar at the
hind head; all the back part of the head, behind the eye, greenifh afti-colour; thefe two colours divided by white : the plumage
on the upper parts of—the body the fame colour as the back
of the head: quills and tail dufky: the laft order of coverts
white for fome part of their length, forming a bar on the wing:
the under parts of the body white : legs red.
Inhabits Queen Charlotte's Sound. Known there by the name
of Doodooroa-attoo.
In the collection of Sir Jofeph Banks.
GREGARIOUS
Charadrius Gregarius, Pall. Tra
, p. 456.
OIZE of a Lapwing. Bill in fhape and fize the fame as in
that bird : crown of the head brown, mottled with white:
forehead "white, paffing in a ftreak over each eye to the hind
head : through the eyes a black ftreak: body afh-colour, fomewhat approaching to that of a Turtle: the chin whitifh: at the
lower part of the breaft a large crefcent of black; behind it a
dirty rufous one ; from thence to the vent white: tail even at
the end, white, croffed with a black band, which is not confpi-
8 cuous
   PLOVER.
cuous in the fide feathers :   legs furnifhed with an imperfect
back toe.
This frequents the fields about the Volga, Jaick, and Samara,
in flocks, and is pretty plentiful -, but not feen farther north than
£4 degrees.    Is called by fome the Hen ofthe Steppes *.
Charadrius Afiaticus, Pall. Trav
.p. 715.
A LITTLE bigger than the Ringed Plover. Bill as in that
bird : crown of the head, the back, and wings, greyifh afh-
coloured brown : forehead, eye-brows, fides of the head, and
chin, white:, from thence to the middle of the neck ferruginous,
bounded by a. tranfverfe band of brown: the reft of the under
parts white : tail brown, the feathers whitifh on the edges, and
tipped with black : legs red-
Inhabits the fait lakes of the fouthern defarts. of Tartary ; and
is a rare and folitary bird.
ASIAT
DfiSCRi
CIZE of the Dotterel. Forehead white; crown black: from
the bill arifes a ftreak of black, which grows wider, and encircles the throat, which is white; beyond this the fore part of
the neck is ferruginous : breaft the fame, but paler: belly white :
back cinereous brown.
Inhabits the fait lakes on the confines of the Mongolian country, in tolerable plenty.    Is a folitary fpecies.
MONG
P
-    Disci
nty.
• Ruffta, vol.
-Dec. Ruff i
 PLOVER.
Charadrius Morinellus, Lin. Syft.  i, p. 249. 5.—Faun. Suec. N° 188—
Brun. N° 185.—Mutter, N» 211.
Le petit Pluvier, ou le Guignard, Brif. Orn. v. p. 54. 5. pl. 4. fig. 2.—
Buf. Oif. viii. p. 87.—Pl. Enl. 832.
The Dotterel, Rail Syn. p. in. A. 4—Will. Orn. p. 309, pl. 55. 57.—    ,
Albin, ii. pl. 62.—Br. Zool. N° 210. pl. 73.—Ara. Zool. p. 487. A.
Lev. Muf.
T ENGTH from nine to ten inches: weight four ounces.
Bill lefs than an inch long, and black: the forehead is dufky
and grey mixed ; the back part of it dull black : over the eye is
a white band, which bends downwards, and paffes to the hind
head : fides of the head, and throat, white: the hind part of the
neck, the back, and wings, greyifh brown, the feathers margined
with pale ferruginous; but thofe of the lower part of the back
and rump incline to grey : fore part of the neck cinereous olive,
mixed with a little white next the throat; the lower part of the
neck is bounded with a line of black, beneath it another of white:
the breaft and fides of a pale dull orange: middle of the belly
black; lower part of the belly and thighs rufous white: the
greater quills are brown; the outer edge and fhaft of the firft
white: tail olive brown; near the end a bar of dufky; the tip
white ; the two outer feathers margined with white: legs black.
The female differs in being a trifle bigger; having the black
on the belly mixed with white, and a white line on the breaft;
the white over the eye narrower; and the colour in general more
dull.
Thefe birds are common in fome parts of England; in others
not known. Found in tolerable plenty in Cambridgejhire, Lin-
colnfhire, and Derbyfhire.   Are migratory, appearing in flocks of
eight
 PLOVER.
eight or ten, the latter ertd of April, and flay all May and June,
when they get very fat, and are much efteemed for the table.
In April and September taken on the Wiltfhire and Berkfhire
downs : in the beginning of the firft month are feen on the fea
fide at Meales in Lancafhire, continuing there about three weeks ;
from thence remove northward to Leyton Haws, where they ftay
about a fortnight *; and at the fame time are in plenty about
Holdernefs, and upon the Yorkfhire woulds f- It is very probable
that they breed in the mountains of Cumberland and Weftmor-eland,
as they appear there in May, and are not obferved there after the
breeding feafon J.
They are common in the northern parts of Europe, where we
may fuppofe they likewife breed. Linnaus fays, that they are
very frequent in Dalecarlia, and the Lapland alps ;. and that they
vifit Sweden in May. Known to breed in the northern parts of
, Ruffia and Sibiria; appearing fouthward only in their migrations.
They are ftupid birds, and are eafily enticed into a net, or de-
ftroyed by fhe gun.
Le Guignard d'Angleterre, Brif. Orn. v. p. 58. 6.
Dottrel, Albin, ii. pi. 63.
npHIS varies little from the laft defcribed. Irides white : the
crown of the head varied with white, greyifh brown, and
pale yellow : fore part of the neck, breaft, belly, fides, and thighs,
pale yellow and white mixed : the two middle tail feathers brown ;
the others white : legs greenifh.
* Br. Zool. f Mr. Tunftall.
% Ten or twelve were fhot on the top of Skiddaw, ii
)r. Heyfham.—Breed on feveral of the Highland hills.
Vol, III. E e
the month of June laft.
Flor. Scot.
Charadrius
Hi'
111
111
JJ
 PLOVER.
Var.
Descrip
Charadrius tataricus, Pall. Trav. ii. p. 714. 32.*
"ion. CIZ E of a Miffel Thrujh, Top of the head black, the feathers edged with white : over the eye a white ftreak, paffing
to the hind head, where it is pretty broad: the hind part of the
neck is dark afh-colour; the fore part the fame, but paler:
fides of the head and chin white, dotted with black: acrofs the
throat a tranfverfe collar of black : the breaft ferruginous, with a
band of black; from thence to the vent white: wings brown;
the edges of fome of the feathers yellowifh : tail feathers much
the fame, with the ends black.
Inhabits the fait lakes of the fouthern defarts of Tartary, with
the laft defcribed.
BLACK-
CROWNED PL.
ick-crowned Plover, Ara. Zool. N° 402.
Lev. Muf.
LENGTH  ten inches,
black : forehead black :
Bill an inch long, red, with the end
crown the fame, furrounded with a.
circle of white: throat white: neck and breaft very light afh-
coloured brown, divided from the belly by a dufky tranfverfe
ftroke : belly and vent white : back, fcapulars, and wing coverts,
cinereous brown : primaries dufky ; towards the bottoms white :
tail white at the bafe; black towards the end; the tip white:
legs very long; naked an inch above the knees ; and of a blood
red : toes very fhort.
Inhabits the province of New York.    Has much the habit of
the European. Dotterel.
BIGGER
 PLOVER.
jplGGER than a Snipe. Bill black: forehead pale reddifh
white: plumage on the upper part of the bird dufky; the
feathers with pale edges: chin and fore part of the neck dufky
white: lower part of the neck, breaft, and under parts, dufky
yellow oker-colour, with a tinge of red: the neck marked with
pale and dufky ftreaks, and tranfverfely mottled on the fides
with narrow lines : quills dufky : legs blueifh : claws black.
Inhabits New Zealand. Found at Duffy Bay. The name
•given it by the natives Hapoho-era. From the collection of Sir
Jofeph Banks.
T ESS than the Lapwing: length twelve inches and a half.
Bill dufky : irides blueifh black: the plumage above, from the
crown ofthe head to the rump, black ; the feathers margined with
fulvous yellow: the forehead and throat dufky white : breaft
fulvous, fpotted with black: the reft of the under parts dufky
white, fpotted with black: the wing coverts are black, fpotted
with fulvous; the lower order brown black, tipped with white :
quills brownifh black; the fhafts white : tail the fame colour,
croffed with whitifh bands : legs blue : claws black, and blunt.
Inhabits the fhores and marfhy places of Otaheite. Communicated by Dr. Forfter.
Lev. Muf.     '
LENGTH eight inches.    Bill one inch, dark brown;   the
noftrils pervious : the plumage on the upper parts ofthe body
brown; each feather margined with a golden yellow: the under
part of the body white, except the breaft, which is of a dufky
E e a pale
 Wjm't     PLOVER.
pale brown: quills brown; the end half of the fhafts white : the
fecondaries as long as the quills, and both of them reach to the
end of the tail, and hide it : the tail is two inches long, brown*,
and marked with obfcure pale brown fpots on each fide of the
webs : legs about two inches long, and of a pale yellow.
Native place uncertain..    It feems clearly to correfpond with
the laft ; but is confiderably lefs in fize.
i-BEL-
)PL.
RED-NECKED
PL.
Description.
Lev. Muf.
T ENGTH fix inches. Bill one inch: the plumage on the
upper parts dirty brown: the forehead white: above and
beneath the eye a ftreak of the fame : under parts white : fecondaries and prime quills equal in length; fome of the firft white
from the bafe for half the length; the fhafts white: fix ofthe
middle tail feathers brown ; the outer of thefe is white juft at
the tip and bafe; the three exterior ones white ; the laft but one
has a brown fpot on the inner web near the tip j. and the third
is black at the end : legs pale blue
Native place uncertain.
CIZE of the Purre. The bill flefh-coloured; the end black:
irides orange : head and neck black : on each fide of the
neck a large fquare chefnut fpot, the fize of a filver penny,
almoft meeting together at the back part: the upper part ofthe
plumage afh-colour, with a little mixture of white about the
baftard wing: the breaft and under parts white : quills and tail
doflcy : legs flefh-colour.
Inhabits the South Seas.    Found in Adventure Bay, Van Die-
men's Land.
 PLOVER.
213
Charadrius fpinofus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 256. 12.—Haffelq. Iter
Le Pluvier arme du Senegal, Brif. Om. v. p. 86. pl. 7. fig.:
Le Pluvier a aigrette, Buf. Oif viii. p. 99.     * "r - -
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
». 260. 261. 20#
-Pl. Enl. 801.   SPUR-WINGED
CIZE of the Golden Plover: length twelve inches. Bill above
an inch long, and black: irides red: the crown of the head
and throat are black, paffing a little way down the neck before:
the hind head a little crefted: the back part of the neck, and
upper part of the body, and fcapulars, grey : fides of the head,
and all the under part, from throat to vent, yellowifh white,
except a crefcent of black on the breaft, the convex part up-
permoft : the leffer wing coverts are black; the middle ones
as the back; the greater yellowifh white; but fome of the outer
ones, and the nine outer greater quills, are black; the ten next
half white half black; the two following yellowifh white; and
the four next the body grey : on the fore part of the wing, juft
within the ^end, is a fpur half an inch in length, a little bent^
and black : tail yellowifh white, tipped with black, deepeft on
the two middle feathers : legs black.
This fpecies inhabits the marfhy places of lower Egypt, in the
month of September; is alfo found in other parts of that neighbourhood. It goes there by the name of Dominican, the neck
being black, with white fides, not unaptly refembling the fame
part of the habit of that order *.
 aradrius fpinofus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 256. 12. B.
Pluvier hupe de Perfe, Brif. Orn. v. p. 84. 14.-
ck-breafted Indian Plover, Edw. pl. 47. (male),
ir-winged Plover, Edw. pl. 280. (female).
Buf. Oif. v
T ENGTH eleven inches and a half: breadth twenty-three
inches: weight four ounces. Bill a little more than one
inch, and black: top of the head gloffy black: hind head a little
crefted : cheeks, hind head, and fides of the neck, white: upper
part of the neck, back, fcapulars, rump, and upper tail coverts,
chefnut brown : throat and fore part of the neck black : breaft
and upper part of the belly the fame; the firft gloffed with
violet: the lower part of the belly and vent white: wing coverts
like the back; but thofe fartheft from the body, and fecondaries,
brownifh chefnut, tipped with white: greater quills black : the
tail four inches long; even at the end; white for two-thirds of
the length; the reft black : legs deep brown.
The other (fuppofed to be the female) is the fize of a Lapwing. Bill and creft the fame: it differs chiefly in having the
whole of the neck white : the black on the throat only reaching
for an inch down: breaft and upper part of the belly black:
outer tail feathers tipped with white. Both of them have a fpur
on the bend of the wing.
Thefe inhabit Ruffia; and are very frequent near Aleppo, about
the river Cok *.
* Ruffel, p. 72. pl. 11.—In the plate the b
leaffafpur; though the text mentions only
minute fpur is not uncommon in the Plover g
Mufeum is furnifhed with a fmall one.
s ; the fpecimen in the'.
 Le Pluvier arme de-Cayenne, Buf. Oif. viii. p. 102.—Pl. Enl.
T ENGTH about nine inches. Bill one inch; colour dufky :
the back part of the head, and nape* of the neck, are white,
mixed with grey : the fore part and fides black, paffing back to
the nape, and occupying all the hind part of the neck ; and then
comes forward on the fore part, above the breaft : between this
and the chin it is white: the middle of the back and wings is
rufous grey: near the bend of the wing a fharp bent fpur: fcapulars and quills black : the under parts, from the breaft, white :
the bafe half of the tail is white, the reft black : legs yellowifh.
This inhabits Cayenne.
Le Pluvier coiffe, Buf. Oif. viii. p. 100.
Ill— du Senegal, Pl. Enl. 834.
T ENGTH ten inches and a half. Bill yellow, red towards
the end, and black at the tip : the forehead covered with a
carunculated yellow membrane, paffing round the eyes : the head,
and a little way on the neck, black: the hind head furnifhed with
a few fhort pointed feathers, hanging like a fmall creft; under
this the hind head is white : the upper parts of the body are rufous grey: all the under parts white, with a few dufky dairies
down the fore part of the neck: the quills and end of the tail
black; the laft fhort: legs red.
This is found at Senegal.
HOODED PL.
 PLOVER.
Pii
duCa,
ne, Buf. Oif i
e Bonne Efpera
, Pl. Enl. 800.
■Tp.HlS is twelve inches in length. The bill is reddifh, towards
the point dufky: the head even with the eye, and chin,. are
black : round the crown runs a lift of white, encircling the head
like a wreath : the hind part of the neck, and upper part of the
body, are brown, with a glofs of greenifh purple in fome lights;
this is likewife feen on the breaft, which is marked with a .few
fpots of black : the neck, as far as the breaft, is grey : the belly
white; as are the greater coverts: the tail white, with a broad
band of black near the end: quills black : legs ruft-colour.
This comes from the Cape of Good Hope.
WATTLED PL.
LePlu
Pluvie
. lambeaux, Buf. Oif. viii. p.
a Cote de Malabar, Pl. Enl. ',
CIZE of the Golden Plover:   length nine  inches and a half. -
The bill is yellow: on the forehead a naked bare fkin, hanging down in a pointed flap on each fide of the jaw : crown of the
head black : through the eye a white ftreak: the neck and upper
parts of the body yellowifh grey, deepeft on the back : the under
parts, from the breaft, wh^te : acrofs the greater wing coverts a
band of white: quills black: the tail is like the back, croffed
with a black bar at the end ; and the tips and outfides of fome
of the outer feathers white : legs pale yellow.
This is met with on the coaft of Malabar.
 PLOVER.
Le Pluvian, Buf. Oif viii. p. 104.—Pl. Enl. 918.
T ENGTH feven inches. Bill black; one inch long: the upper
part of the head, taking in the eyes, is black: the forehead
yellowifh, paffing over each eye in a broad ftreak : the hind part
of the neck and back are black : the wings, rump, and tail,
greyifh afh-colour: the quills black, mottled with white on the
outer part of the wing : all the tail feathers except the two middle ones marked with black near the ends; the very tips white :
the under parts, from the chin, pale rufous, deepeft on the breaft, ■
Where it is mottled with tranfverfe dufky markings; and towards
the vent nearly white: legs cinereoifs grey: claws black.
Native place not mentioned.
Le Courvite, Buf. Oif. viii. p. 1 z8.—Pl. Enl. 795.
T ENGTH ten inches. Bill three quarters of an inch; flender,
bent at the tip, not unlike that of the Pratincole: plumage
In general cream-colour, paleft beneath : behind the eyes a patch
of black ; through them a pale ftreak, paffing to the hind head,
and dividing the black : quills black: tail the fame as the upper
parts, marked with black near the tip : legs yellowifh white.
The above was killed in France: it was obferved to run with
sreat fwiftnefs.
CREAM-COLOURED PL.
Le Courvite de la Coromandel, Pl. Enl. 892. COROMANDEL
MZE ofthe other.    Top of the head, and fore parts as far as     descriptiok,
the breaft, reddifh chefnut: chin whitifh: behind the eye a
Vol. III. F f white
 PLOVER.
white ftreak, and through the eye a black one, paffing to the hind
head, the white entering a little way into the black at the back
part: behind the neck, the back, wings, and tail, brown : upper
part of the belly dufky : the reft of the parts beneath, the rump,
upper tail coverts, and tip ofthe tail, white : quills black : legs
yellowifh white.
From the coaft of Coromandel. The two laft differ much .from
the Plovers in the fhape ofthe bill; but have fo great an affinity
to them on account of the toes, which are only three in number,
and all placed forward, that they cannot with propriety be placed
in any other genus.
 "
It
 3J0^**6r.
 [    a*9   I
Genus  LXXI.   OI STER-C ATC HER.
N° i. Pied Oifter-catcher.
BILL long, comprefled, cuneated at the end.
Noftrils linear.
Tongue fcarce a third of the length of the bill.
Toes  three  in  number,   all  placed forwards;   the exterior
joined to the middle by a ftrong membrane.
+-PIED OISTER-
CATCHER.
Haematopus oftralegus, Lin Syft. i. p. 257.  1.—Faun. Suec. 192.-
189.— Mutter, p. 27. N° 215.
Scolopax Pica, Scop. Ann. i. N° 135.
L'Hutrier, Brif Orn. v. p. 38. pl. 3. fig. 2.—Buf. Oif. viii. p. 119. pl. 9.      Pl. LXXX1V.
—Pl. Enl. 929.
Sea-pie, Rail Syn. p. 105. 7.—Will. Orn. p. 2q7-—Albin, i. pi. 78.
Pied Oifte/vcatcher, Br. Zool. p. 213.—Cat-eft Car. i. pl. 85.—Ara. Zool.
N°
. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
CIZE of a Crow : length fixteen inches and a quarter : weight
feventeen ounces. Bill above three inches in length ; flrait,
comprefled on the fides, and in old birds blunt at the end ; the
colour of it and the eye-lids orange: irides a glowing crimfon :
the head and neck are black, except a fmall fpot of white under
the eye-lid, and a crefcent of the fame acrofs the throat: the
leffer wing coverts, fcapulars, and upper part of the back, are
black: the middle coverts the fame, tipped with white : the
greater white: the quills are black, marked more or lefs with
F f 2 white
 OISTER-CATCHER.
white within : the lower part of the back, rump, breaft, and under parts, are white: tail white half way from the bafe, the end
half black : legs dirty red : claws black.
Birds have been feen with the end half of the bill black; and
in others the white under the eye-lid and chin are both wanting:
the laft is alfo not unfrequently met with white, mottled with
black.
The Oifter-catcher is pretty common in England -, moft fo on
the weftern fhores ; feeding on Jhell-fijh, and in particular oifters
and limpets. On obferving any one of the firft, which gapes wide
enough for the infertion of its bill, it thrufts it in, and takes out
the inhabitant: it will alfo force the limpets from their adhe-
fion to the rocks with fufficient eafe. In turn feed's on marine
infeSts and worms. In winter we often fee thefe birds in confi-
derable flocks; but they do not depart from us. In the fummer
are met with only in pairs, though chiefly in the neighbourhood
of the fea orfait rivers. The female lays four or five eggs, on the
bare ground, on the fhore, above high-water mark : they are of a
greenifh grey, blotched with black. The young are faid to be
hatched in about three weeks. Thefe birds are pretty wild
when in flocks, yet are eafily brought up tame, if taken young ?
I have known them to be thus kept for a long time, frequenting
the ponds and ditches during the day, attending the ducks and
other poultry to fhelter of nights, and not unfrequently to come-
up of themfelves as the evening approaches. Are known in fome
parts of England by the name of Sea-Pie, or Olive.
This fpecies feems a general inhabitant; being found in moft
parts ofthe old continent, and univerfally in the neighbourhood
of the fea.    It is alfo fufficiently plenty throughout America,
from
 OISTER-CATCHER.
from New-York to the Bahama Iflands *, as well as Cayenne and
Surinam f. Dampier met with it on the coaft of New Holland%,
and Keempfer at Japan §; our late circumnavigators, at Van Die-
men's Land, Terra del Fuego ||, and iWw Zealand ** : but in the
laft-named places, as well as in fome others *ft> the plumage is
wholly black.
• Ara. Zool.—Calejb. Car. I. 8c.—Pari. Voy. p. 144.
t Defcrip. Surin. ii. p. 167. % Voy. iii. pl. in 123.—Cook's laft Voy. i. no.
§ Kemp. Jap. i. p. 113. || Forft. Voy. i. p. +53.—P*ri. Voy. p. 488.
•• Hawkefw. Voy. ii. p. 333—Coot's laft Voy. i. p. 151.—Id. ii. p. 378.
ft *» 'he ifland ofCuracoa.—Feuitt. Obf 1725. p- 289.
 [     222     ]
Gbnus LXXII.    PRATINCOLE.
N" i. Auftrian Pr.
Var. A. Collared Pr.
Var. B. Maldivian Pr.
Var. C. Coromandel Pr.
Var. D. Madras Pr.
' 2. Senegal Pr.
3. Spotted Pr.
B
ILL fhort, ftrong, flrait, hooked at the end: gape wide.
Noftrils, near the bafe, linear, oblique.
Toes long, flender, connected by a membrane at the bafe.
Tail forked; confifting of twelve feathers.
AUSTRIAN PR.
Description.
Pl. LXXXV.
Hirundo Pr;
the enc
incola, Lin. Syft. i. p. 345.  12.—Kram. El. p. 381. pl. at
141. 1. pl. 12. fig. 1.—Buf. Oif. vii.
La Perdrix de Mer, Brif.  Orn. v. p.
p. 544.—/'/. Enl. 882.
Hirundo marina Aldrov. Rail Syn. p. 72.
Sea Swallow of Aldrovandus, Will. Orn. p. 214.
Lev. Muf.
CIZE of a Blackbird: length nine inches and a quarter. Bill
ten lines and a half long, curved at the end; the bafe of it
red, the reft black: the upper parts of the bird are of a greyifh
brown : chin and throat white, furrounded with a black line,
which begins at the hinder angle of the eye, and bounds the
whole of the white parts all round : the under parts are rufous
grey, growing paler towards the vent: the upper tail coverts are
alfo of this laft colour: the quills and tail are dufky; the laft
much forked in fhape, and tipped with" grey on the inner web ;
6 the
 ^rbt^cTraA
  PRATINCOLE.
the outer web of the exterior feather white the whole of its
length: the legs and bare fpace above the knees are blood
red.
This bird inhabits Germany, particularly the borders of the
Rhine, near Strajburgh, and lives on worms and aquatic infects.
It is alfo at times feen in fome of the. provinces of France,
efpecially Lorraine; but is in the greateft plenty in the deferts
towards the Cafpian Sea, frequenting the dry plains in great
flocks. It is common alfo throughout the whole defert of the
independent Tartars, as far as the rivers Kamyfchlofska and Irtifih,
but not farther into Sibiria, the plains fit for it being there at
an end; and in general it is not obferved beyond 53 deg. to the
northward*.
223
La Perdrix de Mer a collier,
p. 546.
145. 2.—Buf. Oif. *
T ESS than the other. Bill dufky : the plumage on the upper
parts grey brown : on each fide of the head is a white fpot
near the eyes : the fpace between the two fpots, or forehead, is
black : throat and fore part of the neck white, furrounded by a
brown line like a collar: the breaft and under parts are whitilh:
the quills dufky : the tail like the back : legs blackifh.
It makes the neft on the fandy fhores of rivers ; and is always
found in the neighbourhood of flreams. Inhabits Germany, and
is faid to lay as far as feven oblong eggs. Is a noify, reftlefs
bird.
• Mr. PennanU
COLLARED PR.
Description.
 PRATINCOLE.
MALDIVIAN PR.
COROMANDEL
PR.
Description.
Perdrix de Mer, Son. Voy. p. zi6.
flpHIS is nine inches in length. The bill black: irides red
brown : the head and upper parts of the body the colour of
umber: under wing coverts red brown : throat white, furrounded-
with a black band, and each feather has a longitudinal black line :
the quills and tail are black: the rump, belly, and vent, white.
This was taken at open fea, in the latitude of the Maldivia
Ifies. It lived a month on flies, and bread foaked in water. Mr.
Sonnerat mentions two other fpecies.
-T1 H E fecond has the head and upper parts paler: throat
rufous white, encircled with a black band : quills blackifh
brown : beneath the wings bright chefnut: tail forked ; the feathers white half way from the bafe, and brown the reft of their
length, with a fpot of dirty grey at the end : rump and upper
tail coverts white, occupying more fpace than in the former:
breaft rufous white : belly and vent white : irides reddifh : bill
and legs black.
Found on the coaft of Coromandel.
Var. D.
MADRAS PR.
■*"p H E third is lefs than the others. The wings reach beyond
the end of the tail: top of the head deep brown : neck,
back, and wing coverts dirty rufous grey: quills brown : under
wing coverts pale red brown : upper tail coverts white, but this
takes up lefs fpace than in the others : the two middle tail feathers
are brown; the others the fame, with a curved white mark at the
ends; the outer ones half white from the bafe, and brown the
reft
 m
PRATINCOLE.
reft of their length: breaft and belly pale brown: thighs and
vent white : bill and legs black : irides red brown.
This alfo is found about Madras, and other parts on the coaft
of Coromandel.
22J
Tringa fufca, Lin
La Perdrix de Me
Syft. i. p. 252. 22.
du Senegal, Brif. Orn
brune, Buf. Oif. vii. r.
•- p. 148.
J   ENGTH nine inches and a half.    Bill eleven lines long,
and brown: general colour of the plumage brown :   tail
forked as in the others : legs brown.
Inhabits Senegal.
La Perdrix de Mer tachetee, Brif. Om. v. p. 147. 3.
La Giarole, Buf. Oif. vii. p. 545.
Gallinula melampus, Rotknuffel, Rail Syn. p. 109. 9.—Will. Orn. p. 304.
pl. S6. (fig. bad.)
C I Z E of the others. The bill is black : the head, neck, breaft,
and upper part of the belly, are fpotted brown and white:
the upper parts of the body brown, but the fpots lefs diftinct:
the lower part of the belly, fides, and vent, rufous white, fpotted
with black: the quills are black: the fecond quills black and
afh-colour: tail whitifh, tipped with black: legs and bare fpace
above the knees of this laft co.lour.
Inhabits Germany.
SPOTTED PR.
Gg
 [     226     ]
Genus   LXXIII.
RAIL.
I.
Water Rail.
N° ii.
Pacific R.
Var. A.   Virginian R.
12.
Tabuan R.
2.
Clapper R.
13-
Black R.
0
Troglodyte R.
14.
Sandwich R.
4-
Philippine R.
15-
Otaheite R.
Var. A.
16.
Dufky R.
Var. B.
17.
Long-billed R
Var. C
18.
Variegated R.
5-
Banded R.
19.
Cayenne R.
6.
Brown R.
Var. A.
7-
Red-breafted R. .    j
20.
Jamaica R.
8.
Cape R.
21.
Little R.
9-
Blue-necked R.
Var. A.
o.
Ceylon R.
22.
Barbary R.
BILL flender, a little comprefled, and flightly incurvated*
Noftrils fmall.
Tongue rough at the end.
Body much comprefled.
Tail very fhort.
 •Rallus .aquaticus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 262. 2.—Faun. Suee. N° 19;.—Scop. Ann. i.
N° 155.—Brun. N° 193.—Mutter, N° 219.—Kram. El. p. 349. 2.
Le Rale d'Eau, Brif.  Orn. v. p. 151.  1, pl. 12. fig. 2.—Buf.   Oif. viii.
p. 154- P^ 13—Pl.Enl.7w.
Gallinula ferica Gefneri, Rati Syn. p. 114. 4?
Velvet Runner, Will. Orn. p. 315-?
Water Rail, Bilcock, or Brook-ouzel, Rail Syn. p. 113. A. 2. 190. 12.—
Will. Orn. p. 314. pl. 58.—Sloan Jam, p. 321. 16.—Albin, i. pl. 77.—
Br. Zool. ii. N" 214. pl. 75.
Br. Muf.   Lev. Muf.
T ENGTH twelve inches: breadth fixteen: weight four ounces
and a half. Bill an inch and three quarters; colour dufky
black, at the bafe reddifh : irides red : all the upper parts are olive
brown"; the middle of each feather black: the under parts, from the
chin to the middle of the belly, afh-colour* : the lower belly,
' thighs, and vent, the fame, with rufous edges : fides of the body
tranfverfely barred with black and white: quills dufky : under tail
coverts white : tail fhort, and black; the tips of the two middle
feathers ferruginous; the others the fame on the margins: legs
dufky red : toes long, and divided to the bottom.
This fpecies is fufficiently common in this kingdom; but in
the northern parts of it is only feen in winter.
The egg is more than an inch and a half in length; of a
pale yellowifh colour, marked all over with dufky brown fpots,
of nearly the fame fize, but irregular.
It is found chiefly on the edges of ponds and rivulets well furnifhed with cover, under which it may run for fhelter on the ap- ,
* Briffon obferves, that in fome birds the feathers on the fore part of the neck
are margined with white: fuch I have feen, but fuppofe them to be young birds.
G g 2 pearance
 aaf [r    ail;
pearance of an enemy; it rather trufts to its leg9 than its wings,
as it runs very faft and flies but ill, and during flight the legs
hang down: it will alfo frequently take to the water, where it
fwims tolerably well; and often feen * to run on the furface, if
there be any weeds to bear it up. This bird is alfo found in
plenty on the continent of Europe, Sweden, Norway, and Ruffia
throughout: likewife in the weftern part of Sibiria. On" the
continent is migratory, being feen fpring and autumn paffing
over the ifland of Malta; and has'been met with at fea fifty
leagues diftant from the coaft of Portugal *.
VIRGINIAN R.]
Rallus Virginianus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 263. 10.
Le Rale de Penfilvanie, Brif. Orn. vi. Suppl. p.
American Water Rail, Edw. pl. 279.
Virginian Rail, Ara. Zool. N° 408.
Lev. Muf
CIZE of the laft. Bill dufky, with the point black; the under
mandible reddifh at the bafe f: irides red : crown dufky :
fides afh-coloured : from the bill, over each eye, a ftreak of white:
chin the fame: hind part of the neck, back, and tail, brown
ftreaked with black; fore part of the neck and breaft brownifh
orange : lower part of the belly, fides, and thighs, barred dufky
and white : vent white, orange, and black, mixed : the wing coverts reddifh brown :' ridge of the wings white: quills and tail
dufky : legs dark flefh-colour.
Inhabits Penfylvania.
* Hift. des Oif.
t Edwards menti
ons a fmall degre
of bald-
efs on the forehead ,
but I could
ver find it in any
which, have come
under my
infpection.
Clappec
 RAIL;
Clapper Rail, Ara. Zool. N" 407.
Lev. Muf.
T ARGER than our Rail: length from fourteen to fixteen    Descriptio:
inches. Bill two inches long ; colour dufky brown: crown,
and all the upper parts of the bird, olive brown, the feathers
edged with pale afh-colour : cheeks afh-qolour: chin white: fore
part of the neck and breaft yellowifh brown : fides over the thighs
barred afh-colour and white : legs brown.
Inhabits New York from May to October. Lays in June. Is
called there the Meadow Clapper*.
Lev. Muf.
C IZE of a fmall Fowl: length feventeen inches. Bill reddifh
brown, two inches long, and a trifle bent: irides dirty yellow : the feathers of the crown, neck, back, breaft, and belly,
are brown,•margined with rufous grey : cheeks and throat cinereous : over the eye a ftreak of the fame : the wings are very
fhort; the coverts the fame colour as the back : the baftard wing
furnifhed with a fpine, which is half an inch long, flrait, pointed,
and lies hid among the feathers : quills brown, marked with
tranfverfe ferruginous fpots on each margin: vent and fides-
brown : tail four inches long; brown, margined with rufous
grey : legs reddifh brown.
That in the Leverian Mufeum has the upper parts of a deep
chefnut, the feathers dafhed with black down the fhafts : the under parts cinereous, verging to chefnut on the breaft: quills*
• Ara. Zool,
lower
 230
RAIL.
lower order of coverts, and tail, barred chefnut and black : legs
flout, brown.
Thefe inhabit New Zealand, particularly in Dufky Bay, where
they are numerous, and are called Water Hens; and indeed, at a
diftance, appear not unlike Fowls. They run fwiftly, and fcratch
on the ground like our poultry : from the fhortnefs of their wings
are unable to fly, nor do they ever take to the water: chiefly
- met with on a fea-beach, and the fkirts of woods, where they
pick up worms, &c. their chief food. Are often found under the
roots of trees; and will frequently run into holes, and hide under the bufhes : faid to cry againft rain. Are Very tame, info-
much as to fuffer themfelves to be knocked down with a flick.
Were efteemed as good food by our people, but thought to be
beft when fkinned: the fat is high-coloured, inclining to
orange*.
They are found alfo in Charlotte Sound, and on the neighbouring iflands, but in very fmall numbers.
PHILIPPINE R.
Rallus Philippen
Le Rale des Ph]
Enl. 774.
Le Tiklin, ou Rale
ppi
n. Syft. i. p. 263. 7.
es, Brif. Orn. v.   p.   163. 4, pl.
s Philippines, Buf. Oif. viii. p. 16
CIZE of the firft fpecies : length eleven inches. Bill thirteen
lines and a half long; colour grey : the upper parts of the
head, neck, and body, are dufky, the feathers edged with rufous
grey; fome of the fcapulars fpotted with white : over each eye a
white ftreak, tending to the hind head; beneath this a broader
' Dr. Forfter
  Pl.LXXXVT.'
CfauY.   Var.A:
 ■*
R
I     L.
one, paffing through the eyes backwards: throat dirty white:
fore part of the neck rufous grey, marked with tranfverfe in-
diftinct brownifh bands : breaft, belly, fides, and thighs, barred
grey and brown ; leafl fo on the belly, where it is almoft white : '
wings marked with white and chefnut fpots : greater coverts
barred with chefnut: quills brown, the two firft marked on the
outer edge of each web with white, and towards the fhaft with
I chefnut; the reft only with the laft colour: tail dufky, edged
with rufous grey; all but the two middle feathers fpotted on the
inner web with chefnut: legs grey.
Inhabits the Philippine iflands, where it is called Tiklin.
Lev. Muf.
T   ENGTH ten inches.    Bill  an  inch and a quarter, and
brown : noftrils in a long furrow : the head and fides, taking
in the eye and nape, ferruginous chefnut: from bafe of bill over
the eye paffes a pale ftreak almoft to the hind head: the upper
part of the body brown, but each feather marked with a black
and white tranfverfe ftripe near the end, giving the appearance
of black and white ftripes on a brown ground : the hind part of
the neck appears ftriated, but on the back more like fpots, and
more white than black : the rump is plain: the under parts from
the chin, and down the middle to the breaft, afh-colour; but the
neck on the fides, the breaft and belly, are ftriated with black
and white : vent pale ferruginous brown : the wing coverts not
to be diftinguifhed in markings from the back : quills fpotted
brown and white • the tail is very little longer than the wings:
the legs are flefh-colour: claws brown.
Inhabits Otaheite.
2 THE
Var. A.
)escription.
■l. LXXXVI.
'
 232
*TpHE head in this variety is paler, and the ftreak over the eye
grey : the hind part of the neck tranfverfely ftriated brown
and white : the middle of the back, and fcapulars, white, with a
very little.mixture of brown on the firft: wing coverts olive
brown, tranfverfely blotched with white; fecond quills white on
the inner webs, on the outer olive brown; the greater quills olive
' brown, marked with large ferruginous fpots; the firft wholly
white, the fecond white within: tail even with the end of the
quills, barred olive brown and white: all the under parts white:
bill and legs pale yellow brown.
Inhabits Tongataboo.    In the collection of Sir Jofeph Banks.
Rallus ftriatus, Lin.  Syft. i. p. 262. 5.
Le Rale raye des Philippines, Brif. Orn.
Le Tiklin raye, Buf. Oif. viii. p. 161.
. p. 167. 5. pl. 14. fig. 2.
HP HIS is in length eight inches and a quarter. Bill above an
inch and a quarter long, and horn-colour: crown ofthe head
dufky and chefnut mixed : hind part of the neck plain chefnut; I
the lower part of it, the back, and fcapulars, dufky brown, marked
with whitifh fpots : rump and upper tail coverts the fame, but
paler : on the wing coverts a few tranfverfe white ftreaks : throat
rufous white : cheeks, fore part of the neck, breaft, and upper
part of the belly, afh-colour, with an olive tinge: the lower
part of the belly, fides, and thighs, barred dufky and white:.
quills deep brown, barred with rufous white on the outer, and
with white on the inner webs: tail dufky brown barred with
white : legs grey brown.
Inhabits the Philippine Ijles.
Rallus
 Rallus torquatus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 262. 6.
Le Rale a collier des Philippines, Brif. Orn. v. p. 170. 6. pl.
Le Tiklin a collier, Buf. Oif. viii. p. 162.
T3IGGER than the Land Rail: length twelve inches. Bill
more than an inch and a half in length, grey brown: the
plumage on the upper parts brown tinged with olive: cheeks
and throat dirty black: from the bafe of the bill a ftreak of
white paffes under each eye, and finifhes fome way behind it:
the under part, from chin to vent, tranfverfely ftreaked with black
and white, except juft above the breaft, where a band of chefnut
three quarters of an inch broad encircles it as a collar: thighs
barred brown and white: the quills have the outer margins paler;
the three firft banded with white on the inner webs, and the fix
following with rufous chefnut: tail brown: legs the colour of
the bill.
This fpecies inhabits the Philippine Ifiles.
Rallus fufcus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 262. 4.
Le Rale brun des Philippines, Brif. Orn. v.  p.   173. 7.
-Pl. Enl. 773.
Le Tiklin brun, Buf. Oif viii. p. 161.
T ENGTH feven inches. Bill three quarters of an inch long,
and brown : the plumage on the upper parts is brown: beneath reddifh brown, paleft on the throat: lower part of the
belly inclining to grey : beneath the tail barred with black and
white: legs yellow.
Found at the Philippine Ifies, with the four laft defcribed; all
of which go by the general name of Tiklin.
Vol. III. Hh SIZE
 IZEof our Rail: length nine inches.    Bill pale: plumage
above dufky : over the eye a pale line : hind part and fides
of the neck, and the breaft, ferruginous : under parts of the body
afh-colour; fides of it barred acrofs with white narrow lines :
legs yellow,
In the collection of M. Tunftall, Efquire.   .
Rallus Capenfis, Lin. Syft. Mantiff 1771. p. 525.
The Rail, Brown III. p. 94. pi. 38 ?
■VT EARLY the fize of the Crake Gallinule. Bill black : head,
neck, back, and upper part of the breaft, ferruginous: lower
part of the breaft, belly, thighs, and vent, quills and tail, undulated with black and white : two middle tail feathers ferruginous :
legs of a deep blood red.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope; and, if the fame as in Brown's
work, alfo met with at Ceylon. The bill and legs in his plate
are painted brown.
T ENGTH feven inches andaJvalf. Bill an inch and a half,
colour red ; the upper ridge and end dufky : all the upper
parts of the head, neck, and body, reddifh brown : chin, fore part
of the neck, and breaft, pale blue : from thence to the vent
white, tranfverfely ftreaked on the fides with black, as in the
common Water-Rail: vent white: legs red.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope, From the drawings of Sir
Jofeph Banks.
'.$U -    Rail,
 L*
i3S
Rail, 1
t III. p. 95. pl. 37,
T   ARGER than the   common Rail.    Bill red:   head dufky:
neck, back, and tail, ferruginous; the laft pretty long : wing
coverts as the back : prime quills black: fore part of the neck,
breaft, and belly, reddilh, clouded with brown : legs red.
Inhabits the ifland of Ceylon.
CEYLON
Des'crifti
C I Z E of ours. Bill blood red, tip pale brown : irides red :
head brown: over the eyes a whitifh ftreak : nape ferruginous : throat white: breaft blueifh afh-colour: back and rump
black, fprinkled with fmall white fpots, but not numerous:
wings fhort, wholly of a deep black, variegated with interrupted
white fafcias: quills brown : tail very fhort, black, fpotted with
white, fcarcely to be diftinguifhed from the reft of the feathers:
belly, fides, and vent, whitifh: legs flefli-colour: claws pale.
Inhabits*Otaheite, and the neighbouring ifles.
PACIFIC R.
Description;
T ENGTH fix inches and a half. Bill black: eyelids and
irides red : general colour of the plumage brownifh black :
beneath dufky : legs reddifh brown.
Inhabits1 Tonga Taboo*, Otaheite, and the neighbouring ifles in
the South Seas.
This varies in having the plumage more inclined to brown \
the vent white, tranfverfely barred with black lines-: legs red.
Inhabits the ifland of Tanna.    Sir Jofeph Banks.
• Coot's laft Voy. i. 158.       . ^igjS i^\
H h .2, Br.
TABUAN R.
Description.
 RAIL.
Br. Muf.
CIZ E of the Spotted Gallinule: length nine inches.   Bill yellow
at the bafe; the tip brown: general colour of the plumage
dufky black, deepeft on the head: legs brown; in fome birds
red.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope, and other parts of Africa.
CIZE fmall.    Bill dufky afh-colour:   general colour of the
plumage pale ferruginous; the feathers on the upper parts
darkeft in the middle: tail fhort, hid by the upper coverts:
legs dufky flefh-colour.
Inhabits Sandwich Ifles. Was alfo found on the ifland of Tan-
na*; but the plumage is darker on the upper parts; and the bill
and legs yellowifh.    Sir Jofeph Banks,
T ENGTH fix inches. Bill three quarters of an inch, black :
the head, neck, and all the under parts of the body, dark
afh-colour; paleft on the chin: the upper parts, and wing coverts, deep red brown: quills dufky, edged with white: edge
of the wing, and the firft quill feather, white : tail an inch and
a half long, rounded in fhape, and black: legs dufky yellow :
claws black.
Inhabits Otaheite, and the Friendly Ifles.    Sir Jofeph Banks.
• In Cook's laft Voy. i. p. 151. mention is made of a fandy-coloured Plover
at New Zealand,* perhaps this fpecies ?
 Lev. Muf.
J ENGTH fix inches. Bill fcarcely one inch; colour dufky
black; edges of the mandibles yellowifh : all the upper
parts of the plumage deep brown, with a ferruginous tinge, and
ftreaked with black: beneath ferruginous brown : legs two inches
long, red brown.
Inhabits the Sandwich Iflands.
Le Rale a long bee de Cayenne, Buf. Oif. viii. p. 163.—PL Enl. 849.
T ARGER than our Rail: length nine inches and a half. Bill
long in proportion, and rather flout; the colour of it ferru-
' ginous, with a dufky point: the upper parts of the body of a
faint afh-colour, each feather dafhed with a dufky ftreak down
the middle : the chin is nearly white: from thence all the under
parts are of a ferruginous white, ftriated on the fides of the body
as in our Rail: legs pale ftraw-colour.
Inhabits Cayenne.
Le Rale tachete de Cayenne, Buf. Oif. viii. p. \6$.—PI. Enl. 775.
T ENGTH eleven inches. Bill one inch and a half, and yellowifh : the back part of the head is dufky : the chin white :
the reft of the head, neck, and body, fpotted irregularly with
black and white, and ftreaked tranfverfely on the fides of the
body, as in the common Rail: the wing coverts are brown dafhed
with white; the reft of the wing brown : tail dufky, fome of the
middle feathers edged with white : legs yellow.
Inhabits. Cayenne.
 I     L.
LeKiolo, Buf. Oif. viii. p. 164.
Le Rafle de Cayenne, Pl. Enl. 368.
Lev. Muf.
The
i brown: the crow
LENGTH near eight inc..._..
of the head is rufous : from thence all the upper parts are
olive brown : beneath rufous as far as the thighs, which 'are the
fame as the upper part: the vent pale : from the gape a broad
blackifh ftreak paffing through the eyes, and beneath them : 'the
quills are black: the legs reddifh brown.
Le Rale a ventre roux de Cayenne, Pl. Enl. 753.
"T^-H I S is only feven inches in length : and the upper parts are
of a deeper brown : the crown chefnut; the chin and vent
rufous white; and the broad ftreak through the eye is blue grey:
the under parts are rufous, but much deeper than in the laft
bird, and that colour paffes on to the vent and thighs; but the
in fides, and the lower parts of the laft, are dufky. It is probable
that this differs from the other only in fex.
Both thefe inhabit Cayenne. I have met with one of the laft
meafuring very little more than fix inches : they therefore differ
much as to fize.
Thefe birds are common alfo at Guiana, where they are known
by the name of Kiolo ; arifing, no doubt, from their cry, which
is not unlike that word. Thefe birds may be heard making a
noife, or rather calling, in the evening juft at fun-fet, calling one
another' together, in order to pafs the night; being difperfed
fingly among the thick bufhes in the day-time.    They make the
neft
 RAIL.
neft between the forks of the fhrubs, near the ground, of a reddifh
kind of plant, making a cover at the top impenetrable to the rain.
Le Rale de la Jamaique, Brif. Orn.
 Bidi-Bidi, Buf. Oif. viii. f
Leaft Water Hen, Edw. pl. 278.—.
vi. Suppl. p. 140.
u 166.
Brown Jam. p. 479.
The bill is black,
CIZE fmall: length fix inches. The bill is black, with the
■ bafe reddifh : head and throat black : the upper parts of the
head, neck, and back, rufous brown, croffed with blackifh ftreaks:
fore part of the neck and breaft blueifh afh-colour: belly,
fides, and thighs, barred white and brown : wing coverts brown,
fpotted with white : quills rufous brown, barred with black ; the
fecondaries fpotted with white: tail as the greater quills, marked
with a few fpots of white : legs brown.
Inhabits Jamaica, where it is called Bidi-Bidi,  -
Le petit Rale de Cayenne, Buf. Oif. viii. p. 167.— Pl. Enl. 847.
|**pHIS js tjie fmauefl- 0f jts race yet known : length five inches.
The bill is brown : the upper parts of the body the fame;
darkeft on the back and fcapulars, which are ftreaked with white :
$ie wing coverts black, fpotted with white: fides ofthe body
Undulated black and white, as in our Rail: over the eye a ftreak
of white : the under-parts are pale dufky yellow, almoft white on
•the chin and throat, and verging to afh-colour on the belly:
quills brown : tail barred black and white : legs pale yellow.
Inhabits Cayenne.-
 I     L-
.Muf.
T ENGTH five inches and a half. Bill brown; under mandible yellow : upper parts of the plumage brown, marked
with many ftriated bands of white on the back and wing coverts :
the chin and fore part of the neck, as far as the breaft, dirty
white : the middle of the neck behind rufous; fides of it afh-
colaur: belly, fides of the body, an<4 vent, undulated black and
white : quills and tail cinereous brown : legs yellow.
This laft I received from Jamaica; and have alfo feen the fame .
from Cayenne. It is clearly a mere variety or fexual difference
from the Little Rail; and we have our fufpicion alfo, that it does
not effentially differ from the Jamaica fpecies.
BARBARYR.
.Description.
Barbary Water Hen, Shaw's Trav. p. 255.
T   ESS than a Plover.    Bill an inch and a half long, and black :
belly and breaft dark  brown, or rufly: back the fame, but
much darker : wings fpotted with white: rump variegated above
with black and white ftreaks, below white: legs dark brown.
Inhabits Barbary. From the length of bill, in proportion to
the fize of the bird, and from no barenefs of the forehead being
mentioned, I fufpect this rather to belong to the genus under
which it is now placed, than to that of the Gallinule referred to
by the author.
 [    t4i    ]
Genus LXXIV.    JACANA.
9 I. Chefnut J.
2. Black J.
3. Brafilian J.
4. Green J.
5. Variable J.
N° 6. Luzonian J.
7. African J.
8. Chinefe J.
9. Faithful J.
THIS genus has a flender, fharp-pointed bill, thickeft towards the end; the bafe carunculated.
Noftrils fubovated, placed in the middle of the bill.
Wings armed on the front with one or more fharp fhort fpurs.
Toes four on each foot, very long, and furnifhed with long
flrait pointed claws.
Parra Jacana, Lin. Syft. i. p. 259. 3.
Le Chirurgien brun, Brif. Orn. v. p. 125. 4. pl. 11. fig. I.
Le Jacana, Buf. Oif. viii. p. 185. pl. 16.—Pl. Enl. 322.
Gallinula Brafilienfis, 4ta- Marcgr. Rati Syn. p. 115. 11.
Vohualquachili, Rail Syn. p. 178. 5.
The fourth Brafilian Water Hen of Marcgrave, Will. Orn. p. 31 J.
Le Chevalier, Perm. Sarin, ii. p. 193.
Spur-winged Water Hen, Edw. pl. 357.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf
CIZE of the Water Rail : length nearly ten inches. Bill an inch
and a quarter, and of an orange-colour: on the forehead is amera-
branous flap half an inch long, and nearly the fame in breadth;
on each fide ofthe head is another of the fame, about a quarter
Vol. III. I i of
- CHESNUT J.
 JACANA.
of an inch in breadth ; and thefe together furround the bafe of the
bill: the head, throat, neck, breaft, and under parts, are black:
in fome the belly is mixed wish White : back, wing coverts, and
fcapulars, fine chefnut; the outer angle of the wing mixed with
black: on the fhoulder a ftrong, fharp, yellow fpine, a quarter of
an inch in length : quills olive yellow, with the ends for one
third, and the tips, margined with dufky; the outer one the
whole way on the outer edge : tail rounded ; the two middle
feathers chefnut and brown mixed, with the ends black j. the
others the fame, but no mixture of brown : the legs greenifh afh-.
colour.
This fpecies inhabits Brafil, Guiana, and Surinam; but is
equally common at St. Domingo, where they frequent the marfhy
places, fides of ponds, and ftreams, and wade quite up to the
thighs in the water. Generally feen in pairs, and when feparated
call each other continually, till they join again. Are very fhy,
and moft common in the rainy feafons in May and November.
Are at all times very noify; their' cry fharp and fhrill, and may
be heard a great way off. This, as well as the other fpecies, is
called by the French, Chirurgien. The flefh is accounted pretty
good.
2, Le Chirurgien noir, Brif Orn.
BLACK J. Gallinula tenia fpec. Marcgr, Rati &>.'
The third Brafilian Water Hen of Marcgi
#r&*?-fi*f' °'fi viii. p. 189.
115. 10.
,Witt. Orn. p. 318.
CIZE of the other.    Bill faffron-colour: on the forehead a
membrane of a rufous colour: head, throat, neck, back, and
rump, black:   breaft, belly,  thighs,  and   under   tail  coverts,
brown:
 JACANA.
brown: quills green, tipped with brown: tail black: on the fore
part ofthe wing a yellow fpur: legs afh-colour.   ; %«hi
Inhabits Brafil.
Le Jacana arme, ou le Chirurgien, Brif. Orn, v. p. 123. 2.
Le Jacana-peca, Buf. Oif viii. p. 190. BRASILIAN J.
Aguapecaca, Rati Syn. p. 115. g.— Witt. Orn. p. 317.
C IZ E of the firft fpecies.    The colour of the plumage wholly     Description.
greenifh black : on the fore part of the wing a fharp yellow
fpur : and the legs and toes long, as in the others.
Inhabits Brafil, Cayenne, and Guiana, where it is called Agua-       Place and
pecaca.    The manners like  that of the Chefnut one;   but now ankers.
and then twenty or thirty are feen together : fkulk among the
flags in the watery places, and feed on fifh and aquatic infects,
fading fome way in the water after them.
Le Jacana, Brif. Om. v. p. 121. 1.
Gallinula Brafilienfis, Jacana difta, Rail Syn. p.
Brafilian Water Hen, called Jacana, Will. Orn. p,
. pl. 59,
CIZE of a Pigeon. Bill more than an inch long; the colour
half red half yellow : the fore part ofthe head covered with
a round membrane the colour of a turcoife: the head, throat,
neck, and breaft, blackifh green, gloffed with violet: back,
rump, fcapulars, coverts of the wings and tail, belly* and thighs,
blackifh green: quills and tail much the fame: under tail coverts white : legs yellowifh green: toes very long; the middle
(©ne.two inches and a half in length: clawss alfo long and yellow.
I i 2 None
GREEN J.
 JACANA.
None of the authors above referred to mention the fpur on
the wing; but we may conclude that, as it is feen in all the
others, this is not without it.
Inhabits Brafil.
c. Parra variabilis, Lin. Syft. i. p. 260. 4.
VARIABLE J. Le Chirurgien varie, Brif. Orn. v. p. 129. 5.
Le Jacana varie, Buf. Oif. viii. p. 192.
 du Brefil, Pl. Enl. 846.
Spur-winged Water Hen, Edw. pl. 48.—Bancr. Guian. p. 173.
Br. Muf    Lev. Muf.
Description. T ENGTH nine inches. Bill fourteen lines long, orange
yellow : on the forehead a flap of red fkin, laying back on
the head, and divided at the hind part: crown of the head brown,
marked with fpots of a darker colour: hind part ofthe neck the
fame, but very deep : above the eye a line of white, paffing
down on each fide the neck; accompanying this a black one,
which fprings from the bill, and paffes through the eye : fides of
the head, throat, fore part ofthe neck, breaft, belly, thighs, and
under tail coverts, white, with a few reddifh fpots on the fides of
the belly and bafe of the thighs: on the fore part of the wing
a yellow fpur : fcapulars pale brown : leffer wing coverts purplifh
chefnut; the middle ones brown ; the greater black : the four
quills next the body are brown; all the others green, margined
with black at the ends; and the outer one the whole length, on
the outer webr^iegs furnifhed with long toes as in all the
others ; colour of them blueifh afh.
Tariety. One of thefe, which came under my infpection in a collection
from Cayenne, was rather fmaller:   had the upper parts much,
paler:
 JACANA.
paler: over the eye a ftreak of white, paffing no further, and not
accompanied by a black one: hind part of the neck dufky black :
it had only a rudiment of a fpur: and the red caruncle on the
forehead was lefs, and laid back on the forehead. I conjecture
this to differ either in fex or age from the other.
The fpecies above-mentioned inhabits Brafil; and is faid to be
plentiful about Carthagena, in South America.
241
Le Chirurgien de l'Ifle de Lucon, Son. Voy. p. 82. tab. 45.
DATHER lefs than a Lapwing. Bill of a greyifh colour,
flrait, and a little enlarged at the end : top of the head deep
brown : over the eye a ftripe of white, paffing down on each
fide the neck, and changing into pale yellow behind the eye:
through the eye another ftripe of an afh-colour accompanies the
firft quite down to the wing: the back is brown: the under
parts, from chin to vent, white, except a large fpot of brown on
the breaft : at the bend of the wing is a fharp fpur : the leffer
wing coverts are white, the others pale brown, tranfverfely barred
with black : the fecond quills white; the prime ones black :
from the three laft of thefe arife three naked fhafts, two inches
long, and ending in a launce-fhaped feathered point; they fpring
from the middle of the fhaft of the feather to which they belong,
the fhaft appearing as divided or branching into two at that
part: the toes and claws are very long, as in the others, and of a
dufky black.
This is found in the ifland of Manilla; chiefly frequenting the
low moift places, borders of the fea, lakes, and rivers; and has
"the manners ufual to others of this genus.
LUZONIAN J.
Description.
 JACANA.
Br. Muf
T   ENGTH nine inches and a half.    Bill dufky, of a pale
brownifh horn-colour at the tip : forehead bare : the upper
parts ofthe plumage of a very pale cinnamon-colour: chin and
throat white : breaft of a tawny yellow, mottled and barred, on
the fides of it and the neck, with black: the under parts from I
thence like the .back, but darker: greater quills black: on the!
inner part of the bend of the wing a fhort blunt fpur: through I
the eye, paffing to the hind part ofthe neck, quite to the back,.}
black: legs greenifh black : toes and claws very long, as in the
variable Jacana: hind claw an inch and a half in length.
In
. Africa.
T  KNGTH twenty-one inches.   Bill dufky:   crown ofthe
'"' head, forehead, and all beneath, as far as the breaft, pale
cinereous cream-colour: back part of the head black, of the neck
yellow, divided from the white before by a line of black on each |
fide: the body vinaceous red : wing coverts white: quills black:
Suppofed to inhabit China :  feen by me among fome fine
drawings done in that country, and appears a very large fpecies.
Parra ckavaria, Lin. Syft. i. p. 260. 5.
gIZE of a dunghill Cock, and ftands a foot and a half from the
ground.   The bill is conic, a little bent, and of a dirty white
colour; the upper mandible as in the Cock: noftrils oblong, per-
o vious:
"SI
   JACANA.
vious r on both fides, at the bafe of the bill, is a red membrane,
which extends to the temples; in the middle of this are placed
the eyes : the irides are brown : the hind head is furnifhed with
about a dozen blackifh feathers, three inches in length, which
form a creft; thefe hang downwards : the reft of the neck, which
is pretty long, is covered with a thick black down ; but under
the bill and temples it is of a pure white: the body is brown: the
"wings and tail blackifh, clouded with grey; the laft fhort: on
the bend of the wing two or three fpurs half an inch in length :
belly black, but lefs deep : the thighs are half way bare of feathers : knee joints thick and fwelling: legs very long, ftrong,
and of a yellowifh red colour: toes alfo fo long as to entangle
the one in the other in walking.
This bird inhabits the lakes, &c. near the river Cinu, about
- thirty leagues from Carthagena, in South America, and is faid to
feed on vegetables. Its gait is folemn and flow; but it flies eafily
and fwiftly. It cannot run, unlefs affifted by the wings at the
fame time. When any part of the fkin is touched by the hand a
crackling is felt, though it is very downy beneath the feathers ; and
indeed this down adheres fo clofely as to enable the bird at times
to fwim. The voice is clear and loud, but far from agreeable.
The natives, who keep poultry in great numbers, have one of
thefe tame, which goes along with the flock about the neighbourhood to feed during the day, when this faithful fhepherd defends them againft birds of prey; being able, by means of the
fpurs on the wings, to drive off birds as big as the Carrion
Vulture, and even that bird itfelf. It is fo far of the greateft-
ufe, as it never deferts the charge committed to its care, bringing
them
 *4* JACANA.
them all home fafe at night. It is fo tame as to fuffer itfelf to be'
handled by a grown perfon; but will not permit children to attempt the fame.—For the above account we are indebted to Lin-'
naus, who feems to be the only one who has given any account,
of this wonderful bird.
G E N V 8
 C  249  ]
Genus   LXXV.    GALLINULE.
I.
Crake G.
N'13.
Red-tailed G.
Var. A.
Var. A.
Var. B.
Var. B.
2.
Carthagena G.
14.
Brown G.
3-
Cayenne G.
Var. A.
4-
Black-bellied G.
*S*
Yellow-breafted G
5-
Madras G.
16.
Soree G.
6.
Purple G.
i7-
Grinetta G.
7-
Martinico G.
18.
Spotted G.
8.
Favourite G.
19.
Speckled G.
9-
Crowing G.
20.
Yellow-legged G.
0.
Black-headed G.
21.
Piping G.
1.
Green G.
22.
Crefted G.
2.
Cqmmon G.
THE bill is thick at the bafe, and Hopes to the point: the
bafe of the upper mandible reaching far upon the forehead,
where it becomes membranaceous.
Body comprefled.
Wings fhort and concave.
Tail fhort.
Toes divided to their origin.
Vol. III.
Kk
 2'°
GALLINULE.
Rallus Crex
, Lin.
Syft.  i.   p.   261.   1
.—Faun. Si,
g\.—Scop
Ann. i.
N°!54
.—B
un.  N° 192 Mull
r, N"2I8.-
-Kra
w. El. p.
349. 1.—
Frifib.
t. 211
.—Georgi Reife, p. 1
72.
Le Rale de
Gene
, ou Roi des Cailles
, Brif. Orn.
v. p
159. pl.
3. fig. 2.
—Buf Oif. i.
iii. p. 146. pl. 12.-
-Pl. Enl. 750.
La Poule-S
ltane
rouffatre, Brif. Orn.
V-P*533- 5
Daker Hen,
orR
il, Rail Syn. p. 58.
A. 8 Will
Orn
. p.  170.
pl. .29.—
Albin, i
•PL3
2.
Land Hen,
Will.
Orn. p. 316.
Crake Galli
nule,
Br. Z<w/. N° 216. p
. 75.—Ara.
Zool
N°4i2.
Br. Muf    Lev. Muf.
T ENGTH nine inches and a half: weight from fix to eight
ounces. Bill one inch, colour greyifh brown : irides hazel:
the plumage on the upper parts pale rufous brown, each feather
dafhed down the middle with black : the under parts the fame,
but paler, and not fpotted: chin very pale: belly yellowifh white:
on the fides a few bars ofthe fame : legs the colour ofthe bill.
This is a very plentiful bird in fome parts of thefe realms;
particularly fo in Ireland, where it is probable they pafs the winter. Are alfo found in moft of the Hebrides and Orknies. Appear at Anglefea in Wales about the 20th of April; fuppofed to
have come from Ireland. Few places in England are deftitute of
them in fummer: are found alfo in Scotland and the Orknies * j
but no where what may be called common; and it is faid that
wherever Quails are in plenty, the Crake abounds f; at leafl it is
fo obferved in the temperate parts of Ruffia and_ Sibiria, where
* Flora Scot.
f Hence called the King ofthe Quails.
they
 GALLINULE.
they are fufficiently common *. Are found on the continent as
far as Norway: inhabit alfo Germany, France, Italy, and Greece -,
and are feen, if we miftake not the fpecies, fpring and autumn at
Aleppo f; but only on their paffage north and fouth. This bird is
faid to lay ten or twelve eggs, an inch and a half in length, and
not very unlike thofe ofthe Mififel Thrujh, of a reddifh cinereous
white, marked with ferruginous blotches, with a few indiftinct
ones of a pale reddifh afh-colour: thefe it lays among the thickeft
grafs, on a bed made of mofs or dry grafs. The young are covered with a black down, and very foon find the ufe of their legs.
The old ones run faft, but fly awkwardly, with the legs hanging
down. The ufual note is not unlike the noife made by drawing
one's nail over the teeth of a Comb ; and is compared to the word
Crek, Crek, Crek, which it often repeats; whence it is called in
fome parts the Corn Crake. The food is grain and feeds of many
kinds, as alfo infects. On their firft arrival in England are fo
lean as to weigh lefs than fix ounces; but before their departure
have been known to exceed eightyjand are fo fat that we have more
than once feen it exude through the fkin like oil, foon after the
bird was killed.    Their flefh is reckoned an exquifite morfel.
CIZE of the Crake Gallinule,    Bill larger than in that bird, and
black : the upper parts of the head, neck, and body, fine ru-
fous brown : the under much paler : quills and tail darkeft: the
chin and vent reddifh white: legs dufky red.
I received this from Jamaica.
• Particularly fo about the Steppes of Syfran, as well as other deferts, where
they make a great noife of nights; and are known by the names of Dergun and
Koraftel.—Dec. Ruff. i. 470.
t Ruff. Ahp. p. 64.
K k 2 Lev.
 GALLINULE.
Lev. Muf.
T   ESS than the others.    Bill longer than in the firft : plumage
like that of the Crake on the upper parts of the body: wing
coverts and under parts rufly brown : legs dufky.
Suppofed to have come from China, as we have feen  fuch a
one in fome paintings done in that part ofthe world.
CARTHAGENA
CIZE ofthe Coot.
wholly of a rufous colour.
,ACE. Inhabits Carthagena.
Carthagena, Lin. Syft. i. p. 258. 6.
Bare place on the forehead blue : the body
CAYENNE G.
La grande Poule-d'Eau de Cayenne,
Lev. I
Buf. Oif. viii. p. 182.—Pl. Enl. 352.
'uf.
T ENGTH eighteen inches. Bill yellow, with a dufky tip:
the chin, fides of the head, and a little way on the fore part of
the neck, greyifh white : head, neck, tail, lower beily, and thighs,
dufky grey brown: back and wing coverts dull olive : breaft,
upper part of the belly, and quills, bright reddifh rufous colour:
legs red.
The young birds are wholly grey, not having any red about
them till after the firft moult.
Inhabits Guiana and Cayenne, where it is pretty common in the
marfhy places, and lives on fmall fifh and infects.
LENGTH
 GALLINULE.
-■S3
T ENGTH feventeen inches. Bill two inches and a half; bafe
* red; end yellow : crown brown : hind part of the neck cinereous brown : back greenifh brown : quills the fame, with rufous margins : chin white: fore part of the neck and breaft
bright rufous : belly, thighs, vent, and rump, black: fides and
under wing coverts tranfverfely barred with rufous and black :
legs red, and pretty long.
Suppofed to inhabit Cayenne, as it was among others from that
place.
BLACK-BELLIED G.
Description.
La Poule-Sultane de Madraft, Brif. Orn. v. p. 543. 10.
L'Angoli, Buf. Oif. viii. p. 205.
Madras Rail-Hen, Rail Syn. p. 194. pl. 1. fig. 4.
CIZE of a Duck. The bill and legs pretty long: forehead bare
■j. and white * : the plumage on the upper parts of a fine afh-
colour : fides of the head, and under parts, white: acrofs the
lower part of the neck black fpots in the fhape of crefcents :
quills afh-colour, edged with black: the tail is fhort.
Found in the neighbourhood of Madras, where it is called
Boollu-cory. It is alfo at Malabar, and known there by the name
of Caunangoly.
• This is not mentioned in Ray'* defcription, nor does it appear in th« very
bad figure in the plate.
 254
GALLINULE.
Fulica porphyrio, Lin. Syft. i. p. 258. $.—Scop. Ann. i. N° 152.
La Poule-Sultane, Brif. Orn. v.  p. 522. 1. pl. 42. fig. 1.—Buf. Oif. viii.
p. 194. pl. 17.
La Taleve de Madagafcar, PL Enl. 810.
Porphyrio, Rail Syn. p. 116. 13. 14.—Will. Om. p. 318.
Purple Water Hen, Edw. pl. 87.—Albin, iii. pl. u *.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
CIZE of a Fowl: length one foot five inches. Bill very flout
at the bafe, comprefled on the fides, and above an inch and a
half in length ; colour a deep red : irides fulvous : the forehead
bare and red: the head and hind part of the neck are gloffy
violet: cheeks, throat, and fore part of the neck, violet blue:
back, rump, and fcapulars, dull green, but gloffy : quills the
fame, but brown within : the tail nearly the fame, and rounded
in fhape : legs very flout, and the colour of the bill.
The female is fmaller than the male.
This bird is more or lefs common in all the warmer parts of
the globe. On the coafts of Barbary they abound, as well as in
fome of the iflands of the Mediterranean. In Sicily they are bred
in plenty, and kept for their beauty; but whether indigenous
there we are not certain. It is frequently met with in various
parts of the fouth of Rujfia, and weftern parts of Sibiria, among
reedy places; and in the neighbourhood of the Cafpian Sea not
uncommon: but in the cultivated rice-grounds of Ghilar in
Perfia, in great plenty and in high plumage. The female makes
the neft among the reeds in the middle of March; lays three'
or four eggs, and fits from three to four weeks.    That it is com-
• Toes placed falfely, two before and two behind
  ^^^^u^
 GALLINULE.
moil in China the paper-hangings from thence will every where
teftify. Is alfo met with in the Eaft Indies, the iflands of Java,
Madagafcar, and many others. Our late navigators faw them at
• Tongataboo in vaft numbers, as well as in the ifland of Tanna *,
and other parts. It is alfo common in the fouthern parts or
America.
In refpect to its manners, it is a very docile bird, being eafily
tamed f, and feeding with the poultry, fcratching the ground
with the foot as the Cock and Hen. It will feed on many things,
fuch as fruit, roots of plants, and grain; but will eat fijh with
avidity, dipping them into the water before it fwallows them:
will frequently fland on one -leg, and lift the food to its mouth
with the other, like a Pdrrot. A pair of thefe, kept in an aviary
in France, made a neft of fmall flicks, mixed with a quantity
of ftraw, and laid fix white eggs, perfectly round; but the hen
was carelefs of them, and they came to nothing. The flelh is
faid to be exquifite in taftej.
255
Fulica Martinica, Lin. Syft. i. p. 259. 7.
La petite Poule-Sultane,  Brif. Orn. v.
Oif. viii. p. 206.
Lev. Muf.
p. 526. 2. pl. 42. fig.
-Buf.   -i-MARTINICO
G.
Pl. LXXXVIII.
T   ESS than the common Gallinule, and the body more flender :     Description.
length about twelve inches.    Bill thirteen lines long, yellow,
with a red bafe: forehead bald and blue: irides red : the plu-
* Forft. Voy. i. 448. ii. 358.—Cook's laft Voy. i. 226. 334.
t In Dec. Ruff. ii. p. 240. this is denied ; obferving, that it will fooner lofe
its life than its liberty. % Id.
mage
 GALLINULE.
mage is in general of a fine gloffy green; but the head, neck,
and under parts, are of a changeable blue : the vent white : quills
and tail dufky, edged with green: legs yellow: toes very long,
and flender. That defcribed by Briffon differs from the above in
. having the bare part of the forehead and legs red ; and is faid to
inhabit the Eaft Indies as well as America.
I have feen many of thefe birds, both from Cayenne and the
Weft India Iflands, all of which anfwered to our defcription, except one, which had the upper parts of the plumage blue green,"
tinged with brown: the crown of the head brown: beneath
white; a little mottled with black in the middle of the belly,
and greatly fo acrofs the lower part of the neck, juft above the
breaft : chin quite white : legs brown. This feems by defcrip-.
tion to differ greatly ; but on comparifon of fize, fhape of bill,
and legs, I am inclined to fuppofe it of a different fex only, if not
a young bird.
Thefe have been brought alive to England; but not fo tame as
to be at large. Such as have come under our infpection were
content to live on rice, bread, lettuce, and other fuch food, and
feemed to bear confinement tolerably well.
FAVOURITE G.
La Favorite de Cayenne,.
uf. Oif. viii. p. 207.—Pl. Enl. 897.
Lev. Muf.
T ENGTH twelve inches. Bill yellow: upper parts of the
plumage deep blue : fides of the head and neck paler : fore
part of the neck blueifh white : belly, thighs, and rump, white :
quills and tail brown, the laft darkeft : legs long, yellow : hind
toe very long.
Inhabits Cayenne.
L'Acnitli,
 GALLINULE.
257
L'Acintli, Buf. Oif. viii. p. 208.
Quachilto, Rati Syn. p. 116. i^.—Will. Orn. p. 319.
■THE bill of this is pale: irides fulvous :  the plumage of a
dark purple colour, with fome white feathers intermixed :
the legs greenifh yellow.
This inhabits Mexico: is a marfh bird, feeding on fifh, and
thought to be not ill-tafted meat. It is called by fome Yacacintli,
and is faid to imitate the crowing of a Cock.
CROWING G.
T
La Poule-Sultane a tete noire, Brif. Orn. v. p. 526. A. 1.
HIS is wholly blue, except the head and neck, which are
black: and there is a broad bare fpace on the top of the
head.
The female is faid to have a deep fulvous crown * : the upper
parts of the body the fame, ftreaked with white on the fcapulars :
the wings greenifh, with a fulvous tinge: quills greenifh blue.
Inhabits America.
BLACK-HEADED G.
La Poule-Sultane verte, Brif. Orn. \
-Buf. Oif viii,
T   ENGTH eleven inches and a half.    Bill of a greenifh yellow, as is the bare part of the forehead: the upper parts of
the body are of a dull green ; the under white : legs of a greyilh.
yellow: claws grey.
Inhabits the Eaft Indies.
• Hift. des Oif. v
Vol. III.
. p. 209. (i).—From Feuille Obf (edit. 172;
LI
 Sgf
-f- COMMON G.
GALLINULE.
Fulica chloropus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 258. ^.—Scop. Ann. i- N° 153.—Brun.
Orn. N° ig\.—Mutter, p. 27.—Kram. El. p. 358. 2.—Frifch. ii. 209,
La Poule d'Eau, fr$ 0™.  vi. p. 3. 1. pl.  1. fig.  1, 2.—Buf. Oif. viii.
p. 171.pl. 1 $,-—2-7. Enl. 877.
■Common Water-Hen,or More-Hen, Rail Syn. p. 113. A. 1. p. 190. 15.—
Will. Orn. p. 312. pl. 58.—Albin, ii. pl. 72. iii. pl. 91.
Common Gallinule, Br. Zool. N° 217. pl. 77.—Ara. Zool. N° 411.   .
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
HPHE length of this well-known fpecies is fourteen inches: the
weight fifteen ounces. Bill red, with a greenifh tip ; at the
bafe of it a red bare membrane, fpreading fome way on the forehead : irides red : colour of the plumage footy black above, with
a tinge of olive ; beneath cinereous : outer edge of the wing, and
under tail coverts, white : above the knee, at the commencement
ofthe bare part, a circle or garter of red: the reft of the bare
fpace, and legs, are greenifh : the toes fiat and broad.
The female is lefs,. the colours paler, and the throat fometimes * white.
This is a common fpecies in England; frequenting every
where the borders of rivers and ponds, where weeds grow. It
makes a neft upon fome low flump or fhrub by the water fider I
compofed of herbaceous matter ; and lays feven eggs, almoft two
inches in length, of a yellowifh white, marked with irregular
reddifh brown fpots, which are not numerous ; with a few minute
ones interfperfed; and breeds twice in the feafon. It flies awkwardly, with its legs hanging down, and not far at a time;
though it runs pretty faft; and will now and then, notwithftand-
• Not always; for in fome it is only grey, and in others like the reft of the
 GALLINULE.
ing it is not web-footed, fwim, which it feems to do tolerably
well.
It is pretty common on the continent, though in fome parts
more fcarce than in others.    Is alfo an inhabitant of America,
from New York to Carolina;   and is recorded as a native of Ja-
■ maica *, and other iflands in the Weft Indies.   Is faid to feed on
plants and fmall fifh. The flefh is for the moft part pretty good.
Red-tailed Wate
Rallus Phsnicur
-Hen, Ind. Zool. p. 10. pl. 9.
s, Zool. Ind. p. 19. pl. 9.
CIZE of the common Gallinule: length nine inches: weight
feven ounces and a quarter. The bill yellowifh green; at
the bafe reddifh : forehead bare, and flefh-coloured : the plumage above is black : the forehead, round the eyes, and under
parts, white: the quills black, marked with large fpots of a
blueifh eaft: the vent and tail ferruginous red : legs dirty green,
tinged with red : toes long.
This fpecies inhabits Ceylon, where it is pretty frequent, and
called Kalu-kerenaka; and feems to be one of the kinds we fo
often fee figured in Chinefe paintings.
ie, Buf. Oif viii. p. 20
a Chine, Pl. Enl. 896.
T   ENGTH fifteen or fixteen inches,
parts of the plumage dufky afh-colou
The crown and upper
r:   forehead  and under
parts  white:   belly   and vent rufous:   the  quills  and tail  are
black: the legs yellow : toes long.
Inhabits China.
LI
IN
 I
-GALLINUL  E.
N my poffeffion is another variety, of the fame length as the
firft. The crown and upper parts, quills and tail, a full
gloffy black : forehead, and under parts as far as the vent, white:
the laft red : legs flender and yellow : toes long *.
This laft came either from the Cape of Good Hope, or Madagafcar, and was attempted to be brought to England alive, as it
was tolerably familiar j but it died in the paffage.
Kolben mentions a Water Hen as common at the'Capef, and
merely fays that it is cc black, and of the fize of the common
European Water Hen." It may perhaps prove- one of the va-^
rieties of this fpecies.
Fulica fufca, Lin. Syft. i. p..257. 1.
La petite Poule d'Eau, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 6-2.
La Poulette d'Eau, Buf. Oif viii. p. 177.
Another green-footed Water-Hen of Bellonius, Will. Orn. p. 314.
Aldrovandus'i Italian Rail, Rail Syn. p. 116. 15.—Will. Orn. p. 319.
'TP HIS is lefs than the common Gallinule : length one foot. Bill
one inch, olive green: irides red: eyelids white: the plumage-
above is olive brown: throat,, and fore part of the neck, deep
afh-colour, with a tinge of olive : breaft, belly, and thighs, afh-
colour, the feathers margined with white at the tips : under tail,
coverts black : bend ofthe wing white : quills dufky brown; the
* Thefe birds no doubt vary much in colour. I have met with them in two
different fets of Chinefe drawings, in both of which the forehead was of a deep,
red : the bill and legs green : quills and tail dufky black.
f Kolb. Cape,,vol. ii. p. 140.
outer
 GALLINULE.
outer one edged with white : the tail is olive brown; the outer
feather white,, and a little rounded in fhape: legs olive brown:
garter round the knee yellow.
This inhabits France, and is a folitary bird; frequenting the
fame places with the common Gallinules, but not mixing with that
fpecies: it feeds on the fame food as that bird, and the flefh
is much like it in the tafte.
In all probability this is the fame with Aldrovandus's Italian
Rail, which is taken in the neighbourhood of Venice with great
ceremony : feveral perfons wading among the marfhy places, and
driving them from the bufhes and places where they lurk, while
others being ready with Hawks, let them off as foon as they take
wing. They are faid to have been much efteemed at the time of
the above-mentioned author-
La grande Poule-d'Eau, Brif Orn. vi. p. 9. 3.
*—> , ou Porzane, Buf. Oif. viii. p. 178.
Gallina cKloropus altera Aldrov. Rail Syn. p. 114. 3.
The other green-footed Water-Hen of Aldrovand, Witt. Orn. p. 313.
T ARGER than the laft: length eighteen inches. Bill two
inches long ; the bafe, and moft part of the under mandible,
yellow; the reft of the length black : bare part on the forehead
yellow : the head and neck are blackifh : the upper parts of the
body and wings chefnut: breaft, belly, and fides, dull afh-colour,
edged with white : lower belly and vent white : the thighs afh-
colour, croffed with indiftinct lines of white : tail rounded in
fhape ; the colour chefnut, except the two outer feathers, which
are white: legs green.
The female differs only in being paler in colour.
yellow-
 GALLINULE.
YELLOW-
BREASTED G.
Description.
Yellow-breafted Gallinule, Ara. Zool. N° 410.
CIZE fmaller than a Quail.     Crown and   hind part of the
neck dark olivaceous brown, fpotted with white : back plain
brown: fcapulars edged with yellowifh white: breaft dirty yellow : legs brown.
Inhabits the province of New York.  \
Plac]
Man
Rallus Carolinus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 263. 9.
La Poule-Sultane de la Baye d'Hudfon, Brif. Orn. v. p. 541. 9.
Le Rale de Virginie, Buf. Oif. viii. p. 165.
Little American Water-Hen, Edw. pl. 144.
Soree, Cateft. Car. i. pl. 70.—Burnab. Trav. p. 16. 42.- Ara. Zool. N° 409,
Lev. Muf.
■*"pHlS fpecies is the fize of a Quail, but ftands higher on its
legs: length from feven to eight inches. Bill an inch long,
and yellow : over the forehead fomewhat bare : irides red : the
crown, and the upper parts ofthe bird, are dull brown, fpotted
with black : the whole face, round the bill, the chin, and part of
the neck before, black : fides of the head, the neck, and breaft,
blueifh afh-colour: belly and fides dufky white; the laft tranfverfely barred with black : the wing coverts are the colour of the
back, but plain; fcapulars edged with white: outer edge of
the wjng white : quills and tail brown : legs dufky green.
Thefe inhabit Virginia, at certain feafons, in vaft plenty.   Burnaby * mentions catching one hundred dozen of Soruffes in one
* Burnab. Trav. p. 42, alfo p. 16.—He here calls them more delicious than
 GALLINULE.
night, by the Pamunky Indians in King William's Country.    " The
manner of taking thefe birds is remarkable.   The Sorus is not
[c known to be in Virginia, except for about fix weeks from the
x latter end of September: at that time they are found in the
jc marfnes in prodigious numbers, feeding on the wild oats.    At
firft they are exceeding lean, but in a fhort time grow fo fat as
to be unable to fly : in this ftate they lie upon the reeds, and
the Indians go out in  canoes, and knock them on  the head
with their paddles.    They are rather bigger than a Lark, and
are delicious eating.    During the time of their continuing in
feafon you meet with them at the tables of moft of the Planters,
breakfaft, dinner, andfupper."
»*3
La Poule-Sultane tachetee, Brif. Om. v. p. 538. 8.. ,7<
La Grinette, Buf Oif viii. p. 179. GRINETTA G.
Poliopus, Gallinula minor Aldrov. Rail Syn. p.  114. 5.
A fmall Water Hen, called Grinetta, Will. Om. p. 315. pl. 58.
Small Water Hen, Albin, ii. pl. 73.
T  ESS than the Water Rail: length nine inches and three quar-     Description.
ters. Bill ten lines long ; colour of it and the irides yellowifh green : forehead bare and yellow: the feathers of the
head and upper parts black, with rufous margins; thofe of the
back have the margins likewife fringed with white : over the eye
a white ftreak : the throat blueifh afh-colour : fore part of the
neck and breaft the fame, with an olive tinge, and fpotted with
black: belly and thighs pale rufous : fides tranfverfely barred
black and white : wing coverts rufous, marked with tranfverfe,
waved, or zigzag lines : quills dufky brown, edged outwardly with
white : tail the fame, but the two middle feathers white on both
margins,.
'■■■'
-   I
11!
 G   A   L   L  I
N   U   L  E.
: legs dirty green: toes very
margins, and rounded in fhape
long.
This fpecies inhabits Italy, about Bologna, and known by the
name of Grinetta, and at Milan called Gillerdine. This has much
affinity, if not the fame, with the following fpecies.
Rallus porzana, Lin. Syft. i. p. 262. 3.—Scop. Ann. i. N"   144.—Frifch.
t. 211.
Le petit Rale d'Eau, ou le Marouette, Brif. Orn. v. p. 155. pl. 13. fig. 1.—
Buf. Oif. viii. p. 157.—Pl. Enl. 751.
Gallinula ochra, Wynkernel, Rail Syn. p. 115. 7.—Witt. Orn. p. 316.
Spotted Gallinule, Br. Zool. N° 215.
Lev. Muf.
*"pHIS is much fmaller than the Crake, and meafures in
length lefs than nine inches : breadth near fifteen: weight
four ounces. The bill three quarters of an inch long, and of a
greenifh yellow : irides reddifh hazel: the head is brown, dafhed
with black : over the eyes a ftreak of pale grey : hind part of the
neck and fides cinereous brown, marked with fmall white fpots:
back and wing coverts olive brown, dafhed with black, and
fpotted with white on the edges of the feathers : greater coverts
blotched and barred with white: fides of the head, beneath the
eyes, the chin, and fore part of the neck, pale grey, dotted with
brown: breaft brown, fpotted with white : fides under the wings
irregularly barred with white: belly cinereous and white mixed;
down the middle dirty white : vent and under tail coverts yellowifh white : legs pale green.
* Willughby obferves, that the tail when fpread out is concave, and not even,
as in other birds, and is a peculiar characteriftic.
This
 GALLINULE.
This bird haunts the fame places as the common Gallinule, but
is not very frequent in this kingdom: we have not been able to
trace it farther north than Cumberland, where it is known to
breed*; and one of them, in company with its mate,- was fhot
near Dartford in Kent, the fartheft fouth we have heard of it.
It is fuppofed to be migratory here as well as in France and
Italy, where it is found early in fpring, and is not uncommon.
We likewife find it in the fouthern reedy grounds of Rujfia, and
the weft of Sibiria\ ; but we believe no where fo plentiful as the
common fpecies. It is a folitary bird, except in breeding-time;
fkulks among the rufhes and reeds, and builds among the latter:
the neft is compofed of rufhes matted together in form of a boat,
like which it is as it were moored, by fattening one end to a
reed, to prevent its being carried away by the water. The female lays feven or eight eggs; the young run as foon as hatched,
and are wholly black. Buffon mentions one of this fpecies that
was kept, tame, and was obferved to ftand in water for a long
time together, if not difturbed: it was fed with bread and hemp-
feed %.
A fpecies analogous to this, if not the fame, is alfo found at
Hudfon's Bay -, it is much fmaller, meafuring in length only eight
inches, breadth fourteen, and weighs fcarce three ounces; it
comes there in May, and is feen in plenty along the coafts of the
bay, and about rivers, brooks, and lakes. Lays ten or twelve
white eggs, in a bufh or grafs : departs in October. Known
there by the name of Paupakapatefew%.
1
* Dr. Heyfham.       f Mr. Pennant.        % Hift. des Oif.        § Mr. Hutchins.
Vol. III. M m La
 G   A
N   U   L
SPECKLED G.
Description.
a Poule-Sultane mouchete'e, Brif. Orn. v
[atkneltzel, Matkern, Rati Syn. p. 109.
p. 53b. 7.
o.—Will. Om
p. 304. pl. 56.
Q I Z E of the Crake Gallinule :
dull yellow : forehead bare,
length eleven inches. Bill of a
md of the fame colour : the upper parts of the plumage rufous hrown, marked with black and
white fpots on the wings : fides of the head, throat, and fore
part of the neck, white: from-thence to the vent brown: the two
middle tail feathers are black, tipped with white; the others
brown : legs grey.
This frequents the marfhes of Germany.    It is called Matknelt-
zel, and Matkern.
YELLOW-
LEGGED G.
La Poule-Sultane rouffe, Brif. Om. v. p. 534. 6.
La Smirring, Buf. Oif viii. p. 180.
Gallinula ochropus major, Rail Syn. p. 115. 6.
The Water-Hen, called Ochropus, Will. Orn. p. 316.
CIZE of the common Gallinule. Bill yellow, with the end
black: edges of the eyelids faffron-colour: forehead bare,
and of a pale yellow: the reft of the head, and upper parts of
the bird, rufous, fpotted with black : fides of the head and under
parts white : leffer wing coverts fpotted with dufky, and a little
brown; the edges reddifh near the tips; the outer greater ones
the fame; but thofe near the body white: quills black: tail
rufous, fpotted with black: legs of a pale yellow*.
Inhabits Germany, where it is called Schmirring.
• There is a figure ia Gefner, fee Ic, 103.—Av, "07, but it feems to want
the back toe.
 GALLINULE.
La Poule-Sultane brune, Brif. Orn. v, p. 531.
La Glout, Buf. Oif. viii. p. 181.
np H E bill in this fpecies is black: the forehead bare, and of
a yellowifh green : the plumage on the upper parts brown :
fides of the head, and under parts, white; and there is a little
mixture of the fame on the wing coverts : quills and tail brown :
legs yellowifh grey: claws grey.
Inhabits Germany, and frequents the banks of rivers and ponds,
like moft of the genus. It is known about Strajburg by the
name of Glutt, and has a fhrill kind of note not unlike that of a
fmall flute or fife.
Br.  Muf.
CIZE of the Coot: length eighteen inches. Bill as in that
bird : forehead and crown bare, and of a reddifh colour, rifing
at the back part into a knob, not unlike that on the head of the
Guinea Pintado: the head and neck afh-colour: chin mottled
with white: body and wings greenifh afh-colour; outer edge of
the laft pale : under parts of the body pale afh : middle of the
belly white : legs very flout and brown.
Suppofed to have come from China.
M m s
 [.2*8     ]
Genus LXXVI.    SHEATH-BILL*.
N° i. White Sheath-bill.
BILL ftrong, thick, a little convex; the top of the upper
mandible covered with a corneous fheath.
Noftrils fmall, juft appearing beyond the fheath.
Tongue round above, flat beneath, and pointed at the end.
At the bend ofthe wing a blunt knob.
Legs flout, gallinaceous, bare a little way above the knee;
toes edged with a thick membrane, the middle one connected to
the outer as far as the firft joint; claws channelled beneath.
WHITE SH.
Pl. LXXXiX.
CIZE of a large Pigeon: length from fifteen to eighteen
inches. Bill black at the bafe ; over the noftrils a horny appendage, which covers them, except juft on the fore part; and de-
fcends fo low on each fide, as to hang over part of the under
mandible; this is moveable, and may be raifed upwards, or de-
preffed fo as to lay flat on the bill: round the bafe, between that
and the eyes, and round them, the parts are bare, and covered
only with warty excrefcences, of a white, or pale orange-colour;
over the eye a brown or blackifh one, larger than the reft :
irides dull lead-colour: the plumage is all over as white as fnow:
at the bend of the wing is a blunt blackifh knob : the legs are
bare a little way above the knees, and are two inches long, flout,
' Genera of Birds, p. 43.
and
 9^M^-/;/A.l
  SHEATH-BILL.
and of a reddifh colour : claws black.    In young birds the tubercles round the eyes are very fmall, or wholly wanting.
Thefe inhabit New Zealand, and feveral other parts explored
by our late circumnavigators; and are apt to vary in regard to
the colour of their extremities, as well.as fize, in the different
places in which they have been feen. In thofe from Kerguelen's
Land fome had brown legs, with the toes black; and others the
legs white, or a pale blue. In one met with at Staaten Land the
legs were black ; and the bill in fome fpecimens of a pale brown.
• Thefe birds haunt the fea fhores in flocks, and feed on Shell
Fifh and carrion*. In refpect to their being ufed for food, our
voyagers differ greatly: fome of them put it in competition with
the Duck~\ ; while others tell us that it is worfe than carrion; for it
had fuch a horrid offenfive fmell, that they could not venture to
tafte the flefh, and that at a time when they were not eafily dif-
guftedj: we may therefore venture to conclude, that thofe who
praifed it as a delicacy were at leaft very hungry.
260
1 Forft. Voy. i. 518.       f Cook's laft Voy. i. p.
 [   27°   3
Order VIII.    With PINNATED FEET.
Genus LXXVIL   PHALAROPE.
N° i. Red Ph.
Var. A.
2. Grey Ph.
N°3. Plain Ph.
4. Brown Ph.
5. Barred Ph.
B
ILL flrait.
Noftrils minute.
Body and legs in every refpect like the Sandpiper.
Toes furnifhed with broad and generally fcolloped membranes.
RED PH.
The Male.
Description.
Tringa hyperborea, Lin. Syft. i. p.   249. 9.—Faun.  Suec N* 179 (laft defcribed).— Mutter, N° 196—Faun. Groenl. N° 75.
Le Phalarope cendre, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 15. 2.—Buf. Oif. viii. p. 224.
Phalarope de Siberie, Pl. Enl. 766.
Larus fidipes alter noftras, Rail Syn. p. 132. A; 7.
Small cloven-footed Gull, Will. Orn. p. 355.
Cock Coot-footed Tringa, Edw. pl. 143.
Red Phalarope, Br. Zool. N" 219. pl. 76.—Ara. Zool. N04i3.
Lev. Muf.
CIZE of the Purre : length eight inches.    Bill one inch, and
black: the top of the head, hind part of the neck, and back,
are afh-colour, furrounding the neck at the lower part: from the
bafe of the bill, paffing through the eyes, to the hind head, is a
dufky
 PHALAROPE,
dufky ftripe: behind each eye is a rufous one, paffing on the fides-
: of the neck, and joining the laft behind : the rump and upper tail
coverts are banded dufky and white: all the under parts of the
body white,' the under wing covert.s croffed with black lines : the
upper coverts are afh-colour; the greater incline to brown, and
are tipped with white, forming a band on the wings: fcapulars
margined with rufous: quills dufky; fome of the fecondaries
tipped with white: tail dufky : legs lead-colour.
Tringa fulicaria, Lin. Syft. i. p. 249. 10.— Faun. Groenl. N° 76.
Le Phalarope rouffatre, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 20. 4.
■ rouge, Buf. Oif. viii. p. 225.
Red Coot-footed Tringa, Edw. pl. 142.
CIZE ofthe laft. Bill the fame: head, throat, hind part of
the neck and back, fcapulars, and upper tail coverts, black,
with rufous margins : over the eyes a pale rufous ftreak : rump
-white, fpotted with dufky: the under part, from the throat,
dufky red : wings and tail as in the laft defcribed.
Thefe two birds are undoubtedly male and female; and are
rare in England; their having once been fhot in Yorkfhire is on
record. More common on the continent. Found in Sibiria, and
in the neighbourhood of the Cafpian Sea; alfo in Scandinavia.
Met with in Hudfon's Bay; and found by our circumnavigators
between Afta and America. Come into Greenland in April, and
depart in September. Generally found in pairs; and are obferved
while fwimming to be continually dipping their bills in the water
after infects; for it cannot dive, nor fwim but very imperfectly.
They come into Hudfon's Bay the beginning of June, and lay four
eggs,
Hi
 1
PHALAROPE.
eggs, the middle of that month, on a dry fpot; the young fly in
Auguft; departs in September. Known there by the name of
Occumujhifich.
Plate in Fro:
tispiece-
Description.
T ENGTH eight inches and a half. Bill three quarters of an
inch, and black: the plumage on all the upper parts dufky
brown, a little clouded : chin white : the breaft the colour of the
upper parts, but paler: belly and vent white: on each fide of
the neck is an irregular large fpot, of a deep ferruginous red colour : the greater wing coverts tipped with white, forming a bar
on the wing : quills black: tail cinereous, the two middle feathers darkeft: legs dufky : the toes furnifhed with a lobated
membrane like the Red Phalarope, which it much refembles.
Found between Afia and America, from lat. 66 to 69.    In the
collection of Sir Jofeph Banks.
- GREY PH.
Description,
Tringa lobata, Lin. Syft.
Mutter,  N°   195.-2
Le Phalaropi
fig- 3 ?
, Brif. On
p. 249. 8.—Faun. Suec.
tun. Groenl.  N° 75.—N.
179.—Brun. N-s 171.-
C. Petr. vol. xiv.
18. 1.
s denteles, Buf Oif. viii. p. 226.
Grey Coot-footed Tringa, Edw. pl. 308.—Phil. Tranf. vol. 1. pl. 6.
Grey Phalarope, Br. Zool. N° 218. pl. 76.—Ara. Zool. N°4i2.
Lev. Muf.
-fj ILL black, flatted near the tip: forehead white: crown
•• dufky : hind part of the neck light grey : back, rump, and
fcapulars, deep dove-colour, marked with dufky fpots ; edges of
the fcapulars yellow: coverts and prime quills dufky; the firft
edged with white : breaft and belly white : tail dufky, edged
9 with
 PHALAROPE.
with afh-colour : legs black: toes fcalloped: the margins of the
membranes finely ferrated.
In my. collection is a fpecimen, which differs fomewhat. The
whole top ofthe head, fides, chin, and neck, are white: the hind
part of the head and neck dufky: the prime quills plain ; the
fecondaries margined with white : the fcalloped membranes yellowifh. I fufpect it to be a young bird, not yet come to its full
plumage.
Inhabits the northern parts of Europe, Iceland and Greenland -y
is feen alfo in England, but rarely. Frequent throughout Sibiria,
in the neighbourhood of the lakes and rivers, efpecially in autumn. Alfo met with among the ice between Afiia and America.
If the fame with that in the Philofophical TranfaSlions, it frequents
the fait marfhes, and flies in flocks about the borders ofthe
Cafpian Sea.
Plain Phalarope, ArS. Zool. N° 415.
T5ILL black, flender, dilated at the end: crown dufky and
dull yellow: acrofs each eye a black line : cheeks and fore
part of the neck clay-colour : breaft and belly white : back and
tertials dufky, edged with dull yellow: wing coverts, primaries,
and tail, cinereous; the laft edged like the tertials : legs yellowifh : toes bordered with a plain or unfealloped membrane.
Taken in the Frozen Sea, lat. 6yk> long. 191!.
Vol. III.
 &74
PHALAROPE.
Le Phalarope brun, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 18. N° 3.
Coot-footed Tringa, Edw. pl 46.
Brown Phalarope, Ara. Zool. N° 414.
CIZE of the other. Bill flender, a trifle bent at the end, and
black : crown ofthe head black : the colour of the upper parts
not unlike thofe of the Purre * fore part of the neck afh-coloar,
with a flight bloffom-coloured tinge : the reft of the under parts
white: legs black: the toes furnifhed with a fcalloped membrane
on the fides.
Inhabits America.    One ofthe above flew on board a fhip on
the coaft of Maryland.
BARRED PH.
Description.
T ENGTH feven inches and a half. Bill one inch, black:
the feathers on the upper parts ofthe bird brown, edged withr
white: under parts white, tranfverfely barred with dufky : quills
dufky, with the ends brown, and the margins and tips very pale j
tail the fame, fpotted on both webs with white : legs dufky.
Inhabits Chrifimas Ifland.    In  the collection of Sir Jofeph
Banks.
Genus
 [   *75   ]
Genus   LXXVIII.
COOT.
N* i. Common Coot.
2. Greater C.
3. Crefted C.
N" 4. Mexican C.
5. Cinereous C.
BILL ftrong, thick, Hoping to the point; the bafe of the
upper mandible riling far up into the forehead : both mandibles of equal length.
Noftrils incline to oval, narrow, fhort.
Body comprefled : wings fhort.
Tail fhort.
Toes long, furnifhed with broad fcalloped membranes.
This laft diftinction in the toes will ferve to feparate the above
genus from the Gallinule, both being ranked under one (Fulica)
by Linnaus: as in the laft, the toes are quite plain.
Fulica atra, Lin. Syft. i. p. 257. 2.—Faun. Suec. ig*.--Stop. Ann. i. N° 149.
—Brun. 190.—Mutter, N° 216.—Kram. El. p. 357. i.—Frifch, t. 208.
—Georgi Reife, p. 172.
La Foulque, ou Morelle, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 23. 1. pl. 2. fig. 2.—Buf. Oif.
viii. p. 211. pl. 18.—Pl. Enl. 197.
The Coot, Rati  Syn. p.  116. A. l.—Will. Orn. p. 319. pl. 59.—Albin, i.
pl. 83.— Br. Zool. N° 220. pl. 77.—Ara. Zool. N° 416.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
CIZE of a fmall Fowl: length fifteen inches: weight from
twenty-four to twenty-eight ounces.    The bill is an inch and
one third long, of a greenifh white: the forehead bare fas far
N n 2 as
 276 COOT.
as the crown, and covered with a white fkin* : the head, neckr
and back, are black; the laft inclining to afh-colour; the breaft,
belly, and vent, afh-colour : outer edge of the wing white: at
the beginning of the naked part above the knee a circle or garter
of yellow: the colour ofthe legs yellowifh green: toes furnifhed
on each fide, with a fcalloped broad membrane.
No difference obferved between the fexes.
Place. The Coot is pretty common throughout England at all feafons ;
fometimes met with many together in winter; but in breeding-
time chiefly in pairs about the borders of ponds well covered
with weeds, rufhes, &c. and both fwims and dives well. It
makes a very large neft of weeds well matted together, lining it
within with grafs, &c. and lays as far as fourteen or fifteen eggsf,
two inches and a quarter long, of a pale brownifh white, regularly peppered with chocolate-coloured fpots, fome of them very
minute, the biggeft only an eighth of an inch in fize, moft fpotted
at the largeft end : the young take to the water very foon after
hatching. This fpecies is not fo numerous as might be expected;
for we find that vaft numbers fall a prey while young to the
Buzzards, which frequent the marfhes. The food is fmall fifh
and water infecls -, but will fometimes eat the roots of the bulrujh,
and with it feed the young; is faid likewife to eat grain.
We believe this fpecies to extend throughout the old continent)
and perhaps the new alfo. Authors record it as inhabiting
Greenland, Sweden,  Norway, Ruffia, Sibiria, Perfia, and China,.
* Briffon fays red -, but it is only fo in the feafon of incubation. I have never
yet feen it of a_/W/red.
t As far as eighteen- or twenty, Hift. des Oif.—And further, that if the firitfej h
taken away, it will lay ten or twelve more for a fecond hatch.
and
 o
T.
and many ofthe intermediate parts. It is alfo met with in Jamaica, Carolina, and other parts of North America. The Indians
about Niagara drefs their fkins, and ufe them for pouches. Called
in Carolina, Flufterers *.
A Coot has been once fhot, at Spalding in Lincolnjhire, which
was white, except a few feathers in the wings and about the
head -h
We do not find the Coot efteemed as food; but remember
once to have tailed fome young ones which were fkinned and put
into a pie, which was thought very good.
*m
Fulica aterrima, Lin. Syft. %p. 25S
La grande Foulque, ou la Macrouk
Buf. Oif. viii. p. 220.
Fulica major, or greater Coot,  Rail S-
pl. 51.—Br. Zool. N° 221.
3.—Scop. Ann. 1. N° 150.
Brif. Orn. vi. p. 28. 2. pl. 2. fig. 2.—
. Om, p. 239.
^THIS is of a larger fize than the laft, but differs not in the
colour*of the plumage, except that it is blacker. Briffon
diftinguifhes the two by the colours of the bare part of the forehead, which is in this white; and the garters, which are of a-
deep red J.
This bird is faid to be found in Lancajhire and Scotland, It
fliould feem to be a mere variety of the former, did not authors
join in advancing the contrary. They are more plentiful on the
continent, being found in Ruffia and the weftern part of Sibiria
very common; and are alfo in plenty at Sologne and the neigh-
• Ara. Zool. f Br. Zool.
% This can be no diftinftion, as birds differ in the colour of thefe parts according to the feafon.
bouring
 £7*3 COO      T.
bouring parts, where they call it Judelle.    The people eat them
on maigre days, and the flefh is much efteemed *.
3-
CRESTED
COOT.
Pl. XC.
Description.
La grande Foulque a crete, Buf. Oif. viii. p. 222.
Foulque de Madagafcar, Pl. Enl. 797.
•**pHIS is ftill larger than the greater fpecies, being eighteen
inches in length. Bill red at the bafe, and whitifh the reft
of its length: the whole crown bare, of a deep red, and rifing
into a bifid detached membrane like a creft, as in fome of the
Jacana fpecies : the whole plumage blue black : legs dufky, and
fhaped like thofe ofthe commonfpecins.
Inhabits Madagafcar, and I make no doubt China alfo ; as one
feen by me in fome Chinefe drawings anfwered to the above defcription. The garter above the knee was of three colours, red,
green, and yellow; and the name ofthe bird TzingKye.
4, La Foulque du Mexique, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 31.3.
MEXICAN C. Yohoalcoachillin, Rait Syn. p. 117. 3.
D-escription.     CIZE of the greater Coot.    Bill red t, with a yellow tip : forehead bare and red : head, neck, breaft, belly,  thighs, under
wing and tail coverts, purple : back,  rump, and wing coverts,
pale green, varied with blue and fulvous : quills pale green.
Plac«- Inhabits Mexico.
t Rav favs it is 1
   Lev. Muf
CMALLER than the common Coot. Bill pale green: bare
place over the forehead fmaller than in that fpecies, and
white: plumage above dufky afh-colour; beneath the fame, but
paler : chin dufky white: down the middle of the belly the fame :
legs blue black : the membranes on each fide of the toes much
narrower than in any other of the fpecies.
Said to inhabit North America.
Gen
 Red-necked Gr.
Black-breafted Gr.
9. Louifiane Gr.
10. Little Gr.
Var. A.
White-winged Gr.
Black-chin Gr.
Pied-bill Gr.
THE bill in this genus is ftrong, flender, and fharp-
pointed.
Noftrils linear.
Space between the bill and eye [or lore"] bare of feathers.
Tongue flightly cloven at the end.
Body depreffed : feathers thick fet, compact, and very frnooth
and gloffy.
Wings fhort.    No tail.
Legs placed far behind *, much comprefled, and doubly at the
back part.
Toes furnifhed on each fide with a broad plain membrane.
This genus is placed by Linnaus, with the Guillemot and Diver, under the general name of Colymbus, without even a divifion•,
but they differ materially from one another in many particulars,
* From the legs being as it were placed in the vent, fome of the genus have
been called, by the lower clafs, By the very vulgar name of Arfe-f~oot.
more
 GREBE.
more efpecially in the legs : in the Grebes they are not webbed \
the Guillemots, though web-footed, have only three toes, all
placed forwards; and the Divers have three toes before and one
behind *.
Colymbus criftatus, Lin. Syft. i; p. 222. 7.— Faun. Suec. N° 151.—Scop. \.
Ann. i. N° 99.—Brun. 135 Mutter, N° tf.—Frifcb. tab. 183. -+-CRESTED GR.
La Grebe huppee, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 38. 2. pl. 4.—Buf. Oif. viii. p. 233.—
Pl. Enl. 944.
La Grebe cornue, Brif. Orn. vi.  p. 45. 4.  pl. 5. fig. 1.—Buf. Oif. viii.
p. 233. pl. 19.—Pl. Enl. 400.
Colymbus major criftatus & cornutus, Rail Syn. p. 124. A. 2.
Greater crefted and  horned Ducker, Will. Orn. p. 340. § 4. 5. pl. 61.—
Plott. Hift. Staff, p. 229. pl. 22.—Albin, i. pl. 81. ii. pl. 75.
Great crefted Grebe, Br. Zool. N° 233.—-Ar3. Zool p. 498. A.
Br. Muf    Lev. Muf.
CIZE of a Duck : length twenty-three inches : breadth twenty-
three and a half. Bill two inches and a half long, of a reddifh
flefh-colour; tip brown: lore and irides crimfon: head greatly
enlarged with feathers, fo as to make it appear unnatural; thefe
feathers are much elongated on each fide of the hind head, appearing like ears, and from thence rounded like a ruff to the
under jaw; the colour black, except the middle of the laft, which
is bright ferruginous : the hind part of the neck, upper parts of
the body, and wings, are brown : fides of the head, round the
eyes, and under parts, from chin to vent, filvery white: in
many birds a mixture of pale ferruginous acrofs the breaft: on
the wings an oblique white bar : the inner ridge of the wing is
alfo white : legs dufky.
* See Brif Orn. vol. vi. p. 33. 70. 104.—Gen. of Birds, p. 46. 51.
Vol. III. O o The
Description
 a8a
Fema
Young I
Place an
Manner
GREBE.
The female is faid to differ in having the head lefs tufted; in
other things it much refembles the male *.
The young birds differ exceedingly at different flages of life :
at firft they are perfectly downy, and ftriped, efpecially down the
! neck, with black : after this, when about half grown, the ftripes
on the neck are lefs diftinct, being rather mottled than ftriped;
and the under part, though white, is clouded with dufky j-; at
this period a fullnefs round the head is obferved : as the bird advances flill further towards perfection the brown and white appear clear and diftinct, the head becomes much tufted, and the
horns are a little elongated. But we have great reafon to believe
that the bird does not obtain the full and perfect creft till the"
fecond year at leafl.
The above are fufficiently common in fome parts of England,
breeding in the meres of Shropfhire and Chefhire, and in the eaft
fen of Lincolnjhire, where they are called Gaunts-, in fome parts
known by the name of Cargoofe. The-female lays four white
eggs the fize of thofe of a Pigeon : the neft is of a large fize, and
formed of bogbean, flalks of water-lilly, pond-weed, and water-
violet% floating independent among the reeds and flags } the water
penetrates it, and the bird fits and hatches in that condition.
The food ofthe old bird is finally, which it gets by diving, and
at times will eat vegetables %.   It feeds the young with fmall eels -,
* In one fhewn to
fmaller than in the *
white alfo, the head h
be a bird in incomplei
f See Brunnich, p. .
■   % Dr. Heyfham mentions one of the  Tippet  Grebes  being  fhot  near Carlifk,
which had half-digefted vegetables, and a great number of feathers, in its flomach.
and
: Mr. Boddam's as a female, the ruff was- white, and
the tufts on the top of the head were fhorter, and
no rufous tinge about it.—Weffpea the above to
 GREBE.
and will carry them, when tired, on its back : is feldom or never
feen on land: is a quick diver, and difficult to be fhot, as it
darts down on the leaft appearance of danger; and feldom flies
farther than the end of the lake it frequents *.
283
Colymbus urinator, Lin. Syft. 1. p. 223. 9.—Scop. Ann. i. N° 102 f. 2.
La Grebe, Brif Orn. vi. p. 34. 1. pl. 3. fig. l.—Buf. Oif. viii. p. 227.—      TIPPET GR.
Pl. Enl. 941.
Colymbus major, Raii Syn. p. 125. 6.
Greater Loon, or Arfe-foot, Will. Orn. p. 339.
 Dobchick, Edw. pl. 360. fig. 2.
Tippet Grebe, Br. Zool. N° 222. pl. 78.
Lev. Muf.
AUTHORS "inform us that, this is fomewhat lefs than the     Description.
great crefted Grebe; and that it wants both the creft and ruff,
fo confpicuous in that bird. The fides of the neck are ftriped
downwards from the head with narrow lines of black and white:
in other rfcfpedts the colours and marks agree.
It is faid to be rather fcarce in England, but has been fhot on       Place an»
Rofterne-mere in Chejhire.    Are common in the winter time on the        Manners.
lake of Geneva, appearing in flocks of ten or twelve, and are
killed for the fake of their beautiful fkins; the under fides of them,
being dreffed with the feathers on, are made into muffs and tippets:
f Scopoli defcribes two birds : in one the upper parts are brown : belly and
under fide of the wings white. The other (fuppofed to be of a different fex)
larger; but differs in having a white throat, a rufous neck, and two Black
ftreaks produced downwards from each eye.
O o 2 each
 284
GREBE.
each bird fells for about fourteem fhiliings*. It is alfo mentioned:
as a common bird in the lakes of Sibiria; but mot feen in Rmffia-\.
It is with fome reluctance that we pen our doubts concerning
the identity of this as a fpecies, at leafl as being diftinct from the
great crefted Grebe, in contradiction to what former authors
have recorded on the fubject. It is certain that the laft-named bird
varies exceedingly at different periods of life, from what has been
faid above; and we are likewife as certain that the birds which
have been pointed out to us as the Geneva Grebes, have been no
other than young ones of the great crefted, not having yet attained the creft; and whoever will compare Briffon's three figures of the birds in queftion %, will find i(fctoe creft excepted) that
. they all exactly coincide, allowing for their different periods of
age. We have been further led into this opinion from the cir-
cumftance of a large flock of them, which appeared in various
parts ofthe fhores of the Thames, from Gravefend to Greenwich,
laft winter, many of which were killed and came under our infpection : among them we found the greateft variety about the
head, from being perfectly without a creft, to the moft complete
one, with all the intermediate ftages above mentioned.
CAYENNE GR.
Le grand Grebe, Buf. Oif. viii. p. 242.
Grebe de Cayenne, Pl. Enl. 404. fig. 1.
'TP H I S  is nineteen inches and a half in length.    The bill is
dufky; the under mandible yellow at the bafe: head, and
upper parts of the neck and body, dufky brown : fore parts, as far
* Br. Zool. f Mr. 1
X Brif vol. vi. pl. 3. fig.
. pl, 4. and pl. 5. fig
 GREBE.  ,|g|j
as the breaft, and fides, rufous: the laft mixed with brown : breaft
and upper part of the  belly white; the lower  part,  and vent,
brown : legs dufky.
Inhabits Cayenne.
285
Colymbus auritus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 222. 8.—Faun. Suec. 152.—Scop. Ann. i.
N° 100.— Brun. 136. 137.—Mutter, p. 20.
La Grebe a oreilles, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 54. 6.
Le petit Grebe huppe, Buf. Oif viii. p. 235.
Eared Dobchick, Edw. pl. 96. fig. 2.
 Grebe, Br. Zool. N° 234. pl. 7g.—Ara. Zool. p. 499. B.
Br. Muf    Lev. Muf.
CIZE of a Teal: length twelve inches. Bill one inch, black;
bending a little upwards at the point; the colour of the bafe
reddifh: lore and irides crimfon : the head is very full of feathers, and of a dufky black: the neck and under parts of the
body the fame *: from behind each eye fprings a tuft of orange-
coloured feathers, growing broader, and almoft meeting behind:
the breaft and under parts are filvery white : fides of the body
ferruginous chefnut: legs black.
The female differs in having the head lefs full of feathers than
the male.
This is found in the northern parts of Europe, the temperate
and northern parts of Sibiria, and in Iceland. Said alfo by Bougainville to be met with in Falkland Iflands, where it was named the
Diver with Speclacks %.
* In fome birds the fore part ofthe neck is mottled with white.
X See Boug. Voy. p. 61.
 GREBE.
La petite Grebe huppee, Brif Orn. iii. pl- 3. fig- 2-
Colymbus nigricans, Scop. Ann. i. N° 101 ?
Afh-coloured Loon, Rail Syn. p. 12$. 1—(Will. Om. p. 340. pl. 61 ?
DODY the fize of a Lapwing: length eleven inches. Bill an
inch and a quarter, black : head rather full of feathers, and
elongated into two fhort tufts, one on each fide the hind head :
colour of the head, neck, and upper parts, fine brown: fides of
the head, and"fore part of the neck, white, the laft marked with
chefnut fpots; the white of the throat paffes far back below the
hind head on each fide, and under this the brown advances towards the fore part: the breaft, belly, thighs, and fides, white \
the laft marked with chefnut and brown fpots: wing coverts
brown; fome of thofe next the body, and part of the fecond
quills, white : legs olive brown.
This feems to partake both of the laft as well as of the following fpecies; but we hefitate not to pronounce it the former in one
of its progreffive ftages towards perfection, as it varies much like
the crefted fpecies at the different periods of age.
La petite Grebe, Brif.  Om. vi. p. 56. 7.—Buf. Oif viii. p. 232.—Pl.
Enl. 942.
Black and white Dobchick, Edw. pl. 96. fig. 1.
Dufky Grebe, Br. Zool. N° 225.—Ara. Zool. N° 420.
Lev. Muf
CIZE of a fmall Teal:   length eleven inches.    Bill thirteen
lines long, colour blaqk, with the fides red : lore and irides
red : above, the upper parts  of the head, neck, and body, are
dufky brown : ridge ofthe wing white: fecondaries tipped with
the
  -I
%&me<6&d>
 the fame : forehead, and beneath, from chin to vent, white:
breaft very gloffy : at the throat the white paffes backwards almoft to the hind head, and the brown comes forward on each
fide on the middle of the neck : on the thighs a few black fpots:
legs flefh-colour tinged with purple.
In fome birds the whole neck is afh-coloured ; and others are
fpotted between the legs with black.
This fpecies inhabits the fens of Lincolnjhire. Mr. Edwards
mentions his having had feveral out of the London markets, from
which place we have likewife received a fpecimen.
Eared or Horned Dobchick, Edw. pl. 49.
Horned Grebe, Ar3. Zool. N° 417.
Lev. Muf.
CIZE of a Teal: weight one pound: length one foot:
breadth fixteen inches. Bill one inch, dufky: head very full of
feathers, and of a gloffy deep green, nearly black: through each
eye a ftreak of yellow feathers, elongated into a tuft as it paffes
to the hind head : upper part of the neck and back dufky brown:
fore part of the neck and breaft dark orange red : leffer wing coverts cinereous; the greater and quills black ; middle ones white :
belly gloffy white: legs cinereous blue before, pale behind.
Inhabits Hudfion's Bay. Firft appears in May, about the frefh
waters. Lays from two to four white eggs, in June, among the
aquatic plants ; faid to cover them when abroad. Retires fouth
in autumn; appears then at New York, flaying till fpring, when
it returns to the north. For its vaft quicknefs in diving it is
called the Water Witch. Known at Hudfion's Bay by the name of
Seekeep.
La
HORNED GR.
Pl. XCI.
Descr
 La petite Gn
Grebe d'Efcl
rnue. Brif. Orn. vi. p. 50. t.—Buf. Oif viii. p.:
', Pl. Enl. 404. fig. 2.
HP H E head of this bird is much tufted, and black : behind the
eyes a ftripe of loofe rufous yellow feathers : the hind part
of the neck, and upper parts of the body and wings, dufky black :
on the quills a patch of white : fore parts, from the chin to the
breaft, and fides, chefnut: breaft, belly, and thighs, refplendent
white: legs lead-colour.
Said to inhabit Sclavonia, and feems to be a mere variety of
the laft fpecies.
Le Grebe a joues grifes, ou le Jougris, Buf. Oif. viii. p. 241.—Pl. Enl. 931.
Red-necked Grebe, Ara. Zool. p. 499. C.
'HP HE crown, hind part ofthe neck, back, and wings, are dufky
brown : fecondaries white : cheeks and throat the fame; the
firft marked with a few brown ftreaks: under fide of  the neck
bright ferruginous : belly white : legs dufky.
This fpecies was fent-to Mr. Pennant from Copenhagen, and
fuppofed to inhabit Denmark or Norway -, it is alfo found, though
very rarely, towards the Cafpian Sea. That mentioned by Buffon was feventeen inches in length ; had the breaft mottled with
ferruginous; and a white fpot on the quills: in other things it
exactly coincided with the above defcription.
 GREBE.
La Grebe de l'Ifle de St. Thoma
Le Grebe Duc-laart, Buf. Oif v
Brif. Orn
CIZ E of a fmall Fowl. Bill one inch long, black, with a pale tip :
irides white: the head and upper parts are dull brown: between
the bill and eye is a white fpot: the under parts are white, except a
large fpot of black on the breaft; and the belly, fides, and thighs,
fpotted with grey : the wing coverts are pale rufous : legs dufky.
This inhabits the ifle of St. Thomas, and is called Duc-laart.
BLACK-BREASTED GR.
Le Grebe de la Louifiane, Buf. Oif. viii. p. 240.—Pl. Enl. 943.
Louifiane Grebe, Ara. Zool. N° 419.
fpHE bill in this fpecies is flightly bent at the point: the upper
parts of the head and body deep brown: fides of the neck
and body, quite to the rump, ruft-coloured : middle of the
breaft dufky white: from the bafe of the neck to the thighs,
marked with large tranfverfe black fpots : legs dufky.
Inhabits Louifiane.
LOUISIANE GR.
, p. 184.—Frifb.
p. 59. g.—Buf.
.. 3.—Will. Orn.
Colymbus auritus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 223. 8-. y.—Faun. Su,
t. 184.
La Grebe de la riviere, ou le Caftagneux, Brif Orn. v
Oif. viii. p. 244. pl- 20.—Pl. Enl. 905.
Didapper, Dipper, Dobchick, &c. Rail Syn. p. 125.
p. 340. pl. 61.
Little Grebe, Br. Zool. N° 226.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf
T   ENGTH ten inches: breadth fixteen: weight fix ounces
and a half.    Bill not quite an inch long, and reddifh brown:
irides reddifh hazel: all the upper parts * of the head, neck, and
body,
• The colour on the upper parts
in fome varieties
s almoft black
ebe de Riviere noiraftre, Brif Or
*-. vi. p. 62. A.
Vol. III.
P  P
 r
GREBE,
body, reddifh brown ; very pale on the rump : fides of the head
and fore part of the neck yellowifh grey* : chin the fame, but
paler: breaft and belly white, mottled with afh-colour and red :
thighs and vent grey: legs dirty green. Male and female much
alike, and both vary according to the age, as in other fpecies.
This fpecies frequents the fame places with the other Grebes,
but is infinitely more common, few frefh waters being without it.
It makes a large neft, a foot or more in thicknefs, in the water,
compofed of grafs and other water plants, and lays five or fix
dirty yellowifh white eggs ; the neft is fo placed in the water that
it is conftantly kept wet, which feems .effential to the hatching
of the young brood both of this and other fpecies of the genus.
The food is fifth, water infecls, and plants. It is an admirable
diver, and feems to make way under the water at a very great rate,
arifing at an inconceivable diftance from the place it plunges in
at; for the moft part, confiderably beyond the length of gunfhotf.
We believe this bird to be pretty frequent on the old continent;
it is likewife found common at Hudfon's Bay in America, where it
is called Dijhifihet feekeep%. In England' called by the various
names of Didapper, Dipper, Loon, and Dobchick.
Le Caftagneux des Philippines, Buf Oif. vi. p. 246—PL Enl. 945.
Description.    'T'HIS is rather larger than the little Grebe, and differs from
it in a few particulars.   The upper parts are .brown, as in that
• In old birds the cheeks are of a bright bay.
f If the poffibility of flying under water be allowed, no bird of this kingdom-
claims the epithet more than the little Grebe. By fome it is faid to be able to
ftay under water for a quarter of an hour.—Salerne Orn. p. 377.
X Mr. Hutchins.
bird,
Vai
 G   R   E
E.
bird, but tinged with purple; and the cheeks and fides of the
neck incline to rufous: in other things it refembles the abovefaid,
of which it appears to be a mere variety.
Inhabits the Philippine Iflands.
Colymbus Dominicus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 223. 10.
La Grebe de Riviere de St. Domingue, Brif. Orn. vi. p, 64. 11,
fig. 2.
Le Caftagneux de St. Domingue, Buf. Oif. viii. p. 248.
Le Plongeon, Defer, de Surin. ii. p. 155.
Twopenny Chick, Hughes Barb. p. 72,
T ESS than the little Grebe: length fcarcely eight inches. Bill
thirteen lines, colour black : plumage of all the upper part
dufky: fides of the head, chin, and fore part of the neck, dufky
grey: breaft, belly, fides, and thighsi filvery grey; marked with
fmall brown fpots : quills greyifh white, more or lefs marked
with greyifh brown on ihe outer webs and tips: legs brown.
Inhabits the ifland of St. Domingo. I received one of thefe
from Jamaica, of an uniform dufky lead-colour, except the middle of the belly, which had a large patch of white : the quills
were as in the above-defcribed: this moft likely differs merely in
fex. We have likewife feen a third, which had the belly wholly
brown, but differed from the firft-defcribed in no other particular : this came from Cayenne, where it is known by the name of
Soccove. It is called at Jamaica, as well as in Barbadoes, the Twopenny Chick. It is likewife an inhabitant of Surinam, where Mr.
Fermin* mentions another to exift, fmaller than this, wholly co-
+■ WHITE-
WINGED GR.
■ Hift. de Surin. ii. p.
Pp 2
 mmmmm
GREBE.
vered with cottony white feathers; the bill yellow, and the legs
fhort. He tells us that it is only feen in the favannas, near fmall
ponds, and feeds on the leffer fifh. It is moft likely that the
laft is the young of the others, and not a diftinct fpecies.
Black-chin Grebe, Br. Zool. N° 227. pl. 79.
"O AT HER larger than the little Grebe.    Chin black : fore part
of the neck ferruginous; hind part mixed with dufky: belly
cinereous and filver intermixed.
Inhabits Tiree, one of the Hebrides.
Colymbus podiceps, Lin. Syft. i. p. 223. 11.
- PIED-BILL La Grebe de Riviere de la Caroline, Brif Orn. vi. p. 63. 10.
Le Caftagneux a bee cercle, Buf. Oif viii. p. 247.
Pied-bill Dobchick, Catefb. Car. i. pl. gi.—Ara. Zool. N° 418. pl. 22.
Lew. Muf.
unlike that of the common Poultry; colour olive, with a
dufky bafe, and croffed through the middle of both mandibles
with a bar of black : noftrils very wide: irides white : chin and
throat of a gloffy black, bounded with white : upper part ofthe
neck and back dufky: cheeks and under parts of.the neck pale
brown : breaft and belly filvery, the firft mottled with afh-colour:
wings brown ; ends of the fecondaries white : toes furnifhed with
a broad membrane.
The female wants the black bar on the bill, and has the chin
and throat of the fame colour with the reft of the neck.
Inhabits from New York to South Carolina; is called in the
firft the Hen-beaked Wigcon, or Water Witch, Arrives there late
in the autumn, and goes away in April.
Order
gr.
 C  m 3
Order IX.     WEB-FOOTED.
*WITH    LONG    LEGS.
Genus  LXXX.    AVOSET.
N* i. Scooping Av. N° 3. White Av.
2. American Av.
BILL long, flender, very thin, and bending confiderably
upwards.
Noftrils narrow and pervious.
Tongue fhort.
Feet palmated; the webs deeply femilunated between each
toe.    Back toe very fmall.
Recurviroflra Avocetta, Lin. Syft. i. p.  256.—Faun. Suec. \g\.—Aman.
Aead. iv. 591.—Scop. Ann. i. N° 129—Brun. N° 188.—Mutter, N° 214.      4-
—Kram. El. p. 348.—Georgi Reife, p. 172.
L'Avocette, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 538. pl. 47.  fig. 2.—Buf.  Oif.  viii. p. 466.
pl. :8.—Pl.Enl. 353.
Avofetta, Rail Syn. p. 117. A. 1—Will. Orn. p. 321. p\. 60.—Albin, w
pl. 101.—Br, Zool. N° 228. pl. 80.—Ara. Zool. p. 503. B.
Br. Muf.   Lev, Muf.
HP HIS bird is the fize of the Lapwing in the body, but has    De;
very long legs : length eighteen inches.    The bill is three
inches and a half long
ular in fhape; flender, very flat,
and
 -
A   V   O   S   E   T.
and turns up towards the end, where it firtifhes in a fharp point j,
the noftrils narrow and pervious: irides h-jzel: the top of the
head, taking in the eyes, is black, paffing fome way down the
neck, and ending in a point: above and beneath the eye a fpot of
white: the remainder of the head and neck, and all the under
parts, are white: the back, major part of the fcapulars, outer
part of the wing, and leffer quills and tail, are of the fame colour ; but the inner fcapulars, and all down the middle of the
wing coverts, and outer webs and ends of the greater quills, are
black: the legs very long, and of a pale blue; and the thighs
naked for a great part of their length: the toes are webbed, the
webs deeply indented; the hind toe fmall, and placed too high
up to be of ufe.
The male and female much alike.
This fpecies is frequent, in the winter, on the fea-^ftojOEes of this
kingdom : in Gloucefterfhire, at the Severn's mouth, the eaftern
coafts of Suffolk and Norfolk, and fometimes on the lakes of Shrop-
fihire*. Alfo common, at the fame feafon, on the fhores of Kent-f.
In the breeding feafon are found in the fens in vaft numbers j
near Foffdike Waft) in Lincolnfhire, in the fens of Cambridgefhire and
Suffolk, and other fimilar places. They lay two eggs, the fize
of thofe of a Pigeon, an inch and three quarters in length, of a
cinereous grey, whimfically marked with deep brownifh black
patches, of irregular fizes and fhapes, befides fome under markings of a dufky hue. They are faid to feed on worms and infects J, which they fcoop out ofthe foft mud with their bills, the
• Br. Zool.
f Mr. Boys twice met with them at Sandwich, fo early as the month of Oaober.
X On the Sea-Flea and Locuft, the Cancer pulex, and locufta.   Lin,
traces
   A   V   O   S   E   T.
traces of which may be obferved in the places' where they frequent.
Often feen to wade, as far as their legs will let them, into the water, and will alfo occafionally fwim, but always clofe to the edge
of the fhore.
It is alfo feen in various parts of the continent of Europe. Found
in Ruffia, Denmark, and Sweden*, but not in plenty; alfo met
with in Sibiria, but more frequent about the fait lakes of the Tar-
fanaft Defiart, and about the Cafpian Seaf. Found on the coafts
of Picardy in France, in April and November; alfo at Orleans, but
very rare. In breeding time in fuch plenty on the coafts of Bas
Poiblou, that the peafants take their eggs by thoufands in order to
feaft on them J. We have not been able to trace thefe birds further
fouth in Europe than Italy, where they have been long noticed as
inhabitants.
295
Avofetta, Damp. Voy. iii. pl. in p. 123. fig. 3.
American Avofet, Ara. Zool. N° 421. pl. 21.
Lev. Muf.
^j"1 H I S is larger than the Scooping Avofet, and exceeds it fomewhat in length ; being in height, as it flands, from the head
to the ground, fourteen inches.  The bill is made like that ofthe
common fptcies [|, the colour black: the forehead dufky white :
• Chiefly in the ifle of Oeland, and in Gothland.—Faun. Suec.
f Ara. Zool. X Salem. Om. p. 359.
|| The fpecimen in the Leverian Mufeum has the bill three inches and three
quarters in length, but is blunt at the end, as if it had been broken off; and
in another, in the collection of Mr. Boddam, we obferved the fame circumftance,
with a ftronger appearance of being injured; from which we judge that thefe
birds had originally the bills ending in a point, as in the common Avofet.—
Dampier's figure is fcarce worth bringing as a voucher, being a very bad one;
but in that the bill is pointed at the end.
8 the
AMERICAN AV.
Pl. XCII.
 296 A   V   O    S   E    T.
the head, neck, and upper part of the breaft, of a deep cream-
colour, paleft under the chin: lower parts of the neck behind
white : back black: the under parts from the breaft pure white:
the firft and third order of wing coverts, with the outer part of
the wing between, and the greater quills, are black : the middle
coverts, and fome of the fecondaries, white; feveral of the laft
tinged with afh-colour : the legs and thighs together are above
eight inches in length, colour dufky : feet femi-palmated, the
webs bordering the toes for a confiderable way ; the hind toe
placed very high up, and fhort.
Place. Inhabits North America; and was found by Dampier in Shark's
Bay, on the coaft of New Holland.
Scolopax alba, Lin. Syft. i. p. 147. 17,
La Barge  blanche, Brif.   Orn. v.  p
Pl. Enl. 875.
White Godwit, Edw. pl. 139.
290. 8.—Buf. Oif. vii. p. 508.—
CIZE of the Red Godwit: length fourteen inches and a quarter.
Bill more than three inches in length, and turns greatly upwards, as in the Scooping Avofet; the colour of it orange, with
the point black: general colour of the plumage white, except
the under wing coverts, which are pale brown : the edge of the
wing the whole length, the greater quills, and tail, white, with-a
tinge of yellow: the wings exceed the tail a trifle in length : the
legs are pretty long, and of a deep brown : the toes divided.
The above was fent from Hudfion's Bay, and, from the figure,
has every appearance of an Avofet: however, in Edwards's plate
the toes appear cloven to the bottom; a circumftance feeming to
overturn
 A   V
overturn the fuppofition, and only to be authenticated whei
other fpecimens fhall have come under the eye of the well-informed naturalift *.
* Mr. Pennant obferves, with great propriety, the probability of its bi
variety of the American fpecies.—Ara. Zool.
 1
[  298  ]
Genus LXXXI.     COURIER.
N° 1. Italian C.
BI L L fhort, flrait.
Legs  long:   thighs  fhort: feet  palmated,   and. furnifhed
with a back toe.
Le Coui
Trochil
nr, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 542.
, or Corrira, Rail Syn. 118. 3.—Will. Orn, p. 321. pl. 60.
1 HIS bird is faid to be lefs than the Avofet, and the legs not
fo long in proportion. The bill fhorter, flrait, yellow, with
a black tip : irides of two colours, firft white, furrounded with
chefnut: the head, and all the upper parts of the body and wings,
are ferruginous: the under parts white : the two middle tail feathers are white, tipped with black: the others fuppofed to be
black : toes webbed, as in the Avofet.
This bird is faid to inhabit. Italy, and to. run very faft; whence
the name given to it. Aldrovandus * is the only one who has
feen the bird; and it is from him alone that the fucceeding
authors have all had the defcription and figure.
• Av. torn iii. p. 288. fig. in p. 289.
Genus
 I
  [   ±99   1
Genus LXXXII.     FLAMINGO.
N° i. Red Flamingo.
TH E bill in this genus is thick, large, bending in the middle, forming a fharp angle; the higher part of the upper
mandible carinated ; the lower comprefled; the edges ofthe
upper mandible fharply denticulated; of the lower, tranfverfely
fulcated.
Noftrils covered above with a thin plate, pervious, linearly
longitudinal.
Tongue cartilaginous, and pointed at the end; the middle
mufcular.; bafe glandular; on the upper part aculeated.
Neck very long.
Legs and thighs-of a great length.
Feet webbed; the webs extend as far as the claws, but  are
deeply femilunated.
Back tee very fmall.
Phsenicopterus ruber,  Lin. Syft. i. p. 230.—Scop. Ann. i. N° 114.
Le Flaramant, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 533. pl. 47. fig. i.—Buf. Oif. viii. p. 475.
pl. 39.—PL Enl. 63.
Phaenicopterus, Flammant, Raii Syn. p. 117. 2.—Will. Orn. p. 320. pl. 60.
—Ar3. Zool. N° 422.
Flamingo, Raii Syn. p. 190. 1.—Sloan. Jam. p. 321.   17.—Cateflb. Car. i.
pl, ?3. -j^.—Albin, ii.  pl.  77—Kolb.  Cap. ii. p. 137.—Phil. Tranf.
vol. xxix.   N°   350. pl. 2. p.  523. — Grew  Muf.  p.  67. —Brown
Jam, p. 480.
Br. Muf    Lev. Muf.
rpHI S Angular bird is fcarce fo big as a Goofe; but has the
neck and legs in a greater difproportion to the body than any
Q^q 2 other
 FLAMINGO.
other bird : the length, from the end ofthe bill to that ofthe tail,
is four feet two or three inches ; but to the end of the claws fometimes meafures more than fix feet. The bill is four inches and a
quarter long, and of-a conftruction different from that of any other
bird; the upper mandible very thin and flat, and fomewhat moveable ; the under thick; both of them bending downwards from the
middle: the noftrils are linear, and placed in a blackifh membrane:
the end of the bill, as far as the bend, is black, from thence to the
bafe reddifh yellow • round the bafe, quite to the eye, covered
with a flefh-coloured cere : the neck is flender, and of a great
length : the tongue large, flefhy, filling the cavity of the bill;
furnifhed with twelve or more hooked papilla? on each fide, turning backwards; the tip a fharp cartilaginous fubftance. The
-bird, when in full plumage, is wholly of a moft beautiful deep fcarlet *, except the quills, which are black: from the bafe of the
thigh to the claws meafures thirty-two inches, of which the
feathered part takes up no more than three inches ; the bare part
above the knee thirteen inches; and from thence to the claws
fixteen: the colour of the bare parts is red; and the toes
are furnifhed with a web, as in the Duck genus, but is deeply indented.
Thefe birds do not gain their full plumage till the third year.
In the firft they are of a greyifh white for the moft part; the fecond of a clearer white, tinged with red, or rather rofe-colour,
but the wings and fcapulars are red; in the third year a general
glowing fcarlet manifefts itfelf throughout: the bill and legs
alfo keep pace with the gradation of colour in the plumage,
• Thofe of Africa faid to be deepeft coloured.
thefe
 FLAMINGO.
thefe parts changing to their colours by degrees, as the bird approaches to an adult ftate.
Flamingoes prefer a warm climate: in the old continent not
often met with beyond 40 degrees north or fouth. Every where
feen on the African coaft and adjacent ifles, quite to the Cape of
Good Hope * ; and now and then on the coafts of Spain f, Italy,
and thofe of France lying in the Mediterranean Sea -, being at
times met with at Marfeilles, and for fome way up the Rhone.
In fome feafons frequent Aleppo % and parts adjacent. Seen alfo
on the Perfian fide of the Cafpian Sea, and from thence along the
weftern coaft, as far as the Wolga ; though this at uncertain times,
and chiefly in confiderable flocks, coming from the north-eaft,
moftly in Oblober and November ; but fo foon as the wind changes
they totally difappear §. They breed in the Cape Verd ifles, particularly in that of Sal\\. The neft is of a fingular construction,
made of mud, in fhape of an hillock, with a cavity at top; in this
the female lays generally two white eggs**, of the fize of thofe
of a Goofe, but more elongated. The hillock is of fuch an height
as to admit of the bird's fitting on it conveniently, or rather
Handing, as the legs are placed one on each fide at full length ff.
The young cannot fly till full grown, but run very faft.
301
» In Zee Coow r
vet
.—Phil. T
ranf.	
-Once pie
nty
nth
elfleof
to Mauritius, p. 66
t About Valenc
n the lake
Albufere
—Dillon
Tra
v. p.
374-
X Ruff Alep. p.
69.
rile
Decouv
. Ruff ii.
P*
248.
[J Damp. Voy. i.
P-
0.
•• They never
ay
more than
three, an
d feldom
few
;r.—
Phil. T
ff Sometimes *.
vill
lay the eg
gson a
crojeding
pa
tof
a low
placed iufficiently
con
venient fo
as to ad
nit of the
legs
bein
g place
Me—Linn.
 30t FLAMINGO.
Flamingoes for the moft part keep together in flocks; and now
and then are feen in great numbers together, except in breeding-
time. Dampier mentions having, with two more in company,
killed fourteen at once; but this was effected by fecreting them-
felves, for they are very fhy birds, and will by no means fuffer
any one to approach openly near enough to fhoot them *. Kolben obferves that they are very numerous at the Cape, keeping in
the day on the borders, of the lakes and rivers, and lodging them-
felves of nights in the long grafs on the hills. They are like-
wife common to various places in the warmer parts of America,
frequenting the fame latitudes as in other quarters of the world ;
being met with in Peru and Chili, Cayenne f, and the coaft of
Brafil, as well as the various iflands of the Weft Indies. Sloam
found them in Jamaica; but particularly at the Bahama iflands,
and that of Cuba, where they breed. When feen at a distance they appear as a regiment of foldiers, being ranged along-
fide one another on the borders of the rivers fearching for
food, which chiefly confifts of fmall fifh %, or the eggs of them,
and of water-infers, which they fearch after by plunging in
the bill and part of the head, from time to time trampling
with their feet to muddy the water, that their prey may be raifed
from the bottom. In feeding are faid to twift the neck in fuch a
manner that the upper part ofthe bill is applied to the ground § :
during this one of them is faid to ftand centinel, and the moment
* Davies talks ofthe gunner difguifing himfelf in an Ox's bide, and by this
is getting
t Called th
X Small fhel.
$ Linneeus,.
vith
gun-fhot.—Hift. Barbad. p.
by the name of Tococo.
h.—Gefner.
 FLAMINGO.
he founds the alarm the whole flock take wing. This bird, when
at reft, ftands on one leg, the other being drawn up clofe to the
body, with the head placed under the wing on that fide of the
body it ftands on.
The flefh of thefe birds is efteemed pretty good meat, and
the young thought by fome equal to that ofthe Partridge*; but
the greateft dainty is the tongue, which was efteemed by the
ancients an exquifite morfel f. Are fometimes caught yOung, and
brought up tame ; but are ever impatient of cold : and in this
ftate will feldom live a great while, gradually lofing their colour, flefh, and appetite, and dying for want of that food which
in a ftate of nature at large they were abundantly fupplied
with.
* Commonly fat, and accounted delicate.—Davies Hift. Barbad. p. 88.—
The inhabitants of Provence always throw away the flefh, as it taftes fifhy ; and
only make ufe of the feathers as ornaments to other birds at particular entertainments.—Dillon Trav. p. 374. extr.
t See Plin. 1. x. cap. 48.—Martialfays thus of it, Lib. xiii. ep. 71.
•*• Dat mihi penna rubens nomen, fed lingua gulofis
Noftra fapit: quid fi garrula lingua foret i"
 E  30-r  1
"WITH     SHORT     LEGS.
Genus   LXXXIII.    ALBATROSS.
N° 1. Wandering A. N° 3. Yellow-nofed A.
2. Chocolate A. 4. Sooty A.
BILL ftrong, bending in the middle, and hooked at the end
! of the upper mandible;   that of the  lower abrupt;   the
lower part inclining downwards.
Noftrils opening forwards, and covered with a large convex
guard.
Tongue fcarcely perceivable, only the rudiment of one.
Toes three in number, all placed forwards.
.6.—Buf. Oif ix. p.   339. pl.   24. —Pl.
j. Diomedeaexulans, Lin. Syft.
+- WANDERING L'Albatros, Brif. Orn. vi. p.
A' Enl. 237.
Man of War Bird, Albin, iii. pl. 81. (the head.)
Tchaiki, Hift. Kamtfchat. p. 154.
Albatrofs, Eaw. pl. 88—Pall. Spic. Fafc v. p. 28.
Wandering Albatrofs, Ara. Zool. p. 506.
Br. Muf    Lev. Muf.
Description.      "DIGGER than a Swan: length from three feet fix inches to
four feet: the general extent is ten feet from wing to wing;
but many of our voyagers mention them as greatly exceeding
thefe
 ALBATROSS.
thefe dimenfions * : weight from twelve to twenty-eight pounds.
The bill dirty yellow : crown of the head pale cinereous brown :
the reft of the body for the moft part white, croffed with blackifh
lines on the back and wings, and with fpots in the fame direction
towards the rump: the greater quills are black: the tail dufky
lead-colour, and rounded in fhape : legs flefh-colour.
The young birds are faid to be brown; as they advance have
more or lefs a mixture of white; but do not become of the colour of the above-defcribed till mature age.
Albatroffes are very frequent in many parts without the tropics,
both to the northward as well as fouth ; not being by any means
confined to the laft, as has been by fome imagined f. Indeed
they are in g'reat plenty in the neighbourhood of the Cape of Good
Hope, as all voyagers can teftify; and not only thefe but other
forts alfo, and from thence in every temperate fouthern latitude\,
.as far towards the pole as has yet been exploded.
Thefe birds are alfo often feen in vaft flocks in Kamtfchatka,
and adjacent iflands, about the end of June, where they are
called Great Gulls; but it is chiefly in the bay of Penfchinenfi, the
whole inner fea of Kamtfchatka, the Kurile ifles, and that of Bering ; for on the eaftern coafts of the firft they are fcarce, a fingle
ftraggler only appearing now and then.    Their chief motive for
* Above ten feet. Forft. Voy. i. p. 87 —Ten feet two inches called an
enormous fize. Hawkef Voy. iii. p. 627.—Eleven feet feven inches. Parkinf
Voy. p. 82—Eleven feet. Cook's Journal, p. 77.—Twelve feet. MS. at Sir
Jofeph Banks's.—One at Sir AJhton Lever's is faid to have expanded thirteen feet.
—And Ives even mentions one fhot off the Cape of Good Hope, which meafured as
far asfeventeenfeet and a half from wing to wing.    See Voy. p. 5.
f Buf. Oif. ix. p. 339.
X Seldom below 30 degrees: never in the torrid zone. Forft. Voy. i. p. 482.
Vol. III. R r frequenting
mm
 3<>6.
ALBATROSS.
frequenting thefe places feems to be plenty of food j and their
arrival is a fure prefage of fhoals of fifh following. At their firft
coming are very lean, but foon grow immenfely fat. Are very
voracious birds, and will often fwallow a Salmon of four or five
pounds weight; but as they cannot take the whole of it into
their ftomach at once, part of the tail end will often remain out
of the mouth ; and the natives, finding the bird in this fituation,
make no difficult matter of knocking it on the head on the fpot.
Before the middle of Auguft they migrate elfewhere. They are
often taken by means of a hook baited with a fifh*; but it is not for
the fake of their flefh that they are valued, it being hard and unfa-
vouryf, but on account of the inteftines, a particular part of
which they blow up as a bladder, to ferve as floats to buoy up
their nets in fifhing. Of the bones they make tobacco-pipes,
needle-cafes, and other ufeful things \. When caught they defend
themfelves ftoutly with the bill. Their cry is harfh and difa-
greeable, not unlike the braying of an Afs%. The breeding
places of the Albatrofs, if at all in the northern hemifphere, have
not yet been pointed out; but we are certain of their multiplying in the fouthern, viz. Patagonia || and Falkland Iflands ** : to
* Forfter mentions nine being caught with a line and hook baited with a bit
offheep's Jkin —Voy. i. p. 87—Cook's Voy. i. p. 84.
t Yet they were eaten by our voyagers.—As foon as caught they were fkinned,
and foaked in falt-water till next morning ; then parboiled, and the liquor being
thrown away, ftewed with frefh-water till tender; and being ferved up with fa-
voury fauce, they were much commended.—Hawkef. Voy. iii. p. 66-
X The New Zealand women wear pieces ofthe down in the holes of their ears,
by way of ornament.—Forft. Voy. i. p. 141.—Id. Obf. p. 310.—Hawkef.
Voy. iii. p. 456.
§ Or rather like a trumpet, fuch as the children buy at fairs.—Clayton.
I! Ara. Zool. ** Clayton.
 ALBATROSS.
this laft place they come about the end of September or beginning
of Oblober, among other birds, in great abundance *. The nefts
are made on the ground with earth f> are round in fhape, a foot
in height, indented at top. The egg larger than that of a Goofe,
four inches and a half long, white, marked with dull fpots at the
bigger end; and is thought to be good food, the white never
growing hard with boiling. While the female is fitting the male
is conftantly on the wing, and fupplies her with food : during
this time are fo tame as to fuffer themfelves to be fhoved off
the neft while their eggs are taken from them; but their chief
deftruction arifes from the Hawk %, which, the moment the female
gets off the neft, darts thereon, and flies away with the egg.
The Albatrofs itfelf likewife has its enemy, being greatly perfe-
cuted while on the wing by the dark grey Gull, called Skua.
This bird attacks it on all fides, but particularly endeavours to
get beneath, which is only prevented by the firft fettling on the
water H; and indeed they do not frequently fly at a great distance from the furface, except obliged fo to do by high winds §,
or other caufes. As foon as the young are able to remove from
the neft, the Penguins take poffeffion, and hatch their young in
turn. It is probable that they pafs from one part of the globe to
another according to the feafon; being now and then met with,
* A part of New Zealand is called Albatrofs Pointx from this circumftance.—•
Parkinf Voy. p. 113.
t With fedges, in form of a hay-cock, three feet in height.—Ara. Zool.
X Of two forts.    Penrofe.—One of which is our New Zealand Falcon, vol. i.
P- 57-
11 Forft. Voy. i. p. 118.—Hift. des Oif.
$ Sometimes foars above the clouds.—Amaen. Acad. v. p. 75.
R r a    ' by
 308 A   L   B   A   T   R .0   S   S.
by different voyagers, at various times, in intermediate places *,
The food is fuppofed to be chiefly fmall marine animals, efpecially of the Mollufca? or Blubber clafs f, as well as Flying Fifh %.
CHOCOLATE A.
Deep brown, or chocolat
Albatrofs, Cook's Voy. ii. p. 116. 150 ||
Lev. Muf.
CIZE larger than the Sooty Albatrofs. The bill in this bird of
a yellowifh white: irides brown : fore part of the head, round
the eye, chin, and throat, white: the plumage in general of a
fine deep chocolate-colour; the neck and under parts paleft:
the inner ridge of the wing, and under wing coverts, white ; and
the belly inclines much to white : the tail is fhort, rounded in
fhape; that and the wings equal in length: the legs blueifh
white: claws white.
This bird varies in having more or lefs white about the head,
and in a greater or lefs degree of purity. Seen in the South Seas,
in lat. 37, the end of December.
* Seen between fix and feven hundred leagues from land, in the middle ofthe
fouthern ocean.—Forft. Obf p. 211. Met with at the Sandwich Iflands.—Ettit
Narr. ii. p. 149. Alfo in lat. 26. 31. N. on the 4th of April.—Id. p. 193.	
OS Japan and Jeffo, in Oaober 1771.—Cook's laft Voy. xo\.iii. p. 3QI. Lau
33. S. May 5.—Ofbeck Voy. i. p. 109.
t Forft. Voy. i. p. 118.
X Amcen. Acad. V. p. 7c.—Ara. Zool. N° 507.
|| As few of the voyagers have thought worth while to defcribe the birds to
which they have given names, we cannot always be clear ofthe fpecies meant ;
are therefore not quite certain it was the one here defcribed.—Chocolate Albatrofs alfo mentioned by Forfier;  but were not obferved by him, except among
the ice.—Voy. i. p. 258. Perhaps the Albatrofs with a white beak.—Park.
Voy. p. 83. 84 ?
Br.
  iMiiiiiiiii'iiiiiiiiiiiii
iii
 ALBATROSS.
y ENGTH three feet: breadth feven. The bill four inches
long, hooked at the end, but not very flout; the colour of
it is black, except the upper ridge, which is yellow the whole
length, quite to the tip, where it is hooked ; the bafe of the under mandible is alfo yellow : irides brown : the head is grey :
between the bill and eyes is an obfcure black fpot; juft over the
eye a dufky one : the hind part of the neck dufky, the lower
part white : back, fcapulars, and wings, dufky blue black: rump,
and under part ofthe body, white: the tail dufky: the legs are pale
* yellowifh white ; the fore part of them, and the webs, dufky.
This fpecies is met with in the fouthern hemifphere, from 30
to 60 degrees, all round the pole*. The fpecimen from whence
the above defcription was drawn up, was taken off the Cape of
Good Hope. Inhabits the South Seas without the tropics. Fly
about five or fix feet above the furface of the water.
YELLOW-
NOSED A.
Pl. XCIV.
Sooty, or brow
Albatrofs with
Albatrofs, Forft. Voy. i. p. 91
white eye-brow, Cook's Voy. i.
p.38t-
CIZE of a Goofe: length near three feet.    Bill black : irides
pale yellow : at each angle of the eye a nictitating membrane:
general colour of the plumage brown: the head and tail inclin-
• One was caught in lat. 57. 30. S. in the month of February.
t Perhaps the black-billed Albatrofs of Park. Voy. p. 84 r—In Forft.. Voy. i.
p. 91. it is called the leafl: ofthe Albatroffes ; and therefore may prove the fmaller
one with a black face, met with off Kerguelen's Land in the month of December.
Cook's laft Voy. i. p. 87.
 3io ALBATROSS.
ing to black or/<?o;-colour : for a fmall fpace above, behind, and
beneath the eye, the feathers are white, but not on the fore part
of it: quills and tail dark brown, nearly black; the fhafts of
both white; the laft pointed in fhape: legs pale brownifh lead-
colour : claws black.
Place. This fpecies was firft met with in lat 47. fouth*, but was
afterwards obferved throughout the Southern Ocean within the
antarbik circle. It was called by our failors the Quaker, from its
brown plumage.
* Firft met with about the time of firft falling in with the ice.—Cook's
Voy. i. p. 38.
 I   3**    ]
Genus LXXXIV.      AUK.
N° i. Great A.
2. Tufted A.
3. Puffin A.
Var, A.
4. Labrador A.
5. Razor-bill A.
6. Black-billed A.
N° 7. Crefted A.
8. Dufky A.
9- Perroquet A.
10. Ancient A.
11. Little A.
12. Flat-billed A.
BILL ftrong, thick, convex, comprefled on the fides *.
Noftrils linear, placed parallel to the edge ofthe bill.
Tongue almoft as long as the bill.
Toes three in number, all placed forwards.
pl. 7.—Buf. Oif. ix. p. 393.
■Will. Om.  p. 322. pl. 65.—
Alca impennis, Lin. Syft. i. p. 210. 3.—Faun. Suec. N° 140.—Brun. N° 105,
— Muller, p. 17 Faun. Groenl. N° 52.
Le grand Pingoin, Brif.   Orn.  vi. p
pl. 29.-/7. Enl. 367.
Penguin, or Goifugel, Raii Syn. p. j
Edw. pl. 147.
Great Auk, Br. Zool. ii. N° 229. pl. 81.—Ara. Zool. N° 424.
Lev. Muf.
Q I Z E of a Goofe: length three feet.    Bill four inches and a
quarter, covered great part of the way with downy fhort feathers, the colour of it black, and croffed with feveral furrows :
the colour of the plumage of the head, neck, and upper part of
* The laft fpecies excepted, which is depreffed ; yet, I
ticulars, may ftill be admitted at th« heels of this genus.
nfwering in other par
 u
K.
the body, wings, and tail, is black; the reft white; and there is
a large oval fpot ofthe laft, occupying moft of the fpace between
the bill and eye : the fecond quills are tipped with white,
forming an oblong ftripe on the wings; which are fo fmall as to
be ufelefs for flight, being little more than four inches in
length to the firft joint: legs black.
In Mr. Tunftall's Mufeum is one of thefe with only two or three
furrows on the bill, and the oval fpace between the bill and eye
fpeckled black and white.    This is probably a young bird.
This bird is fometimes feen on the ifle of 5/. Kilda, appearing there the beginning of May, and retiring in June. It lays
one large egg, clofe to the fea mark, fix inches long, white, irregularly marked with purplifh lines, and blotched at the larger
end with black or ferruginous fpots ; and it is faid, that if the egg
be taken away the bird will not lay a fecond. It hatches late, as
the young in Auguft are only covered with grey down. It is
feldom to be met with beyond foundings. Sometimes frequents
the coafts of Norway, the Ferroe Ifles, Iceland, Greenland, and
Newfoundland*.    Feeds much on the lump-fifio, fatber-lajher, and
' other fifh of that fize. The young birds eat rofe-roof\, and other
plants. The old ones are very rarely feen on fhore, though the.
young are not unfrequently met with : is a very fhy bird ; walks
ill, but dives well, and is taken in the manner ufed for the Razorbill and Puffin. The fkin between the jaws is blown into a bladder,
and ufed for the darts of the Greenlanders, as is alfo that of fome
' other birds J. The fkin of the body fuppofed to be ufed by the
Efkimaux Indians for garments ||.
* Ara. Zool—Br
X Faun. Groenl.
f Rhodiola rofea.
|| Ara. Zool.
   Alca cirrhata, Pall. Spic. v. p. 7. pl. 1 and 5.
Le Macareux de Kamtfchatka, Buf. Oif. ix. p. *68.—Pl. Enl. 761.
Tufted Auk, Ara. Zool N° 432.
Lev. Muf.
"T1 H I S is fomewhat bigger than the common Puffin: length
nineteen inches. Bill an inch and three quarters in length,
the fame in depth at the bafe, and croffed with three furrows :
the colours much as in the common Puffin: the forehead, fides of
the head, and chin, are white : irides yellowifh brown: over
each eye arifes a tuft of feathers four inches or more in length,
which falls elegantly on each fide of the neck, reaching almoft to
the back ; thefe are white as far as they are attached to the head,
but afterwards of a fine buff yellow : the reft ofthe plumage is
black, paleft on the under parts, and inclining to afh-colour: the
fhafts of the quills are white : tail very fhort, confifting of fixteen feathers : legs of a brownifh orange: claws black.
The femdle fcarcely differs, except in being lefs *; the bill croffed
only with two furrows, inftead of three; and the tuft fmaller.
This fpecies is found at Kamtfchatka, and the neighbouring
iflands. Our laft voyagers firft met with it a little to the fouth
of Cape Hermogenes, and after that daily, fometimes in large
flocks t- Pallas % remarks, that the Kamtfchatkan girls imitate
the tufts of thefe birds, which nature has fupplied them with, by
placing a fimilar ftrip of the white fkin of the Glutton behind
each ear, hanging down behind by way of ornament; and is a
well-received prefent from a lover to his miftrefs.    The bills both
TUFTED A.
Pl. XCV. Fie. 1,
* Some of thefe which we have feen meafured only foui
f Cook's laft Voy. vol. ii. p. 411. J Spic. Zool.
Vol. III. S f
iches and a half.
mmmmm
 3H. AUK.
of this and the common Puffin were formerly held by the natives
as a charm, and worn by the priefts as amulets; indeed at the
prefent thefe have been feen fixed round their head-dreffes, but
fuppofed now to be only efteemed as mere ornaments : the
fkins are however made ufe of for cloathing, being fewed together. It is called in Kamtfchatka, Muechagatka; and in Ofichotka,
Igilma *. The manners of this coincide with the laft, and like
that it burrows under ground, lining the neft with feathers and
fea-plants. Lays one white egg, the end of May or beginning of
June, which alone is thought fit to be eaten, the flefh of the bird
itfelf being infipid and hard. It feeds on crabs, Jhrimps, and
Jhell-fifh, which laft it forces from the rocks with its ftrong bill f»
—Faun. Suec. N° 141.— Brun. N°
92.
. 81. pl. 6. fig, 2.—Buf. Oif. ix..p.
Alca Ardica, Lin. Syft. i. p. 211.
—Muller, N° 140.—Frifch, t. 192.
Le Macareux,  Brif. Om.  vi. p. 81. pl. 6. fig, 2.—Buf. Oif. ix..p. 358.
pl. 26.-PI. Enl. 275.
Ipatka, Hift. Kamtf. p. 153.
Puffin, Raii Syn. p. 120. A. t,.—Will. Orn. p. 325. pl.'6;.—Hift. Groenl. ii.
pl.   1.—Albin,  ii.  pl.  78,   79.—Edw. pl.   358. fig. 1.—Br. Zool. ii.
N° 212.—Ara. Zool. N° 427.—Tour in Wales, pl. 20.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
CIZE of a Teal: length twelve inches: breadth twenty-one:
weight twelve ounces. The bill is an inch and a quarter
long, and of a fingular fhape, much comprefled on the fides, and
near an inch and a half deep at the bafe; from whence both
mandibles tend to a point, which is a little curved; acrofs the
upper are four oblique furrows; on the under three : half of the
* Hift. Kamtfch. p. 183. t -4ra. Zool.
bill
 u
K.
bill next the point is red; that next the bafe blue grey; and at
the bafe is a fort of rifing cere, full of minute holes: the noftrils
are a long and narrow flit on each fide, near the edge of the upper
mandible, and parallel to it: the irides are grey : the edges of
the eye-lids crimfon ; on the upper, a callous protuberance, triangular in fhape ; on the under, an oblong one of the fame texture : the top of the head, hind part of the neck, and all the
upper parts of the plumage, are black, paffing round the throat
in a collar : the fides of the head, chin, and all the parts beneath,
are ofthe pureft white : the legs are orange : in fome birds there
is a great portion of a dufky mixture on the cheeks, and a patch
of the fame on each fide ofthe under jaw.
Male and female much alike.
They vary exceedingly, in regard to the bill, according to their
age : in the firft year it is fmall, weak, deftitute of any furrow,
and of a dufky colour: in the fecond, larger, ftronger, and lighter
coloured, with a faint veftige of a furrow at the bafe ; but thofe
of more* advanced years are of vivid colours, and great ftrength :
hence thefe birds are fuppofed not to be perfect, or at leafl not
to breed, till the third year, efpecially as not a fingle one has
ever been obferved at Prieftholm which had not the bill of an
uniform growth *.
This fpecies frequents feveral parts of the coafts of England; a
few about the rocks at Dover, and the neighbourhood; great
numbers about the Needles, in the Ifle of Wight, Beachy Head, and
other parts; but no where in fuch plenty as at Prieftholm Iflet
where they are feen in flocks innumerable.    They come to that
* See Tour in Wales, p. 252 ; and figures of the different growths of the bill in.
pl. 20.—Compare the Alta Deleta of Brunnicb and Mutter—Pall. Spic. ii. p. 22.
S f 2 place
 316 AUK.
place from the 5th to the 10th of April; but quit the place
again, and return, twice or th$ce before they fettle to burrow,
which they do the firft week in May, when many of them dif-
lodge the Rabbits from their holes, by which they fave themfelves
the trouble of forming one of their own : in the laft cafe, they are
fo intent on what they are about, as to fuffer themfelves to be
taken by the hand. It has been obferved that this tafk falls
chiefly to the fhare of the males, and that thefe laft alfo affift
in incubation: this has been proved on diffection. The female
lays one white egg: the young are hatched the beginning of July:
and about the eleventh of Auguft they all go off, to a fingle bird,
and fo completely as to defert the young ones that are late
. hatched; leaving them a prey to the Peregrine Falcon, who watches
at the mouth of the holes for them as they, through hunger, are
compelled to come out. Notwithftanding the neglect of the
young at this time, no bird is more attentive to them in general,
as they will fuffer themfelves to be taken by the hand, and ufe
every means of defence in their power to fave them; and, if laid
hold of by the wings, will give themfelves moft cruel bites on
any part of the body they can reach, as if actuated by defpair 1
and when releafed, inftead of flying away, will often hurry again
into the burrow to their young*.
The food of thefe birds is fiprats, the fmaller kind of crabsy
and fiea-weeds: they are exceffively rank, yet the young are pre-
ferved with fpices, and pickled, and by fome people much admired f.
• Ara. Zool.
f Are potted at St. Kilda and elfewhere, and fent to London as rarities. The-
bones are taken out,-and the flefh wrapped in the fkin ; are eaten with vinegar,,
and tafle like baked Herring.
They
 AUK.
They are alfo common in Ireland; on the ifland Sherries, three
leagues N. N. W. of Holyhead ; and in the S. Stack, near Holyhead, they breed in plenty*. Inhabit Iceland and Greenland; and
breed in the extreme part of the iflands, efpecially on the weft
part of Difico, and the ifland Orpikfauk. Found in the Ferroe ifles,
and there called Lunda. In the Farn Ifles called Coulters-neb, from
the fhape of the bill: it goes alfo by various other names; fuch
as Guldenhead, Bottle-nofe, and Helegug, in Wales; at Scarborough
Mullet; and Cornwall, Pope f.
In America are faid to frequent Carolina in winter; and have
been met with in Sandwich Sound by our late voyagers : the natives ornament the fore parts and collar of their Seal-fikin Jackets
with the beaks of them; and thofe of Aoonalajhka wear gowns of
their fkins, along with thofe of other birds.
On the coaft of Kamtfchatka and the Kurilfchi iflands they are
common, even on the Penfichinfki Bay, almoft as far as Ochotka -*
the nations of the two firft wear the bills about their necl
fattened to ftraps; and, according to the fuperftition of thefe
people, their Shaman or Prieft muft put them on with a proper
ceremony, in order to procure good fortune %.
T" ENGTH fixteen inches.    The bill two inches lonj
of the fame colour with the laft,  but not fo deep at the
bafe: crown of the head, as far as the nape, afh-colour: fides of
* Which come in a furprifing man
when their feafon comes, depar
t Will. Orn.
6
X Hift, Kamtfichk
mmm.
, in a flock, in the
1 the fame manner.'
 m
u
K.
the head white: throat, neck, and all the upper parts of the
body, wings, and tail, black: breaft and under parts white : legs
orange.
The other fex has the bill more flender : the crown of the
head brown black: fides of the head white, paffing backwards
almoft to the nape: thighs afh-coloured : the reft as in the laft-
defcribed.
This was met with at Bird Ifland, between AJia and America.
In the collection of Sir Jofeph Banks.
LABRADOR A.
Labrador Auk, Ar3. Zool. N° 428.*
Br. Muf.
C IZ E of the Puffin: length near twelve inches. The bill near
an inch and a quarter in length, much carinated at top, a little
convex, but more narrow than in any of the Auk genus ; the upper mandible is dufky red; the lower whitifh, marked with a
black fpot, and has an angle as in the Gull: place of the noftrils
covered with a dufky fkin; the noftrils themfelves a flit near
the edge : all the upper parts of the plumage are black : the
fides of the head dufky white: throat dufky: the under parts
white :  wings and tail dufky; the laft very fhort: legs red.
A fpecimen of this is in the Britifh Mufeum, fuppofed to come
from the coaft of Labrador.
 3-9
Alca torda, Lin. Syft. i. p.  210.  i.—Faun. Suec. N° 139.—Scop. Ann.i. e.
N» 94.—Brun. N° 100.—Mutter, p. 16. -*~ RAZOR-BILL.
LePingoin, Brif Orn. vi. p. 89. 2. pl.  8. fig.   l.—Buf. Oif. ix. p. 390.
pl. 27.—Pl. Enl. 1003. 1004.
Razor-bill, Auk,  or Murre, Raii Syn. p. 119. A. y—Will. Orn. p. 323.
pl.  64.—Albin,  3.  pl.  95.—Edw.   pl.   358. fig.  2.—Br.  Zool. ii.
N° 230. pl. 82.—Ara. Zool. N» 425.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
T ENGTH eighteen inches: breadth twenty-feven. Bill two
inches long, black, curved at the point; the feathers coming
greatly forwards at the bafe, and croffed with four tranfverfe grooves,
one of which is white, forming an oblique band on both mandibles : infide of the mouth yellow : from the bafe of the forehead
to the eye a narrow line of white: the reft of the head, chin,
throat, back part of the neck, back, wings, and tail, black: under parts from the breaft white : the greater wing coverts tipped
with white, forming a band on the wings : legs black.
Thefe birds, like the Auk, recognife their old breeding-places,
before they fettle thereon to breed: appear firft the beginning of
February, but do not fettle on their breeding-places with an intent to lay till the beginning of May, when they are met with
on moft of the high craggy coafts of England; where our mer-
cilefs fhooters go to try the ufe of the gun, too frequently leaving
many hundreds of thefe and the Guillemots, after being maimed,
to die by flow degrees at the foot of the rocks; for they are fo
ftupid as to fuffer themfelves to be fhot at one after another.
They are called by fome, Parrot-billed Willocks; and lay one egg-
on the bare rock, which they fo fix by cement* to the furface,,
* See Ara. Zool. p, 510.
that
Desor:
 AUK.
that it refts fecure from rolling off, yet if difturbed by human
hand can never be replaced with certainty : if this be taken away
it will lay another, and even a third, fhould the fecond be alfo
taken. The colour of the egg is dufky white, marked with many
irregular blackifh fpots.
Thefe eggs the natives are fond of, and run the greateft rifk
in procuring them, being lowered from above by ropes. Sometimes two perfons, having a rope tied to each of their middles,
the one takes faft hold, while the other lowers himfelf as convenience ferves; but the weight of the lower one fometimes exceeding the uncertain hold of his companion, they both fall, and pe-
rifh together.
We find thefe birds in the north of Europe, alfo in Iceland,
Greenland, and on the coaft of Labrador. In Europe they extend
along the White Sea into the Arblic Afiatk fhores, and from
thence to Kamtfchatka and the gulph of Ochotka. Is the only one
which reaches the inland Baltic; being found there on the Carls-
Ozar Ifles, near Gothland, and the ifle of Bondon off Angermania*.
g> AIca Pica, Lin. Syft. i. p. 210. N° 2.—Faun. Groenl. N° 51.
- BLACK-BIL- AIca unifukata, Brun. N° 102.—Muller, N° 138.
LED A. Le petit Pingoin, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 92. t. 8. fig. 2.—Buf. Oif. ix. p. 396.
Mergus Bellonii, Utamania dicta, Raii Syn. p- 119. 2.—Will. Orn. p. 324.
pl. 64.
Black-billed Auk, Br. Zool. ii. N" 231.—Ara. Zool. N° 426.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf
Description,    r~V H I S weighs eighteen ounces: is in length fifteen inches :
breadth twenty-four.   The bill is not above half the breadth
• See Hift. Kamtfcb. p. 153-—Ara. Zool.
 u
K.
of the Razor-bill's, and very little curved, perfectly frnooth
throughout the whole of its furface, except a flight indentation at
the bafe: infide of the mouth pale flefh-colour: the top of the
head, taking in the eyes, part of the neck, the back, wings, and
tail, are black; on the fides of the neck the black comes forward
fo as almoft to meet on the fore part: the fides of the head,
throat, fore part of the neck, and all beneath, white : from behind
the eye a dufky black mark tending to the hind head, as in the
leffer Guillemot; the white on the fides of the head lefs pure than
on the under parts : all the fecond quills are tipped with" white ;
and the primaries are of a deeper black than the others : legs
brownifh black*.
This, from its external marks, fhould appear to be a different
fpecies from the Razor-bill, but we are pretty certain it is no
other than the young of that bird. Mr. Pennant obferves, that it
is fometimes found on our coafts; but it is in the winter feafon
only, when the common fort has quitted them.
We* have received the above, along with another, in a farther
advanced ftate, killed on the coaft of Devonfhire the middle of
December 1783j; this laft was one inch longer, and weighed
nineteen ounces : it had the plumage exactly marked as in the
above-defcribed, except that the ufual white trace betweeen the
bill and eye was vifible, but of a greyifh colour : the bill had
the four furrows fcarcely complete, but the ftreak acrofs the mandibles was vifible, and of a dirty yellow inftead of a pure white :
the legs in both brown black.
* Linn
f We
tus fays the legs are red, but no other author records it.
we thefe to the kindnefs of M. Martin, efquire, of TeingKK
Vol. III.
Briffon
 AUK.
Briffon's figure feems in a ftate prior to both of thefe, as in
that the forehead is likewife white*.
In the firft ftate, then, it fhould feem that the bill is fmall, and
quite deftitute of furrowsf; in the next, a fmall furrow at
the bafe J; in the third, the furrows complete, but without
the white ftreak either acrofs the bill, or that between the bafe
of it and the eye§; and laftly, both of them complete, with the,
addition of the black plumage of the head; which, as we have
proved, does not come on till the ftage of perfection ||. Whatever has therefore been faid under the head of the Razor-bill,
muft be applicable to this ; and that it breeds before it comes to its
perfection in plumage fhould feem not improbable, as Fabricius
pofitively mentions the circumftancef. It is faid to be met with
on the coaft of the Ifie of Candia, and other parts of the Mediterranean; where no doubt the complete old bird is likewife
found, as I have been informed that they are common in the
Bay of Gibraltar, where it is curious to fee their activity under
water when'purfuing the fifh; for, as the water in the Bay is fometimes clear for a great depth from the furface, thefe birds may
be often feen as it were flying after their prey, with all the
agility of a bird in the air, turning in every direction after the
fifh, with fuch wonderful addrefs and dexterity as feldom to mifs
their aim**.
* Vol. vi. pl. 8. fig. a.
X Unifulcata, Brun. 10:
the firft and laft'ftages, To
^f Faun. Groenlfp. 79.-
Jand than the Razor-bills, i
+ AIca deleta, Brun. N° 104,—Mutter, p. 17.
§ Balthica, id. 101. y See the bills in
\r in Wales, vol. ii. pl. 20. at the bottom.
-He obferves that they are in greater plenty in Green-
the breeding-feafon, and that they difperfe in winter.
* * We are indebted to Colonel Davies for this laft anecdote.
 A      U
AIca criftatella, Pall. Spic. v. p. 18. t. 3. a
Black Stariki, Hift. Kamt. p. 156.
Crefted. Auk, Ara. Zool, N° 434.
CRESTED A.-
Pl. XCV. F
g IZ E of the Mififel Thrufh : length twelve inches. The bill
fhaped fomewhat like that of the Puffin, but the upper mandible more hooked at the tip, and the feathers of the chin produced halfway on the under one: at the angle of the mouth a
callous flap; the colour of that and the bill crimfon; tip of the
laft yellow: the head is rather fmall; and on the forehead is an
upright creft compofed of long feathers, which curve forwards as
in the Crefted Grakle *: eyes fmall, under them a line of white, and
behind them a ftreak compofed of four or five flender white feathers : the head and neck black: the back the fame, marked with
ferruginous brown fpots, changing into hoary on the rump : the
under parts of a dufky brown : the wings reach to the bafe of
the tail, which is black, and confifts of fourteen feathers; the
outmoft but one ferruginous at the tip ; the outer one marked
with indiftinct white dots : legs livid : webs dufky.
This fpecies inhabits the iflands contiguous to Japan. One of
thefe, in the collection of Sir Jofeph Banks, came from Bird Ifland,
between Afia and America. It fleeps of nights in burrows on
fhore, and fiffures of rocks, from whence it is often taken by
hand, with other birds of this ftupid race.
* See vol. i. p. 464. of this Work.
Tt 3
mm
mmm
 " »l
32+
'A      U      K.
8.
DUSKY A-
Pl. XCV. Fig. 3.
AIca tetracula, Pallas, Spic. v. p. 25. t
Dufky Auk, Ara. Zool. N° 435.   j
4. and 5.
Q IZ E of the laft : length eleven inches. The bill fmaller in
proportion, but the upper mandible bent at the point;_ the
colour yellow brown ; the ridge white : the irides are white, furrounded with a circle of black : the forehead is covered with
downy feathers, which are pretty full, and reflexed half one way,
half the other: behind the eyes a ftripe of white : the hea'd and
neck are black, marked with a few obfeure ferruginous fpots on
the nape: the upper parts of the body black ; beneath cinereous,
growing whitifh near the vent: the wings reach to the bafe
- of the tail, which is compofed of fourteen feathers, all of which,
except the two middle ones, are ferruginous at the ends : legs
livid : webs black.
This fpecies is met with in the feas between Japan and Kamtfchatka, and fometimes very far from land ; in this cafe feen tingle, but on land are found in flocks*. Make the nefts in burrows among the rocks. Are wonderfully active in the water, but
on the contrary no bird is more el'umfy and ftupid on fhore; with
the greateft difficulty get upright on their legs, and then* cannot
ftand, except the rump be propped up on a ftone or other elevation : will now and then fly on board fhips of evenings, when
they may be taken by the hand.    The flefh is very little valuedj
* This may poffibly be the kind of Auk r
myriads. It had a comprefled bill, and larg
a dark brown, or rather black : breaft whi;
reddifh brown colour.—Ellis, Narr. vol, ii.
tioned by Ellis, which was feen by
n proportion to the bird : plumage
: and towards the abdomen of a
 nor can the down be feparated from the fkin, fo as to become ufe-
ful; but the eggs are thought very good.
3,25
AIca pfittacula, Pall. Spic. v. p. 13. pl. 2. 5.
Stariki, Hift. Kamtfch. p. 155.
Perroquet Auk, Ara. Zool. N° 433.
PERROQJJET A.
Pl. XCV. Fio. 2.
*"p HI S is a trifle bigger than the Little Auk, but not unlike it in
fhape. The bill is much comprefled on the fides, and in
- fhape convex both above and beneath: the noftrils are pervious,
placed in-the middle of it; parallel to the edge, and at a-little
diftance from it, above thefe, is a furrow, reaching from the bafe
to the middle : the colour of the bill a deep red: the vifage adjoining the bill is much prolonged, whence the eyes, which are
fmall, appear far back in the head : in the middle of the upper
eyelid is a white fpot; and from the hinder part of the eye fprings
a flender tuft of white feathers, which hang loofely on each fide
of the heck : the head, neck, and upper parts, are black, inclining
to hoary on the fore part of the neck: the under parts from the
breaft white: thighs dufky : wings, and tail even, the laft very
fhort: legs dirty yellow : webs brown.
Found at Kamtfchatka, with the laft fpecies : alfo in the ifles
towards Japan, and the weftern fhores of America; moft frequent
in the laft: fometimes feen in flocks, but feldom far from land,
except driven by ftorms. Of nights harbour in the crevices of
rocks. Lay an egg almoft the fiae of a Hen's, of a dirty
white or yellowifh colour, fpotted with brown ; this they do about
the middle of June, upon the bare rock or fand, for they make no
neft.   Are, like moft ofthe tribe, ftupid birds, as may be evinced
by
 3**5 AUK.
by the ridiculous method of catching them:—One ofthe natives
places himfelf under a loofe garment of fur, of a particular make,
with large open fleeves, among the rocks, at evening; when the
birds, returning to their lodging-places at dufk, run under the'
fkirts, and up the arm-holes, for fhelter during the night; the
man concealed beneath kills them as faft as they enter, and by
this means as many are taken in one evening as he can carry away.
Their ftupidity likewife occafions them to fly aboard a lhip at
fuch times, miftaking it for a roofting-place j whereby navigators
have been taught to avoid the danger of falling in too near with
land, either of evenings or on approaching ftorms. The eggs are
efteemed good.
Ancient Auk, Ara. Zool. N° 430.
Lev. Muf.
A TRIFLE bigger than the Little Auk: length near eleven
inches. Bill one inch and a quarter; the bafe white; from the
noftrils to the end black : the feathers come very forward on the
bill; and the eyes are placed far back in the head : the head, fides,
and throat, are deep black : the upper part of the body and wings
dufky black; the under of a pure white : on the ears, juft behind
the eyes, fpring feveral long narrow white feathers, which lay on
each fide of the neck, meeting at the lower part, and forming a
crefcent; thefe are fomewhat curled at the origin, where they are
moft numerous, and may perhaps be erected, at the will of the
bird, as a ruff: the legs are placed quite in the vent, are one inch
and a quarter long, and dufky: the tail fhort, rounded, and
black.
■» Inhabits
 Inhabits various parts, from the weft of North America to
Kamtfchatka and the Kurile Iflands *,
AIca alle, Lin
—Faun.
p. 61. t. M. c.
Le petit Guillemot, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 73. z.—Buf. Oif ix. p.
Mergulus melonoleucos roftro acuto brevi, Raii Syn. p. 13;.
Small black and white Diver, Will. Orn. p. 343. pl. 59.—E,
Greenland Dove, or Sea Turtle, Albin, i. pl. 85.
Little Auk, Br. Zool. ii. N° 233. pl. 82.—Ara. Zool. N9 429.
Lev. Muf.
CIZE of a Blackbird: length near nine inches. The bill is
fhort and flout, and fomewhat rounded in fhape; colour black:
the upper parts ofthe bird are black, the under white: fcapulars
ftreaked with white : acrofs the wings a trace of white : the legs
yellowifh brown : webs black.
The male is faid to differ in having the throat black,
Edwards's bird, and that figured in the Britifh Zoology, have the
head and neck black; and are fuppofed to differ in fex from the
above-defcribed, but this is not clear : I have received the laft from
North America, from which place I have feen two more ofthe fame;
but the few I have met with of Englifh fpecimens, among which
are two in my own collection, were like the firft-mentioned.
We believe this fpecies not to be very common in England,
being only met with now and then. We have received it from
Dover; and a fecond fpecimen was fhot near Dartford. It feems
to be moft plentiful towards the north, being met with in various
parts as far as Spitjbergen. Common in Greenland, in company
• Ara. Zoo,
 u
K.
with the black-billed fpecies, and feeds on the fame food. Lays
two blueifh white eggs, larger than thofe of a Pigeon. Flies quick,
and dives well; and is always dipping its bill into the water while
fwlmming, or at reft on the water. Walks better on land than
others of the genus. It grows fat in the ftormy feafon, from the
waves bringing plenty of crabs and fmall fifh within its reach.
From its fize is lefs fought after than the others • but the fame
means are ufed in taking it, being not a very crafty bird. In
Greenland* it is called the Ice-bird, being the harbinger of ice f.
This fometimes is feen of a pure white %.
FLAT-BILLED A.
Description.
Pygmy Auk, Ara. Zool. N° 431.
CIZE a trifle lefs than the Little Auk : length feven inches.
Bill under three quarters of an inch in length, colour black ;
along the top it is ridged, but on each fide of the ridge confide-
rably depreffed, as in the Duck genus : the noftrils are placed
parallel to the edge of the upper mandibie; the point -of the bill
flightly curved : the vifage is fomewhat prolonged, as in the
Perroquet Auk ; and the fides between the bill and eye furnifhed
with a few narrow pale feathers : the plumage on all the upper
parts is footy black : chin and throat very pale : fore part of the
neck, breaft, and belly, paler than above, and inclining much
to afh-colour : middle of the laft dirty white : legs dufky.
The above inhabits Bird Ifland, between Aflia and America; where
our late voyagers met with them in confiderable numbers.
* Met with there in j
X AIca Candida, Brun
lance.—Phipp. Voy. p. 1
? 107.—Muller, p. 17.
f Ara. Zool.
 3*9   3
Genus   LXXXV.    GUILLEMOT.
i. Foolifh G.
Var. C.
2. Leffer G.
Var. D.
3. Black G.
Var. E.
Var. A.
N° 4. White G.
Var. B.
5. Marbled G
B
ILL flender, pointed; the upper mandible flightly bending
towards the end; bafe covered with fhort feathers.
Noftrils lodged in a hollow near the bafe.
Tongue flender, almoft the length of the bill.
Legs furnifhed with three toes, all placed forwards.
Colymbus Troile, Lin. Syft. i. p.  220.  2.—Faun. Suec. N° 149.—Brun.
"    N° 108.—Mutter, N° 152.—Frifch. t. 185.
Le Guillemot, Brif. Orn. vi. p. 70. 1. pl. 6. fig. l.—Buf Oif. ix. p. 350.
pl. 2$.—Pl. Enl. 903.
Lonruvia Hoieri, Guillemot, or Sea-hen, Raii Syn. p. 120. A. 4.—Will.
Orn. p. 324. pl. 65.—Alb. i. pl. 84.—Edw. pl. 359. fig. I.
Foolifh Guillemot, Br. Zool. N° 234.—Ara. Zool. N° 436.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
T ENGTH feventeen inches: breadth twenty-feven: weight
twenty-four ounces. The bill is three inches long, flrait,
pointed, and black : the infide of the mouth yellow: the feathers on the upper part of the bill fhort and foft like velvet:
from the eye to the hind part of the head is a fmall divifion of the
Vol. III. Uu feathers,s
-t- FOOLISH G.
 GUILLEMOT.
feathers: the head, neck, back, wings, and tail, deep moufe-
colour: tips of the leffer quills white: under parts of the body
the fame: fides under the wings marked with dufky lines: juft
above the thighs are fome long feathers, that curl over them :
legs dufky.
Mr. Brunnich* mentions a variety, having a broader and
fhorter bill, and the margins of it yellow, even in dried fpecimens ; and Muller-f another, with a ring of white round the eyes,
and a line of the fame behind them.
This bird is fufficiently plenty on the Englifih coafts in the
fummer feafon, when it is found fometimes in aftonifhing numbers on our rocky cliffs; at which time our