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Supplement. II. to the general synopsis of birds Latham, John, 1740-1837 1801

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  THE LIBRARY
THE UNIVERSITY OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA
The
Bulwe
r Collection
Gift of
Mr
.Henry
A. Bulwer
*s
   SUPPLEMENT. II.
GENERAL SYNOPSIS
of
BJ1DS
j^skita
1§|P^B'
_1L  -..
L o ^b o :sr.
Printed for Leigh. Sotb.e"by & Son,
Ifxrrlc Street, Co-rent Garden.
MDCCCI.
MUM
    SUPPLEMENT     II.
B   I
D   S.
Div.  I.    LAND-BIRDS.
Order I.    RAPACIOUS.
Genus I.   VULTURE.
N° i. Gendur V.
2. Californian V.
3. Cinereous V.
4. Alpine V.
5. Afh-coloured V.
6. Bearded V.
7. King V.
' Var. A.
N° 8. Arabian V.
9. Secretary V.
10.' Bold V.
11. Sociable V.
xi. Kolben's V.
13. Chagoun V,
Vultur Gryphus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 1.
Vultur Gryphus, Encyclop. Brit. v. xviii. p. 695. pl. dx. Mas.
... Magellanicus, Lever. Muf. v. 1. pl. l.fem.
Vautour Condor, Daudin. Trait. d'Ornithol. ii. p. 8.
Condur Vulture, Gen. Syn. i. p. 4.—Id. Sup. p. 1.
TW O of thefe (fuppofed to be male and female) are in the
Leverian Mufeum, colle&ed by Mr. Parkinfon.    The firft is in
breadth from the tip of one wing to that of the other, at leaft ten
feet.    The head and neck are covered with cinereous down; on
the crown of the head is a long carunculated membrane, like that of
Supp. II. B -a cock,
CONDUR
V.
 VULTURE.
a cock,'which 1-fc'irregularly indented at top* part of the throat
is alio bare, and a kind of pendulous pear fhaped fubftance on the
breaft, in the .manner of the King Vulture : the general colour of the
plumage is black, but the lower part of the neck is furrounded with
a white ruff, of a fine hairy fubftance : the leffer wing coverts are
wholly black •- the middle-ones have greyish white ends, forming a
bar when clofed; the greater ones are half black half white, divided '
obliquely j the thre,e firft quills are quite black, the fecond quills
whine, - tipped- with   black :
eyifli
tail even, thirteen or fourteen
_ : thighs covered with longifti feathers: legs ftout, brown ;
claws blunt, black : .biU ftrong, moderately hooked; colour black,
with a white tip; and noftrils placed in a depreffion at the bafe.
When the wings are at reft on the body, the middle of the back appears white; which circumftance is obferved by Molina, in his Natural Hiftory of Chili *. He alfo fays, the irides are of a red brown,
and that the female is rather fmaller than the male. Thefe birds
make their nefts among the moft inacceffible rocks, and lay two
white eggs bigger than thofe of a turkey;, they feed on dead car-
cafes ; and as there are no wolves in Chili, thefe birds 'fupply the
place of them, and at times prey on fheep and goats, and even young
calves, when they ftray far from their dams; and thefe laft they fall
upon in flocks, firft plucking out their eyes, and foon afterwards
tearing them in pieces. The country people ufe every means to de-
ftroy this bird, fometimes by a perfon covering himfelf with the hide
of a newly fkinned animal, and fo managing, that when the Condur
attempts to attack the hide, other perfons lying in readinefs come to
the afiiftance of the firft, and falling on the bird all at once, overcome
the enemy; at other times, a dead careafe is put within a place en-
clofed with rails, and when the Condur has fatiated himfelf with the
flefh, and unable to rife freely, perfons are in readinefs to fubdue him
Fr. ed. p. 247.
by
 VULTURE.
by blows and every other means poffible. The bird, however inactive on fuch occafions, is at other times of very quick flight, info-
much as not unfrequently to foar to fuch an height as to be out of
"the reach 6T human vifion. It is called by the inhabitants of Chili
by the name of Manque; the biggeft hitherto obferved, meafured full
fourteen feet from the tip of one wing to that of the other when extended.
Californian Vulture, Nat. Mifc. v. g. pl. 301.
T N fize, this bird nearly equals the Condur. The general colour
of the plumage is black; but the fecond quills have whitifh tips,
and the wing coverts incline to brown : the wings when folded,
reach beyond the tail: the head and neck are entirely bare of
feathers, quite fmooth, and of a dufky reddifh colour: acrofs the front
is a bar of dufky, and two others of the fame on the hind head : the
bill is of a pale colour: the lower part of the neck is furrounded
with a ruff, compofed of flender black feathers, of the ftrudture
ufualjy feen in many of the genus : the under part of the body is
covered with loofe downy feathers: the tail is even at the end: the
legs black.
This bird was brought from California, by Mr. Menzies, and is
now in the Britifh Mufeum: it feems to have fome affinity to the
Condur.
CALIFORNIAN
Vultur cinereus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 1. N° 2 Hift. Prov. i. p. 337.
Vautour commun, Daud. Orn. ii. p. 16. xi.—Id. p. 18. 15.
Der Arrian Geyer, Allg. Ueb. d. Vog. I. i. p. 654. 24 ?
Cinereous or afh-coloured Vulture, Gen. Syn. i. p. 14.
T T has been obferved to frequent the mountainous parts of Germany, defcending into the plain in winter.    The huntfman expedts
to be paid well fdr fhooting thefe, as they attack fheep, hares^ goats,
and even deer, being very troublefome to the farmer, in picking out
B 2 the
 V   U   L
U    R    E.
the eyes of lambs, cVc.': it is more tame than other birds ofprey, and
in courfe more eafily deftroyed *.
Vultur Percnopterus,
Percnoptere, Levaill.
Alpine Vulture, Gen.
•o.)i
-Id. Sup. p. 3.
CAID to be two feet in length; and fome much larger: and that
it is common in the Pyrenaan mountains; alfo in Egypt according
to Svnninic Mr. Levaillant obferves, that they it fort to Table Bay, at .
the Cape of Good Hope; and not unfrequently a furious fouth-eaft
wind obliges them to quit the mountains, and fometimes beats them
down into the ftreets at the Cape, where they are knocked on the
head with fticks. M. de la Peiroufe j- obferves, that the male and female are different in colour; the firft wholly white, the other brown,
but only fo in the adult ftate -, for when young and incomplete in
plumage, they are often of' a pale colour; above fpotted yellow and
brown, with the under parts yellow, and differing fo materially from
the old ones in external appearance, as to deceive the lefs experienced
naturalift.
COLOURED
V.Leucocephalus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 2. N°
.   V. Angolenfis, id. i. p. 7. 17 t—Daudh
Rachamah, Bruce's Trav. v. 5. t. in p.
A-
i. Orn. ii. p. 27. iii
.63.   ;
..—Lev. Muf N'
. L'ourigourap, Levaill. Oif. p. 62. pl. 1
Afh-coloured Vulture, Gen. Syn. i. p. 1;
Angola Vulture, Gen. Syn. i. p. 18. 14.
^.—Daudln. Orn.
ii. p. 21. xviii.
HP HIS has been  before defcribed under feveral of the refpecHve
heads above quoted ; but I think it not amifs to add here, Mr.
Levaillant's account of it, who fays, that it is about the fize of a. female Turkey j the whole front of the head much beyond the eyes, and
» Bechft. Muft. p. 55.
f Neu. Abb. der Schw. Ac. der Wifs, S. 99.
 VULTURE.
taking in the throat, is bare, and of a faffron colour: the bill long
and flender, of a rather deeper colour, but blackifh towards the poinf:
the. reft Of the neck, on the fides, and behind, is covered with long
flender feathers, but before, as for as the crop, it is fcarcely more
than downy; and the crop itfelf bare, and orange brown: the general colour of the plumage and tail, is dirty rufous white, rather
pale; the quills are moftly black, but the fecondaries are outwardly
the colour of the reft of the plumage : tail rather rounded in fhape :
legs yellowifh brown.
The female exceeds"-the male in fize, and differs chiefly in being
lefs tinged with reddifh; and the young birds have the whole of the
naked parts about the head covered with a greyifh down.
This fpecies is generally feen in pairs, but does not unite in large
flocks, like many of the vultures; indeed ten or twelve are often
feen together about one carcafe, but they have been brought there
by common attraction, allured thereto by the fmell, which though
unperceivable to human fenfation, attracts their infinitely more delicate organs at inconceivable diftances. Said to build among the
rocks, laying four eggs: are moft frequent among the fterile lands
of Karozv and Camdeboo; alfo in the Country of Hottniqua, though
more rare j the fame in refpect to the neighbourhood of the Cape: is
capable of being made tame; and there are few of the hordes in which
one does not fee a pair • and the natives feemed pleafed with their
company, as they ferved to free them from every ftinking thing which
might otherwife annoy them. This natural tamenefs occafions their
being eafy to fhoot at, though, unlefs with a large ball, they are not
eafily killed. Their food feems general, all manner of carrion. Lizards, fnakes, frogs, and even the excrements of beafts do not efcape
them.
This feems to be the V> de Norvege of Buffon *, and in  courfe his
* Hift. Of.—Pl. Enl. 449.
 r
VULTURE.
Petit Vautour f, as alfo the Sacre d'Egypte of the fame author J, to .
which I may add, the probability of irs proving the Angola Vulture of
Pennant, and the Rachamah of Bruce, which is common near Cairo,
and if it fhould not prove likewife a variety of the V. de Malthe%, it at
leafl: correfponds with it in the fhape of the bill, in which part the whole
of the laft-mentioned differ from other vultures. When, however,
the decifion of the Vulture genus into reaj fpecies may take place, is
not for us to determine; the variety among individuals, from different
periods of life, as well as the different appearances of thofe in a ftate
of confinement, to what the plumage has when at large, cannot fail
to create no fmall difficulty; added to that, very few travellers are na-
turalifts in a fuflicient degree to difcriminate one part of nature from
another; befides, the fubjects in queftion being moftly extra-European, we cannot wonder at being fo long in the dark: let us however attempt all we can, with the hopes of fome future day being able
to arrive at greater precifion j nor let any writer be afhamed of correcting his miftakes the moment he may be pofiefied of better information.
Bruce obferved thefe birds near Cairo in abundance, where it is a
great breach of the police to kill one of them. Acording to Dr. Shaw
it is a very tame fpecies; and the Bafhaw is faid daily to diftribute two
bullocks among them, being efteemed facred birds.
Vultur Barbatus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 9. N° 5.
 Barbarus, 6 ?
Gypaete des Alpes, Daudin. Orn. ii. p. 25. pl. x.
Niffer Werk, Bruce Trav. App. tab. p. 155 Robert Jc. pl.  2 ?
Bearded Vulture, Laemmergeyer, Gen. Syn. i. p. n.—Cox's Travels in Switzerland (8vo. vol. ii. p. 280.) a figure of the head.
HPHE bird quoted above, as defcribed by Mr. Bruce, extends from
wing to wing eight feet four inches, weighs twenty-two pounds,
and is in length four feet feven inches.    The crown and front are
t V. i. p. 164. j 167. * Pl. Enl. 427.
bare
 VULTURE,
bare and bald; a ftrong forked bufh of hair, divided into two at the
point
thigh.
3 from the lower jaw on each fide: the thicknefs of the
lefs than four inches: the legs remarkably fhort, only four
inches in length; and the thigh joint only fix inches. The colour
of the feathers of the back brown; of the belly gold colour.
From Mr. Bruce's defcription, although too concife by far, I am led
to conclude that it is no other than our Bearded Vulture, or at leaft a
flight variety, which this author met with on the higheft part of the
mountains Lamalmon, not far diftant from Gondar, the capital of
Abyffinia. It was a bold fpecies, as it went fo far as to take away
part of the provifion which Mr. Bruce and his company were regaling themfelves with on that fpot. On moving the body of one' of
thefe after being fhot, a duft correfponding with the colour of the
feathers both above and below, flew out in pretty large quantity;.
but this is not peculiar to this fpecies: we have obferved it in the
King Vulture and fome others, as alfo in the White Cockatoo.
Vultur Papa, Ind. Orn. i. p. \.—Spalowfk.  Vog. i. t.  z.—Daudin. Orn. ii.  p. 6.
pl. ix.
V. Sacra, or white-tailed Vulture, Bartram's Trav. p. 285.—Damp. Voy. ii.. part ii.
p. 67.
King Vulture., Gen. Syn. i, p. 7. N° 3.
IJEITHER this nor the Carrion Vulture are fhy, for on one of
the firft being fhot and winged, in feven or eight days it fed
freely, and became tame. I experienced this myfelf, in refpect, to the
laft ; I have had one which was brought from Jamaica, running about
my garden, perfectly tame, where it lived throughout the whole
fummer, and was killed by a cold frofty night, which came on unexpectedly.
 VULTURE.
Le Roi des Vautours varie, Levaill. Oif. i. pl. 13.
'T'HIS feems a variety from age, having many black feathers
mixed among the white ones on the neck and upper parts:
hence Mr. Levaillant fuppofes, that thefe birds are black or dufky
whilft young, and change to the pure white or cream-colour, as they
approach the adult ftate; and indeed Ddmpier mentions, that fome
are all over white, but the feathers look as if they were fullied, with
bald heads and necks like the«reft, and adds, we never fee above one
or two of thefe together; and feldom a great number of black ones
without a white one among them*.
Vultur Monachus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 5. N° 9.
Le Chincou, Levaill. Oif. p. 53. N° iz.—Daudin. Orn. ii.p. 12. vi.
Der Einfiedlergeyer, Allg. Veb. d. Vog. i. 5. 655. 25.
Vautour Moine, Daudin. Orn. ii. p. 15. ix.
Arabian Vulture, Gen. Syn.i. p. 8.
'TP HIS bird is nearly of the fize of the Sociable Vulture. The bill
is ftout; the bafe half pale, the reft dufky black : the whole face
beyond the eyes, chin, and hind head, covered with a black down : on
the crown behind, is an elevated tuft of a grey brown colour, in
fhape like a fwan-down puff; below this, the neck is naked and
white, giving the appearance of a whice ring; the reft of the neck
is cloathed with feathers, the upper ones of which are long and
narrow, forming a kind of ruff; but the whole of the neck is bare on
the fore part, as alfo the crop, which at times is large and round:
irides whitifh: the plumage of the body for the moft part is plain
brown; but the quills and tail are nearly black: legs whitifh ; claws
black: fuppofed to meafure from the tip of one wing to the other,
• I fufpea that the Vultur Sacra, or White-tailed Vulture of Bartram, is the above
fpecies, and his Black Vulture the Carrion Vulture.
6 nine
 VULTURE. 9
nine feet. In a ftate of reft, efpecially after a full meal, it draws its
head into the ruff, with the bill refting on the crop, in which ftate it
appears a fhapelefs mafs of feathers. It was alfo obferved, that this
bird never folded its wings on the tail, but always fuffered them to
hang down carelefsly on each fide. Mr. Levaillant fays, that this bird
comes from China-,, however, we have little doubt of its proving-no
other than the Vultur Monachus of Linneeus, our Arabian Vulture*, exceedingly well exprefled in Edw. pl. 290; alfo fufficiently characterized in Gerini, under the name of Vultur Leporarius j.
M.  de la Peiroufe\\ obferves, that iris found in the fame places Place.
with his Arrian, which I take to be the Cinereous^ Vulture; but is
more fcarce: the colours of the plumage are not far different, being
brown for the moft part, but the neck lefs naked: and it differs like-
wife in the head being elevated on the top: the cere and feet incline
to red.
Vultur ferpentarius, Ind. Orn. i. p. 8.  N° 21. 9-
Le Mangeur de Serpens, Levaill. Oif. i. p. 103. pl. 25. SECRETARY
MefTager reptilivore, Daudin. Orn. ii. p. 30.1. *•
Secretair, Buf. Oif. vii. p. 328. t. 17.
Ibis, Gent. Mag. xxxix. t. p. 568.
Snake-eater, Phil. Tranf. v. lxi. p. 5;. t. 2.
Secretary Vulture, Gen. Syn. i. p. 20. pl. 2.—Id. Sup. p. 4.
JEVAILLANT obferves, that the creft feathers are ten in number,    Descmptiom.
the loweft the longeft ; the fhorteft four inches only, and that this
bird not only preys on fnakes~, &c. but all oviparous quadrupeds : its
claws, on account of its being oftener on the ground than other birds of
prey, become lefs fharp than is commonly feen, and will not ferve to
* Syn. i. p. 8. N° 4. + Vol. i. pl. ix.
X N. ScJjw. Abh. B. 3. S. 100.—Another is r.'fo mentioned, called Der Miftgeyer,
which is whitifh: head with the knob and-cere fafFron-coiour: legs blueifh and naked,
known by the name of Afimock.
Supp, II, C grafp
 VULTURE.
grafp its victim; on which account it makes ufe of its wings, with
which it beats whatever it attacks with great violence; this it has
the power to do, by means of a bony protuberance at the bend of the
wing, enabling the bird to ftrike moft deftructive blows with that
part; and it is with their wings that they defend themfelves againft
venomous fnakes, by fometimes oppofing one wing and fometimes
the other, whereby they,evade the bites of thofe which might other-
wife prove mortal, till the enemy being tired with its efforts, or
bruifed nearly to death with blows, becomes an eafy prey. Young
turtles and lizards alfo bear part in the food of the Secretary Vulture-,
and even grafshoppers and other infects are at times not rejected by
it. Thefe birds are not unfrequently kept tame, and in this ftate no
food comes amifs to them: if young birds are*offered, they take
them by the bill foremoft, and fwallow them whole. One of thofe
which M. Levaillant killed, had twenty-one young turtles, eleven:
fmall lizards, and three fnakes in his ftomach: like other birds of
prey, it is obferved to bring up the undigefted parts of its food, in
the fhape of round pellets. In pairing time, two males will often be
found fighting for a female in a violent manner. Thefe birds make
a flat kind of neft, like that of an eagle, full three feet in diameter,
lined with wool a*nd feathers, in fome high tuft of trees, and often
conceal it fo effectually as not eafily to be found. The female
differs in that fhe inclines more to grey, with a fhorter creft, and the
two middle tail feathers fhorter than thofe of the male.
THE fize of this bird is. uncertain : the bill is pale yellow, with
the tip black: the plumage wholly of a deep brown; but the
fides of the head are bare as far as the eyes, and fome what beneath
them, and the colour of thefe parts very pale: the quills and tail are
of a darker colour than the reft of the body, being nearly black:
the fbins are covered with feathers quite to the toes; flefh colour
dotted with black.
This
 VULTURE.
This is a native of New Holland; but although the fize of it is
uncertain, we may fuppofe it not to be one of the fmalleft, and certainly is a fierce fpecies, as it is faid to kill the Vottegorang, and even
■to attack the natives themfelves; who know it by the-name of
Booramorang.
L'Oricou, Levaill. Oif. i. p. 36. pl. g.—Daudin. 0)n. i. p. 10. iii.
'"P HIS is a very large fpecies of vulture, and meafures ten feet
from wing to wing extended : the bill is moderately hooked,
and of a pale brown ; cere horn colour: irides chefnut brown : head
and neck naked, of a flefh colour, befet with a few ftraggling
-brownifh hairs; throat blackifh : the general colour of the plumage
is dark brown on the upper parts, the feathers with paler edges ; at
the back of the neck a ruff of pale brown; fome long loofe feathers
of the fame colour mixed with white, hang over the breaft, and
continue to the vent; into thefe the bird frequently draws down his
head in a ftate Of indolence or reft: the thighs are covered below
the knees with foft whitifh down, as are all the under parts of the
body: the tail is fomewhat cuneiform: legs covered with brown
fcales; claws very moderately hooked, and black.
It frequents the mountainous parts of the interior of the Cape of
Good Hope; never feen near the Cape itfelf, but particularly in the
Namaqua Land, as well as another fpecies,. and chiefly among the
European plantations.
Builds among the rocks ; lays two, feldom three, white eggs; pair
in October, and hatch in January ; never builds in a tree, nor indeed
does any other true Vulture. The pairs feem to be in amity one wich
another, as three or four nefts have been found by the fide of each
other, in an hollow of a rock: the eggs are not ill flavoured when
eaten. The Natives moftly call this bird Ghaip. The Dutch
C 2 colonifts
 VULTURE.
colonifts call it black Carrion Bird; to ttiftihguifh it from the
next fpecies, which is of a pale colour, and which they call Stront-
jager, by which name, as alfo Stront-vogel, or Aas-vogel, the colonifts
call all kinds of Vultures; faid only to be found about the confines
of European plantations.
Le Chaffe-fiente, Levaill. Oif. i. p. 44. pl. 10. Daudin Orn. i.p. 15. x.
'TpHIS is not quite fo big as the laft, but is greatly more common:
the bill is pale lead colour; irides deep brown: the head and
neck bare of feathers, or covered with a few fcattered hairs, and of
a pale dirty yellow: round the lower part of the neck is a pale
coloured ruff of loofe feathers, common to many of the genus: the
plumage for the moft part is a pale tawny yellowifh or Ifabella
colour: the quills and tail black ; and the quills reach almoft to the
end of the tail: the male is fmaller than the female. If we compare
this with the Alpine Vulture, the colour is greatly different, and the
wings are fhorter in proportion in this laft bird, nor has it the heart-
fhaped fpot on the breaft, feen in the Alpine Vulture; befides, a bare
infpection of the two figures will detect the difference.
This fpecies is found in every part of Africa through which Mr.
■Levaillant traverfcd, on the contrary, the Sociable Vulture is only met
with in the confines of the European plantations. Both of them,
however, pafs under the name of Str-ont jager. This fpecies frequents
the rocks or the high mountains, which cover the point of Africa,
from the Cape Town to Falfe Bay, from thence it fpreads itfelf all
around wherever food is to be found, feafting on every kind of offal,
and approaching near to habitations, and even the ftreets of the Cape,
in queft of it, as well as crabs and other fhell-fiin ; and not unfre-
quently on land turtles, which it fwallows whole, alfo locufts, &c.
£*i
 VULTURE.
Le Chaugoun, Levaill. Oif. p. 50. pl. 11. Daudin. Orn. 5. p. 14, viii.
Bengal Vulture, Gen. Syn. 1. p. 19. pl. 1. Id. Sup. p. 3. 16.
Hp HIS is a fmall fpecies, fcarcely fo large as our King Vulture:
. Bill dufky horn colour, but yellowifh at the bend: the head
and neck can fcarcely be called bare, but they are only covered
with fcattered hairs, and are of a blueifh flefh colour: the crop is
prominent, and covered with fine filky black feathers: the plumage
in general dufky brown, but the feathers of the under parts have
a white line, as well as thofe on the thighs: a large white fpot appears
on each fide-the breaft, but unlefs the wings are lifted up, cannot be
feen: the head and hind part of the neck are covered.with gloffy,
dufky-w'hite feathers, but the lower part blending with a ruff of a
foft downy ft.rudt.ure: the greater quills and tail are black, but the
fecondaries are bordered with rufous brown: wings and tail nearly of
equal length when clofed: the legs are pale brown, or flefh colour;
and the middle toe. nearly double the length of the others.
This inhabits Bengal, where it goes by the name of Chaugoun.
This feems clearly -to be a variety of my Bengal Vulture, if not
the fame bird.
 FALCON,
Genus II.
FALCON.
0 i. Vulturine Eagle.
N° 27. Buzzaret.
2. Martial E.
28. Pondicherry E.
3. Occipital E.
29. Pifcivorous E.
4. Cinereous E.
. 30. Blagre E.
5. Tharu F.
'31. American Buzzard,
6. Tiger Falcon.
32. Honey Buzzard.
7. Courland F,
23. Raniverous F.
8. Glaucous F.
34. Rufty F.
9. Deftructive E.
3$. Teftaceous F.-
10. Noify E.
36. Javan F.
11. Short-tailed F.
37. Gofhawk.
12. Bacha F.
Var. B.
13. Maritime F.
38. Crefted Gofhawk.
14. Booted F.
3g. Mauduit's F.
15. Sclavonian F.
40. Guiana Gofhawk.
16. Margined F.
41. Rufous-bellied F:
17. Tachard F.
42. Northern F.
18. Crefted Indian F.
43. Black and White Indian F,
19. Chicquera F.
44. Chanting F.
20. Iceland F.
45. Long-legged Henharrier.
Var. A.
46. Axillary F.
21. Notched F.
47. Bohemian F.
22. Swallow tailed F.
48. Keftril.
23. Black-winged F;
Var. C.
24. Kite.
Var. D.
25. Parafite F.
49. Rufous-backed K.
26. Hobby Buzzard.
50. Orange-legged Hobby.
51. Greater
 FALCON.
N" 51. Greater Hobby.
N°59
Sonnini's F.
52. Red-legged H.
60.
Black-eyed F.
53. Dwarf F.
61.
Radiated F.
54. Black-thighed F.
62.
Winking F.
55. Jackal F.
63.
Rufty and Grey F.
56. Defert F.
64.
Pacific F.
57. NewHollandSpat
rowhawk.
65.
Lunated F.
58. Speckled Sp.
66.
Fair F.
Le Can-re, Levaill. Oif i.
p. 28. pl. 6.
i. p.  53. xxi.—Levaill. Voy. (Fr. ed. 8vo.) i.
P-2S5- \ •
Niffer Tokoor, Black Eagle, Bruce'sTrav. App. t. p. 159?
CIZE of the Golden Eagle, but has the bill very ftrong; the claws
are moderate, and not greatly curved, in this approaching to the
Vulture genus : the general colour is deep black ; but the head is
cloathed with feathers: the wings when clofed, reach eight inches
beyond the end of the tail; the end of which is ufually damaged from
rubbing on the rocks on which it perches: the fhape of the tail is
rounded, the outer feathers being much fhorter than the others : the
legs are covered three-fourths of the length with feathers, and are of
a dirty yellow: the bill pale yellow, with a dufky blueifh bafe :
irides chefnut brown.
This fpecies inhabits Caffraria, but is rare, and feeds principally on
dead carcafes, which caufes it to fmell horridly offenfive: from the
length of wing, it rifes from the ground with difficulty : faid to build
among the rocks; will attack fheep, and devour them on the fpot,
except it has occafion to bring any part to its young, in which cafe
it carries it in the claws; in this differing from the true Vulture,
which difgorges the nutriment it fupplies to the young from the
throat. The natives of the Cape of Good Hope call it Strom Vogel,
(dung-bird), or Aas Vogel (carrion bird).
I greatly'
 FALCON.
I greatly fufpect this bird to be the fame with the Black Eagle of
Mr. Bruce, alluded to above, the chief difference of which, is the
latter having the feathers of the head elongated into a creft of a con-
fiderable length, which it carries erect. Mr. Bruce's bird is alfo bare
from the bill quite to the eyes, and yellow, in this greatly approaching to the Vulture genus, and may fairly be faid to form a link between the two. It was met with in the year 1770 at Dinglebor,
among a cloud of Vultures and other birds ofprey, which follow the
army in Abyffnia, and was ftruck down by fome of thefe, by which
means it came under Mr. Bruce's inflection.
Le Griffard, Levaill. Oif. i. pl. i.
Aigle Griffard, Daudin. Orn. ii. p. ;
>~p H I S is the fize of an Eagle, and weighs from twenty-five to
thirty pounds: the male meafures from the tip to tip of the
wings extended, feven feet and an half, and the female one foot more.
The bill is moderately curved, and of a pale colour: irides bright
hazel: the general colour of the plumage is brown ; the edges of the
feathers paler, with the fame mixture of white about the nape of the
neck; the under parts nearly white: quills black, reaching three-
fourths of the way on the tail at leaft ; fome of the leffer ones are barred
with black and whitifh : tail even at the end, marked as the fecond
quills : legs feathered to the claws, which are pale as the bill.
This is an inhabitant of Africa, frequenting the Great Namaquay_
about the twenty- eighth degree of latitude, chiefly the parts uninhabited by whites: is a courageous bird, preying on antelopes, hares,
&c. is in its turn attacked by crows and vultures, in order to deprive
, it of its prey, though feldom with fuccefs: moftly feen in company
with its mate, and builds a large flat neft, of large flicks and twigs, on
the tops of high trees, of fo compact a ftructure, as to enable any
one to ftand upon it firm, without breaking through, fuch an one
5 ferving
 F   A. L   C    O    N.
ferving for feveral years; it is lined with dried leaves, mofs, and
other foft materials : it alfo has been obferved to make the neft on an
appropriate rock, but when any tree of a proper fize, ftands fingly in its
neighbourhood, it is always preferred: the female lays two white
eggs. This bird may be heard very far off, making a very fharp cry,
mixed at times with rough and mournful tones. It is an high flier,
mounting fometimes to fuch an height as fcarcely to be feen.
Le Huppard, Levaill. Oif i. pl. 2.
Aigle Huppard, Daudin. Orn. ii. p. 40. iii.
HpHIS is lefs in fize than the laft:, the bill is pale blue: the
general colour of the plumage dufky reddifh brown, the under
parts paler: the middle of the outer webs of the greater quills is
white, forming a patch on the wing: the bafe of the tail mixed
brown and white, but the end is plain dark brown, and rounded in
fhape: quills black, reaching to near the end of the tail: on the
hind head is a creft of feathers fix or feven inches in length, hanging
down behind in a graceful manner. The legs are covered with pale
yellow fhort down, quite to the toes, which are yellow.
This is found in Caffraria and Hottniqua Land; is content with
fmaller game than the laft, fuch as hares and partridges; flies with
rapjdity, the male and female moftly together; makes the neft on
trees, lining it with wool and feathers, and lays two eggs, fpotted
with red brown : it is fierce towards its prey, but is fometimes attacked
by troops of crows, which not only drive it from the neft, but even
deftroy the eggs, or the young it contains: it has a plaintive cry,
which it utters at intervals. The female differs from the male in
being bigger, in having a fmaller creft, more white on the thighs,
and fome fpots of white about the eyes, and top of the head.
 FALCON.
Falco Albicilla, Ind. Orn. i. p. 9. 2. Var. ?
Cinereous Eagle, Lath. Syn. i. p. 33. 8.—Id. Sup. p. 11 ?
'TT HIS is of a large fize: the bill is large and black: legs the fame:
the general colour of the plumage deep brown, but the under
parts are much paler, and the wings much darker than the reft: the
rump and tail are very pale afh-colour, nearly white.
This inhabits  New Holland, and  from its make and fhape feems
nearly allied to the Cinereous Eagle.
Falco Tharus, Ind. Orn
{Fr^ed.J p. 244.-2?
d. 16. N° 24.—Molin,
:. Orn. ii. p. 41. v.
H. Nat.  Chil. i
HF H I S is the fize of a large fowl: the bill whitifh, in form like
that of the common eagle: the plumage of the male is whitifh,
marked with black fpots: on the head is a fort of crown compofed
of long black feathers; of which thofe fituated outwardly are longeft :
the quills and tail are black: legs yellow and fcaly, and the claws
hooked.
The female is fmaller than the male/of a grey colour, with only a
fmall creft on her head. This fpecies inhabits Chili; makes a neft in
the higheft trees, compofing it of flicks twined together, on which
it heaps up a confiderable bed of wool, feathers, &c. The eggs are
five in .number, white, fpotted with brown. It feeds on living as
well as dead animals, although it is not feen to purfue after its living
prey, but feizing them by lurking and catching them unawares.
The male advances with a ftiff neck and an air of gravity, and when
it cries, which it often does very forcibly, it draws its head back
towards the rump, with the bill upright. The name at Chili h
Tkaru.
F. tigrinns,
 FALCON.
F. tigrinus, Befek. Vog. Kurl. S. 10. u —I Taf. z.
, Dar getiegerte Falke, Allg. Ueb. d. /%. i. S. 676.
*"p H I S is the fize of the Golden Eagle, if not bigger : the cere is
blue:' irides and legs yellow : head, neck, and breaft pale brown,
but the upper part of both are black; the crown appearing in fine
ftreaks: the reft of the upper parts are dull brown: quills black: greater
wing coverts black brown, paler : tail dull brown, croffed with three
narrow diftinct bands: beneath, from the breaft, white, marked with
fome light brown fpots on the thighs, and under part of the wings, in
manner of a tiger. This was a male. It feems like one figured by
Frifch, t. 76.
Inhabits Ccurland, whereabouts it breeds; and is a fpecies equally
fierce, agile, and beautiful; it approaches farm houfes, and is a dreadful enemy to the grous tribe, and hares, on which it feeds.
Der RothlichweifTe Falke, Allg. Ueb. d. Vog. i. Zufafs. S. 6j6. 120.—Befek. Vog.
Kurl. S. 10. 12. a. und 13. b.
HPHIS is fomewhat fmaller than the laft: cere, irides, artd legs
yellow : general colour of the plumage reddifh fmutty white :
but the back, wings and tail, are dull brown; and the ends of the
wings paler: the head, neck and breaft, are marked with longifh
dull brown fpots: the feathers which hang over the thighs rufly
brown, for the ends of each feather having an oval fpot of that colour,
and being confufedly mixed together, give that appearance: the tail
croffed with four paler bands: this is the female: the male agrees
nearly in colouring, but is one-fourth fmaller in fize.
Inhabits Ccurland.
D   2 Fake-
6.
TIGER
 2o FALCO    N,
8. Falco Glaucopis, Ind. Orn. i. p. 26. N° 25.—Merrem. Ic. Av. iup. 25. f. 7..
GLAUCOUS Aigle de Gottingue, Daud. Orn. ii. p. 59, xxix.
Description. HpHE length of this fpecies is twenty-one inches and a quarter?
the bill is glaucous: infide of the mouth "and tongue rofe colour:
irides yellowifh; cere the fame: the general colour of the plumage
is brown, but the head and nape are of a yellowifh white, ftreaked
with brown, and the forehead marked with crefcents of brown ; and
the breaft wholly of that colour: the thighs are fhort, covered with
downy feathers, and the fhins half cloathed with yellowifh feathers :
the quills are black: the tail reddifh brown above, dirty white
beneath, croffed with fix black bands.
Place. Inhabits the mountain Dranjberg, near Gottingen, in Germany.
DESTRUCTIVE
Aigle Deftrufteur
Grand Aigle de 1;
Daudin. Orn. ii, p. 60. xxxii.
Guiane, Mauduit Encyc. Meih.
'"PHIS is a large fpecies, being in length three feet two inches: the
bill is pretty much curved, but chiefly fo at the end, and of a
horn colour: the top and fides of the head are dufky grey; the
feathers of the hind head are grey, very long, and of different lengths,
forming a creft; the tip of the longeft grey: neck grey: the body
is black, banded above with greyifh: the fhoulders grey and black
mixed: breaft and belly greyifh white: quills black, reaching two
thirds on the tail, which is alfo black mixed with grey on the upper
part, but nearly white on the under, with a dufky bar at -the tip:
the fhins are covered with white feathers tranfverfely banded with
black: toes naked yellow.
The male is fmaller, and of more lively colours.
Inhabits Guiana, and is a powerful fpecies, faid to prey on the floth,
and other quadrupeds, as well as pheafants.
 FALCON,
Le Blanchard, Levaill. Oif. i. pl. iii.
Aigle Blanchard, Daud. Orn. ii. p. 45. x
•Tp HIS is about one-third as big as the Martial Eagle, being fmaller
in fize than moft eagles, and more elongated: the plumage
is white, foft, and fpotted with black brown: the tail barred with
black; but the female is more mixed with brownifh yellow, efpecially on the wing coverts *. the male has the feathers on the. hind
head elongated into a creft, in which the female is not deficient,
though confiderably fmaller; but in bulk, fhe exceeds the male by
one-third : the irides and legs are yellow : the bill is pale ; the claws
black: the tail is rather long, and the wings reach about one half
way thereon.
It flies well, and its chief prey is wood pigeon, from which it
firft tears the feathers; it frequents forefts, and prefers the largeft trees:
it likewife feeds on a fmall fpecies of antelope, called by the Hottentots
Nometjes. Its cry confifts of feveral fharp founds, quickly repeated,
fomewhat fimilar to Cri-qui-qui-qui-qui, and wheri perched on a tree,
will fpend whole hours in repeating this, though in a tone of voice
feemingly weak in proportion to the fize of the bird: it builds on
high trees: the female lays two white eggs, about as big as thofe of
a turkey, but more round: the male and female fit by turns. It
has only been found in the country of the Hottniquas.
Le Bateleur, Levaill. Oif. i. p. 31. pl. 7 and 8.
Aigle ecaude, Daud. Orn. ii. p. 54. xxii. TAILED
F.
'TpHIS is the middle fize between the Sea Eagle and Ofprey: the     Descript
head, neck, and all beneath, are of a deep black: back and tail
deep rufous: fcapulars dufky, varying with the light to blue grey;
kffer wing coverts pale Ifabella colour: quills black within, :dged
outwardly
SHORT-
 FALCON.
outwardly with filvery grey: the bill and legs are dufky; bafe of
the bill yellowifh,'cere large: the tail in this bird is characteriftically
fhort, and half hidden by its coverts ; irides deep brown: while young,
the general colour is brown, paleft on the head and neck, with the
edges of all the feathers light coloured : the female is one-fourth bigger
than the male. It builds in trees, lays three or four white eggs:
The young are fo unlike the old one, that were it not for the fhort
tail, they might be miftaken for a different fpecies, and are more
like the female in every flage: the male is not complete in its.
plumage till the third year's moult.
Thefe feed on all forts of carrion, yet will attack young antelopes,
alfo lurk about inhabited places, for the fake of attacking any fick
fheep. It is moft common about Queer Boom, near Lagoa Bay, very
common in all the country of Hottniquas and Natal, quite to. Caffraria.
The male and female always feen in company; rarely in troops,
except many pairs are invited to the fame repaft. The name given
this bird by Mr. Levaillant, arofe from its flapping the wings in a
Angular manner while in the air, fo as to be heard at a great diftancei
and this repeated from one to the other as if at play, or rather as if
to amufe the fpectators below, as buffoons do on a ftage. It is known
to the inhabitants by the name of Berg-haan (mountain cock) but
perhaps not fufficiently diftinguifhable, as they call fo all birds of
prey, particularly eagles.
Le Bacha, Levaillant, Oif. i. p. 68. pl. 15.—Daudin. Orn. ii. p. 43. ix.
HPHIS in fize and refemblance is not unlike our common Buzzard, "
but rather more elongated: the general colour dirty brown, the
wings and tail deepeft: the bill is lead colour; cere yellow : the crown
of the head black, and the feathers at the back part of it elongated
info a creft, of which the feathers are half black half white, the
ends
 FALCON. 23
ends being black, and at times JB,<fpmad:out horizontally like a ta3:
at the bend of rise wing, and beneath it con the fides, the feathers are
marked with roundifh white fpots: the tail is dufky, crofted in the
middle with a broad rufous "white band.; the very tip aimoft white:
the legs are oker yellow; claws black. The female as ufual is larger
than the male.
It frequents only the barren and fultry parts of the country of the Place.
Grand Namaquas, and from thence to the tropic of Capricorn; it
preys chiefly on the Klipdas, or Cape Cavy *, though it is obliged
at times to take up with lizards, &c. It is obferved to watch the
Cavy for three hours together, with the head between the fhoulders,
in an immoveable pofture, and the moment it obferves the animal
iffue from its retreat, fprings fuddenly upon it, and devours it with
great apparent ferocity. It however fometimes mtfies of its prey,
in which cafe it utters a kind of lamentation, fomewhat fimilar to the
words houi-hi-hi, thrice repeated, and immediately afterwards changes
its place, in order to watch as before ; this feems abfolutely neceffary,
for the plaintive cry of this bird, added to its fruitlefs attempt to
feize on its prey, does not fail to alarm and frighten all the cavies
into their lurking places, not to appear again for fome hours.
It is a folitary bird, except in the breeding feafon, and then only
feen in pairs; this is about the month of December, and after rearing
two or three young ones, they again return to a folifary life: the
neft is among the rocks, compofed of a bed of mofs and leaves, ill
put together: it is a very fhy and fierce fpecies;
Falco maritimus,/W. Orn. i. p. 20. 35.—Lichtenb. Mag.fur das neuefte aufderPbyf. 1?
iv. 2. 6. MARITIME
F.
'"THE fhort account we can obtain of this bird, informs us, that     Descript
it is four feet  two inches in   breadth,  and feventeen inches
* Hyrax Capenfis.   Cavia Capenfu Lin,
 FALCON.
in length; that the bill is yellow, as well as the cere: the body
and end of the tail white: legs of a reddifh and whitifh colour
mixed.
Inhabits the fea coaft of Java, feeding on carcafes and fifh.
Description.
F. pennatus, Ind. Orn. p. 19. 34.
La Bufe Gantee, Levaill. Oif. i. p. 79. pl. !
Booted Falcon, Gen. Syn. i. p. 75. Var.
. p. 163.(
*~V HIS feems to vary very little from our Booted Falcon, met with in
the territory about the Cape of Good Hope, particularly inhabiting the
forefts of the Hottniquas. This variety feems to have a lefs mixture
of white in the plumage : it frequents the woody parts, diftant from
habitations, and lives fingly; is a bold bird, more fo than fome others;
is quick in flight, and often feizes partridges. Mr. Levaillant likens
it to a fpecies he has feen in Lorraine, in France, which is very probable, as we alfo have the bird in fome of the counties of England.
15. F. Sclavonicus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 26", 54.—^. Pcfegan. p. 29.
SCLAVONIAN Bufard Efclavon, Daudin. Orn. ii. p. 166. cxxxviii.
f:
Description; INHABITS Sclavonia, and is of the fize of a fowl: the bill is
blue black; cere and legs yellow: plumage teftaceous, marked
with black fpots: head and neck moft inclined to white : legs Woolly,
quite as far as the toes, of a dull yellow colour, fpotted with dufky:
the rump and vent are whitifh, marked with fcattered fpots of brown
and dull yellow: the tail white from the bafe to the middle, towards
the end brown; in fome croffed with five dufky bands. I fufpect
that this may poflibJy prove a variety of our Bcoted Falcon.
MARGINED
F.
Description,
F. Marginatum, Ind. Or
'T,HIS inhabits Sclavonia,
i. p. 26 I55.—It. per Pofegan. p. 28.
and is of the fize of the laft: the cere
blue ; the legs yellow: the plumage mixed brown and ferruginous above, and ferruginous with oval brown fpots beneath: tail
feathers
 FALCON.
feathers marked on both fides of the fhaft with dufky and white bands:
quills brown, croffed with dull bands : the tip ferruginous white.
%S
Le Tachard, Levaill. Oif. i. p,
Bufe Tacharde, Daudin. Orn.
82. pl. :
i. p. 10,
*~V HI S is the leaft of the buzzard kind, as far as relates to bulk of
body, but has a longer tail in proportion: bill dufky; cere
brown: irides deep reddifh brown: the head is greyifh brown, with
here and there fome irregular whitifh ftreaks: the under parts are
greyifh yellow, with a mixture of brown blotches: the upper parts
of the plumage are deep brown, with the edge of each feather paler :
the tail is deep brown, banded with black, beneath greyifh white,'
with obfcure bands; the feathers of it equal in length: the feathers
of the thighs reach below the knees, but not at all to the toes; as in
the Booted Falcon: the legs are mottled, brown; toes dull ferru-5
ginous.       Li. ^i&f*^-'>'*'-
This was fhot on the banks of the river of Lions, in the Giraffe
country, in Africa, among the Kaminiquas, who did not know the bird,
and as Mr. Levaillant never faw another, he fuppofes it to be a rare
Ifpecies.
F. cirrhatus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 36. Var. A.
Le Faucon huppe, Levail. Oif. i. p.  121. 28.-
Faucon huppe, Daudin. Orn. ii. p. 118. xci.
HP HIS, were it not for fize, feems to be coloured moft like the
Peregrine Falcon; but the male is no* bigger than a common
pigeon, and the female one-fourth larger: the general colour of the
plumage is flate colour, or greyifh blue: the top of the head furnifhed with long feathers, which are confiderably darker, inclining to
brown, alfo the hind part of the neck, and a long patch of the
Supp. II, E fame
CRESTED
INDIAN
 FALCON.
fame over each jaw, as in the Peregrine: the under parts from the
chin, and reft of the fides of the neck, are dirty white, but the belly
and thighs are marked with tranfverfe black ftreaks: the quills are
dufky brown, and reach beyond the tail, which is croffed with feven
or eight ftreaks of the fame; the extreme points of the feathers
white: the bill is pale, with the tip dufky; the under mandible is
not only Angularly notched, but is as it were cut off fquare at ths
end: the legs are yellow.
This fpecies inhabits the lakes and borders of the fea, and rivers,
which abound in fifh, on which it feeds, as well as crabs and fhell fifh,
which it eafily breaks to pieces in the bill: it is feen too to fly
after gulls, terns, and even the albatros's, all of which give way ta
him; and it is probable that the true reafon is to oblige thofe bird*
to refign up the prey they have taken. This bird makes the neft
Qn the rocks,, when it frequents the neighbourhood of the fea, other-
wife on the trees near the rivers; lays four rufous white eggs. The
male and female fit in turns, and the young brood often remains
with the parents till they have occafion to breed in their turn.
Mr. Levaillant fuppofes this to have fome relation to the Tanas of
the Senegal negroes, according to Adanfon; but it is much fmaller, be-
fides, the Angularity of the under mandible being cut off fquare, is not
noticed by him, and which could not furely have efcaped his obfer-
vation had he feen it, therefore probably is not precifely the fame; nor
can it be the Tanas of Buffon *, as it neither correfponds in colour
nor creft, only in manners, as being fond of fifh, which is not uncom-
-«\on to many other fpecies.
| Pl. Enl. 476.
>«
 FALCON.
DsSCRIFTiON^
Le Chicquera, Levail. Oif. i. p. 128. pl. 30.
Faucon Chicquera, Daudin. Orn. ii. p. 121. xciii.
H^HIS is probably a further variety of the laft, as it correfponds
as to the general diftribution of colour, though it has not the
leaft appearance of a creft: the bill, however, in Angularity, exactly
correfponds with it as to formation, and nearly fo in colour; the
vpper mandible has a double notch, and the under truncated before:
the top of the head and hind part of the neck are rufous, and a
tinge of the fame appear about the bafe of the bill, and bend of the
wing; but the upper parts of the body and wings in general are blue
grey, mottled with darker fpots: the tail much the fame as to colour,
and croffed near the end with a broad band of dufky black: the
tips of all the feathers very pale, nearly white: legs and irides yellow:
the under parts in general are white, but the breaft, belly, thighs,
and vent, are croffed with fmall dufky ftreaks : the quills when clofed
reach two-thirds on the tail, the end of which is rounded.
This Mr. LetiaUldnt fuppofes has not been figured before. He
bought it in a collection from Bengal, where it is faid to be called*
Chkquera.
F. Gyrfalco, Ind. Orn. i. p. 32. 6*8.
Iceland Falcon, Gen. Syn. i, p. 71. 51, B. defc. 2.
^BOUT Cafan, are caught the beft and largeft falcons in the
world, which are purchafed by the Turks and Perfians.   The
Tartars alfo fly them at antelopes and hares *.
F. incertus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 32. jQ.—Muf. Carlf.ii. tab. 26. Var. A.
■^HIS is probably a variety of the Gyrfalcon, and is found  in    Description.'
Sweden, where it is not very common: the bill is black: irides
ICELAND
F.
• See BtlN Trav. i. p. ■
—Aril. Zool. 2. p, «6. ISfeq.
E 9
yellow
 FALCON.
yellow: legs faffron colour: the head, back, and wing coverts cinereous
brown, each feather ferruginous on the outer margin: the chin,
throat, and breaft ferruginous ; the fhafts of the. feathers black : tail
cinereous, with a dufky tip ; near the bafe three bands of brown.
F. bidentatus, Ind. Orn.i. p. 38. 90.
Notched Falcon, Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 34. no.
T N a fpecimen which lately paffed under my obfervation, the pale"
bars of the tail are narrow ; the tail rounded in fhape : under wing
coverts plain white: the wings reach more than two-thirds on the
tail: the firft quill feather fhorter by an inch and a half than the
fecond, but the third is the longeft of all.
SWALLOW-
TAILED
Description
BLACK-
WINGED
F. furcatus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 22. 41.
Milan de la Caroline, Daudin. Orn. ii. p. J52. cxxiii.
Forked-tailed Hawk or Kite, Bartram. Trav. p. 286.
Swallow-tailed Falcon, Gen. Syn. i. p. 60. 42.—Nat. Mifc vol. vi. pl. 204.
-TPHIS fpecies comes into Georgia in fummer, feeds on fnakes, the
larvae of wafps, and other infects; is much on the wing, and tears
off the nefts of wafps, which are found hanging on the branches of
trees, as it flies ; it flays during the breeding time, departing in
autumn. I obferve in a drawing lent to me from Georgia, that the
cere is blue; irides reddifh orange : it varies in having the under
parts of the body inclining to dirty yellow, and the white on the wing
lefs confpicuous, or wholly wanting.
Le Blac, Levaill. Oif. i. p. 147. pl. 36 and 37.
Milan Blac, Daudin. Orn. ii. p. 152. cxxiv.
CIZE of the female Keftril: top of the head, back of the neck, body,
wings, and tail,   more or  lefs pale afh colour: wing  feather*
fringed round the ends with white: the tail has a flight tinge of rufous, is
a trifle
 FALCON. 29
a trifle forked in fhape, and the*feathers fringed at the ends with white;
the under part of it white : fides of the head, and all beneath white:
the feathers of the thighs are filky and deficate, and reach almoft
to the toes: the eye is fituated in a bed of blackifh, which continues
betwixt it and the noftrils: irides orange: bill black: legs fhort
and yellow :' the wing coverts are wholly black; but the quills are.
the fame colour with the back.
The female chiefly differs in being bigger, and the colour of the
plumage lefs diftinct. The young birds have fuch parts as are
white in the adult inclined to rufous, efpecially on the back feathers,
with a large portion of rufous in the middle of the breaft, and the.
top of the head.
Thefe birds build between the forks  of trees,  lining   the  neft.       Manners."
with mofs and feathers, and lay four or five white eggs.
This fpecies is found throughout all the African coaft, from Duyven- ' Place,
Hoek to Caffraria, and in the interior in Camdeboc, and the borders.
of Swarte-Kop and Sondag; is always perched on high bufhes, where
it may be feen afar off by its pure white under fide. Its cry is.
piercing, and it repeats it often, efpecia ly in flying. It feems to
feed principally on infects, fuch as grafhoppers and mantes; but Mr.
Levaillant has not feen it kill fmall birds, however, it attacks crows,,
kites, and fhrikes, and drives them from its haunts. It is a wild
bird, and difficult to be fhot. It is obferved to fmell of mufk, which.
its fkin retains, even after prepared for the cabinet, lt is faid alfo
to have been killed in Barbary, as alfo in India.
Mr. Levaillant thinks this has fome affinity with the Swallow-tailed'•
Fakon, which makes its chief food infects,
F. Milvi«,
 FALCO   N.
F. Milvus, Ltd. Om. i. p. 20.
Kite, Gen. Syn. i. p. 61. 43.—Id. Sup. p. 17.
HPHIS is faid to be moft frequent in the temperate and. well inhabited parts of Ruff a, more fcarce in Sibiria, but does not venture far to the north; about Lake Baikal not uncommon, but none
beyond the Lena. This bird frequents fheep downs in the breeding
feafon, efpecially thofe which are fkirted with wood, but in winter
delights in the neighbourhood of towns watered by rivers, where it
has been obferved to fweep off dexteroufly any offal floating on the
furface: will lay as far as four eggs, fome of which are of a pure
white, and others much fpeckled. This bird, as well as other birds
of prey, drives away the young as foon as they are able to fhift for
themfelves. It has been obferved to me, that a female kite will
weigh two pounds and ten ounces, and the egg two ounces and a
half, fo that feventeen eggs would but juft exceed the weight of the
bird; but the raven is fo difproportionate as to require forty-eight
to anfwer the fame purpofe*.
Le Parafite, Levaill. Oif. i. p. 88. pl. 22.
Milan Parafite, Daudin. Orn. ii. p. 150. cxxii.
■HpHIS by many may be efteemed only a variety of our Kite, but
Mr. Levaillant affures us, that it differs materially in having the
tail lefs forked, and in being of fmaller fize: the bill yellow inftead of
black, which the common kite has, and the cere blueifh inftead of
yellow; however the legs in both are yellow: irides brown hazel:
the general colour is that of tanned leather: the middle of each feather darkifhj the under parts more inclined to cinnamon colour:
\ Col. Montagu,
cheeks
 F   A   L   CO   N;
cheeks and throat whitifh : moft of the feathers have a blackifh line
down the fhaft: tail brown, banded with deeper brown.
This is common throughout Africa, efpecially in Caffraria and
Grand Namaquas; called at the Cape Kuykendief, which alfo is the
name the Dutch give the common Kite. It builds both in trees and
rocks, lays four eggs, fpotted with rufous : the young have the end
of the tail nearly even, which alfo takes place with the European.
fpecies, and Mr. Levaillant fuppofes the Black Kite * to be no other
than a young bird.    This is a very bold fpecies.
Le Btraon, Levaill. Oif. i. p. 86, pi. n, »&
Bufard Bufon, Daudin. Orn. ii. p. 168. cxlii. HOS&Y
jglZE of the Hobby: the bill is horn colour, covered at the bafe    D
with a deep yellow cere.: the legs are alfo yellow: the head and
neck are dufky to appearance;, but the bafes of the feathers are
white: the upper parts of the body and wings are rufous and black*
irregularly mixed: the greater quills dufky; the fecondaries the
fame, outwardly rufous: the tail is even at the end, black, having-
a narrow band of white about the middle of it, which according to
the figure, feems compofed of white fpots; the very tip alfo white :■
all the under parts are pale rufous, croffed with dark markings $:
thighs the fame, but not feathered beyond the knees: this differs
from the Buzzaret, in not having the quills reach beyond one-third
of the tail, whereas in the Buzzaret the wings and tail are equal: the
bill is by much more broad and fhort than in that bird.
Inhabits Cayenne, and feems in many things greatly allied to mr P^a
Spotted-taikd Hobby f.
• Pl. Enl. 472.
f Gen, Syn. i. p. 106.
BUZZARD,
RTJOM..
 FALCON.
Le Buferay, Levaill. Oif. i. p. 84- pl. 20.
Bufard Buferai, Daudin. Orn. ii. p. 168. cxli.
CIZE of the Marfh Buzzard: the bill black; cere lead colour:
the head and neck rufous white, mixed with brown, the laft
deepeft on the back part of the neck: the back and wings are rufous
brown, or chefnut, more or lefs fpotted or ftreaked acrofs with dufky
black: the tail barred with the fame, but the bafe of it inclines to
rufous yellow, towards the end dufky; the wings when clofed reach
to the end of it: the belly and thighs are light rufous, marked
with tranfverfe bands of black brown: quills black.
Inhabits Cayenne, and is fuppofed to be the fame bird which M.
Mauduit mentions in the Encyclopedie Methodique, by the name of
Bufard Rows de Cayenne.
"ONDICHERRY
F. ponticerianus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 23. 46.
Oifeau Brame, EfT. Philof. p. 55.
Aigle de Pondichery, Daudin. Orn. ii. p. 55. xxiii.
Pondicherry Eagle, Gen. Syn. i. p. 41.
HP HIS is not unfrequent on the coaft of Malabar and Coromandel,
where it is called Tchil and Kuerouden, but not of fo generous
a nature as to be trained for falconry. The figure of the Garroora,
is a bird, which is frequently found in the temples of the God Vifhnou,
immediately in front of his image, and fometimes fitting on a ferpent
with feveral heads: this is a large brown kite, with a white head;
the Brachmans at fome of the temples of Vijhnou, accuftom biros 01
t is fptcies to come at flated times to be fed, and call them to their
meals by ftriking a brafs plate *."
A. bird feemingly of this laft kind is found in New Holland, in
\ Sketches of the Hindoos, 8vo. 1790,
which
 FALCON. 33
which the head, neck, and belly are pure white, without any ftreaks:
the reft of the body of a dull ruft colour. It is called Girrenera :
part of its food confifts of eggs,'as the ftomach of one was found full
of egg Jhells.     ' ' r^i'
Le Vocifer, Levaill. Oif. i. p. 17. pl. 4. ^Sg£E±} 29*
Aigle Vocifer, Daudin. Orn. ii. p. 65. xxxv. PISCIVOROUS
—— Nonette, Gaby, Voy. in Nigritie.
'T'HIS bird is the fize and make of the Ofprey, and greatly re-    Description.
fembles it in manners: extends from wing to wing eight feet:
the bill is lead colour: the legs yellow : irides red brown : the head,
neck, breaft, and fcapulars, are pure white edged with brown; on the
breaft a few black brown fpots: the tail of a pure white : the reft
of the plumage is rufty brown, ftreaked with dingy black ; the leffer
wing coverts more inclining to ruft colour: quills black, croffed on 'j.**.,.^
the outer webs with fine rufous and black lines : lower part of the back
and rump, mixed black and dirty white: between the bill and eye, a
yellow fkin barely covered with hairs: the lower part of the belly
and thighs deep rufous, feathered only to the knees : the wings when
clofed reach to the end of the tail. The female is more dull in
colour,   ■'fag&yk-gf ft^P^W
This fpecies  inhabits the more inward parts of the Cape of Good Place.
Hope, about fixty or eighty leagues up the country ; moft common
about Lagoa Bay. The colonifts at the Cape, call it Groote Mfjsvanger,
or Witte Vif-vanger, "as it feeds on fifh, defcending upon them into
the water after the manner of the Ofprey, retiring to a rock to eat
it; fuppofed alfo now and then to feed on young antelopes, as the
bones of one have been found in the neft; alfo on the great lizard,
common in the African rivers. The male and female are rarely* feert
apart; they build on the tops of trees, or on the roeks7Md^erp'itfi»i>v
Si/pp. II. F *f*>&      or
 FALCON.
or three white eggs, bigger than thofe of a turkey. By fome it is
called the Crying Eagle, as it flies high, and frequently utters loud
cries, and may be .heard far off; is very watchful, and difficult to
fhoot, and it has been known that to obtain one, a fportfman has
been obliged to remain concealed for three days under a turf covering,
before he could obtain a fhot. It feems to be a variety of the Pon-
dicherry Eagle.
,     Le Blagre, Levaill. Oif i. p. 23. pl. 5.
Aigle Blagre, Daudin. Orn. ii. p. 70. xxxvii.
CIZE and habit of our Ofprey : the head, neck, and parts beneath,,
are gloffy white, but the top of the head, and hind part of the
neck incline to brown : leffer wing coverts and tail pale grey brown,
and the end of the laft white: the great quills are dufky black j
fecondaries are outwardly like the reft of the wing: the feathers for
the moft part very rigid: bill brownifh: iris deep brown: legs
yellow; claws black.
This fpecies is found in the "dry internal parts of the Cape of Good
Hope, but only on the borders of rivers, where it frequents for the
fake of the fifh, which it takes in manner of the Ofprey, by plunging
in after them; its fight feems very piercing, as it will frequently
defcend at once, from a height in the air where it is fcarcely vifible>
into the water after its prey.
F. borealis, Ind. Orn. i. p. 25. £0.
Falco aquilinus, cauda ferruginea, Great Eagle H&v/k*—Bartram Trav. p. 286.
American Buzzard, Gen. Syn. i. p. 50.
■^HE iris of this bird is brownifh yellow: cere and legs yellow:
thighs of a fulphur colour.    It is called in Georgia, the great
Red-tailed Hawk; is faid not to be very common; is much on the
wing, and very fhy, therefore very difficult to be fhot.
 FALCON.
F. apivorus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 25. 52.
Honey-Buzzard, Gen. Syn. i. p. 52 Id. Sup. ;
3i
HP HIS is found in open countries, in Ruff a and Sibiria, where
woods are near, and plenty of fmall Lizards, which are com-   ^Iffi^S
monly met with in its gizzard on diffection; not only fo, but likewife
Caterpillars, both fmooth and hairy: builds a large fhallowneft of twigs,
lined with dead leaves, upon a tall flender beech, as obferved by Mr. ^t-'^"i^
White *. The egg was fmaller than that of the Common Buzzard,
lefs round, dotted at each end with fmall red fpots, and furrounded
in the middle with a broad bloody zone.
Le Grenouillard, Levaill. Oif. i. p. 95. pl. 23.    ^ RANCOROUS
Bufard Grenouillard, Daudin. Orn. ii. p. 170. cxliv. f,
AT firft fight it feems moft like the Moor Buzzard, being much    Descr.i»tio**t.
of the fame fize and ftature, but differs in colour, for the upper
part of the body is pale umber colour: the cheeks and throat are
covered with whitifh tender feathers, each marked with a longitudinal
brown band : the under part of the body light brown, flightly mixed
with white on the breaft and lower belly: on the upper part of the
breaft, and leffer wing coverts, a few white fpots: thighs and
under tail coverts ruft colour: wings brown; tail the fame, even
at the end, but croffed with bars of deeper brown: the wings when
clofed; reach two-thirds on the tail: irides grey brown : legs flender, W^.
yellow; &&&&&
Inhabits chiefly the marfhy parts of the Cape of Good Hope, where Pmc*;
it preys on frogs, whence the name of Kikvprs-vanger, or frog-catcher,
but ic alfo preys on young water-fowl.
It makes the neft among the reeds, with ftalks and leaves" of
aquatic plants, and lays three or four eggs, which are quite white.
• Bft. Selt. p. 107.
 In the fame places have been met with, another, which appeared
ftill more like the Moor Buzzard, as well as a third, quite black,
with the rump entirely white.
*T* H E bill is black: legs yellow: the head wholly of a whitifh
yellow; cheeks rufly: body above brown, beneath yellowifh
white, with an irregular., r'ufly-coloured fpot on the breaft: quilis
brown, with the outer edges hoary, within brown, with feveral white
bands : tail brown, croffed with four teftaceous bands.
Inhabits Sclavonia.
u. p. 125. a.
CIZE of a Gofhawk: length twenty-one inches: bill blueifh: cere,
irides, and legs yellow: the head, and all the upper parts of the
bird, are teftaceous brown : the. fhafts of the feathers blackifh : throat
and fore part of the neck nearly white, inclining to teftaceous on
the breaft; from thence to the vent reddifh brown: the vent itfelf
white: quills dufky, fpotted on the inner webs with whire: * tail
brown above, and pale beneath, where it is croffed with five indiftinct
dufky bands. . .^^S
Inhabits the ifland of Java: it was firft obferved perched on a
rock, feizing on fuch fmall birds as paffed by within reach of him,
and was by chance killed by a flone thrown at him.
F. Javanicus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 27.
*T*HE cere is black, but the middle of it is yellow: the head,
neck, and breaft chefnut: the back brown: legs yellow.    Inhabits Java, and is found chiefly on the fea coafts, feeding on j
 FALCON.
The flight account which we are enabled to give of this bird, will
not enable us to fay whether it is the fame with the preceding fpecies.
37
F. Palumbarius, Ind. Orn. i
Autour commun, Daud. On
Goshawk, Gen. Syn. i. p. 5
p. 29. 65.
ii. p. 71. 39.
!.—Id. Sup. p. 16.
DREEDS in Scotland: the young one is very different from the
adult, and it is not at all clear that the Falcon Gentil of Br.
Zool. N° 50, is not the Gofhawk in its firft feathers. In Germany, it
is not an uncommon fpecies in the forefls, where it is ftationary,
preying on various kinds of large and fmall game; among others
geefe, hence perhaps has arifen the name of Goofe Hawk or Gofhawk:
•faid. to be found in numbers on the Azores iflands, and by fome fuppofed to have given a name thereto, as azor in the Spanifh tongue
fignifies a Gojhawk. The American fpecies weighs three pounds and
a quarter, and meafures twency-one inches in length.
Var. A. Der Weiffe Stockfalke, Allg. U. d. Fog. Zufafs. S. 66z.—Decouver. Ruf.
3*P-3°3- ?v!*f5P
Falco Lathami, Autour blanc, Daudin. Orn. ii. p. 73. 39.    Var. C.
A Large white -variety,1 mottled with brown and yellow, is fometimes found about the Uralian mountains, and the eaft part of
Siberia; and both in Germany as well as Kamffchatka individuals
are found of a pure white, without mixture; one of thefe, with- a
grey tinge onthe back, was fhot in Thuringia, in the autumn.-
L'autour huppe, Levaill. Oif. i. p. 114. pi. 26.—Daudin. Orn. ii. p. 77. xlv.
Aigle moyen de la Guiane, Encycl. Meth. (Mauduit.)
'T1 HIS and the Common Gojhawk, according to M. Levaillant, are
the only  two Gofhawks known:  the prefent one is one third
bigger than our European fpecies; and independant of the difference
of
38.
CRESTED
GOSHAWK.
Description.
0
 F   A   L   C   O   N.
of colours, has a tuft of long black and white feathers fpringing from
the hind head: the crown is black: hind part of the neck deep
rufous: the upper part of the body and wings are brown, but deepeft
on the wing coverts: chin and throat white: the reft of the under
parts dirty rufous white, with irregular black fpots, and a line of
black on each fide of the neck, between the rufous and white: thighs
barred or chequered with black and white, and feathered almoft to
the toes: the bill is pale blue, with a yellow cere: legs dull yellow:
tail banded brown and black.
This inhabits Cayenne.
Place.
Autour de Mauduit, Daud. Orn. ii. p. 73. xl.
Grand autour de Cayenne, Mauduit, Enc. Mesh.
'"THIS is two feet in length: the bill and cere black: the eyelids, and fkin between the bill and eye covered with hairs: nape
afh colour: the feathers with black fhafts, and ftreaked with white:
cheeks white ; from behind the eye to the hind head a black ftreak :
the hind head furnifhed with a long creft: the upper part of the
body black brown: middle of the wing barred with cinereous
grey: belly white, barred with rufous brown: fhins covered with
feathers, rufous and white, in rings: tail long, banded alternately
with four bands of black and grey; the wings when clofed reaching
about half way thereon: toes yellow.
The female is bigger, and wants the creft, and the colours in general more dilute.
Inhabits Cayenne.
Autour de la Guiane, Daudin. Orn. ii. p. 78. xlvi.
Petit Aigle de la Guiane, Mauduit, Enc. Meth.
GUIANA
GOSHAWK.
Description.    *V HIS *s twenty-two inches in length, and the plumage in general
entirely white, except the quills and the tail: the feathers of
both of which are J>anded chequerwife with grey and black, fo that the
*°- colours
 FALCON.
colours on each fide the fhaft oppofe each other: the hind head is
crefted; one of the feathers, which is much longerthan the reft, is
marked with a fpot of black near the end: the wing when clofed
reaches two thirds on the tail.
This inhabits Guiana.
Epervier a ventre roux, Daud. Orn. ii. p. 86. liv.—Mauduit, Encyd. Meth. 687.
col.1.
CIZE of the common Sparrowhawk, and has a bill as in that bird:
the head is cinereous brown, paler at the nape: throat whitifh
in the middle, banded on each fide with rufous: the upper parts of
the body deep brown, the under rufous : the vent feathers inclining
to white: legs yellow; claws blacks
Inhabits Cayenne.
Falco hyemalis, Ind. Orn. i. p. 3«*. 78.    Var.
Faucon a croupion blanc, Daudin. Orn. ii. p. no. 78.
Northern Falcon, Gen. Syn. i. p. 79.    Var.
I* HIS is fixteen inches in length: bill brown > cere greenifh;
irides yellow: head afh colour, each feather brownifh in the
middle, and ferruginous on the fides, moft inclining to the laft at
the hind head: cheeks pale afh colour: orbits and chin whitifh:
neck afh colour, inclining to brown behind, and to ferruginous on
the fore part: back cinereous brown: rump white: breaft ferruginous, more or lefs mixed with whitifh: belly and thighs white,
marked with ferruginous, each feather having two or three heart-
fhaped fpots upon it: tail brown above, beneath pale, with dull dufky
bars: legs yellow. |>'W '^
This was killed in Carolina, by Mr, C. Bofe ■ it feems clearly a Var.
of my Northern Falcon,
CRIPTIOK.
Placi.
F. melanoleucus.
m
 F. melanoleucus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 36. 85.    Var.
Le Tch'oug, Levaill. Oif. i. p. 133. pl. 32.
Epervier pie, Daudin. Orn. ii. p. 85. 51,
Black ;
bird,
id White Indian Falcon, Gen. Syn
1 .-—Id. Sup. p. 20.—Young
II
•"TpHIS feems greatly allied to the Hen-harrier, forin fize it correfponds
as well as fhape: the bill is black: the head, neck, back, and
wings are moftly of a deep brown; but the back part of the head,
inclines to- black, v/ith a mixture of white at the back part of the
neck, and wing coverts: the greater quills are dufky,- the fecondaries partly dufky white: all the under parts from the breaft, the
belly, thighs, vent, rump, and tail are white; but the tail, which is
nearly even at the end, inclines a little to rufous grey, and the two
middle feathers of it have a fort of brown crefcent on the tips : the
legs are long and yellow : this appears to be a bird not come to its
adult plumage, on account of the mixture of white among the
feathers.
This fpecimen came from Bengal, where it is known by the name
of Tchoiig; \% thought alfo to be a native of the Cape of Good Hope,
as Mr. ^Levaillant faw a bird of this kind pafs over his head, iri
which the'head and neck were black, and rump and under parts
were white: this was probably our Black and White Falcon in its
perfect plumage.
Le Faucon chanteur, Levaill. Oif.  \
lxxxviii.
17. N° 27.-D
. ii. p.   116.
TpHIS.beautiful fpecies is the fize of'the Common Falcon, and the
plumage in general of a very pale lead or dove colour, but the
top of the head and fcapulars are much darker, inclining to brown;
and
I
ii li
 FALCON.
and the under parts from the breaft are pearly grey, croffed with
numerous blueifh grey markings: the quills are black: the tail is
gready cuneiform, the outer feather being fhorter by one-third than
the middle ones; it is of a dufky colour, but the very tip of the feathers are white, and all but the two middle ones are croffed with
white bands: the bill and claws are black; the legs and cere orange,
and the iris deep red brown: the female is bigger than the male by
one-third, but does not differ from that fex materially in colour,
except in fome parts, efpecially the cere and legs, being paler.
This bird imitates the Hen-harrier in colour, but independent of
other points in which it differs, I do not find that it has any appearance of the ruff-like collar round the lower part of the head. It is
found chiefly in Caffraria, and the neighbouring country, as Karow .
and Camdeboo. In breeding time, the male is remarkable for its fong,
which it makes every morning and evening,' and like the Nightingale,
not uncommonly even the night through j it fings in this loud tone
for more than a minute, and after an interval begins anew ; during its
fong, it is fo regardlefs of itfelf that any one may approach; but in the
intervals of quiet it is fo wary as to take flight at the leafl fufpicion ;
fhould the markfman fhoot the male, the female will foon fall under
his gun, as in the attachment to him, and calling every where with the
moft plaintive voice, it is fo continually paffing within gun fhot,
that it is no difficult matter to fhoot it; but in cafe the female
fhould be fhot firft, the male does not teftify fo much attachment,
for retiring to the top of fome diftant tree not eafily approached,
it does not ceafeto fing, but becomes fo wary as to fly intirely away
from that neighbourhood on the leafl alarm. The female is faid to
make the neft between the forks of trees, or in bufhy groves, and to
lay four white round eggs: this fpecies preys on partridges, hares,
quails, moles, rats, &c, and for its fize, feems a very deftructive
fpeciesr
Su.pp.IL G
 4»
FALCON.
LONG-LEGGED
HEN-HARRIER.
46.
AXILLARY
L'acoli, Levaill. Oif. i. p. 130. pl. 31.
Sous-bufe acoli, Daudin. Orn. ii. p. 176. cli.
HP HIS bird, in refpect to fize and colour, greatly refembles the
Hen-harrier, but feems to ftand higher on the legs: the under
parts from the breaft, croffed with fine dufky lines or ftripes, fome-
what in the manner of the Chanting Falcon, though not fo numerous
or delicate ; one likewife at firft fight might fuppofe it to be the fame
bird on a larger fcale, did not the great difproportion of length of
legs at once fhew the difference : the tail is pale grey, and likewife
pretty long, even at the end, and not graduated as in that fpecies:
quills dufky black : reach two-thirds on the tail: the bill is blueifh *
cere red, as is the fkin round the eyes: irides and legs yellow.
This frequents the cultivated parts of the Cape of Good Hope, and
not unfrequently the fandy deferts; many of them about places in
which the laft is never feen. In the interior it is only obferved about
the rivers Swarte-kop and Sondag ■ it is called Witte-Valk (White
Falcon) and Leeuwerk-Vange (Lark Catcher.) The male and female
are feen ufually together; make their neft in the bufhes; lay four
dirty white eggs, oval in fhape, whereas.thofe of the Chanting Falcon
are nearly round.
gIZE and fhape of the Hen-barrier, and not unlike it in colour,
but differs effentially, as the wreathed feathers round the lower
part of the head are not confpicuous: the bill is black: legs pale
yellow ;■ claws black: the plumage on the upper parts is pale cinereous blue; the under whitifh : over the eye a long irregular narrow
ftripe of black; a large long patch of black alfo occupies the whole
of the inner part of the wing when clofed: the quills are black, and
reach to the end of the tail, which is rather rounded in fhape, and of
a moderate length.
Inhabits
 FALCON. 43
Inhabits New Holland, but is not very common.   The fpecimen Place.
from which the above defcription was taken, was caught alive, and
kept for two months, being fed with fmall birds, fifh, &c.
F. BohemioHs, Ind. Orn. i. p. 43. 100,
Maeufe-habicht Miffilauce, Jof. Mayer. Boehm. Abb. vi. p. 31 J.
*jp HIS is more than a foot in length: the gape of the mouth, irides, and legs yellow : the upper parts of the plumage afh-colour-
ed; beneath white : the orbits white: tail long: the legs fomewhat
fhort, furnifhed with feathers below the knees: five of the outer quills
black on the outer margin.
Inhabits the mountainous parts of Bohemia, feeding on mice: is
chiefly obferved of evenings. It has been fuppofed that this bird
may prove Only a variety, if not the fame as the Hen-harritr*.
F. Tinnunculus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 41. 98.—Spalovjjk. Vog. 3. t. 3.-
393- 27-
-   F.Mfus, Sepp. Vog. 3. pl. 117.—Scop. An. Nat. Add. p. 10.
Keflril, Gen. Syn. i. p. 94. jg.—Id. Sup. p. 25.
T Think that this is the bird which in India is called Chouee.    1 have    Description.
feen a bird, feemingly a Keflril, among fome Chinefe drawings,
which was called Maw-iing, which fignifies Speckled Bird, or ravenous. The word Maw, means Bracket or Broken, as the face after
the fmall-pox. In the fame collection, I obferved another called alfo
Mawing, but this had the breaft croffed with numerous bars like the
Sparrow-hawk.
f Bechfiein.
I
 FALCON.
Epervier des alouettes, Br'f. Orn. i. p. 379. 22 ?"
COME few years fince, I received the following bird, which Was
fhot in Surrey: it was fourteen inches long: the bill pale, with a
black tip: cere and legs yellow : the forehead over the noftrils
white : head grey, ftreaked with black; under the eye a black mark
like a whifker : back rufous brick-colour; at the tip of each feather
a fpot of black : rump pale afh : all the under parts of the body pale
rufous white, ftreaked with black down the fhafts : thighs the fame,
with here and there a fpot of black : chin and vent nearly white :
wing coverts croffed with black bars: quills dufky; within barred
with reddifh white: tail pale rufous afh-colour, barred on each fide
the fhafts with black; thofe on the inner webs moft complete, and
all the feathers marked at the ends for an inch, with a bar of black,
but the very tips quite pale. This I judge may prove merely the
bird alluded to above, noticed by Briffon; and probably no other than
a young male of the Keflril, in the firft year's plumage.
.g Falco brunneus, der Braunrothe Falke, Allg. U. d. Fog. I. i. Zufafs. S. 6jg. 127.
K.ESTRIL. —Taf. 2. f. 1. Mannch—f. z. Junges.
Var. D.
DascftipTioir. 'THIS in plumage feems not unlike the Keflril, but as big as the
Hooded Crow, being fourteen inches long, and two feet broad:
the bill is blue; the cere yellow: the ground colour of the plumage
is a fort of rufly yellow, croffed with brown bars, as in the Keftril: the
under parts paler, with perpendicular ftria : tail croffed with lines of
black, and deeply tipped with black at the end.
The young bird is not greatly different, but the crofs ftreaks of
blackifh are edged with white on the upper parts, the under not unlike the firft; but the end of the tail is tipped with black in a lefs degree.
Tlus
 FALCON.
This bird is faid to inhabit Thuringia in the breeding feafon, and
appears as a bird of paffage, as it is not feen in winter; it makes the
neft as late as May, whereas'the reft of the birds of prey build theirs
in March and April.
I much fufpect that the above defcribed are no other than the
Keflril, which is. known to wear the female plumage for fome length
of time; and to fay the truth, very many of the Falcon genus have fo
mixed an appearance in their plumage, partaking both of male and
female, as to appear to the 'lefs informed naturalift as a diftinct
fpecies.
4S
Le Montagnard, Levaill. Oif. i. p. 144. pl. 35.
Crefferelle Montagnard, Daud. Orn. ii. p. 135. cix..
A T firft fight this bird has greatly the appearance of the male
Keftril; but on comparifon with that bird, in refpect to fize and
make, it will be found to differ in many particulars: it is a little
bigger: the bill is black; cere and legs yellow: the head rufous,
inclining to brown at the nape: the back rufous, marked with
crefcents of black: tail pale rufous, croffed with feveral brown bands:
chin white : under parts of the body pale rufous, ftreaked with dufky
fpots down the middle of each feather; but the lower belly, vent, and
thighs are the fame, on a pale grey ground: quills black above,
beneath barred with white; all the under wing coverts rufous white,
with dufky fpots: tail almoft even at the end, or rather rounded, and
the quills reach to about the middle of it. The female, as in other
birds of prey, a little exceeds the male in fize.
- It is very common in various parts of the Cape of Good Hope,
and its neighbourhood; called there Rooye-Valk (Red Falcon) or
Steen-Valk (Stone Falcon); alfo feen in moft parts of Africa, efpecially
mountainous
 mountainous and rocky fituations; it refides in the fame place the
whole year: feeds on fmall quadrupeds, lizards, and infects; makes
its neft among the fharp rocks, unfheltered, compofed of dry twigs
and grafs carelefly put together; lays commonly fix, feven, and even
eight eggs, intirely of a. deep rufous, like its own plumage; is a
fierce and daring bird, fetting up a noife like cri-cri, many times
repeated, on the fight of any perfon, efpecially during the time of
incubation, or when it has young ones.
ORANGE-
LEGGED
.- HOBBY.
Falco Subbuteo, Ind. Orn. ii. p. 47. 114.    Var. i
Falco rufipes, der rothfuflige Falke, Allg. Ueb. d. Vog. ii. Zufafs. S. 677. 122.—
Befek. Vog. Kurl. S. 19. 27 Taf. 3 tf 4.—Pl. Enlum. 431.
JLf BESEKE here mentions two hawks, about the fize of a Keflril,
fhot together late in tHe^prlng. The one fuppofed to be the
male wholly black, but the great wing feathers and under parts -of
the body blackifh lead colour: thighs, vent, and under tail coverts
fine red brown: eyelids, the bare fpace round them, the cere and
legs, of a brick red: bill half yellow, half blueifh.
The one fuppofed to be the f&tiak had mariy*tnings in common
with the other, but was larger: head and neck plain whitifh yellow,
or fox colour:" eyes placed in a patch of brown: throat as far as the
breaft whitifh yellow, as are the-%htgh coverts, vent, and under the
tail: the fhoulders duller fox-coloured yellow, waved with black;
upper part of the body pale brown, with dull afh-coloured and black
waves : tail croffed with nine fmall black bands.
This feems to approach very nearly to a lingular variety of the
Hobby, figured in the IV. Enlummees, if not the fame bird.
 FALCON.
47
Falco Suhbuteo major, der GrofTe Baumfalke, Allg. Ueb. d. Fog. i. Zufafi.*}. 660.
29. Taf. i.—Id. Naturg. Deutfch. ii. S. 3 iff, 19.
*TPHIS bird fomewhat refembles the Hobby, but is as large as a
Raven; in length nearly eighteen inches, breadth three feet: the
bill an inch and an half long, horn colour: cere and legs yellow:
Iris pale yellow:-head and neck black brown; cheeks black: back
and wing coverts blackifh blue, croffed with obfolete dull brown,
afh grey, and reddifh grey bands: chin, fore part of the neck, and
upper part of the breaft dufky reddifh white, banded with dull brown,
appearing on the breaft as oval marks : quills blackifh, marked on
the inner webs with eight or more pale grey oval fpots; on the tail
twelve alternate dull brown and afh grey bands.
The female almoft one-third bigger than the male, and the colours
not fo well defined; fhe wants alfo the black on the cheeks, and the
breaft and neck are plain fmutty white.
This fpecies inhabits the pine forefts of Germany, preying on grous,
hares, and fmall birds. It may by fome be miftaken for a variety,
but Mr. Bechftein affures us that it is a diftinct fpecies.
GREATER
HOBBY.
Le Gabar, Levaill. Oif. i. p. 136. pl. 33.
Epervier Gabar, Daudin. Orn. ii. p. 87. Ivi.
'T^HIS is the fize of the Sparrow-hawk, and the wings, as in that
bird, do not reach much beyond the rump: the, bird is however
a trifle ftouter than the Sparrow-hawk, and the tail rather fhorter:
the head, neck, and upper part of the body and wings are grey
brown: upper and lower tail coverts white: quills dufky, banded
beneath tranfverfefy, and the fecondaries tipped with white: tail even,
banded darker and lighter brown, beneath the fame with black and
white: all from the chin to the breaft, the colour is blueifh grey,
8 frora
 from thence to the vent, dufky white, croffed with light brown bands x
the bill is black: cere and legs fine red: irides yellow. The female
as ufual one-third bigger than the male.
Thefe are found only in the interior parts of the Cape of Good
Hope, on the borders of the river Swarte-kop and Sondag, alfo about
Karow, Camdeboo, and other parts; but not near the Cape itfelf: fuppofed to lay about four white eggs, as big as thofe of our Sparrow*
hawk; it hatches in September.
DWARF Le Minnie, Levaill. Oif. i. p. 140. N° 34.
F.
'Description.     'T'HIS is a fmall bird ofprey, being even lefs than the Merlin; it
has the fame proportion as the Sparrow-hawk, but on a lefs fcale::
the bill is black : cere and legs yellow : irides yellow orange : all the
upper parts of the body, wings, and tail are brown; the under parts"
white, with a few fmall brown fpots on the throat; but the breaft
marked with larger, which increafe in fize as they approach downwards, becoming at laft bars acrofs the belly and thighs: the quills
reach a fmall way beyond the bafe of the tail, which is even at the
end, the greater ones banded with white on the inner webs; the*
fecondaries much the fame, with broader:. under wing coverts rufous
.   fpotted with white: the tail feathers are brown, with obfolete darker
bands, but the bands are whitifh on the inner webs.
Mamners, This is a bold fpecies, generally preying on fmaller birds, but in
defect of thefe on Grafshoppers, &c. drives the Shrike totally away
from their quarters, and even many birds of prey larger than them-
felves, even Buzzards and Kites: male and female moft times together ; build on trees, the neft of flexible twigs intermixed with mofs-
aod leaves without, and wool and feathers within, and lay five eggSj-
fpotted with brown near the ends • the female almoft twice the fize-
of
^^ H .
 FALCON.
tih$&ihale; but the plumage nearly the fame : was fo bold as to take
away abiM^from the table where Mr. Levaillant fate ^p^tm^id^iT^.
Le Faucon a culotte noire, Levaill. Oif. i
126. pl. 29.—Daudin. Orn.
'T'HIS is fomewhat bigger than a pigeon: the bill is Angularly
formed in refpect to the under mandible, as in the Crefted Indian
Falcon, lead coloured, with a yellowifh cere: the plumage on the
upper parts of the body and wings is grey brown, with a darker
ftreak down the middle of each feather: the throat is white: the reft
of the under parts very pale rufous, with dafhes of dark brown, principally down the fhafts: the thighs are black : the quills and tail
dark coloured; and the wings when clofed reach two-thirds of the
way thereon; the tail in fhape rather rounded: the legs are yellow:
irides hazel brown.
This fpecies frequent the Grand Namaquas. M. Levaillant killed-
three in the action of feeding on a leveret, at the fame time roufed
another fomewhat larger, which was fuppofed to be % female. He
was informed, that this bird is not uncommon on Sfreeuw-bergen!((aovr
mountain) where it is called Klyne frergr&aan (little cock of the
mountain) but by this name they call all the middle fized birds of
prey, and the fmaller ones by the name of Valk or Falcon.
.'Le Rounoir, ■Levaill. Oif i. p. 73. pl. 16.
Bufe Jakal, Daudin. Orn. rL p.-i6i.cxxxiii.
"'Ip-H-l-S is the fize of our Buzzard, Vtur comparatively- more
bulky-, and the tail fhdrter in propomorH* the1 bill1 is: dufky :
cere and legs yellow: iris deep brown : the cdloor- '.offc$&> plumage
is-moftly*dufky brbwri: from th^cfofeHisi'j-r^^tfitffe of white, which
changes on the breaft to rufous: the quills are dufky, banded with'
Supp. II. H paler
JACKA
F.
Descript
 FALCON.
paler at the bafe, and the fecondaries mixed outwardly with white:
tail deep, rufous, with a fpot of black near the end of each feathfr#~>th|s
two cuter ones only banded with dufky: beneath all is rufous grey.
The female differs, in being larger, and the red on the breaft not fo
high coloured.
This fpecies is moftly feen about habitations of the colonifts
of the Cape of Good Hope, where it is known by the name ofjakals-
Vogel (Jackal Bird) on account of the cry imitating the voice of that
quadruped; called aho Rotter-Vanger (Rat-catcher); it is not fhy,
being feen every where following the leffer kinds of vermin, as rats,
moles, and the like, and like the Buzzard in Europe, is efteemed an
ufeful fpecies; it is cowardly, infomuch, that even the Fifcal Shrike
will occafionally put it-to flight.
It inhabits chiefly the thick groves which furround the houfes,
and in the thickeft part of them makes the neft of twigs and mofs,'
lined with feathers: lays three or four eggs, fometimes only two,,
which-' are generally hatched, as the neft is rarely deftroyed, from
idea the natives entertain of the utility of this fpecies.
Le Rougri, Levaill. Oif. i. p. "jj. ph. 17.    -
Bufe des deferts, Daud. Orn. ii. p. 162. cxxxiv.
'"THIS is fmaller than the laft, and lefs robuft in-proportion, but
has a longer tail: the bill, cere, and legs are yellow: irides reddifh : the reigning colour of the plumage is ferruginous or rufous,
paler beneath, with the chin to the breaft and vent very pale grey,
nearly white; the quills are black ; the reft of the under parts are
rufous as above, but pakr, and ftreaked fparingly with dufky: the
tail is like the back above, but greyifh beneath, marked with fome
tranfverfe obfolete bands. ^id'-ipa?
The female is a trifle bigger than the male, and is lefs diftinct in the
colours.
h
 FALCO    N.
• It is lefs frequent abOvYrtHe inhabited parts than the Jackal Falcon,
being only feen in the dry .arid'uncultivated fpots;'1'It lives however
on the fame' kind of food?!}its'"try rrot-'-uhlike -the European Buzzard.
The male and female are moftly feen together, and they'make the
neft in the fame kind of places, and of nearly the fame materials.
Falco Nifus, Ind. Orn. I p. 44, 10.7. <_ Y&-*-'     I
Sparrow-hawk, Gen. Syn. p. 99   85. . VatvC. ', .
T ENGTH eighteen inches; in appearance not unlike the Sparrow-
bawkitbill!..paJ& blue:, irides and. legs yellow: the top of the
head is afh colour; hind part of the neck rufous : back and wings
dark afh colour, nearly black :. breaft and belly dirty white, croffed
with numerous pale rufous bars : tail long, -marked with feveral pale
bars; wings fhort, reaching only to the bafe of it.
Inhabits New, Holland.
'\i! \li$&llt&jg&,ljLe~vaill..Oif. i. p. 100. pl. 24.
Epervier Tachiro, Daudin. Orn. ii. p. 9. 58.
^I^IS-'isb^Wtle inferior in fize to our-Gofhawk: the head and neck
are varied with white and rufous, with fpots of brown black:
breaft white, mixed with rufous: above the plumage is dull brown
for the moft part, beneath white, fhaded with rufous, marked with
crefcent-like fpots of brown: the quills have white tips: the tail is
as_.lo.ng asth&jbody, brown above, croffed. with deeper bands, beneath
white, with,-;byroad blackifh bands; the quills reach to about the
middle of it jt-the bill is blueifh : legs yellow: irides topaz colour:
the..j^*ngle lefs.brigjit in colour, s:, .> si? ,;■"■:!-; tusk
■ This j frequents" only the deep forefts,. which border ghiter Boom,
and in thofe of Hot'tniqua Land, and makes the neft between the forks
of the branches of the great trees, formed of fmall twigs and mofs;
H a has
57-
N. HOLLAND
SPARROW-
HAWK.
Description.
58. J
SPECKLED
SPARROW-
HAWK.
Description.
 F   A   Lt CON.
has three young at a time : fuppofed to feed on fmall birds without
diftinction, but nourifhes the young with grafshoppers ; has a piercing
note like Cri, err, often repeated. The eggs are white,, marked with
rufous fpots.
New fpecies of Hawk, Sonnin. Trav. {Engl, ed.) ii. p. 5.2;
T ENGTH eleven inches and an half: bill very hooked, full an •
inch long:, cere and legs yellow: irides orange: the tail nearly
even, but the outer feathers rather longeft, though not perceivably
f&rked unlefs expanded: the length of it four inches eight lines, and.
the wings when clofed reach eight lines beyond it: the firft quill'
feather ferrated outwardly * : legs covered with feathers on the fore -
part almoft to the toes: the forehead and. under parts are white;.
above the. eye and anterior angle of it, covered with flender black
feathers: body, head, and upper wing coverts afh coloured, tipped
with grey, the fhafts black: the two-middle tail feathers white,.,
mingled with afh colour: the reft white within, and light igrey without.
Inhabits Egypt, where it is- commonly feen fufpended in the air -
over the rice fields, like the Keftril, and is fometimes feen to perch
on date trees, but never obferved on the ground.
Description. HP ** * ^ fpecies is about thirty-four or thirty-five inches in length : j
the bill is black; pale about the noftrils: legs pale red:.the
head and neck are afh colour: the eye placed in a triangular rufous
patch, but immediately round the eye black:, the back,.wings, and.
tail, which laft is rather long, are of a dufky brown: round the lower
parts of the neck, and all beneath,-ferruginous, croffed with numerous
fine lines of a blueifh afh colour.
Place. Inhabits New Holland.
* This circumftance, added to the fhins being feathered before, and the black fea- -
thers half round the eye, inclines as to think the bird allied to the Owl Genus.
   FALCON.
?J? HIS fpecies is twenty-two inches long, and four feet broad from
the tip of one wing to that of the other: the bill is black: the
cere and fpace round the eye pale blue : irides brown: the plumage
in general of a fine ruft colour, fpotted and ftreaked all over with
black,- but croffed on the head and neck with fine lines of the fame :
wings and tail brown, marked with blackifh or dufky bars: the tail
is very long, with eight or nine black bars, the wings reaching to the
middle of it:  the legs are blue ; claws long, black, and fharp.
This inhabits New Holland, but is probably a fcarce fpecies, only
one having been met with, which was found nailed to the fide of a
RADIATED
F.
Description.
CIZE of the Ringtail; length eighteen orr nineteen inches: bill
pale, with a black point: irides yellow: the general colour of
the plumage is a deep chocolate brown, fpotted with rufly white on
the lower part of the neck behind, .and on the axillaries of the wings:
the quills are obliquely,.... and the tail feathers tranfverfely barred with
the fame : the under parts as far as the breaft, dirty yellowifh white,.
with fhort-dufky ftreaks: legs covered to the toes with pale afh-
coloured feathers.
Inhabits-New Holland, but no hiftory annexed, further than that it
has a wonderful faculty of contracting and dilating the iris; and that
the native name is Goora-a-Gang. i~i$f&f*1&
Falco difcolor, A3. Soc. N. H. de Paris,
Der bunte Falke, Allg. U. d. Vog. ii. S.
. pl. I. p. 911
•*jp H E fize of this bird is not mentioned; but the defcription obferves, that the upper parts of the plumage are dufky grey; the
under; breaft,. belly, and thighs, dufky ruft colour: the under wing
coverts and thofe of the tail white,
I nhabits. Cayenne..'.
9,
63.
RUSTY and
GREY
 ,   F   A   L    C    O    N.
*T^ H E length of this bird is from fixteen to eighteen inches : the
bill, legs, and irides yellow: the head and moft part of the neck
are white, but the reft of the plumage in general is brown, blotched
on the back with dark fpots, and marked on the belly (which is paler
than above, and inclining to yellow) with black ftreaks. The tail
is long, even at the end, croffed with feven or eight oblique black
bars: the quills are alfo barred as the tail, with the ends black.
This was met with in New South Wales, and probably is not a
numerous fpecies, as only one has been fhot, though others have
been now and then feen.
'J'HIS, fpecies is twelve inches long: the bill is blue: legs yellow:'
the forehead buff colour.:'all the upper parts of the plumage are
brown, as alfo the wings and tail: the throat and under parts of the
body buff yellow, paffing' upwards in the fhape of a crefcent on each
fide under the eye, and again below this, but not fo far: the breaft
is marked with numerous brown fpots: thighs croffed with fine
brown lines: the tail long; the wings reach about halfway thereon.
Inhabits New Holland, and was taken in March.    The native name
is Goo-roo-wang.
*~V HE length of this fpecies is about twelve inches: the bill is pale
brown: legs and irides yellow: head, neck before, and all beneath, white: the crown of the head, and middle of the belly pale
blue: back, wings, and tail brown: the bend of the wing brownifh
blue, occupying in an oblique manner above half the coverts.
Inhabits New Holland, but neither name nor manners are recorded*
Another, very fimilar. was fpotted on the'nape with black ; the back'
paler: rump pale dufky. blue : tail tipped with pale colour; all beneath white, but not tinged any where with blue.   .
 OWL.
SS
Genus III.     OWLS.
* Eared Owls.
, i. Great-Eared Owl.
i. Long-E. O.
3. Short-E. O.
4. Marfh-E. O.
5. White-fronted O.
* * With Smooth Heads.
6. Snowy O.
7. Ermine O.
8. White O.
Var. A.    Javan O.
9. Falconine O.
10. Variegated O.
11. Fafciated O.
12. Supercilious O.
13. Georgian O.
14. Boobook O.
15. Spectacle Owl.    Var
Var. B.
16. Bare-legged O.
17. Booted O.
18. Tengmalm's O.
Var. A.    Dwarf O.
*   EARED      OWLS.
Str. Bubo, Ind. Orn. i. p. 51. 1.—Muf Lev. tab. 5.
Le Grand Due, Levaill. Oif. i. p. 160. pl. 40.—Daudin. Orn. ii. p. 2c
Great-eared Owl, Gen. Syn. i. p. 116.1.—Id. Sup. p. 40.
T T is obferved, that this bird fees better in the day than any other
-:of;;the genus, as it is frequently obferved preying on its game in
full day light, lt feems to be.a fpecies univerfally fpread over both
the old .and^-new continents, as M. Levaillant met with it in Africa,
as alfo. the Long-eared Owl, and Scops, on the borders of the River
of Elephants, but fmaller, and having.a greater degree of black in the
plumage.
GREAT-EARED
O.
 Str. Qtus.'iW. Orn. Lp. 53. 7.
Moyen Duc,.£<*W/. Oif. i.
Long-eared Owl, Gen. Syn. i. p. 1-21.—'Id. Sup. p. 42.
T N one of thefe which fell under my obfervation, the weight was
eight ounces and ■ a half; the length twelve inches and a half;
breadth thirty-four, inches : the horns, fo called, confift of nine feathers
•each; thofe in front are the fhorteft, and the fifth the longeft, and
when they all lie in their places, there appears a black broad ftripe,
edged with yellow outwardly, within croffed with three or four bars
of a darker fhade. It is found in the neighbourhood of the Cape of
Good Hope, as well as.in other parts of Africa.
SHORT-EARED
Str. brachyotos, Ind. Orn. i. p. 55. 11.
Str. Ulula, mas. & fem.    Sepp. Vog. i. t. p. 63 ?
Str. Araica, Muf. Carlf. fafc. iii. t. 51 ?
Due a courtes oreilles, Daudin. Orn. ii. p. 216.
Short-eared Owl, Gen. Syn. i. p. 124. g.—Id, Sup. p. 43.
.f^AP TAIN Dixon brought over two fpecimens of this bird from
Sandwich Iflands.    It is found'alfo in the Orkney Ifies, where it
is faid to neftle in the ground *.
From the almoft impoffibility of difcovering any one feather longer
than the reft in dead fpecimens,-added to the fimilarity of this bird to
•the Httwk Owl of'Edwards, or at leafl one fent to me under that denomination, 1 fuppofe them both to be but one and the fame bird ; be
this as. it may, they are known by the name of the Sbort-eare&Qwl
in England; and fufficiendy common on the Anmiemt continent In*,
refpect to the received opinion of its having'the capability oferecting
.a fingle feather of the crown at will, the fact is much to be doubted;
Arct. Zool. Pref. 3
indeed
 O    W    L.
indeed it has a fort of tuft or feries of feveral feathers running backwards, and fpringing out of a yellowifh line above each eye, which
goes -over the crown of the head, and thefe tufts the bird erects
moftly in a q'uiefcent ftate, never much more than a quarter of
an inch in height, and never fo much as to be perpendicular; when
alarmed, they are ever depreffed *.
In. one of thefe fhot near me in February 1792, I obferved the
elongated feathers above mentioned very clearly, and from this am
perfuaded, that this bird having in his power to erect a fingle feather
only, has no foundation.
I think not improper here to remark, that the Tawny Owl of Mr.
Pennant, if it has yellow irides -j-, I never met with, and except it
may hereafter prove the Short-eared Owl, in fome one flage of its
life, I know of no fuch bird in England: our brown Wood Owls
have dark or blueifh irides, and one fex of thefe inclines more to
reddifh tawny than the other, differing alfo in weight; therefore till
convinced to the contrary, I am of opinion that the Tawny Owl
fhould be erafed from our calendar, unlefs we allow it to be the
fame bird with the brown fpecies J.
■ * Col. Montagu.
f I once received from my late friend Mr. Pennant, a drawing of what he called
the Ta<wny Owl. but it had yellow irides.
X " M. Buffon a fait tres gratuitement deux fpecies de la Hulotte 8c du Chathuant;
" tandis que tres certainement fon Chathuant n'eft que la Hulotte, dans fon jeune age,
" obfervation dont je fuis tres certain, ayant eleve plus de dix nichees de ces oifeaux.
" On voit que Frifch, a eu grande raifon de regarder l'un de ces oifeaux comme une
" fimple variete de 1'autre, malgre des pretend ues cara&eres par lefquels Buffon pre-J
I fendlesdifiinguer."    Levaill. Qifii.*}. 164.    Note (1.)
57
Supp. II,
 Strixpaluftris, Die fumpfeute, AT. G. Deutfth. z. ^.—AUg. U.d. Vog. i.Zufafi.
S.683. 16. B.—Gr. Muf. S. Zz.
-TpHIS is as- big as a Crow, and not far from nine inches long:
the bill brown blue; tip and edge yelk>w: legs hairy ; claws
black: the upper part of the plumage is white, grey, and brown
mixed; but in the head and fhoulders the white predominates: .
the ears confift of fix feathers;. about the neck is a kind of yellowifh,
ring, marked with coffee-coloured fpots: the under parts of the
body are reddifh grey, on the fides ftreaked with chefnut brown, and
fome fmaller crofs ftreaks: thighs ferruginous, with dull tranverfe
lines : quills grey, with coffee brown fpots, making four crofs ftripes -,
the tail has five bands made up in the fame manner : in fome fpecimens the ear feathers confift of three or four feathers only.
This fpecies inhabits Pomerania, Heffe, and Thuringia, where it is
called by fome the Moor Fowl, being found in the peat marfhes among
the high grafs; it lays four white eggs, the fize of thofe of a pigeon,
and feeds chiefly on field or other mice.    .
WHITE-
FRONTED
Description
White-fronted Owl, Nat. Mifc. pl. 171.
CIZE of the Little Owl; length eight inches : general colour of the
plumage on the upper parts brown : the circle of feathers round
the eyes dark, fringed at the back part with white ; between the eyes,
and over the bill and the chin white; the under parts from thence
yellow buff: acrofs the breaft a pale brown band ; on the wing coverts
a fpot or two of white: the firft five quills marked with a white
fpot on the outer, and the fecond quills with the fame on the inner
margins: the firft quills ferrated on the outer edge the whole length;
the fecond quill the fame halfway from the tip : tail marked as the
quills: legs feathered: bill black: toes dufky.
i    ' Thk
 O   W   L.
This was brought from Quebec, by General Davies, in 17 90;. and
with it another much fmaller, which he had in his poffeffion alive;
it differed in being more dufky, and the circles of the face not
fringed on the back part, otherwife fo like, as to be fuppofed merely
differing in age or fex: the general obferved to me, that this bird
frequently erected two feathers over the eye ; but although I infpected
the fpecimens very narrowly, I could not obferve any feathers longer
than the reft, which circumftance is alfo noticed in refpect to the Short-
eared Owl.
59
• With
mooth Headj.
6.
SNOWY
Str. nyflea, Ind. Orn. i. p. 57. zo.—Seelig. Vog. Th. 3. Taf. 17,—Spalovjft
Vog. 2. t. 2.
Strix ar&ica capite lasvi, &c. Barlr. Trav. p. 285.
Chouette Harfang. Daudin. Orn. ii. p. 188.
Snowy Owl, Gen. Syn. i. p. 132. 17.—Id. Sup. p. 45.
rOUND fometimes in Saxony, Heffe, and Thuringia, in Germany.     Descripth
From its preying on hares, among other things, it .-has probably
acquired the name of Harfang. In fummer it is marked with dull
pale brownifh fpots, but in winter as white as fnow.
The Kalmucs are faid to pay divine honours to this fpecies, and
augur good or ill luck, according to the bird tending in its flight to
the right or left.
In Lapland, it is found ufeful in deftroying numbers of the Lemmings: the inhabitants of Hudfons Bay make thefe birds fupply part of
their food, eating their flefh when cooked, and drinking the broth
made with it.
Bartram obferves, that it arrives in Penfylvania in autumn, from Pi-ace.
the north, and continues through the winter, departing in fpring,
and that they fometimes-eontinue their journies as far fouth as
Carolina.
I 2
 ■din. Orn.^ii. p. 190.
'pHIS bird, from the authority of Mr. Levaillant, appears to be
diftinct from either the Snowy Owl or Wapacuthu; neither can
it be a white variety of our Great E. O. as it is entirely earlefs; befides,
the comparative meaiurements of various parts will fhew at once,
that , it ought-to ftand alone as a fpecies; in fize it is fmaller than
the Snowy Owl, and of a more fquat form than that bird: the head
too is much larger in proportion : the tail is- fhort, and the wings
exceed it in length, when clofed fome inches,, whereas in the Snowy-
Owl the tail is pretty long, and the wings do not reach more than
halfway thereon: the legs in the fpecies here treated of are very
fhort, and fo completely covered with featk€rs, as nearly to hide the
claws: the whole plumage is fnow white, with exception to a few
fcattered fpots of black on the wing coverts and quills: the bill,
which is nearly hid in the face feathers, and the claws, are black., - a,
It is uncertain from whence this bird came, but a fpecimen is in
the collection of M. Raye de Breukelerward, at Amfierdam.      ";\ .   ■
Str. flammea,./»^. Orn. i. p. 60. 28.
L'Effraie, Levaill. Oif. i. p. 164.—Daudin. Orn. ii. p. 1.97.
White or Barn Owl, Gen. Syn. i. p. 138. 26.—Id. Sup. p. 46.
HPHIS is very common at the Cape of Good Hope, but in defect of
barns, out-houfes, and old buildings, it is conftrained to make the
neft among the rocks, in the hollows of which it lays feven or eight
white eggs, on a neft compofed of a few twigs and dried leaves. The.
natives call it Doodvogel (Bird of Death) and the other kinds of owls.
Uylers, by which name they call all night-birds..
 Var- A.    Str. Javanica, Ind. Orn. i. p. 64. 39.—De Wurml, apud Lichf. Mag. Var. A,
iv. z. 10. JAVAN
O.
'"PHIS is faid to have an afh coloured body, here and there fpotted    Descriptio
with white and black; beneath dirty white, with a tinge of rufous,
and fpotted with black.    It inhabits Java.    By the defcription, it Place,
feems too like our Barn Owl to admit of a controverfy, efpecially as
this bird has been already found in moft parts of the world, both on
the old and new continent.
Le Choucou, Levaill. Oif. i. p. 151, pl. 38. p A T p9^
Chouette Choucou, Daudin. 0>n. ii. p. 186.
FALCONINE
a.
•""p HI'S kind of owl feems, like the Hawk Owl*, afpecies approaching
not a little to the Falcon genus, it is however clearly an owl, and
mult be ranked as fuch : the plumage on the upper part of the body a
pale grey brown, inclining to rufous on the crown of the head and back
of the neck, -and on the wing coverts are a few fpots of white ; the
greater- quills are like the reft of the wing, with whitifh tips, and
reach when clofed about half way on the tail; which is cuneiform
in fhape, and grey brown; all but the two middle feathers are marked
on the outer web with tranfverfe white lines, ten or twelve in number:
the inner and all the under fide of it intirely white, like other owls:
the fides of the face and theeyes in part furrounded with a ruff of
hairy feathers, covering the noftrils; thefe are white, as are alfo all
the under parts of the body from the chin, moft delicately pure : the
thigh feathers hang over the legs quite to the toes, and the legs
themfelves covered with fhort briftly feathers : the bill is fmall, and
legs are black; irides yellow: the toes placed two and two, or three
and one, at the will of the bird. ^^J-lfJ
* Edwards, v. ii. pl. 62.
Inhabit!
 OWL.
Inhabits various parts of Africa, where the people in the country
of the Hottniquas, call it Nagt-valk (Night Falcon) ; it does not
appear till twilight, and from this circumftance, and its flying rapidly,
not eafily fhot.
Mr. Levaillant caught two of them by chance in a net, for he
had in vain before attempted to fhoot them: the female is rather
fmaller, and the white of the under parts lefs pure.
VARIEGATED
Le Choucouhou, Levaill. Oif i. p. :
Chouette Choucouhou, Daudin. On
I p. 187.
■IT HIS is the fize of the Long-eared Owl, but is lefs bulky, and ftands
higher on its legs: the circles of the face round the eyes are
white, with dufky markings: chin white ; but the plumage in general
is brown in various fhades, with a mixture of white, and on the
under parts of the body irregularly barred brown and white: the
legs are covered with downy grey feathers: the tail banded dufky
brown and rufous white, cuneiform in fhape; and the wings when
clofed reach two-thirds thereon : the bill is black : irides yellow.
Inhabits Africa, met with in the neighbourhood of the Orange
river, and Grand Namaquas': fuppofed to prey of evenings; for although
it has been feen in the day, it has been only when the fmall birds
have furrounded it as an object not ufually met with. T.hefemalt
is fomewhat larger than the male, but differs very little in the plumage,
except that fhe has lefs white about her, and the irides of a paler
yellow.
FASCIATED
o.
Dsscriptioh.
Le Huhul, Levaill. Oif. i. p, 167. pl. 41.
Chouette Huhul, Daudin. Orn. ii. p. mo.
Chouette de Cayenne, Mauduit Encyc. Meth.
'IPHIS is about the fize of our Brown Owl: the bill and legs
yellow: the general colour of the plumage of the head, neck,
and body is dufky, croffed with white bars, which are broadeft on
the
 OWL. 63
the under parts; but the head is only dotted with white : the wings
are brown, croffed on the coverts with fine lines of white: quills
plain, reaching when clofed to the middle of the tail J the tail itfelf
is cuneiform and long, each feather croffed with three narrow white
bands, which do not exactly correfpond on each fide the fhaft: legs
feathered to the toes with dufky and white feathers.
Inhabits Cayenne, and appears to be a new fpecies; by a label ap- Placs.
plied to the leg of the fpecimen, it was called Chouette de Jour, hence
it fhould appear to be a bird that takes its prey in the day,, which
fome of the Owl tribe are known to do.
La Chouette a aigrettes blanches, Levaill. Oif. i. p. 170. pl. 43.—Daudin. Orn. ii.   SUPERCILIOUS
CIZE of the Long-eared Owl: the bill yellow: the upper parts
or the head and body, wings and tail, rufous brown, with a few
foots of white on the two laft: the under parts from the chin dirty
white, tinged more or Jefs with rufous, with a few dufky fpecks, and
the feathers of the knees covering the fhin almoft to the tOes; the
fhins themfelves clothed with fine hairs: above the eye paffes an arch,,
confifting of a feries of loofe white feathers, over the ears on each fide
of the neck; thefe are longer than the reft, but not capable of being
erected as in the great and other eartd Owls: the tail is fomewhat cuneiform, and the wings when clofed reach to about the middle of it.
This fpecies inhabits Guiana, but is not Very common in our
cabinets; one fpecimen, however, filled a place in the colledtion of
our late friend and correfpondent M. C. G. D'orcy, and M. Levaillant
mentions two others, one in the collection of M. Mauduit, and
another in his own.
 O   W   L.
CIZE of the Barn Owl: length fixteen inches and a half: bill
yellow: the plumage on the upper parts of the bird is brown,
banded with yellowifh : throat and breaft pale brown, croffed with"
whitifh bands: belly yellowifh white, marked with longifh red brown
ftreaks: thighs and legs woolly, whitifh or very pale in colour,varied
with fmall blackifh fpots: quill and tail feathers brown, croffed with
four or five white bands.
I  met with this fpecimen in the collection of Mr. Humphries, faid
to have come from feveral miles within South Georgia, in America.
CIZ E of the Brown Owl, and at firft fight fomewhat refembles it,
efpecially on the upper parts; but marked with yellow ftreaks
on the head, and with fpots of the fame on the back: the chin arid
throat are yellow, ftreaked and fpotted with rufous : belly ferruginous,
with pale irregular fpots and markings: thighs and legs covered with
yellow downy feathers, marked with black: toes of a brownifh red:
the bill is fmall and dufky.
This inhabits New Holland, where it is known by the name of
SPECTACLE
O.
Var. A.
Str. perfpicillata, Ind. Orn. i. p. 58. 24?
La Chouette a collier, Levaill. Oif. i. p. 169. pl. 42.—Daud. Orn. ii. p. 193.
Spectacle Owl, Var. Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 5. pl. 107.
THE whole head in this bird is deep rufous, with a white throat,
which colour paffes between  the eyes, and over them as an
eyebrow; whereas in that figured in the Gen. Synopfis, Sup. pl. 107,
the whole head is white, with a large rufous patch, in the middle of
which
U
 OWL,
which the eyes are placed : the band acrofs the breaft is the fame
in both, and in refpect to the reft of the colours, they agree fufficiendy,
as to fuppofe them mere varieties, if not fexual differences of the
fame bird.
Mr. Levaillant's fpecimen Was killed at Surinam. It appears to be
a! variety of the Spectacle Owl, and the following no doubt a variety
alfo of the fame bird.
*5
Str. perfpicillata, Ind. Orn. i. p. 58. 23.
Var. B, La Chouette a mafque noir, Lei
ii. p. 192.
lill. Oif. i. p. 172. pl. 44.—Daudin, Orn.
'"p HIS feems to be our Spectacle Owl for a certainty, differing from
the fpecimen in the Lev. Mufeum, merely in wanting the rufous
bar acrofs the breaft*; but the- large dark patch, in which the eyes
are placed, feems abfolutely black, whereas in our fpecimen it was
merely dark red brown; added to this, that the whole of the
under parts frorri the chin are nearly white, having below the bar,
the belly inclined to yellow; we may therefore fufpect that the two
were of different fexes, or of different periods of age.
"txirt is faid to have come from Cayenne, from whence we are certaftf
the Leverian one was brought; as to the Collared Owl we cannot
efteem it otherwife than ^further variety of our Speftacle Owl, arifing-
from age or fex.
Chouette nudipede, Daudin. Orn. ii. p. 199.
^pHIS is feven inches in length: the plumage is fulvous brown
on the upper parts, with a white fpot on each fide of the neck,
and other fpots of white on the wing coverts: the under parts of the
body are' white, with a longitudinal lyre-fhaped brown fpot on each
leather:  legs long, naked, and brown; claws b&cl&;
Sup*. II. K The
BARE-LEGGED
Description.
 OWL.
The young birds are rufous, the belly more white, as the fpots at
that age are lefs confpicuous.
This inhabits Porto Rico in America, alfo at Cayenne.
Chouette Phalenoide, Daudin. Om. ii. p. 206.
♦T* HIS fpecies meafures fix inches in length : the bill is black :
the general colour of the upper parts of the plumage is fulvous;
the under wing coverts marked with fix white fpots : the cheeks are
white : the under parts of the body varied with rufous and white:
the wings reach to the end of the tail, which is fhort: the fhins are
covered with feathers, as well as the toes, and are of a rufous colour j
claws blackifh.
Inha bits the ifland of Trinidad, in America.
"• Strix Tengmalmi, Ind. Oi
TENGMALM'S Zool. Supp. V. 6o.
Chevechette de Tengmalm, Daudi
p. 64. 42.—Ail. Stockh. Ann. 1783, trim. \<—ArB.
. p. 205. 29. Var.
'T1 HI S is the fize of a black-bird: the bill dufky, tipped with
white: from its corners to each eye, is a line of black ; the
irides yellow; the circlet of feathers round the eyes is white, mixed
with dufky: head grey, ftriped with white, and furrounded with a
dufky circle, fpotted with white and dufky : primaries dufky, barred
with white: breaft and belly white, varied irregularly with dufky
marks : tail above of a dufky grey, ftriped with white: toes feathered
to the claws, grey, with pea-fhaped fpots of white.
La Chevechette, Levaill. Of. i. p. 176. pl. 46.
Chouette Chevechette, Daudin. Orn. ii. p. 205.
■THIS is inferior in fize to the Little Owl, though fomewhat cor*
refponding in plumage : the bill is yellow, and covered at the
bafe with hairs, which fland forwards upon it: the ground-colour of
the
 O   W   L."
the bird is dull brown, with fpots of white, on the head, wings, and tail
more numerous, and fmaller on the forehead and fides of it: the
throat, neck, belly, and under tail coverts are white, fpotted with
brown; moftly brown on the breaft: the feet are feathered to the
claws: the tail is pretty long, and the wings fhort in proportion, as
they fcarcely reach beyond the bafe of it. This character is fufficient
to diftinguifh it from the Little Owl, in which the wings and tail are
equal in length.
The native foil of this fpecies is unknown.   This and the laft defcribed are varieties only of each other.
^7
K t
 SHRIKE.
Order   II.       PIES.
Genus IV.   SHRIKE.
N°i. Collared Shr.
N°
12. RobuftShr.
2. Red-backed Shr.
13. Erect Shr.
3. Magpie Shr.
14. Frontal S-hr.
4. Woodchat.
15. Yellow-bellied Shr.
5. Hook-billed Shr. Var. A.
16. Rufly Shr.
6. Jocofe Shr.
17. African Shr.
7. Senegal Shr.
18. Muftachoe Shr.
8. Barbary Shr.
19. Cruel Shr.
9. Tyrant Shr.
co. Supercilious Shr.
10. Clouded Shr.
ai. Cape Shr.
ii. Dubious Shr.
22. Hottniqua Shr.
t.
Lanius collaris, Ind. Orn.
.p. 6g
10.
OLLARED
Shr.
Le Fifcal, Levaill. Oif. ii
Collared Shrike, Gen. Syn
P-35-
i. p. 1
pl. 6
5l-7.
.62.
T N my Supplement, I fuppofed the Ferruginous Shrike * to be the
Canary Biter, or Fifcal Bird, of the Cape of Good Hope; but I am
inclined to think it to be the collared fpecies.
Thunberg, in his travels f, fays, " Fifcal and Canary Byter were the
appellations given to a black and white bird (Lanius Collaris) which
was common in the town, and every garden there \ ; it is a bird of
• P.5i.N°8. t i.p-293-
j I am aware that more than one or two birds go by the name of Canary Byter at
the Cape of Good Hope.
4 prey,
 SHRIKE,
prey, though fmall, its food infects, fuch as beetles and grafs-
" hoppers, which it not only caught with great dexterity, but likewife
when it could not confume them all, it would flick them on the pales
of farm yards, till it had occafion for them. It alfo caught fparrows
and canary birds, but did not devour more of them than the brains."
Mr. Levaillant afcertains likewife this laft fact, and gives a figure
of the young as well as the adult bircL He adds alfo, that it is
found in Senegal, and in all the interior parts of Africa, and that it is
not a variety of our Great Shrike, differing in the quills, of which
this laft has fifteen marked with white, in the Collared Shrike only
feven; alfo in the Great Shrike, the tail feathers are twice as broad as
in the Fifcal.
Lanius Collurio, Tnd. Orn. i. p. 69. II.—Spalowjk. Vog. 2. tab. 5.
PiiB»grfefch«-reuflfe> Damegae, ffi/L Prov. iii p. 335.
L'Ecorcheur male, & de jeune age, Levaill. Oif. ii. p. 50. pi. 69.
Red-backed Skrike,.G«*..-Sj*w. up- 167. 25.—Id. Sup. p. 52.
^HIS is- common in Egypt, and called there Dagnouffe, caught in
large numbers alive in nets, and are fold alive, a-si well as all
thofe birds which the law forbid*s to be ftrangled, and which muft
not be ufed for food till they have been bled; but as thefe fhrikes
are very vicious, and cruelly nip the fingers, the bird catchers take
care to tie together the two ends of their, beak, with one of their
feathers*; they are alfo frequently met with in Africa, about the
Q>p if Good Hope, and other pants-.'. •
 SHRIKE.
Lanius picatus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 73. 20.
La Pie Piegriefche, Levaill. Oif. ii. p. 33. pl. do.—Daud. On
.Lanius Leverianus, Leverian Shrike, Lev. Muf.t. 59.
Magpie Shrike, Lath. Syn. i, p. 192. ^g.—Id. Sup. p. 54.
ii. p. 246.
Piace. I F the tiative place of this bird had not been already afcertained to
be South America, we might have brought the authority of Mr.
Levaillant to confirm it, who as well as Sir Afhton Lever received a
fpecimen from Cayenne.
4. Lanius rutilus, Ind. Orn. i, p. 70. 12.
WOODCHAT. La Pie-griefche route, Levaill. Oif. ii. p. 46. pl. 63.
Woodchat, Lath. Syn. i. p. 169. 17.
T N England, this bird is certainly very uncommon ; moft authors
fuppofe it to be a different fpecies from the Red-backed Shrike,
whilft others efteem it as only a variety.    I have only feen one bad
fpecimen, which  is in the Leverian Mufeum, but Mr. Levaillant
Placi. obferves, that it is met with in Senegal, and not uncommon at the Cape
of Good Hope, efpecially the interior parts of it, and that fueh birds
as are brought from thence do not effentially differ from the European one.
HOOK-JBILLED
Shr.
Var. A.
DESCRIPTION.
Lanius curviroftris, Ind. Orn. i. p. 72. :
Hook-billed Shrike, Lath. Syn. i. p. 171
*T* HIS fpecies extends farther than generally imagined, as it has
been found in New Holland; it differs in having the whole top
of the head black, below the eye on each fide; but the bafe of the
bill on the forehead is white.
 SHRIKE.
71
Lanius jocofus, Ind. Orn. i, p. 73. 22.
Chinefe Nuthatch,.Gen. Syn. ii. p. 655.    Var.
Fighting Shrike or Bulbul, Penn. View ofHindoftan
for Jan.—Jun. 1797, plate in ditto.
Bolbol, Le Brun, Trav. (Engl. ed.J t. 95. f. 1. '
I.—Orient. Colka.
HT H E Chinefe Nuthatch feems to be the fame bird as this, as both
have a fimilar name;. called in Mr. Pigou's drawings, Cow Kee
§>uan, or High-hair Hat, the people comparing it to a Chinefe woman's
head drefs or hat, which is compofed of horfe hair added to their
own.
Pennant obferves, that it has probably a moft harfh note, notwith-
ftanding which it has gained the name of Bulbul, or Nightingale.
This is called Fighting Bulbul, being trained to combat for the amufe-
ment of the natives.
The Fighting Bulbul, is faid to be enamoured of the rofe. Captain
Dixon had two of thefe, male and female, bought at Canton, which
were aliye off the Cape of Good Hope, but perifhed by neglect in hard
weather. They would eat rice, but were fondeft of Cock Roaches,
which they were principally fed with.
- I faw one of them in the Britifh Mufeum, full nine inches long:
four or five briftles at the bafe of the bill; bill and legs brown : the
colour of the plumage brown above, beneath very pale; a pointed
long creft on the head: rump white: vent and under tail coverts
crimfon: tail long, all the feathers tipped with white. This came
from Guzurat, in India. With the laft, I alfo faw another of only feven
inches in length: head black at top, and crefted: plumage above
of a darker brown than the laft, all beneath white: under the eye,
the vent, and under tail coverts crimfon: rump as the back; tail
feathers fhorter than the laft, and not tipped with white ; the bill was
alfo fmaller, with a flight notch at the tip.
 Lanius Senegalus, Ind. Orn. \. p. 74. 24.
Le Tchagra, Levaill. Oif. ii. p. 81. pl. 70. f. I. x.
Senegal Shrike, Gen. Syn. i. p. 162. 6.
-TPHE defcription given in the Gen. Synopfis, accords intirely with
the' bird in queftion: the female is rather fmaller than the male,
and the top of the head is not black, in other things it agrees with
the male, except in the colours being lefs brilliant; whilft young
both fexes are cinereous brown, but paler than in adult age, and the
white inclines to rufous.
This is found at the Cape of Good Hope, about the river Gamloos,
and from thence to Caffraria, alfo at Senegal, for it feems to be the
fame with that called by Buffon, in the Planches' Enluminets, Pie
griefche <l tete noire du Senegal *, it is faid to make the neft among the
bufhes, and to lay as far as five eggs fpotted with brown.
1
Lanius barbarus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 79. 45.        *■&$§?
Le Gonolek, Levaill. Oif. ii. p. 78. pl, 69.
Barbary Shrike, Gen. Syn. i. p. 173. 23.
^HE female is rather fmaller than the male; the crown of the
head only is yellow, with a tinge of green, and the red on the'
belly lefs brilliant.
In one prefented to the Britijh Mufeum, by Mr. Schotte, the whole
plumage is black, except the crown and thighs, which are yellow ,-
but the belly red : this appears t© me to be a young male.
Mr. Levaillant met with the Gonolek at the Cape of Good Hope, m
the country of the Great Namaqtea, but it does not appear to be very
common.   The individuals feen by him, did not appear to have any
J N« +79-
particular
blip1'
 S ■ H   R   I   K   E.
particular note, nor could the food be exactly determined, but in three
which he opened were found the remains of infects.
Lanius Tyrannus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 81. ^$.—Bartram's Trav.
Tyrant Shrike, Gen. Syn. i. p. 184. 37.
T N a letter from Mr. Abbot, of Georgia, he obferves the following
circumftance : e< A Tyrant Shrike having built its neft on the
*c outfide of a large lofty pine, I was one day confidering how I
" fhould procure the eggs, when viewing the neft, I perceived a
" Crow alight on the branch, break and fuck the eggs, and difplace
te the neft, appearing all the while unconcerne'd, notwithftanding
<c both the cock and hen continued flying at, and ftriking it with
" their bills all the while, but as foon as the crow had completed
" the robbery it departed. The eggs are flefh coloured, prettily
" fpotted at the larger end with dark pink, and a few black fpots."
CIZE uncertain: bill large and blueifh: lore ferruginous: head,
hind part of the neck, and fides beneath the eye brown; back
and wings the fame: under parts of the body not unlike the upper,
but clouded with white: tail longifh : legs dufky.
Inhabits New Holland. -KlilSk*
J^ENGTH eight inches: bill and legs yellow; general colour of
the plumage dufky afh: the tail is cuneiform, the two middle
feathers three inches and a half long, and the fhorteft or outmoft
two inches; but what moft beautifully diftinguifhes this bird from
others is, that all the feathers of the rump, and fome'of the upper
tail coverts, have a dafh of fine crimfon at the ends, for one third of
Supp. II. L •  an
CLOUDED
Shr.
Description
DUBIOUS
Shr.
Descri
 an inch in length, in appearance like the Angular feathers in the
wing of the Waxen Chatterer, but on a near inflection,: are. not of
an homy texture as in that bird, for the webs are perfectly divi-
fible.
I met with this bird at Mr. Thompfon's, m Little Saint Martin's
Lane, London; but without any hiftory of its manners or country.
annexed. •Jk^^
* -TTHIS is a large fpecies, being full twenty-one inches in length
the bill is ftrong and black: legs lead colour : the plumage in
general that of the Cinereous Shrike ; but the head and the whole of the
neck as far as the breaft are black: the under parts of the body the
fame as the upper, but very pale, nearly approaching to white :
quills black : the tail in colour like the body, croffed near the end
with a broad bar of black, but the very end of it is nearly white.
Inhabits New Holland, and from its fize feems to approach greatly
to the Falcon genus.
'TpHE fize of this bird is by no means determined, as it has come
under our inflection no otherwife than by means of a drawing:
both mandibles feem curved towards each other, of a moderate fize,
and yellow, but no perceivable notch in either: the head and hind part
of the neck are black: the crown very full of feathers, which when
carried erect, appears highly crefted: the plumage of the body is
pale green above, and white for the moft part beneath; but the
breaft and belly incline to yellow : the tail rather long, and dufky,
and fome of the outer feathers very pale: quills dufky.
Inhabits New Holland.
   SHRIKE.
UEAD and neck black, the firft crefted; from the noftrils to
the back of the. head a white ftreak, broadeft behind ; fides of
the jaw the fame as far as it is black : body fine olive green above,
•beneath fine yellow: quills brown; tail the fame, with thefeathers
more or lefs tipped with white: bill black, and very ftrong, as in many
of the Grofbeak genus : legs brown.
Inhabits New Holland, and is in the collection of general Davies. .
CIZE of the great Cinereous Shrike: bill rather ftrong and black:
head crefted: the whole of the head below the eyes very full of
feathers, and appears crefted; colour black: the upper parts of the
body and tail rufty brown, but with fome reflections of green on the
laft: chin white : breaft and belly yellow: quills dufky; tail rather
cuneiform: legs black.
Inhabits New Holland, where it is called Weebong; but it is not a
common bird; is a bold and fierce fpecies, as it drives all die fmaller,
birds from its neighbourhood.
YELLOW-
BELLIED
Shr.
Lanius rubiginofus,  der roflfarbenen Wurger,  Allg. Ueb. d. Vog.  i. i.
S. 696.
Lanius ferrugineus, Ail. de la Soc. cPHift. Nat. de Paris, vol. i. p. 1. p. 91
Zufafs.
RUSTY
Shr.
'T1 H E whole of the upper parts of this fpecies is full ruft colour;
the under parts of the ,body pale yellowifh red : quills blackifh
within : the forehead a trifle crefted, and ruft-colpured: hind head
and cheeks fpotted.
Inhabits Cayenne,
L a
 SHRIKE,
T ENGTH five inches: bill black; crown the fame; forehead
white, paffing in a line beneath the eye on each fide, to the hind-
head ; hind part of the neck, and from thence to the rump, black,
more or lefs fpotted or mixed with white; but the feathers of the
back in general have the ends white, margined with black: wings
black; on the middle of the coverts a large triangular rufous white
patch; fome of the middle fecondary quills are outwardly marked
with the fame, making, when the wings are opened, a longitudinal
patch: under parts of the body white, ftreaked with ferruginous on
the fides, breaft, and belly: tail black ; two or more of the outer
feathers white at the ends, and the outermoft of all white on the middle
of the outer margin : legs brown.
Inhabits Africa: communicated by Mr. Walcot.
I
MUSTA.CHOE La Pie-griefche rouge a plaflron blanc, Lev ail. Oif. ii. p. 55. pl. 65.
Shr.
Description. HP HIS is nearly the fize of a Blackbird: the length about ten and an
half or eleven inches, of which the tail, which is long and cuneiform,
occupies full half: the bill and legs are dufky: the head, hind part
of the neck, back, fcapulars, and wings in general brown black : the-
throat and under parts of the body are of a fine red, growingyel-
lowifh or much paler on the vent, not unlike in colour thofe parts in.
the Barbary Shrike, which it alfo approaches in the fize and fhape of
the bill; acrofs the breaft is a broad bar of white, as alfo a kind
of ftreak or whifker of white on each under jaw, from the gape of
the bill: the tail is greatly cuneiform in fhape, the longeft or middle
feather being five inches long, and the outer one an inch and three-
quarters, the intermediate ones leffening in equal proportions,-- the
whole of the tail is compofed often feathers, of a lively red plain co-
4 lour*
 SHRIKE.
lour, paler on the under parts; two of the middle quills have the outer
webs red, forming a ftreak on the wing ; and the wings when clofed
reach a very little way beyond the bafe of it.
This is faid to have been brought from one of the ifles of the
South Seas. In fome fpecimens, the ftreak on the wing is white inftead of red, perhaps owing to difference of fex.
Le Pendeur, Levaill. Oif. ii. p. 58. pl. 66. i.
CIZE of the Woodchat: length nearly feven inches: the crown,
nape, hind neck, back, and rump, are fine blue grey; fides of the
head, taking in the eye, the throat, and before as far as the breaft,
black; from the gape, paffing over the eye, is an arch of white bounding the black, as far as the middle of the neck ; from the fame fprings
another, paffing down on each jaw to meet the firft, and including a
black fpace between them: the wings are black: the belly, thighs,
and vent are white :• the four middle tail feathers are of equal length,
and black throughout; the others unequal in length, the outer one
being very fhort, thefe are partly white partly black, and the wings
reach fcarcely beyond the bafe of it: bill and legs black.
This is faid to come from India, and to feed on infects, flicking
thofe it has not immediate occafion for on a thorn, in the manner of
our European fpecies: by the colours, one may juftly fuppofe it to.be
a male bird.
CRUEL
Shr.
Iff
Le RoufTeau, Levaill. Oif ii. p. 60. pl. 66. f. z.
r-p HI S is about the fize of the Woodchat, and at firft fight might
be miftaken for the female of that bird *: the top of the head
and neck, back, rump, and wing coverts are rufous: from the fore-
* See Pl. Enl. 31. f. 1
SUPERCILIOUS
Shr.
Description.
head
 head over the eye, paffes a white band, and through the eye, from the
corners of the mouth, a black One; the under parts are all rufous
white: the quills are black, edged outwardly with rufous : the tail is
cuneiform; rather more fo than in the Woodchat; the two middle
featners of it are wholly,.the others on the outer web rufous: the bill
and legs are dufky.
- Inhabits Java, in the neighbourhood of Batavia, and is in the collection of M. Levaillant.
II. Of. ii. p. 85.pl.71.
*T*HIS fpecies is about five inches and a half in length : the bill is
black; irides brown: the top of the head, and hind part of
the neck are black; the reft of the upper parts the fame, with a
mixture of white: from the forehead, a white line paffes over the
eye towards the hind head: the under parts are white, but the fides
under the wings ferruginous; on the wings is a patch of white : the
four middle tail feathers are black, the others more or lefs tipped
with white, and the outer one wholly fo on the outer margin.
The female is not unlike the male, but thofe parts which in that fex
are white, in her are more or lefs inclined to ferruginous, and the
black of a brownifh hue.
It inhabits various places of the interior of the Cape of Good Hope,
efpecially the great river; often in flocks, except in the feafon of
incubation, at which time it is feen only in pairs; makes the neft
on the Mimofa trees, compofed outwardly of mofs and fine roots,
within with wool and feathers; lays five whitifh eggs, fpotted with
brown.
 SHRIKE.
Description.
. Le Cubla, Levaill. Oif. ii. p. 89. pl. 72. f. 1. 3. HOTTNIQUA
Shr.
HP HIS is full fix inches in length : the general colour of the plumage black, except the under parts from the chin to the vent,
the rump, and an oblique bar on the wing coverts, all of which are
white: the tail is a trifle rounded in fhape, black, and all the feathers
tipped with white: the bill and legs are dufky: irides yellow: the
female is fmaller than the .male, though much the fame in colour, but
on the whole is inclined to brownifh or dufky.
Thefe birds are found in fmall flocks in the forefts of Hottniqua
Land, and from thence along the eaftern coaft of Africa, where they feed
on infects, and the pupse of them, which they fearch for in the crevices of the barks of trees. They feparate into pairs during the time
of incubation, build in thorny bufhes, making the neft of mofs and
fmall roots, and lay five or fix eggs. The note expreftes the two
fyllables chd, chd; for the moft part is a very fhy fpecies.
 PARROT.
.ill
Genus   V.
PARROT.
* With uneven Tails
N° 16. Orange-winged P.
N" i. Hyacinthine Maccaw.
17. Black-necked P.
2. Tabuan Parrot,
** With Tails even at
Var. A.
THE   END.
Var. B.
18. Bankfian Cockatoo. Var.
3. PennantianP.
A.
, Var. A.
Var. B.
4. Jonquil P.
Var.C.
5. Carolina P.
19. Crefted Cockatoo.
6. Pale P.
20. Varied P.
7. JaguilmaP.
21. Sparrow P.
8. Nonpareil P.
22. Chili P.
9. Alexandrine P.
13. Gerini's P.
10. Ground P.
24. Pileated P.
11. Pacific P. Var. D.
25. Thecau P.
11. Crimfon-fronted P.
26. Vernal P.
13. Small P.
27. Purple-tailed P.
14. Turcofine P.
28. Levaillant's P.
15. Red-fhouldered P.
* With unevem Tails.
i-                                       Pfitt. Hvacinthinus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 84.
- Y£CIJ5JHINE                        Hyacinthine Maccaw, Lever
MACCAW.                               J
. Muf. p. 99. pl. in do.
Description.     ^p HIS rare fpecies is'the fize c
four inches: the bill is very
)f the Blue Maccaw, length two feet
arge and black; the head blue: the
body very deep blue, inclining to
violet: the quills and tail are violet
1 &if:'*''Xk
blue,
 P    A    R    R    O    T*.
blue, with a tinge of green on the margins: the legs dufky afh
colour: the orbits and chin are both deftitute of feathers, and of a
yellow colour: the tail fhaped as in the Blue Maccaw, but not much
more than half the length.
This is in the collection of Mr. Parkinfon, to whom it was given
after death by lord Orford; it is by no means afcertained from whence
it came, but as all the other Maccaws are of American origin, it may
not unreafonably be prefumed that the fame country gave birth to
this fpecies.
Pfitt. Tabtrenfis, Ind. Orn. i. p. 88. 19,
Pfitt. atropurpureus, Pompadour Parrot, Lev. Muf. pl. In p. 142.
Tabuan Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. p. 214.16. t. 7.
THE one defcribed in the General Synopfis is a male: the female
is moftly green : the head, neck, and under parts are olive brown:
belly red; rump blue: the upper furface of the tail is green, the
under dufky.
In Cook's laft voyage, Parrots are faid to have been feen at Tonga
Taboo, fomewhat fmaller than the common grey ones : thefe are of
an indifferent green on the back and wings: tail blueifh: the reft
, of a- fboty or chocolate brown ; furely Captain Cook muft have feen
very indifferent fpecimens, as the green is particularly vivid, and the
purple, though deep, is by no means footy.
Pf. Tabuenfis, Ind. Orn. i.
Tabuan Parrot, Phill. Voy.
m ft.
*T*HIS is twenty-four inches in length:   bill brown; the upper
mandible tinged with red: head, neck, and all the under parts
bright fcarlet: back and wings fine green: on the lower part of the
neck behind, between that and the back, a crefcent of blue: tail long
Supp. II. M and
 PARROT.
and cuneiform, moft of its feathers of a deep blue: legs afh coloured-:,
on the upper part of the wings a narrow line of a fine faxon green
colour.
The female is generally green, but the fore part of the neck inclines
to olive brown: the belly alone is crimfon, and the rump blueifh:'
tail green above, beneath dufky.
This inhabits New Holland, and is a remarkable variety, if indeed-
it be one ; it differs firftly, in having thofe parts, which in the former
are deep purple, of a molt beautiful crimfon ; it has in common with,
the other, the blue crefcent behind tha neck, and the blue rump;
but differs materially in having a vivid oblique pale blue-green band
.near the bend of the wing; both the wingsand quills are wholly green,
without any mixture of blue on the edges; and in the female the tail
is alfo green, but the crefcent at the back of the neck is wanting.
'sjou
, t. p. 168. 169?
I N New Holland is obferved a Parrot very fimilar, which we may
poffibly ftrain a point in rankingcas a variety, as all the drawings
which I have feen convey the idea of an even ended tail; in feveral,
the pale vivid ftreak on the wings is not confpicuous: the rump
blue, but the blue at the bafe of the neck behind is wanting.
One faid to be a female,- was green, with a pale blue rump ; beneath from the breaft crimfon.; but between the breaft and belly,
only patched with crimfon: no crefcent at the back of the neck:
wings and tail wholly green.: the native name of this bird, faid to
be Wellat. It feems to me not improbable that fome of the above:
defcribed, may hereafter prove birds in incomplete plumage.
   PARROT.
! JPf^K|Pen^n)jijj lid. Om.i. p. 90. 26.
Pfitt. elegans, p. 89. 23?
Pfitt. gloriofus, Splendid Parrot, Nat. Mifc. pl. 53.
*_'— fplendidus, Splendid Parrot, Lev. Muf. pl. p. 27.
Beautiful Lory, Gen. Syn. i. p. 217. 28 ?
Pennantian Parrot, Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 61.—White's Jou
male and female.        ^■tr'Jo'-l^Oi^Hl
■ PENNANTIAN
■.pl. in p. 174.
THE male has been already defcribed in  the Supplement to my
Synopfis, and I am almofl certain that the Beautiful Lory does not
materially if at all differ therefrom.
The female has the upper parts of the neck and body greenifh :
top of the head red, and a patch of the fame under each eye: chin
and throat blue: lower part of the neck and breaft red, as alfo the
rump and vent: middle of the belly dufky green: tail dark blue,
fringed with chefnut: fhbulders blue; the reft of the wing the fame,
but darker. In fome drawings which I faw from New Holland-h-.
one of thefe, differing only in not having the blue on the chin and
throat.
Pennantian Parrot, Phill. Bot. Bay, t. p. 154.
-THIS is of the fame fize, and fixteen inches in length: bill horn
colour; head, neck, the under parts and rump crimfon: back
feathers black, margined deeply with red: inner wing coverts black,
the outer pale blue, making an oblique band on the wing: quills
and tail dufky, edged with blue; the. three outer feathers of the laft .
from the middle to the tip hoary blue: legs grey.
T ENGTH ten inches and a half: general^l^^ofjhe plumage    Des
fine jonquil yellow, paler beneath: crov/n of the head^nd^xheeks   ,
crimfon : a largifh fpot of the fame at the bend of the wing next the
M 2 fhoulder:
 PARROT.
fhoulder: the tail is half as long again as the bird itfelf, and greatly*
cuneiform ; the two middle feathers pale buff colour, the others
more or lefs yellow, moft fo neareft the bafe: the quills are pale yellow,
with the inner webs very pale: round the neck, juft beneath the
crimfon, is a collar of white, or very pale, changing to greenifh at the*
hind head: the bill and legs are flefh colour.
This was alive in the poffeffion of Mifs Hunter, of Greenwich;
called Tote Parakeet, faid to come from the Ramgbur Hills, in the province of Bahar, in the kingdom of Bengal. I am indebted to General
Davies for the above. \
CAROLINA
P.
Pfitt. Carolinenfis, Ind. Orn. i. p. 93. 33.
Parrot of Carolina, Bartram. Trans, p. z%6.—Gen. Syn. i. jk 227. zg.—Id. Su/n.
p. 55.
Orange-headed Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. p. 304. in..   Var.
TDARTRAM obferves, that thefe birds never reach fo far as Penn~
fylvania, which is lingular, being a bird of fuch rapid flight, as it
could eafily perform the journey in ten or twelve hours from North
Carolina, which abounds with all the fruits they delight in.
I have already obferved in my Supplement, that the Orange-headed
Parrot and this are the fame; and Mr. Bethftein fuppofes that Frifclr'&>
bird tab. 52. is probably the female.
Pfitt. pallidas, Pale Parakeet, Nat. Mifi. pl. 258*.
6.
PALE
Dmcmjt^w.     T    ■ * S *s a^°ut ei**'ht *nches •"•• ^engtn>anc* k-as a moderately cuneiform tail: the bill and legs are pale: the general colour of the-
plumage pale yellow: the quills more or lefs of a rofe coloured dirty
white, in fome tights tinged with green,
Placi. Inhabits New Holland.
 PARROT.
Pfittacus Jaguilma, Ind. Orn. \
% *37>
J 40.—Molin. CHI p. 2z2.—Id. (Fr.edit.)
CIZE of a Turtle: the plumage wholly green, except the tips of
the quills, which are brown, and the orbits fulvous: tail very
long, and cuneiform.
It inhabits Chili, in South America; moft frequent in the plains
fituated between the 34th and 35th degrees of latitude. It is a very
clamorous fpecies, and often met with in inconceivably large troops>
fo as to obfcure the light of the fun, making great havoc among
the cultivated lands, feeding on the buds of trees, and herbs; happily,
their arrival on fuch fpots is rarely till after the end of harveft, for
they often tear up plants with the bill, to the root itfelf. Multitudes
are deftroyed yearly, without appearing to diminifh their numbers:.
the peafants mounted on horfeback, wkh a pole in their hands, ride
into the middle of a flock, fetded on the ground, and before they are
able to efcape, kill great numbers: their flefh is faid to be extremely
delicate, and in courfe is preferred to every other.
Nonpareil Parrot, Nat. Mifc. pl. 93.^-Afew Holland Birds, pl, a*.
CIZE of the Pennantian Parrot: bill dufky horn colour: head",
fides, and fore part of the neck and breaft crimfon: vent and
under tail coverts crimfon: the lower part of the breaft mixed crimfon and yellow; belly yellow, changing to yellowifh green towards
the vent: the chin, and all the feathers furrounding the lower manr
dible, white: the middle of the nape behind black and dull green>
with a few fmall fpots; hind part of the neck and back, as far as the
middle, green, each feather marked with a large fpot of black, or rather the feathers are black, with green margins: lower half of the
back
Descriptiok.
 86 PAR    R   O    T.
back and rump pale green: fhoulders black: leffer wing coverts
pale blue; beneath deep blue: greater quills dufky, withT the outer
margins deep blue : the fecondaries edged with pale green, like the
feathers of the back; all the greater quills except the outer one, and
fix or feven of the inner fecondaries marked with a tranfverfe pale
yellow fpot about the middle, on the inner web: tail blue; the two
middle feathers of one colour, the, others have the ends pale and
nearly white. *■
Place. Inhabits New Holland, where it is a common fpecies.
9. Pfitt. Alexandri, Ind. Orn. i. p. gj. \6.—Spalowfk. Vog. 3. tab. 8.
ALEXANDRINE Dourra, Sonnini, Trav. {Engl, ed.) v. 3. p. 83.
Alexandrine Parrot, Gen. Syn. i. p. 234. 37.
Description.      |N Spalowfki's figure, the ring round the throat is very broad, with
no red on the wings or breaft.
Place. Sonnini  affirms   that   this fpecies  is  brought  in numbers from
Nubia to Cairo, and that its Arabian name is Dourra.
03. 60.
. t. 53.—Nat. Mifc. vol.
Pfittacus [formofus, Ind. Orn. i. p.
Ground Parrot, Lev.  Muf. p. 2.
Zool. of N. Holland, p. 9. pl. 3.
Black-fpotted Parakeet of Van Diemen's Land, D'Entrecafti
47. pl. x.
T N fii.e this is rather fmaller than the Pennantian Parrot: the bill
and legs are black: the general colour of the plumage green on
the upper parts, each feather banded with black and yellpvy: the
crown and nape are marked with numerous longitudinal black
ftreaks: the forehead fine orange colour, nearly fcarlet; all beneath
the body the plumage is yellow, croffed with numerous waved
blackifh bands: the under part of the wing cinereous grev^with a .pale .
broad
 £   A> Rl  fc. Q   T.
broad yellow ftripe : the two middle.tail feathers are green, marked
with feveral oblique bars of black; the. others yellow, barred in the
fame manner; and all the feathers towards the ends growing.paler,
and without bars :  the tail is very cuneiform in fhape..
This is a moft elegant and beautiful,fpecies, inhabiting New; South
Wales, and other parts of New Holland, where it is known by the
name of Goolingnang: it is found in tolerable plenty ;.but rarely if ever
feen except on the ground, and particularly-in moift.places: the legs
and toes are more flender than, ufual in. this genus, and the claws
IBoreof^ajght,;;jjItliS)not!known to perch on trees like, other parrots,
but conftantly feen to rife from among the grafs, and to alight therein
again almoft immediately.
Pfitt. pacificus, InJ. Orn.
. p. 104. 6;.
Var.
Pacific Parrot, Lath. Syn.
.p. 252. 56.
Var.
T'N this_j-_hejbill and legs are black : the fore part of the head crimfon;
under each eye a large patch of the fame, and another on each
fide of the rump; but the general colour is deep green, the under
parts paler: the five firft quills are dufky, and both wings and tail
dufky beneath.
This inhabits New Zealand.
PACIFIC
PARROT.
Pfitt. auftralis, Ind. Orn. i. p. 104. 66. inltVl
Crimfon-fronted Parakeet, Nat. Mifc. vol. 3. t. 87.
THIS is the fize of the Pacific Parrot; length nine inches : the
bill is brown, with a red tip: general colour of the plumage deep
brown: forehead as far as the crown, and the bafe of the bill all
round, fine crimfon; from the eye on each fide defcends a large patch
of the fame : the hind parts of the crown and the back part of the neck
.half
 PARROT.
half way fine blue, with here and there a yellow ftreak, (boulders of
the wings yellow: legs dufky.
This inhabits New South Wales, and has great affinity to the Pacific
Parrot. In the Naturalifts Mifcellany, the forehead ofily is crimfon,
and a ftreak of the fame below the eye: the fhoulders are not
yellow.
A bird which appears to be a variety, is among the drawings of
A. B. Lambert, Efquire, which came alfo from New Holland. In
this the crimfon patch below each eye is much larger, with the addition of a yellow ring round the neck, at the bottom of the blue
nape. - \
In another collection I have feen one which differs further in
having the lower part of the neck behind reddifh inftead of yellow:
the fhoulders acrofs the wings tinged and mixed with red, and the
fides of the breaft reddifh; the whole of the nape is olive brown:
the tail feathers red at the bafe within: this variety is in the poffeflion
of General Davies.    I have likewife feen it in another collection.
SMALL
PARAKEET.
Pfittacus pufillus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 106. 71.—Small  Parakeet, White's Journ.
t. p. 262.
HPHIS is nearly the fize of the Guinea Parakeet, and under feven
inches in length : the bill dufky, furrounded at the bafe with
crimfon: body olive green, paler beneath : tail the fame; but the
inner webs at the bafe are crimfon : legs blue.
Inhabits New South Wales : in fome, the bafe of the tail is yellowifh
inftead of red; it is found in great numbers all over the country about
Sydney Cove, and has a brufh-like tongue, well adapted to extract
honey from the flowers of the trees, with which almoft every flower
of the country abounds.
9 Mr.
 PARROT.
Mr. Bechftein mentions a variety* which had the whole of the face
crimfon : the x% per part of the body dull green, beneath paler;
each feather of the tail is crimfon within, with the end yellowifh ; at
the bend of the wing is a red fpot. Mr. Bechftein fufpects this to
be the male, and that the one in White's Journal may poflibly be the.
other fex.
Turcofme Parakeet, Nat. Mifc. v. 3. pl. 96.
CIZE of the Crefted Parakeet: bill black : the upper parts of the
plumage are green, and the two middle tail feathers; the two
next have a little yellow at the tips, which increafes in all the others,
as they are more outward, till the two outmoft are perfectly yellow;
the tail itfelf being greatly cuneiform : the head is pale blue ; hind
head brownifh, the back part of it inclining to chefnut: the whole
of the wing is blue, but the coverts are paler and brighter than the
reft; at the inner bend of the wing is a long crimfon patch: legs
pale brown.
Inhabits New South Wales, but is a rare bird; is obferved not to
fly far at a time, and' never feen but in pairs, and oftener on the
ground than on trees. The above defcribed from the drawings of
Mr. Lambert: one of thefe, in the collection of General Davies, has
four of the middle tail feathers green without, and dufky within,
the outer one wholly yellow, except juft at the bafe; the next black
half way, from thence to the end yellow; the third black within,
green without, with a yellow tip.
* Der Kleine Sittich mit halbrothen Schwanze,—Allg. Ueb. d. Vog. 1. i. Zufafs.
S. 704.
89
TURCOSINE
PARAKEET.
Supp. II,
 II ii
Iff
ORANGE-
WINGED
-PARAKEET.
Red-fhouldered Parakeet, .
C 1Z E of the Guinea i
A   R   R   O   T.
White's Journ. t. p. 263.—Phil. VoJ. t. p. 269.
^arakeet: length ten inches and a half: general colour of the plumage green, paler beneath: the whole
face and throat are crimfon, mixed with yellow round the eye : top
of the head, outer edge of the wing, and fome parts of the middle
deep blue: fhoulders of the wings, and beneath them blood red t
greater quills dufky, fringed outwardly with yellow: tail greatly
cuneiform, of a chefnut red at the bafe, and dull blue at the end ;•
bill and legs brown.
Inhabits New South Wales.
HP HIS bird is about feven or eight inches in length: the upper
parts of the plumage are darkifh green ; the crown inclining to
blue: cheeks beneath the eye pale afh- colour : quills very dark:
fhoulders of the wings, and all beneath orange : bill pale : legs red.
This inhabits the Brafils, or at leafl fuppofed to do fo, as it was
brought into England by one of the fhips trading to the South Sea-
whale fifhery, and rs in the collection of General Davies.
C"L2E of the Alexandrine Parrot: bill and legs black: generaf
colour of the plumage green : forehead and orbits of a lemon
colour: chin, throat, and breaft black; the lore is white, and a white'
line on each fide of the neck, between the green and the black :
belly dufky green: quills and tail black: the leffer quills wholly,,
and the edges of fome of the others, are blue.
Inhabits the Brafils.   The defcription taken from a drawing at
General Davies's.
 PARROT.
Pfitt. Bankfii, Ind. Orn. i
B.ankfian Cockatoo, Whit,
p. 107. 76.    0.
<s Journ, tab. p. ,
THI S is fomewhat fmaller than the one defcribed in the Synopfis:
in length twenty inches: the bill lead coloured; the-head moderately crefted, black; the feathers of it varied with yellow: throat
and neck yellow: fides of the neck mixed white and black: body
and wings wholly black: the two middle tail feathers black; the
others have the bafe and ends black, but the middle crimfon, banded
with black, as in the firft defcribed, and is found in the fame places.
BANKSIAN
COCKATOO.
Var. A.
Pfitt. Bankfii, Ind. Orn. i. p. 107. 76.   y.
Bankfian Cockatoo, Phill. Voy. tab. p. 166.
THIS is twenty-three inches in length: bill as in the laft, the
bafe of it hid in the feathers : head, neck, and under parts of the
body dull brown, margined on the crown and nape with olive: the
body above, the wings, and tail gloffy black ; all but the two middle
feathers of the laft crimfon in the middle, but not banded with
black.    __•_
.   Funereal Cockatoo, Nat. Mfc. vol. vi. pl. 186.
T> HIS is rather larger than the common or firft defcribed, and
differs chiefly in having the four middle feathers of the. tail of a
yellow buff colour, marked with numerous black fpots inftead of
bands.
T Sufpect that this bird -differs exceedingly, as I find many varieties       . Other
among the drawings from New Holland, where it is known by the       Variety
name of Karratt.
N 2 The
 CRESTED    .
COCKATOO.
Description.
PARROT.
The firft is black, except a large yellow patch under each eye:
the bafe of all but the two middle tail feathers buff, dotted with
black : bill and legs pale, not common.
Second variety has no yellow patch beneath the eye: tail feathers
from the bafe to near the tip plain crimfon : bill and legs brown-;
this is moft common.
Thirdly, without the yellow patch under the eye; but the black
plumage fprinkled with yellow dots: the tail crimfon, barred with
black, juft as in the Supplement to my Synopfis.
Fourthly, the yellow patch under the eye compofed of pale ftreaked
feathers: fide tail feadiers deep buff yellow, motded with brown.:
fore part of the neck and breaft marked with pale yellow buff cref-
cents.
Fifthly, feems a compound between the two laft, being both fpotted
on the wings, and waved beneath : the tail barred above with crimfon,
and beneath with yellow buff colour.
Pfittacus galeritus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 109. 80.
Crefted Cockatoo, White's Journ. tab. p. 23.7.
CIZE of a Dunghill Cock, and two feet three inches'in length : the
bill is moderate in fize, and black: the general colour of the plumage white : the orbits covered with feathers, thofe of the forehead.
elongated into a creft ; they are ten or twelve in number, brimftone
coloured, about feven inches in length, and pointed at the tips j
behind this the crown is bare : the tail is even at the end, eight
inches long; the feathers fulphur coloured at the bafe : legs dufky.
This inhabits New South Wales, and is by fome perfons thought
to be only a variety of the leffer White Cockatoo, which I find to be
common in China, where it is called Jing-wos, fignifying the bird
which talks other men's words.
i.:l
 PARROT.
Pfittaeus varius, Ind. Orn. i. p. 112. 90.—Maerter,tPhyfi Arb. L2. p. 4-8.
.THIS is a little more than five inches long: the bill and legs
yellowifh : the general colour of the plumage varied with brown
and blue: the cheeks, chin, and throat whitifh : quills.and.tail doll
brown, with the outer margins blue..
Inhabits South America.
Pfittaeus fringiltaceus, Ind. Orn. i.p. in. 92.—Maert. Pkyf. Arb. i. 2. p. 47-
CIZE of a Sparrow; length fix inches: bill and legs pale yellow :
general colour green : head blue: cheeks, chin, throat, and a fpot
on the belly pale fanguineous;, belly itfelf. violet: the tail feathers
have the infides and tips yellow..
Inhabits South America.
SPARROW
P.
DESCRIFTIOKi.
Pfittaeus choraus, Ind. Orn. i. p; 112. 93.—Molin. Chil. (Fir. ed.J p. 237. CHILI
iii^^?^'-''1-"-7 ' . P-
THE general colour of this bird is a fine green, beneath cinereous    Descriptio
grey, with the tail of a moderate length: the orbits are flefh.
coloured.
Inhabits Chili.;, has the fame manners, and lives on the fame food. Pr-Aci.
as the Jaguilma.parrot, and is.faid to talk remarkably well.
Pfittaeus Gerini, Ind. Orn. i.
Pf. brafil. viridis capite albo. j
23-
• Orn. i. p. 95. t. 109. GERINFs
£IZE and habit of the White-beaded Parrot: bill and legs pale:- Descri?tic:
head almoft wholly white : body green : leffer wing coverts, fome-
of the middle quills, and tail feathers red,.
Inhabits Brafil.. Pi a en,
 A   R   R   O    T.
Tfitt. pileatus, Ind. Orn. i. p.
—Gen. Syn. i. p. 294. Noi
r 15. 123 Scop. Ann. Hift. 1
THIS is the fize of a Miffel Thrufh: bill horn colour, bafe of it
brown: forehead and crown fed; cheeks naked: general colour
of the plumage green: quills and tail blue on the outer edges-; the
laft yellow at the tip: rump yellow green. •
M. Scopoli fufpects it may be a variety of the Golden Crowned Parakeet, yet does not mention whether the tail is even or not at the
end. "tMM&x?.
Pfittaeus cyanolyfeos, Ind. Orn. i. p. 127. 134.—Molin. Chil.v(Fr. ed.) p. 235.
THIS, according to Molina, is larger than a Pigeon: the head,
wings, and tail are green, fpotted with yellow: back, throat,
and belly yellow : tail e.ven at the end.
Inhabits Chili, and known there by the name ofTbecau; is a numerous fpeeies, and does much injury to the corn, often flying in vaft
troops, and when fetded, have a centinel on a tree, who gives the
alarm on the approach of any one, from hence it is very difficult
to fhoot. It breeds in the holes of rocks, laying two white eggs in
the moft inacceffible craggy parts ; from the tops of thefe, the inhabitants let themfelves down by ropes, to take the eggs and young
birds, which are thought excellent, and fell at a good price, eight
of them fetching about three French fous; if robbed of their young,
they lay a fecond and even a third time, rarely a fourth. It is,
eafily tamed, and learns to fpeak well.
 PARROT.
Pfittaeus vernalis, Ind. Orn. i. p. 130. i^j.—Muf. Carlf. fafc. ii. 29.
THIS is five inches and a half in length : the bill reddifh : general    Description.
colour pale green : wing coverts deep green : quills grafs green :
rump fanguineous: tail above fanguineous, beneath blue:. legs pale.
It is uncertain from whence this bird. came..
Pfittaeus purpuratus, Ind. Orn.\
Purple-tailed Parakeet, Gen. Syn
p. 132.150,
i. p. 315.121..
-Nat. Mifc. i. pi. v6.
CEVERAL of thefe have been brought into England, from Cay-.
enne, which differed greatly from each other in fize ; fome of them
had the purple tail feathers green for one fourth of an inch from the
tip, and the two middle feathers dafhed with purple down the
fhafts.
SIZE of the Afh Coloured Parrot: general colour green in various
fhades, on the bend of the wing, and the thighs fine aurora colour.
Inhabits the internal parts of the Cape of Good Hope, found frequently
at Koks Kraal  river, at which place numbers of them come to
drink,
PURPLE-
TAILED
LEVAILLANT'*
m
pp
 C H A N N £ L - B I L L.
Genus VIII.    CHANNEL-BILL.
12 I L L large, convex-, cultra'ted, furrowed or channelled on the
fides, with the tip bent.
Nostrils round, naked, placed at the bafe of the bill.
Tongue cartilaginous, bifid at the end.
Toes placed two before and two behind.
Tail confifting often feathers. At prefent we arc acquainted with
only one fpecies belonging to this genus.
N. HOLLAND Sc. Novas Hollandias, Ind. Orn. i. p. 141. i.x
CHANNEL- Pfittaceous Hornbill, Phill. Bot. Bay, t. p., 165.
BILL. Anomalous Hornbill, White's Journ. t. p. 142.
Description. T HE fize of this bird is nearly that of a Crow, and the total length
•is twenty-feven inches :.the bill from the gape to the point three
inches and an half, or rather more *; it is very flout at its bafe, and
curved its whole length; the upper mandible hooked at the point;
the upper part is narrow, ridged, and the fides are channelled; at
the bafe, clofe to the fetting on of the feathers, the noftrils are placed;
thefe are round, and the edges of them furrounded with a naked red
fkin, which continues on each fide, between them and the eye, and
alfo furrounds the eye itfelf, but the bare parts are moft confiderable
above the eye: the tongue is three-fourths the length of the bill,
thick at the bafe, from thence to the end flat and cartilaginous, and
bifid at the end : the head and neck are of an afh coloured grey; the
under parts of the body the fame, but paler: back and wings blueifh
* The few I have* feen have differed much in the proportionate fize of the bills,
but I do not recoiled any one with fo fmall a bill as in that figured in White's Journal.
afh
1
 - ^^^^^^f^^^
II
m
  C HAMNEL-B ILL.
afh colour; the end of each feather tipped with black : • die qfftjfeai&
much;'tfik9--fa*fcej'b*t darker; and the inn^Vi%bsA'*^'tlle^''ii^^o^^;tIi$'--
bafe,are very pale. The firft quill feather is* ffeofrer by three inches-
and- three-fourths tft&fo the fecond, and the fecond Ml *fi it0t ^ovtef
t&*» the third, which1": is* She ""longeft ol? aflr; and the witfgS- w4erf-
etefed, cover full three'^lbwrths of the tail. The tafr kfS"lf is cuneiform, and confifts •'often feathers, •■ofa" deep afh colour; the two
middle feathers are eleven inc3ffc&- long-;- the outer ones onI|_£ fi£P8if
inches and three quarters. Near the end of[aft-the ftaSftefts j&frto&fj&f-
black, which takes up moft fpace in the middle ones ; the very tips
of all for about an inch, are white : the margins of the inner webs,
from the middle to the bafe, in all but the two middle feathers, are
barred black and white; the feathers over the thighs, and the vent
and under tail coverts, barred with the fame, but paler: the legs are
fhort, meafuring from the heel to the toe joint only two inches; the
toes of the fame length, and placed two before and two behind, as
in the Toucan; their colour is blueifh black.
This bird'inhabits NeW Holland, where it is called Goe-re-e-gang ; it
is not very common, and firft appears about Port Jackfon in October;
is feldom feen unlefs mornings and evenings, fometimes feven or -
eight together, but oftener in pairs: both on the wing, and when
perched, they make a flrange loud fcreaming noife, not unlike that
made by a common cock and hen, when they perceive a hawk or
any other bird of prey hovering over them. They probably come to
this part of New South Wales only to breed, after which they, depart
elfewhere in January, but where is not afcertained. In the crops and
gizzards of feveral, were found the feeds of the red-gum and peppermint trees, which is believed to be their principal food, and fuppofed
to fwallow them all whole, as the pericarpium or capfule has been
found in the flomach; exuvite of fome beetles have alfo been found,
but not in quantity, The tail, which is not far fhort of the length
Supp. II. O of
 CHANNEL-BILL.
of the body, is fometimes difplayed like a fan, and gives it on flight,
or when fitting, a very majeftic appearance. The natives know very
little of its habits, haunts, &c. however, they .cohfider its appearance as
an indication of wind and blowing weather, and that its frightful fcream
is through fear, as it is not a bird of very active or quick flight. The
pupil of the eye appears uncommonly clear. It cannot eafily be.
tamed, for Mr. White obferves, that he kept a wounded one two days
alive, though he could get it to eat nothing, but bit every thing that,
approached it very feverely. j    .
 HORNBILL.
IX.   HORNBILL.
N" i. Abyflinian H.
2. African H.
N° 3. Indian H.
4. Crimfon H.
Buceros Abyffinicus, Ind. Orn. i. p.   1
Entd. S. 117.
Abba Gumba, Erkoom, Bruce'sTrav. \
Abyflinian Hornbill, Gen. Syn. i. p. 347,
\*.  4.—Meyer, Ueb. der
. 3. p. 102.— & App. t.
ABYSSINIAN
p. 169.
THIS is fully defcribed by Mr. Bruce, who fays the total length
is three feet ten inches, breadth fix feet; breadth of extended
wings twenty-two inches: the bill is ten inches long, of which the
horn meafures'three inches and an half: the plumage in general is
footy black: the large wing feathers are ten in number, and milk
white: on the neck are feveral protuberances, as in the Turkey Cock,
of a light blue colour, changing red on various occafions: the eye is
reddifh or dark brown; eyelafhes long, efpecially the upper.
This bird is found in Abyffnia, generally among the fields of Toff,
feeding on green beetles, which frequent that plant; it has a putrid
fmell, which has occafioned a fuppofition of its feeding on carrion :
in the eaftern parts it is called Abba Gumba, but in the language of
Tigre, on the weft fide of the Tacazzi, it is called Erkoom. It has
been feen with eighteen young ones, and runs on the ground for the
moft part, but when raifed flies both ftrong and far.
It builds in largethick trees, and when it can near churches"; has a
covered neft like that of a magpie, but four times as large as an
eagle's, placing it firm on the trunk, without endeavouring to make
it high- from the ground, the entry always on the eaft fide.    On the
O 2 frontiers
 H O R N B I L.L
frontiers of Senmra and Raas el feel, it is called Teirel Naciba, or Bird
of Deftiny.
AFRICAN
H.
Buceros africanus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 143. 5.
Der africanifche Hornvogel, Allg. Ueb. d. Vog. i. S. .
African Hornbill, Gen. Syn. i. p. 348. 5.
■Id.Zufafs.S.716.
JLf BECHSTEIN obferves, that Mr. Geoffroy the younger, fup-
pofes this and the foregoing to be one and the fame bird *„
INDIAN
CRIMSON
H.
Buceros Hydrocorax, Ind. Orn. i. p. 144. 7.
Indian Buceros, Afiat. Refearches, vol. iv. p.
Indian Hornbill, Gen. Syn. i. p. 351. 7.
] T is obferved in the Ajiatic Refearches, by Lieutenant Charles White
that the name of this bird is Dhanefa, that it feeds on the Nu»
Vomica, and the fat of it is highly efteemed by the natives.
"^ EITHER the fize of this bird is known, any more than the
place it inhabits: the head feems full of feathers, and a trifle
crefted: the upper part of it even with the eyes, and between them
and the bill black; the reft of the plumage a fine crimfon : acrofs the
back and fhoulders a band of white : the bill is longer from the gape,-
than from thence to the back of the head ; the colour of it black or
dufky, except at the bafe, where it is furrounded with white, and
juft at this divifion the noftrils are placed; the bill is flout, running
to a point at the tip, and a trifle curved for one-third of its length:
the legs are the colour of the bill: the tail is cuneiform, and pretty-
long, as the quills reach juft beyond the bafe of it.
* See AH... dlWft. Nat. dePanka. v.i. p. 1. his definition is,"LB,.nig'er,. reaji^r-
« bus majoribus albis, roft.ro nigro cornu artrorfura aperto, mas gutture rabro,femina
« coeruko,'*
I met
 HORNBILL.
I met with this bird among fome drawings belonging to- Mr.
Smith, moft of which were of Indian, birds. I am greatly at a lofs.
where to place it, for if the drawing is exact, it does not exactly
tally with any of the known fpecies, except the Wreathed Hornbill *
of Dampier, fuppofing the wreathed parts to be fmoothed off, and
in this cafe it has a greater curve at the tip. It feems a curious bird>%
but I have not met with any one who has feen an original fpecimen...
.*■ This is. well figured in D'Enirecafteux's Voyage, ii. p. 304. pl. xu
 'BEEF-EATER.
3EEF-E AT E R.
AFRICAN Buphaga Africana, Ind. Orn. i. p. 147; 1.
BEEF-EATER. Pic-boeuf d'Afrique, Levaill. Oif. pl, 97.—Daudin. Orn. ii. p. 294. pi. 2Z.
African Beef-eater, Gen. Syn. i. p. 31.9. i. tab. ia.
J-^ ITHERTO we have heard of this bird only as a native of Senegal;
but M. Levaillant affures us that he has met with it in the
country of the great Namaquas, near Caffraria, and that it coincides
much with the Starling in point of manners, forming itfelf into fmall
troops, of a dozen or more in each, alighting on the backs of oxen,
antelopes, and other quadrupeds, where by prefling the elevated part
of the hide of the animal, containing the larve of the oefirus, it forces
it out, to the great relief of the animal, enjoying itfelf a delicate
repaft. Befides thefe, the bird is faid to feed on various kinds of infects. It has a fharp kind of cry, by no means approaching to any
thing like what may be termed a fong.
 Genus  XL     A N I.
Ootophaga varia, Ind. Orn. i. p. 149. 3.
Crotophagus varius indicus, Ger. Orn. ii> p. 54. tab. 192.
THIS is the fize of the Leffer Ani, and eleven inches in length :
the bill is black, lefs ftrong than in the common fpecies : head,
fore part of the neck and breaft black: the middle and greater wing
coverts and tail black; the reft of the body fulvous, inclining to
rufous: legs yellow brown. It is not faid from whence this bird
came, but"we are informed that it was alive for fome time at Ver--
failles, where it went by the name of Indian Pie, and a drawing of it;.
fgnt to Florence, from which M. Gerini copied his figure.
VARIEGATED
ANI.
 ■if
YHLL flout; triangular, the upper mandible elevated at the bafe
-above the crown ; both mandibles dentated on the edges.
"Nostrils in the middle of the bill.
Tongue entire, and flout,
Toes placed three before and one behind.
Mufophaga violacea, Mufafreffer, Schr. der Bert. Gefell.ix. S. 16. taf. i.
Royal Cuckow, Lev. Muf pl. in p. 167 ?
'T'HI S curious and. hitherto non-defcript bird, is nineteen inches in
length, of which the tail is fix inches and one-third:-the. b.ill frorrt,
the tip to the gape is one inch and an half, and very Angularly fhaped,
efpecially the upper mandible, being nearly triangular, lofing its attachment at^the back part, where it is elevated, and hangs over the
crown; the colour of the bill is yellow, growing red towards the end,
and the edges of both mandibles are dentated; the tongue not unlike
that of a Parrot in fhape: irides brown: the top of the head is
purple: lore violet: beneath each eye is a line of white; eye-lids
purple: the neck, breaft, and body violet; wings the fame: the
prime quills purple in the middle;, the tail longifh, cuneiform, ob-
tufe, the fame colour as the quills -j-: legs dufky black, and very
ftrong.
This beautiful bird is found on the plains near the borders of rivers,
f M. Ifert fays the tail confifts of nine feathers only, which might be the cafe with
his fpecimen, but as we know no bird in which the tail feathers are not even in number, I fhould fufpeft that this bird alfo may have at leaft ten feathers, or even more.
1
 1 w iefi^f*u7/si&i6?is
  PLANTAIN-EATER.
in the province pfAcra, in Guinea, and is faid to live principally on
the fruit of the plantain f; is very rare, for notwithftanding every
pains he could take, M. Ifert was not able to obtain more than one
fpecimen.
I have ventured to affimilate this with the Royal Cuckow of the
Leverian Mufeum, as it feems to agree in every point, except the dif-
pofition of the toes-, which in that figure are placed two before and
two behind. This however may be reconciled, by fuppofing the bird
capable of placing the toes in the two different pofitions at will, a
circumftance obferved likewife in refpect to the Touraco: however,
the affertion of M. Ifert, that the toes were fituated as his figure re-
prefents, ought to weigh with us, efpecially as he feems to be the only
one who profeffes to have feen the bird.
t Mufa paradifiaca & fapientum.
 Raven.
South Sea R.
Carrion Crow.
Rook.
Hooded Cr.
Whfte-breafted Cr,
Jackdaw.
S teller's Cr.
Blue Cr.
Cinereous Cr.
Rufous Cr.
Red-billed Cr.
Magpie.
Senegal Cr.
s Corax, Ind. Or
, Bart)
 calvus feu Lorip
Corvus clericus, Muf. Ca.
Grand Corbeau, Levaill.
N° 15. Alpine Cr.
16. Red legged Cr.
Hermit Cr.
Short-tailed Cr.   Var.
19. Black-faced Cr.
20. Caledonian Cr.
21. Variable Cr1.
22. Blue and White Cr.
13. Black and White Cr.
24. White-cheeked Cr.
25. Rufous-bellied Cr.
2.6. Changeable Cr.
27. Wattled Cr.
i. p. 150.
Trav
Ger. Orn. a. tab. 143.    Var.
rlf. pi. z.    Var.
Oif. pl. si.—Daudin. Orn.ii.p.
Syn. i.p. 367. 1.
THE one figured by M. Sparrman, in the Muf. Carlf. differed
from the "common fpecies, merely in having the chin white.
This fpecies is found in Egypt; a few fmall flocks appearing about
Rofetta in February only.    Thefe mix freely with the flocks of Crows,
remaining on the ground with them, round inhabited places *.    It has .
..(Engl, ed.) 2. p. 239.
been
 C   R   O   W.
been obferved to me f, that a female raven weighs two pounds ten
ounces, but the egg fcarcely feven drams, fo that forty-eight of them
would only make up the weight of the bird. The egg of the Cuckow
is lefs difproportionate, requiring only thirty-eight to equal the parent
in weight.
Levaillant found that, of which he gives, a figure, in Saldanha Bay, at
the Cape of Good Hope, where it not unfrequently unites in large flocks,
attacking young antelopes, and likewife killing them: that the
male and female are generally together, making the neft in the clefts
of rocks, as well as in old buildings. This is certainly a variety only
of our Raven, differing merely in being bigger, and the bill a trifle more
bent,
Var. C.    Corax Gruciroftra, CorbeauBec croife, Daud. Orn.ii. p. 226.
T HIS is only a variety, with the two mandibles crofting each
other; an accidental circumftance merely, and which is not unfrequently feen in other birds.
Corvus albicollis, Ind. Orn. i. p. 151. ■*.
Corbeau Vautourin, Levail. Oif. pl. 50*—Daudin. Orn. ii. p. 127. pl. xiv.
Corvus torquatus, Spalowjk. Vog. 3. tab. 10.
A kind of Raven, Bruce'sTrav. App. p. 152.
South Sea Raven, Gen. Syn- Sup. p. 75.
\^ R. Levaillant is certain that it is a diftinct fpecies ; he obferves,
that it is rather lefs than a Rcwen, and is eighteen inches in
length, with: a-, cuneiform, tail, and the wings are three inches longer:
it is ftrongly characterifed by a white patch at the nape of the neck,
added to a white mark feparating the fides of this white patch, and
3ftQU*cling the  neck; this, ftripe is itfelf not very apparent, being -
f Colonel ifentagu. v
 CROW.
formed by a fingle row of white feathers, or rather half white, the
outer border being only vifible : the feathers of the throat are forked;
the beards extending beyond the fhafts, and lefs black than the reft of
the plumage: irides brown or hazel.
Mr. Levaillant found this every where in his African travels, but
particularly among the great Namaquas, and in Swarte-Land, but lefs
common at the Cape of Good Hope itfelf The female is lefs than the
the white on the neck lefs extended, the black lefs gloffy,
more inclined to brown : it is a bold bird, attacking young lambs and
antelopes, alfo feeding on carrion.
I obferved a figure of this among Mr. Bruce's drawings; the bill
elevated not unlike that of the Ant : fhoulders of the wings brownifh:.
tip of the bill white. Mr. Levaillant thinks it a link between the
Crow and Vulture, and that it is not a bird of paffage.
Corvu<
-Sepp. Vcg. 3. t. 15.
!V.   p.   286?
zS.—Hi/l. Prov. i. p. 486.
Corone, Ind. Orn. i. p. 151. 4.-
Corvus maritimus, Rook, Bart rani's Tra
Corneille Corbine, Daudin. Orn. ii p. 2
Carrion Crow, Gen. Syn. i- p. 370. 3.
THE manners of this fpecies are well known ; but a Angular anecdote of one of thefe has come to my knowledge, attefted by Mr.
Edwards. In March 1783, a Crow was obferved to build a neft on
the vane of the top of the Exchange at Newcaftle, and the more remarkable, as the fpindle on which the neft was conftructed, being
fixed to the vane, moves with it, and it appeared very Angular to view
it in windy weather, when the neft in courfe turned round to every
point of the compafs. A fmall copper-plate was engraven with a
reprefentation of the circumftance, of the fize of a watch paper; and
fo pleafed were the inhabitants with it, that as many of them were
fold as produced to the engraver the fum often pounds.
Birds of the Crow genus are faid to be fo numerous about Aftrachan,
 C    R   O   W.
than% that could any one find out the means of deftroying them, ■ it
would be doing very great fervice.
1091.
Corvus frugilegus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 152. 5.—Sepp. Vog. 3. tab. 103.—Bartram. Tra
Corneille du Cap, Levaill. Oif. ii. p. 11
Corneille Freux, Daud. Orn. ii. p. 229
Rook, Gen. Syn. i. p. 372. 4.
N°S2.
TT is faid that there are no Rooks in the ifland of Jerfey, although
crows and magpies are not unfrequent; nor is it certain that Jays
inhabit that ifland*; yet we are certain that Rooks migrate into France
from this country. This fpecies is apt to vary in colour, like the Crow,
as two white ones are mentioned by Mr. White, in his Hiftory of
Selborne t-
Mr. Levaillant met with thefe at the Cape of Good Hope, but obferves, that they differ only in the noftrils not being bare of feathers,
as obferved in Europe. This probably arifes from fome difference in
their manner of feeding, for the young Rooks have the noftrils well
covered with briftles, and in proportion as they root with their bills
into the ground, the briftles are rubbed off, and at laft the roots them-
felves are deftroyed, the noftrils remaining bare for ever after.
Corvus Comix, Ind. Orn. i. p. 193. 7.-
Corneille mantelee, Daud. Orn. ii. p. 23
Hooded Crow, Gen. Syn. i. p. 153. 5.
■Sepp. Vog. 3. tab. 106. •
THIS fpecies changes place according to the feafon in this country,
breeding in the more northern parts; I do not hear of their
doing fo  more fouthward than Northumberland; they approach the
fouth about the middle of OtJober, are common in the fummer about
t P. 42.
 C   R   O    W.
.the Highlands of Scotland, where they breed on all forts of trees •» are
indifcriminate feeders, living on both carrion and fhell fifh, alfo will
eat at times Cranberries, and other mountain berries. I have" alfo
been informed, that in the ftomach of one were found feveral fmall
fhells and horfe beans.
•WHITE-
BREASTED
CR.
Description.
Corvus dauuricus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 154. 8.
Corneille a fcapulaire blanc, Levaill. Oif. ii. p. 14. pl. 53.
Corvus fcapulatus, Corneille a fcapulaire, Daudin. Orn. ii. p. 233.
White-breafted Crow, Gen. Syn. i. p. 376. 6. pl. 15.
THIS is figured in the Planches Enluminees, but the wings arc
there too fhort, for they reach three-fourths of the way on the
tail: the female is fmaller than the male, and the colours lefs vivid:
are found at the Cape of Good Hope in plenty; make the neft in trees
or bufhes not well cloathed with leaves, and lay five or fix green
,eggs fpotted with brown. The Hottentots hold this bird and fome
others of the crow kind in great eftimation, being of fingular ufe in
picking out infects from the backs of oxen, with which they are
fometimes fo covered as to be in danger of lbfing their lives. In
one of thefe, fuppofed to have come from China, I obferved the belly
and under parts to be black, and I have no doubt of its being found
in Abyffinia, as I obferved a figure of one among the drawings of
Mr. Bruce.
JACKDAW.
Corvus Monedula, Ind. Orn.
Choucas commun, Daudin., 0
Jackdaw, Gen. Syi
..p. 154. l\.—Sepp. Vog. 3.t. 113.
378^ 9.—Id. Supp. p. 7 8.
T Have obferved that this bird will frequently make the neft in
rabbit burrows, and in the Ifie of Ely, for want of ruined edifices,
in   which   it moft   delights   to  build,  it fometimes   makes the
6 "£*      neft
 CROW.
neft in the chimnies; on an occafion of this fort, a fire was once
lighted on a hearth below, which had not been ufed for fome time,,
at laft the materials of the neft.above took fire, and were in fuclv
quantity, that it was with the greateft difficulty that the houfe itfelf
could be preferved from the flames.
Corvus Stelleri, Ind. Orn. i. p. 158. 20.
Pica glandaria cserulea, &c. Bartr. Trav. p. 170.  .
Geai de Steller, Daudin. Orn. ii. p. 248.
Steller.'s Crow, Gen. Syn. i. p. 387, 21.
Tjudge this to be the one mentioned in Bartram's Travels,- of an     Des-
azure blue colour;  no creft or tuft of feathers on the head ;  faid
not to be fo large as the blue Jay of Virginia, but equally clamorous v.
found in clumps and coverts in the fpace between the lower trading
houfe and Reck Point.
Dr. Pallas mentions it as being fhot by Mr. Steller,, when Bering's.-.
crew landed upon America.
Corvus cyanus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 159. 21.
La  Pie bleue a t&e noire, Levaill. Oif. ii. p. 28, pl.  58.—Daudin. Orn. ii. BLUK
p. 236. CR.
Corvus cyanus, blue Magpie, Pall. Trav. iii. p. 694.—-<?<•*. Syn. i. p. 394..    \
3°-
THIS fpecies migrates from  the Mongolian Departs and China,-    Descriptic
only into that part of the Ruffian dominions which, lies to the
fouth of Lake Baikal. The figure in Levaillant'% work feems to have:
the feathers of the hind head elongated into a pointed creft, and the
whole of the head below the eyes and the chin black: the body is
blue grey beneath,' more blue above, wings and tail fine blue: tips
of the  fecond quills  white:   tail very long and  cuneiform,, con-
fifting
  CROW.
but in refpect to the tail feathers, they are^ faultily expreffed in the
Pl. Enluminees, for inftead of being as there reprefented, of a moderate length, and fcarcely more than rounded in fhape at the end,
the fact is, that the tail is full half as long again as the whole of the
reft of the bird; this we can teftify from a fine fpecimen in the
Leverian Mufeum, in which the tail is fully as cuneiform in its fhape
as in the Magpie; each of the feathers being blue, with the ends black,
and ultimately marked with an oval fpot of white at the tip. Mr.
Levaillant alfo has remarked the fame circumftance«
Corvus Pica.
Ind. Orn.
.p.
i6z,
?*•
Pie com
, Daud. Or
p. 2
37--
■Hift
Pr
Magpie,
Gen
Syn. i. p.
392
29
—Id
Sup.
P-
;.p.487.—-Hift.Alepp.-i.6g.
T T has been obferved, that no greater numbers of this bird are
feen than in the temperate and fouthern latitudes of Ruff a; it is
common all over Sibiria, and even in Kamtfchatka; it was met with
alfo in the adjacent iflands by Steller.
In Clayton's account of Virginia, it is obferved that neither Jackdaw
nor Magpie are there, and that they prize a Magpie full as much
as we do the Red Bird. Many varieties of this bird have been
noticed, and others continually fall under obfervation; I obferved at
the late Mr. Charles Boddam's, of Bull's Crofs, one of a dun colour, with
white wing coverts: breaft and belly white ; this was eleven years old.
One fhot at lord Temple's at Stow, now in the Leverian Mufeum,
is almoft white, longitudinally ftreaked with black: tail white,
ftreaked with black at the ends; added to thefe, a magpie's neft was
found fome years fince in Somerfetfhire, in which were four young,
three of them had the bills white; the reft of the body, tail,,arid legs
cream colour: the fourth of the natural colour.
Supr. II. CL
 THIS M. Levaillant found in Africa, far diftant from the great
Namaquas; it agrees with that in Pl. Enluminees, 538, but has"
a far longer tail. Mr. Levaillant called it from its cry, which is
truely expreffive of its name; it perches on high trees, fometimes
twenty together: the males have the longeft* tail, more graduated
than in the European Magpie, than which it is more flender. It
builds on the tops of high trees, defends the neft entirely with thorns,
only leaving one opening; lays from fix to eight white eggs, marked
with fome fpots of brown, biggeft at the large end; is feen in the
inward parts of the Cape of Good Hope, but rarely if ever at the Cape
itfelf. Mr. Levaillant mentioned a Angularity in one of the tail
feathers having two fhafts coming out of one quill, one of them
entirely without webs, but whether a mere lufus natura, or common
to the fpecies in general, he had not an opportunity of obferving.
Corvus Pyrrhocorax, Itud. Orn. i. p. 165.
Crave des Alpes, Daudin. Orn. ii. p. 252—
S. 104.
Alpine Crow, Gen. Syn. i. p. 381. 11.
'cbw.AM.fS. s*
Tdi Peiroufe obferves, that this fpecies is found in the HigheCt
Pyrenean Alps, defeending at the end of die year into the vallies
and meadows. The diftingvttfhing character by no means to be
drawn -from the colour of the legs, as they differ at different ages,
for in fome they are black, in ethers orange coloured, and in old
birds quite crimfon: the colour of the plumage is dufky black; the
bill
 CROW. 115
bill is yellow, and bent, but not pointed as in the Cornifh' Chough ov
Hermit Crow,   ,
Corvus Graculus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 165. 41. 16.
Crave Coracias, Daudin. Orn. ii. p. 253. RED-LEGGED
Red-legged Crow, Gen. Syn. i. p. 401, 39. *■"**•
JfTASSELgfUIST obferved this bird in the fields of lower Egypt Place.
during the months of September and OStober; faid to be common
about all high rocks of the fouth latitude of Sibiria, alfo about Mount
Caucafus, and the mountains of Perfia, and that in the firft year the
bill and legs are black.
The eggs are longer than thofe of the Jackdaw, of a cinereous,
white, marked with irregular dufky blotches.
Corvus Eremita, Ind. Orn. i. p. 166.42. l7<
Crave huppe, ou Sonneur, Daudin. Orn. ii. p. 354. HERMIT
Der Alpen Rabe, N. G. Deutfch. B. 2. S. 470. taf. xvii. CR.
Wood Crow from Switzerland, Borowjk. Nat. pl. 71. 5. B.
Hermit Crow, Gen. Syn. i. p. 403.41.
THE figure in BorowjkH work, which feems to been taken from    Description.
Alhin, is bare about the head, end the creft begins at the nape,
continuing to the lower part of the neck, falling off to nothing at
top and bottom, but the feathers of it very long in the middle of
the neck: the eye is furrounded with black.
The figure in Gerini's work is faid to be this bird, but it feems*
to have a longer bill, and no doubt ought rather to be referred to the;
Cornifh Chough. ig.
SHORT-
TAILED
Turdus trioftegus, Muf. Carlf. Fafc. iv. tab. 84. CR.
Var. G.
TN this the bill is yellowifh, with brown edges: the head and nape    Description
rufty green, with three longitudinal black ftreaks:  the upper
Qji parts
 C   R   O   W.
parts of the body and wings green for the moft part: fhoulders,
-rump, and tail greenifh blue: the greater wing coverts and quills
black, on the latter a bar of white : throat, breaft, belly, thighs, and
legs pale ruft colour: vent rofe colour, inclining to white under the
tail, which is very fhort, and moftly black, with the end of a gloffy
blue. " ;^S%*2
M. Thunherg is faid to have brought this variety from fome of their*/? India iflands: fize of our Var. C.
BLACK-FACED
CIZE of a Jay : bill flout and black; tongue rounded at the end r
the face and throat black: the plumage on the upper parts is
blueifh afh colour for the moft part; beneath paler: quills blackifh;
with pale edges: tail fix inches and a half long, and dufky brown,
all but the two middle feathers tipped with white: legs dufky blue.
Inhabits New Holland, where it is called Kai-a-lora; faid to be a
bird of prey. I am. obliged to Mr. Lambert for the above defcription ; among his drawings I likewife obferved another which had a
ftouter bill;' the head black much beyond the eyes, and the plumage
rather of a darker hue, and the tail feathers not tipped with white.
j
I
CALEDON
CR.
Descripti
Magpie of New Caledonia, D'Entrecafttux's Voy. ii. p. 226.pl. 35.
T ENGTH twenty inches:, head black, feathers of it filky and'
diftindt, round the eye fomewhat bare; all the neck white, and
in the middle of the-belly a little of the fame: the general colour of
the plumage otherwife black 1 the bill is black and flout, the end of
it for one third yellowifh, and flightly notched : tail very cuneiform,
the two middle feathers eleven inches long, the next on each fide nine,
diminifhing regularly to the outer ones, which meafure no more than
three inches and a half: legs dufky..
Inhabits,
 cr r  o  w.
Inhabits the woods of New Caledonia'.    I" faw a fpecimen of this
at Mr. Tbompfon's, Little Saint Martin's Lane.
THIS is a large fpecies, but the true fize not certain, as the
drawing from whence this defcription is taken did not identify
it: the bill is ftrong, feemingly lefs than in the Crow, though cha-
radteriftic of that genus: the plumage dufky brown, with reflections of
blue and reddifh in different lights : bill and legs black*
This was met with -in New Holland, and was the only one of its-
kind feen there.    Mr. Lambert.
IN
VARIABLE"
CR.
Description*-
T HIS fpecies is fmaller than a magpie : bill and legs dufky brown:"
irides brown: from the middle of the crown, the nape, back of
the neck to the middle of the back, the greater part of the wings,
and the end of the tail for one third, of a deep blue; the reft of the
plumage white :  .juills towards the ends brown.
Inhabits New South Wales; known by the name of Karrock. It
feems much allied to the Thrufh genus, as it has not any briftles:
covering the bafe of the bill; it is efteemed a rare fpecies.
THIS is about twenty inches in length: the bill and legs dufky
black: irides blueifh: the chin and throat, the middle of the
greater quills, the rump, vent, and middle of all but the two centre
tail feathers, are white: the reft of the plumage black.
Inhabits New South Wales; probably changes place in different
feafons, as it is chiefly met with in May,
BLACK AND-
WHITE
 RUFOUS.
BELLIED
Description,
CIZE uncertain: bill dufky; legs pale: the head is tufted, or rather
fuller of feathers than the reft of the body, and is, as well as the
rteck, breaft, and belly, black: the feathers of the chin and breaft
margined with white ; on the ear a white patch: back, wings, and tail
olive green: quills dull ruft colour: the fhape of the tail cuneiform;
the outer feathers tipped with white.
Inhabits NewHo-lfa^d, and at firft fight feems to refemble fomewhat
the White-eared Jay, but differs in not having the forehead whiti-fh,
nor does the white patch come fo near the eye as in that bird; be-
fides, the fhape of the tail is cuneiform in the prefent defcribed, but
in the White-eared Jay it is fimply rounded at the end.
La Pie a culotte de peau, Levaill. Oif. ii. p. 20. pi. 55.
THIS is about the fize of a Blackbird, but differs in having a
cuneiform tail, which is half as long again, as the bird: the
whole of the plumage is gloffy black, with a tinge of blue in fome
lights; but the feathers of the belly, thighs, and vent, are of a flefh
colour, or pale rufous, and the vent rather inclines to brown: the
bill and legs are black.
This bird is figured from one in the collection of M. Ray de Breu-
kelerward, of Amfterdam, and faid to have been brought from one of
the South Sea ifles. It feems to have fome affinity to the Senegal Crow,
from its fhape and cuneiform tail: the bill is n©C fo ftrong in proportion as in the Magpie, but more approaching to, fiRat of the
Thrujhes. In this fingle fpecimen, were obferved only eight feathefsi.'
in the tail, and on the molt minute inveftigation, vm traces of more
could be found; if it be really t^eeafewish-othersibfthe famefpecie%
as may be known hereafter, it is, we believe, a Angular occurrence, as
although frequently more, we do not at prefent know any bird which
has fewer than ten feathers in its tail.
 C   R   O   W..
aill. Oif. ii. p. 22. pl. 56. CHANGEABLE
THIS is about the fize of our Song Thrujh in the body, but rather
longer in proportion: the general colour of the plumage is
black, and the texture of the feathers fine, delicate and foft; but
thofe round' the bafe of the bill, as far as the eye and chin, are fliff
and * fhort, appearing more like black velvet, and thofe on the reft
<ef the body, in different reflections of light, are gloffed with green
and purple; thofe of the tail above, feem gloffed with green, the
fourmiddle ones wholly fo, but the others only on the outer webs;
the tail is greatly cuneiform, and contains ten feathers; the four
middle ones or longeft are of equal length, and longer than the reft
of the body; the others leffen till the outer ones are very fhort:
the bill and legs are black, and perhaps may be allied to the Crow
genus, however; the bill in fhape is greatly fimilar to that of the
Beefeater, and the bird may not unlikely be poffeffed of the fame
manners.
This was fent from Batavia, to Mr. Temminck, of Amfterdam, but
it is by no means certain that this was its native country.
Pie a pendeloques, Daudin. Orn. ii. p. 246. pl. Xriv
J^ENGTH fifteen inches: bill black, flender, and a little elongated : the general colour of the plumage brownifh grey: the
feathers at the top of the head and neck edged with whitifh; on the
cheeks a little downy, at the bottom of which arifes a cylindrical-
caruncle, ten lines in length, hanging on each fide of the neck; throat
white; fore part of the neck, and under parts of the body dirty white,
the middle of each feather dafhed with brownifh : on the middle of
the belly a patch of fine yellow : quills tipped with white: tail
greatly cuneiform, each feather tipped with white ; legs greyifh-
yellow; claws brownifh grey, fharp, crooked, and ftrong.
Inhabits New Zealand, PL ace.
 ROLLER.
Genus   XIV.   ROLLER.
N° i. Bengal R.
2. Docile R.
3. Noify R.
4. Striated R.
N° £ Piping R.
6. Crimfon R.
7. Hairy R„
8. Red-breafted R:
Cor. Bengalenfis, Ind. Orn. i.
Rollier tachete, Daudin. Orn. i
p. 258.
ClZE of the Common Roller; length thirteen inches: bill black;
head rufous, with a whitifh mixture in the face: the general colour
of the plumage is rufous, tinged with dirty green on the back, and
inclining to red beneath, marked with a longitudinal white ftripe on
■each feather: wings dull pale green : quills fky blue: tail rufous
brown, pretty long, and the feathers of equal lengths : legs dufky.
A fpecimen of this bird is in the Mufeum at Paris, brought from Senegal, by M. Geoffrey de Villeneuve. lt has been alfo killed in Caffraria
by Mr. Levaillant.   It is probably a young bird of the Bengal Roller.
Coracias docilis, Ind. Orn
Daud. Orn. ii. p. 266.
172.   17.—S. G. Gmelin, It. iii. p. 378. t. 42.-
T H E fize of a Jackdaw: bill and legs yellow; the bill is rather
bent, feathered on the fides, and the under part at the bafe covered
with white feathers: eyes black, round them dull grey, behind and
beneath them whitifh,-with a flight mixture of red; the upper parts
of the head, neck, and breaft are much the fame* belly and vent
chefnut
 ROLLER.
chefnut brown:  the nine  firft quills are half white half black; tbe
reft wholly black :  tail black, with the tip white.
Inhabits Perfia, and has obtained its name from imitating words and
actions of thofe around, fuch as crying, laughing, and fuch like.'
Coracias flrepera, Ind. Orn.
Reveilleur de LTfle Norfolk
Corvus graculinus, White-V«
p. .173.21.
Daud. Orn. ii. p. 267.
ited Crow, White's Jourt
. Bay, tab. p. 251.
T ENGTH nineteen inches; fize fomewhat bigger than a Jackdaw : bill two inches and three quarters long, curved at the
point, with a flight notch at the very tip; colour black; noftrils
elongated, oval: the irides are orange.: the general colour of the
plumage is black; the feathers about the head fhort and ftiff: the
firft quill feather is half the length of the fifth, which is the longeft of
all; the firft fix quills are white at the bafe, producing when clofed
a white patch on the wing : vent, and bafe of all the tail feathers white:
the tail is eight inches long, even at the end, and the feathers pointed
at the tips, marked on the inner web with white, except the two
middle ones, which are wholly black*: the wing when clofed
reaches more than halfway on the tail: the legs are ftrong, feathered
rather below the heel; hind toe very large and ftrong.
This fpecies is very numerous at Norfolk ifland, and is very clamorous, efpecially of nights ; called a Magpie by our failors, perhaps
on account of the colours, added to the fimilarity of voice. It is a
very foolifh bird, running after any perfon, and fuffering itfelf to be
knocked down with a flick.
_ •» In the -engraved coloured plate of this bird, in White's Journal, all the tail feathers have white ends, whereas the two middle ones are black the whole of their
length.
Sufp. II, R
 ROLLER.
I ENGTH fifteen inches: bill flefh colour; tongue briftly at the
end: plumage on the upper parts olive green, marked on the
back with fine ftreaks of black, inclining to afh colour on the cheeks :
the under parts of the body white ftreaked with black: leffer wing.
coverts black, edged with pale grey ;. the reft, as well as part of the
quills,.are pale grey, almoft white: quills black: tail pale afh colour,,
and pretty long : legs black.
Inhabits New South Wales.
PIPING
R.
Description
THIS bird is eighteen or nineteen inches long: bill two inches
or more, ftraight, except at the point of the upper mandible,
which is bent; the colour blue, the tip black: general colour of
the plumage deep black, except the nape, wing coverts, and fome of
the greater quills at the bafe,. rump, vent, and bafe of all the tail
feathers for two-thirds of the length, which are white, but the end of
the tail is black, as is the whole of the outer feather on the outer
web : legs dufky flate colour.
Inhabits New-South Wales, where it is known by the name of
Tarra-war-nang; it has a foft note, not unlike the found of a well-
toned flute; it preys often on fmall birds.
Description,
Crimfon Roller, Lev. Muf. tab. in p. 63.
CIZE of a Crow: bill red: the whole plumage crimfon, iriclrning1-
to pompadour red, but fomewhat deeper: the tail is even at the
end, of the fame colour as the reft of the plumage, but darker ; the.
under part of it dufky black; quills of this laft colour : legs dufky.
This moft beautiful fpecies inhabits Cayenne; a fine fpecimen is in the
collection of Mr. Martytt, of Great Marlborough Street -, that from
9 which.
 ROLLER.
which the figure in die Leverian Mufeum was engraven,twas taken
from a painting in the collection of the late M. G. D'Orcy, communicated by Colonel Woodford: this feems to differ in fome degree,
for the feathers of the crown are elongated, fo as to make it appear
fomewhat crefted, and the quills and tail are faid to be wholly
black.
THE bill and legs in this bird are dufky blue; the whole of the
neck, breaft, and belly teftaceous brown, ftreaked with white,,
and the feathers rather loofe and elongated : back and wing coverts
green brownK edged with blue and changeable red: quills deep blue:
tail long, even at the end, and like the quills in colour: above the
eyes a ftreak of white, and beneath them a dark one.
A drawing of this bird is in the collection of Qolpnel Woodford.
Red-breafted Roller
i. Muf. tab. in p. 199.
THIS is nearly the fize of a Common Crow: the bill is ftrong and
black: the general colour of the plumage is alfo black, flightly
glofled with blue on the back and wings: the fore part of the neck
-and breaft are bright fcarlet, inclining to crimfon, changing to ferruginous at the lower part: the tail confifts of twelve feathers, and is
flightly cuneiform: legs black.
The above defcription taken from a fpecimen in the collection of
the late Mr. Bailey, dealer in curiofities in the Haymarket, who
informed me that it came from South America.
R 3
RED-
BREASTED
R.
M-PTIQN..
 '*&■
ORIOLE.
G e n u s X V.     ORIOLE.
CHESNUTand
BLACK
OR.
DlSCKIPTION.
N81. "Chefnut and Black Or.. N° 4. Golden Or.
2. Leffer Bonana Or.. 5.. Carthagena.Ofr.
3. Olive Or.
Orioliis caftaneus, Ind. Orn. i. p. r8 r. 2 j;
Carouge vane, Daudin. Orn. ii. p. 334.
Chefnut and Black Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. p. 437. 24.
TN a letter from Mr. Abbot, of Georgia, in America, he obferves;,
I the Chefnut and Black Oriole is not common in thefe parts; the
" bird you defcribe as its hen, I efteem another fpecies; but con-
" fidering what you remark about the Baltimore and other young-
*• birds, I believe it to be a young cock. of. the fecond fummer;,
"they fing loud, and but little different from your No. 24:
" the fize, colour, bill,, and legs agree, and the fpots and fhades*
" differ in different birds, having all the. appearance of moulting
" and becoming like the former, but the hen is quite a different
" bird, having no chefnut about her:. the young birds are all like
" hens, which is the cafe with feveral of this country."
The neft is built in the beginning, of May, in the fork of the top
fprigs of Sweet Gum, curioufly woven with the fmall twigs of a
plant like green hay, and lined with wool: the eggs are of a very pale
or whitifh blue,, marked.or ftreaked round the. larger end with dark,
brown.
I very much rely on the opinion of Mr. Abbot, who is an excellent
obferver, and am inclined-.to think from what he fays, as well as
what has been hinted to me. from rny friend General Davies, that
their.-
 ORIOLE.
thefe birds vary exceedingly before they arrive at mature plumage,
for in one pointed out by this laft gentleman to me as a female,
the chin and throat were black: head mottled green and black, in
the manner of the Pewit Gull, before its final change into deep
black r. wings brown, with a rufous bar: under parts of the body
pale yellow, but the middle of the belly inclined to rufous: the tail
dark olive green, with the two middle feathers nearly black.
Otiolus Xanthorus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 181. 26. 2:
Carouge cul jau n, Daudin. Orn. ii. p. 384. LESSOR
Leffer Bonana Bird, Gen. Syn. ii. p. 438. 25. BONANA
TF the bird figured by Brififon, and that of Edwards be the fame,    Description.
the laft is by much the biggeft, as appears by the Leverian Mufeum, which contains fpecimens of both. In Briffon's bird the lore
and chin only are black, but in that of Edwards, the fore part of
the head, chin; throat, and the wing coverts have a large portion
of white : the yellow parts in Briffon's bird are very full and bright;
but in that of Edwards, of a greenifh yellow. v&   >-
Oriolus olivaceus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 186, 41.    Var. .
. Icterus caftaneus, Troupiale chatain, Daudin. Orn. ii. p. 353, OLIVE
Cayenne Olive Oriole, Gen. Syn. ii. p. 447. 39. OR.
CIZE of the Olive Oriole: bill black: head, neck, and general    Description,
colour of the plumage fine velvet black: throat, breaft, belly,
back, rump, and vent fine gloffy chefnut: belly and thighs dufky:
wings and tail black : greater wing coverts tipped with white, forming a tranfverfe band of that colour: legs black.
The female is of a colour lefs deep, inclining to brown above, and
to rufous beneath, with the vent feathers grey.
M. Daudin received   the above from Cayenne, with  the Olive
Oriole,
 ORIOLE.
"Oriole, to which-it feems to be allied at leaift, if not that bird in any
of its changes of plumage: faid to make the neft of a plain rounded
hemifpherical fhape, of dried roots and fibres, and commonly many
jiefts are found on the fame tree.
OriolusGalbula./W. Orn. i
.p. 186. 45.
GOLDEN
Galbula.Aldrov. Ger. Orn.
ii. t. 307.308.309.
OR.
Golden Oriole, Nat. Mifc. \
iii. pl. 285.—Gen. Sy
I. p. 449. 43 .—Id. Sup. p. 89. ,
T N Sepp's plate, the neft feems compofed of pale mofs mixed with
feathers, and fattened round the divarication of a bifid branch,
in the firft plumage the males and females refemble each other: they
feem to inhabit the greater part of the old continent; Rujfel*
found them at Aleppo, in autumn, where they are ufed as food ;
Sonnini j- obferved them migrating through Egypt, and in doing this
they take up fifteen days, during which they are caught for food;
is certainly the Mango Bird of India, as Mr. Macneil J found it in
great plenty in the ifland of Salfet, and fays the notes are plaintive
and melodious, though fimple : it is probably the bird called at
Malabar by the name of Magnakli; faid to be entirely yellow, except
the wings, which are black §.
•carthag-ena
OR.
Coracias cartaginienfis, Scop. An. Hift. Nat. i. p. 40.
CIZE of the common Qriole: bill black; head the fame; throat
white: breaft, belly, and rump yellow: wings and tail rufous,
fpotted with black; a wbUeift*eak-jpaffes from the bafe of the upper
mandible on each fAefecto the nape : back varied rufous and brown.
Scopoli found this in the Emperor of Germany's menagerie at Vienna,'
to which place it was brought from Cartbagena, in South America,
by CI. Jacquin.   It was an unquiet and clamorous bird.
* Hift. of Aleppo. f Trav. (Engl, ed.) Hi. p. 318.
•   % Jrcb*ol, viii. p. 252.      § See Bertholomeo's Voy. to India, (Engl, ed.) p. 224.,
 GRAKLE.
Genus  XVI.     GRAKLE.
N8 I. Paradife Gr. N° 5. Green Gr.
2. Crefted Gr. 6. Black-headed Gr.
3. Egyptian Gr. '7. Pied Gr.
4. Abyflinian Gr. 8. Blue-eared Gr.
Gracula triftis, Ind. Orn. i. p. 190. 3.
Gracula grillivora, Martin acridophage, Daud. Orn. ii. 285.
Paradife Grakle, Gen. Syn. ii. p. 458. 3.
\X7E believe that this bird varies greatly : in a fpecimen from India,
in poffeflion of General Davies, the whole fpace on each fide
of the head, from the gape, through the eye, and much beyond it,
was bare; the whole of the head otherwise cloathed with greenifh
black feathers; but the chin, and fore part of the neck to the breaft,
were afh colour: the reft of the bird as before defcribed in the General Synopfis. In this work *, it is mentioned from M. Buffon, that
the inhabitants of the ifland of Bourbon having imported fome of thefe
birds for the purpofe of deftroying the Grajhoppers, the birds increafed
fo faft, that after having deftroyed the infects, they attacked not only
the fruits, but young Pigeons, and became a greater fcourge than the
Grajhoppers had been before. We learn, however, that this affertion
is not precifely the fact, and moft likely M. Buffon had been mifin-
formed ; for M. Dupleffn, who gave it as his opinion, that thefe birds
might be ufeful to be introduced into that part of Spain fituated towards Africa, by way of deftroying the Locufis there, had been many
years refident in the ifland of Bourbon, where he had feen thofe birds
introduced, that indeed they have been much multiplied in that ifland,
but fo far from themfelves being confidered as a nuifance, the laws for
their prefervation are ftill in force.
* Gen. Syn. ii. p. 459.
R4
 EGYPTIAN
Gr.
ABYSSINIAN'
Gr.
DESCRIPTION.
GRAKLE.
Gracula criflatella, Ind. Orn. i. p. 192. 8.
Quifcale criftatelle, Daudin. Orn. ii. p. 320.       ",*i^*>|i
Crefted Grakle, Gen. Syn. ii. p. 464. 7.—Id. Sup. p. 90.
ANE of thefe, or very like, is in the Britijh Mufeum, which came
from the Mahratta country in India: the forehead is moderately
crefted : length of the bird nine inches and a half: bill and legs yellow :
the plumage is brown, but the head and neck are black; the laft inclining to dufky: the greater quills are white, but black towards the
tips: fecond quills like the back: under tail coverts white: tail
black, more than three inches in length ; the feathers of it decreafing
in length a trifle towards the middle: the ends of all the feathers are
white, but the two middle ones the leafl in proportion, being only
tipped with white.
Gracula Atthis, Ind. Orn. i. p. 192. 10.
Quifcale Atthis, Daudin. Orn. ii. p. 321.
Egyptian Grakle, Gen. Syn. ii. p. 466. 9,
T HE only reprefentation I have feen of this, is among the drawings
of the late Mr. Bruce: the colour of the plumage is green, but
on the  ears, the axilla;, and under parts, a purplifh blue: tail blue
green: bill and legs black.
This is faid to inhabit Abyffmia, where it is known by the name of
War da*.
CIZ E of the laft: bill black : irides ftraw colour:  head deep afh
colour: body green, ending in a point on the breaft: beneath the
body dull ferruginous orange : legs black.
Found in Abyffmia, with the  laft fpecies, to which it feems greatly
allied.
• Sonnini calls it Egyptian Raven.    See Trav. (Engl, ed.) ii. p. 339. Note f.
 GRAKLE.
THIS is fomewhat lefs than one foot in length: general colour
pale dull green : the chin mottled, dufky and brown : the under
parts of the body from the breaft whitifh, with a few dufky ftreaks;
wings and tail dufky, the firft edged with white, the laft even at the
end, tipped with white: the bill is flout, a little bent at the point, and
of a horn colour; tongue half the length of the bill, pointed at the
end: legs black.
Inhabits New Holland, where it is faid to be a rare bird.
It is with no little difficulty that we have been able to fix limits to
the genus of Grakle, more efpecially to thofe which inhabit New Holland: and to fay the truth, great uncertainty has arifen in refpect to
other genera alfo, not only in regard to birds, but quadrupeds, as
well as other claffes. It is true, that whenever any difficulty preftnts
itfelf, it may often be obviated by creating a new genus, and many
perfons are of opinion, that this is the only way to afcertain the place
any individual ought to hold in the fyftem; but although it may be
allowed in fome inftances, it fhould be in fuch only where neceffity
may make it unavoidable: a far better way be:ng in our opinion
rather to ftrain a trifling point, than burthen the memory by forming
numerous new genera. On this account, I venture to enumerate the
following fpecies, referving to others the full right of differing in fen-
timent i . ,
T ENGTH nine inches: bill yellow, a trifle bent, and ftouter at the
bafe than is ufual in the Thrufh genus, though not greatly diffi-
milar: the forehead is white, but the reft of the head black : the throat,
whole of the neck, and all beneath are white, but inclining to blueifh
in fome parts : the back, and ail the wing coverts, without exception,
are fine pale blue grey, with a trace of white acrofs the lower part of
S the
GREEN
Gr.
Descriptio*
BLACK-
HEADED
 the laft: the quills are dufky, edged with pale ruft: tail three inches
in length, blueifh afh colour, fome of the outer feathers inclining to
pale grey near the ends : legs longifh, fcaly, of a pale yellow oker
colour; claws dufky and flout.
Inhabits New South Wales. I am indebted to General Davies for
the knowledge of this fpecies, having been brought from Port Jackfon,
by Governor King.
1 EN GT H ten inches: bill formed as in the laft, and yellow: forehead, chin, and throat white; alfo a trace of the fame from the
nape on each fide of the neck to the bottom of it; the reft of the head
and neck are black, coming forwards on the breaft as a broad bar:
the back, fecond quills, and all the outer edge of the wings, as alfo the
whole of the prime quills, are black, with a tinge of blue in fome
lights; the reft of the feathers of the wing white, and when the wing
is clofed, giving the appearance of two white bars connected in the
middle U the under parts from the breaft are white : tail white, the
feathers pretty nearly equal in length; near the end a bar of black :
legs dull flate colour.
Inhabits New South Wales, with the laft fpecies.
LENGTH eleven inches and a half: bill, forehead, crown of the
head, and fides of the cheeks, black : chin, throat, and breaft lead
colour: under the cheeks, fides of the neck, and all beneath from the
breaft, white : at the back part of the head a crefcent of white : hind
part of the neck, fhoulders, back, wings, and tail, yellowifh green:
quills dark brown, with yellow margins; ito wards the ends grey : round
the eyes a bare fpace of a bright blue colour: legs blue black; claws
black and crooked.
Inhabits New Holland: brought from Botany Bay.    I am obliged
-to General Davies for the above defcription.
 C   U   R   V   C   U   I,
Genus  XVIII.    C U R U C U I.
The Leverian Trogon, Lev. Muf p. 175. pi. p. 177.
THE bill in this bird is lead colour, paler at the tip : head, neck,
and breaft fine deep violet blue: wings black 5 quills edged
with white: back blueifh green, with a tinge of gold colour: the
upper tail coverts filky, of a deep lucid blue green: tail black, with
a greenifh eaft; the feathers fquare at the ends, the middle ones
flightly tipped with black; the two outer ones on each fide gradually
fhorter, black, obliquely edged and tipped with white : belly white,
with a very flight reddifh tinge or buff colour: legs black.
Inhabits South America; in fize about that of the Violet-headed
Curucui, to which it very nearly approaches, and may poffibly, on
future enquiry, prove to be a mere variety or fexual difference of
that bird.
 132
BARBET.
Genus XIX.   BARBET.
Bucco Gerini, Ind. Orn. i. p. 207. 29.—Ger. Orn. ii. p. 51. t. 181.
§IZE of a Thrufh: length nine inches: bill black, flout: crown of
the head blue, fpotted with black in the middle; beneath the
eyes, the cheeks, and fore part of the neck for half way, black:
quills black: hind part of the neck, as far as the beginning of the
back, and moft part of the belly and vent, rufous red.
The native place of this bird is quite uncertain ; I have only met
with it in the engravings of M. Gerini, who calls it a Woodpecker;
but the bill is large, and more like that of the Barbet, hence I have
ventured to rank it in that genus.
 CUCKOW,
Genus  XX.     CUCKOW.
N° i. Common C.
a. Cupreous C.
3. Gilded C.
4. Honey C.
5. Long-billed Rain C.
6. Touraco C.
7. Noify C..
N° 8. Blue-headed C.
9. Pheafant C.
10. Tippet C.
11. Fan-tailed C.
12. Gloffy C.
13. Abyflinian CL
t With Four Toesv
Cuculus canorus, Ind. Orn. i. j
Cuckow, Gen. Syn. a. p. 509.
p. 219.—Jenner.
—Id. Sup. p. 98.—Phil. Tranf. vol. Ixxviii. COMMON
CTJCKOW.
XX7 E have fome reafon to fuppofe that the egg of the Cuckow is*
not generally known, for fome authors f tell us that it weighs
foil a quarter of an ounce; that it is not laid in the neft of another
bird, but between the roots of old trees on the ground; that the eggs
are two in number. It is clear from this defcription, that it can mean
no other than that of the Goatfucker.
Such is the cafe likewife in refpeft to that figured in Sepp's plate
of the Cuckow if, and cannot by any means be miftaken. The egg of
the Cuckow, however, is fcarcely half as large as either of the figures
above alluded to, and in fize is more difproportionate to the bird than
any, except the Raven.    The Cuckow's egg weighs rarely ever more
t Naturforfch, xiv. p. ^g.—Befch. d. Berl. Gef. iv. t.i8- f. I.
J Sepp. Vog, p. 117. tab. 62.
 C   U   C   K   O   W.
than fifty grains *, and the bird itfelf barely four ounces, fo that
thirty-eight of fuch eggs will about makeup the weight of the parent,
whereas the Raven weighs two pounds ten ounces, and the egg not
quite feven drachms, fo that forty-eight are required to equal the
weight of the bird.
The Cuckow is fuppofed to lay a great number of eggs, for in one
diffedled by my friend Mr. Lamb, there were not only two eggs in the
ovary, one of them juft on the point of being laid, the other about
half the fize, but befides, a vaft number of fmall ones ; and in refpect
to food, the ftomach contained not only fmall caterpillars, but fmall
feeds likewife. Similar obfervations, as well as others of much im- '
port, may.be obtained, by confulting Dr. Jenner's excellent Effay on
the fubject, in the Philofophical Tranfatlions above quoted.
CUPREOUS Cupreous Cuckow, Lev. Muf. pl. In p. 159.
C. v'    /X
Description. CIZE nearly that of a Lark, but of a longer and more delicate
form: the head, neck, and upper parts of the body are of a
bright copper colour, with a metallic fplendour, being gloffed with
gold and red tinge of copper: the feathers are of a rounded fhape,
and are fo difpofed as to refemble fcales: the belly and thighs are
of a beautiful jonquil yellow: the tail is flightly cuneiform ; one or
two of the exterior feathers marked at the tip with a triangular foot
of white: bill and legs black.
Place. This bird is fuppofed to have come from Africa, and is in the
Leverian Mufeum: in general fhape and appearance, it is fomewhat
■illied to the Gilded Cuckow, but differs much in its colour, and in
having the tail longer in proportion.
* Not unfrequently as low as forty-four grains; Dr. Heyfkam :   from forty-three
to fifty-five grains; Jenner.
 CUCKOW.
Cuculus auratus, Ind. Orn- i. p. 215. 27.
Le Didric, Levaill. Voy. (Fr. ed. 8vo.) i. p. 234.
Gilded Cuckow, Gen, Syn. ii. p. 527. 23.
THIS Mr. Levaillant found about Koks Kraal, inwards from the
Cape of Good Hope, and properly remarks, that it is undoubtedly
the fineft bird of the genus. It fings continually, perched on the
extremities of large trees, and utters with varied modulation the
fyllables di-di-didric, as diftinctly as can be written; hence he has.
named it Le Didric.
Cuculus Indicator, Ind. Orn. i. p. 218. 35.
Coucou indicateur, Levaill. Voy. (Fr. ed. 8vo.) i.. p. 253.    Var.
Honey Cuckow, Gen. Syn. ii. p. 533.—Id. Sup. p. 101.
THE cock, defcribed by Sparrman, has the neck encircled with a
black ring * ; according to Levaillant, it is faid to be larger than
the common Cuckow, very tame, and not afraid to come near him,
and that the Hottentots held it in great veneration f. He likewife
adds, that nothing was found in its ftomach on diffection but wax
" and honey, not a veftige of any infect: the fkin fo remarkably thick,
as when frefh fcarcely to be pierced with a pin, a wife provifion
• againft the flings of the infects which he is to encounter: the neft
is in the hollow of trees, which it climbs like the Woodpecker, and it
hatches its own eggs; from hence the manners feem to be totally
diftinct from the European Cuckow.
Cuculus Vetula, Ind. Orn. i. p. 218. 36.
Long-billed Rain Cuckow, Gen. Syn. ii. p. 535. 32..
\4 R. Abbot, long refident at Savannah, in Georgia, obferved to me,
that the Rain Cuckow, is not unfrequent about Burke country,
* See Sparrm. Voy. (i2mo. ed.) ii. p. 142. called there Capiftrum.
t Called by the Cape farmers, Honey Bird, Barrow's Trav. p. 321.
GILDED
C.
 136
CUCKOW.
and that it fits on its own eggs: the nefts of thefe birds not uncommon, he having procured three or four of them; one difcovered
by. himfelf, was built in the fork of a fmall oak, made of flicks
lined with mofs, and over that dead Hiccory bloffoms: the eggs were
five in number, of a rough blue colour, but not deep, and found
complete about the latter end of April.
Cuculus Perfa, Ind. Orn. i. p. 222. 49.
Touraco, Gen. Syn. ii. p. 545. 46.
JLAf LEVAILLANT, in his travels *, obferves, that numbers of
Touracos are in the country of Hottniquas, but are difficult to
fhoot, perching only- at the extremities of the higheft branches of
trees, but of gunfhot, and rarely fuffer any one to come near enough :
feeds on fruits, but not on infects, and is eafily caught alive by fnares
baited with fuch fruits as are in feafon; in another place he talks of
having killed many Flycatchers and Touracos, which when fricaffeed,
were fuperior to the Pintado or Partridge -J-.
Coucou Criard, Son. Voy. (Fr. ed. 8yo.) ii. p. 6.
T HIS is faid to be wholly of a brown black colour, having nothing
otherwife remarkable.
Inhabits the inner part of the Cape of Good Hope, in the country of
Gonaquois, where it is known to the Europeans by the name of Criard,
being a very noify fpecies, and may be heard at a great difbhce. The
note confifts of divers founds, very diftindt, and it paffes whole hours
in finging without interruption, by which the fportfman is led to the
place where it is.
*  (Fr. ed. 8vo.) Vol. i. p. ic6.—ii. p. 7.
-J- We beg leave here to notice an error in our 2d vol. of Synopfis, p. 531. wherein
the three paragraphs from line 16, fhould have been placed after Touraco.
 CUCKOW.
BLUE-
EAUED
T HIS bird is about nine inches in length : the bill fomewhat bent,
of a pale blue colour: the upper part of the head, taking in the
eyes, the fides and back of the neck, deep blue, inclining to blackifh:
the reft of the upper parts pale brown, dotted on the back with
white, and marked with-narrow bars of the fame acrofs the wings and
■tail, which laft is rather long, nearly even, being a very trifle rounded
at the end: the under parts are wholly white, tranfverfely marked
with narrow dufky lines: the throat and fore part of the neck incline
to orange: legs blueifh, very flout, and fcaly.
Inhabits New Holland: Mr. Lambert informs me, that the above
was the only one of the kind feen there by Mr. White, but that one
of a fimilar form and fize, of a gloffy black colour, was taken at the
fame time, and it was then fuppofed that thefe two only differed in
fex.
THIS is a beautiful fpecies, and is in length from fixteen to
eighteen inches: the bill, head, neck, and all beneath are of a fine
black : the whole of the back and wings varied with rufous, yellow,
brown, and black, fomewhat fimilar to a Pheafant or Woodcock:
the tail is long, and barred elegantly with the fame colour : the legs
are dufky black; the toes placed two before and two behind, as in
other Cuckows, but the hind claws are pretty long, and lefs hooked
than the fore ones, refembling in this the Egyptian Cuckow, which however differs materially in colour, as in that bird the back and wings
are plain rufous, and the tail, though long and cuneiform, is wholly
black.
Inhabits New South Wales, known there by the name of Pheafant.
Supp. II. T
PHEA
c
Descri
 CUCKOW.
THIS is nearly twelve inches long: the bill brown, rather flout,
and a trifle curved at the point: the upper parts of the body are
dull green, the under white : the crown foil of feathers, and as far as
the eyes on each fide black ; on the fides of the neck, the black comes
forward, and almofl meets in the middle, giving the appearance of
a cloak or tippet: fides under the wings yellowifh : thighs marked
with a few rufly fpots : quills black: tail very fhort, the outer
margins of the feathers marked with white fpots: legs dufky blueifh
white, dotted with black : irides orange.
Inhabits New Holland, where it is a rare bird.
FAN-TAILED
C.
Description.
T HIS elegant bird is about the fize of a Song Thrufh, and ten
inches in length ; the tail occupying at lead one third : the bill
, is black, fomewhat bent at the tip : the upper parts of the body are
dufky black, coming forwards on the breaft, and encircling it as it
were with a crefcent: the cheeks and throat are ferruginous buff $
fides of the breaft>the fame, but the middle of it and the belly are
pale oker yellow : the tail is gready cuneiform;. the two middle
feathers black; the others the fame on the outer webs, but barred
on the inner with alternate black and white: the wings when clofed
reach rather beyond the middle of the tail: legs yellow*
Inhabits New Holland.
QlZE uncertain: general colour above rufous, inclined to purple;
beneath dufky white, croffed with feveral broad bars of a gloffy
or brownifh copper colour: tail of a moderate length, and barred
6 with -
 1
  C    U   C    K    O   W.
with the fame beneath : the bill is pointed, and dufky; the tongue
Iharp at the end, the length of the bill: irides blue: legs brown.
Inhabits New Holland: for feveral of the laft defcribed birds, I am
indebted to Mr. Lambert.
* » With Three Tofs only.
'•Bee Cuckow, Moroc, Bruce's Trav. App. t. p. 178.
THIS bird is faid to be feven inches in length: the head and
neck plain brown; at the bafe of the beak a number of very
fmall hairs : infide of the mouth and throat yellow; tongue fharp
pointed, and capable of being drawn to almoft half its length out of
the mouth: eye-brows black; bill pointed, a trifle bent: irides
dufky red : fore part of the neck light yellow, darker on the fides,
reaching nearly to the fhoulders: breaft and belly dirty white : the
wing feathers are moftly tipped with white : the tail has twelve feathers, of equal length, the ends tipped with white: thighs covered
. with feathers half way down the legs, which are black: the toes are
only three in number, placed two before and one behind.
This fpecies inhabits fuch parts of Abyffmia where honey is chiefly
produced as revenue, as Agon, Goutto, and Beleffen. It feeds on bees,
but kills more than it eats, as numbers are found fcattered on the
ground. It makes a fort of fnapping noife, when catching the bees,
otherwife it has no note.
This Mr. Bruce fuppofes to be the Cuckow of Lobo, who attributes
to this bird the faculty of difcovering honey. He ridicules Dr. Sparrman, for giving an account of a fpecies of Cuckow to which he attributes the fame faculty; but thefe two are very clearly different, birds,
therefore Mr. Bruce's criticifms on Dr. Sparrman muft in courfe fall to
the ground.
■M& T %
ABYSSINIAN
  WOODPECKER.
Picus Pitius, Ind. Orn. i. p. 2^.'z6.
Le Pitico, Molin. Chil. (Fr. ed.) p. 216.
THIS fpecies is about the fize of a Pigeon: the plumage brown,,
fpotted with white.
Inhabits Chili: it is faid not to make the neft, as others of the
genus, in the hollows of trees, but in thofe of the elevated banks of
rivers, and to lay four eggs: the flefh is much efteemed by the natives.  '
•Picas capenfis, Ind. Orn. i. p. 237. 37. (?."
Cape Woodpecker, Gen. Syn. ii. p. 586. 34.
T .N this variety, the  head, neck, and under parts are pale grey;
back and wings greenifh olive brown: crown, rump, and belly
crimfon : wings and tail dufky \ bill and legs black.
I obferved this among Mr. Bruce's.drawings, as an Abyffinian bird;.,
and the name it is there known by is Wye-wa.
- Picus ifterocephalus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 241. 49;
Yellow-headed Woodpecker, Gen. Syn, ii. p. 595. 46.
T   ENGTH fix inches and an half: chin and throat fpotted with     Desc
pale red ; the under parts from thence to the vent dufky white,
croffed with irregular brownifh ftreaks; otherwife refembles the Tel-
low-headed Woodpecker*
I am indebted for the above to a drawing taken by General Davies;
the fpecimen fuppofed to have come from Cayenne.
•THIS is  a doubtful fpecies, nor from the drawing is it quite certain whether it is not a Jacamar: the bit is longer than ufually
feen in Woodpeckers, colour of it black: crown and chin blueifh green :
  KI-N.GSFISHER,
143
Genus   XXIV.     KINGSFISHER.
N° 1. Great brown K.
2. Coromandel K.
3. Little Indian K.
Alcedo gigantea, Ind. Orn. i. p; 245. 1.
Great brown Kingsfilher, Gen. Syn. ii. p.
White's Journal, pl. in p. 137.
609. l.—Phill. Voy. pi.
GREAT BROWN
THIS inhabits New Holland, where it is called Googo-ne-gang\ is
not numerous, and never feen but fingly; feeds on infects, worms,
and fometimes feeds. The note like a laugh : the flight is flow and
fhort: fometimes varies in having a little white in the.middle of the
wing.
Alcedo Coromanda, Ind. Orn. i. p. 252. 19.
Coromandel Kingsfifher, Ind. Zool. (4to.) p. 73. 9*
CIZE of a Blackbird: bill and irides reddifh: the head, hind part
of the neck, back, wings, and tail, are of a reddifh lilac colour*,
gloffed with, violet: the quills are much the fame outwardly, but of a
yellowifh rufous colour within : on the rump is a perpendicular ftreak
of blueifh white: throat white: the reft of the under parts light
rufous : legs reddifh.'
Inhabits the coaft of Coromandel.
COROMANDEL
K.
 IN Vofmaer's Monogr. 1768, t. iv."are two Kingsfijhers, which feem
to belong to this or the blue-headed fpecies, both are rufous
yellow, more or lefs, but one of them has a blue back : fize of our
European fpecies.
Among the drawings of my late friend Frederick Pigou, efquire, I
obferved a bird of this fort called Taaou-yu-tchin, fignifying a catcher
of fifh : this is greenifh grey, has a white patch under the ear: the
under parts of the body dull red: fecond quills blue: tail dufky:
bill red brown: legs lead colour.
Inhabits China.
 NUTHATCH.
Gin us   XXV.    NUTHATCH.
N" i. Carolina N.
2. Leafl N.
3. Orange-winged N.
Sitta Carolinenfis, Ind. Orn.i, p. 262. 3.
Grey black-capped Nuthatch, Bartr. Trav. p. 287.
T N a manufcript of the late Mr. Hutchins, relating to the birds and
quadrupeds of Hudfon's Bay, I find one defcribed, which feems to
be clearly this: the length is five inches; weight two drams troy;
breadth feven inches and an half: bill black ; head, throat, and breaft
gloffy black: belly mottled with black, orange, and white: back dun
black, with faint orange ftreaks: near the junction of the wings, are
long feathers of a bright orange, not unlike a fhoulder-knot, which
pafs down on the fides and end on the thighs, where they are pale:
leffer wing coverts black; the greater are brown, tinged with red:
quills brown; vent white : the two middle tail feathers are brown, the
two next with an orange fpot on the outer web; the other fix are
orange tipped with brown: legs black.
Inhabits Hudfon's Bay.
CAROLINA
N.
Description.
Sitta Pufilla, Ind. Orn. i. p. 263. 5.
Leafl Nuthatch, Gen. Syn. ii. p. 651. C.—Id. Sup. p. 118.
T?ROM the fame fource as the laft, I derive the following account    De;
of a fmall Nuthatch, weighing five penny-weights, five inches long,
and feven broad: the bill fhort, black, triangular, with fine hairs:
Supp. II. U irides
LEAST
N.
 ORANGE-
WINGED
N.
NUTHATCH.
irides dark blue: head brown, inclining to afh colour: throat dufky
white: back and fcapulars greenifh brown ; on each fide of the breaft
a broad fpot* Of yellow : belly and vent dufky white : thighs tinged
with yellow: leffer wing coverts dull green, the greater inclining to
.black: quills black, the outer margin greenifh, inner web paler t
the four middle tail feathers black; the others pale yellow, with the
ends for nearly one-third tipped with black :  legs black.
This bird inhabits Hudfon's Bay, where it is known by the name of
Keehe min nuc ca ha mauka fhifh ; it builds its neft in the willows, lays
four eggs, and hatches the end of June : it is migratory, and derives
its name from being remarkably voracious of berries, which it carries
to fuch excefs, as to be always attacking other fmall birds who are
feeding near it. ^-V^ir. !*
CIZE of the Surinam Nuthatch: general colour of the plumage on
the upper parts dull afh colour, the under blueifh white; rump
and upper tail coverts of this laft colour: quills and tail brown : the
bafe of the quills, for two-thirds of the length, are orange colour; all
but the two middle tail feathers tipped with dufky white : bill browns
irides reddifh : legs lead colour.
Inhabits New Holland.    Mr. Lambert.
   TODY.
Genus   XXVI.   TODY.
N°
Yellow-bellied T.
2. Red-breafted T.
Todus flavigafter, Ind. Orn. i. p. 268. 15.
CIZE of the Brown Tody : length fix inches: bill fhort, broad, and
pale coloured, with a few briftles at the bafe: the head, chin, and
all the upper parts of the plumage afh colour, or brownifh; the
wings deepeft, but the middle of them paler: tail even at the end;
the wings when clofed reach to about the middle of it: all the under
parts, except the chin, are yellow: legs dufky.
Inhabits New Holland.
CIZE of the Yellow Hammer: the bill is flout and broad, furnifhed
with fome briftles at the bafe: the tongue bifid, the points on
each fide of the cleft are a little divided or feathered : the crown is
rather full of feathers: the general colour of the plumage on the
upper parts is a flate-coloured grey: wings and tail brown: throat
and breaft orange, from thence to the breaft nearly white : legs flender
and dufky.
Inhabits New South Wales, where it is not plentiful, at. leaft not
above two or three have been feen of the kind.
YELLOW-
BELLIED
RED-'
BREASTED
 Mt
BEE     EATER.
Genus   XXVII.   BEE   EATER.
EUROPEAN
B.E.
N° i. European B. E>
2. Red-winged B. E.
3. Yellow-tufted B. E.
4. Wattled B. E.
5. Knob-fronted B. E.
6. Superb B. E.
7. Eaftern B. E.
8. Blue green B. E.
9. Hooded B. E.
N* 10. Golden-winged B. E.
11. Black-eared B. E.
12. Black and yellow B.E.
13. Blue-cheeked B. E.
14. Chattering B. E.
15. Cowled B. E.
16. Variegated B. E.
17. White-fronted B. E»
18. Red-throated B. E.
Merops apiafter, Ind. Orn. i. p. 169. i.—Vofm. Monog. 176.8. p. 6.—Ger. Orn.
v. t. 494—Schrift. d. Berl. Gefellfch. iii. S. 194. (Schrank.)
Bee-eater, Gen. Syn. ii. p. 667. 5.—Id. Sup. p. 119.
THE male has the forehead to the middle of the crown green j
the reft of the head, back of the neck, Upper part of the back,
wing coverts, fine rufous ; lower part of the back yellowifh : fhoulders
and leffer wing coverts green : quills and tail green.
In the female, only the forehead is yellow green; crown rufous: the
reft of the upper parts brownifh green ; in other things, both are
alike, except the two middle tail feathers, which exceed the reft more
in the male than the female.
The Bee-eater is common in Egypt*, where it is called Melino-orghi,
(Bees Enemy) and is eaten for food.
At the Cape of Good Hope, this bird is called the Gnat-fnapper, as
obferved by Kolben f, who adds, that the note is not fo fine as that of
! ittnutm's Tr>
• Hift. Cape,
 BEE    EATER.
a Titmoufe, and that it is a guide to the Hottentots, by directing them
to the honey, which the bees lay up in the clefts of the rocks.
The Bee-eater has been obferved at Mattifhal, in Norfolk, in a flock,
about twenty in number; and one of them fhot by the reverend George
Smith, which was exhibited to the Linnaan Society. This flock paffed
near the above place in June, and again, on their return in Oblober following, 1793, but in reduced numbers.
Merops erythropterus, Ind. Orn.
Red-winged Bee- eater, Gen. Syn.
14.pl. 31.
7 H A D an opportunity of examining feveral of thefe which were
in the poffeffion of J. Walcot, efquire ; one of which he added to
my collection. The general length fix inches and a quarter: the
tail a trifle forked; the two middle feathers of the fame colour
as the back; all the others reddifh orange, with dufky ends; the
outer feathers, as well of the tail as of the wings, greenifh brown outwardly : the fecond quills and wing coverts alfo the colour of the
back :. through the eye, and paffing under it, is a black ftreak; chin
and throat yellow; beneath thefe a triangular fpot of black; from
thence to the vent rufous bay : legs weak and brown.
Merops fafciculatus, Ind. Orn. 5. p. 275. 19.  y.
Yellow tufted Bee-eater, Gen.Syn.ii. p.   683. 18. Var.—Dixon's Voy, p. 357.
pl. 19.
T N this variety, the plumage did not differ from the general, colour;
but the ends of all the tail feathers-were white.
0-W1NGED
B.E.
YELLOW
TUFTED
B.E.
AMONG thefe birds, I have remarked another   variety, which
differed in having the tail feathers wholly black, and the fides
under the wings rufous.
 BEE- EATER.
Merops carunculatus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 276. 20.
New Holland Bee-eater, Phill. Bot. Bay, t. p. 164.
Wattled Bse-eater, White's Journ. t. p. 144. »*/(-.—Id. p. 240^ female.
THIS fpecies is from fourteen to fifteen inches in length : in the
• male, the bill is black; noftrils pervious, but covered in part
with a membrane; crown dufky : at the gape of the mouth a -filvery
band; behind the bafe of the under jaw, an elongated caruncle, of an
orange colour, hanging down as in the Cock: the body is brown on
the upper parts, the fhafts of the feathers whitifh: quills and tail
dufky; the laft cuneiform in fhape; the outer quills are white at
the tips: the tail feathers are all of them more or lefs tipped with -
white : legs brownifh; the outer toe connected to the middle at the
bafe.
The female is faid to be ftouter of the two, more brilliant in plumage, and the bill more curved: the tail fhorter: it is deftitute of a
wattle; but the feathers on the chin are dark, long, and hang dif-
fufely.
At General Davies's is one of this fpecies, which differs; it is
fmaller, twelve inches long; the whole bird appears brighter, and
more ftreaked with white down the fhaft, fwelling out into a fpot at
the tip of each feather: no filvery band at the gape. It appears to
be a young bird. In a full grown male, in the fame collection, the
middle of the belly is yellow.
Thefe birds probably differ greatly among each other, for in Mr.
Lambert's collection of drawings, I remarked one which had the top
of the head and hind part of the neck black or dufky, the reft pale
brown or dufky afh colour, each feather margined with whitifh, and a
few dafhes of white on the back of the neck and back; top of the
head, taking in the eyes, black: the under parts of the body are paler
than the upper, with a.few obfcure markings: the bill is black: legs
1 pale
 BEE-EATER.
pale ferruginous: a red caruncle on each fide of the chin, as in the
former.
The above inhabit New Holland, efpecially the fea fhores, and are
pretty numerous : they chatter much, and are bold to a great degree,
for when other birds, even larger and ftrouger than themfelves, approach, they drive them away. Their chief food is infects, but they
likewife are very fond of fucking the honey from the different kinds
of Bankfia. They are known to the natives by the name of Goo-
gwar-neck, which word much refembles the kind of note they are
mceffantly chattering.
Merops i
Knob-frc
orniculatus, Ind.
ited Bee-eater, I.
i.p. 276.21.
I Journ. pl. p.
KNOB-
PRONTED
CIZE of a Miffel Thrufh : length fourteen inches: bill one inch and
a half long, rather bent downwards; colour pale brown, with a
dufky tip; noftrils oval, placed in an hollow, and the feathers come
forwards to near the middle of the bill to meet them : the tongue
briftly. at the end : on the forehead is a blunt fhort eminence, like
the rudiment of an horn: the colour of the plumage on the head is
whitifh, ftreaked with brown, and the feathers are fhort: fides round
. the eye brown: upper parts of the body brown, with olive brown
margins: quills and tail darker than the reft; the firft quill only
half the length of the fecond : the under parts of the body are pale :
the chin, breaft, and belly dufky white: tail even at the end, and
about fix inches- long, the fhafts and tips of the feathers whitifh :.
the wings when clofed reach half way on the tail: legs brown ; the
fegments near the toes rough and fcaly; outer and middle toe joined
at the bafe; hind claw very long and flout.
Inhabits New Holland, and is a Angular- fpecies. That figured in
White's Journal is an exact reprefentation. This was firft brought
into England by Sir Jofeph Banks.
 152
•B E E - E A T E R.
EASTERN
B.E.
Superb Bee-eater, Nat. Mifc. pl. 78.
THIS is nearly nine inches in length:. the bill black: general
colour of the plumage red : the forehead, all round the eye, and
throat blue: rump blue: the two middle tail feathers are longer than
the reft, and the parts which exceed the others are black.
This  is in the Britifh Mufeum.   Dr. Shaw feems to think it allied
to the Brafilian Bee-eater, in which opinion I readily join him.
C IZ E of the Red-winged Bee-eater : the general colour dull green :
the feathers rather full:   quills  red but not bright; the outer
. edges of them dull green, with black tips: tail green; the two middle
feathers produced beyond the  others, where they are narrow and
black, as far as they exceed them.
This fpecies is in the Britifh Mufeum, faid to  come  from the
Mahratta country in India.
BLUE GREEN
B.E.
Description.
MOODED
B.E.    •
Description
T  ENGTH   eight inches:   colour of the whole plumage blue
green, with a deeper glofs, appearing black in fome lights: legs
black.
The native place of this is uncertain.
T ENGTH from nine to ten inches: bill yellow, curved, and
rather flout; tongue twice the length of it, and fringed at the
tip: front of the head whitifh; acrofs the crown of the head black,
which colour paffes through the eyes on each fide to the throat; the
reft of the head whitifh grey and dufky, in fine tranfverfe lines:
belly dirty white, croffed with clouded dufky lines : upper parts of
the
 BEE-EATER.
the body pale lead coloured brown: lower belly and vent white:
the fix outer quills brownifh; the firft very fhort; the others incline
to brown; but fix or feven of the middle ones are of a greenifh
yellow in the middle, on the outer webs, and the tips greenifh yellow:
tail rounded, of a pale greenifh lead colour, with a dirty white tip :
legs yellow brown.
Inhabits New Holland.    In the collection of General Davies..
T ENGTH uncertain, fuppofed about twelve inches: general
colour brown: the fhafts of the feathers very pale: greater
quills darker than the others, four or five of the outer ones have the
middle part for two-thirds of a golden orange; the ends white : tail
greatly cuneiform, brown, confuting of twelve feathers, all but the
two middle ones tipped with white : bill and legs black: tongue
briftly at the end.
Inhabits New South Wales; feeds chiefly on flies and other infects,
as well as by fucking honey from the various kinds of' Bankfia, &c.
The natives name it Goo-gwar-ruck.
THIS fpecies is about feven inches long: the bill of a moderate
fize, and the legs brown: the plumage on the upper parts of the
body is pale rufous brown ; beneath dufky white, fpotted on the
lower belly, vent, and thighs with black: behind the eye is a broad
ftreak of black ending in a point: quills black: tail dufky.
Inhabits New Holland.
GOLDEN-
WINGED
B.E.
BLACK-EARED
B.E.
Description
Supp. II.
 -E A T E R.
CIZE of the Song Thrufh: general colour of the plumage black,
but the feathers of the breaft, back, and belly, are margined *with
golden yellow : the wing coverts are not far different, but the greater ,
ones have the ends more or lefs of that colour, as are the outer
margins of the quills, though the ends of them are for the moft part
tipped obliquely with black: the bill is black: legs pale brown ;
though in fome the bill and legs are both of a dufky colour: from
the bill a greenifh ftreak runs through the eye, which is broader in
the middle, and in fome fpecimens defeends on the lower jaw ; the
feathers which compofe this ftreak are fhorter than the others, and
fomewhat rigid: the tail is cuneiform; the two middle feathers black,
fringed at the ends with yellow; the others yellow: vent plain
yellow.
Inhabits New Holland.    From the drawings of Mr. Lambert.
F  ENGTH fixteen inches .* bill black; tongue briftly at the end :.
the upper part of the body, wings, and tail are brown : the top
of the head, taking in the eyes, nape, and back part of the neck, black;.
oat and fore part of the neck the fame;. the fides of the neck-
between thefe, from the gape, and all the under parts, white : the eye
furrounded with a blue patch, lengthening behind to the ears : bill,
black : tail even at the end : legs fcaly, blue.
Inhabits New Holland.
CIZE of a Thrufh: length ten inches: bill yellow; tongue briftly
at the end, and longer than the bill: the upper parts of the body. '
pale
 m
•i
 pi.cxxvm.
rtWH*yxd^j2$^ 6a&)
 BEE-EATER.
pale brown: forehead dufky : neck and under parts white, a little
mottled with dufky, moft fo on the throat and breaft: thighs barred
dufky and white : acrofs the crown of the head black, paffing on each
fide behind the eye, and bending down on each fide below the ears;
within this, behind and clofe to the eye, a round fpot of yellow : the
wings are black, but the greater part of the prime quills are yellow,
with dufky or black ends : the tail is long and cuneiform, the feathers
dufky, tipped with white : legs ftrong and yellow.
This bird inhabits New South Wales, and is faid to be a noify chattering fpecies, infomuch as to give the alarm in the manner of the
Jay, fo as to prevent the fportfman getting a fhot at the Pattegorang.
HP HIS is a large fpecies : the bill flout and bending, colour black;
tongue very briftly at the end, appearing like a brufh : the head
and part of the neck are black, and covered with a fort of down :
the nape at the back part is elongated with a kind of briftly tuft:
the hind parts of the neck and back are brown, the firft mottled with
a paler colour; the under parts white, marked on the chin and throat
with dufky fagittal ftreaks: quills and tail dark brown: legs dufky
blue.
This is found about Port Jackfon, in New Holland, in January. The
hind head projecting, and being of a black downy texture, giving the
refemblance of a cowl or hood, has occafioned it to be called a Friar.
The natives call it Wergan.
•THIS is fomewhat bigger than the Red-winged Bee eater: the bill
black: legs dufky: top of the head and nape dull orange, the
middle of the feathers darker; through the eye from the bafe of the
£>ill a broad black ftreak, continuing a good way beyond it, and
X 2 ending
(
COWl
B.i
Descrij
VARIEGATED
B.E.
Description.
 *5&
WHIT
FRONT
BEE-EATER.
ending in a point; beneath this a ftreak of pale blue : chin orange
yellow: on the throat a triangular patch of black; from thence to
the belly, the parts are yellow, but the belly itfelf, the thighs, and
vent are blueifh white : the back part of the neck and wing coverts
are green : back mixed green and brownifh orange ; lower part of it
and rump blue : the middle part of the wing has fome feries of feathers green, with fulvous margins, and others wholly fulvous: quills
green outwardly and black within; the fecond quills edged with
yellow : the two middle tail feathers prolonged to double the length
of the others, as in feveral of the genus, the additional part being
very narrow, and furnifhed with very flender webs, the colour of them
blue; the other feathers of the tail chefnut.
This is faid to be die male bird ; I met with it in the collection of
General Davies. In Mr. Lambert's collection of drawings, I obferved
one of thefe which I fufpect to be the other fex. In this the forehead to. the middle of the crown is blue, the nape only being dull
orange, which laft colour alfo occupies the chin: the black through
the eye, the blue beneath, and patch on the throat, the fame as in
the other; the back brownifh green: rump blue: the two middle
tail feathers as in the other: the reft black : the wing coverts like the
back; the reft of the wing varied not unlike the other, but lefs brilliant.
Inhabits New South Wales, where it is known by the name of
Dee-weed-gang.
THE male is about eight inches in length: bill brown; tongue
longer than the bill: the back and wings are of a fine rufous,,
but the forehead and all the under parts are white; the feathers of
the latter marked down the fhafts with a black line, as. are alfo the.
rufous feathers above : between the bill and eyes, fides of the head,
the
 BEE-EATER.
the crown and nape, wholly black : fides of the body under the wings
marked with five dark blueifh bands: quills and tail pale blue, marked .
outwardly on> the edges with white fpots,   within darker; the tail
even at the end, or a trifle rounded, the wings reaching thereon to
about the middle : legs yellow brown.
The female, or one fuppofed to be fo, was brown on the back and
wings, and dirty yellowifh white beneath, with dafhes down the. fhafts,
as in the male: the forehead is brown and white fpotted; the reft of
the head brown, where in the male it is black : the tail feems fhorter
than in the male,-- and appears in the drawing to be wholly fpotted
with dirty yellow arid brown, or father dirty yellow, with the brown
fpots in bars : bill and legs as in the male.
I am obliged to General Davies for the above defcriptions, having
made drawings of them from fpecimens in the pofieffion of Captain
King, which were brought from Port Jackfon, in New South Wales.
Red-throated Bee-eater, Nat. Mifc. g. pl. 337.
CIZE a trifle lefs than the common fpecies : general colour on the
upper parts black : the forehead fine blue, pairing a little way over
the eye; behind the eye a patch of the fame: the fore part of the
throat and neck of a fiery red: rump blue, marked with fpots of
black: belly clouded blue and black : fome of the quills and tail
feathers have blue edges ; the bafe of the greater quills ferruginous,
forming a patch of that colour on the wings; the wings when clofed
reach but little beyond the bafe of the tail, which is even at the end,
or nearly fo.
Inhabits Sierra Leona in Africa..       'lH®
RED-
THROATED
B.E.
 CREEPER.
Genus   XXIX.    CREEPER,
N" i. AfricanCr.
2. PolifhedCr.
3. Fulvous Cr.
4. Sugar Cr.
5. Cinereous Cr. Var. A
6. Red-backed Cr.
7. Ignoble Cr.
8. Undulated Cr.
9. New Holland Cr,
10. New Caledonian Cr.
11. Red-fpotted Cr.
12. Peregrine Cr.
13. Gartered Cr.
14. Cupreous Cr.
15 Blue-throated Cr.
16. WrenCr.
17. Green-winged Cr.
18. Cnmfon-bellied Cr.
N° 19. Leona Cr.
20. Mahratta Cr.
21. Black-eyed Cr.
22. Slender-billed Cr.
23. DirigangCr.
24. Chirping Cr.
25. Mellivorous Cr.
26. Black-headed Cr.
27. Sanguineous Cr.
28. Cochineal Cr.
29. Hoary Cr.
30. Yellow-winged Cr.
31. Agile Cr.
32. Cerulean Cr.
23. Yellow-eared Cr.
34. Red-rumped Cr.
35. Black-fronted Cr.
AFRICAN
CR.
Description.
Certhia afra, Ind. Orn. i. p. 286. 18. Var. £.
Trochilus varius, Gmel. Syft. i. p. 492.—Maert. Phyf. Arb. i. 1. p. 75.
Certhia bifafciata, Spalowjk. Vog. 3. tab. 22.
THIS is four inches and an half long, and about the fize of the
thumb : bill and legs black: the general colour of the plumag*
green gold; the under  parts brownifh  white: the quills   are pale
brown;   upper tail  coverts blue green:   tail an inch and a half
1 long,.
 CREEPER.
long, brown, gloffed with green ; all of'the feathers, except the two
middle ones, whitifh at the ends: acrofs the breaft two bands, the
one of blue, the other fanguineous.. In Spalowjki's figure of this bird,,
a blue band crofles the middle of the crimfon one.
Certhia polita, Ind. Orn. i. p. 2^7. lg.—Muf. Carlf. fafc. iii. t. 59.
THIS is five inches long : the crown,, fhoulders, and leffer wing
coverts purple, gloffed with gold : upper part of,the throat and
neck black,, beneath thefe violet purple ; beyond this is a deep purple-
band, feparating the above-mentioned parts from the belly, which is
dufky brown: at the bend of the wing, a tuft of yellow feathers:
tail black ; the outer feathers ferruginous on the outer margins and
tips **- bill and legs black.
POLISHE
CR.
Certhia fulva, Ind. Orn. i. p. 287. 20.—Maert. Phyf.Arb. i. 1. p. 76.
T Fl IS is rather more than five inches long : bill and legs horn colour:, the plumage for the moft part fulvous: quills and  tail
feathers black above, and brownifh beneath : tail about two inches in
length.
Inhabits South America; and. is faid to be of the fize of a Finch.
-Certhia afiatica, Ind. Orn. i. p. 28S
THIS is about four inches in length : bill and legs black : general    r)ESCRI,
' colour of the plumage deep blue : wings deep brown.
Inhabits India, where it is called Sugar-eater.   From the drawings Pla
of Major Roberts.
 i6o
CREEPER.
CINEREOUS
CR.
Certhia cinerea, Ind. Orn. i. j
Cinereous Creeper, Gen. Syn.
. Var.
J N the Leverian collection is one of thefe birds, which I fufpect to
be a female, or young bird not attained the perfect colours: the
plumage above mottled brown, beneath cinereous white: the fhoulders
of the wings, one or two of the fecond quills, and the rump, green :
the long tail feathers wanting:  bill and legs black.
Certhia erythronotos, Ind. Orn. i. p. 290. 28.
Red-backed Creeper, Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 132. Var.
T1 HIS variety has the head and upper part of the body fcarlet, the
under afh colour: bill, legs, wings, and tail black.    From the
collection of drawings of Colonel Woodford.
UNDULATED
CR.
Description.
Certhia ignobilis, Ind. Orn. i. p. 294. 42.—Muf. Carlf. fafc. iii. t. 56.
CIZE of a Starling: length eight inches: the bill  is  yellowifh:
upper parts of the plumage footy brown: wings brown  with
black fhafts: the under part of the body afh coloured,  marked with
longitudinal elliptical white fpots: tail and legs black.
Native place unknown.
Certhia undulata, Ind. Orn. i. p. zgt,. ^.—Muf Carlf. fafc. ii. t. 34.  .
THIS is about feven inches long: the upper parts of the plumage
footy afh colour; the under undulated tranfverfely, blackifh and
white: quills foot colour, margined with cinereous olive : under part
of the tail cinereous: bill brown: legs black.
Native place unknown.
 CREEPER.
Certhia Novae Hollandia*, Ind. Orn. i. p. 296. 49.
New Holland Creeper, White's Journ. tab. p. 186. male.—Id, p. 297. female.
'THE male of this fpecies is feven inches long: the bill obfcure,
with a pale tip: noftrils covered with a membrane: the plumage
in general black, ftreaked on the neck and breaft, belly and fides,
With black and white : quills and tail fringed on the outer webs with
yellow; tail rounded; the two outer feathers white within at the tips :
legs pale.
The female has the colours lefs vivid, but not unlike the male; it
has not the white markings on the front of the head and over the eye,
but on the cheeks only : the back and breaft are plain black: belly
black, ftreaked with white : fcapulars brown, ending in a point half
way on the back : the yellow on the wings and tail inclines to olive.
Inhabits New South Wales; chiefly feen there in January: known
by the name of Balgonera. yjMMik*
Certhia inca'na, Ind. Orn. i. p. 296. 50.
CIZE very fmall: colour brownifh: the neck and quills inclining
to hoary.
Inhabits New Caledonia.   From the MS. of Mr. Anderfon.
NEWHOLLAND
NEW
CALEDONIAN
I
Certhia cruentata, Ind. Orn. i. p. 296. 51.
Red-fpotted Creeper, Gen, Syn. ii. p. 736. 40.    Var.
^MONG fome fine drawings  in the collection of Mr. Lambert,
I  obferve one nearly the fame with this, but inftead of being
white beneath, it is pale blue ; alfo another not far different; in this
the under parts are white, but the eye is placed in a patch of black.
Both thefe inhabit New Holland.
RED-SPOTTED
CR.
-Supp. II.
 C    R   E   E   P   E   R.
Certhiaperegrina, bid. OmA. p. 297. 54.
CIZE fmall: general colour of the plumage olive: wings and tail
dufky, acrofs the wings two pale bars : the under parts are yellow
as far as the belly: tail a trifle forked; the inner webs of the two
outer feathers white.
The female like the male, but paler.
In the collection of Mr. Parkinfon.
GART
CI
Descri
Certhia armilkta, hid. Orn. i. p. 298. 55.—Af«/". Carlf.fafc. i
m
T ENGTH five inches: bill black: the upper parts of the plumage emerald green, the under greenifh white : vent yellowifh :
wings black: fhoulders gloffy blue or fapphire colour; beneath the
wings yellow, with the outer margins and tips black: quills black,
the inner margins yellow : legs yellowifh: the rump foeckled with
fapphire colour, and the lower part of the thighs furrounded with the
fame at the joints.
Inhabits Surinam: is apt to vary in' having here and there a feather
more or lefs inclined to blue, and in fome fpecimens a band of black
paffes from the bill through the eye, and adjoining to it a line of
yellow.
Certhia amea, Ind. Orn. i. p. 300. 68.—Muf. Carlf. fafc. iv. t, 78.
THE bill in this fpecies is rather flout and black: head, neck,
fhoulders, belly, thighs, and vent green, gloffed with gold and
copper : breaft and back marked with a feries of gilded blueifh fpots:
wings dufky foot colour: tail black, tinged with gloffy blue: legs
black.
Inhabits the Weft Indies,
 CREEPER,
163
is, Ind. Orn
. p. 300. 6g.-
Muf Carlf. fafc.
TQILL black: throat, fore part of the neck and breaft gloffy blue
- lower part of the breaft, belly, vent, fides, and thighs yellow
from the gape a yellow ftreak paffes beneath the eye on each fide o]
the neck, dividing it. into two parts; the upper, with the top of the
head, nape, and back, are cinereous brown, as alfo the wings and the
rump: under wing coverts pale yellow : quills foot colour': tail
black; the two outer quills marked with white at the tip and outer
edges as far as the middle, and thofe adjoining have the tips whitifh.
Inhabits Martinico.
Certhia trochilea, Ind. Orn. i. p, 300. 70.—Muf. Carlf. fafc. iv. t. 80.
CIZE of the Willow Wren: bill brown, beneath yellowifh; plumage above brown and greenifh olive mixed, beneath yellowifh
dufky white: under wing coverts very pale yellow: firft quills ferruginous, the others very dark, with the outer edges only inclining to
ferruginous: tail black : legs pale.
Inhabits America, but what part uncertain.
Certhia prafinoptera, Ind. Orn. i. p. 300. 7 .—Muf Carlf. fafc. iv. tab. 81. "V
J2ILL and legs black: top of the head, nape, back, lower part of    Des
the breaft, and fides  black: throat, fore part of the neck, and
upper part of the breaft purple, wings wholly of a gloffy changeable
green : tail greenifh brown.
Inhabits Surinam. r V,
 :/i SON-
LIED
CREEPER.
I ENGTH five inches and a half: bill black: head, neck, and
breaft of a moft brilliant amethyftine purple, mixed on the breaft
with vermilion red, forming a kind of bar thereon: belly black:
vent and under tail coverts gloffy purplifh blue : the upper part of
the neck, leffer wing coverts, back, rump, and upper tail coverts
moft brilliant green gold; the reft of the wings and tail greenifh
black; two or three of the outer feathers fringed on the outer margins
' with green gold : on each fide of the breaft, under the wing, a tuft of
fine yellow : wings black.
Inhabits Africa.    It feems to approach very near to the Certhia
Polita of the ^Carlfonian Mufeum.
Leona Creeper, Nat. Mifc. x. pi. $6g I
T ENGTH four inches: bill and legs black: head, hind part of
the neck and back green gold: chin, throat, and breaft purplifh
black: the belly and vent pale brimfton'e or yellow: quills dufky:
tail gloffy blackifh fteel colour: under the wings a tuft of yellow
feathers as in the laft, but paler.
Brought from Africa with the laft, and communicated by Thomas
Wilfon, efquire, who obligingly furnifhed me with fpecimens of both;
this is about one third fmaller than the former, and has many things
:n common with it, but whether it differs therefrom in fex or age
only, wants further invefligation.
|  ENGTH four inches: bill and legs black: general colour of
the body  violet pnrple: wings dufky brown: tail dufky black,
but the two middle feathers are entirely, and the outer edges of all
the
  JLu&r-dM/e^ ^^W^
 CREEPER.
the others are violet: on each fide of the breaft under the wing is a
tuft of yellow feathers, as in fome others of this genus.
Inhabits the Mahratta country in India, and is in the Britifh Mufeum; it feems allied to the Afiatic Creeper, Ind. Orn. N° 22.
m
BLACK-EYED
CR.
THIS is more than feven inches in length: the bill one inch long,
curved half way from the point, and black: legs brown:
the tongue longer than the bill, and fringed at the point: the plumage on the upper parts is mottled brown: the forehead, lore, and
all the under parts are white ; before the eye, between that and the
bill, begins a black band, which paffes through the eye, growing
broader, after which it narrows to a point, and ends on each fide of
the breaft.
Inhabits New South Wales: faid to be fond of honey, and alfo to
feed on flies : in a fecond of thefe birds, the forehead differs in not
being white,-but the lore is black, paffing under and a little way
beyond the eye.
T ENGTH rather more than fix inches: bill one inch and a
quarter long, very flender, and moderately curved; tongue longer
than the bill, and fringed at the end: the crown of the head is black,
taking in the eyes on each fide, and paffing in a broad band quite to
the breaft: the back, wing coverts, and rump are pale flaty grey : '
quills and tail black, the laft fomewhat cuneiform : the chin is very
pale rufous, and from that to the breaft white; the rufous colour
furrounded with a crefcent of black, with the horns pointing upwards.
Inhabits New South Wales, and is a beautiful fpecies.
SLENDER-
BILLED
 CREEPER;
DIRIGANG
CR.
T N fize this fpecies fomewhat exceeds our Common Creeper: plumage above pale olive or greenifh brown; beneath white, inclining
to dufky on the belly : on the forehead and crown are a few fhort, ~
tranfverfe, black lines: under the eye a patch of yellow, and behind
it another of a reddifh. colour: at the bend of the wing a few pale
fpots: bill and legs dufky.
Inhabits New South Wales, where it is called a Woodpecker, from
hence we may fuppofe it to frequent and run up and down trees in
the manner of that bird.    The native name is Dirigang.
CHIRPING
CR.
CIZE of the Nightingale: general colour pale green, inclining to
brown on the back, and to pale yellow beneath: quills and tail
dufky : thighs, dufky, barred with white : bill flender, black r tongue
briftly at the end: legs brown: irides blue.
Inhabits New Holland; and has a chirping kind of note.
MELLIVOROUS
CR.
DESCRIPflON.-
C IZ E of the Mififel Thrufh : the bill moderately curved and black :
tongue briftly at the tip: general colour of the plumage black,
marked on moft of the feathers with flender crefcents of white, and with
fhort ftreaks of the fame : the axillary coverts have pale edges, and the
margins of fome of the quills the fame: feveral of the greater wing coverts are longitudinally marked with rufous: on the rump a few
white markings : the ends of the tail very pale, nearly white.
Inhabits New South Wales, and is called Goo-gwar ruck; is a numerous fpecies, feldom feen but near the fea fhore, efpecially about
where the natives refort; isa lively bird, conftantly in action, in fuck-
5 i°g
  IviUflxd. at d
S^raJ^-^ii
 CREEPER.
ing honey, taking flies, or contending with other birds ; two or three
of thefe will often rout a flock of Blue-bellied Parrots, with which
genus they are often engaged. For the above information I am indebted to Mr. Lambert.    .
167
T ENGTH fix inches: bill dufky ; tongue briftly : top of the head,
and from the bafe of the upper mandible, black, paffing through'
the eye,.and below it fome way on each cheek: hind part of the
neck, back; wings, and tail pale green, but the wings and tail are
brown, with pale edges: chin, fides of the neck, and fore part of it,
as well as the under parts of the body, dufky white : legs pale brown.
Inhabits New South Wales.
CIZE of the While Throat: all the upper parts of the bird crimfon,
marked here and there, except on the hind head, with a few
irregular large black fpots: chin and throat white: breaft and belly
. dirty pale brown: quills black, edged with white : bill and legs black:
tongue briftly at the end.
Inhabits New South Wales,
SANGUINEOUS
CR.
Description.
CIZE of the Red-fpotted Creeper: general colour crimfon, but the
under parts from the breaft are white; on the red of the breaft
fix black fpots: a large fpot of black occupies the beginning of the
back, a fecond below it, befides fome other fmaller ones of the fame
on the rump : through and round the eye a black ftreak of an oval
fhape and pointed: wings and tail black; the laft very fhort: bill and
legs black : tongue briftly.
Inhabits
COCHINEAL
CR.
Description.
 f
HQARY
CR.
•D"BSCRI*?TIOI
YELLOW-
WINGED
CREEPER.
Inhabits New South Wales;
fpecies.
feen only in the fpring, and is a
T ENGTH eight inches: body flate coloured above, white beneath, inclining to  rofe coloured purple   on the  breaft: quills,
and tail dufky: bill flout and black; tongue briftly : on the wing
coverts a few.markings of white: legs brown.
Inhabits New South Wales.
T ENGTH feven inches: bill black ; tongue briftly : head, neck,
and back pale flate colour, inclining to yellow on the rump;
beneath whitifh, with a few narrow lines on .the breaft: on the ears
a yellow fpot, below it a patch of black: quills dufky, the greater
ones from the bafe to two-thirds of the length yellow: the two
middle tail feathers dufky, the others of a pale yellowifh colour.
Inhabits New Scuth Wales; with this is another, perhaps differing
in fex: the plumage is pale cinereous grey above, and pale yellowifh
white beneath: vent fpotted with ferruginous-, quills as in the laft,
but pale ferruginous inftead of yellow : both of thefe continually
obferved in the action of catching flies.
AGILE
CR.
DsSCRIPTlOt
T]ENGTH fix inches: bill black; tongue briftly: top of the
head, nape, and hind part of'the neck black; the reft of the
upper parts of the body, wings, and tail brown: under parts white:
the white and black join each other on the fides of the . neck irregularly : legs blue black.
Inhabits New South Wales; is an active fpecies, feeds on honey and
flies, in the manner of feveral others of this genus.
 CREEPER.
CIZE of the White Throat: bill a trifle curved, but flender as in
the  Warbler genus, colour dufky: the plumage on the upper
parts is pale brown; beneath pale flefh ,colour: fore parts of the
neck pale blue grey : quills and tail dufky : legs dufky.
Inhabits New South Wales.
CIZE of a Hedge Sparrow: length fix inches: bill and legs black:
tongue briftly : irides dirty'pale red: the plumage on the upper
parts of the body pale dirty brown; beneath white: below the ear
an oval fpot of a fine yellow colour, and above it a fmaller one of
black.
Inhabits New South Wales.
qIZE uncertain: bill and legs black: tongue briftly : the plumae
on the upper part of the body is pale brown; beneath dufky
white: rump crimfon :  on the fide of each jaw three or four dafhes
of crimfon : outer part of the quills and tail dufky; fome of the outer
feathers of the laft pale or nearly white at the end.
Inhabits New South Wales ; faid to be very rare.
RED-RUMPED
CR.
Description.
THE body in this fpecies is green on the upper parts, and yellow
beneath : the forehead and cheeks black : tail cuneiform,
In the Leverian Mufeum; from whence unknown.
Supf. II. Z
BLACK-
RON TED
CR.
 Genus XXX.    HUMMING    BIRD.
N° 5. Orange-faced H. B.
6. Blue-headed H. B.
7. Great H.B.
CIZE of a Swallow: general colour green gold: quills black; the
wing coverts neareft to them margined with gloffy blue : tail
feathers even at the end, except the two middle ones, which are three
times the length of the others; colour of them all black, margined at
the bafe with gloffy green: vent black, marked with fhining blue
fpots.
This is faid to inhabit the Cape of Good Hope, for which we have
the authority of M. Ekeberg -, it has however never fallen to our lot
to meet wirn any one of the genus which came from that place.
Trochilus galeritus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 304.
-Molln. Chil. (Fr. ed.) p. 127. :
T HIS fpecies is rather lefs than a Wren: the bill is fomewhat
bent: the  general colour of the plumage green gold: head
crefted; the creft radiated with purple and gold : the under parts of
the body are fire colour : quills and tail brown, varied with gold.
Inhabits Chili.
 HUMMING     BIRD.
Trochilus Mango, Ind. Ond. i. p. 307. 20.
Mango Humming Bird, Gen. Syn. ii. p. 758. 18.—Id. Sup. p. 135. ft.
XTfE have before related a circumftance of the poffibility of keeping Humming Birds alive for fome time, by means of fugar
and water * ; but this was in their own country and climate. In addition to this, we have been informed, on undoubted veracity, of the
following fact: a young gentleman, a few days before he fet fail from
Jamaica to England, was fortunate enough to meet with a female
Humming Bird, fitting on the neft and eggs, when cutting off the twig,
he brought all together on board the fhip; the female became fuffi-
ciently tame, fo as to fuffer itfelf to be fed with honey, and during the
paffage hatched two young ones; however, the mother did not fur-
vive long, but the young were brought to England, and continued
alive for fome time in the poffeffion of Lady Hamond. Sir H. Englt-
field, Baronet, and Colonel Shane, both witneffes of the cirumftance,
informed me that thefe little creatures readily took honey from
the lips of Lady Hamond, with their bills: one of them did not live
long, but the other furvived at leafl twu months from the time of its
arrival. I am not pofitively certain that it is the fpecies I have here
arranged it under; but I am inclined to think fo, from the above
gentlemen comparing it with the figure of the bird pointed out to
them, and efpecially as it is the moft common fpecies found in that
ifland.
GILT CRESTED
"THIS is a frnall fpecies, being only two inches and an half in
length: the general colour green : the top of the head furnifhed
With a gloffy gilded green creft: quills and tail black.
* Gen. Syn. ii. p. 771, Note \.   Bumab. Trav. p, 17,    Note *.
 ORANGE-
PACED
H. B.
HUMMING     BIRD.
The female is greenifh brown above, and whitifh beneath, with
dufky fpots on the breaft.
The neft is chiefly compofed of pappofe down, as in the major
part of this genus. I am indebted to Colonel Woodford for this"
defcription.
THIS is about three inches and a quarter long: the bill black, three
quarters of an inch in length, nearly flrait, being only a trifle
bent juft at the tip, the colour of it white : the head feathers a little
elongated at the hind part: the general colour of the plumage,is
dufky, inclining here and there to blue: belly wholly dufky: between
the bill and eye an orange fpot; chin orange, and the outer margins
of the wing of the fame colour the whole of its length: tail blue
above, orange beneath : legs black.
From the drawings of Colonel Woodford; from whence it was
brought uncertain.
BLUE-HEADED
H. B.
Description.
* * With Strait Bills.
Trochilus cyanocephalus, Ind. Orn. L p. 319. 63.—Molin. Chili, (Fr. edit.) p. 227.
THIS is faid to be the fize of a walnut, but the tail is three times
the length of the body: the bill is flrait, pointed, and of a
whitifh colour r the head is of a gilded blue : the back gloffy green :
the belly yellowifh red; the feathers of the wings blue varied with
purple.
Inhabits Chili.
%
 HUMMING     BIRD.
Trochilus maximus, Muf. Left. N° 76. T. ii. N° 2.
Der grofste Kolibri, Allg. U. d. Vog. i. Th. 2. S. 737.
THE length of this fpecies is about eight inches:  the bill is fharp,    Descrip
and half as long again as the head: the plumage is gloffy : the
crown, quills, and tail blueifh: hind part of the head, back, breaft,
rump, and wing coverts greenifh gold: the throat white as fnow t
vent ruft colour; tail pointed and blackifh.
.   Native place uncertain.
I
 r
174
STARLING.
Order   III.    PASSERINE.
Genus XXXI.    STARLING.
N° 1. Perfian St.
2. Magellanic St;
N° 3. Dauurian St.
Sturnus
Pall. n. Nord. Beyt
Etourneau more, Da
, p. 325. II.—S. G.  Gmel. It.
'.din. Orn. ii. p. 302.
THIS is about the fize of the Skylark: the tip of the bill is black:
general colour of the plumage afh colour: fore part of the head
and the throat mixed with white : the belly fpotted with rufous.
Inhabits the alpine parts of Perfia; makes the neft in the hollows .
of rocks, and lives on infects.
2.
Sturnus Loyca, Ind. Orn. i. p. 325. I
ELLANIC
——— mifitaris, Ind. Orn. i. p. 323
ST.
Magellanic Stare, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 7.
CIZE of the common Starling: general colour mixed brown and
whitifh:   breaft crimfon: female pale grey; breaft crimfon, but
of a much paler colour.
Inhabits Chili; makes the neft in the hollows of the earth, lays three
orey eggs, varied with brown; faid to fing fweedy, is eafily tamed, and-
efteemed much by the natives, who entertain fome fuperftitious ideas
in refpedtto its fong, but likewife value it on account of the beauty
of its feathers, with which they form aigrettes. It may poffibly be
5 a variety
t
 STARLING.
a variety of our Magellanic Stare; but no mention is made of the
crimfon lore, or fpots on or near the eyes.
-7$
Sturnus Dauuricus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 325. 13.—Pall. Ail. Stock. 177.8. iii. p. 198.
Etourneau de la Daourie, Daudin. Orn. ii. p. 302.
THIS is about fix inches in length : the bill black, rather fhorter
and more bent than ufual in the genus: irides brown; before
and over the eyes a white ftreak : general colour of the body violet
black; beneath cinereous white : the head and nape blueifh white ;
on the crown of the male a violet black, ftripe, which is brown in the
female: the wing coverts black gloffed with green : quills black;
the two inmoft white at the tip, the reft outwardly are tipped with
white : tail fomewhat forked ; the coverts of it violet; the feathers
of the tail greenifh black : legs blue black.
Inhabits in the willow beds of Dauuria, feeding on both vegetables and infects; lays three eggs, of a ferruginous colour, tinged with
blue.
I
 THRUSH.
Genus XXXII.      THRUSH.
N° r. Song Thr.
. N° 18. PrafineThr.
2. Penrith Thr.
19. Volatile Thr.
3. Red-legged Thr.
4. New Zealand Thr.
20.. Blue-cheeked Thr.
21. Brown-crowned Thr.
5. Thenca Thr.
22. Lunulated Thr.
6. Chili Thr.
7. Ceylon Thr.
23. Sooty Thr.
24. Black 'browed Thr.
8. White-rumped Thr.
9. Ethiopian Thr.
25. Fly-catching Thr.
26. Blue-headed Thr.
10. Minute Thr.
27. Maxillary Thr.
11. Reftlefs Thr.
28. Frivolous Thr.
12. Black-eyed Thr,'
29. Sordid Thr.
13. Doubtful Thr.
30. Short-winged Thr.
14. Dilute Thr.
31. Yellow-bellied Thr.
15. Guttural Thr.
32. Punctated Thr.
16. Harmonic Thr.
33. Afiatic Thr.
17. Port Jackfon Thr.
SONG
THR.
Turdus muficus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 327.
Throftle, or Song Thrufh, Gen. Syn. ii
..—Ger. Orn. iii. pl. 290. 291. 292.
.p. 18. 2.—Bolton's Brit. Birds, pl. 5. 6.
THIS bird is known in fome parts of Hampjhire by the name of
Storm-Cock, as is alfo the Mififel Thrufh; is a more hardy bird
than the Redwing, which in hard froft is obferved firft to fuffer from
it; and in defect of other food, both this and the Mififel Thrufh are
known .to live on the roots of Arum, which they break from the
ground with tneir bills, as well as fhell fnails, miffeltoe, and ivy
berries.
In
IL
 THRUSH.
In Ray's letters, page 137, a bird is mentioned by the name of
Jjeath. Throftle, taken from the Epitome of Hujbandry, the author of
which firft noticed it. Mr. Ray fuppofes it to be the Ring Ouzel,
as that bird is called Heath Throftle, in Craven; be this as it may, the
late Mr. Lewin fhewed me a pair of thrufhes fimilar to-the Song
■Thrufh in colour, but they were darker, and the tail feemed rather
fhorter; thefe were fhot near Dartford in Kent; I remember to have
made fome remarks upon thefe birds at the time, but having miflaid-
them, I cannot venture here to fay more on the fubject.
CIZE fuperior to the common Water Ouzel: head, wings, upper
part of the body, and tail dufky: chin and throat white, at the
bottom of the laft a bar of dufky: breaft, belly, and thighs white,
with fhort black ftreaks pointing downwards, more numerous towards
the lower belly and thighs: vent rufly yellow, croffed with bars of
black: legs rufly yellow.
This is faid to be found about Penrith; given to Mr. Pennant, by
Mifs Calvin *.
PENRITH
OUZEL.
H
Turdus Plumbeus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 334. 29.
Le Thili ou Chili, Molin. Chil. (Fr. ed.) p. 230.
Red-legged Thrufh, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 33. 29.
THE male of this fpecies is wholly black, and has a cuneiform tail;
under the wings a large fpot of yellow.
The female is grey, paler on the under parts ; between the bill and
eye a black patch: chin white, with black markings, fometimes
wholly black: tail feathers dufky, the four outer ones white at the
tips: bill, eyelids, irides, and legs orange red.
* I took the above account out of the late Mr. Pennant's notes, of a journey from
Downing to Aflon Moor, in which is painted a figure of the bird.   Mr. Pennant
thought it to be a new fpecies,
Supp. II. A a This
RED-LEGGED
THR.
 i78
NEW
ZEALAND
THR.
Description.
T   II    R    U    S    PI.
This fpecies inhabits Chili: makes the neft of twigs by the.river
fides, mixed with mud, and lays four eggs. Its fong is excellent
but the bird does not bear confinement. It is a very numerous fpecies, occafioned perhaps by its flefh being unfavoury, and therefore
not fought after.
Turdus auflralis, Ind. Orn. i. p. 338. 43.—-Muf Carlf. fafc. iii. t. 69.
CIZE of the Song Thrufh: bill and legs black: the general colour
of the plumage is dufky black: breaft and belly white, but the
bafe of the feathers are black.
Inhabits New Zealand.
THENCA
THR.
Description,
Turdus Thenca, Ind. Orn. i. p. 339. 46.—Afe/z's. Chil. (Fr. ed.) p. 231.
CIZE of the Mocking Thrufh : bill, irides, and legs brown : general
colour of the plumage cinereous, fpotted with brown and white r
- breaft and belly pale grey : quills and tail white at the ends.
Inhabits Chili r makes a cylindrical neft, a foot long, defended on
the outfide with thorns, within lined with wool and feathers, with a
-fmall entrance on one fide ; lays four white eggs fpotted with brown.
It poffibly may hereafter prove a variety of the |
Turdus aureus, Ind.  Orn. i. p.  342. 53.—Molin. C&iL (Fr. ed.)  p. 232. (It
CureuJ
Quifcale du Chili, Daud. Orn. ii. p. 318..
CIZE of a Blackbird: bill rather angular, Hack, a trifle turning up
at the end: plumage wholly black and gloffy: tail cuneiform and
fong.
This is a very common bird in Chili, finging well, and imitating
the notes of other birds, hence often kept in cages; attacks other
birds, picking out their brains j alfo feeds on feeds and worms 1 con-
1 gregates
 THRUSH.
gregates with Starlings: makes a neft of twigs and fibres, mixing it
with mud, and lining it with hair; the eggs are three in number, of
a blueifh white : the flefh is not good eating, being black.
Turdus Zeylonus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 349. 80.—Spalowjk. Fog. tab. 5.
Le Bacbakiri, Levaill. Oif. ii. p. 65. pi. 67. f. 1. 2.
Ceylon Thrulh, Gen. Syn. iii. 62. 73.
TV/fR. Levaillant confirms what has been before mentioned in the
Gen. Synopfis, that this fpecies is not uncommon at the Cape of
Good Hope, and that it there goes by the name of Bacbakiri, and
adds, that in fome of the cantons it is called Jentje-bibi, and Couit-
Cou'it, from fome of its notes imitating thofe words ; it is alfo called
by others Geele Canari-byter, or Yellow Canary-eater; that it is not only
commonly feen at large, but frequently comes into the gardens at
the Cape.
We learn that both male and female have the black crefcent on the
Breaft, but in the female, the crefcent and the reft of the colours
of the plumage are lefs vivid; alfo that the young birds of both fexes
do not obtain it rill of mature age, in which cafe we can eafily fup-
pofe our Orange-headed Thrujh may prove to be a young bird of
this rather than a diftindt fpecies.
The male and female are for the moft part obferved together, and
make the neft among the thick bufhes, and the hen lays four or five
eggs, which both fexes fit upon by turns, and the young continue
in fociety with the parents till the fpring following.
Turdus bicolor, Ind. Orn. \. p. 350. 84.
Turdus bicolor, Stourne Spreo, Daud. Orn. ii. p. 311.—Lev,
White-rumped Thrufh, Gen."Syn. iii. p. 64. J^.—Thunb. Tn
III. Oif. pl. 88.
Ti/rR. Thunberg obferves, that this bird is known at the Cape of
Good Hope, by the name of Spreuw, and that it very frequently
accompanies the larger cattle and fheep, <f mornings and evenings,
A a 2 « picking
CEYLON
THR.
WHITE-
RUMPED
THR.
 ,8o ■ THRUSH.
" picking the infects, which dropping from the bufhes upon the
" animals, and biting deep into their flcins, flick very faft to them,
" and occafion them great pain;" that it is a fhy bird, and makes
the neft in the fides of rivers and brooks, and digs holes in the banks:
they are obferved alfo to feed on ripe grapes, and flying in great
flocks, not unfrequently do much damage to the vineyards; however,
by fuch kind of food the flefh is rendered very delicate : thefe birds
do not always make the neft in banks, but fometimes in old ruined
buildings, or holes of decayed trees, at others rob the fwallows of
their neft; the.eggs are five or fix in number, greenifh fpotted with
brown.
This we are inclined to believe is the Locuft-eating Thrufh mentioned by Mr. Barrow *, as the chief if not the only food, appears to
be' Larva of the migratory Locufis, following the troops of thefe
wherever they are. He obferves that the bird is gregarious, making
the neft in vaft numbers, together, not greatly different from the Sociable Grofbeak, appearing as one large neft, big enough for a Vulture §
which circumftance he obfeived at Sneuwberg, on a clump of low
bufhes : on examination, the neft was found to confift of a number of
cells, each of which was a feparate neft, with a tube that led into it
through the fide; and of fuch cells, each clump contained from fix to
twenty, and one roof of interwoven twigs covered the whole, like
that made by a Magpie: moft of them had young birds, generally
five. The eggs are of a blueifh white, with fmall faint reddifh
fpecks.
9. Turdus sethiopicus, Ind. Orn. L p. 357. 110,
ETHIOPIAN Le Boubou, Levaill. Of. ii, p. 73. pl. 68. f. 1. 2.
THR. Ethiopian Thrufh, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 78. 103.
Description.     THE/i(m/*. is a trifle lefs than the male: the parts which, are
black in the laft are in the former brownifh, and the under parts
almoft intirely fulvous, except the throat, which is rufous white, and
* Travels into South Africa, p. 256.
the
 THRUSH.
the bar acrofs the wing inclined to rufous at the back part: whilft
young,, the male appears like the female, but the female wants the bar
of white on the wing coverts, many of which are bordered with
rufous. iM^i.
In the fouthern parts of the Cape of Good Hope, this fpecies is very
numerous as far as Cajfraria. The note of the male expreffes the
words Bou-bou, and that of the female Cou-'i. They make the neft
among the thorny bufhes, laying four or five eggs.
Turdus mlnutus, Ind. Orn. i. p. 363. 136. Muf. Carlf fafc. iii. t. 68.
THIS is a fmall fpecies, being lefs than four inches in length:
the bill and legs are brown: general colour of the plumage rufly
brown, beneath inclining to afh colour r chin whitifh: two or three
of the prime quills are dufky, the others black, but ferruginous in
the middle; many of the fecondaries tipped with ferruginous, and
the reft wholly of that colour : the four middle tail feathers are black,
the reft ferruginous.
MINUTE
THR.
Description.
CIZE of the Song Thrufh : length eight inches, in fhape fomewhat
flender: the bill three quarters of an inch long, and curved at
the point, colour black; tongue fharp: the plumage on the upper
parts of the body is black, on the under white: tail a very trifle
rounded at the end : legs black..
Inhabits New Holland, faid to be a reftlefs. fpecies.
RESTLESS
THR.
Description.
BLACK-EYED
T ENGTH eight inches: bill flout, flightly curved; tongue
briftly at the tip: the crown of the head and under parts of the
body are yellow: the forehead mottled with dufky: nape, wings,
and tail rufly brown, the two laft margined with yellow : from the
gape fprings a black ftreak growing broader, furrounding the eye,
and
 rl2 THRUSH.
and defcending on each fide below it, growing more narrow; juft
within at the bottom part is a fmall fpot of yellow: tail moderately
long; the wings reach only to the bafe of it: bill and legs brownifh.
Place. Inhabits New South Wales.
DOUBTFUL
Description.     T ENGTH  nine inches:   bill one inch  long, blueifh:   tongue
briftly at the end : plumage blueifh black, beneath white: quills
and tail brown, the laft rather long: legs dufky.
Placs. Inhabits New Holland, and is a bird of a dull uninterefting appear-
DILUTE
THR.
GUTTURAL
THR.
THE bill in this fpecies is ftraight and blueifh: the head, neck,
and rump are pale blue grey: back and wings pale brown: the
under parts of the body blueifh white: tail dufky pale brown: legs
blueifh.
Inhabits New Holland.
Description.     CIZE of the Ceylon Thrufh, and fomewhat refembles it in figure :
the head is black, reaching forwards as far as the breaft, but the
chin is white, and the nape inclines to yellow: back and wings green:
breaft, belly, and vent yellow: bill and legs black.
_fi_ACE. Inhabits New Holland; not unfrequently feen at Port Jackfon in
the winter months.
16.
HARMONIC       llPf
Description.     F ENGTH nine inches: bill and legs horn colour: plumage on
the upper parts pale brown, on the nnder whitifh, with a flender
brown line down the fhaft of each feather: wings and tail dufky
black.
Inhabits
 THRUSH.
Inhabits New Holland: called from its note, which is harmonious,
the Port Jackfon Thrujhy but feems different from the following one,
which goes by that name in White's Voyage.
Port*Jackfon Thrufh, White's Voy. pl.in p. 157..
THE top of the head in this bird is blueifh grey; from thence
down the hind part of the neck and the back, the colour is a
fine chocolate brown: the wings and tail are lead colour; the edges
of the feathers pale ; the tail itfelf pretty long, and even at the end :
all the under parts from chin to vent are dufky white, except the
middle of the neck juft above the breaft, which inclines to chocolate:
the bill is of a dull yellow: legs brown.
This is faid to inhabit the neighbourhood of Port Jackfon, in New
South Wales.
CIZE of a Song Thrufh: bill dufky, both mandibles fomewhat
curved : general colour of the plumage pale flaty blue, marked
on the wing coverts with black ; the inner part of the quills is alfo
black: chin white : belly dirty pale yellow oker colour: below each
ear a large oval patch of black : the tail is wholly black : legs dufky
yellow.
Inhabits New- South Wales; met with in the month of December.
iJj
PORT JACKSON
THR.
Description.
PRASINE
THR.
T ENGTH nine inchest fhape flender: bill rather flight and
black: the head, neck, upper parts of the body and tail are
black; the under parts of the body white : tail long, and even at the
end, and the wings when clofed reach to the middle of it: legs flender,
dufky.
Inhabits various parts of New Holland, and is not uncommon;
obferved in company with another of the Grofbeak genus, to hover
frequently
VOLATILE
THR.
Description.
 BLUE-
CHEEKED
THR.
BROWN-
CROWNED
THR.
Description.
THRUSH.
frequently about two feet from the ground, making fudden darts at
fomething, which on more minute attention was found to be a fort
of worm, which this bird by a chirping note and tremulous motion
of the wings, with the tail widely expanded, feemed to fafcinate"" or
entice out of its hole in the ground. The account adds, that the
bird itfelf is in its turn frequently fafcinated by a Snake; but this
circumftance we have reafon to fuppofe is not peculiar to this fpecies,
as we find it recorded of other birds.
CIZ E of the Mififel Thrufh: length twelve inches: plumage above
-pale green; beneath pure white :  the eye placed in the fore part
of an  oval patch of blue: quills dull ruft colour: tail rounded or
flightly cuneiform : bill and legs flate colour.
Inhabits New Holland, where it is rare : has a lingular whittling
note, and is often feen purfuing fmaller birds.
THIS fpecies is about fix inches long: bill pale blue: legs black:
back and wings black; but the quills are edged with white:
the chin is black, from thence to the vent white; but the fides of
the body next the wings, and the crown of the head, are brown.
Inhabits New Holland; frequently feen about Port Jackfon, in New
South Wales.
LUNULATED
THR.
CIZE of a Miffel Thrufh, but of a ftouter make: bill black, rather
bent towards the tip: legs pale, inclining to yellow: tongue
fhort, briftly at the end: the plumage on the upper parts of the
body, wings, and tail are brown ; beneath from the chin to the vent
white, every where marked with crefcents of black : tail fhort.
Inhabits New South Wales.
 THRUSH.
CIZE of the Song Thrufh: bill pale, in fhape much like that of
the Common Thrujh; tongue fharp at the tip: the general colour
of the plumage is dark greenifh brown : chin, and fore part of the
neck pale grey; the breaft marked with large dufky fpots: tail even
at the end : legs yellow. !iPf§$^
Inhabits New Holland.
CIZE of the laft: plumage in general pale olive brown, paler
beneath ; wings and tail darkeft : the crown of the head appears
remarkably flat, rifing fcarcely above the level of the bill; between
the noftrils* and eye, the parts rife into a fort of yellowifh creft,
margined above with black ; behind the eye a roundifh crimfon fpot,
edged with black: bill and legs red.
Inhabits New South Wales, where it is known by the name of
■ defcribed from a drawing of Mr. Lambert.
CIZE of a Song Thrujh: length ten inches : bill bent a trifle at the
tip, and  brown: legs brown: the head and fides of it beneath
the eye, hind part of the neck and back blueifh black: chin and all
the under parts white: wings and tail brown. _i"_^&
Inhabits New South Wales, called there Bana-will-wiU'; faid to feed
on files and infebls.
CIZE of the laft : bill flout, blue ; tip black: the top of the head
even with the eyes deep, blue: back, wings, and tail brown; the
quills darkeft, tipped with white : the under parts of the body frorri
Supp. IL B b the
SOOTY
THR.
Description
BLACK-
BROWED
THR.
FLY-
CATCHING
THR.
Description.
Place.
26.
BLUE-HEADED
THR.
Description.
I
 ^jflFm
THRUSH.
the chin yellowifh white, croffed with many fine lines of black next
the wings: tail rounded, the outer margins of all the feathers marked-
with-triangular fpots of white : legs blue.
Inhabits New South Wales: manners and name unknown..
FRIVOLOUS
THR.
Description..
•29.
SORDID
THR.
DSICBIPTION.
CIZE of the laft: crown of the head black, paffing between the
bill and eye on each fide, and ending in a large patch below the
jaw: hind part of the neck dull blue: back, wings, and tail brown,
with a tinge of greenifh bronze on the fhoulders, mixed with black
and green : all the under parts of the body pale blueifh white : tail
even at the end ;. the tips of all the feathers of it white : the bill has
both mandibles flightly curved,, and brown: irides orange: legs
yellow.
Met with at Pbrt Jackfon, in New Holland.,
CIZE of the others: bill black: legs lead colour: the. upper parts--
of the body and wings brown; beneath white, inclining to rufous
on the fides of the neck and breaft,.and to yellow on the fides under
the wings :. forehead and half the crown mixed cinereous and white.:
quills fomewhat; paler, and the tail darker than the reft of the plumage ; the laft rather fhort.
Found with. the. former at Port Jackfon.
THIS has a ftrong bill, of "a pale blue colour: the plumage in-
general.is greenifh afh : wings and tail black; on the outer edge
of the wing;a long ftreak of white,; ;the tips of all but the two middle
tail feathers white; the wings long, reaching almoft to the end of the
tail
Inhabits various parts of New Holland,
 THRUSH.
T ENGTH about ten inches: general colour of the plumage pale
brown, inclining to afh colour beneath, and a little mottled on
the breaft: the tail is cuneiform, and pretty long, but the wings are
remarkably fhort, fcarcely reaching to the rump: the bill and legs
are dufky: at the gape and before the eyes a few black briftles:
irides blueifh.
Inhabits New South Wales, and is chiefly feen on the ground, or
at moft taking very fhort flights, being unable to accomplifh long
ones, from the fhortnefs of the wings. \f%x,%tf
CIZE of a Mififel Thrufh: bill pale red; tongue briftly: legs pale
red : head, hind part of the neck and fides of the breaft dufky
black: back and wing coverts greenifh brown: breaft and belly
olive yellow: chin, fore part of the neck and vent white: quills
olive brown; the leffer ones barred with black: tail olive above and
pale beneath : at the back of the neck are tranfverfe black marks,
and between that and the fides of the breaft a few fagittal marks.
Inhabits New South Wales : is migratory, coming in the fpring for
the purpofe of incubation, and departing in autumn.
•THIS fpecies has the upper parts pale brown, fpotted with black :
the fore part as far as the breaft flate colour, from thence reddifh white: fides over the thighs and vent marked with fhort black
ftreaks: over the eye a white ftreak: the chin is white ; below this
on each fide is a rufous patch reaching behind the eye : quills and
tail dufky: bill black: legs yellow.
Bb a Inhabits
PUNCTATED
THR.
Description.
 i88 T   H   RUSH.
Place. Inhabits -New South Wales.    For the defcription of feveral of the
above,  I am indebted to my friend Mr.  Lambert, and for many to
real fpecimens from time to time brought into this kingdom, now in
poffeffion of Mr. Wilfon, and others of my friends, but unfortunately
in either cafe with little or no hiftory of their manners annexed.
33- l^llsfef!
ASIATIC
Description.   -  C.IZE of'a Nightingale: length near fix inches: bill and legs black %•-
the head, juft including the eye, and all the upper parts of the
body and wings, are black; but the greater quills are edged with
yejlow, and the leffer have white margins: the greater wing coverts
have white ends, making when clofed a bar on the wing; above this
is a fhorter bar of white: all the under parts are yellow: tail dufky,
inclining to olive green.
In the collection of General Davies, who fuppofed it to come from
China, as he met with it* among other preferved birds from, that part.
of the world.
 CHATTERER.
Genus   XXXIII.    CHATTERER.
N° i. Carolina Ch. N° 3. Yellow Ch.
2. Cupreous Ch. 4. Crefted Ch.. .
A'mpelis Garrulus, Ind Orn. i. p. 3.64. 1. _3. -
Crown Bird or Cedar B rd, Bartr. Trav. p. 288. CAROLINA
Chatterer of Carolina, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 93. 1. A. „   . CH.
TV/TR.   Bartr am obferves that this bird j's to be feen in little flocks Placed
or flights, in all the regions from Canada to New Orleans, on the
Mifftffippi, but how much farther fouth and fouth-weft not certain.   \
The longeft period of their appearance in Pennfylvania, is in the   -
fpring, and firft of June, at the time when the early cherries are ripe j   .
alfo   in the autumn, when the Cedar berries* are in perfections
and they generally arrive in large flocks.
The late Mr. Tunftall informed me, that here and there one of
thefe had not only the waxen appendages to the - quills, but that .
three or four of the tail feathers were tipped in the fame manner: the
fame circumftance happens alfo in the one which inhabits Europe; as in
a bird of this kind fent to me by Dr. Heyfham, killed in Northumberland, one ofthe wings had eight appendages,'the other feven, and .
five of the tail feathers were tipped in a fimilar way; but the fex of
this, bird could not be afcertained. |jf'_ -- '•< iX
* Juniperus Americana.
I
 CHATTERE R.
CUPREOUS
CH.
.Des.cbipt.ion.
Ampelis cuprea, Ind. Orn. i. p. 366  8.
-      Cocinga cuprea, Merrem. u. Av. p. 5. t. i. 1 2.
gIZE of the Red Chatterer, with a correfponding bill, -and at firft
fight not unlike,that bird: the general colour is olive; the feathers
gloffed with copper and orange bronze at the tips: the crown is red;
cheeks orange; the breaft and belly fanguineous, gloffed with green on
the margins. On comparing it with the Red Chatterer, we further find
that the feathers of the head and neck are fmaller and ftiffer than the
others; thofe on the cheeks curled, on the ears full and long; and the'
wings are longer, for they reach above a quarter way on the tail,
which is rounded at the end : legs brown.
Inhabits Surinam.
YELLOW
CH.
Description.
Ampelis lutea, Ind. Orn. i. p. \
13.—Muf. Carlf. fafc. iii. t. 70.
T ENGTH fix inches and a half: bill black; at the gape a fpot
"^ of white: the body above is olive brown; beneath yellow, growing white towards the vent; rump yellow: the two middle tail
feathers are black, tipped with yellow, the others dufky yellow: the
legs are black.
We are not told from whence the above came: the bill is a trifle
bent, but very fharp at the tip, appearing more like that of an Oriole
. than-a Chatterer.
CRESTED
CH.
Description,
Ampelis criftata, Ind. Orr,
14.—-J. F.Miller, 111. t. 15. C.
T N this the head is crefted: the back red: the cheeks and  belly
white: wings and tail black, iF:^$0i
Inhabits America.
 GROSBEAK.
Genus  XXXV.    G R O S B E A K.
0 i. Grenadier Gr.
N° iOi Afh. coloured Gr.
-a. Hudfonian Gr.
11. Ferruginous Gr.
3. Sociable Gr.
1.2. .Frontal Gr..
4. Philippine Gr.
13-. MuftachoeGr.
5. Sumatran Gr.
14. Blue-winged .Gr.'.
6. Caffrarian Gr.
15. Fafcinating Gr.
7. Fafciated Gr.
16. Black-lined Gr.
8. Prafine Gr.
1.7. Nitid Gr.
9. Sunda.Gr..
Loxia orix", Ind: Orn. i. p
iii. t. 323.-—Daudin. O
Grenadier Grofbeak, Var
376-
. Gen
17
P- .
Syt
-Var
77-
—Spalowfk. Vog. 1. tab. 31 >—>Ger. Om.
p. 120. 16. Var.
GRENADIER
GR.
TT may be obferved, from viewing thedifferent figures; of this bird,\
that it varies gready. In one of thefe faid to come from Senegal,
the black on the chin was wanting; the tail fhort and brown, and
the tail coverts fo long as to entirely hide the tail from view: and in
another from the fame place, the fame circumftance of the length of"
tail coverts occurred; the black on-the belly mixed with, white, and
the colour by no means of a deep red, but a fiery orange.
Mr. Thunberg obferves, that thefe are feen at the Cape of Good Hope
in immenfe flocks, near the rivers,..and make the neft among the
reeds; and that the eggs, are perfectly green :. the hen always grey;
but from July to January the blood-red feathers of the male gradually
appear; they are faid firft to devour the bloffoms of the. wheat, and
afterwards the corn itfelf*..
This fpecies is faid to be gregarious, and. build their nefts in large
focieties **}•*■.
? Tbunberg's Trav. ii. p. 14. f Barrow's Tray, p. 243.,
 GROSBEAK.
HUDSON IAN
GR.'
1 Description.
Loxia Hudfonica, Ind. Orn. i. p. 379. 28.
Bouvreuil de la Baye d'Hudfon, Daud. Orn. ii. p. 416.
J^ENGTH five inches: bill fhort, thick, and brown : plumage
above deep brown, but the feathers moftly margined with rufous ; the greater and middle wing coverts tipped with the fame, producing a bar on the wing : breaft and belly white, marked with long
brown dafhes: the middle of the belly and vent white : tail a trifle
forked: legs brown.
Inhabits Hudfon's Bay, known there by the name of Atic-koom-a-JlnJh.
-Loxia focia, Ind.Orn. i. p, 381. __
Tifferin republicain, Daud. Orn. i
Loxia, Paterfon's Cap. p. 133. t. i
and neft.
CIZE of a   Bulfinch: length five  inches  and a half: bill and
lore black: the general colour of the plumage rufous brown;
beneath yellow: region of the ear yellowifh: tail fhort: legs brown.
Inhabits the interior parts of the Cape of Good Hope, building in
vaft numbers, in one fociety, on the Mimofia Trees, uniting- their feveral nefts under one common roof; and it is faid that not fewer than
800 or 1,000 form together one community ; not perhaps that this
circumftance happens in one year,for they are obferved to add to the
fize of the neft from year to year, till the tree, unable to bear any
further addition of weight, neceffarily falls beneath its load, when the
. birds are in courfe conftrained to fearch a new place of abode.    Mr.
. Paterfion, on examining one of thefe, found many entrances, each of
which formed a regular ftreet, with nefts on both fides, at about two
inches diftance from each other. The material with which thefe
birds build, is called Bofhman's Grafs; and the feeds of it faid to be
their principal food; but the wings and legs of infects have been like-
wife obferved in the nefts. -S^F %
*                                                                      M. Daudin
 GROSBEAK.
M. Daudin fuppofes the Totty Grofbeak * to be a variety, which I
traift leave for further inveftigation.
This fpecies not only is obferved to make the group of nefts on
the Acacia Trees, but likewife on the Aloe Dichotoma, which grows to
the ftature of a tree of no inconfiderable fize; for Mr. Barrow f
mentions the circumftance of one which had fteps cut out on its
-trunk, to enable a perfon to climb"up to obtain the neft of thefe
birds.
Loxia Philippina, Ind. Orn.i. p. 380. 32.
Tifferin des Philippines, Daud. Orn. ii. p. 394.
Baya, Berbera, &c Afiatic Refearches, ii. p. 109.—
Indies (Engl, ed.) p. 226.
Philippine Grofbeak, Gen, Syn. iii. p. I2Q. 30.
urtolomeo's Voy. to the Eaft
PHILIPPINS
GR.
XA7E, are inclined to think that this is the bird called Baya in
India, faid to be larger than a fparrow, having a yellow brown
plumage, yellowifh Head and feet, light coloured breaft, and a conic
very thick beak; and that it is the moft docile of all birds, perching
on its mailer's handj that it builds the neft chiefly on the higheft trees,
efpecially on the Palmyra or Indian Fig Tree, preferring fuch as hang
•over the water; the neft is of grafs, fhaped like a botde with a long
neck, and fufpended at the ends of the branches, the entrance from
beneath; it is faid to ufually confift of two or three chambers : fuppofed to feed among other things on fire flies, as the remains are
found in the neft; is fo docile as to fetch and carry like a dog at
command; it lays many eggs refembling pearls, when boiled the
white is tranfparent, and the flavour of them excellent; it has a
lively note, but is rather what may be called chirping than finging;
much the fame account is given by M. Bartolomeo, in the work above
quoted, who adds, that thefe birds chiefly frequent the cocoa-nut
trees, in which alfo the greater part of their nefts were obferved.
* Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 156.
SuFP. II.
f Travels in South Africa, p. 393.
Cc
 GROSBEAK.
SUMATRAN
Loxia hypoxantha, Ind. Orn. i. p.  384. 44.—Daudin. Orn. ii. p. 429.—Muf
Carlf in. t. 71.
CIZE of a Tellow Hammer: the bill and legs are of a pale colour:
irides rufous: the general colour of the plumage of the upper
parts is yellowifh green: the forehead and all the under parts yellow:
wings dufky black, with yellow margins : tail black alfo, even at the
end, and the margins of the feathers yellow.
Inhabits the rice fields of the ifland of Sumatra, from whence a
fpecimen was brought, and continued alive for fometime in the collection of Count Carlfon.
CAFFRARIAN
GR.
Loxia Caffra, Ind. Orn. i.p. 393. 78 —AB. Stock. 1784. p. 289.
Fringilla Caffra longicauda, Spalowfk. Vog. iii. t. 42. fern ?
CIZE of the Bulfinch: bill cinereous brown: general colour of
the plumage black ; with a tail longer than the body, and fometimes of double the length: the quills are brown margined with white:
wing coverts white: fhoulders crimfon : legs grey.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope : at certain feafons the male is grey,
but the female is continually of that colour : faid to build in marfhy
places *. I fufpect this bird to be the fame as my Orange-fhouldered
Bunting, but as I do not find the bird any where figured, I cannot
afcertain the circumftance; perhaps the one above referred to in
Spalowfiki may prove the female.
Mr. Thunberg, in his travels -j-, talks of a bird called Langftaart,
which is found in the marfhes and low fields about Sea Cow River;
likens it to a goldfinch in its red velvet or fummer drefs; but dif-
* Mr. Barrow fays the nefi is curious, compofed of grafV plaited into a
round ball, fattened between two reeds; the entrance through a tube, the orifice of
which is next the water: thought to be polygamous; for although thirty or forty
nefts are often in one clump of reeds, never more than two males are feen amongft
them. Barrow's Trav. p. 244.
f Vol. ii\ p. 64.
1 feting
 GROSBEAK.
fering in that the tail was longer than the body : in winter the cock
is grey, as the hen, who has not a long tail, is all the year round.
Its flow flight, on account, of the length of its tail, make it not only
eafy to fhoot, but in rainy or windy weather may almoft be caught
with the hands; there is little doubt but that this and the foregoing
are the fame.
Loxia fafciata, Ind. Orn. i. p.
tab. 358. f. i.femP
Fafciated Grofbeak, Gen. Syn. i
. $7.—Nat. Mifc. i
1. 156. %o.—Id. Sup.
, pl. 56.--Ger. Orn. i
p. L54.
T-JAVING an opportunity of examining both fexes of this bird,
I obferved that in the male, the chin and throat were of a filvery
whitenefs: breaft and belly pale cinnamon colour; middle of the
belly chefnut: quills black, with the fecondaries tipped with pale
cinnamon: tail black; all but the two middle feathers have a fpot
of white on the inner web at the tip, but on the outermoft the whole
of the inner tip is white.
The female differs in being every where paler, and in wanting the
crimfon band on the throat; the under part wholly pale cinnamon
colour, and the white at the tips of the tail feathers lefs confpicuous.
FASCIATED
GR.
1
Loxia prafina, Ind. Orn. i. p. 396. 91.—Muf. Carlf. fafc.
Bouvreuil prafin, Daudin. Orn. ii. p. 422.
:. 72. 73.
gIZE of a Sifikin: the male is olive green; beneath yellowifh grey:
the rump red, as alfo a feather or two- on the belly: the legs
yellow: tail rounded, black; the two middle feathers red above;
the others the fame on the outer margin.
The female is olive brown, beneath yellow grey: the rump dull
red : quills cinereous, eight of the fecondaries whitifh on the anterior
margins and tips: the tail feathers black tipped with white : the bill
in both black.
Inhabits the ifland of Java; found in the rice fields.
C c a
PRASINE
GR.
• escription.
 G   R   O   S
Loxia Javenfis, Muf.Carlf.fafc.lv. t. 89.
CIZE of a Bulfinch:   general colour greyifh brown: top of the
head black; from the chin, the under parts are paler than the
upper, and the belly and thighs white: quills black; the fecondaries.
brown, with ferruginous margins: tail black: legs pale yellow.
Inhabits Sumatra and Java.
ASH-
COLOURED
GR.
Description.
Loxia cinerea, Muf. Carlf. fafc. iv. t. 88.
THIS may be ranked among the larger fized Grofibeaks: the
bill is flout, and very pale : the plumage above cinereous brown:
belly nearly white : the head has the feathers elongated into a creft
at the back part: the tail is pretty long, and rounded in fhape; the
feathers black, margined outwardly with white : the legs red.
Inhabits Malacca, Sumatra, Java.
PERRUGINOUS Loxia fe*™&*-<&>>Muf. Carlf. fafc. iv. t. 90.91.
GR.
Description.     CIZE of the White-headed Grojbeak, which it much refembles:
general colour of the body ferruginous: crown, nape, and fides
of the head white; bafe of the bill, chin, and throat black: on the
belly before the thighs a large fpot of black: quills black: tail dull
ferruginous: bill flout and cinereous: legs black.
The female is of a general brown colour, paler beneath, or pale
afh colour: quills black, more or"lefs edged with ferruginous 1 bill
and legs black.
Place. Inhabits the Eaft Indies.
 GROSBEAK.
Bengali a front poin'tille, Daudin, Orn. ii. p. 445.
C IZE of the Amaduvade: bill pale grey; at the forehead and corners
of the mouth a few ferrated black  feathers, each  tipped with
white: upper part of the head and neck pale rufous, of the body
cinereous grey,  the edges of the feathers paler: throat and under .
parts of the body white: legs and claws pale grey.
Inhabits Senegal,, from whence feveral have been brought alive to
Paris.
Bengali myftacin, Daudin. Orn. ii. p. 446.
Ql Z E of a Wren: length under four inches: bill reddifh brown,
with a black tip: head, and upper parts of the neck reddifh
brown; above the eye a ftreak of bright red, and another of the
fame at the corners of the mouth: throat and fore part of the neck
pale grey: upper parts of the body, wings, and tail brown, inclining
to olive; beneath whitifh grey :- legs flefh colour : claws grey.
Inhabits Cochin China.
107
CIZE of a Bunting: length feven inches: general colour cinereous
brown : round the bafe of the bill as far as the eyes confiderably
darker : wings wholly of a deep blue, but the bafe of the outer quills
white, forming a long white fpot on the outer edge of the middle
of the wing: tail the fame, but paler than the wings; the ends of all
the feathers white t bill and legs blue. ^'"-.^tlrf
Inhabits New South Wales; found at Port Jackfon.    From a drawing
by General Davies.
CIZE of a Bulfinch, but longer? the plumage on the upper parts
in general dufky black, inclining to brown; the under white :
one or more of the outer tail feathers white: bill and legs dufky.
Inhabits New Holland: at Port Jackfon is called the fmaller fafci-
nating bird, having the man ners exactly of the Fqfcinating Thrujh.
MUSTACHOE
GR.
Description.
BLUE-WINGED
GR.
Description-
FASCINATING
GR.
Description,
 GROSBEAK.
BLACK-LINED
GR.
Description.
NITID
GR.
Description
CIZE of a fmall Linnet: general colour grey, paler beneath, croffed
every where with numerous flender lines of black; between the
bill and eye black, fur rounding the eye, and ending in a point juft
behind it: the bill is flout, and of a fine crimfon colour : the lower
part of the back and rump are alfo fine crimfon: legs pale brown.
Inhabits New South Wales, where a fingle fpecimen was met with
in May; called Weebong.
CIZE of the laft, but ftouter in the body: the general colour of
the plumage pale olive brown above, and dufky white beneath,
croffed every where with fhort abrupt curved lines of black : quills
and tail brown, marked with feveral bands of a darker colour: the
bill, irides, lower part of the back and rump are crimfon : legs yellowifh.
Found in the fame place and at the fame time as the laft.
WAX-BILL
GROSBEAK.
Loxia aftrild, Ind. Orn. i. p. 376. 75.
Waxbill Grofbeak, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 152. 71.
THE amazing flocks of this fpecies may in fome degree be conceived, from the circumftance of fixty-three having been fhot at
one difcharge of a fmall fowling-piece *.
* Barrow's Trav. p. 373.
 JS0B&&
<J^Lf^lea£.
  BUNTING.
■99
Genus  XXXVI.    BUNTING.
N° i. Yellow-winged B.
•2. CirlB.
3. Crimfon B.
4. Baden B.
5. Ruddy B.
6. Ruftle B.
7. Dwarf B.
r° 8. Painted B.
9. Varied B.
10. Coloured B.
11. Dauurian B.
12. Yellow-browed B.
13. Luteous B.
Emberiza chryfoptera, Ind. Orn. i. p. 401. 9.
Yellow-winged Bunting, Portlock's Voy. pl. in p. 35. Male t
nd female.
YELLOW-
WINGED
CIZE of the Tellow Bunting: bill brown : plumage on the upper
part of the body reddifh brown: fides of the head quite round
the eye, the chin, and fore part of the neck white; at the lower part
a bar of reddifh brown like a collar: breaft yellowifh, from thence
to the vent dufky white: the leffer wing coverts yellowifh; the reft
of the wing as the back, the edges of the feathers yellowifh : tail
as the back, but the two outer feathers on each fide yellow: legs
yellow. This is the male: the female is not greatly different, but the
leffer wing coverts are pale afh colour: fides of the head, chin, and
throat dufky white.
Inhabits Falkland Iflands. WT-**\i,
Emberiza Cirlus, Ind. Qrn. i. p. 401. 10.—Ger. Orn. iii. t. 349.1. & 2 ?
Cirl Bunting, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 190. 26.
*"jp H E Cirl Bunting has not we believe hitherto been afcertained to
be a Britifh fpecies : Colonel Montagu has however been fortunate enough to detect it laft year in Devonfihire, in the month of
February*
 I
BUNTING.
February, fince which he has met with feveral of both fexes, and
conjectures that this fpecies breeds in thofe parts ; it cannot be wondered how the circumftance may till now have efcaped the obferva-
tions of the naturalift, the female being extremely like that fex of the
Yellow Bunting, fo as to deceive almofl any one. In a letter from
the late Mr. Hudfon, he fays: I am convinced that I faw in Devonfhire, ■
in pretty good plenty, the Ember. Cia or Foolifh Bunting, and which
might before then have been miflaken for the hen of a Yellow Bunting ; but on my relating this to Colonel Montagu, he fays he has never ,
met with it, which he moft likely mull have done had it inhabited
thofe parts, and where the Colonel has refided himfelf for a long
time paft.
CRIMSON-
BELLIED
B.
Emberiza coccinea, Ind. Orn. i. p. 410. 34.—Naturforfch.:
199. (Sanders.)
C.IZE of the Yellow Hammer:   the bill, head, eyes, and a fmall
ftreak beneath the bill are black : hind head and tail black gloffed
with blue: the upper parts of the body are filvery grey, the under .
crimfon : vent white : on the wings a fpot of white.
Inhabits the woods of Baden, in Germany, feeds on hemp feeds.
Emberiza Badenfis, Ind. Orn. i. p. 411. 39,—Naturforfch. xiii. p. 198. (Sanders,) -
T HIS has much affinity to the Olive Bunting; is almofl a fpan
long, and in breadth rather more: the bill is black, beneath it
yellowifh, in the middle of the upper mandible a fingle flout indentation; noftrils covered with feathers: the general colour of the
plumage is olive ftreaked with dufky, beneath paler: throat orange:
breaft ftreaked with dufky: legs yellowifh: found at Baden with the
laft fpecies.
 B   U   NT   I   N   G.
Emberiza rutila, Ind. Orn. i. p. 411. 40.—Pall. It. iii. p. 698. 23.
CIZE of the Yellow Hammer: general colour rufous, with a fanguineous tinge ; beneath brimftone coloured: wings rufly grey.
Inhabits the willows on the borders of the Onon, in Sibiria, towards
the borders, of Mongolia, but is a rare fpecies.
Emberiza ruftica, Ind. Orn. i. p. 413. 51.—Pallas reife, iii. p. 698. 21.
CIZE of the Reed Sparrow: the head is black, marked with three    De,
white bands, one down the crown, the two others above each
eye : the' general colour of the plumage on the upper parts like that
of a fparrow; the under white; the nape and fhoulders are ferruginous : the throat marked with teftaceous dots: the two outer tail
feathers obliquely tipped with white.
Inhabits the willow beds of Dauuria, moft frequent in March.
Emberiza pufilla, Ind. Orn. i. p. 414. 54.—Pallas reife, iii. p. 6g7. 20.
npHIS is fcarcely fo big as a Sifikin;   in general colour not unlike
the laft: on the head and fides of it five teftaceous bands, the
intermediate fpaces between which are black: throat fpotted.
Inhabits the rivers, and the larch grounds, among the torrents of
the Dauurian Alps^
Emberiza Ciris, Ind. Orn. i. p. 416. 61.
Linaria Ciris, or Painted Finch, Bartr. Trav. p. 289.
Pafler brafilienfis, male and female, Ger. Orn. iii. t. 344. 1. 2.
Painted Bunting, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 206. 54,—Id. Sup. p. 159.
"V/f R. Bartr am obferves, that the fong of this bird is remarkably
low, foft and warbling, exceedingly tender and foothing; that it
is not feen north of Cape Fear, in North Carolina, generally about ten
Supp. II. D d miles
 BUNTING?.
miles from the fea coaft, or perhaps twenty or thirty miles at faFthcft,
and for the moft part near the banks of great rivers, in the fragrant
groves of oranges.
Emberiza mixta. Ind. Orn. i. p. 416. Sz.—Aman. Acad. iv. p. 245. 2a.
CIZE of a Sifikin: the general colour of the plumage grey: the bill
is thick, and of a pale colour: the grey colour is fo mixed with
blue, that in fome lights this laft colour-appears predominant r the
region of the ears, throat, breaft, and bend of the wing blue green:,
the belly is white, but the bafe of the feathers is brown: thighs grey,
intermixed with blueifh feathers : legs pale.
Inhabits China.
Ember
afucata, Ind. Orn. 1. p. 419. 73.—Pali, reife, iii. p. 698. 22.
C.IZE of the Foolijh Bunting: the general colour above is like that
of a Sparrow; but the crown and part of the nape hoary afh-
colour; the.fhafts of the feathers brown: the neck white, with a
circle of brown fpots on the throat, and a round rufous foot on the
ears.
Inhabits the rivers Onon and Ingoda, in Ruffia, on the banks of
which it is found plentifully; firft met with in April.
Emberiza fpodocephaia, Ind. Orn. i. p. 419. 74.—Pall, reife, iii. p. 698. 29.
CIZE of a Reed Bunting: plumage like that of a Sparrow, with
the under parts yellowifh : the head and neck hoary afh colour :
face round the bill black.
Found fparingly about the torrents of the Dauurian Alps in fpring.
 BUNTING. ao,
YELLOW
Emberiza chryfophrys, Ind. Orn. i. p. 419.75—Pall, reife, 111. p. 69S. 25. .BROWED
■THE general colour of this fpecies is not unlike the laft:  the    Description
crown is black, over the eye a yellow ftreak; a white band from
the middle of the crown to the nape. pj^rrt!;"
This is found in the fame places as the laft: from our want of Place.
better information concerning this fpecies, we dare not pofitively affirm
that it is not fomewhat allied to the White-crowned Bunting *.
Emberiza luteola, Mtf. Carlf. fafc. iv. t. 93. LUTE-OUS
, B.
THIS fpecies on the upper parts is reddifh brown, with markings Description.
of darker brown ; beneath more or lefs yellow : rump greenifh
brown: quills and tail brown, with pale margins: bill brown: legs
pale yellow. If^rV
Inhabits India; the above brought from Coromandel. J?iacz.
* Gen. Syn, iii. p. 200,
Dd 3
 N°3- RudeT,
4. Showy T-
L.EN G T H fev-eninches: bill black: general colour Vfftht plum-1
age green, but the head and under parts are hoary; fides of the
head black; over the eyes a ftreak of white: throat white; beneath
this a curved bar of black: fhoulders yellow.
Inhabits the thick woods of Guiana: is a folitary bird; oftener
found fitting on the ground, than perched on a tree; and by no-
means endowed with a fong.
flavifrons, Muf. Carlf. fafc. iv. t
CIZE of the Rufous-headed Tanager: bill and legs black: crown,,
hind head, and beginning of the nape blue; but the feathers are
brown at the bafe; the forehead yellow: the reft of the plumage-
green, but inclining to yellow on the throat: quills and tail dufky
black.
Its native place is not mentioned, but we fufpect it to be South
America; and that it is very probably the young bird, or a female of
the one we have compared it with above-
 TANAGER.
Tanagra rudis, Muf. Carlf fafc. iv. tab. 94/
THIS is about eight inches in length: bill cinereous brown: the
top of the head, nape, and between the fhoulders, black brown:
back and rump rufly brown: breaft, belly, and vent, rufo-ferrogl-
nous: wings and tail dufky; the laft rather long: legs cinereous.
Inhabits the Coromandel Coaft, in the Eaft Indies,
RUDE
T.
"SCRIPTIOMV
Tanagra
ta, Muf. Carlf. fafc. iv. tab. 95.
CIZE of the Say am: the upper parts of a brownifh green; the
under pale grey : the head of a pale blueifh violet colour; the
leffer wing coverts not unlike the back; the middle ones tipped with
yellow, making a bar on the wing; the reft brownifh green: quills
black; the outer' margins greenifh yellow: tail not unlike the quills:
bUl an8 legs dufky grey.
Inhabit the £<»/? Indies.
 1   I   N   C   H.
Genus   XXXVIII.   FINCH.
i. Red-crowned F.
2. Swamp F.
3. Rofy F.
4. Crimfon-headed F.
5. PineF.
6. Foreft F.
7. Bearded F.
8. Chili F.
N° 9. Sharp-tailed F.
10. Georgian F,
11. Red Pole F.
12. White-headed F.
13. Sultry F.
14. NitidF.
15. Temporal F«
RED-
CROWNED
Fringilla ruticapiUa, Ind. Orn. i. p. 438. 14.—Muf. Carlf. fafc. ii. tab. 44.
•THE bill in this bird is brown; the plumage on the upper parts-
of the body of the fame colour: crown and hind head reddifh,
margined before and on the fides with black ; face and cheeks",-wliite, :
dotted with black: chin ferruginous; breaft ferruginous afh colour;
belly and vent afh colour: tail black.
Fringilla iliaca, Ind. Orn. i
—Merrem.'ic. av. p. 37. 1
CIZE of a Starling; length nearly feven inches: bill and legs yellow : checks   white:  body  above greyifh  olive,   the  feathers
tipped with black; beneath white; breaft fpotted with grey brown :
rump and tail rufous; the laft even at the end, and grey beneath.
Inhabits North America. I have feen this brought both from
Georgia and Hudfon's Bay; at the former it is rare; at the latter called
Great Sparrow, Swamp, or Wildernefs Sparrow.
 FINCH.
£07
Fringilla rofea, Ind. Orn. i. p. 444. 33.—Pall. It. iii. p. 699. 26.
3-
ROSY
CIZE of the Br ambling: the back is grey and brownifh, mixed with
a general tinge of rofe colour: face white: wings and tail dufky,
F.
Description.
externally margined with rofe colour.
Inhabits among the, willows about Uda and Selenga, in Sibiria; but
Pi ace.
not common.
Crimfon-headed Finch, ArB. Zool. ii. N° 257.
4.
CRIMSON-
HEADED
F.
Description,
THIS has a crimfon head and breaft, the firft faintly marked
■w ith dufky fpots; fpace behind each eye dufky : back, wing coverts, primaries, and tail black, edged with crimfon: belly white,
ii      1
tinged with red.
Inhabits New York; arrives«there in April; is very frequent among
the red cedars, and fhifts moft nimbly around the ftems.    The Crimfon-headed Finch, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 271. 29. feems to be a further va
Place.
riety.
m~
Fringilla Pinetorum, Ind. Orn. i. p. 445. tp.—Lepecb. It. ii. p. 188.
HP HIS is teftaceous, inclining to rufous above, beneath yellow 5
on the breaft a tranfverfe ferruginous band.
PINE
Description.
Inhabits the pine forefts of Sibiria.
Place.
Fringilla fylvatica, Ind. Orn. i. p. 446.41.—Lepech. It. ii. t. 7>f. 2.
FOREST
F.
Description.
Place.
HP H E head of this bird is fafciated; the body mixed grey and
black: breaft and belly hoary.
Found with the laft.
 abS FINCH.
BEARDED Fringilla barbata, Ind. Orn. i. p. 456. 76.—Le Siu, Molin. GUI. (Fr. ed.) p. 227.
F.
Description. CIZE and habit of the Canary Bird: the bill is white at the bafe,
towards the tip black: head black and velvety: body yellow,
with a flight tinge of green: wings variegated with green, yellow,
red, and black : tail brown : from the chin hangs an elongated tuft of
black feathers, like a beard, which in very old birds reaches to the
middle of the breaft. ""*£%■?&
The female is wholly grey; the wings fpotted with yellow; but is
deftitute of the chin beard-like feathers; and has not the leafl fong.
Place. Inhabits the  mountainous parts of Chili, next the fea;  builds in
trees, making the neft offtraw and feathers: the eggs are only two
in number. The flefh is accounted favoury, and is therefore in
much eftimation.
The male is often kept in a cage for the fake of its fong, and it '
is faid aLfo to be a mimic of others. The Spaniards call it jilguero,
or Goldfinch, which it fomewhat refembles in colour.
CHILI Frigilla Diuca, Ind. Orn. i. p. 456. 77. Molin. Chil. (Fr. ed.) p. 229.
F.
Description.     THIS is rather larger than the laft:   the general colour blue, with
the throat white.
Piacs. -    Inhabits Chili; chiefly about dwellings; fings remarkably well,
efpecially about fun-rife; it feems much allied to, if net the fame as
ilfiffj|ll_* the White-throated Grofbeak *.
SHARP-TAILED FrinSilIa caudacuta> M- *->*• *• P- 459- «S-
F.
Description.     HPHIS is four inches   and an half in length:  bill and legs pale:
iris dark brown: general colour of the plumage mottled brown
and pale rufous; the laft chiefly at the edges of the feathers: the
* Gen. Syn,
throat
 FINCH.
$iro8tis pale rufous, and a ftreak of the fame over the eyes; thejpw^r
part of the neck behind rufous, but darker than the throat: tail even
•at the end ; but the tips of the feathers run off to a fharp point.
Inhabits the internal parts of Georgia, in America. I met with this
at Mr. Humphries's, among other fpecimens brought from thence. It
was entitled Spotted Grafs Sparrow.
qa69
Fringilla Georgiana, Ind
i. p. 460. i
T ENGTH fix inches: bill dufky: irides brown: head brown,
fall of feathers: middle of the back dufky brown • the under
parts are white : chin and throat grey ; beneath the jaw a divaricated
ftreak of black : the leffer wing coverts are rufous, and the quills and
tail feathers are rufous on the outer edges: legs brown.
Found in the fame places as the laft.
GEORGIAN
F.
Description.
Fringilla cannabina, Ind. Orn. i. p. 458. 82.—Bolton's Br. Birds, pl. 29. 30.
Greater Red-headed Linnet or Redpole, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 304.
T HAVE been long inclined to think the poffibility of the Common
or Grey Linnet, as it is called, and rhe Redpole, proving only one
fpecies; and in this I am encouraged by that excellent obferver Mr.
Boys, of Sandwich, as well as by Colonel Montagu, both of whom have
.hinted their fufpicions in refpect to this fact; the way to account for
.it is, to fuppofe that the Common Linnet is not complete in refpect to
the red of the forehead, till the end of the fecond year at fooneft, yet
is capable of breeding in the firft fpring after being hatched. I have,
obferved in the male of the Grey Linnet, the head feathers to appev
externally like the reft of the upper parts, but on lifting them up, a
tinge of red was very manifeft. One of thefe birds brought to me in
ithe month of January, was feemingly in its change, for the feathers of
Supr. II. E c the
REDPOLE
F.
 RIPT10N.
F   IN   C   H.
the forehead were apparently grey, but on lifting them up with a pih;
they were fine crimfon in the middle. As to the red on the breaft,
it is well known that it is only to be feen at certain feafons; and if
the bird be kept in a cage, it entirely lofesit, fo as never to return \
during confinement.
CIZE of a Bulfinch : head, neck, and under parts from the breaftl
white, marked on the fides and under the wings with along patch
of black, charged with numerous white fpots; acrofs the breaft a.
broad bar of black communicating.with the black.on- the fides: before the, eye a crefcent. of black : tail fhort and black : the upper part
of the back, the wings, and tail, are rufous brown; the lower part of
the back and rump crimfon;, the bill, alfo is crimfon :. legs pale
brown.
Inhabits New South Wales.  From the drawings of General Davies..
Among the drawings of Mr; Lambert, I find a bird--greatly corre--
fponding with the above, and which may not unlikely prove different;
only in fex: the bill and legs-are the fame :.the head, inftead of whites',
is pale afh colour : back, wings,, rump, and tail, fimilar to the other,.
but-rather more pale;, but the crefcent of black on the upper part/
of the breaft is the fame, joining with the black on the fides in the.
fame manner, and the fides marked with the. fame white fpots; the-,
under parts from the.breaft.white,.
T ENGTH five inches and an half: bill dufky: general colour•
of the plumage fine pale rufous brown; the under parts are plain,,
but on the upper, each feather.is ftreaked down the middle with dufky ■
black, efpecially the. crown, where the ftreaks are .very broad, and i
diftinct: tail even at the end:, legs pale yellow.
Inhabits the Mahratta country in India.
 Iffibfohd or tJu^lci' dii-ccfr M/zvgo.itios by J,eujh.$ethd>y lt<$on..¥biik.xftrcei
  FINCH,
CIZE of a Houfe Sparrow: the bill pale red: legs yellow: plumage   D«
above, including the tail, pale afh colour; the under parts white,
but the fides next the wings incline to yellow: quills dull ferruginous
yellow: over the eyes a black band, paffing down a little way on the
ears in a broad patch.
Inhabits New South Wales.
NlTlD
F.
CIZE uncertain: bill and legs reddifh brown : crown of the head
blue grey : upper parts of the body, wings, and tail pale brown ;
all the under parts white: from the bill a dull crimfon ftreak arifes,
growing broader at the back part, and forming on the cheeks an oval
patch: rump crimfon.
Several drawings of birds probably allied to this, have come under
our obfervation : in one of them, the bill is crimfon, a broad ftreak
of the fame over the eye, and the rump and vent crimfon alfo: the
crown rather full of feathers: the whole of the upper parts of the
plumage and tail green; beneath greenifh white, with a flight reddifh
tinge on the breaft: tail fhort:—in another, the bill was pale red.;
the ftreak over the eye and the rump crimfon : tail fhort, as in the
other: the plumage above greenifh brown ; beneath cinereous white.
For thefe I am indebted to the drawings of General Davies; and in
thofe of Mr. Lambert, I have remarked a third, in which the- upper
parts were green; the under greenifh white: bill, -ftreak over the
eye, and rump, crimfon; but differed from the others in having the
tail much longer.
All thefe faid to inhabit New South Wales.
1
 PLANT-CUTTER.
Genus XXXIX.   PLANT-CUTTEL-
Ti IL L conic, flrait, ferrated on the edges,
Nostrils oval.
Tongue fhort, obtufe.
CHILI
PL. C.
Descriptio
* With f-ou.r Toes;
Phytotoma Rara, Ind. Orn. i. p. 466. 1.—Molin. Chil. (Fr. ed.) p. 234,-
Phytotome du Chili, ou Rara, Daudin. Orn. ii. p. 366.
^rZ"E of a Quail: bill very ftrong, pointed at the tip, half am
inch long, indented, like a faw on the edges : tongue very fhort,,.
blunt: irides brown : the back is dufky grey; the under parts paler :.
tail of a moderate length, rounded at the end : quills and tail feathers
fpotted with black. The foot confifts of four toes, three before and:
one behind ; the hind toe much fhorter than the forward ones.
Inhabits Chili, where it is far from uncommon. The voice is
rough, and the bird.at intervals utters the words Ra, Ra, very dif-
tinctly : its food is vegetables, perhaps, preferring the. parts next the
root, for with much pains, it digs about and cuts off the plants with
its bill, as it were with a faw,. clofe to the ground; from this circum-
flance, it does much injury to the gardens, and is detefted by the inhabitants. Thefe birds build the neft in high trees, well cloathed;
with leaves, and in unfrequented places; the eggs are white, fpotted
with red..
 I
  PL ANT-C UTTER.
' With three toes..
Eoxia trida&yla, iW. Orn. i. p. 397. 93.
Le Guifso Balito, Buf. Oif. iii. p. 471.
Phytotome d'Abyffinie, Daudin. Orn. ii. p. 366. 2.
Three-toed Grofbeak, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 471.
CIZE of the common Grofbeak; length about fix inches*, bill
brown: the head and fore part of the neck red; the reft of the
plumage black; about the fhoulders brownifh, with a. tinge of green::
the greater wing coverts appearing as black fcales, margined with:
white, flighdy tinged, with olive: taila trifle forked-..legs brown, with,
only three toes, two placed before and. one behind.
This is the defcription given by Mi Daudin, from adrawing fent him
figured- from a Nubian fpecimen: it feems,, however, to differ a little
from that defcribed by Buffon, for that bird is faid to bt black, with
not only the head and fore part of the neck of a beauriful red, but
that colour prolonged in a narrow band quite to the vent: wing
coverts brown, edged with white; and the quills edged with green.
M. Buffon-described his from Mr. Bruce's drawings done in Abyffmia,.
where it is faid to be afolitary fpecies, living on the kernels of almonds^.
the fhells of which it eafily breaks with, the bill.
 FL YCATCHER.
XL.    FLYCATCHER.
m u
Ferruginous Fl.
N° 15. Black crowned Fl.
2.
Melodious Fl..
16. Rufous-fronted Fl.
3-
Yellow-eared Fl.
17. Crimfon-bellied FL
4.
Yellow-tufted Fl.
18. Black-cheeked Fl.
■5-
Red-bellied Fl.
19. Muftachoe Fl.
6.
Paradife Fl.
20. Rofe-winged Fl.
7-
Defart Fl.
21. Coach-whip Fl.
8.
Cat Fl.
22. Black-breafted Fl.
.9.
Particoloured Fl.
23. Hooded Fl.
.10.
Javan Fl.
24. Rofe-breafted Fl.
11.
12.
White Fl.
Cambaian FL
25. Grey Fl.
26. Soft-tailed FL
i3-
-Southern Fl.
27. Orange-rumped FL
14
Supercilious Fl.
irERRUGINOUS
FL.
Mufcicapa ferruginea, Ind. Orn.
t.6.
ii. p. 477. \i.~—Merrem. Ic. Av. \
JDbsjcr.ip.tiok,
glZE of a Goldfinch; five inches and an half long: bill black,
depreffed at the bafe, with chefnut edges: general colour grey
brown; beneath yellowifh white: throat white: wings black; the
margins of the quills ferruginous: tail fhort and black; the wing?
reach to the bafe of it.
Inhabits Carolina.
 FLYCATCHER
Kfufcicapa Aedon, Ind. Orn. ii. p. 478. 42.
CIZE of the Reed Thrujh: above ferruginous brown; beneath
yellowifh white: tail cinereous brown, pretty long; the two middle feathers equal in length,, the outer are much fhorter.
Inhabits the rocky and funny places in Dauuria, where it is not uncommon : lings fweetly, and even in the night, in manner of the
Greater Nightingale, to which it is not inferior in melody, and fully
fupplies the place of that bird | the Nightingale not being found in
Sibiria. .
Mufcicapa Novae Hollandiae,Ind. O,
Yellow-eared Flycatcher, White's Jc
CIZE of a Martin; length feven inches : bill broad at the bafe, and
yellowifh: general colour of the plumage brown; whitifh beneath: belly quite white: behind the eyes, and'beneath them, a ftreak
of yellow, growing broader at the back part: tail pretty long, and the
middle feathers of it rather fhorter than the others;
Inhabits New Holland;
T HIS is considerably larger than the Hedge Sparrow: bill and
legs black : tongue briftly at the tip : the general colour of the
plumage on the upper parts is olive green: the crown, and all beneath,, from the chin, yellow: through the eyes, from the gape, a
large patch of black;, at the back part of which, on the ears, a tuft of
yellow, which tuft, confifts of feathers.longer than theothers: the outer
tail feathers yellow.
Inhabits New Holland, where it is called Darwang, and is. a common
9 fpecies..
 a.i6
n
FLYCATCHER.
fpecies. The EngHJh named it, as well as the laft, the YeUow-eared
Flycatcher: is faid to feed principally on honey, which it obtains from
the flowers, by means of its feathery tongue : makes the neft on the
extreme pendent branches of low trees or fhrubs, and by this means
efcapes the plunder of various fmaller quadrupeds, who are unable to
reach the neft with fafety. Whether this is allied to the laft, I will
not take upon me to afcertain.
ED-BELLIED
FL.
Mufcicapa erythrogaftra, Ind. Orn.
Red-bellied Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. i
1 p. 479.50.—Nat. Mifc
• P- 343- Pl- 5°-
xlix.pl-.147.
T H E S E birds are obferved to  be more  numerous   in Norfolk
'    Ifland, than in New South Wales; and feem to vary much.
In one from Port Jackfon, in the drawings of General Davies, the
head, neck, back, and wings, are flaty black: quills and tail black :
■chin and throat the fame, but paler; on the forehead a white fpot:
breaft purplifh or deep red lake colour: belly and vent white.
In another, the forehead is not white; inftead of which is a white
•ftreak over the eye : the chin is white: the general colour is black,
as in the others: breaft and belly crimfon : vent white : tail rather
fhorter than in common.    The native name Booddang.
In a third variety, there is an oblique ftreak of white on the wing -9
and moft of the outer tail feathers white.    I have alfo feen this fame
•vary with .the tail feathers wholly black.
In a fourth, the plumage, is black above; beneath wholly deep
crimfon:: forehead, juft over the bill, white: on the wing coverts
fome motlings of white.
A further variety has the general colour of the upper parts dufky
or cinereous black: the chin, fore part of the neck, and breaft, crimfon : fpot over the forehead, an oblique broad longitudinal ftreak
on the fhoulders of the wings, and all the belly and vent white. This
came from Port Jackfon, and was communicated by General Davies,
 FLYCATCHER.
a>7
Mufcicapa Paradifi, Ind. Orn. i
Paradife Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. i
p. 480. 54.
T Sufpect the Sifuil Boulboul and White Nightingale, fo called in India,
to be this bird: it is white; the head crefted, and mottled a little
about the fides and creft with black: the tail pretty long * : vent
red : bill like that of a Thrufh; that and the legs black. Another
of thefe had the creft biack, and the vent red ; no red about the eye :
it was called Full Doon, or Entire, or Full Tail, as the tail is pretty
long.
.Both thefe from India.
Dr. J. R. Forfter, in his notes on Bartolomeo's Voyage to the Eaft
Indies, wonders that this author could affert that the Bird of Paradife
exifted at Malabar f; but this point is without difficulty cleared up,
when we know that it is one of the names which the Paradife Flycatcher is known by in India.
Mufcicapa Deferti, Ind. Orn. ii. p. 478. 44.—Muf. Carlf. fafc. ii. t. 47. DESERT
FL
CIZE ofthe Long-tailed Titmoufe: bill yellowifh: legs black : ge-    Descriptic
neral colour of the plumage dufky ruft colour:  wings and tail
black ; the laft half as long again as the body.
Inhabits the deferts of Africa; met with between the river Heui Place,
and the fpring Quamodacka.
* The tall of this, in a drawing which came under my infpedtion, appeared to be
forked; but I have not obferved this circumftance in real fpecimens which I have yet
f See a tranflation of this work by William fohnfton, 8vo. 1800. p. 224. Note *.
 F L Y C A T C H E R.
CAT
FL.
Mufcicapa Carolinenfis, Ind. Orn. ii. p. 483. 64.
Cat or Chicken Bird, Bartr. Trav. p. 288.
Cat Flycatcher, Gen. Syn. iii. p. 353. 54.
HP H I S breeds in Pennfylvania; I have likewife received it from/
Georgia: it is faid to be very little inferior in fong to the Mocking
Bird; but as an imitator of others, it far exceeds it, for it repeats the
melodious and variable airs from inftrumental mufic : it will alfo-
often imitate the notes of chickens, and efpecially their cry when in
diftrefs, infbmuch as frequently to put the mother into a great fright
when no danger is nigh : is an early fongfter, often beginning before
day-break; feeds on both infects and fruits; comes in the fpring, and;
breeds there, making the neft in coppices and in gardens, near habitations : the irides are dark brown..
PARTI
COLOURED
FL.
Dj-scrip-tioh.
Mitfcicapa dichroa, Ind. Orn. ii. p. 490. 94;
 bicolor, Muf. Carlf fafc. ii.pl. 46,
T<HI S is eight inches in length: bill and legs dufky: the general'
colour of the plumage cinereous above, and yellow oker coloured;
beneath: wing coverts hoary on the  margins : tail about the fame
length as the body; the feathers of it oker coloured and cinereous.
Inhabits the fouthern parts of Africa.
JAVAN Mufcicapa Javanica, Ind. Orn. ii. p. 490. g^.—Mufi Carlf fafc. iii. pl. 7-5.
escription.      cIZE of the Spotted Flycatcher: bill and legs black : feathers on
the upper furface dufky, with ferruginous margins;  beneath, on
the forepart of the neck, a bar of black; over the eye a line of whiter:
tail pretty long, rounded at the end;  the four middle feathers wholly.
black; the others black, with the ends white.
Place.    -,jB| Inhabits Java..
 FLYCATCHER
Mufcicapa alba, Ind. Om
-Muf Carlf. fafc. iii. pl. 74.
THIS bird is wholly white, the head a little tinged with brim-
.flone: tail long, as in the Wagtail; from this circumftance, the
.flendernefs of bill, and make of the whole bird, it would appear rather
to belong to that genus than to the Flycatcher^
Found at Stockholm.
WHITE
FL.
Descriptiom
Mufcicapa. Cambaienfis, Ind. Orn. ii. p. 490. 97.
CIZE of the Black-capped Flycatcher: bill depreffed, broadifh,
dufky, with a few hairs at the bafe : the colour of the upper parts
of the body is black, with a yellowifh green tinge on the back;
beneath fulvous yellow: wing coverts white at the ends, from whence
arifes a double band of that colour on the wing: legs blueifh.
Inhabits  Cambaia: defcribed from a fpecimen in the Britifh Mufeum.
Southern Motacilla, White's Journ. pl. in p. 239.
T HIS rather exceeds the Cinereous Flycatcher in fize: bill and legs
pale brown: the general colour of the plumage is cinereous
brown on the upper parts and tail; the under a fine yellow \ over
the eye a ftreak of yellow, and a double trace of the fame behind it:
the chin and vent paler than the reft of the under parts.
Inhabits New holland. The fpecimens vary; fome of them have
the crown, hind part of the neck, and back, blueifh brown: wings
brown ; the edges of the quills whitifh: the traces above and beneath
the eye white; and the ends of the two middle tail feathers white:
the crown feems alfo fuller of feathers. I fufpect that thefe two differ only in fex.
Ff 2
SOUTHERN
FL.
Description.
 I
SUPERCILIOUS
FL.
Description.
Rjfj
BLACK-
CROWNED
FL.
Description.
RUFCUS-
FRONTED
FL.
Description.
FLYCATCHER.
Mufcicapa fuperciliofa, Muf Carlf. fafc. iv. pl. 96.
J^IZE of the Small Thrujh : the upper parts of .the head, taking ins
the eyes, neck, back, and wings, are dark brown ; from the noftrils, over the eyes, a broad ftreak of white : chin and throat ferrugi-
nous ; from thence to the vent fine pale afn colour : the tail rounded
at the end; two middle feathers like the back, the others ferruginous,
with the inner margins and tips brown I bill black, with, a pale brown
bafe : legs pale brown.
Mufcicapa meloxantha, Muf Carlf fdfc.iv. pl. 97.
CIZE of the White Throat: bill black: general colour of the upper
parts of the plumage dufky afh: crown, and forehead black:
wing coverts black, with the tips and margins yellow: the under
parts from chin to vent yellow: quills black,, edged with yellow : tail.
,fhort, rounded, black; all the feathers tipped with white, but the outer-
one has the end for nearly a fourth of the length of that colour: legs;
dufky.
The native places of the two laft are not afcertained.
CIZE of the Nightingale, but more flender: the crown of the head,,
back of the neck, the wing coverts, and half of the tail, and under
parts of the body from the breaft, palebrown : the forehead, middle-
of the back, and bafe of the tail are of a deep rufous, inclining to red ::
chin, fore part of the neck and breaft yellowifh white; fpotted on the
ears and breaft with black: on the middle of the neck before, a large
patch of black : tail rather long, and in a fmall degree cuneiform |
bill and legs pale brown,
a Inhabits.
  V/rtvmJ^m^s&ecue<&> >jr^cafcA^r.
 FLY CAT CHER.
Inhabits New South Wales, where it is known by the  name of
Burril: has hitherto only been met with in November.
T ENGTH five inches and a half: bill and legs pale brown :.
plumage olive brown above; but from the bafe of the bill to the middle of the crown, taking-in the eye, black, and paffing backwards into
a point on the ears : the chin and fides of the neck are white : breaft
and belly deep crimfon : the wings are black; but the quillsjtre white
halfway from the bafe: tail longifh; the two middle feathers wholly
black ;v the others the fame half-way from the bafe, the reft of the
length white : the wings reach one third on the tail.
Inhabits New South Wales: fpecimens of this fpecies are fcarce.
CIZE of the White Throat: plumage above brown ; beneath pale
yellow, growing white towards the vent: crown of the head
black, and a broad ftreak of the fame occupies the fides of the cheeks,
beginning beneath each eye : the quills arc darker than the reft, fome
of them edged with yellow : tail longifh : bill black : legs blueifh.
Inhabits New South Wales; met with there in July.
BLACK
CHEEKED
FL.
T ENGTH from eight to nine inches: bill flender; black:" legs
black : tongue fringed at the tip : general colour of the plumage
pale green; but the under parts from chin to vent greenifh yellow.;
the laft moft confpicuous on the chin and breaft: from the gape
fprings a black band, which grows broader, and paffes under the eye
to the hind head, where it is fringed with yellow.
Inhabits
MUSTACHOE
FL.
 F Lt C AT CHER,
Inhabits New South Wales ■, is a pugnacious bird, attacking others,
efpecially the fmaller Parakeets. ■ £?_||jjjg
ROSE-WINGED
I
COACH-WE
FL.
Dbscriptio
BLACK-
BREASTED
FL.
DESCRIPTION.
g IZ E of a Nightingale: bill and legs brown : general colour of
the plumage brown; beneath white : the feathers of the crown feem
loofe, giving the appearance of a creft, and fpotted with black: the
middle of the outer quills, and the four middle tail feathers, from the
bafe to three-fourths of the length, are rofe colour, the laft marked
with a few black fpots.
Inhabits New South Wales.
gIZE of a Thrujh: general colour  of the plumage flaty black:
chin and throat croffed with fine lines of dufky white : the feathers
of the crown are long, and can be erected into a creft: tail flightly
cuneiform : bill flout, blacks legs flender, black : irides blue.
Inhabits New South Wales; native name Djou. It has a long fingle
note, not unlike the crack of a coachman's whip, hence called the
Coach-whip Bird; it appears a lively fpecies, and menacing in its
manners; for erecting the creft, it gains a formidable appearance,
which it takes the advantage of in contending with other birds, efpecially Parakeets, about the right of extracting honey from the
flowers; it is not a common fpecies.
THIS is rather more than eight inches long: bill  brown; legs
black: the head, taking in the eyes, the nape, and fides of the
neck, are black, continuing in a band on the breaft; within this, the
chin
 FLYCATCHER.
chin and throat are white: the upper parts of the body are greenifh
yellow ; the under yellow : wings black; but the coverts are edged
with yellow: the tail black, with a yellow tip.
This fpecies is found at New South Wales, in April.
HOODED
15ILL and head black; the laft full of feathers : general colour of    Descr
the plumage clouded black; but the under parts are white: the
whole of the wings and tail are black ;. but the leffer quills are fringed,
with white : legs dufky.
Inhabits New South Wales. Place
THE upper parts of this bird are pale brown; the under r.
breaft rofe colour, inclining to carmine;  on the wing coverts a
few pale fpots: the bill is brown, rather long, and bent towards the
point: irides blueifh : legs brown.
Inhabits New South Wales.
Description
THIS is nearly the fize of a Sparrow: bill rather broad, fur-     Desc
nifhed with a few briftles at the bafe, and black: the upper
parts of the body and wings are pale flaty grey; beneath from chin
to vent pale yellow : quills and tail dufky black :' legs pale brownifh
flefh colour.
Inhabits New South Wales. •
 FLYCATCHER.
SOFT-TAIL
FL.
Dsscrirtic
Soft-tailed Flycatcher, Lin. Tranf. iv. p. 240. pl. 21.
T  ENGTH from bill to rump three inches: bill brownifh black;
bafe furnifhed with ftrong briftles; noftrils low down on the bill:
the general colour of the plumage ferruginous, but the feathers of the   I
upper parts of the body and wing are ftreaked down their middle with
brownifh black ; the middle of the belly nearly white: over the eye,
arifing at  the bafe of the bill, is a pale blue ftreak: throat and fore   I
part,of the neck of the fame blue colour: the feathers of the rump   I
are foft, long, and filky: wings fhort, fcarcely reaching to the bafe of
.the   tail: the quills   are dufky, edged with ferruginous: the tail is I
four inches or more in length;  ahe fhafts very flender and black, the I
webs on each fide confifting of minute flender hairy black filaments,
placed at diftances, and diftinct from each other, as in the feathers of
the Cafifowary: legs pale brown.
The female \s like the male in colour, but wants both the blue ftreak
over the eye, and the chin and throat are of the fame colour as the
reft of the under parts.
Inhabits New Holland; being found about Sidney and Botany Bay, I
in marfhy places, abounding with long grafs and rufhes, which afford
it an hiding place, and where, like the Bearded Titmoufe, it is fuppofed
to make the neft; when difturbed, its flight is very fhort, and is
found to run on the ground with great fwiftnefs ; feeds on fmall flies
and other infects. The name it is known by in the country is Merion
Binnion, or Cafifowary Bird; we are indebted to General Davies for
the above notices concerning this Angular bird, which is well represented in the Linnaan Tranfaftions.
 FLYCATCHER;
•THE head and neck in this fpecies are pretty full of feathers, and
black: back and rump orange colour or reddifh; all the under
parts of the body are white, marked with feveral longifh ftreaks of
black on the breaft: wings and tail brown; the feathers of the laft
have the webs much feparated and diftindt from each other, as in the
Soft-tailed Flycatcher: legs pale brown. ,,®1^^
Inhabits New South Wales; and is an active fpecies, frequently carrying the tail erect, and expanding the fame at the moment it fprings
from a branch on its prey.
Supp. II.
Gg
 LARK.
Genus  XLI.     LARK.
N° 4. D&efa's L.
5, Ferruginous L„
' N° 1. SkyL.
2. Dufky L.
3. Yeltonian L..
Alauda arvenfis, Ind. Orn. ii. p. 49.
Sky Lark, Gen. Syn. iv. p. 368. x.
COME of thefe birds will.meafure as far as eight inches in length, ,
and even more,
I find that the cuftom paid at Leipfic for Larks, amounts to 12,000
crowns per annum, at a Groficb, or 2 § pence fterling, for every fixty-
Larks. The quantities may feem prodigious, but the fields appear
to be covered with them from Michaelmas to Martinmas ;.that they
do not all breed here is manifeft, from the fudden appearance of
fuch vaft flocks. But this is not confined to Germany; for we are.
informed, that the fame circumftance happens about Cairo, in Egypt,
in refpect to Larks, as they come to that place, about the beginning :
of September, and continue for fome days; during which, they are
taken in vaft quantities in nets, and efteemed foreating. They are I
fuppofed to come from Barbary, and are called in Egypt, Asfiour.
Dsjebali, or Mountain Birds *.
 LARK.
AJauda obfcura, Ind. Orn. ii. p. 494. 7. '2.
Alauda pantherana, Gerin. Orn. iv. pl. 375. f. 1. DUSKY  '
Spipola paluftris, Gerin. Orn. iv. t. 388 f. I ! L'
I L'alouette pipi, Pl. Enl. 661. f. 2. ^'^^^
Sea Lark, Tfalcot's Birds, ii. N° 191.
Dufky Lark, Lew.in's Birds, iii. pl. 94.
Rock Lark, Lin. Tranf. iv. p, 41. (Montagu) pl. ii. f. 3. the egg.
THIS fpecies rather exceeds feven inches in length ; and weighs    Description.
from fix to feven drams : the bill is ' flender, three-fourths of
an jnch long, dufky, with a darker point: the plumage on the upper
parts of the bird dufky greenifh afh colour ; the middle of each feather darker : fore part of the neck and breaft mottled dufky white
and brownifh afh colour: the chin, and fore part of the neck, dufky
. white ; and the middle of the breaft is like the fore part of the neck,
but paler: belly dufky yellowifh white: the wings are much the fame
colour as the back, but edged with a paler colour: the four firft
prime quills are nearly of equal lengths, the fecond a trifle longeft;
the fecond quills almofl even with the firft at the ends: tail full .
thljee inches long, even, of much the fame colour as the quills; the
outer feather has all the outer web and half the inner cinereous
white • the next whitifh at the tip : legs brown; hind claw crooked,
no longer than the toe, which is the fame length as the outer one
before. IIM^Sv-7'*
This, till within a few years.pad, has not been fufficiently difcri-
minated. I faw it firft among the preferyed birds of the late Mr.
Leman, where it was* marked as a Angular variety *. Mr. Walcot
and Mr. Lewin, afterwards found it in the marfhes of Kent -, and Colonel Montagu likewife met -with it in more places than one, in fimilar
fituations.    This gentleman 7obfervesy that it  is only to be feen on
* I fufpect. it to be tiie1 Variety of the Titlark, in Br. Zool. fol. pl. -P, i.
G g a the
 1
I-   A   R   K.
the fea fhores, or at leafl a little more than a quarter of a mile from
the fea water, and efpecially in rocky firuations, at leaft no where-
except in places where the tide occafionally covers. It makes the .
neft in the tufts of grafs on the fhelves of rocks, &c. by the. fea fide,
where it is rarely to be got at without the help of a ladder. The
neft is made of dry grafs, marine plants, and a little mofs, lined with
finer grafs, and a few long hairs. The eggs of a dirty white, fpotted
with brown, moftly fo at the larger end. This fpecies is not obferved to affociate in large flocks like other Larks, only three or four
having been feen together. Marine infects feem to be its principal
food. The note is a very infignificant one, being very rarely more than
a chirp, not unlike that of a Grafshopper. For a fuller, account, confult
Linn. Tranfi. iv. p. 41. &c.
Mauda Yeltoi
(Forfter.)
;nfis, Ind. Orn. ii. p. 496. 16.—Phil. Tranf. Ivii. p.' 350,
CIZE of the Starling: bill cylindric, flrait and pointed; bafe black.,
with the tip very pale; tongue bifid : the colour of the plumage
js black, varied on the head, back, and fhoulders with rufous: the
fixth quill has the outer margin white; the two middle tail feathers
are rufous, the others like the reft of the plumage: the hind toe pretty
ftrait; and larger by much than the others.
This inhabits the neighbourhood of the Volga; found about the lake
Yelton: that it is gregarious, and very fat in Auguft, at which time it
is of a moft exquifite flavour.
Alauda Novae Zealandiae, Ind. Orn. ii. p. 497. 19. (S3
Cinereous Lark, Portlock, Voy. pl. in p. 37.
CIZE of a Titlark; length fix inches: bill and legs black: the
upper parts of the. body afh colour; the under very pale afh colour,
 L   A    R   K.
four, inclining to white towards the vent: quills and tail black; the
outer edges of the quills, and the outer tail feathers white.
This inhabits .New Zealand: defcribed from Captain Dixon's drawings ; and except in being lefs, feems greatly allied to the New Zealand Lark.
Alauda Gorenfis, Muf Carlf fafc. iv. pi. gg.
THE bill.in this bird is brown;, the crown,, nape, and beginning
of the back, dufky, the feathers margined with ferruginous: back
and rump deep ferruginous; chin and under parts ferruginous, but the
throat and breaft have each feather ftreaked'with dufky: belly much
the fame, but the ground nearly white r vent white: quills very pale
on the margins: the feathers of the tail have the margins nearly
white; but the middle ones are ferruginous brown, and the outer-
rnoft towards the end obliquely white, marked with a triangular foot
of white at the tip: legs pak%
FERRUGINOUS;
L.
Description,
 23°
W   A   G   T   A   I  X.
Genus XLII.     WAGTAIL.
N° i. White W.
2. Dauurian W.
3. Hudfonian W;
N° 4. Black-crowned W.
5. New. Holland.W.
Motacilla alba, Ind. Orn. ii. p. 501. 1 Ger. Orn. iv. pl. 385. 1.
White Wagtail, Gen. Syn. iv. p. 395. 1.
J^ROM various obfervations made by my friends and myfelf, it appears clear that there is very little jf any diftinction of fex in adult,
birds of this fpecies; neither fex gains the black about the head and
throat the firft feafon after hatching; but as fpring comes on, both
fexes gradually obtain it, and both again lofe it after incubation ; not
perhaps wholly, for in old birds fome traces are vifible at moft time*
and under this mafk have been defcribed as different birds. This cir-
cumftance likewife happens in refpect to the Grey Wagtail,- which is
only met with in the fouthern and weftern parts of England in the
winter months. I faw one of them at the edge of a rivulet in my
garden, September 28 of the laft year, but they do not often appear before Obipber. That both fexes have a black throat, I am well informed, and more or lefs tracing of it may be obferved before their
departure towards the north in fpring, where they breed. However -
authors may multiply this genus, we have certainly no more than
three in England; viz. the White Wagtail, common almofl every,
where at a?U feafons; the Grey Wagtail, inhabiting all the fouthern
counties the winter half of the year, departing northward as fpring approaches ; and the Yellow Wagtail, which is not obferved any where"
except in 'the fummer feafon.
 WAGTAIL.
Motacilla melanopa, Ind. Orn. ii. p. 503. 5.—Pal. It. iii; p. 696. 16.
THIS fpecies has the habit of the Yellow Wagtail, but is not fo
large; the legs alfo are fmaller: the general hue is blueifh afh
colour above, beneath yellow : lore and throat black : over the eye a
ftreak of white, beginning at the gape: the three outer tail feathers
are white, except the outer margin, which is black.
Inhabits the eaftern borders. of Dauuria.
Motacilla Hudfonica, Ind. Orn
p. 503.6.-
T ENGTH fix inches: bill pretty fhort, yellowifh brown; legs
the fame: plumage above brown, the feathers margined with
ferruginous : chin and throat pale ferruginous, ftreaked with dufky :
breaft, belly, and vent dufky white: quills dufky -, fecond quills
edged with ferruginous: tail three inches long; the outermoft feather
white; the next to it on each fide white, with the inner margin-
brown ; the third dufky, with a flender ftreak of white down the
middle; the others plain dufky :  the tail even at the end.
Inhabits Hu-dfonls Bay: the name it is there known by is Puck-i-
tow-o-Jhifk.
CIZE of our Wagtail: bill and legs yellow: crown of the head
black : back and wings red brown ; the under parts of the bird
white, inclining to orange on the breaft: the quills are black': tail
long, fomewhat cuneiform; the middle feathers a little pointed;
colour of all of them red brown halfway from the bafe ; from thence
to the end yellowifh.
Inhabits. New South Wales; but is a fcarce bird.
HUDSONIAN
W.
Description.
BLACK-.
CROWNED
 1
WAGTAIL.
gl Z E and habit of our Grey Wagtail: bill and legs black: tongue*
briftly at the tip: the general colour of the plumage above pale
blue; beneath pale yellow:  the quills and tail are black ;  the laft remarkably long: the baftard wing is fmall, and of a reddifh white.
Inhabits New South Wales, I- >f%^
 WARBLER.
m
Ginvs XLIII.    WARBLER.
N° u Nightingale.
N° 22. Cafpian W.
2. Greater Pettichaps.
33. Black-backed W.
3. Leffer Pettichaps.
84. Perfian W.
4. Sardinian W.
25. Cambaian W.
5. Rufous-crowned W.
26. Guzurat W.
6. Wood Wren.
• 27. Afiatic W.
7. Yellow Wren.
28. Yellow-vented W.
t. Leffer White-throat.
29. Streaked W.
9. Grafshopper W.
30. Terrene W.
10. Dartford W.
31. Black-cheeked W.
11. Prothonotary W.
32. Rufous-vented W.
12. Plata W
33. Gold-bellied W.
13. Black Poll W.
34. Ruddy W.
14. Cowled W.
35. ChafteW.
15. Indigo W.
36. White-tailed W.
16. Loufiana W.
37. Crimfon-breafted W.
17.^ Mediterranean W.
38. Rufly-fided W.
18. Ferruginous W.
39. Swallow W.
19. White-collared W.
40. Variable W.
20. Long-billed W.      i
41. Flame-coloured W.
21. Shore W.
42. Dwarf W.
Sylvia Lufcinia, Ind. Orn. ii. p. 506.
.—Gerin. Orn. iv. pl. 400. f. 1. and 2.                       j.
Nightingale, Gen. Syn. iv. p. 408. 1.
NIGHTINGA1
tN Lower Egypt, at leafl in the moft eaftern part of that quarter of
the globe, the Nightingale is very common; alfo in the iflands of
Supp. II. H h the
 WARBLE RY
the Archipelago, at the period of their emigration*. In fome parts-
of Germany are alfo great numbers, for we are told, that they are-
found in vaft abundance in the w-ood of Rvfendahl, neas Drefiden; in
which neighbourhood Larks alfo are in fuch amazing quantities, as
to furnifh a confiderable revenue to the crown f.
It has not efcaped the writers on this fubject, that the males anrTfemales of fome birds, for inftance, Chaffinches, feparate for a time into different flocks, each flock confifting of one fex only; but my ingenious -
friend Colonel Montagu hints to me, that the males of all the Warblers come firft, and if the weather fhould afterwards prove- cold,.
with the wind at Eaft or North,,all communication is cut offbetween.-
the fexes till the wind changes, frequently for* a fortnight or more;
but if the weather is warm, with a South or Weftwind^ the females
follow the males in-a few days. Tine arrival of the females may be
foretold by the fihging of the males :■ if they are very vociferous,
the females may be immediately expected'; if, on-the contrary, none
will appear, for both are actuated by the fame caufe; the fame fti-
mulus that occafions the fong in one, gives the other locomotion to-
feek its mate; and from this caufe no doubt it is that more males -off
the Nightingale are-taken than females..
Motacilla hortenfis, Ind. Orn. ii. p. 507. 3.
GREATER Ficedala cinerea major, Bigia, Ger. Orn. iv. t. 395. 1 ?"
PETTICHAPS.   ' Die Baftardnachtigale, Naturf. 27. S..39. 1. (Beckftein.) -
Greater Pettichaps, Gen. Syn. iv. p. 413. 3..feci. 2d.
Description.     THIS fpecies weighs about five drams; the length nearly fix..
inches: the bill a trifle broader at the bafe, than the common;-
White-throat: irides dufky yellow: the upper parts of the bird in
general, light brown, inclining to olfve green : quills and tail edged
* Seitnin. Travels, ii, p. 5J. 52.
t 6jCoo dollars.   Ktyfltr.
with
 WARBLER.
"with the fame: below the ears a dafh of afh colour: throat, neck,
and upper part of the breaft, dirty white, inclining to dull buff colour : lower part of the breaft, belly, and under tall coverts white;
beneath the wings buff: legs dufky. When in fine plumage, an ob-
fcure ftreak of pale or yellowifh colour appears over the eye.
In one of thefe, from Mr. Boys, of Sandwich,\ obferved the tongue
to be jagged at the end; the length was five inches and three quarters,
in breadth eight inches and three quarters. This was a female. Colonel Montagu met with it in Gloucefterjhire; but remarks, that he has
never feen it in Cornwall, notwithftanding he has been long refident
there. I have met with it in more than one place in Kent, and have
heard of it .in Berkjhire and other parts, but believe it to be no where
exceedingly common. The males of this fpecies come generally the
laft week in April, the females a few days later. It builds in thick
bufhes or hedges, compofed of dried fibres, fome wool, and a little
green mofs outwardly; within fometimes lined with horfe-hair. The
eggs generally four in number, weighing each thirty-fix grains;"
colour a dirty white, marked with brownifh fpecks, pretty numerous,
and running frequently together at the larger end..
In fong, this bird is little inferior to the Nightingale, either-in melody or variety. Some of its notes are fweetly and foftly drawn,
others are quick, lively, loud, and piercing, but reaching the diftant
ear without inharmonious difcord.
Mr. Beckftein thinks the fong to be even more varied than that of
the Nightingale, burfting into various kinds of modulation as it proceeds, and at times warbling like'the Houfe Swallow; and obferves that
it is found in Sweden and Germany throughout, departing thence the
latter end of Auguft.
Its general food appears to be infects, which it fearches for under
the leaves, but will frequently come into gardens, when in the neighbourhood of its haunts, making free with fruits likewife. The young
Hh? are
*35
 LESSER
PETTICHAPS.
WARBLE   •$*
are obferved to remain in the neft till they are grown very targe,, aadi
almoft as well feathered as the parents.
Sylvia Ifippojtos, Ind. Orn. ii. p. 507. 4.
Motacilla Fitis, Nuturf. 27. S. 50. 5.
Leffer Pettichaps, Gen. Syn. iv. p. 413. 3*.
Chirping Willow Wren, White's Selborne, p. 45;
HIS has been fufficiently defcribed before in the Synopfis. fl
fometimes comes before the 20th of March f, but is in general?
Ije&re the ift of ApnU, <&$-$rring before the end of September; and is
perhaps as early as any migrant, if we except the Wryneck: the -
weight is about two drams;, fengeh five inches;, breadth eight inches:
tn«jfirffc quills fhorter than the fecond,. and the two middle feathers*
rather fhorreft.
We believe this bird to be every where pretty common; but it has ~
not been obferved in Guernfey, although the Willow Wren, a much.
more fcarce bird, is there in plenty.
, This fpecies is perpetually finging, or rather chirping.: the notes;
feemingly like the words.Twit, Twit,~Twtt, Twit, Twit, haftily and*
delicately repeated, or as Mr. Beckftein calls it Fit; and from whence
he has derived.his name..
SARDINIAN Sylvia melanoeephala; Ind. Orn. ii. p. 509. 7.—Celt. Ucc. Sard. p. 215.
Discretion.     T HI S is faid to be fraalfer than the Blackcap, but very like H§ of
a greenifh afh. colour above, and grey beneath :'crown black,
and a red band over the eyes.-
Placi. Inhabits Sardinia: has very little of a fong.
11 once beard it on the 14th of March.
 WARBLE
Sylvia mofchita, Ind. Orn. i. p. 509.*8.—Cett. Uc. Sard. p. 215.
THFS is lead colour, with* a rufous crown.
Inhabits Sardinia: the eggs of the Cuckow faid to be frequently
laid in the neft of this bird. There is-little doubt but M. Cetti has
unneceffarilymade two fpecies of this and the laft, as they appear to
be no other than the male- and female- Blackcap;.
Regulus non criflitus major, Br if. Or,
Will. Orm p. 164.—-Ray's Letters, p.
Motacilla Sibilatrix, Das Laubvolchen, Maturf. 27. p. 47. 4,
Larger, not crefted. Wren, Will. Orn.  (Engl. ed,),p.  228.-
514- C.
Larger Yellow Wren, White Selb. p. 55.
Sylvia Sylvicola, Wood Wren, Lin. Tranf. ii
T HAVE ever had my doubts of this bird being a variety of any
fpecies before defcribed; but it is to my friends that I am indebted
for' fixingrit as a diftinct fpecies. It is indeed not greatly differing
in colour from the Willow Wren; but is of a more elegant make* apd,
the colours infinitely brighter. The length is five inches and an
half; the-Weight two drams forty-two grains: the bill is horn colour: irides hazel: noftrils-furnifhed with briftles: upper parts of
the body-in general yellow green : throat, • cheeks, and under part of
the fhoulders yellow; breaft paler yellow: belly and vent a moft
beautiful filvery white: over the eye a ftreak of yellow : feathers of
the wings moftly,brownifh,,with green margins' outwardly, and inwardly whitifh: - tail rather forked, dufky brown, edged with green :
legs horn colour.
The-female caught on the neft weighed three drams.
This  is a migratory fpecies, the males as ufual coming firft, and
as Colonel Montagu obferves, there is a greater diftance between the
* arrival;
■Ind. Orn. ii. p. 550? $1—- &
WOOD WREN.
p.35.—/</. vol. H.p. 245.pl. 2.
 WARBLER.
•arrival of the two fexes than in any other bird, being often a week
or ten days between. Firft obferved the very end of April: are
ofteneft feen in coppice woods of oak or beech, about eighteen or
twenty years growth • on the top of the moft lofty of which, it may
he found uttering a kind of fibilous note, during which it expands
the wings, and moving them in a -fhivering or fluttering manner.
- Some have compared the note to that of the Bunting, but more fhrill;
rit has alfo other kinds of notes, which may be compared to that of the
Marfih Titmoufe, or the fpring note of the Nuthatch* The place of
refidence will ever detect it, as it is not to be met with in hedges or
bufhes, but in woods only. It makes the neft on the ground, beneath the fhade of trees, conftructing it of dry grafs, dead leaves, and
mofs, lined with finer grafs, and a few long hairs.; in fhape oval;
the entrance near the top, like thofe of the Yellow Wrm and Pettichaps, but materially different, as thofe birds line the neft with feathers.
The eggs weigh from eighteen to twenty-two grains, are whiter
fprinkled all over with ruff-coloured fpots, and in fome the markings
are confluent *. They are generally fix or feven in number; and.the
young are hatched in thirteen days f.
Sylvia Trochilus, Ind. Orn. Ii. p. 530. 155.
Afilus, Small Yellow Bird, Raii Syn. p. 80. A. ro.
Afilus, Le Pouillot, ou Chantre, Brifs. iii. 479. 45.
Der Weidenzeifig, Naturforfch. 27. S. 54. 6.
Mufcicapa Cantatrix, Green Wren, Bartram. Trav. p.:
Yellow Wren, Gen. Syn.iv. p. 512. 147.
THIS, if we except the Gold-crefted Wren, is the fmalleft of our
European birds: feldom meafures more than four inches and a
quarter in length,_-_a_i}d the breadth fix inches and three quarters: the
• In Lin. Tranf. iv. tab. 1
t Mr. Beckftiin.
. is the reprefentation of it.
 "sail' fbmewh'at-lefs than two inches :• the plumage above is brownifSi
green, the head darkeft; and. moft. inclined to green towards th©
tail: over the eyes a dufky yellowifh ftreak : i beneath, the body-
dufky. vvhite^tinged lightly on the fides of the- neck and breaft with
red : knees greenifh grey: tail even at the end; and the quills dufky,-.
wittapale edges: ■ legs pale.
The female differs very little from the male,, except in being paler j.v
but in the young birds, the tinge of green is more confpicuous than:
in. the adult, and in this ftate fomewhat approaches ifrcolour to the
Wood Wren, which is above an inch' longer, befides differing in other
particulars. This fometimes appears in the laft week in March, but-
more, frequently not till the firft in April; and this circumftance alone
will diftinguifh'both this and.the Leffer Pettichaps from the Wood Wren*
which feldomappears, before the end of thelaft-named month*.
Sylvia Sylviella, Ind: Orn. ii. p; 515;. 24, _
Motacilla longiroftra, Der Spifskopf. Naturf. 27. S. 43. 2i-
Leffer White-throat, Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 185-.pl. 113...
THIS is fuffkiently defcribed in our former. Supplement, fo as
to. make any thing further on that head unneceffary. Mr. Beck-
ftein makes the length of its bill,,a characteriftic diftinction, and it
certainly is a trifle more fo in proportion than in the Reed Wren,.
Willow Wren, x>r Leffer Pettichaps; but it appears even greater than
it really is, from.the face itfelf being a trifle prolonged. It both.
hops and'flies well, and may be obferved at times fitting with its.bill
upright, continuallyopening and fhutting.it, and hacfhly uttering the
words aetfch atfch*. I muft. not omit, that*a few* years fince I received this very bird from Sweden, under the name of Motacilla Cur--
ruca; but whether it is the fame or not with what goes by the name
®t,Ktuka in that country, and is defcribed under that head in the
 WARBLE   R.
Fauna Suecka *, can fcarcely  be  determined.    I  have in  another
place-j- given fome reafons for fuppofing k to be the Mot. Sylvia of
Linmeus; but whether I may have been right in that conjecture, or
that it is the Mot. Curruca of mat aJtijh'or, or diftinct from eith^l|
leave others to determine.
q. Sylvia lo'6£Ee«a, Ind. Orn. ii. p. 515. 25.
(GRASSHOPPER Ficeduhi pe^pre.iufco, Gerin. Orn. iv. t. 393. 2 ?
W, Fauvette tachetee, Pl. Enlum. 581. 3. m^Uifi
Grafshopper Warbler, Gen. Syn.iv. p. 429. 20.
D 1-sr.iptjon. CI Z E of a Reed Wren; the weight three drams, fometimes more:
length rather more than fix inches; expands feven inches and
an half: the bill is flender; the upper mandible dufky, the under
whitifh, with a dufky tip: over the eye in the male is an indiftinct trace,
■of buff colour: the upper parts of the plumage not unaptly refembles
the Sedge Warbler; but the tail differs, for it is cuneiform in a confi- ..
fiderable degree, the two middle feathers being full two inches and an
half long, and much pointed at the tips; the outer one only one inch
and a quarter, and rounded at the ends, the intermediate ones decreasing in fharpnefs, in proportion as they are more outward: the
■ firft quill is fhorter than the fecond; the under parts of the body are
plain dull White, inclining to dufky rufous on the breaft; over the _
thighs, the vent, and under tail coverts, dull white, with a dufky
ftreak down the fhaft: the tail feathers viewed obliquely, appear to
'• N* 247. In this Work, Linnscus ikfi, * extima "(rectrice) margine interiore
-' alba,"~in the Syftenta datura,, he writes, " extima (reprice) margine te-tuidt***;
" alba," ,no doubt meaning that the margin of the inner web is white. Yet adds at
the end of the defcription in the Fauna Suecica: " Reduces fufca*, fed margine ex-
" exteriore longiWdisafitef alba," which is the cafe in our bird, at leafl the outer
«ieb is very pale, approaehM^to white.
t Supplem. p. x$6.
have
 I
WARBLER.
have eleven or twelve undulated bars of a darker hue acrofs them,
but in full light, fuch appearance vanifhes: legs one inch long, and
yellow.
The Graf shopper Warblers come to us about the 17 th ofApril: they '
frequent commons for the moft part, and are met with there among
the bufhes and furze, but are exceflively fhy, and keep conftantly in
the middle of the bufh; like others of the genus, the males arrive
firft, and are to be feen on the top of the fpray, emitting a kind of
grinding note, but at fome times has a very, agreeable kind of warble;
and the male is faid fometimes to entertain its mate with a fong of
nights, when the weather is mild and favourable. The neft is of an
elegant ftructure, and the egg of the fize of the White Throat's, not
quite fo round ; of a delicate blueifh white, or pale blue.
This fpecies is faid to be found in America *.
Sylvia dartfordienfis, Ind. Orn. ii. p. 517. 31,
Curruca fepiaria, Gerin. Orn. iv. t. 391. f. 2 ?
Dartford Warbler, Gen. Syn.iv. p. 435, 27.-
vol. iii. pl. 106.
-Id. Sup. p. iSi.—Lewin's Birds,
T*HIS fpecies is fufficiently known, or at leafl nothing can be
added to the defcription of the bird; but I am indebted to Colonel Montagu for fome further knowledge of its hiftory and manners.
This gentleman found it in tolerable plenty among the furze, near
Penryn, Cornwall. The bird he firft fhot, was the 27th of September
1796, and proved to be a young one, juft beginning to throw out
the ferruginous feathers on the breaft; it had loft all the tail feathers
but three, and the young ones were grown about half an inch : the
irides were yellowifh, and the orbits dull orange : the baftard wing
was not white, but the edge of the wing beneath whitifh; from hence
 WARBLER.
it did appear to him, that thefe birds probably breed in the parts adjacent. The Colonel continued to fhoot thefe at various times till
Chrifimas, after which none were feen : the laft he killed was from a,
furze bufh covered with fnow : he is inclined to believe that they are
full as common as the Stone Chat, for notwithftanding he faw and.,
heard feveral every time he was out with the gun, they proved fo fhy,
that it was impoflible to procure many good fpecimens, nor can we
be always fore of fhooting them at all. The above would appear to
bring fome proof of their breeding thereabouts, or at leafl to make
us fuppofe, that if migratory, they might be found in the fame parts
at ftated feafons; but ftrange as it is, notwithftanding the ftricteft
fearch, they have not been met with from the above period to the
prefent time, nor can their movement be at all accounted for ; it is not
probable that after Chrifimas, with fnow upon the ground, they
would be inclined to move northward, nor could they go to the fouth,
except they paffed the channel, which at that time of the year does not
feem a likely circumftance.
PROTHONO-
TARY
Sylvia protonotarius, Ind. Orn. ii. p. 542.128.
Parus aureus alis casruleis, Blue-winged Yellow Bird, Bartr. Trav. p. 290 ?
Prothonotary Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. p. 494. 123.
TN addition to the former defcription of this bird, I find that the four-
middle tail feathers are black, the outer one white on the inner
web, except at the tip, which, as well as the whole of the outer web,
is black; the next on each fide the fame; the third differs only in.
having the white occupying lefs fpace; the fourth wholly black, except a fpot of white on the middle of the inner web.
I am indebted to Mr. Abbot, of Georgia, for the above, who informs-
me that it inhabits that province, but that it is a very rare fpecies,.
u
 WARBLER.
Sylvia Platenfis, Ind. Orn. i
Avis a Corarao, Ger. Orn. \\
p. 548.149.
tab. 400. f. i.
g IZ E of the Common Wren; but the tail is a trifle longer: the ge-
■ neral colour of the plumage varied with rufous, white and black:
the head and upper part of the neck ftreaked longitudinally: the.
under parts of the body from the chin white : fides inclined to ferruginous : the quills and tail croffed with feveral darker bands: that
figured by Gerini, was rufous above, white beneath: wings and tail
dufky black.
Sylvia ftriata, Ind. Orn. ii. p. 527. 67.
Black Poll Warbler, Gen. Syn. iv. p. 460. 65.
T N the female, the crown is the fame colour as th