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A general synopsis of birds Latham, John, 1740-1837 1781

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     eral Synopsis
of
Birds.
LONDON:
Printed for Benj.White.
Mjycchxxxi. THE UNIVERSITY OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA
fwmmFm
WmW^kKI
WOODWARD HISTORICAL
COLLECTION PREFACE.
THE intent of the following Iheets is to give, as far as may
be, a concife account of all the Birds hitherto known j nothing having been done in this way, as a general work, in the
Englifh language, of late years.
In other countries, however, it has been paid more attention to;
witnefs that valuable work of M. Briflbn, who has brought down
his account to the year 1760*, when he publifhedhis Ornithology.
That great and able J$aturtA^-^£.^£J<gMisJis likewife proceeding fail with a grand work-f- on the fame fubject, which, when
finifhed on the extenfive plan that he has chalked out for him-
felf, will do him much honour. Of this feven volumes are already
publifhed, and we are promifed two others in a very fhort time,
which are intended to clofe the undertaking.
In this work of M. de Buffon, not only every thing which has
been treated of before is properly noticed, and the many contra-
* This means only the edition in quarto} for there is another edition in octavo, publiflied in 1763, which contains fome few additions. Whoever has pe-
rufed this work, will be fully convinced of the accuracy and precision with which
this gentleman has treated the fubjeft throughout; and it is but juftice here to
acknowledge the liberty we have taken with thefe defcriptions, in refpedt to fuch
Birds as have not fallen under our infpe&ion.
f Hijioire naturcllt des Oifeaux,
a dictions PREFACE.
dictions of various authors reconciled, but many new fubjects
have been added* rendering it arguable-work.
There have been many authors who, from time to time, have
treated on Birds, and many different fyftems have arifen in con-
fequence of their labours; but it is much to be lamented, that
fcarce anyTWO agree in the fame opinion.
The great Ray, our countryman, may juftly be efteemed the
firft author oiSyftem; and it is to him we are indebted for the valuable Ornithology of Francis TFillughby, Efq; which, though
publifhed fo far back as 1678 *, is yet reckoned the beft general
work of its kind in the Engliih language.
A whole^s-oluuic wuuia lcarce fuffice to give an account of the
various writers in Ornithology, and their works in every languages
but this is not meant to be a part of our undertaking, and is indeed quite unneceffary, as we mean to draw materials for our
purpofe from authors of the beft credit onlyj not condemning
any of them for their attempt to communicate the knowledge of
the age they lived in, as we may juftly fuppofe it was well received in their days; and no doubt but the time will come, when
our prefent notions of things will be held as cheap by our fuccef-
fors, as thofe of the century paft are by the prefent age. We will
therefore pafs over even the names of all here, except the one to
whom all future writers on Natural Hiftory muft feel themfelves
* The flrft edition was in the Latin tongue, in 1676, but not translated into
Englifh till two years after.
3 indebted 5 R
A
E.
indebted; I mean, the ever-memorable and great Sir Charles
Linn/eus, who at one view has drawn together, as it were, all
Nature and her productions, in his Syfifyna Nature. This work
has brought down our fubjecl, among the reft, through twelve
editions, as far as the year 1767!. In this undertaking, his aim
has been concifenefs; but in gaining this, he has loft fight, I fear,
of fufficient inftruction; having done little more than pointed out
where fuch inftruction may be found.
His arrangement of Birds is, in general, approved of, and his
divifion into Genera fcarcely to be altered for the better; but' as
it is now fome years fince he wrote, many new lights have been
thrown on Natural Hiftory, fufficient to excufe future writers, if
in fome few inrfanSes, at leafi^jr-hey fhould differ from him;
which will be the cafe in the work now before us.
There is one thing in Linn<sus's arrangement of BArdsy wfiichj
I muft eoaflsfs, has ever appeared to me unaccountable, and in
which he differs from Ray at his firft fetting out. Mr. Ray divided all Birds into two grand divifions ; viz. Firft, Thofe which
frequent the land: Secondly, Thofe-which frequent the water :
hiit.Lwmeus feparates the Land Birds into two parts, and thrufts
in the Water Birds between. This is certainly unnatural, and
therefore will not be admitted in the prefent undertaking.
The bafis then of this work will be on the prime divifion of
Ray; but we fhall adhere to the Linn<ean Genera* except in a very
t In the Mantiffa Ph
Birds defcribed at the end
publilhed in 1771, will be found a few more
but thefe are only twenty in number..
a a few PREFACE.
few inftances;  and for which alteration good reafons will be
given.
The whole of this undertaking will be comprifed in three volumes ; the firft of which will contain the Accipitres and Pica
of Linnaus; the fecond will confift of the Paferes and Gallina of
the lame author; and the third volume clofe the work with his
Gralhe and Anferes. To each volume will be added a complete
Index of its contents, and in the laft, an Explanation at length
of the authors referred to; alfo, a Generic Catalogue of the Birds
mentioned throughout the work*
In thefe fheets will be found near four times the^iiumber of
Birds mentioned in the Syflema Nouj*-^ * the additions to which
will be drawn from the authors which have appeared fince that
publication, added to a great number of fpecies, not mentioned
before by any one. This we fhall be enabled to do, from the numerous collections in Natural Hiftory* which have been formed
of late years in England, and in which, in courfe, a multitude of
new fubjedts have been introduced from various parts of the
world; but more efpecially within thefe few years, from the indefatigable refearches of thofewho have made fo great difcoveries,
in the Southern Ocean*
• Among thefe, the magnificent one at Leicefter Houfe, formed by Sir Ajiioin
lever, ought to be particularly mentioned; as likewife the favours received
from the infpeaion of numerous fubjefts, the produce of the laft and the former
voyages to the South Seas, in the poffeffion of Jof, Banks, Efq; P. R. S. Soho
Square.
Ir. R
E.
It will be nece'ffary, however, to remark, that on account of
the uncertainty of the return of the laft circumnavigating fhips,
the Accipitrine order, here firft publifhed, was printed off before
their arrival in England, by which means a few new fpecies of
the Falcon genus have been excluded from their place. This
has, of neceflity, obliged us to introduce them by means of duplicate pages, marked with an afterifk.
To each Genus will be joined one copper-plate at leaft, of
fome new Bird not figured before, if poffible, for two reafons;
the one to pcwnt out to the eye of the lefs-informed Naturalift,.
wherein one genus differs from another; the other, to add fome-
what to the ftock of engravings in Ornithology.
In a work of this kind, it will be expected, that we fliould begin with, an Introduction on the Nature of the Feathered Creation ; fuch as general manners, nidification, incubation, migration of particular fpecies, and fuch-like; but this fubject has
been treated of in another work * in themoft ample manner, and
will therefore make it altogether unneceffary, becaufe all that I
could do on this head, muft prove only a repetition of what is
there mentioned.
I have, therefore, nothing more to add, but a juft acknowledgment of the very great obligations I am under to many of my
* The work I Here allude to, is the
Efq; in which will be found every thin
Genera of Birds, by Thor.
I necefiary for the reader's
as Pennant,
information
friendsj R     E
m
friends, who have afforded affiftance of every kind in this undertaking, which I fhall entitle "A General Synopsis of Birds;" and
is meant to contain every thing which its author could gather
on the fubjecl: to this day; wherein he has aimed at fuch con-
cifenefs as may be confiftent with affording a clear diftinction between one fpecies and another; in which attempt, it is hoped,
he has not totally miffed his intention. All he wifhes, therefore,
is, that it may be received with candour, till fomewhat better
fhall appear, and a more able pen take up the fubjecl:.
JOHN   LATHAM.
I R D S. BIRDS.
Division I.   LAND-BIRDS.
Division II.  WATER-BIRDS.  BIRDS.
D i v. I.    LAND-BIRDS.
Order I.    RAPACIOUS.
Genus I.   VULTURE.
N°i. Condur.
a. Crefted.
3- King-
4. Arabian.
5. Carrion.
*6. "Bearded.
7. Alpine.
A. Afh-coloured
B. Egyptian.
8. Cinereous.
N°q. Maltefc.
10. Black.
11. Fulvous.
12. Hare.
13. Golden.
14. Angola.
15. Tawny.
.16. Bengal.
17. Secretary.
T IN N ALU S defcribes the genus in this manner:
*~* The bill ftrait; hooked at the end only.
The head without feathers; the fkin on the fore part naked.
Tongue bifid at the end.
To which Mr. Pennant * adds, that the edge of the bill is cul-
strated, and the bafe covered with a thin fkin.
•Genera'of Birds, 1773, p. 2.
B
Noftrik VULTURE.
Noftrils differing in different fpecies.
Tongue large and ftefHy.
Head, cheeks, and often neck, either naked, or covered only
with down, or fhort hairs; the neck retractile.
Craw often hanging over the breaft.
Legs and feet covered with great fcales; the firft joint of the
middle toe connected to that of the outmoft by a ftrong membrane.
Claws^ large, little hooked, and very blunt.
Infides of the wings covered with down.
The bill, according to Linnaeus, would feem to characterife
this genus; but, in my ©spinion, is not fufficient,. as that of many
of the Falcon genusi is ftrait at the bafe likewife, though, for the
moft part, the p<aint is more crooked and fharp than in the Vulture.—The want of feathers on part of the head, and fometimes-
the whole head and neck, with the manners below mentioned,
feem to make a better diftinction; but after all, not fo clear as
one would wifh.
It has been obfenved, that the true Vulture does not kill it's prey-
by choice; coveting only fuch animals as. are found dead, and becoming putrid. Indeed, it has been obferved, that large flocks
have alighted on a fick or maimed animal, and, attacking it all
together, finifhed it's exiftence: but F will only fuppofe that to
happen when much preffed by hunger; air' authors agreeing,
that, if left to themfelves, they would rather feed on flefh which
inclines to putridity, than on frefh meat. Their fmell, for this
purpofe, is exquifite; fcenting a carcafe many miles off, and'
flying to it from all quarters.
In this circumftance of their difpofition I am clear, from the Car-
rioit VULTURE.
rion Vultures of Jamaica; two of which I kept for fome time.
They would indeed eat any raw flefh, but expreffed a particular
happinefs when any tainted food was offered them; fluttering
with expanded wings, without ceafing, and falling on with double
the appearance of appetite, as well as devouring twice the quantity, as at other times.
It is obferved, that Vultures, in general, are leaft numerous in
proportion to the coldnefs of the climate; and in the more
northern ones, they are wholly wanting. — A kind difpofition of
Providence this! left the putrid effluvia of the dead fhould, in the
hotter regions, too much injure the health of the living.
Notwithftanding what has been faid towards defining the genus, fome will be found, wherein both the Vulture and Falcon are
fo ftrongly marked, as to render it doubtful where to place them.
In this cafe, the manners muft be taken in, if they can be known.
Mr. Pennant juftly obferves, that they are ** greedy and voracious
t( to a proverb, and not timid*; for they prey in the midft of ci-
" ties, undaunted by mankind."
* This circumftance, perhaps, may arife from their not being perfecuted by
man ; which happens to the greater part of birds, whofe chance it is either to
to be accounted as obnoxious by him, or are fuitable to his appetite for food.—
The Storks in Holland are a proof of this; walking boldly in the middle of the
ftreets, as if they knew none would hurt them : which is truly the cafe j as that
perfon thinks himfelf fortunate, who has a neft of one of thefe on his chimney.
And if a ftranger mould kill one purpofely, he would run great chance of
lofing his life by the enraged multitude.
This tamenefs of the volatile part of the creation in general, when not annoyed by man, is manifeft, from the accounts of our circumnavigators ; who inform us, that on the more defart places where they touched, birds of all kind*,
were fo familiar, as not to fly away at their approach; regarding them more as
flbjecls of wonder than fear.
B   2 Vultur >-pH IS bird is not only the largeft of this genus, but perhaps^
of all others which are able to fly.—The accounts of authors,
in regard to it's extent of wing, are various, smb..from nine feet
to eighteen feet, from the tip of one wing to that of the other.
One * gives it ftrength fufficient to carry off fheep, and boys of
ten years old; while another j- ventures to affirm, that it can lift
an elephant from the ground, high enough to kill it by the
fall!
M. de Salerne % fays, that one of this kind was fhot in France,
in the year 1719, which weighed eighteen pounds, and whofe
extent of wing was eighteen feet. But to come nearer the truth,
perhaps we had better abide by thofe whofe defcriptions bear a
moderate proportion.
In Hawkefwortb's Voyages §, mention is made of one of thefe
birds, fhot at Port Defire, off'Penguin Ifland; the defcription of
which, will ferve our purpofe: — " The head of this bird re-
" fembled that of an eagle, except that it had a large comb upon
" it. Round the neck, it had a white ruff, exactly refembling a
" lady's tippet: the feathers on the back as black as jet, and as
* Frefer Voy. de la Mer Sud. p. 111.
t Marc /WDefcrip. Geog. b. 3. ch. .
X Ornith. de Salerne, p. 10.
SVoLi. p.ls. VULTURE.     •
f< bright as the fineft polifh could render that mineral: the legs
" were remarkably ftrong and large, and the talons like thofe of
" an eagle, except they were not fo fharp: and the wings, when
a they were extended, meafured, from point to point, no lefs
1 than twelve feet." — This laft account feems by no means to
exceed the natural fize, fince we have an account in the Philo-
fophical franjactions * of one of the quill-feathers of this bird,
hrought from Chili, which meafured two feet four inches; the
diameter of the quill, half an inch; and the extent of wing, fix-
teen feet. This bird was met with in lat. 23 S- not far from the
ifland Mocha, in the South Seas, in the year 1691. The feamen
fhot it on a cliff by the fea-fide, and, taking it for a kind of
turkey, made a meal of it. In this account we are told that the
colour was black and white, like a magpie, and the creft, or.
comb, fharp like a razor.
It has been fuppofed, that thefe birds were peculiar to South
America -, but Buffon believes- they are likewdfe. inhabitants of.
Afia and Africa, and not unlikely of Europe alfo, if the Laemmer-*
geir f of the Germans be the fame bird, which he feems inclined
to think ; and that the Roc or Ruch, mentioned frequently in the
Arabian 'Tales, may alfo prove to be the like: to which I may
add, the probability of the fame bird giving rife to one of the
labours of Hercules, recorded by the ancients ; I mean, the de-
ftroying the birds called Stymphalides. But this is mere conjecture : other authors have a different opinion J.
* Vol. xviii. p. 61. See alfo the fame accountin Rail Synopfis Avium, p. 11.
•f- Hift. des oifeaux, vol. i. p. 193, 194.   ':93jfejf*
t" Some authors maintain, that under this fable of the Stymphalid* was
figured a certain band of robbers, who infefted.this country {Arcadia} and were-,
exterminated, by Hercules."    Ogle's Aniiq. Gems, vol. i. p. 1II.
Alberta; VULTURE,
Alberto Fortis, in his travels into Dalmatia, in the year 1778,
p. 245, fays, that he meafured a Vulture himfelf, (one found near
the mouth of the Cettina) whofe extent of wings was above twelve
feet; and in a note below fays, that the fort found in the Swifs
mountains, called Le Vautour des Alpes, is of the fame race.
We further learn, that the throat of the Condur is naked, that
is, bare of feathers, and of a red colour; the comb brown, but not
indented; that in fome, the upper parts are variegated with
black, grey, and white; and under the belly fcarlet, as was that
bird mentioned by M. Salerne *.
Mr. Brijfon obferves, that thefe birds vary in colour; which
will account for the difference in plumage by which authors
have defcribed them: which circumftance frequently happens in
other birds, as well as in this fpecies.
CRESTED
V.
Vultur harpyia, Lin. Syf. i. p. 121. N° 2.
L'Aigle huppe du Brefil, Brif orn. i. p. 44
Urutaurana, Rail Syn. p. 7.    Yzquauhtli,
Oronooko Eagle, Brown's Jam. p. 471.
Crefted Eagle, Will. orn. p. 63. tab. 4. fg. ,
C MPT TON.
*TP HIS bird is in fize fomewhat bigger than a Turkey:
the bill is black: cere and irides yellow. The head is
covered with feathers, and adorned with a creft; which is
compofed of four feathers : two of thefe are placed at the
top of the head, and are about two inches in length ; and
•two others, which are fhorter, on each fide :   which feathers the
* Ora, de Salerne, p. 10.
bird VULTURE.
bird carr erect at will. The hind part of the neck is fulvous:
the upper parts of the body, for the moft part, black; beneath,
white.- Tail barred with brown and black, alternate: vent and'
thighs barred white and black; edges of the tail-feathers whitifh:
legs' covered with white feathers, and fpotted, or rather barred,
with' black. Limaus fays, that the legs and claws are both
nakedy and that they are of a yellow colour; and thinks it much
aHied to the Falcon genus, fince the head is deftitute of feathers
in no part.
This bird inhabits Mexico, Brafil, and other parts of South
America. It is faid to be able to cleave a man's fkull afunder,.
with one ftroke of the bilL
Vultur papa, Lin. Syft. i. p. re*. N° 3.
Le Roi des Vautours, Brif. orn. i. p. 470. t. 36.  N°
..    . Buf. oif i. p. 169. t. 6.
 PI. enlum.   N° 428.
Cozcaquauhtli,    Rait Syn. p. i6u
The Vulture, Albin. 2. t. 4;
King of the Vultures, Edw. orn. t. 2.
Br. Muf.   Lev. Mitf *
KING!
*Tp\HIS fpecies is about the fize of an hen Turkey;.  The bill is    Description-.
red at the end; the middle black : the cere is orange-co*-
loured, which is continued on the upper part, fo as to form a
* By this is meant, the Mufeum of Sir Ajbton Lever, at Leicefer Houfe a
well known to abound in the various productions of nature and art: in which
the inquifnive mind cannot fail of receiving the utmoft fatisfaftion in every
department.
9 carunculatedi VULTURE.
^carunculated dentated fkin or flap, which hangs over one or the
other fide of the bill indifferently, as the bird turns it's head.
The fpace round the eyes is of a faffron-colour; the iris of the
eye whitifh. The crown of the head, and the neck, are bare of
feathers; the whole of which it can draw into a large ruff of
loofe afh-coloured feathers, which are placed on the fhoulders.
A fillet of blackifh down encompafies the head, arifing from the
hindhead. At the corner of the bill, between that and the eyes,
is a purple brown fpot. The upper parts of the body are of a
reddifh buff-colour; under parts white, with a tinge of yellow:
quills greenifh black: tail black: craw pendulous and orange-
coloured : the legs are dirty white : claws black. — This bird is
a native of South America and the Weft Indies: it lives on carrion,
and feeds alfo on rats, lizards, fnakes, and excrement of all kinds;
and in courfe is of a difagreeable odour, from the nature of the
food it lives on.
Vultur monachus, Lin.Syf.i. p. 122.
Le Vautour d'Arabie, Brif. orn. app.
Crefted black Vulture, Ed™, orn. t. 2c
Description. A CCORDING to Edwards, the fize exceeds that of a common
eagle, by one third. The bill is blueifh at -the bafe; at the
end black: the cere is blue : irides hazel. The head and neck
are covered with downy afh-coloured feathers. The crown of the
head is gibbous, and elevated into a large knob. The orbits are
white. On the fhoulders is placed an afh-coloured ruff of loofe
feathers, into which it can draw it's head during fleep. The
colour of the body is dufky brown, nearly black, above; beneath,
the VULTURE.
the fame, but paler : leffer wing coverts tipped -with white:
tail the colour of the body: thigh-feathers fo loofe and long,
as nearly to cover the legs. The legs themfelves are of a blueifh
colour : claws black. — This bird was fhewn alive in London, in
the year 1757, and faid by the keeper to have come from
Arabia.
Vultur aura, Lin. Syft. i. p. 122.
Le Vautour du brefil, Brif. orn. i. p. 468. N* 10.
 Buff. oif. i. p. 175.
 PI. enl. N° 187.
Vultur brafilienfis, Rati Syn. p. 10. Carrion Crotu, p. 180.
Urubu, Tzopilotl, or Aura. Will. orn. p. 68.
Carrion Crow, Sloan. Jam. ii. p. 294. t. 254.
Gallinazo, Ulloa's Voy. v. i. p. 60. 201.
Turkey Buzzard, Catefb. Car. i. t. 6.
Carrion Vulture, Am. Zool*. N°
Br. Muf. Lev. Muf.
^P H E fize of this fpecies is about that of a Turkey, though it
varies in fize in different parts. The bill is white; the end
black: irides blueifh faffron-colour. The head, and part of the
neck, are bare of feathers, and of a red, or rather rufous colour.
The fides of the head warted, not unlike that of a Turkey.    The
CARRION
V.
• I here refer to the Zoology of North America, and that of the northern
Afiatic and European regions ; at this time near completed, by Thomas Pennant,
Efq.
As the running number is not yet fixed, I am obliged, in my references, to-
leave a blank N°; which the reader may, on publication of the work, readily
fill up with his pen.
C whole VULTURE.
whole plumage is brown black, with a purple and green glofs indifferent reflections; but in fome birds, efpeciall-y young ones,,
greatly verging to dirty brown. The feathers of the quills and
- tail, blacker than the reft of the body. The legs are flefh-co.-.
lour ; the claws- black.
This bird is very common in the Weft Indies, and both North
and South America. It feeds on dead carcafes, fnakes, &c. like
moft of this, genus; which makes the fmell of it very offenfive.
In general,..very tame in its wild ftate; but particularly fo, when
trained up from being young. This 1 experienced in two birds
fent me from Jamaica. They were fuffered to run wild about
the garden, and were alert and brifk during the fummer months :
but impatient of the leaft cold; for a rainy day, with the flighteft
degree of cold, obliged them to creep for fhelter. — I am told,
that in the Weft Indies they, rooft together of nights, in vaffc
numbers, like Rooks in this country. They are reckoned a
moft ufeful animal in the places where they refort; which fe-
cures their fafety, added to a penalty for killing one, which is.
in force in Jamaica, and, I believe,. other iflands of the Weft\
Indies. — I have been informed, that the one inhabiting North.
America exceeds in fize- that of the Weft Indies, by nearly one.
third.. VULTURE,
A*
Vultur barbatus, Ltn.fyft. I. p. 123.
Le Vautour barbu, Brif. orn. app, p. 26.
Vultur bcsticus, Raiifyn. p. 10.
Chefnut Vulture, Will. orn. p. 66.
1 Vulture, Edvj. orn. t. 106.
ClZE of an Eagle; extent of wing, according to Edwards, feven
feet and half; from bill to claws two feet eight inches. The
bill b of a purp'lifh flefh-colour, deepeft at the bafe, and hooked
at the point only : under the lower mandible is a tuft of black
feathers hanging down like a beard; the infide of the mouth is
blue: the eye-lids are red, and the irides of a bright yellow:
the head for the moft part is covered with white down; the
forehead, the cheeks, and round the eyes, black, which narrowing into a fillet behind each eye, meet behind at the crown, encircling the head: from the angles of the mouth it is again
black, palling,a little way downwards on each fide, like whif-
kers : the neck is covered with narrow, long feathers, pointed at
the end, and of a whitifh colour: the body is blackifh brown
above, the edges of the feathers paleft; the under parts are
white, with a tinge of brown: the legs are covered with downy
white feathers : the toes are lead-colour, and the claws brown.
This fpecies inhabits Africa: the fpecimen from which Edwar-ds
drew his bird came from Santa Cruz in Barbary. VULTURE*
Vultur percnopterus, Lin. 't
Le Percnoptere, Buf. oif i.
-PI. enl. 4.26-.
p. 149*
Le Vautour d"es Alpes, Brif orn. i. p. 464; N° 8*.
Percnopteros feu Gypaetos, Raii.fyn. p. 8.
Vulterine Eagle of Aldrovand, Will. orn. p. 64, t. 4.
Lev. Muf.
'TPHE male, according to Linnaus, is wholly white; the quilkr
black, with hoary edges, except the two outer ones, which?
are wholly black. The female is all over brown, with four of
the outer quills black. The bills in both black:, cere yellow:
noftrils perpetually dripping moifture.    The feet naked..
They are laid to fly in large troops, and are very ufeful in de-
ftroying mice,, which are numberlefs in Paleftine. To this we
may add the fize, which Brijfon fays rather exceeds that of a.
common Eagle, and indeed we may fay much larger, as M. Fortis *
furnifhes a note to that purport..
* After faying, he meafured one himfelf, which was aBove twelve feet from tip,
to tip of the wing, he adds, " The extraordinary bulk of the Vultures of thofe
parts is not to be wondered at, nor the truth of this fa& called in queftion-.
The Vultures of the Swift mountains are of the fame race, and not only carry
off kids-, lambs, wild goats, and children, but will alfo attack grown up men.
The fpecies is called' Vautour des Alpes, and itis particularly defcribed by olds
Conrad Gefner, though unaccountably neglected by moft other ornithologifts.
A well-ftuffed fpecimen of this noble bird may be feen in the curious collection,
. ©f the Reverend Mr. Sprungli,, near Btru in Switxerland." Travels into Dali
mafia, p. 245, VULTURE.
n
Vautour a tete blanche, Brif. orn. i. p. 466. N° 9.
Le petit Vautour, Buf. oif. i. p. 164.
Vautor de Norwege, PI. ml. 449.
Vultur albus, Rail. Syn. p. 10.
White Vulture, Will: orn: p. 67, N° 6.
Cinereous Vulture, Ditto, p. 66, N» 1.
TyRISSQN defcribes this bird as having a blueifh bill,, the tlr>-
black: the iris of a dull red: and that it is the fize of a
large Cock: the body fuliginous, fpotted with chefnut: head
and neck white, with brown lines : quills half white half dufky :
bafe of the tail white, the end brown with a whitifh tip:, legs,
covered with dull yellow feathers.
Buffon. thinks this Vulture to be the fame with a Vulture which
he received1 from Norway, above quoted. This variety had the
head and neck bare of feathers, and of a reddifh colour; the-
body almoft entirely white, except the quills, which were black.
In the Planches Enluminees, the bill is coloured yellow,, with. a.
black tip;, the legs white; claws black..
ASH-COLOURED
V.
Vautour d'Egypte, Brif. orn. i. p. 45.7. N-° 3,
Sacre diEgypte, Buf. i. p. 167.
Sacre Egyptien, Belon Hift. d'Oif. p. 1 to. t. in. 11 r.
Var. B.
EGYPTIAN..
V.
^TPHTS is faid to be of a rufous afh-colour, fpotted with browni;    Des<
and is about the fize of a kite: has a bill between that of a
Raven and a bird of prey, with the legs and'gait of a raven. It
is. common about the pyramids of Egypt, where it is found in
large; vulture:
large troops. It lives on carrion, and is, with the Ibis, in great
efteem for deftroying fnakes and reptiles, which are common in
Egypt; which circumftance has caufed it frequently to be engraven on obelifks. About Grand Cairo it is called Ach-
bobba *.
M. Buffon fays, this bird is not fufficiently known, and is
likely to prove the fame with N° 5. But Linnaus having fet it
down, as well as the former, as varieties of his Percnopterus, has
" determined us to follow his example till better informed.
CINEREOUS
V.
Le Vautour, Brif. orn. i. p. 453. N° I.
Le Vautour, ou grand Vautour, Buf. oif. i. p. f
 PI. enlum. 425.
Vultur
Cinerei
nereus, Rati Syn. p. 9, N° I.
, or Afh-coloured Vulture, Will. orn. p. 66, N°
DRISSON defcribes this bird in the following manner:—The
fize is that of an Eagle, or rather bigger: length three feet
fix inches, breadth feven feet nine inches. The head and upper
part of the neck are covered with brown down: beneath the
throat hangs a kind of beard, compofed of very narrow feathers s
like hairs: the reft of the body is covered with brown feathers:
the quills and tail are of the fame colour, but fomewhat inclining
to afh: legs covered with feathers quite to the toes, which are
yellow; the claws black. This fpecies is an inhabitant of Europe:
frequents high mountains, and lives principally on dead carcafes.
* See jShavj's Travels, vol. ii. pp. 9, 92. U    L   T   U   R   E.
Le Vautour bmn, Bt
Le Vautour de Malte
• 455- N°
i. p. 161.
•TTHIS bird is in bulk between a Pheafant and Peacock; is two
feet and an half in length, and the wing, when clofed,
reaches to two thirds the length of the tail.—The bill is black:
head covered with brown down: neck covered with narrow
feathers. The whole bird is of a general brown colour, but the.
quills are darkeft; the primaries are white at the tips, and fpotted
with brown: tail grey brown: legs naked, yellowifh: claws dufky.
This bird inhabits many parts of Europe,.- chiefly the ifland of
Malta *.
* In the ifle' of Candid alfo, as .well as in- all the iflands of the Mediter
Archipelago, Vultures are very .common ; the fkins of which are nearly as thick
as a calf's hide. The natives of thefe places, as well as in Egypt and Arabia,
make great ufe of fuch fkins, properly prepared, by way of furrs. The fur-.
riers of thofe parts have a way of extracting the feathers without difturbing the
down; which, after going through proper operations^ become valuable, and
fell very dear.
The ufe that is made of thefe is to wear them on the breaft and ftomach, as
they are fuppofed to promote digeftion.
The Vultures of the ifle of Cyprus are of the fisze of-a Swan, feathered on the
back and wings like an Eagle, and the. neck covered with-.down as foft as the
jineft furr.
Thefe birds live only on carrion, and when they meet-with a proper opportunity, are faid to fill themfelves fo full, as not to want food again for fifteen
days. Having thus done, they .become unable to raife themfelves from the-
ground for flight; at which time they are eafily killed, fometimes being hunted .
down with dogs, at other times difpatched with clubs, or other weapons, by the..
inhabitants...   Defer, de I'Archipel. Dapper, p. 50.
Le- VULTURE.
Le Vautour noir, Brif. orn. i. p. 457. N° 4.'
Le Vautour, PL enl. 425?
Vultur niger, Rati. Syn. p. 9, N° 2.
Black Vulture, Will. orn. p. 66, Chap. v. N9 2.
Swarthy Vulture, Chart, ex. p. 71. N° 4.
>*rHIS fpecies is wholly black, except the wings and tail, which
are brown: the legs are covered with feathers to the toes.
It exceeds every way the Golden Vulture in fize, and is found
frequently in Egypt.
M. Buffon fays *, that it is a mere variety of the Cinereous
Vulture, N° 8; to which I can fay nothing: but muft remark,
once for all, that it will be frequently found impoffible fo to reconcile the various fentiments of authors, as to place them all
upon one juft bafis. We fhall therefore be obliged, not only in
this, but in many other inftances throughout this work, to leave
things as they are found, letting every reader adhere to the opinion he fhall beft approve of, rather than obtrude one of our
own, except upon very folid grounds, and for which good reasons will be given.
• Oif. vol. i. p. 163. VULTURE.
*t
*£e Vautour fauve, Brif. orn. i. p. 462. N° 7*
Le Griffon, Buf. o\f. i. p. 151.
Vultur fulvus, bcetico congener Bel.—Rati. Syit. p. 10. N° 7.
-Fulvous Vulture, Will. orn. p. 6j. N° 7.
Vulture, Albin. iii. p. 1. t. 1.
'T'HIS bird exceeds the Eagle in fize, being, according to
Briffon, three feet fix inches in length, and eight feet in
^breadth. The bill .in colour is-blue grey, with the tip black i
the head, neck, and ruff, white: partsaboverfufous-grey, with
fome mixture of white in the wing-coverts: quills and tail
Hack: middle of the breaft bare of feathers, and covered with a
downy matter, or rather hair, which is of the colour of the
back t the under parts are white, mixed with rufous-grey: legs
-afh-coloured, covered with-white down: claws black.
M. de Bujfon doubts whether this is not a variety of the Golden
Vulture; and Ray, from the name he applies to it, feems of the
fame opinion.
FULVOUS.
V.
Le Vautour hupe, Brif. orn. i. p. 460. N° 6.
Le Vautour a Aigrettes, Buf. ~oif. i.  p. -159.
Vultur leporarius Gefneri, Raii Syn. p. 10. N°4.
I Hare Vulture,  Will. orn. p. 67. N° 4.
HARE
V.
-*"pHIS is rather lefe than the Golden Vulture, or next fpecies,    Descr
and is all over of a fhining reddifh black; the breaft much
'inclining to a fulvous colour. The bill is black: the legs yellow:
^■claws -dufky, or black.
D While VULTURE.
While this bird is at reft, either fitting or Handing, it erects a-
creft, appearing as if it was horned, which does not appear while
it is flying. It flies very fwift, and runs faft, preying both on
living as well as dead animals, alfo fifh; catching the fi'fft not
only in flight, but by often fairly running them down.
Le Vautour dore,  Brif. orn. i. p. 458. N° 5.
Vultur fulvus Gefneri, Rail Syn. p. 10. N05.
Vultur bceticus,  Raii Syn. p. 10. N° 3.
Golden Vulture, Will. orn. p. 6j. N9 5. t. 4.
TD'IGGER than the Golden Eagle. Length four feet eight inches.
The head and hind part of the neck are rufous white r the
body is black above, and rufous beneath: quills and tail brown :.
the fhafts of the feathers, on the upper parts, are white : legs-
covered to the toes with pale rufous feathers: the toes themfelves brown :  claws horn-colour.
M. de Buffon fays, that it appears clear to him, that this and!
N° 11 are varieties of each other.. .;'.. JjM
Angola Vulture,  Penn. Tour
Lev. Muf.
1 Wales, p- 228. t. 19..
'TpH E fize of this fpecies is about half as big again as a kite..
The bill is whitifh, long, and but little hooked: cere blueifh: orbits flefh-coloured and naked: irides ftraw-coloured:;
head and neck clothed with feathers: craw pendulous: head,
neck, back, breaft, belly, and leffer wing coverts, of a pure
10 white:.   VULTURE.
white: greater wing coverts, and primaries, bkek j the laft tipped v/ith white : lower part of the tail black; the end white ;
legs dirty white, and fcaly.
Mr. Pennant defcribed this from the fine collection of birds at
Bryn y pys, the feat of Richard Parry Price, Efq. There were
two of them which came from Angola. They were, fays he," very
" reftlefs and querulous, and more active than is ufual with this
%< fluggifh race."
Thefe are now finely preferved in the Leverian Museum.
19
Tawny Vulture,   Brown's Illuft, p. 2. t. 1.
>TPHE bill is dufky, fhort, and thick: cere large, and befet with    T)E,
briftles : fpace between the bill and eyes naked; reft of the
head covered with feathers: the chin bearded with a tuft of long
flender feathers : head, neck, back, breaft, belly, and thighs, of
a pale tawny-colour: coverts of the wings mixed with brown:
tail dirty white, barred with brown: legs flender, blueifh :
claws long, flightly bent. Length of the bird two feet four
inches. Inhabits Falkland I/lands. — Defcribed from a fpecimen
in the Royal Society's Mufeum.
TAWNY
V.
T ENGTH two feet fix inches. The bill is flout and thick,
being moflly crooked at the end, like other Vultures; the
bafe is lead-colour, the end black : the eyes are of a very dark
brown ; the upper eye-lid befet with, hairs like eye-lafhes : the
head and neck are bare of feathers, being covered only with a
D 2 down
BENGAL
V.
N.S.
Plate I.
Description VULTURE.
down of a deep brown colour; but the fore part of it, from-the
chin to the breaft, is quite bare; of a dirty light brown, and-
fomewhat wrinkled: lower part of the-neck, all.round, is thinly
fet with narrow feathers, like a ruff: the body above, is of a
deep black brown: the wing coverts have pale fhaftsj. the
quills very dark, almoft black; beneath, the colour is paler
than on the upper parts : the fhaft of each feather white,
or very pale buff-colour: thighs the fame : the crop hangs
over the breaft, as in many of the Vulture genus : the legs.are
ftrong, much warted, and of a deep brown coldur: claws,
black.
The fpecimen from which the above defcription was taken, is.,
now alive in the Tower. The keeper informed me, that it came
from.i
Meflager du Cap de bonne Efperance, PlTenl. 721.
Sagittarius, Vofmaer monog.   tab. 8.
Secretaire,   Son. Voy. p. 87. t. 50.
Falco ferpentarius,  J. F. Miller, t. 28.
Secretary,.or Sagittarius, Phil Tranf. vol. ba. p. 17.5*
Lev. Muf.
*TpHIS is a moft Angular fpecies, being particularly remarkable from the great length of it's legs; which, at firft fight,
would induce one- to think it belonged to. waders : but the
characters of the Vulture are fo ftrongly marked throughout, as
to leave no doubt to which clafs it belongs.
The bird, when ftanding erect, is full three feet from the top
of the head to the ground.     The bill is black,, fharp, and
crooked,   V   U   L
U   R
crooked, like that of an Eagle: cere white : round the eyes
bare of feathers, and of a deep yellow or orange-colour: the-
ix-ides pale grey : the upper eye-lid befet with ftrong briftles,
like eye-lafhes :- the head, neck, breaft, and upper parts of the
body, are of a blueifh afh-colour: baftard wing, prime quills,
vent, and thighs, black; in the laft, the feathers have white tips :
tail rounded, brownifh afh ; the end, for above an inch, black ^
the tip white: the two middle feathers the fame in colour as
the others, but more than as long again as any of them: the
legs are very long, ftouter than thofe of a Heron^. and of a
brown colour: claws fhortifh^ but crooked, not very fharp, and
of a.black colour: from the hind head fprings a number of
long feathers, which hang loofe behind,, like a pendent creft £
thefe feathers arife by pairs, and are longer as they are lower
down on the neck : this creft the bird can erect or deprefs at
pleafure: it is of a dark colour,, almoft black:- the webs are
equal on both.fides,, and rather curled; and the feathers^when
erected, fomewhat incline towards the neck.
This fingular fpecies inhabits the internal parts of Africa, and
is frequently feen at the Cape of Good Hope. It is alfo met with
in the Philippine I/lands*.
The defcription I have given above, was taken from three
which were alike, which ITaw in England alive, fome years fince;
two of which are now in the Leverian Mufeum. From confinement,, they had loft "their two long tail-feathers ; but this want
was kindly fupplied by, fome accurate drawings,, which Mr.
Banks favoured me with, taken from the life, at the Cape. Thefe.
* Son. Voy. p..8 V   U   L   T   U   RE.
were in. the body of the fame colour with my defcription, but
had the tail-feathers black throughout, with pale whitifh tips.
That figured in the Planches Enluminks is brown above, white
beneath: the breaft yellowifh : tail wholly black throughout.
The toes are faulty, being near, three times the length of nature.
Mr. Sonnerat fays, that the bird is naked above the knees; and
that the two outer tail-feathers are the long ones, which, he fays,
are as long as the whole body. . In this he is not far amifs ; but
in the two firft affertions, I am clear, he has been mifinformed.
In Miller's plate of this bird, I obferve the tail to be croffed
with numerous alternate bars of black and white, and the creft
tipped with white *. I think it neceflary to be thus prolix on
the "colours, to fhew how much it varies, either by age, fex, or in
different fpecimens, naturally.
As to the manners of this bird, it is on all hands allowed, that
it principally feeds on rats, lizards, fnakes, and the like; and that-
it will become familiar: whence Sonnerat is of opinion that it
might be made ufeful in fome of our colonies, if encouraged, towards the deftruction of thofe pefts. They call it at the Cape of
Good Hope, Slangeater, i. e. Snake-eater. A great peculiarity belongs to it, I believe obferved in no other; which is, the faculty
of ftriking forwards with it's legs, never backwards. This circum-
ftance I have obferved myfelf.—Dr. Solander informs me, that he
has feen one of thefe birds take up a fnake, fmall tortoife, or fuch
like, in it's claws; when, dafhing it from thence againft the
ground with great violence, if the victim was not killed at firft, it
* He has dhiitted the bare fpac'e round the eyes; which gives it more the
appearance of a Falcon than,a Vulture: which laft genus it certainly be
longs ts
repeated VULTURE,
repeated the operation till that end was anfwered; after which it
ate it up quietly.
Dr. J. R. Forfter mentioned a further circumftance, which he
fays was fuppofed to be peculiar to this bird; that fhould it
by any accident break the leg, the bone would never unite
again. — The fact I can by no means call in queftion; but it
being peculiar to this fpecies, fhould be well confidered; at
leaft till we know whether an union of the bone will take place
again in the Flamingo, long-legged Plover, Avocetia, and fuch kind
of birds,, which? are liable to the fame, accident..
Genus II. E   A   L   £   O   N.
Genus II.    F AL C O N.
I.
Crowned Eagle.
N°*5.
^Equinoctial E.
a.
Black E.
26.
Ofprey.
-3-
Bald E.
A.. Carolina O.
A-
SeaE.
B. Cayenne 0.
w
Golden E.
27.
Mansfeny
6.
Ringtail E.
28.
Buzzard.
A. White-tailed E.
29.
Greater Buzzard.
7-
Fierce E.
A. Spotted B.
8.
Cinereous 32.
30.
Cream-coloured B.
$•
Plaintive E.
li
American B. ■
io.
Blaok-cheeked E.
3*~
Harpy.
it.
Chmefe E.
33-
Honey B.
12.
White E.
34-
Moor B.
■V-
Louifiana White E.
A. Bay Falcon.
.14.
Rough-footed E.
B.White-rumpedBayE*
>s«
LefTer White-tailed E.
35-
Afh-coloured B.
,16.
Spotted E.
36.
Barred-breafted B.
37.
Jean le blanc.
37-
Collared F.
18.
New Holland White E.
38.
New Zeeland F-
19.
Statenland E.
39
Gofhawk.
.so.
Brafilian E.
40.
Cayenne F.
21
Pondicherry E.
41.
Long-tailed F.
22.
Black-backed E.
42.
Swallow-tailed F.
23
White-crowned E.
43-
Kite.
H
Ruffian E.
44
Black K.
45. Auftriaa FALCON.
*S
N°45-
Auftrian K.
A. American S.
46.
Ruffian K.
N°6o.
Newfoundland F.
47-
Brafilian K.
61.
Starry F.
48.
Gentil F.
62.
Northern F.
49.
Common F.
63.
Crefted Indian F.
A. Yearling F.
64.
Caracca F.
B. Haggard F.
6S.
Black and White F.
C. White-headed F.   .
66.
Ceylonefe crefted F.
D. White F.
67.
Grey F.
E. Black F.
68.
Brown Jerfalcon.
F. Spotted-winged F.
69.
White Jerf.
G. Brown F.
A. Iceland Jerf.
H.Red F.
70.
Surinam Falcon.
I. Red Indian F.
71-
Laughing F.
K. Italian F.
72.
Brown Lanner.
L. Arctic F.
73
White L.
50.
Iceland F.
74-
Hen Harrier.
A. White Iceland F.
75-
Ringtail.
B. Spotted Iceland F.
A. Marfh Hawk.
51-
Barbary F.
76.
Hudfon's Bay Ringtail.
52-
Peregrine F.
A. Cayenne R.
A. Tartarian F.
77
Stone F.
53-
Spotted F.
78.
Mountain F.
54-
Rough-legged F.
A. Afh-col. Mountain F.
55
Booted F.
79
Keftril.
56
Rough-footed F.
A. Lark Hawk.
57
Placentia F.
B. Grey Keftril.
58
Saint John's F.
80.
Fifhing F.
59
Sacre.
81
Brown H.
E
N°82. L   C   O   N.
N°82.
Red-throated F.
N°9i.
Orange-breafted H
S3-
Speckled B.
92.
Spotted-tailed H.
84.
American Brown H.
93-
Merlin.
85.
Sparrowhawk.
A. New York M.
A. Spotted Sp.
B. Caribbee M.
B. White Sp..
C. Falconers M.
86.
Pigeon H.
94.
Little F.
87.
Guiana F.
9S-
Saint Domingo F..
88.
Ingrian F.
96.
Minute F.
89.
Great-billed F.
97 >
Bengal F.
90.
Hobby..
98.
Siberian F.
''TpHE bill is hooked, and furnifhed with a waxy fkin at the bafe^
called the cere.
The head and neck thickly befet with feathers..
The tongue bifid-at .the end.
This is the Linnaan definition.    Mr. Pennant * adds :
Noftrils fmall, oval, placed in the cere.
Legs and feet fcaly; middle toe connected to the outmoft,,
as far as the firft joint, by a ftrong membrane.
Claws large, much hooked, and very fharp; that of the outer,
toe the leaft.
The female larger and ftronger than the male.
This genus of birds is fo well known, that fcarcely any one
is- at a lofs,where to place any fpecies he fhall fee. The only
miftake that can happen, is in confounding it with the firft
genus, for the reafons. therein mentioned. The chief characte-
riftics are the bill and claws; being both of them very hooked and;
• Genera of Birds, 1773, p. zj
fharp». FALCON.
fharp. The luxury of thefe, for the moft part, is to kill their own
prey, and eat it while frefh.—Both this and the Vulture will often
take in as much food as will laft for many days without a
frefh fupply; and nature has likewife enabled it to bear a
very long abftinence in turn. — Their food is not always
flefh; many of the fpecies eat fifh, and others are content j
with fnakes and reptiles, as will be noted in it's place. —
They are apt to vary much in the plumage, according to age;
which has been the occafion of enumerating more fpecies
than really exift.—It is obferved, that every climate is fur-
nifhed with them, not being confined, like the Vulture, to the
warmer regions. — I cannot find that the Falcon tribe ever
unites into companies: and, except in breeding-time, feldom
two are feen together. The method taken in arranging thefe,
will be chiefly according to their fizes *, beginning at the largeft,
and ending with the leaft; as Linnaus's method of feparating
them from each other by the colour of the cere, muft frequently
deceive, being known to vary in birds of the fame fpecies,
Falco coronatus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 124. N9 j.
L'Aigle hupe d'Afrique, Brif. orn. i. p. 448. N° 14.
Crowned Eagle, Edw. iii. t, 224.
CROWNED
EAGLE.
pHIS bird is one third lefs in fize than the large Eagles.   The  0Description»
bill and cere are ferruginous: the irides orange red:  fore
trt of the head,  and round the eyes, whitifh :  parts above
* Not to a nicety in refpeft to their gradation by length.
E 2 brown3 FALCON.
brown, each feather edged with pale brown: beneath the body ir-
white, with round black fpots: breaft rufous : the fides fafciated
with black : tail above deep grey, tranfverfely banded with*
black : toes bright orange : claws black.
The feathers on the top of the head are long enough to form,
a creft, which may be erected or depreffed at will..
Buffon * fays that this bird, and the Crefted Vulture, N° 2,.
vary fo little, as to induce him to believe them the fame, differing only from climate..
BL^CK
E.
Falco melanseetus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 124. N' 2t-
L'Aigle noir, Brif. orn. i. p. 434. N° 8.
L'Aigle commun, Buf. oif. i. p. 86.
 PI. enl. 409.
Melanaaetos, Rait Syn. p. 7, N° 4.
Schwartzer-braune Adler, Frifch. t. 6g:
Black Eagle, Will orn. p. 6l, fecL 3. t. z..
 Albin. ii. p. 2..
T ENGTH two feet ten inches.. Bill horn-colour, with a tinge
of blue: cere reddifh: irides hazel: general colour blackifh:
the head and upper part of the neck mixed with rufous : lower-
half of the tail white, with blackifh fpots, the end half blackifh:.
legs covered with dirty- white feathers: toes yellow: claws.,
black.
Inhabits Europe.
• Hift des Oif. i. p, 13?, m 2. F   A   L   C   O   N.
29
Falco leucocephalus, Lin. Syft. 1.
L'Aigle a tete blanche, Brif orn.
Le Pygargue, Buf. oif i. p. 99.
 ■ PI. enl. 411.
Bald Eagle, Catef Car. i. t. 1..
- Am. Zool. I
Lev. Muf.
124. N° 3;.
p. 422. N*> 2U
T ENGTH three feet three inches; weight nine pounds. The
bill and cere are yellow: the irides white: the head, * neck,
and tail are white ; the reft of the body dark brown: upper part
of the fhins covered- with brown, feathers,, as the reft of the
body; the. lower half and toes are yellow 1. claws black-
Inhabits Europe -, but more common in North America, preying on both fielh and fifh; the latter it does not procure for itfelf,
but, fitting in a convenient fpot, watches the diving; of the Ofprey
into the water after a fifh,, which the moment it has feized, the
Bald Eagle follows,clofe after,, when the Ofprey is glad to efcape.
by dropping the fifh from his bill; and fuch is the dexterity-
of the former, that it often feizes the unmerited prey before it.
can fall to the ground. Catefby fays, the male and female are-
much alike.
* It,does not get the-white head and neck till the fecond year.. 3*>
FALCON.
Falco Oflifragus, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 124. N' 4.
Le grand Aigle de Mer, Brif. orn. i. p. 437. N* 9.
L'Orfraie, Buf. oif. 1. p. 112, t. 3.
Le grand Aigle de Mer, PI. eat. 112, the male.
Orfraie ou Offifrague, PI. enl. 415, the female.
Haliaetus feii Offifraga, Rail Syn. p. 7, N° 3.
Sea Eagle, or Ofprey, Will. orn. p. 59, t. 1.
■  Br. Zool. 1. p. 167, t. 17.
... .■— Am. Zool. N°
Br. Muf •   Lev. Muf.
^TpHIS fpecies is a trifle lefs in fize than the Golden Eagle:
the length is three feet four inches and a half. The bill is
of a blueifh horn-colour: cere luteous: under the chin the hairs
almoft as narrow as brifUes: the upper parts are covered-with*
ferruginous brown, the margins of the feathers darkeft: belly-
whitifh, fpotted with ferruginous: the infides and tips of tfee
tail feathers are of a deep brown; the outfides of fome are ferruginous, of others blotched with white : legs yellow, feathered
a little below the knees with ferruginous feathers: claws deep
black, very large, and remarkably hooked.
Linnaus fays, that the interior webs of the tail feathers,
and the fhaft, are white; and that the female is of a dull ferruginous colour.
* The author means here to fignify the Britifh Mufeum, which has been the
Tepofitory for every curious matter for feveral years paft, and among the reft,
not ill ftored with fpecimens in ornithology j an account of which will be no-
ticed in this manner throughout this work.
Inhabits FALCON,
Inhabits Europe: not unlike the Golden Eagle; but the laft
is feathered to the toes. It lives chiefly on fifh, but is not
indebted to any other help than it's own, in order to procure
them, as is the cafe in the laft fpecies. It is frequent likeWife
in North America; and was alfo met with in Botany Iftand by
Captain Cooke.
Falco chryfaetos, Linfyft. i. p. 125. N° 5-; ^;
___ . Scop. Ann. i. p. 13. GOLDEN^
L*AIgle dore. Brif. orn. i. p. 431. N° 7. E*
Le grand Aigle, Buf. oif. i. p 76.
j PI. enl. 47 o.
Chryfaetos. Raiifyn. p. 6. N° 1.
Golden Eagle, Will. orn. p. 58, t. i.—Albin. ii. t. li
  Br. Zool. i. p. 161, t. 16.
Lev. Muf.
'T'HIS is a large fpecies, weighing twelve pounds ; the length    Description*.
is three feet, breadth feven feet four inches. The bill is
deep blue: cere yellow: irides hazel: head and neck of a
deep brown,.bordered with tawny:.hind head of a bright ruft-
©olour: the whole body dark brown: quill feathers chocolate,,
with white fhaffs : tail deep brown, blotched with obfcure afh::
legs yellow, and feathered quite to the toes,.which are very
fcaly, and the claws remarkably large,, the middle one being two*
inches in length..
Inhabits Europe.. FALCON.
Falco Fulvus, Lin.fyft. i. p. 125. N° 6.
L'Aigle commun, PI. enlum. 409.
L'Aigle, Brif orn. i. p. 419. N° 1.
Aquila fulva, Raiifyn. p. 6, N° 2.
Golden Eagle, with a white ring about it's tail, Will, ei
Black Eagle, Br. Zool. i. p. 165.
Ringtail Eagle, Am. Zool. N°
Description.    Ti^LL blackifh horn-colour: cere yellow : irides hazel: general
colour  brown:   head  and neck inclining  to  rufous: tail
white for two thirds of its length, the reft blackifh : legs feathered to the toes, which are yellow : claws black.
6.
Var. A.
WHITE-TAILED
E.
Falco fulvus (3. Lin.fyft. i. p. 125. N° 6.
Le Pygargue, Buf. oif. i. p. 99.
L'Aigle a tete blanche, Pi. enl. 411.
White-tailed Eagle, Edw. i. t. 1.
rpHIS differs in having almoft the whole of the tail white,
except juft the tip, which is brown. The breaft is fcat-
tered with triangular fpots: the forehead, between the eyes, naked.
M. Brijfon fuppofes that this, the Erne, and the Bald Eagle, are
only varieties.
Accipiwr Lev. Muf.
ENGTH two feet nine inches.    Bill brownifh yellow, large,
md
WHITE-
BELLIED E.
N.S.
aquiline : head, neck, breaft, belly, thighs, and vent, white : back,
wings, and tail, dark brown, except the end of the laft, which is white
for about three inches: the legs are yellow, and very flout: the claws
black.
This bird was brought to England in one of the laft circumnavigating
fhips, and is now in the Leverian Mufeum. Its native place unknown.
T ENGTH one foot eleven inches. The bill is rather fmall for the
fize of the bird, blue at the bafe, and blackifh at the tip: the under part of the lower mandible yellowifh: the cere dufky: forehead
nearly of a buff-colour : the upper parts of the head and body brown,
each feather marked with ferruginous juft at the tip: acrafs the hind-
head there is a mixture of pale cream-colour, and lower down the fea.-
thers are much, blotched with the fame: the fides of the head, beneath the eye, palifh, ftreaked with brown: from the chin fprings a
crefcent of black, placed much like that in the Hobby: the chin is white,,
ftreaked with fine lines of black: the fore part of the neck and breaft
brown, each feather margined with yellowifh white: belly the fame,
but darker; the fhafts of a deep brown: the quills are dark, and on
the inner web of each are feveral oval ferruginous fpots, placed tranf-
verfely ; the tips of all of them tipped with the fame, except the four
or five outer ones, which are plain : the wings, when clofed, reach rather beyond the middle of the tail, which is eight inches long, of a
deep brown-;- all the feathers are fpotted on each fide of the webs with
ferruginous, except the two outer feathers, which are plain on the
outer web: the legs are yellow : the claws pretty large, hooked, and
black.
A good fpecimen of this is now in the poffeffion of Mr. Banks, from
which the above defcription is taken.
*E. LENGTH,
7 b.
JAPONESE
H. A   L   C   O   N.
J ENGTH feventeen inches. The bill pretty large, hooked, and
black; the under mandible yellow at the bafe : the upper part of
the body, in general, of a very dark brown, but darkeft on the head i
over the eye is a ferruginous ftreak : the under part of the body ferruginous brown, with a black ftreak down the middle of each feather,,
which is befides marked with fome fpots of pale ferruginous : thighs
and vent much the fame, but the laft banded with brown : the quills
are dark brown, the inner webs marked with oval fpots of white, placed
tranfverfely; befides which, there is an obfcure dufky-white fpot on all,
except the three firft : the under wing-coverts are ferruginous, fpotted
with white : the tail eight inches long; all the feathers marked with -
obfcure dirty-white fpots, from the bafe to withfferan inch and a half of
the end, which is dufky: the legs are pale lead-colour: efaWs black.
This is alfo in the poffeffion of Mr. Banks.     Both of them! flew or*
board a fhip, near the coaft of Japan.
T ENGTH feventeen inches. Bill yellow at the bafe, and black at the
tip : the cere yellow: forehead white : upper parts ei the body red- '
difh-brown, inclining moft to red on the wing-coverts j. the fhafts of
which are darkeft: the under wing-coverts of a dirty reddifh-white,
undulated with ferruginous: quills dark brown on the outer, and deep
ferruginous on the inner webs, which are tranfverfely barred with black j
the ends nearly black: nape of the neck blotched, with, white, as in the
Sparrow Hawk: the tail-coverts are tipped with white: the tail brown,,
even at the end, and banded with black; the bands five in number: the
wings reach to near the end of the tail: the throat and breaft like the
upper parts, but paler; the margins of the feathers very pale: the belly
ferruginous brown, barred with white: thighs the fame, but paler: vent
white:  legs yellow and flout: claws black.
Suppofed to inhabit Java, as the above bird flew on board a fhip off
that ifland.
3 Accipitear f   A  L   C   O   N;
Accipiter ferox, N. C. ac.fc. Petrop. vol. xv. t. io..p. 442.
*T*HIS bird is very little inferior in fize-to the former. The
bill is lead-colour: cere green: irides yellow: eyelids and
pupil blue: over the eyes are long, hHck, ftiff hairs: the
tipper parts 'are ferruginous -brown: the crown and hind head
have a little mixture of white: the fore part ofthe'^ieck is
ferruginous, with a mixture of white: the breaft and belly white,
fpotted with chefnut: the quills are black on the upper fur-
face ; within brown and white; beneath white ; towards^the end
grey: the wing-coverts are paler than the body, fjJOtted with,
ferruginous forwards, and white behind: tail brown; the feathers on the pofterior fide white, fafciated with four bands of
; deep brown: the rump is^wfiitifh; legs white, thick, and rough:
■claws crooked.
-This bird is faid to be remarkably fierce ; will not-touch dead
animals; was found frequent near the city of Aftrachan, ih the
winter of 1769.
Vultur albiulla,-!/»..#./?. i. p.; 123. TnTS.
L'Aigle a queue blanche, Brif. orn. i. p. 427. N° 5.
Le grand Pygargue, Buf. oif. i. p. 99.—P/. ml. 411;
Pygargus, Raii.fyn. p. 7. N" 5.
"Braun-fahle Adler, Frifch. t. 70.
White-tailed Eagle; Will. orn. p. 6x.
Cinereous Eagle, Br. Zool. i. p. i7Q»*t. it:
CIZE of a Turkey: length two feet nine inches.   Bill of a pale
yellow colour, ftrait at the bafe: cere and irides the fame:
{pace between the eyes bare, and of a blueifh colour: the head
F and
CINE&EOUS
E.
Description. PLAINTIVE
E.
FALCON,
and neck pale afh-colour: body and wings cinereous, clouded
with brown: quills very dark: tail white: legs feathered a little
way below the knees, and of a bright yellow colour: claws
black.
. Inhabits Europe, particularly Scotland and the Orknies. The
male is of a darker colour than the female. On Mr. Pennant's
authority, and juft reafons, we here place it with the Falcons, as
the head and neck are both completely feathered. Indeed the
frraitnefs of the bill might lead Linnaeus to unite it with the Vultures; but he is the only one who has thought fit to rank it with
that genus.
Falco Plancus, J. F. Miller, tab. 17.
Cook's Voy. vol. ii. p. 184, t, 32.
T ENGTH twenty-five inches. Bill black : cere, and round
the eyes, orange: crown of the head black; the feathers
longifh, forming a creft : the neck, and upper part of the body,
the breaft, and upper part of the belly, are grey, ftriated with
numerous undulated tranverfe black lines: between the legs
black: vent grey brown, with undulated lines: wings brown ;
fome of the coverts white, barred with brown; the four outer
quills black, the inner ones white, with dark bars: tail white,
with numerous black bars; the end, for more than an inch,
black : legs bright yeHow : claws black.
Inhabits Terra del Fuego.   FALCON,
Black-bellied Falcon, Forft. Am. Cat. p.
Black-cheeked Falcon, Am. Zool, N°
HpHIS is a large fpecies, being equal to an Eagle in fize.    The
head and neck are of a deep afh-colour : the belly black.
For further particulars, as well as manners, confult Am. Zoo-
BLACK-
CHEEKED
HpHIS fpecies is of a fize little inferior to that of an Eagle.
The bill is black and hooked: the cere yellow: irides
brown: the parts above are of a reddifh brown colour: the
top of the head pretty dark; the edges of the feathers darkeft.
Acrofs the middle of the wing is a bar of dark brown, pretty
broad, and moft part of the quills are of the fame colour to the
end: the tail of the fame colour as the upper part; the bafe,
the middle, and the end of a dark brown : all the under parts,
from the chin to the vent, are of a yellowifh buff-colour: the
legs are yellow, very flout: claws large, hooked, and black.
This is an inhabitant of India: the defcription and drawing
of the bird lent me by Mr. Pennant: fee plate iii. of this work.
In a collection of drawings exhibited in King-Street, Covent-Gar-
den, April 28, 1780, I obferved a bird which was not very different
from the above, perhaps a variety. It was crefted, the creft
compofed of afh-coloured and black feathers intermixed : the
bill black: iris of a pale yellow: fides of the head, round the
eye,* of an afh-colour: back and wings deep chocolate brown ;
F 2 the the edges of the feathers yellowifh : acrofs the wings, and great
part of the quills, the colour darker than in the reft of the-
wing: tail cinereous; the bafe, the middle, and end black, or
very dark brown ; the very tip beneath white: the chin and throat
of a ferruginous yellow: breaft and belly the fame, but blotched ir^
regularly with black, or darlcbrown: the edge of the wing ferruginous and black mixed: legs ftrong and aquiline: claws-.large-'and
black.
This bird was drawn as if of a large fize ; from what place not.
mentioned.
~ *.*6... w.».lC, Brif. orn. i.  p. 424. N° 3.
Aquila alba cygnea, Klein Hift. av. p. 42. N°
White Eagle, Chart, onom.. p. 63. N° 9.
DRISSON defcribes this bird to be as big as the Golden Eagle,-,
and wholly as white as fnow; and inhabits the Alps, and the
rocks on the borders of the Rhine.
M. Buffon is., of opinion that all White Eagles-are varieties
only, and in courfe this fhould not have place as a diftinct fpecies ; but as the firft-mentioned author has thought fit to make.:
it fo, I here retain it on his authority.
White Eagle, Du Praise. Hift, Lou
Amer. Zool. N°.
vol. ii. p. 75...
riptjok.    '"pHTS, he fays, is fmaller than the Eagle of the Alp, but
more h'andfome, being nearly white, except the ends of the
quills, which are black: it is reckoned a rare bird, and efteemed
much FALCON
much by the natives, who purchafe the quill-feathers^at a dear
rate, to make the fymbol of'peace*, of .which thefe feathers com-
pofe the fan part.
<#
L'Aigle tachete, Brif. om.\.
Le petit Aigle, Buf. oif. i. p.
Stein Adler, Frifch. t. 71.
Rough-footed Eagle, ChdrL t
. p. 63. N° 6.'
ROUGII-
EDOTED.
GlZE of a large cock: length two feet feven. inches and a half.
Cere yellow: iris the fame:.general colour, of the bird is
dull ferruginous; beneath the wings and thighs fpotted with
white; under tail-coverts white: legs, covered to the toes with,
dull ferruginous feathers,/potted with white: legs yellow: claws-.
black.
This bird inhabits Europe* and lives chiefly .on Rats<.
* Mr. Du Pratx tells us in the firft volume, that this fymbol of peace,
called the Calumet of Peace, confifts of a tube or pipe of a foot and half, or more,
in length, covered with the fkin of the neck of a beautiful-coloured duck : at
one end is .fixed a kind of fan, compofed of the quill-feathers of the White
Eagle, in fhape about one quarter of a circle; at the end of each-feather is a.,
fmall tuft of hair dyed of a red colour. The other end is, naked, in. order to .
fmoke at. FALCON.
Morphno congi
er, Raiifyn. p. 7. N° 7.
  Will. orn. p. 63.
Br. Muf.
'"THE length of this bird is two feet. The bill is large,
hooked, and black: Cere yellow: all the parts above
are of a deep rufty brown colour : the feathers on the head and
neck are very narrow, like thofe or" the Kite, pale at the ends, and
for fome way down the fhafts: the fcapular. feathers, and wing-
coverts, are each marked with an oval whitifh fpot at the end,
which fpots become larger as they are lower on the wings; and
in the greater coverts they occupy almoft the whole breadth of
the feather, giving the wings a moft beautiful appearance : the
feathers on the middle of the back, are likewife fpotted, but of a
pale buff-colour. The greater quills are deep brown, plain,
nearly black; fecondaries the fame, but tipped with dirty white;
thofe neareft the body have the end for*near an inch white: the
upper tail-coverts dirty white: the tail deep brown, tipped with
dirty white: belly and vent dark brown, ftreaked with dirty
pale buff: thighs brown,- flriped down the fhafts from the middle to the end of each feather with white: legs feathered to the
toes, which are yellow : claws black.
If I am not miftaken, this bird will prove to be the Morphno congener of Aldrovandus; which I have ventured to affert at the beginning, and which may be feen by comparing the above with
what Willughby fays of it, adding that the iris is cinereous.
Both M. Briffon and M. de Buffon join this with the fynonyms
of the laft fpecies; but I believe without reafon. Their bird I do
not know; but am clear that this has exiftence, having myfelf
defcribed it from a fpecimen in good condition now in the British Museum. FALCON,
39
16.
LESSER WHITE-
TAILED E.
Le petit Aigle a queue blanche, Brif orn. i. p. 429, N° 6.
Le petit Pygargue, Buf. i. p. 99.
Braun-fahle Adler, Frifch. t. 70.
Pygargus of Aldrovand, Will. orn. p. 62.
Erne, Gefner, p. 205.—Fawn-killing Eagle, Chart, onom. p. 63. N°4.
Lev. Muf.
CIZE of a large cock: length two feet two inches. Bill, cere,    Descru
and irides yellow: parts above, of a dull ruft-colour; beneath, ferruginous, mixed with blackifh: head and neck afh-
coloured, inclining to chefnut: the tips of the feathers blackifh : tail white: legs yellow and naked: claws black.
Inhabits Europe. — M. Buffon thinks that this Eagle, the Bald,
and the White-tailed Eagle, or V. Albiulla oiLinnaus*, are varieties
of the fame fpecies. The fpecimen in the Leverian Mufeum
fomewhat differs from the above defcription, in having the head
paleafh; the fhoulders the fame, but darker; and fome white
about the eyes : alfo the outer webs of the tail, above half-way
from the bafe, are brown; otherwife the tail is white.—This
fpecimen faid to come from Africa.
Le Jean le blanc, Brif. i. p. 443. N° 11.
. 1 Buf. i. p. 124. t. 4.—PI. enl. 413.
Pygargus, Johnft. av. p. 4. t. 2.
'7«
JEAN LE
BLANC.
'THE bulk of this does not fall far fhort of that of the Black    Description.
Eagle :  length two feet one inch.     The colour of the bill
• The Erne of Mr. Pennant.    See Br. Zool, N° C   O   N,
is cinereous: the irides yellow: parts above grey-brown; beneath white, fpotted with rufous brown : the outfides and tips
of the tail-feathers are brown; within white, tranfverfely
ftreaked with brown : legs yellowifh, naked : claws cinereous.
This bird is frequent in France, but fcarce elfewhere; and is
faid to eat mice, rats, and frogs. The female is almoft wholly
of a grey colour, having no white except on the rump; and that
of a dirty colour.—Generally makes it's neft • on the ground,
among heath, broom, furze, &c. -, fometimes, though not often,
upon pine and other high trees: lays generally three eggs, of a
grey flate-colour.—This is a different bird from the Henharrier,
though by fome confounded with it.
NEW HOLLAND        tM .    , ...       ,, „
WHITE E. T  EN GTH twenty inches.   Orbits ot the eyes yellow: cere
N. s. ^e farne :  the whole body of a pure white :  the legs are
Description, yellow: the hind claw double the length of the others.
Place. Inhabits New Holland.—Communicated by Dr. G. R. Forfter *.
TE N G T H twenty-five inches; fize of the Plaintive E. N° 9.
The cere is yellow: body brown: tail black : -end of the tail
tipped with dirty yellowifh white.
Inhabits Staten Land.    Has a. cry much like that of a hen, fo
as to deceive one into the fuppofition at firft hearing.
» I am much obliged by many hints and obfervations communicated to me
by that gentleman, in the courfe of his voyage round the world.
_ ^ I am FALCON.
I am indebted likewife to the above-mentioned gentleman for
this fhort account; and on his opinion I place it as a new
fpecies.
L'Aigle du Brefil, Brif orn, i.  p. 445. N° 12.
Urubitinga, Buf. oif. i. p. 141.—Rati Syn.  p. 8. N° 9.
 Will. orn. p. 64.
JDRISSO N fays it is as big as a goofe of half a year old.
The bill is thick and black: cere yellowifh: eyes large:
general colour brown : wings blackifh, mixed with cinereous :
tail white for two-thirds of it's length, then black, with a white
tip : the legs are naked, and yellow.
This is an inhabitant of Braftl.
BRASILIAN
E.
L'Aigle de Pondichery,  Brif orn. i. p. 450. N/15. t. 35. zu
 Buf. oif. i. p. 136. PONDICHERRY
 PI. enl.  416. E'
'X'HIS bird, according to the-drawings, muft be an handfbme. Description.
fpecies. In fize it equals the Jerfalcon. Length one foot
feven inches. The bill is cinereous, with the tip yellow: cere
blueifh : colour of the body chefnut; the fhaft of each feather
blackifh : the head, neck, and breaft, are white, with a longitudinal brown line down the middle of each feather: the end-
half of the fix firft prime quills is black: tail-feathers chefnut
the fix middle feathers are of a pale fulvous colour at the tip
the three others have narrow blackifh bands on the inner webs
legs luteous: claws black,
G This BLACK-BACKED E.
FALCON.
This fpecies is found at Pondicherry, in the Eaft Indies. It is-
held as a facred bird, and worfhipped in confequence, by the natives on the coaft of Malabar.
Black-backed Eagle, Brown's III. p. 4.  t. 2?
*~r HIS is a large bird, faid to be of the fize of the Golden
Eagle. The bill is black : cere yellow : head, hind part of
the neck, belly, and wing coverts, are ferruginous : the fore part
of the neck,, breaft, back, and quills, are black : bafe of the tail,
to the middle, is white; the end half black: legs yellow, covered;
to the toes with ferruginous feathers: claws black.
From whence it came, unknown.
WHITE-
CROWNED E.
Description.
Aquila leucorypha, Pallas Voy. 2. p. 454. NQ 5.
*TpHE fize is equal to an Ofprey, and not much unlike thac
bird; but the limbs are longer; it expands fix feet, and
weighs.nearly fix pounds. The bill is ftrait at the bafe: cere of a
livid afh-colour: irides grey brown, with a black outer circle: the
head is grey brown,, with a triangular white fpot on the crown:
throat white: fides of the head darker than the reft (as in the
Ofprey) : the upper part of the body is of a clouded brown colour ; the parts beneath, the fame, but paler : fecond coverts,
have grey margins : quills very dark: tail longifh, even at the
end, black at the tip, and white beneath; fome of the fide-
feathers are dotted within, with, white: the legs are pale; one-
third: FALCON.
third of the fhins covered with feathers : claws large, black: no
membrane between the toes.
This bird frequents the more fouthern parts of the Jaick.
43
Aquila mogilnick,   Nov. com. ac. Petr. vol.
*TPHE fize is not mentioned; but by the name Eagle, it cannot
be very fmall. The bill is black: cere and fides of the
bill luteous : eye-lids blue : iris lurid: head, neck, and back, of
an obfcure ferruginous brown, here and there mixed with a little
white : the pofterior and inferior fides of the quills fpotted with
grey ; the tips of the fourth, fifth, fixth, and feventh, black ; the .
reft undulated, with rufous tips : wings reach almoft to the end
of the tail: the under parts are the fame colour as thofe above,
but without any mixture of white : greater wing-coverts brown,
with ferruginous tips; leffer coverts half brown half rufous :
tail black, with grey bands; the tips rufous : the legs are feathered to the claws, like to thofe of fome kinds of owls; they
are of a luteous colour, with black claws.
Inhabits Ruffia, along with N° 46, and often feen with it- near-
the city ofTfcbercafk,
THE length of this fpecies is twenty-one inches;   breadth JEQUlNcCTlAL
three feet and a half.    The bill is of a pale colour, with a E*
black tip : the head, neck as far as the breaft,  and the upper N. S.
part of the body, dark brown, inclining to black 5. fcapulars and ription,
wing-coverts chocolate brown; the bafe and margin of each fea-
G 2 ther FALCON.
ther ferruginous : quills black; one third of the middle part of
both prime, and fecondaries ferruginous; fome of them fpotted
with brown on their inner webs, but the two firft of the prime
quills are wholly black: the wings reach to one third of the tail :
the breaft is rufous; on each feather are four tranfverfe ftripes of
brown; under the wings the fame, but paler; as are the thighs-
and under tail-coverts : the tail itfelf almoft black; the two
middle feathers plain; the others, about the middle, have • an
oblique white mark on each fide of the fhaft, beginning at the
fhaft, and palling upwards on each fide,, imitating the letter V; in
all of them touching the fhaft, but in fome not quite reaching
the margin: the end of all the tail-feathers tipped.with white :
the legs are yellow : claws pale.
This was received with fome other birds from Cayenne, and is
at prefent in the collection of Mifs Blomefield*. A label tied
to it's leg, had the name of" Le pagani roux, ou L''Aigle a plumage-
gris roux" which I fuppofe to be the names given by the French
inhabitants of that ifland.
* I here take the opportunity of acknowledging the afliftance received from ■
the well-chofen collection of Mifs Blomefield, of Portland-ftreet; in which will'
be found many new fpecimens of foreign birds from various parts, in the beft.
prefervation ;, and which will be noticed in their place in the following^
fheets. FALCON,
45
Falco haliaetus, Lin.Syft. p. 129. N° 26.
L'Aigle de Mer. Brif. orn. i. p. 440.  t. 34. N° 10.
Le Balbuzard, Buf. oif. i. p. 103. t. 2.—PI. enl. 414.
Morphnos, Raii Syn. p. 7. N° 6.
Bald Buzzard,  Will, orn    p. 69.  t. 6.
Ofprey, Br. Zool. i. p. ij±.—Fl Scot. i. t. 1.
5r. Muf.  Levi Muf
2$.
- OSPREY.
riPHE length is one foot eleven-inches.
The bill is black: cere
blue: iris yellow: moft of the feathers on the head are
brown, with white margins : hind head, throat, and neck, white,,
with very little mixture of brown : on each fide of the neck, beginning from beneath the eye, is a band of brown, reaching al-
moft to the fhoulders: the body is brown above, and white beneath : tail-feathers tranfverfely barred with white on the inner
webs; the two. middle ones plain brown: legs naked, fhort,
ftrong, and of a. blueifh afh-colour: claws remarkably long,,
hooked, and black: bottoms of the feet blueifh.
This bird inhabits Europe; chiefly in places-near the water, as
it's prey is fifh,. which it plunges' after into the water with great
rapidity, feldom miffing it's aim; and, bringing them up in it's
talons, retires to a fmall diftance to feaft on them... It alfo preys-
on ducks; but all authors- agree that it is fondeft of fifh.
I fhall take the liberty here to remark an error that Linnaus'
has fallen into, from old authors who have mentioned it before
him, viz. that the left foot is fubpalmated.— This, I can allure
the reader, has notathe leaft foundation in truth *..
*T do not believe that then
of the body does not correfpo
id. in fize and fhape, i
ruped, i
which each fide
il ftate, thougl 4*
FALCON.
26.
Le Faucon pecheur des Antilles, Brif. orn. i. p. 361.  N
Var. A.
CAROLINA
O.
Le Faucon pecheur de la Caroline, Brif. orn. i. p. 362
_ Buf. oif. i. p. 142.
Le Pefcheur, Raii Syn. p. 19.  N° 2.
Fifhing Hawk, Catefb. Car. i. t. 2.
Ofprey, Am. Z00U N°
N°i5.
Lev. Muf.
THE difference between this and the laft is not much; the
tail in this fpecies being of a- plain brown colour: in the
former it is banded: and it is faid to be longer in the body than
the European one. Mr. Pennant muft think them the fame,
fince he has quoted the fame figure in Catefby for his Ofprey.
the contrary is fometimes feen in the infe£b tribe. In the common Lobfter,
and feveral of the cancer genus, the claws differ much ; but moft fo in the Carolina Sand-Crab (cancer vocans Linn.) one of the claws of which is fo mon-
ftroufly large, as to oblige the animal to fupport it on the back when in motion j
while the other is very fmall, fcarcely larger than one of the legs.—In refpecl.
to winged infects, it is obferved, that even the marks of the wings exactly correspond on each fide. Indeed, a lingular circumftance c
or Cockroach genus, which, I believe, is the only
ferved by me. In this fpecies, one of the elytra, or
four white fpots, and the other with three only
ipecimen of it I have yet feen.
As to Lufus Naturte, they are far from being uncommon;
without webs to the toes, which I have often feen; a cor
the fpiral turns of the fhell reverfed, one of which was found
few years fince; alfo a flounder having the eyes and lateral
j in one of the Blatta f
recorded, at leaft ob-
wing-cafes, is marked with
which holds good in every
fide, inftead of the right (mentio:
Thefe, and an hundred fuch 1
as Angularities happening now ai
permanent diftin&ions of fpecies.
t Slalta bttert,
Br. Zool. vol. iii. ]
ht be mentioned, \
ut by no means to
fuch
as a duck
imon
fnail with
in m
I garden a
line c
n the left
.229.
)&c.
mftb
'. reckoned
be fe
down for
1, Pali. JpU. N'9. Ui.fig.|. FALCON.
This inhabits Carolina,, and other parts of North America and
the Weft Indies.—The two numbers of Briffon, above quoted, are
clearly one and the fame bird..
CIZE of the Ofprey. Length twenty-fix inches : breadth five
feet two inches. Bill black: cere obfcure : general colour of
the bird a dark rufty brown. A white- line paffes from the
upper mandible, over each eye, to the hind head, which, with the
nape, is white alfo : crown of the head brown and white, mixed :
from the chin quite to the vent, it is white: under the eye, and
down each fide of the neck, paffes a flripe of brown, in the.
fame manner as in the Ofprey: the two middle feathers of the
tail are plain brown, the others barred brown and white; the
two outmoft are marked on both fides of the fhaft, but the reft
on the inner webs only; the tips of all of them are white : the
legs are fhort, ftrong, and chagrined beneath the feet ; the colour yellowifh:  claws very large, ftrong, hooked, and black.
This bird came from Cayenne, and is in the collection of Mifs
Blomefield. — It appears to me clearly, to be a variety of the Ofprey ; having every appearance of that bird at firft fight: Which;
proves the Ofprey to be a bird common to every climate..
Var
N.
CAYF.
O
Descru
Le Faucon des Antilles, Brif orn. i. p. 361. N° 13.. MANSFEN
Mansfeny, Buf. oif. i.   p.  144.
Mansfeny, Hift. des Ant ill. ii.  p. 252i
I Raii Syn.  p. 19.  N° I..
npt-I I S' has the fhape and plumage of an Eagle ; differing only    Descriptic
in fize j. being not much bigger than a Ealcon.    In. colour FALCON.
it is wholly brown; but has legs and claws of twice the fize of a
Falcon.
Place. This bird is found in the Antilles, or Caribbee I/lands.    It's
food chiefly confifts of fmall birds, fnakes, and lizards.
28.
♦-COMMON
BUZZARD.
Falco buteo, Lin. Syft. i. p. 127. N° 15.
————— Scop. Ann. i.   p. 15. N°4.
La Bufe, Brif orn. i. p. 406. N° 32.
— Buf oif i. p. 206. t. 2.—PI. enl. 419.
Buteo vulgaris, Raii Syn. p. 16.
Common Buzzard, Will. orn. p. jo.—Albin. i. t. 1.
Buzzard, Br. Zool. i.   p. 188. N° 54.  t. 25.
 Am. Zool. N°
Wd£ Lev. Muf.
TT is bigger than a Kite in the body: length one foot eight
inches. Bill lead-colour : cere luteous : irides dark : the body
is ferruginous brown above; beneath pale, varied with brown:
tail above brown, barred with darker brown; beneath greyifh,
and tipped with rufous white : legs luteous : claws black.
This is the common Buzzard of all authors, and is a bird
known by every one. It's food is various; eating birds, fmall
quadrupeds, reptiles, and infects. It is very fubject to vary in
different fpecimens; fcarcely two being alike. FALCON.
Le Gros Bufard, Brif orn. i. p. 398. N° 28.
Huner-habigt; Huner-Geyer. Frifcb. t. 72.
QIZE of our Buzzard : length one foot eleven inches. The bill
is black: the cere yellow : irides faffron-colour: above the
leathers are brown, with rufous edges; beneath rufous, with oval
brown fpots; in fome unfpotted: under tail-coverts plain rufous : tail brown, with broad bars of deeper brown: legs yellow : claws black.
29.
GREATER
BUZZARD.
Le Bufard v
Brif. orn. i. p. 400. N° 28. A.
A TRIFLE lefs than the preceding, being in length only one
foot eight inches. It differs from it in having the wings
more variegated; the upper wing-coverts being fpotted with
afh-colour; the leffer quills, from the middle to near the end,
are white; the end itfelf blackifh: on each of thefe feathers
is a blackifh fpot on the outer webs, which, when the wing is
clofed, form a tranfverfe blackifh band.
This is a variety only of the laft-mentioned.
29.
Var. A.
SPOTTED
C IZ E of a Buzzard: length twenty inches. Bill black : cere
yellow : iris the fame: general colour a dark cream, or
brownifK buff; paleft on the under parts : crown of the head
plain: the feathers on the back have the middle and the fhafts
brown: greater wing-coverts obfcurely barred with brown:
H greater
+. CREAM-
COLOURED
Description. AMERICAN
B.
N.S.
FALCON,
greater quills very dark cream-colour, verging to brown; the fhafts.
very pale: the belly and fides are dafhed with perpendicular
blotches of brown, but irregularly: the thighs are of a pale
buff white, with narrow bars of pale brown: between the legs
and the vent the fame, but without bars: tail rather fhorter
than in the common Buzzard; of the fame colour with the back;
at firft fight appearing of a plain colour, but on.clofe inflection
feveral narrow bars of a fomewhat darker colour may be perceived : the legs are fhort, flout, and. of a yellow colour:
claws black.
This beautiful fpecimen was fent to me from Jamaica by an
intelligent friend, and a good naturalift, who did not hint the:
leaft of it's being a variety, of the common Buzzard, which I
fhould otherwife have fiifpected; but remarked that it was fcaree
in that ifland;.
Lev. Mup
CIZE of our Buzzard, or, if any thing* rather-t
ger.    The-
bill is black :. cere pale yellow: on the upper parts the co-
lour is brown: the feathers, on the back have pale edges : the-
chin is white, lightly dafhed with brown: fore part of the neck;
and breaft are of a paler brown than the back, and a trifle mottled : the belly is white.; each feather has- the fhaft brown,
which fpreads out into a lozenge-fhaped mark as it advances to
the tip, not unlike a fpear with the head.downwards : the vent
is plain white : the quills are dufky : tail of a plain ferruginous
colour,, FALCON.
colour, with the bafe inclining to white, and a narrow band of
black near the end : legs pale yellow: claws black.
This bird came from North America, and is in the Leverian
Mufeum,
Le Bufard roux, Brif. orn. i. p. 404. N° 30.
La Harpaye, Buf. oif. i. p. 217.—PI. enl. 460.
Fifchgeyer; Brandgeyer, Frifch. t. 78.
CIZE of the female Gofhawk: length one foot eight inches.
The bill is black: iris faffron-colour: general colour of
the plumage rufous; but the back, fcapulars, greater coverts,
and rump, incline to brown: where the parts are rufous, each
feather has a longitudinal ftripe of brown down the middle of
each feather. Thighs plain rufous : tail afh-colour: the greater
quills are black, the leffer ones afh-colour; except the three
which are next to the body, which are brown: the legs are yellow : claws black.
This fpecies is frequent in the low places, and banks of rivers
-and ponds, both in France and Germany. Preys often on fifh,
which it takes alive out of the water. Frifch fays, that it is endowed with a very quick fight, more fo than any other rapacious bird.
H 2 CON,
Falco apivorus, Lip. fyft. i. p. 130. N° 28.
LaBondree, Brif orn. i. p. 410. N° 33.
■    ■ — Buf. oif. i. p. 208.— PI. enl. 420.
Buteo apivorus, Raiifyn. p. 16. N° 2.
Honey Buzzard, Will. orn. p. 72, t. $.—Albiu. i. t. 2.
: —, Br. Zool. i. N° 26.
Lev. Muf
H E length is twenty-three inches: weight thirty ounces.
Bill and cere black: irides golden yellow: head afh-coloured: neck, back, fcapulars, and wing-coverts, deep brown:
the chin nearly white, or very pale yellow, ftreaked with narrow lines of brown : fore part of the neck rufous brown : breaft
and belly barred with tranfverfe regular bars of rufous brown and
white, each feather being white, with two bars upon it: tail
of a. dull brown colour, with a bar of darker brown near the
end,, and another in the middle. The legs are fhort, flout, and
of a dull yellow : claws black.
This defcription is from a fpecimen of my own, but whether
male or female I never knew.
In the Br. Zoology, the chin, breaft, and belly are white; the
two laft marked with dufky fpots, pointing downwards ; and
three dufky bars on the tail.
Linnaus remarks,, that the tail has only one cinereous band,,
and the tip is \
Briffon obferves, that the fide tail-feathers are banded with,
white on the inner webs, and are fpotted with brown.
Albin's fpecimen had no bars on the tail..
2 E mention: FALCON.
I mention the above, to fhew how much thefe birds differ.
This fpecies, I believe, is not fo common in England as the
other Buzzards j at leaft, with all my attention, I never procured
but one frefh fpecimen, from whence the above defcription was
taken.
Willughby fays that it feeds on Wafp-Maggots, as well as on Frogs
and Lizards; perhaps a&theLarva? of Bees alfo,,whence the name..
53
Falco seruginofus, Lin.fyft. p. 130. N6 29.
Le Bufard de marais, Brif. orn. i. p. 401. N.° 20>
Le Bufard, Buf. oif. i. p. 218, t. 10.
PI. tnl. 423 i 424.
Schwartz-branne fifch-geyer, Frifch. t, jj-.
ft^ilvus aasruginofus, Raiifyn. p. 17. N° A. 4,.
More Buzzard, Will. orn. p. 75, t. 7.
Moor Buzzard, Br. Zool. i. N° 57, t. 27.
Lev. Muf.
rT,HE length of this bird is twenty-one inches: weight twenty
ounces. The bill is black:- cere and irides. yellow : colour
©f the whole bird a chocolate brown, with a tinge of ferruginous:
the legs are long and flender.. According to Linnaus, the
throat, crown of the head, fhoulders, andjegs,. are luteous.
Mr. Pennant obferves, that the luteous marks which Linnaeus
gives as characteriflics of the fpecies, are by no means fo,
being varieties only of the common one, which is wholly of a
rufty chocolate brown, with a yellowifh fpot on the head'.
Even this is by no means always the cafe, fince I have now-
by me a fpecimen,, which is chocolate brown throughout, without FALCON.
out the leafl appearance of luteous on the head, nor on any other
part.    This was fhot in Kent.
It preys on Rabbits, young Wild Ducks *, and other waterfowl, as well as fifh.
BAY-FALCON.
Falco fpadiceus, or Chocolate Falcon, Phil. Tranf. vol. lxi
Chocolate Falcon, Forft. Amer. Cat. p. 9.
Bay Falcon, Am. Zool. N°
HP HIS appears to be a variety of the Moor Buzzard. Mr.
Forfter, who defcribes it in the Phil. Tranf. above quoted,
fays, that it is very like the Moor Buzzard, only being lefs, and
in wanting the light fpot on the head. Quere, Is not this my
plain variety ?
WHITE-
RUMPED BAY
"DILL black: cere yellow : general colour ferruginous, with a
tinge of brown : cheeks and round the eyes darkeft: rump
white: the two middle tail-feathers of a deep afh-colour; the
others of the fame colour with the body; all of them barred
with four bars of very dark brown : the tips dufky : legs yellow,
long, and flender: claws black.
I venture to place this as a variety only, and not as a diftinct
fpecies, the more efpecially,as all the Buzzards differ much, though
of the fame fpecies.    I am indebted for this defcription to a fine
* In fome places it is called the Duck Hawk.
drawing F   A   L   C   O   N.
drawing in Mr. Banks's * poffeffion, faid to come from Hudfon's
Bay.
Le Faucon de la Baye d'Hudfon, Brif. orn. i, p. 356. N° 10. ,.#
 — ■ Buf oif i. p. 223. ASH COLOURED
Afh-coloured Buzzard, Edw. t. 53.—Forft. Amer. Cat, p. 9. "•
Cinereous Falcon, Am. Zool. N°
CIZE of a middling Hen.   The bill is of a blueifh colour: cere    Description.
the fame: iris yellow: over the eye is a white line fpotted with
brown; under the eye a dufky line : above, the bird is of a cinereous brown; beneath, deep brown, mixed with white : the prime
quills are deep brown ; the firft of them fpotted on the outfide
with white: the tail beneath is cinereous, banded with white;
above cinereous brown, with tranfverfe grey bands : the legs
are of a blueifh afh-colour, covered with feathers for half their
length : claws black.
This fpecies inhabits Hudfon's Bay, and is faid to prey chiefly Place.
on the White Partridge or Ptarmigan.
* To this gentleman the. world is much obliged, by his great attention
to every department of natural hiftbry in common ; and in regard to the prefent
undertaking, the author would do him injuftice, did he not own himfelf particularly fo, by the unreferved ufe of his moft valuable and extenfive library of
natural hiftory; without which, this work would have fallen fhort of that fmall.
degree-o£perfection which it has attained. N.
T ENGTH twenty inches: fize of our common Buzzard. Bill
blue: the parts above are of a deep brown colour; the
feathers with ferruginous margins : the chin is the fame, but
paler: the greater wing-coverts margined with white: greater
quills black, on the outer edge marked with white fpots, except
for three inches at the end, which are unfpotted : the tail-feathers
deep brown, acrofs which are two narrow bars of dirty white;
the tip is alfo of the fame colour: the fore part of the neck
and breaft are rufous, with black fhafts, befides which, on the
breaft and belly, are interrupted bars of white and pale ferruginous mixed: thighs and vent dirty white; the firft plain, the
laft obfcurely barred with brown: tail rather fhort: legs ftrong
and yellow: claws black.
This came from North America, and is now in fine preferva-
tion in the L^verian Mufeum.
■Faun, fuec. p. 19. N° 56.
INNAiUS fays, that it is the fize of a Hen. The bill lead-
colour : cere and eyelids luteous : the parts above afh-coloured and white; beneath white, with cordated fmall brown
fpots: round the neck a white collar: the tail is banded with
twelve or thirteen alternate white and brown bands: legs luteous:
claws black.
Inhabits Sweden.
Br. Muf.   FALCON.
57
Br. Muf.   Lev. Muf.
>TpHE male is of the fize of the Gentii Falcon: length eighteen
inches. The bill blue at the bafe, and black at the tip: cere
luteous: orbits blue : irides the fame : in each noftril is a lobe
or divifion. General colour above black brown; beneath
fpotted with rufous: quills and tail fpotted with grey : legs
luteous.
The female is larger, meafuring in length twenty-three inches.
Cere and orbits naked and yellow : head and breaft deep brown:
throat, neck, and belly, marked with longitudinal whitifh lines:
thighs ferruginous, marked with longitudinal black ftrise : vent
pale yellow, with ferruginous longitudinal ftriae: tail brown,
eranfverfcly fefciated with white : legs yellow: claws black.
Inhabits Queen Charlotte's Bay, New Zealand. It has much the
air of a Vulture, both about the head and neck: the feathers of
which laft are loofe and waving, as in fome Vultures: added to
the bird's not being well cloathed with feathers about the eyes
and bill: however, I am allured that the manners are entirely
thofe of the Falcon genus, which will at once fet afide any
fert-her thoughts about it.
That in the Leverian Mufeum is a female, but has no apparent
bands on the tail.    Dr. Forfter, who examined it with me, is of
•   opinion that it may be a young bird.
NEW-ZE-Aa-
LAND FALCON.
Falco palumbarius, Lin fiyft. i. p. 130. N° 30.
L'Autour, Brif. orn. i. p. 317. N° 3.
 Buf. oif. i. p. 230. t. \z.—Pl. enl,418, 461.
Groffe gefperberte falck; groffe gepfeilte falck, Frifch. t. 81, 82,
Accipiter palumbarius, Raiifyn. p. 18. N° 1.
Gofhawk, Will. orn. p. 85. t. 3, 5.—Br. Zool. 1. N° 52.
 Amer. Zool. N«
Br. Muf    Lev. Muf.
T ENGTH one foot ten inches and a quarter: in fize it is
larger, but more flender in fhape, than the common Buzzard.
The bill is blue, with a black tip : cere yellowifh green: iris
yellow : over the eye is a line of white: on the fide of the neck
is a bed of broken white : head and parts above deep brown :
breaft and belly marked with numerous tranfverfe black and
white bars: tail afh-coloured, long, with four or five dufky bars:
legs yellow: claws black.
Willughby obferves, that " the thighs are covered over with
reddifh feathers, having a black line in the middle down the
fhaft:" alfo " in each feather of the breaft there is a black
circular line near the top, running parallel to the edges of the
feather, and in fome alfo the fhaft and middle part of the featheF
is black."
This fpecies was formerly held in great efteem for the fport
of falconry, being ufed not only to Partridge and Pheafant,
but alfo greater fowl, as Geefe and Cranes, and fometimes for
Rabbets. Indeed, moft of the Hawks may be trained up for
this purpofe, though fome are infinitely more docile than
others.
The FALCON,
The Gofhawk is not, I believe, very common in England, but
in Scotland is frequent, where it breeds, and is very destructive to
game.   It is found alfo in North America.
Petit autour de Cayenne, Buf. oif. i. p. 237. CAYENNE
HpHE bill of this bird is blue: the iris orange : the head and    Description
neck behind blueifh white : back and wings dark afh: the
under parts from the throat to the vent are nearly white: prime
quills black; fecond quills barred with black: on the tail are
four or five alternate bars of black and white; the black ones by
much the broadeft: tip white: legs fhort, and of a blue colour:
claws black.
Inhabits Cayenne.
Accipiter macrourus, N. C. Ac. Petr. 15. t. 8, 9.
rpHIS is nearly of the fize of the Lanner, being in length one
foot feven inches, in breadth nearly two feet. The bill is
black, at the bafe green: cere luteous: noftrils oval, half covered with black ftiff briftles: eyelids and irides of a faffron-
colour: parts above cinereous, inclining to reddifh on the back;
beneath quite white, with a tinge of afh-colour on the upper
part of the neck: tail rounded, very long, of itfelf meafuring
nearly eight inches and three quarters; in colour it is whitifh,
and croffed with alternate bands of deeper and paler brown; the
I 2 two
LONG-TAILED
F. FALCON.
two middle feathers plain: legs yellow: claws black, hooked,
and fharp.
The female is brown above, the feathers edged with chefnut;
moft fo on the head : beneath, inclining to yellow: quills deep
brown, with whitifh tips: tail brown; the four middle feathers
tranfverfely marked with deeper brown ; the others-marked with
broad interrupted fafciae; the tip -of -the-outer -one fpotted with
black: all of them have ferruginous tips.
This bird inhabits Ruffia; where it is called Lan.
Falco furcatus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 129. N° 25.
Le Milan de la Caroline, Brif. em. i. p. 4r8- N" 36.
 Buf. oif. p. 221.
Falco Peruvian us, cauda furcata, Klein, av. p. 51. N° 14.
Swallow-tailed Hawk, Catef. Car. i. t. 4.
 Am. Zool. N°
Lev. Muf.
'""P HIS is a moft elegant fpecies : in fize it yields to the
European Kite. Length two feet. The bill is black : cere
--Obfcure: irides red: the body above is of a fine deep purplifh
torown, inclining to black: the rump and upper tail-coverts
-HvOre inclining to green than the other parts : quills %»d 'tail
very deep purple, inclining to green : the head, neck, breaft,
*betJy, !Snd fides, the thighs, and under tail-coverts, are all pure
white: the tail is very long, being alone thirteen ificfees, and is
very forked; the two outer feathers exceed the middle ones in
length by eight inches.
This bird inhabits Carolina in the fummer months,-; ^kere -it FALCON.
is called Snake-hawk; though it lives •■chiefly on infects, whiofa
it is faid to pick from the tree while flying.
M. de Buffon fays that this bird more properly is a native of
Peru, as it retires there on the leaft approach of cold weather,
Falco milvus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 126. N° 12. ^ J^TE.
Le Milan royal, Brif orn. i. p. 414. N° 35. t. 33.
■  Buf. oif i. p. 197. t. 7.—PI. enl. 422.
Milvus, Rati Syn. p. 17. N° A. 6.
Kite, or Glead,  Will. orn. p. 74. t. 6.
Kite, Br. Zool. N° 53.
Br. Muf.  Lev. Muf.
rT'H E length of this fpecies is two feet.    It has a brownifh    Description
bill: the cere is yellow: and the irides of a ftraw-colour: the
feathers on the head and neck are long and-narrow, of a hoary-
colour, with a dafh of brown down the middle : the body is ferruginous : the middle of each feather above is dark, and the margins pale; beneath likewife the feathers have a ftreak down the
fhafts: quills blackifh: the tail is twelve inches in length, and
forked; by which the bird is at once diftinguifhed from all
others: legs yellow: claws black.
This bird is very common in England, where it continues the
whole year: it lays two or three eggs, which are roundifh, and
of a whitifh colour, fpotted with dirty yellow. It is not peculiar
to England. Linmeus mentionait as.a bird of Sweden; and, ac-
■ cording to voyagers, is found as far. as Guinea * and Senegal-f;
* Bofman Voy. de Guinee, p. 278.
f Hift. des Voy. Prevoft, vol. iii. p. 306.
PtAC# A I,
Manner
though A   L   C   O   N.
though perhaps it may a little differ from climate. — I do not
find it to be in any part of the American continent.
•, Brif. orn. i. p. 413. N° 34.
Buf. oif. i. p. 203.—PI. enl. 4
Braunermald-Geyer,  Kram. Elen. p. 326. N° 5 ?
Black Gled. Sibb. Scot, illuft. P. 2. lib. 3. p. 15.
HP HIS fpecies is faid to be lefs than the common Kite. Bill
and cere the fame: the parts above are of a very dark brown
colour, inclining to black; the head, breaft, and under parts are
whitifh: greater quills black: legs yellow and flender : claws
black.
It is diftinguifhed from the common Kite, ifl, By it's fize '
being lefs; 2dly, By it's being of a very dark colour; and,
3dly, In having the tail-feathers nearly even at the end, or at
leaft very little forked.
I much fufpect this to be the fame with that in Kramer, above
quoted; but as he gives no fynonyms, I cannot be quite certain.
rauner-Geyer; Brauner Milon, Kram. Elen. 327.^6.
T T is about the fame fize with the Kite. The bill is yellow,
with a black tip : cere, and angles of the mouth, yellow:
irides black : palate of the mouth blue: forehead and throat
whitifh, fpotted with brown: head, neck, back, breaft, and
wings, chefnut; the fhafts of the feathers black: belly and rump
teftaceous brown, obfcurely fpotted with brown: the prime quills
9 are FALCON.
are blackifh; the fecondaries tipped with white : tail very little,
if at all, forked, croffed with feveral blackifh bands : tips of the
feathers white : the legs are yellow, feathered to the middle :
claws black.
This bird, according to Kramer, inhabits Auftria; lives chiefly
in woods; and feeds on birds and dormice.
63
Accipiter Korfchun, N. C. Ac, Petr. vol. xv. t. 11. a.
*~V HIS is fo much like a Kite, as almoft to pafs for a mere
variety of that bird. The length is twenty-one inches and
an half. The bill lead-colour: cere green: noftrils covered
with briftles : the head, upper part of the neck, and the throat,
are of an elegant chefnut: region of the eyes white : fides of the
head pale brown, as is all the reft of the body: the quills are
vinaceous at the tips.: tail the fame : legs luteous and wrinkled;
claws black. — Inhabits Rujfta.
This is faid to be a folitary bird, feeding on fmall birds and
mice.   Often feen at Tanain, near the city oiTfcbercafk.
Le Bufard du Brefil, Brif, orn. i. p. 405. N° 3
Caracara, Buf. oif. L p. 222.
Milvus Brafilienfis, Raii Syn. p. 17.  N° 6.
Brafilian Kite, called. Caracara, Will. orn. p. 7
BRAZILIAN
KITE.
CIZE of a Kite.    Bill black: irides gold-colour: round the    Descr.ibti.on,
eyes yellow:   general colour rufous, fpotted with white and
yellow : wings reach to near the e,nd of the tail:  legs yellow:
claws. FALCON.
claws black: the tail is nine inches in length* the colour wAbsv
and brown mixed; but whether it is forked or no, is not m«-
tioned.    Some of thefe birds have a white breaft and belly.
This fpecies inhabits Brafil, and is a great enemy to poultry.
Falco gentilis, Lin
126. N°
• P-15-
. N°
Le Faucon gentil, Brif. orn. i. p. 339. N° 5.
Falco gentilis, i. e. nobilis dictus, Rati Syn. p.
Falcon gentle, Will. orn. p. jg.—Albin. ii. t. 6.
Gentil Falcon, Br. Zool. N° 50. t. 21,22.—Am. Zool. N»
Lev. Muf
T F we compare the fize of this, bird with that of a Gofhawk,
it will be found to exceed it. The bill is- lead-colour : cere
yellow: irides bright yellow: head inclining to ferruginous,
with oblong black fpots: the upper part of the body-and the
wings are brown; each feather of the laft tipped with ferruginous : the quills are dufky, barred on the outer webs with black ;
the lower parts of the inner webs marked with white: wings
reach to the middle of the tail: the tail itfelf banded * with
black and cinereous alternate, and tipped with white: legs
fhort and yellow:  claws black.
M. de Buffon f is of opinion, that this bird is the fame with
the common Falcon, or next fpecies, and called Gentil when
in full feather. — It is  certain that they differ much in dif-
* Scopoli fays, the bands are four in number.
+ Buf. oif. vol. i. p. 258.
ferent FALCON.
ferent periods of life; as may be feen in the two plates in
Britijh Zoology, above quoted.
The following lift of Falcons will appear numerous, and are
by fome accounted varieties only. —This circumftance I can
by no means afcertain; and will therefore follow Briffon'% catalogue of them, leaving the reader to judge for himfelf.
1
Le Faucon, Brif. orn. i. p. 321.  N°4>
 Buf. oif. i. p. 249.
Schwartz braune Falck, Frifch. t. 74.
*Tp H E common fize is that of a middling Hen :  the length
about eighteen inches. The general colour brown : the feathers with rufous edges:  tail brown, tranfverfely banded with
deeper brown.
From this are faid to fpring the following varieties:
COMMON
FALCON.
Le Faucon fors, Briff. orn, i. p. 324.
 Buf. oif. i. t. 15.—P/. tnl. 470.
nr HIS  inclines  to afh-colour, and is the young of the
laft.
Var. A;
YEARLING
F. FALCON.
Falco gibbofus, &
Haggard Falcon, Will,
u Boffu, Brif. orn. i
 Buf. oif. i.
Syn. p. 14. N° 6.
p. 324.
. 16.—PI. enl. 471.
HIS receives the above name when it is grown old, and
draws it's head into the fhoulders, looking as it were humpbacked (boffu).
Le Faucon a tete blanche, Brif. orn. i. p. 325.
Raushwfufs-geyer ; Gelb-braune geyer, Frifch. t. 75.
rT% HIS variety has the head white, fpotted with fmall brown
fpots. The bill is afh-coloured : cere pale yellow: iris the
fame : back:aad wing-coverts fpotted with brown, rufous, grey,
and whitifh, indifcriminate : under parts grey, with brown fpots;
each fpot encircled with rufous: feet feathered to the toes : legs
yellow: claws black.
Le Faucon blanc, Brif. orn. 1. p. 326.
Falco albus, Rail Syn. p. 14. N° 7.
Weiffe-Falck, Weifle-geyer, Frifch. t. 80.
White Falcon, Will. orn. p. 80. N° 7.
rJ"1 H E body of this is white, covered with minute fpots ot
yellow; but thefe are fcarcely vifible, except on a clofe inflection.
One FALCON.
One of thefe in M. Aubrey's collection was quite white, except a few brown fpots on the back and wings, — Tails of both
barred with brown.
I have feen a drawing of a white Falcon from China, of a
cream-coloured white above; beneath, quite white; both above
and below marked with flender longitudinal flreaks of brown ;
but on the thighs very pale, and a little curved in fhape: the
under part of the tail quite plain ; the upper part not vifible in
the figure.
I was furnifhed with this defcription, among others, from
fome fine drawings of birds in the poffeffion of Captain Broadley,
who brought them from China.
$7
Le Faucon noir, Brif. orn. i. p. 327.
Le Faucon paffager, Buf. oif. i. p. 263.—PL enl. 469.
Tlatli; Falco col umbarius Nebbi did us, Raii Syn. p. 161.
Schwartz braune habigt, Frifch. t. 83.
Black Hawk, or Falcon, Edw. i. t. 4.
Dufky Falcon, Amer. Zool. N°
HP HIS has a lead-coloured bill and cere: irides yellowifh:
above the feathers are of a deep brown; thofe on the upper part of the neck, the wing-coverts, and rump, have white
edges : on each fide of the head is a black mark, from the corner of the mouth, bending downwards, like a muftachoe; about
which the parts are of a dirty white : the under parts are brown-
ifh; each feather tipped with black: wing-coverts black, fpotted
with white: edge of the wing white : quills and tail blackifh,
banded beneath with brown: legs lead-colour; under the toes
reddifh: claws black.
K2 It 61
FALCON.
It is M. de Buffon's * opinion, that this bird is a diftinct  pedes, and not a variety.
49.
Var. F.
SPOTTED-
WINGED
F.
Description,
Le Faucon tachete, Brif. era
Spotted Falcon, Edw. t. 3.-
. 329.
. Zool. N°
C I Z E of a Crow. The bill in this bird is lead-colour: the
cere of a greenifh yellow : angles of the mouth orange : eyes
placed in a lead-coloured fkin : irides obfcure: above, the bird is
brown: on each fide of the head is a large black mark, beginning under the eyes, and paffing to the beginning of the neck:
the under parts are white, fpotted with brown; the fpots largeft
on the breaft and belly: wing-coverts brownifh, with round white
fpots: legs bright yellow: claws black. Inhabits Hudfon's Bay.
Mr. Edwards fuppofes this and the laft to be male and female;
M. de Buff on f imagines it to be the Faucon fors, or very little
different; which of them is in the right, I will not pretend
to determine.
Var.G.
BROWN
Le Faucon brun, Brif. orn. i. p. 331,
Braun fahle Geyer, Frifch. t. 76.
g I Z E of a Jerfalcon. The bill is of a dark afh-colour: cere
yellowifh: head brownifh, marked with longitudinal ferruginous brown fpots: the upper part of the body brown, fpotted
with deeper brown; beneath white, fpotted with brown : the
fpots on the breaft launce-fhaped: legs yellow: claws black.
• Hift. des oif. i. p. 268. t P. 269.
This FALCON.
This bird bears fome affinity to N° 31 ; infomuch that I am
not clear about the diftinction.
69
Le Faucon rouge, Brif, orn. i. p. 332
Falco rubens, Rail Syn. p. 14. N° 10.
Red Falcon, Will. orn. p. 81. N° 10.
Var. H'.
RED
HPH I S appears to differ from the common.Falcon, in having    Description
the fpots of a black and red colour, inftead of white.    It is
lefs in fize than the Peregrine Ealcon^
Le Faucon rouge des Indes, Brif. orn. i. p. 333.-
Falcones rubri indici Aldrovandi, Rait Syn. p. 14. N° irw-
Red Indian Falcons of Aldrovandus, Will. orn. p. 81. t. 9.
HP H E bill is cinereous : cere and eyelids luteous: the iris is
obfcure : at the outer angle of the eye is an oblong fulvous
fpot: the head and upper parts are of a brownifh affi- colour:
the breaft and under parts, the rump, upper tail, and wing- .
coverts, are of a reddifh fulvous colour : on the breaft are a few
fpots of the fame : the tail is banded'with black- and afh-colour,
in a femicircular manner: legs luteous : claws black..
The above is the defcription of the female.—In the male, the
colours are more vivid : when the colours in the former are cinereous brown, in the latter they are nearly black. The male is
alfo much fmaller than the other fex, as is ufual in this genus.
They inhabit the Eajl Indies.
Le- FALCON.
Le Faucon d'ltalie, Brif. o.
Falco Italicus, Jonft. av. p
• P- 336.
HpHE bill in this is blue: the head and neck of a-reddifh yellow, marked with very narrow ferruginous  lines :   breaft
yellow, with fome fpots of a ferruginous colour: end of the
wings marked with round fpots of white: legs yellow.
Inhabits the Alps.
Le Faucon d'Iflande, Brif. orn. 1. p. 336.
JUT BR1SSON fays it is the fize of a Gofhawk; that the bill
is blueifh afh, with a black tip : the cere, irides, and legs,
luteous: claws black: that it is of the fame colour with the
common Falcon; and it's length is one foot and above nine
inches; and that it inhabits Iceland; from whence it was fent to
M. Reaumur.
Falco Iflandus, Brun. <
. p. 2. N° 9.
{"*»OLOUR brown: on the upper parts each feather is whitifh,
fafciated with brown, and margined with white : tail brown,
fafciated with white: neck beneath white, marked with longitudinal black fpots : breaft and belly white, marked with cor-
dated black fpots.
Falco FALCON.
Ealco Iflandus, j
. bor. p. 2. N° 7.
HP HIS is white, marked with fmallifh cordated black fpots
on the upper parts: tail-feathers quite white; the two middle ones obfoletely fafciated with black.
50.
Var. A.
WHITE
ICELAND Fi
Falco Iflandus, Brun. >
POLOUR white, with large cordated fpots: the tail-feathers white, and all of them fafciated with black.
Mr. Brunnich feems to be uncertain whether the above be
diftinct fpecies, or only varieties. In the Gentleman's Magazine,
vol. xli. p. 297. there is a figure of the firft of thefe Falcons,
and a fuller account by much than that given by Mr. Brunnich;
faying, that it meafures one foot nine inches. The bill dufky:
cere yellow:: the head white, faintly tinged with ruft-colour: the
fhafts of each feather dufky: the back dufky, fpotted and margined with white: outer webs of the quill-feathers are dufky,
mottled with reddifh white; the inner webs dufky alfo, barred
with white : tail a little rounded; each feather marked with fourteen or more bars of dufky and white; each colour oppofing the
other on different fides of the fhaft: the wings reach to the
end of the tail, excepting one inch : the neck, breaft, and belly,
are white, with oblong dark fpots, pointing downwards; on the
belly the marks are dufky, and of different fhapes : the thighs
are white, tranfverfely barred with brown : the legs are yellow :
claws black; the hind one very long.
3 Thefe,
SPOTTED
ICELAND F.
Description. FALCON.
Thefe, as well as feveral other fpecies of Falcons, inhabit
Iceland*. The King of Denmark is faid to fend there annually, to
buy all up that can be procured j and for that purpofe has efta-
blifhed a Falcon houfe at Beffefted, to which the Icelanders bring
them as foon as taken. The white ones are in moft efteem:
they allow fifteen rixdollars | for one of thefe; ten, for one that
is nearly white ; and for the fort laft defcribed, only feven ; with
a prefent befides, to each Falcon-catcher, by way of encouragement.
I fuppofe- that thefe Falcons are very docile, as they catch
them in nets, at any fize or age. On the contrary, many of the
forts ufed in falconry are obliged to be taught very young, or
they never will be under command.
Falco barbarus, Lin.fyft. i. p. 125. N° 8.
Le Faucon de Barbarie, Brif. orn. i. p. 343. 6. A.
Falco tunftanus, Raiifyn. p. 14. N° 9.
Tunis, or Barbary Falcon, Will, ornl p. 81.
Falcon from Barbary, Alb. v. iii. p. \. t. z.
"P O R fize and colour this bird refembles the Lanner. The
length is feventeen inches. The bill is black : cere luteous:
irides yellow: the plumage above is of a blueifh afh-colour,
fpotted with black: on the wings are few or no fpots: the breaft
is of a yellowifh white, with a blue tinge : on the lower part of
the belly are longifh black fpots : the .quills are black, with the
outer edges white: the wings reach almoft to the end of the
* Horrebow's Hiftory of Iceland, p. 58.
f Mr. Brunnich fays, feventeen rixdollars.
tail: FALCON.
. tail: the'feathers of the tail are blueifh afh-colour, with feven
tranfverfe brown bands.
Linnaus makes this a diftinct fpecies.
Briffon makes it a variety of the Peregrine Falcon, or next
fpecies.    It inhabits Barbary.
n
Le Faucon pelerin, Brif. orn. \. p. 341. N° 6.
, — ■■    Buf. oif. i. p. 249. et fuiv.
Falco peregrinus, Rati Syn. p. 13. N° 1.
Peregrine, or haggard Falcon, Will, on. p. 76. t. 8.
Peregrine Falcon, Br. Zool. N° 48. t. 20.
Lev. Muf
O I Z E of the common Falcon. The bill is blueifh: cere
and irides luteous (in fome dufky); above, it is cinereous,
with tranfverfe cinereous brown bands; beneath rufous white,
croffed with tranfverfe blackifh bands: tail barred with alternate
cinereous and blackifh bands, and tipped with white: legs yellow : claws black.
Mr. Pennant obferves, that the legs are fhort, and the toes
very long; alfo, that it is fubject to vary in the colour of it's
plumage.
- PEREGRINE
F.
Le Faucon de Tartarie, Brif. orn. i. p. 345. $2.
Faucon de Tartarie ou Barbarie, Bel. Hift. des oif. p. 116. T ARTArVanT
TPHIS differs in being a trifle bigger, and in having the    p
wings rufous above, and very long toes.
M. Briffon joins this with the two former, as varieties only.
L M. de Buff on FALCON,
M. de Buff on * fays, that the laft-defcribed is the fame with the
Haggard Falcon, or N° 50. Var. B. —This gentleman's remarks
are not made without juft foundation, for the moft part; and we
are forry that our plan, as a fynopfis, will not admit us to take
them in oftener. All that need be faid on this fubject is, that
the variety of the Falcon-tribe is almoft endlefs, as well as the
opinion of the different authors who treat on the fubject.
Spotted Falcon, Br. Zool. N° 55. t. 26.
Lev. Muf.
CIZE of a Buzzard. Bill black: cere yellow: irides pale
yellow: crown and hind part of the neck white, fpotted with
light reddifh brown: back and fcapulars the %ne, edged with
white: quills dufky, barred with afh-colour: beneath, the neck,
breaft, belly, and thighs are white: on the neck and breaft are
a few rufty fpots: rump white: tail barred with lighter and
darker brown: middle feathers barred with white and deep
brown: the legs very ftrong.
Mr. Pennant is the only one who has defcribed this bird.
Two of them have been fhot at Longnor,
* Hift. des Oif. i. p. 259. FALCON,
Falco Norwegicus, Leemius de Lapp. p. 236 f
Graafalk, Acla nidrofa, vol. iv. p. 417. t. 13?
Falco lagopus, Brun. orn, bor. p. 4. N° 15.
Rough-legged Falcon, Br. Zool. app. t. 1.
Lev. Muf.
IS
RO&GH-
LEGGED
F.
'"THE length is two feet two inches. Bill dufky: cere yellow:
head, neck, and breaft of a yellowifh white, marked in
fome parts with oblong brown ftrokes: the belly of a deep
brown: thighs and legs of a pale yellow, marked with brown:
fcapulars blotched with brown and yellowifh white: coverts of
the wings brown, edged with ruft: ends of the primaries deeps
brown; the lower parts white: the extreme half of the tail
brown, tipt with dirty white; that next the body white: legs
covered with feathers as low as the feet: the feet yellow.
This fpecies is a native of Denmark, with the former. We
owe this defcription and figure to Mr. Pennant. The fpecimen
referred to was fhot near London, and is now in the Leverian
Mufeum.
Le Faucon patu, Brif. tnt. vi. app. p. 22. t. 1.
TT is from M. Briffon that we have defcribed this fpecies. He
fays that it is the fize of the Jerfalcon; length one foot feven
inches and a quarter. The bill blackifh : cere and eyelids luteous : parts above blackifh-brown, with a tinge of violet, and
variegated with dirty grey: beneath yellow browff, with longi-
L 2 tudinal
BOOTEU
F. CON.
tudinal blackifh lines: head and upper part of the neck fulvous
grey, with lines of the fame : over the eyes a black ftripe : tail
brown; towards the end blackifh; tip grey, fpotted with whitifh
on the fides: legs feathered to the toes, which are luteous:
claws black.
The above author fays that this bird is in the Mufeum of
Madame de Bandeville, but does not mention from what country.
Rough-footed Falcon, Forft. Cat. N. A. p. 9.
 Am. Zool. N°
TtfO doubt but we fhall fee an illuftration of this fpecimen in
the Am. Zool. foon to be publifhed. Mr. Forfter mentions
it as a new fpecies, it therefore cannot be the former. But it is
not improbable thaj: it may prove to be one of the following,
which I defcribe frdm Mr. Banks's drawings.
T ENGTH (in the drawing) nineteen inches. Bill black: cere
yellow : colour of the plumage dufky chocolate brown, inclined to ferruginous: the feathers on the head and thighs the
lighteft: quills very dark: infide of the wings and tail cinereous
white, the laft not barred: the breaft is pretty dark; on it, here and
there, are fome blotches of white, and on the belly fome cinereous
ones: vent cinereous: the legs are feathered down to the toes: the
feathers which cover the legs are dafhed perpendicularly with
brown: FALCON.
brown: legs yellow: claws black.—Defcribed from a drawing
at Mr. Banks's.
Inhabits Newfoundland.
*7
OIZE (in the drawing) of the laft. Bill horn-colour, with a black
tip : cere yellow: forehead, juft over the bill, white: the head
and neck are ferruginous: the chin the fame, but a little mottled:
the feathers on the upper parts of the body are deep brown, with
light margins, fome of the margins nearly white: ridge of the
wing white: thighs feathered down to the toes : the feathers are
ftriated with fome broad and fome narrow ftri.e : bafe of the tail
clay-coloured, and the reft of it rather light-coloured, barred with
black; on fome of the feathers the bars do not crofs the webs
tranfverfely, but in an oblique manner: legs yellow: claws
black.
This came from Newfoundland with the laft.
58.
ST. JOHN'S
N.S.
Le Sacre, Brif. orn. i. ?. 3i7 S^V
  Buf oif. 1. p. 246. t. 14.
Falco facer, Raiifyn. p. 13. N° 2.
Sacre, Will. orn. p. 77.
Lev. Muf. ?
CIZE of the Jerfalcon.    The bill of this bird is blue: eyes    Discretion
black:   back, breaft, and upper wing-coverts fpotted with
10 brown: FALCON.
brown-: thighs white on. the infide: tail fpotted with kidney-
fhaped fpots : legs blue.
M. Briffon places this among his variety of Falsons^ and fays
that it is a bird of paffage.
M. de Buffon will have it to be a diftinct fpecies from any of
the Falcon tribe, being more allied to the Lanner.
Falco facer, Phil. Tr. voL IjciL p. 3$ 2.
The Sacre, Am..Zool. N°,
J ENGTH1 twenty-two inches; breadth three feet; weight two
pounds and a half. Bill and cere blue: irides yellow:
head- whitifh, with longitudinal ftreaks of brown : throat white,
fpotted'with-brown: parts above brown, the feathers fpotted and
edged with ferruginous, the fpots not touching the fhafts : beneath this bird is- white, with longitudinal dark brown fpots:
the quills are black brown; the margins and ends of the prime
ones white, tranfverfely fpotted within with pale ferruginous:
the leffer quills marked with round fpots on the outfides.
This bird inhabits North America, and was fent from Severn
.River, Hudfon's Bay, where it is called Speckled Partridge Hawk.
It is faid never to migrate, guere, Is this a variety of the laft,
or a different fpecies ?
LENGTH FALCON.
T ENGTH twenty inches. Bill pale am; tip black: cere
yellow: iris deep yellow: parts above brown: nape ferruginous : back, wing coverts, and fcapulars, margined with a
paler colour : cheeks inclining to afh-colour: belly ferruginous,
with irregular dark blotches: vent clay-coloured: thigh-feathers
of a motded afh-colour, with round dark fpots on the feathers ;
the lower ones have four great blotches of the fame: tail barred
of a deeper and lighter brown; four bars in all: legs ftrong,
yellow, feathered half way down : claws black.
Inhabits Newfoundland. — Defcribed from a drawing in Mr,
Banks's collection.
. m  7'
NEWFOUNDLAND
F.
N. S.
Description.-
Le Faucon etoile, Brif orn.
Blue-footed Falcon, Will, o;
i. p. 359. N° j
t. p. 82. chap. :
. near the end.
^TPHIS is faid to be like the Peregrine Falcon in fize and fhape,
but has fhorter wings, and a longer tail.    The general colour is blackifh, marked with fpots refembling ftars : beneath it
is black and white mixed: quills blackifh: legs blue.
The iris is of the colour of gold.
6>|
STARRY
F.
• NORTHERN
CIZE of a Ringtail: length eighteen inches.    Bill horn-colour:
irides reddifh: parts above deep lead-colour: edges of the
feathers very dark; the top of the head is darkeft; on the hind
head a flight mixture of white:  beneath ferruginous brown,
9 with %
80 FALCON.
with interrupted bars of white; thefe bars are produced from
each feather being of this ferruginous colour, with two or three
fpots of white on each fide the fhaft, which laft itfelf is brown :
the tail of a deep lead or afh-colour, croffed with four bars of
a ftill deeper colour; the outer feather is more inclined to
brown than the others; the tips of all are white: between the dark
bars, on the under part of the tail, the colour is nearly white;
the outer feather is neither barred above nor beneath on the outer
web: the under tail-coverts plain white: the legs are pretty
long, and of a yellowifh colour: claws brown.
Place. This was prefented to me as a native of North America, 1
believe Hudfon's Bay.    1 cannot liken it to any one yet defcribed.
U
CRESTED
INDIAN
Le Faucon hupe des Indes, Brif. orn. i. p. 360. N° 12.
 i Buf. oif i. p. 271, N° 4.
Falco Indicus Cirrhatus, Raii fyn. p. t4. N° 12.
Crefted Indian Falcon, Will. orn. p. 82. N° 12.
CIZE of a Gofhawk nearly. The bill dark blue : cere luteous:
irides yellow: parts above black: the top of the head is
rather flat, and adorned with a forked creft, which hangs downwards : parts beneath ftriated black and white : the neck is fulvous ; and the tail tranfverfely banded with black and afh-colour: the legs are luteous, and feathered to the toes: claws
black.
This inhabits the Eaft Indies. FALCON.
Crefted Falcon, Dillon's Trav. through Spain, p. So. t. 3.
" *T\HIS curious bird," fays Mr. Dillon, " which is about the
fize of a Turkey, raifes his feathers on his head in the
form of a creft, and has a hooked bill; the lower mandible rather ftrait: his back, wings, and throat are black; the belly white:
the tail diftinguifhed by four cinereous and parallel ftripes, and is
an undefcript bird, not taken notice of by Linnaeus *."
Baron Dillon, in the plate referred to above, fays that his
draught was taken from one of thefe alive, at the menagerie
at the royal palace of Buen Retiro, at Madrid, in the year 1778.
64.
CARACCA
description-
Black and White Indian Falcon, Pen. Ind. Zool. t. i.
T ENGTH fixteen inches: weight ten ounces. Bill black: irides
reddifh yellow: orbits fpeckled with white: head, neck,
back, fcapulars, quills, and fome of the middle coverts of the
wings, black; the reft of the wings, body, and tail, pure white:
legs yellow : claws black.
Inhabits Ceylon, and called by the Cingalefe, Kaloe koefo elgoya.
In Ceylon Hawks of feveral kinds are trained for falconry, but
whether this enters the lift is not certain.
* In the collection of drawings at Sir A. Lever's, there is one of this very
bird, faid to be taken from the life, and moft likely from the very fubject; which
differs not from M. Dillon's defcription, except in having the appearance of a
white collar on the neck. The bill, both in M. Dillon's as well as Sir A. Lever's
drawing, appears to be remarkably hooked, and different from that of the
Falcon genus.
M BILL
6j.
BLACK ani
WHITE
:scription; CEYLONESE
CRESTED
N. S.
Description.
FALCON.
"DILL dufky: cere yellow : colour wholly white as milk: on the
head are two feathers hanging behind, like a pendent creft.
This bird inhabits Ceylon*.—Communicated by Mr. Pennant:
the fize not mentioned.
67.
GREY
F.
Grey Falcon, Br. Zool. N° 49*
CIZE of a Raven. Bill fhort, ftrong, hooked, and of a blueifh
colour: cere and edges of the eyelids yellow: irides red:
head fmall, flat, of a deep brown on the fore part, white behind : fides of the head and throat cream-coloured : belly white,
with oblong black fpots: hind part of the neck, and the back, of
a deep grey: wings reach beyond the end of the tail; quill-feathers fpotted with white : tail long, wedge-fhaped, and fpotted j
the two middle feathers plain: legs long, naked1, and yellow.
This bird was fhot near Halifax, in Torkfhire, in the year 1762.
BROWN JER-
FALCON
Falco Jerfalco, Lin.fyft. i. p. 130. N° 2j. — Faun.fuec. p. 24. N° 64.
>TpHE cere is blue : the body brown, fafciated with cinereous-
beneath: the fide tail-feathers are white. It varies in having
fometimes blue and fometimes yellow legs.  It's prey are Cranes,
Herons, and Pigeons.
* If M. de Buffon's rule holds good, which is, that every white bird of this -
genus is a variety, and not a diftindt fpecies, this may moft probably turn out
a variety of our Crefted Indian Falcon, N° 63 See Buf. oif. i. p. 73.
5 So I   A   L   C   O   N.
So far from the Syftema Nature. Linnaus quotes feveral other
authors, but none of them correfpond with his defcription :
indeed, the Fauna Suecica, which he mentions among the reft,
fays, that it has a dark cinereous back; that the belly is of a
light afh, with tranfverfe fpots; that it is the fize of a cock, and
infefts dove-houfes.
Le Gerfault, Brif. orn. i. p. 370. N° 19. t. 30* f. 2.
p Buf. oif i. p. 239. t. 13.
 • PI. enl. 215, 446, 462.
Gyrfalco, Raiifyn. p. 13, N° 3.
Gerfalcon, Will. orn. p. 78. N° 3.
White Falcon, D1
Gyrfalcon, Br. Zool. N° 47,
Lev. Muf.
1. N<» 7.
69.
- WHITE JER-
FALCONa
CIZE of a Gofhawk.    Bill blue afh: tip  blackifh : cere blue
afh: irides, and fkin round the eyes, blue : general colour
white, fpotted with brown : legs of a pale blueifh afh-colour:
claws lead-colour. * %£>*
This, as Mr. Pennant obferves, is the Gyrfalco of all the or-
nithologifts, except Linnaeus. M. de Buffon mentions three kinds
of the Jerfalcon; the firft brown above, white beneath, fpotted
with brown; tail grey, with tranfverfe brown lines: the fecond
differing very little from the firft : the third white.
Whether Linnaus was fenfible of thefe varieties cannot be faid,
as he does not mention one word about it: however, it is clear
that he did not mean this white kind from his defcription, not-
withftanding he might quote it in his fynonyms,
M 2 The FALCON.
The fort above defcribed is found in Iceland, and in other
very cold climates. The fpecimen from which Mr. Pennant
defcribed his, was fhot near Aberdeen. It inhabits the North of
Scotland.
Le Gerfault d'Iflande, Brif. orn. i. p. 373. t. 31.
'"pHE bird has luteous irides: it is brown above, fpotted with
white on the back and wings: the lower part of the back,
the rump, and upper- tail-coverts, have bands of an hoary colour : the throat of a rufous white, as is the lower part of the
neck, each feather longitudinally marked with brown : the parts
beneath are white, fpotted with black: legs yellow.
Inhabits Iceland with the laft.
Falco fufflator, Lin.fyft. i. p. 127. Ne 17.
Surinam Falcon, Bancroft N. Hift. of Guiana, p. 153.
Br, Muf.
J INN ALUS defcribes this bird in the following manner:—The
cere is yellow: noftrils furnifhed with a flefhy lobe between
them: covering of the eyes bony * :  body above brown;   the
• Oculorum operculis of/his. I fuppofe he means that the opaque part of the
cornea, fo called by anatomifts (or white of the eye) is of a bony texture : if fo,
it is by no means peculiar to this bird: it is of a very hard fubftance in moft of
the genus, but remarkably fo in the Owl tribe, in which the eyes are large,
and it is very confpicuous.
feathers FALCON.
feathers white at the bafe : the under parts, and the tail-feathers,
fpotted with brown, white, and luteous: legs yellow.
It inhabits Surinam. When this bird is either angry or frightened, it blows * up the head till it is of the fize of the body.
In Mifs Blomefield's collection is a bird very like this, if not
the fame, viz. about the fize of the Hen-harrier : above brown,
with a mixture of ferruginous : forehead and throat paleft: hind
head and neck marked as the fore parts: from the bafe of the
bill to a little beyond the eyes, is a ftreak of brown, ending in
a point at the back part: the under parts are white, ftreaked
with brown: the breaft tinged with ferruginous: thighs buff-
colour : quills fpotted with ferruginous; beneath dirty white,
with obfcure narrow bars of brown : legs yellow.
This fpecimen came from Cayenne.
«5
Falco cachinnai
. Syft. i. p. 128. N° 18.
. LAUGHING
F.
/^ERE luteous: eyelids white : body mixed brown and whitifh:    Description.
neck, throat, breaft, belly, and under the wings, white: tail
banded with luteous and black : legs luteous.
This   bird,   on   obferving  any  perfon,  fets up a kind of
laugh.
• This is likewife mentioned by Bancroft, who fays the bird diftends his
head with air, when either angry or terrified.—This ought to be enquired into,
as it muft arife from a ft.ruct.ure peculiar to this bird.—As to the diftenfion of
the throat and breaft of the Powter-Pigeon, it arifes merely from the crop being
filled with wind, and I believe has not any thing different in it's ftrufture
from that of other Pigeons.
To FALCON.
To this fhort defcription I fhall add a further one, from a
fpecimen in the fame collection as the laft. The length is fix-
teen inches. On the wings, when clofed, is a large fpot of a
buff-colour, croffed with flender flripes of brown; this mark
arifes from the greater quills, all of which, except the two firft,
are buff-coloured in the middle: the under parts are whitifh, but
on the breaft and belly many of the feathers have a dafh of brown,
and fome few wholly brown: crown of the head dafhed with brown:
thighs pale buff, obfoletely ftreaked with brown.
This came from Cayenne. A paper fent with it, gave it the
name of " Pagani gris tachete." Many marks, both in this and
the laft fpecies, coincide fufficiently to pronounce them the fame
fpecies with thofe of Linnaeus referred to; and it is very probable
that they may be either varieties, or perhaps differing in fex
from thofe which he defcribes.
BROWN
LANNER.
Falco lanarius, Lin. Syft. i,
129. N° 24.
Le Lanier, Brif. orn. i. p. 363. N° 16.
   Buf. oif. i. p. 243.
Lanarius, Raiifyn.  p. 15. N° 13.
Lanner, Will. orn. p. 82. N<? 13.
Lanneret, Alb. vol. ii. t. 7.
Lanner, Br. Zool. N° 51. t. 23.
Lev. Muf.
Description.    'TPHIS is rather inferior in fize to the Buzzard.    The bill is
blue:   cere pale greenifh blue: irides yellow: parts above
brown, with paler edges: crown of the head brown, mixed with
yellow clay-colour:   over each eye is a broad wHitt line paf-
fing FALCON.
fing to the hind head; beneath it a black mark pointing
downwards : throat white : breaft tinged with dull yellow,
marked with brown fpots paffing downwards: thighs and vent
the fame: the quills are dufky, marked with oval ferruginous
fpots on the inner webs : tail the fame: legs fhort, ftrong, and
of a blueifh caft.
Inhabits Europe; breeds in Ireland;   one fhot in a decoy in
Uncolnfhire.    I believe it is far from common in England.
37
Le Lanier blanc, Brif. 0
Lanarius, Aldrarv. orn. i
p. 380.
P- 367- N°
Fig. ii
181,183*
#~)F thefe Briffon mentions two forts from Aldrovandus: the
firft is one foot feven inches and a half long. Has the
:bill and claws black: cere and irides yellow: head, neck, breaft,
' belly, fides, thighs, rump, and under tail-coverts, inclining to
brown : the quills, and the tail above, nearly black: under the
tail pale grey: cere yellow :  legs luteous.
The fecond has the bill, &c. the fame with the other, but
is two feet one inch in length. The head and back brown,
-mixed with_grey: rump whitifh : upper wing-coverts and breaft
grey: belly, fides, thighs, and under tail-coverts, grey alfo, but
marked with longitudinal ferruginous fpots: the three outfide
tail-feathers are white, fpotted with pale ferruginous; the fourth
on each fide, counting from the outfide, fpotted with black; the
two middle ones are grey. Perhaps they are both varieties of
the Brown Lanner.
Briffon does not mention their place.
• Thefe figures are not accurate. FALCON.
+-HEN
HARRIER,
Falco cyaneus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 126. N° 10.
Le Lanier cendre, Brif. orn. i. p. 365. N° 17.
Le Faucon a Collier, D° i. p. 345. N° 7. the male.
L'oifeau St. Martin, Buf. oif. i. p. 212.—PI. enl. 459.
Grau weiffe geyer, Frifch. t. 79, 80.
Blue Hawk, Edw. 5. t. 225.
Hen Harrier, Br. Zool. N°s8. t. 28.
Lev. Muf.
Description. >T» H E length is feventeen inches; width three feet three
inches; weight twelve ounces. The bill is black : cere and
irides yellow: edges of the eyelids the fame: general colour blue-
grey : back of the head white, fpotted with pale brown : breaft,
belly, and thighs, white ; on the firft, a few fmall dufky ftreaks 9
the two middle tail-feathers are grey; the outer webs of the I
others are the fame, but the inner webs are white, barred with
dufky : legs yellow, long, and flender: claws black.
M. Salerne * has followed Mr. Ray -j-, in fuppofing it to be the
fame bird with the Jean le Blanc, N° 17 : but this cannot be; we
have not the laft in England; befides, the Jean le Blanc is above
two feet in length, and not much lefs in fize than the Black
Eagle.
' Orn, de Salerne, p. 23. N° 5.
t Raii Syn. p, 17. N« 5.
■■ FALCON.
§9
Falco pygargus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 126. Na 11.' 75-
 $,#. «*». i. p. I4. +■ RIM^ J A1L-
Le Faucon a Collier, 5r(/I orn. i. p. 345. N* 7. the female,
La Soubufe, .ffaf". «.//". i. p. 215. t. 9.
 P/. #»/. 443, the female.—480. the male.
Pygargus, Rail. Syn. p. 17. N° A. $.-rWill. orn. t. 7.
Ringtail, ^7//. orn. p. 72.
Ringtail, J?r. Zool. N° 59.
Ira. M»/
T  ENGTH one foot feven inches and an half.   The bill is   Description.
pale: cere and irides yellow*: parts above dufky, beneath
palifh, with oblong rufous, and in fome, dufky fpots : under the
eyes is a whitifh fpot: from the hind head, on each fide, to the
chin, paffes a kind of wreath in a circular manner; this is made
up of ftiffer feathers than the reft, and of a lighter colour: the
rump is white: tail longifh, barred with dufky, and tipped with
white : beneath, the belly and breaft are of a yellowifh brown,
with a caft of red, marked with oblong dufky fpots, but not
always; as Mr. Pennant obferves, that he has feen one of thefe
which had the laft-named parts quite plain: the legs are long
and yellow : claws black.
Authors have never blundered more, than in making this bird
the fame fpecies with the laft mentioned. Mr. Pennant, in Br.
Zool. under that head, fays, " This has been fuppofed to be
<c the female of the former; but, from fome late obfervations
** by the infallible rule of diffeclion, males have been found of
* Stoftli fays the orbits are whitifh.
-   N " this mmm
FALCON.
(i this fpecies." To this I may add my own obfervations; the-
bird I now poffefs, as an Englifh fpecimen, being let down in my-
notes as a male..
In the Planches enluminees, the male feems to be the brighteft
in colour.    The ground-colour of the under parts being ferruginous, and thofe above inclining to rufous.   The ruff feems to be^
leaft perfect in the male..
Marfh-hawk, Edw. glean, t. 291».
 Am. Zool. N»
Lev. Muf.
HP HI S feems to differ fo little from the former, that I readilyv
join my opinion to that of Briffon, in making it a variety..
The difference which I obferve is, a black, line from the bill
through the eye : it is larger alfo,. being, according to Edwards,,
two feet in length ; and has lines of white round the eye to the
throat: the little white mark under the eyes is feen in both :-
the general colour pretty much the fame : the tail in Edwards'^
figure, rather fhorter than in the Britifh Ringtail;
I received a fpecimen not long fince from Jamaica^ which differs a little from both; but I am clear it belongs to the fame
fpecies. The remark.my friend fent along with it:was, that the-
irides were brown ; that it was a bold-fpirited bird,, and would?
not hsfitate to kill chickens, pigeons,. &c. before one's face.. FALCO   N>
91
Falco Hudforiius, Lin. Syft. i. p. 128. N* t'9.
Epervier de la Baye d'Hudfon, Brif. orn. App. p. 18. N" 47.
Ringtail Hawk, Edw. 3. t. 107.
Ringtail Falcon, Am. Zool. N°
C LZE of the Jerfalcon : length one foot nine inches and a half.
Bill black: cere yellow: the upper parts of the bird are
brown ; the under parts white, with rufous brown fpots, of different fhapes: over the eye is a ftreak of white : the rump is
alfo white: hind head and lower part of the neck are grey
brown, varied with darker brown: the two middle tail-feathers
are brownifh; the others of a blueifh afh-colour, except the
outer one, which is white : all of them are tranfverfely barred
with brown : the legs are light yellow : claws black. — Linn*eus
feys, it has a blueifh fpot on the wings-.
Inhabits Hudfon's Bay.
HUDSON'S BAY
RINGTAIL.
JFEafcGTH two feet; breadth four feet. Bill biack: cere
blue : parts above, deep chocolate-brOWn : the fore part of
the neck the fame, but paler : on the hind head is a little mixture of white: at the hind head arifes a kind of wreath, which
paffes behind the ears to the throat, in a circular form,
not much unlike that of the Ringtail: over the eye is a pale
yellow line, which fprings from the bill, and meets the wreath at
the part where it begins behind; each feather of the wreath is
black down the fhaft: the chin is of a whitifh colour; from this
paffes a lift of pale buff-colour to the breaft, the fhaft of each
N 2 feather FALCON.
feather of which is brown: the breaft, belly, thighs, and venf,
are reddifh buff-colour; the laft the paleft : the feathers on the-
breaft and belly have a brown ftreak down the fhafts : thighs and
vent plain: prime quills dark on the inner, and cinereous blu~
on the outer webs, with bars of brown at an inch diftance each;
thefe bars are lefs diftinct on the inner webs : the firft' and
fecond of the quills are quite plain, without markings: the fe-
condaries are much the fame as the prime quills, but the brown
bars rather obfolete : moft of the wing-feathers are white at the
tips : the wings when clofed, reach the middle of the tail: rump
white : the tail barred with pale and dark brown; the inner
webs of three or four of the outer feathers have much white on
the inner webs ; the outer webs incline to ferruginous; the ends
of the feathers are very pale ; the two middle feathers are barred
as the reft, but with cinereous and deep brown; the bars are five
in number : legs yellow : claws black.
This bird came from Cayenne, and is in Mifs Blomefield"s collection. It was entitled Due de Buff on.—It feems clearly a variety
of the laft fpecies, differing only from climate: hence we learn,
that thefe birds are diffeminated throughout America, as the ifland
of Cayenne and Hudfon's Bay are very far afunder. It is worth remark, the near refemblance of the four lafl-defcribed, fo much
indeed, that with the lefs fcrupulous ornithologift, they might
even pafs for mere varieties of each other.. FALCON.
93
77-
STONE
FALCON.
Le Faucon de Roche, ou Rochier, Brif. orn. i. p. 349, N° 8.
Le Rochier, Buf. oif i. p. 286.— PI. enl. 447.
Lithofalco, & Dendrofalco, Raii Syn. p. 14. N° &.
Stein-falck, Frifch. t. 86.
Stone, or Tree falcon, Will. orn. p. 80.
CIZE of a Keftril : length twelve inches and a quarter.    Bill    Descrip
blueifh afh-colour : cere and irides luteous: above cinereous,
with black fhafts to the feathers : beneath rufous, with longitudinal brown fpots: tail cinereous; at the end blackifh; the very
tip white; all the feathers, except the two middle ones, are
barred tranfverfely with black. This appears very like the Merlin,
reprefented in the Planches Enluminees, N° 468.
Le Faucon de Montagne, Brif. orn. 1. p. 352. N° 9.
Falco montanus, Raii Syn. p. 13. N°4.
Mountain Falcon, Will. orn. p. 78.
fj-'HIS is lefs than the Peregrine Falcon, but has a fhorter tail.
The bill is black: plumage above brown, or afh-colour:
throat and fore part of the neck whitifh, fpotted with either ferruginous or black; and in fome the neck and breaft are quite
black: tail afh-coloured, end black, the very tip white: legs
yellow: claws black. When the bird is come to it's full colour,
the head is black; the breaft has more white in it the oftener it
has moulted; and the back and fides are of a deeper afh-colour.
This is in brief what M. Briffon fays of the bird: but he remarks the probability of it's being a variety of the Stone Falcon,
and likewife mentions a further variety; which follows-
Z Le 94
FALCON.
78.
Var. A.
ASH-COLOURED MOUNTAIN
F.
Description.
Le Faucon de Montagne cendree, Brif. orn.i
Falco montanus fecundus Aldrovandi, Will. 1
P-3SS-
rtt.  t. 9.
*~p HIS is in length one foot nine inches.    The bill is black *.
iris yellow:   general colour cinereous; paleft on the wing-
coverts : beneath white as fnow :  legs luteous.
79. Salco tinnunculus, Lin. Syft. p. 127. N° 17.
«S-XESTRIL . \ ... Scop. Ann. i. p. 16.
La Crefferelle, Brif. orn. i. p. 393. N° 27.
 Buf. oif. i. p. 280. t. lS.—Pl. enl. 401, 471.
Tinnunculus, feu Cenchris, Raii Syn. p. 16. N° 16.
Rothe-falck, & RotheKgeyer, Frifch. t. 84, 85.
Keftrel, Stannel, or Windhover, Will. orn. p. 84. t. 5.
Keftrel, Br. Zool. N° 60.
Br. Muf. Lev. Muf.
Description.    '"THE male and female differ much in this fpecies: the firft
Male. weighs fix ounces and a half.    The cere is yellow : irides
dark-coloured: crown of the head, and the tail, of a fine light
grey; the lower end of the laft marked with a broad black bar :
- the back and wing-coverts are of a rufous brick-colour, fpotted
with black; beneath of a pale ferruginous colour, fpotted witbr
black alfo : thighs and vent plain-.
Female. The female weighs eleven ounces.    Colour of the back and
wings more pale and dufky than in the male, croffed with numerous tranfverfe lines of black : the head is pale red brown,
ftreaked with black: tail the fame, croffed with numerous black,
bars; near the end it has the fame black bar as in the male>
the end of both is very pale at the tip.
This, FALCON. :'
This, efpecially the male, is a very beautiful fpecies : it
feeds on mice, fmall birds, and infects. This is the bird that
we fo often fee in air hovering it's wings, and, as it were, fixed
to one fpot for fome length of fpace. At this time it may be-
fuppofed watching, it's prey, which, when the eye has fixed
once upon, it darts to the earth with rapidityy.in order to fecure ■
k.^-This was once. ufed. in falconry, for fmall birds and young
Partridges..
95?
Lpervier des Alouettes, Bfif. o
mk-ia\ck,.Frifch. t. 88.
. p. 379. N° 22.
LARK HAWK^
7Lf DE BUFFON* Cuppoks this not to be different from the    Description*.
female Keftril, as will appear from reading the defcription
in Briffon, as. well as comparing the figure in Frifch, above referred to. 79.
S. G. Gmelin f mentions a variety of the Keftril which isgrey,
with the fhafts of the feathers black.
GREYKESTRIL^
Le-Faucon pecheur de Senegal,.on Le Tanas, Buf. oif. i. p. 275.—Pt. enh 478. 8a.
Faucon pefcheur, Damp. Voy. vol. iii. Fr. edit. p. 318. FISHING
FALCON.
'T'HIS is rather lefs than the Falcon, but has fome refemblance    Description^..
to it.    The bill and irides are yellow :   the whole head ferruginous : parts above cinereous; the edges of the feathers fer-
* Oif vol. i.  p. 283.-
t Voy, vol. i. p. 49..t. 10.- BROWN HAWK.
FALCON.
ruginous brown: the under parts, thighs, and vent, pale yellowifh white, with a dafh of brown on the middle of each feather:
quills dark afh: tail light brown above, blueifh afh beneath:
legs brown : the feathers on the head are rather long, fo as to
form a kind of creft.
This fpecies inhabits Senegal, and is called there by the natives
Tanas. Though it is fomewhat like the Falcon tribe, yet k^dif-
fers entirely in it's nature, as it feeds oftener on fifh than on any
other prey; taking them out of the water as the Ofprey, above
defcribed. It does not fwallow the fifh whole, but, retiring to a
convenient place, eats it piece-meal.
Brown Hawk, Brown, llluftr. p. 6. t. 3.
IN length thirteen inches. Bill blue, with a black tip: iris
yellow : the upper part of the head, the back, and the tail-
coverts, are brown : wing-coverts the fame, but edged with
white: fcapulars brown, fpotted with white : quills dufky, with
pale brown edges: fore part of the neck and the under parts
are white, croffed with numerous femicircular yellow lines: tail
pale brown, marked with four dufky lines: legs very pale yellow : claws black.
Inhabits Ceylon. FALCON.
91
Le petit Aigle d'Amcriqui
Buf. oif i. p
PI. enl 4,7.
BED-
THROATED
The bill is blue,     Description.
T  ENGTH from fixteen to eighteen inches.
ftraight at the bafe: cere, and round the eye, yellow: iris
orange: throat and neck of a fine purplifh red: upper parts
of the body blue, with a reddifh caft: belly and vent reddifh
white : legs yellow : claws black.
This is a moft beautiful fpecies: inhabits Cayenne, and other
parts of South America.
M. de Buffon calls this an Eagle, though fo fmall, as the bill is
crooked moftly at the tip.
Lev. Muf.
T ENGTH more than twelve inches : in fhape like our common Buzzard. The bill is dufky: the whole head and neck,
as far as the fhoulders, whitifh ; the fhaft of each feather
blotched irregularly with rufty brown : back, and wing-coverts,
brown; feveral of the feathers, efpeCially on the wing-coverts,
are fpotted with white: tail dark brown, croffed with feveral
bars; but thefe are nearly obfolete, appearing only on a clofe
infpection: the quills are very dark, almoft black: the under
parts, from the breaft, are white; down the fhaft of each feather
is a blotch of brown; thefe marks fpread out larger and broader as
they proceed downwards to the belly : thighs pretty much the
fame : vent plain white: legs yellow: claws black.
A fine fpecimen of this bird is in the Leverian Mufeum, which
came from North America.
O Falco
«3-
SPECKLED
BUZZARD.
N. S.
Description. FALCON.
84.
AMERICAN
Falco fufcu;
:, J. Fr. Miller,
BROWN
Lev. Muf.
HAWK.
TN the Leverian Mufeum is a fine pair of thefe birds; from
which the following defcription is taken.
The fize and fhape of our Sparrow Hawk. The bill of a
pale lead-colour: cere dufky: the body above, is of a cinereous
brown, with a trifle of white on the fcapulars : top and fides of
the head ftreaked with narrow longitudinal ftripes of white : bet-
hind the eye is a ftreak of a pale colour: the under parts are
white : the chin plain : the fore part of the neck, the breaft, and
belly, marked with reddifh brown ftreaks down the fhaft of each
feather : thighs dirty white ; down.the middle of each feather is,
a brown ftreak : tail cinereous brown, croffed with three bars of
dark brown ; the end very pale.
Another along with this, fuppofed to be the female, is
marked much the fame, but the longitudinal ftripes on the under parts are more numerous; befides which, are fome tranfverfe
bars of light brown: the legs in both are flender, like the Sparrow Hawk, and of a yellow colour: the-claws alfo are like that bird*
and black.
The bird figured by Mr. Miller, above quoted, fcarcely differs
in the markings. The iris in his plate is white, or very pale-;
but the claws feem to be' remarkably thick and fhort, fuch as I
never faw in. any Hawk. Whether they were fo in the fpecimen
from which he took his drawing, or any miftake in the engraving, I cannot determine.
Falco FALCON
99
Falco nifus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 136. N° 31;
 ■ Scop. Ann. i. p. 17.
L^Epervier, Brif. orn. i. p. 310. N° 4.
 Buf. oif i. p. 225. t. 11.
—' PI. enl. 412, 466, 467.       5 -•<;
Sperber, Frifch. t. 90. male. 91. female. 92. variety,
Accipiter fringillarius, Raii Syn. p. 18. N° A. 2.
Sparrow Hawk, Will. orn. p. 86;
 Br. Zool. N° 62.
Lev. Muf. Br. Muf
CCARCE any birds of the fame fpecies differ more in fize than
the male from the female in this. The firft weighs five ounces,
and is twelve inches in length; the female is nine ounces in
weight, and is in length fifteen inches *.
The female has the head, hind part of the neck, back, rump,
wing-coverts, fcapulars, and upper tail-coverts, brown; the edges
of the feathers rufous : on the hind head are fome whitifh fpots:
the under parts are white, or inclining to yellowifh, with rufous
brown waves; each feather being of that colour near the end,
tending to a point downwards : the chin fparingly ftreaked with
perpendicular lines of brOwn : quills dufky, barred with blackifh on the outer, and fpotted with white on the lower part of the
inner webs: tail barred with very dark brown; the tip white:
legs yellow : claws black.
The male differs a little, in having the tranfverfe lines on the
breaft lefs abrupt, and not fo numerous; the under parts of a
* The following defcription is from birds in my own poffeflion, but they are
apt to vary much in the fhade as well as difpofition of their colours.
O a darker
ga
% SPARROW-
HAWK, ^   A   L   C   O   N.
darker colour; and the brown on the back more inclining to
dove-colour. Both fexes are palifh over the eyes : the bill in
both is blue, and the cere yellow.
This bird is the dread of the inhabitants of the farm-yard;
making great havock among the young, ef poultry of all kinds,
as well as Pigeons; alfo Partridges.     It is a bold bird, well
known, and will commit it's depredations in the moft daring .
manner, even before one's face.
SPOTTED
SPARROW H.
L'Epervier tachete, Brif orn. i. p. 314.
HTHIS is brown above, with a few fpots of white: beneath,
much the fame as above,. appearing as it were fcaly: under
part of the wings and tail have broad bands of white, and narrow
ones of brown, alternate: the tail above is like that of the laft
fpecies, as are the bill, irides, cere, and legs.
WHITE
SPARROW H.
HP HIS, as well as the laft, is, no doubt, a mere variety, and
a moft beautiful fpecimen, being now in the poffeffion of
Captain Davies *.   The plumage ijs wholly of a milk-white colour,
* In this gentleman's elegant collefi&H will be found many fcarce fpeci-
mens, efpecially from North America, which he has been at the pains to collect
and arrange himfelf. His friends too are obliged to him for the free
communication; of every knowledge or obfervatfon; i# Na,tur,a4 HMk>ry in his
power.
5 without FALCON.
without the leaft appearance of any bands, or other markings.
It was fhot in Dorfetfhire, near which place others have been
feen of the fame colour.
Falco columbarius, Lin.fyft.  . p. 128. N° 21.
L'Epervier de la Caroline, Brif orn. 1. p. 378. N° 21.
L'Epervier des Pigeons, Buf. oif i. p. 238.
Pigeon Hawk, Catejb. Car. i. p. 3. t. 3.
 Jm. Zool. N°
Lev. Muf.
THE length of this bird is ten inches and a half; breadth
twenty-two inches and a half; weight fix ounces and a half.
The bill is whitifh, with a black tip : irides and cere luteous : the
head, hind part of the neck, back, rump, wing and tail-coverts,
are brown: throat, fore part of the neck, breaft, belly, fides,
and under tail-coverts, yellowifh white, ftreaked with brown : tail
brown, with four narrow darker bands: the legs are yellow:
claws black.
Catefby adds, that the. thigh-feathers reach within half an inch
of the claws.
This inhabits Carolina and other parts of North America. At
Hudfon's Bay it is called the Small Bird Hawk. It is there migratory, arriving in May, and retiring in Autumn : it feeds on
fmall birds; flies in circles; and makes an hideous fhrieking
noife at the approach of any one.
Place.
Manners. N>
128. N» 22.'
CIZE of a Magpie. Bill black: cere and eyelids luteous: lore
thinly befet with black briftles: eye-brows prominent, naked
beneath: parts above brown: rump varied with white and
black: beneath wholly undulated with fine tranfverfe lines of
black, even the thighs: vent white, with black lines : greater
quills ferruginous, with many bands of black; fecondaries
whitifh on the pofterior margin: tail black, with two broad
paler bands, and a cinereous tip : legs luteous: claws black.
Inhabits Surinam.—A fpecimen I received from Cayenne was
much fmaller than Linnaus mentions, though it anfwered to his
defcription; fo we may fuppofe it to be the male, of which he,
perhaps, defcribes the female; and at firft caft of the eye puts
One in mind greatly of the male Sparrow Hawk, being much of
the fame make and proportions.
Falco vefpertinui
Lin.fyft.i.p.
-S. G. Gmelin,
. N°
. p. 67.
JT is about the fize of a Pigeon. The bill is yellow, with a
brown tip: the cere and eyelids are luteous: head brown :
body blueifh brown: belly blueifh white : vent and thighs ferruginous : tail brown : quills blueifh white; the primaries, from
the firft to the feventh, are blackifh at the tip: the legs are naked
and luteous.
This bird inhabits Ingria, where it is called by the inhabitants
Kobez. ^
Epervier FALCON.
103
Epervier a gros bee de Cayenne, Buf. oif. p. 237.
 ! PI. enl. 464.
rpHIS fpecies exceeds the Sparrow Hawk a little in fize. The
bill is longer and thicker than in that bird, and of a black
colour: the cere is yellow: iris orange: the general colour of
the plumage brown above; the feathers edged with ferruginous
brown: on the fore parts, as far as the breaft, the colour is the
fame, but has a greater portion of the ferruginous mixture : the
belly, thighs, and vent are white, marked with numerous narrow
ferruginous Arise: the tail is banded black and white: legs yellow: claws black: the legs are fhorter than in the Sparrow Hawk.
M. de Buffon is the firft who has mentioned this bird, and
informs us that it inhabits Cayenne. He calls it the Great-billed
Sparrow Hawk; the firft term, as having the bill larger in proportion ; and the laft,. as being in figure more like that bird than
any other.
GREAT-BILLET*
F.
L
Falco fubbuteo, Lin. Syft. 1. p. 127.  N° 14.
Le Hobreau, Brif. orn. i. p. 375. N° 20.
 Buf. oif. i. p. 277. t. 17.
 j PL enl. 431, 432.
Stein falck, Frifch. t. 86.
Dendro falco, Raiifyn. p. 14. N° 8. & Subbuteo, p. 15, N° 14,.
The Hobby, Will. orn. p. 83.
 Br. Zool. N° 61.
Br. Muf    Lev. Muf..
E^NGTH twelve inches: breadth two feet three inches:
weight feven ounces.    The bill is blue: cere  and
orbits
..How: FALCON,
yellow : irides hazel: the back is brown: nape of the neck yellowifh : belly pale, with oblong brown fpots: on each cheek is
a black mark like a crefcent, pointing downward : the vent and
thighs are ferruginous, or rather rufous *: legs yellow : claws
black.
M. Briffon fays the irides are yellow; but in all the fpecimens
which I have feen, they are either hazel, or dark brown, in different fhades.
Mr. Pennant informs us, that it breeds in England, and migrates in October. This bird was ufed in falconry-f, but in a very
confined manner: particularly in daring of Larks, for which
purpofe the Hawk was caft off; on feeing of which, the Larks
adhered to the ground through fear, and the fowler drew his net .
over them.
m fpecimens, on
, longitudinally n
of which I have now by me,
rked with brown, and the vent
* Not always; for in
the thighs were du&y whi
of a plain white.
f M. Brunnich informs us, that the'Gentile, Iceland Falcon, and Hobby,
are ufed in falconry about Copenhagen ; and that the falconers fupply the tail-
feathers, when worn out or broken, with others from a different bird, fattening
the new to the bafe of the old ones; by which means, it is probable, that new
fpecies may have been created by the moft intelligent defcribers, who were not
.pofleffed of the knowledge of this circumftance.    Orn. bar. p. 3.
$r,M«ft FALCON.
Br. Muf.   Lev. Muf.
ORANGE.
BREASTED
CIZE of an Hobby: length fifteen inches. The bill is three
quarters of an inch in length, and rather flout for the fize" of
the bird; it is of a lead-colour, with the bafe very pale, nearly
white : the plumage above is of a very dark brown: the hind part
of the neck, the top of the head, and the wing-coverts, are of
one plain colour, but the reft of the upper parts are croffed with
tranfverfe interrupted narrow bars of a whitifh colour, not very
numerous : the feathers on the chin very long and narrow, al-
moft like hairs, and of a whitifh colour-: throat orange, inclining
to brown, marked with roundifh fpots of white: breaft orange:
belly dark brown, with interrupted bars of dirty buff, which
are made up of the fpots which each feather is marked with:
thighs ferruginous, dafhed with brown on the fhafts: under tail-
coverts the fame, befides which are fome tranfverfe dufky bars:
the tail is of the fame Colour as the back; the half next the
bafe is croffed with narrow bars of white, much like the back;
the end half of one plain colour, or dark brown: the legs are of
a lead-colour, long and flender, like thofe of a Sparrow Hawk,
and the toes and claws ftill longer in proportion; the colour of
the laft is black: the wings reach to the middle of the tail.
The fpecimen in the Britifh Mufeum is faid to have come from
Surinam; that in the Leveriah Mufeum, fimply from the South
Seas, without fpecifying any place. I believe this fpecies has
not been noticed before.
SIZE B0$
FALCON.
SPOTTED-
TAILED
CIZE of a Sparrow Hawk.    Bill black : cere dufky :- the head,.
neck, lower part of the back, and the under parts, are cinereous : the plumage elfewhere of a very dark lead-colour, almoft
black: prime quills ferruginous.on the inner webs, but not quite-
to the end i on each- tail-feather (except the two middle ones,.
which are plain) are three white fpots on, the inner web only;.
the firft fomewhat above an inch from the tip; the next at about,
equal diftance between that and the bafe; and the third nearly at:
the bafe itfelf: the legs are fhort and yellow: claws black: the.
wings reach beyond the middle of the tail..
This fpecimen is in the collection of Mifs Blomefteld,^ who received it from Cayenne.
I do not find it mentioned by any anther..
MERLIN.. L'EmeriHon,..§.-z/ orn. i. p. 382. N° 23^
iEfalon Bellonii & Aldrovandi, Raii Syn. p. 15. Ns 15.,.
Kleinfte rothe-falck, Frifch. t. 89.
Merlin, Will. orn. p. 85. t.3.
 Br. Zool. N° 63.
Br. Muf.    lav. Muf.
Description. HTHE length of the Merlin is twelve inches and a half: the
fize fcarce bigger than a Blackbird. The bill is of ablueifhs,
lead-colour : cere pale yellow : irides very dark: head ferru-*-
ginous; each feather marked with a blueifh black ftreak down-
the fhaft: back and wings blueifh, afh-colour, ftreaked and
fpotted with ferruginous: the edges are of the fame colour:
the quills are almoft black, marked with reddifh oval fpots: the
under FALCON.
tinder wing-coverts are brown, marked with round white fpots:
tail five inches long, croffed with alternate bars of dufky and
reddifh day-colour, generally from thirteen to fifteen in numberj
but in one fpecimen, Mr. Pennant obferves there were only
eight: the breaft and belly yellowifh white, with oblong fpots
pointing downwards: the wings reach to within an inch and half
of the end of the tail: the legs are yellow: claws black.
This defcription from the Britijh Zoology; which informs us
that the fpecies does not breed with us, but migrates here in
Oclober, coming into England about the fame time that the Hobby
difappears. This was anciently ufed in falconry, and though
inferior in fize, was not fo in point of fpirit, to any of the larger
fpecies,
toy
AS the following appears a variety of the former,  I think        Var. A.
worth while to defcribe it as fuch, as I cannot venture to M
place it as a diftinct fpecies.
The length nine inches. The bill blue; tip black; imme- Description-;
diately over the bill the feathers are very pale: the forehead is
afh-colour, extending with the fame colour in a ftreak over each
eye: crown of the head reddifh chefnut: on the fide of the head,
under each eye, is a broad fpace of white, nearly of a triangular figure; this is bordered with dufky black: at the place of
the ears is a patch of dufky black: the feathers on the back are
of a reddifh chefnut, tranfverfely ftriated with black: wing-coverts the fame: both prime and fecondary quills dufky, inclining to black i the laft edged with white : the under parts of the
P 2 bird Va'r". B.
CARIBBEE
CIIPTION.
FALCON;
bird are of a dirty yellowifh white,, perpendicularly ftreaked with
brown: the chin very pale, without marks: the vent and thighs
the fame: tail chefnut, barred with black; the bars are ten or-
eleven in number, but are not complete,., as they do not touch
the fhaft, being only, as it were, a tranfverfe, or rather oblique,
mark acrofs each web, but appear as bands, till the feathers are
extended: the tail beneath is banded with whitifh and blacki
the legs yellow: claws black.
This was defcribed from a fpecimen in the collection of Cap-,
tain Davies,.. who brought it from New-Tork.
L'Emerillon des Antilles, Brif. orn. i. p. 385. N° 24.'
Efmerillon Gry Gry, Raii Syn. p. 19. N° 3.
 1—.— Du Tertre Hift. des Antilles, 2. p. 253.
HP H IS bird is very little bigger than a Thrufh. It is rufous
above, fpotted with black: beneath white, fpotted longi?
tudinally with black.
It inhabits the. Antilles: called there Gry Gry.
M. Briffon doubts this being different from the other Merlin,
and on his authority I place it as a variety.
M. du Tertre fays, that his bird preys only on Lizards and Graff-
hoppers, and now and then on very young chickens,
{.'EfmeriUog. FALCON.
lO£
E*Efmerillon des. Fauconniers, Buf. oif, i, p..
L'Emerillon, PI. enl. 468.
. t. I9^
FALCONERS
M.
^HIS bird, according, to M. de Buff on, is not the Merlin of
naturalifts, but known by that name among falconers, and
has not been particularly noticed nor well defcribed by any one
hitherto. He fays it is like an Hobby in figure, but has fhorter
wings, and it much more refembles the Stone Falcon, both as to fize
and length, colours, &c. fo as to make it rather doubtful whether
thofe two be not only varieties. A. Angularity too prefents itfelf
in this bird, which is, that both male and female are of the fame
fize, a thing unufual'in this genus. He fays likewife that it is a
very courageous bird, attacking not only Larks, but Quails and
Partridges. Notwkhftanding all this, M. de Buffon quotes Br. Zool.
folio edit. A. 12. for a figure, feemihg to prove his Merlin, and
that of Mr. Pennant, to be the fame.
Mr. Salerne * gives a probable reafon for this confufion among
the Merlins, which arifes from the bird-catchers calling every
bird under the fize of a Buzzard by the name of Merlin; and in
this kingdom I have as often found all the fmaller kinds of
Hawks called by the name of Sparrow Hawk, without diftinctiom
I have mentioned thus much, as I believe the Merlin is not
very common in England, and confequently but little known. I.
do not know M, de Buffon's bird.
' Qrn. p. 16*. FALCON.
Falco fparverius, Lin. Syft.'i. p. 128. N° 20,
L'Emerillon de la Caroline, Brif. orn. i. p. 386. N9
 PI. enl. 465. "
Falco minor rufefcens, &c. Brown"s Jam. p. 471.
Little Hawk, Catefb. Car. i. t. 5. the male.
25. t. 32. f. I.
l]fmm Am. Zooi.
Lev. Muf.
ion. hpH£ maie is of the fize of the Merlin, but the female is
fomewhat bigger. The bill is yellowifh: cere and irides
the fame : the head is of a blueifh afh-colour; the crown of the
;head, and upper parts of the body, orange brown, tranfverfely
ftriated with black: the upper wing-coverts blueifh afh-colour,
with tranfverfe black ftrife : tail red brown, tipped with black.
1. The female differs from the male in fome particulars : the
head is of a blueifh afh-colour; the crown red brown : the hind
part of the head is encircled with feven black fpots, viz. three
on each fide and one behind: cheeks and throat dirty reddifh
white: hind part of the neck, the back, fcapulars, and wing- •
coverts, reddifh brown, with black tranfverfe lines: rump and
upper tail-coverts the fame, but plain: fore part of the neck,
breaft, and fides, dirty rufous white, ftriped down the fhafts with '
reddifh brown: the prime quills blackifh, fpotted within with
reddifh brown: tail of the laft-mentioned colour, tranfverfely
ftriated with black. In both, the legs are yellow, and the claws
black.    I never yet faw the female.
This  bird inhabits  Virginia, Carolina, St. Domingo.    They
abide all the year in Carolina and Virginia.
3 M. Buffon FALCON.
M. de Buffon* fays, that this bird, our Merlin, and that of St.
Domingo, or next fpecies, are all varieties, of the Gry Gry, or,
Caribbee.M. N° 93. B.
L'Emerillon de St. Domingue, Brif. a
> Muf.
p. 389. N' 26.X. 32. f. 2. female.   ST. DOMINGO)
F.
fpHE bill in this is yellow; the tip black: cere luteous: irides    Descrii
yellow: parts above moftly red brown, fpotted with black:
beneath dirty white, fpotted with black: head, cinereous: the
eight middle tail-feathers are chefnut, at the ends black; the
very tips white; the two outmoft on each fide are different, the
one having fome white near the end, and a black fpot in it, the
laft white on the outfide, and marked with five black fpots, and.
one of chefnut on the inner webs: legs yellow: claws black.—This
defcription is of the female.
The male differs, the fpots of black on the upper parts being
lefs numerous than, in the female: throat and fore part of the
neck more inclining to. red brown. Ten of the middle tail-feathers are chefnut, with the ends black, and very tips.white, as in
the female: the outer tail-feather, on the outfide and tip, is
white, on the inner web chefnut, marked with a tranfverfe fpot of,
black near the end.
This, inhabits St. Domingo..
* Hift. des Oif. i. p. 293. falcon:
Falco minutus, Lin. Syft. I. p. 131. Na 3-8.'
Le petit Epervier, Brif. orn. i. p. 315.  N° 2. PI. 30. f. I.
HP HIS, according to Briffon, is lefs than the Merlin, being
eleven inches  and three  quarters in length.    The bill is
black: cere brown : parts above brown, variegated with rufousiM
beneath white, with tranfverfe rufous brown ftrias; tail brown,
banded with deeper brown : legs luteous: claws black.
This bird inhabits the gland of Malta. M. Briffon mentions a
variety of this, having only four brown bands on the tail, and
lance-fhaped fpots on the breaft.
M. de Buffon*fays, it is probable that this bird may prove to
be merely the Tiercelet, or male of the Sparrow Hawk, called by
the Falconers a Mouchet.
Falco ca;rulefcens, Lht, Syft. i. p. 125. -N° 9.
Le Faucon de Bengale, Brif. orn. app. p. 20. N° 38.
Little black and orange Indian Hawk, Edw. 3. t. 108.
Lev. Muf.
HpHlS is faid to be the leaft of the Falcon genus, being in length,I
only fix inches and a half. The bill is blackifh: cere and
eyelids luteous: the forehead is white: the eye placed in a naked
yellow fkin, round which is a bed of black, pafling downwards
a little way on each fide of^the neck, and this is again bounded
by white: general colour or the parts above is purplifh black;
• Hift. des Oif. i. p. 226. FALCON.
that of the under parts orange, paleft on the breaft : the tail is
black; the two middle feathers are plain, the others tranfverfely
ftriated on the infide with white: the legs are luteous: claws
blackifh.
This beautiful fpecies inhabits Bengal. Mr. Edwards obferves,
that it is feathered below the knees, and that for fo fmall a bird,
it is remarkably flout and robuft, full as much, in proportion,
as an Eagle.
Falco n
, Pallas Trav. vol. ii. p. 707. N° 13.
ry HIS, according to Dr. Pallas, is lefs than any yet
known. The length he does not mention, but fays that it
weighs lefs than half a pound. It has the bill and air of a Keftrel. The cere is greenifh: irides brown *: the crown of the
head is hoary brown, marked with blackifh lines: round the
neck is a ferruginous collar : the back is of a hoary lead-colour,
the feathers of which have brown fhafts, towards the tail paleft:
the throat and other parts beneath are whitifh, with numerous
ferruginous brown fpots: margin of the wings white, variegated
beneath: tail nearly even at the end, of a hoary lead-colour,
with clouded fafcise beneath; all the feathers have black edges,
and the tips of all are white: the legs are of a deep yellow.
This bird inhabits Siberia.    It preys chiefly on Larks.    It is
not very common.
* As Dr. Pallas obferves, thofe of all the more generous forts are;
Genus O   W   L.
Genus  III.     O W L.
E A
R E
D     O W
L S.
N"r.
Great Eared O.
N° 7
Mexican E. O.
A. Athenian E. O.
8
Red E. O.
B. Smooth-legged E
.O
9
Short-eared O.
C. Magellanic E. O.
10.
Brafilian E. O.
2
Virginian E. O.
11.
Mottled E. O.
8-
Scandinavian E. O.
12.
Indian E. O.
4-
Ceylonefe E. O.
13.
Carniolic E. O.
i-:r5\
Long-eared O.
14.
Yaickan E. O.
A. Italian E. O.
«5-
Scops E. O.
6.
American E. O.
16.
Siberian E. O.
* * W I T H
3 M
0 0 T H
HEADS.
N°i7.
Snowy O.
N° 29.
Canada O.
18.
Barred O.
3°-
Hawk O.
19.
Cinereous O.
31-
Mexican O.
20.
Aluco O.
• 32.
New Spain O.
21.
Auflrian O.
33-
Coquimbo O.
22.
Auftrian White O.
34-
Saint Domingo O.
23.
Auflrian Rufous O.
35-
Cayenne O.
y.'.
Auftrian Ferruginous
O.
36.
Cafpian O.
.^•|§--'
Solognefe 0.
37-
Ural O.
26.
White O.
38.
Acadian O.
27.
Tawny O.
39-
New Zeeland 0.
28.
Brown 0.
40.
Little O.
THE OWL.
THE bill is crooked, as in the laft, but not furnifhed with a
cere.
Noflrils covered with briftly feathers.
Head large: both ears and eyes very large.
Tongue bifid.
To which Mr. Pennant * adds:
Noftrils oblong.
Outmoft toe capable of being turned backwards.
Claws hooked and fharp.—To which I may add, that the external edge of one or more of the outer quill-feathers is ferrated,
in every individual that has come under my inflection.
The owl is a nocturnal bird, moft of them preying by night,
or rather twilight; for, as Buffon f obferves, it has neither
the faculty of difcerning objects in open day-light, nor can it
fee when the night is dark. It is only for an hour in the evening
and morning that it fees clearly, except by moon-light; and
in fuch nights as are pretty light they hunt after prey the
whole night through. Their want of fight is made good by their
quicknefs of hearing; which their ample ears teftify.
Their dimnefs of fight in the day-time, can only be faid of the
major part of thejn, fince fome of the fpecies both fee well by
day-light, as well as take their prey at that time; but whether
thefe have the faculty of feeing by twilight equally well, is not
mentioned.
More need not be faid to identify the genus of Owls, as few
can miftake it.
» Genera of Birds.       f H'ft- &s Oif. vol. i. p. 317.
"5
CL2
»EARED P   W   L,
*EARED       OWLS.
Strix bubo, Lin. Syft. i. p. 131. N° 1.
. Scop. Ann. i.  p. 18.
Le grand Due, Brif. orn. i. p. 477. N° 1.
Le Due, ou grand Due, Buf. oif. i. p. 332. t. 22.
 i PI. enl. 435.
Bubo, Raii Syn. p. 24. N° I.
Schuffut, Frifch. t. 93.
Great Horn-owl, or Eagle-owl, Will. orn. p. 99. t. 12.
Eagle-owl, Br. Zool. N° 64. t. 29.
Great Owl, Am. Zool. N°
Br. Muf.   Lev. Muf.
TN fize it is almoft equal to an Eagle. Irides bright yellow:
head and whole body finely varied with lines, fpots, and fpecks
of black, brown, cinereous, and ferruginous: wings long: tail
fhort, marked with dufky bars : legs thick, covered to the very
end of the toes with a clofe and full down of a teftaceous colour : claws great, much hooked, and dufky.
This is Mr. Pennant's defcription; which will as fully fuftice
as a longer one.
The above noble fpecies for the moft part inhabits ruined
edifices, mountainous and cavernous places, and inacceffible
rocks; feldom being feen on the plains, nor often perched on
trees. It's prey chiefly confifts of Leverets, Rabbits, Moles,
Rats, and Mice. Of thefe it fwallows the largeft by morfels;
bones, hair, and all: the leffer ones whole. After due digeftion
of the nutritious parts, it emits the indigeftible ones, in the fhape
of round pellets; which are often found in it's haunts.   This
bird OWL.
bird likewife feeds it's young with Bats, Snakes, Lizards, Toads,
and Frogs *.
Aldrovandus fays that it provides well for it's young, and fo
plentifully, that a perfon living in the neighbourhood of the neft
of one of thefe, may be fupplied therefrom with fome dainties, and
yet leave enough to fatisfy the young birds.
This is not very common in France, nor is it certain that it
flays there the whole year. Not more than two eggs have been
found in the neft; the colour of them not unlike that of the bird
itfelf: in fize fomewhat bigger than an Hen's egg.—The Italians,
according to Olina, fometimes train it up for the ufes of falconry.
It has been fhot in Scotland, and in Torkfhire, and, if a friend
of mine does not deceive me, has once been feen in Kent, perched
upon a gate, near to a large wood, in the fpring 1770.
* It is faid that neither Owls, nor other birds of prey, have been obferved
to drink; infomuch that many, who have kept them, did not furnifh them
with water, on the fuppofition of their not wanting it. M. de Buffon has
watched one of the Falcon tribe, which would by no means be tempted to drink
while any one was in light; but as foon as the perfon, who was fet to watch
it, difappeared, the bird, after looking round to fee all was fafe, plunged it's
head into the water, as far as the eyes, and took feveral gulps. Hift. des Oif. i.
p. 127.
The reverfe of this was the cafe in my Carrion Vulture, for I have feen this
dip it's bill into the water to fill the mouth, after which it held up the head to
fwallow it, j uft in the manner of our domeftic poultry. OWL,
Le grand Due D'ltalie, Brif. orn. i. p. 482. N° t. A.
Bubo Athenienfis, Lin. Syft. p. 131. N° li 0.
Eagle-owl, Will. orn. p. $9. N° 2.
Great Horned-owl from Athens, Edw. glean, t. 227.
Black-winged Horn-owl, Albin. iii. //. 6.
-~p HI S is defcribed as of a darker colour throughout, efpe-
cially on the wings.  The legs are fhorter, and not fo ftrong;
but the claws are large and fharp.
Mr. Edwards fays that the face is of a whitifh grey, and the
colour of the whole bird is brown, variegated with black: the
height, as it fat upon the perch, feventeen inches.
Le grand Due Dechauffe, Brif. orn. i. p. 483. N° I. B.
Great Horn-owl, Will. orn. p. 100. N° 3.
HpHIS differs only in having the legs bare of feathers, and both
legs and feet weaker than in the laft.
Jacuruttt, Marcg. Hift. Braf. p. 199.
Hibou des Terres Magellataques, Bl. enl. 385,
JIJARCGRAVE defcribes this bird as being of the fize
of a Goofe; having a head like a Cat, a black crooked
bill, eyes fhining like cryftal, with a yellow circle. Near the
holes of the ears it has pointed feathers two fingers long, which
can be lifted up to appear like ears:   the tail broad; the wings
not OWL.
not reaching the end of it: legs covered to the feet: colour of
the bird variegated with yellow, blackifh, and white.
There is not a doubt of this bird being a variety at leaft of the
former: though the climates be fo wide apart, moft authors agree
in making it fo. In fhort, it feems to be a very general fpecies,
yarying, as all birds do, with the climate.
Le grand Due de Virginie, Brif, orn. i. p. 484. N°
Horned-owl, Ellis's H. Bay, p. 40. t. 2.
Great Horned-owl from Virginia, Edw, ii. t. 60.
Great Owl, Am. Zool. N°
Lev. Muf.
VIRGINIAN
E. O.
CIZE of the common Eagle-owl.    The ear-feathers are large,    Description
and arife juft above the bafe of the bill, which is black : the
irides gold-colour: parts above brown, variegated with flender
rufous and cinereous lines : beneath, of a pale afh-colour, tranfverfely ftriped with brown : the throat is white: lower part of
the neck and fides of the breaft are orange-brown, fpotted with
a darker brown : the middle part of the breaft, the belly, and
other parts beneath, are of a pale afh-colour, ftriated with brown:
the quills and tail banded with the fame.
The legs and half the toes covered with cinereous feathers :
claws horn-colour.
This bird came from Virginia.
M. de Buffon * fays that it is a mere variety of the firft fpecies,
differing only in the pofition of the ear-like tufts of feathers.
* &ft. des Gift SCANDINAVIAN E. O.
Strix Scandiaca, Lin. Syft.
Le grand Due de Lapponi
. 132. No
j. 24. N°
Brif. orn.
l86. N° 3.
J 1NN ALUS defcribes this as being of the fize of a Turkey.
The body whitifh, fpotted with black.    It is fo very like
the Great Snowy Owl, N° 17, that, were it not for the ear-like
feathers, one wouldfuppofe it the fame bird*.
This bird inhabits the mountains of Lapland. M. de Buffon f
thinks it to be only a variety of the former ones; the white colour arifing from the mere coldnefs of the climate, as is frequently
the cafe in other birds.
CEYLONESE
E. O.
Description.
Great Ceylonefe Horned owl,
s III. Zool. p. 8. t
^p HIS is in length one foot eleven inches, and weighs two I
pounds nine ounces and three quarters. The bill is horn-
colour : irides yellow: parts above of a pale reddifh brown;
beneath yellowifh white £ : circles round the face of a pale reddifh brown, ftreaked with black: the ears are fhort and pointed:'
prime quills and tail barred with black, white, and pale red: legs
naked to the knees.
It is a native of Ceylon, and called there Raia Allia.
* I do not find that Linnaus has feen it, but defcribed it from a painting of
Rudbeck.
f Hift. des Oif. i. p. 338.
\ According to the plate, each feather feems to be ftreaked down the fhaft
with black, and has four or five dufky bars on each fide of it.
Strix O   W   Li
Strix Otus, Lin. Syft. p. 132. N° 4.'
 Scop. Ann. i. p. 18.
Le Moyen Due, ou Le Hibou, Brif. orn. i. p. 486. N°4.
 Buf. oif. i. p. 342. t. 22.
 PI. enl. if.
Otus, Alio, Raii Syn. p. 25. N° A. 2.
The Horn-owl, Will. orn. p. loo.—Albin. vol. ii. t. 10.
Rothe Kautzlein, Frifch. t. 99.
L'Hibou appelle\Canot, Hift. de la N. France, par Charlev. iii. p. 5,6.
Long-eared Owl, Br. Zool. N° 65.
Lev. Muf.
rT< H E length of this fpecies is fourteen inches and an half.
The bill is black: irides bright yellow: the eared tufts
confift of fix feathers; thofe which furround the face are white
forwards, and rufous on the back-part; and thefe two colours
are feparated by a dark ftreak: the colours in general are brown,
rufous, and whitifh mixed, on the upper parts of the body: be-
neath, tfie feathers are rufous at the bafe, and whiti/h at the tip,
longitudinally and tranfverfely ftreaked with black brown : tail-
feathers marked with dufky and reddifh bars; beneath, afh-
coloured : the legs feathered down to the toes: claws black.
This is a bird of Europe, and is far from uncommon', either iii
France or England. M. de Buffon * obferves that thefe btr&T'ftt-
dom are at the pains of making a neft for themfelves, for the
moft part making ufe of an old Magpie's or Buzzard's neft.
They lay, for the moft part, four or five eggs. Their young are
at firft white, but come to their colour in about fifteen days.
• H. des Oif. 1. p. 345.
R Neither
+- LONG-
EARED O. OWL.
Neither this, nor any of the other Owls, bear captivity, if the
old birds are taken; whoever, therefore, may be defirous of
keeping them, muft train them up from the neft.
ITALIAN
E. O.
Description,
LeHib
Afio fiv
su d'ltalie, Brif. orn. :
: Otus, Aldrov. Av. i
p. 491. N° 4. A.
• 5I9- ?> in 523-
r-p HIS differs in being a trifle bigger. The head is afh-coloured, mixed with pale chefnut and black: the body
ferruginous afh-colour, fpotted with brown, the fpots of feveral
fizes: the belly varied with longitudinal pointed brown fpots :
the coverts and bend of the wings white: the tail reaches fix
inches beyond the wings when clofed, and is marked with zigzag black lines: the bill, irides, and legs much as in the other.
Inhabits Italy, and is a variety of the laft-mentioned.
AMERICAN
E. O.
Le Hibou d'Amerique, Brif. orn. i. p. 498. N° 7.
Bubo ocro cinereus, pe&ore maculofo, Feuille's Journ. des Obf. Phif.
p. S9- ed- '72S-
CIZE of the laft. The bill is luteous: iris gold-colour: fpace
round the eyes afh-colour : the head and upper parts are cinereous ; the under parts ferruginous: rump and vent white,
fpotted with black: quills and tail ferruginous, tranfverfely barred
with cinereous and grey: legs yellow : claws black.
M. de Buffon fuppofes it to be a variety of the two laft, giving.,
this reafon, that though the fhades be different, yet the common
diftribution of the colours is the fame.
Inhabits South America,
L'Hibou OWL.
i S3
L'Hibou du Mexique, Brif. es
Tecolotl, Raiifyn. p. 160.
.1 p. 499. N>
MEXICAN
E. O.
npHlS bird, according to M. Briffon, after Mr. Ray, differs
from the others, in having only two colours in the plumage,
viz. black and brown. The eyes are large, and of a gold-colour.
It is faid to refemble the other Horned Owls in colour, but the
fize is not mentioned.
Inhabits Mexico.
Strix Alio, Lin. Syft. i. p. 132. N° 3. 4_  red
Le Petit Due de la Caroline, Brif. orn. i. p. 497. N° 6. E. O.
Little Owl, Catefib. Car. i. t. 7.
Red Owl, Am. Zool. N°
Br. Muf.   Lev. Muf.
ACCORDING to  Catefby, it is the fize of a Jackdaw:    Description.
M. Briffon mentions it's being about one third bigger than
the Scops. The bill and iris are both of a faffron-colour: parts
above ferruginous : beneath dirty white, with a mixture of rufous
brown: tail deep brown: edge of the baftard wing whitifh : on
the fcapulars are five largifh fpots of white: quills marked with
fome fpots of white: legs covered to the toes with light brown
feathers: the toes are brown: the claws black.
The female differs in being brown in colour, without any mixture of rufous or ferruginous.
M. de Buffon feems to think this a variety of the Long-eared
Owl, and that of South America, N° 6; but this does not feem
R 2 clear OWL.
clear to me, as, on examination of the two firft, they do not bear
refemblance; as to the laft-mentioned, I never faw it, muft
therefore be filejjt oa.^hafi head.
Short-eared Owl, Br. Zool. N" 66. t. 31.
Strix brachyotos, Phil. Tranf. vol. lxii. p. 384. N° 2.
Short-eared Owl, Amer. Zool. N°
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
'"THE length of this bird is fourteen inches: breadth three feet:
weight fourteen ounces. The bill is dufky: irides yellow :
the circle of feathers which furrounds the eyes is white; clofe to
the eyes black; the outer edge black and tawny mixed: it has
one feather longer than the reft on the head, which it can erect
at/will. The feathers on the upper part of the body are brown,
with pale dull yellow edges; thofe beneath of a pale yellow,
longitudinally ftreaked with brown: the thighs to the toes are
feathered, and of a yellowifh colour: the tail is brown; the
four middle feathers have a brown fpot, encircled with yellow,
oneach fide the fhaft : the tip is white.
Mr. Pennant fays further, that it is a bird of paffage, vifiting
us in OcTober, and retiring in Spring; and adds, that it's probable
fummer retreat is Norway.
Dr. Forfter, in the Phil. Tranf. above quoted, fays it is called
Moufe Hawk in Hudfon's Bay, where it is found, as well as in
Europe. This name may well arife from two circumftances; the
firft, from the head being fmaller than in moft Owls ; fecondly,
that the ears do not appear, nay, are often difficult to find, in
the dead bird; for which reafons it may well be miftaken for a
9 Hawk. OWL.
Hawk. It's food is mice, watching them with the fedulous attention of a domeftic Cat. It is alfo obferved to be a bird of
paffage in thofe parts.    I have frequently met with it in Kent.
M. de Buffon * feems to think that this bird is the Scops, than
which no two of the Species differ more. We have not th*
Scops in England, neither do I think the above-defcribed bird to
be an inhabitant of France. It would therefore have appeared
candid in the above-mentioned author, to have fufpended his
opinion of the matter till he had been better informed, as he
feems to bear fomewhat hard upon Mr. Pennant, who, I am
clear, is the firft who has defcribed it.
m-r
Le Hibou du Brefil, Brif. em. i. p. 499. N° 8.
Cabure, ou Caboure, Buf. oif. i. p. 383.
Noftua Brafilienfibus Cabure didla, Raii Syn. p. 26. N° 7.
Cabure, Will, orn. p. 107. N° 9.
CIZE of a Thrufh. Bill yellowifh: iris yellow: under the
eyes, and the fides of the bill, befet with long brown hairs:
the body is of a pale ferruginous brown above, fpotted with
white: about the ears the fame: beneath it is whitifh, marked
with pale ferruginous brown fpots: tail the fame, waved with
white: the wings reach very little beyond the origin of the tail:
the legs are fhort, and feathered to the toes, with yellowifh feathers : the toes are yellow: claws black.
Inhabits BrafU.
BRASILIAN
E. O.
* Hift. des Oif, vol. i. p. 353. note (a.)
M.de o w l;
M. de Buffon fuppofes this bird to be the fame with that fttett^|
tioned by Kolben * in his hiftory of the Cape; and adds from Marc-
grave, that it is eafily tamed; that it will play with any one
like a Monkey; that it can turn it's head quite round, fo that
its bill quite touches the back, and frequently puts itfelf into
very droll attitudes, &c.
Mottled Owl, Cat. N. Amer. anim. p. 9..
 Am. Zool. N°
Lev. Muf.
N- np H E length of this fpecies is eight inches and a half. The;
bill is brown: irides yellow: the plumage on the upper
parts of the body is of a grey colour, mottled with ferruginous I
and black: the fhaft of each feather is black, with three or four
waved bars of the fame on each fide: thefe marks are the fame,
but more diftinct, beneath, where the ground colour is paler:
the feathers round the face are 'tipped with black, as are the feathers of the breaft alfo : the ears are an inch or more in
length : the legs are feathered to the toes : the claws are brown.
Inhabits North America.
* Kolben obferves, that at the Cape of Good. Hope there are a great quantity
of Owls, of the fame fize with thofe of Europe, which are partly red and partly,
black, with a mixture of grey, which renders them very beautiful, and that the
Europeans there let them run tame about their houfes, to clear them of Rats.
See Hift. Cap. vol. iii. p. 198, 199.
From the circumftance of their being eafily tamed, as thofe are at Braftl, and
being nearly in the fame latitude, he thinks it poflible that they may be, in
of the fame fpecies.
Little o w u
127
Little Hawk Owl of Ceylon, Ind. Zool. N° 3.
HP HE length is feven inches. The bill is dufky, furrounded
with long briftles : the circle of feathers furrounding the
eyes pale afh; externally of a pale brown: the horns or ears
arife at the bafe of the bill, and point towards the fides of the
head: the head itfelf deeper brown: the back dufky: wing-coverts
grey, marked with narfow lines of black, pointing downwards:
the quills are regularly barred with black and white: the breaft
is buff-coloured, marked with fmall fagittal black fpots: legs
feathered half way down : the naked parts of a reddifh yellow.
This fpecies is defcribed and figured by Mr. Pennant, in his
Indian Zoology; who informs us that it inhabits Ceylon, and is
called there Bakkamana.
INDIAN
E. O.
Strix Giu, Scop. An. i. p. 19. N° 9. CARNIOL
Maid Uuffl, Kram. Elen. p. 323. N° 3. E. O.
'jTHIS is in fize about that of the Little Owl.    The ears in the    Descriptk
dead bird are not to be difcovered : the irides are yellow:
the noflrils are very near together, being divided as it were only
by a line: the colour of the body is a whitifh afh, variegated
with fpots and tranfverfe ftriae of a blackifh colour: fix of the
prime quills are fpotted with whitifh on one fide: tail brownifh,
and fpotted likewife.
This Place ahd
Manners,
OWL.
This inhabits the colder parts of Carniola, in the woods. It
makes its neft in the clefts of rocks, and in hollow trees; lays
from two to four eggs j the old one feeds the young birds with
the May Beetle *, as the wing-cafes are often found near their
nefts.
Kramer fays it is the fize of a Blackbird, and is exactly the
fame colour as the Goat-fucker, or Wry-neck; and adds, that it
feeds on fmall birds; is called at Bologna by the name of Giu,
and is not common.
This is certainly not the Scops, as both Scopoli and Kramer ex-
grefsly mention the contrary.
Stryx deminuta, Pall. Trav. vol. ii. p. 707. N° 14.
T N fize it is under the Scops, and very different from it in appearance.    It's weight is lefs than a pound.    It is fo like the
Bubo, or firft fpecies, that, excepting the plumage being lefs
elegant and diftinct, one defcription might ferve.
It is found both in the woody and mountainous parts bordering on the Jaick, and Ural mountains in Siberia.
* Scarabsus Melolontha, Lin. Stop*
If OWL.
I2C
Strix Scops, Liu. Syft. i. p. 132. N° 5.
Le petit Due, BriJ. orn. i. p. 495. N° 5. t. 37. f. 1.
Le Scops, ou petit Due, Buf. oif. i. p. 353. t. 24.
■ PI. enl. 436.
Scops Aldrovandi^ Raiifyn. p. 25, N° 3.
Little Horn-owl, Will. orn. p. 101. t. 12.
T^ HIS elegant fpecies meafures in length feven inches and a
quarter. The bill is black: irides yellow: the whole of the
bird is variegated with grey, rufous, brown, and blackifh; on
the upper parts the brown predominates, on the under parts the
grey: quills tranfverfely barred with rufous white : the ears con-
fift only of one feather each: legs covered to the toes with rufous
grey feathers, fpotted with brown: the toes and claws are like-
wife brown.
M. de Buffon obferves, that the two fingle feathers which compote the ears are very fhort, and are with difficulty difcovered in the
dead bird, as well as not fufficiently apparent to diftinguifh this
from the Little Owl without ears, at a diftance. It differs much
in colour from age or fex;—when young, it is wholly of a grey
colour; and among the older ones, fome are browner than
others: the colour of the iris likewife keeps pace with the above
circumftances, being of a pale yellow in the young birds, and
either of a deeper yellow, or hazel, in the old ones.
Thefe birds are common in many parts of Europe, on the continent, but have not hitherto been obferved in England. In
France they arrive and depart much about the fame time with the
. Swallow. At certain times they wage war with the Field Mice,
which have been known to multiply in fome years fo much, as
v S to
'5-
SCOPS.
E. O.
Place anb
Manners. 130
OWL.
to become an heavy fcourge to thofe parts which they infeft,
eating up all the corn. On this occafion it has happened, that
thefe Owls have arrived in large troops, and have attacked thofe
depredators fo fuccefsfully, as to deftroy the whole of them in
a fhort time *.
SIBERIAN
E. O.
Pl.V. fig. ii.
Stryx Pulchella, Pallas Trav. vol. i. p. 456. N° 8.
Strix capite aurito, e Gente fua minima, &C. Nov. <
p. 490. t. 26. f. 1.
Lev. Muf.
. Petrop, vol.
npHIS fpecies well deferves the name given to it by Dr. Pallas,
as it is a moft beautifully pencilled bird. I fhould think it
the leaft of all the fpecies hitherto known, being in length only
fix inches j; if any thing, rather lefs: the weight very little more
than one ounce. The head is lefs tumid than in the pafferina,
and fmaller in proportion, and above all, is remarkably eared.
The bill is brown : the irides of a pale yellow: the eared feathers above one inch in length : the circle of feathers which fur-
rounds the eyes is fmall, and above the eyes fcarcely perceivable -,
towards the eyes is a white fpot: the body above is cinereous,
delicately powdered and undulated : the fhaft of each feather
brown; beneath whitifh, with broad black fhafts, and fcattered
* A remark of the fame kind is mentioned by Dale, after Childrey, to this-
purport: " In the year 1580, at Hallontide, an army of mice fo over-run the-
marfhes near South Minfter, that they eat up the grafs to the very roots; but at
length a great number of ftrange painted Owls came and devoured all the mice.
The like happened in Effex in 1648."   Dale, Harwich, app. p. 397. note 2.
Thefe muft have been one of our Eared Owls above-mentioned, and not the-
Scops, as M. de Buffon thinks.
t The Peter/burgh Tranfaclions fay above nine inches.
10 here ^^^^^^y^m^^M^tim^T.  OWL.
here and there with elegant variegated tranfveife bars of the fame
colour: the wings are fafciated and powdered; the firft of the
prime quills ferrated on the outer edge, fome of them fpotted
with white on the outer edges; tips black: the tail and wings
are equal in length: the tail is rounded at the end, of the fame
colour with the body, and obfoletely fafciated with white : the
fhins are feathered, and marked with undulated ftrise, as the reft
of the body, the. toes only being naked, which are of a pale colour : the claws brown.—So far Pallas's general defcription.
The fpecimen I allude to in the Leverian Mufeum, I am pretty
clear, is the fame bird above defcribed, but it is only fix inches
in length. In this the whole plumage is very foft and delicate,
imitating that of the Wry-neck. It is delicately powdered, as
Pallas expreffes it to be, with ferruginous and black, but about
the fides of the neck the whole has a ferruginous tinge: tail of
a dark brown, barred with ferruginous and grey: the ears are
full an inch long, of the fame delicate mixture of colour with
the body, and appear to confift of more feathers than one *:
the wings feem to be a trifle longer than the tail; but, as the
fpecimen is a dried one, it is probable this circumftance may
have been occafioned by the operator who put it in attitude.
This came from Gibraltar, but whether native there or not was
not certain.
According to Dr. Pallas, this bird inhabits the more fouthern
parts of the Volga, Samara, and Jaick; he fays likewife that it is
often found about inhabited places, as well as in woods. In the
Peterfburgb Tranfatlions, it is faid to be found near that city.
* This circumftance could not be afcertained, the bird being fixed in a glazed
cafe.   The defcription in the Peterfi. Tranfae, feys they are ten in number.
S a * * With OWL.
**With   SMOOTH   HEADS.
Strix nyftea, Lin. Syft. i. p. 132. N° 6.
Le Chathuant de la Baye de Hudfon, Brif. orn. i. p. $22. N° 8.
Le Harfang, Buf. oif. i. p. 387.
— PI. enl. 458.
Hibou blanc d'Iflande, And. Hift. tTIJl. Es? Gro. i. p. 85. t. 1 *.
Great White Owl, Edw. ii. t. 61.
Snowy Owl, Am. Zool. N°
Br. Muf Lev. Muf.
71/fR. EDWARDS's defcription is the one from whence the
others are taken; who fays, that it rather exceeds the Great
Eagle Owl in fize, but the head is not fo big in proportion.
The bill in this fpecies is black, and almoft hid in the feathers:
the irides yellow : the whole plumage is white as fnow, but the
upper part of the head is marked with fmall brown fpots, and
the upper part of the back tranfverfely marked with narrow lines ]
of brown, as are the fides under the wings, but lighter: the
quills are white, fpotted alfo with brown, as are the tail-feathers,
except the outer ones, which are of a pure white : the legs are
covered to the toes with White feathers : the claws are black.
This fpecies is fometimes feen quite white, and is found in the
northern parts of both Europe and America; in Sweden, Iceland, and
Hudfon's Bay, and fometimes, though rarely, in Penfflvania.
In America v/e are told that it continues the whole year; that
it preys by day as well as night. It's chief food is the Ptarmigan^
called in North America the White Partridge.
* The-fieure incoKecV
Strix OWL.
U3
Strix nebulofa, Ph. Tranf. vol. Ixii. p. 424.
Grey Owl,       •  ■  p. 386.
Barred Owl I Am. Zool. N°
Br. Muf Lev. Muf.
18.
«- BARRED
O.
*TpH IS is a large bird, being not much inferior in fize to the
laft.—According to Dr. Forfter, who has given a defcription in the Philofophical TranfaiJions above quoted, it weighs three
pounds; is in length fixteen inches, and in breadth four feet.
The bill is of a pale afh-colour: the irides yellow : the fore
part of the feathers which furround the face are plain light afh:
the back parts a little fpotted with brown: the head, neck,
breaft, back, and wing-coverts, brown, fpotted with white, but,
on a narrow inflection, each feather is marked with three or four
alternate bars of brown and white : the head, neck, and breaft, have
moft white in them, and the other parts abound moft in brown:
the greater quills are barred with lighter and deeper brown, and on
the outer edges of fome of them are white or very pale foots, in
place of the light brown : the fecondaries are akernately banded
with paler and deeper brown, the darker brown occupying moft
fpace: tail banded brown and whitifh, the tip of the laft colour :
belly and vent dirty white; the firft with longitudinal ferruginous
brown ftreaks; the laft tranfverfely barred with the fame colour:
the legs are pale, and feathered to the claws, which are brown.
Inhabits Hudfon's Bay.—The above was defcribed from a fpecimen in my own poffeflion, which meafured twenty-one inches in
length *.—Dr. Forfter, I believe, is the firft who has mentioned it.
Br. Muf.
* Sir A. Lever's fpecimen differs from mine, in having the bars in the tail
rnore numerous, and the fpots on the upper parts of the body of a larger fize, Br. Muf.
T ENGTH twenty inches: about the fize and bulk of the
laft.    Bill whitifh: the circle of feathers furrounding the
face is black clofe to the eye, over the eye palifh, and juft at
the bill whitifh:   each feather, for the moft part, is of an afh-
colour, and croffed with feveral lines of black;   the feathers
which terminate the circle are alfo tipped with black, mixed with
buff-colour; by this means the eye appears placed in the middle
of alternate circles of black and afh-colour : the plumage on the
upper parts of the body is mottled with afh-colour and black :
thighs the fame, but paler, croffed with diftinct brown lines: the I
wings and upper parts of the body are inclined to brown, and on £
the quills are mottled bars of afh-colour :  legs feathered to the
toes: claws dufky.    The whole bird appears as if foiled with
light foot-colour.
Inhabits Hudfon's Bay.
Strix AIuco, Lin. Syft. i. p. 132. N° 7.
————— Scop, Ann. i. p. 20. N* 4.
La Hulote, Brif. orn. i. p. 507. N° 3.
La Hulotte, Buf. oif. i. p. 358.
———— PL enl. 441.
Grave-Eule, Frifch. t. 94.
Aldrovandus's former Aluco, Will. orn. p. 104. t. 13 ?
J INN ALUS feems here to be at crofs^-purpofes, as he quotes,
after the above fynonyms, the Fauna Suecica, N° 72;   which
plainly refers to the White or Barn Owl; as alfo the Br. Zool.
folio
and a pure white: it is full as long as my bird, and is probably of the fame
fex; and that mentioned by Dr. Forfter, from its being fo much lefs, may
perhaps prove the oppofite. OWL.
folio t. B. i. or Brown Owl of Pennant, N° 69: however, I believe he really means the Aluco of Aldrovandus; if fo, the defcription runs thus, according to M. de Buffon:
The head is large : the eyes furrounded with greyifh feathers :
iris blackifh, or rather of a deep brown or hazel: bill yellowifh-
white or greenifh: body above of a deep iron-grey, marked with
both black and whitifh fpots : beneath white, with both tranfverfe and longitudinal black marks: tail above fix inches
long: the wings reach a little beyond it: extent of the wings'
three feet: legs covered to the toes with white feathers, marked
with fmall black fpots: the firft quill-feather is two or
three inches fhorter than the fecond ; the fecond fhorter by one
inch than the third; and the longeft of all are the fourth and
fifth: whereas in the White Owl, the fecond and third are the
longeft, and the firft fhorter than thefe by only one inch.
Length of. the bird fifteen inches.
To this Briffon adds, that the tail is barred with rufo-cinereous
and black.
This Owl keeps, during the fummer-time, wholly in woods,
in hollow trees. In winter it fometimes approaches habitations.
It lives on field and other mice, which it fwallows whole. When
thefe fail, it has recourfe to barns, where it catches both rats and
mice ; returning to the woods to pafs the day, perched on fome
decayed branch in the thickeft receffes; during which it refts
without changing place. It is faid to lay four eggs, about the
fize of thofe of a Hen, and of a dirty grey colour; and,, like the
Greater Horn-owl, makes ufe of the old nefts of the Buzzard,
Keftril, Crow, or Magpie, for this purpofe. This is an European bird, but is not, as far as I can learn, an inhabitant of
England.
*35.
Km «36
OWL,
Strix fylveftris, Scop. Ann. i. p. 21. N* 13.
O IZ E of a Cock.   Bill yellowifh: irides glaucous: the circle
of feathers furrounding the face is whitifh, beginning at the
bafe of one ear, and pafiing over the forehead to the bafe of the
other, having an elegant appearance: the body variegated with
white and brown.
Inhabits Carniola.   Scopoli fuppofes. it to be that in Kram. I
Elench. p. 324. N°7.
AUSTRIAN
WHITE O.
Description.
Strix alba. Scop. Ann. p. 21. N° 14.
ALMOST as big as an Hen.    The bill is white : the body
above fpotted with rufous and grey; beneath wholly white:
circle of the face encompaffed with a rufous margin, which makes
it appear very beautiful: tail tipped with white.
AUSTRIAN
RUFOUS O.
Strix noftua, Scop. Ann. p. 22. N° 15.
CIZE of a Dove.    Irides yellow : colour of the plumage pale
rufous, longitudinally marked with brOwn fpots.
Inhabits Carniola: very plenty in the woods about Laubach. 137
Strix rufa, Scop. Ann. i. p. 22. Np 16.
CIZE of the laft.    Irides blueifh: body ferruginous, fpotted
with brown.
Inhabits the woods.of Idria.
For thefe four we are indebted to Scopoli; upon whofe fole
authority I place them here as diftinct fpecies; for I can by no
means reconcile them to thofe of any other author. Upon the
authority of it's author likewife, will reft the following.
AUSTRIAN
FERRUGINOUS
"UlulafiveTSToaua
r Dorfo ferrugineo, Ventre-albido, Salen
• P- S<5.     SOLOGNESE
fl/fR- SALE RNE mentions an Owl which was fome years
fince fent him from Solvgne, which he thought different from
any yet defcribed. It weighed half a pound; the length was
fifteen inches, and the breadth three feet. The bill fhort: the
upper mandible blackifh, and the tongue cloven: top of the
head, and outer circle of the feathers of the face, rufous and white
mixed; about the bill, and clofe to the eyes, more inclined to
white: the upper part of the body blackifh brown, with a mixture of fulvous : tail fix inches long : the belly, under the wings,
and tail white, croffed with blackifh towards the outer edge of
the tail-feathers: legs and thighs fhort, and feathered to the toes,
which were of an horn-colour. IJ8
O   W   L..
26.
- WHITE
O.
Strix flammea, Liu.j/fyl. i. p. 133, N° 8.
Le petit Chathuant, Brif. orn. i. p. 503. N° 2-.
L'Effraie, ou Le Frefaie, Buf. oif. i. p. 366. t. 26..
■ PI. enl. 440,474.
AIuco minor Aldrovandi, Raiifyn.p.2^:. A. 1.
Common Barn, or White Owl, Will. orn. p. 104. t. 13.
Schlever Eule, Perl Eule, Frifeh. t. 97.—Kramer, p. 324, N? c*
White Owl, Br. Zool. N° 6i.—Albin. vol. ii. t. n.
Amer. Zool. N° 1.
Br., Muf. Lev. Muf.
*Tp HI S bird is fo well known,, as fcarcely to need the fhorteft
defcription, did not our plan of giving an account of every.
fpecies render it neceffary.
Mr. Pennant fays that the ufual weight is eleven ounces; the-
length fourteen inches; breadth three feet. The circle of feathers round the eyes is. white: the upper parts of the body, the^
coverts, and fecondaries, pale yellow : on each fide of the fhaft:
are two grey and two white fpots placed-alternate :-outer fides^
of the quills yellow, the inner white, marked on each fide with,
four black fpots: beneath wholly white: interior fides of the.
tail-feathers, white; the exterior marked, wkh obfcure dufky
bars: legs feathered to the feet, which, are covered with fhort
hairs: edge of the middle claw ferrated.
The manners of this bird are known to every farmer; whofe
barns fupply them with food, and under whofe protection they
live. Their food is only mice. I have received a fpecimen of
this, from Jamaica, no ways differing from that of England.
StriaL Strix ftridula, Lin.fyft. i
-.. — Scop. Ann.
p. 133. N°,
..p. 22.N°I
LeChathuant, Brif. orn. i. p. 500. N° t.
.  Buf. oif i. p. 362. t. 25.
 PL enl. 437.
Strix Aldrov. Raiifyn. p. 25.
Common Brown, or Ivy Owl, Will. orn. p. 102. t. 14.
Braune, oder ftock Eule, Frifch. t. 96. the male.
Gelblicke, oder brand Eule, D° t. 95. the female.
Brown Owl, Albin. vol. i. t. 9.
Tawny Owl, Br. Zool. N° 68.—Am. Zool, N°
Br. Muf. Lev. Muf.
^pHE length of this fpecies is fourteen inches; breadth two
feet eight inches; weight of the female nineteen ounces. The
head, back, wing-coverts, and fcapulars, of a fine tawny-red, elegantly fpotted and powdered with black or dufky fpots of various fizes : on the coverts and fcapulars feveral large white
fpots: tail-coverts of a plain tawny-colou r: the tail itfelfvari-
oufly blotched, barred, and fpotted with pale red and black ; in
the two middle feathers the red predominates: the breaft and
belly are yellowifh, mixed with white, and marked with narrow
black ftrokes, pointing downwards: legs feathered down to the
toes.
This is Mr. Pennant's defcription, who adds, that the irides are dufky. M. de Buffon fays they are blueifh, and thofe
of the White Owl yellow*.   The male is darkeft in colour.
- TAWNY
O.
* I fancy this author means, that the feathers which immediately furround
the eyes are yellow, which is the cafe ; for I do not remember to have feen this
kind of Owl with yellow irides.
T 2 It OWL.
It keeps  altogether in woods, where it is found the whole
year.
This fpecies is found throughout Europe, and in America like-
wife, even in the hotter parts, as it has been received from Sti.
Domingo, at leaft a trifling variety, having the breaft and belly.
rufous, and fcarcely fpotted at all, as alfo the colours on.the.-
upper parts of the body of a deeper caft.
- BROWN
O.
Strix ulula, Lin. Syft. i.p.133. N° 10.
La Grande Chouette, Brif. orn. i. p. 511. N" 4.
La Chouette, ou Grande Cheveche, Buf. oif 1. p. 372. t..
 PI. enl. 43.8. .
Stein Eule, Frifch. t. 98.
Great Brown Owl, Albin. iii. t. 7.
Grey Owl, Will. orn. p. 103 ? •
Brown- Owl, Br. Zool. N° 69 ?
Br. Muf.  Lev. Muf
*TPHIS bird, by M. de Buffon's defcription, appears to.be
much lefs than the laft, . and eafily diflinguifhed from
it by the irides, which. are yellow; whereas in the other I
they are blueifh: the feathers encircling the eyes are white, as.in
the Barn Owl; which is more like this than any other, both
of them having fome yellow.on the belly, and. hoth being of
nearly the fame fize; but this Owl is in. general .much browner
than the Barn Owl, and marked with fpots, both larger and of a
greater length, tending to a point in fhape more like the flame
of a candle, while the fpots in the Barn Owl are rounded like
drops;   whence the name of Noftua guttata; and with as great
propriety O   W   L.
propriety this has been called Flammeata. The legs too are better clothed with feathers, and the bill quite brown, being in the
Barn Owl whitifh, with the tips only brown. The female is paler
than the male.
M. de Buffon feems acquainted with this bird, and fays it does
not frequent woods in the manner of the laft fpecies; for the moft
part inhabiting rocks and quarries; feldom or never being feen in
Woods : that it is confiderably lefs-than the laft, being only eleven inches from the tip of the bill to the end of the claws.
From it's being, likened by the above author to the Barn Owl,
by it's having yellow irides, by it's- being fo*much lefs in fize,
and frequenting cavernous and rocky places rather than forefts, it
^fhould feem to be quite a different bird from the Brown Owl defcribed by Mr. Pennant, N° 69, notwithftanding fome of the fy-
nonyms are the fame with both thofe of Linnaus and Buffon. Mr.
Pennant fays that the bird he means agrees with the Tawny Owl
entirely in the markings, differing only in colour; his bird having ■
the head, wings, and back, of a deep brown, fpotted with black, .
'as in the other: wings, fcapulars, and quills, the fame : the breaft
of a pale afh, mixed with tawny, and marked with oblong jagged
fpots: the feet too feathered to the claws : the circle of the face
afh-coloured, fpotted with brown.. ) He likewife fays that they
both inhabit woods. This author does not mention the irides.
in his defcription, but fays..that thofe of the Tawny Owl are
dufky.
I have in my collection two Wood Owls, both not much differing in the general markings, but one of them much inclining to j
tawny, where the other is brown: both of thefe had the eyes of a
blue black, as M. de Buffon expreffes thofe of. the Tawny Owl to
be;, O   W   L.
t>e; I therefore fate them down as varieties only of the fame fpecies*
•or at leaft different in fex. If the cafe be not fo, I am not at all
clear about the two Owls mentioned by Mr. Pennant, as he certainly would not have omitted the circumftance of the yellow
irides, had it ever come before him. As I therefore have it not
in my power to fettle this matter to ray wifhes, I mufl leave it
to future naturalifts, to whom a better opportunity of invefti-
gating the matter may chance to offer itfelf. According then to
M. de Buffon, the following are thus diftinguifhed : The Hulotte,
N" 20, has black irides; the Chathuant, N° 27, blue ones; thofe
of the Effraie, or Barn Owl, N° 26, orange; and the Grani%,
Cheveche, N° 28, of a fine yellow, with the bill brown; the>:
Cheveche, or Little Owl, N° 40, having pale yellow irides,s and
a brown and orange bill.
CANADA
O.
Strix fnnerea, Lin. Syft. i. p. 133. N° 11.
Le Chathuant de Canada, Brif. ern.i. p. 518. N° 6. t. 37. f. 2.
La Chouette, ou Grande Cheveche de Canada, Buf. oij. i. p. 391. N° |i
Canada Owl, Amer. Zool. N°
Lev. Muf.
Dsscrh-tioh. J&RISSON defcribes this bird in the following manner: —
Length thirteen inches. The bill whitifh: irides yellows
the body brown above, fpotted with white : head on the upper
part black, with white dots : breaft and belly whitifh, croffed
with tranfverfe linear fafcise: greater quills fpotted on each fide
the fhaft with white; five of the inner ones not fpotted: the
tail marked with narrow whitifh bands; the two middle feathers whitifh at the tip.
M.d( OWL.
M. de Buffon remarks, that it is every way like the laft fpecies, except the breaft, which is fafciated.
M. Briffon has likewife comprifed both under the name of La
grand Chouette, vol.. vi. App. p. 31. Notwithftanding whofe opinions, Dr. Forfter mentions it as a diffinct fpecies, by name of
Cabeticuch,. or Cabaducutcb, and fays it anfwers exactly to the defcription of Linnaus. — The male is largeft, the colour darker,.
and the fpots more diftinct than in the female. The weight is
swerve ounces,, length feventeen inches, and the breadth two
feet.   It inhabits Hudfon's Bay, and has two young at one hatchr
ing-
Linnaus mentions it :in the Fauna Suecica, N° 75, as a bird belonging to Sweden, and quotes the fame plate of Frifch in the
Fauna, as he does for the Ulula in the Syftema. Thefe birds then>
cannot be much unlike.
143
Le Chathuant dela Baye de Hudfon, Brif. 0
Caparacoch, Buf oif. i. p. 385. N° 2.
Little Hawk Owl, Edw. ii. t. 6a. .
Hawk Owl, Am. Zool. N°
Lev. Mitf.
, p. 520. N° 7.
HAWK.
O.
A Little bigger than a Sparrow Hawk. Bill and irides.orange:
top of the head brown,;fpottedswkhvw-hke :face white, fhaded
with brown, and furrounded with black: body above brown, the
feathers with white edges; beneath white, tranfverfely barred
with btown: rump dingy brown, banded with paler brown :.
•tjfiills fpotted with, white on. the outer edge: tail banded with-
whiter. MEXICAN
O.
0   W   L.
white : wings and tail longer than in other Owls: legs'feathered
to the toes : claws blackifh.
This fpecies inhabits Hudfon's Bay, where it feems to have
taken the name of Hawk Owl, from having much of the air of
the Hawk tribe, and preying by day; in that differing from,
moft of the Owl genus.
Mr. Edwards fays that it is a very bold bird, preying chiefly
on the Ptarmigan, or White Partridge. It frequently attends the
fportfman while on his excurfions with his gun, and will often,
on a bird's being fhot, carry it off, before any one elfe can pick
it up.
That in the Leverian Mufeum is of a much larger fize than
above-mentioned, perhaps differing in fex.
Le Chathuant du Mexique, Brif. orn. i
Chichiaii, Raii Syn. p. 160.
p. 523.^9.
Description.    'T'HIS bird is very full of feathers, appearing as big as a Hen.
The eyes are black: eyelids blue : :the body wholly varied
with fulvous, white, brown, and black: the legs feathered.   This!
is the whole defcription of it found in Ray, from Fernandez *.
Inhabits Mexico.
*;Hift.N«-v.Hifp, p. 18. cap. 18, La Chouette du Mexique, Brif. orn. i. p. 524. N° 10.
Tolchiquatli, Raii Syn. p. 160.
npHIS too, like the laft, appears bigger than it really is, on
account of it's full plumage. The bill is black; feathers
furrounding it white: irides pale yellow: body above variegated
with black, pale yellow, white, and fulvous : belly white:
under wing-coverts black, with a mixture of fulvous: legs
wholly covered with pale fulvous feathers: claws black.
This defcription is fomewhat fuller than the laft, but not fufficient to determine the fpecies to the later writers, who have
merely followed the words of Ray, who has defcribed both this
and the laft after Fernandez*.
Inhabits Mexico.
NEW SPAIN
O.
La Chouette de Coquimbo, Brif. orn. i. p. 525,
N9
Ululacunicularia, Klein. Av. p. 57. N° 9.—Feuill. Obf. phyf. p. 562. ed. 1714.
CIZE of the Brown Owl. Bill pale grey : head, throat, neck,
breaft, back, wings, and rump, fulvous grey, beautifully
fpotted with white: belly and under tail-coverts dirty white:
tail itfelf the fame, without any markings : wings, when folded,
reach the end of the tail: legs covered with feathers like hairs:
claws black.
This is an inhabitant of Chili,  efpecially  about Coquimbo.
M.Feuillee calls it the Rabbit Owl, from it's frequenting the bur-
• Hift. N.Bifp. p. 36. cap. 107.
U rows
COQpiMaB© 14*5 O   W    L.
rows of thefe animals in the ground, or rather, according to
him, making holes in the ground of itfelf. But this laft fact M. de
Buffon thinks is not clear: he fuppofes it to have great analogy,
if not the fame with La grande Cheveche, or Brown Owl, N° 28.
M. du Tertre * mentions an Owl, frequenting the iflands of
America, which lays it's eggs and hatches it's young in holes in
the ground; and fays it has a black and white plumage, and
frequents mountainous parts.
ST. DOMINGO
La Chouette, ou grande Cheveche de St. Domingne, Buf. oif. i. p. 392. N° 6.
'T*' H I S is more like the Brown Owl than any other; but
M. de Buffon thinks it a different fpecies from any yet defcribed. This has a more crooked, larger, and ftronger bill
than any other. The belly is of a plain rufous colour, with a
few longitudinal fpots on the breaft only; whereas the Chouette
of Europe has both the breaft and belly marked with great
brown flame-fhaped fpots.
This was fent from St. Domingo.
Le Chathuant de Cayenne, Buf. oif i. p.
■    ' -.       ■      PI. enl. 442.
CIZE of the Tawny Owl.    Bill flefh-colour : irides yellow t
feathers encircling the eyes afh-colour; near the eye black:
general colour rufous, ftriated, both above and beneath,  with
narrow tranfverfe waved brown lines : claws black.
* Hift, des Antilles, vol. ii. p. 257. OWL. 147
This bird inhabits Cayenne, and, according to M. de Buffon, is Place.
a new fpecies, not before defcribed.
Stryx accipitrinus, Pall. Voy. ill. 455. N° 6.
■ S. G. Gmelin, vol. ii. 162, t. 9.
CI Z E of the Brown Owl. Bill and irides citron-colour: the
feathers encircling the face occupy lefs fpace than in moft
Owls; thefe are white forwards, and incline to ferruginous
behind, the outer circle varied with luteous and black: on the
eyelid, behind, is a black fpot: the body on the upper parts inclining to luteous; beneath, of a luteous white, ftreaked longitudinally with blackifh ; between the legs fpotted with the
fame: vent white : greater quills luteous; leffer ones white,
teffellated with black : lower wing-coverts black at the tips :
tail fhorter than the wings, rounded; whitifh on the fides, and
tranfverfely banded with black: legs luteous, covered to the
toes with white downy feathers.
Inhabits the borders of the Cafpian Sea.
It feems fomewhat allied to the Hawk Owl of Edwards,
N° 30, above-mentioned. This I think poffible, from the latitudes of both places not differing much, and that more than one
of our Owls are indigenous both to Europe and America, making
a trifle of allowance for variation of climate.
It is likewife to be obferved, that it is called by Dr. Pallas,
acciptrinus, or the Hawk Owl.
36.
CASPIAN Stryx Uralenfis, Pall. Voy. i. 455. W7.
Chouette a longue queue de Siberie, PI. enl. 463 ?
HP H E fize of this bird is not mentioned, only that it is very'
full of feathers. The bill is of the colour of Wax: eyelids. I
within, and irides, black : feathers furrounding the eyes cinereous, encircled with black and white feathers, and reaching quite
from the forehead to the throat: the colour of the upper part
of the body not unlike that of the Aluco, N° 20, but paler, and
with fcarce any undulation on the feathers: the parts beneath,
except a few very flender lines, are quite white: rump white:
the outer edges of the three outer quills ferrated the whole of
their length; the fourth and fifth are ferrated likewife, but only
at the ends; the firft quill is the fhorteft: the tail is cuneiform,
and longer in proportion than in the Aluco : the legs covered
with dirty white down. I am much of opinion, that the bird
in the Planches enluminees, made fynonymous with this, may
prove the fame, as the name perfectly agrees, being taken from
the length of tail, which is fo defcribed in that above. In the
Planches enluminees, the irides are yellow: face and cheeks, whitifh : head brown and white, mixed t upper parts of the body
whitifh, fpotted with brown black; beneath the fame, with flender lines of brown : on the wings are four bars of brown; the
greater quills barred irregularly with the fame : tail brown,
pretty long, and marked with feveral flender bars of white : legs.
feathered to the claws, and of a pale colour.
This is a native of Siberia.
lev. Lev. Muf.
149
T ENGTH feven inches. Bill brown: irides yellow: parts
above of a light chocolate brown colour, with fpots of
white on many of the feathers, but not regular: the feathers on
the top of the head marked with a few palifh fpots: thofe
which furround the eyes are of a pale afh; clofe to the eyes
black, the outer part of the circle mixed with white: on the
outer edges of the prime quills are four or five, fpots of white
on each; the outer edges of fome of the coverts- and leffer
quills are marked in the fame manner, and there appear a few
! white fpots alfo on the tail: the under parts, from the chin to.
the middle of the helly, are of a dufky white, fomewhat inclined
to ferruginous about the neck: on the breaft and belly,, each feather is dafhed with ferruginous down the fhaft, extending on
each fide of it: the legs are covered to the toes with feathers of
a dirty buff-colour: the toes are brown.
This defcription was taken from a bird in my poffefiion which
came from North America. A drawing of this bird, lent to me
by Captain Davies, makes it an inhabitant of Nova Scotia..
PI. V. i
Descrii
CIZE of the Little Owl. Bill horn-colour, with a black tip :
iris yellow: general colour fulvous; but the upper parts of
the body are brown, fpotted with white, with a mixture of fulvous : the under parts are fulvous,, but the circle round the face
is fomewhat paler than the reft..
Inhabits
39-
NEW ZEELAND
O.
N. S.
Description O   W   L.
Inhabits New Zeeland—I think Dr. Forfter, who mentioned
the above fpecies to me, faid in Queen Charlotte's Sound; but am
not certain.
;Strixpaflerina, Lin. Syft. p. 133.  N° 12.
■ Scop. Ann. i. p. 22. N» 17.
La petite Chouette, Brif orn. i. p. 514. N° 5.
La Cheveche, ou petite Chouette, Buf. oif. i. p. ]
. —— PI. enl. 439.
Noftua minor, Raii Syn. p. 26. N? 6.
————— N. C. A. Petr. vol. xv. p. 447.1.1
Little Owl, Will. orn. p. 105.  pi. 13.
Kleinfte Kautzlein, Frifch. t. 100.
Little Owl, Edw. glean, t. 228.— Albin. ii. t. 12.
 Br. Zool. N° jo.—Am. Z00IN0
Br. Muf. Lev. Muf.
'TP HIS is a fmall fpecies, in length not much exceeding eight
inches. The bill is blackifh, with a yellowifh tip: irides pale
yellow: head, back, and wing-coverts, brown, inclining to olive;
the firft and the laft fpotted with white : the circular feathers on
the face white, tipped with black: under parts of the body white,
fpotted with brown: the tail brown, tranfverfely barred with
rufous on each fide the fhaft, and tipped with white. Mr. Pennant adds, that the tail is barred with white likewife, which is the
cafe in a fpecimen of mine; fo we may fuppofe them to vary in
this circumflance : the legs are covered with rufous grey down:
the toes are brown, and the claws of a brownifh colour.
M. de Buffon mentions one which was fent him from St. Do-
toiingo, which varied in having lefs white on the throat, with
brown OWL.
brown, bands on the breaft inftead of longitudinal fpots; alfo
another variety from Germany, with black irides, and the whole
plumage darker than common. M. Frifch too has coloured his
bird with dark blue irides: hence we may fuppofe them to be of
a-different colour, according to the various, parts which they inhabit.
Dr. Forfter * remarks that this bird is called by the natives of
Hudfon's Bay, Shipomos-pifh.
M. de Buffon fays it is rare in France, in comparifon with the
other Owls; frequenting ruined edifices, and the like, rather than
woods, in which laft it is feldom found. It makes it's neft in
the holes of rocks, old walls j, and the -like, in the moft retired
places, laying five eggs, fpotted with white and a yellowifh colour.
It fees very well in the day-time, when it gives chace on the
wing to Swallows and other fmall birds, though feldom is
able to take them. It has better fuccefs with rats and mice,
but cannot fwallow any of them whole, as the other Owls are
known to do; but, tearing them into morfels, eats the flefh only.
I am not quite clear about the Notlua minor, referred to in the
Peterfburgh TranfacJions, as it is a foot in length, and the fize of
the Ulula, or Tawny Owl; however it is there likened to this :
and it is farther mentioned, that the quills are varied with brown
and yellowifh; that it has much yellow in the belly, and the
chin white. &&£■
« Phil. Tranf. vol. Ixii.
f Scopoli fays it builds in chim
to do this, that caufed two of the.
land, where they were taken, as
this bird.    See vol. v. pi. 228.
1  the attempt
mniesin^- OWL.
I do not find any new fpecies of Owl the produce of the laft
voyage to the South Seas. Some, indeed, have been brought
home; but, as far as have come under my inflection, prove to be
mere varieties of thofe defcribed before, viz. a fine variety of the
Canada Owl, N02cj, the ground-colour of a fine chocolate-brown.
This came from the Sandwich Iftands.
I likewife obferve two flight varieties of the White Owl, N° 26;
the one rather larger, and the other a trifle fmaller than the European fpecies. Thefe came from the Southern Ocean with the
other.
I have remarked before, that the White Owl is an inhabitant of
the hotter climates *, as well as the colder ones; and thefe being
found in iflands of the Southern Ocean alfo, prove the circum-
ftance not to be uncommon ; though nature, from having provided fuch warm clothing, feems to have intended them for the
colder regions only.
* Being found in Jamaica.   See page 138.—Alfo in Brafil.   See Marcg. Nat.
Hift. Brafi p. 205, called the Tuidara.
ORDER *53   ]
O R D E R     II.        PIES,
Gjjnu-s IV.   SHRIKE.
I. Fork-tailed crefted.
N° 20.
Antiguan.
a. Fork-tailed.
21,
Luzonian.
3. Cheftnut-backed,
22.
Chinefe.
4. Great cinereous.
23-
Barbary.
Var. A.
24.
Madagafcar,
Var. B.
*5-
Bengal.
5. Louifiane.
26.
Jocofe.
6. Senegal.
27.
Rock.
7. Collared.
Var. A. Leffer Rock,
8/ Ferruginous-bellied.
28.
White-wreathed.
9. Tabuan.
29.
Blue.
10. Pacific.
3°-
Green.
11. Northern.
3i-
Rufous.
12. Black-headed,
32-
White-headed.
13. Short-tailed.
33>
White-billed.
14. Rufous-tailed.
Var. A. Dominican,
15. Red-backed.
34-
Fanayan.
16. Variegated.
35-
Crefted.
17. Wood-chat.
36.
Grey.
Var. A.
Var. A.
18. Crefted red.
37-
Tyrant:
19. Hook-billed,
Var. A. St. Domingo T.
X
Var. B H   Vt   I   K   E.
Var.-B. Caroline
T.
N° 43. White-fhoulderedi-
Var. C. Louifiane Tv
44.. Pied.
38.. Black.
45. Spotted.-
39.- Brafilian..
46. Dufky.
40. Yellow-bellied;.
47. Brown.-
41. Cayenne.
48. Red.
Var. A. Spotted.
ditto.
49. Magpie..
42. White.
TH E  Shrike,  or Bukcher-bird, has the following  charac^
teriftics :
The bill ftrait at the bafe, with the end more or V3§*bent, and
a notch near the tip of the upper mandible:
The bafe not furnifhed with a cere.
The tongue jagged at the end.
The outer toe connected to the middle one, as" far as the firft-
joint *.
From the variety of fentimente> in regard' to the place which* ■
thefe birds fhould hold' in- the fyftem of ornithology, many-
doubts have formerly arifen with me about them; but while H
fix in my own mind' the place they are to occupy in this work, it-
is but juft that the reafons for fo doing fhould not be withheld;
from the reader.
Mr. Ray f ranks the Shrike among \\\s fhort-winged Hawh, but"
takes in only the three forts mentioned in the Br. Zoology ; with a
fourth, which is moft likely a variety. M. de Buffon places them
• Mr. Scopoli adds, that the fegments of the ffcins are feven in number; but
whether this will be fufficient tBRletermine particular genera thoroughly, will be
jaHBtalshiJreaftSr.   ■
t Syn. avium, p. 18,
9 after SHRIKE.
after the Falcon tribe, on account of their ferocity *, but takes in
only the birds recorded by Ray, with fuGh foreign fpecies as are
analogous thereto f. M. Briffon, on the contrary, puts them at
the head of his fifth order, along with the Thruftes and Chatterers;
• both of them truly belonging to the Pafferine order of moft
fyftematifts.
Sir C. Linnaus, in refpect to this matter, has held at different
times more opinions than one. In his Fauna Suec. of 1746, he
-makes it a Chatterer (Pafferine) ; and in his laft edition of this book,
he brings back the Chatterer to his Lanius, then firft formed into a
genus, and placed in the Accipitrine order, taking in two fpecies of
Titmice^.. In both the tenth and twelfth editions of the, Syftema
Nature, this Author has added confiderably to this genus ; in the
firft, returning the Titmice to their proper place ; • and in the laft,
"throwing-the Chatterers into a feparate genus, and this with theut-
moft propriety: but, notwithftanding he has ranked the Lanius
genus among the Accipitres, it is not without a particular note J,
•confeffing his fentiments to be wavering; and it is moft likely,
■-that had he lived to utter another edition, we .mould have feen
• If ferocioufnefs-alone fervse«s a chara&er, whyrnot bring in the Tyrant of
America, ranked by him among the Flycatchers? a bird infinitely more audacious
than any of the Shrikes, giving law to the.Eagle him.felf; and on this account, as
well as the conformity of bill, &c. ranked by Linnaus moft juftly with the Lanius
genus.
f Yet he fays that the Pie-grieche and Pie ought to be ranked together. " Je
penfe que tous deux psarroient n'enfaire qu'un, les Pies convenaat en beaucoup
de chofes avec les-Pie-grieches."    Hift. des Oif. i. p. -309.
X The Long-tailed Titmoufe and the Manakin.
|| " Lanii accedunt Accipitribus laniena, Picis moribus, Pafferibus flatura,
•adeog.ue inter hos medii."   Syft. Nat.ed. 12. p. 134, note at bottom,
Xa thefe S5-6 SHRIKE,
thefe birds among the Pica. Kramer is inclined to have the}
Laniui genus ranked with the Pies *, though in his work it is put
with the Chatterers, in the Pafferine order; but Scopoli-f places it
with the Pies without ceremony, having no doubt about the matter. Mr. Pennant, in his firft edition of the Genera of Birds, fuffers it
to fland laft in the Accipitrine order, but remarks its affinity with
the Pies £; and in his laft edition of the Br. Zoology, as well as Genera of Birds, begins the order of Pies with it. This example we
fhall follow here, without hefitation, being convinced that it is the
moft natural method, the reafons given by authors who have
formed a contrary opinion not being fufficient to make us think
otherwife. For fhoufd we retain the Shrikes in the firft order, on
account of their principally feeding on animal food, do not the
whole of fome other genera do the fame || ? If we dwell on the
fhape and curvature of the bill §, how will this fquare with the
Parrot kind, whofe natural food is fruit ? and in refpect to their
living on other birds, whenever opportunity offers, do not feveral
of the Crow genus do the Tike; not only feeding on flefh, but frequently purfoing and deffroying fmall bird's ? I have feen a Magprt
give chace to a Thrufh, and" after pouncing him, feafted on his-
flefh; and as to thefe birdsdeftroying young ducks and chickens,,
every country houfewife is allured of the fact. The greater Tit*
moufe alfo, in this fenfe, may be truly called a bkd of prey, as it
* " Nee meo judieio erraret, qui eafdem. Corvis annumerauet."   Kram. Elen*
Auftr. p. 364.
t Ann. Hift. Nat. i. p. 23,.   '
% Mr. Edwards mentioned the fame in his Hift. of Birds, vol. ii. p. 56..
|| Kingfijher, Woodpecker, Hoopoe, Wryneck,.&c.
§ Kramer has placed the Parrot with his Accipitres, I fhould think, on account
«f this circumftance ; it could be on no other.    Elen. Auftr. p. 332.
frequently SHRIKE,
frequently feeds on flefh*; nay, fo fond is the bird of it, that if
at any time it obferves, even one of its own fpecies in a fickly or
weak ftate,.it purfues,. and, picking a h°le in the fkull, feafts on
the brains. In one thing, however, I am clear, that the Rapacious,
and particularly the Falcon tribe, differs from the order of Pies -,
which is, in their averfi'on to all vegetable matter whatever,
infomuch that we are told it would caufe their death fhould they
touch it-f; and they have likewife, it is faid, full as great an
abhorrence of water, as mentioned, p. 117: now it is well known
that the Shrikes do drink, and, if our thirty-fixth fpecies be admitted as one, cannot live withoutthat element; frequenting only
fuch places where it may be found, their prefence alone pointing
out to the thirfty traveller a relief to his wants. As to the rapacious order, I fhould think their refufing drink may arife from
the juices of the raw flefh being alone- fufficient to fatisfy
them J,
After what' has been faid, I will take up the reader's time no
longer, but proceed in enumerating the particular fpecies belonging to this genus.
• Both this and the little blue Titmoufe will often attend" the butcher's fhop ins
winter, and pick up little bits of meat, as well as fat ; of which laft they are very
fond, infomuch that in winter it proves a good bait for them in a trap-fall.
t " Pane ingefto moriuntur."    Lin. Syft. Nat. i. p. 128. in.the note.
X Dr.leith, of Greenwich, informs me of a circumftance feeming to prove
what is here advanced. He has kept an Eagle for fome time. This, bird, fo
long as in health, will never touch water, though conftantly within the reach
of him; but fo often as he appears in the lead out of order, and, in courfe, his
f appetite not fo good as ufual, he will gladly drink water by gulps, as freely as
any other bird; nor is he in the leaft afraid of any one obferving him to do this,,
as remarked by M. de Buffon, in our note, p. 117.
Lanius- SHRIKE.
FORK-TAILED
CRESTED
SHRIKE.
Lanius forficatus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 134, N" 1.
Le Grand Gobe-mouche noir hupe de Madagafcar, Brif. ii. p. 3
pi. 37. f. 4.
Le Drongo, Buf. oif iv. p. 586.
Gobe-mouche hupe de Madagafcar, PI, enl. 189.
CIZE of a Blackbird; length ten inches. Bill black; at the
angles of the mouth a few flender briftles: general colour of
<the plumage greenifh blacks on the forehead, juft over the bilk
is a creft ftanding upright, near an inch and three quarters in
length : tail black, long, and greatly forked.; edged with greenifh
black : legs and claws black.
It is not alwayssfurnifhed with a creft; when that is the cafe,
fuch fpecimen may probably be taken for a female.
Inhabits Madagafcar, China, and the Cape of Good Hope; from
the laft place is one now in the collection of Sir Jof. Banks.
FORK-TAILED
Lanius cserulefcens, Lin. Sjft.i. p. 1-3-4
La Pie-griefche ii queue fourchue d.e Bei
LeFingah, Buf. oif. i. p. 308..
Fork-tailed Indian ButcherTBird, Edw, i. pi. 56.
rif. iim. ii. p. 189. N° 2*.
T ENGTH feven inches and a half: fize of the afh-coloured
Shrike. Bill blackifh brown, and bent,; .the upper mandible
befet with black hairs turning forwards.: plumage on the upper
parts of the body fine black, with a glofs of blue, and in fome
.lights green ; under parts white: breaft dark afh-colour,.inclining
to  black.;   the greater quills and tail ferruginous black:   tail
pretty SHRIKE,
pretty much forked, and the outer feather fpotted with dirty
white: legs and claws blackifh.
Inhabits Bengal, where it is called Fingsb. It is called alfo by
the Indians the King of the Crows, from its purfuing thefe birds
from place to place with a great noife, and pecking, them on the
jpack till they efeapey
T ENGTH eleven inches. Bill black: forehead black brown:
through the eye and over the eye-brow the fame : the crown,
nape, and hind part of the neck, quite to the back, afh-colour ^
beginning of the back pale cheftnut: the wings for the moft pare
black; the fecondariesmargined with ferruginous: throat dufky
white ; the reft of the under parts quite white : tail black, very
euneiform; the two outer feathers fhorter by two inches than the
middle ones; the two middle ones are ferruginous juft at the
tfps, the reft more and more fo as they proceed outwardly;.
the outer one on each fide almoft wholly ferruginous : the legs
are black.
A fine fpecimen is in Dr, Hunter\Mnfeum; but not known-
feom- whence it came*
l$9
CHES rNUT-
BACKED
S. SHRIKE,
4- GREAT
CINEREOUS
S.
.Lanius excubitor, Lin. Syft. i. p. 135. N° -11.—Scop, ann. i. p. 23. N° 18,
—Muller, p. 11.—Brun. 21, 22.
La pie-griefche grife, Brif. orn. ii. p. 141. N° i.—Buf. oif. i. p. 296. pi.
20,—PI. enl. 445.
Neun-toeder, Frifch. t. 60. M. andF.—Kram. p. 364,
Caftrica palombina, Olin. uccel. t. 41.
Greater Butcher-Bird, orMattagefs, Raiifyn.  p. 18.  A. 5.—Will, orn, H
8j. pi. 10.— Albin. ii. pi. 13.     -
Great Shrike, Br. Zool. vol. i. N° 71. pi. 33.—Catefb. Car. app. p. 36.— .
Amer. Zool, N°
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
T ENGTH ten inches.  Bill black: plumage on the upper parts
pale afh-colour ; the under white : through the eyes a black ,
flripe: fcapulars white:   bafe of the greater quills  white;   the
reft black: the tail fomewhat cuneiform; the two middle feathers
are black; the outmoft on each -fide white; thofe hetween are
black, with the ends more or lefs white -. the legs are black.
T'he female is not much unlike the male, differing chiefly in the
under parts, which are of a dufky white, marked with tranfverfe
femicircular brown lines.
This inhabits many parts of Europe and North America. The
female lays fix eggs, about as big as thofe of a Thrufh, of a dull
olive-green, fpotted at the thickefl end with black: it makes it's
neft with heath and mofs, lining it with wool and goffamer*.
It is pretty common in France, but I no where find it the cafe in
refpect to England.
The manners of this bird are Angular, and worthy of record. SHRIKE.
It feeds on infects and fmall birds, the latter of which it feizes by
t-he throat, and after ftrangling, fixes them on a fharp thorn, and
pulls them to pieces with its bill *: it will often do this when
kept in a cage, flicking the food againft the wires of it f. In
fpring and fummer it imitates the voices of other birds, by
way of decoying them within reach, that it may deflroy them;
bet beyond this, the natural note is the fame throughout all
feafons. « If a trap-fall be baited with a living fmall bird, it
proves a decoy, by which it may be taken in winter. It is
obferved to be mute when kept in a cage, though feemingly
content.
In countries where they are plenty, the hufbandmen -value
them, on fuppofition of their deftroying rats, mice, and other
.vermin. Suppofed to live five or fix years J. Often trained up
for catching fmall birds in Ruffia \. M. Salerne % calls it a Lanner
of thefmalleft fort. In Carniola it is migratory, coming in May,
and departing in September **; which is the cafe alfo in refpect to
the few which are met with in England\\.
La grande Pie-griefche grife, Brif. orn. ii. p. 146. N° 2.
Groffere Neun-toder, Frifch. t. 59. male and female.
"Gefner's great Butcher-bird, Will, orn. p. S8.
npHIS  fpecies is  clearly no other than a variety  of the laft     Description
mentioned,  differing only in the leffer wing coverts and
fcapulars being fomewhat of a rufous colour: it is of a much
w taw. vol. v. p. 233.
|| Ww.vol.v. p. 231.
ff Albin. vol. ii.  p J3.
t Br. Zool.
§ Orn. P. 28.
%  Olinauccel.p.v.
' Scop. ann. i. p. 23.
--greater S    H   R   I   K   E.
greater fize than the other; and, indeed, it is well known that
thofe of Sweden and Germany exceed thofe of other parts by much
in bignefs.
A  Variety of this bird * has   been known of a pure white
throughout, except the bill and claws, which were blacky
and the legs yellowifh.
5. Lanius ludovicianus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 134. N°6.
LOUISIANE La pie-griefche de la Louifiane, Brif. o,n. ii. p. 162.  N° 8.  pi. 15.  f. 2.
S* — PI. enl. Wj.—Am. Zool. N°
now.     CIZE of the cinereous Shrike, which it much refembles, but the
colours rather darker, and the fcapulars not white: tail fea- •
thers black; all but the two middle ones have white ends; the-
bafe is alfo white.
Place. This is a native of Louifiana.
Lanius Senegalus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 137. N° 21.
La pie-griefche grife du Senegal, Brif. orn. ii. p. \6j. N° tt>. pi. 17. f. 1.
-PI. enl. 297. f. ,.
T   ENGTH eight inches and three quarters: fize of the red-
backed.   The bill is black ; the bafe befet with briftles : the-
upper part of the head is black: above the eye a dirty white line :
irough the eye a ftreak of black : upper part of the body grey;
• Brif. orn. ii. p. 145. La pie-griefche blanche.
7 beneath SHRIKE.
beneath hoarv : wing coverts above rufous: fcapulars brown,
edged with rufous; as are the quills; but the infide and tips are
brown, and edged with rufous within : the two middle tail feathers are grey brown, obfoletely ftriated with a darker colour f
the reft of the feathers are black, margined on the outer webs
and tips with white : legs and claws grey brown.
Inhabits Senegal.
163
Lanius collaris, Lin. Syft. i. p. 135. N° 9.
La pie-griefche du Cap de Bonne Efperance, Brif. 0
f. 1.— PI. enl. 477. f. I.
. p. 182. pi.
CIZE of our cinereous Shrike. Length eight inches and three
quarters. Bill blackifh : the head and upper parts of the
body are blackifh; beneath whitifh : bafe of the thighs brown
on the fore-part: the edge of the wing white : the fcapulars have
a mixture of white, and there is a fpot of the fame in the middle
of the quills: the four middle tail feathers are black; the next
on each fide, the fame, tipped with white; the fourth has the
outer margin and tip white; and the two outer ones black, with
the whole of the outer webs and tips white : legs and claws
dufky.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope,    One of thefe, which came
under my inflection, had the rump of an elegant afh-colour.
CIZE of our cinereous Shrike.    Length nine inches.    Bill horn-
colour : plumage above brown black: lower part of the back
and rump brown : throat and breaft dirty white : belly and vent
ferruginous : tail plain black brown : legs black.
Y 2, From
QGINOUS
LLIED 5   H   R   I   K   E.
From the Cape of Good Hope. In the collection of Mifs
Blomefield. At Sir J of. Banks's there is alfo one of thefe from the
fame place, which, befides the other markings,, has. a ftreak of
white on the wing,, parallel to the edge-
T ENGTH.eight inches and three quarters. Bill an inch long,.
not much curved, and the notch rather fmall;. the colour of
it brown: the top of.the head greenifh brown:.upper parts of
the body olive brown: fides of the head the fame, but much
darker: throat and breaft afh-colour; paleft down the fhafts :
belly pale yellowifh' brown : vent dufky : the whole of the outer
edge of the wing, and the greater quills, are black; the
fecond quills are black brown, margined with dufky white : taiL
brown : legs the fame : claws black.
Inhabits the Friendly Iftes in the South'Sea.   This fpecimen from
Tonga Taboo..
PACIFIC
S.
T ARGER than a Houfe-fparrow: length eight inches. The
bill three quarters of an inch long, flightly curved, emar-
ginated, and of a dufky hue : general colour of the plumage,
black : the head and neck gloffed with green; the feathers of
both very narrow: belly, quills, and tail, dufky; the laft even at-
the end, and three inches in length: legs black; three oblique*,
fegments on the fhins : toes divided nearly to their origin; middle toe very long; the hind toe. is alfo long, but all the claws of
a moderate fize.
From  $te*e,l-4<«4/«/jfcL* &   H ~R   I   K-   E.
From fome of the iflands of the South Se^is, but uncertain
which.    The individual in the poffeflionof Sirjof. Banks,
Lev. Muf.
T ENGTH near eight inches. Bill black, not much bent-;
noflrils round and fmall: at the bafe of the upper mandible
five or fix black briftles: the plumage is brown above : chin and
breaft cinereous : belly and vent incline to brown : the four middle, tail feathers plain brown ; the reft of the outer .ones have the
inner webs white at the tips; length of it two inches: legs fhort,
sand of a lead-colour: claws ftrong, hooked,,and brown.
Brought from  the  northern parts  of America by  the late-
voyagers.
T ENGTH about fix inches. Bill black: crown of the head,
fides, and throat, of a fhining black: upper part of the body
olive ;. under parts the fame, but paler : rump dufky : quills and
fecondaries the fame; the laft have olive edges: tail rounded;
the half next the bafe of an olive-colour, then black : the ends of
all the feathers yellow; the outer ones moft fo, leffening by degrees to the middle ones, which are but juft marked with yellow
at the tips : legs dufky..
Inhabits the Sandwich Iftes in the South Seas.
* In this and the following plates a fcale of the length, taken from the tip of
the bill to the end of the tail, is added. This fcale, in every cafe, is meant to
%i>if)sone twelfth part of the real length of the bird, over which it is placed.
Where no fcale is added, fuch bird is fuppofcd to be of the natural fize.
Lanius.
NORTHERN
BLACK-
HEADED SHRIKE,
SHORT-
TAILED
S.
Lanius brachyurus, Pallas Trav. i. p. 693. N" 5.
CIZE of the cinereous Shrike. Top of the head ferruginous
grey : eyebrows whitifh: from the bill, through the eyes, a
ftreak of black : upper parts of the body cinereous grey, verging
to ferruginous; under parts yellowifh white: throat and vent
plain white : the wings are blackifh : coverts margined with
grey at the tip : tail * fhorter than the body; rounded at the end;
colour grey brown : all the feathers except the middle ones white
at the ends.
Inhabits Hungary, but not in plenty.
RUFOUS-
TAILED
Lanius phasnic
. p. 693. N° 6.
QIZE of the laft.   Upper parts Of the body rufous grey : through
the eyes a blackifh fafcia : under parts yellowifh white : tail
long, rounded at the end; the whole of it and the rump deep
rufous.
This, Dr. Pallas fays, was once feen by him in the fpring, but
the fpecimen decayed before a better account could be drawn up.
* Dr. Pallas counted but ten feathers in the tail of this bird. S   H   R'  I   K   E.
167
Lanius collurio,  Lin. Syft. i.   p.   136.   N° iz.—Scop, Ann. i. p.  24.   Na
i^.—Kram, p. 363.—Muller, p. 11.
L'Ecorcheur, Z?«y". ii. p. 151. N? 4.—i?.z/: 0;/, i. p. 304. pi. 21.—PI. enl.
31. f. 2.
Lanius minor ruffus feu 3t.ius Aldrovandi, Raiifyn. p. 18. A. 4.
Leffer Butcher-bird, called in Yorkfhire Flu/her, Will, orn, p. $S.—Albin.
vol. ii. pi. 14.
Meruke congener alia, Raiifyn, p. 67, N° 13 f—Will.orn. p.195. §9. N°3?
Red-backed Shrike, Br. Zool. i. N° 72.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
+■ RED-
BACKED----
T. ENGTH .feven inches and a half: weight two ounces. Bill
- black : irides hazel: through the eyes, from the bill, a black
flroke: head and lower part of the back light grey: upper part of
the back, and wing coverts, ferruginous: tail black; all the feathers,
except the two middle ones, are more or lefs white at the bafe;
the" outer web of the outer feather white : the breaft, belly, and
fides, are bloffom-coloured : the quills brown : the legs black,
The head in the female is dull ferruginous, mixed with grey:
breaft, belly, and fides, dirty white, croffed with femicircular
dufky lines : tail deep brown; the outer feather white only on
the outer web.    It is rather larger than the male.
I believe this bird to be much more common than the cinereous Shrike ; .at leaft it is fo in England, where I fhould fufpect
its being a bird of paffage, never having feen it here in the winter. It lays fix white eggs, marked with a rufous brown circle
towards the- large end. The neft is generally in a hedge, or low
bufh; near which I have heard it affirmed that no fmall bird
chufes to build; for it not only feeds on infects, but alio the young "S   H   R   I   K   E.
of other' birds in the neft, taking hold of them by the neck, and
ftrangling them, beginning to eat them firft at the  brain and
'"'eyes;: it is more fond of gnafshoppers and beetles than of other
infects, which it eats by morfels, and, when fatisfied, flicks the I
i remainder on a thorn ; when kept'ih a cage, does the fameagainft.
• the wires of it.    It is called in the German language by a name
.fignifying great head, or bull, headyfrom the fi.e of that part.    It
will alfo feed on fheep's kidney, if in a cage, eating a whole one
every day.    Like the cinerecus Shrike, it only mocks the notes I
of other birds, having none of its own ; and this merely, like that, 1
to decoy.    It is faid to be, in this 'imitative  art,  an adept; if
money is counted over at midnight, in the place where one of
thefe is kept, fo as to make a jingling noife, it begins to imitate
the fame found.    When fitting on the neft, the female is foon
difcovered, for on the approach of any one fhe fets up an horribllM
outcry.
VARIEGATED
S.
Description.
L'Fcorcheur varie, Brif. orn. ii
Leffer variegated Butcher-bird,
p. 155. IN" 5.
Zaii Syn. p. 19. A. 5.-
IWill. orn. p. i
rT~ HIS is grey on the upper part of the body, and rufous white
beneath, ftriated both above and below tranfverfely with
brown : the fcapulars are rufous white, bounded by a parallel
black ftripe: tail black; the three outer feathers rufous white at
the bafe and tips ; the outer one wholly rufous white on the outer
edge.
This fhould feem to be the female of the former, did not -the
markings of the tail forbid the fuggeftion. SHRIKE.
169
La Pie-griefche roufie, Brif. orn. ii, p. 147,  N° 3.—-Buf. oif. i. p 301.— 17,
PI. enl. g, f.2. the male, and 31. f. 1. the female. WOOD CHAT
Ampelis Dorfo grifeo, macuraad auras longitudinali, Fn. Suec. edit. iroa. ' •
N° 180. t. 2. fam.
Kleiner Neun-toder, Frifch. pi. 61. male and fern.
Ampelis 3tia, Kram. Elench. p. 363.
Lanius minor cinerafcens, &c. Raii Syn. p. 19. A. 6.
Another Sort of Butcher-bird, Will. orn. p. 89. § 4.
Wood Chat, Br. Zool. N° 73.
CIZE of the two laft.    Bill horn-colour; -feathers round the   Description.
bafe whitifh: head, and hind part of the neck, bright bay :
from the bafe of the bill, over the forehead, and through the eyes
on each fide, a ftreak of black, palling down the neck on each
fide: back dufky: fcapulars white: upper tail coverts grey:
wing coverts dufky: quills black; near the bottom of each a
white fpot: .the two middle tail feathers are black; the others
are the -fame, but the outer margin and .tips are whitifh : legs
black.
The female is reddifh on the upper parts of the body, the under        Femalb.
parts dirty white : everywhere tranfverfely ftriped with brown:
-tail reddifh brown, marked near the end with dufky, and tipt
with red.
Mr. Pennant does not defcribe this bird from his own infpec-
tion ; and I mud confefs that it has never come under mine; I   .^tdsHp
fuppofe therefore that it is not common in England.'
M. de Buffon does not talk of it as uncommon, but gives it as
his opinion that the three laft mentioned are mere varieties of
each other; a fact which, from my own obfer-vation, I cannot
deny.
-    Z *» SHRIKE.
La Pie-griefche rouffe du Senegal, PI. enl. 477. f. 2.
TN this the upper parts of the body are rufous:  the under parts
whitifh: the wings wholly brown,, with a fmall fpot of white
juft at the bafe of the quills.!
La Pie-griefche a tete noire du Senegal, PI. enl. 474.
A NOTHER variety.    It differs only in having the head black„
and the tail rather longer than in the laft mentioned.
!8. Lanius criftatus, Lin. Syft. 1. p. 134. N° 3.
CRESTED RED La Pie-griefche rouffe deBengale, Brif. cm. ii. p. 173. N° 13;
S' Crefted red or rufi'et-coloured Butcher-bird, Edw. i. pi. 54.
Description.    T ENGTH fix inches and a half:   fize of the Red-backed;..
Head fomewhat crefted*: bill horn-coloured ; tip blackifh I
upper parts of the body rufous; under parts dirty orange, tranfverfely  croffed with black lines :   behind each eye is a black.
' mark, like a crefcent: the quills are brown, edged with paler
.  brown : tail rufous above, grey beneath: legs and claws black.
Placi. Inhabits Bengal, where it is called Charah.
* M. de Buffon fuppofes this not natural, as he has met with fpecimens wherein
the head was perfectly fmooth, fo thinks it might happen from the accidental
ruffling of the feathers. It may be fo; but it muft be allowed that the male may
have the feathers of the crown much elongated, when the female has not, confti-'
tuting merely the difference of fex.
Lanius SHRIKE.
*7*
Lanius curviroftris, Lin. Syft. i. p. '135. N*8,
L'Ecorcheur de Madagafcar, Brif. orn. ii.  p.
191.  pi. 19. f. 1,—-PI. enl.
HOOK-BILLED
Le Vanga, ou, Becarde a ventre blai
Buf. oif. i. p. 312.
*TTIIS meafures ten inches in length, and is of the fize of a
Blackbird. The bill is black, and above an inch and a
quarter in length ; the tips of both mandibles more crooked than
in any of the fpecies : the hind head is of a greenifh black ; the
reft of the head, throat, neck, breaft, belly, fides, under wing, and
tail coverts, white: the upper parts of the body black; each
feather edged with greenifh black: the greater wing coverts
obliquely tipped with white, forming a band on the wing: quills
black; on the firft five is a white fpot, and the inner margins are
white alfo : the tail is afh-coloured half way from the bafe ; afterwards black, with the very tip white; the two middle feathers
the longeft : the legs are lead-colour: the claws blackifh.
This is a native of Madagafcar, where it goes by the name
it feeds on fruits, and is faid to whittle well *.
Pie-griefche d'Antigue, Son. Voy. p. 114. pi. 70.
CIZE of the Red-backed Shrike.    Bill large and black; the
upper mandible is very long, and the curvature fo exceffive,
that one would rather take it for a monftrofity, than common to
any one fpecies: irides dufky : the-head is black: the back of a
1 Orn. de Salerne, p. 32.
Z2
yellowifh
ANTIGUAN
S.
Description. S   H' R~  I   K   E..
yellowifh rufous-colour : throat and breaft white: the quillsj-
and baflard wing coverts, black: the wings reach only to the.
beginning of the tail, which is very long and,wedge-fhaped ; the
two middle-feathers are wholly black; the others black above,.
beneath reddifh, tipped by a rufous fpot: legs dufky black.
Inhabits Panay, one of the Philippine I/lands, but principally
about Antigue, one of the provinces thereof.
This feems much allied to the laft, particularly in the bill*
but as I have feen neither, dare not venture to place them other-
wife than .as diftinct fpecies.
Lanius lucionenfis, Lin. Syft, i, p
La Pie-griefche de Lucon, Brif. o
135. N° 10.
t. ii. p. 169. N° II. pi. 18.
CIZE of the Red-backed Shrike: length feven inches and ar.
half. Bill greyifh brown, as-are alfo the upper parts of the
body; beneath rufous white:-under the eye, and rather behind
it, is a longitudinal fpot of brown : the lower part and fides of
the neck, the breaft; fides of the body, and thighs, rufous white,
croffed with fine light brown lines: quills greyifh brown, with
rufous margins : tail rufous grey, and cuneiform in fhape ; all the
feathers, except the two middle ones, tipped with rufous white:
legs and claws rufous brown.
Inhabits the ifland of Luconia, the inhabitants of which call, it:
by tEe name ofCabepote*.
* Brif. SHRIKE,
Lanius Schach, Lin
Lanius A-Schach, C
Syft. i. p. 136. N"
fb. Voy. p. 227.
CIZE of the Tyrant.    Forehead inclining to luteous: head, and    Description.
hind part of the neck, .grey: fore part of the neck teftaceous
white : back and belly pale teftaceous: quills black 5 the prime
ones white at the bafe; the fecondaries whitifh at the tips.
Inhabits China, where it is called A-Schach.- Place.
Lanius barbarus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 137.
La Pie-griefche rouge du Senegal, Br{
LeGonolek, Buf. oif i. p. 314.
Pie-grieche du Senegal, PI. enl. 56.
Lev. Muf.
, p. 185. N*'2o. pi. :
CIZE very little lefs than a Redwing: length eight inches and
three quarters. The bill is black; befet at the bafe with
briftles : the plumage on the upper parts is black *, on the under
red: the crown, nape, thighs, and under tail coverts, yellow :
wings and tail black : legs and claws of the fame colour.
Found at Senegal *.
i!
• In the lev. Muf. the bird is brown, not black; and the parts which are
above defcribed as yellow, are merely of a buff-colour. That figured in the
Blanches calamines is likewife brown, but the crown is yellow. S   H   R   I   K   E.
24. Lanius Madagafcarien'fis, Lin. Syft. i. p. 137. N° 22.
-MADAGASCAR La petite Pie-grieMe de Madagafcar, Brif. orn. ii. p. 164.   N°9.   pi. 16.
S* f. 1. the male ; f. .2. the female.—PL enlum. 299. f. 1. the male ; f. 2.
thefemale.
Le Cali-calic, & le Bruia, Buf. oif. i. p. 315.
.Description.     CIZE  of a Hedge-fparrow:   length  under  five inches.    Bill
black;  at the bafe briftly: plumage above cinereous: rump
and tail rufous: between the bill and eye is a black fpot: over
the eye a white line : cheeks white:  throat, and fore part of the
neck, black; the reft of the under parts rufous white: leffer wing
coverts rufous;   greater  ones  grey brown:  quills brown,   with
grey brown margins: the two middle tail feathers rufous at the
bafe;   the reft grey brown; the four next on each fide rufous,
tipt with grey brown; the outer one on each fide rufous within,
and grey brown on  the outfides and  tips :   legs  lead-colour:
claws brown.
.Female.. Thefemale wants the black on the chin and throat; which, as
well as the fides of the head, and all the under parts, are white
mixed with rufous : and the colours in general are more dull.
Place. Inhabits Madagafcar. SHRIKE,
i?5"
Lanius emeria, Lin. Syft. i. p. 137. N° 23.
Mufcicapa emeria, Lin. Syft. i. p. 236. N° 7.
La Pie-griefche brune de Bengale, Brif. orn. ii
Rouge-queue, Buf. oif. i. p. 309.
Indian Redftart, Edw. pi. 190.
Bengal, Redftart., Albin.ui. pi. 56.
p.175. N°14,
•CIZE of the Rock Shrike : length five inches and a half. Bill cine-
reous brown ; bafe befet with briftles : irides whitifh : crown
and hind head black; the laft fomewhat crefted : behind the
eyes a fcarlet fpot, edged on the under part with white: belly,-
vent, rump, and upper tail coverts, red: on each fide of the neck
are four black curved fpots: tail pale brown : legs and claws-
black.
Inhabits Bengal..
ENG4
Lanius jocofus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 138. N° z+.—Amten. Acad, i
Le petit Merle hupe dela Chine, Brif. orn. ii. p. 255. N° 2
.pi.
JOCOSE
CIZE of a Lark: length feven inches and a half. The bill is blackifh, rather flraiter than in moft of the genus, and furnifhed only
with a very fine notch near the tip: the crown of the head is
black, except fome long brown feathers^ which form a kind of
creft : fides of the head,.throat, and fore part of the neck, white:
from each corner of the mouth is a black line, continued backwards : under each eye is a fmall fpot of lively red: the upper
parts of the body are brown; the under parts dirty white : vent,
rofe-colour : on the lower part of the neck and breaft a kind of a.
brown; 176 SHRIKE.
"brown band : quills brown: the tail is much cuneiform in fhape;
in colour brown; but the four outer feathers on each fide have1'
white tips : legs and claws black.
Place. This is a Chinefe bird, and called in thofe parts by the name of
Kowkai-kon.
ROCK
s.
Description.
Lanius infauftus, Lin. Syft.i. p. 138. N° 25.
Corvusinfauftus,  Brun. p. 10.—Mutter, p. 12. N° 93.
Le Merle de Roche, Brif orn. ii. p. 238. N° 13.—Buf oif Hi, p. 351.
pi. 23.—PL enl. s;62.
Merula faxatilis, Aldrov.  Raiifyn,  p. 68.  N° .3.
Codiroffo maggiore,  Olin. uccel.  t. 47.
Greater Redftart, Will, orn   p. 197   pi. 2,6,—Albin. Hi. pi. 55.
A LITTLE lefs than a Blackbird: length feven inches and
three quarters. The bill about an inch long, and blackifh :
the head and neck dark afh colour, marked with fmall rufous
fpots : the upper part of the back dark brown ; the lower much I
paler, inclining to afh, efpecially towards the tail: quills and I
wing coverts dufky, with pale margins: breaft, and under parts of
the body, orange, marked with fmall foots, ibme -of which are
white, and others brown: the tail is three inches in length ; the
two middle feathers are brown, the others rufous: legs blackifh:
the wings and tail are even. This is the defcription of the
female.
The male is faid to differ very little, except in being of a
brighter colour.
This is met with in many parts of Europe, from Italy on the
one hand, to Ruffia * on the-other : found in fome parts of Germany,
the Alpine Mountains, thofe of Tyrol, and fuch-dike places.
* Georg.   Ruff.
g The SHRIKE.
The manners of this bird feem difputed; one author * mentions, that it perches on a high flone, and as foon as a markfman
appears with his gun, removes to a greater diftance, and fo on, as
often as he approaches; whicK renders this fpecies difficult to
come at. Others f, on the contrary, fay, that it is a bold bird,
attending the traveller while at his meal, on purpofe to feed on
his fcraps.
Some authors rank this with the Thrufhes, and others with the
Crow genus ; it feems much allied to the laft, from having the
noftrils covered with recumbent feathers, as in thofe birds. Linnaus obferves, that the laft, the following, and this, all agree in
a certain loofe texture of feathers, rendering them peculiar.
It has an agreeable note of its own J, approaching to that of the
Hedge-fparrow, and will alfo learn to imitate that of others. It
makes the neft among the holes of the rocks, &c. hiding it with
great art, and lays three or four eggs, feeding the young with
worms and infects, on which it alfo feeds itfelf. It may be
taken young from the neft, and brought up as the Nightingale.
Turdus faxatilis, Lin. Syft. i. p. 294.
Le petit Merle de Roche, Brif. orn. ii. p. 240. N° 14.
Blau-kopfiige Rothe Amfel, Frifch. t. 32.
HpHIS is rather lefs. The head, throat, and neck are blueifh
afh, marked with rufous and brown fpots: back and rump
blackifh, mixed with cinereous blue and rufous : lower part of
the back white and afh-colour : the tail and under parts of the
body the fame as in the laft bird.
* Buffon. + Brunnich,  Linnaus.
X Albin fays, that it is frequently kept in cages for its finging, vol. iii. p. 51.
A a One
LESSER ROCK 178
SHRIKE.
One may with great probability fuppofe thefe two to be only
one fpecies.
WHITE-
WREATHED
Lanius fauftus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 138. N° 26.
Corvus fauftus, Amain, acad. iv. p. 241.
CIZE of a common Thrufh. Bill pale : the upper parts of the
body grey; the under ferruginous : from the eyes to the hind
head paffes a whitifh line, compofed of numerous white feathers,
rendering it truly characteriftic : the wings are rounded; the
quills brownifh, with grey edges, which are croffed with numerous
flender, obfolete, brown lines : the tail is rounded,, brown,
croffed with numerous bars of darker brown : legs pale.
This elegant fpecies inhabits China, where it is known by the
name of Whommaj. It may be obferved, among others, in Chi-
nefe paper-hangings, where the white line feems to encompafs the
back part of the head, like a wreath.
BLUE
S.
Lanius bicolor, Lin. Mantiff. 1771. p. 124.
Loxia madagafcarina, Lin. Syft. i. p. 306. N° 42.
La Pie-griefche bleue de Madagafcar, Brif. orn. ii. p. 197. N° 26. pi. 16,
f. 3.— PI. enl 298. f. 1.—32. f. 2.
T ENGTH fix inches and a half. Bill fine blue; bafe befet
with briftles : round the bill the feathers are black: the head
and all the upper parts of the body fine blue: beneath fnow
white: quills black, with the outer edges blue : the two middle
tail feathers blue, with black tips and fhafts: the four next on
each fide are blue on the outer margins ; the inner and tips black :
10 the SHRIKE.
the outer feather black, except juft at the bafe, where it is blue on
the outfide : legs and claws black.
The female differs merely in the colours being lefs lively, and
the under parts of a dirty White.
This is common at Madagafcar, where it lives on infects.
x79
La petite Pie-griefche verte de Madagafcar, Brif. orn. ii. p. 195. N° 25. pi.
15. f. 3.
Tcha-chert, Buf. oif. i. p. 310.
Pie-grieche de Madagafcar, PI. enl. 32. f. 2.
CIZE of a Houfe-fparrow: length five inches and three quarters.
The head, hind part of the neck, back, wings, and rump, dull
green, verging moft to the laft colour on the head: under parts of
the body white: outfide of the thighs the fame colour as the
back ; infide black and white: the quills are blackifh; the outer
edges and tips dull green : tail black, except the two middle
feathers, which are dull green; the outer margins of the others
are of the fame colour: legs and claws black.
It is found at Madagafcar, and called there Tcha-chert.
The wings of the two laft fpecies are pretty 4ong in proportion.
GRE .
S. WHITE-
HEADED
S    H    R    I    K
Lanius rufus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 137. N° 17.
La pie-griefche rouffe de Madagafcar, Brif. orn. ii. p. 178. N° 16. pi. iS.
f. 4.—PL enl. 298. f. 2.
LeSchet-be, Buf. oif. i. p. 313.
T ENGTH feven inches and three quarters. Bill lead-colour j
bafe briftly : head, throat, and neck, greenifh black: upper
parts of the body rufous ; beneath cinereous white : thighs cinereous : quills brown within; on the outer edge rufous and brown
mixed : tail rufous; the margins brown on both fides near the
end : legs and claws horn-colour.
The female has the colours lefs vivid: throat and fore part of
the neck grey: the outer edge of the quills of a plain rufous colour :• in other things like the male.
Thefe inhabit Madagafcar, where the male is called Schet-be,
and the female Tcha-chert-dae *.
Le grande pie-griefche verdatre de Madagaf
f. 2.—PL enl. 374.
Tcha-chert-be, Buf. oif. i. p. 314.
ir, Brif. 0.
. pi. 19.
T ENGTH eight inches: fize of a Blackbird. Bill lead-colour:
head, neck, throat, breaft, belly, fides, thighs, under tail, and
wing coverts, white : lower part of the neck behind, the back,
rump, fcapulars, upper wing, and tail coverts, greenifh black :
quills black, with green edges: tail black beneath; above
greenifh black : legs and claws lead-colour.
* See Brif 0
This This likewife is found £
feems to bear fome affinity,
H    R   I    K   E.
,t Madagafcar, with the laft, to which i
Lanius leucoryncos, Lin,
La pie-griefche de Man
PL enl. 9. f. 1.
Langraien, Buf. oif. i, -p
Mant. 1771. p. 524.
lie,  Brif orn. ii. p.
80.  N° 17. pi. 18. f. 2.-
WHITE-EILLED-*
T ENGTH feven inches. Bill hoary;. bafe befet with briftles:
head, throat, neck, back, and fcapulars, blackifh: rump,
breaft, and under parts, whitifh : upper wing coverts, quills, and
tail, blackifh: wings and tail of equal length: legs and claws
blackifh.
Inhabits the ifland of Manilla..
La pie-griefche Domihiquaihe, Son. voy. p. 55. pi. 26".- DOMINICAN
S.
HpHIS is bigger than a Sparrow, and rather longer.    The bill is     Description.
greyifh, conic, and ftrong; the bafe befet with briftles,
pointing forwards : the head, neck, breaft, back, wings, and tail,
black : belly and rump white: the wings reach near an inch beyond the middle of the tail: the thighs are black.
This bird inhabits the Philippine Iftands, and is a bold cou-       Place and
' rageous bird: it flies very quick, and with great rapidity; fre-       Manners,.
quently hovering in the air like a Swallow.    It is a great enemy
to the Raven, whom, though much bigger, he bids defiance, even
provoking him to combat:- the battle often lafls half an hour, and
end with the retreat of the Raven; rather, perhaps, from being
teized SHRIKE.
-teized out by the pettifh little enemy, than having fuffered real
injury.
This feems to vary very little from the laft : the breaft is black,
which is white in the other : and the wings exceed the tail in
length ; whereas, in the other, they are only equal. They cannot
be but varieties merely, if not fexual differences.
'PAN AYAN
S.
La Pie-griefche rouge de l'ifle de Panay,
.**. Voy. p.
11 black :
14. pi. 70.
rides fire-colour:
CIZE of the Red-backed Shriki
head, fore part of the neck, and belly, red : hind part of the
.neck, wings, and tail, brown : legs black,
inhabits the ifland of Panay.
"5-
Lanius canadenfis, Lin. Syft. i. p. 134. N° 4.
:rested
La Pie-griefche de Canada, Brif. orn. ii. p. 171. pi
s.
Pie-griefche huppe de Canada, Buf. oif. i. p. 316.—
1      -Crefted Shrike, Am. Zool. N°
Lev. Muf.
•PI. enl. 479. f. 2.
CIZE of the Red-backed Shrike : length fix inches.    Bill deep
brown;   the noftrils  and corners  of the mouth  befet with
;black briftles : top of the head rufous;   the feathers of it long
enough to form a creft; fides blackifh, marked with dirty white
. fpots-: the hind part of the neck, and the back, rufous brown:
.the throat, fore part of the neck, and breaft, pale rufous, marked
with longitudinal brown fpots : belly, fides, thighs, and under tail
coverts, pale afh-colour: wing coverts blackifh, margined- with
white : quills and tail the fame : legs and claws blackifh.
Inhabits Canada.
Lanius S   H   R   I   K   E.\
i%
Lanius nengeta, Lin. Syft. i. p. 135. N°^;
Le Cotingagris, Brif. orn. ii. p. 353.
Le Guirarou, Buf. oif. iv. p. 459.
Guiraru Nheengeta Brafilienfis, Raii Syn. p. 166, N° j."
D°, or American Chat, Will. orn. p. 235.
Grey Pye of Brafil, Edw. pi. 318.
CIZE of the Mavis: length nine or ten inches. The bill dufky;
befet with briftles at the bafe: irides fapphire-coloured : from,
the angles of the mouth, through the eyes, is a black ftreak: the
upper parts of the body are dark.brownifh afh-colour; the under
parts cinereous white: in the middle of the wing are a few white.
feathers :• the quills and tail are nearly black : all the feathers of
the laft,. except the two middle ones, are obliquely tipped with
white : legs dark afh-colour :. claws black.
This is found at Surinam and Brafil..
Edwards feems to think it near a-kin to the great Shrike, and
Linnaus is of the fame opinion : though others * rank it with the
Chatterers. Thefe birds are common, likewife,.at Guiana, where
they frequent watery places, and are found in great numbers together. . They are obferved, at frequent intervals, to fet up a great
cry all together: this circumftance affording a happy and certain
prefage to the thirfty traveller, in the immenfe forefts of Guiana^,*
where he may meet with water to quench his drought.
hiffpn and Briffon. t$4
SHRIKE.
Variete du Guirarou, Buf. oif. iv. p. 461.
Cotinga gris de Cayenne, Pi. enl. 699.
THIS is a variety of the laft, or a young bird : it is only feven
inches and a half in length. The bill is red: the general
tint of the plumage afh-colour, paleft on the under parts: the
tail is fhorter than in the other: the band through the eye was
wanting, and neither the wings nor tail edged with white : the
legs red.
37« Lanius tyrannus,  Lin. Syft. i. p. 136. N° 13.
TYRANT Le Tyran> m orn, H. p. 39I. No l8._PI. enL S37.
Le Titiri, ou Pipiri, Buf. oif. iv. p. 572.
Kleine americainifche Neun-toder, Frifch. t. 62.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
Description. QIZE of a Thrufh : length eight inches. Bill blackifh brown, I
^ befet with briftles at the bafe : irides brown: the upper parts
of the plumage grey brown ; the under white : the breaft inclines
to afh-colour: the head is blackifh on the upper part; the bafe
of the feathers on that part, in the male, is orange, but feldom vifi-
ble, except it erects the feathers, when there appears a ftreak of
orange down the middle of the crown: the tail is brown, margined with rufous: legs and claws black brown.
Female. Thefemale fcarcely differs, except in the head; the bafe of the
crown feathers being yellow, inftead of orange ; the colours are
not quite fo deep, and it is a trifle lefs in fize.
PiACE. Inhabits Virginia. SHRIKE,
Le Tyran de St. Domingue, Brif. orn.ii. p. 394. N° 19, pi. 18. f. 2,
"DILL as in the laft mentioned, as is the fize. The upper parts
of the body grey brown ; the under white: breaft inclining
to afh-colour: tail brown; the outer edges and tips brownifh:
legs dark brown.
Inhabits St. Domingo and Jamaica.
M. Briffon does not mention any yellow on the head ; but I can
affure him that it is in this bird as well as the former. I have
received feveral fpecimens from Jamaica, which differed from
thofe of North America only in the tail being tipped with dingy
white, which is not in the firft : alfo a fpecimen from Cayenne,
wherein the colours of the body were more brilliant, and the yellow flripe on the head more confpicuous.
Thefe are called Titiri or ^uiauiri *, from their cry, which re-
fembles thofe words. The firft is called the black-headed or
great-billed Pipiri; the fecond, the yellow-headed Pipiri, or
Pipiri of paffage. The firft, though in plenty, are feldom feen
but in pairs ; the fecond in great troops, about the month of Au~
guft, when they are very fat, and killed in great numbers for the
table, as their flefh is accounted good eating.
All authors agree in the manners of thefe birds, which are ferocious to a great degree while the hen is fitting : no bird whatever dare approach their neft : they will attack the firft which
comes near, without referve, and ufually come off conquerors.
From hence by fome they are called King-birds.
4- SAINT
DOMINGO
TYRANT
* .Buffon calls it Pipiri, Hift. des oif. iv.
Bb 3   H   R   I   K   E..
CAROLINE'-
TYRANT
Le Tyran de la Caroline, Buf. oif iv. p. 577.
Gobe-mouche de la Caroline, PI. ml. 676.
Tyrant of Carolina, Catef. Car. i. p. 55.—Am. Zool.'N0
AT~*'HE bird mentioned by Catefby mull be very little different V-
indeed he fays, that it makes its neft, rather expofed, on
trees and bufhes, frequently on the faffafras; whereas the Pipiris-
make ufe of the hole of a tree, for the fake of concealing it. In
Carolina it is a bird of paffage, coming in fpring, and making
one neft in a year, which is-commonly in June, and,.after bringing up its young, retires in autumn.
Thefe birds alfo frequent the red cedars; are feldom found in
woods, but often in hedge rows,and fences of fields, and for the .
moft part within two hundred yards of each other. They do not:
moleft their'own fpecies; but the. moment either Crow, or even.-
Eagle-, appears, all within reach join forces, and begin the
attack.in all parts of his body at once,, never defifting till they
have driven him to a great diftance..
Lake George, and Lake Champlain, are the fartheft places north,
in which they are found in any degree of plenty.
LOUISIANE:
TYRANT
Tyran de la Louifiane, Buf. oif iv. p. 579^
Gobe-mouche de la Louifiane, PL enl. 676.
I^ILL black:  upper parts of the body lead-colour:   greater
coverts and quills margined with white: tail the fame; the
outer web. of the
feather white,  the othera tipped with* S   H   R   I
m
m
wh'ite:   all the under parts  white:   legs lead-colour;   on
crown a deep erimfon fpot.
'The  four laft mentioned are,  I  believe,   varieties of .
other.
T ENGTH feven-inches. Bill nearly-one inch long, and black.;
in fhape not much unlike that of the Tyrant, "but ftouter in
'■proportion, lefs comprefied, and curved at.the tip ; the bafe fur-
.-nifhed with -weak briftles : the general colour of the plumage,
-without exception, of a dufky.black •, the tail .fomewhat cuneiform : legs black.
I received two of thefe from Jamaica, by the name of Black
■Loggerhead: one of the fpecimens had.the outer edge of the fecond quills brown, but-whether differing in fex or not was not
mentioned: faid to inhabit only the internal.parts of the ifland.
Lanius pitangua, Lin. Syft. i. p. 136. N° 15.
Le Tyran du Brefil, Brif em. ii. p. 401.—Pi. enl. 212.
Le Bentaveo, or le Cuiriri, Buf. oif iv. p. 579. pi. 27.
Pitanga guacu, or Bemtere, Raii Syn. p. 465. N° 1.—Will. orn. p. 198.
CIZE of a Blackbird : length nine inches. The bill is very
thick, more than half an inch long; the bafe of it befet with
"briftles : the bafe of the feathers on the crown of a fine orange:
-on each fide of the head, from the noftrils, over the eye, to the
hind head, is a ftripe of white: beneath, and behind each eye,
•is a deep brown fpot: the upper parts of the body are brown,
>each feather edged with yellow; the under parts fine yellow : the
B b 2 throat iSS SHRIKE,
throat is white : on the under tail coverts a few fpots of brown s
the quills are brown, with rufous inner edges: the tail brown,,
with the outer margins rufous ; the under part of it olive grey;
legs and claws blackifh.
Puce. Inhabits Brafil
40.
YELLOW-
BELLIED
nius fulphuratus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 137. N°
Pie-griefche jaune de   Cayenne, Brif on
f. 4.—PI. enl. 296.
carde a ventre jaune, Buf. oif. i. p. 312.
Lev. Muf.
, p. 176. N° 15. pi. i&
gIZE of a Redwing
blackifh, befet at
: length eight inches and" a quarter. Bill
the bafe with briftles : the top of the head
black; forehead white; palling .through the eye on each fide;-
under this is a black ftreak, which begins at the under mandible,
and paffes beneath-the eye, almoft to the hind head : the plumage
on the upper parts of the body is brown; and of a fine fulphur—
colour beneath:. the bafe of the crown feathers is of this laft:
colour, but does not appear except the feathers be erected:, the
throat and fore part of the neck are white, wing coverts brown,,
edged with rufous : quills and tail much the fame; but the laft
margined with rufous on both fides: legs grey : claws hlackifiV.
Inhabits. Cayenne. H   R   I   K   E,
189
Lanius Cayanus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 137. N° 20.
La Pie-griefche grife de Cayenne, Brif. orn.ii. p. 158. N°6. pi. 14. f. 1
—PL enl. 304.
Becarde, Buf. oif. i. p. 311.
Lev. Muf.
CIZE of a Blackbird : length eight inches and a half.    The bill
is red at the bafe,. and black at the tip ; befet at the bafe with
briftles : the whole bird is of a fine light grey, except the head,
quills, and  tail, which are black:  the legs are  afh-coloured:
claws black.
Inhabits Cayenne.
+. CAYENNE
S.
La Pie-griefche tachetee de Cayenne, Brif orn. ii. p. 160. N° 7. pi. 14.
f. 2.—PI, enl. 377.
rTTIIS is in every refpect like the former, except that it has a
longitudinal ftreak of black down the middle of each feather.    It is found in the fame places with the other, and is moft
likely either differing in.age or fex from that bird..
Var. A.
SPOTTED
CAYENNE
S.
Pie-griefche blanche de I'iflede Panay, Son. Voy. p. 115. pi. 72,
BILL 3   H   R   I   K   E,
WHITE-
SHOULDERED
"DILL black: the upper parts of the body cinereous browns
forehead and cheeks-fomewhat mottled with a paler colour:
throat and breaft buff-yellow : belly, thighs, and vent, dirty
brownifh white : axillary leathers and fcapulars white, making a
large fpot on each .fhoulder: quills and tail brown: legs
black.
Inhabits Brafil,    Communicated by Mr. Pennant.
. p. 187. N° 21. pi. 29. f. 3.
doliatus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 136. N° 16.
•griefche rayee de Cayenne, Brif ,
PI enl. 297.  f. z.
tnd white.Butcher-bird, Edw. pi. 226.—Hift. Guian. p.
Br. Muf.   Lev. Muf.
CIZE of a Hedge-fparrow: length fix inches and a half. Bifl I
dufky, befet with briftles at the bafe : head fomewhat crefted.:
, the whole bird is tranfverfely ftriped.with black and white, each
feather having two bars of each of thefe colours upon it: the
under parts are lighteft: the quills and tail are black, tranfverfely
fpotted with white : legs and claws brown.
Inhabits Cayenne.
Br. Muf
AT firft fight very like the former; but is lefs in fize. The bill
is black : the upper parts of the body wholly black, except
a few of the feathers at the beginning of the back, which are
tipped SHRIKE.
tipped with white: the wing coverts are each tipped with an oblong white fpot, forming a regular feries on the wings: quills
and fecondaries edged with white : the tail is black; all the feathers tipped with white ; and on each of the outer feathers is a
fpot of white on the outer web, about the middle of each feather: the under, parts of the body are plain afh-colour: the legs
are black.
I have feen two fpecimens of this bird, one at the Britifh Mufeum, the other in the collection of Mifs Blomefield; the latter was.
received from Cayenne, from whence, I make no doubt, came the
former alfo..
Till I am convinced to the contrary, I muft place this- as a.fe-
parate fpecies from the other.
Br. Muf.
CIZE of the laft.    Bill horn-colour: upper parts- of the body
dufky black : beneath white : over "the eye a ftreak of white :.
quills and tail deeper than the reft : legs brown.
Place unknown.    The fpecimen from whence this defcriptio»-
, is taken is now in the Britifh Mufeum.
At.
DUSKY
Description
Br. Muf
CIZE of a Manakin.    Bill horn-colour, with a black tip: the
upper parts  of the plumage brown;   beneath white :   between the bill and eye yellowifh: fecondaries tipped with yel-
7 lowifh.;. 5   H   R   I   K   E.
lowilh ; and the edges of the greater quills of the fame colour,
forming two narrow bars on the wings :   legs black.
Place unknown.
Red Lanius, or Butcher-bird of Surinam, Bancr. Guiana, p. 154.
TV/jfR. Bancroft defcribes it in this manner: it has a ftrait bill,,
with a tooth on each fide, near the point; a naked nofe-;
and a feemingly lacerated tongue: its body is of a bright red-
colour, ornamented with fpots like eyes on the wings and tail,
which are black at the ends of the feathers.
I do not find  this  bird  occur, except in the above-named.
Inhabits Surinam.
■Lev. Miif.
CIZE of a Song-thrufh : length ten inches. The bill is three
quarters of an inch long, ftrong, and black, with a very flight
notch near the tip: the head, neck, and middle of the breaft, are
of a gloffy black^the back, fhoulders, leffer coverts of the wing,
belly, fides, thighs, and vent, white:, the greater wing coverts
and fecond quills are black, margined with white; the greater
quills wholly black: the tail is long and cuneiform; the two
middle feathers being four inches and a half long, and the outer
ones only two inches ; all of them are tipt with white, but the
white occupies moft fpace on the outer feathers : legs flout and
black. .
.   / This SHRIKE.
This bird is in fine prefervation in the Leverian Mufeum, but
from whence it came is not noticed. It has, at firft fight, the appearance of a Magpie in miniature, but on examination plainly
proves not to belong to the Crow genus, as the noftrils are not
covered with briftles. The bill is almoft flout enough to place
it with the Grofbeaks; but, as it does not truly appertain to
one nor the other, I have ventured to rank it with the Shrikes, to
which it feems to have much conformity, efpecially in the fhape
and length of thfi tail, a circumftance common to many of the
genus. [    *94   I
Genus V.   PARROT.
WITH     UNEVEN     TAILS.
• I.
Red and blue Maccaw.
N" 18.
Long-tailed fcarlet L.
2.
 and yellow M.
19.
Indian L.
3-
Military M.
20.
Beautiful L.
4-
Blue and yellow M.
Var. A.
Var. A. Blue M.
21.
Gueby L.
5-
Parrot M.
Var. A. Violet L,
6,
Black M.
22.
Variegated L.
7.
Obfcure Parrot.
23-
Black L.
8.
Noble P.
24.
Lory Parrakeet.
9-
Brafilian green M.
25.
Crefted red Par.
10.
Gingi P.
26.
Yellow-headed P.
11.
Japonefe P.
27.
Angola yellow P.
12.
Amboina red P.
28,
Brafilian yellow P.
£f
Blue-headed P.
Var. A.  Mexican  yel
14.
Red-breafted P.
low P.
Var. A. Orange-breaft-
29.
Caroline P.
ed P.
3°-
Illinois P.
Var. B. Blue-bellied P.
3i-
Crimfon-vented P.
15.
Black-crowned P.
32-
Emerald P.
16.
Tabuan P.
33-
Long-tailed green Par.
17.
Papuan Lory.
Var. A. Guiana green
Var. A.
Par.
Var. B.
, 34-
Pavouane P.
Var. C.
3S-
Variegated winged P.
N° 36. Blue- PARROT.
195
36.
Blue-collared P.               Nc
42.
Lace-winged Par.
37-
Alexandrine Par.
43-
Yellow-winged Par.
Var. A. Rofe-ringedPar.
44,
Waved-breafted Par.
Var. B. Purple-ringed
45-
Scaly-breafted Par.
Par.
46.
Little red-winged Par.
Var. C. Double-ringed
47-
Grey-breafted Par.
Par.
48.
Horned P.
Var. D. Azure-headed
49.
Caledonian P.
Par.
50.
Red-rumped P.
Var. E, Javan Par.
51-
Crefted Par.
38.
Muflachoe Par.
52.
Society P.
Var. A. Bearded Par.
53-
White-collared P.
39-
Bloffom-headed Par.
54-
Golden-crowned Par.
Var.. A.   Rofe-headed
55-
Lineated.
ring Par.
56.
Pacific Par.
Var. B. Bornean Par.
Var. A.
Var. C. Malacca Par,
Var, B.
46.
Red   and   blue-headed.
Var. C
Par.
57
Palm P.
41.
Brown-throated Par.
58
Blue-crefted Par.
Var. A. Brown-fronted
59
Otaheitan blue Par.;.
Par.
60
Pygmy Par.
**  W ITH     EVE
N     T
AILS.
61
Great white Cockatoo.
68
Afh-coloured P..
62
Red-crefted C.
Var. A.
63
Red-vented C,
Var. B.
64
Leffer white C.
69
Cinereous P.
65
Crowned C.
70
Southern Brown.
66
Black CI
71
. Black P.
67
Red and white P.
72
Mafcarine P.
N°73- 196
PARROT.
N' 73. Brown P.
74. Hawk-headed P.
Var. A. Mailed P.
75. Ruff-necked P.
76. Ceram Lory.
Var. A. Noira L
Var. B. Scarlet L.
77. Purple-capped L.
Var. A. Blue- capped L,
78. Black-capped L.
79. Crimfon L,
80. Molucca L.
Var. A.
81. Grand L.
Var. A.
82. Yellow-breafted L.
83. Paraguan L.
84. Red and blue P.
85. GreehandredChinefeP.
86. Great-billed P.
87. Amboina P.
88. White-fronted P.
Var. A. White-headed P.
Var. B.  White-crowned P.
Var. C. Afh-crowned P.
Sc). Yellow - headed Amazon's P.
Var. A. Yellow-crowned D°.
Var.B.Party-billedDV:
N "90. Afh-fronted P.
91. Common Amazon's P.
Var, A. Jamaica P.
Var. B. Main P.
Var. C. Blue-topped P..
Var. D. W. Indian
green P.
Var. E. Brafilian yellow-fronted P.
92. Yellow-fhouldered P.
93' winged P.
94. MeallyP.
9$. Blue-fronted P.
96. faced P.
Var. A. Red and white-
faced P.
Var. B. Autumnal P.
Var. C. Brafilian green
P.
97. Red - headed    Ama
zon's P.
98. Manilla green P.
99. New Guinea green P.
100. RobuftP.
101. Agile P.'
102. Feftive P.
103. Crimfon-winged P.
104. Red-banded P.
105. ParadifeP.
NJ 106. Aurora PARROT.
106.
Aurora P.                       N"
120.
Cheftnut-crowned Par.
107.
Blue-headed P.
121.
Purple-tailed Par.
108.
Little dufky P.
122.
Grey-headed Par.
109.
Red-throated P.
123.
Black-winged Par.
no.
Dufky P.
124.
Blue-winged Par.
"in.
Orange-headed P.
125.
Collared Par. ,
112.
White-breafted P.
126.
Luzonian Par.
*i3-
Hooded P.
127.
Little blue and green
114-
Senegal P.
Par.
it5.
Red-fronted P.
128.
Yellow-throated Par.
116.
Golden-winged Par.
129.
Green Par.
117.
Red - headed   Guinea
130.
Cayenne Par.
Par.
f$d
, Gold-headed Par.
118.
, Red and green Indian P.
132.
, Crefted red and green
119.
. Philippine Par.
Par.
Var. A.Sapphire-crown
*33'
, Crefted Mexican Par.
ed Par.
THE bill in this genus is hooked from the bafe: the upper
mandible moveable.
Noftrils round, placed in the bafe of the bill, which in fome
fpecies is furnifhed with a kind of cere.
Tongue broad, blunt at the end.
Head large, crown flat.
Legs fhort: toes placed two before, two behind.
Parrots are fo well known in this kingdom, as to make a further general defcription  unneceflary.     Thefe birds  are found
every where within the tropics, a few inftances only excepted.
In a ftate of nature, live on fruits and feeds, though will eat flefh,
q and
197 PARROT.
and even fifh *, when kept tame. For the moft part, make n&
neft, breeding like Owls in hollow trees f. At certain feafons fly
in prodigious troops, but obferved to keep two and two together
notwithftanding J. This genus confifts of infinite variety, perhaps not fo much owing to mixture of fpecies as may be fuppofed,
if Sonnerat's || remark be true; yet they feem to run vaftly into
one another, fo as to induce one to think many of them related,
though received from different parts of the world. In this, however, we may be deceived, as they are perpetually carried from-
one continent to the other for the fake of fale. This uncertainty
of native place muft prevent our following the otherwife judicious
plan of Buffon,. of ranging them according to the places they are
fuppofed to inhabit, and we fhall therefore merely divide them
into thofe with uneven, and thofe with even tails,, much after the
* Dr. Forfter, fpeaking of the effeft of a poilbnous fiffi, obferves, that a little
favourite Parrakeet died in confequence of eating a bit of it. See Obferv. p. 209,,
607. and Voy. vol. ii. p. 238.—As to flefh, moft tame ones will eat it when
dreffed ; but Sloane faya, a great Maccaw " fed on raw flefh chiefly, but- would,
" eat other things likewife."    Hift. Jam. vol. ii. p. 296.
f Fermin fays, that fome of the larger forts make nefts by gathering a quantity of rufhes and fmall twigs, which they weave together, and fatten to the extreme branches of the higheft trees.    Defcrip. de Surinam, vol. ii. p. 177.
X Fermin obferves, that at Surinam, about the. time of coffee-gathering, they
are feen by thoufands, of which above an hundred were killed in an hour, and:
the tongues of them cooked up into a difh, which was thought favoury. Defcrip..
de Surinam, vol. ii. p. 177.
|] He obferves, that notwithftanding Parrots of the fame fpecies are found at.
great diftances from each other on the continent^, yet in the iflands each maintains-
a fpecies which is peculiar to that alone, and not to others of the fame group,
though the diftance from one to the other be however fmall. Sena, Voy. p. 74.
manner.- PARROT.
manner of Linnaus, giving the beft account poffible of each, con-
fiftent with our intended concifenefs.
Wn
UNEVEN   TAILS.
Pfittacus macao, Lin. Syft. i. p. 139. N° 1.
■ Scop. Ann, i. p. 26.
Ara du Brefil, Brif. orn. iv. 184. t. 19. f. 1.
L'Ara rouge, Buf. oif. vi. p. 179.—PL enl. 12.
Pfitt. max. alter, Aldrov. vid. Raii Syn. p. 29. N° 2.
Maccaw, Albin. i. pi. 11.—Will, orn, p. 73.
Ara premier, Fermin. Defcrip.de Surinam, ii. p. 173.
Red and blue Maccaw, Edw, t. 158.
»   ■ Bancroft Guian. p. 156.
/"T"VHE length of this bird is two feet feven inches and a half:
■*■ the fize that of a Capon. The upper mandible is white;
the tip, and fides at the bafe, black; the under mandible wholly
black : the cheeks are bare of feathers, being covered with only a
wrinkled fkin, of a whitifh colour: the irides yellow : the head,
neck, breaft, belly, thighs, and upper part of the back, are of a
fine bright red: the rump of a pale blue: fcapulars blue and
green mixed: the two middle tail feathers red, with pale blue
tips; the next on each fide half blue half red; the four outer
ones violet blue above, dull red beneath: the legs are dufky;
claws black. Edwards fays, that this bird, when perfect, will
meafure a full yard from bill to tail.
It inhabits Brafil, Guiana, and other parts of South America.
The bill of this bird is fo ftrong, that it is able, with it, to
break a peach-ftone with great eafe *.
* Orn. de Salerne, p. 6.
This
+- RED AND
BLUE
MACCAW. PARROT.
This Maccaw was formerly pretty common at St. Domingo*;
but in proportion as that ifland has become more inhabited, .
thefe birds are rarely met with. They moftly live in the moift
woods, efpecially thofe planted with a particular kind of palm -f",
on which it feeds, and of which there are large forefts in the
marfhy wet favannahs. They are oftener feen in pairs J than in
greater numbers, and are fought after by the natives for food j
but fometimes faid to prove hurtful, having a poifonous quality,
arifing from their being driven by hunger to feed on the Man-
chineel apple, which on fuch occafions does not prove in the leaft
injurious to the bird. They make their nefts in decayed trees,
enlarging the hole with their bill, where it is not of a fize fufficient for the purpofe, lining the infide with feathers. The female
lays two eggs at a time, the fize of thofe of a.Pigeon, and fpotted
like thofe of a Partridge. They breed twice in a year, and the
male and female fit on the neft alternately, as well as reciprocally
nurfe and feed the young birds. Thefe are tamed with great
eafe, but the old birds are quite indocile.    It is faid that the
* Hift. da oif. vol. vi. p. 183%
t Palmier latanitr—perhaps what is called the Maccaw tree. See Hughes Hift.
Barbad. p. liA.—Boraffusftabeliifer. Linn. ?
X Yet fometimes in vaft flights ; for in Anfon's Voyage, after defcribing the;
beauties of a fine water-fall at the north eaft point of the Ifle of Iguibo, " while
we were viewing it," fays he, " there carrie in fight a prodigious flight of Mac-
caws, which hovering over this fpot, and often wheeling and playing on the-
wing about it, afforded a moft brilliant appearance by the glittering of the fim-
on their variegated plumage : fo that fome of the fpeftators canBOfc Refrain from:
a kind of tranfport when they recount the complicated beauties. wMsihj occorreds;
in this extraordinary water-fall."    Anfon's Voy. p. 218.
Maccaws PARROT.
Maccaws in general do not learn to fpeak *, and that their voice
is particularly rough and difagreeable. The flefh is hard, black,
and unfavoury, but makes good foup, and furnifhes a great part
of the food of the inhabitants of Cayenne, as well as other parts of
South America.
This fpecies, in common with other Parrots, is fubject to fits
when kept tame; but, notwithftanding, will live many years,
though the returns be pretty frequent; yet at laft is obferved to
fall a victim to this complaint rather than any other.
It is called in America by the name of Gonzalo f.
L'Ara de la Jamaique, Brif. orn. iv. p. "188. N° 2.
Le petit ara rouge, Buf oif. vi. p. 180.—PL enl. 641. ,
Aracanga Marcgravii, Raii Syn. p. 29. N° 3.
Maccaw from Jamaica, Albin. ii. t. 17.—Brown's Jamaica, p. 472.
The Maccaw, called Aracanga, Will. orn. p. in.
Red and yellow Maccaw, Bancroft. Guian. p. 156.
^rVHE length of this bird is two feet eight inches and a half,
the tail itfelf being one foot eight inches and three quarters.
The bill is like that of the laft: irides luteous : noftrils placed in
a naked white fkin, at the bafe of the upper mandible: the
cheeks are white and naked: general colour of the plumage
fcarlet: rump pale blue: fcapulars luteous, tipped with green:
the eighteen firft quills are blue, with a fhade of violet, the
inner edge blackifh; the others green, variegated with blue and
RED AND
YELLOW
MACCAW.
• This fpecies is faid to fpeak very diftinftly, if inftru&ed when young, but
naturally fqualls very much.    Defer, de Surinam, vol, ii. p. 173.
f Scopol. Ann. Hift, Nat, i, p. 27.
D d purplifh PARROT.
purplifh cheftnut; all the quills have black fhafts, and are of a
dull red beneath: the two middle tail feathers are pale blue
above ; the next are half red half blue ; and the four outer ones
blue, with a tinge of violet next the fhaft: the tail, both of this
and the foregoing, is much cuneated, the two middle feathers
exceeding the two outer ones by thirteen inches and a half: the
whole tail is of a dull red beneath t the legs are brown, and the
claws black.
Mr. Bancroft fays, that this is fomewhat lefs than the former*
and that it is lefs common in Guiana, to which part it is peculiar;.
and adds, that the bill is wholly of a black colour.
Briffon fays, that it inhabits Jamaica, and Brafil likewife, but
fets it down as a diftinct fpecies; while Linnaus and Buffon clearly
think it a variety only of the former. As I have only feen the
firft, I here remark the difference in the PI. enlum.: in the laft
the eye is merely encircled with an irregular, rounded, bare,,
white fkin ; but in the firft, this fkin goes on to the under mandible. If the fame fpecies, it is probable that this laft may be a
bird not come to its full plumage. In Albin's figure there is a
white fpace round the eye, but it does not feem bare of feathers.
MILITARY
MACCAW.
Pfittacus militari.
Largeft Guiana F
Great green Maccaw, Ed'
Lin. Syft. i. p. 139. N° 2.
Bancroft. Guian. p. 15
*jPHE bill is black:  forehead red: body green r  wings and
rump blue : tail red, wedge-fhaped, with the tips of the feathers blue: the cheeks are naked, and marked with flender lines,
compofed of black feathers.
7 Where- . P   A   R   R   O   T,
^Where it inhabits is not mentioned j nor does Linnaus quote
any author; but it furely can be no other than that of Edwards,
mentioned above; if fo, by the outline, which is expreffed as large
as life, it fhould feem to be not far fhort of the fize of the former ones. He fays, that the irides are yellow: under tail coverts mixed with red : quills, and part of the row of feathers
above them, fine fky blue: middle of the back, rump, and upper
tail coverts, blue : infide of the wings, and under the tail, of a
dirty orange^colour : legs dufky flefh-colour.
Mr. Edwards's defcription was taken from a living bird at Ph.
Carteret Webb's, Efq.
Mr. Bancroft's largeft Parrot of Guiana may perhaps prove to
be the fame with the above *. He fays, it is almoft as big as a
Maccaw. It's bill is long, flender, and of a flefh-colour: the
body covered with feathers of a beautiful pea-green : thofe at the
top of the head, and upper edge of the wing, red : tail long,
compofed of green, red, and purple feathers. Thefe, he fays, are
frequent at Demerary, and often fpeak very diflinct. Called by
the natives Acufhe.
"203
* Buffon will have it to be a variety of his Ara vert.   Hift. des oif. vi. p. I BLUE AND
YELLOW
MACCAW.
PARROT.
Pfittacus ararauna, Lin. Syft. i. p. 139. N-°3.—Scop. ann. i. p. 27. N° «».
L'Ara bleu & jaune du Brefil, Brif. orn. iv. 193. t. 20.
v    L'Ara bleu, Buf oif. vi. 191.—/V. enl. 36.—Defcrip. de Surinam, vol. ii.
p. 174.
Pfittacus max. cyanocroc. Aldrov. Raii Syn. p. 28. 1. p. 181. 5.
Aldrov. blue and yellow Maccaw, Will. orn. p. 110. N°i,
Brafilian Ararauna, -        p. nu N° 4. t. 15.
Blue and yellow Maccaw, Edw. t. 159.
Lev. Muf.
^T" HIS is about the fize of the former ones : length two feet
feven inches and a half. Bill black: forehead to the crown,
and the fides of the head,, dull green; the reft of the upper parts,
to the coverts of the tail, are of a fine blue : cheeks and throat
covered with a bare white fkin; each cheek is befet with black:
lines,, compofed of very fhort feathers, which arife at the angles
of the mouthr and paffing beneath the eyes, tend towards the
hind head : eyelids edged: with black: irides pale yellow: from
the lower part of the neck to the tail the plumage is of a faffron-
colour, and in fome birds there is likewife a mixture of faffron-
colour on the wing coverts *: the tail is blue above, and the-
two middle feathers of one plain colour; the reft have the inner
margins inclining to violet, and near the bafe margined with,
blackifh : the tail is much cuneated, as in thofe before noted ::
the legs cinereous : claws black.
Inhabits Jamaica, Guiana-, Brafil, and. Surinam.
+ This I obferve to be the cafe inthe Planches enluminees:. PAR
L'Ara bleu & jaune de la Jamaique, Brif. o.
Pfittac. max. caerul. varius, cauda produdta,
Blue Maccaw, Albin. iii. t. 10.
,N°3,
Var. A.
BLUE
MACC
ALBIN fays, this bird has not thofe feathery lines on
cheeks and throat which are confpicuous in the others ;
that the top of the head in this is blue, where in the other it is
of a dull green, otherwife one defcription might ferve :. but he
errs in fuppofing this to be the female of the red and blue Maccaw, for it furely can be no other than a mere variety of the lafl-
mentioned.
This bird inhabits the fame places with that bird, but is not fo
plenty by far; it does-not herd with it, nor do they even meet
together with civility. The inhabitants know the one from the
other by the cry, which is very different, and fay that it does not
pronounce the word ara fo diftindt as the blue and red Maccaw...
Ea Perriche ara, Buff oif. vi. p. 27
 de Cayenne, PI.
M?
BARRERE is the firft who has mentioned this bi
length eighteen inches, the tail itfelf meafurin
Erom the angles of the mouth to beyond the eyes
feathers: the top and fides- of the head are green, w
of deep blue, fo as in certain afpects to appear intir
throat, fore part-of the neck, and upper part of th
a ftrong tinge of rufous; the reft of the breaft, bel
9 BLACK
MACCAW.
PARROT.
green, but paler than the back: lower part of the belly, and vent,,
red brown: under part of the wings and tail yellowifh green ;
the laft much cuneated : the upper part of the body, wings, and
tail, of a dark green: quills blue, bordered with green, and tipped
with brown on the outer fide.
Inhabits Cayenne and Guiana. The natives of the laft call it
Makavouanne. It is faid to be a bird of paffage, and to frequent
the moifl favannas, like other Maccaws, living like them on the
fruits of the palm. It pronounces the word ara pretty diflinct,
but in a more fharp tone of voice.
, Buf. oif. v
ou Machaoj
De La'e't Defer. Aes Ind. or. p. 490.
DUFFON defcribes this bird from probable hearfay, as a fpecies well known to the inhabitants of Guiana; and fays, that
the, plumage is black, but fo blended with green, that in the fun
it has a moft fplendid appearance : the bill and eyes reddifh : and
the legs yellow.
It differs from the other Maccaws, in that it never approaches
near habitations, keeping on the tops of dry and barren mountains and rocks, and in the inland parts.
Pfittacus obfeurus, Lin. Syft. p. 140. 4.
 Haffelq. Bin. p. 236.  18.
CIZE of a Jay.    Bill black ; feathers furrounding the bafe Of it
alfo black, rough, and befet with hairs : fpace round the eyes
white '.   irides yellow -:   crown variegated with cinereous  and
black: PARROT.
"black t upper parts of the neck and wings black: belly and
thighs cinereous, with tranfverfe hoary lines: tubercles of the
legs black; claws the fame, crooked, and blunt: tail wholly of
an afh-colour, cuneiform.
Inhabits Africa.    The only one who has defcribed this bird is
Haffelquift, from whom Linnaus had his account.   As to that *
which Linnaus refers to in Briffon, it is quite a different fpecies;
and he mentions it as fuch in his h&Mantiffa, 1771, p. 524.
Pfittacus nobilis, Lin. Syft. p.
 nobilis, Muf. Adolp.
140. N° 5.
'R.2.  p.  13.
T INN ALUS quotes here many others, but all of them corre-
"^ fpond with the Parrot of Amazon's, and varieties, fo cannot
be meant as defcriptive of that in the Muf. Adolphi, of which the
following is a copy.
Size of a Turtle. Face naked and white: the body wholly of
a- green colour: bend of the wing fcarlet: quills green: tail
green likewife, and wedge-fhaped.
Inhabits Surinam; Linnaus fays Afia.. P   A   R   R   O   T.
BRASILIAN
GREEN
MACCAW.
Pfittacus -feveru^ %in. Syft. i. p. 140. N°6.
 Scop, Ann. i. p. 37. N° 23.
L'Ara verd du Brefil, Brif. orn. iv. p. 198. N° 6.
L'Ara verd & rouge du Brefil, Brif. orn. iv. p. 202. N° 7.
L'Ara vert, Buf. oif vi. p. 194. t. 8.
L'Ara verd du Brefil, PI. enl. 383.
Maracana , Will. orn. .112. N° 5. 6.
Brafilian green Maccaw, Edw. t. 229.
^TT^HIS bird is equal to the grey Parrot in fize: in length one
foot five inches. The bill is black ; and it has a bare white
fkin on the cheeks, marked with fome lines of black, in which the
eyes are placed : irides of a golden yellow : the general colour of
the plumage is green : the forehead cheftnut purple; at the lower
jaw a ftripe of the fame * : crown blue, which colour blends itfelf
by degrees with the green, as it paffes backwards : on the lower
part of the thighs the feathers are red: edge of the wing crimfon : fome of the wing coverts and quills are blue, and the outer
edge of the laft black: tail above green; near the ends blue;
beneath of a dull red : legs brown : claws black.
I believe this bird to be the fame with the fmall Maccaw of
Shane \, as well as both the green Maccaws of Briffon; the difference confuting, by his defcription, merely in having the forehead brown, the crown a blue green, and the green colour
darker than in the other.
Both of them are common at Jamaica, Guiana, and Brafil.
• This is not expreffed in the Planches enluminees ;
ower part of the thighs.
f Which he fays are common in the woods, and e
'oung are tamed and kept as Parrots.    Sloane Jam. \
s there any red on the
as Pigeons; but when
i. p. 297. N°6.
Pfittacus PARROT.
209
Pfittacus eupatria, Lin, Syft. i. p. 140. N° 7.
La Perruche de Gingi, Brif. orn. iv. p. 343. t. 29. f. I.—-PI. enl. 239.
La grande Perruche a ailes rougeatres, Buf oif. vi. p. 156.
'"PHIS bird meafures twenty-one inches in length. The bill is-
crimfon : round the eyes is a naked reddifh fkin: the
plumage above is of a deep olive green, and beneath of a pale
green, with a mixture of yellow: throat and fore part of the
neck inclining to afh : wing coverts neareft the body of a dull
red ; the others green : quills green, edged, with black: tail thirteen inches in length; the two middle feathers nine inches and
three quarters longer than the two outer ones; the colour green,
with brown fhafts: wings,~ when clofed, reach one-third of the
length of the tail: legs reddifh : claws black.
Inhabits the kingdom of Gingi in the Eaft Indies.
I believe this bird not to be common: I never faw but one,
which, after living many years in the houfe of a friend, at laft
.died, and fell into my poffeffion.
4- GINGI
PARROT.
Pfittacus Japohicus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 141, N° 8.1
La Perruche du Japon, Brif. orn. iv. p. 362.
La Perruche verte & rouge, Buf. oif. vi. p. 159.
Pfitt. erythrochlorus macrour. Japon. Aldrov. Raii Syn. p. 34. N° 3.
Red and yellow, or pale green Parrot of Aldrovandus, Will. orn. p.
feft. 2.
JAPONESE
PARROT.
"I N fize this is equal to the common green Parrakeet: the tail itfelf    Des(
is longer than the whole body, and much cuneated. The bill is
red: iridesthe fame: plumage above green: fcapulars blue: on each
E e fide B   A   R   R   O   T,
fide of the head are two blue fpots; one before, the other behind the
eyes: throat ferruginous red ; from this part the feathers are red,
and the tips marked with longitudinal black lines : the wing coverts have white fhafts : the two firft of the prime quills are green ; -
the others of a deep blue, and all of them have the fhafts white :
the two middle tail feathers are green, with white fhafts ; the
others red, with the fhafts black: legs and claws of a fine
black.
Said to inhabit Japan. Mr. Willughby fufpects this to be fictitious, as Aldrovandus drew his defcription merely from a painting fent out of Japan.
AMBOINA
RED PARROT.
Pfittacus Amboinenfis, Lin. Syft.i. p. 141. N° 9.
Le Perruche rouge d'Amboine, Brif. orn. iv. p. 378.
Le Lori Perruche tricolor, Buf. oif. vi. p. 138.
Perruche rouge d'Amboine, PL enl. 240.
A Little bigger than a Turtle : length fifteen inches and a half.
The bill is red, with a black tip : head, throat, neck, and
under parts, fine fcarlett back, rump, upper tail, leffer under
wing coverts, and the edge of the wing, fine blue: under tail
coverts violet in the middle, furrounded with red : all the quills
are blackifh beneath, but the greater ones above are deep green
on the outer edges and tips, and the inner fide blackifh : the two
middle tail feathers are nine inches and a half in length, and Of a
violet brown; the reft fhorten by degrees, and are of the fame colour on the outer edge only, the inner being blackifh; the two
outmoft on each fide have alfo the inner margin edged with red;
thefe . PARROT.
thefe are fhorter by four inches than thofe of the middle: legs
and claws red.
Inhabits Amboina.
Pfittacus cyan
La Perruche a
ocephalus, Lin. Syft. i
tete blue, Brif orn. i
■Perruche a tet
e blue des Indes orien
BLUE-HEADED
PARROT.
CIZE of a common Parrakeet: length eleven inches and a half.     Description.
The upper mandible is yellow, with a pale afh-coloured tip ;
the lower of a plain afh-colour : eyes in a naked yellowifh fkin :
above, the plumage is green; beneath, yellow green : the forehead inclining to red : the head itfelf is blue: throat violet, inclining to afh : fides of the neck luteous : hind part of the neck,
back, and fcapulars, green: the lower part of the back, rump,
and upper tail coverts, of a fhining green : fore part of the neck
yellow green, lightening into yellow at the fides : from the breaft
to the tail greenifh yellow: wing coverts green: quills green
above, the inner webs and tips deep afh; beneath cinereous;
fhafts black, except that of the firft feather, which is whitifh:
the two middle tail feathers are greenifh, verging to blue at the
ends •, the next the fame, but yellow within ; and the four outer
ones on each fide green on the outer webs, luteous on the inner;
the webs above black, beneath white; all but the two middle
ones tipped with yellow, and the whole tail yellowifh afh-colour
beneath ; the two middle feathers exceed the outer ones by near
four inches : legs.blueifh : claws grey.
Inhabits the Eaft Indies. Place. 14-
RED-
BREASTED
PARROT.
PARROT.
Pfittacus haematodus, Lin.Mant. 1771. p. 524.
La Perruche variee d'Amboine, Brif, orn. iv. p. 364. N° 72.
La Perruche a face bleue, Buf. oif. vi. p. 150.
Perruche d'Amboine, PI. enl. 61.
Red-breafted Parrakeet, Edw. glean, t. 232.
j" ENGTH eleven inches: fize of the common Parrakeet. Bill
yellowifh white: cere yellowifh: feathers round the bill,
taking in half the crown above, and the chin beneath, of a deep
blue; the reft of the head and neck green*; behind the laft a
yellow ring : the upper parts of the body are green : fore part of
the neck and breaft of a fine orange red, edged with deep blue:
upper part of the belly deep green; lower part yellow green,
marked with deeper green: edge of the wing yellow: under
wing coverts red: tail four inches and three quarters in length ;
much cuneated; above green; beneath dirty green: legs blackifh.
Inhabits Amboina.
Perruche des Moluques, Buf. oif \
HPHIS is ten inches long.    The bill reddifh white: the whole
head blue, and a fpot of this colour on the belly : it has the
breaft red, mixed with yellow, but not edged with blue : the tails
of this and the laft are as long as the bodies f.
# In the Planches e;
t In the Planches e
are cheftnut, with duflcy ei
the hind head is brown.
nees the feather* which cover the outfide of the thighs
[ges.
M.k P   A   R   R   O   T.
M. lie Buffon fuppofes this and the laft to be varieties only.   To
"Which I may add a further one, the next defcribed.
Blue-bellied Parrot, Bro'v
Br. Muf.
s Illuftr. j
ev. Muf
BLUE-BELLIED
PARROT.
THE length of this beautiful Parrot is fifteen inches. The
bill is reddifh: orbits black: head and throat dark blue,
with a mixture of lighter blue feathers: back part of the head
green ; towards the throat yellow green: back and wings green :
prime quills dufky, barred with yellow r breaft red mixed with
yellow : .belly of a fine blue : .thighs green and yellow : tail cuneiform ; the two middle feathers green; the others.the fame,
but bright yellow on the outer edges : legs dufky. .
Inhabits Botany Bay in New ..Holland.
L'Ara varie des Moluques, Brif. orn. iv. p. 197; N0'5.
La grande Perruche a bandeau noir, Buf oif vi. p. 158.
Pfitt. orient, exquifit. Loeri dictus, Seba i. p. 63. f. 4. *
Pfitt. capite nigro, collar! viridi, Klein. Av. p. 25. N°i6.
A LITTLE bigger than the Amazon's Parrot: length fourteen
inches, of which the tail is fix inches and three quarters.
The upper part of the head is black : .the neck furrounded with a
collar of green and red: back, rump, fcapulars, wing and tail
coverts, deep blue: throat, fore part of the neck, and breaft, fine
* Seba's figure has three toes before, and two behind, being five in all; no
•!«^oubt, a miftake of the engraver..
light
BLACK-
CROWNED
PARROT. 214
PARROT.
light red: belly, fides, thighs, and under tail coverts, deep green
varied with red : quills deep .blue: tail green above, red beneath, and bordered with black ; in fhape much cuneated.
Inhabits the Molucca I/lands.
Buffon * will not have this called a Maccaw, as he obferves.
that there are none in that part of the world.
Seba fays, his bird came from.Papua.
4- TABUAN
PARROT.
Pt. VII.
Lev. Muf
J ENGTH nineteen inches. Bill black : the forehead very
dark purplifh black : chin and throat dufky purple : round
.the bafe of the under mandible the feathers, which project over it,
are green ; the reft of the head, neck, breaft, and.belly, very deep
crimfon: back, rump, and wing coverts, fine deep green : on the
lower part of the neck, between that and the back, a crefcent of
blue: the baftard wing, and prime quills, are fine deep blue;
fecondaries green, fringed with blue: tail cuneiform'; the two
middle feathers eight inches in length, of a deep blue, deeply
margined with green, with ends of the laft colour; all the others
deep blue ; the fhafts of all of them black: the legs dufky.
This is a beautiful. fpecies, and is found .at' TongoTabboo, and
the other Friendly Ifles in the South Seas.
'. Hift, des oif, vi. p. 202.   PARROT.
Le petit Lpri Papou, Son. Voy, p. 175. t. in.
CIZE of the Lory Parrakeet: length fixteen inches. Bill
hooked, fharp at the end, and of a red colour : head, neck,
and breaft, of a bright carmine red : on the back part of the
head a fpot of blue; beneath this are two crefcents of black:
wings green, fhort; the green colour extends acrofs the middle
of the back, forming there a large fpot; the reft of the back to
the tail is of a bright red, with a ftreak of blue down the middle :
on each fide of the wing, juft at the bafe, is an oblong yellow
fpot, and juft above each thigh a large fpot of the fame: the
belly and under tail coverts are red : tail cuneiform, and longer
than all the reft of the bird; it is green for two thirds of its
length, the reft yellow: .legs of a bright red.
Inhabits Papua.
PAPU.^NLORY.
Description.
CIR Jofeph Banks is in poffeflion of one of thefe birds, which
anfwers to the above defcription; but I obferve, in his fpecimen, that the breaft inclines much to purple; and acrofs the
belly is a band of black, .edged with green on the upper part:
the middle tail feathers are eleven inches in length; the outer
ones only three inches.
"IN the Leverian Mufeumthere are likewife two further varieties,.
The firft of thefe is as big in the body, but the tail fcarcely
half the length: the hind part of the neck blue black, and the
5 feathers- P   A   k   R   O   T.
feathers fomewhat longer than the reft: the general colour of the
plumage fcarlet: on the middle of the back, between the wings,
a fmall yellow fpot:'between this and the rump blue, with a
mixture of green: fides of the body and thighs yellow: wings
green: .quills dufky.
T
HE other wants the blue black on the hind head: the middle of the belly is green : and the yellow on the fides comes
:fo forward on the breaft as almoft to form a crefcent on that
part: wings and tail the fame as in the other. The colour of the.
back could not be decided, as the bird was clofed in a glafs cafe,
and the wings wholly covered that part.
LONG-TAILED
SCARLET
LORY.
'Pfittacus Borneus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 141. N° 11.
La Perruche rouge de Borneo, Brif orn. iv. p. 373. N° 77.
Le Lori Perruche rouge, N° 1. Buf. oif vi. p. 137.
Long-tailed fcarlet Lory, Edw.t. 173.
T N length eight inches and a half. Bill orange-coloured : eye
in a bare dufky fkin : colour all over of a fine fcarlet, except
the top of the wing, which is green : fome of the wing feathers
are tipped with blue, and others with green : the tips of all the
tail feathers are greenifh, and the two outer ones" of a greenifh
colour: the whole length on the outfide the tail is cuneated;
the two middle feathers longer by an inch and a half than the
outer ones : the under tail coverts are of a dull red, fringed with
blue : on the neck andbreaft is a flight mixture of yellow: legs
dufky.
J do PARROT,
I do not find any one who has defcribed it before Edward's;
he purchafed it fluffed at a toy-fhop, and was informed that it
came from Borneo, in the Eaft Indies.
2t?
La Perruche rouge des Iudes, Brif. orn. iv. p. 376. t. 25. f. 2,
Le Lori Perruche violet & rouge, N° 2. Buf. oif, vi. p. 138.
Perruche des Indes orientales, PL enl. 143.
INDIAN LORY
*TPHIS is a trifle bigger than the laft, being in length ten inches Description.
■*■ and three quarters, of which the tail makes up one-third.
The bUl is reddifh ; tip black : forehead, hind part, and fides of
the head and throat, fcarlet: crown, hind part of the neck, and
the breaft, inclining to violet blue : on each fide of the head- is a
ftripe of the fame colour, reaching from the corner of the eye,
and joining the violet at the back part of the neck : the fore part
of the neck is pale red, mixed with brown and violet: back and
fcapulars brown, with a flight mixture of red: lower part of the
back, the rump, and upper tail coverts, deep red: belly, fides,
thighs, and lower tail coverts, red, brown, and violet blue,
mixed: under the wings fcarlet: greater quills pale brown; the
fecondaries tipped with violet brown '. tail four inches and three
quarters in length ; the two outer feathers much fhorter than the
middle ones: legs^ and claws brown.
Inhabits Amboina. Place.
BEAUTIFUL
LORY.
LENGTH fifteen inches.    Bill yellowifh brown:   round the    _
J    j Description
bafe of the under mandible and chin fine blue: head, neck,
rump, and under parts, crimfon; the laft paleft: back brown;
F f each PARROT.
each feather margined with dullifh red, between which and the-
brown, on each feather, runs a line of green : fhoulders pale blue,,
mixed with a little red : on the lower part of the back the feathers have a greater depth of red at the margin ; and, as the feathers approach the rump, by covering one another, appear all'
red : wing coverts plain brown ; many of the outer ones, and the
bend of the wing, pale blue; but on the laft is a little mixture of-"
red: quills dufky, with deep blue edges: fecondaries the fame,..
edged with red, with a line of green between, as in the back: tail'
cuneiform, feven inches long; general colour greenifh brown; the
two middle feathers green down the fhafts; all of them margined
on the outer webs with blue, and, except the middle ones, have-
the tips whitifh: legs dufky.
I am indebted to Sir Jofeph Banks for this defcription, having*;
a perfect fpecimen in his poffeffion.
Native place uncertain.
¥ ENGTH twelve inches. Bill lead-colour; point yellow::
head, neck, and breaft, deep dull crimfon :. the upper parts,
or the body, wings, and tail, green: the quills dufky, with blue-
edges: the tail cuneiform, and four inches in length: the legs
are black.
Place uncertain.    It appears to me as  a variety of the laft;,
perhaps the other fex. #   A   R   R   0   T.
259
Le petit Lori de'Gueby, Son.'Voy. p. 174. t. 169.
LeLori rouge & violet, Buf. oif. vi. p. 135.
Lori de Gueby, Pi. enl. 684.
*"1pHIS is faid to be half the' fize of the Amazons Parrot. Bill
and irides the colour of fire : head, throat, back, belly, and
wing coverts, of as bright a red as carmine: quills black, with a
tranfverfe band acrofs their whole breadth : tail red brown.
Inhabits Gueby *..
Mr. Sonnerat is not fufficiently explicit in his defcription ; but I
•am clear that -he means the very fame bird now in my poffefTion,
-as it anfwers in every particular to his defcription-. In my bird,
the length is nine inches and a half: the fize is that of the Lory
Parrakeet. The band acrofs the wings is of the fame carmine
with the reft of the body, with, the addition of a broad ring of
purple, beginning at the lower part of the neck behind, and
pafiing to the breaft, where it occupies a broad fpace: there is
alfo a bed of blackifh purple on the belly: the tail is cuneiform ;
the outer feather an inch fhorter than the middle ones: the legs
are dufky. I mention this, fuppofing Mr. Sonnerat's bird not
having yet come to its full colour, which fome Parrots do not
arrive at for two or three years. This beautiful creature I had
prefented to me, on its,. death, by the Right Hon. Lady Mary
Scott, who kept it alive for feveral years, during which time it was
perfectly docile.
• I fancy this is laid down in our maps by the nai
ifland between Gilolo and NewGuinea,
of Gibby,  a  fmall
Perroquet VIOLET LORY.
DESCRIPTION.
P   A   R   R   O
Perroqaet violet, Ftrm, Defer, de Surin. vol. ii. p. 175.
'T^HE bill is black; very ftrong: iris of a gold-colour: the
head, and all the upper parts, of a fine crimfon : breaft and
belly fine violet: the head appears as if divided from the body
by a line of violet,, which paffes on each fide to the violet on the
breaft,. giving, it the ^appearance of the firing of a fhoe-maker's.
apron*: the fcapulars are of a fine blue: wings and tail-green.
and red; whether the laft be long or fhort:not mentioned.
Inhabits the coafts of the Amazons Country. I may furely venr
ture to place this as a variety of the laft, rather than, a diftinct
foecies.-
VARIEGATED
LORY.
T ENGTH from ten to eleven inches: in fize lefs than the
fcarlet Lory. Bill dufky: general colour of the plumage
deep fcarlet: the lower part of the neck, and beginning of the
back, and round to the breaft, the belly, and vent, are of 9. fine
purplifh blue, but inclining to a greenifh.black on the lower part
of the belly : the upper part of the wings is wholly red; the
quills are dufky at the ends, hut on the. inner webs yellow : the
wing, when lifted up, appears beneath to have one. third from the
fhoulder red and yellow mixed; the middle yellow; and the ends
dufky: the tail is very little cuneated; the feathers green; the
• Semble former le collier d'un tablier de Cordonnier.   Fermin.
infide PARROT.
infide  near the  bafe reddifh ;   the outer edge near  the ends
blue.
This is a moft beautiful bird, and is faid to have come from the ?lkqk.
Eaft Indies.
The three laft feem to bear great affinity to three mentioned by
Pernetty *, but his defcription of them is too imperfect to be
relied on.
Lori noir de la Nouvelle Guinee, Son. Voy. p. 175. t. in;
■ ■ Forreft's Voy. to New Guinea, p. 1
BLACK LORY.
CIZE of the common Parrakeet. Bill blackifh:. eye in a bare,
brown fkin: iris compofed of two circles; the- greater one
blue, and the leffer red brown:. the plumage black, with a tinge
of blue, which has at once both a metalline glofs, as well as the
foftnefs of velvet: the tail is cuneiform, but not in a great degree, but is long; it is black above, and of. a. dull red beneath;
legs blackifh.
Inhabits New Guinea.
FJittacus ornatus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 143. N° 19.:
La Perruche variee des Indes, Brif. orn, iv. p. 366. N° 730
La Perruche Lori, Buf oif vi. p. 145.
Perruche variee des Indes orientales, PI. enl, 552..
Lory Parrakeet, Edw, iv, 1.174,
LORY
PARRAKEET.
^
^TpHE length of this beautiful fpecies is eight inches.. The
■*■ bill of a pale orange-:: cere brownifh: eyes placed in a bare
afti-coloured fkin: iris orange red : the upperpart of the head is PARROT.
of a fine black blue: on the hind head is a crimfon" crefcent* *
with the points towards the eyes:  on each fide of the head, behind and above the eyes, is a fine black blue fpot: behind this
is another of a yellowifh colour, placed longitudinally : on fides of
the  head under the eyes, the throat, the fore part of the neck,
and breaft, the feathers are fcarlet, edged with blackifh  green -:I
hind part of the neck, back, rump, fcapulars, upper wing and
tail  coverts, belly,  thighs,  and fides, green :   on each fide of
the neck is a yellow longitudinal flripe : the feathers on the mid- I
die of the back, and fides of the belly, are tipped with yellow-: I
quills green on the outer, dark brown or blackifh on the inner
webs: tail three inches and a half long; the two middle feathers
green; the others the fame, but with yellowifh ends; beneath
reddifh : legs and claws cinereous.
Inhabits the Eaft Indies. Mr. Bancroft * mentions the Lory
Parrakeet of Edwards being in Guiana, and defcribes it as " being
of a yellowifh green, with a long tail ; the hinder part of
the head and throat red, but the top and fides of the head blue.'*
According to Buffon, this mufl have been one imported into
Guiana, as he does not allow of two climates for the fame .
Parrot.
* Hift. of Guiana, p. 16-2. PARROT.
La Perruche rouge hupee de Java, Brif. orn. iv. p. 381. 80.
La Perruche huppee, Buf. oif. vi. p. 160.
Pfittacus parvus Bontii, Raii Syn. p. 34. N° 5.
Bontius's fmall Parrakeet, Will. orn. p. 120. N° 7.
CIZE of a Lark. Bill grey : cere whitifh : eyes black, and
placed in a bare filvery white fkin : the head is crefted : the
general colour of the plumage fcarlet: throat grey : fore part of
the neck and breaft rofe-colour: fcapulars and wing coverts red
and green mixed:. quills the fame : the tail is long, reaching ten
inches beyond the wings when clofed : the two middle feathers
are fcarlet;. the others of a rofe-colour tipped with blue, and have
a mixture of green.
Inhabits Java. Willughby fays of this bird, that when " exr
pofed to the fun, it reprefents a thoufand varieties of fhining colours, and can hardly beexpreffed by a painter." He alfo adds,,
that thefe Parrots are 4 found chiefly in the midland countries,
and that they rooft and build on the higheft trees. They fly in
companies, and with a great noife, as do the whole tribe of Parrots. They are alfo garrulous, and learn to pronounce fome.
words, if they he kept tame."
CRESTFD   RED-
PARRAKEET. PARROT,
YELLOW-
HEADED
PARROT.
La petite Perruche jaune des Brefil,
Le Jendaya, Buf. oif. vi. p. 262.
Jendaya, Raii Syn. p. 34. N°5-
  Will. orn. p. 116. feft. 4
399. N°gl.
CIZE of a Blackbird.    Bill black: orbits naked, white : irides
gold-colour: colour of the plumage green above, yellow beneath : bottom of the belly green : head and neck yellow : legs
^nd claws black.
Inhabits Brafil, and called Jendaya. M. de Buffon has ventured
to place this among the long-tailed fpecies, though Briffon has
ranked it with the fhort-tailed ones: in fact, neither of them
knows for certain, as they are both copyifts of Marcgrave, who
does not mention the fhape of the tail.
27.
ANGOLA
YELLOW
PARROT.
p. 371. N° 76.
pfittacus folftitialis, Lin. Syft.i. p. 141. ]
La Perruche jaune d'Angole, Brif. orn. iv.
Le Perruche jaune, Buf oif vi. p. 147.
Langfchwantzrger gelber papagey, Frifch.
Pfittacus aurantius, J. Fr. Miller, pi. 5.
Parroquet from Angola, Albin. iii. t. 13.
Lev. Muf
T ENGTH eleven inches and a half: fize of a Turtle. Bill
greenifh afh-colour: eyes and bafe of the bill furrounded
with a pale afh-coloured fkin: irides dull yellow: general colour
of the plumage orange yellow: the back and wing coverts marked
with yellow green fpots': the rump and upper tail coverts yellow green: fides and thighs red •: wing coverts neafeft the body
yellowifh P   A   R   R-O   T.
yellowifh green, edged with orange yellow; thofe fartheft from
the body blue: greater quills blue on the outfide, and of a yellowifh green within; the leffer ones of the laft colour: the fix
middle tail feathers yellowifh green; the three outfide ones the
fame, but blue on the outer edge : tail wedge-fhaped: legs and
claws reddifh.
Inhabits Angola; but Albin, though he has given it this title,
fays it came from the Eafi Indies, and adds, that it learns to
talk.
In Frifch, the bill is red-brown, and round the eye the fkin is
La Perruche jaune du Brefil, Brif. orn. iv. p. 369.
Le Guarouba ou Perriche jaune, Buf. oif. vi. p. 272.
Perruche jaune de Cayenne, PL enl. 525.
Quijubatui, Raii Syn. p. 35.
 Will. orn. p. 117. fed. 4, at the end.
-BRASILIAN
YELLOW
PARROT.
HTHIS beautiful fpecies is lefs than the common Parrakeet: the
length  about eleven inches.    Bill grey:   eyes black:   the
whole bird of a fine yellow, except the greater quills, which are
green: the tail is yellow, cuneated, and pretty long;
Inhabits Brafil, fometimes in the Amazons Country *, but not
found at Cayenne. It is called by the natives Guiaruba, which
fignifies yellow bird. It does not learn to talk. It is a folitary
bird, and not difficult to tame. The natives, in the fale of it, fet
a  great price, on account of its fcarcity; however, the  bird
• Hift. des oif. vi. p.
Gg
which 28.
Var. A.
MEXICAN
"KELLOW
PARROT.
1
PARROT.
which M. de Buffon fpeaks of* is fome variety of this fpecies, as
he fays it has a mixture of green on the wing coverts, as well as a
ntlixoire of colours in the tail feathers, the points of which are
violet blue: the middle of the tail and the rump are green, bordered with yellow : reft of the body faffron or orange-colour.
I have one of thefe birds, as defcribed by Willughby, in my collection ; and there i*another in the poffeflion of Capt. Davies j and
I remember likewife to have feen a third, which was a triSe lefs in
fize, and had a mixture of here and there a green feather throughout the whole plumage; but the tail was of a pure yellow. I
make no doubt of this being a young bird, and that M. de Buffon*^
was either fo, or differing in fex.
La Perruche jaune du Mexique, Brif orn. iv. p. 370.
Avis Cocho, Pfittaci Mexicani fpecies, Seb. i. t. 64. f
TN fize it is equal to the common Parrakeet: length eleven
inches. Bill reddifh r the bead.is of a pale" red: the neck of
an orange red : back, rump, breaft, belly,- fides, thighs, upper and-
under tail coverts, light yellow : upper wing coverts varied with-
green, red, and orange: quills green :: tail wedge-fhaped, and of
a pale yellow.
Inhabits Mexico : fuppofed to be a variety of the laft j\
* See Planches enluminees, 525.
t Hift. dtt oif. vi. p. 274, (i) PARROT.
227
Pfittacus Carolinenfis, Lin. Syft. i. p. 141. N° 13.—Scop. Ann, i. p. t<), N° 25. 29.
La Perruche de la Caroline, Brif. orn. iv. p. 350. -PL enl. 499. »^d?o'?E
La Fernche a tete jaune, Buf. oif. vi. p. 274.
Perroquet, N°7. Fermin. Defcrip. de Surinam, ii. p. 176 *?
Parrot of Carolina, Catefib. Car. i. t. ti.
Caroline Parrot, Amer. Zool. N°
CIZE of the green Parrakeet: length thirteen inches.    Bill yel-    Description*
lowifh white : both that and the eyes furrounded with a naked,
pale, afh-coloured fkin: irides yellow : fore part of the head
orange: back part of the head, nape, and throat, yellow: lower
part of the neck behind, the back, rump, breaft, belly, fides,
upper and lower tail coverts, green : thighs the fame, but thofe
next the joint orange: edge of the wing orange: wing coverts
above green; the leffer ones beneath green, the greater brown:
quills brown on the infide, yellow on the outfide at the bafe, then
green, with the tips inclining to blue : the fecondaries green.
above: all the quills brown beneath: tail much cuneated, and
green: legs and claws hoary.
This bird inhabits Guiana, migrating into Carolina and Virginia
in autumn. Catefby obferves, that it feeds on corn and kernels of
fruits, particularly thofe of cyprefs and apples: comes in autumn
into Carolina in vaft flights, doing great damage in orchards, by
tearing to pieces the fruits to get at the kernels, the only part
which is agreeable to them. They have been known to build
their nefts in Carolina, but the major part retire fouth in breeding-
time, returning again when thofe fruits are ripe which attract them.
Pla.
Ma:
* If this be the fame bird, he merely fays that the h<
thighs, are yellow; the reft of the body of a very fine green.
Gg2 PARROT.
ILLINOIS
PARROT.
Pfittacus pertinax, Lin. Syft. i. p. 142. N° 15.
La Perruche Illinoife, Brif. orn. iv. p. 353, N° 6S.—PI. enl. 528.
L'Aputejuba, Buf. oif. vi. p. 269. t. 13.
Kleiner lang fchwartziger grune Papagey, &c. Frifch. t. 54.
Tui Aputejuba, Raiifyn. p. 34. N° 2.
Tui fpecies fecunda, Raiifyn. p. 18is. N° 6.—Will. orn. p. 116.
Yellow -faced Parrakeet, Edw. t. 234.
Illinois Parrot, Am. Zool. N°
CIZE of a common Parrakeet: length nine inehes and a half.
The bill is of a light afh-colour: eyes and upper mandible
placed in a naked afh-coloured fkin : irides deep orange :* general colour green above, yellow green beneath : the forehead,
cheeks, and throat, fine orange : crown of the head deep green ;.
paleft toward the hind head, where it is mixed with yellow : fore
part of the neck cinereous green: on the belly a few orange
fpots: quills blue green, inner margins and fhafts blackifh; the
five next the body green : tail cuneated ; the two middle feathers
exceed the outer one by an inch and three quarters ; it is green
above; the two middle feathers plain; fome of the others have
cinereous margins, and others yellowifh ones : legs deep afh :
claws brown.
This inhabits Brafil, and is common at Guiana as well as
Cayenne; they call it at this laft place Perruche-poux de bois*, as it
* Wood Loufe Parrot. This infea belongs to the Termes genus of Linnaus,
and is called by the Englifh in the Weft Indies, White or Wood Ant; in Africa,
Fag Vague, or Bugabug: the devaluation of which is too well known in the parts
where they frequent. Confult Adanfon's Voy. to Senegal, 8vo. p. 153, 179.—•
Bofman's Voy. to Guinea, p. 276, 493.—Sloan. Jam. vol. ii. p. 221, CSV. C3V.—
See alfo a curious and entertaining paper on this fubjeft by Mr. Smeathman,
Phil. Tranf, vol. lxxi. p. 139.
generally PARROT.
generally makes its neft in the habitations of thefe infects.
It remains the whole year at Guiana, frequenting the favannas,
and other open places. This fpecies migrates far northward, being
exceeding common all up the banks of the Ohio, and the fouthern
fhores of Lake Erie—often feen in great numbers together, con-
fifting at leaft of five hundred in a flock, and living, among other
things, on cheftnuts, acorns, and wild peas—like Rooks, have an
out-centinel to warn them of approaching enemies; and when
difturbed, fet up an horrible outcry all together. Their flefh is
accounted admirable by fome, being well relifhed both by the
French and Indians. The Englifh are not fo fond of it ; but I have
been told by fome, that Parrot foup, well made, is an excellent
difh.
Lev. Muf
CIZE pretty large.    Bill dufky : head and neck yellow :  the
reft of the body palifh green : tail cuneiform : vent crimfon :
quills and end of the tail feathers blue.
A fpecimen in the Leverian Mufeum, but not known from
whence it came: I certainly think from the Eaft Indies or China,
as I have feen a drawing very like the above-defcribed, if not the
fame, which was taken from an original in that part of the
world.
VISON-
vJTED
LROT. 130
PARROT.
EMERALD
PARROT.
_Za Penruche emeraude, Buf. oif. vi. j. 26*.
Perruche des terres Magellaniques, PL enl. 85.
Description.     T ENGTH thirteen inches.    Bill dufky: the whole of this bird
is of a fine gloffy green, except the lower part of the belly,
vent, and tail, which are of a ferruginous cheftnut: the tail is.
pretty long, and green at the tips: legs dufky.
Placi. This is faid to come from the Straits of Magalhaen: but it may
be juftly doubted. No bird of this genus has been known to
vifit naturally farther than forty-three degrees north of the line;
and it is fcarce probable, that on the fouthern fide one fhould be
found in a place whofe latitude is more than fifty : indeed
Forfter, in his Voyage*, rather wonders at meeting with Parrots
in Dufky Bay, New Zealand, whofe latitude is not more than
forty-fix.
LONG-TAILED
GREEN
PARRAKEET.
Pfittacus rufiroftris, Lin. Syft. i. p. 142. N° 18.
La Perruche, Brif orn. iv. p. 319. N° 54.—PI. enl. 550.
Le Sincialo, Buf. oif. vi. p. 265.
Tui, N° 1. Raii Syn. p. ^A.—Will. orn. p. 116.
Sniall green long-tailed Parrakeet, Brown. Jam. 472.
Long-tailed green Parrakeet, Edw. iv. t. 175,
CIZE of a Blackbird: length twelve inches and a quarter.    The
upper mandible blood red, and black at the point; the under
wholly black: eyes in a bare fkin, which with the cere is flefh-
coloured: irides orange : general colour of the plumage yellow
•'Vol. i. p. 158. PARROT.
green : edge of the quills yellowifh : the two middle tail feathers
are longer than the outfide ones by five inches : legs and claws
flefh- colour.
Inhabits various parts of America.
Bancroft tells us that it is in Guiana, and that the tait feathers are blue at the point. It is called Sincialo * at 5/. Domingo.
It is very noify in its natural flate, and eafily learns to talk,
whiftle, and imitate the voices of the animals within its hearing.
Thefe fly in troops, and alighting on trees well cloathed with
green, it is a difficulty to find them,, though great numbers fettle*
©n the fame tree. They are very lively, and are eafily tamed;
but, like many others of the race, when kept in a houfe, will
alwavs join in the difcourfe at a time one would moft wifh them
to be filent. In their native places they are accounted good food,
being at times very fat, and not unfavoury.
La Perruche de la Guadaloupe, Brif. em. iv. p. 330.
Green Parrot of Guiana, Bancr. Guian. p. 161.
CIZE of a Thrufli. The bill is flender, and flefh-coloured: the
irides are outwardly reddifh, but afh-coloured near the pupil:
the eye ia furrounded by an afh-coloured fkin, one line in
breadth: the whole plumage is green, with a variety of fhades:
to which Briffon adds, that the tail is cuneated, and the legs and
claws are whitifh.
Inhabits Brafil and Guadaloupe.
• Sincialo is one of the provinces of St, Domingo, whence perhaps its name.
Will, orn, p. u&
% Mr.. PAVOUANE
PARROT.
PARROT.
Bancroft* fays that it is the moft numerous'-of all Parrokeets
in Guiana; and that it is alfo found in Terra Firma, as well as in
fome of the Caribbee Iftands.
a Perruche de la Guiane, Brif orn. iv. p. 331. N° 59. t. 28. f. 1.
a Perriche Pavouane, Buf. oif. vi. p. 255.
Perruche de la Guiane, PI. enl. 407. ayoung bird.
 de la Guiane, PI. enl. 167. in full plumage.
Lev. Muf.
TT is one foot in length. The bill is whitifh; tip cinereous:
cere whitifh : parts above deep green; beneath paler : cheeks
fpotted with red: under leffer wing coverts fcarlet; the greater
of a fine yellow-, the quills beneath are dull yellow; -at the margins near the tips blackifh; but above they are the fame colour
as the back, and margined with yellowifh grey within : the fhafts
of all of them, except the three neareft the body, are black : tail
in length fix inches and a quarter; the two middle feathers are
longer than the outer ones by three inches: legs grey: claws
bjackifh. y.--£$:{-*&
•   Inhabits Guiana.
Buffon  obferves,   that  when   young,   thefe   birds   have   not I
the^fides of the head and neck fpotted with red, nor do thefe
fpots appear till the birdis,fiwo or three years old ;. but the Under
wing coverts are red, even in the young birds, thoughitt>f' a paler
colour.    This is very common at Cayenne, and found in the Ca->
* He adds, that at Guiana there is a red-headed one, differing only in having •
the feathers of its head .diverfified with crimfon fpots.    Hift. of Guiana, p. 162.
Green Parrots with long tails  (Pfittacus  articularius)  are very numer'tfas at |J
JSurajte.    Toreen. Voy. vol. ii. p. 200.
1     6 ribbee   ' PARROT.
vibbee IJlands likewife. It is of all the Parrakeets the apteft to
talk plain, and, though kept for a long time confined, always
fhews a peculiar wildnefs in its nature. It is called at Guiana by
the name of Pavouane. Thefe fly in numbers, frequent favannas
and woods, and are very fond of the fruit of the tree I'immortel*.
I take Sir A. Lever's fpecimen to be a flight variety. The
head in his bird is of a dufky blue, as far as the middle of the
crown: the under parts of the body incline much to olive ^ the
bill and legs lead-coloured: the under wing coVerts crimfon, but
no yellow, as in the above-mentioned bird. This fpecimen came
from Cayenne, and is full thirteen inches in length.
La Perruche-de I'Ifle de Lucon, Sonner. Voy. p. 80. t. 44.
''"pHIS is double the fize of the common Parrakeet. Round the
bill the feathers are of a bright green: the bill is very large,
•and flefh-coloured : eyes in proportion very fmall: irides white :
the top of the head is blue: the upper parts of the body of a
grafs green ; beneath of a yellowifh green : the under part of the
tail grey green : leffer wing coverts black, bordered with yellowifh brown; greater coverts black alfo, but bordered with
blue, and this again edged with yellowifh brown, forming all together a large fpot on the wings of a beautiful appearance: the
tail feathers are longilh and cuneiform : legs blackifh.
Inhabits the ifland of Luzonia.
VARIED-
WINGED
PARROT.
[ Erythrina corallodendron,    Lin A R R- O T.
BLUE-
COLLARED
PARROT.
La Perruche a Collier de l'Ifle de Lucon, Son. Voy. p. 80. t. 43.
CIZE of the common Parrakeet. Bill and irides red : head,
neck, and belly, greyifh green : on the neck is a band of light
blue, forming a collar: w.ipgs and back grafs green: at the beginning of each wing is a large deep red fpot: tail cuneiform;
the two middle feathers are much longer than the reft, and graf*
green ; the others of a greyifh green : legs blackifh grey.
Inhabits the ifiand of Luzonia.
+. ALEXANDRINE
PARRAKEET.
Pfittacus Alexandri, Lin. Syft. i. p. 141. N8 14.—Scop. Ann. i. p. 29. N826*
La grande Perruche a Collier d'un rouge vif, Buf. oif. vi. p. 141.
Perruche a Collier des Ifles Maldives, PI. enl. 642.
Pfittacus torquatus macrourus, Raii Syn. p. 33. N° 1.
Ring Parrakeet, Will. orn. p. 115.—Edw. pi. 292.
Lev. Muf
CIZE of a Pigeon. Bill red: general colour of the plumage
green ; paleft on the under parts: the throat is black, palling
behind to meet a crefcent of red at the back part of the neck: at
the bend of the wing a purplifh fpot: the tail * is longer than
the body, green fringed with blue, and of a pale yellow beneath:
legs dufky.
This fpecies inhabits the fouthern part of the continent of
* I find authors differ much in the length : Buffon makes it fifteen inches long
in the whole : Willughby fays the tail is fix inches long : Scopoli, that it is near
a foot". This will be the cafe in all long-tailed birds; and perhaps it would be
better to judge by bulk than length in fuch birds.
Afia, n
PARROT.
Afia, alfo the neighbouring ifles, and Ceylon. It is moft probable
that Alexander might mean this Parrot, as the laft ifland his army
vifited was Ceylon, from whence therefore he might have had
them.
I have.received this from th€ Eafi Indies*>■:
La Perruche a Collier, Brif. orn. iv. p. 323. N°55.
La Perruche a Collier couleur de rofe, Buf oif. vi. p. 152.—?/. enl
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
T ENGTH fifteen inches and a quarter: fize of a Blackbird.
The upper mandible is blood red, with a black tip; the
lower one black : irides yellow : eyes furrounded with a flefh-
coloured fkin : the general colour is pale green: throat black :
round the neck is a ring of a light rofe-colour: the hind head inclines to violet: tail nine inches long, and much cuneated, the
two middle feathers exceeding the outer ones by feven inches:
the legs are afh-coloured : claws grey brown. This bird, as far
as I have obferved, does not gain the ring round the neck the
firft year at leaft, as I have feen feveral which were quite plain
when they were at firft imported, and gained the ring at the next
year's moult.
This bird is a native of Africa, and not of America, as M.
Briffon makes it: indeed it is frequently imported from various
parts of America and the Weft Indies, but has been firft carried to
thofe parts, by the fhips in the flave-trade, from Senegal. If this
fpecies be allowed to be the Parrot defcribed by Aldrovand (as
fome think) as one known both to the Romans and Greeks, the
circumftance muft be impoffible, if the bird was of American
H h 2 origin :
ROSE-RINGED
PARRAKEET. 236* PAR   R   O   T.
origin: as Parrots are feldom known to traverfe far-acrofs the
ocean;, neither was America at that time known.
PURPLE-
RINGED
PARRAKEET.
La Perruche a Collier des Indes, Brif. o
Bracelet Parrakeet from the Eaft Indies,
..■ iv. p. 326. N° 56..
4Ibin. ii. pi. 18.
T ENGTH feventeen Inches. The upper mandible orange;.
the lower black: irides yellow. It differs from the laft in
having the fkin round the eyes brown: the crown of the head of:
a blueifh green : the ring purple: and the fore part of the neck.
and breaft-pale rofe-colour.
Inhabits the Eaft Indies..
DOUBLE-
RINGED
PARRAKEET.
Pfittacus Alexandri, Lin. Syft. i. p. 142. N° 14. y.
La Perruche a. Collier de I'-Ifle de Bourbon, Brif. orn. iv. p. 328. N° 57*
t. 27. f. 1.
La Perruche-a double Collier, Buf. oif. vi. p. 143.
Perruche a Collier de l'Ifle de Bourbon, PL enl. 215.
Descriptio-n
T ENGTH thirteen inches and a half. Bill nearly as the
others : parts above green ; beneath yellow green : the ring
round the neck, is rofe-colour, broadefl before; above it the
plumage has a little mixture of blue green: under the throat rifes
a yellow ftripe, which meets the rofe-coloured ring: on the fides
of the neck, above the ring, is a narrow black ftrip.e, which
reaches on. each fide to the lower mandible: the tail is green
above, and yellow afh beneath;, the two middle feathers longer
than the outer- ones by nearly four-inches.
0 Inhabits F A   R   R   Q   T;
Inhabits the Ifle of Bourbon, and other parts in. the fame lati-
titude, both in Africa and the Indies..
Pfittacus Alexandri, Lin. Syft. i. p. 142. N° 14-J.
La Perruche a.tete blue des Indes, Brif orn. App. p. 129.
La Perruche a tete d'Azur, Buf. oif. vi. p. 148.
Blue-headed Parrakeet, Edw. t. 292.
CIZE of a Pigeon. Bill red:. eyes contained in a naked fleflv'
coloured fkin : irides orange :■ head and throat fine blue : the
reft of the plumage green, paleft beneath; except the quills^
which are cinereous beneath,, and blue on the edges : on the
upper wing coverts is a fpot of yellow: tail above blue; dull
yellow beneath; the two middle feathers thirteen inches long ?■
the outer ones very fhort: legs and claws, afh-coloured.
Inhabits India.
57-
Var. D.
AZURE-
HEADED
PARRAKEET.
Description.
Pfittacus Jai
s Voy. vol. i. p. 156.
CIZE lefs than the laft. Upper mandible pale red ; the lower
pale yellow : cere black: the head every where covered with
fliort feathers of a pale blue and pale yellow : temples black : all
the other parts of the bird are grafs-green, except the throat and
breaft, which are of a pale red : the wings are light grey beneath;
but five of the wing coverts are yellow: tail yellowifh: legs
greenifh grey.
Inhabits Java, where it is univerfally expofed to fale. Mr.
Ofibeck' likens this to the Alexandrine, as a variety; and, on that
fuppofition, I give it this place.
Var. E.-
JAVAN
PARRAKEET.
Description. 23*
PARROT.
3«-
MUSTACHOE
PARRAKEET.
La Perruche a, Mouftaches, Buf. oif. vL p. 149.
Perruche de Pondichery, PL enl. 517.
Lev. Muf.
■^TTIIS is about eleven inches in length. The forehead, from
one eye to the other, is black : from the under jaw on each
•fide arifes a black flripe, which paffes to the fides of the throat,
where it is wider than at its origin, and appears like a mufta-
choe; the reft of the face is white and blueifh : the back is of a
deep green : the wing coverts are marked with yellow; and the
quills are deep green: the breaft is the colour of lilac : the .tail k
about half the length of the bird; above green; beneath ftraw-
colour.
This, according to Buffon, has net been mentioned before.
Inhabits Pondicherry.
BEARDED
PARRAKEET.
T ENGTH from the bill to the rump feven inches. Bill red;
the under mandible paleft: crown of the head green: between the bafe of the bill and the eyes cheftnut: from the noftrils
to the eye a line of brown : from under the chin fprings a ftreak
of black, paffing downwards on each fide a little way, like a beard
or whifker, half an inch broad : nape of the neck bloffom-colour:
general colour of the reft of the body green, paleft on the under
parts : the quills dufky, edged with blue: legs dufky: the tail
was imperfect.
In the mufeum of Dr. W. Hunter, but from whence unknown. P   A
La Perruche a tete rouge de Gingi, Brif. o,
—PL enlum. 264.
La Perruche a tete rouge, Buf. oif. vi. p.
Lev. Muf.
iv. p. 346. N° 65. t. 29 f. 2.
BLOSSOM-
HEADED
PARRAKEET.
T ESS than the common Parrakeet: total length eleven inches.
The bill is reddifh : the head red, with a fhade of light
blue; partaking moft of this colour at the hind head : the chin
is black, narrowing into a flender line from the corners of the
mouth to the hind head; beneath the black is another flender
line of a very pale green, both making a kind of collar: the reft
of the plumage is green; the under parts have a tinge of yellow :
on the wing coverts is a dull red fpot: the tail is fix inches and a
quarter long; green above, with the inner margins yellow; the
outer feather fhorter than the middle ones by four inches: legs,
and claws grey.
Inhabits Gingi, in the Eaft Indies.
La Perruche de Bengale, Brif. orn. iv. p. 3S48. N° 66*..
La petite Perruche a tete coleur de rofe a longs brins, Buf. oif. vi. p
La Perruche a tete rouge de l'Ifle de Lucon, Son. Voy, p. 79. t. 42.
Perruche de Mahe, PL enl. 888.
Parrakeet from Bengal, Albin. iii. p. 7. t. 14.
Rofe-headed ring Parrakeet, Edw. glean, t. 233.
CIZE of the laft :  length ten * inches.   The upper mandible
pale yellow; the lower dull brown or black: cere brownifh :
crown and cheeks rofe-colour : hind head blue : the throat, and
ROSE-HEADED
RING
PARRAKEET.
' Buffon fays, twelve inches.
ring PARROT.
■ring round the neck, as in the laft; as alfo the dull red fpot om
the wings: tail above blue; beneath dull yellow: legs and claws
afh-colour: the two middle tail feathers are very long and blue;
the others (which are only two inches and a half long) are olive
green fringed with blue, though in Mr. Edwards's figure the tail
feathers feem to fhorten by equal gradations.
This bird inhabits Bengal.
Thefe laft I believe to be varieties of each other, as I have
feen and examined both of them minutely.
Mr. Sonnerat fays it inhabits Luzonia; and that the fpot on the
wings is of a bright red, and the irides yellow : otherwife one
defcription might ferve.
BORNEAN
PARRAKEET.
Lev. Muf
T ENGTH from the bill to the middlemoft tail feather but one,
twelve inches. The bill has the upper mandible red; the
lower black: cere and orbits afh-colour: the whole head of a
peach-bloffom-colour, with a green tinge in front: from eye to
eye, paffing over sthe cere, is narrow line of black:: from the
lower mandible arifes a ftreak of black, paffing obliquely on each
fide of-the neck a little way, and growing wider backwards :
from the hind head to the tail all the plumage is light green;
but on the middle of the wing coverts it almoft approaches to
yellow: the chin, fore part of the neck, the breaft, and as far as
the imiddle <of the belly, are of a reddifh bloffom-colour, with a
cheftnut tinge-: the feathers on the thighs, and middle of the
belly and vent, are green : all the tail feathers are green, except
the two middle ones, which are much inclined to blue, and are
very PARR
T,
very long, Deing, in the fpecimen I defcribed this from, at leaft
three inches longer than any of the others; and how much
longer they had been, is not known, as they were broken at the
ends; the fhafts of all of them are white:  the legs afh-colour.
One of thefe is in high prefervation at Sir A. Lever's.
Said to come from the Ifle of Borneo.
La grande Perruche a longs brin
Perruche de Malac ——— !
, Buf. oif. v
PL enl. 887
39-
Var. C.
MALACCA
PARRAKEET.
*T*HIS, fays Buffon, one would take for a variety of the laft
but one, were it not for the fize, which is much larger^
being fixteen inches in length : there are befides fome few differences, for the green colour throughout has a tinge of yellow:
•the whole of the head is not of a rofe-colour, but only the region
of the eyes and the hind head, the crown being green : the reft of
the body is green ; and the ring round the fieck is wholly wanting : the tail is of the fame colour with that of the two laft, but
deeper, and has fome appearance of blue on the middle of the
wings. I think there does not remain a doubt of this being a
further variety, as we know the ring does not appear in fome
other fpecies till mature age; and as to the length merely, that
in the Leverian Mufeum muft have been at leaft fixteen inches, if
'the two middle tail feathers had been perfect. PARROT.
RED AND
BLUE-HEADED
PARRAKEET.
Pfittacus canicularis, Lin. '•
. p. 142.
- vol.
• *&■
N* 16.
P-.
La Perruche ii front rouge du Brefil, Brif. orn.'iv. p. 339. N9 62.
La Perriche a front rouge, Buf. oif vi. p. 268.—PL enl. 767.
Red and blue-headed Parrakeet, Edw. iv. pi.' 176.
CIZE of a Thrufh: length ten inches. The upper mandible
pale afh; the lower more obfcure : cere of a pale afh : eyes
in a naked orange-coloured * fkin: irides yellow orange :. the forehead is fcarlet: crown of the head of a fine blue, paleft behind :
the upper parts of the body deep green ; the under parts paler:
prime quills blue on the outer edges: tail deep green above; and
of a brownifh green beneath; the two middle feathers longer
than the outer ones by above three inches and a half: legs and
claws whitifh afh, with a tinge of flefh-colour.
Linnaus defcribes one with the forehead inclining to fulvous;
temples fulvous; black eyes; and a blackifh bill: quills blue,
with the outfide greenifh : tail elongated and green: legs reddifh. He fuppofes this to be a female -j-, as it wanted the blue
on the head.
Inhabits the hotter parts of America.
* Edwards obferves that this is not common. As far as I have obferved, the
bare fkin is white or dufky.
+ Buffon will not allow this, rather fuppofing it to be the yellow-faced or Illinois Parrot, a figure of which is given in PL enl. N° 838. The front in this figure is fulvous, and crown blue: the orbits are yellow; and the body not ill
correfponding with the other; from which appearances it might be rather taken
for the female than that mentioned by Linnaus, PARROT.
Pfittacus asruginofus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 142. N° 17.
La Perruche de la Martinique, Brif. orn. iv. p. 356. T$°6g.
La Perriche a Gorge brune, Buf. oif vi. p. 257.
Brown-throated Parrakeet, Bancr. Guian. p. 162.
—. Edw. iv. t. 177.
Lev. Muf.
+- BROWN-
THROATED
PARRAKEET.
IN length this bird is ten inches and a quarter. The bill is of a
light afh-colour, with the tip deepeft : cere deep afh z round
the eyes bare, and of a paler afh-colour : irides yellowifh hazel:
plumage green above; beneath yellow green: crown of the head,
from eye to eye, of a greenifh blue: the feathers at the bafe of
the bill, the cheeks, .throat, and fore part of the neck, are grey
brown, with a tinge of yellow-: tail green; fhorter than the body,
and yellowifh beneath; the two middle feathers much longer .
than the outfide ones : legs and claws afh-colour-
So far Briffon; who adds, that it inhabits Martinico, and different parts of America.
That which Bancroft mentions, had the top of the head, and
part of the quill feathers, blue ; and was an inhabitant of
Guiana.
I have one from Jamaica, whofe head is of the fame green
colour with the reft of the body: the fecondaries next the body
blue : and the inner fides of the prime quills blue.
CIZE of a Song-thrufh : length eleven inches and a half.    Bill
lead-colour : eye in a lead-coloured fkin : irides hazel: forehead brown:   crown   of the head blueifh :   cheeks  and chin
I i 2 brownifh
Var. A.
BROWN-
FRONTED
PARRAKEET.
Description. PARROT.
brownifh buff-colour: throat more inclined to brown: reft oftne
body green, paleft on the under parts : tail above half the length
of the bird; fide feathers.fhort; the colour of it the fame with*
the body, with blue edges and tips: the edges of the quills are
likewife blue:- the legs lead-colour.
This bird is now alive, and in poffeffion of a young lady, who*
informs me that fhe had it from the Spanifh Main.
LACE-WINGED-
PARRAKEET.
La Perruche aux Ailes chamarees, Buf.'oifi.vi. p. 15-1.
Perroquet de 1'Ifle de Lucon, PL enl. 287...
rPHIS bird is more than eleven inches long. The bill is red r
general colour of the plumage olive brown : at the hind part
of the head is a blueifh fpot: the wings are coloured with blue,,
green, and orange; the blue occupies the middle, and the two
other colours the edges: quills olive brown : the tail is one-
third of the length of the bird ; and the wings, when clofed,
reach to the middle of it;. which is not. common, as they are
ufually very fhort: legs dufky.
Inhabits the ifland of Luzonia.
La Perruche de Cayenne, Brif. orn. i\
La Perrkhe a ailes variees, Buf. oif v
-Petite Berruche verte de Cayenne, PL er,
Lev. Muf
p. 334-, N° 60. t. 27. f. 2,
p. 259.
T ENGTH eight inches-and a quarter :: not fo big in fize as-a-
Blackbird. Bill and cere whitifh: upper parts of the body,
greenifh; beneath the fame, but paler : the greater wing coverts,
next. PARROT.
next the body, have the bafe and inner webs white; but the
outer webs and tips are yellow; the coverts fartheft from the
body are of a greenifh blue ; beneath, thofe neareft the bodjir-are
pale brimftone, and the outer ones of a blueifh green : the firft
five prime quills are green on the'outer edges and tips, fhaded
with blue, but black on the infide, with a white margin; the
next feven are white, with the outer webs and tips yellow; moft
of the others have the outer webs and tips yellow, and the inner
webs of a yellowifh white; the four next to the body are green :
the tail is three inches and a half long, green above, cuneiform,
with the inner margins yellowifh : legs and claws grey.
The female differs only in the colours being lefs vivid.
Thefe birds are in plenty at Cayenne, where they are called the-
common Parrakeet. They fly in numbers together, and are not
very fhy, as they frequently fettle in the midft of inhabited
places. They are fond of the buds of the immortal tree, and
fettle on it in numbers when it is in flower; and as this tree is
planted near the habitations, the inhabitants have opportunities.
of fhooting them readily,, which only drives away the reft for a
while, to return a little time afterwards. They learn to fpeak.
eafily.
La Perriche a Got
Perruche a Gorge
5 variee, Buf. aifivi. p, 259.
tachsteeede Cayenne,  PL enl. 144,—Orn. de Salerne,
Perruche, N° 2. Perm..Defer, de Surin,.vol. ii. p. 177.
nTHlS, fey BuffpQ&nd Salerne, is a very rare and beautiful Parrakeet :  in fize it equals the laft.    The',plumage, for the
moft part,, of. -a  beauJafuXsfhiobg green:    the bill is  black:
irides.
WAVED-
BREa-\STED
PARRAKEET. 246 PARROT.
irides aurora yellow: the feathers above the bill of a flate'blue;
beneath fky blue : the reft of the head brown : the lower part of
the neck flate blue: the throat is brown, with a yellow aurora
edge to each feather, making it appear in waves: fold of the
wing fire-colour; the reft of the wing blue : middle of the belly
lilac veined with brown : and on the middle of the tail is a longitudinal line of lilac: tail fhorter than in other Parrakeets, and
of a red brown on the. under fide: legs and claws black.
Inhabits  Cayenne,  and,  according  to  Fermin,  Surinam  like-
wife.
SCALY-
BREASTED
PARRAKEET.
Description.
CIZE of .a common Parrakeet: length eight inches and a half.
Bill dufky : round the eye a pale bare fkin: head, neck,
and breaft, dull orange; each feather black in the middle, giving J
the parts the appearance of being covered with feales: lower part
of the back and rump, and middle of the belly, of a blood red.:
fhoulders crimfon: forehead, belly, thighs, and all the other
parts,, of a dark green : legs and claws dufky.
This came from Cayenne, and is in the collection  of Capt.
Davies.
4<5.
LITTLE
RED-WINGED
PARRAKEET.
Description.
La Perruche des Indes, Brif. orn, iv. p. 341. N°
La Perruche a Gorge rouge, Buf. oif. vi, p. 157.
, Little red-winged Parrakeet, Edw. glean, pi. 23*
63.
T ENGTH eight inches and a half:   fize of a crefted Lark.
Bill flefh-colour : cere and fpace round the eyes whitifh :
irides deep hazel: general colour green, paleft beneath : chin of
5 a fine 1
PARROT.
a fine fcarlet: the wing coverts are all of a fine reddifh colour:
tail four inches and a half long, and much cuneated: legs and
claws of a pale flefh-colour.
Inhabits- theEaft Indies.
247
La Perruche fouris, Buf oif vi. p. ]
Perruche a poitrine grife, PL enl. 76
Perruche, Pernetty Voy, aux Malouine
, vol. i
p. 312.
GREY-
BREASTED
PARRAKEET.
T ENGTH ten inches. The bill light grey : the face, throat,
and breaft, of a rat grey: the reft of the body olive green,
except the quills, which are of a deep green: tail five inches long:
legs grey. Buffon obferves,: that the dead and dull colour of
the plumage gives the bird an air of melancholy; for it is lefs
bright than any of the fpecies.
Place unknown.
\   Pernetty   fays   that  his   bird  was   of the fize   of a Thrufh.
Bill fhort, very hooked, and of a flefh-colour : plumage entirely
green, except the neck, breaft, and a fmall part of the belly,
which, were of a filvery grey : tail very long.
Thefe, fays he, were met with at Montevideo, and bought by
the failors for two piaftres apiece. They were tame and gentle,
eafily learned to fpeak, and articulate well, and were pleafed
with company, too often joining in converfation with them. It
was the common opinion, that they lived but one year, if confined
in a cage. This fpecies is not far remote from the other, if not
' the very fame.
Place and
Manners.
LENGTH P 'A   -R   R   O   T.
T ENGTH eleven inches: fize of a fmall Dove. The bill is
blueifh at the-bafe, and black at the tip : irides of -a golden
yellow: forehead, crown, nape, and region of the ears, deep
fcarlet, mixed with black: fides of the head yellowifh orange :
the lower mandible is befet with deep black Alining feathers,
pointing forwards: from the crown lpring two flender dufky feathers, about an inch and a half long, "and tipped with crimfon:
the hind part of the neck, and the rump, are yellowifh : the reft
of the body green: the wing coverts green outwardly, but the
inner webs 'and tips are dufky: the quills are black; the outer
margins of them blue : tail cuneiform, fix inches in length, and
of the fame blue colour as the quills, but green on the outer
edges, near the bafe; near the ends, and the tips, almoft white;
the under part of the tail and quills foot black: legs dufky
blue.
This fpecies inhabits New Caledonia*, and is called by the natives Kere or Keghe. I found this bird in the collection of Sir
Jof. Banks, where.there is a perfect and fine fpecimen; I believe
the only one that has reached England.
CALEDONIAN
PARROT.
T ENGTH twelve inches.    Bill blueifh ; tip pale : the feathers
round the upper mandible crimfon; thofe round the lower,
and the chin, blue : crown greenifh yellow : the plumage on the
* In Cook's Voy. vol. ii. p. no, a bird is figured, which I take to be this 5
hut it feems to have been done more by way of ornament to the plate, than ex-
prefave of the bird.
3 «PPer ^SW
>/-.y/,// - 9%rrcn  P   A   R   R   O   T.
Tipper parts of the body olive green ; beneath olive yellow:
outer edge of the tail pale blue: tail cuneiform; the two middle
feathers fix inches long; the outer one three only, colour olive
green ; the outer edges of the four outer ones pale blue ; ends of
all whitifh : legs dufky blue.
Inhabits New Caledonia. There is a fpecimen of this likewife at
Sir Jofeph Banks's. I have fome fufpicion of its proving the female
of the laft-mentioned: the bill, legs, wings, and tail, do very
much correfpond.
T ENGTH fifteen inches. Bill flout, moderately hooked; the
upper mandible not angulated ; bafe of both deep blue; the
tip of the upper black : the forehead very dark purple: crown
greenifh cheftnut: fides of the head pale green: from the bafe of
the bill arifes a ftreak of crimfon, which paffes through the eye,
and a little way behind it: hind part of the head and neck,
upper parts of the body, and wing coverts, dark green: at the back
part of the neck a few pale yellow feathers ; and on the middle of
the back a mixture of pale ferruginous brown: the rump crim-
. fon, with a tinge of cheftnut: the under parts of the body cinereous green : the greater quills are brown, with blueifh edges :
fecondaries, and baftard wing, dufky, with the edges green, and
pale rufly brown tips: the tail is cuneiform; the two middle
feathers being feven inches in length, the outer ones only three
inches and a quarter; the colour of them blueifh, but the two
middle ones have green margins; all the fhafts deep cheftnut:
legs black.
Inhabits New Zealand.    A fine fpecimen is now at Sir Jofeph
Banks's^ from which this defcription is taken.
Kk LENGTH
RED-R
par;
UMPED
OT. PARROT.
CRESTED
PARRAKEKT.
T ENGTH twelve inches- Bill pale : crown of the head, fides,,
and throat, yellow: behind the eye, juft within the yellow, is
a fpot of crimfon; and behind this the yellow is paler than in the
other parts : from the crown of the- head fpring fix flender feathers, forming a creft ; two of thefe are near three inches long, and
the four others fhorter: the upper parts of the body are olive
brown; the under parts the fame, but paler: on the wing is an
oblique bar of white, caufed by the tips of the fecond quills,.,
which are of that colour: the tail the fame, pretty long,, and-,
cuneiform : the legs are dufky.
The femalef\s of the fame fize. The head of the fame colour
with the body, but a little paler on the fides, and crefted as in the
male: behind the eye is the'fame crimfon fpot as in the male:-.
the head and body inclined to cheftnut: on the rump are flender
tranfverfe lines of grey : the tail is barred with numerous lines of
the fame; the outer feather is white on the outer web the whole
length: on the middle of the wing is an oblique bar of white, as
in the other. Thefe I met with at Sir Jofeph Banks's, who
brought them from Ne.w Holland.
Lev. Muf.
T ENGTH ten inches and a half. Bill deep blue; end black:
the whole head black brown: on the upper parts of the body
the plumage is deep olive green; each feather margined with
dufky, giving it a waved appearance: rump deep dull crimfon,
each feather waved on the margin alfo with dufky : upper tail
coverts PARROT.
coverts the fame colour as the back: the chin is dufky; the reft
of the under part of the body olive yellow, each' feather margined
with dufky, as in the upper parts, but paler: quills and tail
dufky;; the laft of a cuneiform fhape, and inclining to cinereous
brown : the two middle feathers five inches in length; the outer
one three inches and a half: legs black.
Inhabits Ulietea, one of the Society I/lands in the South Seas.
White-collared Parrot, Gen. of Birds.
. 59. pi. 2.
CIZE not mentioned. Bill red : head, cheeks, and chin, blue :
neck, back, and wings, green : the neck is half furrounded
with a white collar, paffing over the upper part towards the
throat: the upper part of the breaft of a fine red; the lower
yellow: belly blue: thighs yellow and blue: tail cuneated;
yellow beneath.
. Inhabits the ifles of the Eaft Indies.
WHITE-
COLLARED
PARROT.
La Perruche du Brefil, Brif. orn. iv. p. 337. N° 6i.
La Perriche couronnee d'or, Buf. oif. vi. p. 271.
Golden-crowned Parrakeet, Edw. glean, t. 235.
GOLDEN-
CROWNED
PARRAKEET.
paleft
orange
of the
the wi
of the Ring-Parrakeet. Bill black : a blueifh flefh-co-
red fkin furrounds the eyes: cere of the fame colour:
bright orange: general colour of the plumage green ;
beneath, and inclining to yellow : crown of the head
: throat yellowifh green, with a mixture of dull red; fome
quills have blue edges; alfo there is a bar of blue on
g coverts : tail cuneiform; the middle feathers pretty
K k 2 long, PARROT.
LINEATED
PARROT.
56.
4- PACIFIC
PARRAKEET.
long,  and the  outer ones very   fhort :   legs reddifh :   claws»
blackifh.
Inhabits Brafil. Edwards fays that this bird was a female r
and that it laid five or fix eggs during its living -in England,
which was for the fpace of fourteen years.
Pfittacus Iineatus,. Lin. Syft. iii. app. p. 223%
CIZE of a Dove. General colour green, but paleft beneath t
the quills are brown beneath, with the inner margins very
pale, which gives the appearance of the wing being longitudinally
ftriped with narrow lines: tail cuneiform, a little longer than the
body. Linnaus gives no other account of it than the above, nor
does he mention its native place.
Lev. Muf
J ENGTH twelve inches. Bill of a filvery blue; end black %
in fome, the forehead and half the crown ; in others, the forehead only, of a deep crimfon : behind each eye a fpot of the fame-
colour : on each fide of the vent' a patch of the fame: the-
plumage in general of a dark green, paleft on the under parts t
the tail is cuneiform ; the two middle feathers are five inches and
a half in length, the outer ones two Inches and a half; upper
parts of it the fame green with the body; beneath afh-colour r-
the outer edge of the wing, as far as the middle of the quills, deep
blue ; the ends of the quills dufky : legs brown : claws black.
This   is found at   Otaheite *, but  is  not peculiar to that
• ilsf. Bougainville mentions " a very fmall fort of Parrakeet, very lingular oir
account of the various mixture of blue and red in the feathers;" perhaps thefe-
very birds.   Boug, Voy.. p. 247. Eng. ediu
ifland j F   A   R   R   O   T.
iffand; it has been met with in- other parts, and varies accord'^
ingly.. Ik; ipt$
<m
T
HAT found at Dufky Bay, in New Zealand, wanted the red on s6"-
each fide of the rump, and the tail not fo long in propor
tion.    It is called in this place by the name of Kugha-arecku.
A  SECOND variety differed from the other in having the rump 5
red,, but marked as the firft-mentioned.
A NOTHER, which I obferved at Sir Jofeph Banks's, had the
forehead only red, and the whole crown of the head; yellow*
©therwife differed not from the others.
This inhabited New Caledonia-.
Thefe birds are valued for the few red feathers*they have
about them: hence the fiore they fet by red feathers brought
from other iflands, as mentioned by the feveral voyagers to the
South Seas,
56.
Va*. C.
57-
PALM
PARROT..
^IZE of the laft fpecies : fength eight inches.    Bill red r general    Description
colour green, but paler, and much inclined to yellow on the-
• A fort of a greenifh colour, with a few red fpotSj.were common among the-
ananas, and appeared frequently tame in the houfes of the natives, who feemed
}--value-them for their red. feathers.   Forft, Voy, i. p, 272.
belly 254 P   A   R   R   O   T.
belly and end of the tail, which laft is cuneiform :  the quills are
edged, and tipped with dufky black : the legs red.
Place. Inhabits the ifland of Tanna, in the South Seas, where it fre
quents the palm-trees.
58.
4- BLUE-
CRESTED
PARRAKEET.
Lev. Muf
CIZE of the Guinea Sparrow : length fix inches and a half.
Bill orange: the forehead pale green: crown of a pale but
'bright and gloffy blue; the feathers of this part are narrow,
pointed, and fufficiently long to form a creft when erected : fides
•of the head above the eye green; beneath the eye, the chin, and
throat, crimfon: the upper parts of the body, wings, and tail,
•bright green: the quills are dufky, with green edges: the middle
of the belly crimfon: fides of it and thighs deep purple : the tail
is cuneiform, two inches and a half in length; the outer feathers
fhorter by three quarters of an inch; the two middle feathers are
green, with yellow ends; the others yellowifh, with the margins
and ends green, and pretty much pointed: legs dufky: claws
black.
In fome fpecimens the red on the throat narrows down into a
ftripe on the breaft, which in fuch birds is brown—perhaps a
diftinction of different fex ; and the thighs in a few birds green
inftead of purple, but this circumftance not permanent.
Inhabits the Sandwich Iflands in the South Seas, and is a moffc
beautiful fpecies. PARROT.
*5S
%'Arimanon, Buf. oif. vi. p. 175.
Petite Perruche de l'Ifie de Taiti, PL enl. 455. f. 2.
Lev. Muf.
*TpHIS is a fmall fpecies, meafuring in length only five inches
and a quarter. The bill is red : the feathers of the head
lbngifh, forming a fmall creft; the whole plumage of a fine blue,
except the throat and fore part of the neck, which is white: the
tail is cuneiform : legs red.
Some of thefe birds have the throat and fore part of the neck
of a dufky white ; perhaps differing in fex.
There is one character peculiar to this bird, which is the
tongue.. This is not blunt and fhort, like as in other Parrots,
but long,-.and terminated at the end by a pencil of fhort white
briftles.
It is very common at Otaheite in the South. Seas, where it is
perpetually fluttering about, and making a fereaming noife, flying often in numbers together; feeding on bananas. They cannot be kept in a cage, for they will not be brought to feed on anything but fruit&,r£fufing folid food of every kind. This fpecies.
is called Arimanon,, which fignifies Cocoa-bird, it often frequenting
thofe trees*..
I fancy- this muft be the fame bird which Parkinfon j- calls
Venee,,the name given it by the natives. He fays that it feeds on-
the flowers of the Errata, or Epooratta, and is often caught by*
means of the glewy juice which iffues from the tops of the flalks,
*■ OTAHEITAN
BLUE
PARRAKEET.
ISCRI.P'l ION.
I See Forft. Voy, i.p.
■f See Journal. Appendix, p. 115.
whens PARROT.
■when broken by their feeding on them, and being exceeding'
vifcous, catches them like birdlime.
60.
PYGMY
PARRAKEET.
Lev. Muf
T  ENGTH fix inches : body fmall.    Bill whitifh : cere dufky :
plumage wholly of a bright green: infide of the quills dufky :
tail cuneated; the tips of all the feathers of a greenifh yellow 1
legs lead-colour.
Inhabits fome of the iftands in the South Seas. The fpecimen
above defcribed faid to come from Otaheile, It appears to be
the fmalleft of its race.
*-' GREAT
WHITE
COCKATOO.
►•With   TAILS   EVEN   AT   THE   END.
Pfittacus criftatus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 143. N° 22.
LeKakatoes, Brif. orn, iv. p. 204. N° 8. t. 21.
Le Kakatoes a huppe blanche, Buf. oif. vi. p. 92.
Kakatoe's des Moluques, PL ml. 263.
Pfittacus albus criftatus Aldrovandi, Raii Syn. p. 30. N° 1.
White-crefted Parrot of Aldrovandus, Will. orn. p. 112. t. 15.
Lev. Muf.
Description.    CIZE of an ordinary Fowl: length eighteen inches.    The bill is
blackifh :   cere  black :   irides very dark or black *:   fpace
round the eyes naked and white: the colour of the bird is quite
* Willughby fays yellow ; but they are not of that colour in a fpecimen I h
by me, nor in that which Briffon faw alive at Paris, or that
would h
e noticed it.
9
:urate defcriber
white, PARROT.
white, except the greater quills and fide tail feathers, which are
of a brimftone-colour for halfway on the inner fides next the
bafe. It has on the head a large folded creft, five inches in
length, but the crown itfelf is quite bare. The feathers on the
neck too are [loofe and flowing, fo that when the bird erects the
creft, the head appears of a large fize. Legs and claws black.
Inhabits the Molucca Ifles.
w
Le Kakatoes a hupe rouge, Brif. orn, iv. p. 209. N°
Le Kakatoes a huppe rouge, Buf. oif. vi. p. 95.
 PI. ettl. 498.
Greater Cockatoo, Edw. iv. t. 160.
62.
% GREAT
RED-CRESTED
COCKATOO.
'"THE length of this fpecies is feventeen inches and a quarter, and
is larger than the laft, being equal in fize to the great red and
blue Maccaw. The bill is blue black: cere black: bare fkin
round the eyes greyifh : irides dull red: general colour white,
with a light rofe-coloured tinge. It has a very large creft, fome
of the feathers being fix inches and a half in length; the under
part of the creft is red: the fide tail feathers, from the bafe to the
middle, are of a brimftone-colour on the inner webs : legs lead-
coloured : claws black.
Inhabits the Molucca Ifles.
Ll 63-
RED-VENTED
COCKATOO.
A   R   R   O   T.
Le petit Kakatoes, Brif. orn. iv. p. 212. N° 11. t. 22. f. :
Le petit Kakatoes a bee couleur de Chair, Buf. oif. vi. p. 9
Petit Kakatoes des Philippines, PL enl. 191.
Red-vented Cockatoo, Brown. Illuft. p. 10. t. 5-.
>TpHE length of this bird is thirteen inches and a half; and its.
fize is that of the grey Parrot. The bilfis white; the bafe
cinereous : cere greyifh: orbits yellowifh red: general colour
white : the head is crefted, the longeft feathers of which are ark:
inch and a half in length; thefe are fulphur-coloured at the bafe,
and white at the tips; fome of the under ones are pale red, but
do not appear except the creft be erected : the two middle taiL
feathers are white; the fide ones the fame, but are fulphur-coloured on the inner webs from the bafe to the middle: under tail
coverts red tipped with white: the legs and claws hoary lead-
colour.
Inhabits the Philippine Ifles.
Mr. Brown drew his bird from a living fpecimen in the poffef-
fion of Lady Read.. '
Buffon obferves that the bill is reddifh brown ; and that
it is. even lefs than the grey Parrot, being the leaft of its,
race.
*r LESSER
WHITE
COCK.VTOO.
, Brif orn
- Buf. oif.
- PL enl. :
. p.,206. N0^..
u
Groffe weiffe Papagey, ou Cacadou, Frifch. t. 5a..
Crefted Parrot or Cockatoo, Alb. iii. t. 12.
Leffer white Cockatoo, Edw. glean, t. 317.
ENGTH fourteen inches and a half.    Bill and cere blackifh:
placed in a naked white fkin: irides reddifh : general PARROT.
colour white, with a eaft of brimftone on the under parts : on the
head is a creft of a fulphur-colour, and pointed in fhape : beneath
each eye is a fulphur-coloured fpot; and the lower half of the
fide tail feathers are of the fame colour on the inner webs : the
quills alfo are the fame for two-thirds of their length from the
bafe: legs black.
Inhabits the Molucca Ifles. Buffon obferves, that there are two
different forts of this bird, the one much bigger than the other :
he fpeaks much of the docility of it; a fact known to every one
who has had it living in their poffeffion.
*$9
Pfittacus coronatus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 143. N° 21.
65.
Cockatoo of Guiana, Bancr. Guian. p. 160.
CROWNED
COCKATOO
CIZE of the next fpecies. The forehead is yellow : a creft arifes
from the top of the head, like' that of other Cockatoos, of a
fcarlet colour tipped with light blue, and may be erected or de-
preffed at will: the colour of the body and tail is green; the
outer feathers of the laft are blue on the outfides : the vent feathers are red with blue tips.
This is Linnaus's defcription, who fays it inhabits Surinam.
Bancroft fays, that it is lefs than a common Parrot. " The
bill fhort and cheftnut-coloured : head, cheeks, and neck, covered
with long, loofe, dull red feathers, variegated with whitifh bars:
the feathers at the top of the head are an inch -and half in length,
- and there, as well as thofe of the cheeks and neck, are erected at
pleafure : the body and wings are green ; and the feathers of the
tail, which are fhort, are fome green, others of a dull red." Thefe
are no doubt the fame birds, though the defcription varies a little. 260
P   A   R   R   O   T. •
66.
BLACK
COCKATOO.
Le Kakatoes noir, Buf. oif vi. p. 97.
Great black Cockatoo, Edw, glean, pi. 316.
IF we may judge by the fize of the head which accompanies the
drawing of this bird in Edwards, it muft at leaft be of the fize
of the red and blue Maccaw, if not bigger. The general colour
is black, with a large creft on the head, of a colour fomewhat
more pale than the reft of the plumage : the bill is dufky brown :
the eye dark : fide of the head, from the eyes to the under man-
. dible, bare of feathers, wrinkled, and of a red colour: the legs
brown black.
This was taken from a drawing done by order of Governor
Lot en at Ceylon.
In Parkinfon's voyage * are mentioned black Cockatoos of a large,
fize, having white fpots between the beak and ear, as well as on
each wing, and fcarlet and orange-coloured feathers on their
tails.
Thefe were met with on the coaft of New Holland, in the
South Seas.
67.
RED AND
WHITE
PARROT.-
Pfittacus erythroleucus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 144. N° 23,
Le Kakatoes a. ailes & queue rouges, Brif. orn. iv. p. 214. N° iz,
, . _ Buf. oif vi. p. 96.
Pfittacus erythroleucos Aldrovandi, Raii Syn. p. 31. N° 8.
Red and white Parrot of Aldrovandus, Will. orn. p. 114. N° 8.
Description.     CIZE of a large Fowl: length feventeen inches.    Bill black:.
head, throat, neck, back, fides, thighs, fcapulars, and upper
* P. 14
5
See alfo Hawifw, Voy, vol. ii. p. PARROT.
and lower wing coverts, of a dirty white, or pale afh-colour: the
lower part of the back, rump, upper and lower tail coverts,
quills, and tail,, are vermilion: the legs are blackifh: claws
black.
Where it inhabits unknown.
Pfittacus erithacus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 144. N° 24.—Serp. Ann. i. p. 31. N° 30.
Le Perroquet cendre de Guinee, Brif. orn. iv. p. 310. N° 49.
— ou le Jaco, Buf. oif vi. p. 100.— PL enlum. 311.
,Der grave Papagey, der rother fchwantz, Frijch. t. 51.
' Pfittacus cinereus, feu fubcseruleus Aldrov. Raii Syn. p. 31. N°7.
Afh-coloured Parrot, Will. orn. p. 114. N° 7.— Albin.i. pi. 12.
Br. Muf.   Lev. Muf
/"T"SHIS is a well-known Parrot: of the fize of a fmall Pigeon:
the length is twenty inches. The bill is black: cere and
fkin round the eyes meally and white : iris yellowifh white
neral colour cinereous : the feathers on the head, neck, and under
parts,, have hoary edges: the rump and lower part of the belly
are hoary, with cinereous edges: the tail is of a bright red;. the
fhafts blackifh : legs afh-colour : claws blackifh.
This bird, talks well, at leaft equal to the green Parrot, but is
much lefs noify at other times. It is called by fome Jaco, from,
that word being very plainly repeated, by the bird.
It is from Guinea that they are ufually fetched, being firft
brought from the inland parts of Africa; they are found alfo
at Congo, and on the coafts of Angola. As to the common manners of this bird in the tame flate, they are well known in Eng-;
land,, as well as. elfewhere.. 68.
Var. A.
RED-WINGED
ASH-
COLOURED
PARROT.
PARROT.
Le Perroquet de Guinee a ailes rouges, Brif. orn. iv, p. 313. A.
/TpHIS differs from the other merely in having  the <
marked with red.
68.
Var. B.
RED AND ASH-
COLOURED
PARROT.
Le Perroquet de Guinee varie de rouge, Brif orn, iv, p. 31;
Afh-coloured and red Parrot, Edw. iv. t. 163.
Description.     ^T^HIS  too  is  a variety,  having many red feathers mixed
1
throughout with the grey ones.
Pfittacus ruber, 'Scop. Ann
p. 32. N° 31.
CCOPOLI alfo mentions a further variety. This had the head
afh-coloured : cheeks quite naked : on the breaft two brown
feathers : prime quills cinereous brown : colour of the reft of the'
body not mentioned *, only that the tail is red.
A friend of mine has one of the firft defcribed, which has two
feathers on the middle of the breaft crimfon, which has not varied
for many years.
It is not unufual for female Par-roes to lay eggs in this country,
but as they are not impregnated, 00 heed is taken of them. A
gentleman t at Marmande in France had a male and female, which
for five or fix years together produced young ones.    They made
* Moft likely'it was .red, from his nai
ft M. le Pigeoniere.    Hift. des oif. vi.
git the ffittt
• (red Parrot). F  A   R   R   O
263
the neft in fpring, and the female laid four eggs, of which never
more than three were good. The neft was made in a cafk,
-which had one end knocked out, and filled with faw-duft : proper
accommodations were made to get in and out, fo that the male
might fit by his mate. If any one prefumed to enter the chamber wherein they were, without his boots on, he was fore to fuffer,.
by having his legs bit terribly by the male, who was jealous to a
degree, particularly if any one approached the female. This is
not the firft account of a circumftance of the like kind, for Le P..
Labat * tells us of a pair which hatched young ones at Paris.
Le Perroquet cendre du Brefil, Brif. om. iv. p. 313. N° 50.
Maracana Brafil. prima Marcgr. Raii Syn. p. 29. N° 4.
Maracana, Will. orn. p. 112. N° 5.
'IpHIS bird is faid by. Willughby to be bigger-than the laft:
The whole plumage of a blueifh afh-colour.
Said-to inhabit Brafil.
This muft originally have come from Guinea f, as there are
none of this colour in Amer
nd, (
common in Africa, and. tranfported to America
6$.
CINEREOUS
PARROIY
:rary, are very
.ong with the
* Nouv. Voy. aux IJles de VAmerique, ii. p. 16b.
f Hift. des oif. vi. p. 249.
X Parrots, fo called, are very numerous, and of different fpecies, in Guiana, buj
none of them deftitute of green feathers ; fuch as the ajh-coloured Parrot of Gui->
nea, the white-crefted Parrots, and -fome others.    Bancroft's Hift. of Guiana. 264
PARROT,
4> SOUTHERN
BROWN
PARROT.
Lev. Muf
CIZE not much lefs than a Crow: length fixteen inches. The
bill is very large, hooked, and of a blue black : a round bare
afh-coloured fkin furrounds the eyes: the whole top of the head
pale afh-colour: round the lower mandible, throat, and fore part
and fides of the neck, of a cheftnut red; the middle of the feathers paleft: over the ears rufty yellow : the hind head and back
part of the neck deep afh-colour and pale mixed : back, wings,
and tail, greenifh afh-colour, fomewhat gloffed with copper: the
margins of the feathers darkeft : from the breaft to the vent cheftnut red ; the margins deepeft: the tail beneath is of the fame colour ; it is pretty even at the end; at the tip of each feather the
fhaft ftancts out in a point: the tips of all the feathers are
brown: legs black.
Inhabits New Zealand.
m
BLACK
PARROT/
Pfittacus niger, Lin. Syft.