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BC Historical Books

A general synopsis of birds. Vol. II Latham, John, 1740-1837 1782

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   THE UNIVERSITY OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA
WOODWARD HISTORICAL
COLLECTION  a;
General Synopsis
of
BIRDS.
Vol .ml;
L  O IN" D   O N:
Printed for Benj. White.
MDCCEXXXII.  C  405  ]
Genus   XIII.     ROLLER.
N'i.
Garrulous R.
N°o.
Blue R.
•2.
Abyflinian R.
IO.
Ultramarine R.
P
Senegal R.
11.
Madagafcar R,
4-
Long-tailed R.
IS.
Mexican R.
5-
Bengal R.
i3-
Blue-ftriped R.
6.
Oriental R.
14.
Chinefe R.
7-
Indian R»
is-
Cayenne R.
8.
Cape R.
16.
Pied R.
THE characters of this genus are,
The bill ftrait, bending towards the tip, edges cultrated.
Noftrils narrow and naked.
Legs, for the moft part, fhort.
Toes placed three before, and one behind; divided to their
origin.
This genus is not confined to one fpot of the globe, as one or
other of the following fpecies may be met with in all the four
quarters of it. It differs from the laft chiefly in the noftrils,
■which are apparent in all the fpecies, being deftitute of reflected
briftles. The fhortnefs of the legs likewife is another charadle-
riftic, and holds good at leaft in all which have come under my in-
fpedtion. I have thought it right to divide the whole of the following lift into different fpecies, though perhaps without jufl
foundation, and of which the reader muft judge for himfelf.
Coracias -GARRULOUS
ROLLER.
ROLLER.
Coracias garrula, Lin. Syfi. i. p. 159. N° u—Scop. ami. 1
Le Rollier, Brif. trn. ii. p. 64. pi; 5. f. 2.—PI. enl. 486,
~. d'Europe, Buf. w/.iii. p. 135. pi. 10,
Blave racke, Birck-heher, Frifcb. t.57.
The Roller, Rati Syn. p. 41. N° 3. p. 42.—WiR. mt. p.
p. 40. N° 44.
131.  pi.  80s—
. Zoo/. «//. p. 624. pi. 2.—Ed<w. pi. i
5r. Muf.   Lev. Muf.
09.
CIZE of a Jay: length twelve inches and a half. Bill black,
ftrait, hooked at the point; bafe befet with briftles, but do
not cover the noftrils: fpace about the eyes fomewhat bare: the
head, neck, breaft, arid belly, are of a light blueifh green : back
and fcapulars reddifh brown: coverts on the ridge of the wing
rich blue, beneath them pale green j upper part and tips of the
quills dufky j the lower parts of a fine deep blue: rump of this laft
colour: tail forked, of a light blue j the outer feather tipped with
black above, and beneath with deep blue, as is the cafe with fuch
part of the quill feathers as is black above; the other tail feathers are dull green : legs fhort, and of a dirty yellow.
Mr. Pennant, from whom the above defcription is taken, ob-
ferves that thefe birds are frequent in feveral parts of Europe, in
moft parts of which it is a bird of pafiage. Mention is made of
them in Sweden* and Denmark j- on the one hand, and as far as
Africa % on the other j not that they are found in all the parts
between, nor in the fame plenty. Willughby tells us, that in Germany, Sicily, and Malta, they are fo common as to be fold in the
markets, and in poulterers fhops.    It has been called by fome
* Faun. Suec. N
% Shaw's Trav.
94. f Br. Zool. app. p. 624.
p. 251,—-ddaqf. Fq/. 8vo. p. 24. 107.
the ROLLER.
the Strajburg Jay; but I find it to be very fcarce there. Edwards
mentions one (hot on Gibraltar rock. Jdanfon * obferves, that it-
" comes to refide for fome months of the fummer in the fouthern
parts of Europe, and goes back to fpend the remainder of the year
in Senegal" having fhot one on board the fhip, on its paflage, in
April; and in another place fays, that they are at Senegal in flocks,
along with the Cardinal Sparrows.
Frifch obferves, that it makes its nefts in woods, where there is
birch j that it does not come to its colour till the fecond year;
flies in troops in autumn j often feen in tilled grounds, with
Rooks and other birds, fearching for worms, fmall feeds, and
roots f. Its flefh taftes like that of a Turtle. It is faid alfo
fometimes to make th* neft: in holes in the ground J, in one of
which nefts two eggs were found. The neft is generally filthy,
from the young evacuating their excrements therein; whence by
fome it was faid to make the neft of excrements.
Shaw., in Travels, mentions a bird by the name of Shagarag,
and defcribes it as having the fhape of a Jay, but a fmaller bill,
and fhorter legs : the body brown above: head, neck, and belly,
light green : wings and tail fpotted with deep blue.
This is a Barbary bird, and, no doubt, only a fmall variety of
the other. He fays, that it builds the neft at the fides of rivers,
and its cry is fharp and fhrill.
We are told in the Britijh Zoology, that it has been twice fhot
in England, and is remarkable for making a chattering7 noife,
from which it is called by fome Garrulus.
407
* Adanf, Voy,
% Hifi. des oi/, ii
f Alfo beetles and frogs,   Faun. Sue:, ROLLER.
ABYSSINIAN
Le Rollier d'Abyflinie, Buf. eif. iii. p.
^THE bill of this bird is black, and the tip of the upper mandible much bent: the fides of the head, from the noftrils to
a little beyond the eyes, are white j the reft of the head, neck, and
under parts of the body, of a fine green : the wing coverts are of
the fame colour, but the fhoulders are of a fine deep blue; the
greater quills are of this laft colour: the back and fecond quills
1 are orange brown : the rump of a deep blue : the two middle tail
feathers are dufky, with a glofs of blue, efpecially down the middle; the outer feathers blue green; the outmoft feather five
inches longer than any of the others, and, as far as it exceeds them
in length, of a fine deep blue : the legs red brown. The colours of this bird are remarkably brilliant.
Inhabits Abyjfmia,
Rollier da Senegal, Buf. tif. iii. p. 143.—PA tnl. 326.
Swallow-tailed Indian Roller, Ed-w. glean. 327.
>"nHIS is rather lefs than the common Jay. The bill black: the
whole fpace round the bafe of the bill, as far as the eyes, or
what may be termed the face, white: the head, and under parts
of the body, the upper parts of the wkigs, and tail, blueifh fea-
green: the fhoulders and quills, as in the laft, of a deep blue;
and the outer tail feathers as long as in that bird: the hind part
of the neck and the back of a reddifh brown ; the legs of a red-
4ifh flefh-colour.
Thiis ROLLER.
This is the defcription of Edwards's bird, which came from
Ceylon; and anfwers likewife to that figured in the Planches enlu-
minees, faid to come from Senegal.
This is, moft likely, a variety of the laft defcribed.
s caudata, Lin. Syfi. i. p. 160. N° 6. 4.
ierd'Angola, Brif. cm. ii. p. 72. t. 7. f. 1. LONG-TAILED
 Buf. oif. iii. p. 144.— PL enl. 88. R"
CIZE of a Jay: length fifteen inches and a half.    The bill is an    Descriptk
inch and a half long, and of a blackifh colour : the hind parts
of the head and neck are green : upper parts of the back and
fcapulars fulvous glofTed with green : the lower part of the back,
rump, and wing coverts, fine blue: the upper tail coverts blue
green: the throat, fore part of the neck, and breaft, violet -, but the
feathers on the two firft have a whitifh ftreak down the fhaft: the
belly, fides, thighs, under tail and wing coverts-, fea green:
quills the fame for half their length j the end half, deep blue on
the outer webs; the fhafts and inner webs black: the two middle feathers of the tail are deep green j the reft of the feathers
blue green ; the outer ones on each fide of twice the length of the
others, and the part which exceeds deep blue; the fhafts of all
•black : the legs are grey ; and the claws .blackifh.
"This inhabits Angola. 'Pla-c*.
4T© ROLLER.
Coracias Bengalenfis, Lin. Syfi. i. p. 159. N° 5.
Le Rollier de Mindanao, Brif. orn. ii, p. 69. N° 2. pi. 6. f. 1,
Le Cuit, or Rollier de Mindanao, Buf. oif, m. p. 144,
Rollier de Mindanao, PL enl. 285.
Bengal Bye, Albin-. i. t. 17.
J ENGTH twelve inches and a half: fize of the laft. The
bill, as m that, blackifh : the top of the head is green,;
verging to blue near the eyes: the hind part of the neck fulvous,
with a violet tinge:- the upper part of the back and fcapulars the
fame, but has a greenifh mixture,, and in forae lights changing to
olive : the lower part of the back and rump blue, with a mixture
of green : throat rufous whiter cheeks and fore part of the neck-
violet, dafhed down the middle of each feather withblueifh white :-.
breaft rufous, inclining to violet: belly, fides,, thighs, under tail
and wing, coverts, blue green : upper tail and leffer wing, coverts
fine deep blue; the greater ones, fartheft from therbody, blue
green; but thofe in the middle are blue and green mixed, and
thofe neareft thebody green : the five firft quills are deep blue ;
the middle of the outer webst blue green : the tail feathers in this
bird are of equal lengths j the two middle ones-dull green,.tingedN
with blue down the fhafts; the reft are blue for one third from
the bafe, then blue green, with blue, tips :. the legs are grey, and
the claws blackifh.
This inhabits Bengal and the ifle of Mindanao, where it is called
Cuit.    It does not eflentially differ; from the laft *: the chief?
* Nor fcarcely from the fecond and third, funkiest to feparstfe them into
"    nt fpecies.
difference ROLLER.
•difference is the rufous violet-colour on the breaft, and the want
of the long outer tail feathers. The comparing the two figures
m the Planches enluminees, feems much to favour this opinion.
This laft may perhaps be a female, or a young bird; for the long
tail feathers do not appear till the fecond year.
Buffon mentions a variety, which came from Goa, and had
<not the fulvous band on the breaft, like the lafb-mentioned -, in-
ftead of which, there was a collar of a vinaceous colour behind
the neck, a little -below the head.
Coracias orientalis, Lin. Syfl. i
p. 159. ^-4.
•Le Rollier des Indes, Brif. om.
ii. p. 75.pl. 7, f. a
PI. enl. 619.
CIZE of a Jay: length ten inches'and a half. The bill is yef-
lowifh, broader * at the bafe, and more hooked than nn any of
the'genus-: the head and hind part of the neck brown: back,
tump, fcapulars, wing and tail coverts, green brown : throat fine
blue ; down the Ilaa!ft of each feather a pale line : the reft of the
parts beneath blue green : quills mixed blue and black-; on the
middle a large pale blue fpot: wing's longer than in other
Rollers: tail even at the end-; the two middle feathers green at
the bafe, the reft of the way black-; the other feathers are firft
•green, then blue, with black tips : legs, yellowifh: claws black.
This is a native of the Eaft-Indies.
* Hift. dts-oij. 1 INDIAN
R   Q   L   L   E   R;
Coracias Indica, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 159. N° 2.
Blue Jay from the Eaft-Indies, Edw. pi. 326.
Br. Muf.
T ENGTH eleven inches. Bill dufky black, an inch and a half
in length : crown of the head blue green : throat, breaft,
neck, and back, reddifh brown:, fides, of the head and throat
darkeft, ftreaked with white: rump and tail, and the under parts
from the breaft, fine ultramarine blue: the middle tail feathers
are green; the outer ones blue at the bottoms and tips, and
fea-green in the middle: the wings are green and blue.
Inhabits Ceylon,
Coracias Caffra, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 159. N° 3.
\7K^E- have no knowledge of this, but from Linnaus, whofe
defcription is very fhort indeed.    He merely fays, that the
bird is blue, with-the outer edge of the quills luteous ; and that;
the female is of-a blueifh black..
Inhabits. Mthippia..
Br. Muf.
1" ENGTH eight inches.   Bill dufky: the upper parts of the
plumage of a pale gloffy blue green, except the tips of the
wings, which are black:   the under parts  of the  body ferruginous.
In the Britijh Mufeum : from whence unknown,.
L R   O   L   L   E   R, 4*3
ULTRAMA-
£r. Muf. RINE
R.
T ENGTH eight inches..   Bill as in the laft: the whole plumage
of a rich gloffy ultramarine blue, equal to the richeft fattin
in luftre : the quills and tail are wholly of the fame colour.
This likewife is in the Britifh Mufeuni; but the native place
alike unknown.    They are certainly different fpecies.
Le Rollier de Madagafcar, Buf. oif. iii. p. 148. "•    '.   ''
t   u 11   a   A/r a     r       d;     / MADAGASCAR
La Rolle de Madagafcar, PL enl. 501. ™
Le-v. Muf.
^pHIS  is a beautiful fpecies, and'about the fize of the firft-     Descriftiow.-
mentioned. The bill is* very ftout at the bafe, rather fhort,
and of a yellow colour : the eyes feem large : the general colour
is a rufty purplifh brown: the rump and vent blue green: the
quills are deep blue above, and blue green beneath; and the inner
webs black : the tail is blue green; near the end is a purplifh
band; and the tip blue, fo deep as to appear nearly black-: the
legs are,of a reddifh brown.
Said to come from Madagafcar*. Place.
Le Rollier du Mexique, Brif. orn. ii. p. 83. N° 8.—Buf. oif. iii. p. 148. 12.
Merula Mexicana, Sela, i. t. 64. f. 5. MEXICAN'
"TRIGGER by much than a Thrufh.    The upper parts of the     Description,
body are dingy rufous grey: the under parts and wings light-
grey, mixed with flame-colour.
Inhabits Memo.. Placs.
LENGTH. Ft. X'
-Descri
RIPED
VT,
POLLER.
T ENGTH eight inches.   Bill three quarters of an inch long*
bent at the tip, and of a black colour: hides red: general
colour of the plumage deep blue black, dafhed with ftreaks of
greenifh blue: tail and legs black.
The female is cinereous grey : top of the head darkeft: the coverts and quills are black, edged with cinereous: tail plain greys
legs black.
. Inhabits New Caledonia,   -
R.
-Le Rollier de la Chine, Brif. orn. ii. p.:??. ~N°5. pi. 6. f. 2.
Le Rolle de la Chine, Buf. oif. iii. p. 132.
Rollier de la Chine, PI. enl. 620.
'THIS is of the fize of z
half.    The bill and irides are red
the length eleven inches and a
the head *, hind part of
the neck, back, rump, and upper tail coverts, are green: through
the eyes on each fide is a black ftripe': the under parts of the
body, from chin to vent, are yellowifh white, tinged with green;
but the thighs are grey: wing coverts olive brown: quills the
fame, with a mixture of cheftnut in fome ; and others, neareft the
body, tipped with white: the tail is five inches in length, and
cuneiform, the outer feathers fhortening by degrees, like that of a
"Magpie; all of them are more or lefs green, verging to black
near the ends j the tips of all are white : the legs and claws are of
a pale red} and longer than in other Rollers.
* This feeinycfeft'ed in the Pi. en!, but this circ(fmllahce is not mentioned by
Inhabits pi.m
a^jfiMtfUvr  R   O   L   L   E   R. 4I£
Inhabits China.    It is called at Canton Sau-ta-hoang*.   It :
aot very common.
Place,
Le Grivert, ou Rolle de Cayenne, Buf. oif. iii. p. 134. 15.
Le Griverd, de Cayenne, PL enl. 616. CAYENNE
R.
'"T'^HIS meafures in length nine inches. The bill is pretty
■*" ftrong, above an inch in length,-of a reddifh colour, and a.
very little bent towards the point: the general colour of the
plumage is a brownifh green : over the eyes is a white ftreak: on*
each fide the throat a perpendicular black ftreak: and the chin,,
fore part of the neck, and breaft, are dirty white : the tail is cuneiform, with the edges inclining to-green : the legs are longer than
wfual in this genus, and of a pale grey.
This inhabits Cayenne. Thefe two laft birds do not fairly belong to the Roller genus; nor can they come more properly into
any other. Perhaps the manners might affift in placing them
with more propriety; but we know them not, being in poffeflion.
only of the mere fpecimen, without further illuftration.
Caffican de la Nouvelle Guinee, Buf. oif. vii. p. 134. pi. 7:—PL enl. 628.
T ENGTH about thirteen inches. Bill two inches and a half
long ; the colour of it blueifh, with the tip dark :-. the head,
neck,-and upper part of the back, are black: the reft of the back,.
the rump, the upper tail coverts,, the breaft, belly,, and vent,
white, but fomewhat inclining to blue on the breaft: wing co-
16.
EIED ROLLER,
verts black arid white mixed : fome of the fecondaries black, fome
white: the outer edge of the wing, and the greater quills, wholly"
black: the tail is five inches long, even at the end, and black;
all but the two middle feathers tipped with white : the legs are
lead-colour : the claws flout, fharp, and black.
Notwithftanding it is faid in the PI. enl. to have come from
New Guinea; Buff on, to whom we are indebted for this defcription,
does not feern fure of the fact: and in courfe the manners irraft
be unknown. It feems to me of a genus not well defined : if we
are guided by the plate in Buffon's, work '*, we may raoft likely
think with him, that it hangs between the genera of Oriole and
Toucan -, but on turning to the PL enl. the figure of it bears a
much greater affinity to the 'Roller genus ; in which we have ventured to place it; having this in our view, that the plates in this
laft-mentioned work are in general much more to be depended
on, than thofe of the former.
* >Hifi, desof. vol. vii. pi. _U
Genus C   417   3
Genus   XIV.     ORIOLE.
• I.
Black and yellow O.
N°24.
Cheftnut and black 0
Var. A.
25.
LefTer Bonana O.
Var. B.
26.
St. Domingo O.
2.
Red-rumped Ot
27.
Brafilian O.
Var. A.
28.
Yellow-winged 0.
3-
Crefted O.
29.
White-winged O.
Var. A.
3°-
Yellow-headed O.
Var. B.
3*-
Schomburger O.
4-
White-headed O.
Var. A.
5-
Rice O.
32.
Gold-headed O.
6.
Icteric O.
33-
Fork-tailed O.
7-
; Mggigan O.
34.
Whiftler O.
8.
Ring-tailed 0.
3S-
Olive O.
9-
Brafilian O.
36.
Blue O.
10.
Japacani O.
37-
Black O.
11.
New Spain 0.
38.
LefTer black O.
12.
Grey O.
39-
Cayenne olive O.
»3-
Red-rWWged O.
40.
Oonalafhkan O.
14.
Red-breafted O.
4i.
Sharp-tailed O.
«5-
Guiana 0.
42.
Kink O.
16.
RedO.
43-
Golden O.
17-
Blackrcrowned O.
Var. A.
18.
Antiguan yellow O.
Var. B.
19.
Baltimore O.
Var. C.
20.
,Baftard Baltimore 0,
Var. D.
21.
Weever O.
44.
Striped-headed 0.
22.
Bonana O.
45.
Climbing 0.
&
Hang-neft O.
THE ORIOLE.
THE bill in this genus is ftrait, conic, very fharp-pointed j
• edges cultrated, inclining inwards; mandibles of equal
length.
Noftrils fmall, placed at the bafe of the bill, and partly covered.
Tongue divided at the end.
Toes three forward, one backward ; the middle joined near the
bafe to the outmoft one.
Thefe birds are inhabitants of America, except in a few in-
fiances; are a noify, gregarious, frugivorous, granivorous, and
voracious race, very numerous, and often have penfile nefts. To
thefe definitions from the Genera of Birds, I lhall not add any
thing more here, the manners of each being noted in their proper
places.
Oriolus P
Le Caffiqi
, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 161. N° 7.
ie, Brif. orn. ii. p. 100, N° 14. pi. 9. f. r.
— du Brefil, Buf. oif. iii. p. 235—PI. enl. 184-.
Lev. Muf.
"DIGGER than a Blackbird. Bill fixteen lines long, and of a.
pale yellow: hides blue: general colour of the plumage
black: on the middle of the wing is a large fpot, of a golden
yellow: lower part of the back, rump, belly, and vent, yellow t
thighs in fome yellow, in others black: legs and claws, black.
Jupujuba,. ORIOLE.
Jupujaba, feu Japu, Braf. Rati Syn. p. 46. N° 7.
Brafilian Jupujuba, or Japu of Marcgrave, Will. orn. p. 142.
'TpHIS feems not to differ materially from the laft, except in
* the tail, the whole of which is black on the upper part, except the outer feather, which is yellow at the bafe; but beneath
half yellow, half black: the irides of a fapphire-colour: and the
tongue blue.
Black and yellow Daw of Brafil, Edw. p. «io. I.
Var.B.
^T""\HIS feems  a trifle bigger:   has a purplifh luftre  in the    Description.-
* black plumage: and has fome of the yellow feathers, which
compofe the fpot on the wings, tipped with black.
Thefe birds are met with in Brafil and Cayenne, and the warmer      Place and
parts of South America -, and are the fabricators of thofe curious anners.
nefts, met with in the cabinets of the curious. Thefe are in the
fhape of an alembic, about one foot and a half in length, com-
pofed of dry grafs and horfe-hair, or hogs briftles, mixed * : the
bottom,
* Thefe nefts are in part compofed of what is called old-matt''s-iiard, which
is common in the fouth parts of America, and the Weft-India LJlands, and which,
at firft view, may eafily be miftaken for horfe'hair; and is the Tillandfia
ufneoides.    Lin.
The above bird may poffibly prove to be the Petite Pie of Fermin; but he
gives no description of it, further than that its colours are prettily diverfified,
,and yellow from the middle of the back to the rump. He fays, that it eafily
learns to talk a number of words, and ordinarily makes the neft on the tops of
-high trees, laying at each time fix or eight eggs, fpotted with black: lives on
3 H 2 infe&s,
1 OR   I   O   L   E.
bottom, for one foot upwards, is hollow, like a purfe; the re-
mainder, Or .upper part of it, for half a foot, being folid; and
hangs by the top, on the extremity of a branch of a tree. They
Often build near houfes ; and on one tree there have been known
above four hundred of thefe nefts: and marry pairs "have been
known' to hatch and bring up three- 'broods in a year.
4- RED-
RUMPED
Oriolus hasmorrhous, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 161. N° 5.
Le Caffique rouge, Brif. orn. ii. p. 98. N° 13. pi. 8. f. '.
 du Brefil, ou le Jupuba, Buf. oif. :
T ENGTH eleven inches. Bill an inch and a quarter long, of
a brimftone-colour, thick at the bafe, and goes far back into
the forehead, where it is rounded, and bare of feathers : the general colour of the plumage is black : the lower part of the back,
the rump, upper and lower tail coverts, fine crimfon : the wings
and tail dufky black : legs and claws black.
Inhabits Brafil and Cayenne, where it is called Caffique.
Var. A.
Descriftk
Caffique brun, Orn. de Salerne, p. 112.
HPHE whole body of this is brown, inclining to black: rump
and upper part of the tail the colour of wine-lees: under the
tail light yellow.
infefts, and all forts of fmall birds, when it can catch them, and alfo their eggs:
when it advances, it is by hopping, always flirting its tail. It is bold enough to
attack birds of prey, as well as leverets, and other fuch game. Defcrip. de Surinam, vol. ii. p. 167.
This ORIOLE.
- This is found at Guimm, where it is known by the name of
jgma-eaigou. It is faid to frequent thick fhady places, near water,
and to fqueak like a Jay.
Le Caffique huppe de Cayenne, Buf. oif. iii. p. 241.—PI. enl. 344.
Xanthornus maximus, Palkts Spit. vi. p. 1. & fe_. t. 1.
Lev. Muf.
CIZE of a Magpie : length eighteen inches. The bill is ftrong,
two inches long, of a dirty yellow, bare, and fomewhat gibbous at the bafe, where it is rounded and convex : the noftrils are
placed in a furrow: tongue jagged : irides blue: the head is. fur-
nifhed with a creft, which can be elevated at the will of the bird :
the body is black as far as the middle, but the lower half, rump,
and vent, deep cheftnut: the wings are black: the two middle
tail feathers the fame; the others yellow: the fhape of the tail
cuneiform : the legs are black.
Pallas fays the irides are yellow: the body dull black : the
vent ferruginous : the wings reach to the middle of the tail; the
two middle feathers of which are fhorter than the adjoining
ones.
Pallas's fpecimen came from Surindm, where I am informed
thefe birds are common.
I
HAVE now before me a moft beautiful fpecimen of this bird,
which is full twenty inches in length.    The bill two inches and
a quarter long, yellow, and tipped with orange, fhaped as in the
ether: the head is not only crefted, but has likewife two flender
51 feathers- ORIOLE.
feathers of two inches and a quarter in length, which fpring from
the hind head, and hang down behind : the plumage in general
is olive, with a caft of orange : the lower part of the back, rump,
belly, and vent, cheftnut: tail rounded; the two middle feathers
fhorter than the next, and cheftnut; the others wholly yellow,
except the outer one, which has the outer web dufky . the whole
length : legs black : toes divided to the bottom.
This is in the collection of Capt. Davies, who received it from
South America; and I have lately feen a fecond, which came from
Cayenne.
Le Caffique vert de Cayenne, Buf. oif. iii. p. 240.—PL enl. 328.
Lev. Muf.
'TPHIS bird meafures fourteen inches in length, and eighteen or
nineteen in breadth. The bill is red : all the forward parts,
taking in the wing coverts, are green; the hinder parts cheftnut:
quills black: tail fhaped as the others; the two middle feathers
black ; the others yellow : legs black.
Inhabits Cayenne.    The "bird referred to in the Leverian Mu-
feum was of an olive green, but anfwered as to other things.
WHITE-
HEADED
Le Caffique de la Louifiane, Buf. oif. iii. p. 242.—PL enl. 646.
White-headed Oriole, Am. Zool. N°
J^ENGTH ten inches.    Bill black, a little bent, one inch in
length: the head, neck, belly, and rump, are white: quills
and tail of a changeable violet, bordered with white; the reft of
the ORIOLE.
the plumage mixed white and black: the tail is fomewhat cuneiform, and the wings, when clofed, reach to about the middle of
it: the legs are lead-colour. .Jfe^l
This fpecies inhabits Louijiana, and other parts of North Ame-
T ENGTH nine inches. Bill an inch and a-half long, black,
flout, fharp, and a very little bent at the tip ; flat on the top
towards the bafe, where it is rounded, and paffes far back on the
forehead, and is there a little protuberant,, like the former ones :
the general colour of the plumage is black: the head, neck, and
breaft, have a fine glofs of purple: the whole wing, and reft of
the body, black : the tail confifts of twelve feathers, and was five
inches in length, but had been longer, as the ends were fpoiled:
the wings reach a little beyond the infertion of the tail: the legs
were wanting.
I found this in the collection of Mifs Blomefield; it was fup-
pofed to come from Cayenne. A label annexed gave it the name
of Oifeau de Ris, de grojfe efpece. ^ORIOLE,
Oiiolus 'ifterus, Lin. Syfl.i. p. 161. N° 4.—'Scop. ann. i. p. 39. N°40.
Coracias Xanthornus, Scop. ann. i. p. 39. H° 42.
Le Troupiale, Brif. orn. ii. p. 86. pi. 8. f. 1.— Buf. oif. iii. p. 203. pi. 16.
—PL enl. 532.
•Guira-tangeima Braf. Raii Syn. p. 45. N° 6.—Will. orn. p. 141.
Yellow and black Pie,  Rati Syn. p. 181. N° 10.—Sloan. Jam. p. 301.
t. 259. f. 4.—Catefb. Carol, app. pi. 5.
Yellow Woodpecker, Sloan. Jam.
^Banana -bud. from Jamaica, Albin. ii. pi. 40.—Large D°, Brown. Jam*
447- #
Lev. Muf.
CIZE of a Blackbird : length nine inches and a half. The bill
in fome is hoary, in others black, with a brown bafe: fkin
round the ^yes naked and blueifh: irides -yellowifh : general colour of the plumage orange yellow: head, throat, lower part of
the neck, and middle of the back, fine black : wings black : with
two oblique bands of white : tail black: legs in fome black, in
others of a lead-colour, and fometimes greyifh white.
This fpecies is fUbund in Carolina; from thence to Btafil, and in
all the Caribbee I/lands. In Jamaica, Shane tells us, it is common;
and that it feeds on infects, and has the fame cuftom in hopping
about as the Magpie. Albin mentions, that its actions refemble
a Starling. " I have feen," fays he, "four or five of them fet
upon, and kill, a large bird or fowl; and when dead, each one,
according to his place of mafterfhip, choofe his part." Kept in
America in houfes, to kill infedts. In its wild ftate very agile and
. wrathful, and fo bold as to attack men: will find out and deftroy
"!ChTy¥alids already fpun up; into which it thrufts its bill, and
tearing open the cafes, takes out the chryfalis; but I am told is
very docile when kept tame.
But ORIOLE.
But the moft curious part of their hiftory is the neft, which is.
made in the form of a cylinder, and fufpended to the end of the
utmoft twig of a tree, of which one fometimes fees a great many
qn one tree, and that not far from the houfes. This precaution, no
doubt, is to prevent the rapine of fnakes, and other animals, which
would otherwife deftroy the young birds.
425
Le Troupiale du Mexique, Brif. orn. ii. p. 88. N° 2.
L'Acolchi de Seba, Buf. oif. iii. p. 206.
Avis Americana de Acolchichi nigro lutea, Seba, vol. i. t. 54.
MEXICAN
O.
CIZE of the laft.    The bill is pretty long, and of a yellow co-     Description.
lour: the head, throat, quills, and tail, are black: neck,
back, rump, breaft, belly, fides, thighs, and both tail coverts, of
a fine yellow : leffer wing coverts black; the greater tipped with
yellow.
Inhabits Mexico. Place
Le Troupiale a queue annelee, Brif. or.
L'Arc-en-queue, Buf. oif. iii. p. 207.
Avis Ocotzinitzcan, Columbse magi
. p. 89. N° 3.
Seba, vol. i. gj. pi, 63. f. 3.
RING-TAILED
CIZE of a Pigeon.    Bill yellow, a trifle bent at the point :    De!
head, throat, and neck, black -, the reft of the body yellow,
Jhaded with a deeper yellow both on the upper and lower tail and
leffer wing coverts: greater wing coverts and quills blackifh,
edged with pale yellow: the tail yellow; each feather marked
with .a'broad <tranfverfe blackifh band,- making; when the tail is
I :v .;     ' 3 I fpread 4a6 ORIOLE.
fpread open, a crefcent, with the concave part towards the body ?
the legs grey.
FlaC£> Inhabits America_ where Seba obferves, that it is accounted a
bird of prey.
•9. Le Troupiale du B'refil, Brif. orn. ii. p. 93.
BRASILIAN Small yellow and brown bird, Sloan. Jam. 309. ^43.
Description.    T ENGTH four inches.    Bill round, nearly ftrait, half an incfs
long: head and back light brown, fpotted wkh black r tail
an inch and a half long, and brown, as well as the wings, which
.   are whitifh at the end: about the eyes, throat, fides of the neck„
and tail coverts, are yellow: breaft the fame, fpotted with brown:
belly white:  legs brown, an inch and a quarter long:  toe&
yellow.
Place. Inhabits Jamaica: common about the town of St. Jago, where
it is often feen among the bufhes.
JAPACANI
Le Troupiale du Brefil, Brif. 0
Japacani, Buf. oif iii. p. 208.-
*. iL p. 93.
■Rait Syn. p. 84. N° 12.—Will. orn. p, 24CK
CIZE of a Starling: length eight inches. The bill is long,
pointed, a little curvea, and black: irides gold-colour: head
blackifh: hind part of the neck, back, wings, and rump, varied
with black and light brown: tail blackifh above, fpotted with
white beneath t breaft, belly, and thighs, mixed white and yellow, with tranfverfe black lines : legs dufky: claws fharp and
black.
Thefe two fpecies are made but one by Briffon j but the fizes
are ORIOLE.
are fo different, that it is  impoflible to reconcile them, the
laft being double the fize of the firft.
Briffon has copied his defcription of the Jacapani from Marc-
grave, as well as the fize, not attending to the fize of Shane's bird,
though the colours fomewhat agree.
4*7
Le Troupiale de la Nouvelle Efpagne, Brif. o
See le Xochitol & Coftototl, Buf. oif. iii. p. 2
. ii. p. 95. N° 1
CIZE of a Starling. The head, throat, neck, back, rump, and
upper tail coverts, are black: breaft, belly, fides, and under
tail coverts, faffron-colour, mixed with black: thighs black:
wings beneath cinereous, mixed with black and white : tall
faffron-colour, varied with black. The young birds are yellow,
except the tips of the wings, which are black.
Inhabits New Spain.
Le Troupiale gris de la N. Sfpagne, Brif. 0
LeTocolin, Buf. oif, iii. p. 213.
. p. 96. N°
GREY
O.
CIZE of a Starling.    The  body is agreeably variegated with
black and yellow, except the back, thighs, and belly, which
are afh-coloured.
This inhabits the forefts of New Spain, in which it makes its
neft, and brings up its young. It does not fing. The flefh is accounted good eating.
3I2 Carol. i. pi. i$.—Alain, i. pi. i^.—Amen.
CIZE of a Starling: length from eight to nine inches.    The bill
is black, and almoft an inch in length: irides white; the
whole bird is of a deep black, except the fhoulders of the wings>
which are of a deep red : the legs are black.
The female is faid to differ in. being Smaller; in having a mixr
ture of grey in its feathers,, and the red on the wings more
obfcure.
This is an American bird, and peculiar to that continent:
found at Mexico, the Carolinas, Virginia,, and as far as New Tork.
Catefby mentions their building the neft, woven together among
the reeds,in Carolina and Virginia; but I am informed by others,,
that they build between the forks of trees, three or four feet from
the ground, along with other birds, in the fwamps, which are fel-
dom penetrable by man. This method of building is likewife.
mentioned by Fernandez.
In winter only they are met with in Louifiana*, and'fometimes,
come in fuch immenfe flocks, that at one draw of the net frequently three hundred or more are taken. { Thefe nets are fpread.
in fome bare fmooth path at the fide of a wood, and the place.-
* Du Praia,, vol. ii. p. 135.
being ORIOLE.
being ftrewed with rice, &c. it often happens that fo many are-
caught that they are obliged to knock moll of them on the head
on the fpot, otherwife it would be impoflible to fecure fo vaft a
number.
Their common name in AW$icd is Mai%&4Bief, which they
have gained from their deftroying that grain; but they do not
attack it except while green, when they peck an hole in the fide, by
•which means the rain gets in and fpoils the ear. I have had it
hinted to me, that it is in fearch of infecls that the bird does this,
more than for the fake of the grain; but to this matter I can.fay
nothing.
Befides the above, other birds inhabit the fame places, which
have every feather, evfen the red ones, margined with white, manjr
,©f which 1 have feen. Some tell me that they are young ones ;
others, that they are a diftinct fpecies, which do not keep company with the others; and, not a few, that they are the females;,
but what has been fhewn me for a female, by an intelligent ob-
ferver, had no red on the wing, yet was margined with white like
the others. My own opinion is, that neither fex gains the full,
black till mature age, and that the female never does. I obferve-
among the mottled ones, fome which have the red on the wing,
almoft compleat; others, the fame, but paler in colour -, others
again, with the rudiment only; and laftly, a few with not the:
leaft trace of it. I obferve likewife, that in all the mottled ones,
there is an obfcure pale ftreak over the eye, which is not vifible
in the full black ones. The above want, inveftigation ; and it is.
to be hoped that fome future curious obferver. will take fome
pains to fet us to rights in this matter. 4JO
ORIOLE,
RED-
BREASTED
Oes«iuptjon
Troupiale de Cayenne, PI. enl. 236. N° 2.—Buf. oif. iii. p. 218,
Merula Indica peftore cinnabarino, an JacapuM&tcg. t Rati Syn', p, 67.
N9 10.
.Red-breafted Indian Blackbird, WUl.orn, p. 194. N° $r.
Mocking-bird ofGuiana, Bancroft's Guiana, p. 177.
Lev. Muf.
T ESS than a Blackbird: length feven inches. The colour
wholly black, except the chin, fore part of the neck, and the
breaft, which are of a fine deep red: the upper edge of the wing
is alfo red.
This is found in Guiana and Cayenne.
Bancroft's bird had the top of the head likewife red; and the
bill of his was flefh-colour; yet I make no doubt of its being a
variety of the above-defcribed. The nefts of thefe are built of
hay, &c. and are cylindrical, being twelve or fifteen inches in
circumference. They are feen depending from the high branches
of the talleft trees, and are wafted to and fro by the wind; on
which account their great length is neceffary, that the bird may
not be thrown out by every guft of wind, which would otherwife
happen. Their note is fweet and harmonious; but they imitate
thofe of many other birds.
■Oriolus Gu'ianenfis, Lin, Syfl. i. p. 162. N° 9 ?
GUIANA Le Tropiale de la Guiane, Brif. orn. ii. p. 107. N° r€. pi. 11. f. i.—Buf
£>. .oif. iii. p. .218.—iV. enl. 536.
Descraption.    QIZE of a Thrufh : length feven inches and a quarter.    The bill
-   brownifti a general colour of the plumage black; each feather
margined ORIOLE,
margined with grey; but the under part, from the chin to the
belly, between the legs, and the lower wing coverts, red: tail
fomewhat ftriated with grey : legs and claws brown.
Inhabits Guiana. I much fufpe£t this to be the female of the
laft, or a young bird, as was hinted of the former: the feveral
differences in particular birds are kept up as in that fpecies. I
have feen fome of thefe with the breaft only red, and in one fpecimen the breaft not red, with a few red dafhes on the chin; but
in all I have feen the fhoulders were red. Buffon fuppofes both
this and the red-winged Oriole, with all the varieties of both, to
be the fame bird. I cannot at prefent affent to it, as I think the
make and fliape of the birds feem to differ on comparifon. It is
future obfervation alone that muft confirm the matter.
Le Troupiale rouge d'Antigue, Son, Foy, p.
CIZE of our Blackbird.    Bill blackifh : irides fire-coloured :    Description,
head, neck, back, and thighs, of a vermilion  red : quills,
belly, and tail, velvet black : legs blackifh.
Inhabits Antiguey in the ifle of Panay. Placj.
Oriolus Mexicanus, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 162. N° 8.
Le Troupiale brun de la Nouvelle Efpagne, Brif.
—4  a calotte noire, Buf. oif. iii. p. 222.
Troupiale jaune a calotte noire de Cayenne, PL enl. 53-3.
CIZE of a Blackbisd: length eight inches and three quarters.    Descrim-jow^
Bill yellowifh:   the  head  (crown excepted)  throat, neck,
breaft, belly, fides, under tail coverts, leffer wing, coverts above,
1 and
BLACK-
CROWNED
o. 43^
11      •■£-
S
}
ORIOLE.
and under the wing, are yellow: top of the head, the back, rump,
and upper tail coverts, black brown: the greater wing coverts
the fame, edged with yellowifh grey : quills and tail black: legs
and claws yellowifh.
Inhabits Mexico and Cayenne.
ANTIGUAN
YELLOW Troupiale jaune d'Antigue, Sen. Voy, p. 113. pi. 69.
O.
Description.    CIZE of a Blackbird.    Bill blackifh : irides red : the head, fore
part of the neck, breaft, and belly, the colour of yellow orpi-
.ment: hind part of the neck, wings,,.arid tail, the colour of black
velvet: legs blackifh-
Place. Inhabits Antigue, in the ifle of Panay.    This  is alfo found on
the new continent. Known about the river Plate, in South America, by the name of Ventre cmcohre.:_ jvlt feems much allied to
the laft.
AEftikoRE
Oriolus Baltimore, Lin.' Syfl. i. p. 162. N° 10.
Le Baltimore, Brif. orn. li. p. 109. N° 19. pi. iz. f.
.—Buf. oif.
V. 23i,-Pl. enl. _o6. f. 1.
Baltimore Bird, Catefb. Car A. pi. 48—Aw Zool. N°
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
T ENGTH feven inches. Bill lead-colour: head, neck, and
upper part of the body, black : the reft of the body orange :
the bend of the wing and leffer wing coverts are orange : greater
coverts and quills black ; the firft tipped with white, "making a
white bar on the wing; the laft margir ed with white : the two
■middle feathers of the tail are black; the four-outer feathers are
3 orange ORIOLE.
orange from the middle to the tips; and the two next juft tipped
with orange -: legs and claws black.
The female, according to Buffon, has all the fore parts of a fine
black, like the male: tail the fame : wing coverts and quills
blackifh: and thofe parts, which are of a fine orange in the male,
are in the female of a dull red.
Baltimore Birds are found in many parts ef America, the
northern parts of which they occupy in fummer, being feen fome-
times as far as Montreal, in Canada, where they come in May; returning fouthward in the winter, which accounts for their being
feen in Maryland and Virginia at that time. They make the neft
of a fo'ft downy matter, in the fhape of a purfe, tying it with
threads to the very extreme forked twigs, of the tulip, plane, and
hiccory trees ; in which they lay their eggs, and rear their young,
free from depredators of all kinds.
They are called Eire-birds by the country people; and indeed,
when in high plumage, their motions from branch to branch not
unaptly refemble a flafh of fire.
433
Oriolus fpurius, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 162. N° n.
Le Baltimore Baftard, BHf. orn. ii. p. in. N° 26. pi. lb.
iii. N° 233.—PL enl. 506. f. 2.
Baftard Baltimore, Catefb. Car, i. pi. 49,—Amer. Zool, N"
f-'s-
-Buf oif.     +■ BASTARD
BALTIMORE
O.
•CIZE of the true Baltimore, but meafures a trifle lefs in length.
Bill lead-colour : forehead and cheeks black and yellowifh
mixed: hind head and nape olive grey, marked with a few fpots
of black: the upper part of the back the fame, but more dull;
-the lower part of the back, the rump, fore part of the neck,
3 K breaft> 43*
ORIOLE.
breaft, belly, fides, thighs, upper arid lower tail coverts,, and
under the wings, orange yellow, brighteft on the breaft and taib
coverts: leflier wing coverts deep brown; th^e greac&r. the fame,
tipped with dirty yellowifh white: quills brown, bordered, on -
both edges wkh whitifh : the two middle tail featheit* are olive,
then blackifh, marked at the end with a longitudinal; yellowifh
ipot; the1 next on each fide olive and blacky coflfSfedipfiMOBcid;.
and the four outer ones of a yellowifh oliv^ft legs and claws
blueifh.
A bird of this kind, fhewn to me as a female, had.the chia
black: the upper part of the body olive brown: on the wings
two bars of white, formed by the tips of the eovests : quills,
edged with Whitifh : and the tail dufky : the under parts of the
body olive yellow : bill and legs blueifh. I have likewife one of
this laft defcribed,. which came from North America ; but in ts_f
bird the chin was only brown, like the upper parts of the body,,
and the colours all paler than in the other*.
There feems to me much confufion and uncertainty in the true
and baftard Baltimores and their females; moft likely at laft they
may, the whole of them, turn out mere varieties of one fingle
fpecies, all of them, perhaps, referable to one or other fex of the
true Baltimore, in the different flages of life..
• It very much refembled ©ne figured in the Planches enluminees, which is faid-
to come from the Cape of Good Hope,   PI, enl, 607, f. 2, ORIOLE,
Le Cap-more, Buf. of. ii
Troupiale male du Seneg;
■ femelle, •
.   P. 226.
1, PL enl. 375.
 m.
-CIZE of the Golden Thrufh, but the wings Shorter in proportion. The bill horn-colour : irides orange: the head
brown, appearing very gloffy in the fun, as if gilded: the colour
of the reft of the plumage for the moft part yellow, inclining
more or lefs to orange: quills and tail blackifh, edged with
•orange: legs reddifh. Another had the head, chin, fides, and
fore part of the neck and breaft, yellow: back part of the .neck
■brown: wings and tail dufky, edged with yellow: belly and
thighs whitifh : legs as in the firft bird.
Thefe came together from Senegal, and were at firft thought to
be male and female; but after keeping two years, that which was
-thought to be the female, became of the fame plumage as the
■other, by gaining the brown head: but in both birds the head
loft its dark colour, and became yellow, every autumn, regaining
it in the fprlng."
In the cage where thefe birds were kept, it was obferved, that
they entwined fome of the flalks of the pimpernel, with which
they were fed, in the wires: as this feemed to fhew a difpofition
of making a neft, fome rufh-ftalks were put into the cage; on
which they prefently made' a neft large enough to hide one of
them-at leaft; but it was as often deranged as made, the work of
one day being fpoiled the next; ferving to fhew that the fabrication of the neft in a ftate of nature was the work of both male
and female, and in all probability is finifhed by the laft. They
had a fharp but lively note.
•j K 2 A friend A friend of mine defcribed a bird to me, which he faw at- as
houfe of an acquaintance, which feemed to be this very bird. By-
accident having got a bit of fewing filk, it wove it among the-
wires of the cage; on which, more being put to it, it interlaced the
whole very confufedly, fo as to hinder moft part of that fide of the
cage from being feen through. It was found to prefer green and
yellow, to any other coloured filk*
,—Buf, oif. iii.
Oriolus Bonana, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 162. N° 12..
Le Carouge, Brif. orn. ii.   p. 115. N° 22. pl-
p. 243.—PL enl.___. f. 1.
Xochitototl altera, Rail Syn. p. 167. N° 12 ?.
Bonana Bird, Brown. Jam. p. 477.
Lev. Muf.
T ENGTH feven inches. Bill ten lines long, and black; bafe
of the lower mandible grey : the head, neck, and breaft,
cheftnut: upper, part of the back velvet black; lower part,
rump, belly, thighs, and Under the wings, a deep orange red-:
vent the fame, tipped with cheftnut: greater wing coverts, quills,
and tail, black: legs and.claws grey.
The female differs in being lefs bright..
Thefe birds are found in Martinico, Jarnaica, and other Weft
India iflands. It builds a neft of a curious conftrudtion, made of fibres and leaves, exactly in the fhape of the fourth part of a globe,,
fewed with great art under a leaf of a banana plant, in fuch a manner that the leaf makes one fide to the neft.. O   R   I   O   L   E.
437
Merus minor nidum fufpendens,  Watchy Picket,  Spanifh Nightingale,
American Hang-neft, Rait Syn. p. 184.-
pl-258. f. 3;.
•Sloan. Jam. p. 300. N°I7«
TX/ITH juft reafon it may be doubted whether the Watchy
Picket of Shane be the fame bird as the laft, though Brijfon
has joined it to his fynonyms; I have therefore thought right
to feparate them, giving Shane's own defcription.
The bill, he fays, is white, furrounded by a black line: crown
of the head, neck, back, and tail, reddifh brown: wings deeper,
intermixed with- white, and a black line on the middle of the
neck j the fides- of which, the breaft, and belly, is of a feuillemot-
colour.
A variety of this had the back more yellow: the breaft and'
belly of a bright yellow : and the bill black. This, he obferves,.
is common in* the woods, and fings not unpleafantly; makes its-
neft of ftalks, or inward hairs of old man's beard, which is like
horfe-hair,„oh high trees. Such nefts are not unfrequently feen
on the further twigs of high trees, when the leaves are fallen off
which hide them. The two oppofite methods of conftructing, as>
well-as placing> the neft, cannot furely belong to one bird.
Le Carouge de Cayenne, PL enl. 607. f. 1.
Baftard Baltimore female, Cat. Car. pi. 49. loweflfgure.
T ENGTH fix inches.    Bill' eight lines, and blue black: the
head,.neck, breaft,.and to the middle of the back, are black:
the lower part of the back, rump, and upper tail coverts, the
belly,-
+. CHESTNUT
AND BLACK. II
438 O   R   I   O   L   E.
belly, vent, and under tail coverts, are dull ferruginous : the
leffer wing coverts are of this laft colour : the greater coverts,
quills, and tail, are:blaek-;: but the "fecondarres arefringed oh the
outer edge with dufky white : the legs are blue black.'.
I have had my doubts whether this bird was at all allied to
either the true or baftard Baltimore; though Catejby affirms it of
the laft, and Briffon fuppofes it of the firft; and rather .am inclined
to think it a diftinct fpecies, for more reafons than one. The
•whole bird is left than either of them, and Shorter : and bill
fomewhat-different likewife. I am ftrengthened in this fuppofi-
tion, from feeing in the Britifh Mufeimi a bird called the iothenfex
of this, and placed.as fuch in the fame cafe.- Thi-s exactly corre-
fponds in fize and fhape, bill and legs. The head and hind^p.art
of the neck variegated with dufky and greenifh : chin and throat
black: the breaft cheftnut red: the belly yellowifh: quills and
tail dufky with pale edges. Two of the above-defcribed were
likewife fent lately to Capt. Davies, for male and female of the
fame fpecies.
-+- LESSER
BONANA
O.
Oriolus Xanthorus, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 1^2. N° 13.
Le Carouge du Mexique, Brif. orn. ii. p. 118. N023. pi. -n. f. 2.—Pi.
enl. 5. f. 1.
Le petit Cul jaune de Cayenne, Buf. oif iii. p. 247.
Leffer Bonana Bird, Ediu. pi. 243.
T ENGTH feven inches and a half. Bill blackifh: face even
with the eyes: throat, quills, and tail, black: the reft of the
body of a bright yellow: wing coverts black; moft of them
edged with white, as are the quills "within, towards the bafe :
legs and claws black.
In
L ORIOLE.
In fome of thefe which I received from Jamaica, the greater Place,
tfiitg* diverts were wholly white, forming a bar of white acrofs
the wing, and the yellow of the body inclining to olive.
439
Oriolus Dominicenfis, Lin.Syff. i. p. 163. N° 14.
Xe-Carouge de St. Domingue, Brif. orn. ii. p. 121. N° 25. pi. 12. f. 3.-
Buf. oif. iii. p. 247.—iV. enl. v. N° 2.
T ENGTH eight inches. General colour black, except a part
of the leffer wing coverts, and the lower part of the belly
and vent, which are yellow.
Buffon thinks this bird to be the female of the laft.
Thefe inhabit Mexico, Jamaica, and St. Domingo : at this laft
place they are called Demoifelles; at Jamaica, leffer Bonana-birds.
Their note is much like that ofthe golden Thrufh, with the fharp-
nefs of that of a Magpie.- Like many of this genus, they fufpend
their nefts, which are in the form of purfes, at the extreme twigs
of the branches of large trees, efpecially thofe which hang over a
river. In thefe nefts there are fmall partitions, in each of which
there is a neft.
The birds are faid to be very artful, and difficult to be
taken-
Le Carouge du Brefil, Brif. orn. ii. p. 120. N° 24.— Buf. oif. iii. p. 249*
Jamacaii, Rail Syn. p. 75.—WiU.&mi p. 237. pi. 42.—Salern.ojrn. p. 221.
N° 4. pi. 16.. f. 5.
T ENGTH nine inches and three quarters.    Bill black; bafe
blue :. head, and fore part of the neck, black.: the reft of the
» body
ST. DOMINGO r
OHIO   L   E.
body yellow: between the wings a black mark: wing coyetftB
black, with a white fpot in the middle : quills and tail blacks
legs brown.
Inhabits Brafil. This fallens the neft, which is compofed of
fine rufhes, and lined with hair, to a great leaf of a banana, by
means of long threads pafling acrofs the leaf in different places,
to the ribs and edges of the leaf alternately; refembling a deep
pouch fewed to a leaf*.
<- YELLOW-
WINGED
Oriolus Cayai
Le Carouse d
p. 248.
Yellow-winge
:nfis, Lin. Syft.'i. p. 163. N° 15.
Cayenne, Brif. orn. ii. p. 123. N°z6. t. 9. f. 2.
: l'ifle de St.  Thomas, PJ. enl. 535. f. 2.—Buf. oif. i
Pye, Edtu. 322.
Lev. Muf.
CIZE of a Lark :  length eight inches.    The bill, l«gs, and
whole plumage of this bird is black, except a fpot on the
leffer wing coverts, which are of a fine yellow : tail rounded.
Inhabits Cayenne, and the Ijle of St. Thomas.—Mem. That figured in Edw. had an indentation acrofs the bafe of the bill, at
■the top, which I have not feen in other fpecimens.
25.
WHITE-
WINGED
Br. Muf
CIZE of the laft,  but the bill fomewhat ftronger.    General
colour black: on the wing coverts, nearly in the fame place
Which ORIOLE.
-which the yellow occupies in that bird, is a fpot of white, but
placed rather more backward: bill and legs black,
In the Britijh Mufeum.   I have alfo lately feen another, which
came from Cayenne.
Oriolus icTerocephalus, Lin. Syfl, 1. p, 163. N° iS,
Le Carouge I tetejaunede Cayenne, Brif. orn. ii. p. 124. N» 27. t. 12.
n
Les Coiffes jaunes, Buf. erf. iii. p. 217. 250.
Carouge de Cayenne, PL enlum, 343.
Comix atra, capite, collo, pe&ore<jues flavis, N. C, Ac. Sc. Petr. vol. xi.
p. 435. t. 15. fig. 7.
Yellow-headed Starling, Edvu. 323.
T ENGTH feven inches.    The bill is blackifh; the bafe covered with fhort black feathers: the head, throat, and fore
part of the neck, are fine yellow: the reft of the plumage black,
not glofly: the lore is black: legs and claws brown.
Inhabits Cayenne.
4- YELLOW-
HEADED
Description.
JWeV
Oriolus melancholicus, Lin, Syjl.l. p. 168. N" 17.
Le Carouge tachete, Brif, orn. ii. p. 126. N° 29.
Le Troupiale tachete de Cayenne, Buf. oif. iii. p. 223.—?/. enl. 448.
f. 1, 2.
Shomburger, Edw. N° 85.
CIZE of a Lark: length fix inches.    Bill dull flefh-colour :
irides hazel: crown, back, and rump, rufous brown ; beneath
the fame, but lighter:  each feather, both above and beneath,
(except the crown, whiek is plain) has a> blackifh fpot in the
3 L middle
SCHOM-
BURGER r
ORIOLE.
middle of each feather: lower part of the belly, thighs* and bdth
tail coverts, light brown: fcapulars the fame* with a tinge of
yellow: quills and tail blackifh, with rufous brown edges: the
cheeks and throat are black, which narrowing on each fide of the
neck, at laft ends in a point on the lower part of the neck, juft
above the fhoulders: legs flefh-colour: claws brown.
Inhabits Mexico.    Mr. £<2Wr<jfr-compares-the colours of this
bird to thofe of a Lark, and fays the hind to$ ii long.
Var. A.
Male.
Le Tropiale tache
e Cayenne, Buf. oif. i
223.—PL enl. 448. f. 1,2.
t>UFFONmakes this and the laft varieties only. The male had
the throat plain white: a ftreak of the fame paffed directly
through the eye, between two other black ones parallel to it: the
irides reddifh orange. This bird had each feather black brown in
the middle^ 'bordered With'orange on the wings, tail," and lower
parts of the body; and wltri yefwwlfh on the parts above.
As to the female, the plumage is for the moft part of a dingy
yellow, blended with dirty white, giving it an unpleafing uniformity : the irides orange, as in the male.
Thefe are likewife inhabitants of Cayenne.
GOLD-
HEADED
Oriolus chryrocephalus, Lin, Syfl. i. p. 164.
Le Carouge a tete jaune d'Amerique, Brif. 0
. app. 38. t, 2. f. 2.
T ENGTH eig&t i^tos/pBiil-tlkck, a trifle bent: upper part
of the head fine yellow: fmifti£Sii£j> fides of the head, the*
neck, the back, rump, fsafwlafr^^aft, !**%> opper pare of th$
thighs, O   R  I   O   L
thighs, and fides, flaming blacks--lower part of the thighs yellow i
upper, leffer, and lower tail cov-Cfts' ^ie fame, but paler: the
great tail coverts black: leffer wing easrwts beneath pale yellow;
' greater ones cinereous, mixed with yellow and black; above, the
leffer are fine yellow, the greater blackifh: quills black, with the
edges paler: tail blackjfli,. rounded: legs lead-colour: daws
blackifh.
Inhabits America,
Le Troupiale a queue fourchue, Brif. orn, ii. p. 105. N* 16.
3FORK-TAILED
CIZE of a Blackbird.    Bill yellow : colour of the bird wholly    Descriptic
black; but on the back and rump it inclines to blue, as do
the quills and tail: lower tail coverts white: tail long, and
forked : legs and claws black.
Inhabits Mexico. Place.
Le Baltimore verd, Brif. orn. ii. p. 113. N° 21. pi. 2. f. 2.
Troupiale' de St. Domingue appelle le Siffleur, Buf. oif. iii. p.7230.—PI.
enl. 236. f. 1.
T ENGTH almpft feven inches. Bill horn-colour: the head,
throat, neck, and upper part of the back, are olive brown:
breaft the fame, with a light tint of rufous i the forehead of a
lighter colour: lower part e&lhe &a*3^;*um.p, bellyy'fleles, upper
and lower tail coverts, and leffer wing coverts, olive green :
chrghs olive yellow : ujtffe&wing coverts, and edge of the wing,
yellow :. greater upper* wiftg coverts brown, edged sfadf^ yellow t
3 L a tail 44^
ORIOLE,
f   '
tail rounded; above, dull olive, edged with olive green ; beneath,
olive green:. legs and claws grey.
PlACE.
Inhabits St. Domingo, where it is called-.Siffleur.
[
Oriolus Capenfis, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 163. N° 18.
OLIVE
O.
Le Carouge de Cap de Bonne Efperance, Brif. orn, ii. p. 128. N" 30.—1
PL enl. 607. f. 2.
Le Carouge olive de la Louifiane, Buf. oif. iii. p. 251.
Olive Oriole, Amer. Zoof. N*
Dsscriftioh.
T ENGTH feven inches.    Bill brown: colour of the plumage
olive brown above, yellow beneath : upper part of the head
1 I
olive grey : throat and fore part of the neck verging to orange g
edge of the wing yellow: coverts brown, margined and tipped
with olive green : quills brown, edged with olive: tail of this laft
colour : legs and claws brown.
Place*
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope.
One of thefe, which came from the fame place, at Sir J. Banks's,
had the forehead, cheeks, and all beneath, yellow: the upper
parts brown: wings and tail darker, edged with yellow.
Buffon fays, that he has received a bird of this fort from Loui-
Jiana, differing in having the throat black inftead of orange, and
inclining to olive throughout.
36.
Le Carouge bleu, Brif. orn, ii. p. 125. N° 28.
BLUE
O.
Small blue Jay, Rait Syn. p. 195. N° 11. pi. 1. f. jr.
Description.
"D ILL rufous: the whole plumage black, or afh-colour, except
the head, wings, and tail, which are blue.
Inhabits ORIOLE. 445
, Inhabits Madras, and called by the Gentoos, Peach Caye. Placi.
Buffon will not have this ranked with the Orioles, as the fhape of Observations.
the bill is not mentioned; nor will the country it comes from,
according to his opinion, admit of it, as he thinks that this genus
is wholly confined to South America. To balance this, however,
it is but right to give the opinion of Pallas, who, no doubt, has
obferved it minutely, when he fays it is a true Xanthornus, though
the fmalleft of its race*.
Fermin f mentions a bird not unlike this at Surinam. The
bill pointed, black, the length of the finger: head and upper
parts blue, to the beginning of the back: tail black : wings the
fame; in the middle a long fpot of white parallel to their length:
reft of the body fky blue: legs blueifh. He fays that it fuf-
pends the neft at the end of the branches of trees ; and it is from
this circumftance that I have ventured to place it here.
Le Troupiale noir, Brif. or.
p. 320.—PI. enl. 534.
ii. p. 103.
Br. Muf.
>.f.i.-Buf.oif.i.
CIZE of a Starling: the length more than nine inches.   The
bill is one inch long, and black: the whole plumage black
and glofly : legs black.
The female is of a greenifh brown: the bill and legs juft as
in the male: but the head, breaft, and belly, inclining to afh-
colour.
37«
BLACK
O.
• Contra Xanthornus verus eft, quamvis in fuo genere minutiffimus & folo
tyaneus, vigefimus oclavus Briffonii.   Pallas Sfic. vi. p. 3. note (a).
■\ Dtfcrip. dt Surinam, vol. ii. p. 171.
Inhabits 446
ORIOLE,
Inhabits North America. At Capt. Davies's I faw one of thefev,
which at firft fight appeared of a different fpecies. The plumage
a hrownifh gloffy black, but each feather margined with ferruginous
brown, the quills and tail excepted, which were of a plain black
colour. I have ohferved Hkewifea fecond of thefe, in the Britifh
Mufeum, which was placed with the two others firft defcribed, in
one cafe, as a young bird; and it is moft likely a male, as the
ground colour is black, which, had it been a female, would have
partaken more of a brown colour.
■s- LESSER
BLACK
O.
Le petit Troupiale noir, Buf. of. iii. p. 221.
Troupiale de la Caroline, PI. enl. 606. f. 1. the female ?
"D ETWEEN fix and feven inches long.   Bill black: the whole
plumage is likewife of a fine gloffy black throughout, but
about the head tinged with blue. \
The female has the head and neck not of fo deep a black as the
reft of the body, tinged with blue on the wings and tail, which is
even at the ends.
This is according to Buffon, who gives it as a non-defcript
fpecies; obferves that it is found in America, and foon grows
tame.
That figured in the Planches enhminees as a female, has the
head and neck cinereous brown. We have the name of a brown*
headed Oriole in.the catalogue of North American animals, as a
new fpecies; and I have this very bird in my poffeffion, but was
led to fuppofe it a male, having feen at Capt. Davies's one of the
fame, with what was efteemed the female, in the fame cafe. This
was wholly of a dufky afh-colour,.paleft beneath: chiaand throat
white: ORIOLE.
white: bill and legs exactly like the olfter. I am divided how to
form my opinion here, as this laft feems to be very like that de-
fcribed by Catefby * under the name of Cowpen.
The Rice-bird of Guiana, mentioned by Bancroft f, feems like
Buffon's male. He fays it has the bill of the Mocking-bird of
Guiana : finall eyes, of a lively black, furrounded with-circles of
naked white fkinj its head fmall: and all its feathers as blflGk
as jet.   It frequents the fields of rice, whence its name.
Troupiale olive de Cayenne, Buf, oif. iii* p. 425,—PL enl. 6o"6. f. 2.
T3ILL black: biafd, throat, fore part of the netfe,and breaft,
bright gloffy brown * dCepeft on the throat; inclining to
Orange on the breaft, where it blends kfelf with the adjoining co^
lour: th£ reft of the body olive, paleft on the under parts : the
quills are dufky or black, with a mixture of brown: legs black.
Inhabits Cayenne.
T ENGTH eight inches. Bill brown : plumage above brown ;
the middle of the feathers darkeft: between bill and eye a
White mark : the wing coverts and fecond quills have the outer
edges ferruginous: firft quills brown: tail the fame, but the
outer edges ferruginous : chin dirty white : On each fide, under
the throat, a diverging mark of brown : fore part of the neck and
breaft ferruginous brown : middle of the belly plain: fides dufky:
legs brown.
* ffifl. €W. pi. 34.
t ff(fl. Guian. p. 178.
Inhabits
AOONALASH-
KAN
O. 44*
SHARP-
TAILED
ORIOLE.
Inhabits Aoonalafhka; from whence it was brought by the late
voyagers on difcovery.
CIZE of a Lark. Bill dufky: crown brown and cinereous j
cheeks brown, bounded above and below with deep dull yellow : throat white : breaft, fides, thighs, and vent, dull pale yellow, fpotted with brown: belly white: back varied with afh-
colour, black, and white: wing coverts dufky, with ferruginous
edges: quills dufky: the tail confifts of narrow, fharp-pointed
feathers, of a dufky colour tinged with olive, and obfcurely
barred : legs pale brown.
In Mrs. Blackburn's collection, who received it from-iWw Tork.
I am indebted to Mr. Pennant for the whole of this account, as
well as a drawing of the bird.
Le Kink, Buf. oif. iii. p. 253.
Le Kinkde la Chine, PI. enl. 617.
^TPHE bill is reddifh brown : the head, neck, upper part of the
back, and the breaft, of a greyifh afh-colour; the reft of
the body above and beneath, wing and tail coverts, are white;
quills the colour of polifhed fteel, changing to green and violet:
tail fhort, rounded, partly of the fame colour as the quills, and
partly white, viz. the two middle feathers are of the fteel-
colour, with a white tip ; the two next have more white, and lefs
of the other; and proceeding in that manner to the outfide feathers, which are almoft totally white,.having only a fpot of fteel-
colovr at the bafe; the legs flefh-colour. This fpecies is between e^L^^Au^Qrei^. t ORIOLE.
an OWofus mi a'Thrufh, partaking of feotH> which makes 'Biiffm.
place it before the Thmfba. to which he feems to think it moft
allied.
This was received from China.
Oriolus Galbula, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 160. N° 1.
Coracias Oriolus, Scop. Ann. i. p. 41. N° 4.5.—Faun. Arab. p. 7.
Le Loriot,   Brif. orn. ii. p. 320. N° _S.—Buf. oif, iii. p. 254. pi. 17,—
PL enl. 26. the male.
Widewal, Pyrold, Frifch. pi. 31. malt and female.—Kram. el. p. 360.
Galbula, feu Picus nidum fufpendens, Rati Syn. p. 68. N° 5.
Witwall, Will. °m. p. 19S.
Yellow Bird from Bengal, Albin. iii. pi. 19.
Golden Thrufh, Edw. pi. 1%.
Oriole, Br. Zool. app. N° 4. pi. 4.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf,
CIZE of a Blackbird : length nine inches and a half. The bill
is brownifh red, and above an inch long: irides red: general
colour of the plumage a fine golden yellow: between the bill and
eye a ftreak of black: the wings black, marked here and there
with yellow, and a patch of yellow in the middle of the wing t
the two middle tail feathers black, inclining to olive at the bafe,
and the very tips yellow; all the others black, from the bafe to
the middle; from thence to the tip yellow: legs lead-colour:
claws black.
The female is of a dull greeniih brown in thofe parts where the
male is black: wings dufky: tail dirty green, and all but the
two middle feathers yellowifh white.
This beautiful fpecies is pretty common in feveral parts of
3 M Europe; 45°
ORIOLE.
Europe; but I believe moft fo in France, where it fpends the
fummers, and propagates its fpecies. It is fcarcely ever feen
fo far north as England or Sweden; yet mentioned as a bird of
Ruffia, but fuppofe only the warmer parts of it; comes twice in
a year into Switzerland, and found alfo in Carniola; obferved in;-
Malta in September, on its paffage fouthward, and returns in fpring
to the north through the fame track; comes into Conftantinople it*
fpring, and leaves it. in September, but flays in Alexandria till the
beginning of'November, when it takes its leave. From this,muft
fuppofe that it winters in Africa and Afia, efpecially as- this very
bird has been brought from China-and Bengal, as well as the Cape
of Good Hope.
The neft is of a curious conftruftion, but perhaps not quite fo as
in fome of the Orioles above-mentioned, though built after the fame
fafhion. It is of the fhape of a purfe,.fattened to the extreme divarications of the outmoft twigs of tall trees, and compofed of
fibres of hemp or ftraw, mixed with fine dry ftalks of grafs, and
lined within with mofs and liverwort. The female lays four
or five eggs, of a dirty white, marked with fmall dark-brown
fpots, which are thickeft about the largeft end : fhe. fits; three
weeks, and is obferved to be very tender of her young, fearing no.
thing for their defence; not unfrequently, will fuffer herfelf to be
. taken with the eggs and neft, and continue to fit upon them in a
cage till fhe dies.
The food which this, bird is moft fond of is grapes and figs, ia
the feafon, alfo cherries, &c.; but at other times is contented with
infects, and what elfe it can get.
It. has a loud cry, which.may be heard far off; but I do not
hear it remarked by any one for the leaft fong, though Gefner
fays it whiffles before rain.    The flefh is accounted good eating.
Willughby ORIOLE.
Wittughby faw thefe birds expofed in the poulterers fhops in Naples for fale.
It is very likely that the yellow and buff Jay * of Ray are only
the male and female of the golden Thrufb.
Oriolus melanocephalus, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 160. N° 3.
Le Loriot de Bengale, Brif. orn. ii. p. 329. N° 61.
LeLoriot de la Chine, Buf. oif. iii. p. 262. ll.—PI. enL 79.
Black-headed Indian Idterus, Edvo. 77.
T ENGTH eight inches and three quarters. The bill is inclining to red: Irides hazel: the whole head, and the throat, of
a full black : greater quills black, longitudinally marked with
yellow: the baftard wing is alfo marked with yellow: tail the
fame, except the two middle feathers, which are black half way
from the end, and the one on each fide has a black fpot on the
infide web, in the middle: legs lead-colour: claws black.
Inhabits Madras.
Le Troupiale tachete de Madraft, Brif. orn. ii. p. 91. N° 5.
Mottled Jay, Rati Syn. p. 195. N°9. pi. 1. f. 7.
Yellow Starling from Bengal, Albin. ii. pi. 41.
Yellow Indian Starling, Edtu. pi. 186.
CIZE of a Jay.    Head, throat, and neck, black: body yellow,
fpotted with black: upper and under tail coverts the fame:
wing coverts, quills, and tail, blackifh.
Inhabits Madras.   Called by the Gentoos, Cundoe Vanga Pandooe.
* Rati Syn, A<v. p. 194. N° 7, 8.
3 M 2 Oriolus 45 a
ORIOLE.
Oriolus Chinenfis, Lin. Syfl. i.
Le Loriot de la Cochinchine, 2
Le Coulavan, Buf. oif. iii. p. 2
Le Couliavan de la Cochinchin
p. 326. 1^29. t. 33. f. 1
, Pi. enl. 570.
Description. tt> ATHER bigger than the laft. The bill is yellow: the colours are the fame as in the former, except that it has a black
mark like a horfe-fhoe paffing from eye to eye over the crown of the
head : differing chiefly in the forehead, and the wing coverts, being yellow inflead of black. The female alfo differs in the fame
proportion with that of the laft fpecies. The legs in both are
black.
Place. Inhabits Cochinchina ;   where  the natives  call   it  Gouliavan.
Some of thefe birds have the upper parts of a brownifh yellow.
Le Loriot des Indes, Brif. orn. ii. p. 3^8. N° 60.—Buf. r»f iS«p»-a^c'Iff.
Chloris Indicus, Aldr.Av. i. pi. in p. 862.—Jonfl. Av. t. 41.
HpHIS differs very little from the laft-deferibed, and has a blueifh
horfe-fhoe mark from the angle of one fide of the mouth to
the other, paffing over the crown. It is fpotted on the wings
with blueifh longitudinal fpots, and a blueifh band crofles the
middle of the tail.
Inhabits theEaft Indies.. ORIOLE.
Le Loriot a telle rayee, Brif. orn. ii-.
Merula bicolor Aldrov. Rail Syn. p. 67   N° 1
Aldrovandus his Brafilian Merula, Will.
N° 62.—Buf. oif. iii. p. 265.
T> ATHER lefs than a Blackbird. Bill reddifh yellow : head,
throat, and fore part of the neck, black, tipped #rth white :
hind part of the neck, back, rump, and upper tail coverts, reddifh
yellow: the under parts of the body the fame, but paler: wing
coverts and quills black, edged with white: tail reddifh yellow:
legs yellow : claws reddifh.
Country unknown.
Le Talapiot, Buf. oif. vii. p. %z.—Pl. enl. 605.
T ENGTH feven inches. The bill an inch and a quarter in
length, ftrait, and pointed at the end : colour yellowifh
grey: the head, neck, and breaft, are rufous, fpotted and dafhed
with white : back, wings, and tail, rufous : the belly rufous
brown: the tail is two inches long*, and rounded at the end; each
feather has the fhaft projecting in a point from the tip: legs
blackifh.
This inhabits Guiana, and is not unfrequent in the internal
parts of that country. It climbs the trees like a Creeper or Woodpecker, to both which Buff on feems to think it inclined; but the
ftraitnefs of the bill prevents its being ranked with the firft, and
the toes being fituated* three before and one behind, forbid it
* In the Planches enluminSes the tail appears to confift of ten feathers. ORIOLE.
"having place with the latter; neither do I hear that it has a
tongue like that bird. It is found moft frequently in company
with the Climbing Grdkle, and both appear to have the fame manners, each fupporting itfelf with the tail feathers, on occafion.
Like the Woodpecker, feeds on the infects lurking beneath the
bark of the trees, which it gets at by breaking up the bark with
its bill. Both this and the Climbing Grakle are called Woodpeckers
by the natives of Guiana.
i     i!
Genus r m i
Genus   XV.      G R A K L E.
N*t. Minor Gr..
Var. A. Greater D°.
2. Bald Gr.
3. Paradife Gr..
4. Fetid Gr.
5. Boat-tailed Gr.
N°6. Purple Gr.
7. Crefted Gr.
8. Dial Gr.
9. Egyptian Gr.
10. Long-billed Gr.
11. Climbing Gi\
BILL  convex, thick, compreffed  a little on the fides, cul-
trated;-
Noftrils fmall; near the bafe of the bill; often near the edge.
Tongueentire, rather fharp at the end.
Toes, three forward, one backward ; the middle one connected
at the bafe to the outmoft : claws hooked and fharp.
None of this genus are found.in Europe,
Gracula religiofa, Lin Syfl'. i. p. 164. N° 1.
Le Mainate, Brif. orn. ii. p. 305, N° 49. pi. 28. f. 2,— Buf oif. iii. p. 416.
pi. 25,
Le Mainate des Indes Orientales, PL enl. 268.
Corvus Javanenfis, Ofb. Voy. i. p. 157.
Sturnus Indicus Bontii   Rail Syn, p. 68. N° 2.
Bontius's Indian Stare, Will orn. p. 196:
Minor from the Eaft Indies, Albin. ii. pi. 38.
Leffer Minor or Mino, Edw. i. p.l.17.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
^IZE of a Blackbird : length ten inches and a half.    The bill is
almoft an inch and a half long, of an orange-colour, with the
2 tip.
+- MINOR
GRAKLE.
J G   R   A
L   E.
tip yellow: the noftrils oblong, and placed in the middle of the
bill : the irides are hazel; the feathers on the top of the head are
fhort, like cut velvet, except juft in the middle, to the hind head,
where they are like thofe of other birds': on each fide of the head
is'a naked membrane, beginning beneath each eye, and ftretching
to the hind head, but not uniting at that part; this is irregular in
breadth, loofe on the edges, and is of a yellowifh colour, fubject
however to. differ in colour at certain feafons of the year, or when
the bird is angry or pleafed, &c. : -the general colour - of the
plumage is black, gloffed with violet, purple, and green, in different reflections of light: on the quills is a bar of white * : the
tail is compofed of twelve feathers, is three inches in length, and
even at the end : the legs are orange yellow : and the claws of a
pale brown. &jjgj_m?.
This fpecies is found in feveral parts of the Eaft Indies, in the
Ifle of Hainan, and almoft every ifle beyond the Ganges; and is remarkable for whiftling, finging, and talking well; much more fo
than any of the Parrot kind, and in particular very diftinct. Its
food is of the vegetable kind. Thofe kept in this climate are
obferved ^to be very fond of cherries and grapes; ifcherries are offered to it, and it does not immediately get them, it cries and
whines like a young child, till it has obtained its defires f. It is
a very tame and familiar bird.
It is met with alfo in Java, where it is called Maynoa, and may
be compared with the Lef-koa of the Chinefe %.
* This is not fo in the Planches enlun
at omitted by accident.
•f Salerne orn. p. 181.
\ Ofb. Toy, i. p. 157.
: but Buffon is not fure that it was G   R   A   K   L   E.
457
Le grand Mainate, Brif. orn.
The greater Minor, or Mino,
i. p. 308. N° 50,
Edtv. i. pi, 17.
-Buf. oif \.
GREATER
MINOR
GR.
'"THIS exactly refembles the laft in colour, but exceeds it much
in fize, being equal to a Jackdaw.
This inhabits the Ifle of Hainan, in AJia,
One defcribed by Bontius is faid to " refemble our country
Stare in the fea-green and dark blue feathers, marked with cinereous fpots ; but it has a yellow creft on the neck, and its head is
fet with black foft feathers, that feeling of it you would think
you touched velvet*." Whether that with the cinereous fpots
was a variety, or a diftin<5t fpecies, is not yet determined.
Gracula calva, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 164. N° 2.
Le Merle ehauve des Philippines, Brif. orn. ii. p. 280. N° 36. pi. 26. f. 2.
—PI. enl. 200.
Le Goulin, Buf. oif. iii. p. 420.
Iting,  Tabaduru, vel Gulin,  (Palalacae fpecies) P-h. Tranf.   vol.   xxiii.
p. 1397. N°43.
/"T"VHIS equals a Blackbird in fize: and in length is ten Inches.
The bill is thirteen lines in length, of a brown colour: on
the middle of the head, from the bafe of the bill to the hind
head, is a narrow lift of fhort brown feathers ; the reft of the head
and cheeks are bare of feathers, and flefh-coloured ; but when the
bird is irritated, becomes, like the laft fpecies, of a deep red:
the general colour of the plumage on the upper parts of the
BALD
GR.
* See Willugh. p. 196. %2
JN
body '45s
PARADESE.
GR..
■«   R   A   K   L   E.
body is filvery afh, but beneath grey brown : the wing coverts,,
quills, and tail, are black brown ; the laft three inches and a.
half in length : the legs and claws are brown.
In the Cabinet du Roi* are two of thefe; one the fize above,
with the under-parts'brown, fpotted with white : the bare fkin of
the headland the legs, as before: the other lefs, having the under
parts of the body yellow brown, and the bare fkin of the head,,
and end half of the bill, the legs, and claws, yellow.
Sonnemt brought one from the Philippine Ijles, not unlike this:
it was about twelve inches in length: the bill blackifh -:-" the
feathers furrounding the naked ikin of the head, as well as be-
cween«„down the middle, black: the under parts of the body of
the farnecoteur : the wings, tail, and upper parts, grey, lighteft.
on the rump and neck.
Thefe birds are faid to build their nefts in hollows of trees,
cfpecially the cocoa-nut tree. They live on fruits; are very voracious,; foon digefting what they eat; infomuch that a vulgar
notion has arifen of their having.no circumvolution of inteftinesx.
but only one ftrait paffage from the mouth to the anus..
M. Camel, in the Philofophical Tranfaclions above quoted, obferves that it is a. noify chattering bird-
Paradifaea triftis, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 167. N° 3.
Le Merle des Philippines, Brif. orn. ii. p. 278. N° 35. pi.. 26. f. 1.-
Le Martin, Buf. oif. iii. p. 423.—PL enl. 219.
r HIS fpecies is fomewhat bigger than a Blackbird: length
nine inches and a half..   The bill is yellow, and an inch.
* Hifl. des oif. iii. 422. G   R   A   K   L   E,
and a quarter in length ; in fhape like the.laft fpecies: the upper
part of the head is covered with narrow black feathers, not ill re-
fembl'ing thofe of the Bird of Paradife in the fame part: behind
the eyes is a triangular bare fpace of a red colour : the throat,
neck, and upper part of the breaft, are blackifh, tinged with
grey : the lower part of the breaft, the back, rump, fca.pulars,..
upper and under wing, and upper tail coverts, cheftnut brown:
thighs the fame : belly, fides, and under tail coverts, whitifh; as
is the edge of the wing : prime quills half white half dufky; fe-
condaries brown: tail deep brown j the fide feathers tipped with
white: legs yellow.
The/mwif'isrlike the male in plumage.
Inhabits the Philippine IJlands.
It is a various feeder, fcarce any thing coming amifs to it, and,
like the laft, very gluttonous in its appetite; is ufeful in its wild
ftate, in freeing the backs of oxen from vermin ; has been known,
when kept in a cage, to fwallow a young rat, more than two
inches long, whole, only bruifing it againft the wires to make it
foft. Briffon mentions its being very fond of grafshoppers, and
Buffon relates a curious anecdote on this head. The inhabitants
of the Ifle of Bourbon imported a pair of thefe birds, in order to free
them from thefe infects, with which they were infefted to a great
degree: the attempt fucceeded for a while ; but the inhabitants,
thinking they were otherwife hurtful, profcribed them by edict,
on which the grafshoppers increafed fo faft, that they were obliged
to fend for more; which, with their offspring, foon difpatched
every grajshopper on the ifland. But thefe birds multiplying very
faft, and wanting food, began on other things, fuch as fruits,
grapes, dates, and all kinds of grain, and even entered dove-houfes
to deftroy the young Pigeons; and are too numerous at this time to
3 N 2 be
mm
m G   R   A   K   L   E.
be eradicated, becoming a greater plague than that from which
their firft prefence relieved them.
They build twice in a year, chiefly in the forked parts of the
palm-trees, though not unfrequently in out-houfes; and generally
lay four eggs at a time. The young birds are eafily tamed, and
foon learn to fpeak, imitating the cries of the common domeftic
poultry, and other animals.
Gracul'a fcetida, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 164. N° 3.
CIZE of a Magpie. The bill not unlike that of a Cuckow : the-
tongue plain, flefhy, and pointed : the noftrils oval and naked ::
the head is black, covered with upright, fhort feathers, like velvet : on the neck is a band, which is bare of feathers : the body-
is black : the outer edge of the quills of a blueifh colour, but no
white fpot on any of them : the tail even at the end.
Inhabits America.
Gracula fearita, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 165. N* 4.
Monedula tota nigra, or fmall Blackbird, Rail Syn. p. 185. N° 28.—Sloan*.
Jam. p. 299. t. 257. f. 2.
Boat-tailed Grakle, Amer. Zool. N°
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
IZE of a Cuckow: length nearly thirteen inches.    The bill
fharp, black, and an inch and a half in length; it is naked at
the bafe, and the upper mandible bent: the general colour of the
plumage is black, with a glofs of purple, efpecially on the upper
parts s Moat'duta^ &, f
ill G   R   A   K   L   E.
parts j the edges of the quills and tail have a tinge of the fame.r
the wings reach to the middle of the tail, which is wedge- fhaped,
five inches and a half long: the legs and claws are black; the
latter very flout and hooked.
There occurs in this bird a Angularity, which I have obferved
in no other,-which is, the folding up of the tail feathers, totally
different from birds in general; for, inftead of being a plain fur-
face at top, it finks into a hollow like a deep gutter. A good ■
i idea may be formed by comparing it to an Hen's tail, with the
under fide uppermofL This bird always carries its tail expanded,
when on the ground, folding it up in that fingular manner above
expreffed, only when perched or flying.
I have received feveral fpecimens of this from Jamaica; and       Manner!
there are others in the Leverian Mufeum, all of which correfpond
with the account above given.    The irides and notes are like
thofe of a Jackdaw. It feeds on maize, beetles, and other infects.
Whether this be the bird-meant by other ornithologifts or not,
I am fcarcely clear about, as the Angularity of the tail could not
have efcaped them; but I am certain that Linnaus did obferve it,
and it is moft probable that he derived his trivial name * from
that circumftance.    This author fays that it is fond of bananas.
This fpecies is likewife common in North America, keeping Place.
company with the flocks of the purple Grakle, or next fpecies, and
red-winged Oriole. Thefe breed in- the fwamps, and migrate in
September, after which none are feen.. This, bird, and the Troupiale
noir of Briffbn, are confounded together by Linn^us ; but a moment's inflection will prove them different, the bird above de-
fcribed being four inches longer than Briffon's. bird, which Buffon
* Barita, from 0«ji; a Ihip or barge, which the tail not unaptly refembles.
deferibes.
J G   R   A   K   L   E.
defcribes on this occafion, and which we can plainly prove to be
a true Oriole, and defcribed as fu'ch, under the name of Black
Oriole *.
N° 3.-Buf. of. iii. p. 97.
<5racula quifcula, Lin. Syfl: i. p. 165. N°j
La Pie de la Jamaique, Brif. orn. ii. p. 4 	
N°2.
Purple Jackdaw, Catefb. Car. i. pi. 12.
Barbadoes Blackbird, Brown. Jam. p. 476.
.Blackbird, or Maize-thief, Kalm, Trav. i. p. 291.
Purple Grakle, Amer. Zool. N°
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
CIZE of a Blackbird: length eleven inches and three quarters.
^ The bill is black, and fixteen lines long: irides white : the
whole bird is black, but moft beautifully and richly gloffed with
purple, efpecially on the head and neck: the irides are of a
pearlv grey: the tail is cuneiform : the legs and claws black.
The female is wholly of a brown colour, deepeft on the wings
and tail.
This inhabits Carolina, Mexico, and other parts of North America ; alfo Jamaica.
Thefe birds for the moft part feed on maize, whence the name
•of Maize-thieves has been given them; but this is not their only
food, for they are known alfo to feed on many other things.
In fpring, foon after the maize-feed is put into the ground, thefe
birds fcratch it up again; and as foon as the leaf comes out,
they take it up with their bills, root and all; but when'it is ripe
they flill do more damage, for at that time they come in troops
* P. 445• N° _7.
of -GRAKLE.
aftboufands, and are fo bold, that if difturbed in one part of a field,
they only go to another *»
In New Jerfey and Penfylvania three pence per dozen was once
given for the dead birds ; and ^ means of this premium they
, were fo nearly extirpated in 1750, as to be few left; but it was
obferved that the worms in the meadows encreafed fo, that they
abated in the perfecution of them, as it was obferved that they
fed on thefe worms till the maize was ripe f..
Thefe build in trees, and are called by fome the purple Daw..
They now and then mix in company with the red-winged Maize-
thieves\ and blue Jays, though for the moft part are by them-
felves. They are faid to pafs the winter in fwamps, which are-
quite overgrown, with wood, from thence only appearing in mild
weather; and after the maize is got in,,are content to feed on.
other things, as the aquatic tare grafts ||, and,, if pufhed by hunger,, buck-wheat and oats, and even wheat, barley, and rye; they
are faid alfo to deftroy that pernicious infedt the bruchuspifi _..
We are told that their note is pretty and agreeable; but their
flefh is not good to eat, as it is.black and unfavoury.       ,. t% - ,
463
* Kalm. Trav. i. 291..
t In 1749 the worms left fo little hay in New England, that it was forced to
be imported from other parts.    Kalm.
% Oriolus Phamiceus.   Lin. j| Zizania aquatica,   Lin.
§ Lin. Syf. i. p. i6_. n
464
CRESTED
GR.
G   R   A   K   L   E.
Graculacriftatella, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 165. N° 5.
Le Merle hupe de la Chine, Brif. orn. ii. p. 253. N° zi.—Buf. oif. iii.
p. 367.—PL enl. 507.
Chinefe Starling, or Blackbird, Edw. i. pi. 19.
Lev. Muf.
HPHIS is a little bigger than a Blackbird : length eight inches
and a half. The bill is yellow or orange : irides fine
orange: the general colour of the plumage blackifh, with a tinge
of blue: on the forehead, juft over the bill, the feathers are
longer than the reft, forming a kind of creft, which the bird can
erect or deprefs at will: the greater quills are halfway from the
bafe white, the reft black blue: all the tail feathers, except the
two middle ones, tipped with white: the legs are of a dull
yellow.
Thefe birds are faid to talk and whiftle very well, but not in
that perfection as the Minor, or firft fpecies.
They are common in China, where they are much efteemed, and
the figures of them are feen frequently in Chinefe paintings. In
China are kept often in cages. Their food is rice, infteSts, worms,
and fuch like. But feldom brought to England alive, requiring
the greateft care in the paffage. G   R   A   K   L   E,
'Gracula faularis, Lin. Syfl. i, p. 165. N° 6.
La Pie-griefche noire de Bengale, Brif. orn. ii
—Buf. oif. i. p. 299.
.  Saulary mas & fcemina, Rail Syn. p. 197. pi,
Little Indian Pie, Edw, 181.
Bengal Magpie, or Dial-bird, Albin. iii. t. 17, 18,
84. tfSuppl. p. 41. N° 19,
. f. 19, 20,
CIZE of the Miffel-thrufh. The bill is black: irides yellow:
the corners of the mouth tinged with the fame: the head,
neck and breaft, back, rump, and upper- tail coverts, are black:
the belly, fides, thighs, and under tail coverts, white : the wing
coverts next the body, and leffer quills, are alfo white; the outer
wing coverts and quills are black: the tail is even at the end,
black above, and white beneath : legs and claws brown.
The fem>a$e differs in colour, being of a dark brown on the fore
part of the neck and breath, where the male is black; and the
white parts- not fo clear, though the upper parts of the body are
black, as in the male.
Edwards fays, that the two middle tail feathers are black, and
the reft white.
Bujfon makes this a Shrike, as does Briffon; but I really think
that the firft cannot mean the fame bird with Edwards, if it be
that figured in the Planches enluminees *, as we fee there the bill of
a Shrike very clearly; befides this, the tail is very much cuneiform, whereas that of Edwards is even at the end.
Inhabits Bengal.
* -PLenl.tf-j. f.i. which is clcaVly the -collared Shrike, p. 163.
I 466
G   R   A   K   L■   E*
EGYPTIAN
GR.
Gracula atthis, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 165. N°8.
Corvus ^Egyptius, Haffelq. Ltin, p. 240. N° 20.
CIZE of a Lark: length four inches. Bill dull black, with the
bafe reddifh : the eye is blueifh : the head is flattifh at top :
the plumage on the upper part of the body of a deep green,
fpotted with blue green on the crown, hind part of the neck, and
fhoulders : -fides of the neck and back the fame, but not fpotted :
on each fide of the neck is a longitudinal broad line, the fore part
of which is ferruginous, the reft of a whitifh lucid blue: the
throat is whitifh: the belly ferruginous: the prime quills deep-
green on the outfide, and blackifh within ; the tips the fame: the
tail is nearly even at the end, and of a deep blue: the legs blood
red : claws blackifh.
This inhabits Egypt, and is fuppofed to live on infects, cen-
tipes, and fcorpions; the remains of which were found in the
ftomach.
LONG-BILLED
GR.
Gracula Iongiroftra, Pallas Spic. vi. p. 6. t. 2. f. 2,
'"TpHIS is lefs than the Bee-eater: the length nearly nine inches..
The bill is thirteen lines long, and a little bent: irides
dufky : the noftrils placed in an hollow almoft in the middle of
the bill *, and covered with a black, fmooth membrane : above
the angles of the mouth are two black briftles, and a leffer ferruginous one behind them: tongue plain* deeply bifid at the end,
* Differing i:
from other Gracula, in which they are placed at the bafe~
(as G   R   A   K   L   E.
(as are thofe of all the Grakle genus *) with lacerated edges: the
head and neck are black: the back brown, inclining to ferruginous
near the rump: beneath, from the throat to the vent, the plumage
is of a dirty yellow: the fides under the wings undulated with
black lines : on each fide of the neck is a naked wrinkled band,
paffing lengthwife on the neck, and almoft covered by the adjacent feathers : the wings are of a foot-colour, inclining more to
brown towards the fhoulders : all the prime quills, and part of
the fhafts, are white at the bafe, making, when the wing is clofed,
an oblique bar of white ; but there is no white on the fecondaries:
the tail is cuneiform, blade, tipped obliquely with white at the end,
having moft white on the outer feather, which is black for only
one-third of its length from the bafe: its legs are long, robuft,
and black.
Inhabits South America and Surinam. We are indebted for the
whole of this account to Pallas, who feems to have been the only
one who has feen the bird; and which I place here on his
authority.
467
Le Picucule de Cayenne, Buf. oif, vii. p. 82—PL enl. 6zu
T ENGTH ten inches. From the gape to the point of the bill
nearly one inch and three quarters : the bill itfelf pretty flout,
flightly bent the whole length, and fomewhat curved at the
point; colour black; noftrils fmall, clofe to the bafe : the head
and throat are fpotted, rufous and white : the upper part of the
CLIMBING
GR.
Description.
* Not in Linnaus ; whofe definition is, Lingua Integra, acutiufcula xarnofa;
perhaps this therefore is not a Linneean Gracula.
J O 2 body
J I
46t G   R   A   K   L   E.
hod'y rufous, the under yellowifh: both above and beneath marked
with tranfverfe dufky ftripes : wings and tail plain rufous: the-
tail about four inches long, cuneiform,, the outer feather one inch
and a half fhorter than the middle ones; all of them have the fhafts
projecting beyond the end of the feather about qne-fixth of an
inch, and fharp-pointed: the legs are one inch and a quarter in-
length, and with the-claws are dufky black.
Placi. This inhabits the interior parts of Guiana, where it climbs the-
trees in the manner of the Woodpecker; which circumftance oc*
cafions the inhabitants to blend it with thofe kind of birds
without diftinction. Buffon feems at a lofs where to place this-
fpecies, and thinks it holds place between the Woodpecker and
Creeper genus, calling it Pic-Grimpereau. However the manners
alone may incline one to this opinion, the fhape and make of the
whole bird do not favour the fuppofition : I have ventured therefore to rank it with the Grakles, as it appears to have many
things in common with that tribe,.
Gbnss C   469   J
Genws   XYL    PARADISE   BIRD.
N° r. Greater P. B.
Var A. Leffer D°.
2. King P. B.
3. Magnificent P. B.
4.. Gorget P. B.
N° 5. Superb P. B.
6. Gold-breafted P. B..
7. Blue-green P. B.
8. Golden P. B.
BIRDS of this genus have
The bill flightly bending: the bafe covered with velvetlike feathers.
Noftrils fmall, and concealed by the feathers..
Tail confifting of ten feathers; the two middle ones *,. ia-
feveral of the fpecies, are very long,, and webbed only at the bafe.
and tips.
Legs and feet very large and ftrong-: three toes forward, one
backward; the middle connected to the outer one as far as the.
firftjoint. liPlli*
The whole of this genus have, till lately, been very imperfectly
known; few cabinets pofieffing more than one fpecies, viz. the
Greater, or what is called the Common Bird of Paradife : nor has-
any fet of birds given rife to more fables than this, the various
tales concerning which are to be found in every author; fuch as—
their never touching the ground from their birth to death j Irviflg*
wholly on the dew; being produced without legs; and an hundred
» Sometimes more; fee Forrefl, Voy, p. 140, i
fuch
1
J 47®
PARADISE    BIRD.
fuch ftories, too ridiculous even to mention.   This laft error is
fcarcely at this moment wholly eradicated.
The circumftance which gave rife to this, did not indeed, at
firft, proceed from an intention to deceive, but merely from accident. In the parts of the world which produce thefe birds,
the natives made ufe of them as Aigrets, and other ornaments of
drefs; and in courfe threw away the lefs brilliant parts. The
whole trouble they were at on this occafion, was merely to fkin
the bird., and, after pulling off the legs, coarfer parts of the wings,
&c. thruft a flick down the throat into the body, letting an inch
or two hang out of the mouth, beyond the bill: on the bird's
■drykig, the fkin collapfed about the flick, which became fixed,
and fnpported the whole. They had then no more to do than
to put this end of it into a focket fitted to receive it, or faften it
in fome manner to the turban, &c. By degrees thefe were imported into the other ifles for the fame ufes, and afterwards were
coveted by the Japanefe, Chinefe, and Perfians, in whofe countries
they are frequently feen, as well as in many parts of India; the
Grandees of thefe laft parts not only ornamenting themfelves
with thefe beautiful plumes, but adorning even their horfes
with the  fame.
I believe the whole of this race to be natives of New Guinea,
migrating into the neighbouring ifles for a time, but returning
to New Guinea in the breeding-feafon; and never at all found but
within a few degrees of the equator.
The Dutch get them chiefly from Banda; and it is there that
the ft-ory of their being without legs has been propagated, in
order to enhance the value. The natives of Aroo bring them
to that place by way of traffic, prepared as before mentioned,
and put into the hollow of a bamboo for further prefervation.
We P   A   R   A   D   I   S
B   I   R  D.
We are able here to enumerate eight fpecies, the whole of which
have come under our infpection; but are confident that there muft
be ftill others, both from the relations of authors, and the fragments
we have met with; bearing no relation to thofe already mentioned j
the defcribing of which would give not the leaft information to
the reader.
Paradifea apoda, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 166. N° i.
L'Oifeau-de-paradis, Brif. orn. ii.  p. 130.   N° 1. pi. 13. f. i.—Buf. oif.
iii. p. 151. pi. 12.—PI. enl. 254.
Manucaudiatae, Rati Syn. p. 20.   N° 1.   p. 21.  N°   3, 5,   6,  7. N° 22.
N° 8, 9 r
Birds of Paradife,   Will.   orn.   p. 91. N°   1.   p. 92.   N°  3,  5, 6,  7.
p. 93. 8,9? pi. 11.
Greater Bird of Paradife, Edw. pi. no.—Albin. iii. pi. 9.
Great Bird of Paradife from Aroo, Forr. Voy. p. 135.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
'TpHIS fpecies appears from the plumage to be as big as a
Pigeon, but the body fcarce exceeds that of a Thrufh. The
length, from the end of the bill to that of the tail, is twelve inches
and a half: the bill greeniih yellow, and an inch and a half long :
the eyes very fmall: the head, which is likewife fmall in proportion
to the bird, the throat, and neck, are covered with very fhort,-
dehfe, fliff feathers : thofe on the head and hind part of the neck
are of a pale gold-colour : the bafe of the bill is furrounded with
black feathers, appearing like velvet, changing in different lights-
to green: the fore part of the neck is green-gold: the lower
part of the neck behind, the back, wings, and tail, are cheftnut:
breaft deeper cheftnut, verging to purple : from under the wings
a :• ^ - fprings ;- .
PARADISE     BIRD.
fpring a great quantity of feathers, with the webs fo loofe as to
appear like a herring-bone, fome of them near eighteen inches
in length j thefe are of different colours, fome cheftnut and
purplifh, others yellowifh, and a few altnoft white : from the
rump arife two feathers without webs, except for four inches
next the bafe, and the fame at the tips j thefe appear to be the
two middle tail feathers, and are the fame colour as the reft of
the tail, the feathers of which are fix inches long, and even at
the ends: the legs are flout, and of a brown colour.
The female is faid to be like the male, except that the long
wire-like feathers of the tail have the weha fbarter than thofe of
the male. They are faid to moult, and be without their long
feathers for four months in the year.
Thefe birds are found in the Molucca iflands, and thofe fur-
rounding New Guinea, particularly in the ifle of Aroo : the Am-
■boynans call them Mauu-key-arw;, the natives^" TtrnaU, Burong-
papua, or Papua Birds ; alfo Manuco-dewata, and Soffu or Siofftt.
At Aroo they are called Fanaan. They are fuppofed to breed in
iVke> Guinea*, coming from thence into Aroo at the wefterly or dry
imnfoon; and are found there during the continuance of it; returning to New Guinea- when the eafterly or wet monfbon fets in. They
are feen going and returning, in flights of thirty or forty, led by a
king, which is conftantly* feen to fly htgfter than the reft": dforiag
this Sight1, they cry like Starlings. They are obferved to take the
adVant?age of flying againft the wind, when it blows only moderate ; but when in diftrefe, from the fhifting of the wind, or blow- .
ing too ftrong, croak like Ravens. Sometimes, by the fhifting o
the winds, :cheir long fcapular feathers are difhevelled, which
quite hinders their flight; in that cafe, are loft in the water, or fall
on the ground; which if they do, they cannot rife again without'
i gaining PARADISE     BIRD.
gaining an eminence: in this flate, they are watched by the natives, who fecure many, and kill them on the fpot, as they cannot
be kept alive by art; and the traffic in thefe birds is one part of
their trade.—They are likewife taken with birdlime *, when they
fettle in trees, or fhot with blunt arrows. They are fold at
Banda, and its neighbourhood, for half a rixdollar apiece; but
the people of Aroo are content with a fpike-nail for each.
The true food of thefe birds is not certain, fince the accounts
given by authors differ widely: fome fay, that they feed on the
red berries of the Waringa Tree -f ; others, that they are fond of
eating Nutmegs % ; fome, that their food is large Butterflies §;
and others aver, that they chafe fmall Birds \; which laft circum-
flance is not improbable, as their legs and bills are fufficiently
flout; and they are known to defend themfelves courageoufly,
whenever they are taken alive.
Thefe birds were formerly brought into Europe without legs,
and not a few were perfuaded that they never had any ; but the
truth is, merely, that the legs are ufelefs for the purpofes defigned
by the natives, and are therefore torn off on the fpot, and thrown
afide. It is for ornament only, that thefe birds are coveted by
fuch of the inhabitants of the Eaft as are able to purchafe them,
the Chiefs of the country wearing them conftantly in their turbans;
and the Grandees of Perfia, Sural, and the Eaft Indies, ufe them
as aigrettes, and even adorn their horfes with them.
* Said to be prepared from the juice of Sukkom, or Breadfruit; Arto-carpus
communis, Forft. Nov. Gen.
t Forrefl. p. 136. t Tavernier, vol. ii. p. 311. § Linnxus.
|| Bontius. " Unguibus incurvis & peracutis parvas Aviculas, Chlorides Frin-
gillas, & fimiles venentur, eafque mox, ficut reliqua; rapaces aVes devorent."
Lib, v. cap. 12.
3 p Smaller p- A   R A  D   I   S
ler Bird of Paradife, from Papua
BIRD.
. Voy. p. 137.
/T~^HIS is every way,  in make
is lefs in fize ;   the length.
d fhape, like the former, but
[ith the fcapular feathers in<-
eluded, being not more than twenty-one inches. The bill is lead-
coloured, with the point yellowifh, one inch and a half in length ?-
the eye furrounded with black: forehead and chin covered with-
velvety black feathers, reflecting a glofs of green : throat and
fore part of the neck wholly green : the top of the head, nape,-
and half.the neck behind, ferruginous yellow; lower half quite
yellow :. the back is likewife yellow, with a dirty greyifh eaft :
breaft, belly, wings, and tail, cheftnut: from the upper part of
the tail fpring two wire-like fhafts, as in the former bird, and a
tuft of herring-bone feathers from beneath each wing; thefe are
either of a delicate white,.or light yellow, the laft chiefly on the
fides, where many of the fhorter ones have purple tips.
This bird.is faid to be found only in the Papua iftands, where it
is called Shag, or Shague; by the people of Ternate, Taffu, or
Boorong-papuwa. It is recorded, that the Papuans, intoxicate
them with Cocculus indicus, fo as to catch them with the hand:
they then draw out the bowels, fear the infide with a red-hot
iron, and afterwards put each into the hollow of a Bamboo for
prefervation. I have reafon to believe that they do more than,
fimply exenterate them, as I have ever found that the fkins only
were preferved, and that in moft, if not all, even the bones of
the Jkull were taken away; whence the head, perhaps fmall by
nature, appeared ftill lefs than it fhould be.
2 Thefe PARADISE     B
R  D.
Thefe build in tall trees, and are fuppofed not to migrate, like
the firft defcribed ; yet are faid, like them, to fly in flocks, preceded by a king, who is black, with a purplifh eaft, and finer
coloured than the reft.
The male is faid to have a longer neck and bill than the female.
I efteem this a mere variety of the firft, notwithftanding the
^affurances of authors about it, as above mentioned.
Paradifea regia, Lin, Syfl. i. p. 166. N" 2.
Le petit Oifeau de Paradis, Brif. orn. ii. p. 136. N° 2. pi.
Le Manucode, Buf. oif. iii. p. 163. p. 13.—PL enl. 496.
Le Roi des Oifeaux de Paradis, Son. Voy. p. 156. pi. 95.
Rex Avium Paradifearum, Rati Syn. p. 22. N° 10.
Suppofed King of the greater Birds of Paradife, Will, orn,
Edw. pi. in.
king's Bird, Forr. Voy. p. 141. N° 7.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
3. f- 2.
■ PL 77-
-KING
P. B.
'"THIS bird is about the fize of a Lark, and near five inches* in
length. The bill is one inch long, of a yellowifh colour,
and very little bent: the upper mandible covered half way with
orange-coloured feathers: the eyes encircled with a black
plumage : at the internal angle of the eye is a fpot of black : the
irides are yellow: the head, neck, back, tail, and wings, are of
a bright red colour; the crown brighteft; and the breaft approaching to blood red; all having a rich fattin-like glofs : moft
part of the head is covered with foft fhort feathers, -like velvet,
-but the other parts are like feathers in common : on the breaft is a
* Forrtfl fays feven inches.
3P2
broad PARADISE     BIRD.
broad bar of green, having the luftre of polifhed metal : the
belly wholly white * : from each fide, beneath the wings, fpring
feveral feathers of a greyifh white, tipped with lucid green : the
tail is not much more than an inch in length, and the wings,
when clofed, reach confiderably beyond it : from the place of
the middle tail feathers, fpring two feathers which are webbed at
the origin, the reft of the way quite naked, except at the ex-,
tremities, where they are again webbed on one fide, and coil in a
fpiral manner; the webs of a green-colour, and very gloffy : the
legs are about as flout as thofe of a Lark, and are yellowifh
brown.
It is found principally at Aroo, but only during the dfy monfoon,
coming from New Guinea, where it is fuppofed to breed. It is
called at Aroo, Wowi, Wowi; in the Papua iflands, Sopclo-o; being
brought chiefly from Aroo Sopclo-o; and efpecially from Wadjir,
a well-known village there.
The Dutch' call it King Bird, and get it from Banda,
to which place it is brought by the natives of the iflands
where it is found. It is faid not to affociate with any other
of the Birds of Paradife, but flits folitary from bufh to bufh,
Wherever it fees red berries, without ever getting on tall trees.
This fpecies is much more fcarce, and in courfe much feldomer
met with in cabinets, than either of the former.
• In fome fpecimens, there is a narrow bar of yellow above the green one*
and the belly is green and white mixed. J  PARADISE     BIRD.
477
L'Oifeau de Paradis furnommele Magnifique, Son. Voy. p. J63. pi. 98.— 3.
PL enl. 631. MAGNIFICENT
Le Magnifique de la Nouvelle Guinee, ou le Manucode a Bouquets, Buf. Pi,   XIX
oif. in. p. 166.
n inch
p  and
CIZE of a Blackbird: length nine inches. The bill i;
in length, a little bent, of a pale yellow, with the
.bafe black: the feathers about the head.are fhort and velvety:
the crown and nape are of a deep cheftnut yellow, but on the
firft incline to cheftnut: the feathers which cover the noftrils,
between the bill and eye, and round the chin, are fhort, thick
fet, and fland out from the reft : between the gape of the
mouth and the eye is a fpot of lucid green : at the back part of
the neck behind arifes a tuft of yellowifh feathers, each of them
marked near the tip with a fpot of black; beneath this firft
fprings a fecond packet, which is larger, and of a ftraw-colour,
which lay loofely over the back : the back itfelf and tail are of a
bright red brown: from the chin to the thighs the colour is
blackifh, having a reflection, in fome lights, of green, and in a
quiefcent ftate of the bird, fall over part of the wing-coverts:
down the middle of the throat, neck, and breaft, the colour is
blue green, and the feathers fhort and downy : the fecondaries are
of a deep yellow; the prime quills brown, and reach nearly to
the end of the tail; from the place of the infertion of the middle
ones arife two long wiry fhafts, like as in the former fpecies,
which curve in a circle, and'are furnifhed with very fhort green
webs on one fide, and end in a point: the legs are yellow.
M, Sonnerat is the firft who has defcribed this bird ; and informs
us that it is found in New Guinea.    In the collection of Mifs
10 Bhmefteld
Descrip1
I
J PARADISE     RlRTA.
Blomefteld is a fine fpecimen, from whence the above defcription
-was taken; and I have feen a fecond at Sir Jofeph Banks's.
Aldrovandus talks of a crefted Bird of Paradife *, which he fays
had a creft near the neck, almoft three inches high, ridged, of a
yellow colour, and feemed to confift rather of briftles than feathers. But this bird was eighteen inches long: the bill long,
black, and hooked; and the feathers of the head, neck, and
wings, black, being yellow at the joining of the bill.
Pl. XX, /"TpHIS elegant fpecies is about the fize of a Blackbird in the
^Description, X ]_.0(_y . which, from the tip of the bill to the infertion of the
tail, meafures no more than about fix inches, the tail occupying
all the reft. The bill is an inch in length, rather flout, moderately bent, and of a black colour : the forehead is furnifhed with
tufted thick feathers, which occupy alfo the fides of the head;
and beneath the eye, and round the throat, they are fo full as to
enlarge thofe parts confiderably in bulk: the colour of this part
of the plumage is black, and like plufh or velvet; but from the
root of the under mandible, at the chin, are a few feathers of the
common ftructure, with webs : the back part of the head, nape,
.and hind part and fides of the neck, to the beginning of the back,
are of a gilded green, but the feathers are not much unlike thofe
in common, and which, in courfe, fitting clofer to the fkin, give
thofe parts a flat appearance : at the angles of the mouth begins a
line of the moft brilliant gilded copper-colour imaginable, which
paffes beneath the eye, growing wider by degrees, and finifhes in a
* Av.  i. p. 811. pl. in 814—Rail Syn. p.  21. N° 4 Will.  1
N° 4.—Compare alfo Forr. Voy, p. 140, N°6 }
kind 3  FARADISE     BIRD.
kind of crefcent or gorget, of half an inch or more in width, on the
fore part of the neck ;. beneath this, to the vent,.the colour is dull
green> except on the middle of the belly, where there is a tranf-
verfe bright green band : the back is black, having both a copper
and purple glofs, in different lights: wings deep black; beneath.
them the feathers are downy, but do not exceed at all in length,,
like in the other Bird of Paradife: the tail is of an enormous
• length,, and confifts of twelve feathers of unequal lengths, the
two.middle ones being near twenty-two. inches long, and the
outer one only five inches ; the colour of all of them much
die fame as the back of the bird.
A complete fpecimen of this moft lingular fpecies is in the pof-
feflion of Sir Jofeph Banks, who collected it in the voyage round
the world
This feems to bear fome affinity with the black Bird of Paradife mentioned by Forreft *, which he fays is four fpans in length,.
and of a black colour, without any remarkable glofs; but as this
is all he fays, the matter cannot well be determined. He adds,
that the Alfaories, or- inhabitants of the mountains in Meffowal,.
fhoot thefe birds,, and fell them to the people of Tidore.
L'Oifeau de Paradis a gorge violet,   furnomme le Superbe,  Son.-Voy.
p. i57. pL.96..
Le Manucode noir de la Nouvelle Guinee, dit le Superbe, Buf. oif. iii.
p. 169.—P.I. enl. 6_z.
SUPERB"
P. B.
'T'HIS is  fomewhat  bigger than  the King Paradife  Bird -fv    Description
The bill is black; at the root of the upper mandible is a
•*.Voy. p. 140. Np 4.
f Thefg. in PL tnl, meafures tea inches.
black.
3
I
J PARADISE     BIRD.
black crefl, compofed of fine, ftrait, and not very long feathers:
the head, hind part of the neck, and back, are covered with
green gold feathers; thefe are broad, and well furnifhed with
webs, and have to the eye and touch every appearance of velvet,
laying fo over one another, that one may with propriety compare
them to fcales of a fifh : the wings are of a dull deep black : the
tail, on the contrary, has a blueifh glofs: throat changeable
violet, the feathers thereon like velvet: the belly bright green;
on each fide, from under the wings, is a tuft of black velvety
feathers of unequal lengths, which rife fome height above the
back, having the appearance of fecond wings, and turn downward towards the tail, many of thefe being as long as the wing
itfelf: the legs are brown.
In the Leverian Mufeum is a bird fomewhat like this, and
nearly of the fame fize, but is wholly black on the head: from
the place of the wings arife two tufts fomewhat like thofe above
defcribed, but the wings themfelves are wanting: on the upper
part of the belly is the moft brilliant fet of black green gloffy feathers imaginable, and in fhape exactly forked like the tail of a
Swallow; the feathers of which this is compofed feem to be
longer than the reft of the belly feathers, and fland out a little
from the belly: the legs feem ftrong and black. As this is an
imperfect bird, I am unwilling to place it here as a fpecies, efpe-
cially as it is poffible that from the wing tufts it may prove related to the laft defcribed. PARADISE     BIRD;!
481
L'Oifeau Paradis a gorge doree, Son. Voy. p. 158. pl. 97.
Le Sifilet, ou Manucode a fix filets, Buf. oif. iii. p. lji.—Pl. enl. 633.
CIZE of the common Turtle. The bill is blackifh : irides yellow : on the forehead, at the root of the bill, is a creft, which
the bird carries nearly erect; this, when laid flat, extends not
much beyond the eyes, and is compofed of fine fliff feathers, not
well furnifhed with webs; at firft this creft is black, but fome of
the feathers are half black half white: top of the head, cheeks,
and throat, are of a changeable violet black: fore part of the
neck and breaft gilded changeable green, very brilliant: on the
hind part of the neck Is a large fpot of green gold : the back is
deep black, with a violet glofs: tail and wings black: beneath
each wing arife long black feathers, which cover over and embrace the wings in a ftate of reft; the webs of thefe are loofe
like thofe of an Oftrich : on each fide of the head, about the
place of the ears, are three long feathers without webs, except a
fmall part, of an oval fhape, juft at the tips; thefe are of fuch a
length, that when ranged on each fide of the body, they reach a
quarter way on the tail, which is fomewhat cuneiform : the legs
are blackifh.
One of thefe birds, in the collection of Mifs Blomefield, received
from Holland, anfwered nearly to the above defcription, except in
the long weblefs ear feathers ;-hut though thefe were wanting in
herbird, there remained, as it were, the rudiments of them, the bird
having a few feathers longer than the reft at that part; nor had
her's the Oftrich-like feathers under the wing. Buffon mentions
the like circumftance, in a bird publifhed by M. Marvi, adding,
that his bird had not the creft.—It is not improbable but the laft-
3 Q__ mentioned
GOLD-
BREASTED [PARADISE     BIRD.
mentioned birds may be mere fexual differences of that defcribed
by Sonnerat.
Thefe birds inhabit New Guinea.
BLUE GREEN
P. B.
Le Calybe de la Nourelle Guinee, Buf. oif. iii. p. 173.—P/. enl. 634.
L'Oifeau de Paradis verd, Son. Voy. p. 164. pl. 99.
T ENGTH fixteen inches. The bill is flout and thick, and rather bent at the end ; the colour black : the feathers of the
head are of a velvety texture, and come very forward on the
upper mandible; the plumage in general is of a fine blue, changing into green in different lights, or fea-green : the back, belly,
rump, and tail, are fteel blue, and very gloffy.
This feems to be the fame with one in Sir Jofeph Banks's collection. The bill in that bird was an inch and a quarter long:
the tongue even at the end, and furnifhed with briflles : the tail
cuneiform ; the two middle feathers feven inches long ; the outer
ones three inches and three quarters : the whole plumage of the
head and body feemed frofted, each feather being abfolutely
curled at the edges: the head and neck appeared to have the
moft reflection of green, and the body moft inclined to purple,
the wings were wholly wanting.
The bird above defcribed came from New Guinea.
This can be no other bird than that of Sonnerat above quoted,
which he fays is a trifle bigger and longer than the King Paradife.
Bird. The bill black : irides red : the bird is wholly of a fine
green colour, which has the glofs of'polifhedfteel: the feathers of
the head, neck, and body, are fmall, and ranged one over another
.     ' like PARADISE     BIRD.
like the fcales of a fifh, and appear in different lights to be blue
and green alternate: the legs blackifh.
4*3
Oriolus aureus,. Lin. Syfl, i. p. 163. N° 19.
Le Troupiale des Indes, Brif, orn. app. p. 37. N° 31.
Le Rollier de Paradis, Buf. of. iii. p. 149.
Golden Bird of Paradife, Edw. pl, 112.
Lev. Muf.
X ENGTH eight inches. Bill an inch long, rather bent, and of
a brown colour, darkeft at the tip: the throat, and fore part
of the neck, for an inch and a quarter, are covered with black velvety feathers : the head,, neck, and body, of a fine orange gold-
colour; beneath yellow: the edge of the wings and the tail are
black ; the laft has yellow fhafts, and is fringed with yellow
near the tip: the legs were wanting, as well as the quills, in
Edwards's fpecimen, from which he figured his bird; but in the
Leverian Mufeum there is a perfect one, in which I find the quills
and tail to'be black ; in other things like that of Edwards.
Suppofed to inhabit the fame places as the former ones.
GOLDEN
P. B.
3Q.J C 4«4 J
Genus   XVII.      CURUCUL
Red-bellied C.
Var. A.
Var. B.
, Yellow-bellied C.
Var.. A. White-bellied C.
' 3. Cinereous C.
4. Rufous C.
5. Violet-headed C.
d. Spotted C.
7. Fafciated C.
THESE have a fhort, thick, and convex bill; and for the mofti
part dentated on the edges.
Noftrils covered with fliff brifHes.
Legs fhort, weak, and covered with feathers or down-
Toes placed two before, two behind.
Tail confifting of twelve feathers.
As far as I can learn, the manners of thefe birds are much alike,
; and for the moft part agree with thofe of the firft fpecies there
related. . They are moftly inhabitants of South America, except
the two laft fpecies, which inhabit Ceylon. They are faid to differ
much in the different flages of life, which has given rife to confu-
fion of fpecies, and may perhaps be the caufe of the following,
account of them not being fo perfect as may have been wifhed..
They have been called Curucuis, or rather Couroucouis, at Guiana,..
from their note not ill refembling that. word. Said to feed on.
fruits*.
1 Brj_r„. C   U   R   U   C   U   I.
4*5
Trogoa Curucui, Lin, Syfl. i. p. 167. N° z.
Le Couroucou verd du Brefil, Brif. orn, iv. p. 173. N0^.
Le Couroucou a ventre rouge, Buf. oif. vi. p. 287.
■  de Cayenne, PL enl. 452.
Tzinitzian, Rati Syn. p. 163.—Will. orn. p. 392.
Curucui, Rati Syn. p. 45. N° _..—Will, orn. p. 140. t. 22.
COMEWHAT lefs than a Magpie: length ten inches and a
half. The bill pale yellow: irides golden s the under mandible furnifhed withftiff black briftles, and both the eye-lids with
black ones: the head, neck, and upper part of the breaft,, the
back, rump, and upper tail coverts, are of a fhining green, with a
glofs of blue in fome lights: the throat is black : the wing coverts are blueifh grey, marked with numerous zigzag lines of
black: the quills are black, with part of the fhafts white: the
breaft, belly, fides, and under tail coverts, of a fine red : the
thighs blackifh : the upper furface of the tail is green, much cuneiform, and like the back, except the three outer feathers,
which are blackifh, and croffed with flender tranfverfe lines of
grey: the legs are brown. Briffon mentions a fpot of white
beneath the eyes, but this does not appear in the fpecimen in the
Leverian Mufeum.
This fpecies inhabits Mexico, Brafil, and Peru.
The female * is faid to differ, in having thofe parts,
which are of a fine brilliant.green in the male, black grey, and
totally without glofs : the zigzag lines on the wings alfo are lefs
confpicuous : and three of the outer tail feathers have the webs
jaaasked with black and white : the upper mandible is- not yellow,
&ED-BELLIED
CURUCUI.
► Eifl, itt oif
but C   U   R   U   C   U   I.
but brown, and the red colour does not extend fo high as
the breaft.  .
Avis anonyma tenia, Mart, JJift. Braft- p. 219*
7l/fARCGRAVE alfo mentions another, which differs in having
the wing coverts plain brown : the bill afh-coloured : irides
faffron-colour,  and  wanting  the  bare  fpot  beneath the  eyes*
which Briffon gives his bird in the defcription.
This is probably a female likewife.
Couroucou gr
enl. 717-
Buf. oif. v
DUFFON alfo mentions a further variety. The bill in this fpecimen was the fame in fhape and colour : almoft the whole
bird was of a cinereous grey, but on inflection fome traces of
green gold were very apparent^ efpecially on the back and middle tail feathers: the lower part of the belly and vent only were
red: and the tail itfelf very long; the three outfide feathers of
which had the outer webs and tips plain white j the three outer1
quills were alfo marked With black and white on the outef
edges.
This came from Cayenne.
The nature of thefe birds is to lead a folitary life in the
thickeft forefts; efpecially in pairing-time, when only two are
found together.    At this time the male has a kind of melancholy
notej C   U   R   U   C   U   I.
note, (for at other times he is perfectly mute *,) by which the
haunts are difcovered. They begin to pair in April, and build in
the hole of a rotten tree, laying three or four white eggs, about
as big as thofe of a Pigeon, on the bare rotten .duft ; in defect of
this rotten matter, they are faid £0 bruife even found wood into
powder with their bill, which being furHoiantly ftrong and toothed,
may readily be fuppofed fully able to effect this. During the
incubation of the female, the male, takes care to provide food for
her, and by his trivial fong, pleafant no doubt to her, to beguile
the time, which, without fuch incitements,, might feem too long.
—The young, when firft hatched, are quite bare of feathers ; the
head feems large, out of all proportion, and the legs, though
fhort in the adult, feem too long. The parents .feed thefe with
fmall worms, caterpillars, and infetls; and, when able to fhift for
themfelves, forfake them, and return to their folitary haunts,
till nature prompts them to produce their fecond brood, in
Auguft and September.
It has been tried to bring up thefe birds tame, but without
effect, for they refufe to eat, and die in confequence. Monfieur
Defhayes, to whom we are indebted for the above, obferves, that
they are called at St. Domingo, Le Cakfon rouge, and in other
iflands, Demoifelle, or Dame anghife.
4S7
1 They never make any noife except while the female
meuVshe young are hatched, they again become fdent.
i fitting, for the
.Twgsn 4S8
C   U   R   U   C   U   I.
YELLOW-
BELLIED
C.
Trogon viridis, Lin, Syfl. i. p. 167. N° 3.
Le Couroucou verd de Cayenne, Brif. orn. iv.  168. No, 2. pl. 17.
Le Couroucou a ventre jaune, Buf. oif. vi. 291,
Couroucou de Cayenne, Pl. enl. 195.
Yellow-bellied green Cuckow, E£w. pl. 331.
T ENGTH eleven inches and a half. Bill pale afh-colour,
fcarcely an inch in length: the upper part of the head is
violet, with a mixture of green-gold: the fides of the head and
throat are black : the upper parts of the body green gold, paffing
forwards to form a band of the fame colour on the breaft : all beneath this is yellow-orange: the thighs are nearly black : the
under wing coverts the fame, margined with white: the upper
wing coverts and fcapulars black : quills black brown ; the outer
edges, from the bafe to the middle, white, from this to the end,
fpotted with white : the tail is cuneiform ; the two middle feathers exceed the outer ones by near two inches, and are blackifh,
gloffed with green-gold; the fecond and third, on each fide, the
fame, but the edges only are green-gold; the third has a black
tip; the fourth is blackifh alfo, indented with white on the outer
edge at the tip ; and the two outer ones, halfway from the bafe,
blackifh, the reft white; and thefe two colours indented into each
other, as in the former : the legs are feathered to the toes,
with blackifh feathers: the toes and claws are brown afh.
Inhabits Cayenne.
Trogon C   U   R   U   C   U   I.
Trogon viridis, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 167. N° 3. g.
Le Couroucou verd a ventre blanc de Cayenne, Br'tf. orn. i
Buf. oif vi. p. 293 *.
. p. 170. N» 3
*"THIS bird is a trifle fmaller than the former, and differs only
in having the belly white, inftead of yellow: the end half
of the tail feathers is white, feparated obliquely, but indented
with the other colour, as in the laft.
Trogon ftrigilatus, Lin, Syfl. 1. p. 167. N° 1.
Le Couroucou cendre de Cayenne, Brif. orn. iv. p. 16$. pl. 16. f. 1.
Couroucou de la Guiane, PL enl. 765.—Buf. oif. vi. p. 293.
^TT^HIS is fomewhat bigger than a Blackbird. Length twelve
A inches and a half. The bill is one inch long, and of a deep
afh-colour : the general colour of the body is very deep afh; ftill
deeper on the thighs and legs : the belly and under tail coverts
of a fineorange yellow: feapulars, upper wing coverts, and the
greater ones next the body, blackifh, tranfverfely ftriated with
narrow whitifh lines ; thofe fartheft from the body plain: under
wing coverts deep afh, edged with white: greater quills blackifh ;
the five firft have white edges for two-thirds of the length ; the
fecondaries blackifh, marked with white on the outer edge, but
white at the bafe:  tail blackifh; the fix middle feathers fix
* Buffon mentions one of theft with a whitifti belly, which had a ftrong
.iWge in many places ; which would naturally lead one to think, that this was a
ttJM&foji one ; fee Hift. des oif. vi. p. 294.
3 R inches
mere variety of the yelloi 49°
C   U   R   U   C   U   I.
inches and a quarter in length; the three outer ones fhorten by
degrees, the outmoftonesbeing fhorter than the middleones by two-
inches ; thefe are ftriated with white on the outer edge, and tippedi
with the fame : the legs and claws deep afh-colour..
Inhabits Cayenne, Guiana, &c.
Pl. XXI.
Description
Couroucou a queue rouffe de Cayenne, PL enl. 736.—Buf. oif. vi. 293;-
/*T"VHE length of this bird is nine inches. The general colour
■*- rufous : the belly, thighs, and vent, yellow : the wing
coverts are ftriated with black and grey, and the quills are black,,
with dufky edges :- fix of the middle tail feathers are of equal;
length,, of a rufous colour, with black tips ; the three outer ones
tranfverfely ftriated black and white, and tipped with white •„
fhortening by degrees as in the others : the belly and legs dufky.
Inhabits Cayenne.
Linnaeus has mentioned- the firft and third of the four laft mentioned,, as diflinct fpecies ; and the fecond, or that with a white
belly, as a doubtful variety ; but Buffon feems to think that the
whole of the laft mentioned are mere varieties, from age„fex, or
other caufes, and that they do not gain their green-gold plumage
till mature age * : it is moft likely, therefore, that the intermediate ftages, in which the colours appear fo different, has been
the caufe of multiplying the fpecies, and muft continue to render
the circumftance doubtful, till time, and more accurate obfer-
vations, fhall afcer.tain the fact.
• The difference in plumage between young and old birds, I can readily believe ; fince even the old ones, which I have feen, differ much from one another.
In a collection which came from Cayenne, I obferved a young bird, in full feather,
which was wholly of a brown colour, with OHly here and there a trace of gold-greea.
Le
Bi 	
•^M/traJ   Ci&r  C   U   R   U   C   U   I.
Le Couroucou a chaperon violet, Buf. oif. vi. p. 294.
Lanius, capite collo pe&oreque e violaceo nigricantibus digitis duobus at
ticis, totidemquepofticis,N.C.Ac, Petr.vol.xi.p.436. N°7.t, 16. f.8
491
VIOLET^
HEADED.
'T^HIS meafures nine inches and a half in length.    The bill is    Description
lead-coloured at the bafe, and whitifh at the point: on the
X
forehead, round the eyes and the ears, it is blackifh: the reft of
the head, the throat, neck, and breaft, very deep violet: the eyelids yellow : the back and rump of a deep gilded green : the
upper tail coverts blueifh green, and gilded as the others: the
wings brown : the coverts and leffer quills dotted with white :
the two middle tail feathers blueifh green, tipped with black : the
two next, on each fide, partly of the laft colour, and partly black.:
the three outer ones black, barred and tipped with white.
Spotted Curucui, Brown llluftr, t. 13.
OIZE of a Nuthatch.    Bill brown: crown deep green*, neck,
breaft, and belly, pale brown, barred with dufky: edges of
wings white:  coverts and fecondaries green, tipped with white:
tail dufky, barred with white.
Inhabits Ceylon.
* M. Koelreuter, who mentions this in the Peterfburgh TranfaS. above quoted,
calls it a Shrike, and yet places, in his plate, the toes two and two. How he
will reconcile this, I know not$ theilighteft obferver muft rank it with the
Gurmaa_; as the ferrated bill, and ihort, feathered, and weak legs will teftify.
3 R z Fafciated
6.
SPOTTED
C.    . 49*
C   U   R   U   C   UJ.I.
Eafciated Curucui, Ind, Zool. pl. 5.
T ENGTH ten inches and a half: weight one ounce and five-
eighths. Bill black, thick,, ftrong, and arched, befet with
briftles at the bafe : orbits naked, of a deep blue: irides yellow :
head and neck dufky black; paleft on the breaft: acrofs the
breaft is a band of white, beneath that the whole under fide is
of a light, reddifh, orange-colour : back tawny : tail coverts grey :
wing coverts, and fcapulars, elegantly barred with undulated lines
of black and white : quills dufky, ftriped with white on the outer
webs : tail very long,, unequal, the outer feathers the fhorteftj.
tip black : legs dufky. t
Inhabits Ceylon, where it Is rare; called by the Cingalefe, Rant-
vanrkondea. It is nearly like that in Brif. iv. 165 ; but the band;
of the breaft, mentioned in the above fpecimen, fhews it to,
differ from that of Briffon, which comes from Cayenne.
Genus '■■"■"■■'■"■'■'■'
C   493    ]
Genus    XVIII.     B   A   R   B   E   T.
N°i.
Spotted-bellied B.
Var. A.
a.
Cayenne B.
N°  $.
Little B.
Var. A. Black-fpotted B.
IO.
Grand B.
3-
Collared B.
ii.
Green B.
4-
Beautiful B.
12.
Buff-faced B.
'J-
Greater pied B.
r3-
White-breafted B.
6.
Leffer pied B.
14.
Red-crowned B.
7-
Yellow-throated B.
*S>
Yellow-cheeked B
8.
Black-throated B.
16.
Doubtful B.
npHE bill in this genus is ftrong, ftrait, and bends a ]jttje t0_
wards, the point; the bafe of it covered with ftrong briftles,
which, in. fome fpecies, exceed the length of the bill: noftrils-:
hid.
Toes placed two before and two behind, divided to tfeeir origin.
Tail confifting of weak feathers *.
Birds of this genus are found in Afia, Africa,, and?the icmtherat;
parts of America. Are in general a dull ftupid race, and theiar
manners all alike, being chiefly fuch as are mentioned as belonging to the firft fpecies.-
' Eor the moft part ten in number, though this is not conftanf.. SPOTTED-
BELLIED
A   R   B   E   T.
Le Tamatia, Buf. oif. vii. p. 94.
Barbu a. ventre tachete de Cayenne,. PL enl. 746.
Tamatia Brafil, Marcgr.~-Raii Syn, p. 65. N° 6 .'—Will, orn. p. 190. t. 59?
fig. incorrect.
'TTHIS is fix inches and a half in length. The bill is fifteen lines
long; the upper mandible bent at the end, and, as it were,
divided in two at the point; the colour black; it is half covered
with briftles, which point forwards, and arife at the bafe : the head
is large, in proportion to the reft of the body; the crown and fore
part of the head incline to rufous : on the neck is a collar extending
half round, compofed of a mixture of black and rufous : on each
fide of the head, behind the eyes, is a pretty large black fpot:
the throat is orange, and the reft of the plumage beneath rufous
white, fpotted with black; that of the upper part of the body
rufous brown : the legs are black. I have lately feen two fpeci-
mens, in which the half collar at the back part of the neck had a
mixture of white, and over the eyes an obfcure whitifh line ;
but in other things like the above.
This bird is met with both at Cayenne and Brafil. The habit
correfponds with that of the whole family. It is a clumfy, ill-
made bird; and its manners exactly fuit its fhape,.being a folitary,
penfive, filent animal, affecting only fuch places as are fartheft
from habitations; being found chiefly in the woods, where it
choofes fome low branch well covered with twigs and foliage ; on
this it perches, with its large head refting between its fhoulders,
for a long time together, and, as its difpofition to action is very
little, may be eafily killed, as it will fuffer itfelf to be fhot at
feveral times before it attempts to make its efcape. The common
5 food B   A   R   B   E   T.
food is Infefts, particularly large Beetles; but the flefh does not
prove good for eating. In the fpecimens above mentioned,
which came under my infpection, the feathers of the tail appeared
to have been worn by friction, as if one of the habits of thefe
birds was to fupport themfelves by the tails, like Woodpeckers.
It appears to me, that the Tamatia of Marcgrave is more likely
to prove this bird, than the little Thrufh of Catefby, which it is conjectured to be by Brijfon* ; the briftles at the bafe of the bill,
therein mentioned, the large head, and flatnefs and broadnefs of
the bill, feeming to fix it in this place, rather than with the
Thrufhes. As to the pofition of the toes in Willughby's plate, we
muft lay no hold of that, fince errors of the like kind are frequent, in. old authors..
495
Earbude-Cayenne, Brif. orn. iv. p. 95. No. 2. pl. 7. f. 1.
Le Tamatia atete & gorge rouges, Buf. oif. vii. p. 96.
Barbu de Cayenne, Pl. enl. 206. f. 1.
CIZE of the crefted Lark :■ length feven inches. The bill above
an inch in length, of a dark afh-colour, and a little bent towards the tip : the forehead and throat are red : top of the
head black and grey, with a. gilded glofs; each feather black
i"n the middle: on each fide of the head a band of white,
paffing over the eye, almoft to the hind head : fides of
the head black : the upper parts of the body black : edges
of the feathers grey-gold: the fore part of the neck, breaft, and
belly, yellowifh white : the fides dafhed with cinereous olive, and
3
%
* Vol. ii. p. 212.—There is another tamatia mentioned by Marcgrave, but
this belongs to the Caucroma genus of Linntctts.
feme mm
BAR   B   E   T.
feme of the feathers marked with black near the tips: thighs
olive : the leffer wing coverts black; the greater ones and feapulars
blackifh, marked on the outfide with a yellowifh white fpot:
quills blackifh, margined without with olive, and within with
whitifh: the tail cuneiform; olive-brown above, and cinereous
beneath: legs and claws cinereous.
Inhabits Cayenne.
*- BLACK-
SPOTTED
Le Barbu tachete de Cayenne, Brif. orn. iv. p. 97. N0 3.
Barbu de St. Domingue, PL enl. 746. fig. 2.
Yellow Woodpecker with black fpots, Edw. pl. 333.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
7. f. 4-
CIZE of the laft: length fix inches and three quarters.    Bill as.
in the laft: forehead and throat red : top of the head black,
with the edges of the feathers grey-gold : fides of the head, and
hind part of the neck, black; the edges of the feathers whitifh;
thofe of the rump alfo black, with grey edges : the under parts
of the body pale yellow: the breaft and fides marked with large
black fpots : thighs olive : wing coverts, quills, and tail, as in the
laft, except that the two firft are not fpotted with white ; but the
legs are fvrnitar. -
This likewife inhabits Cayenne.—Both of thefe laft are alfo met
with at Guiana and St. Domingo; and, no doubt, in other hot parts
<of America.    They are mere varieties of each other, the fize being
the fame; differing  only, in that  the firft has a fpot of white
over the >eyes, and feveral of the fame on the wings; both of
which are wanting in the laft defcribed.    This laft is alfo fpotted
on the breaft confiderably, whereas in the firft there are only a few
fpots on the fides.
Bucco B   A   R   B   E   T.
Bucco capenfis, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 168. N° i.
Le Barbu, Brif. orn. iv. p. 92. N° 1. pl.6. f. 2.
Le Tamatia a collier, Buf. oif. vii. p. 97. pl. 4.
Barbu a collier de Cayenne, Pl. enl. 395.
CIZE of the Red-backed Shrike: length feven inches and a   d;
quarter. The bill is nearly an inch and a half in length,
horn-coloured, and bent at the tip; the gape reaching beneath
the eyes : the upper part of the head, the nape, and hind part of
the neck, are rufous, ftriated with fine lines of black : the fides of
the head plain rufous : at the lower part of the neck, between
that and the back, is a narrow fulvous band, which extends forwards towards the neck, on each fide; this is accompanied by a
narrower one of black, which unites to a broader one on the
breaft; beyond this, the back, wings, and rump, are rufous,
ftriated with black: the throat and fore part of the neck are
dirty white : on the breaft is a broad band of black; from
thence to the vent rufous white : the tail is rufous, two inches
and a quarter in length, and crofted with narrow bars of black j
the fix middle feathers are equal in length; the three others on
each fide fhorter by degrees to the outer one, which is the
fhorteft of all: the legs and claws are afh-coloured.
This is found at Guiana, where it is not common.
There can be no doubt of this being the bird meant by Lin-
na?us, fince he refers to the one in Briffon above quoted ; y
.makes, his bird an inhabitant of Africa. He^likewife adds, that
it had only ten tail feathers. The reader muft reconcile this to
himfelf; for I cannot account for the^difagreement, -efpecially as
the bird above defcribed is of Ams.ffMii^b'rigm.
3 S L* 49*
BAR
E   T.
BEAUTIFUL
Le Barbu des Maynas, Brif. orn. iv. p. 102. N° 5. pl. 7. f. J,—PJ. tnL
33.0-
Le beau Tamatia, Buf. oif. vii. p. 98.
^T~HIS is a very beautiful fpecies, being of a lefs clumfy make
\ than moft of the others, and more lively in difpofitioq.
It is of the fize of a Sparrow: length five inches and three quarters. Bill ten lines long, and of an afh-colour, with the edges and
tip of a yellowifh white : top of the head, fides, and throat, red,
edged round with light blue: at the corners of the mouth begins
a ftreak of the laft, dividing the red on each fide: the upper
parts of the body and tail are green ; the laft cuneiform, and compofed of ten feathers: the quills are brown, with the outer edges
green : the fore part of the neck and breaft deep yellow : on the
lower part of the breaft is a pretty large red fpot ; the reft of the
parts beneath yellowifh white, fpotted longitudinally with green r
the legs and claws are afh-colour.
Inhabits the country of Maynas, on the borders of the river
Amazons, in South America-,, and perhaps in other parts of that
continent alfo.
GREATER
PIED
Tamatia noir & blanc, Buf. oif. vii. 99.
Le plus grand Barbu a gros bee de Cayenne, Pl. enl. 689.
HpHIS is about feven inches in length, and is fomewhat remarkable for the fize of the bill, which exceeds that of the other
fpecies both in length and thicknefs ; it is pretty hooked; and, as
it were, divided into two parts at the tip, like the firft fpecies i
1 the BAR
E   T.
the colour black : the forehead is white : the crown of the head
•and nape black : on the fore part, this colour is prolonged downwards, and half furrounds the eye: the forehead, fides under
the eye, throat, and fore part of the neck, are white, extending in
a narrow collar round the nape behind: the lower part of the
neck, back, and wing coverts, are black, margined with dufky
white : acrofs the breaft a band of black : the quills and tail are
likewife black; but the feathers of the laft have white tips: the
belly and vent are white: the fides and thighs black and white
mixed: and the legs dufky.
Inhabits Cayenne.
•Tamatia noir & blaric, Buf. *if. vii. p. 99.
Le plus petit Barbu a poitrine noire de Cayenne, Pl. enl. t
' LESSER PIED
'"pHIS bird is much lefs than the laft, and meafures only five
inches in length. The bill is pretty large in proportion,
and bifid at the tip, as the laft fpecies: the colours of the plumage are only two, viz. black and white, like the laft, but are
differently difpofed: the upper parts are black, but there is a
little mixture of white on the forehead, and a fpot of white on
the feapulars : behind the eye is a ftreak of white : the throat
and fides of the neck are white: on the breaft a broad band of
black, which extends upwards a little way into the white on the
fides of the neck, like a crefcent: from this to the tail the under
parts are white, except on the fides under the wings, where there
is a mixture of black : the tail is black, tipped with white : the
legs dufky.
This likewife inhabits Cayenne.
3 S 1 .In B   A   R   B   E   T.
In one fpecimen which I have feen, inftead of a mixture on the
forehead, there is only a fmall fpot of white: the white ftreak,
which fprines behind the eye, is extended downwards on each
fide the neck : and fome of the outer tail feathers are white at the
bafe, otherwife like the above defcription.
Were it not for the very great difproportion in their fize, one
would conclude them to be varieties of each other, they are fo
alike.
YELLOW-
THROATED
B.
Le Barbu des Philippine, Brif. orn. iv. p. gg. N° 4. pl. 7. f. 2. the male,
—Pl. enl. 331.
Le Barbu a gorge jaune, Buf, oif. vii. p. 102. pl. 5.
CIZE of an Houfe-fparrow: length five inches and a half. The
bill brown, pretty thick, and near an inch in length : the
top of the head, as far as the crown, is red ; the reft of the head,
and upper parts of the body, wings, and tail, dull green: on
each fide of the head is a large fpot of yellow, in the middle of
which the eye is placed : the throat and fore part of the neck are
yellow: on the upper part of the breaft is a tranfverfe broad
band of red : the reft of the under parts dirty yellow, longitudinally ftreaked with dull green: the legs are yellowifh: claws
brown.
The female has no red on the head nor breaft; and the fpot in
which the eyes are placed, the breaft, and fore part of the neck,
are yellowifh white; otherwife like the male.
Inhabits the Philippine Iflands, Le Barbu de l'Ifle deLucon, Son. Voy. p, 68. t. 34,
Le Barbu a gorge noire, Buf. oif. vii. p. 103,
Br. Muf.
'"PHIS is a little bigger, and fomewhat longer in fhape, than the
common Grofbeak. The bill is blackifh: the forehead of a
fine red: the top, hind part of the head, throat, and neck, are
black: above each eye is a curved ftripe of yellow, which, as it
proceeds downwards, becomes white, and defcends in a ftrait line
to the lower part of the neck on each fide ; under this is a black
ftripe; and between this and the throat is a band of white,
which goes on to, and blends itfelf with the breaft; which, as well
as the belly, fides, thighs, and under tail coverts, is white: the
middle of the back is black; but the fide feathers between the
fleck and back have a yellow fpot on each : wing coverts black j
four of them are fringed with white, and one with yellow, forming a ftripe acrofs the wing: beneath this fome of the feathers are
fpotted with yellow at the ends; and ftill below thefe there are
other feathers which have yellow margins : the quills are black,
bordered with yellow: the four middle tail feathers black; the
others black, fringed with yellow : the legs are black.
Inhabits the Philippine Ifles.
A fpecimen of this is now in the Britifh Mufeum, faid to have
been brought from the Cape of Good Hope. The length of this
bird is feven inches: the colour of the plumage the fame;
added, that the rump is of a beautiful yellow.
BLACK-
THROATED 5°*
B   A   R   B   E   T.
LeBarbuaplaftronnoir, Buf. oif. vn. p. 104.
Barbu du Cap de Bonne Efperance, Pl. enl. 688. f. 1.
*T"\HE length of this fpecies is fix inches and a half. The bill
is black : the forehead is crimfon : from this paffes a ftripe
of black. ovtfr the head, and down the back part of the neck to
the back: the fides of the head and neck are white, and paffes
forward to the breaft; from which to the vent the under parts are
white: the white on the fides of the head is diverfified, firft, by
a ftreak of yellow, which is placed over the eyes; and fecondly,
by an irregular ftreak of black, beginning at the bafe of the
upper mandible, and, dividing the white into two parts, ends on
the fhoulders : the chin and fore part of the neck are alfo black :
the upper parts of the body and wings are mixed brown and
yellow, the edges of the feathers being for the moft part fringed
with this laft colour; but the rump is almoft wholly of a pale
but bright yellow: the tail is brown, with yellow margins : the
legs are lead-colour.
This was received from the Cape-of Good Hope. Its manners
are totally unknown.
This is either a young bird of the laft fpecies, or differing in
fex. The head, neck, and breaft correfpond ; but the body feems
more variegated; the markings not fo diftinct as in the other,
which is the cafe often in young birds. B   A   R   B   E   T.
| Le petit Barbu, Buf. oif. vii. p. 105.
Barbu du Senegal, Pl. enl. 746. 2.
'T^HIS is perhaps the fmalleft of its race, meafuring only four Descriptioi
•*" inches in length. The bill is brown : the upper parts of
the body blackifh brown with a fulvous tinge; and on the quills
and tail a eaft of green: the feathers of the firft are white on the
edges: the under parts of the body are white, dafhed perpendicularly with brown; but the throat is yellow: and there is a
fhort ftreak of white at the angles of the mouth, beneath the eye :
the legs are pale red or flefh-colour.
This came from Senegal.
Le grand Barbu, Buf. oif. vii. p. 106.
Grand Barbu de la Chine, PL enl. 871.
*T* HIS fpecies is eleven inches long. The bill is an inch and
-*• ten lines long, and an inch thick at the bafe, where it is
befet with black briftles, and the colour of it whitifh, with a
black tip : the plumage for the moft part is of a fine green, but
differs in various parts of the body; for the head and fore part
of the neck incline to blue in different lights, while the hind part
of the neck, and part of the back, have a eaft of cheftnut brown :
the greater quills have a mixture of black: and the under tail
coverts are of a fine red : the legs are dufky yellow.-
Inhabits China. _Q4
B   A   R   B   E   T.
Le Barbu vert, Buf. oif. vii. p. 107.
Barbu de Mahe, PL enl. 870.
'TpHIS meafures, in length, fix inches and a half. The bill is
■** whitifh, an inch and two lines long, and feven lines thick at
the bafe, where the upper mandible is furnifhed with black
briftles : the head and neck are greyifh-brown ; the feathers of
the laft edged with whitifh: above the eye is a white fpot, and
another of the fame beneath it: the reft of the bird is of a very fine
green, palefton the under parts, except the greater quills, which
are brown: the legs are dufky.
This fpecies inhabits India.   The above fpecimen came from
Mahe.
12.
BUFF-FACED
B.
Pl. XXII.
Description.
-. Muf.
T ENGTH fix inches. Bill pale, befet with briftles at the bafe,
which are fomewhat longer than the bill itfelf: the forehead,
chin, and fides of the head, round the eyes, are of a dull buff-colour :. upper parts of the head and body are dark olive-green; the
under parts lighter: the wings are the fame as the upper parts,
but the quills are dufky, with greenifh edges : the tail is likewife
dufky and fhort: legs and claws yellow.
A fpecimen  of this is in the Britifh Mufeum, but its  native
place uncertain.
SIZE ■to
^^/a^^cvr/efr.  B   A   R   B   E   T.
5°5
CIZE of a Lark: length feven inches. The bill is one inch in
length, curved at the point, and compreffed on the fides ; the
colour brownifh black; but the bafe is yellow, paffing obliquely
forward from the noftrils to near the end of the lower mandible :
the noftrils are covered with briftles pointing forwards, about
one-third of the length of the bill: the head is large, and very
full of feathers: the plumage is brown throughout, with a dafh
of a pale cream-colour down the fhaft of each feather : on the
breaft is a large triangular whitifh fpot : the quills and tail
are plain brown, the laft cuneiform : the legs brown : toes
placed two and two, asin others of the genus.
Suppofed to inhabit Cayenne, as  it was in a parcel of birds
which came from that place.
WHITE-
BREASTED
ESCRIPTION.
Red-crowned Barbet, Brown's Illuftr. p. 30. pl. 14.
CIZE of a Goldfinch : length five inches and a half. Bill dufky:
crown and throat fearlet: above each eye a black line on the
cheeks ; and above each fhoulder a great whitifh fpot: back and
wing coverts fine green: prime quills dufky: breaft yellow; in
the middle a fhort tranfverfe bar of black, and another of red :
belly white: tail green; the exterior feathers dufky: legs
pale red.
Inhabits Ceylon.
RED-
CROWNED
%% B   A   R   B   E   T.
Yellow-cheeked Barbet, Bro
slllujlr. p. 34. pl.
CIZE of the laft. Bill red : head and neck pale brown, clouded:
fides of the head, round the eyes, naked and yellow : back
pale green: wing coverts the fame; the middle of each feather
fpotted with white: primaries green; interior edges dufky : belly
pea-green : tail green : legs pale yellow.
This was alfo fent from Ceykn,.viith the laft, by Governor Loten.
Le Barbican, Buf. oif. xn. p. 132.
Le Barbican, des Cotes de Barbarie, PL enl. 602.
^TT^HIS bird is nine inches in length. The bill is eighteen lines
long, and ten in thicknefs at the bafe, where many long
black briftles take their origin, reaching beyond the noftrils: the
upper mandible is bent, and has two notches at fome diftance
from the tip; and the under mandible is tranfverfely channeled
beneath : the colour of the bill is reddifh: the upper parts of the
body, wings, and tail, are black; the laft is three inches and a half i
long : the under parts of the body are red, except a band on the
upper part of the breaft, which is black : the thighs and vent are
alfo of this laft colour: the legs are very fhort, and of a reddifh-
brown-colour : toes placed two before and two behind.
This bird inhabits the Coafts of Barbary, and is of a doubtful
genus. Buffon places it between the Barbets and Toucans, to both
of which it feems to belong; however, it feems moft to incline to
the B   A   R   B   E   T.
the former: Firft, from its place of nativity, as no true Toucan is'
found throughout the old Continent; Secondly, the tongue is
flefhy, and not pennaceous, which laft is one of the characteriftics
of the Toucan genus: And thirdly, the briftles which project from
the bafe of the bill, added to the- others, incline me to give it
place in this chapter.
WAX-BILLED
CIZE of a Blackbird : length eleven inches and a half. Bill one
inch and a half long;.rather compreffedon the fides, and curved
the whole length, but moft fo near the tip; the colour that of
vermilion, or fine red fealing-wax : the noftrils are covered with
reflected briftles ; and befides thefe a few others, which reach
more forward on the bill: the head, neck, and upper parts of
the body, dufky black : leffer wing coverts, neareft the body,,
mixed with white: breaft and belly cinereous : quills and tail of
a full black; the laft rounded in-fhape: legs dufky: toes placed
two and two as in other Barbels.
Some fpecimens are of a fuller black than others, and the afh-
colour on the under parts deeper.
Suppofed to inhabit Cayenne. I have lately feen feveral of the
above which came from that place, and much fufpect them to be
the fame with the red-billed Crow, p. 403, as I remember that at
the time of my defcribing the laft, I had not a view of the legs:
fufficient to identify the genus..
ESCRIFTION-
3 T2
Genus Genus    XIX.
c u
C   K   O   W.
I.
•Common C.
N° 23.
Gilded C.
Var. A. Rufous C.
24.
Shining C.
2.
Cape C.
25.
Paradife C.
o.
Great fpotted C.
26.
Collared C.
4-
Society C.
27.
Horned C.
5-
Mindanao C.
28.
Chinefe C.
6.
Indian fpotted C.
29.
Blue C.
7-
Chinefe'fpotted C.
30.
African C.
8.
Rufous fpotted C.
Var. A.
9-
Panayan fpotted C.
P
Honey C.
IO.
Eaffern black C.
32.
Long-billed Rain C.
Var. A.
33-
Rain C.
Var. B.
34-
Mangrove C.
ii.
Crefted black C.
35-
Carolina C.
12.
Coromandel crefted C.
36.
Brafilian crefted C.
m
Pifan C.
37-
Laughing C
Great Madagafcar C.
38.
Spotted C.
'&
Madagafcar crefted C.
39-
Punctated C.
16.
Egyptian C.
40.
St. Domingo C.
Var. A.
41.
Cayenne C.
Var. B.
Var. A.
17.
Long-heeled C.
Var. B.
18.
Strait-heeled C.
42.
Cayenne black C.
19.
Lark-heeled C.
43.
White-rumped black C
20.
Sacred C.
44.
Red-headed C.
21.
Panayan C.
45-
Red-crefted C.
22.
Yellow-bellied C.
46.
Touraco C.
BIRDS C   U  C JC  o   w.
509
BIRDS of the Cuckow genus have
The bill weak, and more or lefs bending,
Noftrils, bounded by a fmall rim.
Tongue, fhort, pointed.
Toes, two forward, two backward.
Tail cuneated, confifting often foft feathers *.
i. p. 168. N° 1.—Sfop. ann. i. p. 44. N° 48.
105. N° i.—Buf. oif, vi.fp. 305.— Pl. enl. 8U
—Kram. el. p. 337.
Cuculus canorus, Lin. Syfl.
Le Coucou, Brif. orn. iv. p.
Kuckuk, Frifch. pl. 40. 41
Cuculo, Olin. uccel. p. 38.
Cuckow, Rati Syn. p. z_.—Will. orn. p. 97. pl. 10. 77,—Alb,
Br. Zool, i. N° 82. pl. j6.—Amer. Zool. N°
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
i. pl. 8.—
t- COMMON
CUCKOW.
CIZE of a Turtle : length fourteen inches: breadth twenty-five
inches. Bill black, two-thirds of an inch long, and a little
bent: irides yellow : head, hind part of the neck, wing coverts,
and rump, dove-colour; darker on the head, and paler on the
rump : throat and neck of a pale grey: breaft and belly white,
croffed elegantly with black undulated lines : vent buff, marked
with a few dufky fpots : wings very long, reaching within an inch
and half of the end of the tail: the firft quill feather is three inches
fhorter than the others; they are all dufky, and their inner
webs are barred with large oval white fpots : the tail is cuneiform; the two middle feathers are black, tipt with white; the
* Not throughout the whole ; for the thirtieth and thirty-firft have each of
them twelve feathers in the tail; and in feveral fpecies the tail is even at the end.
i o others CUCKOW.
others marked with white fpots on each fide their fhafts: the Tegs
are fhort, and yellow.
The female differs fomewhat: the neck, both before and behind,
is of a brownifh red: the tail barred with this laft colour,. ana
black; and fpotted on each fide thefhaft with white.
The young birds are brown, mixed with ferruginous and black;
and in that flate have been defcribed, by fome authors, as old ones.
To this account, taken from the Britijh Zoology, I cannot add I
any thing material.
It is on all hands allowed, that the Cnekow does not hatch its
own eggs : the reafon of this does not appear manifeft j poflibly
it may be occafioned by the great fize and length of the ftoinach,'
which protrudes far beyond the fternum, that part being fo very
fhort, as not to be fufficient to take off the preffure in incubation,
whereby digeftion may be impeded.—This circumftance has not
failed to ftrike me on diffection.
This bird is fuppofed moft frequently to lay only one, or at moft
not more than two eggs; it is generally believed only one, but
the poffibility of laying two muft appear manifeft, from two eggs
having been found, nearly ready for laying, in the ovary of a female
of one of thefe; and an inftance has not been wanting, where two-
eggs have been laid in one neft*. The egg is bigger than that
of a Nightingale, and longer in proportion : of a greyifh white,
marked with fome fpots of dull, and others of a darker violet
brown. A Water-wagtail, Yellow-hammer, or Hedge-fparrow, is
generally the nurfe of the young Cuckow f: but Buffon enumerates twenty forts of nefts, at leaft *, in which they have depofited
their eggs.    It may be fuppofed, that the female Cuckow lays.
* Hift.des oif vi. p. 324.
f Br. Zool. vol. i, p. 234.
■M CUCKOW.
her eggs in the abfence of the bird, in whofe neft fhe intends to
depofit ■; as it has been known, that on fight of one of thefe, a Red-
breaft, and its mate, jointly attacked it,'on its approaching the
. neft, putting her to flight; and fo effectually drove her away, as
•not to dare to return -j-. Several experiments have been made, to
-afcertain whether the Cuckow deftroys, or eats, the eggs which
fhe finds in the neft in which fhe depofits her own ; the refult
proved the contrary ; for a Cuckow's egg has been often found
along with others, which truly belonged to the neft; on all of which
the bird has fat; and, in this cafe, if the number of eggs proves
too much for this little nurfe to brood conveniently, fhe frequently deftroys one after another; and not only her own, but
fometimes even theparafit'e egg alfo, if the whim takes her; and,
•on the contrary, the bird often proves a mother and ftep-mother
at the fame time J, by bringing into life the whole brood.
It is fuppofed, that there are more male Cuckows than females ;
-"finoe two are often feen in difpute,*where a third has been in fight,
rwhieh, no doubt, was of the oppofite fex. Mr. Pennant obferved,
that- five male birds were caught in a trap in one feafon; and I can
Cay myfelf, that out of at leaft half a dozen, that I have attended
to, my chance has never directed me to a female ||. As to the external marks, they have been noticed above; and it is to be wifhed,
•that future obfervers may determine, whether our obfervations
have rife on.ly W chance, or are founded on the general circum-
flance. The young birds are obferved to be helplefs and foolifh,
for a great length of time, but may be, and often are, brought up
* Hifl. des oif. vol. vi. p. 3 3 2.     + Id. p. 3 29.      % Hifl. des oif. vi. pp. 3 25. 309.
|| I believe .that the male htx&B are more liable to be fliot, their note directing
the gunner where to take ai»; while the female is fee u red by her filence.
5 tame, 512 CUCKOW.
Food. tame, fo as  to become familiar.    They will eat in this ftate
bread and milk, fruits, infecls, eggs, and flefh, either cooked or raw;
but in a ftate of nature, I believe, chiefly live on caterpillars; which,
in the few I have obferved, were all of the fmooth kind ; others
have found vegetable matter, beetles, and fmall ftones*. When fat,
- **:- *"? faid to be as good eating as a Land Rail.
Their coming into England, where they are only migratory, is
about the middle of April; at leaft we hear, about that time,
their firft call to love, which is only ufed by the male. About the
end of June this ceafes, though the Cuckow does not take its final
leave till the end of September, or the beginning of OtJober; but perhaps fome few may flay with us, or how fhall we account for
their being heard to call in February f. I have heard this bird
at midnight two feveral times.
• Migration. The major part are fuppofed to go into Africa, fince they are
obferved to vifit the I/land of Malta twice in a year, in their paf-
fage backwards and forwards* as is fuppofed, to that part of the
world ; they are well known alfo at Aleppo J. To the North, it
is faid to be common in Sweden; but not to appear fo early, by
a month, as with us. Rujfta is not deftitute of this bird. And
we have feen a fpecimen brought from Kamtfchatka, now in the
poffeffion of Sir Jofeph Banks.
Le Coucou roux, Brif. orn. iv. p. no. N° i. A.
^T^HIS is a mere variety of a young bird, having the upper
M    parts varied with rufous, where the other is white.
* In fome manufcript notes, which I faw at Sir A. Lever's, in the handwriting of the late Dr. Derham, he mentions finding hairy caterpillars, and igg-
fhells, in the ftomach of a Cuckow.
f Br. Zool. i. p. 233. % Ruffell Alep. p. 71.
Coucoa CUCKOW.
5*3
Coucou du Cap de Bonne Efper
&*/, oif. vi. p. 353.—P/. ml. 39°-
A TRIFLE fmaller than our Cuckow: length under twelve
inches. Bill deep brown: irides yellow: the upper part of
the body greenifh brown: throat, cheeks, fore part of the neck,
and upper wing coverts, of a deep rufous colour: tail feathers
rufous, but paler, tipped with white : the breaft, and all the under parts of the body, white, croffed with lines of black : legs
reddifh brown.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope, and is moft likely the fame
bird which is called Edolio, from its pronouncing that word frequently in a low melancholy tone.
Voyagers alfo mention another Cuckow, which is common to
Loango, in Africa. This is bigger than ours, but of the fame
colour, and repeats the word Cuckow like that bird, but in different inflexion of voice. It is faid that the male and female together go through the whole eight notes of the Gamut; the male, beginning by itfelf, founds the three firft, after which he is accompanied by the female through the reft of the octave *.
Cuculus glandarius, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 169. N° 5.
Le Coucou d'Andaloufie, Brif. orn. iv. p. 126. N° io<
Le grand Coucou tachete, Buf. oif. vi. p. 361.
Great fpotted Cuckow, Edw. pl. 57.
GREAT
SPOTTED
C.
CIZE of a Magpie.   Bill black, an inch and a quarter long,    Description
and a little bent: the head is crefted ; the creft compofed of
blueifh afh-coloured feathers -. from the bafe of the upper man-
* Hifl. dee oif. vi. p. 354.
3 U dible 5H
CUCKOW.
dible fprings- a band of black, which paffes through the eye*
almoft to.che hind head1, and is broad in the middle : fcapularsy
upper wing and tail coverts, deep brown, marked with fmall;
white and pale cinereous fpots : quills brown ; each of the fe-
condaries marked; with a pale cinereous fpot: tail cuneated,.
blackifh; all but the two middle feathers tipped with white:
legs and claws black.
Inhabits Andalufia.    The fpecimen from which this defcription;
was taken*was fhot on the Rock of Gibraltar.
• SOCIETY"
C.
Le Coucou brun varie de n
AraWereroa, Cooke'* Voy,
, Buf. oif. vi. p. 376;.
CIZE of a Magpie, or very little lefs: length nineteen inchesv
Bill an inch and a quarter long,.flout, and fomewhat curved',
at the point: the upper mandible blackifh; the under one pale r
irides pale yellow i the upper parts of the body are brown:, the-
head dafhed with perpendicular ferruginous ftripes : the reft ofT
the plumage above tranfverfely barred and blotched with the
fame : the middle of each feather of the neck darkeft :. over the
eye is a white ftreak, and a dafh of the fame along the under jaw,.
arifing at the noftrils : the quills marked with ferruginous fpots v
the chin and middle of the throat white: fides- of the neck, the
breaft,, belly,, and thighs, white, ftreaked perpendicularly withu
brown; the ftreaks broadeft on the breaft and belly: the vent-
plain white : under tail coverts pale buff; the upper ones as the
back, reaching to one-third of the tail, which is nine inches-
long, and much cuneated; all the feathers are croffed with numerous- CUCKOW.
tmerous ferruginous brown bars, and tipped with white: the
wings, when clofed, reach nearly to one-third of it: the legs
are greenifh.
This fpecies inhabits Otaheite, where it is called Areva-reva.
It is alfo found in fome of the neighbouring ifles, where it is
called Tayarabbo,
^ocalusMundanenfis, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 169. N" 3.
Le Coucou tachete de Mindanao, Brif. orn. iv. p. 130. N" 12. pl. 12. f. 1.
 — varie de Mindanao, Buf. of. vi. p. 373.—Pl. enl. 277.
TV/fUCH bigger than our Cuckow : length fourteen inches and
a half. The bill is of a grey brown', the general colour of
the plumage gilded brown, marked with white fpots, as alfo with
jpale and darker rufous ones: the under parts are white, tranf-
verfely flreaked with blackifh ; but the fore parts of the neck
and throat are plain brown, fpotted with white: quills brown,
spotted with rufous on the outer, and with white on the inner
webs : tail of a gilded brown, .-crofted with tranfverfe rufous
hands on each fide the fhaft, and fome of the tail feathers tipped
with white: legs and claws grey.
This is found at Mindanao, and other of the Philippine Iflands.
At firft fight it has the appearance of a young European Cuckow,
but on comparifon it will be found far different from that bird,
■efpecially in the quills and tail.
3U3 $¥
C   U   C   K   O   W.
INDIAN
SPOTTED
Cuculus Scolopaceus, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 17©. N° 11
Le Coucou tachete de Bengale, Brif. orn. iv. p. 1
Le Boutfallick, Buf. oif. vi. p. 372.
Brown and fpotted Indian Cuckow, Edw. pl. 59.
32. N° ij.
Dbscri»tios. TN bulk this is no bigger than a Thrufh, but rheafures fourteen
inches in length. The bill is of a dirty yellow green, and
above an inch long: the plumage on the upper parts of the
body is rufous, the feathers edged with brown; on the under
parts white, edged with brown: the lower part of the belly, and
under tail coverts, have a mixture of rufous : the wing coverts are
white, edged with brown : quills and fcapulars tranfverfely ftriated
with brown and rufous: tail cuneiform, feven inches and a half
in length ; the colour of it inclined to rufous, croffed with oblique hroad bands of brown : legs dirty greenifh yellow. .
Placi. Inhabits Bengal, where it goes by the name of Boutfallick*
CHINESE
SPOTTED
C.
©ESCRJPTIOK.
Le Coucou tachete de la Chine, Buf, oif. vi. p. 378.—/'/. enl. 764.
T ENGTH fourteen inches. Bill almoft an inch and a half
long, blackifh above, and yellow beneath : the upper part
of the head and neck are blackifh, fpotted with white about the
eyes: all the upper parts of the body of a deep greenifh grey,
marked with white, and gloffed with gilded brown: throat and.
breaft regularly variegated with brown and white : the reft of the
under parts barred with the fame: the tail is fix inches and a
half long, even at the end, and barred with the fame colours : the
legs are yellowifh.
Inhabits China.
Cuculn* CUCKOW.
m
Cuculuspunflatus, Lin.Syfl.i. p. 170. N° 8.
Le Coucou tachete des Indes, Brif. orn. iv. p. 134. N°
■  brun piquete de roux, Buf. of. vi. p. 377.
. tachete des Indes Orientales, Pl. enl. 771.
4. pl. 10. f, 2.
RUFOUS
SPOTTED
T ARGER than our Cuckow : length fixteen inches and a half.
Bill horn-colour; from the bafe of it to the ears, paffing
under the eyes, is a rufous band: the plumage on the upper
part of the body is brown, fpotted with rufous; beneath rufous,
tranfverfely marked with blackifh brown Arise; thofe on the
belly leaft numerous: the tail is cuneated, eight inches and a
quarter long, tranfverfely barred with rufous arched bands on
each fide the fhafts; all the feathers have rufous ends: the legs
are grey brown: the claws blackifh.
The female differs in having the rufous fpots on the upper
parts lefs numerous, and the under parts much paler, than in the
male.
This fpecies is found in the Eaft Indies, and in the Philippine
Le Coucou tachete de l'Ifle de Panay, Son. Voy. p. 120. pl. 78.
'TpHIS is two-thirds bigger than our Cuckow. The bill is
black: irides yellow: the upper parts of the body a very
deep brown, fpotted with rufous yellow; thefe fpots are oblong
on the head, and round on the neck, back, and wing coverts j
but on the quills they are tranfverfe, and yellowifh, intermixed
■with black dots :   the throat is black, fpotted as the back :
breaft
PANAYAN
SPOTTED
C. CUCKOW.
'breaft and belly pale rufcus, tranfverfely ftriped with black-, the
tail is long, even at the end, of a rufous yellow, croffed with tranf-
verfe bars of black : the legs are lead-colour.
Inhabits the Ifle of Panay. It muft be obferved, that it differs
from the laft in two particulars, viz. in wanting the rufous mark
under the eyes, and the tail not being cuneated as in the laft .
bird ; otherwife, it feems not unlike it, both in figure and de-
icription.
K>.
Cucuhis Orientali
, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 168. N
EASTERN
Le Soucou noir de
s Indes.  Brif. orn. iv. p.
BLACK
C.
enl. 274. f. 1.
Le Coukeel, Buf.
of. vi. p. 383. lefremier.
CIZE of a Pigeon: length fixteen inches.    Bill grey brown5
general colour of the plumage black, gloffed with green, and
in fome parts with violet, efpecially under the tail, which is eight
inches in length: legs grey brown : claws black.
Inhabits the Eaft Indies.
LeCoukeel, Buf. oif. vi. p. 383. lefecond.
CIZE of our Cuckow : length fourteen inches. The bill is
black, with a yellow tip: the whole plumage blackifh, gloffed
with blue: the firft quill feather is half as fhort again as thb
third, which is the longeft of all. It carries the tail fpread for
the moft part.
Inhabits Mindanao. CUCKOW.
5*9
Cuculus niger, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 170. N° 1:
Le Coucou noir de Bengale, Brif. orn. iv.
Le Coukeel, Buf. oif. vi. p. 384. Ittfoifm
Black Indian Cuckow, Edw.' pl. 58.
p. 14X. N° 17.-
CIZE of a Blackbird: length nine inches..   Bill bright orange,
fhorter and thicker than in the common Cuckow: the whole
feiid oT* a black colour, gloffed with green and violet: the tail is
wedged in fhape, and. four inches and a half in length :  legs of a
reddifh brown : claws blackifh.
Inhabits Bengal, where it is called Coukeel, no doubt from its
imitating that word.
Description.
T ENTGTH twelve inches and a halfT Bill an-inch and a quarter
long, and pretty much curved; the colour of it black: the
feathers of the head are an inch in length, forming a-creft : general
colour of the plumage gloffy black, except, the bafe of the four or
five firft quills, which are white, and" form a fpot of that colour
©n the outer edge of the wing : the tail is cuneiform; the two-
middle feathers feven inches long;- the outer feathers only four
inches and a half:- the thigh feathers are pretty long, and hang a
good way over the legs, which are blacks
This inhabits the Cape of Good Hope, and is in the collection of
Sir Jofeph Banks. I am alfo in poffeffionof a very perfect one;
but it is rather lefs, and the tail not fo long in proportion. They.
are fo alike, that I am clear they only differ in age or fex.
This bird is likewife in the Cabinet du Rioi.    Buffon * obferves,
• Hifl. des of. vol. vi. p. 381..
i CRESTED*
BLACK-
Descriptiok ^20 CUCKOW.
that in this fpecimen the tail feathers were not regularly cuneated,
all but the two outer ones being equal, and thofe alone an inch
and a half fhorter than the reft.
COROMANDEL
CRESTED Le Jacobin huppe de Coromandel, Buf. of. vi. p. 380.—PA enl. 872.
C.
Description.    T ENGTH eleven inches.    Bill black: head crefted like the
laft : the upper parts of the body black; the under white :
on the edge of the wing a fpot of white, in the fame place as in:
the laft fpecies: tail cuneiform, tipped with white : the wings
reach halfway of the length of it: legs brown.
pLAC2, From the coaft of Coromandel.    Buffon fuppofes this and the
laft mentioned to vary only from climate.
Le Coucou huppe noir & Wane, Buf. oif. vi. p. 362.
Cuculus ex albo & nigromixtus, Ornith.Ilal. 1.1. \
A LITTLE larger than our Cuckow. Bill of a greenifh
brown : the head is black, and ornamented with a creft,
which falls behind: the upper parts of the body are black and
white: throat, breaft, and under tail coverts, rufous; the reft of
the under parts white: quills rufous, tipped with white: tail
black, with a white tip; the feathers of it longer in proportion
than in our fpecies, and more cuneated than in the great fpotted
Cuckow, N" 3, to which in other things it bears fome affinity:
legs green.
A male and female of thefe birds were found near Pifa, in
Italy, where they made their neft, laying four eggs, fat on, and
hatched CUCKOW.
hatched them. It was obferved that this fpecies had never made
its appearance there before ; nor was it known from whence
thefe birds came.
52i
Le Coucou verdatre de Madagafcar, Buf. oif, vi. p. 364.—Pl. enl. 815.
GREAT
MADAGASCA
npHIS is of a large fize: length twenty-one inches and a half.    Description.
Bill an inch and three quarters, and black: irides orange:
Upper parts of the body deep olive, obfeurely waved with deep
brown: throat light olive, tinged with yellow: breaft and upper
part of the belly fulvous ; lower part of the laft, and under tail
coverts, brown : thighs greyifh afh-colour : tail ten inches long;
fome of the fide feathers tipped with white: the wings reach two
inches further than the bafe of the tail: the legs are yellowifh
brown.
Inhabits Madagafcar. Place.
A SECOND of thefe birds was full as big as a Fowl, and near
half an inch longer than the other. On the head was -a
•naked blueifh fpace, fomewhat furrowed, and encircled with black
feathers; thofe of the head and neck were foft and filky 1 the
bafe of the bill briflly: infide of the mouth black: the tongue
black and forked : irides reddifh : thighs, and infides of the
wings, blackifh : legs black. This bird had the property of
turning the outer toe forwards as well as behind. It was fuppofed to be the male of the former, as it was feen in company of
' the others.
Var.A.
ESCRIPTION.
31
Cue 522
CUCKOW,
,..*.J' „„.„ Cuculus cnftatus, Lin. Syfl. 1. p. 171. N8 10.     .
MADAGASCAR T    ^ ,      '    c, f   .   v    ' / _,„ ,
CRESTED Coucou hupe de Madagafcar, Brf. orn. iv. 149. N° 22. t. 12. f. z.
C. Le Coua, Buf. oif. vi. p. 365. N° 4. t. 16.
Coucou huppe de Madagafcar, Pl. enl. 589.
Description. QIZE of a Jay: length fourteen inches. Bill above an inch
long, black: irides orange : the head and upper parts of the
body are of an elegant afh-colour, inclining to green : the feathers on the head are long, forming a creft: throat and fore part
of the neck cinereous: lower part of the neck and breaft vi-
naceous: belly and fides whitifh, with a tinge of rufous : under
tail coverts rufous white: thighs white, marked with bars of
light afh : quills pale green, with a glofs of blue and violet; beneath cinereous: tail much the fame ; the fide feathers tipped
with white; the two middle feathers rather longeft : legs black.
Place. Inhabits Madagafcar; where it is called Coua.    M. Commerfon,
by whom a defcription of the bird was fent to Buffon, adds, that
it carries its tail fpread : that the neck is fhort: the noftrils bare,
obliquely placed : tongue pointed, and cartilaginous: the cheeks
bare, wrinkled, and white: and adds, that the flefh is good to
eat; and frequents the woods about Fort Dauphin*
Le Houhou d'Egypte, Buf. oif. vi. p. 367.
T ENGTH between fourteen and fixteen inches.    Bill an inch
and a quarter long, or more, and black: irides bright red: the
head and hind part of the neck dull green, with a glofs of po-
lifhed fteel, and the feathers ftiff in their texture: upper wing
10 coverts CUCKOW.
coverts rufous, inclining to green : quills rufous, terminated with
mining green, except the three-laft, which are wholly of this colour, and the two or three preceding them, which are of a mixed
colour: the back is brown, with a tinge of green: rump, and
upper tail coverts, brown: tail cuneated, eight inches in length,
of a fhining green, with a glofs of polifhed fteel: throat, and
under parts of the body, rufous white, paleft on the belly : legs
blackifh.
This defcription taken from a female. The bird is feen frequently in the Delta, in Egypt; where it is called by the Arabs,
Houhou, repeating that word feveral times together. The male
and female are feldom afunder; but it is rarely that more than
two are feen together. Locufts are their principal food. They
are feldom feen on large trees, nor often on the ground; but
chiefly frequent low bufhes near running water.
sn
Coucou des Philippines, Buf. oif. vi. p. 369.—Pl. enl. 824.
>"T"SHIS is fo like the laft, that one defcription might ferve.
The wings only in this are rufous, and all the reft of the
plumage fhining black.
Bujfon feems to think this the male of the laft.
Coucou vert d'Antigue, Son. Voy. p. 181. pl. 80.
J  ESS than a Cuckow.    Irides black.:   eyelids furniihed with
hairs like eyelafhes :   head, neck,  breaft,  and   belly, dull
green, almoft black: wings of a deep red brown : the feathers in
3X2 general
Var.B.
iSCRIPTION. CUCKOW.
general hard and fliff; the webs loofe, and each of the beards-
furnifhed with fhorter ones: the legs are black: the inner hind
claw is faid to be more flender than the reft; but it is not mentioned whether it is ftrait or longer: neither is the tail faid to be
wedge-fhaped ; nor does the figure exprefs it. M. Sonnerat onjy
fays, it is long and black: however, this might eafily have efcaped
the pencil of the draughtfman. M. Sonnerat has faid full enough
to make us fuppofe it the fame, or a trifling variety of the laft
mentioned.
17. Le Coucou de Madagafcar,  Brif. orn. iv. p. 138. N° 16. pl. 13. f. »»—
LONG-HEELED Buf. of. vi. P. 369. pl. 17.
r^,„v.„ A* iw^o.rafcaj^ appelle Toulou, Pl. enl. 295. f. 1. lafemelle.
u de Mi
COMEWHAT bigger than a Blackbird: length fourteen
inches and a quarter. The bill is brown, an inch and 3-
quarter in length : head, throat, hind part of the neck, and upper
part of the back, covered with longifh, narrow, fliff feathers, of a
blackifh colour, with a rufous white ftripe down the fhaft; thofe
on the throat, fore part of the neck, and breaft, the fame, but
have only a longitudinal ftripe on each fide; lower part of the
back, rump, belly, fides, thighs, upper and lower tail coverts,
greenifh black: feapulars, upper and under wing coverts, fine
cheftnut ; fhafts of them and the feapulars purplifh : quills-
cheftnut, tipped with brown : the tail eight inches or more in
length ; of a blackifh green above, and black beneath; in fhape
cuneiform : legs and claws black : the claw of the inner hind toe
three quarters of an inch in length, and almoft ftrait,. like that of
a Lark.
x Inhabits- CUCKOW.
Inhabits Madagafcar, where it is called Tolou. From the great
fimilarity this has to the Houhou, it is probable that it may be a
young one of that bird.-
5*5
Cuculus Senegalenfis, Lin. Syfl. i. 169. N° 6.
Le Coucou du Senegal, Brif. orn. iv. p. 120. N° 7. t. 8. f. 1.
LeRufalbin, Buf. oif. vi. p. 370'.
TN bulk it exceeds our Cuckow: length fifteen inches and a
quarter. General colour brownifh, inclined to rufous above,
beneath dirty white: the bill is black, fifteen lines long.: the
t upper parts of the head and neck are covered with blackifh feathers, the middle and fhafts of which are deepeft : cheeks, throat,
fore part and fides of the neck, are dirty white, with the fhafts of
a brighter colour: rump and upper tail coverts brown, with
tranfverfe deep brown ftris : the under parts from the breaft dirty
white, with very obfcure tranfverfe ftriae: under tail coverts the
fame, but the ftri^ more manifeft: quills rufous, with brownifh
tips: tail eight inches long, cuneated, and of a black colour :
legs and claws greyifh brown; the inner hind claws more than
five lines long, ftrait, like the hind claw of a Lark.;
Inhabits Senegah
mm       STRAIT-
3i HEELED
Description..
Lark-heeled Cuckow, Brown. III. p. 26. t. ry.
1N fize fomewhat larger than a Lark; Bill dufky: head, neck,
back, and wing coverts, ferruginous, marked with fhort lines
of white, bounded by black, pointing downwards : belly yellowifh
brown: the firft and fecond of the prime quills plain reddifh
brown; the reft barred with black: tail very long, and cuneiform •„
LARK-HEELED>
C.
Description, CUCKOW.
form; outer feathers dufky, with brown tips; the others marked
with bars of black, and narrow ones of brown: legs black : the
inner hind toe has a long ftrait claw like a Lark.
Inhabits Bengal.
The three laft feem to bear affinity to each other, though the
produce of different countries; the general mark of the neck
and head feathers having the longitudinal ftripe in the middle,
and all of them the heel of a Lark.
Cuculus honoratus, Lin. Syfl. i.
Le Coucou tachete de Malabar, 1
f. 2.—Pl. enl. 294.
Le Cuil, Buf. of. vi. p. 375.
. iv. p. 136. N° 15. pl. 11. A,
HTHIS is fomewhat lefs than our Cuckow: length eleven inches
and a half. General colour blackifh afh on the upper parts,
marked with two fpots of white on each feather; beneath white,
tranfverfely fpotted with afh-colour: quills cinereous, tranfverfely
fpotted with white: tail much cuneated, five inches and a half
long, and of the fame colour as the quills; the outer feather
only three inches long: legs and claws pale afh-colour.
Inhabits Malabar, where the natives hold it facred. It feeds
on reptiles, which, perhaps, may be fuch as are the moft noxious;
if fo, this feeming fuperftition may have rife from a more reafon-
•able foundation than many others of the like fort. c u e k o w.
5*7
Le Coucou brun & jaune a ventre raye, Buf. of. vi.
Coucou a ventre raye de l'Ifle de Panay, Son. Voy,
:.7g.
>TpHIS bird is equal in fize to our Cuckow. The bill is black :
the irides orange: throat and fides of the head the colour of
wine-lees: upper part of the head blackifh grey : back and wing's
dull brown black: under part of the quills, neareft the body,
fpotted with white: tail black, even at the end, barred and
tipped with white: breaft dull yellow colour: belly light yellow:
both breaft and belly barred with black : legs reddifh.
Inhabits the Ifle of Panay, one of the Philippine Iflands.
Le petit Coucou a tete grife & ventre jaune, Buf. oif. vi. 382. N° 15.
Le Coucou petit de l'Ifle de Panay, Son. Voy. p. 122. t. 81.—Pl. enl. 814.
CIZE of a Blackbird; not indeed fo thick, but longer: length
more than eight inches. Bill pale yellow; point black:
upper part of the head and throat light grey : irides yellow : hind
part of the neck, the back, and wings, are of an umber-colour, or
light brown \ belly, thighs, and under tail coverts, pale yellow,
with a tinge of rufous : tail wedged, more than half the length of
the bird, black, barred with white : legs pale yellow.
Inhabits the Ifle.of Panay.
YELLOW-
BELLIED
Le Coucou vert dore & blanc, Buf. oif. vi, p. 385.
Coucou vert du Cap de Bonne Efperance, Pl. enl. 657* G
■IZE of a fmall Thrufh : length feven inches.    Bill feven or    Desc
eight lines long, and of a greenifh brown colour : the upper
parts, $2* CUCKOW.
parts, from head to tail, are of a rich, gilded, gloffy green: on
the head are five ftripes of white; one on the middle of the forehead.; two others above the eyes, infhape of eyebrows, paffing be-
-hind; and two more, narrower, and fhorter, beneath the eyes :
moft of the wing coverts, and the fecond quills, are tipped with;
white ; as are the tail feathers, and the two greater tail coverts:
the two outer tail feathers, and the outermoft quill, marked with-
fmall fpots of white on the outer edge : throat and under parts
white: the fides, and feathers which fall over the knees, marked
with a few greenifh bars : legs grey : fhins covered as far as the
middle with white feathers : the length of the tail is more than
three inches, cuneated, and, in its natural ftate, fpread out like a
fan ; it is an inch and a quarter longer than the wings; and feems
longer in proportion, in this bird, than in moft of the other fpecies.' I
Pi. Acs. This inhabits the Cape of Good Hope; and, when in fine plumage,
there is not a more beautiful bird.
Pl. XXIII.        QIZE of a fmall Thrufh : length feven inches.    Bill blueifh :
Description. irides hazel: the upper part of the body green, with a rich
gilded glofs ; the under parts white, tranfverfely waved with green
gold: the under tail coverts almoft white : the quills and tail dufky-
brown ; the laft fhort, and but very little exceeding the wings in
length : the legs blueifh.
Place. This inhabits New Zealand, where it is called Poopo-arowro.—
It fhould feem to have fome affinity to the laft; but it has no
ftripes of white on the head, nor blotches of white on the upper
parts of the body: the tail too is much fhorter than in that
fpecies. I believe it to be altogether new. I am indebted foT
•the figure I now give of it to the drawings of Sir Jofeph Banks.
Cucului ■~&u  CUCKOW.
5**
Ouculus paradileus, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 172. N° 22.
!Le Coucou verd hupe de Siam, Brif orn. iv. p. 141. N° 23. pl. 14. A. f. 1.
(Le Coucou a longs brins, Buf. of. vi. p. 387.
-CIZE of a Jay :• length feventeen inches. BHl -blackifh : irides
fine blue: colour of the whole bird dull green : head furnifhed
•with a fmall creft : the outmoft tail feather, on each fide, longer
than the other by five inches and three quarters, and webbed
only at the ends for about three inches : legs and claws grey.
Inhabits Siam..
Cuculus Coromwdu*, Lin. Syfl. i. .p. 171- N° 20. 2g.
Le Coucou hup* de Coromandel, Brif. orn. iv. p. 147. -N° 21. pl. n. A.      COLLARED
f. 1.—Pl. enl. 274. a
Le Coucou huppe a collier, Buf. oif, \'w p. jS8.
oIZE of a Miffel-Thrufh : length twelve inches and a half. Bill
near an inch long, a little bent, and of an afh-colour: irides
yellowifh: the head is crefted: that, and the upper part of the
body, are blackifh : on each fide of the head, behind the eye, is a
fmall, round, grey fpot: the upper part of the neck is furrounded
with a white collar, a quarter of an inch in breadth : the throat
and thighs are blackifh: the fore part of the neck, breaft, belly,
and under tail coverts, white: feapulars and wing coverts are
blackifh in the middle, edged with rufous; but the greater coverts,
iartheft from the body, rufous: prime quills the fame; but the
2 Y fecondaries 5$o C  U    C   K   O   W.
fecondaries are blackifh, edged with rufous : the tail is blackifhs-
and cuneiform:: legs afh-colour.
Place. Inhabits the coaft of Coromandel.
Cuculus cornutus, Lin. Syfl. i. p.
Le Coucou cornu du Brefil, Brif.,
L'Atingacu du Brefil, Buf. of. iv,
Atinga guacu mucu, Will. orn. ig
N°2
'*. iv. p. i45.N°20.
p. 409.
!. t. ■s&.—Raii Syn. 165. N°
CIZE of a Thrufh : total length twelve inches. The bill a
little bent at the end, of a greenifh yellow: irides fangui--
neous: the head, and all the parts above, are the colour of foot:
on the head the feathers are long, forming.a double creft, refem-
bling horns, which it can erect at will: parts beneath cinereous :;
quills and tail foot-colour; the laft darkeft, nine inches in length,,
and tipped with white; the two middle feathers longeft; the-
outer ones very fhort:. legs and claws afh-colour, covered before
with feathers halfway..
Inhabits Brafil.
Willughby ranks it with the Thrufhes, and fays, the toes are-
difpofed after the-ufual manner; yet in the figure they are placed-.
two and two: therefore Briffon, and others after him, more properly place it with the Cuckow..
Cuculus Sinenfis, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 171. N° 16.
Le Coucou bleu de la Chine, Brif.orn. iv. p. 157. N°
San-hia de la Chine, Buf. of. vi. p. 38.9.
14. A. fig. 2.-
CIZE of a Blackbird :- length- thirteen inches.   Bill eleven inches .
long, red; the upper mandible befet with briftlesj turned-
forwards : irides red.: the top of the head is white, marked with-
fmall- c u c k o ^r.
' 'fmall blue fpots :   the reft   of the head,  arid the throat, are
blackifh : on each fide of the head, behind the eye, is a round
- white fpot: hind part of the neck, back, feapulars, and upper
tail coverts, fine blue: greater wing coverts, fartheft from the
body, white: rump very pale blue: upper tail coverts of the
fame colour as the back, with a white fpot near the end : parts
beneath fnow white: quills half pale and half deep blue : tail
,€<&tbers deep blue, with a roundifh white fpot near the end of
each ; the two middle feathers exceed the next in length, by. three
inches and a quarter; the two outer ones only  one inch  and
three quarters long : legs and claws red.
Inhabits China.
Neither hinnaus, Briffon, nor Buffon appear to have feen this
>bird, but are indebted to the pencil of M. Poivre for it.
Scopoli obferves, that it is apt to vary in colour; and that it has
a notch at the end tif-theupper mandible, as in the Shrike.
Klein. * fays, it is a native of Guinea, in the more northern
*parts, as well as thofe bordering on the Cape of Good Hope.
That in Pl. enl. is white round the eye, and has a ftreak behind
it: creft tipped white, and half erect: only the middle quills red :
thighs and vent black : legs black.
53*
Cuculus caeruleus, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 171. N" 15.
Le Coucou bleu de Madagafcar, Brif. orn. iv. p. 156. N° 26. pl. 13. f. V g.-j
Pl. enl. 295. f. 2. C.
Le Tait-fou, Buftif. vi. p. 191. pl. 18.
SIZE of our Cuckow: length feventeen inches.   The bill  an    _
•    u -in      DeScru
inch and a quarter long, and black : the plumage is wholly
# Av. p. 36.
3Y a
of CUCKOW.
of a fine blue colour, but the quills are gloffed with green and*
violet, in different lights-: the tail of a very fine blue, gloffed
with violet;   the two middle feathers exceed the others but
very- little : legs and claws black..
This is found at Madagafean*.
Le grand Coucou da Madagafcar, Brif o
—Pl. enl. 5.87. the male.
Le Vour'ou-driou, Buf. of. vi. p. 395.
.p. i6o,.N? 28*,pt. 15. f. t;
CIZE of a large Pigeon : length fifteen inches. Bill two inches
long, blackifh,, and more ftrait than ufual in this genus :. the
head, throat, and neck, are cinereous : crown of the head blackifh,
gloffed with green and copper: from the bill to the eye, on each
fide, is a (lender, black line : the back, rump, feapulars, and upper
wing and tail coverts, green,,gloffed with copper: breaft, belly,
fides, thighs, under wing and tail coverts, bright grey : greater
quills blackifh; the leffer quills dull green,, with, a fine green
and copper glofs: the tail is compofed of twelve feathers, of
equal lengths, above copper and green-gold, beneath black :. the
legs reddifh:. claws black.
Le- grand Coucou de Madagafcar, Brif, 0
enl.5$S.-Buf.oif.n.?.i96.
. p< 162. pl. 15. f. 2.—Pli
HTHE female- is bigger than the male : and is in length,feventeen inches and a half.    The bill is two inches and one-third
in, length, and of a.hrown. colour : head, throat,, and hind part of
die CUCKOW.
the neckr tranfverfely ftriped with brown and rufous: back and
rump brown: the upper tail coverts, fore part of the neck,,the
hreaft,. belly, fides, and under tail coverts, incline to rufous, with
a blackifh fpot near the end of every feather: thighs and under
wing coverts plain.: leffer wing coverts, above,, brown tipped
with rufous; the greater ones brown within, and dull green on
the outer edge,, margined and tipped with rufous: quills as in
the male,,but duller: tail fine brown above,.fomewhat rufous at
the tips : legs reddifh : claws blackifh.
Both thefe inhabit Madagafcar, where the male is called Vouroug-
driou, and the female Cromb. They differ fo much, as to. be taken
by the natives for diftinct fpecies.
f*f
Le Coucou indicateur, Buf. oif. vi. p. 392. N° 22.
Cuculus indicator, J.Fr. Miller mifcell. fol, tab. xxiv.
Honey Guide, PhiL.Tranf. vol. lxvii. p. 38. pl. 1.
T ENGTH feven inches. Bill half an inch longi thickifh; brown
towards the bafe; at the tip luteous ; the bafe befet with a
few briftles : irides ferruginous grey : eyelids naked, black : top
of the head grey;. the feathers broadifh and fhort: chin, throar,
and breaft,.dirty white, with a tinge of green on the laft : back and
rump ferruginous grey : belly and. vent white : thighs white, with-
a longitudinal ftreak of black on each feather : upper wing coverts
grey-brown, fome of them tipped; with yellow, forming a yellow
fpot on the fhoulders, which is, for the moft part, covered by the
feapulars : quills, above,, brown ; beneath,,grey-brown :: baftard
wing grey-brown: tail cuneiform, compofed of twelve feathers,-
bhe two middle ones narroweft;. both above and'' beneath rufty
hrojtvn ; the two next, on.each fide, fuliginous; the inner margins:;
whitifh.* C   U   C   K   O   W.
whitifh; the two following, on each fide, white, with brown tips,
and a black fpot on the inner webs at the bafe; the outer one
foorter than the reft, much as the laft, but the black fpot at the
bafe not very confpicuous.
The manners of this bird are Angular, and' worth notice.—
It is fuppofed to feed principally, or at leaft to be very fond of,
honey; and is of ufe, by its wonderful inftinct, for finding out the
places where the wild Bees hoard it up; which it difcovers to the
Hottentots and Dutch in the following manner : The morning and
evening are the times of feeding.; and it has a ihrill note, which
the Honey-hunters carefully attend to, and anfwer, from time to
time, till they have the bird in fight; on which it flies to the fpot
where the bees have placed their flore; after taking of which*
they leave their guide a portion for his pains. Dr. Sparrman,
who furnifhed this account, affures us, that he has feveral times
been at the taking wild Bees nefts in this manner; but could only
obtain two fpecimens, both females ; from which this defcription
was taken, lt fhould feem, that this bird is held in great veneration by the Hottentots; as he adds, that his killing them was attended with the greateft indignation of thofe people.
This curious bird is an inhabitant of the interior parts of
Africa, at a good diftance from the Cape of Good Hope.
A neft which was fhewn to Dr. Sparrman, for that of this
bird, was compofed of flender filaments of bark, woven together
in the form of a bottle; the neck and opening hung downwards,
and a firing, in an arched fhape, was fufpended acrofs the opening,
fattened by the two ends, perhaps for the bird to perch on. c it c ico w;
$$&.
Gueulus vetula, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 169. N»4<
Le Coucou along bee de la Jaraaique, Brif. orn, iv. p. 116. N° 5. pl. 17.
f. z.—Pl. enl. 772.
Le Tacco, Buf. of. vi. p. 402.
■ Bicus feu Pluviae avis canefcens, &c. Rait Syn. p. 182. N° 13.
Another fort of Old Man„or Rain Bird, Shane Jam. p. 313. N^ 53.
pl. 258, f. z.
LONG-
BILLED RAIN
C.
'"TTHIS is a riffle bigger than a Blackbird: length more than
fifteen inches. Bill above an inch and a half long: the
upper mandible black; the lower whitifh: crown of the head
brown, the feathers-of it foft and filky: the upper parts.of the-
body, and the quills, cinereous olive: throat and fore part of the
neck whitifh;. the reft of the under parts rufous: the tail is much
cuneated; the two middle feathers cinereous olive, the others
dufky black,, tipped with-white;, the outer feather very fhort:
legs blue-black.
Inhabits Jamaica, where it is frequent in the woods and hedges,
all the year round. It feeds on feeds, fmall worms, and caterpillars,, and is very tame. Shane mentions, that he found, on
diffection,the ftomach of a great fize, in refpect to that of the
bird; a circumftance I. have more than once obferved in the
European Cuckow.
This bird has the name Tacco from its cry, which is like that'
-word ;   the firft   fyllable   of  this is   pronounced  hardly,, the
j other following in a full octave lower than the firft.    It has alfo
another cry, like qua, qua, qua, but that only when alarmed by an
\ enemy.    As well as infects, it will alfo eat Lizards, fmall Snakes,,
Frogs, young Rats, and, fome times, even fmall Birds.    The Snakes-
2. they/ CUCKOW.
they fwallow head foremoft, letting the tail hang out of the
mouth till the fore parts are digefted. This bird, it is moft
likely, might be eafily tamed, as it is fo gentle as to fuffer the
negro children to catch It with their hands. • Its gait is that of
leaping, like a Magpie, frequently being feen on the ground; and
its flight but fhort, chiefly from bufh to bufh. At the time
when other birds breed, they likewife retire into the-woods, but
their nefts have never yet been found ; from which one fhould be
inclined to think, that they were indebted to other birds for the
rearing their young, in the manner of the common Cuckow. It I
has the name of Rain-bird, as it is faid to make the greateft
noife before rain.   Common all the year at Jamaica.
~ Cuculus vetula, Lin. Syfl.i, p. 169. N° 4.
RAIN Le Coucou de la Jamaique, Brif. orn. iv. p. 114. N° 4.
G.  ditle Vieillard, ou l'Oifeau de Pluie, Buf. of. vi. p. 398,
An Old Man, or Rain-bird, Rail Syn. p. 182. N° 12.—Sloan. Jam. p. 312.
N° 52. p. 258. f. 1.—Brown, Jam. p. 476.
ascription. COMEWHAT lefs than a Blackbird: length/rom fifteen to fe-
venteen inches. Bill an inch long: the upper mandible
black, the under whitifh : the top of the head is covered with
downy foft feathers of a deep brown : the reft of the upper part
of the body, the wings, and two middle tail feathers, cinereous
olive: the throat and fore part of the neck are white; which,
efpecially that on the throat, appears like a downy beard *: the
breaft, and the reft of the under parts of the body rufous : all the
tail feathers, except the two middle ones, are black, tipped with
* Whence, perhaps, the name of Old Man.
white, CUCKOW.
white, and the outmoft one margined with white : the legs are of
a blueifh black.
This likewife inhabits Jamaica with the laft.   Both are known
by the name of Old Man, or Rain-bird.
Le petit Vieillard, Buf. oif. vi. p. 401.
Coucou des Paletuviers de Cayenne, PL enl. 813.
'TpHIS and the Rain-bird of Jamaica, are faid to be fo like
each other, efpecially the female of the laft, both in colour,
fhape, &c. that one defcription may ferve; but this is much lefs,
and the tail is fhorter in proportion. It is about twelve inches
long. The bill as in the laft; as are the upper parts of the body
and tail: the irides yellow: the chin is white: the reft of the
parts beneath pale rufous : the legs feem longer than in the
laft.
It inhabits Cayenne, and lives on infects, efpecially thofe large
caterpillars which, feed on the leaves of the mangrove; for the
purpofe of which, thefe birds frequent the places where fuch trees
grow, and are principally found there.
MANGROVE
C.
Cuculus Americanus, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 170. N° 10.
Le Coucou de la Caroline, Brif orn. iv. p. 112. N° 5.—P/. enl. 816.
Le Vieillard a ailes roufles, Buf. of. vi. p. 400.
Cuckow of Carolina, Catejb. Carol, i. pl. g.—Amer. Zool. N°
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
CIZE of a Blackbird:   length thirteen inches.    Bill fourteen
lines; the upper mandible is black, the bafe yellowifh; the
3 Z under CUCKOW.
under one yellowifh : the upper parts of the body are cinereous 0
olive; the under parts white: the quills  are. pale rufous: the
tail ift cuneated, fix inches long; the two middle feathers of the
fame colour as the back; the others black, tipped with whiteflj
legs and claws grey brown.
This inhabits Carolina in the fummer-time, where it frequents
the deep thick woods.
I have alfo received it from Jamaica, where I am told it is
common.    Notwithftanding  the fentiments  of Buffon, I havejf;;
fome doubt whether this is not the other fort of Rain-bird of
Shane; or that his two are but one fpecies, as Linnaus fuppofe&||
I have never feen but one of the large fort, which anfwered to the
firft-mentioned, or that with the long bill.
BRASILIAN
CRESTED
Le Coucou hupe dru Brefil, Brif. orn. iv. p. 144. N° 19.
Le Guira cantara, Buf. oif. vi. p. 407.
Guira acangatara, Rail Syn. p. 4.5. N°s.—Will. orn. 140. N° 9. t. 22
CIZE of a Magpie: length fourteen inches and a half. Bill
dullifh yellow, an inch long; the upper mandible a little
hooked : irides brown: the whole head covered with feathers,
which are brown down the middle, and yellowifh on the fides:
thofe of the throat and neck, on the contrary, are yellowifh down
the middle, and brown at the fides: back, rump, breaft, belly,
fides, thighs, upper and under tail coverts, and beneath the wings,
pale yellowifh white: feathers on the crown longifh, forming a
creft: quills and tail brown; the laft tipped with white: legs
fea-green.
Inhabits Brafil, where it makes a great cry in the woods. Tbisr CUCKOW.
is faid to have but, eight feathers in the tail; but, as I never heard
of any bird which had fewer than ten, I fhall wait for further confirmation of this circumftance before I give credit to it.
Le Coucou du Mexique, Brif. orn. iv. p. 119. N° 6.
Le Quapaftol, ou le Rieur, Buf. oif. vi. p. 408. N° 4.
The Laughing Bird, or Quapaftototl, Will. orn. 387.—Rail Syn. p. 174.
T ENGTH fixteen inches. Head and parts above fulvous:
bill blueifh black: irides white : throat, fore part of the
neck, and breaft, cinereous: belly, fides, thighs, and under tail
coverts, black : tail of a blackifh fulvous colour, half the length
of the bird.
Inhabits Mexico. The cry of this bird is like that of human
laughter; on which account it is dreaded by the Indians, as in-
aufpicious and ominous, foreboding fome evil or mifchief.
Cuculus neevius, Lin. Syfl. i, p. 170. N° 9.
Le Coucou tachete de Cayenne, Brif. orn. iv. p. 127. N° 11. pl. 9. f. 1.
—PL enl. 812.
Le Coucou brun varie de roux, Buf. of. vi. p. 411.
CIZE of a Fieldfare : length ten inches and three quarters. Bill
three quarters of an inch; the upper mandible black on the
top, and rufous on the fides ; the under wholly rufous: general
colour of the plumage rufous in two fhades ; the under parts rufous white: the feathers on the crown are of a deep brown, and
pretty lorig, with rufous tips, and fome of them margined with
rufous : hind part of the neck rufous grey; down the fhafts deep
3 Z 2 brown:
5J9
LAUGHING
C.
- SPOTTED
C. cue
O
brown: back _and rump the fame; each feather tipped with a
rufous fpot: on each feather of the throat and neck is a tranfverfe brownifh line near the end: the under tail coverts are rufous : quills grey brown, edged with rufous, and a fpot of the
fame at the tips: tail near fix inches long, much cuneated ; the
outer feathers only half the length of the middle ones; colour of
it the fame as the quills; fome of the upper coverts reach to near
two-thirds of the length of the tail: the legs are afh-colour:
claws greyifh brown.
Inhabits Cayenne.
Buffon mentions a variety of this by the name of Rail-bird *.
It is much the fame in fize, but has lefs rufous, being grey in the
place of that colour: the fide tail feathers have white tips: the
throat pale grey: under the body white : the tail a trifle longer
than in the other. Whether a variety or different fex not
known.
This is common at Cayenne and Guiana; and is feen often
perched upon gates and rails, whence its name; and when in this
fituation continually moves its tail. Thefe are not very wild
birds, yet do not form themfelves into troops, although numbers
are often found in the fame diffrict: nor do they frequent the
thick woods like many of the genus.
The firft of thefe I am in poffeflion of, but the Variety I have
never feen. I am clear that my fpecimen totally differs from the
-following, both in length and fize, however the defcriptions. may
feem to coincide.
> Qifeau des Barrier-es,
LENGTH CUCKOW.
T ENGTH nine inches. Bill near one inch long, bent, and
ef a black colour: the head, neck, and upper parts of the
body, are brown, and fomewhat gloffy ; every feather marked with
a pale rufous fpot at the tips :' the wings and tail are brown, but
darker than the reft; and the feathers fpotted at the tips like the
others : the upper tail coverts reach a great way on the tail, which
is cuneiform in fhape : the belly and vent are dirty white : the
legs are pretty long, and of a brown colour.
This, moft likely, inhabits Cayenne, as I faw it among various
other birds from that part.
uculus Dominicus, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 170. N° 13.
e Coucou de St. Domingue, Brif. orn. iv. p. no. N° 2.
e Cendrillard, Buf, of. vi. p. 413.
ST. DOMINGO
C.
CIZE of a Thrufh :
and a quarter
length ten inches and a half. Bill an inch
;rey brown : plumage above grey brown';
beneath pale afh-colour : quills rufous, tipped and margined with
grey brown: tail cuneated, five inches and a quarter long; the
two middle feathers as the back; the others black, with-white
tips; and the outer one white on the outer margin : legs and
claws grey brown.
Inhabits Guiana, St. Domingo, and Louiftana,
■ Buffon mentions one which was in the collection of M. Mauduit,
of Paris, and was rather bigger.    The under parts were wholly
white, and the bill not fo long as that of the other. CUCKOW.
Cuculus Cayanu
Le  Coucou  de
enl urn. 211.
Le Coucou piaye, Buf. oif.
Syfl. i. p. 170. W
le, Brif. orn. iv. p
. p. 414.
22. N° 8. pi. 8. f. 2.—Ph^
CIZE of a Blackbird : length fifteen inches and three quarters.
The bill is grey brown, above an inch long, and a little bent
at the tip : the plumage on the upper parts of the body purplifh
cheftnut; beneath the fame, but paler: quills the fame as the
upper parts, tipped with brown: tail the fame; near the end
black, and tipped with white; it is much cuneated, and above
ten inches long : the legs and claws are grey brown.
This inhabits Cayenne, where it goes by the name of Piaye, or
Devil. The natives give it that name, as a bird of ill omen.
The flefh they will not touch, and indeed not without reafon, as
it is very bad and lean.
It is a very tame fpecies, fuffering itfelf to be almoft touched
by the hand before it offers to efcape. Its flight is almoft like
that of a Kingsfifher;»frequents the borders of rivers, on the low •
branches; feeds on infects; often wags its tail on changing
place.
Cuculus Cayanenfis minor, Lin. Syfl. i
Le petit Coucou de Cayenne, Brif. orn
170. N° 14. (3.
p. 124. N°9« ']
gIZE of a Miffel Thrufh: length ten inches and a half.    Bill
grey brown : head and upper parts purplifh cheftnut: throat
to the breaftthe fame,.but paler: belly, fides, and thighs, brown
afh: CUCKOW.
afh: under tail coverts deep cheftnut brown: quills and tail as
the upper parts; the firft tipped with brown, the laft with white,
and much cuneated: legs and claws grey brown.
I2UFF0N mentions likewife another variety, with a red bill: an    Description
afh-coloured head: throat and breaft rufous:' and the reft of
the under pacts cinereous black.
Inhabits Cayenne. Place.
Le Coucou noir de Cayenne, Buf. oif. vi. p. 416.—PL enl, 1
T ENGTH eleven inches. Bill ten lines in length, and of a red
colour: irides red: general colour of the plumage black :
the parts beneath lefs dark than thofe above, inclining to afh :
upper wing coverts bordered with white: tail a little wedge-
fhaped, and exceeds the wings, when clofed, about three inches.
This bird is faid to have a tubercle at the fore part of the wing.
It is a folitary filent bird; for the moft part being found
perched on trees which grow near the water, and is not near fo
refllefs as the major part of the Cuckow tribe; by which it may
feem fomewhat allied to the Barbet.
Inhabits Cayenne.
CAYENNE
BLACK
Description, 43-
WHITE-
RUMPED
BLACK
C.
CUCKOW.
Le petit Coucou noir de Cayenne, Buf. of, v
p. 417.—PL enl. 505.
T ENGTH eight inches and a quarter. Bill above an inch,
and dufky. This bird is wholly black, except the lower pare
of the back and rump, the belly, thighs, and vent, all of which are
white : on the belly the white is feparated from the black by a
kind of orange band: tail fcarcely three inches long, cuneated,
and exceeds the length of the wings but very little : the legs are
yellow.
This too inhabits Cayenne. In manners it imitates the laft, as
well as the places it is found in. It paffes the day perched on a
folitary branch of a tree, in an open fpot, without any motion,
except what is merely neceffary in collecting the infects on which
it feeds. It builds in the hole of a tree, and fometimes in a hole
in the ground, if it finds one already made.
RED-HEADED
Red-headed Cuckow, Ind. Zool. t. 6.
T ENGTH fixteen inches: weight four ounces. Bill much
arched, ftrong, and of a greenifh yellow colour: crown and
part of the cheeks bright crimfon, entirely furrounded by a band
of white: hind part of the head and neck black, marked with
fmall fpots of white: fore part of the neck entirely black: back
and wings black : tail very long, unequal, the lower part black;
ends white: breaft and belly white : legs pale blue.
Inhabits Ceylon, where it is called Malkoha.    Lives on fruits. cue
o w.
TI
Cuculus Brafilienfis, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 171. N° 18.
Le Coucou rouge hupe du Brefil. Brif. orn. iv. p. 154. N° 25.
Le Couroucoucou, Buf. oif. vi. p. 298.
Cuculus Brafilienfis, venuftiff. pictus, Seba. vol. i. 102. t. 66, f. 2.
"*HIS is fomewhat lefs than the former: length ten inches.
Jill a little bent; half an inch long, and of a light red
colour-, the head is of a pale red, and adorned with a creft of a
deeper red, variegated with black : parts above deep red; beneath pale red ; with a tinge of yellow on the belly : upper wing
coverts pale red, mixed with yellow: quills and tail yellow, with
a fhade of black.
Buffon remarks, that in Seba's figure, the toes are difpofed three
and one; but, as the name of Cuckow is given it, they fhould
have been placed two and two.
Cuculus Perfa, Lin. Syfl. 171. N° 17.
Le Coucou verd hupe de Guinee, Brif. orn, iv. 152. N° 24.
Le Touraco, Buf. oif. vi. 300. t. 15.
Le Touraco de Guinee, Pl. enl. 601.
Crown Bird from Mexico, Albin, ii. t. 19.
Touraco, Edw. i. t. 7.
'TpHlS bird is about the fize of a Magpie. The bill fhortifh ;
the upper mandible bent; colour reddifh brown: noftrils
covered by feathers: irides hazel brown : eyelids furrounded with
red caruncles: the head, throat, neck, upper part of the back,
breaft, part of the bellv, and the fides, are covered with foft
4 A filky
RED-CRESTED
46.
TOURACO
iSCRIPTION. 546 C   U   C   K   O   W.
filky feathers of a fine deep green : the upper leffer wing coverts
the fame : the feathers on the crown lengthened'into a creft, which,
the bird can erect at pleafure; the tip of this creft is reddifh : on •
each fide the head is a black ftripe, broadeft in the middle, arifing
at the corners of the mouth, paffing through the eyes, to the hind
head : above and beneath this, is a narrow line of white : lower
part of the back, rump, and upper tail coverts, feapulars, and greater
coverts, are blueifh purple : lower part of the belly, fides, thighs,,
and under tail, coverts, blackifh : greater quills crimfon, with:
the outer, edge and tip margined .with black : tail blueifh purple:
legs and claws cinereous.
Place. Inhabits various parts of Africa.
Buffon mentions two fpecies ; the firft from Abyffinia, and the-
other from the Cape of Good Hope. The firft has a blackifh creft,,
hanging behind as a lock; the other has. an upright creft of a.
bright green,.with fometimes a mixture of white : the difference-
in plumage very trivial. One from the Cape, which he faw alive, J
w'as faid to feed on rice -, yet, on trial,.would by no means fwallow
a. grain, it would have famifhed firft; but eat the feeds of grapes.
greedily, .as alfo apples and oranges, and lived on fruits, for feveral.
months ; by which it appeared, that fruits are its natural food.-—-
The progreflive motion of this^bird-was not by walking, but leaping. After moulting, it got the white ftripe above and beneath
the eye; and the creft became all of one green colour. Several'
of thefe birds have been alive in England, of which I have feen.
one: the defcription as above. The eye appeared uncommonlyr
brilliant, the creft chiefly in an erected ftate; and the bird-
very lively. It is faid'by Albin to come from Mexico.; but this,
may be doubted : Edwards exprefs'ly fays, it comes from Guinea;,
and all which I have, feen have been from .that quarter.
2 GENU.Si [    547    1
-G E  N  u s    XX.
R  Y  N :e  C  K.
THE bill in this genus is roundifh, flightly incurvated, and
of a weak texture.
Noftrils bare of feathers, and fomewhat concave. ^ikNr
The tongue long, flender, and armed at the point.
Ten flexible feathers in the tail.
Feet made for climbing: toes placed two and two.
This genus confifts of only a fingle fpecies, and has, by moft
•authors, been held as diftinct; for though it feems allied to fome
other genera, it perfectly coincides with none. It has the tongue
of the Woodpecker, as well as the fituation of the toes ; but the
weaknefs of the bill, unapt to bear the rude exertions of thofe birds,
forbids it to be placed among them.—It feems alfo much allied to
the Cuckow *, did not the length of tongue prove the contrary.
It is a bird well known; but for form fake we proceed to de-
fcribeit.
» Linnaus, in his former edition of the Fauna Suecica, had there placed it
with the Cuckow.
4 A z •54*
WRYNECK.
Yunx torquilla, Lin. Syfl, i. p. 172.
. , Scop. ann. i. N° z,o.—Georgi Ruf.
LeTorcol, Brif. orn. iv. p. 4. pl. 1. f. 1.
-■ Buf.oif. vii. p. 84. pl. _.—PLenl.6g8.
Dreh-hals, Frifch. t. 38.—Wendhals, Kram. el. p. 336..
Jynx five torquilla, Rati Syn. p..44. A, 8.
The Wryneck, Will orn. p. 138. t. 22.
 , Albin. i. pl. 21.—Br. Zool. N° 83.]
Br. Muf.   Lev. Muf.
^TpHOUGH the colours are very few in this bird, nor at all;
"^ gaudy, yet their being blended together in a moft beautiful'
manner, gives it an elegant appearance. In fize it nearly equals a
Lark: the length is feven inches. The bill is three quarters of
an inch long, and of a. pale lead-colour: irides.hazel:. the tongue
is long, in fhapelike a worm when extended.—" Its plumage (fays
Mr. Pennant) is marked with the plaineft kinds : a lift of black
and ferruginous ftrokes divide the top of the head and the
back : the fides of the head and neck are afh-coloured, beautifully
traverfed. with fine lines of black and reddifh brown: the quill
feathers are dufky, but each web is marked with ruft-coloured
fpots : the chin and breaft are of a light yellowifh brown, adorned
with fharp-pointed bars of black : the tail confifts of ten feathers,,
'broad, at their- ends^, and weak, of a- gale, afh-colour, powdered
with black and red, and. marked with four equidiftant; bars of
black."
The female is paler in colour than the male.    It builds in hollow trees, making no neft, but. laying the eggs, which are from
eight.   WRYNECK.
eight to ten in number, on the bare rotten wood within; thefe
eggs are as white as ivory *, according to Buff on.
This, as far as relates to England, is- a bird of paffage, coming
eight or ten days before the Cuckow. We find it mentioned as an
inhabitant throughout Europe, and of many parts of the old Continent. It is in Ruffia, Sweden, Lapland, Greece, Italy, Babylon, and
Bengal; authorities.for which Buffon mentions, and fays, that at the
end of fummer this, bird grows very fat, when it becomes excellent eating; for which reafon, fome have named it the Ortolan.
Its food is chiefly ants, which the male has been obferved to carry
to the female while fitting.—The young ones, while in the neft,
will hifs like fo many fnakes; infomuch that many have been
prevented plundering the old ones of their offspring, on fuppo-
fition, that they were advancing their hands on the brood of this:
Ioathfome reptile.
Jf4*
Le Torcol raye, Brif. orn
Jyngi congener, Aldrov. ,
. t. 869.-
HPHIS is faid to differ from the other, in manner following:
—The head and upper parts of the body are ferruginous,
beautifully varied with tranfverfe yellow fpots: the under parts
white, varied with longitudinal lines of yellow: the wings and
tail the fame colour with the back : legs yellow: claws black
and hooked.
It is much to be doubted' whether this is a different bird;. it is
more likely a variety of. the common fpecies above-mentioned".
• Mr. Pennant obferves, that the lhell is fo than that the yolk may be feen
within.    He alfo fays, that it makes a neft of dry grafs. Br. Zool. 8vo. p. 239.
Genu*. T   55°   J
*Q ends   XXI.   WOODPECKER,
WITH      FOUR     TOES.
%m
- Great Black W.
N°22
Cardinal W.
.0.
White-billed W.
23
Nubian W.
3
Pileated W.
24
Brown W.
4.
Lineated W.
25
Green W.
5
Red-necked W.
Var. A.
6.
B uff-crefted W.
26
Bengal W.
i
Leffer black W.
Var. A.
Var. A.
Var. B.
Var. B.
27.
GoaW.
8.
Red-headed W.
28.
Manilla Green W.
9.
Red-breafled W.
29.
Crimfon-rumped W-
so.
White-rumped W.
3°-
Grey-headedW.
11.
Striped-bellied W.
3^
Perfian W.
12.
Great fpotted W.
32.
Orange W.
13.
Middle fpotted W.
33-
Gold-backed W.
14.
Leffer fpotted W.
34-
Cape W.
®
Varied W.
35-
Half-billed W.
16.
Canada fpotted W.
36.
Rayed W.
17.
Carolina W.
Var. A.
Var. A.
37-
Pafferine W.
Var. B.
33.
Gold-creftedW.
18.
Hairy W.
39-
Yellow-crefted W.
19.
Little W.
40.
Cayenne rayed W.
ao.
Yellow-bellied W/
41.
Yellow W.
21.
Encenada W.
42.
Ferruginous W.
N° 43. Black- WOODPECKER.
N* 43. Black-breafted W.
44. Red-cheeked W.
45. Rufous W.
46. Yellow-headed W..
47. Red-winged W.
N°48. Minute W.
49.. Gold-winged W.
Var. A.
50. Crimfon breafted W.
551
w      WITH      THREE-    TOES.
51. Three-toed Northern W.
Var. A. Southern W.
THE bill in this genus is ftrait,,ftrong,.angular, and cuneated:.
at the end *.
Noftrils covered with briftles reflected down.
Tongue very long, flender, cylindric, bony, hard, and jagged-
at the end;  miffile..
Toes two forward, two backward -f\
Tail confifting of ten hard, fliff, fharp-pointed feathers.-
The grand-characteriflic of thefe birds is the tongue (which in
no bird is fimilar, the Wryneck excepted,, whofe other characters *
however differ too widely to give it place in this clafs) the
mufcles neceffary to the motions of which, are Angular and worthy of notice ; affording the animal means of darting it forwards
the whole length, or drawing it within the mouth at will $.
* N« 49 and 50 are excepted, as the bill in thefe is bent,,and angular only
on the top.
+ N° 51 has only one backward, there being only three in all.
% See Ray on the Creation, p. 143.—Derbam's Pbyflic. Theol. p. 342. Note 0.
WilLorn. p. 156. t-21.
Pictte s WOOD
E   R.
43.REAT BLACX
Picus martlus, Lin. Syfl. i,
p. 46. N°5i.
Le Pic noir, Brif. orn. iv. p. 21. N° 6.
 , Buf. of. vii. p. 41. pl. 2.
 - , male, Pl. enl. 596.
73. N° I.—Mull. p. iz.—Scop. ann. i.
1. 10. f. 2.
Schwartz Specht, Frifch. t. 34.
Picus niger maximus, Rati Syn. p. 42.  1.
fireateft  black   Woodpecker,   Will. orn.  135. pl. 21.--Albin, ii. pl. 27.;
—Amer, Zool. N°
CIZE of a Jackdaw: length feventeen inches. Bill near two
inches and a half in length ; of a dark afh-colour, and whitifh
on the fides : irides pale yellow * : the whole bird is black, except the crown of the head, which is vermilion: the firft quill
feather is fhorteft: the two middle tail feathers longer, than thefj
others, making it appear a little rounded: the legs are lead-coloured ; covered with feathers on the fore part for half their length.
. The female differs from the male, in having the hind head only
red, and not the whole crown of the head ; and the general colour
of the plumage has a ftrong eaft of brown in it. It has likewife
been obferved, that the red on the hind head has been wholly
wanting : and indeed both male and female are apt much to varyf
in different fubjects; fome having a much greater proportion of
xed on the head than others.
This bird is found on the continent of Europe, but not in
plenty, except in Germany,    It is not an inhabitant of Italy, and
naked, according to Seopoli.
very WOODPECKER.
very rarely feen in France. Frifch mentions it as a bird common
to his parts j and it is found alfo in Sweden, Switzerland, and Denmark *; but not in winter.
It is faid to build in old Afh and Poplar trees, making large
and deep nefts ; and Frifch obferves, that they often fo excavate a
tree, that it is foon after blown down with the wind; and, that
under the hole of this bird may often be found a bufhel of duft,
and bits of wood. The female lays two or three white eggs, the
colour of which, as Willughby * obferves, is peculiar to the whole
of the Woodpecker genus, or, at leaft, all thofe which have come
under his infoection.
553
Picus principalis, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 173, N" 2.
Le Pic noir hupe de la Caroline, Brif, orn. iv. p. 26. N* 9.
Grand Pic noir a bee blanc, Buf. oif. vii. p. 46.
Pic noir hupe, de la Caroline, PL enl. 690.
.  Quatotomomi, Rati Syn. p. 162.—Will. orn. 390.
King of the Woodpeckers, Kalm. voy. ii. p. 85 ?
Largeft white-billed Woodpecker, Cattfb. Car. i. pl. 16.
White-billed Woodpecker, Amer. Zool. N°
WHITE-
BILLED
^^pHIS is bigger than the laft, being equal in fize to a Crow :
* it is fixteen inches in length; and weighs twenty ounces.-
The bill is as white as ivory, three inches in length, and channeled : irides yellow : on the hind head is an erect pointed creft,
of a fine red colour, fome of the feathers being two inches long \
the head itfelf, and body in general^ are black; but the lower
t Orn. p. 134. WOOD
E   C   K   E   R.
part of the back, rump, and upper tail coverts, are white r from?
the eye arifes a ftripe of white, which paffes on each fide of the
neck, quite down to the back : three or four of the prime quills,
are black ; but the reft are white: the tail is cuneiform, the fame
colour as the body: the legs and claws alfo are black.
This bird inhabits Carolina, Virginia, New Spain, and Brafily
and is called by the Spaniards Carpenter; and not without reafon,,
as this, as well as moft of the other fpecies, makes a great noife
with the bill againft-the trees in the woods, where they may be
heard at a great diftance, as if Carpenters were at work;. making,
according to Catefby, in an hour or two a bufhel of chips. He
adds likewife> that the Canadian Indians make ufe of the bills of
thefe birds for coronets, fetting them round in a wreath, with I
the points outwards; and that the norihernhtdiam purchafe them
of the fouthern, at the rate of two and three Buck-fkins per bill.
Kalm fays, they are found in New Jerfey, though very feldom^,
and only at certain feafons.
Pictts pileatus, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 173. N° 3.
Le Pic noir hupe de Virginie, Brif. orn. iv. p. 29. N°
Le Pic noir a huppe rouge, Buf. oif. vii. p. 48.
Pic noir hupe de le Louifiane, PL enl. 718.
Larger red-crefted Woodpecker, Catefb, Car. i. pl. 17.
Pileated Woodpecker, Am. Zool. N°
Lev. Muf
*T*HIS is lefs than the laft : length fifteen inches: weight nine
ounces.   The bill is two inches long, and of a lead-colour*
as are the eyelids : the irides are the colour of gold : the top of
the head adorned with a creft of long red feathers; beneath this,
over- WOODPECKER.
•over the eye, is a ftreak of white; and again under this is a
broader black ftreak, in which the eyes are placed ; all of which
marks tend to the hind head : on each fide of the jaw is a
ftripe of red, which reaches the whole length of the lower mandible, and a little way down the neck: the cheeks, throat, fore
part and fides of the neck, are of a pale yellow, or buff colour:
in the middle of this colour is placed a band of black, which
arifes at the corners of the mouth, and paffes down the fides of
the neck: the hind part of the neck, back, and rump, are black:
on the middle of the back is a fpot of white; and another or two
of the fame, on the wings: the breaft, belly, fides, thighs, and
under tail coverts, are blackifh: the tail itfelf unequal; the two
middle feathers the longed: legs and claws black.
The femak differs in having no red on the lower jaw, and the
fore part of the head brown *; but has a red creft, as well as the
male.
This bird is common in Louifiana, Carolina, and Virginia'; and,
according to Kalmf, is frequent alfo in forefts in Penfylvania,
where it flays the winter. It is reckoned very hurtful to the
Maize, as it fettles on the ripe ears, and deftroys them with its
bill %; not that it is known for certain, that thefe birds eat any
555
* Buffon mentions a black Woodpecker met with by M. Commerfon, in the
^Straits of Magellan, of the lizeof the common one, and otherwife like it, except
having only the fore part of the head red, the hinder part crefted, but black.
t Voy. i. p. H8.
t Kalm adds* « That all the tribe of Woodpeckers are deftru&ive to Maine,
when it begins to ripen ; for, by pecking holes in the membrane round the ear,
the rain gets into it, and caules the ear, with all the corn it contains, to rot.'*
Kalm. Trav, i. p. 148.
4B   2
part ss$ WOODPECKER.
part of the grain; being more likely in fearch after fome kind'
of infeifc that frequents the plant, rather than any part of the
plant itfelf, as none of this genus are granivorous *. I am told,
that this fpecies is frequently met with in the Pine for efts, and
known,, by-fome, by the nameof Woodcock.
©asCRIFTION.
Picus lineatus, Lin.. Syfl. i. p. 174. N? 4.
Le Pic noir hupe de Cayenne, Brif. orn. iv. p. 31. N° 11. pi. 1. f. :
L' Ouantou, ou Pic noir huppe de Cayenne, Buf. oif. vii. p. 50.
 , Pie-noir hupe de Cayenne, PL enl. 717.
Pic noir, oa Charpentier, Perm. Defer, de Suriutii. p. 170 ?
Picus varius Brafilienfis Ipeeu diftus, Rati Syn. p. 43. N° 7.
Brafilian Woodpecker, called Ipecu, Will. orn. 138. pl. 22.
Lev. Muf.
/"T"VHE fize of this is equal to' our green Woodpecker
thirteen inches
length
and three quarters. Bill above an inch
and a half long, and of an horn-colour: head and nape of a
beautiful red; the feathers long enough to form a creft: along the
under jaw a ftripe of the fame : upper parts of the body black:
cheeks the fame, but inclining to afh: from the corner of the
mouth, on each fide,, is a line of white ;. which, growing broader
as it advances downwards, meets on the middle of the back: beneath the throat is rufous white, the fhaft of each feather dafhed
with black : fore part of the neck and breaft black; each featherv
margined wjth rufous white at the tip: belly,.vent,, and thighs>
rufous white, ftriated tranfverfely with black : the edges of the
wings, and beneath them, white: quills black; the inner webs,
for one-third of their length from the bafe, white:. tail cuneiform*
black: legs and claws grey.
* Hifl, des oif. vol, vii, p. 49,
Inhabits? -WOODPECKER.
Inhabits Cayenne.   I have ventured to place the Ipecu,   as PLAl
lynonymous with the above-defcribed, rather than with the laft
but one, as Linnaus and Briffon have both done, for many reafons :
the Ipecu is faid to be as big only as the green Woodpecker, while
the other is of the fize of a Crow: fecondly, the former has a horn-
coloured bill,, while that of the latter is as white as ivory, and:
twice as long: and thirdly, the under parts of the body, in this
bird, are variegated ; whereas in the white-billed they are plain.
Buffon thinks, that this may prove the Tlauhquechultototl of
Fernandez * ; and it may alfo be the bird meant by M. Fermin
above quoted, though this circumftance can only begueffed at, as
he merely fays, that it is black, with the top of the head cinnabar :
as to the name Charpentier (or Carpenter) it is by no means cha-
racteriftic; it being a common name given to the Woodpecker
tribe in generaf, by the inhabitants of South America. There is-
alfo another Mack-Woodpecker, copied from Seba -f, by Briffon J,,
which is wholly of that colour, croffed with zigzag lines of light
grey, on the wings and under parts. Buffon would have this rejected, not being certain of the genus, as well as two others ||,
as Seba talks of their feeding on fifh, and calls them Herons^ but.
what they really are will perhaps never be determined^
557
v    • See Raii Syn. p. 162;
■f- Ardeae Mexicans fpecies fingularis, Seb. vol. i. t. 65. f. z.
t Le Pic noir du Mexique, Brif. orn. iv. p. 25. N° 8.
|| See Picverd du Mexique, Brif. orn. iv. p. 16. N° 3. and Grand Pic varie
da Mexique, p. 57. N° 20., Pl. XXV.
Desciuptiok.
C   K   E   R.
Le Pic a cou rouge, Buf. oif. vii. p. 53.
Grand Pic huppe a, tete rouge de Cayenne, Pl. enl. 612.
' Lev. Muf.
/HplHE length of this bird is fixteen inches. The bill is of a
pale colour: the whole head and neck, as far as the breaft,
are crimfon : the back part of the head is crefted : the back, wings,
and tail, are of a deep brown, with a little mixture of cream-
colour on the wings: the under parts are of a deep cream-colour:
the legs lead-colour.
The above defcription was taken from a fine fpecimen in the
Leverian Mufeum, faid to have come from Cayenne. Buffon calls
the colour of the under parts of his bird fulvous, and fays it alfo
came from Cayenne. The difference is trifling; perhaps the variation may arife from, difference of fex.
iuf.
T ENGTH twelve inches and a half. ' Bill two inches, and of a
brownifh horn-colour. The whole head is crefted, the fore
part of which is black; the hinder part buff-coloured : under the
creft, above the eye, is a line of black: the hind part of the
neck, under the creft, is likewife black: the fide of the head, under the eye, is white, which runs down in a line on each fide the
neck, and meets behind at the back, the upper half of which is
likewife white : lower part of the back brown black : as are the
fides of the head and neck, wings and tail: the chin is dufky.
breaft, ^for^rr/'Ifror^^L  WOODPECKER.
breaft, belly, and vent, dirty white, tranfverfely barred with dufky
black: legs black.
Inhabits Surinam. Place.
555
Picus hirundinaceus, Lin, Syfl. i. p. 174. N°5.
Le Pic noir de la Nouvelle Angleterre, Brif. orn
Le petit Pic noir, var. Buf. oif, vii. p. 54.
Leffer black Woodpecker, Albin. iii. pl. 23.
' — Am, Zool. N°
, p, 24. N° 7.
LESSER BLACK.
W.
'T'HIS is not much bigger than a Swallow: the length is five
inches and a half. The bill an inch and a quarter long, and
of a brown colour: irides whitifh: the colour of the plumage,
with a few exceptions, is black : the hind head is red: and the
edges of the wings and bottom of the belly white : legs yellowifh : claws black.
This'fpecies inhabits North America*
Le petit Pic noir, Buf. oif. vii. p. 54.
——■— ——• de Cayenne, PL enl. 6g±. f. z,
Lev. Muf.
/"T*HIS is full as big as the laft, being, according to Buffon, of the
fize of the Wryneck. On the head is a red fpot; over the
eye a trace of white; and towards the hind head a few fmall
yellow feathers: down the middle of the breaft, as far as the
'belly, is a dafh of red: belly and fides mixed black and grey :
lower part of the back and rump white : the reft of the plumage
and tail are black, with a blueifh glofs on the head and body.
5 There There is alfo a variety of this, which wants the red fpot on the
head, but inftead of it has a circle of yellow encompaffing the
head;
The female has neither red nor yellow on any, part of the
head.
T ENGTH eight inches and a half. Bill dufky, pale at the
bafe: general colour of the plumage black: on the middle
of the crown is a red fpot: on the fide of the head a bed of
white, in which the eye is placed; this extends to the hind head*
which is of a golden yellow: from the breaft down the middle
and the fides deep crimfon : vent barred black and white : lower
part of the back and rump white: wings and tail black : fome of
the fecondaries tipped wif h white at the very tip.
The female, or what I fuppofe to be fuch, anfwers in every re-
fpeft to the foregoing defcription, except, in the head, which is
wholly black, having only a line of white over each eye.
The former of thefe is in the collection of Capt. Davies, the laft
in my poffeffion; both of them from Cayenne.
Buffon does not tell us'on what part of the head the red fpot is
in his bird; nor does he mention the lower part of the back and
rump being white; but in the Planches enluminees it feems to be
on the crown r and the lower part of the back and rump are there
white, though omitted in the defcription: I will thereforefuppofe
•them trifling varieties. WOOD
•Picus erythrocephalus, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 574. N° 7.
Le Pic a telle rouge de Vh-ginie, Brif orn. iv. p. 53. N° J9. pl. 3, f. 1.
Le Pic noir a Domingo rouge, i?^. «//! vii. p. 55.
Pic de Virginie, Pl.enl. 117.
Red-headed Woodpecker, Catefb. Car. i. pi. 20.
 Kalm. Trav. ii. p. 26.— Am. Zool. N°     fa %
'leg'i Muf.
'TpHlS fekd is eight inches and three quarters in length, and
weighs two ounces. Bill an inch and a quarter long, of
a lead-colour, with a black tip : irides dufky : the head and' the
whole of the neck are of a moft beautiful crimfon: back and
wings black: the rump, breaft, and belly, white: the ten firft
quills are black, the eleventh black and white, and the others
white with black fhafts: the tail black and cuneiform: legs and
claws lead-colour.    The cock and hen nearly alike.
Inhabits Virginia, CanoUna, Canada, and moft of the parts of
North America; but at the approach of winter migrates more
or lefs to the fouthward, -according to the feverity of the feafon;
and upon this circumftance the people of Norfh America foretell
the rigour or clemency of the enfuing winter.
Kalm obferves that it is a very common bird, and is very de-
itrudtive to the maize-fields and orchards, pecking through the
ears of maize, and deftroying great quantities of apples. In fome
years they are more numerous than in others, when they attack
the orchards where the fweet apples grow, which they eat fo far
that nothing remains but the mere peels. Some years fince there
was a premium of two pence per head paid from the public fund,
in order to extirpate this pernicious bird; but this has been
seglected much of late. They are faid likewife to be very fond
4C of
4- RI'.D-
HiEABEJD 56z
RED-
BREASTED
WOODPECKER.
of acorns. In Virginia and Carolina they flay the whole year, but?
are not feen in fuch numbers as in fummer. During the winter
they are very tame, and" are frequently known to come into the
houfes, in the fame manner as-the Redbreaft is wont- to do in*
England.
It is obferved that"this fpecies- is found-chiefly in old trees; antH
the noife they make with their bills may be heard above a mile
diftant. It builds-the earlieft of all the Woodpeckers, and gene--
rally pretty high from the ground. It is accounted by many
people very good eating.
Buffon * is of the opinion that it is neceffity alone that caufes-
t-hefe birds to feed on the vegetables of any kind, as it is contrary
to the nature of the genus.
C OMEWHAT lefs than the laft; The bill is an inch long, and*
of a brownifh horn-colour : the head, neck, and breaft, crim-
fon : from each noftril is a line of buff, paffing under the eye,;
where it finifhes : the back-part of the neck- mixed with dufky |
back and wings black : feveral of the leffer wing covens, near the-
outfide of the wing, are tipped with white, and others of the greater
coverts have the outer webs white,-making a ftreak of this colour
. parallel to and near the edge of the wing: moft of the fcapu--
lars marked with an obfeure yellowifh fpot at the tip: the fipft
quill feather black, marked on the inner web halfway from the
bafe with round fpots-of white; the others-fpotted on both webs*
with white'; the fecondaries fpotted on the inner web only : undec"
wing coverts black and white mixed: the middle of the beHy
* Sift, des of. v
dufky WOODPECKER,
clufky yellowifh white: the fides of this laft colour, mixed with
dufky : the tail and legs were wanting.
This fpecimen came from Cayenne, and is -in the collection of
Capt. Davies,
CIZEof the greater fpotted Woodpecker: length nine inches. Bill
an inch and a quarter, and of an-horn-colour : the head, throat,
and all the upper parts of the body, are dufky ; thefeathers tranfverfely ftreaked and waved with dirty white-: the chin the fame, but
paler: the leffer wing coverts are like the back, but the greater
ones plain black : the greater quills are dufky black; the outer
edges fringed with cream-colour, and the tips of feveral whitifh :
the fecondaries white, except at the ends, where there are tw© irregular bars of black on each feather; but thefe are not the -fame
-in all, as on fome of the inner ones the fecond bar is wanting on
the outer webs: the rump, belly, upper and under tail coverts,
are white : the legs areblack.
This is in the collection of Capt. Davies, who received it from
.Long Ifland.    It has, till  now, never come under my inflection.
I have fome opinion of it being a female, but of what fpecies cannot afcertain; am therefore conftrained to place it as a diftirrcl;
k fpecies, at leaft for the prefent.
5°J
WHITE-
RUMP.ED
W.
Br. Muf.
T  ENTGTH eight inches.    Bill one inch, and of a yellow horn-
colour : crown and nape crimfon : between the bill and eye
.red-; juft round the eye white: fides of the head ftriated black
4 C 2 and
STRIPED-
BELLIED
iSCRIPTION, 564 WOODPECKER.
and white: from the lower jaw fprings a crimfon band, like 3
whifker : back, wings, and tail, brown black, without fpots ; but.
the ends of the laft are juft tipped with white: belly ftriated
black and white : legs black.
This defcribed from a fpecimen in the Britifh Mufeum.
+> GREATER
SPOTTED
Kcus major, Lin. Syfl. i. p.  176. N* 17.— MuSin, p. iz.—Scop, ann, Ifl
p. 47. N° 5>—Kram. p. 335.. N» 3.
Le grand Pic varie, Brif. orn. iv. p. 34. N° 13,
L'Epeiche, ou le Pic varie, Buf. of. vii. p. 57.
— Pl. enl. 196. the male, 5.95- the female.-
Bunt Specht, Frifch. t. 36.
Picus varius major, Rail Syn. p. 43. A. 4.
Greater fpotted Woodpecker, or Witwall, WilL orm. \yr. pl, 2IV
Great fpotted D°, Br. Zool. N° 85.—Jzsw. Zool. N°
Br. Muf.   Lev. Muf.
npHIS fpecies is about the fize of a Blackbird : in length nine
inches-and a quarter : weight two ounces and three quarters.
The bill is thirteen lines long, blackifh, with the bafe horn-
coloured : the irides are reddifh: general colour of the body?
black above : the forehead is of a dirty buff-colour: on the hind*
head is a bar of crimfon: cheeks white: on each fide of the
neck, at the hind part, is a fpot of white: the feapulars and wing,
coverts neareft to them are white, and the quills fpotted with
white alfo: the throat and breaft are of a yellowifh. grey "• the"
lower part of the belly and vent crimfon: tail black; the four
middle feathers plain; the others more or lefs marked with
white; the outmoft feather has two black fpots on each fide of
the WOODPECKER.
the web; the next has two on the inner,, and one only on the
Outer web: legs lead-colour.
The female differs only in wanting the red on the hind head.
This bird is pretty common in England, France, Germany, and
other parts of Europe, frequenting the woods like the reft of its
genus, and is likewife met with in America. It is a very cunning
bird; for when a perfon has feen one on a tree,he is almoft lure
to lofe fight of it, if the tree is large, and the obferver not very
attentive ; for the moment it fpies any one, it will creep behind a
branch, and there lay fecure till the danger is over. The extreme .
facility with which birds of the Woodpecker kind defcend as well
as afcend the trees, is worthy admiration, feeming to do both
with equal eafe to itfelf. I do not find any one who has noticed
the colour of the eggs *, but Buffon f mentions having found a
neft with fix young ones in an old decayed, afp-tree, thirty feet
from the ground.
m
Female,
Places ani*
Picus medius, Lin\ Syfl. u p. 176. N° 18.—Scop. i. p. 48.-N°54.—Mull:
p. 12.
Le Pic varie, Brif Orn.iv. p. 38. N" 14, pl. 2. f. 1.
Pic varie itete rouge, PL enl. 611.
Middle fpotted Woodpecker, Br. Zool. N° 86-. pl. 37.
'"THIS is fomewhat lefs than the laft, being in length only eight
inches and a half;  but in general markings it is much the
feme, efpecially 01* the back and wings.   It differs chiefly in
having the whole top of the head crimfon, and round the eyes
• Willughby obferves, that the eggs of all Woodpeckers are white, as far as-has-
come to his knowledge;
t Hifl. des oif. vii. p. 6J.
and?
4- MIDDLE^
SPOTTED
W.- WOODPECKER.
and fides of the neck almoft wholly white : it has a ftreak from
the under jaw paffing backwards, like the laft, but it is fearcely
perceivable in a fpecimen now before me.
Briffon quotes many authors who have defcribed this bird, but
I am not clear in its being a diftindt fpecies ; it is certainly much
more fcarce in England than any other. Buffon is reconciled to
its being a variety only j but if fo, this variety is regular, at leaft
in all the fpecimens which I have feen.
Pi«us minor, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 176. N° 1-9.—Scop. ann. i.
Le petit Pic varie,  Brif. orn. iv. p. 41. N° 15.
Le petit Epeic.he, Buf. of. vii. p. 62.—Pl. enl. 598. ma
Kleiner bunt Specht, Frifch, t. 37.—Baumbackterl. Krt
Picus varius tertius, Rait Syn. p. 43. N° 6.
Leffer fpotted Woodpecker, Will. orn. 138. pl. 31c—Ah
xndfemale.
'336.N°S.
 , Br. Zool. N° 89. pl. i7.—Amer. Zool. N°
JBr.Muf.   Lev. Muf.
*"pHrS is certainly the leaft of the European fpecies, "but not of
the genus, as will be hereafter mentioned. The length is
only five inches and a half: weight fcarce one ounce. The bill
-is lead-colour: irides red: the upper parts of the body black,
ftriated acrofs the back with white : feapulars and quills fpottejcF
black and white: forehead dirty pale buff: the crown of the
head crimfon : cheeks and fides of the neck white-: the under
parts of the body dirty white : the four middle tail feathers are
black ; the others.black and white : legsdead-colour.
The female has the top of the head  white, which is red in the
male:, but neither have the vent red, as in the two laft fpecies.
ScopoU WOOD
E   C   K   E   R.
SC7
Scopoli obferves, that the fhins are plumofe at the bafe.
Salerne * fays, this bird is- not found in France; but Buffon
affirms, that it inhabits moft of the provinces there.—The firft
Gentleman fays likewife, that Frifch does not mention it; but
this is not fact; he indeed-fays, it is rare, but gives two excellent
figures of it f.
It approaches near habitations in winter, and maybe feen in the
orchards adjoining, which, no doubt, it does for the fake of food ;
finding about the trunks of the trees both Caterpillars and Larves of
infects of all kinds. It builds in an hole of a tree, and often difputes
the right of poffeffion with the little Colemoufe ; which laft, as it is-
much weaker of the two, muft yield the v\€kory,—Willughby Jfays,-
it is called in England by the name of Hickwalt.
Linnaus, in his fynonyms of this bird, quotes Haffelquift || for
the fame; but whoever will diligently read what this author fays-
of the matter, will be convinced, that the reference fhouldbe to-
the greater rather than the leaft of this genus.—It is faid by him-
to inhabit-the higher parts of Afia,
Mr. Sonnerat % mentions a bird found by him at An!igue;An
the ifland of Panay, with-the top of the head, and hind part- of
• Orn. p. 107; f Pl. 37. t Orn. p. 138%
|| Haffelquift fays, that it is the fize of-a Fieldfare ; that the crown of
i^black; whereas in this fpecies it is white,—He fays, too, that the vc
are red in both fexes; but in this- they are fo in neither : that the br
male, is pale- ferruginous; with long lines- of black; in the female, \
the rump rofe-coloured in both fexes ; and that there is a black lin
bill, paffing under-the eyes, to the-hind"head. All thefe circumftanc
me, that it is the greater fpecies, or at leaft a variety of it, and by nc
bird laft treated of above.—See Haffelq.. Itin. p. 342. N° 21.
■      S Petit Pic d'Antigue, Son. Voy, p. 113. pl. 77.
ihefemafe
t feathers
.ft, in the
from the
convince
the §6t
w o o r> p
C   K   E   *.
the neck, of agreyifh black : on each fide of the neck, two-thirds
downwards, is a ftripe of white, which begins juft above the eye;
and under this another of black from the eye to the moulder:
upper part of the body black and white : under parts pale yellow,
fpotted with black: tail black above, beneath barred with a dirty
•white and yellowifh colour : bill and legs blackifh. The heal
had no red on it.
Buffon fuppofes it to have been a female, and a variety -only 3fN
asxx leaft fpotted Woodpecker.
Le grand Pic varie du Mexique, Brif. orn. iv. p. 57. N° 21 ?
Le petit ditto, Ditto p. 59. N° 22.
L'Epeiche du Mexique, Buf. of. vii. p. 70.
Quauhchochapitll, feu Avicula Ligna excavans, Fern. H. iv". Hfp. ch. 941
" , Rail Syn. p. 163.
/"T"VHIS is of the fize of the middle/potted Woodpecker: the whole
4?    body covered with black feathers, tranfverfely ftriated with
•whiter breaft and belly xedi quills and tail black, tranfverfely
ilriated with white.
Inhabits the colder ipgf ts of Mexico. Buffon thinks this bird
and the greater one of Briffon, N° 21, to be the fame bird. Ray,
•copying Eernandez« fays, it is as big as a Quail; if fo, it Wfll
inot differ much in fize from the other, which Briffon fays is equal
to the green Woodpecker. But Klein would almoft perfuade us,
.that this laft is not a Woodpecker* when he talks of ks dartiag
down on fijh into the water, which we know to be rather the
(characleriftic of the Kingfifher than aay other j and, if I may be
allowed the fuppofkion, it is no^unlikely to fuppofe, that he meaos
9 &e WOODPECKER.
the Alcedo Alcyon, which acts in this manner. Inhabits Mexico,
as well as other parts of America; and anfwers to his colour very
nearly *.
565
Le Pic varie de Canada, Brif. orn. iv. p. 45. N* 16, pl. 2. f. 2.
L'Epeiche du Canada, premiere efpece, Buf, oif. vii. p. 69.
Picdu Canada, Pl. enl. 345. 1.
Quauhtotopotli alter, Fernand. Hifl. Nov. Hifp, ch. 165, p, 47 ?
■ —, Rail Syn. p. 162.
Spotted Woodpecker, Amer. Zool. N°
CANADIAN
SPOTTED
W.
CIZE of the greater Woodpecker:  length nine inches.     Bill    Description,
fifteen lines long, and of a horn-colour: upper parts .of the
body black, with a mixture of white in the middle of the back:
under parts whitifh : head black : forehead dirty white : on each
fide is a broad white band, paffing above the eyes, and joining a
pale orange one on the hind head: under the eye is another white
band, which widens as it proceeds downwards on the fides of the
neck: wing coverts and quills fpotted with white: the two
middle tail feathers are black; the next has a dirty white fpot
near the tip ; and the three outer ones have the ends marked obliquely with white; the two outmoft ones being wholly white»
except at the bafe : legs grey brown.
* The upper parts are dark am : quills fpotted white : belly white, with the
middle rofbtts'in one fex ; and is -white both before -and behind the eye befides.
Klein names it Jaeulator dntreus. See Klein av. 127. N° 2.
4 D Inhabits 570 W   O   O   D   P   E   C   K   E   R.
Place. Inhabits Canada.    Buffon fuppofes it to be the Quauhtotopotli of
Fernandez—, above quoted.
Female. That in Pl. enl. muft mean the female, as it has no orange on
the hind, head ; nor is. the front of a. dirty white-
Picus CarolinUs, Lin. Syfl'. i.
Le Pic varie de la Jamaique,
). 174. N°'io.
'rif. orn. iv. p. 59. N° 23.
L' Epeiche,.ou Pic varie de la Jamaique, Buf. of.x
Pic varie femelle dela Jamaique, Pl. enl. 597.
Carolina Woodpecker, Kalm. trav. ii. p. 86.
Jamaica Woodpecker, Edw. vol. v. p. 244.—Sli,
t.25S,.f.2.
Red-bellied-W-oodpecker, Catefb. Car. i. pl. 19. f. .-
.Jam. p.299.^^
—Am. Zool. N°
*TpHIS is bigger than ou:
ten inches and a half.
;reater fpotted Woodpecker : length
The bill is black, and an inch and
. a half in length : irides hazel: the crown of the head, and upper '
part of'the neck behind, are bright red: the cheeks yellowifh
white: the upper parts of the body black, marked with tranfverfe
narrow whitifh lines-: throat and fore part of the neck, as far as
the breaft, dirty olive; becoming red by degrees, as it approaches the belly: the lower parts of the belly and thighs are
marked with tranfverfe brown lines : the tail is black : the outmoft
feather dotted-with white on-the outer edge: legs and claws
black. £*h|
« Fernandez fays, it is tamed and kept in houfes : of the fize of a Starling : that
iris black, fpotted-with white : that it makes-holes-in trees, and feeds in -the-
fame manner as other Woodpeckers; but does not mention that it has red on any
part of the body„
The. WOODPECKER.
The female differs in having that part of the head rufous white,
which is red in the male.
Inhabits Carolina and Jamaica.
57i
T HAVE had feveral from the laft-mentioned place, which differed a little; for the forehead was pale buff, in both fexes, as
well as the cheeks: the'belly had a pale yellowifh-brown tinge,
but not at all inclined to red: the two middle tail feathers were
tranfverfely barred with white on each fide; the next only on the
outer web, but both home to the fhaft; and the outer feather
dotted with white, on the outer margin, the whole length 5 but
on the inner one only near the end: the head, and other particulars, anfwering to Briffm's .defcription.
Kalm obferves, that the colour of the head is deeper, and of
a more fhining red than Catefby has reprefented it.
Shane fays, this bird is met with every where in the woods ; and
loves the Capficum, or Indian pepper, very much.
DEScH.iP*ioiri
L' Epeiche ou Pic raye de la Louifiane, Buf. of. vii. p. 73.
 ■  , Pl. enl. 692. female ?
A LITTLE bigger than the greater fpotted Woodpecker. Up-'
per part of the-head pale red : on the throat, and under the*
eyes, fome markings of the fame : general colour of the plumage
above black, tranfverfely flriped with white ; beneath greyifh-
white: the two middle tail feathers, and the two outer tail feathers, black and white mixed; the others pia    black.
One of thefe, fuppofed to be the female, had a grey forehead,-
and no red on the head, except at the back part. •   \t£%u-;
nlSSft 4 D 2 Thefe WOODPECKER.
Thefe came from Louiftana, and appear to be a fecond variety
of the Carolina Woodpecker, of which mine from Jamaka feems to
be an intermediate one; but I obferve, that the lines on the back
are not near fo numerous as in that bird.
- HAIRY
W.
Picus villofus, Lin. Syfl. i, p. 175. N° 16.
Le Pic varie de Virginie, Brif. orn. iv. p. 48. N° 17.
L'Epeiche, ou Pic chevelu de Virginie, Buf. oif. vii. p. 7j.
Pic varie male de Virginie, PL enl, 754.    jl
Hairy Woodpecker, Catefb. Car. i. pl. 19. f. 2.—Amer. Zool. N°
 , Kalm'sTrav. ii. p. 26,—Phil. Tranf. vol. Ixii. p. 388*.
_ . Amtr% ZooL N°
Lev. Muf.
IT is a trifle lefs than our fpotted Woodpecker: weighs two
ounces : and is in length eight inches and three quarters. The
bill is an inch and a quarter long, and of a horn-colour: the
head is black; on each fide are two white lines, the one paffing
above the eye, and the other along the lower jaw; both arifing.
from the bafe of the bill: acrofs the hind head is a red band : the
upper parts of the body are black; which colour is as it were
divided by alift of white feathers, like hairs, paffing down the back:
the wings are fpotted with white: the under parts of the body
wholly white: the four middle tail feathers are black; the next
on each fide obliquely white at the tip; the laft but one white,
with the bafe black ,• and the outer one wholly white : the legs
and claws are grey-brown.
The female differs only in wanting the red on the hind head.
Inhabits Carolina, Virginia, and Canada. Kalm fays, he found
it in great plenty; and that it deftroys the apple-trees by pecking
holes in them,
Picus WOODPECKER,
Picuspubefcens, Lin. SyftA. p. 175. N° 15.
Le petit Pic varie de Virginie, Brif. orn.iv. p. ;o. N° 18.
L'Epeiche, ou petit Pic varie de Virginie, Buf. oif. vii. p. 76.
Smaller! Woodpecker, Catefi. Car. i. pl. 21.
Leaft fpotted Woodpecker, Kalm. Tr. ii. p. 87.
Little Woodpecker, Am. Zool. N°.
Lev. Muf.
'"PHIS is fo like the laft fpecies as to be almoft taken for it,
were it not cpnfiderably lefs in fize,. weighing, according to
Catefby, only fourteen pennyweights *; but Briffon defcribes it as
fomewhat bigger than our European fmalleft fpecies: the length is
five inches and a half. The bill is eight lines long, and of a
horn-colour : top of the head black; on each fide above the eye
is a white line : hind head red : hind part of the~ neck, the back,
and rump, are black; which is, like the laft, divided into two
parts by a line of white, paffing down the middle to the rump : the
feapulars, and upper wing and tail coverts, are black; the greater
wing coverts and quills fpotted with white: the under parts of
the body pale grey : tail black ; the four middle feathers plain ;
the reft barred with white and black: legs and claws black.
The female has no red on the hind head. Linnaus obferves
that the outer tail feather is white, marked with four black
fpots.
This fpecies inhabits Virginia and Carolina.
According to Kalm, this fpecies abounds in New Jerfey, where
it is accounted of all others the moft dangerous to orchards, and
is the moft daring.    As foon as it has pecked one hole in a tree,
• An, outtc«ind a half.   Hifl. des oif.
il.% 574 WOODPECKER.
"it makes another clofe to the firft, in an horizontal direction ; proceeding till it has made a circle of holes quite round the tree;
and the apple-trees in the orchards have often feveral of thefe
rings of holes round the flem, infomuch that the tree frequently
dries up and decays.
YELLOW-
BELLIED
Picus varius, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 176. N° 20.
*Le Pic varie de la Caroline, Brif.ern.iv. p. 62. N° 24.
. Buf. of vii. p. 77.-PL enl. 785.
LefTer fpotted yellow-bellied Woodpecker, Kalm. TV. ii. p. 87.
Yellow-bellied Woodpecker, Catefb. Car.i. p. 21.— Am. Zool. N°
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
HPHIS is in length feven inches and a half. Bill eleven lines
long, and of a lead-colour: crown of the head red, bordered
on each fide with black : hind head pale yellow, which paffes on
each fide over the eyes, forming a band of the fame colour : from,
the bafe of the bill, through the eyes, to the hind head, is a band
■of black; beneath this is another of a pale yellow, which arifes at.
the noftrils, and goes downwards towards the neck; and again,
under this is another black one, which originates at the bafe of
the under mandible, parallel to the jaw, after which it bends
towards the fore part of the neck, blending itfelf with the
black on the fore part of the neck: the throat is red: the fore,
part of the neck and breaft black, bordered with yellow: the
belly of a light yellow, mixed with a little black: fides, thighs,
and under tail coverts, white, tranfverfely banded with brown :■
the upper parts of the body are black and white, mixed ; not very
different from the greater fpotted Woodpecker, but more white:
the two middle tail feathers are black,- rmarked - on both fides the
fhaft W   Q-   O   D   F   E   C   K   E   R.
fhaft with white; the two next on each fide plain black; and the
outer ones black on the outer web, and fpotted with white on the
inner at the tip: legs and claws blackifh.
The female differs in having no red about her*, and the throat
and- hind head white, as- well as the ftripes on the fides of the
head, which are yellow in the male.
This fpecies inhabits Virginia, Carolina, and Cayenne. Kalm
gives this as bad a character" as the two laft, in refpedt to the damage it does to the apple-trees,
57$
L'Epeiche, ou Pic varie de la Encenada, Buf. oif. vii. p. 74.
 PL enl. 748. 1. the male.
^TpHIS is a trifle bigger than our leaft fpotted Woodpecker; andj
according to Buffony is one of the moft beautiful of its race:
the length in the plate is about fix inches. The bill is of a lead-
colour: the irides white: the plumage in general confifts-only of
two colours, grey-brown and white ; but thefe are irregularly
blended together, fo as to render it extremely beautiful; above,
thefe colours are mixed tranfverfely, and beneath, in a perpendicular direction : the head is crefted, and mixed on the fides with
crimfon: fides of the head white, verging to brown under the
eye : the quills are brown, dotted with white : legs lead-
coloured.
The head of the female is wholly brown, and it is deftitute of a
creft.
* So Catefly fays; but Linnaus remarks, that the female has the crown red':
wMch-isin the right I cannot determine, not having fee* it.
t» WOODPECKE
CARDINA
W.
Descriptio
Le Pic Cardinal de l'Ifle deLucon, Son. Voy. p.72. pl. 35.
Le grand Pic varie de l'Ifle de Lucon, Buf. of. vii. p. 67.
CIZE of our green Woodpecker. Bill blackifh; the feathers
round the bafe of the upper mandible are grey, with a eaft of
green : the crown and hind head are of a bright red : on each
fide from the eye behind, and down the neck, almoft to the wing,
is a ftripe of white: the back and wing coverts are black, but the
feathers on the lower part of the neck, and upper part of the
back, are margined with white, and the wings are fpotted with
the fame: the quills and tail are bladk, with yellow fhafts; the
greater quills are fpotted on the edges with yellow, and the leffer
ones tranfverfely barred with white : the throat, breaft, and belly,
are white, marked with longitudinal black fpots :^the legs are
blackifh : the tail feems fpotted in the plate, but is not mentioned in the defcription.
Inhabits the ifle of Luzonia.
T
L'Epeiche de Nubie onde & tachete, Buf. of. vii. p. 66.
Pic tachete de Nubie, Pl. enl. 667.
"^HIS is one-third lefs than the greater fpotted Woodpecker:
length feven inches and a half. The bill is black: irides
pale brown : the crown is black, dotted with white : the forehead
brownifh : from that to the eye whitifh : chin the fame : the hind
head crimfon, and fomewhat crefted: the reft of the neck and
breaft whitifh, marked with black fpots, fhaped like tears: the
upper parts of the body moft agreeably and irregularly mixed
o, with WOODPECKER,
Vnth white, rufous, and brown *. tail barred rufous and brown s
the thighs and vent are whitifh : legs blue.
I fuppofe, from the name, it is a native of the deferts of Nubia,
though Buffon does not fay as much, only that it is a new
Jpeeies.
Le petit Epeiche brun des Moluques, Buf. oif. vii. p. 68.
Petit Pic des Moluques, PL enl. 748. f. 2. *
CIZE of our little Woodpecker.    Bill dufky : the upper parts of    Des
the body are brownifh black, waved with white; beneath
■whitifh, perpendicularly dafhed with brown: fides of the head
white i beneath the eye a dafh of brown : the vent is white : the
tail feathers brown ; the webs have on each fide three white dots :
-quills are alfo fpotted with white : legs dufky.
Inhabits the Molucca Iflands.
Picus viridis, Lin. Syfl. i
Le Pic verd, Brif. orn. i\
 Buf. oif. vii
p. 175. N° il.—Scop. ann. i. p.
p. 9. N° 1.
p. 7. .pi. 1,—PL enl. 371. 879.
577
Grun-fpecht, Frifch. t. 35.
Picus viridis, Rail Syn. p. 42. A. 2.
Woodfpite, Rain-fowl, High-hoe, Hew-hole, Will. orn. p. 135. t. 21.
•Green Woodpecker, Albin. i. pl. 18 Br. Zool. N° 84.— Amer. Zool. N*
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
'-p'HIS is a large fpecies, being in length thirteen inches : it
*•    weighs fix ounces and a half.    The bill is two inches in
length, dufky, and of a triangular fhape:   the irides  of two
colours; the inner circle reddifh, the outer white : the crown of
4 E the WOODPECKER.
the head is crimfon, fpotted with brown black: fides of the head
blackifh : on the lower jaw a fpot of red : the upper parts of the -
body are of an olive green, towards the rump greatly verging to
-yellow: quills dufky, fpotted with whitifh; the under parts,
greenifh white, or very pale green: tail barred, dufky and,,
greenifh : all except the outer ones black at the end : legs
greenifh afh.
The female differs from the male in wanting the red mark on
the lower jaw. WiHughby* fays, it lays five or fix eggs ; which
Pennant f obferves alfo, and fays, that they are of a beautiful fe-
mi-tranfparent white.
Thefe birds fometimes build in a hollow afp, or other tree, fifteen
or twenty feet from the ground. The male and female take it by
turns to bore through the living part of the wood, till they come
to the rotten part, wherein, after being hollowed out to a proper
depth, they lay their eggs J, which are generally five, and fometimes fix || in number, greenifh, with fmall black fpots. The
young ones climb up and down the trees before they can fly. It
is worthy remark, to obferve with what nicety the holes of the
Woodpecker are made, as perfectly round as if made by the af-
fiftance of a pair of compaffes. Nuthatches, Starlings, and Bats,
frequently build in thefe holes when deferted.
tions on thefe birds may b#
it ion, p. 143. and Derham's
*  Orn.  p. 136.
"   t Br. Zool. p. 242. where fome pertinent obfen
found.    Let the reader alfo confult Ray on the Cr
Phyfico-theol. p. 193, 339, 342.
J This is fometimes fo deep that they muft feed their young quite in the
dark ; for I have been told by one, that he was obliged to thruft his whole arm
to the Ihoulder down the hollow of a tree, before he could reach the eggs.
|| " I have feen fix young ones together in one neft."    Will. orn. p. 136.    ,
Both WOODPECKER.
Both Frifch and Klein miftake in faying that the females have
not the red crown, for even the young ones in the neft have the
appearance of it; and I have had them brought to me when they
could fearcely fly, when the red was mixed with brown; but they
do not become of a full red till after the firft moult. They are
faid to be fond of bees in winter, making great havock among
them. Salerne * obferves, that they are found in the markets in
Italy, at Bologna; but this is not extraordinary, for the Italians
eat all fmall birds almoft without exception.
In Sir A, Lever's Mufeum there is a variety of this bird, of a
ftraw-colour throughout, except the crown, which is faintly
marked with red.
Picverd, Ferm. Defer, de Surin. vo
Le Pic verd du Mexique, Brif. orn
. p. 169.
, p. 16. N° 3 ?
^TT HE defcription of this given by Fermin fo exactly coincides
with that of the laft, that we muft conclude it to be the .
fame; if fo, we cannot deny the poffibility of its being at Mexico,
as related by Seba f: indeed the toes are not placed after the
manner of Woodpeckers in his figure, but three and one; a miftake committed by later authors as well as him ; for I muft own
that his defcription fuits the green Woodpecker rather than any
other bird; and the length, which is thirteen inches and a half, very
nearly correfponds with it. Buffon will not allow of Seba's bird
belonging to this genus ; nor does he fuggeft to which other it
has moft affinity.   I have given my fuggeftion of one in page 557,
t Ardea Mexicana a
4E2
tera, Seba, vol. i. t. 64. f. 3. O   D   P   E   C   K   E   R.
and if this has the fame manners, notwithftanding its coleurs^B.
will as readily give up the points
Picus Bengalenfis, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 175. N* 1$,
LePic verd deBengale, Brif. orn. iv. p. 14. N°;
 Buf. oif. vii. p. 23.-P/.
Woodpecker from Bengal, Albin. iii. pl. 22.
Spotted Indian Woodpecker, Eaw. iv. pl. 1&2.
nl.6g^
Var. A.
Descrip
'HpHIS is lefs than our green Woodpecker: length eight inches^
and a half. The bill is an inch and a half long, and
blackifh: top of the head black, fpotted with white : the hind
head furnifhed with a crimfon creft, and pretty long : hind part
of the neck black: throat and fore part of the neck black and.
white, irregularly mixed : breaft, upper part of the belly, and
fides, white;, the feathers margined with brown:, lower belly,,
thighs, and vent, white : fides of the head under the eye white;,
from this a white line paffes down the neck: the upper part of"
the back is yellow; the lower of a dull green :. the under wing,
coverts, and the upper leffer wing coverts, are deep brown,,
fpotted w,ith white; the reft of the wing green, fpotted with* .
lighter green : quills black, barred with white : tail greenifh:
black : legs and claws blackifh.
Inhabits Bengal, and is a moft beautiful.fpecies..
Specht de Ceylon, Naturforfcher, pf. 13. pl. i.
'"THIS is longer by an inch than the laft.    The bill is an inch'i
and four lines, in length, of a lead-colour, palifh at the bafe \ WOODPECKER.
it differs from the laft bird in having the white fpots on the head
more numerous : and the upper part of the back is black where
the other is yellowifh: the middle of the back, and that part of
the wings which in the other is brown, is in this of as fine a red
as the creft itfelf: throat and breaft brown, irregularly fpotted
with white : the greater quills brown, dotted with white: the
tail brown..
This came from Ceylon *, where it is called Kerella. lt is faid to
make its neft there in old trees, and feed on infects. This is
moft probably only differing in fex from the other.
ft*
Pic grivele, ou grand Pic de l'Ifle de Lucon, Son. Voy. 73. pl. 37.
Ealalaca, ou Pic vert tachete des Philippines, Buf. oif. vii. p. 21.
Pic verdjdesrPJiilippines, PL enl. 691.
CIZE of the common green Woodpecker. Bill black: irides
red : the top, fides, and hind part of the head and'neck, back
and wings, are of a fhining brown, with a mixture of green : the
feathers on the top of the head are longer than the reft, forming
a creft: the throat, fore part of the neck, breaft, and belly,
white; each feather margined with black, making the bird appear
to be fpotted with white and black: the tail is black brown;
on each web is a white fpot, forming, when the tail is expanded,
a white band: the upper tail coverts of a carmine red : legs
black.
* Perhaps too from China, as I fee it among fome drawings belonging to the-
late Dr. Fothergill, which were done in China;  but the toes were placed, three 582 WOODPECKER.
Piace. Inhabits the ifle of Luzonia, where it is called by the natives
Palalaca.
Buffon mentions a greater fort *, which is faid to be as big as a
Fowl, with a red crefted head, and a green body. This is called
alfo Palalaca by the natives. The Spaniards -call it Herrero, or
Blackfmith, on account of the great noife it makes with the bill in
flriking the trees, which, according to Camel f, may be heard at
three hundred paces diftance.
Le Pic vert de Gos
Buf. oif. vii.
PL enl. 696.
^TpHE fize of this is lefs than the common green Woodpecker.
The bill is black: crown and hind head crimfon, the laft
crefted : this laft is bordered at the temples with a white ftripe,
which widens as it paffes behind to the neck: from the eye
fprings a black band, which, paffing downwards in a zigzag manner, falls over the wing, the leffer coverts of which are alfo black;
the reft of the wing is of a golden yellow, which ends in a greenifh
yellow on the leffer quills; the greater ones are variegated black
and white : the tail is black: beneath the body is whitifh; die
feathers edged with black: legs lead-colour.
This came from Goa, and feems much allied to the laft but one,
if not the fame. It differs indeed in having the whole crown red;
whereas, in the laft mentioned, the front is black, fpotted with
white, and the throat is alfo of this laft colour.
* Palalaca, ou grand Pic vert des Philippines, Buf. oif. vol.
t Phil. Tranf. N° 285. WOODPECKER.
583
Le Pic verd de l'Ifle de Lucon, Sen. Voy. 73. pl. 36.
npHIS is a little lefs than the laft. The bill is blackifh : the
•*■ colour of the body a dirty green : the top of the head is
a little fpotted with grey: quills and tail blackifh : the upper tail
coverts are of a bright carmine red, forming a large fpot on that
part: legs blackifh.
This likewife inhabits Luzonia, and feems much allied to the
laft.
MANILLA
GREEN
W.
Le Goertan, ou Pic vert du Senegal, Buf. oif. vii. p. 25.
Pic appelle Goertan du Senegal, PL enl. 320.
/HpHIS is much lefs than the common green Woodpecker. The
bill is lead-colour: the crown crimfon : the upper parts of
the body are grey brown with a green tinge, fpotted with dufky
white on the wings: the under parts of the body are of a yellowifh grey : the rump is of a fine red: the legs are lead-
coloured.
Inhabits Senegal, where it is called Goertan.
CRIMSON-
RUMPED
Pic verd de Norvege, Brif. orn. iv. p. 18. N° 4.
Grey-headed green Woodpecker, Edw. ii. pl. 6$.
JJDWARDS fays, this is the fize of our green Woodpecker.
The bill of a dull afh-colour, yellowifh at the bafe: the head,
and hind part of the neck, of a fine afh-colour: the forehead ob-
fcurely
3°-
GREYHEADED WOODPECKER.
Teurely marked with four or five fmall red fpots: noftrils covered
with black briftles, turning forwards: from the corners of the
mouth, paffing backwards, is a ftroke of black like a whifker:
back and feapulars blue green: rump yellow: wing coverts yellowifh green: quills dark brown, fpotted with light yellow:
upper and lower tail coverts dull green : tail itfelf brown, croffed
with dufky lines : under the throat whitifh : from thence to the
vent cinereous, with a mixture of green: legs and claws
black.
This came from Norway,
Xe Pic jaune de Perfe, Brif. o
-Picus luteus cyanopus Perficu.'
Perfian Woodpecker, Will, on
(Pi N<»'S.
• P- 44- 9
D*scftiPTioif. ^pHE firft defcriber of this was Aldrovandus ; after whom Wil-
lughby thus defcribes it: " In bignefs it differs little or nothing from the green Woodpecker, only it has a thicker head and
neck, and a longer bill: the feathers, from the middle of the
crown to the end of the tail, have fomething of the ferruginous;
but the bill is altogether ferruginous: the feet are of a pale blue;
the claws are black: the reft of the body is yellow, fave that all
the wing feathers ends or tips incline fomewhat to ferruginous;
and that a fpot of the fame colour encompaffes the eyes."
PtAM. This was faid to breed in Perjia.
Buffon * thinks that, feveral of the laft are varieties only of the
common green Woodpecker.    Whether this be fo or not, I think it
* Hifl. des oif. vii. p. ii,
right WOODPECKER,
right to detail the colours, &c. of each, that the reader may the
better judge for himfelf, fince other authors are not of that opinion.
5*5
Picus aurantius, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 174. N° 8.
Le Pic du Cap de Bonne Efperance, Brif. orn,
I     Lev. Muf.
. p. 78. N° 10. t. 6. f. i,
T ENGTH ten inches and a half. Bill an inch and a half in
length, and of a deep lead-colour: crown and hind head
red ; the feathers of them long and narrow : on each fide,
from behind the eye to the hind head, is a ftripe of white; and
another from the noftrils, paffing under the eye down the fides of
the neck: the hind part and fides of the neck are blackifh : the
cheeks, throat, and fore part of the neck, dirty grey ; the margins
of each feather blackifh: the upper part of the back of a fine
golden orange-colour: feapulars golden olive, with an orange
tinge: lower part of the back, rump, and upper tail coverts,
blackifh: breaft, belly, fides, and thighs, dirty white; the feathers margined with brown : the under tail coverts the fame, with
blackifh margins, and a tranfverfe ftripe of black: wing coverts
blackifh brown ; on the tips of fome of them a dirty grey fpot;
the greater ones next the body gilded olive, and fome of them
fpotted in the fame manner ; thofe fartheft from the body are
plain black brown : quills dark brown; fome of them fpotted
with dirty white : tail black: legs and claws pale lead-colour.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope.
4? 586 WOODPECKER.
»,, Le petit Pic raye du Senegal, Buf. oif. vii. p. 25.
GOLD-BACKED Petit Pic du Senegal, Pl. enl. 34c. 2.
W.
Description. IVTOT much bigger than a Sparrow. Bill dufky : crown red ;•
forehead and fides brown: the back is of a golden fulvous
yellow : quills the fame : coverts and rump greenifh: the under\|
parts of the body tranfverfely undulated with grey brown and
dull white : the two middle tail feathers black; the others black*
fpotted with yellow: legs dufky.
Place. Inhabits Senegal.
34-
CAPE
W.
grife da Cap de Bonne Efperance, Buf. oif. vii. p. t£.
 Pl. enl. 786. N° 2.
T  ESS than a Lark.    Bill lead-colour:  back, neck, and breaft,.
olive brown; the reft of the plumage deep grey; the head
lighteft : rump and upper tail coverts red : the tail is black ; and
the quills dufky : the legs are lead-colour..
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope.
HALF-BILLED
femiroftris, Lin. Syfl. i
maxilla fuperiore brev
175. N° 14.
Muf. Adolph. Fred, i
T KNOW of no one who has defcribed this bird, independent of
the Angularity of the bill, except Linnaus.    It is of the fize of
a black Woodpecker.    The bill is pale;   the lower mandible
much as in others of the genus,, but the upper one much fhorter,.
very WOODPECKE   R.
very pointed; thin, and fharp at the tip: the head is brown, each
feather tipped with yellowifh $ making the head appear fpotted;
the body on the upper parts is brown, inclining to afh; beneath
white: the wings are brown : 'the outer edges of the quills fpotted
with white: tail brown *.
Inhabits India.
587
Le Pic raye de St. Domingue, Brif. orn. iv. p. 6$. N° 25. pl. 4. f. 1.
 Buf. of. vii. p. 27.
 PL enl. 281.      \____i i|
36".
RAYED
npHlS is a little bigger than the greater fpotted Woodpecker: the
length is eight inches and three quarters. Bill horn-colour :
the forehead, cheeks, and throat, are of an elegant grey: the
crown and hind head red: the upper parts of the body black,
-tranfverfely ftriated with olive : quills blackifh, fpotted with yellow
on the outer, and with whitifh on the inner web: rump and upper
tail coverts red : fore part of the neck, breaft, and under wing coverts, grey brown: belly, fides, thighs, and under tail coverts, olive :
* Pal/as f has. mentioned his opinion concerning this bird, which, as far as
relates to the bill, he.thinks muft be a Lufus Natura, and therefore unnatural;
and inftances a fpecimen of the common green Woodpecker, lately met with in
Germany, wherein the upper mandible was fcarce half as long as the under one.
He gives alfo two inftances of the fame in the Kingsfifher genus, and one in the
Oyfter-catcher. To which I may add the very fame circumftance in a white
Crow in ths.Ltverian Mufeum, whofe upper mandible is juft formed in the fame
manner. Notwithftanding all this, we are ftill indebted to Linnaeus for a
new fpecies, not before defcribed, nor figured by any author, as far as I can
learn.
t SficUeg. 6. p. 1*.
4 F % tail WOODPECKER.
tail black; the two outer feathers edged with grey; beneath .
olive : legs and claws blackifh.
Inhabits St. Domingo.
Lepetit PicrayedeSt. Domingue, Brif. orn. iv. p. 67. N° 26. pl. 3, f. 1
Le Pic raye de St. Domingue, Buf. oif. vii. p. 27.
Pic raye a tete noire de St. Domingue, Pl. enl. 614.
^T^HIS is a trifle fmaller than the laft. The top of the head is
■*■ black : the hind head red ; but the reft of the body very
little different in the markings from the former; infomuch that
both Briffon and Buffon fuppofe them the fame bird, either varying
by age or fex.—Briffon thinks it to be the female.
Picus pafTerinus, Lin. Syfl. i
Le petit Pic de St. Domingi
Lepetit Pic olive de St. Do
e, Brif.c
lingue, j
n.iv. p. 75. N°29. pl.4. f. 2.
"/■ "/■ vii. P- 29.
CIZE of a Lark: length fix inches. Bill ten lines In
length, and grey: upper part of the head red: fides of the
head rufous grey : upper parts of the body in general a yellowifh
olive: beneath tranfverfely barred with brown and whitifh : moft
of the upper wing coverts are tipped with a yellowifh white fpot;
the inner edges of the greater quills are brown, dentated with
whitifh; but the two firft are of one plain colour; as are the
outer edges of all of them: the two middle tail feathers are brown,
with two tranfverfe grey fpots on each margin, outwardly edged
with WOODPECKER.
with olive; the next, on each fide, the fame, but of a darker
brown; and the two outer ones brown mixed with grey ; the out-
moft of thefe tipped with a little whitifh : legs and claws grey.
Inhabits the ifland of St. Dfomingo, with the former.
Le Pic varie hupe d'Amerique, Brif. orn. iv. p. 34. N° 12.
Le grand Pic raye de Cayenne, Buf. oif. vii. p. 30.
■  Pl. enl. 719.
CIZE of the green Woodpecker. Bill dufky: head furnifhed with
a very long creft, of a golden orange-colour: the cheeks are
reddifh : at the bafe of the bill, between that and the eyes, is a
purple fpot: general colour of the body black and yellow, mixed
in waves, ftreaks, and fpots; but beneath chiefly fpots: tail
black.
Buffon adds, that the eye is placed in a white fpace; and that it
has a tuft of black on the forehead. I obferve likewife, that in
the Pl. enl. the outer tail feathers are yellow, barred with
black: the legs are dufky.
Inhabits Cayenne.
Yellow-crefted Woodpecker, Brownlll, pl. iz.
CIZE of a Jackdaw.    Head covered with a very long loofe pendent creft, the feathers of it pale yellow: throat, cheeks, and
upper part of the neck of the fame colour: wings and back black,
tranfverfely marked with broad bars of light yellow: coverts of
the S'9°
W   O   O   D   P
C   K   E   R.
the tail high yellow: belly and tail black: thighs and inner
coverts of the wings, pale yellow: legs dark green.
Place. Inhabits Brafil.
Le Pic raye de Cayenne, Brif. orn. iv. p. 6g. N° 27.
Le petit Pic raye de Cayenne, Buf. oif. vii. p. 31.
Pic raye de Cayenne, Pl. enl. 613.
Description. HPHIS is not fo big as the varied Woodpecker : the length is near
feven inches and a half. The bill ten lines and a half long, and
blackifh : the top of the head is black : hind head red : the fides
whitifh: hind part of the neck and back yellowifh olive; but on
the lower part of the back, rump, and upper tail coverts, each
feather has a fpot of black near the tip : the throat is black, minutely fpotted with white : the fore part of the neck and breaft
are of a dull yellowifh olive, with a fmall black fpot alfo near the
end of each feather; and fome of them tipped with red : the belly,
fides, thighs, and under tail coverts, yellowifh, with a few black
fpots on the two laft: feapulars and wing coverts dull olive,
tranfverfely ftriped with blackifh : quills of the laft colour, with
yellow fhafts, fpotted on the outfide with yellow, and within with
white: tail black; the fix middle feathers are barred with dull
olive on the outer web; but the two middle ones have the inner
web marked the fame; the two outer ones are barred black and
rufous, with the fhafts yellow : legs grey : claws grey brown.
Place. Inhabits Cayenne,   This has great likenefs to the laft but one. WOODPECKER.
59l
Le Pic blanc de Cayenne, Brif. am. iv. p. 81. N° 31.
Le Pic jaune de Cayenne, Buf. oif. vii. p. 32.
 PL enl. 509.
Charpentier jaune, Perm. Defer, de Sarin, vol. ii. p. 171
Lev. Muf.
'"TpHIS is lefs than our green Woodpecker: being only nine
A inches in length. The bill is of a yellowifh white, and above
an inch long : the hind head is crefted : the head itfelf, the neck,
and whole body, covered with dirty white feathers: from the
lower jaw to the ears, on each fide, is a red ftripe: the wing
coverts are brown, edged with yellowifh ; and fome of the greater,
ones mixed with rufous on the inner web : quills brown or rufous :.
tail black : legs and claws grey.
This is common at Cayenne, and is called there Charpentier
jaune. It makes the neft in old trees which are rotten within*;
making with its bill a hole from without, at firft horizontal, but
declining downwards as foon as it has pierced through the found
part, till it is at laft a foot and a half below the firft opening. The
female lays three white and nearly round eggs, and the young are
hatched about the beginning of April. The male bears his fhare
in the work with the female, and in her abfence keeps centinel at
the entrance of the hole. The note of this bird is a kind of whiftle
fix times repeated, of which the two or three laft are in a
graver accent than the others. The female wants the red band
on the fide of the head, which is feen in the mde.
Specimens vary ; fome are of that dirty white, as Briffon
defcribes it, others of a light yellow;, which laft is the cafe in a
fpecimen.
Description* WOODPECKER.
thi
thirteen inches in
fpecimen  in the Leverian Mufeum
length.
In the place referred to above, we find a bird imperfectly
defcribed by Mr. Fermin : he merely fays, that it is a large fpecies:
that it has a fine red creft on the head: the neck, breaft, and
belly, of a citron-colour: and the wings blueifh above. He only
adds, that it may be diftinguifhed from others by the ftrokes of
the bill, which it gives to the trees, and may be heard at a great
diftance.
FERRUGINOUS
W.
Le Pic mordore, Buf. oif. vii. p. 34.
Pic jaune tachete de Cayenne, PL enl. 524. the male.
Ferruginous Woodpecker, Amer. Zool. N°
Lev. Muf.    the female.
PN' CIZE of the green Woodpecker: length eleven inches. Bill
black: head crefted : the creft of a dark yellowifh cream-
colour : the upper parts of the body of a reddifh cinnamon-colour,
marked fparingly with yellowifh white fpots : on each fide of the
throat a large fpot of crimfon : the lower part of the back yellowifh afh-colour: the tail and legs black.
Buffon's bird was of a brighter colour: he calls his colour, on
the upper parts, a bright, brilliant, gilded red*; and fays, that
the creft is yellow: the rump was likewife yellow in his bird.
My defcription is taken from one in the collection of Capt. Davits.
* " Un beau rouge vf, brillant y dore." This is no doubt his mordore colour
t in all the fpecimens which I have feen, it has been more of a ruft-colour, < WOOD
E    C   K   E   R.
The/tfflw/?-is faid to want the red on the fide of the jaw, which
circumftance inclines me to think, that the fpecimen alluded to,
in the Leverian Mufeum, was of this fex. The bill in this was
pale, being black only at the bafe: creft buff-colour: rump,
lower part of the belly, fides, and thighs, dirty yellow: vent
pale ruft-colour: infide of the quills, marked with both dark and
pale fpots: quills and tail dufky : the reft of the plumage as in
the male.
Thefe inhabit Cayenne, Guiana *, and other parts of America.
Le Pic a cravate noire, Buf. oif. vii. p. 3$.
Pic a cravate .noire de Cayenne, PL enl. 26
BLACK-
BREASTED
CIZE of the laft. The bill is pale : head, throat, and hind part
of the neck, orange yellow : the lower part of the laft behind,
and the fore part of the neck and breaft, are black : the head is
crefted : back and wings bright rufous; on the laft are here and
there fome fpots of black; as alfo on the tail, the end of which is
black: the quills are marked with black: the belly and vent
are of a pale ferruginous buff: and the legs lead-colour. Buffon
fays, the tail in the Pl. enl is made too fhort.
This fpecies inhabits Cayenne and Guiana; the natives of the
laft call it Toucaumari. The three laft are much allied to each
other; and our author fuppofes them the fame which are found
at St. Domingo, fxnee P. Charlevoix fays, that on looking out for
'" Salerne mentions it as a bird of Guiana, ■ 0
4G
. p. 109. N9 n.
proper WOODPECKER.
proper wood to build with, he found the major part fo bored
through with thefe birds *, that it was unfit for fervice.
'KED'GHEEKED
Picus undatus, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 17^. N* n.
Red-cheeked Woodpecker, Edw. vii. pl. 332.
Description,     t ENGTH   about   nine   inches.     Bill   brownifh:   from  the
angles of the mouth, paffing under  the  eyes, is a broad
plat of  red   feathers:   the whole  bird   is of a lion-colour, or
orange inclining to olive, marked  with  dufky bars r the legs?
are dufky.
Places. Inhabits Guiana and Surinam.    The above defeription is taken
from Edwards, who feems to be the only one who has noticed
it.    Buffon has taken no notice of it, otherwife I fhould have
thought it  to be  the  following,   though they  feem   to differ^
much in fize.
Le Pic roux, Buf. of. vii. p.^o*.
Pic roux de Cayenne, Pl. enl 694. ]
Br. Muf.
Description. /"T"VHIS fpecies is fcarcefy as big as a Wryneck, but is a little-
A ftouter. The bill is pale: the whole bird is of a rufous
colour on the upper parts : the wings  and tail feem darkeft';
* " Charpentiers fauvages,"
P. Charlevoix. Paris. 1730. i. p.
Hifl.
zg.
Fife   Efp.   de    St.   Domingue,  pat WOODPECKER.   |||p
and the rump and back the paleft: the breaft and belly are of
the fame colour as the upper parts, but of a ftill deeper colour:
.and the whole body throughout waved with black ftreaks, in
different fhades : legs lead-colour.
The length in the Pl. tnl. is fix inches.
Inhabits Cayenne and Guiana.
5$5
Le petit Pic a gorge jaune, Buf. of. vii. p. 37.
Pic a gorge jaune de Cayenne, Pl. enl. 784.
'T""lHIS is the fize of the Wryneck. Bill lead-colour: the head
- **■ and neck are yellow : the top of the head crimfon, lengthening into a creft at the hind head : at the angles of the bill a ftreak
of the fame : the general colour of the plumage is olive brown :
the under parts are fpotted with white, which fpots are moft
numerous at the vent: legs lead-colour.
Inhabits Guiana.
46.
YELLOW-
HEADED
W.
Description.
3
Red-winged Woodpecker. Ind. Zool. pl. 4.
RED-WINGED
T ENGTH nine inches. Bill dufky-blue : head of a deep dull
red colour, and crefted : on the chin a fpot of yellow : hind
part of the neck, the back, and wing coverts, red : quills black,
marked with large fpots of white, fore part of the neck rofe-
colour : belly white : tail coverts green : tail deep blue : legs
dufky.
Shot by Mr. Loten on the  heights of Java 4 called by the
Malayans, Tockar, or Carpenter.
4 G a Le 59$
48.
MINUTE
W   O   O   D   P   E   C   K> E   R.
Le petit Pic de Cayenne, Brif. orn. iv. p. 83. N" 32.
Le tres petit Pic de Cayenne, Buf. oif. vii. p. 37.
Petit Pic de Cayenne, PL enl. 786.  1.
—— —— Perm. Defer, de Surin. vol. ii. p. 170.
Lev. Muf
CIZE of a Wren : in length three inches and a half. The bill
is black : top of the head red : the hind head black, dotted
with white: fides of the head brown, dotted with white alfo: the
upper parts of the body are dirty greyifh rufous : the under parts
are greyifh white ; the feathers bordered with brown : quills and
tail brown, with paler edges : legs brown.
Briffon fays, the four middle tail feathers are brown ; the next on
each fide the fame on the outfide, but rufous white on the inner
web, margined with brown ; and the two outer ones half brown,
half rufous white, tipped with brown.
Fermin tells us, that the head and hind part of the neck are
of a cinnabar colour, the tail black, and the feathers which
cover the wings fprinkled towards the end with yellowifh
white.
Thefe different accounts incline one to think, that they muft
have been defcribed from oppofite fexes.
Inhabits Cayenne, WOODPECKER,
59T
'   Picas auratus, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 174. N° 9,
.     = Phil. Tranf. vol. Ixii. p. 387.
Le Pic raye de Canada, Brif. orn. iv.- p. 72. N° 28.
Le Pic aux ailes dore'es, Buf. oif. vii. p. 39.
Gold-winged Woodpecker, Catejb. Car. i. pl. 18.
-^-^ Kalm's Trav. ii. p. 26—Amer. Zool. N*
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
^TTVHIS is a trifle lefs than our green Woodpecker : in length it
is eleven inches: weight five ounces. The bill is an inch and
a half in length,' Black, and fomewhat bent; and, contrary to
others of the genus, is rounding, and not fquare ; ridged only on
the top, and the point is fharp : the upper parts of the head and
neck are afh-coloured: hind head red : fides of the head, throat,
and fore part of the neck, pale yellow: on each fide of the head
is a ftripe of black, from the bafe of the lower jaw to the neck :
back, feapulars-;, and wing-coverts, grey brown, tranfverfely ftri- '.
ated with black lines : rump whitifh: breaft, belly, and fides,
whitifh yellow, each feather marked with a round black fpot at
the tip: on the middle of the breaft is a large crefcent of black :
the thighs, and upper and under tail coverts, black and white
mixed: quills brown, . with yellow fhafts fpotted with brown
on the outer edge : tail blackifh, outwardly edged with grey ; the
outer feather is dotted with whitifh on the margins; the ftiafts of
all but the two middle feathers are yellow halfway from the bafe :
legs and claws brown.
The female differs in having the crown and neck behind grey
ihrown : the hind head of a lefs vivid red : and the greater quills
_9 not
■*• GOLD-
WINGED
W. W    O    O
K   E   R.
not  fpotted on  the edges.     She alfo wants the black lift on
the throat, but otherwife like the male.
Inhabits Virginia, Carolina, and Canada, and is plenty in New
Jerfey, and about New York, where it is called by fome Hittock,
or Pint, and by others High-hole.    Both the firft names have fome
relation to its note; and perhaps the latter, from the fituation of
the neft.    It is almoft continually on the ground, and is not obferved to climb on the trees, like others of the genus.    It livJB
•chiefly  on infects *,  and is  commonly very fat,  fo  as   to be
thought very palatable for the table.    It flays all the year; and,
as it cannot at all times get infects, it muft, perhaps, eat fome ■
kind of grafs or plants in. the fields.    Its form, and fome of its
qualities, make it refemble the Cuckow -f.    It feldom climbs up.,
the trees, but only fits occafionally on the branches.
Forfter, in the Philofophical Tranfaclions above quoted, obferves,.
that it is a bird of paffage in the northern parts of America, vifiting .
the neighbourhood of Albany Fort in April, and leaving it in September.; that it lays from four to fix eggs, in hollow trees, and .
feeds on worms, and other infecls. Called by the natives Ou-
thee-quan now.
* In defect of infeBs, I have been informed, that it Feeds on the berries of the
red cedar, and grows fat on them. This food has been both difgorged by the
mouth, after being fhot, as well as found in the ftomach on difTeclion.
t Linmeus, in his tenth edition of the Syfl. Nat. had ranked this with the*
Cuckows; and Buffon, from its fimilarity to this genus, has placed it at the end,,
of the Woodpeckers of its clals. WOODPECKER.
S&
Lev. Muf.
1 HAVE lately, feen, in the Mufeuni above referred to, a bird
which appears to be <'a mere variety, though brought from a
far different country. This was much like the laft defcribed in
colour, but rather lefs in fize. The bill exactly made like that
bird, and brown: on each fide of the jaw is a ftripe of crimfon,..
like a whifker: thcunder part of the wings of a pale red colour,
not unlike what is called red lead: and the fhafts of the quills
and tail, which in the other bird are yellow, in this are red : the
plumage on the upper parts of the body is brown; beneath vi-
naceous, marked with round black fpots : tail black, pointed, and
each feather bifurcated at the tip, exactly like the American one.
This was brought from the Cape of Good Hope.    I have feen
two fpecimens of this bird.
T ENGTH ten inches and a half. Bill two inches long, bent
like that of the gold-winged Woodpecker, rounded like it, and
pointed at the tip; the length of it two inches, and black : the
upper parts of the head, neck, and body, are dufky olive brown,
faintly dotted with paler brown : rump very pale crimfon, marked
with fpots of a paler colour, in the fame manner as the reft of the
upper furface: quills dark brown, marked on each fide of the
web with oblique pale cream-coloured bars : throat and fore parr
of the neck dufky brown, marked with faint fpots of a paler colour: lower part of the neck and the breaft pale crimfon, not unlike the breaft of a Linnet: vent dufky brown, marked with fain*
bars.
Var. A.
Descrmtjoh
CRIMSON-
. BREASTED- -*oo WOODPECKER.
bars of a paler colour : the fhafts of the quills and tail are yellowifh : the laft is two inches long, black above, and olive yellow beneath, with the ends forked, like the two laft defcribed :
legs black.
Place. Tn tiie collection of Sir Jofeph .Banks, from the Cape of Good
Hope. -i.
Wrti''B1 ** W i t h   THREE   TOES.
NORTHERN
THREE-TOED Picus tridadylus, Lin. Syfl. i. p. i77. N° zi.—Scop. ann. i. p. 49. N° 56.
W- —Phil. Tranf. vol. Ixii.  p. 388.
Three-toed Woodpecker, Edw. vol. iii. pl. .114.—Amer. Zool. N°
Br. Muf.   Lev. Muf.
.•Description. T ENGTH eight inches and a half. Bill near an inch long;
the upper mandible dufky, the under white; tips of both
dufky, and broader at the bafe than in any of the tribe: the
crown of the head of a golden yellow : fides of the head, before
^and beneath the eye, dotted with black and white: from the eye,
on each fide, is a ftreak of white : down the middle of the back
white : upper parts of the body and wings black : e-n the wing I
coverts a few white fpots: quills fpotted with white: chin,
throat, and breaft, white : belly tranfverfely ftriated black and
white: the tail confifts of ten * feathers; the two middle ones are
black, fpotted on the inner webs with white; the others are
black alfo, more or lefs marked with orange buff at the ends, except the outmoft, which is white, and the outer web buff-colour
. the whole length: the legs have three toes only, two before and
one behind.
• Pallas fays, that there are twelve—it is a new obfervation.    In the • fpeci-
»ens which I have feen there were only ten.    See Spic. N° 6. p. 11. note c.
Th<? WOOD
R.
The female is the fame in all things, except the crown of
the head, which is black, marked with perpendicular lines of
white.
The above bird came from Kamtfchatka; but this fpecies is
alfo found in many of the northern parts of Europe ; in Switzerland, on the high mountains of Lapland'and D-alecarlia *, as well
as in Siberia f, Auftria J, and elfewhere.
Forfter fl fays, that they are met with about Severn river, in
North America, but are not very common there; and that they,
live in woods, and feed on worms picked out of trees. He obferves that the irides are blue. -■
Le Pic varie de Cayenne, Brif. orn. iv. p. 54. N° 20.
L'Epeiche, ou Pic varie onde, Buf. oif. vii. p. 78.
Pic tachete de Cayenne, Pl. enl. 553 ?
Woodpecker with three toes, Barter. Guia*. p. 164.
CIZE of the other. Bill the fame, but afh-colour: crown red :
the reft of the head and upper parts are black: on the back
and rump fome tranfverfe ftripes of white: under the eye a ftreak
of white: under parts white j but the fides, thighs, and under
wing coverts, are ftriated black and white: quills black, fpotted
with white: four of the middle tail feathers black; the next the
fame, but is rufous white on the outer edge, about the middle,
on the inner web marked with two rufous white fpots; the two
outer ones black at the bafe, and white the reft of their length,
fpotted with black on the inner webs and tips: legs cinereous :
claws brown.
vIl'.A.
SOUTHERN
THREE-TOED
Description'.
X Scop, a
. p. 36. N° 103.
. p. 49.
f Buf. oif vii. p.
II PhiL Ttanf.
4H 602 WOODPECKER.
Female. -   The female has no red on the head, nor any mark of white.on
the back and rump.
Places.   -        This is Briffon's defcription, who informs us, that it came from
Cayenne; but adds, that it is likewife found in North America ajnd.
Europe : likening that of Edwards to his bird ;  which, however,
differs in fome particulars.
Buffon fcarce feems reconciled to a three-toed Woodpecker being "
found in South America; however, we are affured by Bancroft that
fuch an -one is met with there, and he defcribes it particularly.
His bird was the fize of the European one: the colour black and
white mixed : the top of the head, -and under the belly, bright
crimfon. The bird figured in the Planches enluminees has four
toes, placed two and two; and has two ftreaks on each fide of
the head, one behind, and the other beneath the eye; otherwife
not greatly unlike Briffon's bird. The whole feems to want further illuftration. I have as yet feen only fuch fpecimens as inhabit the northern parts. I    *0J    ]
Genus   XXII.     JACAMAR,
N* i. Green Jacamar.
Var. A. Long- tailed D\
N* 1. Great J:
3. Paradife J.
BILL long, ftrait, fharp-pointed, quadrangular.
Noftrils oval, placed near the bafe of the bill.
Tongue fhort, pointed. SM^'i
. Legs feathered before, as far as the toes.
The toes placed two before and two behind.
This genus is much allied to the Kingsfifher, but the toes are
differently placed.    The food of the Jacamar is likewife different,
as it feeds on infects alone, and frequents moift woods; while the
Kingsfifher tribe inhabits ftreams of water for the moft part, and
has a peculiar addrefs in fifhing for the young fry of fifh, on
which it feeds.    We are not perfectly acquainted with the manners and ceconomy of the genus here treated of; and in refpect to
the neft and eggs, nothing whatever is known about them.
I believe there are not more than three fpecies yet known.
Alcedo Galbula, Lin. Syfl.i. p. 182. N° 15.
Le Jacamar, Brif. orn. iv. p. 86. N° 1. pl. 5
pl. 10.—PL enl. 238.
Jacamaciri, Raii Syn. p. 44. N° 3.—Will. orn. p. 139. t. 2
Cupreous Jacamar, Gen. of Birds, p. 60. pl. 3.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
f. i.—Buf. of. vii. p. 220,
Edw, pl. 334.
'T'HIS beautiful bird is nearly of the'fize of a Lark, and mea-
fures in length eight inches and three quarters.    The bill is
4 H 2 black,
GREEN
JACAMAR.
Description
i' ' JACAMAR.
black, two inches in length, of a fquare form, a trifle incurvated,
and fharp at the point: irides blue : the plumage in general, on
the ifpper part of the body, is of a moft brilliant green, gloffed
with copper and gold in different lights: the chin white: the
belly, throat, and vent, rufous: the tail compofed of ten feathers, and cuneiform in fhape; the two middle ones are three
inches and a quarter long -, the outer ones very fhort : the legs
are of a greenifh yellow, very fhort and weak : claws black.
Some of thefe birds have the throat rufous,, as well as the belly, I
and in others the chin is yellowifb, inftead of white.
This fpecies is found both in Guiana- and Brafil, in the moift
woods.,, which it prefers to the more dry fpots,. for the fake of
infects, on which it feeds. It is feldom feen except fingle, as it
is a very folitary bird, keeping for the moft pare in the thickefl:
• parts j its flight quick, but fhort; perches on branches of a
middling height, where it fits all night, and frequently part
of the day,, without flirring. Though thefe birds are folitary*
yet they are far from fcarce, as many may be met with.
They are faid to have a fhort and agreeable note *.
The natives of Guiana call this bird Venetorc, and the Creoles^
Colibri. des grands bois. At Brafil their flefh is eateiv by feme.
That figured in the Genera of Birds^ feems. a Variety;, it has. lefs*
green on the back, and the breaft, belly,.- atid pa*t of the back, of a
variable copper-colour.
Mr. Pennant fays, that his bird was of the fize of a Lark, other-
wife one might have fufpected it to be the next fpecies..  Fl.XXVI.
It
J^WstiuAzA an JACAMAR
. Muf.
TN the Lev. Muf. is a Jacamar which correfponds with theaboVeY
but the tail is much longer in proportion: the upper parts of
the plumage are very brilliant: the ferruginous colour of the
belly very clear : and the tail full five inches in length.
CIZE of the green Woodpecker; proportions of a Bee-eater. Bill
fquare; fides flat, not compreffed: noftrils bare: head and
limbs green-gold : reft of the body copper-go^: tail cuhe#o£m,
longer than the body: beneath from the throat to the faiF'SMP
ferruginous: the fore toe* cloven.
The above is defcribed from FaUas*, who fays no more <^ftv
He calls it a new Jaea'itoaciri, but does not fay froM Whence it
came.
GREAT
isCRiPTiorr.
Alcedo paradifes>> Dm, Syfl. i. p. 181. N° 1-4.
Jacamar a longue queue, Brif. orn. iv.  p. 89.1.5. f.z.—B'if.  oif.   vii.      ■
p, Z22.—PL enl. 271.
Swallow-tailed Kingfilher, Edw, pl. 10.
Br. Muf.   Lev. Muf.
J-
CIZE of a Lark r length eleven inches and an half.    Bill almoft     De.
two inches and a half long,, black, much pointed at the endy
! See Spic. 6. p. 10. 606 J   A   C . A   M   A   R.
and of a fquare fhape, but fomewhat compreffed on the fides: the
head is of a dull violet brown : throat, fore part of the neck, and
under wing coverts, white: the reft of the plumage of a deep dull
green, in fome lights appearing almoft black, in others with a
flight glofs of violet and copper bronze : the tail is compofed of
twelve feathers of unequal lengths ; the two middle ones are'fix
inches long, and exceed the next by two inches and a quarter:
the outer one is only an inch long: the legs are black : the toes-
placed two before and two behind *, and pretty much united,
Female. The female is faid to be like the male, but the tail is fhorter>
and the colours more dull.
Place. Inhabits Surinam.
This fpecies, like the others,' feeds on infects; and fometimes,
Contrary to them, frequents open places. It flies farther at a
time, and perches on the tops of trees. Frequently found in.
pairs, and is not quite fo folitary a bird as the other. It alfo I
differs in the note, having a kind of foft whiffle often repeated,
but not heard a great way off.
* Edwards has drawn this bird with three toes before, and one behind, a
a courfe makes it a Kingsfifher; fo which it has refemblance. L
607  3
Genus   XXIII.
KINGSFISHER.
•with
F
OUR      TOES.
N* i. Great brown K.
N°        Var. A.
2. Cape K.
Var. B.
3. Great African K.
16. Common K.
Var. A.
Var. A.
4. Black and white K.
17. Red-headed K4
5. Egyptian K.
Var. A.
6. New Guinea K.
18. Purple K.
7. Smyrna K.
19. Rufous K.
Var. A. Great Gambia K.
20. Blue-headed K.
Var. B. Bengal K.
21. Indian K.
8. White-headed K.
Var. A.
9. Crab-eating K.
22. Crefted K.
Var. A.
Var. A.
Var. B.
23. Eaftern K.
Var. C.
24. TernateK.
10. White-collared K.
25. Cayenne K.
11. Green-headed K.
26. Cinereous K.
12. Sacred K.
27. Belted K.
Var. A.
Var. A.
Var. B.
Var. B.
Var. C.
Var. C.
Var. D.
28, Brafilian fpotted K.
13. Venerated K.
29. Rufous and green K.
14. Refpefted K.
30. White and green K.
15. Black-capped K.
31. Brafilian K.
5
N°32. Black- KINGSFISHER.
N° 32. Black-breafted K. N' 34. Supercilious K.
33. SqfingmK. 35. White-billed K.
* *   W I T H     THREE     TOES.
36 Three-toed K.
THE characters of this genus are :
The bill long, ftrong, ftrait, fharp-pointed.
Noftrils fmall; and in many fpecies hid in the feathers.
Tongde fhort, broad, fharp-pointed.
Legs fhort,  three toes forward, and one  backward * : thriipg|
lower joints of the middle toe joined clofely to thofe of the outmoft.
Every part of the world is furnifhed with one or other of the
Kingsfifher tribe ; but it is believed that Europe poffeffes only a
fingle fpecies. Moft of the genus frequent rivers, and live on
fifh, the Angularity of catching which is admirable : fometimes
hovering over the water, where a fhoal of fmall fifhes is feen playing near the furface; at other times waiting with attention, on fome
low branch, hanging over the water, for the approach of a fingle
one, who is fo unlucky as to fwim that way; in either cafe dropping like a ftone, or rather darting with rapidity on his prey, when,
feizing it crofs-ways in his bill, it retires to a refting-place, to feaft
on it; which it does piecemeal, bones and all, without referve,
afterwards bringing up the indigeftible parts in pellets, like birds
of prey.
The wings of moft of the genus are very fhort, yet the birds
fly rapidly, and with great ftrength.
* One fpecies exg^gted, which has but threAtflSfc.in ajtf. KIlSTGSFISHER.
It may be remarked, that throughout this genus, blue, in different fhades, is the moft predominant colour.
€09
*With   FOUR   TOES, x.
GREAT
Le grand Martin pefcheur de la Nouvelle Guinee, Son. Voy. p. 171.    jnNGSFJ^HER
pl. 106.—Pl. enl. 66_.
Le plus grand Martin pecheur, Buf. oif. vii. p. 181.
^TpHIS is the largeft fpecies yet known, and is in length eigh-     Description.
teen inches. The bill is very large, ftrong, thick at the
bafe, bent at the end, and three inches and a quarter long; the
■upper"mandible black, the under white, with the bafe only black :
the feathers of the head are elongated fufficient to form a moderate creft : the feathers are narrow and brown, ftreaked with paler
brown : fides of the head above the eye, and hind part of the
head, dirty white, with a mixture of dufky; beneath the eyes,
and the fides of the neck, deep brown: upper part of the back
and wings olive brown; the lower part and rump fine pale blue
green : on the middle of the wing coverts a large patch of gloffy
pale blue green : outer edges of the quills blue; within, and tips,
black; the bafe of fome of them white, forming a fpot: tail five
inches and a half long, rounded at the end, barred ferruginous,
and fteel black, with a glofs of purple; the end, for one inch,
white: the under parts of the body dirty white, tranfverfely
ilreaked with narrow dufky lines : legs yellow : claws black.
In one of thefe, fuppofed to be a female, the head was not        Female.
erefted: the crown plain deep brown.: the under parts of the
body white, which encircled the neck as a collar, at the lower
part: the whole back and wings olive hrown; fome of the mid-
41 die Sio
K   I   N   G   S   F   I   S   H   E   R.
die coverts tipped with gloffy greenifh white: quills greeniffe
brown : bafe of feveral of the feathers white,, forming a fpot on.
the outer edge : fides of the body mottled with dufky : tail as in
the other, but not fo gloffy : legs deep brown : claws black.
Both the above-defcribed are in the collection of Sir Jofeph
Banks, and are faid to have come from 'New Guinea; from,
whence Sonnerat had the bird figured by him. The only difference feems to be, that the under mandible in his was orange,
and the bird only fixteen inches in length..
CAPE;
K.
Alcedo Capenfis, Lin. Syfl. i. p, 180. N° o>
Le Martin pefcheur du  Cap de Bonne Efperance.
N° 8. pl. 36. f. 3.—PL enl. 590,
Le Martin pecheur a gros bee, Buf. oif. vii. p. 184.
Lev. Muf.
'rif. orn, iv. p. 488%
'T^HIS bird is likewife of a large fize, meafuring fourteen?'
inches in length. The bill is difproportionately large, being above an inch in thicknefs at the bafe,. and three inches and a,
half in length; the colour of it is red; the tip blackifh : the
upper part of the head is afh-colour, verging to fulvous : the colour of the upper par-ts of the body is blue green, fomewhat inclining to afh: the lower part of the back, rump, and upper tail
coverts, gloffy blue green : greater quills blue green on the out-
fide ; the inner webs afh-colour, with fulvous edges: tail blue
green ; the fide feathers afh-coloured within : the fhafts of the-
wing and tail feathers are black above, and whitifh beneath : the
under parts of the body are fulvous: the legs and claws red.
Inhabits the, Cape of Good Hope.    The fpecimen in the Leverian
Mufeum had a ftreak of brown behind each eye : the crown brown,
mixed! KINGSFISHER.
mixed with darker brown : and feveral of the prime quills black
for a good way from the end.: otherwife anfwered to the above
-defcriDtion.
Alcedo maxima, Pallas Spic. 6. p. 15.
A Fowl which harbours in lakes and rivers, &c. Bofm. Guinea, p, 251.
N° 13. pl. in 262. N° 13.
*T*HIS is the fize of a Crow. The bill is. large, ftrong, com-
preffed, and of a black colour; the upper mandible the
lOngeft : the feathers of the head and nape elongated fo as
to form a fmall creft: the upper parts of the body are of
a deep lead-colour, and the under parts ferruginous: the
erown of the head and the wings are darkeft, as is the middle of
each feather in general: the plumage is covered with numerous
fpots of white, each feather having five in number, viz. two on
each fide, and one at ike tip: on each fide of the neck is a ftripe,
■dotted with white, beginning at the cheeks, and defcending obliquely down the neck: the chin is white: the" throat, and fore
part of the neck, black : the reft of the under parts are pale ferruginous, or, in fome, deep fanguineous : the quills are black,
tipped with white, with aferies of white fpots on each fide ; thofe
-of the inner web placed tranfverfe: the wings, when clofed, reach
beyond the middle of the tail, which is even at the end, and
marked as the quills: the legs are deep black: the outer toe
connected to the middle one only half way.
The female differs in having the throat and part-of the neck of
■a pale ferruginous, inftead of black; and the reft of the under
•parts white, tranfverfely marked with narrow lines of black.
4 I 2 This
GREAT
AFRICAN KINGSFISHER.
This fpecies inhabits Africa. Dr. Pallas fays, that he has feem
many of them, all of which have been brought from the Cape of
Good Hope.
Martin pecheur huppe, Buf. oif. v
S..—P/. enl. 679.
'TPHIS, if not the very fame bird with the former, is not
greatly different. The length of it is fixteen inches. The
upper parts of the body blackifh grey, fpotted tranfverfely
with white: the breaft, vent, and under tail coverts, rufous: the
reft of the under parts white. This feems. much to cor-
refpond with the former; but I am not fo well fatisfied about
the next defcribed, though it in fome meafure bears a refem-
blance..
BLACK AND
WHITE
Alcedorudis, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 181. N° 12.
Le Martin pefcheur blanc & noir, Brif. orn. iv.
Le Martin pecheur pie,  Buf. of. vii. p. 185.
Martin pecheur huppe du Cap de Bonne Efpera
Black and white Kingsfifher, Edw. i. pi. 9.
iches.
• 520. N°24- t. 39. f. I
e, Pl. enl. 716.
L T ENGTH eleven inches.. The bill black,, and near three
inches long:. the head and hind part of the neck covered
with black feathers,, edged, with white on each fide, fo as to form
longifh lines, of this laft colour : on each fide of the head is a.
ftripe of white, beginning at the bafe of the upper mandible, and
paffing over the eye. towards the neck: the bark, wings, and.
upper parts of the body, are fpotted irregularly with black and
white: the breaft and fides the fame, but the black fpots lefs::
throat,, KINGSFISHEK.
throat, and under parts to the tail, wholly white : quills fpotted
white and black ; the tips of the greater ones black : tail white,
with a black band near the end, which is narroweft on the more
outward feathers ; befides which, the two outward feathers have
two femicircular black marks, one on each fide, near the margin :
legs and claws black.
Inhabits Afia and Africa. Buffon received one from the Cape of
Good Hope*, fimilar to the above, but fmaller, being only eight
inches in length. The top of the head was black: the back was •
alfo black, clouded with white: the other-parts of the body
mixed black and white, not unlike the other, but on the whole
had a much greater mixture of black in the plumage.
Edwards's bird is faid to have come from Perfia; and Briffon
fets down the Crab-catcher of Shane f asfynonymous; but Buffon
will not allow of it by any means, reafoning from the impofli-
bility of any one fpecies of thefe birds being a native of both-
continents. Whether this be the cafe or not, I am clear that neither Shane's defcription nor figure will by any means afeertain the
faff, the one being not fufficiently explicit, and the other moft
miferably executed^
Alcedb ^gyptia, Haffllq. Itin. p. 245. N° 23.
'pHIS is the fize of the Royfton Crow.    The bill is blackifh,
more than half an inch broad at the bafe, and two inches in
length : the head, fhoulders, and back, are brown, marked with
oblong ferruginous fpots : the fides the fame, marked with lucid
* El. tnL 62..
•}• Sloan. Jam, vol. ii. p, 313,
fpots ■wni
«i* K   I   N   G   S   F   I   S   H   E   R.
'fpots of a ferruginous colour, which are broadeft at the tip
-of the feathers : the throat ferruginous white: belly and thighs
whitifh, marked with longitudinal broadifh cinereous fpots:
upper tail coverts quite white : quills fpotted with white on the
inner webs, chiefly at the tips: tail even at the end, and inclining
to afh-colour: legs pale green : claws blackifh.
-Place, Inhabits lower Egypt, about Cairo ;   builds in fycamore and datt
trees;  and feeds on frogs, infecls, and fmall fifh, which laft it meets
with in the fields when they are overflowed.    Its cry is not unlijji'v
that of the common Crow.
Linnaus has fet this down with the fynonyms of his Alcek
rudis, our laft fpecies; but, as it feems to differ both in fize and
colour, I have fome fufpicion about it, and have therefore given
Haffelquift's defcription of the bird, that the reader may form his
own judgment.
NEW GUINEA
K.
Le Martin pecheur de la Nouvelle Guinee, Son. Voy. p. 171. t. 107.
^TpHIS is defcribed as equalling the others in fize. The bill
and irides blackifh: the whole of the plumage black,
fpotted or marked with whiter the fpots of an irregular form:
the head, back, and wing coverts, are marked with fmall round
fpots : quills and tail the fame; but the fpots are of twice the
fize : the neck and belly are marked with longitudinal white
fpots, each feather havings ftripe down the middle: on each fide
•of the neck are two large white fpots, the one above the other,
the fpace between which is narrow, and fpotted like the reft of
the neck; the upper one is in the fhape of a pear, with the point
2 upwards, KINGSFISHER.
upwards, and fomewhat oblique j the under one is round: the
legs are blackifh.
This inhabits New Guinea..
6*15;
Alcedo  Smyrnenfis, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 181.   N° 11.—Scop, ar,
N°65.
Le Martin pecheur de Smyrne, Brif. orn. iv. p. 499. N° 13.
Smyrna Kingsfilher, Albin, iii. pl. 37.
T ENGTH eight inches and a half.    Bill more than two inches    Description*.
in length, and red : irides whitifh : the head, neck, breaft,
belly, fides, thighs-, under wing and tail coverts, of an elegant
cheftnut: the throat is white : on the breaft is a tranfverfe band
of the fame,, about half an inch in breadth : the leffer wing coverts, and thofe next the body, dull green: the greater coverts,
fartheft from the body, of the fame colour on the outfide and
tips, but blackifh within : the quills the fame: the tail feathers
are blackifh ; but the two middle ones are wholly of a dull
green, and the outer edges of the reft of the fame colour; but all
of them are blackifh on the under fide : the legs are red: the
claws blackifh.
Inhabits the environs of Smyrna*. Bim-c-bs- I   N   G   S   F   I   .S   H   E   R.
GREAT
-GAMBIA
Alcedo Smyrnenfis, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 181. N° n. /3.
Le" Martin pefcheur bleu de Madagafcar,  Brf. orn. iv.  p. 496. N* 12.
pl. 38. f. 2.
Le Martin pecheur bleu & roux, Buf. oif. vii. p. 182.
Grand Martin pecheur de Madagafcar, Pl. enl. 232.
Great Gambia Kingfilher, Edw. i. pi. 8.
T ENGTH ten inches. Bill two inches and a half long, and of
a red colour: the head, neck, and under parts of the body,
fine cheftnut, deepeft on the head and hind part of the neck:
throat dirty yellowifh white: the wing coverts, neareft the body,
violet blacky the outer ones beryl blue: the ten prime quills
have their lower half of the fame colour on the outfide, and whke
within ; the reft of their length black : the reft of the quills are
beryl blue on the outer webs, and black within, their whole
length : the tail beryl blue above; the fide feathers blackifh
within; beneath, all the feathers are black: legs red: claws
brown.
Inhabits Gambia and Madagafcar.
GREAT
BENGAL
Le-grand Martin pefcheur de Bengaie, Brif. orn. iv. p. 501. N° 14.
Martin pecheur de la cote de Malabar, Pl. enl. 894,
Great Bengal Kingfilher, Alb. iii. pl. 28.
T ENGTH ten inches and a half. The bill meafures two
inches and three quarters, and is of a bright red colour : the
irides of a fine yellow: the head and hind part of the neck of a
fine cheftnut, which extends a little way on the back : the back,
feapulars, rump,   and upper tail coverts, light blueifh green:
throat, K   I   N   G   S   F
HER.
throat, fore part of the neck and breaft, and upper part of the belly,
white; on each fide of the laft are five brown fpots, pretty large :
lower part of the belly, thighs, under tail coverts, and fides, cheftnut : wing coverts part blue, part cheftnut: outfides and tips of
the prime quills blue green ; the infides and under parts blackifn :
legs and claws orange.
Inhabits Bengal.
617
Le Martin*pecheur a tSte & cou colour de paille, Buf. 0
Martin-pecheur de Java, Pl. enl. 757.
WHITE-
HEADED
'""pHE length of this beautiful fpecies is twelve inches. ' The
t bill is near three inches long, and red: the head, neck, and
under parts of the body, are white, with a tinge of ftraw-cclour :
chin white : the top of the head is ftreaked with black : the
wings and tail are of a deep greenifh blue : the back blue green :
the quills brown, edged with blue.
Inhabits the Iftand of Java. Buffon feems to think that the
Ten-rou-joulsn, a Kingsfifher fo named by the natives of the ifland
of Celebes, may be a fpecies little or no ways different from the
above, though much lefs in fize ; for it is faid to be no bigger
than a Lark. The bill of it is red : and the head and back
green: belly yellowifh : and the tail of the fineft blue imaginable, I do not fee fo great a fimilitude in thefe two as Buffon;
for the head in this laft is exprefsly faid to be green.
4K ?*s<
KINGS   FISHER.
CRAB-EATING
Le Martin pecheur Crabier, Buf. oif. vii, p. 183.—PL enl. 334.
T ENGTH twelve inches.    Bill of a deep ruft-colour: upper
part of the body and tail fine blue green : the outer edges of
the quills the fame, with black tips r on the wing coverts a large
- bed of black: behind each eye a ftreak of black : the under  part
of the body pale fulvous yellow : legs ferruginous.
Inhabits Senegal, where it is known by the name of Crabier..
Alcedo Senegalenfis, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 180. N° 10.
Le grand Martin-pefcheur du  Senegal,  Brif. orn.  iv. p.  494.   N* !.!►
pl. 40. f. 1.
Le Martin-pecheur a tete grife,. Buf. of. vii.  p. 194.
Martin-pecheur a tete grife du Senegal, Pl. enl. 594.
Alcedo femicasrulea, Forfchal Faun. Arab* p. 2. N° 5.
CIZE of a Starling: length nine inches. The bill full two-
inches long; the upper mandible red; the lower black: the;
head, -throat, and neck, are of a light grey, deepeft on the head ~
between the bill and eye is a black mark, reaching to the eye :
back and feapulars blue: the leffer wing coverts, and fome of the;
greater ones neareft the body, are black : the greater ones black,,
with the outer edges blue : the quills on the infide,. at the bafe,-
white} the outer margins blue green;. the reft of them for their
whole length, and the tips, black: tail black; the upper furface
of the two middle feathers, and the outer edge of all the o'thers,,
blue green : the legs are black.
■Inhabits K   I   N   G   S   F
Inhabits Senegal; found alfo aboi
who minutely deferibes it.
HER.
in Arabia, by Forfchal,
619
T ENGTH above nine inches. Bill ftrait; an inch and a half
long, and red: irides hazel: head and neck dufky white:
wings black, with a bar of blue acrofs the middle : the breaft and
belly are ferruginous: fome of the feathers of the former have
yellowifh margins: the infide of the wings is firft ferruginous,
then whitifh, and afterwards dufky : the uppe.r part of the tail is
blue, the under dufky; legs red.
This is a Variety of the former, and is found at 6Y. Jago,
particularly in a fmall iflet in the harbour, called g)uail Ifland.
It feeds on large land Crabs of a blue colour, whofe numerous
habitations are round and deep holes in the dry parched foil.
This is found alfo in Abyffmia, as appears from a drawing of
James Bruce, Efq. *
AR. B.
:riptiok
Le Martin-pecheur bleu
& noir du Senegal, Buf, oif, v
gal, Pl. enl. 356.  1.
'"TAHIS is a trifle bigger than the common Kingsfifher : length
feven inches. The bill is rufous: the upper part of the
head and neck deep blue : the back, the fecondary quills, and
tail, deep blue: wing coverts and greater quills black: the
throat is white, with a blueifh tinge: the reft of the under parts
rufous yellow: the legs reddifh.
Inhabits Senegal. wtnrE-1
COLLARED
KINGS
I   S   H   E   R.
Le Martin-peeheur a collier des Indes,  Brif
p. 481. N« 5.
'"'pHIS exceeds our Kingsfifher much in fize, and is in length
fix inches and three quarters. The bill is almoft an inch
and three quarters long, grey at the bafe, and blackifh towards
the tip : the plumage above is of a fine blue; beneath rufous;
on the throat very pale: above the eye, from the bafe of the bill,
paffes a white line, and another round the neck like a collar:
under the eye is a fpot of rufous : the rump and upper tail coverts
are of a fine green : the legs are grey ; and the claws blackifh.
* Inhabits the Eaft Indies.
GREEN-
HEADED
K.
Le Martin, peche
Martin-pecheur i
\ Buf. oif.vii. p. 19o
1 Cap de Bonne Efper
, PL enl. 783.
T  ENGTH nine inches.    The bill blackifh: the head is green, '
furrounded by a ftreak of black, giving the bird the appearance of wearing a green hood: the back is of the fame colour,
which changes on the wings and tail to blue green : the throat
and neck are white: under the tail, and the legs, blackifh. This is
the whole of the above author's defcription. I obferve that al$§
the under parts of the body are white in the Pl. enl-: the feathers
•which fall over the thighs yellowifh: and the quills dufky black.
This bird inhabits Bouro, one of the Molucca Iflands. KINGSFISHER.
621
Lev. Muf.
n^HIS fpecies feems bigger than the common Kingsfifher:
the length is nine inches and a half. The bill is ftrong, de-
preffed, an inch and three quarters long, and of a lead-
colour ; but the under part of the lower mandible is white :
the head and below the eye, on each fide, as well as the
upper parts of the body, are of a light blue green, darkeft
about the ears : over the eye is a ftripe of- pale ferruginous,
beginning at the noftrils, and meeting at the back part of the
head: under the blue beneath the eye, a narrow orange ferruginous ftripe; and beneath that, on the nape, is a blue band :
quills and tail blackifh; the outer edges blue, and when' clofed
appear wholly blue : all the under parts are white, with a tinge of
buff-colour paffing round the neck as a collar: the legs are black.
This, and its Varieties, inhabit Otaheite, and the other
Society I/lands in the South Seas.
^"pHE  firft Variety has a  white   band   over
hind head, inftead of ferruginous £
the eye to the
beneath this band, at
the nape, is one of black, which in the other is blue : the
feapulars alfo are much more inclined to green, and darker
than in the former bird; and the white on the neck, and the
fides of the breaft, has each feather fringed with afh-colour :
the knees of both are black a very little way up on the out-
fide. I obferved in one of thefe a flender black line, which
divided the white collar on the neck, exaclly in the middle.
ANOTHER I
KINGS   FISHER.
A NOTHER Variety, faid to come from Ulietea, was of the
fame fize as the above. Bill the fame: the crown of the
head greenifh black : over the eye a ferruginous ftreak: beneath,
^nd behind the eye a broad ftreak of black, which paffed to
the hind head, and encompaffed it all round: chin white:
neck, breaft, and belly, pale ferruginous; this colour encom-
paffing the neck like a collar: each feather of the throat, neck,
and breaft, margined with dufky : outfide of the thighs blackifh)
as in the others: back and wings like the head: rump pale
blueifh green : quills and tail feathers blackifh, with blue
margins : legs dufky.
A THIRD Variety, from New Zealand, differed in having
the crown blue: reft of the head black: throat, and round
the neck, "white: a ftreak over the eye, the hind part of the
neck, and the belly, buff-coloured : vent black : wings and tail
blue : round the knee black : legs brown.
This was found at Dufky Bay, where it is called Ghotarre.
All the above have come under my inflection : whereby it is
manifeft, that this fpecies is common to many parts of the South
Seas; and, if I am not miftaken, not far different from N° 11,
which is found in the Molucca Ifles;. which, if not the fame,
is a fpecies nearly allied to this ; but in the Molucca one no part of
the under mandible is white. pi.xxvn.
Zjj&~-/U,  KINGSFISHER.
Le Martin-pecheur a collie
—Buf. oif. vii. p. 192
blanc des Philippines, Son, Voy. p. 67. t. 33.
/"T"VHIS is no doubt a further Variety. Sonnerat fays, it is lefs
than a Blackbird : the bill black ; the lower mandible yellowifh at the bafe: head, back, wings, and tail, blue tinged with
green : the under parts of the body white, extending round the
middle of the neck like a collar : legs blackifh,
Inhabits the Philippine Iflands.
Mf.
623
YENERATED
T ENGTH nine inches. Bill an inch and three quarters long,
much depreffed, and of a black colour; but the bafe, for
above half an inch, of the under mandible is white :. the upper
parts of the body are light brown; in fome parts mixed with
greenifh feathers, In others tinged only with gloffy green 1 from,
the.eye to the hind head this laft colour is very confpicuous,
forming a kind of wreath round the back part of the head, at
which place it inclines, to white: the wing coverts are brown,
many of them margined with green : the fecondaries are alfo
brown with green margins, and many of them as long as the
greater quills, which are only edged with green for about half
their length : the under parts of the body are very pale : the tail
is not quite four inches in length, rounded at the ends, and coloured as the quills •- the fhafts of both quills and tail are cheftnut:
legs dufky.
This 6>4
KINGSFISHER.
This fpecies inhabits Apye, one of the Friendly Ifles, where it is
held as facred among the natives as that of Otaheite.
RESPEC
K.
Dsscrip
CIZE of our common Kingsfifher:
half.    Bill depreffed, black, and £
length eight inches and a
tn inch and a half in length ;
the lower mandible white : the upper parts of the body olivtw|
green: over the eye a white ftreak : round the neck a collar of
greenifh black : the under parts of the body white : tail longifh:
legs black.
Inhabits Otaheite, where it  is called Erocro.    It is accounted
facred *, and not allowed to be taken nor killed.
BLACK-
CAPPED
e Martin-pecheur a coifte n
Martin-pecheur de la Chine,
Buf. oif. v
enl. 673.
, p. 189.
T1
ird is ten inches in length.    The bill is large, and of
jht red : the head and hind part of the neck are black J
* The whole of the birds defcribed under this and the two former numbers?:*
are held in a kind of fuperftitious veneration by the natives of the places they
feverally inhabit, perhaps on account of their being frequently feen flying about
the Morals or burial-places; See Parkinfon's Journ. p. 70. But the Kingsfifher is.
not the only animal held facred by thofe inlanders, as Herons, Rats, and Flies enter
the fame lift; See Park. Journ. Errat. p. 22. Forfil. Voy. i. p. 519. Women and
children, I have been informed, were moft afraid of doing injury to the Kings'
fijhers; yet all perfons, it is plain, did not mind it, for fome of the natives were
ready to point them out for our people to fhoot at; Forfl. Voy. i. p. 378. I fancy*
therefore, the whole was no more than what is paid by tender minds to the
Robin and Wren in England, only carried to a greater extreme.
the KINGSFISHER.
the back, the tail, and middle of the wings, are of a deep gloffy violet
blue : the fhoulders and ends of the wings are black : the throat,
fore part of the neck, and breaft, are white, and encircling the neck
At the lower part, near the back: the belly is of a pale rufous-
colour : legs pale red.
Inhabits China.
Martin-pechenr de LTfle de Lucon, Son. Voy. p. 65. t. 31.
CONNERAT defcribes this of a fize lefs than a Blackbird; and
fays, that the bill is large, and the legs fmall, as in other
Kingsfifhers. . The top of the head, and hind part of the neck, are
brown; this colour furrounds the eye, and paffes below it on each
fide, to the middle of the upper mandible: from the noftrils to
the eye is a whitifh ftripe: the upper parts and middle-of the back
are brown : rump and upper tail coverts glofty fk-y-blue : the tail
>deep blue : the wing coverts are brown like the head: quills
blackifh-blue in the middle, and dull black at the ends: the throat,
fore part of the neck, breaft, belly, and under tail coverts, are
white;-in the middle of each feather is a longitudinal brown
ffreak: on the lower part of the neck the white paffes behind, forming a kind of collar: we are not told of what colour
a£e legs are; nor is that of the bill mentioned.
Inhabits the ifle of Luzonia.
4 L K   I   N   G   S   F   I.   S   H   E   m
. Muf.
T ENGTH ten inches. Bill thick at the bafe, two inches and!
jLlJ a half in length, and of a red colour ■ the general colour of
the upper parts of the body is black, mixed with ferruginous s
the feathers of the head longifh: the quills and tail are blue
green, with the inner webs and fhafts dark-coloured: the throat and
breaft are white; on the laft fome of the feathers are tinged with*
pale'green : the belly ferruginous brown : legs red.
Inhabits the South Sea, but what part uncertain-
Alcedo ifpida, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 179. Na 3.
, , Scop an. i. p. 55. N° 64.—Muller, p.
Le Martin-pefcheur, Brif. orn,. iv. p. 471. N° 1.
Le Martin-pecheur, ou L'Alcyon, Buf. of. vii. p. 164
Le Martin-pecheur, Pl. enl, 77.
Ifpida, Rail Syn, p. 48. N° A. 1.
Kingfifher, Will. orn. p. 146. t. 24.—Alb. i. pi, 54..
—— ,Br, Zool. i. p. 246. pi. 38.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
'TpHIS is the moft beautiful of all the Britifh birds: the lengths
A is feven inches, the breadth eleven inches, and the weight
one ounce and a quarter. The bill is near two inches long, and
black; but the bafe of the lower mandible is. yellow : the irides
red : the top of the head, and fides, and wing coverts, are of a dark
green^ marked with tranfverfe fpots of a brighter and very lucid
blue i KINGSFISHER.
€27
Mue; the green changing in fome lights to deep blue: the tail is
alfo of a deep blue: but the middle of the back and tail coverts
are wholly of the bright azure: at the bafe of the upper mandible
is an orange fpot, at the upper corner of which is a fmall patch
of white, and under that a black mark: behind the eye is a broad
ftripe of a rufous orange-colour, paffing a little way on each fide
the neck, and beneath this, a patch of white: the chin is white,
with a tinge of rufous: and the reft of the under parts of the body
rufous orange: the legs are red. s&j&iV
This bird is found not only in England, but throughout Europe,
Afia, and Africa; as fpecimens, precifely the fame with ours, have
been received from both China, Bengal *, and Egypt; Belon f alfo
■remarks his having met with it in Romania and Greece; and Sco-
poli J notices it as a bird of Camiola, where he fays it remains
.the whole year, as in England; and indeed it bears the rigour of
the colder climates fo well,, that among the Germans it has gained
the name of Eifzvogel, or Ice Bird § : Olina fpeaks alfo of its not
-regarding the ice and cold ||; and Gmelin affures us, that it is found
even in Tartary and Siberia ** : but, however this may be, there
.are few winters in which many of thefe birds do not perifh, I
make no doubt, from cold merely ; as, to my knowledge, feveral
have been found frozen fliff, by the fides of even running water,
without the leaft mark of violence about them.
M. D'Aubenton has kept thefe birds for feveral months, by
means of fmall fifh put into bafons of water, on which they have
fed; for, on experiment, they have refufed all other kinds of
nourifhment.
PtACE   A
Manne
*Bdw.i.?.ii. fHifl.desoifip.z20. t^tf.i.p.55. %Gefner,
I P« 55 *• II VfVl? P- 39- ** Pol' a" Siber. ii. p. 112.
4L2 The "«"if|
ft! K   I   N   G   S   F   I   S   H   E   R.
The Kingsfifher lays its eggs, to the number of feven or more,
in an hole in the bank of the river or ftream it frequents, for it
makes no neft. It is obferved *, that the remains of the fifh which
it feeds on, do by no means foul the habitation, as it brings up
the indigeftible parts in pellets, like the birds of prey,
This bird has given rife to very many poetical and other
fictions, which have been treated of fo largely by my friend Mr.
Pennant-f, that no more need be faid on this head; yet in one
thing I fhall advife the reader, which is, not to truft his wardrobe
to the guardianfhip of this bird, for I have found it juft as liable
to be deftroyed. by Moths as any other %.
Le Martin-pefcheur du Senegal, Brif. or*
LeBaboucard, Buf. of. vii. p. 193.
. p. 485. N*7.pl. 39. f. 1..
CIZE of the laft : length fix inches and" a half. The bill not
quite one inch and three quarters long, and brown: the:hea|ffl
and hind part of the neck are dull green ; each feather tipped,
with a brighter green fpot: on each fide the head are two fulvous* -
fpots, the one between the bill and eye, the other behind the eye,
but this laft is very fmall : the back is fine blue-green, with a
fmall mixture of brown : rump and upper tail coverts bright
blue-green : the throat pale yellow : the under parts of the
body orange: the feapulars dull green : the wing coverts dull
green, tipped with bright blue-green: quills brown; the outer
* Orn. de Salerne, p. 123. f Br. Zool. art.. Kingsfifher.
\ This has been called Oifeau de teigtte, or Drapier, and Garde-boutique, from
~-&s fuppofed property of prefervin-g-.<uW&» from being deftroyed* by Moths.
edge K   I   W   G   S
I   S   H   E   R.
Alcedo erithaca, Lin. Syft.'i. p. 179. N° 4.
Le Martin-pefcheur a collier de Bengale, Brif, c
Le Martin-pecheur k fr-ont jaune, Buf. oif. vii.
Bengal Kingfiiher, Alb. iii. pl. 29.
. p. 503. N° 15.
69
edge green, the inner orange: the leffer the fame, but the inner
margins brown : tail brown; the two middle feathers, and the
©uter edges of the others, blue green : legs and claws reddifh.
Inhabits Senegal, from whence  it was fent by M. Adanfon.
This is clearly a variety of our Kingsfifher*
RED-HEADED*
CIZE of our Kingfifher: length fix inches and a quarter. Bill-
above an inch and a half long, and red : the upper part of the
head is of a dull red : on the forehead is a yellow fpot: on each
fide of the head is a ftreak of black,, which begins at the bafe of
the bill and paffes through the eye; behind which is another band
of deep blue : the hind part of the neck is encircled with a band
of white, forming a kind of collar: from this to the rump the
plumage is of a deep blue: the rump itfelf, the upper tail coverts, and tail, dull red: the throat is white : the fides of the
head, under the eyes, and all the under parts, are fine yellow v
the upper wing coverts are light afh-colour: quills the fame 1
the legs and claws of a bright red.
Inhabits the kingdom of BengaL
Red-headed Kingsfifher, Gen.of Birds, p. 6\. pl. 5. 17.
Vak. A.
T> ATHER frrialler than the common Kingsfifher.    Bill red; near     Description.
the bafe of the upper mandible a white fpot: head and back 6> %   I   N   G■   S   F   I   S   H   E   R.
part of the neck orange red : from each eye, towards the back,
extends a purple line, terminating in a white fpot; and on the
inner fide of that, one of black.; chin white: upper part of the
back a rich .blue; the lower, light purple.; wing coverts black,
edged with blue: primaries black; breaft and belly yellowifh
white: back orange: legs red.
Place. Inhabits India, and feems to be a variety of the laft defcribed j
it likewife bears fome.refemhlance to the purple Kingsfifher, or next
fpecies,
:in-pecheur pourpre, Buf. oif. vi
—   I,., de Jondichery, PL <
• P« 199
il. 778.
Description..
'TTIIS moft beautiful fpecies is about the fize of the laft. The
bill red: the head, the rump, and the tail, are of a golden rufous.
colour, with a tinge of blue and purple : back and wing coverts
of a rich bide black; quills black : behind the eye is a ftreak of
light purple, which finifhes at the back part with a bright blue:
the throat is white : the under parts of the body of a gilded rufous
white : the legs red.
Inhabits the Eaft Indies.   The fpecimen, from whence this defcription was taken^ came from Pondicherry,
RUFOUS
-K.
Alcedo Madagafcarienfis, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 179.  N° 5.
Le Martin-pecheur de Madagafcar, Brif. orn. iv. p. 508. N° 18. pl. 38. f. I*
• , Pl. enl. 778. f. 1.
Le Martin-pecheur roux, Buf. oif. vii, p. 199.
T ENGTH five inches and a quarter.   Bill fixteen lines long,
and red: the plumage on the upper parts of the body rufous I
throat K   I   N    G   S    F   I   S   H   E   R. 63i
eliroat and fore part, of the neck white-.the reft of the under
parts rufous.white: the quills are blackifh: the tail the fame;
but the two middle feathers, and the outer edges of the reft, are
rufous : the legs and claws are red,.
Inhabits Madagafcar.. Place,
Le Martin-pecheur a tete blue, Buf. of. vii. p. 198.     ' BLUF
Le petit Martin-pecheur du Senegal, PL enl. 356. leaf!figure. HEADED
K. ■'
'TTIIS is only four inches in length.    The bill thirteen lines     Description
long, and red : the crown of the head bright blue, waved
with a lighter blue, inclining to green : the back of an ultramarine blue: the wings the fame, except the quills, which are
blackifh : the throat is white, and the reft of the under parts of
the body fine rufous : the legs red.
This  inhabits Madagafcar.    One of thefe, in my poffeffion, Place..
had a tuft of white on each fide of the neck, near the wing.
Le Martin-pefcheur de Bengale, Brif orn. iv. p. 475. N° 2.
 Buf. of. vii. p. 201.
Little Indian Kingfiiher, Edw. i, pl. 11. lower figure.
HTHIS is only four inches and a half in length. The bill fixteen
lines, and black, but flefh-coloured at the bafe of the lower
mandible : the upper parts of the body are blue green : the head
tranfverfely ftriped with deep blue : through the eyes paffes a
ftreak of rufous, towards the neck, on each fide: the throat is
white l the under parts of the body rufous: the upper wing coverts. mi
632
KINGS   FISHER.
verts blue green; each feather tipped with bright blue*. ejuJU*
and tail brown, edged with blue green: legs dull red.
Le petit Martin-pefcheur de Bengale, Brif. orn. iv. p. 477. N° _,
Little Indian Kingfilher, Edw. u pl. 11. upper figure.
'HpHIS is rather lefs than the other, and differs very little.    In-
Head of the rufous ftreak through the eye, it has two fpots,
the one at the bafe of the upper mandible, and the other behind
each ear: and the quills and tail brown throughout.
Thefe both came from Bengal; and it is moft probable that
they are varieties only of each other, or differ in fex.    Linnaus -
fuppofes them to be varieties of the common Kingsfifher; but ia
my opinion they feem rather more like the following.
Alcedo crifoj*, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 17S. N° t.
Le Martin-pefcheur hupe des Philippines,  Brif. -orn. iv. p. 483, N° 6.
P1- 37- f- 3-
Le Vintfi, Buf. oif. vii. p. 205.
Le petit Mftttin-pechenr huppel des EhUippines^ PL enl. 756. f. 1.
T ENGTH near five inches. Bill almoft an. inch and a half
long, and black : the feathers on-the crown are longifh, and
form a creft; thefe are greenifh, tranfverfely barred with black:
on each fide- the neck is a fine blue flr-ipe, beginning at the eye,
and paffing a little way down the neck: the back, rump, and
upper tail coverts, bright blue: feapulars violet: the cheeks are
sufous, which colour paffes down on each fide of the neck: the
throat rufous white : the fore owrp of the neck, and under parts of
Q the
———»%u KINGSFISH-ER.
the body, pale rufous: the upper wing coverts violet; each feather tipped with a bright blue fpot: all the quills are brown,
but the edges of the leffer ones are violet: the tail the fame; the
whole of the two middle feathers, and the outer edges of all the
others, violet: the legs and claws are reddifh.
Inhabits Amboina and the Philippine Iflands. The natives of
the firft give it the names of Tohorkey and Hi to, and thofe of the
laft Vintfi.
633
Le Martin-pefcheur hupe des Indes, Brif. orn. iv. p. 506. N° 17;   .
Alcedo criftata,. orientalis elegantiff. pitta, Seba i. p. 104. t. 67. f. 4.
^T"\HIS meafures five inches and a half in length. The bill is
"*■ above an inch and a quarter, and of a light red colour : the
head is marked and crefted as in the laft bird : the upper parts of
the body are the fame: the wing coverts bright beryl-blue, but
not fpotted as in the laft : the wings and tail are alfo the fame :
the colour of the legs not mentioned.
This bird is defcribed from Seba, who merely informs us that it
is met with in the Eaft Indies. It is moft likely a variety of the
laft mentioned.'^
Le Martin-pefcheur des Indes, Brif. 0
• p. \79- N° 4- P1- 37- f- I
' I 'IIIS is one-third lefs in fize than the common Kingsfifher :
length four inches and a half.    Bill fixteen lines long, and
red : the upper part of the head, and the throat, are of a fine
blue : on each fide, from the bafe of the bill, is a ftripe of the
4 M fame, $2$ K   I   N   G   S   F   I   S   H   E   R.
fame, paffing through the eyes to the hind head : over the eyes?
a ftripe of white : and beneath the eye a rufous fpot: the upperI
parts of the neck, body, wings, and tail, are very bright green,
and the under parts rufous : the quills are blue : and the tail feathers green on the outer eeges : legs and claws black.
Place.. This  inhabits the Eaft Indies.    Briffon defcribed it from a
painting fent to him from M. Poivre.
TERN-ATE
K.
Alcedo dea, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 181. N° 13.
Le Martfei-pefdtear de Ternate, Brif, orn. iv. p. 525. N° 26. pl. 40. 19
—PL enl. 116.
Le Martin-pecheur a longs brins, Buf. oif. vii. p. 196.
MarUn-pecheur des Moluqoes, Salem, oftu p. 126. N° io.-
CIZE of a Starling : total length thirteen inches and a quarter.
Bill fhort, and above half an inch thick at the bafe, and 9M
inch and three quarters long ; the colour a fine orange*: the head-
and hind part of the neck are gloffy blue, lighteft on- the top o&
the head:.the back and feapulars brown, margined with deep-
blue: wing coverts blue :  quills the fame; the infides and tips-
black : the under parts of the body and rump white, .with a tinge
of rofe-colour : the. tail confifts of ten feathers ; the two middle-
ones are very long, .and exceed the next by four inches, and the '
outer ones by five inches  and   a half;   the two  long feathers
are webbed only about one-third from the: bafe, and at the tips,,
the intermediate parts almoft naked, and of a blue colour; the
bafe and tips rofe-coloured white, with a blue fpot on the outer
web; the reft of the tail feathers are of a rofy while, with the
outer edges brown : the. leg§ and claws are reddifh.
.2 .   The K   I   N   G   S   F   I   S   H   E   R.
"The-long tail feathers in the male are faid to be longer than in
■the female by one-third.
..Inhabits Ternate, one of the Molucca Ifles. fc*I" -.
Le Martin-pefcheur de Cayenne, B
Le Taparara, Buf. of. vii. p. 207.
-W
•CAYENNE
K.
^pHIS is very little lefs than a Starling, and is- near nine inches
and a half in length. The bill is two inches; the upper
mandible black, the lower red: the hind part of the neck, the
back, and feapulars, are of an elegant blue : rump and upper tail
coverts bright beryl-blue: beneath the hind head is a tranfverfe
"band of black : the under parts of the body are white : wing coverts blue : quills edged with blue : tail the fame; but the two
middle feathers wholly blue : the legs red.
Inhabits Cayenne and Guiana, at which laft place the natives call
all the Kingsfifher tribe by the name Taparara. In this part of
South America, which contains many rivers full of fifh, many
Kingsfi/hers in courfe are likely to be found ; and this is really the
cafe, for they abound in vaft numbers; but what is remarkable,
they never herd together, always being found fingle, except in
breeding-time, which M. Le Borde, who has obferved them, fays,
is about the month of September. They lay their eggs in the
holes of banks, like the Kingsfifher of Europe. The cry of this
bird imitates the word Carac.
4"M« m
K   I   N   G   S   F   I   S   H   E   R*
26.
CINEREOUS.
Alcedo torquata, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 180. N° 8.
■ Le Martin-pefcheur hupe du Mexique, Brif. orn
pl. 41. f. 1.—Pl. enl. 284.
L'Alatli, Buf. oif. vii. p. 208.
Achalalaftli, RaiiSpt. p. 126.—Will. orn.. p. 390..
p. c/18. N» 2>
'TTHIS is of the fize of a Magpie, and fifteen inches and' a half
in length. The bill is three quarters of an inch thick at the
bafe, and more than three inches and a half long, and brown; the
bafe of the lower mandible reddifh : the head is crefted: the
irides are whitifh: the upper parts of the head and body are.
blueifh afh; the under parts cheftnut: the throat is whitifh, de-
feending down the neck, and paffing behind like a collar, ending
towards the back in a point: between the bill aud eye is a fpot-
of white: the thighs are fulvous, mixed, with white: the under,
tail coverts pale fulvous,.tranfverfely ftriated with black: leffer.
wing coverts, varied with blueifh afh, black, and yellowifh ;
neareft the body, blueifh. afh fpotted with white; fartheft from.
the body, blackifh, fpotted white on the outfides and tips : the
greater quills are marked in the fame.manner, as is the tail: the
legs are red : the claws .blackifh.
Inhabits. Martinico and Mexico; at the laft place it. is called.
Achalalaftli. This bird migrates into the northern parts, of
Mexico at certain feafons only, and is fuppofed to come there from.
fome hotter parts, Buffon thinks it cannot be the bird" which M.
Ad.anfon * fays is found in Senegal, fir.ce the two parts of the
world are fo far afunder;. and the bird.itfelf, as well as all of the
genus, incapable of long flights.
Suppl. de l'Encyclopfdu au mot Achalalaclli.
Alcedo KINGS   FISHER,
637
Alcedo alcyon, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 180. N° 7.
Le Martin-pefcheur hupe de la Caroline, Brif. orn, iv. p. jis. N°2r.
Le Jaguacati, Buf. oif. vii. p. zios
Kingfilher, Catefby Car. i- pl. 69;.
Belted Kingfilher, Am. Zool. N°.
Lev. Muf.
CIZE of a Blackbird : length ten inches and a half. The bill is
two inches and a half long, and black : the head crefted : general colour of the plumage blueifh afh above, and white beneath : on each fide the head are two white fpots, one between
the bill and eye, and another beneath the-eye: round the neck is
a collar of white ; under this, on the fore part, the neck is blueifh afh: on the breaft is a tranfverfe cheftnut band, three quarters of an inch in breadth : the greater wing coverts and fecond
quills have white tips: the prime quills black, with tranfverfe
fpots of white on the inner webs, and tipped with white : the tail
tipped with white : legs and claws brown.
Inhabits Carolina, where it feeds on lizards and fifh.-
BELTED
K.
Martin-pecheur de la Louifiane, Pl. enl. 715.
Crabcatcher, Sloan. Jam. ii. p. 313. N° 54. t. 55. f. 3;
Lev. Muf.
T ENGTH eleven inches and a half. Bill two inches and three
quarters, and of a very dark brown: irides red: the head
deep lead-colour, and crefted>.each feather being very dark down
the middle: between the upper mandible and eye a fpot of white :
the. chin and fore part of the neck halfway down white, and this
extends 6*3$ K   I   N   G   S   F   I   S   H   E   R.
extends round the neck, forming a collar of an inch in breadth at
the hind part: below this the neck is of a blueifh afh-colour for
jl^jjpp about one inch in breadth; and this colour paffes backwards to
communicate with the hind part of the neck, which, as well as
the back, wings, and tail, is of the fame colour: the breaft and
belly are deep ferruginous, and are feparated from the blue afh on
the neck by a line of white: the vent and thighs are alfo white-:
moft of the wing coverts are tipped with white : the fecondary>
. quills marked with a larger fpot of the fame: the baftard wing1
and quills are black, tipped with white; the laft clouded with
white on the outer web, about the middle of each feather: the
tail is fpotted with white on both webs; and the tips of all the
feathers are white : the legs are red.
^Difference of The other fex differs fomewhat; for all the under parts of the
body are white, and the white collar at the back part of the
neck is very narrow, but otherwife like the above. I received a
pair of thefe, in fine condition, from Jamaica, where they are
pretty common. Shane fays that his bird feeds on teftacea,_
haunts watery places near the fea; is ufually perched on trees,
and makes a chattering noife very loud. It is not eatable, or at
leaft good palatable food. Thefe appear to me ftrong varieties,
bearing place between the laft and following fpecies. KIN   G   S   FISHER.
6$m
Akedbalcyon, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 180. N°7. B.
Le Martin-pefcheur hupe de St. Domingue, Brif. o
-Pi. enl. 593.
Le Jaguacati, Buf. oif. vii. p. 210.
American Kingfiflier, Edw.j.ii. gl', 115.
n, iv, p. 51 j. N° 22.
CIZE of the laft: length eleven inches and a quarter. The
lower BcSaadible is reddifh at the bafe : it differs very little in
the plumage from the other, except that the blueifh afh feathers
on the breaft are only tipped-with cheftnut, inftead of having a band of that colour: and the thighs-and under tail coverts
are mixed rufous and white: the quills and tail feathers are
dotted on both webs with white: the legs are red: and the claws
black. -
This inhabits St. Domingo; and, according to Edwards, appears in the fpring and fummer at Hudfon's Bay. ■
- Alcedo alcyon, LimSyftJ'x, p. 180. N° 7. y.
Le Martin-pefcheur hupe du Brefil, Brif. orn, iv.
Le Jaguacati, Buf. oif. vii. p. 210.
Jaguacati guacu, Rail Syn. p. 49. N° 2.—Will, 0;
, p. 147. N°2. pl.24.
npHIS is lefs than the others, being not bigger than a
"*■ Thrufh. The bill-is near three inches long, and black: the
eyes are alfo black: the head is crefted : the upper parts of the
head and body are bright ferruginous: near the eye, on each
fide, is a fpot of white : round the neck is a collar of white: the
throat and under parts of the body are white :   the qa&Bs are fer-.
rug]nous, I 6+p K   I   N   G   S   F   I   S   H   E   R.
ruginous, fpotted tranfverfely with white:  the tail marked in the
fame manner: legs and claws black.
Places. Inhabits Guiana and Brafil, where it feeds on fifh.
$RASILIAN
SPOTTED
tSCRIPTION.
Le Martin-pefcheur tachete du Brefil, Brif. orn. iv. p. $24. N° 25.
LeMatuiti, Buf. oif. vii. p. 21 z.
Matuiti, Raii Syn. p. 165. N°3.—Will. orn. p. 199. t. 38. fig. bad.
'"PHIS fpecies is about the fize of a Starling. The bill is red:
the upper mandible a trifle longer than the under, and fomewhat bent at the point: the upper parts of the body are brown,
fpotted with pale yellow: quills and tail brown, marked with
tranfverfe pale yellow fpots: the throat is yellow: the under
parts of the body white, marked with fmall fpots of brown: legs
and claws dull afh.
Inhabits Brafil.
RUFOUS AND
GREEN
Martin-pecheur vert & roux, Buf. of. vii. p. 215.
-    ■   .       .     1 . — de Cayenne, Pl. enl. 592.
f. 2. the female.
CIZE of our common Kingsfifher: in length eight inches. The
bill is black, and two inches in length : the upper parts of
the body are of a deep green, marked here and there on the
wings with fmall whitifh fpots, but not numerous : from the noftrils to the upper part of the eye a rufous ftripe: the under parts
of the body are of a deep gilded rufous colour, paffing behind as
a collar round the lower part of the neck: there is alfo a band
of black and white, mixed in waves, on the breaft : the tail
marked. I K   I   N    G    S    F   I    S
HER.
with white:   the  legs
641
marked like the quillsr being fpotted
reddifh.
The female wants the band on the breaft, and the collar at the        Female.
back part of the neck.
Inhabits Cayenne. Place.
Le Martin-pecheui
enl.sgi. f. 1
vert k blanc de Cayenne, Buf. oif. vii. p. 216,-
Lev. Muf.
- WHITE AND
GREEN
K.
T  ENGTH feven inches.    Bill black: the upper parts of the     Description
body are gloffy blackifh green : a white line arifes at the
bafe of the bill, and paffes beneath the eye, on each fide, to the
hind head : on the wings are fome white marks : the under parts
of the body are white, varied with fome fpots of the fame colour
as the back : the breaft and fore part of the neck are rufous for
an inch and a half in breadth ; the legs are red.
The female wants the rufous mark on the breaft. Female.
This is a native of Cayenne. Place^
Le Martin-pefcheur du Brefil, Brif. orn. i
Le Gip-gip, Buf. of. vii. p. 217.
;io. N° 19.
npHIS equals the common Kingsfifher in fize.    The bill and eyes     Descriptk
A    are black :  the plumage on the upper parts is compofed of
a mixture inclining to rufous, mingled with cheftnut, brown, and
white: the under parts of the body are white : on each fide of
the head is a brown ftripe, arifing at the bafe of the bill, and paf-
4 N fing KINGSFISHER.
fing through the eyes: the greater quills and tail are rufous,
marked with tranfverfe fpots of white: legs and claws brown.
Inhabits Brafil.    Its cry is like the word Gip-gip; not unlike
that of a young Turkey.
Alcedo inda, Lin, Syfl. i. p. 179. N° 2.
Spotted Kingfiflier, Edw. glean, pl. 335.
/TpHE length is feven inches. The bill dufky; the bafe of the
•*■ lower mandible orange : a broad black line runs from the
bill through the eyes, on each fide of the head : above and beneath this are lines of orange-colour : crown of the head black,
changing to green at the back part: the fides of the head, beneath the eyes, green : this colour alfo covers the upper parts of
the neck, body, wings, and tail; but the feathers of the two lafty
with the rump, are fpotted with white on the edges : the under x
parts of the body are orange-colour : between the neck and breaft
is a broad black band, edged with pale afh-colour.
Inhabits Guia?ta.
i-pefcheur, Ferm. Defer. Surin. vol.
'""THIS fpecies (if a diftincl one) is lefs than a Blackbird. The
bill black, thick, ftrait, pointed, and two inches in length t
the infide of the mouth faffron-colour: the top of the head greenifh.
black,, tranfverfely fpotted with blue : the back blue, obfeurely
fhaded with lines of black : the quills of a greenifh blue : the tail
fhort, and of a dull blue : the chin and middle of the belly
1 white,. KINGSFISHER.
white, with a mixture of red: the lower part of the belly, and beneath the wings, inclining to rufous: the breaft is rufous, the feathers of which are tipped with light blue : the legs fmall; the
colour of them not mentioned.
This is found at Guiana, where it frequents, and makes its neft
in holes about the water. According to Mr. Fermin, it lays five
or fix eggs, and feeds on fifh.
This bird feems to bear fome affinity to the laft, being of the
lime fize, and found in the fame place; but I have not ventured
to place it as a variety, or fexual difference of that bird, till further authority.
643
Alcedo fuperciliofa, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 179. N° 6.
Le Martin-pefcheur verd d'Amerique, Brif. orn. iv. p. 490. N° 9.
Le Martin-pecheur vert & orange, Buf. oif. vii. p. 218.
Le Martin-pecheur petit verd de Cayenne, PL enl. 7^6. f. 2, 3.
Little green and orange Kingfiflier, Edw. glean, pl. 245.
Lev. Muf.
SUPERCILIOUS
T ENGTH five inches. Bill fixteen lines in length, and of a
blackifh colour : the bafe of the lower mandible reddifh : the
crown, hind part of the neck, the back, and rump, are green; as
are the feapulars, upper wing and tail coverts : from the bill, over
the eyes, paffes a narrow orange ftripe : the throat and fore part of
the neck are orange : on the breaft is a tranfverfe green band :
the belly, thighs, and under tail coverts, are whitifh : the fides
reddifh orange, very bright: inner coverts, and ridge of the
wing, paler orange r quills black brown, fpotted on both webs
with rufous yellow : the two middle tail feathers are green; the
4 N 2 others KINGSFISHER.
others are green alfo, but fpotted on the inner web with white :.
the legs are flefh-colour : claws blackifh.
This is the defcription of Briffon, who merely fays, that it is
found in America.
The bird figured by Edwards appears to have only a fpot between the eyes and bill, and not continued over the eyes. The
bill in his figure feems a little bent.
Thofe referred to in Buffon, feem likewife to vary a little; he
defcribes both fexes; both of them have a half collar of orange at
the back part of the neck: the whole of the under parts of the
body bright orange, except a fpot of white on the throat, and
another on the flomach *: but the green band on the breaft is
wanting in the female, otherwife the above defcription might
ferve.
Buffon received thefe from Cayenne..
3S'«
WHITE-
BILLED
K.
Le Martin-pefcheur bleu cPAmerique, Brif orn. iv. p. 50^. N° I&-
Le Martin-pecheur a bee blanc, Buf. of. vii. p. 200.
Alcedo Americana, feuapiaftra, Seba, i. t. 53. f. 3.
T ENGTH four inches and three quarters. The bill more than,
one inch and a quarter, and whitifh in colour: the head, and
hind part of the neck, purplifh cheftnut: back, feapulars, rump,,
and upper tail coverts, bright blue green : the leffer wing coverts,,
and the greater ones, which are neareft the back, are the fame
* I have feen one of thefe, with one white fpot only, and that placed on the
middle of the belly ; and another, wherein the middle of the belly and vent wer»
white. In this laft bird there were fome orange fpots between the bill and eye,
but not a ftripe..
colour _ KINGSFISHER.
colour : thofe fartheft from the body, and the quills, greyifh afh :
the under parts of the body are pale yellow: the tail is blue above,
and cinereous beneath.
This is cogjed from Seba, who fays it inhabits America.
HS
♦♦With    THREE   TOES   only.
Alcedo trida&yla, Lin. Mantiff. 1771. p. 524.
 , Pallas Spic. vi. p. 10. t. 2. f. 1.
 , VofmaerAmfl. 1768. t. 1.
Le Martin-pecheur de LTfle de Lucon, Son. Voy. p. 66. pl. 32.
Lev. Muf.
36.
THREE-TOED
(\F this bird there appear two varieties, if not differing in fex.
The fize is much lefs than that of the common one : the
length is about four inches: the one has the crown ferruginous, with a violet tinge: on the temples is an azure fpot,
and beneath it a longitudinal white one : between the fhoulders.-
and the tips of the wing feathers, azure : the cheeks, and under
parts of the body, yellowifh white : the throat pure white : the
quills ferruginous black; but ferruginous on the inner margin :
the tail is ferruginous.
The other bird is rufo-ferruginous above: the crown, rump,
and tips of fome of the back feathers, tinged with violet: the
breaft ,i"s more ferruginous, and the belly of a purer white than
in the other: the azure fpot on the temples alfo is wanting in this
bird : the bill in both is fquare, and of a yellowifh white colour:
but the diftinguifhiflg character of the fpecies, is having only
three —I
K
TtfGSFISHER.
three toes; two being placed before, and one behind : the feg»
are the fame colour as the bill.
Inhabits the Eaft Indies.
Sonnerat fays, it is the moft brilliant of birds. The bill is long
in proportion : the whole head, and upper parts of the body, deep
lilac: wings blue black : quills edged with blue: under parts of
the body white: legs reddifh : toes only three in number.
This was found at Luzonia; and, no doubt, is the fame bird as
the firft defcribed. [   <H7    ]
Genus   XXIV.    NUTHATCH.
N° i. European N.
Var. A. Leffer N^
Var. B.
Var. C.
2. Canada N.
3. Jamaica N.
Var. A.
N° 4. Great N.
5. Spotted N.
6. Surinam N.
7. Chinefe N.
THE bill of this genus is moftly ftrait; on the lower mandible
a fmall angle.
Noftrils fmall, covered with briftles reflected over them.
Tongue fhort, horny at the end, and jagged.
Toes placed three forward and one backward; the middle toe
joined clofely at the bafe to both the outmoft; back toe as large
as the middle one.
The general manners of the whole of this genus, are fuppofed
to correfpond with thofe related under the firft fpecies, which is
the only one found in England. NUTHATCH,
■+- EUROPEAN
NUTHATCH.
Sitta Europasa, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 177.  N° i.—Scop. ann, i. p. 50. N° 57.'—
Kramer el, p. 362.—Muller, N° 102. p. 13.
La Sittelle,  ou le Torchepot, Buf. oif. v.  p. 460. pl. 20.— Brif. orn. iii.
p. 588; N° 1. pl. 29. f. 3.—Pl. enl. 623. f. i.—Raii Syn. p. 47. A. 4.
Blau-fpecht, Frifch. t. 39.
Nutbreaker, Albin. ii. pl. 28.
Woodcracker, Plot's Oxfordfh. p. 175.
-Nuthatch, or Nutjobber, Will. orn. p. 142. t. 23.—Br. Zool. i. N° 89. pl. 3!.'
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
'"TpHIS bird, as defcribed in the Britijh Zoology, weighs near an
A ounce, and is in length five inches and three quarters. The
bill is ftrong and ftrait, about three quarters of an inch long ; the '
upper mandible black; the lower white : irides hazel: the crown
of the head, back, and wing coverts, are of a fine blueifh grey:
a black ffroke paffes over the eye from the mouth: the cheeks
and chin are white : the breaft and belly of a dull orange-colour:
quills dufky: the wings beneath marked with two fpots; one
white, at the root of the exterior quills, the other black, at the
joint of the baftard wing : the tail confifts of twelve feathers; the
two middle ones are grey; the two exterior tipt with grey;
then fucceeds a tranfverfe white fpot; beneath that the reft is
black: legs pale yellow: claws large; the back one very ftrong.
The female is like the male, but lefs in fize; and weighs commonly five, or at moft fix, drams.
The eggs are fix or feven in number, of a dirty white, dotted
with rufous; thefe are depofited in fome hole of a tree, frequently
one which has been deferted by a Woodpecker, on the rotten wood
mixed with a little mofs, &c.    If the entrance be too large, the
bird NUTHATCH.
bird nicely flops up part of it with clay, leaving only a fmall hole
for itfelf to pafs in and out by. "While the hen is fitting, if any
one puts a bit of flick into the hole, fhe hiffes like a Snake, and
is fo attached to her eggs, that fhe will fooner fuffer any one to
pluck off her feathers than fly away. During the time of incubation, the male fupplies her with fuftenance, with all the tendernefs
of an affectionate mate.
The general food confifts of Caterpillars, Beetles, and all forts of
infetls, as well as nuts. Willughby obferves, that it is a pretty
fpeftacle to fee her fetch a nut out of her hoard, when, placing it
faft in a chink, fhe flands above it, with the head downwards; and,
ftriking it with all her force, breaks the fhell, and catches up
the kernel*
This bird runs up and down the trees like the Woodpecker, is
folitary, and often moves the tail like the Wagtail; it does not
migrate, but changes its fituation in winter, as it often, at that
time, approaches inhabited places, fometimes coming into orchards
and gardens.    The young are accounted good eating.
It is fuppofed not to deep perched, like other birds, on a twig;
for it has been obferved, that when kept in a cage, notwithftand-
ing it would perch now and then, yet at night it would, if poffible,
creep into fome hole or corner to fleep in; and it is remarkable,
that when perched, or otherwife at reft, it has moftly the head
downwards, or at leaft even with the body, and not elevated like
other birds.
40 6p
NUTHATCH.
Le petit Torchepot, Brif. orn. ii:. p. _gz.—Belon, Hifl. des oif. p. 305,,
La petite Sittelle, Buf. oif. v. p, 470.
IT is from Belonthat we are furnifhed with an account of this
bird ; no one befides feems to have feen it; he fays, it is in
all things like the other, except in being much fmaller, but far
more noify. It is feldom feen alone, being moftly in company
with its mate, and is very quarrelfome; for on meeting with
another of its race it attacks it, nor ceafes to fight till its enemy
yields the victory.
Situ Europaw, Lin, Syfl. i. p. 177. N° 1. 0.
Le Torchepot de la Caroline, Brif. orn. iii. p. $g6. N" 4.
La Sittelle a tete noire, Buf. of. v. p. 473. var. 5..
Smaller Loggerhead, Brown Jdm. p. 475.
The Nuthatch, Cotejb. Car. i. pl. 22-
/^AfESBT fays, that this bird weighs thirteen pennyweights,
five grains : its length five inches and a quarter. Bill three
quarters of an inch, and black : top of the head, and neck, black'
the reft of the parts above cinereous : the under parts whitifh,
except the lower belly, and under tail coverts, which are rufous:
quills blackifh, edged with cinereous : the two middle tail feathers
cinereousj the others fpotted with black and white: legs and
claws brown.
The male and female art much alike.
Thefe breed and remain the whole year in Carolina; they are
alfo ibund in Jamaica.
Sktt NUTHATCH.
m
Sitta Europsea, Us. Syfl. i. p. 177. N8 1, 0.
Lepetit Terchepot de.la Caroline, Brif em. iii. p. 598. N° 5.
La petite Sittelle a tete brune, Buf. of. v. p, 474. var. 6,
Small Nuthatch, Catefib, Car. i. pl, 22.
Loggerhead, Sloan. Jam. p. 301. t. 259, f. 2, not exatl.
^T^HIS is lefs than all the former, being in length only four
inches and one-third. The bill feven lines long, and black :
the upper parts of the head and neck are brown : on the hind
head there is a dirty white fpot : the upper parts of the body,
wings, and tail, afh-coloured ; the under parts dirty white: upper
wing coverts brown : quills deep brown, with paler brown edges :
the two middle tail feathers cinereous; the reft black : legs and
claws  brown.
It is found in Carolina the whole year: it feeds on infects, as
does the laft mentioned. It is alfo met with common in Jamaica,
in the favannas, among the bufhes; and has obtained the name of
Loggerhead, from its flupidity, as it frequently fuffers men to come
fo near it as to knock it down with a flick,  -
Sitta Canadenfis, Lin. Syft. i. p. 177. N8 2.
Le Torchepot de Canada, Brif. orn. iii. p, 592. N° z. pl. 29.
La Sittelle du Canada, Buf. of. v. p. 471.
Torchepot du Canada, Pl. enl. 623. f. 2.
T
HIS is fmaller than our Nuthatch: length four inches ten    Description
ines.    Bill feven lines and a half long, colour blackifh afh:
upper parts of the body are cinereous: throat and cheeks
4 O 2 whitiih; NUTHATCH.
whitifh; the reft of the under parts pale rufous: the noftrils are
covered with briftly feathers of a whitifh colour, and turned
forwards, as in the others of this genus ; from thefe paffes a ftripe
of white over the eyes : behind the eyes is another ftripe of a
blackifh colour: the greater wing coverts are brown, with cinereous edges : quills the fame; all except the firft have the outer
edges cinereous, the inner whitifh : the two middle tail feathers
are cinereous ; the next black, with the end cinereous ; and the
four outer ones black on each fide, the ends on the outfide cinereous, and the infide-white: legs and claws grey-brown.
It is found in Canada.; and has the manners of the reft.
JAMAICA
N..
Sitta Jamaicenfis, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 178. N° 3.
Le Torchepot dela Jamaique, Brif. orn. p. 594. N* 3-..
La Sittelle a huppe noire, Buf. oif. v. p. 472,
Sitta major capite nigro. Rail Syn. p. 185. N° 33.
Loggerhead, Brown Jam. p. 475.
QLOANE fays, that it has a large head, and is about the fize of
our Nuthatch: length near five inches and a half. Bill ten
lines long, and black: the crown of the head is black : upper
parts of the body cinereous; the under parts white: quills
blackifh, with cinereous edges: tail blackifh; all the feathers,,
except the two middle ones, marked with tranfverfe lines of
white towards the ends : legs and claws black.
Inhabits Jamaica and Guiana, and feeds on infects. It is found
both in thickets and favannas, and is fo very tame andfoolifh, as
to fuffer any one to approach it near enough to knock it on the
head ; whence the name of Loggerhead.
Let NUTHATCH.
Lepetit Torchepot, de la Jamaique, Brif.orn. iii. p. 596. N9 3.
La petite Sittelle a huppe noire, Buf. oif. v. p. 473.
Leaft Loggerhead, Brown Jam. p. 475..
TT differs in no wife from the laft, except in being lefs in fize.
Buffon thinks it very probable that it may be the young one of
the laft, not at full growth. It is likewife this gentleman's opinion,
that the whole of the above-mentioned birds are mere varieties of
each other; but, the better to reconcile the other authors who
have defcribed them, we have thought right to act with them
here as is done above.
La grande Sittelle a bee crochu, Buf. of. v. p. 475.
Sitta, feu picus cinereus major, roftro curvo, Rail Syn. p. 1
Another fort of Loggerhead, Sloan. Jam, p. 301. N° 19.
'"TpHIS is the largeft of the genus : length feven inches and a
■*" half. Bill near three quarters of an inch: it is different
.from the others, being thickeft in the middle, and crooked at the
end : the noftrils are round : the head and back grey : the throat
white : the under parts of the body whitifh : quills and tail brown,
with the edges orange.
Inhabits Jamaica, and feeds on worms, cimices, and fuch like. *S*
""l
NUTHATCH,
La Sittelle grlvelee, Buf. oif. v. p. 476.
Wall-creeper of Surinam, Edw. glean, pl. 346,
HpHE length is fix inches.. Bill one inch, of a dufky brown,
and compreffed fideways : the head and upper parts of a dark
blueifh lead-colour; all the wing coverts above tipped with white
the inner ones dufky, edged with white: the throat is white
the breaft, and all the under parts of the body, blueifh afh-colour,
and lighter than the upper parts: from the throat to the legs
marked with lines of white down the middle of each feather, end*
ing in points : legs dufky brown.
Inhabits Surinam.
i
Pl. XXVIII.
Description..
'TpHE following is a beautiful fpecies, and I believe the leaft
yet known ; the total length being no more than thKee inches
and a half. The bill is a trifle bent, of a dufky brown colour j I
the under mandible the paleft: the head, and hind part of the
■neck, are rufous cheftnut-colour: the forehead is plain as far as
che middle of the crown; the reft marked with longitudinal black
flreaks: the middle of the back appears white, which arifes from
the inner web of each fcapular feather being of that colour:
the wing coverts are black, with white tips -: the primary quills
plain black; feeondaries the fame, with white margins: under
parts of the body dirty white, with a cheftnut tinge: the belly
dirty white: tail black, even, all the feathers tipped with
white : legs black.
This fpecimen is in the collection of Mifs Blomefield, and came
from Surinam.
Sitta P1.XXVJJL
Sl^r^na^m/^^iA^  NUTHATCH.
6$5
Sitta (Chinenfis) palpebra inferior* purpurea, Oft. Voy. ii. p. 12,
'THIS is a little larger than a Goldfinch. The bill and head
are black: the back, from head to tail, dark ferruginous,
with a blueifh eaft: breaft and belly white; but towards the
throat black: the head is crefted, and confifts of black feathers,
which are longer than the bill: near the eye is an oblong fmall
fcarlet fpot; and clofe to this a large one, as whipe as fnow: from/
the temples to the throat runs a black line r the chin and throat
itfelf are white, but this white is encompaffed with black, except
a white line in the m