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BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

The Washington historical quarterly. Vol. XVII Washington University State Historical Society 1926

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 in * wsie     p;•. e "
Contributing Cbitorsi
Clarence B. Bagj^Iy, Seattle
W. P. Bonney, Tacoma
T. C Elliott, WallajWalla
William S. Lewis, Spokane
H. B. McElroy, Olympia
Edw^d McMahon, Seattle
J. Orin Oliphant, Cheney
O. B. SpErlin, Rolling Bay
F. W. Howay, New Westminster, B. C.
Managing Cbitor
EDMUND S. MEANY
IBu&inegi iHanager
CHARLES W. SMITH
vol.xvii.no.
JANUARY, 1926
ISSUED QUARTERtfeii
Two Dollars per Year
Contents
EDMOKD   S.   MEANY.. .Judge  Thomas   Burke    3
"WILLIAM   S.  LEWIS.. .Jacob A. Meyers Called  by Death      5
C. L. ANDREWS Reindeer in the  Arctic        14
C.  H.   BANFORD Members of the  Seattle Bar  Who Died Young.   IS
J. ORIN  OLIPHANT Additional Notes on the Constitution of 1878...  27
W.   P.  BONNEY Monument Unveiled  In   Puyallup   36
"WILLIAM  S. LEWIS... Oldest  Pioneer  Laid   to  Rest    39
Documents—Diary of "Wilkes  in the Northwest  .-'i«gf. 43
Book Re-views  ?£;«■' ■....'   66
Pacific   Northwest   Americana *'&• *£$?■   ^
News Department   ". ' 76
th4|iVashington /Diversity
state Historical society
University Station
SEATTLE, WASHINGTON
Entered  as  second-class matter, November  16,  1906,  at  the  Postoffice  at
Seattle, Washington, under the  act of Congress of July 16, 1894. Principal Articles in the Washington Historical Quarterly
Volumes I-X
(See issue for October, 1919)
VOLUME XI
The Voyage of the Hope WM W^HT°Z2
Francis Heron, Fur Trader: Other Herons ^.Wilham S. Lewis
Death of E. O. S. Scholefield. .. EflOH |0'gky
Pioneer and Historical Societies of Washington i;Yxctor, I \f
Origin of Washington Geographic Names...^ Edmond S. Meany
Reopening of the Russian-American Convention of 182+.... Victor J. Farrar
Beginning of Mission Work in Alaska William S. Holt
David Thompson!? Journeys in Idaho T. C. Elliott
John Work's Journal of a Trip from Fort Colville to Fort
Vancouver and Return in 1828.. William S. Lewis and Jacob A. Meyers
Shipbuilding in the Pacific Northwest Helen D. Goodwin
Beginning of Militia in Washington George Gibbs
First Militia Companies in Eastern Washington Territory. William S. Lewis
Judge E. P. Oliphant :jX.% James E. Babb
Bibliography of the Anthropology of the Puget Sound Indians	
 ' /.   D.  Leechman
VOLUME XII
Authorship of the Anoymous Account of Captain Cook's Last Voyage
 lafsfi ; F.   W.  Howdy
Origin of Washington Geographic Names Edmond S. Meany
Joseph Lane McDonald and the Purchase of Alaska Victor J. Farrar
Bibliography of Railroads in the Pacific Northwest .'.^.Marian Cordz
.^.cts About George Washington Junius T. Turner
Boston Traders in Hawaiian Islands, 1789-1823 S. E. Morison
Captains Gray and Kendrick: The Barrell Letters F. W. Howay
Naming Stampede Pass W. P. Bonney
The Oregon Laws of 1845 ' John T. Condon
VOLUME XIII
The Cowlitz Convention: Inception of Washington
Territory fSjM Edmond 'S. Meany
Advertising and thesKlondike Jeannette P. Nichols
The Wreck of the St. Nicholas »^-;. • • ■ C. L. Andrews
Origin of Washington Geographic Names Edmond S. Meany
The Loss p|tthe "Tonquin"  $?. fjE F. W. Howay
The Background of the Purchase of Alaska ,%$<"•.. Vicftjik J. Farrar
A Daughter of Angus MacDonald Christina  Williams
Crossing the PlainsW. J^i^.^H^... I Clarence B.  Bagley
Newspapers of  Washington Territory 'Pi'.'Edmbnd S. Meany
Finan McDonald $z^&j. /. A. Meyers
Early Development,t&>Railroads in the Pacific Northwest C. /. Smith
Van Ogle's Memory of Pioneer Days Van Ogle
Mp$ VOLUME XIV
The Building of the Wallah Walla and Columbia River
Railroad   \0. WPw. Baker
Spokane, Portland and Seattle Railway ,'M^.^£aJC. Gilman
Newspapers of Washington Territory Edmond S. Meany
Historical Services of Thomas W. Prosch Charles W. Smith
Origirt^of Washington Geographic Names Edmond S. Meany
The Orphan Railroad and the Rani*s3 Horn Right of Way..C. H. Hanford
<*;M^nories of White Salmon and its Pioneers Albert J. Thompson
.   Introduction of Cattle into the Pacific Northwest C. S. Kingston
Captain John Mullan and the Engineers' Problem Samuel F. Bemis
The Mullan Road: Its Local History and Signi|jcance T. C. Elliott
Senator Cole and the _ Purchase of Alaska Victor J. Farrar
Klickitat County: Indians of and Settlement by Whites Delia MV' Coon
Cape Disappointment in  History Barbara Coit  Elliott
Hall's Visit to Oregon in 1839 Howard M. Ballou ®fje Sastyittsbm gtstortcal (©uarterlp
1926
VOLUME XVII
1
1
I
R
THE WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY
STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY
Un:cvbrsity Station
SEATTLE, WASHINGTON  Wa&Unqtsm i>fetortcal (©uarterlp
Contributing Cbitora:
Clarence B. Bagley, Seattle
W. P. Bonney, Tacoma
T. C. Elliott, Walla Walla
William S. Lewis, Spokane
H. B. McElroy, Olympia
Edward McMahon, Seattle
J. Orin Oliphant, Cheney
O. B. SpErlin, Rolling Bay
F. W. Howay, New Westminster,. B. C.
iWanaging Cbttor
EDMOND S. MEANY
PusineftS Manager
CHARLES W. SMITH
$
r
VOL. XVII. NO. 1
JANUARY, 1926
ISSUED  QUARTERLY
Two Dollars per Tear
Contents
EDMOND   S.  MEANY.. .Judge  Thomas   Burke  3
"WILLIAM  S.  LEWIS.. .Jacob A. Meyers Called  by Death  5
C. L. ANDREWS Reindeer In the Arctic  14
C.  H.   HANFORD Members of the  Seattle Bar Who Died Yonng. 18
J. ORIN   OLIPHANT Additional Notes on the Constitution of 1878... 27
W.  P.  BONNEY Monument Unveiled  in  Puyallup  36
"WILLIAM S. LEWIS. .. Oldest Pioneer Laid  to  Rest  39
Documents.—Diary of "Wilkes  in the  Northwest  43
Book Reviews     66
Pacific   Northwest   Americana  74
News Department    76
THE WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY
STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY
University Station
SEATTLE, WASHINGTON
Entered  as   second-class  matter,  November  15,   1906,  at  the  Postofflce  at
Seattle, Washington,  under the  act of Congress of July 16,  1894. tKfje ^asrtrington ?Hntoemti>
g>tate ^t^tortcal &ocietp
Officers and Board of Trustees
Clarence B. Bagley, President
Judge John P. Hoyt, Vice-President
Judge Roger S. Greene, Treasurer
Judge Cornelius H. Hanford
Samuel Hill
Professor  Edmond  S.  Meany,  Secretary
Unlyeralty  of   Washington   Preaa
Seattle TOasinngton $fetorical Quarterly
JUDGE THOMAS BURKE
When one who has towered above his fellows in intellect and
achievement lies down to enter upon the long sleep how truly for
those who remain does there seem a vacant place against the sky.
The span of half a century may yield lean annals for the
older communities of the earth, but in this newer Pacific Northwest such a period spells the leap from forest to city, from wilderness to metropolis.
Through such a length of fniitful years Thomas Burke
wrought* with a profound and unsparing industry. His skillful
hands touched every worthy cause within his reach; his fertile
brain visioned opportunities and blessings for city, state and
nation; his dauntless courage combatted and conquered dangers;
his loving heart linked to him countless friends of every hue and
station, each of whom alone knew some act of kindness.
He lived to the fulness of time from his humble birth in
Clinton County, New York, on December 22, 1848, to the zenith
of his career in the nation's metropolis on December 4, 1925.
During the years of his boyhood the fibers of his sturdy
character were strained and strengthened by alternating work and
study that he might obtain an education while helping, as well,
other members of his family. These struggles culminated in the
University of Michigan Law School in 1872. He was admitted
to the bar in 1873 and removed to Seattle in the spring of 1875,
where he began and maintained the half century of remarkable
achievement.
His first partnership was with Judge John J. McGilvra who
had come to Washington Territory in 1861 as United States District Attorney, an appointee of President Lincoln. Judge Burke
made permanent his alliance with the McGilvra family on October
6, 1879, by marriage with Caroline E. McGilvra. The widow of
Judge McGilvra has passed her ninetieth birthday. She received
daily and joyful letters from Judge Burke during his last journey.
Three of those letters arrived in Seattle after the news of their
writer's death had been flashed around the globe.
(3) if! I
4 Edmond S. Meany
Judge Burke's success in his profession of the law was quick
and continuous. His ability was at once recognized by his election
as Judge of the Probate Court of King County from 1876 to 1880
and later by his selection as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
of Washington Territory in December, 1888. That position he
resigned in April, 1889, after having helped to clear the congested
calendar.
Success and greatness as a lawyer would satisfy the ordinary
man. Judge Burke was not of that type. His civic interest soon
became dominant. He seived on the Territorial Board of Education, as a member of the Seattle Board of Education, as a T:rustee
of Whitman College and always as a friend and helper of the
University of Washington. In the early days he was a charter
member and the first volunteer secretary of the Seattle Chamber
of Commerce. In later days his influence was potent in the larger
matters of transportation, notably the advent and development of
the Great Northern Railway. It is simply bewildering to contemplate the energy that emanated from this one among the valiant
leaders who worked so effectually on the upbuilding of Seattle
and other communities of the Pacific Northwest.
During the anti-Chinese riots of 1886, Judge Burke, with other
like patriots, carried a musket to uphold law and order and to
protect weak foreigners within our gates. From that moment he
availed himself of every opportunity to use his convincing eloquence and his own resources to advocate international justice and
friendship. In his last year of life he was warned by physicians
to avoid public speaking. In defiance of that warning, he arose
among his fellow trustees of the Carnegie Endowment for Peace
to make one more plea for justice toward the Japanese. The end
had come. As he collapsed he fell into the arms of his strong
friend President Nicholas Murray Butler of Columbia University
and, thus held, he passed on into the other world. He would not
have chosen any other way of death, still giving of his talents a
service for others.
The facts of Judge Burke's life and death have been published
in the newspapers from the Atlantic to the Pacific and in the newspapers beyond the Pacific and beyond the Atlantic. This simple
tribute is published here out of a spirit of loyalty to his memory.
He was one of the founders of the Washington Historical Quarterly and, with his friend Samuel Hill, sustained it through the
first difficult years of its existence.
Edmond S. Meany. JACOB A. MEYERS CALLED BY DEATH
From the standpoint of personal knowledge, shrewd observation and long study of the old journals and records of the past
century, few men were as well informed on the early history of
this region as the late Mr. Jacob A. Meyers of Meyers Falls.
Although he had lived in the northeastern part of the Territory
and State of Washington for over fifty-six years, Mr. Meyers
never claimed the distinction of being a pioneer; the real pioneers
—the fur traders, the missionaries, the gold miners and the old
army men—he said, had all been here ahead of him, and they, he
believed, were entitled to the full credit of pioneer effort. Of late
years Mr. Meyers has passed considerable time each year in Spokane and the Coast cities. It was my good fortune to have been
intimately acquainted with Mr. Meyers and in recent conversations
with him he gave me the following interesting account of his
family and their early experiences in Washington Territory; which
I had typewritten and submitted to Mr. Meyers for his revision a
couple of weeks before his death:
"My full name is Jacob Allen Meyers. On my father's side
I am descended from an old New York Holland Dutch family.
John Wattermeyers, a Loyalist, moved with his immediate family
to Canada during the Revolutionary War and, shortening the
name to Meyers, founded the present Meyers family. His father
and seven brothers were members of Washington's army and
remained in the State of New York. On my mother's side I am descended from the Spaldings and from the same stock as Ethan and
Noah Allen. I have thus both tory and union blood in my veins. I
was born at Bellville, Ontario, Canada, on March 22, 1855, and I
lived there until we came to Washington Territory in 1869.
My father, Louther Walden Meyers, joined an expedition of
Canadians bound for the Pacific Coast that left Bellville on May
12, 1862. They came by way of Fort Garry, now the site of the
city of Winnipeg, with Red River ox carts and wagons, across
the plains, over the Rainy Mountains to the south branch of the
Saskatchewan, reaching Edmonton on August 8, 1862. Most of
the party went direct to the Cariboo mining country by the north
pass; the remainder comprising thirty men, women and children
and eighteen carts, came overland by the old Hudson's Bay Com-
(5) 6 William S. Lewis
pany's trail into the Colville Valley, crossing the Rocky Mountains and coming by way of the Kootenai River and Montana.
My father reached the site of the present town of Colville on
November 7, 1862. He played a prominent part in the early development of the Colville section.
"For several years my father was employed in the Colville
Valley and being an expert cabinet maker by trade he did considerable work about the old trading post and mill, as well as at the
Military Post. In 1863 he took charge of the Oppenheimer Mill
and worked until 1865. In March of that year he quit his job as
miller for the D. H. Ferguson & Company after operating the
flour mill on the Little Pend O'Reille River, and went to the gold
mines at the Big Bend of the Upper Columbia River in British
Columbia. My father's diary or journal gives the details of his
experiences and the names of other contemporary miners, including many men identified with the earliest settlement of Northeastern Washington. The following are some of his fellow-
miners: Joe Lapray, later to locate at La Pray's Bridge; Dave
McLoughlin, son of Dr. McLoughlin of Old Oregon fame; Al
Murray, Shep Bayley, Johnny Cluckston, for whom Cluckston
Creek in Stevens County is named; John Campbell, Henry La-
Flures, Bill Downey, John McCrea, Bob Ridley, George F. C.
McCrea, Henry (Hank) Carnes, Bob Nobles, Joe Roberts, who
settled near Addy; Joe Martin, George Taylor, Wm. Muirhead,
Frank Jenett, Wm. Yagar, R. H. Douglas, Peter Liberty, a brother
of Steve Liberty for whom Liberty Lake was named; Henry
Wellington, A Chambois, Moses Dupais, Wm. (Billy) Weller,
'Texas' Hilbum, Vick Shefferfield, Ben McDonald, Ben Bergunder,
McNeil, Curmers, Kelly, Thompson, Murphy, Pervis, St. Germain,
Cole, Gerald, Anderson, Smith, Kirby, Seaman, Wilson, Baird
and others.
"My father and the other miners did not make much money
in their placer mining ventures, and many of them returned and
settled in the Colville Valley. My father returned in November,
1865. The following June, 1866, with George B. Wonnacott,
under the firm name of L. W. Meyers & Co. he leased the old
Hudson's Bay Company grist mill and power, subject to its acquirement by the United States under the settiement then being
made under the treaty of 1846. My father improved the dam
and flume in 1866, and continued in possession of the mill after
the Hudson's Bay Company relinquished its rights thereto and
selected the lands embracing the falls of the Colville River as a Jacob A. Meyers Called by Death
valuable land location, filing on and obtaining patent thereto when
the lands were surveyed some twenty years later.
"In 1869 my father sent for the rest of the family to join him
in the Colville Valley and on October 12, 1869, we started from
Orono, Ontario, and came by train by way of Toronto, Detroit,
St. Joe, Council Bluffs, and over the Union and Central Pacific
railroads. Then via Kelton, Nampa and Baker City to Walla
Walla where father met us. The trip from Walla Walla was made
over the old Colville-Walla Walla Military Road that came up
Cow Creek by the site of the present town of Sprague. There
were then no towns whatever between Walla Walla and Colville,
and only a handful of settlers. We reached father's home ranch
in the Colville Valley on November 5, 1869. I have lived in the
vicinity ever since.
"When I arrived the old Hudson's Bay Company Post, Fort
Colville, was still occupied and conducted by the company with
the late Angus MacDonald in charge as chief trader. The old
United States army post, Fort Colville, was also occupied by a
garrison of regular troops, and there was a little settlement near
by called Pinckneyville, and afterwards Colville, which had a
population of but sixty or seventy people. There was no settlement at all then at the site of the present town of Colville. The
log buildings of the British boundairy bairacks, on the flat where
the town of Marcus is now located, were still standing and some
of them were used or occupied by the late Marcus Oppenheimer,
who had a trading store there, and the flat and the town, later
started there, became known as Marcus Flat and the town of
Marcus.
"I was nearly fifteen years old when I came here to Washington Territory, and I have a very clear recollection of conditions
as they then eadsted. The falls of the Colville River where the
old Hudson's Bay Company's mill was situated became known as
Meyers Falls. That old millsite had first been improved in 1827-
1828 and was occupied by the first flour mill built in the United
States west of the Roclcy Mountains. The first patented flour
ever made in the United States was manufactured there in 1866.
In 1872, I assisted my father in dismantling the old mill, and in
constructing a new mill on the site of the old "Goudy" mill of
1843. This old Hudson's Bay Company's mill once produced
cereals that supplied all the employees of the Company from Utah
to Peace River between the Cascades and the Rockies.   I used to
m William S. Lewis
T
help my father operate this mill, and in early days Indians would
fetch their small stores of grain, threshed by being tramped out
by the feet of cayuse ponies on a threshing floor, to our mill from
the Spokane and Coeur d'Alene Valleys. The Chinamen, placer
mining along the bars of the Columbia River, also patronized the
mill. In my dealing with the Indians at the mill I soon learned
to converse in the Chinook jargon. This mill was destroyed by
fire in 1916.
"I was well acquainted with the Angus MacDonald family
and I was-frequently at the Hudson's Bay Company's Post occupied by them after its abandonment by the company. I was also
well acquainted with Ranald MacDonald, son of Archibald MacDonald, but I was not as interested, thirty-five or forty years ago,
as now in the early history of the Northwest and I failed to make
timely use of my opportunity for first hand information afforded
by my personal acquaintance with many of these early pioneer
characters of the Colville Valley.
"The present town of Colville was started in 1884 and my
father originally owned a considerable portion of the town. The
townsite of Meyers Falls, named for my father, was also largely
owned by him. In the spring of 1870, I set out on our farm what
I believe was the first orchard planted north of the Snake River.
"In those early days there was no settlement whatever at
Spokane Falls, and for a long time the only two crossings on the
Spokane River were Monahans, afterwards known as La Fray's
Bridge, on the Colville-Walla Walla Military Road, and Kendall's,
afterwards known as Cowley's Bridge, on the Mullan Road;
there were only a few hundred people living north of the Snake
River. It was not until the 80's that we began trading at Spokane
Falls. I met my first bandit going to Spokane Falls in 1882. There
was not more than a few hundred people in the entire territory
north of the Snake River at that time.
"We had left the ranch at Meyers Falls early one winter
morning and started to Spokane behind a four-horse team, to
get supplies of food and clothing. Our route was by the road
that comes from Hillyard into Spokane from the north. Arriving
in the city we loaded up with the supplies and decided to return
home via the Four-Mound Prairie road, which took us west for
several miles and then turned northeast back to Meyers Falls.
"Four miles from Spokane, on this road we were stopped by
a man on horseback. It was in the dead of winter and the country
was mantled in snow.   The stranger stopped us, evidently taking Jacob A. Meyers Called 'by Death
9
us for tenderfeet, and asked us where we were going. We told
him and he said that we were on the wrong road and that we
must go south for four miles.
"We knew immediately that something was wrong, that the
stranger was trying to mislead us. After arguing with him we
managed to shake him off and proceeded on our way. We later
learned that this same man was known to have robbed newly
arrived settlers by sending them along the road which he claimed
led southward.    Once they were on this road, he pillaged them."
It was on this same trip that Mr. Meyers experienced what
he claims was the coldest weather ever known in the Inland
Empire. They had turned northeast toward Meyers Falls and
decided, after going several miles, that they would camp out for
the night.
"When we awoke the next morning we found that the
mercury in the thermometer had become frozen and when we
picked up the instrument the solid fluid broke through the bulb
and fell to the ground like a bullet—and we were sleeping out!"
said Mr. Meyers.
"We were just getting breakfast when Attorney Sam Hyde
of Colville, later Judge Hyde of Spokane, arrived at the camp
on his way to Spokane. We offered him a cup of the steaming
coffee we had just made and he gulped it down in a way that
made his breath look like smoke, and declared it was the best
drink he had ever had."
Jacob A. Meyers at the age of 70, after a residence in the
Colville Valley for 56 years, died at St. Luke's hospital in Spokane
on Tuesday, October 20, 1925, following illness from diabetes.
He had only been in the hospital a week, but was partly unconscious most of the time. Up to the time of entering the hospital
he had been active as usual though he had been in poor health
for over a year. His interest in the geology of the Grand Coulee
caused him to spend several days at the head of the Coulee just
a few weeks before his death.
Funeral services were held Thursday afternoon, October 22,
1925, at the Smith Chapel in Spokane, conducted by the Rev. F.
L. Cook, former pastor of the Colville Methodist Episcopal church.
The body was shipped to Colville, and services were held Saturday afternoon, October 29, 1925, at 2 o'clock at the McCord
Funeral Chapel, conducted by the Rev. Mr. Cook. Burial was at
Meyers Falls.    Members of the Stevens County Pioneer associa- 10
William S. Lewis
tion and the Woodmen of the World and a number of friends
from Spokane went to Colville and attended the funeral services.
The pallbearers were Hugh Waddel, George Peddycord, W. L.
Sax, C. R. McMillan, C. B. Ide and Frank Habelin.
Jacob A. Meyers had been a resident of the Colville country
for 56 years. He never married. In his early life he assisted his
father in the many enterprises and land holdings of the family.
After the death of his father in 1909 he took over a large part
of the management of the estate, continuing his residence at
Meyers Falls, named in honor of his father. Here he had his
library and his extensive collection of historical papers, photographs and books, but he spent much time in traveling while in
search of historical matter.
He was a charter member of the Woodmen of the World
camp at Meyers Falls and for many years served as its clerk.
When the camp was abandoned, he changed his membership to
Colville. He was a charter member of the Stevens County Pioneer
association, and a member of the Spokane County Pioneer Society,
and of the Eastern Washington State Historical Society, and he
always evinced a great interest in their proceedings.
His only brother, George E. Meyers, died in Spokane in
1923. The only sister, Mrs. Elizabeth V. Cagle, lives at Meyers
Falls.
The kindly figure of Jacob Meyers will be missed by his
friends. The satchel which he invariably carried, the long beard
in which he took such a pride, the overcoat slung over his arm—
all form a memory which has been unchanging for many years.
Especially will the writer miss him, for he never came to Spokane
without stepping in my office for a word of greeting, a reminiscence, a bit of historical lore, which he had uncovered, or a hint
as to where some historical fact might be further substantiated;
and we spent many an evening together before the open wood fire
at my home talking over various phases of the pioneer history
of the Northwest.
Precision and accuracy were the rule of his life. He took
care not to make mis-statements. He religiously adhered to the
old-fashioned customs of diary writing, and by referring to his
books could account for the exact date and circumstances of
every important happening during his life, and he recently told
me the experience of his family during an earthquake of long ago.
He would spend months verifying, rather than permit himself to Jacob A. Meyers Called 'by Death
11
assume a position which was open to controversy. He wanted
facts, and he was willing to work for them.
In matters of early northwest history he was at his best.
He spent a great deal of time, money and research in recent years
in endeavoring to locate the correct sites of many of the old
trading posts in this State and in Idaho and Montana. He personally visited all the various scenes of first historical interest
throughout the Northwest with his camera, and making notes of
his observations and discoveries. He collaborated with historians
in this country and in Canada and was insti3umental in definitely
fixing many of the minor facts of Northwest history which are
now accepted. His knowledge of Northwest tribal languages was
of great assistance to him in his researches, and he took great
care in tracing the history of the words and phrases which entered
into the nomenclature of the early west.
He was not demonstrative in his actions, but was of a very
generous nature in quietly extending aid to sufferers, and particularly in helping young people. He possessed an excellent memory
and a keen mind, and to the solution of a problem he brought an
excellent judgment and an unusual degree of "common sense."
His statement of the origin of the name "Lo-lo" Pass (see
Journal of John Work, edited by Lewis and Phillips, pp. 87-8,
note) was an example of this. He had also, as the result of a
long study of the Indian languages of the Northern plains, evolved
a theory as to the trail origin of the name Oregon; a theory
which is entitled to most respectful consideration.
Mr. Meyers was largely self-educated, as the country here
offered no educational advantages to a boy in the decade between
1870 and 1880 when Mr. Meyers grew to manhood. Nature, however, had endowed him with an inquisitive mind and, becoming
an omniverous reader, his technical knowledge, even of such subjects as hydraulics, engineering, etc., was surprising. Thirty-five
years ago, when the Spokane Falls and Northern Railroad was
being constructed through Stevens County, Mr. Meyers met, and
for some weeks associated with, John F. Stevens—then in charge
of locating the line from Colville north. Mr. Stevens was so
impressed with his native ability in location work that he invited
Mr. Meyers to join him in his railroad engineering work, and
promised to teach him and to make a construction engineer out of
him if he would enter his employ. Mr. Meyers thought he was
then too old to learn a profession and compete with younger men
of college education, so he declined. 12
William S. Lewis
His disposition was retiring and his modesty hid from all but
a few intimate friends and associates a correct and adequate conception of his wide knowledge and remarkable intelligence; his
kindness and real worth. An unhappy love affair occurring in
the early 80's caused Mr. Meyers to become restless and he spent
the years 1881-3 in the Kootenai district in British Columbia prospecting in association with Robert L. T. Galbraith,1 an early
locator of the coal deposits on the slope of the Rocky Mountains,
in what is known as the Crow's Nest Coal District; and Robert
Evan Spraule,2 who first located the famous Blue Bell8 silver-lead
mine at Riondel on Kootenai Lake, B. C. Spraule was later
arrested, convicted and hung for alleged killing of Thomas Ham-
mil, a claim jumper, relocating a claim which was an extension
of the Blue Bell and in which Spraule and Mr. Meyers were
interested.4 Convinced of the innocence of Spraule, Mr. Meyers
spent over a year and a half in endeavoring to establish his innocence, and Mr. Meyers always maintained that Spraule had been
unfairly tried and unjustly convicted and executed.5
After leaving the Kootenai Country, Mr. Meyers spent the
greater part of the years 1884 and 1885 about Bonner's Ferry,
associated with Ed Such in prospecting and ejcploring the country
along the Kootenai River. He spent the years 1887 and 1888 in
the Pierre Lake district, and in 1889 returned to the home at
Meyers Falls.   His years of travel, prospecting and exploration in
1 Mr. Galbraith was one of the "old timers" in the Kootenay District and acted as
Indian Agent there for many years—having died only a few years ago. A daughter, I
am told,  still lives at Cranbrook, B. 0., where her father died and is burled.
2 The coal deposits in the Crow's Nest District were discovered by the fur traders in
the early part of last century; and as long ago as 1811 Alexander Henry wrote of having
noticed four Beams of good coal there.
8 The Bine Bell mine is supposed to have been discovered first by the Scotch botanist,
David Douglas, around the year 1825 or 1826. The early Hudson's Bay men and Indiana
used to make bullets from the surface ore. About 1864, during the Kootenay Lake mining
excitement of those days, Mr. Geo. Hearst, afterwards TT. S. Senator from California,
visited the property and smelted some of the ore. In the year 1882, Robert Evan Spraule
with two companions, coming to Kootenay from Bonner's Ferry, re-discovered the mine.
After staking the ledge, Spraule at once left to record his claims at the nearest Recording
Office which at that time was at Wild Horse Creek, some 240 miles distant. Tinder the
existing Mining Laws at that time (which were framed to cover placer mining particularly) an absence of 72 hours from a claim constituted its abandonment, except in
specified cases of sickness, etc. Another prospector who was in the vicinity, Thomas
Hammil, took advantage of this provision of the mining laws and staked the claims
after Spraule had been absent 72 hours. Litigation followed, in which Spraule managed
to retain the Bine Bell claim but lost the other. Eventually he lost the Blue Bell,
also, as it was seized by the sheriff and sold to cover the law costs. The law reports
of the case recite that the claim was recorded in Spraule's name July 81,  1882.
4 The other claim on the Blue Bell ledge, staked by Spraule was the "Mogul" and
this was recorded in the name of Gay Beeder,  presumably a friend of Spraule's.       „
5 There was no eye-witness to the killing of Hammil, and the evidence against Spraule
was circumstantial. The accused was supposed to have been incensed against Hammil and
was charged with having laid in wait for him and murdered him. Spraule was eventually
hanged despite strenuous efforts on the part of a number of influential people to save
him. Mr. Meyers stated that Spraule maintained until the last that he was innocent of
the crime charged to him, and Mr. Meyers himself always asserted that an innocent man
had been hung, and that if he, Meyers, had had the foresight to shave off his own beard
so as to conceal his own identity he would have been able to secure the evidence to
acquit Spraule and to identify and convict the person guilty of the crime. Jacob A. Meyers Called by Deat
13
the woods and mountains had developed him into an unusual
woodsman and a veritable pathfinder, and in later years he drew
upon this experience in his search for the location of the long
forgotten sites of the old trading posts established by the Northwest and the Hudson's Bay Fur Trading Companies in the early
part of the last century.8
The Meyers family was among the most substantial and well-
to-do pioneer citizens of Northeastern Washington, and the father,
Louther W. Meyers, left a substantial estate to his children. Mr.
Jacob A. Meyers was himself a shrewd and careful business man
and since middle age had been in a financial condition that enabled
him to live in comfort, and to enjoy his hobbies. He took a
great interest in the education of boys and girls, and a quiet,
unostentatious way, financially assisted several to secure higher
education in colleges and universities, and occasionally used his
means in doing little acts of kindness to others less fortunate than
himself. He was a fine type of pioneer citizen, and the community
and his friends have sustained a substantial loss through his
death. He was an occasional and valued contributor to the Washington Historical Quarterly, and his passing forever closes a
reliable and accurate source of much valuable historical information concerning the early history of the Northwest. Many readers
of the Quarterly, who knew him personally will feel a deep and
permanent loss through his death.
William S. Lewis. '
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6 The writer""is indebted to the OolvfOe Examiner for some of the material contained
in this and the succeeding article on Mrs. Peter King. REINDEER IN THE ARCTIC
The Reindeer Industry in the Arctic, the portion of Alaska
lying north of the Brooks Range (Endicott Mountains) has
reached a stage where it only needs transportation and a market
to place it on a paying basis. This applies to the true Arctic region, for all the portion of the Territory lying south of those
mountains is properly only sub-Arctic or Temperate in climate.
In that area there are today more than a thousand head of marketable reindeer and each year sees an increase of at least thirty
per cent on the breeding stock of females, which normally may
be e:xpected to increase the production of males in the same degree
the second year following. Three years hence there may be
shipped from Wainwright and Barrow at least two thousand carcasses for the markets of the United States.
The reindeer north of the mountains are not so large as are
those farther south, the rigor of the climate being the main reason
for this, to which may be added some degree of inbreeding owing
to a lack of new breeding males and neglect of selection in the
males kept. It is difficult to train a herdsman out of a savage
in one generation and it has been little more han one generation
since the first deer were brought to the Farthest North of Alaska.
The weight of the mature, male, as dressed for the market there,
is between 135 and 150 pounds average. The deer of St Lawrence
Island, where the spring comes earlier and the winter is later, will
average perhaps 25 pounds higher.
The first reindeer were brought to Alaska in 1891, only a
trial shipment of 16 head being brought to Amaknak Island that
year, to prove the feasibility of the project which had been questioned in Congress. This was done by private subscription on an
appeal through four newspapers of the East. The next year 171
head were landed at Teller, on Port Clarence in the Seward Peninsula, where a station was established and named for the Secretary of the Interior. From 1892 to 1902 there were 1280 animals
imported, all of them from Siberia, and from these have come all
the more than three hundred and fifty thousand deer in Alaska.1
Reindeer at the top  of  the  continent,  however,  were not
...-1 Rei«4eer Report of Bureau of Bduoation, Interior Department,  Washington,
1906, and other years. '
D.   C,
(14) Reindeer in the Artie
15
brought until 1898 when a seeming misfortune proved a blessing
to the Eskimo people. The summer of 1897 closed early at Point
Barrow and seven whaling ships were caught by the ice within a
short distance of that place, of which four were completely
wrecked. When the news of the vessels being icebound reached
the Capital at Washington orders were issued that officers of the
revenue cutter Bear proceed north to the relief of the whalers
who were presumably without supplies for the rigorous winter,
and that they secure all available reindeer along the coast and
drive them to Barrow for food for the shipwrecked people. Lieutenant D. H. Jarvis was placed in command of the relief expedition and he secured Mr. W. T. Lopp, of the Congregational Mission at Cape Prince of Wales, with his herders, to drive the deer.
Most of the reindeer were from the herd of the mission or belonged to Artisarlook and his wife, the first Eskimo reindeer
owners. The expedition started with 448 deer, lost or killed for
food 247 animals, had an increase of fawns of 190 head, and left
at Barrow the next year 391 from which the herds of Barrow and
Wainwright, the most northerly stations, have increased to between 15,000 and 18,000.2 The number is indefinite because there
are many deer, the number not known, which are astray on the
tundra, and also by reason of two of the herds being so far to the
east of Barrow that reports are not received of their number.
Up to the time of the incoming of the reindeer the Eskimo
people of that region were entirely dependent on the game and
fish of the sea and tundra for all subsistence. They were in a
strictly savage state as judged by the means of livelihood, for the
whale, walrus and seal of the ocean, with the caribou of the land
furnished food and clothing. They were an exclusively hunter
people. The white whalers with their white winged ships had
taken almost all the walrus and whale from the ocean (over two
hundred and fifty ships being engaged in whaling in the Arctic
Ocean in 1851) and for fifty years they combed the seas till the
animals that furnished a great portion of the food of these people
were swept away and the Eskimo had to turn to the caribou more
and more each year. The greater burden on the caribou nearly
took them from the land, in consequence the Eskimos were in
dire straits for subsistence. The reindeer opened a new avenue
which has alluring promises that are seemingly nearly on the
verge of realization.
2 Overland Expedition to Point Barrow, Government Printing Office,   Washington,  D.
C, 1900.
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C. L. Andrews
At the present nearly every Eskimo man, woman, and child
has an interest in the deer, parents giving their children a reindeer
for a Christmas present, often before the children can walk. At
the present, to avoid a multiplicity of marks and confusion of
ownership, most of the deer are held by company ownership, each
individual holding shares according to the reindeer he put in.
Two companies hold over 11,000 deer and from these more than
4,000 fawns were bom during the season of 1925.
The range is a wide, level, treeless plain, extending from the
Brooks Range, so called recently in honor of Dr. Alfred H.
Brooks of the Geological Survey, one of Alaska's staunchest
friends during his lifetime, to the ocean shore. It is snow-covered
for nearly nine months of the year, while the remaining three
months it is a vast tundra spotted with lakes and covered with
mosses and grasses where the white fronted goose, the eider duck,
the golden plover from far Patagonia, many varieties of sandpiper, the strange phalarope, the willow ptairmigan, myriads of
the Alaska longspur, countless snow buntings and many other
birds find nesting places and fill the air with their love calls. Over
this the deer wander winter and summer, kept under more or less
surveillance by the Eskimo herders and their Lapp dogs. The driving snows of December pack hard over the land but no storm at
all is dangerous to a strong, well fed deer, for it digs down to the
moss with its hoofs and thrives on it fully as well as a horse or
cow will do on the best timothy or alfalfa hay, and shelter seems
to be a thing not at all necessary. When they have fed sufficiently they lie down, let the snow drive against them until they
look like a roughly carved block of marble grotesquely outlined
against the skyline, and rest until they again go in search of moss.
The herders live in little, low, roundtopped tents that they
call tupeks, or in low sod houses in some parts, but more often
in the tents and occasionally a snow igloo is made. The camp
must be moved often for the herd of 2,000 deer soon graze over
an area surrounding the camp and must be given new range. These
people have reached the nomadic or herdsmen stage and are good
men for the work considering the short time that they have had
for absorbing the methods and traditions of the stockman's life
and way of working.
Of timber there is none, except a small quantity of driftwood
on the seashore, brought from the Kobuk, the Yukon, or from
far Kamchatka.   The willows near the sea are but a creeper, not Reindeer in the Artie
17
daring to raise their heads above the ground. The tents are
warmed by a Primus stove burning coaloil, or by a sheetiron
stove, made by the owner, in which he burns coal dug from the
bank of the inlet where veins of six and eight feet in thickness
crop out in wide reaches. The seal oil lamp is almost never used
in the present day.
The fawns are caught with a lasso in the marking season but
a corral is built of ice in winter where the herds are brought to
be counted. Blocks or slabs of ice a foot thick, six feet long, and
two feet wide, are cut in October, are brought to the place chosen,
are set on end and frozen to the earth in a continuous wall which
encloses an area for the deer, not a stick, of wood being used in the
construction. At this corral the whole Eskimo population camps
during the time the counting is going on, cooking, eating, and
sleeping by the side of the herd-
There is ample range back toward the mountains to accommodate the increase of the herds for many years. There are no
neighbors to crowd them for it is the last place in the domain of
the United States
"Where the mountains are nameless,
And the rivers run, God knows where."
It is the last frontier, and just back of the ocean shore is many
a league of level tundra which no white man has ever laid eye
upon, a far, wild waste of lake and mossland, bleak and dreary,
yet with a charm that is felt but not understood- The Eskimo
knows how to win a living from it but there are few white men
who will ever make it a home. The reindeer will, with the other
natural resources of the region, make a comfortable living and
afford some luxuries for the Eskimo, if the wiiite man does not
come in and crowd him off the earth as the stockman did the Indian. It is to be hoped that the Government will protect them in
their grazing rights in future years.
The reindeer is to the Eskimo what the buffalo of the plains
was to the Indian, and more. From its skin he gets his arteegee
(parka), his pants, his boots. From its flesh he feeds his family.
From its sinew his wife makes her thread, and his children sleep
in robes of its skin. He drives it to his sledge during its life and
if it dies it baits his traps for foxes. It gives him his couch upon
which he is born, and it furnishes his shroud when he dies.
C. L. Andrews. MEMBERS OF THE SEATTLE BAR WHO DIED YOUNG*
Irving Ballard was one of the young men of Washington
Territory whose legal education was acquired in a practical way
by reading Blackstone, Kent's Commentaries, Story On The Constitution, and other text books, and by doing clerical work in the
office of a practicing lawyer. Being a diligent student, such reading and experiences added to an adacemic education, native talents
and sterling character, qualified him for admission to the bar.
He was the oldest son of Dr. Levi W. Ballard, who laid
out a town on his farm in the upper White River valley, wbjch
is now the flourishing City of Auburn. Dr. Ballard named the
town "Slaughter" to honor the memoiy of Lieutenant Slaughter
of the United States army, who was, in the Indian War of
1855-6, killed by hostile Indians in a night attack on his camp in
the immediate vicinity. An Act of the Legislature changed the
name of the town to Auburn. General Grant's Personal Memoirs
narrates that Lieutenant Slaughter regretted being in the army
instead of the navy because as an officer in the navy he might
have had a larger share of duty on land. He had suffered from
seasickness in making successive voyages to the Pacific Coast and
returning to the eastern states, pursuant to orders.
Irving Ballard was born in Ohio, but with his father's family
he came across the plains to southern Oregon where he lived
during the period of his youth; when he was twenty years of
age, the family moved to the White River farm, and then he was
a teacher of country district schools for several years. In boarding around the district, the teacher was a respected guest in the
homes of his pupils, which was a polishing experience for a
young teacher. His manners were observed by juvenile critics,
and he acquired the art of conversation under a sense of responsibility for unwise utterances, for sayings of the teacher made
matter for gossip and discussion in the neighborhood.
Mr. Ballard was a student and clerk in the office of one of
the prominent lawyers of Portland, Oregon. He was a business
man as well as a good lawyer. After admission to the bar he
acquired ownership of the steamboat Zephyr, and while he practiced law as the senior member of the fi:rm of Ballard & Inman
*ln   the   Washington Bistorical   Quarterly  for April,   1925,   pages  122  to  181,   Judge
Hanford discussed another group of Seattle lawyers under the same  title.
(18) Members of the Seattle Bar Who Died Young
19
at Seattle and Steilacoom, his brother, Captain William Rankin
Ballard operated the steamboat, making tri-weekly trips on the
route from Seattle to Olympia, which was a profitable business.
We traveled on the Zephyr in going to the Supreme Court, which
consumed one whole day going and another returning.
In 1878 Mr. Ballard was elected Prosecuting Attorney for
the Third Judicial District, which comprised all the Puget Sound
Counties north of Thurston; terms of the District Court were
held twice annually at Steilacoom, Seattle, Port Townsend and
Snohomish City. He was re-elected in 1880, but died during
that second term, in the 36th year of his age. He was married to
an estimable lady, and surviving him are four sons and one
daughter.
Henry E. Hathaway, when a youth, came to Seattle from
Connecticut. Enroute he was shipwrecked, being a passenger on
the steamship Golden Rule, which in 1865 grounded upon a reef
on the Atlantic side of the Isthmus of Nicaragua. He was a
student in the University of Washington Territory when Rev.
George F. Whitworth was President of it. During many years
that institution struggled to exist, and owing to periodical suspensions for lack of funds to sustain it, Hathaway was deprived of
opportunity to complete a college education. He was studious, and
by self-education qualified himself as a public school teacher.
Then for several years he alternated between teaching and working as a faun hand.
He studied law in the office of Waldo M. York, who was
then the Probate Judge of King County, and was admitted to
the bar. He became Judge York's successor in the office of
Probate Judge. His law practice was mostly office business,
which was lucrative, and he prospered financially. He was married to one of the daughters of Charles D. Emery, a Seattle
lawyer. Major Emery Hathaway of the United States army,
is the oldest son of that marriage.
I remember the occasion of my last meeting with Henry
Hathaway. It was in the time of the anti-Chinese agitation, and
he was doing a citizen's duty as one of Sheriff McGraw's host
of deputies.   He died soon after that disturbance.
Miss Lelia J. Robinson was the first lady member of our
bar. She had been unsuccessful in contending for the privileges
and honors of an attorney in Massachusetts, so she came here
in 1884 while the female suffrage law of Washington Territory 20
C. H. Hanford
PI
was in force, which was subsequently by a decision of the Supreme
Court declared to be invalid. Here she was admitted to practice,
and her brother attorneys treated her with courtesy and respect.
Judge Greene appointed her to defend an impecunious Chinaman
indicted for smuggling. I prosecuted and made a good case against
the defendant, but the persuasion of his charming defender won
a verdict of "Not guilty." There was no effort to restrain the
score of women in the court room from making a noisy demonstration of their joy.
In defending a suit for divorce on the ground of abusive
treatment, Miss Robinson persisted in cross examination of the
weeping plaintiff to the point of requiring her to tell the very
words of the brutal husband that constituted brutal treatment.
Her success in that respect elicited an answer that was shocking,
and won the divorce. In my experience I have observed many
cases lost by unwise cross examination on vital points, where
witnesses manifested unwillingness to divulge important facts.
Miss Robinson did not remain out west very long. I have
been informed that her ambition to break down the rule excluding women from the legal profession in Massachusetts was rewarded by success, and that she died young; this may be a mistake
as to the fact of her death.
George H. Fortson was a young man whose fine presence,
character, abilities and habits bespoke a bright career as a lawyer.
He came from the State of Georgia, and was admitted to practice
in 1889. He was too modest to become conspicuous during the
period of hard times that prevailed, prior to the sensational revival of business activity in 1897, but by industry and faithfulness
earned a reputation as a capable lawyer, and he was an efficient
officer of Company B of the National Guard. He married one of
the daughters of George F. Frye, who was one of the pioneers
of Seattle. In 1898, as Captain of Company B, he went with the
First Washington Regiment to the Philippine Islands. The regiment made a fine record there in arduous service, and participated
in battles with the insurrectos that were incidental to acquisition
of those islands by the United States. Among the casualties of
the regiment in that stage of the Spanish-American war, Captain
Fortson was killed while in performance of a soldier's duty.
Fred Rice Rowell was another popular lawyer of Seattle
whose career was cut short by early death. He came from the
State of Maine, after five years of practice in that state, and was
admitted to practice here in 1888.    He was a graduate of Colby Members of the Seattle Bar Who Died Young 21
College, and a well educated lawyer. He had patriotic pride in
his ancestry, being a descendant of Americans who were patriots
in the time of the Revolutionary war. He was President of the
Washington State Society of the Sons of the American Revolution, and a Vestryman of St. Mark's Episcopal Church, when his
death occurred, April 27th, 1904.
General Eugene M. Carr was one of the most highly esteemed
men who practiced at our bar. "Law is a jealous mistress," and
devotion to it is essential to attainment of high rank as a lawyer.
Carr was a rover. Affectionate regard for him, which was general, must be attributed to his activities in public affairs, and his
genial disposition. He was a sincere friend, a good sport, good
fighter and all kinds of a good man; highly educated, and a good
case lawyer, but he never settled down to make law practice as
his exclusive occupation.
He was a graduate of Norwich University, Vermont's military institution, also, a graduate of Columbia Law School. In
seeking a location he went to Arizona, and was for a short time
Clerk of the Circuit Court at Tombstone in that Territory. In
1883, he was a pioneer in Alaska, among the first of Americans
to traverse the Chilcoot Pass, and in 1884, he came to Seattle and
entered into partnership with Harold Preston. At that time Seattle
was an attractive point for young men recently graduated from
college. The City was growing and persevering young lawyers
managed to ejcist in competition for a share of the business obtainable. Carr took an active part in community affairs—especially
the military. The National Guard was not organized, but a company, called the Seattle Rifles existed, of which he was Second
Lieutenant.
In the summer of 1885, the anti-Chinese agitation began and
persisted in a way that led to disturbance of public tranquility.
The agitators were successful in enlisting the coal miners, the
unemployed and transient sojourners in a movement to expel all
Chinese inhabitants from Puget Sound. To resist that movement,
Mayor Yesler, Sheriff McGraw and citizens took a firm stand
and prepared to combat lawlessness, the effect of which was
failure to carry out the expulsion program in Seattle, as it was
in Tacoma, where a mob did drive all the Chinese from that City
and burned their habitations. After that occurrence, a meeting
in Frye's opera house was held, which was designed for friendly
discussion of the situation, in the hope of uniting the people on a
line of policy favorable to maintenance of law and order.   The
it 22
C. H. Hanford
11
m
first speakers in the meeting were of the anti-Chinese element
and arrogant in declaring "The Chinese must go," peaceably, or
else by compulsion. When Judge Thomas Burke was introduced
to answer those speeches, he was greeted by a hostile demonstration; part of the crowd was there, not to hear reason but to sway
the meeting adversely to the purpose for which it was designed.
A man named McGrath was the loudest noisemaker; Carr and
myself were together, near him in the back part of the house—we
quicldy moved to positions on either side of that man—I did not
hear what Carr said to him, but he subsided, and the demonstration was partly subdued. Then, George Venable Smith, a leader
of the anti's, commenced to make a plea for free speech. Judge
Burke resented that officiousness, and by the magnetic power of
an orator silenced the audience. He boldly denounced disloyalty,
and warned wage earners of the evils to come upon them as consequences of lawlessness overriding law, existing for protection
of the weak and defenseless. The effect of that mass meeting
was only to emphasize the antagonism between different elements
of the community.
The Chinese inhabitants of Seattle were not molested immediately, but on the 7th day of February, 1886, a determined
effort was made to drive them out of the City. Sheriff McGraw's
force of armed deputies had been organized in companies of
Home Guards, and Carr was Captain of one of those companies.
The Anti-Chinese Committee had arranged for transportation of
the Chinese to San Francisco on the steamship Queen, and succeeded in driving them to the dock where that vessel was moored,
but embarkation was halted by a writ of habeas corpus, which
required them to be brought before Judge Greene, the following
morning, and then, they were kept on the dock, guarded by a
committee of the anti's. At midnight, Carr with his company,
took possession of the dock, and early the next morning warrants
for arrest of the committee were placed in his hands. After
lodging the committee in the county jail, he joined the main body
of Home Guards, under command of Captain George Kinnear,
which then escorted the Chinese to the Court House. At the
conclusion of Court proceedings they were all escorted back to
the dock where their portable belongings had been left. Some of
them departed on the Queen, and about two hundred who chose
to remain were escorted back to their habitations, but enroute,
at the intersection of Main Street and First Avenue a mob was
encountered, and an attempt was made to seize guns in the hands Members of the Seattle Bar Who Died Young 23
1
H
ill
of Home Guards. A few shots were exchanged, and a leader of
the mob, named Stewart, was mortally wounded. Captain Kinnear
ranged the Home Guards in a line across First Avenue, facing
the mob and protecting the Chinese behind it. The company of
Seattle Rifles came and executed the order of its Captain—"With
ball cartridges load," and Captain J. C. Haines with Company D
marched through the mob. Captain Kinnear selected two of his
men to push the rioters back for a space in front of his line.
One man shouted for a rush to seize the guns. There would have
been more blood shed if such an attempt had been repeated, but
the response was a call for that man to lead the rush, and he
replied, "I am not a leader." Then, a speech was called for and
a box to stand on was produced. John Keane stepped upon it,
but instead of rousing the crowd to fury he said: "There's been
trouble enough this day, all of you go to your homes." Then,
there being no fuirther manifestation of disposition to obstruct
them, the Chinese proceeded to their quarters, and the Home
Guards marched to the Court House where citizens were holding
a conference with Judge Greene and Governor Watson C. Squire.
While that conference was being held, a constable came with
a warrant for the arrest of Carr, Judge Burke, Frank Hanford,
D. H. Webster and Rev. L. A. Banks for alleged murder, issued
by G. A. Hill, a Justice of the Peace. The obvious purpose of
it was to get those men separated from the ranks of the Home
Guards, so that the mob might lay hands upon them. The man
who made the affidavit on which the warrant was based, has
never been identified. The constable was detained until the City
was put under martial law by Governor Squire's proclamation,
which prevented him from arresting either of those men. Subsequently, all of them except the clergyman gave bail for their appearance in Court to answer the accusation. At the next ensuing
term of Court a grand jury took cognizance of the case and made
a report, exonerating each of them. In fact, they did not kill
Stewart, or fire a shot at the time of the riot.
General John Gibbon came to Seatfle with a battalion of the
14th U. S. Infantry, and he governed the City two weeks while
martial law was in force. During that time the police force was
re-organized, and the National Guard of Washington Territory
was organized, which included a new company of loyal citizens,
designated as Company E. Carr was its Captain and ten other
Seattle lawyers were enrolled as members of it. They were R. B.
Albertson, George Hyde Preston, Harold Preston, Joseph F. Mc-
Ii
(1 24
C. H. Hanford
ill
11
Naught, Eben S. Osborne, A. E. Hanford, C. H. Hanford, W. A.
Peters, H. M. Hoyt and W. D. Wood. Carr continued to serve
as an officer of the National Guard ten years, and was successively
Assistant Adjutant General, and commander of it with the rank
of Brigadier General. The honor of that highest rank was conferred upon him by Governor McGraw.
When the Northern Pacific branch line over the Cascade
Mountains from Pasco to Tacoma was being constructed, Carr
was employed several months in that railroad work. About that
time, he was married to Miss Alice Preston. He was in active
practice as a member of the firm of Carr & Preston until his
departure for the Yukon River in 1897, and he ser-ved one term
as Prosecuting Attorney for King County, immediately after the
State Government superseded Washington Territory.
In July, 1897, a ton of gold taken from Klondike Creek in
the upper Yukon River country was brought to Seattle by the
steamship Portland, and then the lure of that northland was irresistible. Carr had been in the region of the discovery in 1883, and
was eager to get ahead of the multitude of argonauts in haste to
go there. The Portland was berthed for a return voyage to
St. Michael, and he decided to go in, by the reverse way that the
gold had come out, that is by taking passage on ship to the mouth
of the Yukon River and thence by river steamer to Dawson. The
ship was loaded to capacity by passengers and their outfits, Cairr
and Ex-Governor McGraw included. They were disappointed by
failure of the river steamer to reach destination before navigation of the river was closed for the season by ice, and were
obliged to spend the long winter at a place called Rampart in
the interior of Alaska. In that latitude the seasons alternate between daylight and darkness. In the former there is light sufficient for taking photographs from two o'clock A. M. until ten
o'clock P. M. and darkness prevails a corresponding number of
hours, nearly half of the year. Rampart was shut in. No communication with the outside world was possible, and there was
seldom any wind to make a noise. Awful stillness added to
black darkness made the period of detention extremely gloomy.
The presence of a woman gave more cheeriness than anything else
in the camp; she did not have a coffee mill, so to have coffee
ground, made frequent errands to the cabin occupied by Carr,
the Governor and their associates, and chatted pleasantly while
the grinding was being done.    Grinding the lady's coffee was a Members of the Seattle Bar Who Died Young
25
privilege enjoyed so much that the men claimed it in rotation.
Every one jealously insisted on having his chance.
Coffee was precious in that country. On a prospecting trip
using a dog team and sled for hauling tools, blankets and grub,
an accident caused the spilling of coffee on the moss covered
ground. Carr assumed the task of picking up the grains, and
persisted until it was finished despite being urged to move on.
He had to recover the last grain before he would desist.
In the winter of 1898, after the last opportunity for passage
home by any kind of public service carrier, Carr wanted to come
home, and what he wanted to do, he would do. What everybody else regarded as impossible, was not so to him, and obvious
danger hindered him not. With a dog team he made the perilous
journey from the interior of Alaska to the coast, traversing uninhabited country destitute of roads, braving snow, ice, intense
cold and winter storms, and in the most dangerous part of the
way he had no companion except his dogs.
The mining venture was not abandoned, with Mrs. Carr he
returned to his claim on Little Menook Creek, and they remained
there one year, the reward for which was in experience rather
than in any considerable amount of gold. Mrs. Carr said that,
"it was a wonderful experience, we were very comfortably and
happily situated." Too much at home, a husband is apt to become
a nuisance, but for connubial bliss, house a couple in a rustic
cabin where lodge meetings do not entice him from his home fireside, and pink teas, gossiping clubs and bridge parties do not
engross the wife's intellectual activities. In the long winter spent
together in that region, the light of their smiling faces dispelled
darkness of the northland.
In the summer of 1900, Carr's half brother, and a cousin
were drowned in Lake Washington. The cousin, Clark M. Carr,
was a young lawyer who had recently come from Illinois, and
had barely entered upon his profession. To find the bodies in
Lake Washington was a difficult undertaking, but it was characteristic of Carr to exert his energy in an effort to accomplish it.
He did that, and was successful in recovering both of them. On
a previous occasion, when G. Morris Haller, Dr. Thomas T.
Minor and Louis Cox were drowned in Puget Sound, he was the
main push in the search for those bodies, which was rewarded by
success in recovering two of them.
After his perilous trip homeward from Alaska, he proved his 26
C. H. Hanford
ability as a case lawyer, in a number of important trials. I recall
one case tried before me in the Federal Court, in which he took
a leading part; I remember that case especially because I was
impressed by the masterful and thorough development of the
merits on his part. At one stage of the trial I admonished him
for consuming too much time in eliciting testimony bearing on
mere details. When Court adjourned for recess, he came to me
protesting that the knew the importance of details, and that time
sufficient to clarify the case was not time wasted.
He went to Alaska again in 1905, taking Mrs. Carr with him,
and practiced law at Fairbanks, and was United States Commissioner there three years.
When he came back finally he gave more attention to a
farm in Yakima County than to professional business. It is a
peculiar circumstance that, a survivor of many perils in wilderness
regions, was accidentally killed upon his own doorstep. He was
alone at the farm when ice upon the doorstep caused him to fall,
whereby he was fatally injured, in fact, instantly killed. A brief
obituary contained in proceedings of the Washington State Bar
Association of the year 1914, erroneously states that he dropped
dead of apoplescy, but on a post mortem examination, it was found
that his neck was broken. Thus, on the 20th day of January,
1914, the life of a noble man was ended.
C. H. Haneord. ADDITIONAL NOTES ON THE CONSTITUTION
OF 1878
In the years 1918-1919 Professor Edmond S. Meany and
Dean John T. Condon, of the University of Washington, published
in the Washington Historical Quarterly a series of articles entitled
Washington's First Constitution, 1878, and Proceedings of the
Convention. These articles included not only the proceedings of
the ocnvention, as published in the Walla Walla Union at the time
the convention was in session, but also the text of the constitution,
together with an introduction by Professor Meany and annotations by Professor Meany and Dean Condon. Subsequently the
entire work was published in pamphlet form and has proved to
be of great value to students of the political history of Washington.
At the time the constitutional convention was being held in
Walla Walla, in the summer of 1878, there was only one newspaper in existence in Eastern Washington north of Snake River.
This was the Palouse Gazette, the first number of which came
from the press in Colfax on September 29, 1877. The Gazette
was a weekly newspaper, published by Lucien E. Kellogg and
Charles B. Hopkins. As this newspaper was the only representative of "journalistic opinion" in the "upper country," I have recently examined the first two volumes with a view to ascertaining,
if posible, what its opinion was on the subject of statehood.1 As
a result of that investigation, I am offering herewith some "additional notes" on the constitution of 1878. Some of the information
herein set forth differs slightly2 from that gathered by Professor
Meany and Dean Condon, and in one instance I have used a document which apparently was not available to these men. This is
the official proclamation of Governor Elisha P. Ferry, announcing
the results of the election of November 5, 1878.
On February 16, 1878, as the time for choosing the delegates to the convention drew near,3 the Palouse Gazette expressed
itself editorially as follows:
1 I am indebted to the Bramwell Bros., publishers of the OoVfax Gazette, for the use
of their file.
2 Compare the vote, as announced in Governor 'Ferry's proclamation, infra, with the
returns compiled by the Oregonian. See Washington's First Constitution. 1878, and Proceedings of the convention, p. 62. Also note the slight difference between the total vote
given in lie two places for Whitman County. In the governor's proclamation the vote of
the three counties of Northern Idaho is given.
3 The election to choose delegates was held on April 9, 1878.
It
(27) 28
/. Orin Oliphant
"We had hoped that the men chosen to the high and imoprtant
trust of framing a constitution for the future State of Washington, to be submitted to the people for rejection or adoption, might
enter upon their work unfettered by political obligations or feeling that they should be guided by former party predilections.
Present indications, however, show unmistakable signs of a close
adherence to political parties in the selection of those delegates.
Already the press of both political parties are calling conventions
for the nomination of partisan delegates, and there are reasons
to warrant the belief that Republicans and Democrats will exert
their utmost power to gain the ascendancy of strength in the convention. Right here will be found the great mistake; whatever
may be the result of such a body's deliberations will be received
with suspicion and distrust by the mass of people to whom the
instrument will be submitted—and the people should look well to
the production of that convention. It is to be the chart by which
a great and intelligent people are to be guided in future years,
upon which depends in a great measure the degree of prosperity
the new state is to enjoy. We would like to see the representative
men of both parties come together and agree upon the persons that
are best fitted by their sound, common sense and practical capacity
to frame a constitution that will bear all legal tests and be worthy
of the State of Washington. Let not this important trust be
placed in the hands of those who make politics a trade, only to
incur a great expense upon the territory, and receive the just re-
proval of the people."
On March 9 the Gazette gave editorial approval to the choice
of the Republican party, Captain James Ewart of Colfax, as the
representative for the counties of Whitman, Stevens and Columbia.
Three weeks later, when James V. O'Dell, an attorney of Colfax,
announced himself as an independent candidate, the Gazette also
spoke in favorable terms of his candidacy. Thereafter it remained
silent on this question, assuming a position of "strict neutrality."*
"There is a universal feeling of indifference on the part of the
mass of people in regard to next Tuesday's election," declared the
Gazette of April 6. "So utterly oblivious do they seem that it
will not be surprising if there be no vote cast. This indifference
is not confined to Whitman County or to Eastern Washington,
but all over the territory.    If we are to be admitted into the
4 Editorial, Palouse Gazette, March 30, 1878. Additional Notes oj\ the Constitution of I878 29
Union as the thirty-ninth state, it is highly important who are
elected to make the constitution."
Two weeks later, in announcing the election returns for Whitman County, the Gazette stated that a "very fight vote was cast,
giving no idea of the voting population of the county." The following returns were made:
For Delegates at Large
W. A. George   269
A. J. Cain       5
S. M. Gillmore  156
Edward Eldridge    152
First District
S. M. Wait  263
W. S. Gillmore       6
A. J.  Cain       1
Joint Council District  (Whitman, Stevens and
Columbia Counties)
James V.  O'Dell  151
James Ewart  147
Against Railroad Subsidy     71
For Railroad  Subsidy       1
Between the election of the delegates and the opening of the
convention! in the following June the Gazette paid little attenttion
to the proposed constitution. On June 8 it announced that on
"next Tuesday the delegates elected to form a state constitution
for this territory will meet in Walla Walla to enter upon their
duties. This delegation is composed of the best men in the territory, many of them being lawyers of recognized ability and experience. The political complexion of the convention is eight Republicans and seven Democrats," but as party lines were entirely
ignored in the election of delegates, it is hoped they may be in the
convention."
Complete reports of the work of the convention did not find
space in the Colfax newspaper, but occasionally a correspondent
who signed himself Ariel contributed articles to the Gazette. On
June 17 he wrote as follows:
"Mrs. A. J. Duniway petitioned the convention for leave to
read a 'Memorial' to that body; considerable opposition was made
to this proceeding by Messrs. Larrabee, Hannah and O'Dell, but
5 The Walla Walla Union called the convention "another electoral commission."
Quoted in Palouse Gazette, June 8, 1878. The Hayes-Tilden contest was apparently still
fresh in the minds of the people. 30
/. Orin Oliphant
M%
the leave was granted by a vote of ayes and nays, resulting in 7
ayes to 6 nays, so on yesterday at 10 o'clock, that lady proceeded
with her show—and instead of a 'memorial' we were regaled with
a regular stump speech, and tonight she holds forth at the Unitarian church, in what she is pleased to call 'an argument* in favor
of woman suffrage."8
On June 26, in reference to the question of boundaries, Ariel
wrote as follows:
"On Saturday last the committee on boundaries made their
report. In the boundaries they included the three northern counties
of Idaho. When this article came up for consideration, Mr. Lar-
rabee moved an amendment, striking out that part of the section
including the counties of Noithern Idaho, and bounding the state
by lines as they now define Washington Territory. Upon this proposition a long and heated discussion ensued between Messrs.
O'Dell and Leland in favor of the boundaries as reported by the
committee, and Messrs. Larrabee and Bradshaw opposed to it. The
discussion lasted for two days, when upon the fivnal vote the report
of the committee was adopted by a vote of ayes, 11, noes 3."7
The question of boundaries was one full of political dynamite,
for there was at this time a strong opinion in the country north of
Snake River, and perhaps throughout Washington Territory as a
whole, in favor of the annexation of Northern Idaho to Washington. So, in order to correct the misrepresentation contained in
Ariel's dispatch, Mr. Larrabee wrote on July 10 the following letter to the editors of the Gazette:
"Hall of Constitutional Convention
"Walla Walla, W. T., July 10, 1878
"Eds. Palouse Gazette—In your last issue your Walla Walla
correspondent represents Messrs. Abernethy, Bradshaw and myself as voting against the incorporation of Northern Idaho into
the State of Washington. This statement places us in a false
position, for not a single member of the convention has thus far
offered any objection to the including that portion of Idaho. We
only differ as to the best mode of accomplishing the object. The
committee reported boundaries, including two counties of Idaho
6 Mrs. A. J. Duniway was for many years the champion in the Paciflc Northwest of
the woman-suffrage movement. She traveled extensively and lectured on this subject to
many audiences, and, at the same time, she published in Portland, Oregon, a suffrage
newspaper   called   the   New   Northwest.     See   her   book   entitled   Path-Breaking   (Portland,
second  edition,   1914).     Also  see   Washington's  First   Constitution p.   18.
Mrs. Duniway was a sister of Harvey W.  Scott, the famous editor of the Oregonian.
7 Palouse  Gazette, July 6,  1878. Additional Notes of the Constitution of IS78
31
and part of a third, to which report I offered the following
emendment to the boundaries of Washington Territory:
" 'Provided, however, That the following alterations of the
aforesaid boundary be, and hereby is proposed to the Congress of
the United States as the nearly unanimous desire of the people included therein, and as the preference of the State of Washington,
and if the same shall be assented and agreed to by the Congress
of the United States, then the same shall be and forever remain
obligatory on the State of Washington.'8 Then follows the boundaries as reported by the committee, including Idaho.
"It will be observed that this plan is not open to the objection
that we are seizing upon a sister territory without her consent,
and the further obligation that we have no power to provide for
the conservation of public or private rights, growing out of the
judgments of courts or the acquisition of property through any
other means; this can be done by Congress alone But the convention has adopted the other plan, and we shall all stand by it
to the end.   Yours,
Charles II. Larrabee,
Delegate from the Third Judicial District"*
The text of a memorial relative to the improvement of Snake
River for navigation, which was reported to the convention by
Messrs. O'Dell, Bradshaw and Henry, was printed in the Palouse
Gazette of July 26, 1878.10
The printing of the text of the constitution was commenced
in the Gazette of August 23, but not until the following week was
there editorial mention therein of this document In the issue of
August 30, answering a complaint of the editor of the Lewiston
Teller, the Gazette declared:11
"We have seen no reason for discussing the constitution; but
that we may be plainly understood, and not accused of the despicable principle of catering approbation, let us inform the Teller
that the Gazette is anxious for the annexation of Northern Idaho
to Washington and the adoption of the state constitution. If the
question was as to the immediate admission of the territory into
8 This plan proposed a line of action similar to that adopted by the Oregon constitutional convention in 1857. The Oregon convention provided for the annexation to Oregon
of all that territory in Washington lying south of Snake Elver, with the proviso, however,
that this might be changed by the Congress. When Oregon was admitted In 1859 it*
northern boundary aa a territory was fixed as the northern boundary at the new state and
the Walla Walla country was allowed to remain s part of Washington.
9 Palouse Gazette, July 20. 1878. This letter corroborates the account glren In the
official   proceedings.     Washington's   First   Constitution. .,   p.   7.
10 See Washington's Pint Constitution.    .     .     ..   p.  M.
11 A^imf* Leland. the editor of the Tetter, had represented tbe Idaho counties In the
convention. /. Orin Oliphant
the Union, we would oppose it. Or if the adoption of the constitution was to hasten it, our better judgment would compel us to
oppose it. But a constitution has been framed at a cost of nearly
seven thousand dollars; the people can adopt this, and Congress
will judge when Washington has the necessary population to entitle her to admission."
The question of the adoption of the constittuion, particularly
that of annexation, became associated with a bitter contest for the
delegateship between Thomas H. Brents and N. T. Caton. Both
candidates expressed themselves in favor of the annexation of
Northern Idaho to Washington and against the annexation of
Walla Walla and Columbia Counties to Oregon. Caton declared
that he favored the adoption of the constitution notwithstanding
its defects.12
On October 4 the Gazette copied from the Olympia Transcript
an editorial urging the adoption of the constitution. The Transcript declared: "Its opponents are mostly corporation sympathizers, office holders and official aspirants, whom it guards
against, in any schemes which they may hereafter have to control
the state government. It protects the masses of the people—the
laboring classes—against an unjust discrimination in taxes; makes
corporations liable for labor done for their benefit, and stock holders personally liable for debts of their company, as far as labor is
concerned."
The Transcript's view was subsequently adopted by the Gazette for its own, and on October 11, "after considering the subject in every light," the Gazette urged the adoption of the constitution on these grounds: that it was as good as the constitution of
any other state of the Union; that its adoption did not mean immediate admission; that to reject it would be equivalent to announcing to the people of Northern Idaho that they were not
wanted in the proposed state; and lastly, that it was being opposed
by the "railroads and other corporations."18
On November 1 the Gazette published the three separate articles, which dealt with the subjects of woman suffrage and local
option. The first two being easily "recognized as Mrs. A. J. Dun-
way's woman suffrage part of the constitution," the Gazette,
"without comment," left them to "the good sense of the people."1*
12 Palouse Gazette, September 27 and November 1, 1878.
13 The Oregon Steam Navigation Company, which controlled the Snake and the
Columbia Rivers, was at this time exacting a heavy tribute of the people living in the
Inland Empire.    It was often referred to as a "grinding monopoly."
14 The woman-suffrage articles were as follows: No. 1—"No person, who is otherwise  a qualified  elector,   shall  be denied the right to vote  in this  state,  on account  of Additional Notes of the Constitution of I878 33
With respect to the third article (local option) the. Gazette stated:
"This has been proved the most effectual way of advancing the
temperance cause that has as yet been devised, and should be
adopted everywhere."
As early as October 25 the Gazette was certain that the constitution would be approved by the people of Eastern Washington.
In the issue of that date the editors declared: "While traveling
about this and Stevens counties for the last two weeks, we had
an opportunity of learning how the people regarded the state constitution, and found them almost unanimously in favor of adopting it. The people express themselves satisfied with this constitution, and those features of it which are so offensive to corpulent
speculators make it popular with the masses.15 Eastern Washington will adopt it by a large majority."
The election returns for Whitman County, as published in the
Gazette of November 15, 1878, follow:
Whitman County Election Returns—Official16
For Constitution    716
Against Constitution    116
Suffrage Articles
For Article No. 1   101
Against Article No.  1  275
For Article No. 2     95
Against Article No. 2  267
Local Option
For Article No. 3  253
Against Article No. 3   154
Governor Ferry's proclamation, announcing the returns for
Washington and Northern Idaho, is as follows:17
Whereas,   at   a  general   election,  held  in   the   Territory   of'
Washington on the fifth day of November, A. D., one thousand
eight  hundred  and  seventy-eight,   there   were   submitted  to  the
sex,  anything In this .constitution to the  contrary notwithstanding."
No. 2—"No person shall be denied the right, on account of sex, to vote or hold office
in this state;  nor shall such right be,  in any manner,   abridged on  account of  sex."
15 The Palouse Gazette of November 1, 1878, quoted the Walla Walla Union to the
effect that Ladd & Tilton, bankers of Portland, would stop the construction of a proposed railroad in Southeastern Washington if the people of Washington adopted the pro;
posed constitution. To this the Gazette replied: "This little proclamation of Oregon
capitalists is alone enough to make the people of Washington arouse and show their independence by voting, to a man, for the adoption of the constitution . . . Let them
take their steel rails and make them into vaults in which to treasure their silver and
gold, they cannot forge them into chains with which to bind down the intelligence and
independence of the people of Washington."
16 The vote in Whitman County which was recorded by the Oregonian was as follows:
For the Constitution, 746; against the Constitution, 116. Washington's First Constitution.    .     .     ., p.  62.
17 Palouse  Gazette, February 7,   1879. «™
34
/. Orin Oliphant
legal voters of said Territory, for adoption or rejection, a constitution for the State of Washington; and also three Separate
Articles which should become a part of said constitution in the
event of their adoption, and
Whereas, at a general election held in the counties of Idaho,
Shoshone and Nez Perce, in the Territory of Idaho, on said fifth
day of November, one thousand and eight hundred and seventy-
eight, said constitution and Separate Articles were submitted for
adoption or rejection to the legal voters of said counties, and
Whereas, it is made the duty of the Governor of said Territory of Washington to declare by proclamation the result of the
votes cast and returned on the adoption or rejection of said Constitution and Separate Articles,
Now, therefore, I, ELISHA P. FERRY, Governor of said
Territory, do hereby declare the following to be the result of the
vote cast at said election in the Territory of Washington:18
For Constitution, six thousand five hundred and thirty-seven.
Against Constitution, three thousand two hundred and thirty-
six.
For Separate Article No. 1, one thousand eight hundred and
twenty-seven.
Against Separate Article No. 1, five thousand one hundred
and seventeen.
For Sparate Article No. 2, one thousand seven hundred and
forty-five.
Against Separate Article No. 2, five thousand and sixty-one.
For Separate Article No. 3, two thousand eight hundred and
seventy-four.
Against Separate Article No. 3, four thousand one hundred
and fifty-one.
And I do further declare the following to be the result of the
votes cast in said counties of Idaho, Shoshone and Nez Perce, in
the Territory of Idaho :19
For Constitution, seven hundred and thiity-seven.
Against Constitution, twenty-six.
For Separate Article No. 1, one hundred and twenty-three.
18 The totals printed in the Oregonian follow: For Constitution, 6,462: against Constitution, 3,231.    Washington's First Constitution.    .     .     .,  p.   62.
19 With respect to the vote in Northern Idaho the Lewiston Teller stated: "There
were a few who seemed wholly indifferent upon the question, but at this time we can not
learn of 25 votes cast against the Constitution in the three counties. Shoshone county
cast but one vote against it. Mt. Idaho, the largest precinct in Idaho county, cast but
two votes against it. Lewiston, the largest precinct in Nez Perce county, cast but four
votes against It. The northern precincts of this county did nearly as well." Washington's First Constitution p. 61.
9 i Additional Notes of the Constitution of 18/8
35
Against Separate Article No. 1, two hundred and eighty-two.
For Separate Article No. 2, one hundred and twenty-two.
Against Separate Article No. 2, two hundred and eighty-two.
For Separate Article No. 3, two hundred and twenty-one.
Against Separate Article No. 3, one hundred and eighty-eight.
And I do further declare that said Constitution has been
adoptd.
And I do further declare that said Article No. 1, Article No.
2, and Article No. 3 have been rejected.
In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and
caused the Great Seal of the Territory to be affixed, at Olympia,
this twenty-eighth day of December, A. D. 1878.
ELISHA P. FERRY,
Governor.
By the Governor,
N. H. OWINGS,
Secretary.
J v : a
MONUMENT  UNVEILED  IN  PUYALLUP
On Friday afternoon, October 30, 1925, under the auspices of
the Washington State Historical Society a monument was unveiled at the north end of the Meridian Street Bridge, Puyallup.
Brief addresses were made by Steve Gray, Mayor of Puyallup;
Charles H. Ross, Frank R. Spinning, Robert Montgomery and F.
W. Griffiths. A statement of the reasons for erecting the mon-
ment was made by W. P. Bonney, Secretary of the Washington
State Historical Society as follows:
Friends:—We are gathered here today to unveil and dedicate
a memorial marker, a four-sided affair, with four inscribed tablets—North-East-West, South, the initial letters of these four
cardinal points of the compass—spell our word N-E-W-S- But
the inscriptions on these tablets are not news today. They hark
back to the news items of seventy years ago; back to the days
when John Carson, wkh his family, came and established his home
on this spot. This was a public highway then; crude, but it
served a purpose. To add to the convenience of crossing the
river, Mr. Carson built a ferry boat; attached it by guy ropes to
a cable which he strung over the river, so that people might cross
dry-shod. By the manipulation of these guy ropes Mr. Carson
utilized the current of the stream to push his ferry back and forth
across the river.
He had erected a cabin in which to house his family, and
began clearing and cultivating the land on which he had settled.
The Puyallup Valley in those days was inhabited mainly by wild
beasts and the wandering Indian. These Indians were an unknown
quantity; they had lived here for untold ages without interfering
with natural conditions, they resented the activities of the white
men, coming into their country and by civilizing industry usurping the homes of their fathers.
A school, District No. 3, had been organized here during
June, 1854, and by vote of the School Board a school house was
ordered built on the claim of John Carson. This house was to
have been "24x34 feet with eleven foot story" and "to be built
with lumber." The records show that "it was not built because
of the Indian war." One night in October, 1855, Abraham Sala-
tat, a friendly Indian, rode through the valley, and gave warning
to white settlers of an Indian uprising.    This warning doubtless
(36)
llfii Monument Unveiled in Puyallup
37
saved many lives; the words spoken by Salatat were earnest. They
carried conviction and the people heeded. He is reported to have
been at the home of Willis Boatman in the night, and after giving
the warning promptly and rapidly rode away in the direction "of
Carson's ferry. About three o'clock next morning, Ezra Meeker
and family, then living on the edge of the prairie, received their
warning—by a man on horseback who called to them through the
window, and then rode away.
We do not know just how many warnings Salatat did give; but
the settlers of the Puyallup Valley, by promptly going to Steilacoom were saved, despite the fact that every home in the Valley,
save one, was burned. Just how long Salatat lived after the war,
we do not know. There is a record in the account book kept by
Hugh Pattison, the Pierce County nurseryman, of an invoice of
fruit trees purchased by Abraham Salatat on the 20th of November, 1857. By 1858 the Indians had quieted down enough so that
some of the settlers, including the Carson family, felt that they
dared come back to their homes. During February, 1856, under
orders by Colonel Casey, the commandant at Fort Steilacoom, a
blockhouse was erected on the banks of the Puyallup River, and
garrisoned with regular soldiers, to protect this crossing of the
river and the Carson Ferry. This was known as Fort Maloney.
This building was occupied by the Carson family on their return to
their home.
During the summer of 1861, Mrs. Carson taught school here.
On November 11, 1861, the Board of Directors, by vote, ordered
the clerk of the District to pay Mrs. E. L. Carson $60.00; $33.55
had been received by the clerk from the County Treasurer, S.
McCaw, on the fourth of November and $33.50 of this was paid
to Mrs. Carson on the 11th, the day the order was issued. On
August 5th, 1862, another sum of money, $19.58, came to the district from the treasurer, this time J. H. Munson. The same day
it was paid to Mrs. Carson, the record stating: "Paid to E. L.
Carson $19.58 on order of directors for $60.00." The record also
shows, on this date, that there was a balance on hand of $.05. This
left a balance still due Mrs. Carson of $6.92 which was paid to
her on August 9, 1863.
Through age the Carson ferry became inoperative, and during
the year 1858, under Territorial charter, Mr. Carson constructed a
toll bridge across the river. This bridge was carried away by
river floods during the winter of 1862-1863. 38
W. P. Bonney
In the meantime the highway here had been adopted as a
military road from Steilacoom to Bellingham. During the year
1864, the first telegraph wire through the State was strung over
this road.
Had there been room for one more tablet on the pyramid,
we would have told of the first postoffice in the Puyallup Valley
being established here through the influence of James P. Stewart,
It was known as Franklin Post Office, and was the fourth established in Pierce County, the others being Steilacoom, Nisqually
and Spanaway.
This Franklin Post Office was a migratory affair, sometimes
on this side of the river and sometimes on the other. John Carson was the first Postmaster. Early in 1862, James P. Stewart
was appointed. He named John Walker deputy, and the office
was moved up the river to the Walker place. Walker donated
eighteen acres of land to Stewart, with the understanding that he,
Stewart, would establish a store, which he did, and moved the
Post Office into it. Later the store was closed, and the Post
Office was moved back down the river, just across from the Carson place. Mail was brought to Franklin from Steilacoom by
horseback. A little later the line was extended to Seattle; from
Steilacoom to Seattle via Franklin one day, back the next, once
a week. Sam Bonney rode the line for a while. Later it was
covered by Cornelius H. Hanford. By 1873, George T. Vinning,
having established a store on the Carson place, was appointed
Postmaster, and once more the office was moved, this time to the
Vinning store, which was less than 100 feet from this marker. In
November, 1875, Mr. Vinning started to San Francisco on the
Steamer Pacific. The boat was sunk in a collision about forty
miles out from Victoria. Out of 250 persons known to have
been on board, only two reached shore alive. The Franklin Post
Office was discontinued in 1876, Sumner and Puyallup taking its
place.
W. P. Bonney. OLDEST PIONEER LAID TO REST
Mrs. Mary Ann King, a pioneer of the Colville Valley, who
died at the Catholic Home for the Aged at Wendle, Idaho, October 28, 1925, was buried Wednesday, November 4, 1925, at Che-
welah by the side of her husband, Peter King, who died in 1887.
Mrs. Peter King was born in 1821 prior to the establishment of
Fort Colville and had lived in Colville Valley eighty-four years.
Mrs. King was the daughter of Patrick and Mary Finley,
natives of Canada, and Washington, in those early days of the
fur trade when this whole region was vaguely known as the "Oregon Country" or the "Columbia District" of the Hudson's Bay
Company's territories.
Her grandfather was Jacob Finlay, associate of the intrepid
explorer, David Thompson, whom Jacco doubtless preceded in exploring the headwaters of the Columbia River and its Kootenai branch. His family name is perpetuated in Finlay's River,
a northern branch of the Peace River, and his own name in Jacco
Creek, Missoula County, Montana, and in Finley (Finlay) Creek,
a northern tributary of the Kootenai River near Columbia Lake
in British Columbia. John Work's Journal for the year 1828,
published in the Washington Historical Quarterly, records the
death of Jacco Firday at Spokane House in that year.
Jacco Finlay had a large family, all of whom were probably
born East of the Mountains in the vicinity of Fort Edmonton:
Patrick, Eustance, Paul, Jim, Misquotham, Margaret and Rose.
Mrs. King, the deceased, was a younger daughter of the oldest
son, Patrick Finlay. Her father settled among the Indians in the
Colville Valley and married a native woman there in 1820 and
Mary Ann Finlay was born, according to family record, in 1821,
being thus 104 years old at the time of her death. Patrick Finlay
had a large family of sons and daughters, who like others of the
numerous Finlay family were noted for their comely looks and
their fine physique; many of the family possessed light blue eyes.
The men of the family were characteristiaclly competent and
trustworthy, and the daughters fine wives and mothers.
Mary Ann Finlay was married at the age of nineteen. Her
husband, Peter King, born in Quebec in 1820, came to the Hud-
§f|ftfl-"*lr
(39) 40
William S. Lewis
son's Bay Post in the '40s and was a blacksmith with the company for several years, settling in 1851 on land three miles northwest of the present town of Chewelah, which land he secured from
his wife's father.
Mr. and Mrs. King were the parents of eleven children. Four
daughters are living: Mrs. Sophia Regenry, Grand Forks, B. C.;
Mrs. Mary L. Conrady, wife of C. F. Conrady, former resident
of Colville, now living at Priest River, Idaho; Mrs. Julia M.
McLeod, wife of Frank McLeod, living in Montana; Mrs. Louise
Roberts, wife of Randolph Roberts, living in Stevens County.
The address of another, Martina, is unknown.1
Peter King was a Frenchman, a man of small stature, a very
good mechanic, a carpenter and a blacksmith. The old Peter
King estate, lying about three miles north of Chewelah, was one
of the earliest settled places in the State of Washington. He had
one of the largest hewed log houses with a double fireplace, with
beautiful moulding adorning it, all hand-made. All his furniture
was also hand-made. This log house with its unusually large
front room was the scene of many a social dance, as those young
ladies, his daughters, always drew a large crowd. His other farm
buildings were likewise all hewed logs well put up, and as he was
a blacksmith, and had the only private blacksmith outfit in the
country at that time, he made his own door hinges and hardware.
He had all hewed timber for gates and iron hinges, while the rest
of the country had only bars. The whole place showed the efforts
of an old time skilled craftsman.
Peter King had all a Frenchman's gayety and love of show
and used to ride in a top buggy up and down this Colville Valley
seventy-five years ago. No doubt he must have been a gay sport
in his day, and enjoyed his courting just as much as anyone at the
present time in his high powered car. He engaged in farming and
stock raising on the old farm until his death in 1887.
After the death of her husband Mrs. King continued to reside'
on the old home place near Chewelah until old age forced her to
leave the farm.    This place was sold in 1918 to Fred Stern of
Davenport, Washington.    On the farm at the time was a cabin
which had stood there for nearly a century.
Mrs. King had managed her place the best she knew how,
but always lived within her income. At times it looked like a
"widow's place", but she kept it clear of any encumbrance. Hers
1 See hereon, History of Northwest Washington, page 394, Oldest Pioneer Laid to Rest
41
was one of the very few farms in the valley on which there never
was a mortgage recorded. She was an excellent example of that
best of Indian character and Indian blood in this country that
never had any charity. She had provided for herself, even her
funeral expenses, and lived to be one hundred and four years old.
Some of the mixed blood in the early days were indolent, but the
King family, especially the girls (they are old women now) were
known as hard working and thrifty. Mrs. King in her day was
one of the very best of women to tan a deer hide, make moccasins,
gloves and when it came to fancy bead work she was second to
none.
After the railroad was built into the Colville Valley nearly all
the Indian settlers were crowded out and lost their lands and were
forced to go onto the reservations, but Mrs. King stayed. Her
self pride tempted her to stay with the whites; and her native
shrewdness was sufficient to protect her property from the covetous and scheming white men who would have possessed her
lands. Often she remarked "Me not seel, no place, no home."
She was a true devoted Christian, a strong adherent to the Catholic church. Over forty years she was a widow. Though she
had many a chance to get married again, she remained a widow.
She had always kept herself clear of any trouble or scandal, and
her character was beyond any reproach. She was of mixed blood,
far above the average, and very few like her inherited the good
traits of both her ancestors. She was slow in choosing friends,
but once she established friendship with any one, she was as true
as steel. She was free from care or worry. On the other hand
she possessed a great self pride, and also an economic thrift, that
many a person would envy. She never had any opportunity for
education, but her native wit and intelligence lifted her above the
average of her contemporaries.
With the passing of Mrs. Mary Ann King, the present generation says only: "another old timer gone", but to the old pioneers
she is of deeper interest, as she recalls the days when everyone
knew everyone else throughout the entire valley, and when all
were, so to say, one great family. Very few people were permitted to see as much change take place in a country as she did,
from the time when the aborigines held full sway over this entire
domain, till this country developed and progressed to its present
state. She lived longer on the same place than any other person
did in this county, and maybe in this entire northwest.    Some mm
42
William S. Lewis
years ago when already far beyond the allotted age of man, Mrs.
King retired to spend her last days in the Catholic Home for the
Aged at Wendle, Idaho. The funeral rites were conducted at the
Catholic church in Chewelah, and her remains now rest beside
those of her husband. In age she was, at the time of her death,
Washington's oldest daughter.
William S. Lewis. DOCUMENTS
D3EARY OE WlL3KES IN THE NORTHWEST
[Continued from Volume XVI., Page 30L]
[June, 1841.]
The Willamette is generally about % of a mile wide for about
4 miles from its entrance into the Cola. the banks are low and
during the freshet overflow the water was backed into the Willamette & we found little current to contend with. Afterwards
they became high and precipitous, in very few places susceptible
of cultivation. At Sunset we encamped on one of the Island
(Oak Island) Near by the Young Americans who are building
their boat who had crossed the country about a year since & resided in the Willamette They were 8 in numbers, and are disgusted with the country and determined to quit it at all hazards everybody that I heard speak of them gave them a good
name. They are now building their boat, one among them having
served sometime at that business The rest all assist in it. They
have chosen a good spot for it in an oak grove, and their cedar of
which the planking is made is also near at hand. They seem industrious and full of spirit and although difficulties apparently
the most insurmountable are before them yet they have no fear
but what they will all be overcome. I found them in difficulty
with Dr. McL. as when one had gotten articles under false pretenses and he very properly refused to let them have any more.
I represented this in its proper light and justified Dr. McL. and
also advised them if it were true as they expressed that they have
had no hand in the deception to call [Ms. P. 87] and tell him so,
and I was sure he would do everything in his power. This they
subsequently did and received every assistance that lay in his
power to give.
I felt proud to witness the spirit they evinced & the buoancy
of spirit with which they carried on their plan so truly in character with their countrymen.
Subsequently to my leaving the Cola. they wrote me asking a
sea letter for their protection and informed me their boat was
(43) Edmond S. Meany
launched,  met  their  expectations  and  was   called  the  Star  of
Oregon.91
There is large qauntities of this oak (white) in about the
Willamette Valley and is applied not only to the use for which
we apply oak but also to those of hickory it is the only timber
that is considered here durable enough its specific gravity is
much greater than that of water.
5th June.
We reached the Willamette falls here we found another of
the Missionaries settled and in competition with the H. B. Co.
in putting up salmon for the market or sale his name is Mr.
Waller.92 He does little from his own account with the Indians
and is at war with the Catholic priest about the ... the latter
having from his account gotten the ascendancy. Mr. W.'s wife
is one of those peculiar bodies that will not suffer any part of
her house to be soiled many minutes, although all is of the roughest material. Her management of her cooking stove fairly excited my admiration, no engineer ever knew his engine better
or could manage it with more adroitness. She well knew on
which side the heat was operating & by a proper turning gesture
&c. &c. dinner was served consisting of salmon, Tea & bread &
butter it evidently showed the woman's determination to carry
what she had been brought up to along with her [Ms. P. 87a] in
whatever part of the world she might go. After we had partaken
of this our repast, Mr. Waller took me to see the falls & the situation for—mills that had been selected by the Company who have
gone to considerable expense in blasting the rock for a mill
race, for what reason I know not but the work has been left
untouched as I understand for some years.98 Mr. Slacum has
had a house built at this point to secure the mill site.   An old man
91 The story of the Star of Oregon is an Interesting chapter In Northwestenr History.
It is beautifully told in Bancroft's History of Oregon, Volume I., pages 247-248. The
names of the eight young men are Joseph Gale, Felix Hathaway, Henry Wood, E. L.
Kilborne, Pleasant Armstrong, John Green, George Davis, and Charles Matts. One of
the number, Henry Wood, seems to have given offense and was expelled from the company. Wilkes succeeded in compromising matters and presuaded Doctor McLoughlin to
sell the necessary rigging. A successful voyage was made to California where the schooner
was sold, cattle was purchased and the young men returned to Oregon driving the cattle
with them. The leader or captain was Joseph Gale. Two years later he was one of the
Executive Committee of three serving in place of a governor under the Provisional Government of Oregon. His daughter, Mrs. Frances Ellen (Gale) Page, after a remarkable life
of many years, died in Seattle in the present year, 1925. Her biography was published in the Seattle Post-IntelUgencer on May 29, 1920. On that occasion she related
much of the history of her distinguished father.
92 Eev. Alvan F. Waller, one of the large reenforcement that had arrived on the
Lausanne in 1840.
93 Frederick V. Holman has discussed definitely and at length Dr. McLoughlin's Land
Claim in his Dr. John McLoughlin, beginning at page 101. The injustice involved is a
sad memory for Oregon pioneers. Mr. Holman has there rendered a real service in setting
down the record after the manner of a trained lawyer. Diary of Wilkes in the Northwest
45
by the name of Moore had effected what he terms the purchase of
the opposite side of the River.
The falls of the Willamette are 20 feet in height and the
water is sometimes so high in the river as to make it possible to
run them [the falls] with canoes but this must be seldom the
case. We were much diverted with the salmon leaping the falls
it is inconceivable how they have force enough to stem the
water, about one in 10 would succeed leaping out of the foam
beneath and jumping about 2/3ds. up passing as it were the
apex of running water those that did so got. by, but all who
fell short, were thrown back into the Basin beneath.94 Great
knots of Lamprey eels were to be seen worming themselves up
the rocks.
The scenery here is pretty, the Rocks are all volcanic scoria
& pudding stone mixed with trap many quartz crystals are found
in the rocks.
Mr. Moore took this rock for veritable Iron ore and was
making his boasts of the prize he had got & of his intention to
erect Iron furnaces, &c, &c.
At the falls we made a portage & took another boat similar
to the one we left below the falls. [Ms. P. 88]
We embarked in a heavy shower of rain for Camp du Sable,95
but we found the current very different from what we had hitherto experienced and made but little progress unless in the eddies
which we crossed & recrossed the river to take advantage of. The
river is from 1000 to 1200 feet in width at this part of it with its
banks high—we encamped just beyond the Stony Islands about 5
miles above the falls. Several mosses and flowers were picked up
here which were new.
6th June
We proceeded on about 7 o'clock and did not beach untill
about 4 P.M. The current we found strong some 3 miles an hour
and our boat heavy. The river was not high although the late
rains had swelled it a little     its usual time of flooding is early in
WK
111
fig
94 This account of the salmon overcoming a natural obstruction is the more interesting
now as fish ladders and fish elevators are being built to help salmon over dams built for
power and irrigation projects.
95 The place is later referred to as "Camp Maude du Sable or Champooing," evidently
the famous Champoeg where Oregon pioneers, led by George H. Himes, have erected a
monument marking the place where the field meetings decided in favor of the Provisional
Government of Oregon on May 2 and again on July 5, 1843. The place is on tie Willamette River about 32 miles above Portland. As Judge Charles H. Carey, History of
Oregon, page 418, points ont, the "Maude" is superfluous and arose from a misunderstanding of  "Campement du  Sable'*  when  spoken by French tongues. 46
Edmond S. Meany
the Spring Feby. and March when it rises to a great heighth as
also all its tributaries of which it has many. It was raining when
we arrived and we went to a house of Mr. Johnston*-a and although at another time we should have refused his hospitality yet
the wetness of everything and the discomfort in encamping out in
such weather, which overcame all our scruples of fleas, &c. &c.
Johnston gave us a warm welcome and all he could do was done
to make us comfortable. I found he had been in the Constitution
during the last war and was arudous to peruse his letters over
again. he has a picture of Old Ironsides hung up in his house
also. He is married to a full blood Indian whom he calls his
woman & has several children by her, and is extremely useful
about the house but little or no cleanliness is evinced. he has 2
slaves of what tribes of Indians I did not learn, all his neighbors
some half a dozen in number called to see me They are what
one might expect to see in this country. I found them all agog
about laws & legislatures, with [Ms. P. 88a] governors, judges,
& the minor officers all in embryo and understood they were only
waiting my arrival to act in the business & that they had appointed
a Committee to wait upon me
Cannon, one and I believe the only remaining one of the followers of Lewis & Clarke9* that is in the country was here. He
likes the country but "thinks there is no necessity for Dr. McL.
authority or laws to govern it." Old Moore88 exceedingly talkative
has sense, or shrewdness and much information about the country he has passed through. He crossed the Mountain last year,
says he found no difficulty in the trip, and intends to return, &
bring out his family—is of opinion the country is a fine one and
exceedingly healthy, and will compare with Missouri & Illinois in
parts     the great want in the upper country he thinks is wood.
I found this as I said before a dirty house and idle people   it
96 Probably William Johnson, who had served as High Sheriff in the attempted
Provisional Sovernment of 1841. The crisis bringing forward that attempt was the
necessity of probating the estate of Bwing Young, who had died without known heirs,
in February, 1841. After that business was satisfactorily adjusted the settlers were
doubtful about continuing their government. As here related they were anxious to obtain
the advice of Captain Wilkes.
97 This seems to be an error. William Cannon was probably the only American
who had remained in Oregon after Astoria had been sold to representatives of the North
West Company of Montreal. H. H. Bancroft, In History of Oregon, Volume I., page 74,
after mentioning a number of French Canadians of the Astor expedition who had
remained in Oregon, says: "William Cannon, a Virginian, and a soldier from Fort
Mackinaw, settled on the west side of the Willamette River, opposite the falls and
lived to the age of 99 years, dying In 1864." The statement by Wilkes that Cannon
was of the Lewis and Clark party has been followed by others, but reference to the
Elliott Cones Lewis and Clark, Volume I., pages 258-258, shows that the complete roster
of the expedition includes no one of that name.
98 For a study of this pioneer see "Kobert Moore In Oregon History," by J Orln
Oliphant, In the Washington Historical Quarterly, Volume XV., pages 183-186. Diary of Wilkes in the Northwest
47
is said to be the best in the Settlement, however passed an uncomfortable night, felt the fleas & other vermin. Drayton uneasy
but we were forced to put up with these quarters all the settlers, I have yet seen are uncombed, unshaven, and a dirty clothed
set.
Found this country well timbered from the falls up to the
camp Maude du Sable, it may be said here that the Willamette
Valley begins as the hills were made—on either side leaving the
prairies which form it— It appears a fruitful country and the
soil a rich clayey loam & capable of producing anything with industry. [Ms. P. 89]
7th [June]
We found horses here in waiting for us under charge of
Michel La Framboise99 who was exceedingly civil and perhaps
better acquainted with the country than any one in it. He originally came out in the Tonquin and has been residing here ever
since in the employ of the Company. He has travelled in all parts,
among all tribes and says he has a wife in every tribe. From him
I have derived much information and all agree that he well
knows the country. I was therefore glad to meet with him again,
and we rode off through the settlement of the valley towards the
Mission. We stopt, for a few hours at the residence of Mr.
Bachlet100 the catholic priest who received us very kindly he
has a large farm under cultivation and may be termed the head of
the Canadians &c in the Valley to whose spiritual & temporal
wants he pays great attention to and from the appearance that
exist discernible in and about the habitations of these people I believe he is doing much good. We spoke about the Laws that they
were desirous of establishing (but he objected to them and having
much the largest numbers refused to cooperate, and was of opinion that the numbers and country embracing the Willamette could
not warrant the establishment of them.
We dined with him on porridge venison strawberries & cream
which though simple country fare was given with so much good
feeling & kind deportment that it made it doubly welcome—even
to a hungry person. The Chapel is here established & capable of
containing the congregation. The country is too level for beauty
and as rich an alluvial soil as can well be conceived.   After leav-
99 H. H. Bancroft, History of Oregon, Volume I., page 74, lists Michel La Framboise
as one who remained from the Astor expedition and calls him "the leader of the southern
annual trapping parties to California, who was so attentive to Kelley when sick. He
settled on the west side  of the Willamette."
100 Evidently Father   (afterwards Archbishop)   Francis  Nofbet Blanchet.
®mi
81
'•.fcVi'-j. ~v 48
Edmond S. Meany
If
ing the Mission we rode through the line of Settlements to the
American Mission at its extreme and there we were kindly received by Mr. [Ms. P. 89a] Mr. Abemethy101 the Secular Agent
of the Mission—he is living in the Hospital or what is known as
such though it appears to have been converted in dwellings now
for the Missionaries, in passing to it we went past the Mission so
termed or the first log huts put up by the [illegible] near this were
some work shops & some large fields enclosed that I was told
produced about 25 bushels to the acre, but I was very much struck
with the want of repair in which I found all the premises even to
the Hospital the best building in all the Territory and I felt no
little concern to see the threshing machine that had been furnished
by the community at home lying stowed in the public road over
which all the travel passed.
Mrs. Abernethy we found pretty & pleasing & gave us such
hospitality as we would receive at home. I thought her rather
out of place in this country & community. Dr. Babcock102 the
Physin. lives near by to whom we paid a visit in the Evg. he appears to be comfortably lodged. He stated to me the country was
in his opinion healthy that during this season they are subject to
the ague & fever on the low grounds but the high & dry situation,
he believed free from it, few other diseases existed and those of
a mild character and easily yielded to simple remedies.
A committee waited on us of 5. principally the lay brothers
of the Mission to consult and ask my advice relative to the establishment of the Laws after hearing attentively all the arguments
that were produced in favour of it, and which as I think might be
summed up in a few words having no substantial reasons for
it, crimes do not appear to have been comimtted as yet & the
[Ms. P. 90] persons & property of the settlers is fully secure it
appeared to me that their reasons were principally that it would
give them more importance in the eyes of others and induce in
their opinion settlers to flock thereby raising the value of their
farms and stock. Seeing this view of the subject I disagreed
with them entirely in the necessity and policy of adopting any
1st.    Because of their want of right, and those wishing for laws
were in fact a minority of the settlers.
2nd.   By their own accounts they were not necessary yet.
101 George   Abernethy,
eminent of  Oregon.
in  1845,   became   Governor   under   the  Provisional   Gov-
h.rt ^J?!^1,'. h ?a!)c?clLas s»Preme Judge under the Provisional Government of 1841,
had successfully probated the estate of Bwing Young. ||H Diary of Wilkes in the Northwest
49
3rd. They would be a bad substitution for their moral code,
which they now all follow, and that few who were disposed
to do wrong would be willing to settle near a community of
whom a large portion was opposed to evil doing.
4th. The great difficulty there would be in enforcing the laws,
and defining the limits over which they should extend, would
the Hudson B. Company be willing to enter into their enactment? Respect the Laws? No.
5th. Not being the act of the Majority, & the larger part of the
population being Catholics they must at once produce discord, & be of great detriment or injury to the settlement.
6th. Besides I thought it would produce an unfavorable impression at home hearing the missionaries were alone in making
the request for laws thereby admitting that in a community
avowedly brought together & under their control they had
not enough moral force to prevent crime, & therefore must
have recourse to a criminal code.108. From my observation
I was well satisfied they were unnecessary and could not
avoid drawing their attention to the fact that after all the
various offices were filled there would be no subjects for the
law to deal with. These arguments had the desired effect,
for I understand [Ms. P. 90a.] they have been entirely
dropped since.104
8th [June]
Dr. Babcock and others called upon us this morning tendering an invitation from the settlers of the Willamette to the Squadron to celebrate the 4th of July with them. This was declined by
myself on account of the various duties and impossibility of complying with it.
We were shown the Missionary garden but it appeared to me
to want attention and that great requisite to a kitchen garden labour.   Vegetables appear to grow here well—and very early.
The best garden in the territory or this Valley that I saw belongs to Dr. Bailey, who told me it was the work of his wife it
gave me a better idea what could be done in this country by attention and moderate labour than anything I have met with. The
whole premise bespoke industry Scarcely witnessed elsewhere.
103 Judge Charles H. Carey, in his recent History of Oregon (1922) on page 372,
discusses this interview and adds: "Wilkes here curiously overlooked the civil aspect of
government, which was indeed the phase that had been called to critical attention, and
he dwelt exclusively on restraint of crime, that was the matter of relatively lesser
moment."
104 Such efforts were dropped for a time but were renewed in 1843 and the Provi-
slonal Government then continued until the United States established Territorial Government in 1849. 50
Edmond S. Meany
1:11
After Breakfast the gentle", of the Mission proposed a ride
to the Mill some 9 miles in a N. E. direction which I was glad to
take. We rode over several fine prairies the high & low the soil
varies considerably from clayey loam to a gravelly & light soil on
the upper prairies the whole however may be termed good land
though not as well timbered as I was led from description to suppose. Several fine views of Prairie Scenery but inferior to those
about Nisqually in Beauty. At noon we reached the Mill where
I was told I should see the Missionary operations Indian school &c.
&c. which was in fact my principal object in making the visit. I
was greatly disappointed. Some 25 ragged & half clothed Indian
boys of large size were lounging about under the trees. Their
appearance was anything but pleasing. A small mill [Ms. P. 91]
worked by a small stream together with a small frame 2 story
house occupied one corner of an extensive Prairie surrounded by
some fine old oaks gave the whole at a distant and first view the
appearance of an old settlement and a thrifty one from the numerous piles of lumber that was seen about the mill for in connexion with its run of stone they use it as a sawmill also The
whole is quite small but fully adequate to the e^ctent of power
they have 15 bushels a day is as much flour as they can grind.
This however supplies all their wants & part of those of the Settlement. I understood this is contemplated as the permanent settlement of the Mission being considered more healthy removed as it
is on the high prairie & in this part the missionaries have as they
told me marked off their 1000 acres in prospect of the country
falling under the protection of our laws, and the Bill of Mr.
Linn105 or some other passing giving them a gratuity it
The mill I understood was under the charge of Mr. Raymond106 I was told by the Mission that he was the greatest ranter
among them. I was extremely desirous of hearing but I had no
opportunity of doing so.
We were invited to stay dinner which we accepted and it
would be difficult to give an idea of the repast without having
been present. We dined a la Methodist on Salmon, Pork, potted
cheese, and strawberries, tea & hot cakes,107 they were all brothers
«« J1?5 YSiff4,. Stites   Senator I*wta   Fields  Linn,   of   Missouri,   whose   advocacy  of  his
Oregon bill    has been remembered through the naming of Linn County,  Oregon.
....™H6|W'^W"Tlf"aymond, aBd   "wUe   were  members   of  the  Methodist  reenforcement  that
on   Fehrn»rv !    iTJZ"""™     i!2°*    .H<!   W**S   Usted   RS   a   farmeI-      He   me*   a   *™S»°   ^ath
V°toe I ^pages 199-2^e ^^ * ^ 0tlierS £r0m taami^-    See Bancroft's  Oregon,
about^e'teas?"* Lad °nly * UtUe °f tt6 SPlrit °f tte ploneer' he woula not *"i"e thus Diary of IVilkes in the Northwest
51
and sisters some with coats, some without, red flannel shirts, and
dirty white arms, higgledy piggledly. I shall not soon forget the
narrow cramped up table, more crowded round it than it would
hold, with the wooden benches, high backed chairs & low seated
ones, perchance all the tall ones seized the high seats and the low
in stature were even with the well filled board. The meal was
eaten by us all in brotherly love, but hunger assisted me or I
never should have been able to [Ms. P. 91a] swallow mine. I rode
with the Rev4. Mr. Hines108 to his quarters or farm to which he
had just removed his wife & child & his worldly goods. I found
them in a shanty of boards in the center of a fine prairie of which
he informed me they had taken possession They had the ordinary comforts about them that one would expect in this country.
He pointed out to me the position of the scite for their Seminary which is to be occupied by their scholars. I could derive
little or no satisfactory information relative to their views and
prospects in forwarding the education of the Indians from what
tribe they proposed taking them and the manner of teaching &c
&c. from all that I did hear however my impression is that there
is no field for the numbers that are now attached to this mission
& in a very few years none of this army will be left. They seem
not to wish to push their Missionary operations to the North
where the tribes are numerous and extensive & the climate healthy.
Dr. Richmond it is true is settled at Nisqually but he is doing
nothing. As the holder of a charge in which their particular denomination of Christians at home are greatly interested, I view it
as a great neglect on the part of this mission if they have not
made true representations at home respecting their prospects & it
seems to me unaccountable how they can have received so large an
amount of funds without having done more than is apparent or
acknowledged by themselves. The amount of Indians now included within their limits is as follows, viz—Nisqually Clatsop
209 Ounooks 220, Kilamouks 400, Kalla- [Ms. P. 92] puyas 600,
Dalles 250—in all the country say 2000 of these they have under
instruction if so it may be termed 25—and at the Dalles I believe
is the only place where divine worship is attempted. Something
may be said that these Missionaries came out under the idea that
they are to settle and afford the necessary instruction if possible,
but they are to colonize under the christian religion as their law
108 Rer.   Gufftarus   Ulnes,   who   later   wrote   two   books   about   his   mUslooary   experiences and observations. 52
Edmond S. Meany
and guide & give the necessary instruction to the tribes they settle
among to train them up in good habits, &c. &c. how this is to be
done without exertion and strenuous efforts I am at a loss to conceive and it strikes me as obligatory on these Missionaries to state
the facts they one and all admit.
At Mr. Hines I again had a long conversation with the Missionaries and stated the same objections I had given them before
but more fully & I found them well satisfied They [his objections to the Provisional Government] were too strong to be resisted, since the foundation of the Settlement but one horse had
been stolen and a settler had been detected in stealing a neighbors
pigs by enticing them to his house dropping them into a cellar
where they were slaughtered & eaten which was at last discovered
by the bones around his premises & he was made to confess & pay
their value simply by the force of public opinion.
We rode back towards the Mission or Hospital the Mill being
the most remote part of the Willamette Settlement, and occasionally on these fine prairies had a hard race, the horses are fine &
from the quantity of pasture throughout the year in good condition. After taking leave of Mr. & Mrs. Abernethy we continued
our route crossed the river at the Old Mission house. The river
has here considerably worn the banks and if it goes on to the same
extent it will not be many years before the richest portion of the
Willamette Valley is lost. The river at the pass is about 200 yd",
wide & the current 3 miles. [Ms. P. 92a]
We passed over in a crazy canoe with our traps & saddles and
afterwards our horses swam over one or two being led by the
canoe the animals are so well accustomed to this that they take
the water very readily. At sunset we reached our camp which
I had ordered to be pitched near O'Neil109 farm, and received an
invitation from the Rev. Mr. Leslie110 to take tea with them he
a short time since lost his wife leaving several children—one of
whom it is understood is engaged to be married to O'Neil. "
O'Neil's farm is situated in a beautiful prairie of small extent with a fine forest encircling it & bordering on the river, it is
gently undulating which takes away from its monotony. He had
between 30 & 40 acres of wheat growing in fine order. It shows
what ordinary industry will do in this Country 3 years since he
was converted at revival meetings held by Leslie in December,
109 James O'Neil, who
1fS?^    2'NeU was a member  of the Provisional Government li)   1843  and became   Justice
of the Peace for the Yamhill District.
110 Rev.   David Leslie,   who  had   arrived with his  wife   and  three  daughters   on   the
Sumatra in September,  1837. Diary of Wilkes in the Northwest
came to the Valley with but a skin (as he expressed it) to his
back, he worked a part of this farm, obtained the loan of cattle
from Dr. McL. has repaid him out of his crops and is now in possession of this farm 100 head of cattle, good suits of clothes all
by his own industry & now he feels it only necessary for him to
work one month in the year to make a living the rest of the
time he may amuse himself. he spoke in the kindest terms of
Dr. McL. & the assistance he had afforded him in his outset. I
was much amused by my f*. Mr. D.111 being sadly affronted by the
Rev". Mr. L. carrying him to his wife's grave, but I could not
prevail on him to repeat the conversation that occurred.
9th [June]
The next morning we were doomed again to breakfast with
Mr. Leslie, who showed us all the attention in his power at 9
we started for the Yam Hills [Ms. P. 93] in order to get a view
from there of the whole country particularly the Tuallaty11* Valley to the west'd of the Willamette which these hills divide. They
are of a reddish clay loam and have no marks of any wash from
the rains however steep the banks, they are clothed to the very
top with a fine sward and afford excellent pacture numbers of
cattle are seen feeding on them—from the top of the Yam Hills
we had a beautiful view of the surrounding country, it put me
very much in mind of the Connecticut Valley from Mt. Hope118
the extent of country under view is 25 miles in extent, and extends to the different mountain ranges on the horizon. The wood
as I remarked yesterday does not strike me as sufficient for the
wants of the settlements. The oaks spread over the prairies in
cluster gave them the appearance of orchards.
On our return towards the river road we passed the farm of
One of Dr. McL. sons whom has settled here and has an extensive
portion of prairie fenced in. One of the most striking appearances
of the Willamette Valley is the flatness of its Prairies in some instances a dead level for miles in extent—and it becomes a problem of some difficulty to solve how they have been producd. Fire
is no doubt the cause of their being kept clear of an under growth
and may have been the original cause of them but the way the
forests are growing round them would almost preclude this supposition as but thin belt of wood frequently occurs between exten-
ii
m
V
m
fm
m Joseph Drayton,  artist, a member of the scientific corps of tile Wilkes  expedition.
ita A local use for Tualatin. His notes here and later are indistinct as to this
name  and  his published  Narrative gives it Kaulitz.
11$ A peak la Mew Hampshire. In his published Narrative he changed it to Mount
Holyoke in  Massachusetts. 54
Edmond S. Meany
sive ones. Since the country has been in the possesion of the
whites it is found that the wood is growing up rapidly a stop having been put to the fires so extensively lighted throughout the
country every year by the Indians. They are generally lighted in
Sep*, for the purpose of drying the seeds of the [blank] (sunflower) which is then gathered and forms a large portion of their
food.114    [Ms. P. 93a]
As respects the Climate it may be termed mild it is however
difficult to get any good data for these results few have paid
any attenion to the meteorological phenomenon some have no instruments others have lost them and omitted to take those that are
now deemed essential viz., the night observations.
The rains are mild seldom any hard showers the winter of
1840 was thought to be the most severe of any yet known by the
oldest white inhabitant. They had a foot of snow it laid but a
few days, the coldest time of the year is said to be the end of
Jany. or by begg of Feby. The Thermometer has been known to
fall as low as -8° zero but for a very short time the N.E. &
Easterly winds are the most unpleasant coming from the mountains, but a short dist. they produce sudden and great changes
in the temperature. The Sa. & SWd. "winds are the warm winds
although they generally bring rain or mist. Those from the Na.
& Wd. fine clear weathers.   Westerly winds are the most prevalent.
On our route through the Yam Hills we passed many settlers
establishment but they were but lately established and did not in
consequence show much improvement I find in the Willamette a
great difference in the two classes of Settlers Those composing
the Canadian Population & the American cheerfulness and industry are well marked in the appearances of the former while
neglect & discontent, with lou[n]ging seem to infect the latter.
The best farm I saw on my route was that of La [Ms. P.
94] Bontes.11B having heard that the late Mr. Young's118 farm
was the most beautiful spot in this section of country I determined to visit it and therefore again crossed the Yam Hill and the
River of that name in order to do so. I found it situated in a
valley running East & West connetcing as it were the two V. of
W. & Faulity.117   It by no means acceeded my expectations being
„„;, X!* °Jie  Jtte5 fr"0.141011 1»  that the Indian fires were made to facilitate the grazing
and also the hunting of deer and elk.
WUI^ette°°n 1833 B°nte'   ""*   °*  tte  Astorians  wh0   settled   on   0*e  ""'est   side   of  the
116 Swing Young, frequently referred to In this narrative.
117 See note 112, Diary of Wilkes in the Northwest
55
situated in a low, wet & marshy plain some three miles in extent.
The premises were very much out of repair, no one at home two
persons were in charge of the farm on wages at $1 per day.
On looking about the premises Johnston found a sick Kanaka118 lying in a bunk and }i a Pig roasting hanging by its hind
legs over a slow fire. Mr. Young appears to have been one of the
first pioneers & settlers in this valley, was desirous at one time
to establish a distillery but through the influence of Mr. Slacum119
he was diverted from it & engaged to go to California for cattle
in order that himself and others belonging to the Settlement
might be supplied with them the Hudson's Bay Coy refusing to
sell any. Mr. Slacum invested some money in Cattle also Mr.
Young taking the charge of them during my visit at the Columbia both Mr. Slacum & Young had died & Youngs property falling into the hands of hunters I thought it advisable that Mr. Sla-
cums nephew should receive for his uncles estate the proceeds of
them—and as this whole transaction came under my immediate
knowledge I am satisfied of its correctness as regards the increase
of flocks & herds in this countiy. Mr. S. share on their arrival
from California in 1837 amounted to 23 at this time Dr. McL.
purchased of Mr. May120 86. Several having been accounted for
as lost & killed by accident making the whole numbers of increase in 4 years about [Ms. P. 94a] 400 per Cent, from Youngs
farm we passed to his Saw Mill now quite in niin it was erected
at much expense and badly located, little timbers in the neighborhood. Shortly before Youngs death the Mill dam was washed
away, and it is now deemed an unprofitable business to erect it
again. I regretted the disturbed stream as I was desirous of making further explorations after the Bones of a Mastodon which
had been given to me at Oaks by a Capt. Gouch but I found on
inspecting the locality that the whole course of the current had
been changed and the materials of the Dam of the saw mill had
created such an obstruction as to have caused a large mass of
alluvial deposits to be heaped upon the position to remove which
would have been an herculean labor. besides it was doubtful if
the remaining bones had not prior to the flood of waters been
118 In the published Narrative, Volume IV., page 359, this word is translated into
"a native of the Sandwich Islands."
119 William Slacum, who made a tour of inspection for the United States Government in 1837.
120 In the published Narrative he refers to Mr. Slacum's nephew as "a midshipman
on board my ship." Here in the diary he refers to Mr. May. Reference to the roster
shows William May as midshipman on the Vincennes. Doctor McLoughlin paid over $880
for the young officer as the purchase price of the uncle's cattle. 56
Edmond S. Meany
II
■ ill
carried down the Stream and lost.   The bank in which the bones
were found was of red marl & gravel.121
The creeks of this country in the spring Feby—swell suddenly and cause much damage to the farmer.
The Yam Hill River is about 60 or 70 yds wide but too
deep for the Horses to ford La Bontes farm joins on it it is
susceptible of navigation with canoes. After a long and tedious
ride we reached the Willamette opposite to the Camp Maude du
Sable122 or Champooying where we took up our quarters in a
house belonging to George Gay123 who after this became my guide
George is full as much an Indian in habits as a white can be &
bears them no love & is a terror to them having not infrequently
taken the law into his own and applied it after the Lynch fashion.
George is of that easy [Ms. P. 95] kind of lounging figure so
peculiar to an Indian or backwoodsman has a nice & useful Indian
woman who does his bidding and takes care of his children horses
& guards his household though his property does not consist of
many valuables,- superfluities with him are not to be found, and
when you see George & his woman & child travelling you may
be sure his all is with him but George is a useful member in this
small community, he gelds & marks cattle, breaks horses, and
cows for milking, assist in finding them, in short he undertakes
any and all irregular sort of business, and few things with him
are deemed impossibilities and in the words of one of the settlers
George was not a man to be trifled or fooled with. he afterwards became my guide and I had much confidence in him.
10th June.
This morning we were disturbed by the Indian slaves of
Johnson who came to look for the milking Pans Drayton pelted
them well with his shoes whilst I search in vain for my pistols
They took the alarm & ran off very much frightened shortly after breakfast we crossed the river to Johnston no one can conceive the filth all these people indulge indoors and out though one
is sure to receive a hearty good will to supply all your wants; it
is extremely to be regretted that an example of one good farmer
should not root himself here. I am fully persuaded it would do
more than all the Missionarys could possibly effect, by example.
One month in the year is all that is required of labour viz for
Oame^Them   ofTe'^t.? »%f°n  *%&! 5fe Thomas  Condon's   Two  Islands  and  What
vame or J hem, or the later edition entitled Oregon Geology.
122 See note 95.
goId^hGror8CauttCa?848a-184e9mber °' "* Pr0Tisl<">*1 Government and later joined the Diary of Wilkes in the Northwest
57
putting the wheat &c. &c. into the ground and when it is ripe
enough reaping it. the Harvest generally occurs in July and
August the rest of the year can be passed in comparative idleness, their cattle need little or no attendance & thus their time is
fully at their disposal. I cannot but view this as likely to become
one of the great evils of the country. a man becoming as it were
rich by comparative idelness—and it will always be an easy matter for the community to be led away by vices. [Ms. P. 95a]
Spirits introduced into this Settlement would very soon destroy it
altogether.
This morning I left Mr. Drayton to go to the Willamette
farm by the boat and took the route by land in order to visit other
portions of the Valley that lie in a N. E. direction from Cham-
pooya after crossing a ridge of trap rock for about one mile
we again entered on the Prairie & stop'd at Dr. Bailey's124 farm.
This was the nicest house I had seen in the Territory and under
the superintendance of a good Yankee wife.125 I staid to dinner
and it was indeed a pleasure to see every part of an establishment
in such order. Mrs. B. garden I have heretofore spoken of. all
that appears to be wanting here is the society necessary to interest
one altho' Mrs. B. said she had neighbors but they were not neighbors in Oregon she was formerly of the Mission & regretted that
the field to the north among the various tribes was not occupied.
Dr. Bailey is the practicing phy11. he stated to me that the country for whites was very healthy and would be so for the natives
if they could be persuaded to take care of themselves. The ague
& fever was not of a dangerous type. He stated to me there
had been but one surgical operation to his knowledge in this country. The Fever & ague was very destructive to the Indians at
least one fourth died off yearly, when an Indian is sick and considered beyond recovery he is poisoned by the medicine man, for
m
124 Dr. William J. Bailey, one of the most interesting Oregonians of that day, was
an English surgeon who had come to America to break away from habits of dissipation.
He became a sailor and made his way to California where he led a roving life until 1835,
when he joined seven others to seek ont Swing Young in Oregon. On the way their
camp was visited by Rogue Eiver Indians, who were allowed liberties that led to tragedy.
Four of the party were killed. Dr. Bailey, though frightfully wounded, made his way
to Fort Vancouver where he was cared for in the Hudson's Bay Company hospital. John
K. Townsend was at Vancouver and wrote: "This is certainly by tar the most horrible
looking wound I ever saw, rendered so, however, by injudicious treatment and entire
want of care In the proper apposition of the sundered parts; he simply bound it up as
well as he could with his handkerchief and his extreme anguish caused him to forget the
necessity of accuracy in this respect. The consequence is, that the lower part of his
face is dreadfully contorted, one side being considerably lower than the other. *' Town-
send's Narrative "Early Western Travels" edition, pages 328-331. The missionaries
encouraged Dr. Bailey, who built up an important practice and became an honored member
of the Provisional Government. He died at Champoeg on February 5, 1876, aged about
70   years.     Bancroft's   Oregon,  Volume  I.,   pages  96-97.
125 Miss Margaret Smith had come on the Sumatra in 1837 and was a teacher in
the Methodist Mission before  she became  the  wife   of   Dr.  Bailey. 58
Edmond S. Meany
this purpose a decoction of the root of the wild cucumber is
given him. Some of this—roots grow to a very large size. I saw
one at Mr. Walters at the falls of 3 [feet] long about 12 inches
diameter. Dr. Bailey accompanied [Ms. P. 96] us as far as the
falls on my route I stopt at a Mr. Walkers128 who came from
Missouri by the mountains with all his family last year. He does
not like the country and will go the first opportunity to California.
He said the climate was too wet for business that the land is
good for crops but only for small grain—corn cannot be raised—
and a first rate grazing country—he is a good specimen of a border man and appears to think nothing of a change of domicil although he is much passed the middle age.
He says (which is true) there is no market for grain—nor is
there likely to be, and if he should not like California he will
travel home again. Mr. Walker subsequently joined the patty &
went across to California from the Willamette river and I believe
entered into the service of Mr. Suter located on the Sacramento
and of whom I shall hereafter in treating of that part of the
country speak.
I rode on after leaving Mr. Walker with Gay in advance at
his own pace having made up my mind to move rapidly nothwith-
standing all the obstructions I expected to meet with. He told
me he was of English Parents but now he was more than }4 Indian & I will add fully equal to them in all artifice. He passes
for the best laso thrower, always ready to eat, sleep or frolic.
His woman & 2 children are to him as his trappings, and he is to
be seen roaming the country far and wide and is ever on the alert
to help the weary or those who may be in want of aid. I have
seen him while with me dash off for half a mile for a poor indian's
horse he was unable to catch and then return this was done in a
manner that showed it was his practice.
We had to cross the Powder river about y£ way [Ms. P. 96a]
to the falls, and finding the usual ford entirely closed with drift
wood George set to work to endeavor to find a place where our
horses could get across which he soon did. Swimming them was
but a few moments work and we passed over the fallen trees and
joined him on the opposite bank.    The Powder river or rather
126 Joel P. Walker, born in Virginia in 1797, was a typical frontiersman, moving
ever westward. He came to Oregon with his wife and Ave children in 1840 and is
counted the first, not a missionary or fur trader, who sought the home lands in Oregon
promised in the Linn, bill. When Lieutenant George E. Emmons, of the Wilkes Expedition, led an overland party from Oregon to California in 1841, the Walker family joined
the emigrants that accompanied the party. He returned to Oregon with cattle for sale
and in 1845 became one of the Judges in the Provisional Government for Xamhlll County.
Later he returned to California and remained there. Diary of Wilkes in the Northwest
59
Creek is about 200 feet wide and almost 20 feet deep in this quarter, in some places it has a rapid run.
The country now became exceedingly rough & the low places
wet and miry and can be of little use for agricultural purposes at
times when the river becomes choked with timber and there is
sudden rise the prairies are all inundated that border on it its
course was W. N. W. & E. S. E. a few miles farther we forded
the Little Powder and they join each other just before entering
the Willamette & form an Island at their mouth.
All our way to the falls was through a broken trap country
with some large timber but it would be impracticable to remove it.
We reached the falls at Sunset and considering the road we had
travelled I could not help congratulating myself that we had
reached our destination before dark the last, few miles of route
was a sort of a break-neck one.
I found here Mr. Drayton & the tents all comfortably prepared. Here I again saw Mr. Waller who was literally uncombed,
unshaven and dirty both in appearance and person.
These missionaries are very far from what they ought to be
low, vulgar and unclean. I am invited to partake of their hospitality including all those about us. I have seldom if ever until
[Ms. P. 97] I came here witnessed so much uncleanliness, & so
little regard paid to proper decorum if they were Christian men
and readers of their bible, they ought to practice cleanly habits.
Mr. W. was as filthy as any Indian I have met with in appearance & taking our nation into consideration more so They are
sent out to show an example but how little they do in this respect
and how little they earn their wages in preaching the Gospel a
higher and Just God will determine from this I must exempt the
wives who I must say are in a great degree the honor of their
husbands & my only wonder is that they dont insist upon the
adoption of their habits by them.
Took leave of Mr. Drayton whom I desired to stay here a
few days for him to get the salmon & drawings of the various
objects pointed out & to collect specimens having embarked all
our traps I seated myself in the large boat and began the descent
of the Willamette. A 11 reached the boat builders camp whom I
found progressing well and who appear to work with much unanimity the land across the Willamette appears to be good & well
wooded with oak, fir and cedar about 3 miles from its mouth
where i[t]s delta begins found the waters much higher all the low ft
60
Edmond S. Meany
land overflown & I understood if I had been in a canoe I might have
gone in a direct course for the Fort, at sunset after a hard rowing we reached the Fort w[h]ere I was again kindly received by
Dr. McL. and Mr. Douglas & all the gentlemen then among them
Mr. Peter S. Ogden127 of the Non. district who had arrived a few
days since he is a chief factor in the Company. Mr. Ogden is
a Brother [Ms. P. 97a] of Harry Ogden of New York of the
family of Ogden of Montreal. he has been stationed at Fort
Simpson but now at Fort St. James, in Stuarts lake (he has been
32 years in the country) and has 6 posts under him in New Caledonia, but from his having passed a huge portion of his time with
trapping parties he possesses much knowledge of the country he
represents the country in the northern section unsusceptible of cultivation, on account of the proximity of the mountain-range all the
year covered with snow producing sudden changes in the heat of
summer that would destroy the crops. His post is amply supplied
with salmon (dried) on which they live the greater part of the
year their stores flour &c. &c. are all taking from the Colville
districts and that of Vancouver. Furs are very abundant and are
purchased at a small price his return this year was valued at
$100,000. This he informed was a great falling of—indeed, I
am informed that the trapping in the southern section is scarcely
worth the outlay for a party.
I have been exceedingly amused since my return to the fort
with the voyageurs of Mr. Ogdens party. They are to be seen
lounging about in groups decked off with feathers ribbons &c. &c.
with the conceit and flaunting air of a finely dressed country girl
evidently looking down upon all those employes who with their
somber and business like air are moving around the fort as if
they were total strangers to the pelasure of life while these jovial
fellows seemed to have naught to do but att. [Ms. P. 98] to the
d[eco] rating of their persons and pleasures
Mr. Ogden represented to me that the object in establishing
the Pugets Sound Company128 was to derive profit from the agricultural labours & the raising of cattle for Hide, Horn & tallow
that their ships now went home almost empty & the cost would
127 Peter Skeen Ogden, an officer of the Hudson's Bay Company, for whom a city,
river, canyon and valley in Utah have been named. Recent interest has been aroused in
his career notably in Hidden Heroes of the Rockies, by Isaac K. Kussell. Ogden's grave
in Oregon has been found and appropriately marked.
128 Puget Sound Agricultural Company shared with the Hudson's Bay Company In
claims for property and improvements after the boundary treaty of 1846, and received for
its share $200,000 on September 10, 1869. See Treaties and Conventions, 1776-1887,
pages 469-470.
if .%«
Diary of Wilkes in the Northwest
61
be little besides they had the feeding pf all the Post & the
packing of Beef, butter, Pork &c. &c. They now have entered
into a contract with the Russian Company129 to supply them with
their provisions I cannot but view the Industry and labours of
this Company but as tending to forward greatly the advantages to
be derived from it by the future possession of the soil—enabling
emigration to go on with much greater ease profit and rapidity.
From the nature of the country its peculiar adaptation to grazing,
mildness of its climate, and the little attention required for the care
of Herds I am satisfied that this must become one of the richest
cattle countries in the world and go far to compete with any portion of it, in its salted beef, Pork, & for which the climate is
deemed exceedingly favorable. It now contains about 10,000
cattle though it is but a few years ago that the first were introduced from California.
The Price of wild cattle may be quoted now at $10 a head
but those that are broken in for labour or milch cows bring in
some cases enormous prices some milch cows in the Willamette
valley have been sold for 70$ and an endeavor has been made to
keep the price of cattle up as labour is usually paid in stock. The
price of labour for a mechanic may [Ms. P. 98a] may be set
down at $2.50 to 3$ and difficulty to get them at that. This is the
Spanish $ which is however worth in consequence of the exchange
but 40 cents.   The wages for a common labourer 1$—
The price of wheat is fixed by the company at [blank] cents
for which anything but spirits may be drawn from the Stores at
50 percent on the London cost. This is supposed all things taken
into consideration to be about equal to 1.25/100$ a bushel, but it
is difficult for the Settlers so to understand it, and they are by no
means satisfied with this rule although it is for their benefit.
There is a description of money here called Beaver money
which is that of skins which are valued at $2. throughout the
Territory.
During my absence the water of the River had risen 3 feet &
again fallen 18 inches and the fears of the farmer in relation to
the crops have in a measure subsided. I hear however that the
wheat on the lower prairie near the fort has suffered considerably
—although it will produce a large yield.
We have had frequent showers & much rain this last few
weeks   I was led to believe that they were subject to draught but
129 The   Russian   American  Company,   of  which   at  that  time  Lieutenant  Etolin  was
. Governor.
llB
ill
111
II I .J
62
Edmond S. Meany
ilili C
am inclined to believe it may rather be classed as a wet climate
Those better acquainted with the seasons differ so much in their
opinions and indeed are so opposite that it is difficult to get at
anything that would appear facts from Experience Dr. McL.
thought it a wet Season but Mr. Douglas on the contrary thought
[Ms. P. 99] there was less rain than usual. Wm. Bruce the
gardner somewhat of a judge from his plants said it was about the
time of year for showers & that he had not been obliged to water
much. Bruce is somewhat of an oddity after his service was
out he desired to go home & accordingly left in one of the Company's vessel arrived at London & then accidentally met Dr.
McL. in the street whom he joyfully recognized and on being
asked how he got along, he said not at all he wished to go back
to Vancouver, for there was nothing there to be compared to
it he was ill at ease the ship being not quite ready & wishing
to get him instructed permission was obtained for him to work in
the Duke of Devonshire's garden. When he left he was questioned what he thought of it, he said sure Sir it is not to be compared to Vancouver Bruce & myself had many a chat at Vancer.
and there are few happier or more contented persons. I can vouch
for it that Billy Bruce the gardner at Vancouver is of some extent
& most of the Horticultural plants thrive well the climate is well
adapted for fruits particularly apples pears & grapes have been
tried but do not yet yield well figs are grown also, and some
very fine melons rasberries currants & strawberries are also fine.
Though the garden is not quite equal to that of Chiswick180
I can agree very readily it is by no means contemptible under the
constant superintendance of Bruce.
Potatoes are planted in the fields & enormous crops had. The
gentlemen of the Company are industrious in introducing new
plants but their hopes have often [Ms. P. 99a] often times disappointed from the seed turning out defetcive much good must
result to the country and they who introduce new seeds or plants
that add to the comfort as well as food of man ought to be classed
among the benefatcors of a country. One of the gentl" Mr. D—
introduced Hops by bringing a few living plants with him from
Canada some 3000 miles & the plants now are to be seen in abundance in their gardens.
In speaking of the Willamette Valley I have viewed its ad-
Ti    18S °eflned ta reference works as a  "suburb of London where Hogarth was burled."
It probably possessed  a famous  garden. Diary of Wilkes in the Northwest
63
vantages as to raising grains & the facility afforded for the Settlers to become wealthy. There are some objections to the formation of a large settlement there in consequence of the interruption in its river at all season of the year and which must make it
labour under disadvantages in getting to a market or in receiving
their supplies. The Columbia being their only outlet for the farmer, there would be little or no difficulty in locking at the falls &
from appearances I would think the Rock well adapted to it—but
a young settlement cannot contend with such expense.
Salmon fishing in the Willamette does not extend above the
falls great quantities are here caught The season is the month
of June it is scarcely possible to estimate the amount of salmon
that are caught at these falls it varies in different years but they
are considered among the finest at this distance from the sea.
The H. B. Co. have an establishment for [Ms. P. 100] the
purchase of salmon from the natives at these falls and also the
Missionaries. I would suppose many 800 bis. were taken by the
Company sup't. & Indians and this is after the Indians mode of
catching them.
The fisheries at the Dalls, Cascades, & several places along
the River also produce large qauntities—as high up as Colville.
Frazer's River is supposed to Yield even a larger quantity
than the Cola. though they are not so large and fine The Chi-
kiles, Muqua & all the small streams, on the coast are much frequented by them, and to these may be added the Sacramento & its
branches. The resources of these Rivers cannot well be estimated
in their salmon and would afford a large source of profit to its
Settlers. The Salmon do not pass up the Cowlitz in the Spring I
can see no other reason for it than that the waters are muddy.
The fall salmon however frequent it in October—
The finest salmon are those caught nearest the Sea near the
mouths of the Rivers181—
14th. 15th. & 16. [June]
I was very busily employed in writing orders for the Peacock
& Flying Fish182 which I- put in charge of Mr. Waldron whom I
sent to Fort George to await the arrival there—
131 In the published Narrative, Volume-IV., page 366, he expanded this praise: "The
fish of the waters are said to be hardly edible, and compared with those caught at the
mouth of the Columbia, are totally different in flavour. The latter are the richest and
most delicious fish I ever recollect to have tasted: if anything, they were too fat to eat,
and one can perceive a difference even in those taken at the Willamette Ealls, which,
however,  are the best kind for salting."
132 The ship Peacock and the tender Flying-Fish, of the squadron, had continued their
work in the South Seas and were expected at the month of the Columbia. The Peacock
was wrecked on the Columbia River bar on July 18, 1841, and subsequently the Flying-
Fish was sold at Singapore in February,   1842.
3m
II
il
I
m 64
Edmond S. Meany
Mr. Ogden kindly informed he intended to take me as
far as the Cowlitz farm in one of his boats previous to leaving for
his Northern trip having nothing for Mr. Drayton to do particularly I accepted Mr. Ogden's offer to give him a passage as far
as Walla-Walla. On the morning of the 17th the Fort was in a
stir at an early hour, and preparations were making. Now and
then we saw a voyageur decked out in his ribband, & feathers all
[Ms. P. 100a] attention to his duties. about 10 o'clock we were
all summoned by Dr. McLaughlin to the Hall to take a parting
cup customary in this country and observed as far as I could
learn throughout among themselves. All were present Missionaries and all the household, the former ought to have staid away
for if they had been at my funeral instead of. leave taking they
could not have been so repugnant to good fellowship & feeling.
Some no doubt think this piece of Scotch politeness would
be better in the Breach than observance but I was of a very different opinion it whiles away that part of leaving of ones friend
that is always the most painful the pledging of each other, and
the good wishes one takes with him are all pleasant and give a
warmth to recollections of by gone days that is by no means disagreeable, one feels and loves the kindness, and attention of
one's friends to the last, & enables one to bid goodby with more
courage—I like this hanging to old customs in the Scotch, perhaps
more attended to than any other nation, and there is always a
warmth of feeling thrown into its observance that cannot but be
felt Off we marched for the River Side accompanied by the
whole establishment forming quite a cavalcade. On our arrival
there we found one of Mr. Ogden's boats decked out with Mats,
and Manned by 14. Voyageurs, all gaily dressed with their ribbands and plumes of various colours tied in large bunches over
the oil skin covered Hats, with another warm shake of the hand
we embarked & off we flew against the Stream under the fine
chorus of a Canadian Boatsong, and gracefully swept round [Ms.
P. 101] until we reached its centre when the boat seemed a fit
object to grace this beautiful River now at its height. On we
merrily went and in about 2^4 hours we reached the Mouth of the
Cowlitz a distance of about 35 miles—There we had a strong current to contend with and at night fall we had progressed up the
Cowlitz about 12 miles when we encamped, the weather had
changed & we had a wet night of it, but laughing and jokes made
our time pass merrily and we found the sun far above the horizon Diary of Wilkes in the Northwest
65
when we stnick our tents after noon showers came on again and
struggling with the strong current prevented us from making our
destination, and we encamped within about 3 miles of the forks.
The management of the Boat in the rapids (though on a small
scale) of the men truly surprised me and how well trained & dexterous the Canadians are in using the Pole & paddle and withal
so jovial singing almost the whole time one or the other of them,
& then all joining in chorus138 gives them spirits & serves to keep
them awake, & make the time pass quickly, about every half
hour they take a spell or a smoke184 with one having his pouch bag
ornamented ala Indians and containing his fine implements tobacco
& Pipe,   without this no one can trade in an Indian country.
At noon on th 1:9th we reached the Farm landing & after
getting on top of the light bank & finding the road muddy we took
the Chariot that had come for our luggage & drove up in style to
the House—much to the wonderment of Mr. Forrest185 the overseer. On the 20th I regretted extremely to part with my friends
at day fight, the many hours I have passed in their Company will
long be associated with that of the territory in my recollections.
I had almost forgotten to mention that under the guidance of Mr.
Ogden [Ms. P. 101a] I made a visit to the Catholic Priest Mr.
[blank] 186 who has this as his Station several Canadian families were here whom he has under his charge We found all of
them quite flourishing and apparently happy and enjoying plenty—
the land of this Section is good though I should say the soil was
not so deep as in the Willamette but more serviceable in raising
all kinds of crops from 15 to 20 bushels of wheat is raised to
tiie acre. The Pasturage for cattle is not so good, but still the
Cattle require no housing—
iti
133 Collections of the Canadian boat songs nave been published.
134 Distances of river points were sometimes given in terms of "smokes" or  "pipes."
185 Charles  Forrest   was   succeeded   as   superintendent  of  Cowlitz   Farm   in   1847   by
George B. Roberts. (IK ,    __   .   .
136 The name of the priest was apparently not ascertained. Fathers Francis Norbet
Blanchet and Modeste Demers had first settled there In 1838. Father Blanchet was
mentioned as in the Willamette Valley. See note 100. The one on Cowlitz Prairie in
1841 may have been Father Demers, who continued his work north of the Columbia River,
mainly along the shores  of Puget Sound and Vancouver Island. m
BOOK REVIEWS
Honne, the Spirit of the Chehalis.   By Katherine Van Winiclb
Palmer.    (Geneva, N. Y. :Humphrey, 1925.   Pp. 204. $1.50.)
Ancient Warriors of the North Pacific.    By Chaiules Harrison.
(London: Witherby, 1925.   Pp. 222.   15 shillings.)
This collection of Chehalis folktales is a welcome addition to
the body of material about the Indians of the Northwest which
is being gradually accumulated.    For the student of Indian culture and history the Chehalis are in a very important position.
From the Quinault, their neighbors to the north, they were due to
receive some of the culture traits that spread from the centers of
North Pacific Coast culture on Vancouver.Island and the adjacent mainland.   To the south were the Chinook whose version of
North Pacific Coast culture, still further removed from the cen-
. ter had acquired other interpretations.   They also showed relations
•with their own southern neighbors.    To the east and northeast
were the Cowlitz and Nisqually, important as centers of trade and
therefore also cultural diffusion between the Coast and  Sound
. peoples and the Indians east of the Cascades.   They together with
. the Klickitat were the tribes who introduced horses through their
trade with the Indians towards the Plains.
From this it can be seen that the Chehalis were in a position
to have a rich and varied culture. Very little is known about
them for their tribal life disintegrated soon after the coming of
the whites. That there are fragments to be gleaned by the ethnologist is shown by the present publication.
It might be assumed that as large a collection of folktales
as the present one could help solve this question of cultural affiliation of the Chehalis. Most unfortunately this is not true. In the
preface it is stated that the tales are told by a man whose father
was Nisqually and whose mother was a Cowlitz. Although he
lived on the Chehalis River the larger part of his life it cannot
be assumed that the tales are really the folktales of the Chehalis
Indians. Taken episode for episode, they resemble most closely
a collection of Snohomish-Snuqualmi stories which will appear
shortly in the Journal of American Folklore. Since it is known
that the Snohomish and Nisqually were very closely related linguistically and culturally one might safely offer the opinion that
(66) Honne, of the Spirit of the Chehalis
67
m
the Indian who told these stories gave what he had gotten from
his father rather than telling the tales of the locality in which he
lived. This may seem like a minor point but to the ethnologist
tribal differences are of utmost importance, for it is only through
the records of these minor differences that the larger changes in
culture can be traced.
Another difficulty in using the tales for the comparative
study of local folktales is the fact that, the subtitles are run utterly
regardless of the unity of the incidents they head. Some have the
weight of a full title, others head merely a brief paragraph. For
anyone interested in Indian literary style this is most perple^dng,
for it is impossible to determine the length of a single story, hence
the character of the plots caimot be discussed.
Notwithstanding these criticisms, the collection is a welcome
one, especially since it was undertaken because of a real interest in
these people and a desire to perpetuate their body of unwritten
literature.
The second book deals with the Haida Indians of the Queen
Charlotte Islands, a tribe formerly feared by all tribes from
Alaska to California. They were fearless seamen who constantly
set out on marauding expeditions. The book is written by a man
who has lived among these people for forty years and therefore
witnessed the old life before its decay. The author has given a
very readable, entertaining account, but it adds little to the information which ethnologists have gathered. It is unfortunate that
his rare opportunity to observe the intimate, day by day life of
the tribe was not used to greater advantage. In one of the early
chapters the author states that no systematic effort had been
made to study these people and their works. He is evidently not
aware of the solid contributions of the Bureau of American Ethnology and of the American Museum of Natural History on these
people published some twenty years ago.
Erna Gunther.
Oregon Sketches.    By Wallace Smith.    (New York: Putnam,
1925.   Pp. 247.   $2.50.)
In Oregon Sketches Wallace Smith gives glimpses of the new
and glorified West, a West that is a revival of all that tradition
has contributed to the term, including cowboys and Indians, guns
and war paint. For the sake of the cinema "the good old West
is booming along greater than ever".    The "ladies" of Bootlace
111
IB WA
•mm
N   ■':
111
mm
68
Book Reviews
Valley and Mrs. Peavy are genuine wild West, neither ciyilized
nor stage struck; but he who seeks the wildness of former days
will find it impossible to get away from the derby hat, the radio,
and the sniffing, pointing tourist.
Maverick Tod Mullarky speaks regretfully and with unconscious humor of the old departed West. He recounts the myth of
the Nung Nung, the legend of the cow Callahan, the saga of the
original Elk and the history of Captain Jack's last stand.
Appropriate illustrations by the author add interest to the
sketches.
As a picture of some of the swiftly changing phases of the
West the book is of value.
Elva L. Batchbller.
History of America.    By  Carl Russell  Fish.     (New  York:
American Book Company, 1925.    Pp. 570.   $1.92.)
The History of the United States.    By William Backus Guit-
teau.    (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1924.   Pp. 688.
$1.96.)
The Growth of the United States.   By Ralph| VolnEy Harlow.
(New  York:  Henry  Holt  and  Company,   1925.     Pp.  823.
$5.00.)
The number of general texts in American history is steadily
increasing. Writing a text is, of course, one of the most difficult
ta^ks in the world. In compressing the history of our nation, it
is inevitable that fine shades of meaning be lost. There are two
dangers that are equally latent in the problem. If the writer believes in a concrete presentation with ample illustrative material,
his account is apt to become a manual. A manual is extremely
useful, but it needs to be supplemented with more readable material. Mr. Guitteau's volume would be a good manual for secondary schools if it were accurate. That is one quality that is necessary. His work is comparatively accurate, but not absolutely so.
For example, his paragraph on the "Closing of the trade routes"
is a decade out of date; his statement about the stamp act is equivocal; his interpretation of Andrew Johnson's "Swing around the
Circle" is inadequate; and his account of the Panama Canal negotiations in 1903 shows no evidence of research in that topic. In
fact, Mr. Guitteau's book presents on. the whole the conventional
account, somewhat inaccurate and inadequate, and not at all de- Raising Pur-Bearing Animals
69
signed to  fill  any  new  requirements  that  may  be  considered
necessary for secondary schools.
If the writer believes, on the contrary, in a more general account, he faces the danger of leaving too much to the student's
imagination. Professor Fish has written in delightful Bterary
style a more elementary text. Professor Fish has organized hte
work in an interesting way, giving new titles to periods and allowing periods to overlap chronologically. He emphasizes the importance of social and economic factors, and expresses his; interpretation without hesitation. The appendices are valuable additions,
and at the close of each chapter, there are useful suggestions for
questions, further reading and projects. Professor Harlow's book
is intended for college reading. His style is delightful^ also, but
the account is conventional and with no particular differences to
offer. It seems difficult to combine interpretation with the one-volume account. It is not at all clear why certain events are described
and why others are omitted. In the preface, the writer should give a
brief confession of faith in which he offers his criteria for
choice of facts and tendencies. Professor Harlow's account of
the Farmer's Alliance is very interesting, for example, but it is
impossible to tell what he considers significant about it. The lack
of rainfall, in fact, is given special emphasis. One Would imagine that the hopes and fears of this insurgent group deserved
sOme other emphasis. However, the task, at its best, is a difficult'
one. It may be impossible to write a one-volume text that com-*
bines accuracy of research and good literary style with a carefully
established basis for the choice of facts. We need the latter especially, for, as a nation, our criteria for judgment are notably
illogical and inadequate.
Ebba DahLin.
& e
3'jf >.»;
m
m\
Raising Fur-Bearing Animals.    By Hardison Patten. (Chicago:
C. V. Ritter, 1925.   Pp. 466.   $6.00.)
This volume is written as a guide to the raising of fur-bearing animals. It is intended therefore to interest the fur farmer
rather than the historian. Some brief notes are given on fhe evolution of the fur business however which should prove of general
appeal. The work appears to be a substantial contribution to its
subject. Many drawings are furnished to show the habits of the
animals and modem methods of fur-farming. 70
Book Reviews
m ■ll!
Ma? ii m
The Oregon Trail. By Francis Parkman. With illustrations in
color by N. C. WyETh. (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1925.   Pp. 364.   $2.00.)
Of all recent editions of The Oregon Trail this is