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BC Historical Books

The Washington historical quarterly. Volume VIII Washington University State Historical Society 1917

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 IMfnngton ^fetortcal <©uarterl>
Contributing CDitor*
Clabencb B. Baoubt, Seattle.        W. D. Lyman, Walla Wallah
.^'"•C'Eiuott/ Walla Walla. Edward McMahon, Seattle
Frank A. Golder, Pullman. O. B. SperuN^ Tacoma.
William S. Lewis> Spokane. Hazard Stevens, Olympia.''.
Wf^\W. Howay, New Westminster B. f£.
iHanogtng Cbttor
EDMOND S. MEANY
?8vusintg& iHanager
CHARLJES^^MflTH
VOL. Vni.'?NQjjj '.' :JANUAfe^i9l7
ISSUED dUARTERlS
Contents ||
EDMOND  S.  MEANY.r1&ȣ^.^tS .The   Pioneer   Association   of   the
State. of Washington  .te^ffiljS;'
VICTOR J. FARRAR.^4^^lM@b,,; Pioneer and Historical Associations of the State 4if. Washington . it3'*kjSp^SCi"iS?^ s^SfSfi't^
ELIZABETH A3SN COONC/S^S*^' Reminiscences: VCi5»®Swfeilo'i»eer
Woman ">»^^?^^^«^¥;^^w^f£»i
DAVID LONGMIHE  ?M^i&i..FIrst   ImniIgraBtt-?3<o    Cross   the
Cascades/^s-. iseS*\*j^V.T^^ia^^
GRACE litAYMOND 3S^BARD?^.Tlie Fliit White Women^m sWy-.
oming  • ^^tS>3ttS^&i^^Ki SS2?
EDITH  G.  PROSCH. .^S^^M- -   The Pioneer Dead of 1»1S!,^SM^
DOCUMENTS—Diary Kept by Colonel and Mrs. I. N. Ebey.    Edited by
' Victor J. Farrar .''^*&^KVa^rWt^'^?^<lX^fiiQ*^.£«^;^»>.^5*i#'*^$si3
I BOOK  HEVIEWS ''•'^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^W^^^^^^^M
NEWS  DEPARTMENT   ^^^v^^i^-^^i^J^^.m^^Mk^H^it
THE WASHINGTON UNiVEESITy
■ jS^ATE HtiSTORICAL SOCIETY
University Statjkjn
SEAT^L^ffASHINGTON
Entered at the postofflee at Seattle as second-class mail matter
,7
14
22
20
32
40
63
. n Contribution toward a,bibliography of Marcus Whitman. .Charles W. Smith
Dr. John McLoughlin and his guests^A^^^sK^S^/^^vM'Vr-T. C. Elliott
Port-ColyiHe, lW9-18«i^^pS^^^^^^^^^pSg»^^^Jirl,.t». Winans
The 3t*actfleOcean and 3&e\ Northwest ...•* iffi^^^^^'^K^^Sg^R;NT Bowman
Suffrage Jja^the Pacific Northwest.. 'j^*>J**^^>§^fcwraj(f<^3.-.Stella'E. Pearce
Eastward expansion of population from the Pacific Slope...V^s^.l^e^S^
!^3p:§®|8?ll&1#iS*^ Vernon Bennett
Reminiscences of a pioneer of the Territory of Washington.James C. Strong
History of railroads in Wasbington^^f^^^^%^KSi?^CiV'iSol H. Lewis''
Comparative study of constitutions for provisions not is our own-^£
^M^Sl^^WW^^^ill^W*WrS^N^ **°  Driftmier
Walla Walla alid Missouia.^K^^S.i^^^^^^ffi^^^V^^T.'C. EMa& c
Prom Missoula to Walla in 1897 on horsebackv'^Tiv^S*''..Prank H. Woody
>'The Whitman conttoversy'.!^^^^^^^^«5^®|^A*;.James Clark Strong
•TJie, pioneer', dead of'l911"fti;^^»^^t&<§J^tS^^^'fe^^¥nomas w- Prosoh
VOIitJME'..TV. '■
Proposed amendments to the State Constitution of Washington.;.;.;Leo Jones?
William Welraal&JHj^
The pioneer dead of 191.2 ^^^||^^^ff^i^^S^^^^y, .Thomas W. Prosch
M^uryey of Alaska,?i743-I799>^^^^^^^^,?j®^^^i'.Frank A Golder
■Washington Territory 3Pifty years ago. .''^^^^^i^J^W^ioiaa.B W. I»rosch
Early -Days at White Salmon and TheDalles.''5&>. Camilla Thomson Donnell
Early relatloiis^of the Sandwich Islands tjp'rtlie Old Oregon Terri,toir$t3&S|
jS^^^^^f^i^^S^f^f^^^^t^^^tw^^^^^^^''- • Cuy Vernon Bennett
Independence 1^y in'the* Far Northwe»*^^tJj^g^s^^^Seorge W. Sollday
The Storyliit Three Olympic Peaks./^.^^^^^^£0^.Edmond S. Meany?
Stories and sketches frojn Pacific Countyj^ffK#.M^*iHSJb?'»'Isaac H. Whealdon
Origin of the Constitution of the State of Washingtom.^.Lebbeus J. Knapp
.; VOLUME 3 V.
George Wilkes,. •■^^^^^^^^Jt^^%t'^iJ-iW^^'^fg ,,'•' • • .'Clarence B. Bagley
The Indians of Puget Sound, .^^iu^si^^^^j^j^^qiiiewis H. St. John'
Pioneer dead fif. 1913.' .J^i^f^^^.'&^:ifJS^I^^^ty.. .'Thomas W. Prosch
American and Indian Treatment 6t the Indians of the Pacific North-   *
wesif^3^^^^^S^^^K^^S,ii^^^*^^^^^^^!^Vw'- J- Trimble
The Columbia River under Hudson's Bay Company Rule...C. O. Ermatinger
■ Three -Diplomats Prominent in the Oregon Question'.. .'j'.Edmond S. Meany
History of the Liquor Laws of the State of Washington!.Anna Sloan Walker
Divorce i^washi«gto^^;^^^-^^^^i^^^^^|A^^£^'..Ralph R. Knapp
• The West and American Ideal^iS^^fe^^^^^^KM'; .Frederick J. Turner
Eliza and the Nez Perce Indians... ^v«^i^»?*fc^>^iiia^^?*--E*lwln Bells W$t Washington ^tetorteal ©uarterip
1917
VOLUME VIII.
THE WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY
STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY
University Station
SEATTLE, WASHINGTON  ^agfHttgton ^tsitortcal <&uarterh>
Contributing Coitors
Clarence B. Baoley, Seattle.        W. D. Lyman, Walla Walla.
T. C. Elliott, Walla Walla. Edward McMahon, Seattle.
Frank A. Golder, Pullman. O. B. Sperlin, Tacoma.
William S. Lewis, Spokane. Hazard Stevens, Olympia.
F. W. Howay, New Westminster, B. C.
jWanagt'ng Cbttor
EDMOND S. MEANY
Pugittotf Jflanager
CHARLES W. SMITH
VOL. VIII. NO. 1
JANUARY, 1917
ISSUED QUARTERLY
Contents;
EDMOND   S.  MEANY The    Pioneer    Association    of   the
State  of 'Washington     3
VICTOR J. FARRAR Pioneer and Historical Associations of the State of Washington    7
ELIZABETH ANN COONC Reminiscences       of       n       Pioneer
Woman        14
DAVID   LONGMIRE    First    Immigrants,  to    Cross    the
Cascades  22
GRACE RAYMOND HEBARD The First White Women in Wyoming     20
EDITH  G.  PROSCH The Pioneer Dead of 1010  32
DOCUMENTS—Diary Kept by Colonel ana Mrs. I. N. Ebey.    Edited by
Victor J. Farrar  40
BOOK  REVIEWS      63
NEWS DEPARTMENT     76
THE WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY
STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY
University Station
SEATTLE, WASHINGTON
Entered at the postofflce at Seattle as second-class mail matter. g>tate ?|t£tortcaI i&octetp
(Officers! anb iBoarb of trustees:
Clarence B. Bagley, President
Judge John P.  Hoyt, Vice President
Judge Roger S. Greene, Treasurer
Professor Edmond S. Meany, Secretary
Judge Thomas Burke
Judge Cornelius H. Hanford
Samuel Hill
DEPARTMENT OF PR I
TIN6, UNIVERSITY OF WASH1SGTON
101 7 Vol. VIII., No. 1
January, 1917
Washington i^tsftortcal ©uarterlp
THE PIONEER ASSOCIATION OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON
This issue of The Washington Historical Quarterly, being the
first of the new year and the beginning of a new volume, is planned
as a tribute to the pioneers of Washington. All the articles have
been selected with that end in view. In the same spirit this article
has been prepared about the State organization of pioneers.
Moved by a desire for fellowship and organization, a call was
issued through the newspapers for a meeting of old settlers and, in
response to that call, the meeting was held in Columbia Hall, Olympia,
on October 10, 1888. John M. Swan was chosen chairman and Robert
Frost, secretary.
It was decided to form a pioneer association and a committee,
consisting of Dr. N. Ostrander, Benjamin F. Shaw and Captain S. W.
Percival, was appointed to draft a constitution.
At that very first meeting there was debated the question as to
who would be eligible for membership. The first suggestion limiting
the membership to those who had come to the Territory prior to January 1, 1855, and who had resided therein continuously since 1858,
was lost. It was then decided to admit all those who had come to
the Territory prior to January 1, 1856. The chairman and secretary
were then directed to issue a call for all qualified pioneers to meet
at Olympia on October 2.3, 1888.
At that second meeting the constitution was adopted and the following officers were elected: President, A. S. Abernethy; first vice-
president, C. C. Hewitt; second vice-president, Benjamin F. Shaw;
secretary, John M. Swan; treasurer, G. A. Barnes; directors (with
the president, first vice-president and secretary), N. Ostrander and
James Longmire. The enrollment of members followed, forty-three
being on the first list. A majority of those have since died but the
first secretary, Robert Frost, who signed the call for the meetings, is
still living at Olympia.
(3) Edmond S. Mean
y
While those meetings are taken as the birth of the State organization, it will be shown later than they were not the first pioneer
meetings.
Looking back at those days, it seems likely that the impulse for
organization was quickened by the "Last Spike" celebrations of the
Northern Pacific Railroad Company in September of that year, 1883.
The old settlers correctly reasoned that when passengers could come
to the "Oregon Country" in railroad coaches the days of real pioneers
were ended. This- idea of such an impulse has this interesting evidence: A call was issued for a special meeting at Olympia on April
9, 1884, to consider plans for a great pioneer excursion over the
new railroad. At the meeting, Daniel Bagley, C. H. Hale and J. P.
Stewart were appointed a committee to confer with the railway officials.    John M. Swan, as secretary, then makes this, record:
"The committee reported, as the lowest rates the railroad agents
would grant, the following: For seventy-five or more persons, from
Portland to St. Paul and return, $100 each; to New York and return,
$140; to Chicago and return, $114. An emigrant sleeping car was
offered the excursionists. The rates were too high and there was no
excursion."
While they were disappointed over the plan of retracing the way
of their ox-teams and "prairie schooners" in a sleeping car, they had
the satisfaction of knowing that their new organization was prospering. The list of forty-three members had expanded to one of two
hundred and fifty-four members.
The first annual reunion was held at Olympia on July S, 1884.
The plan of that meeting has been followed more or less closely ever
since. The constitution and by-laws were amended. The dues of
members and the pay of the secretary were attended to and further
meetings were arranged. Entertainment was_ provided and those who
made addresses received a vote of thanks. Another effort was made
for an excursion over the new railroad but the secretary records:
"This conference resulted precisely as did the first, no lower rates
being obtained."
The constitution, as amended and approved at that first annual
meeting, called the organization "Washington Pioneer Association.".
The provision for membership was: "All persons residing in the
Territory of Washington prior to January 1, 1860, and all members
of or persons eligible to membership in the pioneer organizations of
California, Oregon, Idaho and British Columbia, and none others, are
eligible to membership in this Association."
The second annual reunion was held in Tacoma on June 16 and Washington Pioneers
17, 1885. The roll then showed a membership of three hundred and
thirty-eight. This time they had a little railroad excursion as guests
of the Northern Pacific Railroad Company to the Puyallup Valley.
An adjourned meeting was provided for at Tacoma on August 10, 1885.
The principal purposes of the meeting were to arrange for changes in
the constitution and by-laws and to provide for incorporating the organization.
The third annual reunion was held in Seattle on June 1, 1886,
and it was at this meeting that it was shown that the Olympia organization of 1883 was not the first pioneer society. Judge H. G. Struve
called attention to the fact that as early as 1871 a pioneer association
had been formed in Seattle. That organization had appointed a committee of which Judge Orange Jacobs was chairman and he asked
that Judge Jacobs be heard. Judge Jacobs stated that the King
County organization had expanded its scope so as to include all pioneers of the Territory. It had been incorporated and all that but
the members believed that all pioneers should belong to one organization. The society he represented was ready to be merged into the
Washington Pioneer Association if their own members were all received as charter members of the newer organization. The merging
of the two societies was accomplished and a committee of three from
each society was appointed to prepare the necessary changes in the
constitution and by-laws.
The fourth reunion was held at Port Townsend on June 2, 1887;
the fifth at Seattle on June 5, 1888; the sixth at Olympia on June 4,
1889.    That completes the record down to statehood.
Of late years the meetings and reunions have all been held in
Seattle. For this there are several reasons and among them are two
of most importance. Judge John J. McGilvra, well known as a pioneer lawyer, died on December 19, 1903. He bequeathed to the Pioneer Association a lot on the shore of Lake Washington near the
home in which he had lived for thirty-six years. The anchoring quality of that property was increased by another pioneer—Sarah Loretta
Denny. She died on July 25, 1907, and when her will was probated
it was found that, among other fine and helpful bequests, she had
left for the Pioneer Association enough money to build a large two-
story brick structure in which to hold the meetings and reunions. That
property thus improved has done much toward stimulating the spirit
of loyalty of the pioneers for their State organization.
On December 5, 1895, the society filed articles of incorporation
under State laws. The name was changed to "The Pioneer Association
of the State of Washington."    The cost of membership is. purposely Edmond S. Meany
kept from being burdensome. The admission fee is one dollar and
dues are one dollar a year for men. Women are free. After the
many changes from year to year the present rules provide that persons
are eligible who have resided in Washington, Territory and State, for
forty years prior to the time of their application for membership.
In many counties of the State there have grown up pioneer organizations. As some of these counties passed through their frontier
or pioneer experiences later than others, it is quite natural that such
local societies should have membership requirements different from
those of the State Association. There has developed, however, a desire
for cooperation. On November 22, 1916, the Board of Trustees of the
Pioneer Association of the State of Washington adopted a motion to
invite each local pioneer society in the State to choose an official
delegate to bring or send to the annual meetings in June messages of
greeting. Through these delegates the State society can be kept
informed about the work of all pioneer associations in the State. It
is hoped that this plan will prove mutually helpful.
As in many other organizations, the secretary of the Washington
Pioneer Association has been the most important officer. Among those
who have served in that capacity are Robert Frost, John M. Swan,
Francis Henry, Charles Prosch, Edgar Bryan, Thomas H. Cann and
Major W. V. Rinehart. The last named is the present incumbent. His
address is 416 Alaska Building, Seattle.
The present officers of the association are as follows: President,
Edmond S. Meany; vice-president, George H. Foster; secretary, Major
W. V. Rinehart; treasurer, William M. Calhoun; trustees, Frank H.
Winslow, chairman; M. R. Maddocks, William H. Pumphrey, James
McCombs and Leander Miller. Edmond S. Meany. PIONEER AND HISTORICAL SOCIETIES OF THE STATE OF
WASHINGTON
As announced in the January, 1915, number of the Quarterly, a
survey of the pioneer and historical societies of the State of Washington will be given each year. Co-operation is desired with these organizations. Any news of historical work, of publications, the marking
of historic sites, or the celebration of historical events, as well as
changes in the officers of the societies listed will be welcomed by the
Washington Historical Quarterly.
The societies which have come to the notice of the Quarterly are
as follows:
Pioneer Association of the State of Washington. The headquarters are at Pioneer Hall, Seattle. The officers for 1916 were:
Edmond S. Meany, president, Seattle; George H. Foster, vice-president, Colby; W. V. Rinehart, Sr., secretary, Seattle; W. M. Calhoun,
treasurer, Seattle; trustees: F. H. Winslow, M. R. Maddocks, James
McCombs, W. H. Pumphrey, Leander Miller. This society was
founded on October 23, 1883, at Olympia. The annual meeting is
held during the first week in June at the Pioneer Hall building at
Madison Park, Seattle. The original membership requirements were
residence on the Pacific Coast prior to the year 1870; at present a
person to become a member must have lived in the territory forty years
prior to date of application for membership. The society has about
800 members, but the records, however, include as many more, as
many of the older pioneers have neglected to keep up their dues. The
society invites all local associations to send a delegate to the annual
meeting.
Washington State Historical Society. The headquarters are
at 401 North Cliff Avenue, Tacoma. The officers for 1916 were:
Henry Hewitt, Jr., president, Tacoma; Hazard Stevens, vice-president,
Olympia; W. P. Bonney, secretary, Tacoma; William H. Dickson,
treasurer, Tacoma; curators: P. G. Hubbell, Tacoma; L. L. Benbow,
Sumner; W. J. Bowman, Puyallup; John Arthur, Seattle; Walter S.
Davis, Tacoma; Walter N. Granger, Zillah; Harry M. Painter, Seattle; Thomas Huggins, Tacoma; L. F. Jackson, Pullman; W. D. Lyman, Walla Walla; Sarah S. McMillan-Patton, Hoquiam. For two
years the society published the "Washington Historical Magazine,"
now discontinued.   It has published two volumes of its "Proceedings."
(7) 8
Victor J. Farrar
The society was founded on October 8, 1891, and any citizen of the
state may become a member.
Washington University State Historical Society. The headquarters are at the University of Washington, Seattle. The officers
for 1916 were: Clarence B. Bagley, president, Seattle; Edmond S.
Meany, secretary and managing editor, Seattle; Roger S. Greene,
treasurer, Seattle. Since October, 1906, the society has published
the Washington Historical Quarterly. The society was founded at the
University on January 1, 1908.    Any person may become a member.
Native Daughters of Washington. The headquarters are at
Seattle. The officers for 1915 were: Nellie Russell, president; Julia
N. Harris, vice-president. Any native daughter over sixteen years of
age may become a member.
Native Daughters of Washington Pioneers. The headquarters are at Seattle. The officers for 1915 were: Mrs. Rena Bagley
Griffith, president; Miss Hilda Gaches, secretary. Any daughter of
a pioneer who resided on the coast prior to 1870 is eligible to membership.
Native Sons of Washington. This is a state organization with
camps located in the larger cities. Alki Camp, No. 2, located at Seattle, had the following officers for 1915: T. C. Naylor, captain;
Clare White, financial secretary and treasurer.
Women's Pioneer Auxiliary of the State of Washington.
The headquarters are at Seattle. The officers for 1916 were: Mrs.
John P. Soule, president; Mrs. H. A. Hunt, vice-president; Mrs.
Rosamond Densmore, secretary; Mrs. Eugene Thurlow, treasurer.
This society was formed in August, 1911, to serve as an auxiliary to
the Washington Pioneer Association. It meets four times each year.
Membership is restricted to women who have resided in the state prior
to 1889, the year of statehood.
Adams County.    See Lincoln and Adams Counties.
Benton County. Old Settlers' Union. The headquarters are
at Prosser. The officers for 1916 were: G. W. Wilgus, president; A.
G. McNeill, vice-president; M. Henry, secretary. The society has an
annual meeting. Membership is restricted to those having a residence
of twenty years in the county.
Chehalis County.    See Grays Harbor County.
Garfield County Pioneer Association. The headquarters are
at the postoffice address of the secretary.   The officers for 1916 were: Pioneer and Historical Societies
W. L. Howell, president; G. B. Kuykendall, secretary; L. F. Koenig,
treasurer and financial secretary. This society was founded on July
19, 1909. Membership is restricted to persons who have resided in
Garfield or an adjoining county for twenty-five years.
Grays Harbor County. Pioneer association of Grays Harbor
County. The headquarters are at Montesano. The officers for 1916
were: George Scammon, president, Westport; Mrs. Edwin May, first
vice-president, Porter; Mrs. Joe Redman, second vice-president, Melbourne; J. W. Himes, third vice-president, Elma; Mrs. J. E. Calder,
secretary, Montesano; Mrs. E. Belle Marcy, treasurer, Montesano.
The association collects and preserves local historical documents. Membership is restricted to those resident in the county prior to January
1, 1885.
Aberdeen Pioneer Association. The headquarters are at Aberdeen. The officers for 1916 were: Mrs. J. G. Lewis, president; Lewis
F. Kolts, vice-president; Mrs. William Irvine, secretary; Mrs. Charles
Pinckney, treasurer; Mrs. A. D. Wood, historian; trustees: Mrs. Jean
B. Stewart, J. B. Haynes, J. G. Lewis, E. C. Finch, J. G. Smith. The
society has four meetings each year, the annual meeting occurring in
January and the memorial meeting in memory of those who have died
occurring on the first Sunday in March.
King County. Seattle Historical Society. The headquarters are
at Seattle. The officers for 1916 were: Mrs. Morgan J. Carkeek, president; Mrs. William P. Trimble, vice-president; Mrs. Redick H. McKee, secretary; Mrs. William F. Prosser, treasurer; Mrs. Frederick E.
Swanstrom, historian. The society has been very active in collecting
manuscripts.
Kitsap County. Kitsap County Pioneers' Association. The
headquarters are at Charleston. The officers for 1916 were: H. M.
Williams, president, Tracyton; Lillie L. Crawford, secretary, Charleston; Paul Mchncr, treasurer, Bremerton. This society was organized
at the Kitsap County Fair on October 10, 1914. Membership is restricted to those who have resided in the county prior to the year 1893.
The annual meeting for the election of officers is. held on the third Wednesday in June at Bremerton.
Lincoln and Adams Counties. Lincoln and Adams County
Pioneer and Historical Association. The headquarters are at the office
of the secretary and the annual meeting and outing is held at the
society's grounds on Crab Creek. The officers for 1916 were: J. W.
Sawyer, president, Davenport; F. R. Burroughs, vice-president, Ritz- 10
Victor J. Farrar
ville; C. E. Ivy, secretary-treasurer, Davenport; Matt Brislawn, historian, Sprague; directors.: M. C. Lavender, Espanola; H. K. Rosenoff,
Sr., Ritzville; C. A. Harris, Ritzville; Henry W. Thiel, Ritzville;
George N. Lowe, Lamona.
Okanogan County. Okanogan County Pioneer Association. The
headquarters are at Conconully. The officers for 1916 were: P. H.
Pinkston, president, Conconully; George Hurley, vice-president,
Loomis; David Gubser, secretary, Conconully; William C. Brown, historian, Okanogan.
Pierce County. Pierce County Pioneers' Association. The
headquarters are at the State Historical Building, 401 North Cliff
Avenue, Tacoma. The officers for 1916 were: Mrs. Addie G. Hill,
president; James Sales, vice-president; Mrs. Mary F. Bean, secretary;
Mrs. Celia P. Grass, treasurer. Meetings are held in January, April,
July and October. Local historical documents are deposited in the
society's rooms in the State Historical Building. The society has
erected monuments on historic spots. Membership is restricted to those
who have resided on the Pacific Coast prior to the year 1870.
San Juan County. San Juan County Pioneer Association. The
headquarters are at Richardson. The officers for 1916 were: Charles
McKay, president, Friday Harbor; Ervin Eaton, vice-president, Islan-
dale; R. J. Hummel, secretary-treasurer, Port Stanley; directors: C.
A. Kent, Lopez; Stanley Kepler, West Sound; Bert Fowler, Shaw
Island; William Reed, Decatur. The society was organized on October 31, 1915, at Bloor Grove, Richardson. Membership is restricted
to those who have resided in the state for twenty-five years. The annual meeting is held in June.
Skagit County. Skagit County Pioneer Association. The headquarters are at Sedro-Woolley, where the society has extensive buildings, but the annual meeting and gathering is held at different places
in the county as. may be determined by the committee. The officers
for 1916 were: Nick Beesner, president, Anacortes; Mrs. R. O. Welts,
vice-president; Mount Vernon; Frank A. Hall, secretary, Mount Vernon; P. Halloran, treasurer, Edison. This association was organized
at Sedro-Woolley on August 18, 1904. Two classes of members are
admitted. Those who have resided in the county prior to January 1,
1886, are admitted as. "Pioneers"; persons who have resided in the
county for twenty years may be admitted as "Old Settlers."
Snohomish County. Stillaguamish Valley Association of Washington Pioneers.   The headquarters are at Arlington.    The officers for Pioneer and Historical Societies
11
1916 were: W. F. Oliver, president; Thomas Moran, vice-president;
M. M. McCaulley, secretary; Charles H. Tracy, treasurer. The annual meeting occurs on the second Thursday in August. The society
has three grades of membership. Persons resident in the state for
twenty-five years are "Pioneers"; those resident for twenty years are
"Early Settlers"; those resident for fifteen years are "Honorary Members." The society reports that Mr. M. Birckenmeier, who settled in
the county over thirty-three years ago, has donated an eight-acre tract
near Arlington for a park. The site was promptly christened "Birckenmeier Pioneer Park." The deed has been placed in escrow with the
stipulation that it be recorded when the sum of $1,500 has been expended in improvements.
Spokane County. Spokane County Pioneer Society. The headquarters are at Spokone. The officers for 1915 were: R. A. Hutchinson, president; S. A. Eslick, vice-president; Joseph S. Willson, secretary ; W. W. Waltman, treasurer; the above, with John I. Daniels, make
up the board of directors. There are four meetings a year, including
the annual outing. Membership is restricted to those who have resided in Spokane County prior to November 29, 1884.
Spokane Historical Society. The headquarters are in the
Spokane Public Library Building. The officers for 1916 were: N. W.
Durham, president; W. D. Vincent, first vice-president; Mrs. E. F.
Rue, second vice-president; William S. Lewis, corresponding secretary;
George W. Fuller, recording secretary; B. L. Gordon, treasurer; trustees: Jonathan Edwards, B. L. Gordon, J. Neilson Barry, Harl J.
Cook, William S. Lewis, N. W. Durham, W. D. Vincent, Mrs. E. F..
Rue, E. I. Seehorn, R. D. Gwyder, Garrett B. Hunt. The society is
actively engaged in collecting manuscripts.
Stevens County. Stevens County Pioneer Association. The
headquarters are at Colville. The officers for 1915 were: C. R. McMillan, president, Orin; Frank Habein, vice-president, Colville; Mrs.
Clara Shaver, secretary, Colville; John G. Kulzer, treasurer, Valley;
John B. Slater, historian, Colville. The annual meeting is held on
June 30 of each year. Membership is restricted to those who have resided in the state prior to June 30, 1895.
Thurston County. Pioneer and Historical Society of Thurston
County. The headquarters are at Olympia. The officers for 1916
were: Hazard Stevens, president; George N. Talcot, first vice-president; F. W. Stocking, secretary and treasurer; trustees: W. Scott
Shaser, P. M. Troy, M. D. Abbott.    There is an annual gathering at 12
Victor J. Farrar
Priest Point Park in summer and a meeting for the election of officers,
etc., in March. Membership is restricted to those who have resided
in the county prior to 1870.
South-West Washington Pioneer Day Association. The
headquarters are at Rochester. The officers for 1916 were: J. W.
Lieullen, president, Rochester; J. B. Stanley, secretary-treasurer, Rochester; trustees: L. L. Hunter, Aberdeen; W. S. Shaser, Olympia;
C. C. Seates, Oakville; F. G. Titus, Centralia.
Walla Walla County. Inland Empire Pioneer Association.
The headquarters are at Walla Walla. The officers for 1915 were:
Ben Burgunder, president, Colfax; Martin Evans, secretary, Walla
Walla; Levi Ankeny, treasurer, Walla Walla; W. D. Lyman, historian,
Walla Walla. The society has an annual meeting. Documents are collected and deposited in the Whitman College Library. Membership
is restricted to persons who arrived in the Inland Empire or on the
Pacific Coast prior to the year 1885.
Whatcom County. Old Settlers' Association of Whatcom
County. The headquarters of the society are at Pioneer Park, Ferndale. The officers for 1916 were: J. B. Wilson, president; T. B.
Wynn, vice-president; Edith M. Thornton, secretary; W. E. Campbell, treasurer; trustees: Charles Tawes, John Slater, John Tarte, Godfrey Schneider, Porter Felmley, George Baer. The annual gathering,
election of officers, etc., is held in August at Pioneer Park, Ferndale.
The society has a graduated system of membership. Persons who
have resided in the county for ten years are admitted and are known
as "Chechacoes"; the older members in point of residence are known by
other Chinook jargon titles; the oldest living member in point of residence is given a special honor badge which remains in his possession
until his death, when it passes to the next oldest pioneer.
Whitman County. Whitman County Pioneers' Association. The
headquarters are at Garfield. The officers for 1916 were: William
Duling, president, Garfield; P. W. Cox, vice-president, Colfax; S. A.
Manring, secretary, Garfield; William Lippitt, treasurer, Colfax. The
annual meeting is held in June. Membership is restricted to those who
were residents of Washington prior to October, 1886.
Yakima County. Yakima Pioneers' Association. The headquarters are at North Yakima. The officers for 1917, elected on November 4, 1916, are: A. J. Splawn, president; David Longmire, first vice-
president; James Beck, second vice-president; John H. Lynch, secre- Pioneer and Historical Societies
13
tary; Mrs. Zona H. Cameron, treasurer; Mrs. A. J. Splawn, historian;
directors: Mrs. D. D. Reynolds, Elmer B. Marks, Fred Parker, E. A.
Clemen. The annual meeting is held on the first Saturday in November. Regular membership in the association is restricted to citizens of
white or Indian blood who were residents in the original County of
Yakima prior to November 9, 1889, and their descendants. Persons
not eligible to membership may become associate members. All documents are kept in the custody of the historian. The society has worked
in conjunction with the Sons of the American Revolution and Daughters of the American Revolution to erect monuments on historic sites.
Yakima Columbian Association. This is a Catholic organization with headquarters at North Yakima. It has for its object the
care and preservation of the old St. Joseph's Mission in the Ahtanum
Valley. Since 1915 the association has employed a caretaker who
resides on the premises.. The present officers are: John Ditter, president; R. E. Allingham, vice-president; John H. Lynch, secretary;
H. A. La Berge, treasurer; Pat Jordan, general manager.
Victor J. Farrar. REMINISCENCES OF A PIONEER WOMAN*
My father was John Fenn, an Englishman, the son of Thomas
and Nancy Fenn. He was born at Alesworth, North Hampshire,
England, on November 26, 1810 or 1812, and in his youth learned the
trade of plasterer and brick mason. In 1828, with an older brother,
William Fenn,1 he came over on a sailing vessel. I have heard my
father say that he was only sixteen years old when he left England.
In Canada my father took up his trade of plasterer, and later, with his
brother William moved to Pike County, Illinois, where both brothers
married.
My mother was Mary Jory, an Englishwoman, the daughter of
James Jory and Mary Stevens, who were married in St. Clear parish,
England, in 1812. James Jory's father (also named James Jory)
was a game keeper and gardener on an English estate, and the son
learned the trade of carpenter and mechanic. My grandfather's family consisted of two daughters, Mary (my mother), Elizabeth, who
later became my stepmother, and six sons, John, James,2 Henry Thomas, William, and H. S. All, except H. S. Jory, were born in England.
My grandfather, James Jory, with his family emigrated from England to St. John, New Brunswick, where he took up a farm and worked
in the ship yards. Later he moved with his family to New York,
then to New Orleans, and from there to St. Louis, Missouri. The
slave-holding system then prevailing in Missouri was obnoxious to
his liberty-loving English spirit, and my grandfather moved, with
his family, to Pike County, Illinois, in the fall of 1837. Here he
bought forty acres of government land on which he settled.
In Pike County, my father, John Fenn, first met my mother,
Mary Jory, and they were married in 1839. Four children were born,
Mary Jane, born on May 17, 1840; 3Elizabeth Ann (the narrator, now
living at Spring Valley, Washington; James William,4 born October
11, 1843; and Thomas Henry,4 born March 28, 1845. Mother died in
Pike County, Illinois, in November, 1846, while the family was preparing to emigrate to Oregon.    I remember distinctly the new linsey
*This relation was made by Elizabeth Ann Coonc of Spring Valley,
Spokane County, to William S. Lewis, Corresponding Secretary of the Spokane Historical Society.    The footnotes are by Mr. Lewis.—Editor.
lWilllam Fenn, when last heard of was living at Kaski, Illinois.
2A sketch of the life of James Jory, Jr., by H. S. Lyman appears in the
Oregon Historical Quarterly, Vol. 3, pages 271-286.
3Now Mrs. Nancy Jane MacPherson, East Fourteenth St., Portland, Ore.
*Now deceased.
(14) Reminiscences of a Pioneer Woman
15
dress mother made to wear to Oregon, and the tent stretched in the
yard of the old home in Illinois under which we children played.
Mary Elizabeth Jory, my mother's sister, took mother's place in
caring for the four little motherless children, and when all was ready
father, auntie and us children, with a large party including many of
mother's relatives, started out overland by ox teams along the old Oregon trail, reaching the Columbia River district in the late fall of
1847.
Dr. Whitman came out from the Blue Mountains, a distance of
about 150 miles, to meet our party and to pilot them over the trail to
his mission. A stop of three weeks was made at the Whitman Mission
and Dr. Whitman tried to persuade the emigrants to remain over at
the mission until the next year.6
Before reaching the mission a considerable amount of property
was stolen from the emigrants' camp by the Indians. This was just
after the first robbery and massacre of an emigrant train, where but a
small part of the people had escaped. Upon our robbery being reported to Dr. Whitman, he called the Indians together; they gathered
in a half-circle in front of the Doctor, wrapped in their blankets, many
with their faces painted with war-paint, and the Doctor began to arraign them about the theft. I looked on, standing beside father and
holding his hand. As the Doctor proceeded, and the guilty consciences
of the Indians were awakened, from time to time a knife, fork or frying pan would be dropped by an Indian from beneath his blanket, and
when Dr. Whitman had finished most of the stolen property was lying
about on the ground at the feet of the Indians. One of the Indians
threw down a skillet with considerable force, and, as I thought, threw
it at the Doctor, but father said, "No, they are mad." This was only
a short time before the massacre of Dr. Whitman by the Indians.
Among the property surrendered by the Indians was a large
chest. No one knew to whom it belonged, so Dr. Whitman gave it to
my father to carry on to Oregon, hoping that the owner might be
found there. Father's team was, however, giving out and he was compelled to leave the chest by the roadside in the mountains. After we
had reached Oregon I remember we were all gathered around the
old fireplace one night when auntie said, "John, I have often wondered
what was in the old chest you put out by the roadside. There might
have been something in it which we could have used for the children."
BThe Whitman massacre occurred on November 29, 1847, and the eagerness of the emigrants to reach old Oregon probably saved them from
sharing the fate of Dr. Whitman. The emigration of 1847 did not pass by
the Whitman mission, and it was not customary for Dr. Whitman to go out
to meet and piiot emigrants. He went to the Umatilla River with some
provisions to sell them, and was gone several weeks that fall at The Dalles
where he purchased the Methodist Mission property. (T. C. E.) It is probable, however, that many of the emigrants made the "out of the way trip"
to visit the mission, and rest for a few days. 16
Elizabeth Ann Coonc
And father answered her, saying: "No, Elizabeth, I never could have
used anything that did not belong to me."
From the Whitman Mission we traveled down the Columbia in
canoes, and at first settled at Clatsop Plains in Clatsop County, Oregon, where in 1847 father married my aunt, Elizabeth Jory, who had
taken care of us children during the trip. My step-brother, John S.
Fenn,8 was born at Clatsop Plains.
After remaining at Clatsop Plains for about a year, in 1849, the
family moved to Salem, where we remained two years. In 1852 father
moved with the family to Linn County, Oregon, a place about six miles
north of Albany. Here my step-brother, Joe Fenn,7 was born in 1852,
and my step-sister, Mary Fenn,8 was born in 1854.
In the spring of 1854 my step-mother, Mary Elizabeth Fenn, took
sick and died. We all had a very hard time while she was sick. Sister
and I had to care for her and cook the meals and do all the house work,
father and the boys being all hard at work on the farm. After my
step-mother's death my oldest sister, Nancy Jane, then fourteen years
old, and myself, kept house for the family until sister was married to
William Angus MacPherson, a Scotchman, who afterwards became
State Printer of Oregon, and who was later associated with the late
Harvey Scott on the Oregonian.
Except for occasional visits to our grandparents, who lived about
twenty miles away, the rest of us children stayed at home until we
grew up. Times were very hard among the early pioneers of Oregon.
Some of us children spent a great deal of the time with our grandparents, the Jory family. Several of the Jory family have died on
their old donation claim in the Salem Hills, and some of their descendants still live there on land first taken up in 1850. In that part
of Oregon the "Jory Settlement" is a section as well known as the
"French Prairie Settlement," where the French Canadian employees of
the Hudson Bay Company settled. There were a great many volunteers for the Indian wars of the fifties from the "Jory Settlement" and
the vicinity.
In 1849, my father, John Fenn, with one of my uncles, joined the
gold rush to California, sailing across the Columbia River Bar and down
the coast of California in an open boat. My father was fairly successful in his mining operations and returned from California in 1850
by a sailing boat, which was compelled to lie off the Columbia River
Bar three weeks before it was safe to cross and enter the Columbia.
eCol.  J.  S. Fenn,  of  Spokane and North Yakima:  Col.  Penn  in  1855-6
represented Spokane County in the Territorial Legislature.
7Mr. Joseph C. Fenn, of Spokane and Seattle.
8Mrs. Mary C. Adams, now residing near Lewiston, Idaho. Reminiscences of a Pioneer Woman
17
As a child I remember hearing of the killing of the Indian Pu-Pu-
Mox-Mox9 by the soldiers in 1856, and of hearing that some of the
volunteer soldiers from our neighborhood had brough back razor strops
made out of his hide. His ears were cut off and pickled and brought
back as trophies by one of the neighbors.
As a young girl I remember meeting Dr. McLoughlin, with the
Hudson Bay Company. With the money which he brought back from
the gold mines in California my father bought some horses., and he was
the only man in the neighborhood who had horses, most of the settlers
having only cattle which they had driven across the plains. Father
used to loan his team to the neighbors to haul their wheat to the Hudson
Bay Company's mill at Oregon City. On one occasion the supplies of
grain and flour became very short, and even the Hudson Bay Company
had barely enough for its own use. Being an Englishman, the neighbors selected my father as their delegate to go to Dr. McLoughlin and
try to get sufficient flour for their winter use. Dr. McLoughlin asked
father how many women and children there were, and then told father
that the settlers could have some flour, but that they -would have to
take shorts to mix with it.
In 1860,1, Elizabeth Ann Fenn, was married to David M. Coonc,9%
at Scio, Linn County, Oregon, and in 1864 moved with my husband
to The Dalles, Oregon. In 1864 we moved to White Bluffs on the Columbia River. White Bluffs, was then on the east side of the Columbia
at the crossing of the Mullan Road, and an attempt was made to start
a town there in opposition to Wallula. A warehouse and a store were
built there. There were two white men, bachelors, there, Nevison and
Boothe. My husband, Mr. Coonc, had several teams of mules and
teamed freight from White Bluffs.10
9Pu-Pu-Mox-Mox, with several other Indians, were held as hostages
by the white settlers in the Walla Walla country during the Cayuse war
and in December, 1855, the command going into sanguinary conflict with
the hostile Indians at the Touchet River, the guards killed all the Indian
prisoners and mutilated their remains. The usual plea 'was made that the
Indians had tried to escape, but the act seems to have been an uncalled
for and cold-blooded massacre equal in savagery to any similar acts committed by the Indians. For an account see the History of Klickitat and
Yakima Counties, pages 71 to 73. See Statements of General John E. Wool,
Serial No. 822, 34th Cong., 1st S. Ex. D. 66, pages 39 and 58.
»%David Madison Coonc was born at Keokuk, Iowa, in 1832, of German
parentage. In 1849, as a boy of seventeen, he left home and came overland
with a party of emigrants to California, where he worked a mining claim
at Eureka, during the gold excitement. In 1859, he came overland to Oregon, settling in Lynn County, where he married Miss Fenn on October 25,
1860.
loin the early '60s when the old Oregon Steam Navigation Company extended its steamer traffic to White Bluffs to take care of the shipments to
Montana and built a steamboat on Lake Pend d'Oreille they had a freighting road built across the country, following some old Indian trail.    (T. C. E.)
The White Bluff Road, as shown on Lieutenant Symonds' map of the
Department of the Columbia, went north from White Bluffs northeast to
Crab Creek, thence to Sheep Springs,; thence northeast by Duck Lake draw
and thence northeast to Ivy Lake, thence six miles to Booth Springs,
thence thirteen miles northeast to Cottonwood Springs (now Davenport),
thence    east    to    Mondovi,    Deep    Creek,    and    Spokane    Falls;    thence --11^
18
Elizabeth Ann Coonc
There was then a big mining excitement near the head of Pend
Oreille Lake, and the machinery and materials for the first steamboat
were landed at White Bluffs to be hauled to the Lake. On the first
trip, Abe Hines. and his wife, who had been married in our house in
Oregon, accompanied Mr. Coonc and located where Rathdrum, Idaho,
now is and built a road-house—-being a double cabin with a roofed
porch between. The freight was landed at Cabinet Landing on Pend
Oreille Lake. On the next trip with freight, I accompanied my husband, riding a mule while my husband managed his ten-mule team with
a jerk line. We started in August and it took about three weeks to
make the trip, most of the way being over an Indian trail. Our freight
was the boiler for a steamboat. Mr. Coonc was a great hand to frighten
the Indians. They crowded around the big boiler and asked him what
it was; my husband opened up the firebox, showing them the numerous
tubes, or flues of the boiler and told them it was "many guns," and
that he had a shot in every barrel and only had to fire it up to commence shooting. Thereafter the Indians were careful not to get in
front of the boiler.
Approaching the present site of the city of Spokane, we came
down an Indian trail by Garden Springs11 and camped on the little
stream west of Hangman Creek. There were no white people at
Spokane at that time. Mr. Coonc unhitched the mules and took them
off a little distance from the wagons to pasture them. While he was
gone an Indian came up to me with a fish to sell; soon there were about
a dozn Indians about me, all offering to sell me fish. They looked at
my hands and dress, and hollered and joked and laughed among themselves ; looked at my feet, put their hands on my head. I think that I
was the first white woman they had seen. Getting scared, I got off the
wagon and ran to my husband. There used to be an old roadhouse or
stopping place near Garden Springs in the early days.
Crossing Hangman Creek, it took Mr. Coonc all day to get up
the west bank of the creek where Eighth Avenue crosses under the
Northern Pacific Railroad. A bad time was encountered also in getting
over the rim rock, down into Union Park, as there were no roads. I
did not visit the falls of the Spokane but could hear their roar from
the camp.   We crossed the Spokane River at a ferry near where Cow-
east to Rathdrum, Idaho; thence along a line parallel to the present Northern Pacific Railway line for about twelve miles; thence east to Steamboat
Landing at the southern end of Pend d'Oreille Lake. On this map, Splains'
place is shown at about six miles below Ringold Bar; Kuntz' (Coonc) place
about six miles above the bar and Perkins' place about eight miles above
the Kuntz place.
nMrs. Coonc is mistaken; the Indian trail and road came down what
is now known as "Brickyard Gulch" about a mile and a half south of the
gulch occupied by Garden Springs creek. Reminiscences of a Pioneer Woman
19
ley's Bridge was erected. Part of the lumber for the first bridge was
then on the ground.12 Antone Plant had a ferry there. He lived on
the north side of the river, on the river bank. He had married a squaw
and had a lot of children. About the fattest cattle I ever saw were at
Antone Plant's place. From there we went to Rathdrum, and I stopped
with Mrs. Hines, while Mr. Coonc went on to Pend Oreille Lake with
the freight.
We returned to White Bluffs and Mr. Coonc sold his mules for ox
teams, six yoke. We wintered at White Bluffs. I then returned to
Albany, Oregon, and Mr. Coonc began hauling freight from Wallula to
Winnemucca, Nevada, where there was a big mining excitement at the
time. He was gone eleven months on the trip. At Burnt River, Eastern Oregon, he lost two teams, of oxen by the cattle eating some weed.
In 1868, Mr. Coonc sold his ox teams at Minnemucca and went to San
Francisco, and returned to Oregon. In the spring of 1869 we bought
cattle and took them overland to Ocho-co, at Prineville, about 100
miles over the mountains east from Albany. Barney Prine was.then
king of Ocho-co.
The place was full of the toughest men I ever saw; every Sunday
they would get drunk, quarrel and shoot up the town. They finally
started to brand Mr. Coonc's cattle. Mr. Coonc couldn't kick, and I
persuaded him to move to White Bluffs in 1872. The cattle were
swum over the river and driven to Ringold Bar near White Bluffs.
Here we lived three years. There was a large Indian camp up the
river near us, but the Indians never molested us. Chinamen were then
washing gold in the bars along the Columbia and frequently traded
gold to me for flour and bread.
There was an Indian burying-ground near Ringold Bar and the
Indians frequently passed, carrying dead bodies to that place for
burial. I knew Joseph, the Nez Perce, and fed him many a dish of
bread and milk. I knew old Moses and his tribe; they frequently came
to the house. Mr. Coonc had the Indians bluffed; they respected him
and were afraid of him. About 1878 he read in the almanac that there
would be an eclipse of the moon. He told the Indians that he was a
great man; that on a certain day he was going to place his hand over
the moon. The eclipse came off on scheduled time. Mr. Coonc then
told the Indians that if they stole any of his cattle he would blow
"poof," and that would be the end of the thief. Mr. Coonc had been
accidentally shot through the hand. This had left a bullet hole which
he showed to the Indians as proof that shooting him with bullets could
not injure him.
l2The bridge was built by Joe Herrin and Tim Lee in 1864. 20
Elizabeth Ann Coonc
While at Ringold Bar we saw a great deal of the Indians; Mr.
Coonc, myself and my two oldest girls could all talk "Chinook" fluently. When we moved to the "Bar" Mr. Coonc told me that if I
would stay there three years after that he would move the family to
town.   In 1875 the family moved to Waitsburg.
At the time of the Nez Perce war, in 1878, a family by the name
of Perkins was living in our house at Ringold Bar. Some of the renegade Nez Perce Indians tried to cross the Columbia at Umatilla to go
to the Yakima country to stir up the Yakimas; they were shot while
in the boats in the river and driven back by the whites; some of the
Indians being killed and injured. The remaining Indians continued
on up the east bank of the Columbia and crossed near our place. The
Perkins family had gone to Yakima. Returning, they stopped at Rattlesnake Springs, turned their horses out and were eating their lunch,
when they were surprised by these Indians and killed. The Indians
got part of their lunch. Two weeks later Mr. Coonc, thinking something was wrong, swam his horses over the river. Later the body of
Mrs. Perkins was found partly buried, the left arm sticking out of
the ground. Old Jack Splain afterwards captured five of these Indians. It seems that they shot Mr. Perkins first; that Mrs. Perkins ran
and jumped on a horse, but they shot her and she fell. They threw
her body in a ravine and partly covered it. Three Indians were hanged
at Yakima for this.13
While at the Bar we never had any trouble with the Indians.
There was a big Indian camp above us—part of Moses' tribe. One day
there was an earthquake and a big landslide somewhere up near Chelan. The Indians said that there was a rumble, a smell of sulphur
and that the earth opened up in cracks, taking in some of the Indians,
one of whom was left with a hand sticking out. The water of the Columbia was all muddy from the landslide, which for a time blocked
the river. The Indians came to the house; they sat around on the
floor against the walls, and I fed them bread and milk; then they
smoked and passed the pipe from one to another, before they would
talk about the earthquake and landslide with Mr. Coonc. This, I
think, was in 1877.14
At one time Mr. Coonc was a partner of Dan Drumheller, now
a pioneer of the city of Spokane.    Mr. Coonc had lots of cattle and
isFor an account of this murder see "History of Yakima and Klickitat
Counties." Mr. J. B. Huntington, living in the Yakima Country at the time,
states that the Indians crossed to the north side of the Columbia from Umatilla and proceeded overland, crossing the Yakima near Prosser, and thence
proceeding north into the Rattlesnake Hills, where they encountered the
Perkins family on their way to Yakima for safety from hostile Indians;
and that the capture of the murderers was by Bill Splain, not by Jack
Splain.
i*This earthquake occurred in 1874. Reminiscences of a Pioneer Woman
horses. One spring we branded five hundred calves. Mr. Coonc used
to drive beef cattle from Yakima over the mountains by Snoqualmie
Pass to the Sound. In the winter of 1880 there was a big blizzard;
there was a cold wind blowing and the cattle following and drifting
with the wind, 1500 head broke through the ice on the Columbia and
were drowned. That winter I think we lost seventy-five per cent, of
our cattle. The early cattlemen trusted to the weather; they didn't
winter their stock. One winter the weather was so bad, blizzards, snow
and cold winds, that the cattle tried to get into the houses at Pasco.
Some got into our house at Ringold Bar and died there. After the
worst winter Mr. Coonc had only five hundred cattle left; he thought
these too small to bother with so he went into raising horses.
In March, 1884, we moved to our farm at Spring Valley, near
the depot.
My father, John Fenn, died at Waitsburg in 1882. Father was
a man of sterling qualities whose word was as good as gold. He was
a Christian also and read his Bible a great deal. It tried men's souls
to live up to a Christian life in his time on the frontier. Father did
not talk much to us children or relate to us things that happened, as
many do, so many things of family history were not remembered by
us children as they otherwise would have been.
My husband, Mr. Coonc, could ride anything; he was a daring
rider. In 1869 he was in the saddle three months at a stretch, riding
the range.    He was killed by a horse at Rosalia on June 22nd, 1900.
While at Ringold Bar, he used to send letters back and forth to
Waitsburg, 80 miles, by Indians; he often sent us salmon the same
way. The Indians liked and timsted him. One old Indian, who
thought a great deal of Mr. Coonc, wouldn't eat when he heard of
Mr. Coonc's death, he felt so bad.
Several times in early days I was info:rmed that my husband
was dead. Once when he was freighting from The Dalles to Canyon
City, Union County, Oregon, 150 miles away, near the Nevada line,
it was printed in the paper that he had been killed by Indians. Mr.
Smith, the postmaster at Waitsburg, once handed me a newspaper
which stated that Indians had killed Mr. Coonc. A horse had been
found with a bloody saddle, later a body was found which was identified as his. I did not know the truth for three weeks. I was just
getting ready to go back to Oregon to my folks when Mr. Coonc
returned.
My husband knew Mr. James Glover, the "Father of Spokane,"
in California, before Mr. Glover ever came to Washington Territory.
I am now living near Spring Valley, in Spokane County, Washington. Elizabeth Ann Coonc FIRST IMMIGRANTS TO CROSS THE CASCADES
Now that the people are building fine automobile highways across
the Cascades, new interest has been aroused in the first band of immigrants that crossed through Naches Pass to Puget Sound in 1853. In
that party were two boys of almost exactly the same age. I was born
in Fountain County, Indiana, on May 8, 1844, and George H. Himes
was born at Troy, Bradford County, Pennsylvania, on May 18, 1844.
Although we boys were only nine years of age, we had to do all we
could to help with the hard work in the mountains. Probably we
have just as keen memories of those days as do those who were older
at the time.
It is hardly necessary to add that Mr. Himes and I have been
warm personal friends during all the sixty-three years since those
strenuous days through Naches Pass. Mr. Himes has become famous
as a historian of the Northwest. On June 19, 1907, he gave the annual
address before the Oregon Pioneer Association and told well the
story of that famous immigration of 1853. His address was published
and with it a list he had compiled of the members of that party, which
was the first to cross over the Cascade Mountains to Puget Sound.
I kept his list and have been able during the last few years to correct
it a little and to add some names that had been omitted. His lis.t as
I have corrected it is as follows:
Aiken, A. G.
Aiken, James.
Aiken, John.
Baker, Bartholomew C.
Baker, Mrs. Fanny.
Baker, James E.
Baker, John Wesley.
Baker, Leander H.
Baker, Elijah.
Baker, Mrs. Olive
Baker, Joseph N.
Baker, William LeRoy.
Barr, James.
Bell, James.
Bell, Mrs. Eliza (Wright).
Biles, James.
Biles, Mrs. Nancy M.
Biles, George W.
Biles, James B.
Biles, Clark.
Biles, Mrs. Kate (Sargent).
Biles, Mrs. Susan Belle (Drew).
Biles, Mrs.   Euphemia   (Brazee)
(Knapp).
Biles, Margaret.
Bowers, John.
Burnett, Frederick.
Brooks, Mrs. Martha (Young).
Byles, Rev. Charles.
Byles, Mrs. Sarah W.
Byles, David F.
Byles, Charles N.
Byles, Mrs. Rebecca E. (Goodell)
Byles, Mrs. Sarah I. (Ward).
(22) First Immigrants to Cross the Cascades
23
Byles, Luther.
Claflin, William.
Clinton, Wesley.
Davis, Varine.
Day, Joseph.
Downey, William R.
Downey, Mrs. William R.
Downey, Christopher   Columbus.
Downey, George W.
Downey, James  H.
Downey, William A.
Downey, R. M.
Downey, John M.
Downey, Mrs. Louise (Guess).
Downey, Mrs. Jane (Clark).
Downey, Mrs. Susan (Latham).
Downey, Mrs. Laura Belle (Bartlett).
Finch, Henry C.
Fitch, Charles Reuben.
Frazier, .
Frazier, Mrs. Elizabeth.
Guess, Mason F.
Guess, Wilson.
Gant, James.
Gant, Mrs. James.
Gant, Harris.
Gant, Mrs. Harris.
Greenman, Clark N.
Hampton, J. Wilson.
Himes, Tyrus.
Himes, Mrs. Emiline.
Himes, George H.
Himes, Mrs. Helen Z. (Ruddell).
Himes, Judson W.
Himes, Mrs. Lestina Z. (Eaton).
Hill, Mrs. Mary Jane (Byles).
Horn, Thomas.
Horn, Mrs. Thomas.
Judson, Peter.
Judson, Mrs. Peter.
Judson, Stephen.
Judson, John Paul.
Kincaid, William M.
Kincaid, Mrs. William M.
Kincaid, Mrs. Susannah (Thompson).
Kincaid, Joseph C.
Kincaid, Mrs. Laura (Meade).
Kincaid, James.
Kincaid, John.
Lane, Daniel E.
Lane, Mrs. Daniel E.
Lane, Edward.
Lane, William.
Lane, Timothy.
Lane, Albert.
Lane, John.
Lane, Mrs. Elizabeth (Whitesel).
Lane, Mrs. Abigail.
Light, Erastus A.
Light, Mrs. Erastus A.
Light, Henry.
Longmire, James.
Longmire, Mrs. James
Longmire, Elcaine.
Longmire, David.
Longmire, Mrs. Tillathi (Kandle).
Longmire, John A.
MeCullough,  .
MeCullough, Mrs. .
MeCullough, Mrs. Mary Frances
(Porter).   .
MeCullough, Flora.
Meller, Mrs. Getrude (DeLin).
Moyer, John B.
Melville, George.
Melville, Mrs. George.
Melville, Mrs. Kate (Thompson).
Melville, Robert.
Neisan, John.
Ogle, Van.
Ragan, Henry.
Ragan, John. 24
David Longmire
Ray, Henry.
Ray, Sam.
Risdon, Henry.
Risdon, Joel.
Sarjent, Asher.
Sarjent, Mrs. Asher.
Sarjent, E. N.
Sarjent, Francis Marion.
Sarjent, Wilson.
Sarjent, Mrs. Matilda (Saylor).
Sarjent, Mrs. Rebecca (Kellett).
Steward, Mr.  .
Steward, Mrs.  .
Steward, Miss .
Stewart, Celia.
Watts, Evan.
West, Newton.
Woolery, Isaac.
Woolery, Mrs. Isaac.
Woolery, Robert Lemuel.
Woolery, James Henderson.
Woolery,    Mrs.      Sarah      Jane
(Ward).
Woolery, Jacob Francis.
Woolery, Daniel Henry.
Woolery, Mrs. Agnes (Lamon).
Whitesel, William.
Whitesel, Mrs. William.
Whitesel, William Henry.
Whitesel, Mrs. Nancy (Leach).
Whitesel, Margaret.
Whitesel, Alexander.
Whitesel, CaL
Wright, Isaac H.
Wright, Mrs. Isaac H.
Wright, Benjamin F.
Wright, Mrs. Benjamin F.
Wright, James.
Wright, Mrs. Eliza (Bell).
Wright, Mrs. Rebecca (Moore).
Wright, William.
Wright, Byrd.
Wright, (Grandfather).
Wright, (Grandmother).
Wright, Mrs. Annis (Downey).
West, Newton.
Woodward, John W.
Young, Austin E.
Woolery, Abraham.
Woolery, Mrs.   Abraham    (Aunt
Pop).
Attention should be called to the fact that Rev. Charles Byles
and James Biles were brothers who had different ideas as to the correct spelling of the family name. The list needs further corrections,
as a number of the names are incomplete, and it may be well to state
that some names are still missing. I am glad we have the list in this
form and hope it may yet be made perfect.
Since you have asked me to record my own reminiscences, I will
do the best I can.
My father, James Longmire, was born in Indiana on March 17,
1820. My Mother, Virinda Taylor Longmire, was also a native of
Indiana, born in 1829. The family started for the "Oregon Country"
from Attica, Fountain County, Indiana, on March 16, 1853. There
were four of us children; my brother Elcaine, who later became
widely known through his work at Longmire Springs on Mount Rai-
ner, myself next, Tillatha Longmire Kandle, now of Yakima, and
John Longmire of Yelm. First Immigrants to Cross the Cascades
25
The first part of our journey was by water to St. Joe, Missouri.
There father bought eight yoke of oxen and two wagons. We travelled to Cainesville (now Council Bluffs, Iowa) and there we obtained
a full supply of provisions, medicine, guns and ammunition for our
long journey across  the plains.
We travelled down the Missouri River and crossed on a ferry
operated by a man named Sarpee, who was part Indian. Where we
camped there was not a house at that time but since then Omaha
City has risen on the site. At Wood River we crossed the wagons on
canoes and swam the stock across. At Luke Fork we crossed by
caulking the wagon boxes and making temporary boats of them.
At one of these stream-crossings, a young man of our party,
named Van Ogle, rode a horse to head the band, the others being
driven in after him. When well started, his horse became unmanageable, reared up and threw the rider backwards in front of the
swimming steeds. With rare presence of mind, the young man dove
to the bottom and remained there until the horses had passed over.
He then bobbed to the surface and spouted up water in great glee to
amuse the rest of us. Mr. Van Ogle, an Indian war veteran, now lives
at Orting, Pierce County, enjoying good health in his ninety-second
year, a more honorable man we never had.
We traveled on past Independence Rock, where Lewis and Clark
spent their Fourth of July in 1805. Indians were numerous but our
train was never disturbed by them. However, we were always on the
lookout, standing guard over our cattle each night.
We saw many droves of buffalo and some antelope. We encountered many incidents—too numerous to mention. Really we must
have been in a fortunate train as we did not encounter the hardships
endured by other parties. We crossed the Rocky Mountains with such
ease that we did not even know when we reached the summit.
We crossed the Snake River twice. At the second crossing one
man was accidentally drowned. When we crossed the Grand Ronde
Valley, we left the Oregon Trail and started for a. new route for
Puget Sound. We passed by where Doctor Marcus Whitman, his
wife and twelve other white people were massacred by the Indians in
1847. We reached the Columbia river at Fort Walla Walla (now
Wallula) and had to remain there until we could whipsaw lumber with
which to construct a scow to ferry our party across. When the scow
was completed we placed thereon our wagons, bedding and a very
little provision. Then we swam the stock which was very soon completed. Then we tackled the scow. While some were pulling, the
others were busy bailing it out to keep it from sinking. 26
David Longmire
By September 8, we were ready to begin our march through the
sand up the bank of the Columbia to the Yakima River, eighteen miles.
There we parted with the head chief of the Walla Walla Indians. He
and several of his tribe had been traveling with us for several days.
The chief rode a fine large American roan horse with one ear slightly
cropped. He had two large revolvers fastened to his saddle. He
had about one hundred fine cattle, one of which he had butchered and
sold to us for fifteen cents a pound, as I remember. The Indian
chief treated us well.
We crossed the Yakima River, traveling up the east bank and
camped for the night. That night Mr. McCully died. He had been
ill for some days. We had no boards to make a box or coffin so he
was buried in the ground with some brush covered over him to keep
the sand from his body. So far as I know he was the first white
man to be buried in Yakima Valley.   He left a wife and two little girls.
We travelled towards White Bluffs, then up Coal Creek and turned
westward, crossing the Yakima River at Selah. There we met a Catholic priest and understood that there was another priest on the Ahta-
num. Those were the only white men in the Yakima country. The
ne:st day we arrived in the Wenas Valley and camped on a beautiful
spot owned by Chief Owhi. We remained here two nights. The chief
was farming and our party bought of him thirteen bushels of potatoes. This was about September 20 and 21. Later we learned that
George B. McClellan had camped at the same place the month before.
We followed up the Naches River toward Naches Pass. We
crossed and recrossed the river about sixty-eight times. When we
reached the summit and started down the western slope we came to
a very steep place where we were compelled to lower our wagons sus"-
pended by the rear axle with a rope fastened to a tree while it was
gradually lowered. There were thirty-six wagons to be let down that
way.
Our party consisted of about one hundred and seventy-five persons, men, women and children. Of all the men of twenty-one or
more years of age at that time there remains but one to my knowledge, that one being our friend Van Ogle.
We made our way very slowly, crossing Green river eighteen
times and White river seven times. We wound round, made bridges
of logs, rotten wood and bark and got through pretty well. It is
hard to head off a sturdy pioneer. We crossed the Puyallup River and
arrived at the Mahan place on the Nisqually Plains at Clover Creek
on October 12, 1858.   The place is east of Parkland and a monument First Immigrants to Cross the Cascades
27
has since been placed to mark the spot.    That is the place where our
party broke up and scattered, never to meet together again.
Father took up a donation land claim near Yelm and that became his home until he found Longmire Springs. He filed a homestead
there in 1883 and lived there when seasons permitted until his death
in 1897 at the age of seventy-seven. Mother survived him until 1911.
She was eighty-two at the time of her death.
During the Indian troubles of 1855-1856 we were kept dodging
about to save our scalps. We knew Chiefs Leschi and Quiemuth
very well. They were good neighbors until the war broke out. Then
it was different. Leschi was captured for a reward by the Indian
Sluggy, who could talk English well. Leschi was afterwards hanged.
Quiemuth gave himself up to my father, being brought to the house
by a Frenchman named Oska. Father and Oska took Quiemuth to
Olympia at night. They were accompanied by Van Ogle, George
Brail and Betsy Edgar, an Indian woman whose white husband had
been killed by the Indians. The prisoner was turned over to Governor Stevens., but while sleeping in the Governor's office he was
murdered, being both shot and stabbed.
I have had but little educational advantages. I started to school
first in a log cabin school house in Indiana. When father took up his
claim on Yelm Prairie, I helped to cut down trees and dragged them
to the place chosen and then helped to build a log school in which I
became one of the first pupils. One of the teachers in that school was
Dillis B. Ward, now a pioneer citizen of Seattle. Later I went to
school at Chamber's Pairie and part of the Indian war years I was
in school at Olympia. Some of my pioneer schoolmates were John
Yantis, John Miller Murphy, the veteran newspaper man, and Hazard
Stevens, son of the Governor. Rev. George F. Whitworth was one of
my teachers and so was Mrs. Hyde and Mr. Cornelius.
• The Yakima Valley had impressed me so favorably that I made
several trips there as. a young man. On September 12, 1869, I was
married to Elizabeth Pollard. She had crossed the plains with her
parents in 1864. We moved to a farm I had secured in the Yakima
Valley but we soon sold that and I acquired the old Chief Owhi farm
that charmed me so when our party first camped there in 1858. Since
then I acquired more land and now all my children have adjoining
farms around me. These children are Mrs. Alice Longmire Lotz, Mrs.
Martha Longmire Porter, Mrs. Burnetta Longmire Small, David E.
Longmire, George B. Longmire and James Guy Longmire. My first
wife died in 1 888 and in 1890 I was married to Elizabeth Lotz Treat,
a widow who had two sons—A. E. Treat of North Yakima and H. C. 28
David Longmire
Treat of Centralia. Her father, George Lotz, had crossed the plains
and settled on Puget Sound in 1851 and her mother arrived in 1854.
So you see we are all pioneers. I now have fifteen grandchildren and
two great grandchildren. From my second marriage I have one son,
Donald Longmire.
When we first moved to our farm our trading post was at The
Dalles, one hundred miles away. The doors and other finishings for
my house were shipped from Tumwater around to the Columbia River
and hauled by team to the farm.
About July 9, 1878, my nearest neighbors, Lorenzo D. Perkins
and wife, were murdered by Indians. Mrs. Perkins was a granddaughter of James McAlister, the first man killed on Connell's Prariie
in the Indian war of 1855-1856. The victims of this Yakima murder
were buried in the rocks. General Howard came up the Columbia
River and received a promise from the Indians that the murderers
would be given up. Nothing came of it. Then John Edwards, a
young man of iron nerve, went into the Indian camp and had the
murderers identified by a friendly Indian.
When he reported to the Yakima farmers, a hundred of them
gathered horses, gums, ammunition and about twenty-five friendly
Indians. I was one of the party. We selected William Splawn as
our captain and we could not have made a better choice. His nerve
stood every test. We crossed the Columbia River, captured Chief
Moses and his braves. We made him give up the murderers of Mr.
and Mrs. Perkins. These were tried, convicted and all put to death
except the one who turned state's evidence.
Pioneer life is. sometimes overshadowed with the blackest of clouds,
though most of them have silver linings. I enjoy my memories of
the old days and more especially do I enjoy meeting the friendly
pioneers. David Longmire. THE  FIRST WHITE  WOMEN  IN WYOMING*
Wyoming seems very young when one fully realizes that tomorrow it will be only eighty years since the first white women came into
the Great American desert and that particular part of the arid west
now known as Wyoming. But these white women did not long tarry
within the confines of what is our state. They were on their way to
the Oregon country, the route being over the Oregon Trail.
Marcus Whitman of the state of New York and Rev. Samuel
Parker were sent in 1885 by missionary boards to visit the Oregon
country with a view of establishing mission centers among the Indians
who were living west of the Rocky Mountains. Starting on the Oregon
Trail from Independence, near the present Kansas City, they journeyed by the usual route that followed the Platte River to Fort Laramie, finally reaching South Pass, a gap in the mountains near the
central part of this state. Rev. Mr. Parker while here remarked,
"There would be no difficulty in constructing a railroad from the Atlantic to the Pacific." In fact this trail proved to be a very feasible
route for those who went to the west, but the trail was never utilized
by any railroad, though today the general government has under consideration the use of this trail for a national military highway to the
Pacific Coast.
When Whitman and Parker reached Green River, just beyond
South Pass, they found so many red men who were eager of the "White
Man's Book" that Whitman, the young man, immediately started back
to civilization for helpers in the religious work, while Parker, the
old man, pushed on into the wilderness with Jim Bridger, the old
trapper, for a guide.
Whitman had not been idle, for we find him in the early spring
of 1886 again on the Oregon Trail, accompanied by his bride and
Rev. H. H. Spalding and his bride. A strange tour it must have been
for the two women, quite the most remarkable on record. By June of
that year this bridal party was well within the countiry covered by
our state and with them, as an escort, was a party of fur traders. It
was at this time that a four wheeled wagon was going over the Oregon
Trail, the first that made the entire journey from Independence to
Oregon. These wheeled vehicles had to cross the interminable leagues
of sunparched plains, through tribe after tribe of savage redmen, who
crowded about in awe to see the wonderfully fair creatures, the first
"The author of this article, Grace Raymond Hebard, Ph. D., is professor
of economics and sociology in the University of Wyoming. The article
appeared first in the Laramie Republican, July 3, 1916, after which Doctor
Hebard revised it for this Quarterly.—Editor.
(29) 30
Grace Raymond Hebard
white women they had ever seen; forded the Platte, the Sweetwater,
the Green, and many lesser streams; scrambled through mountain
passes; and finally settled down to their life work amid rudest surroundings.
On July 4, 1836, the small caravan reached South Pass. Here
the missionaries, with two Nez Perce Indians who had been taken
east by Dr. Whitman the previous year, moved over to the Pacific
side of the sloping pass, "with Bible in one hand and the American
flag in the other fell upon their knees, took possession of the land
as the home of American mothers and the church of Christ."
Mrs. Spalding writes in her journal of that date, "It is a reality
or a dream that after four months of painful journeying I am alive,
and actually standing on the summit of the Rocky Mountains where
the foot of a white woman has never before trod." This event of
women on the trail to the west was even more significant than that
of wagons on the road of the fur trappers. Women and wagons were
immediate forerunners of home and representative of more than a
temporary journey in this western territory. Many of the mountaineers and trappers not having seen a white woman since childhood,
wept when the women took them by the hand. Just beyond the pass
at the Green River rendezvous the party was met by four hundred
white trappers and traders and fifteen tribes of Indians, all of whom
tried to outdo the others in entertaining the white women who, not
thoroughly understanding the honor (?), which was something in the
nature of a more modern Wild West Show, all but fainted from fright
and consternation.
The Wyoming Trail Commission, organized in 1913, has placed a
monument on the spot, or as near as may be approximated, where
white women for the first time traveled on the Oregon Trail through
the historical rift in the Rocky Mountains known afterwards to the
thouands and thousands seeking greater opportunities in the extreme
northwestern part of the continent, as South Pass. Last week Colonel
H. G. Nickerson, president of the Oregon Trail Commission, placed a
monument on this, spot in commemoration of the event of the first
white women to be within the boundaries of our state. On a native
stone Colonel Nickerson carved with chisel and mallet this inscription:
NARCISSA PRENTISS WHITMAN
ELIZA HART SPALDING
FIRST WHITE WOMEN TO CROSS THIS PASS
JULY 4, 1836
Significant indeed that at South Pass City, about twelve miles First White Women in Wyoming
north and east of the memorable spot, is where Colonel William Bright
once lived. He it was who in the year 1869, when he was a member
of our first territorial legislature, introduced a bill granting to women
the right to equal suffrage, which bill became a law December 10, 1869.
Women and wagons were not only suggestive of our nation's development, but were a permanent factor in the earliest development
of the civilization of our nation. Women were synonymous with home
and family, while the part the wagons played in a nation's drama
was to convey those things that were typical of home, the simple
farming implements, seed, a few books, the rocking chair, and, perchance, grandfather's clock.
Grace Raymond Hebard. THE PIONEER DEAD OF 1916
[Miss Prosch has continued the work begun by her father by
again furnishing this annual feature of the Quarterly. Owing to sad
afflictions in her own family, she fears that she may have omitted
some records, but she has done the best she could. The Quarterly is
grateful for her help.—Editor.]
Hughes, Mrs. Flora Eloris Payne, died January 9, 1916. She
was the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. James H. Payne, pioneers of 1853.
Mrs. Hughes was born near Halsey, Oregon, in 1858. The family
moved to Seattle in 1869, and Miss Payne attended the University
of Washington. She married William H. Hughes in 1878. She is
survived by her husband and a daughter.
Burnett, Charles H., one of the earliest coal operators on Puget
Sound, died January 9, after a short illness, aged 68 years. Mr. Burnett came with his parents to Port Gamble, from Providence, Rhode
Island, in 1857. For many years Mr. Burnett engaged in a general
merchandise business in Seattle, his partner being. C. P. Stone. In
1884 he became interested in coal mining and was at different times
superintendent of mines at Newcastle and at Renton and later he had
an interest in a mine at Burnett, Washington.
Wolf, Mrs. Regina, wife of Simon Wolf, was 77 at the time
of her death, January 9. She was. born in Bavaria, but came when
very young to America. She crossed the plains in 1860 and lived in
Portland for many years. She and her husband were the second
Jewish couple married there. She has lived in Seattle for twenty
years.
Clarke, Wellington, speaker of the Washington Territorial House
of Representatives in 1886, died in Los Angeles in January. He was
born in California in 1856. In 1880 he moved to Walla Walla and
formed a partnership with Judge T. J. Anders and Judge Thomas
H. Brents.    Of late years he has resided in California.
Glore, Michael, died in Caldwell, Idaho, January 6. He was
born in Illinois in 1887. At the age of 16 he crossed the plains with
an ox team to California.   He moved to Seattle in 1874.
Fleming, C. P., an Indian War veteran, died January 21 at Garrard Creek, in Lewis County.    He was a pioneer of 1852.
(82) Pioneer Dead, of 1916 83
Dunlap, S. S., a pioneer of 1858, died the last of January, near
Hoquiam. He had been a hermit for many years and died alone in his
cabin on the East Hoquiam River.   He was over 80 years of age.
Van Brunt, William D., of Bellingham, passed away on his 88th
birthday, January 27, 1916. He was born in Pennsylvania and lived
for a short time in Utah and also in California before coming to
Washington. He served two enlistments in this territory, during the
Indian War of 1855-56, the first as a member of Company D. Washington Territorial Mounted Volunteers, the second time in Captain
Oliver Shead's guards in the First Regiment of the Second Washington Territorial Volunteers. He moved from Steilacoom to Whatcom
County in 1880, where he had a ranch on which he lived until a short
time before his death.
Brewer, Mrs. Margaret, a pioneer of the Willamette Valley of
1852, and of Mound Prairie, Washington, of 1859, died at her son's
home in Hoquiam, February 2, aged 81 years. She was born in
Georgia. Soon after her marriage she came to Oregon. She was of
the party which was lost in the Cascade Mountains for three months,
during which time they suffered extreme privation, men, women and
children dying of starvation and disease. Her husband was at one
time agent at the Oakville Indian Reservation.
Templeton, William, was a pioneer of 1847. He was born in
Missouri in 1845, and died in Seattle, February 14, 1916. His parents
took up a homestead near Brownsville, Oregon, where he continued
to live until a short time before his death, when he moved to Washington. His wife was the eldest daughter of Ezra Meeker, and he is
survived by six sons and a daughter. Mr. Templeton was actively
interested in the affairs of the Presbyterian Church, of which for over
fifty years he was an elder.
Denny, Orion O., first white boy born in Seattle, passed away
February 26. He was the second son of Arthur A. and Mary A.
Denny, who headed the party that established homes at Alki Point
in November, 1851, and later were instrumental in the founding of
Seattle. Mr. Denny was born July 17, 1853, in a log cabin on the
present site of the Stevens Hotel in Seattle. He was one of the
earliest students of the University. He took up marine engineering
as a young man, and he was chief engineer at one time on the steamer
Libby, and at another time on the well-known Eliza Anderson. He
retired from business ten years ago, and since then had traveled extensively. 34
Edith G. Prosch
Noyes., Mrs. Melissa L., had been a resident of Washington since
1859. She died March 16, aged 80 years. Mrs. Noyes was born
in Maine, May 30, 1835. Her husband came to Port Gamble in 1857
and she and her five-year-old daughter crossed the Isthmus two years
alter to join him. The family lived at Port Gamble for twenty years,
and at Utsalady ten years and later they made their home at Mount
Vernon.
Frost, Mrs. Jane, was born in Lewis County in 1858, the daughter
of C. C. Padgett, and she died at Chehalis, March 21, 1916. She
lived for many years at Winlock and also on the Cowlitz River.
Creswell, Donald C, was born in Illinois in 1830. He came west
in 1852, settling near Salem, Oregon. He moved in a short time to
Benton County, Washington, where he lived until 1900, when he moved
to Walla Walla. He died there at the home of his daughter, March
21.
Grennon, Mrs. Genevieve, aged 81 years, was a native of Washington. She was the daughter of M. Plomandon, and was born at a
trading post near Spokane, her father being in the employ of the
Hudson's Bay Company. Mrs. Grennon lived at the Hudson's Bay
posts at Fort Nisqually and in Victoria. She died in Tacoma at the
home of her daughter, March 22.
Callbreath, Captain John C, died at the Kenny Home, Seattle,
April 9, aged 90 years. He came around the Horn in a sailing vessel
to California in 1849. He was one of the earliest legislators of California, and represented his state in Congress for several terms. He
went up into the Cassiar country and located mines and built a trading
post on the Stikine River. Twenty years ago, while in Alaska, he lost
his eyesight and since then has lived in retirement. He is survived
by two sons.
McDonald, John Fulton, a pioneer of California and a resident
of Seattle since 1897, died April 12 at his home. He was born in
Connecticut in 1836. In 1858 he went to California, where he lived
for forty years before coming to Seattle.
Wolf, Simon, a pioneer of Oregon, died at his home in Seattle,
April 14, closely following his wife, who passed away in January of
the same year. He was born in Poland and came to Oregon in 1860,
where he was a merchant for many years. He is survived by two
daughters.
Bunch, Mrs. Sarah Isabell, was a pioneer of 1852, living near Pioneer Dead of 1916
35
Brownsville, Oregon, for forty years. She died April 16, aged 72
years. Mrs. Bunch had lived in Hoquiam for a short time, later moving with her family to Elma, Washington.
Murray, Mrs. Henry, passed away in her chair at her home in
Tacoma, April 22, while weaving a quilt. She was 84 years old. Her
parents were pioneers of the Red River of the North. They were
John Ross and Isabell Melville Ross. When she was six years old,
with her parents, she came to Fort Vancouver with Dr. John McLoughlin, where her father was employed by the Hudson's Bay
Company. Later the family moved to Victoria. She was married in
1851 to Mr. Murray at a place near the present site of Dupont, the
ceremony being performed by Colonel Ebey. They settled on Muck
Creek near Tacoma, where they resided for many years.
Jenner, Charles K., was a resident of the Pacific Coast since
1850. He was born in Wisconsin in 1846 and came with his parents
to California four years later. He obtained his education there and
was admitted to the bar in 1871. In 1876 he moved to Seattle where
he practiced law for many years and was prominent in the affairs of
the city.
Hill, Robert Crosby, of Port Townsend, was one of the best-
known pioneers of the state. He was born in Pennsylvania in 1829
and came by the Isthmus of Panama to California in 1850 and to
Washington in 1853, settling near his two brothers on Whidby Island.
He served during the Indian War on the staff of Major Van Bokelen.
About 1870 he moved to Port Townsend and with Col. Henry Landes
and his brother, Nathaniel Hill, formed the First National Bank.
Thereafter he was actively interested in all that pertained to the-
growth and welfare of Port Townsend. He was prominent among
Masons, by whom his funeral was conducted.   He died May 1, 1916.
Byles, Mrs. Mary, was a pioneer of 1852. She was the widow
of David Byles. Her death occurred June 11. Mrs. Byles was 83
years old, and she had been a resident of Elma for many years.
Bornstein, Mrs. Louisa, died July 11 at her home in Seattle. She
was born in San Francisco in 1855 and come with her husband to Seattle in 1881. Her husband, Julius Bornstein, was a prominent merchant of this city. Mrs. Bornstein was closely associated with all benevolent work from the time of her arrival in Seattle.
Gillespie, John W., died July 13 in Seattle, aged 69 years. He
was a native of Wisconsin.    With his parents he came to this coast 36
Edith G. Prosch
by the way of the Isthmus in 1855.   He lived for a time in Portland
before coining to Whidby Island in 1857.
Ross, Mrs. Mary Jane McMillan, has been a resident of Seattle
since 1858. Her father was a well-known clergyman of Oregon,
where he moved in 1853. She came to Seattle shortly after her marriage to John Ross, and has been a resident of Seattle ever since. Her
death occurred July 27.
Jacobs, Hiram J., was a son of the pioneer jurist, Orange Jacobs.
He was born in Oregon in 1860 and graduated from the law department of the University of Michigan. He died July 28. Mr. Jacobs
is survived by his mother, three brothers and three sisters.
Alexander, John S., died at his home in Olympia, August 12. He
was born in Wisconsin in 1836. At the age of 15 he crossed the plains
to Portland, Oregon, and from there came by the schooner Exact to
Olympia, at the time that the Denny family was brought to Alki Point.
He served in the Indian War, being stationed at Fort Ebey on the
Snohomish River. Later Mr. Alexander took up a homestead at
Coupeville, on Whidby Island. He was married in Port Townsend
in 1860 to Miss Anna Lanning, who passed away at her home in
Olympia. At one time Mr. Alexander was deputy collector of customs
in Seattle. During the Klondike gold excitement he had charge of
the building of a fleet of steamers for the Yukon River. After an absence of sixty years from Olympia he returned there to end his days.
Denny, Mrs. Louisa Boren, the first bride in Seattle, died at her
home in Seattle, August 31, aged 89 years. She was the daughter of
Richard Freeman Boren and Sarah Latimer Boren. Her mother later
married John Denny, the father of Arthur A. Denny and her husband
David T. Denny. Mrs. Denny was the last of the original band of
adults who came to Alki Point in November, 1851. She married Mr.
Denny, January 28, 1852. They took up a donation claim on the
shores of Lake Union.
Rabbeson, Mrs. Lucy A., aged 81, widow of Captain A. B. Rabbe-
son, Indian War veteran, and daughter of Nelson Barnes, pioneer of
1845, died September 4, in Tacoma. Mrs. Rabbeson was born in New
York in 1885. In 1845 the family crossed the plains to Oregon. Her
father had one of the first grist mills in Washington.
Henry, Mrs. Eliza B., for 68 years a resident of the Northwest, and for 54 in Washington, died in Seattle, September 9, and
was buried in Olympia.   She was the widow of the late Judge Francis Pioneer Dead of 1916 37
Henry, prominent in the early history of the territory.    Mrs. Henry
crossed the plains in 1853.
Crawford, Samuel LeRoy, was a native of Oregon, having been
born near Oregon City, June 22, 1855. His parents were pioneers of
1847. Mr. Crawford lived in Oregon in early boyhood but moved to
Olympia in 1869. He came to Seattle in 1876 to take charge of the
mechanical department of the Daily Intelligencer. In 1880 he and
Thomas W. Prosch purchased the paper and he remained with it after
its consolidation with the Post. In 1888 he formed a partnership with
C. T. Conover to engage in the real estate business and he was connected with the same firm until his. death, October 11. He was an ardent baseball enthusiast and introduced the game to Seattle. Mr.
Crawford was known far and wide for his many benevolences, giving
not only of his money but of his time and influence.
Cochran, Jesse F., veteran of the Mexican and Civil Wars, died
October 17, aged 93 years. He was born in Indiana in 1823 and
joined an Indiana regiment to fight under General Scott in the Mexican campaign. In 1857 he came to California, attracted thither by the
gold discoveries. Later he went to Alaska and then to Puget Sound,
but at the outbreak of the Civil War, he went back to Indiana and enlisted, serving throughout the war. In 1869, Mr. Cochran came to
Seattle, following his trade of sign painting. He joined the rush to
Alaska in 1897, where he suffered many hardships. Later he went to
Goldfield, Nevada, during their mining excitement. He is survived by
nine sons and daughters.
Brents, Judge Thomas H., died at his home in Walla Walla, October 28, at the age of 76 years. He was born in Illinois in 1840 and
crossed the plains to Oregon in 1853 settling in Clackamas County,
where he remained until 1855. In 1860 he went to Klickitat County,
in Washington, where he herded sheep day by day and studied law
at night. Judge Brents moved to Walla Walla in 1870 and took up
the practice of law. He was elected delegate to Congress in 1878 and
was re-elected in 1880 and again in 1882. He was elected to the
Superior judgeship of Walla Walla County in 1896, and held that
position until 1912.
Porter, Nathaniel E., a Whidby Island pioneer, died at his home
near Austin, October 27. He was born in Nova Scotia in 1887, and
he early showed his love for the sea by varying trips made to remote
parts of the world. In 1857 he decided to give up his roving life
and he went to California and came to Puget Sound in 1859, taking up 38
Edith G. Prosch
a donation claim on the west side of Whidby Island. Here he engaged in farming for himself and family, providing them with a comfortable home.
Weir, Allen, died at Port Townsend, October 81, after a lingering
illness, resulting from an automobile accident, in which State Senator
D. S. Troy was killed. Mr. Weir was born in California in 1854. He
came to the Sound as a very young man, living in Olympia for some
time. In 1874 he purchased the Puget Sound Argus and published
it in Port Townsend for many years. He was closely associated with
the political life of the territory and state. Mr. Weir has resided
in Olympia during the last years of his life.
Munroe, Mrs. Elizabeth, aged 73 years, a resident of Washington
since 1858, died in Tacoma, October 81. She came to Thurston County
with her stepfather, Franklin Kennedy, when she was fourteen years
old. She was a cousin of Michael T. Simmons, one of the earliest of
the Puget Sound pioneers.
Steward, Mrs. Angeline, died at her home in Vancouver, November
8, aged 77 years. She was a native of Missouri and crossed the plains
in 1852. She was married to George Steward in Oregon. They moved
to Vancouver in 1862, since which time it has been her home.
Chambers, Thompson McLain, was a resident of Pierce County
for 71 years.    He died at the home of his son in Tacoma, November
17, aged 82 years. He belonged to the family that gave its name to
Chambers Prairie and Chambers Creek. He served in the Indian
War of 1855-56 as second lieutenant.
Isaacs, Mrs. H. P., died at her home in Walla Walla, November
18. With her parents, Colonel and Mrs. Fulton, she came to Oregon
from Illinois in 1855 and to Walla Walla in 1864. She was one of
the first advocates of equal suffrage in Washington.
Israel, George C, one of the best-known criminal lawyers of
Washington, died November 26, 1916. Mr. Israel was born in California in 1858. He practiced law in Baker City, Oregon, in California
and in Olympia before coming to Seattle. He was connected with
many of the greatest criminal trials in the state.
Drumheller, Mrs. Martha A., a pioneer of 1859, died at her home
in Walla Walla, December 16, aged 72 years. She was. a member of
the Maxson family, which came to Walla Walla in 1859. She married
Jesse Drumheller, a pioneer of 1862. He was an Indian fighter and
one of the largest land holders of his. county. Pioneer Dead of 1916
89
Duncan, William, known to many as "Big Bill," died in Seattle,
December 17. He had the unique distinction of being the most prominent cab driver in Seattle, conveying many of the best-known visitors
about the city.   He was born in San Francisco in 1856.
Murphy, John Miller, former editor and owner of the Washington
Standard of Olympia, died at his home there December 20. He was
the dean of Washington newspaper men. Mr. Miller established the
Standard in 1860 and edited it continuously until 1911. At the
time of the fiftieth anniversary of its founding in 1910, a golden jubilee
was held and scores of newspaper men attended from Oregon and
Washington. He was born in Indiana in 1889. In 1850 he came with
the Barnes family to Olympia. He had the first news route in Portland
for the Oregonian. During his residence in Olympia he was territorial
printer. Mr. Miller was ever an ardent upholder of the Democratic
party in Washington.
Barr, Mrs. Margaret Jane, died in Roslyn, December 80. She
was born in Ohio in 1827, her parents later moving to Iowa, where she
married Samuel Barr in 1849. He came west to Oregon in 1852, and
Mrs. Barr followed him in 1859. They resided in Portland until
1870, when they moved to Grays Harbor, where the family took up
a homestead.
Edith G. Prosch. DOCUMENTS
Diary of Colonel and Mrs, I. N. Ebey
Edited by Victor J. Farrar
(Continued from Quarterly for October, 1916, page 821)
Saturday 21
Weather quite warm and clear   Capt. Bell started for Olympia tonight.
This day one year ago we left Ft. Hall4T and camped on a beautiful
creek a half day's journey this side    Weather extremely warm, and
grass getting scarce.
Sunday 22
Day warm and pleasant   Mr. & Mrs. Alexander visited us today.
Samuel Crocket & Mr. Howe were here also in the evening.
Monday 28rd
Morning pleasant & clear   Mr Ebey & John Crocket commenced
breaking up ground for wheat; ground very dry and hard to break.
Tuesday 24th
Day warm and pleasant a good western breeze all day which
makes it more comfortable than it would be otherwise The rolling
of the surf against the shore is very loud this evening which sounds
romantic and beautiful when there is nothing else to draw the attention.
Wednesday 25
Mornnig cooler than it has been for several days, but a very
pleasant day    a moderate breeze.    Col.  Crocket here today.    Mr.
Ebey gone over to the cove, received a good many pictorial magazines
from Capt. Thomas.48
Thursday 26
Day pleasant and clear   Mr Ebey & Mr Crocket are busy plowing
today   all very quiet   no one passing today but now and then a lonely
indian.
Friday 27
Morning a little cloudy   Mr Pettygrove & Capt Huchinson49 came
over  from  Port Townsend today after butter and went on to Mr
47 For an historical account of this fort see, Miles Cannon, "Fort Hall
on the Saptin River," in the Washington Historical Quarterly, July, 1916.
48 This is probably John T. Thomas, ex-government naval draughtsman,
but at this time extensive shipbuilder on the Columbia river.
•toLoren B.  Hastings of Port Townsend.    See, ante, note  31.
(40) The Ebey Diary
Crocket's but succeeded in getting none and looked quite disconsolate
about it—   Very tired today after washing very hard.
Saturday 28
Day pleasant   Maj. Show here in the evening
Sunday 29
This is a beautiful day with a mild and pleasant west breeze.
The waters are calm All gone this morning except myself and Ellison every thing very still Though not sad. The beautiful green
trees and clear sunbeams makes every thing delightful although we are
far from our native land and in a country where the gospel is not
preached we have not our vows and live in hopes of realizing religious ceremonies in this Western Country, went to see Mrs Smith
this evening who is sick and has a fine daughter the second birth
that has happened on the Island among the white settlers.50
Monday 80th
We had a good rain last night—with some heavy wind—
tinued plowing—
Tuesday 31
Day verry pleasant—   Two Catholic Prest came here this Evening, they are seeking a location for a mission— Plowing
Wednesday Sept 1st
Day pleasant    light wind  from the  west.    Allen51 and Hugh
Crockett got back last night to the Cove with the Scows    Plowing—
Thirsday 2
The Priests went this morneing over to the Cove to see the Natives— Mr. Alexander started up to Olympia today with his scows
sent letters by him— Priest returned after dark haveing baptized several children A Ship or Bark at Anchor in Port Townsend
this Evening
Fryday 3
Verry heavy fog this morneing    could not burn off the grass
so There has been considerable controversy among the settlers now resident on Whidby Island as to priority of birth of the first three children.
All disputants are agreed that Polowna, daughter of William Wallace, was
the first. The date of her birth I have not been able to ascertain. For
the others the evidence chronicled in the Ebey diary ought to be conclusive. On August 29 the diary records the birth of a daughter to Mrs. Jacob
Smith, "the second birth that has happened on the Island among the white
settlers"; and on November 13 states that a son was born to Mrs. Alexander. This son is Abram Lansdale Alexander, still living at Coupeville.
Mr. Alexander, therefore, has the honor of being the third child and first
boy born on the island.
siGeorge   Allen. 42
Victor J. Farrar
early in the morneing & then did not plow any today the Priests left
us this morneing   Afternoon clear   breeze from west
Saturday 4
Morneing cloudy & warm—some prospect of rain  paid a visit to
Mrs. Bonsel today She is very lonely. Dr. Tolmie landed here tonight
with his family and several young ladies three of wich took supper with
us.
Sunday 5
Morning cloudy and cool Went to Mrs. Alaxander's today A
gradual rain commenced about noon and continued nearly all day. Dr.
Tolmie started this morning by daylight this morning.
Monday 6th
Morning cloudy but the day turned out to be very clear and
pleasant.   Mr. Ebey is hauling out house logs today
Tuesday 7
Part of the day cloudy and cool    Hugh Crocket and Mr. Ebey
plowing today   gathered some ripe tomatoes today for seed and a few
other garden-seeds.   Eason learned two good lessons today
Wednesday 8
Day pleasant Mr. Ebey went to John Crocket's to try to plow
but could not get the grass to burn and could not plow. John C.
Mr. Smith and several others started up to Olympia today Susan
Crocket paid us a visit this evening, and brought me over some painting she done for me,   A basket and a dish of fruit.
Thursday 9
Day cloudy and showery all day    a considerable    rain fell last
night.   Mr. Ebey cuting house logs today.
Friday 10
Morning clear and the day very warm    Mr. Ebey & Capt. Bell
hauling logs today and I have done a large washing today.
Saturday 11
Morning foggy and after the prairie was clear of fog and mist
and the sun shone bright upon it; there continued a singular looking
cloud upon the water which assumed a reddish colour from the reflection of the sun upon it The opposite shore was invisible for a
while but above the shore and the tops of the mountains very clear
the cloud appeared to lie on the water as  far as  we can see. it The Ebey Diary
43
gradually flew of from the water in a streak in front of our door
and towards noon was all gone. I am very tired Ironing today and
Mr. Ebey very much fatigued hauling logs. Eason and Ellison have
learned a lesson apiece today.
Sunday 12
The Sun arose this morning from a bright and clear horizon and
continued her journey through a beautiful clear pale blue sky. Every
thing today looks pleasant and happy; as though the smile of Heaven
was upon it. The song of the black birds this morning sounded
sweeter than usual. I think our friends by this time are crossing the
Blue Mountains.
Monday 13
Day cloudy with a little rain   a vessel passed up today.
Tuesday 14
Some what cloudy in the morning but clear towards noon Henry
Wilson and another gentleman came here this evening from Olympia
Mr Wilson brought several numbers of the Olympia paper which is
just commenced The first paper published on Pugets Sound it is
called the Columbian.52
Wednesday 15
Morning very foggy   Wilson and his friend left today for Port
Towsend    Mr Ebey went out to ask hands to raise our smokehouse
tomorrow.
Thursday 16
Morning very clear and beautiful; day very warm.    The smokehouse was raised today.   Six hands was all we could get.
Friday 17
Day clear and warm   Samuel Crocket took dinner here today   I
washed today,   a vessel went up this morning.
Saturday 18
Day clear and warm. Mr Ebey and Capt. Bell undertook to
finish the smokehouse today. They sent John Bartlet to his house to
get some tools on Mr. Bonsel's horse, the saddle turned and John fell
off, & the horse turned instantly and stepped upon his arm and broke
it between the wrist and ellbow.    We were all badly frightened
Sunday 19th
This is another Beautiful clear Sabbath   John's arm is better
52The first copy of the Columbian was issued on September 11, 1852, by
the proprietors, J. W. Wiley and T. F. McElroy. 44
Victor J. Farrar
this morning he rested very well last night Mrs Bonsel has been here
a short time today A barque went up today. Evening beautiful and
clear.
Monday 20
Day clear and pleasant    Mr. Ebey and the Cap. finishing the
Smokehouse today.   John's arm does not pain him much and appears
to be on the mend    We heard the cannon firing at Port Townsend
today on the arrival of a vessel from above.
Tuesday 21
Mr. Ebey went to John Crocket's to plow today We had some
rain last night John does not complain much of his arm After
dinner he thought he must go home to attend to things there I felt
sorry to see him go fearing his arm would get worse by taking cold
in it.
Wednesday 22
This morning was very cold and frosty This was the first frost
we have had this Fall. The day is very clear and pleasant Two
vessels anchored at Port Townsend this morning a barque and
schooner They left this evening and went down the Sound. Mr.
Dray here tonight.
Thursday 2Srd
Very cool morning with a large white frost Some thin ice found
out in a tub this morning at daylight. Mr. Dray left here this
morning for the Willamette. Samuel Crocket also starts today for
Olympia.   This evening Mr. Ebey came home from J. Crocket's sick.
Friday 24th
This morning is colder than ever; some ice found in the teakettle
at daylight.   Thermometer down to freezing.   Mr. Ebey did not plow
today but is better and preparing a place for potatoes in the smokehouse.    I washed today.
Saturday 25
Not so cold this morning as formerly   Though there is some frost.
Mr Ebey is digging potatoes today.
Sunday 26
Morning quite cool and some frost but a pleasant clear day No
white person passing today   King George53 and Lalac's54 family were
53 "The head chief of all the Clallams was Lach-ka-nam, or Lord Nelson, who is still living, but has abdicated in favor of his son, S'Hai-ak, or
King George—a very different personage, by the way, from the chief of
the same name east of the mountains. Most of the principal men of the
tribe  have received  names  either  from the  English or  the  'Bostons';  and The Ebey Diary
45
here this morning from Port Townsend very anxious to know whether
they are to receive any pay or not for their potatoes the cattle destroyed Mr Ebey had to reason the case with them and tell them
Mr. Sterling55 would be down and settle with them for the damages
they have received from the White man's stock. Old King George
was very easy satisfied but the woman talked a great deal.   Our
Monday 27
Clear and pleasant today   Mr. Ebey is plowing at Mr. Crockett's
today and we are alone all day.
Tuesday 28
Morning foggy but the day clear and beautiful    Capt Thomas'
barque is in front of us all day    We sent him over some milk and
butter by Capt. Bell and he sent us back some pork, matches and
Tobacco as a present  This barque went down this evening late.
Wednesday 29
Morning cool with a little frost   Mr. Ebey plowed some today
at Mr Crockets but will quit after today as John arrived from Olympia
last evening.
Friday 30th
Day cloudy and some rain   We had a heavy shower last night
Mr Ebey is cutting house logs today.    Two vessels in the bay today
one going downand another trying to come up all day    The wind is.
against her.
Friday Oct 1
Cloudy all day until towards evening    Mr. Crocket here today
after the cat   the mice are very troublesome at his house   The vessel
which was coming up last evening anchored at Port Townsend.
Saturday 2nd
We  had our two new houses  raised today    We had   12  men
and it was a hard days work for them  Mrs Alexander Mrs Simth and
the genealogical tree of the royal family presents as miscellaneous an
assemblage of characters as a masked ball in carnival. Thus, two of King"
George's brothers are the Duke of York and General Gaines. His cousin
is Tom. Benton; and his sons, by Queen Victoria, are General Jackson and3
Thomas Jefferson. The queen is daughter to the Duke of Clarence and
sister to Generals Scott and Taylor; as also to Mary Ella Coffin, the wife
of John C. Calhoun. The Duke of York's wife is Jenny Lind; a brother of
the Duke of Clarence is John Adams; and Calhoun's sons are James 3K.
Polk, General Lane, and Patrick Henry. King George's sister Is the daughter of the late Flattery Jack. All of them have papers certifying to these
and various other Items of information, which they exhibit with great satisfaction."—George Gibbs, in Pacific Railway Reports (Washington, D. C,
1855), I, 430.
54 Lach-ka-nam or Lord Nelson.    See  note  53.
65 The settlers expected that the government would pay these Indian
claims, since by the passage of the Oregon Land Law the Indians' lands*
were open to settlement. 46
Victor J. Farrar
Ann Crockett were here all day and helped me cook dinner    They
were all quite cheerful and seemed to enjoy themselves.
Sunday 3rd
This is a beautiful Sabbath The sun shines warm and pleasant
It is nine years today since we were married It does not seem more
than half so long. I went to see Mrs. Bonsel a while today she is so
lonesome Mr. B. being gone yet. Mr. Miller56 and Mr. Wilson came
to our house last evening at dark.
Monday 4th
Morning clear and day pleasant Mr. Bonsel came home last night
after dark from Victoria. Mr. Miller left here this morning for
Nesqually in co with Mr. Alexander and Samuel Crockit Cordelia
Smith here today and her sister and Rebecca Bonsel. A. Moses here
this evening
Tuesday 5th
Day foggy until noon Evening clear. The Olympic mountains
are covered with snow at the present all summer they have had but
very little snow upon them. Mr. Crocket here a little while today.
Mr. Ebey digging potatoes Henry Wilson and Mr. Moses went to
P. Townsend last evening from here.
Wednesday 6th
Day clear and pleasant Capts Bell & Paddle67 wint to Port Town-
send today to charter a vessel to take to California. We are all very
quiet today   no one stiring.
Thursday 7th
Morning clear and a beautiful day. Not very well today Mr
Ebey still digging potatoes We hear nothing of Thomas & the Dr.
They have been gone over two months Some new Immegrants have
arrived in Olympia and Port Townsend. Capts Paddle & B. returned this evening and have chartered the Mary Taylor to go to San-
francisco.
Friday 8
Morning foggy great appearance of rain Washed today We
have a family of indians hired diging potatoes. They are bringing
in cranberrys frequently now.
56 General W. W. Miller.    He was surveyor of the Port of Nisqually.
57Captain William R. Pattle. The name is sometimes spelled Paddle
or Patties. He discovered coal on land fronting Bellingham Bay In 1852
and filed a claim thereon on April 18, 1853. The Ebey Diary
47
Saturday 9th
Raining this morning frequent showers all day. Turned very
cold towards evening Mr. Bonsel is. going to move on Monday next
to another Island below here to attend to the fishing business.
Sunday 10th
Today is clear and pleasant None of the neighbors to be seen
today We are spending this Sabbath in reading most of the time.
All around seems beautifully adorned in quiet serenity No bustleling
crowd as in a City or town to marr our peaceful happiness. Although
we have not Towering Churches yet we can spend our time in training
the young minds of our children in the principles of Christianity
and creating within them a thirst for moral knowledge in the place
of irunning from place to place in bad company. This is indeed
a great blessing The liberty of training our children in the way they
should go that they may be a blessing to us in our old age.
Monday 11
Cloudy today and some rain towards evening finished digging
potatoes and paid off the indians this evening.
Tuesday 12
Still cloudy and some rain during the day Mr. Ebey moved
Mr. Bonsel down to the beach to await the arrival of the Mary Taylor
in which he intends moving away to another Island. Mrs. Bonsel
took dinner with us today.
Wednesday 18th
Day clear and pleasant we had some rain last night Capt. Fay
and Hugh Crocket were here today and went on over to Mr. Crocket's
Mr. Ebey is out cutting board timber
Thursday 14th
Morning clear and day pleasant a large vessel anchored at
Port Townsend Capt. Fay was here all night and has gone home
today.
Friday 15th
Today is cloudy but no rain Capt. Cousins of the Powhattan was
here today and took dinner He is a very sociable old gentleman he is
owner of four vessels and has been running them in the Columbia
and has concluded to run them between Cal. and the Sound He
bought Capt. Bell's 2 shoats for 30 dollars —
48
Victor J. Farrar
Saturday 16
Day  cloudy,  windy,  and  cold    Mr.   Ebey  out  sawing timber
today which is very dangerous in this wind in the thick timber    Mr.
Bonsel and family still camped under the hill.
Sunday 17
Still continues to be windy but clear most of the time, the
water is. very rough. Capt. Porter arrived here this evening. The
wind is exceedingly high   more so than it has been since Spring.
Monday 18
Morning cloudy and boisterous great appearance of rain. Mr.
Ebey and Capt. Porter have gone around to see our neighbors and
have not returned, it is very near night Ellison has become tired
of his book and has laid down on his chair and gone to sleep Eason
has a very sore foot and is lying upon a chest resting his foot and
trying to study his lesson Mr. Alaxander and S. Crocket have just
returned from Olympia and brings the news that Dr. Lansdale is not
far behind them on his return from the Plains who left Thomas on
the Umatilla. Immigrants have suffered a great deal this season by
the loss of cattle.    It is now raining gradually.
Tuesday 19
Day cloudy until towards evening Capt Fay. Mr. Alaaxander
and Mr. Smith came here today Capt. Porter went to Port Townsend
this evening and returned in the night
Wednesday 20
Day rather cloudy and cool. Capt. Brown of the Ship Persia
came over from his vessel after Capt. Porter (owner of the same)
in the night last night. He had been only seven days sailing from
Sanfrancisco. He sais there were 12 vessels started for the Sound
before he did. Two late Immigrants are here today one by the name
of Fox and the other by the name of Thatcher They came down
with Dr. Lansdale to look for claims    raining all evening.
Thursday 21
Still cloudy a good deal of rain through the night Dr. Lansdale
came here last night after dark He sais he and Thomas heard of
Mother, John and James being in the Grand Round Valley recruiting their stock Thomas went on to meet them. They have plenty
of provisions— a great many immigrants have suffered a great
deal for want of provisions The Ebey Diary
49
Friday 22nd
Today calm and part of the day clear    I washed a very large
day's washing today   I have been very much fatigued this week with
company; There have been so many passing
Saturday 23
Today is very cold and rainy Mr. Ebey and Mr. Marlet58 has
gone over to Coveland to assist in raising a storehouse for Capt. Coff-
man Three vessels in sight coming up this evening. Mr. Ebey Mr.
M. and Dr. Lansdale are coming I have been ironing all day today
Mr Bonsel went over to Port Townsend this evening.
Sunday 24th
This is a very windy and cold day. Walter and Charles Crocket
were here in the forenoon, and Hugh in the afternoon. Mrs Bonsel is camped on the beach in a very disagreeable situation She is
too fearful of putting anyone to trouble to come and stay at the
house.
Monday 25th
Day cloudy and cool Mr. Ebey has gone to haul his board
timber over the beach Mr. Crocket brought me over some pickled
cucumbers today which was a great treat
Tuesday 26
Cloudy and some rain    Mr. Ebey and Mr. Bonsel are hurrying
to get a little room finished for Mr. B's family to move into until
they can get an opportunity of going to San Francisco.
Wednesday 27
Morning cloudy; some rain through the day    Mr. Crocket here
today.
Thursday 28
Day almost clear and pleasant   I washed today   Rebecca Bonsel
helped me    Mr Ebey and Mr.  Bonsel finished the little room and
moved the family and plunder up in the afternoon.
Friday 29th
Day cloudy but no rain   Mrs. B. busy washing   Mr. Ebey very
busy at work at house.   No news from mother yet.
Saturday 30
Cloudy, a considerable rain fell last night    all well,    all very
busy today.
58Possibly the person referred to is Thomas Maylord, who filed a claim
on November 20, 1852. A brother, Samuel Maylord, came to the Island in
the early part of 1853,  and filed  a claim on April 23,  1853. 50
Victor J. Farrar
Sunday 81
Morning cloudy with a drissling shower now and then Mr. Ebey
and myself went to Col. Crocket's today and left the children home.
They were very much pleased to see us While we were gone Capts.
Cousins, Hoffington, and Bell came over from Port Townsend to see
all— they were gone when we came home. They drank up all the
milk I had and left a dollar to pay for it.
Monday Nov. 1st
Day pleasant and clear   Mrs. Bonsel washing today.   I feel better
since my ride yesterday.   Mr. Crocket here today to buy some articles
from Mr. Bonsel.
Tuesday 2nd
Day clear and pleasant.    We had a large frost last night   Mr.
Ebey is hauling board timber
Wednesday 3rd
Morning cold and a beautiful clear day    Mr. Ebey took Mr.
Crocket's wagon home this evening and the children went with him on
a visit and staid all night.
Thursday 4th
Morning clear but cloudy in the evening.    I washed today    Mr.
Crockett brought us some turnips cabbage and venison today    The
children came home with him.
Friday 5th
Day cloudy with some rain    Mr Ebey very busy at his house.
Capts. Fay & Coffin here today
Saturday 6
Day somewhat cloudy    Co very busy all day    A Brig by the
name of Cabbet59 is commencing to load in the Cove with Spiles
[piles]
Sunday 7th
Morning cloudy   a great deal of rain fell last night   Mr. Hill60
69The brig John S. Cabot,  Captain George Dryden.
eoNathaniel D. Hill was born in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, on
January 25, 1824, the son of Dr. John H. and Eliza (Davis) Hill. The
father was for many years engaged in the druggist business in Philadelphia, and in his shop Nathaniel D. learned the pharmacy profession. At
the end of his apprenticeship, in partnership with a friend, he set up for
himself, under the style of Hill & Wright. In the year 1850, when the
news of the discovery of gold in California had reached the Atlantic Coast,
the entire Hill family, consisting of the parents, Nathaniel D., Robert C,
William and Humphrey, decided to emigrate, and accordingly made their
way to San Francisco. In that city Nathaniel D. tried his hand at several
vocations, including a clerkship in the custom-house, stock-raising in the
Sonoma Valley, and gold mining; but not finding in these lines the satisfaction he expected, he took passage on the brig John S. Cabot for Puget
Sound, and filed a claim on Whidbey Island, near the Ebeys, on November
20,   1852.    On  Puget Sound Nathaniel  D.  became  a  prominent  citizen and The Ebey Diary
off the Cabbit was here all night just from California. Spent this
Sabbath at home reading most of the day and teaching our children.
No news yet from mother I greatly fear she is not geting along
well; yet I still hope for the best as I have always done.
Monday 8
Day very pleasant   Just received intelligence of the Brig Irvine
arriving in the Cove   She brought some goods for Capt. Coffin.
Tuesday 9th
Day cool with some rain Mr. Ebey & Mr Marlet are very busy
building a chimney to one of our rooms We received a great number
of newspapers today from Olympia and also a letter from Winfield
dated Aug. 15. He sais all our friends were well except his mother
He complains greatly of our not writing to them oftener this Summer.
I am sorry to say that we have been very negligent about writing
this Summer I must treat my friends better in future My daily
labor and ill health this Season has almost compelled me to omit many
duties which ought not to have been omited All are very busy reading
the news tonight My children are in the room with Mrs. Bonsel's and
they are all making a great deal of noise.
Wednesday 10
Morning very cool The ground is frozen quite hard and some ice
in holes upon the ground. Mr. Bonsel and family started from here
this morning for Port Townsend and are going from there to San
Francisco I felt sorry to see them start as I think a great deal of
her and the children.
Thursday 11
Cool and cloudy a good deal of rain last night. Mr. Howe here
tonight. Capt. Coupe61 here today. Mr. Ebey and Mr. Marlet are
very busy working at the new house trying to get it completed.
Friday 12
Very cool and cloudy all day    Mr Ebey completed his chimney
today and suffered a good deal of cold working in the morter; though it
pioneer. During the Indian War, with R. C. Fay, he was in charge of the
encampment for friendly Indians at Oak Harbor. In 1857 he returned to
Philadelphia, and in that city was married to Sallie H. Haddock, a native
of Lynn, Massachusetts. Four children were born to them. In 1868 Mr.
Hill became identified ■with several important capitalistic enterprises. Robert C. Hill was born at Hatborough, Pennsylvania, on September 14, 1829,
and came to Whidbey Island the year following his brother's arrival, where
he filed a claim on February 10, 1853.
siCaptain Thomas Coupe was born in New Brunswick on August 22,
1818, and at the age of twelve years went to sea. He arrived on Puget
Sound in 1852 on the bark Success, of which he was part owner, and
shortly afterwards, on November 20, 1852, filed a donation claim which
included the site of the present town of Coupeville. His death occurred
at Coupeville on December 27, 1875. 52
Victor J. Farrar
is not freezing.    Mr. Wilson and another gentlemen are here today
from Port Townsend on their way to the Cove.
Saturday 13
Day cool and cloudy;    A great deal of rain fell last night and
very stormy all night   I was called out in the night about one o'clock
to Mrs Alaxander's   She was confined and has a fine son.
Sunday 14
Day pleasant and not so cool as formerly    Mr. Ebey & Mr. M.
have gone to Mr. Hill's.    Dr. Lansdale was here a few minutes    I
see a    barque anchored just below Port Townsend    Mr. English82
[Engle] here a few minutes.
Monday 15
The weather has turned warmer but still cloudy no rain in
the daytime but it generally rains of nights The ground is not muddy
and the rain does not make it at all disagreeable; men can continue
laboring every day here in the winter, while in the states, they are
all housed up, and can do nothing but keep large fires, and feed their
stock; here we have no feeding to do at all.   How great is the contrast!
Tuesday 16
Day clear and beautiful    I wint to see Mrs Alaxander    she
appears very well   Mr. Ebey hard at work at his house.
Wednesday 17
Day clear   heavy frost last night and a very cold morning   a
little thin ice in a barrel this morning.
Thursday 18
Morning clear and pleasant a vessel passed up the Sound today
Col. Crocket here a few minutes and brought us some papers Samuel
has returned home. I received a letter from aunt Martha today she
and family are wintering at Margsville They say nothing about coming
over here to look at the country
Friday 19
Cloudy today    I washed today   Mr. Ebey finished our house today and we moved in it.    It is very comfortable to sit by a good fire
place once more.
62WllHam Ballinger Engle was born in Burlington County, N. J., on
September 7, 1831, the son of Eben and Alcenia Engle. His mother's parents
were Quakers. In company with the Hills, he came to Whidbey Island and
filed a claim on November 20, 1852. Previous to his arrival on the Island
he had sought gold in California without success. In 1876 he married
Flora A. Pearson, who with her parents came to the Sound in 1866 with
Asa Mercer's expedition. Their children are Carl Terry and Ralph Pearson,
■who reside on Whidbey Island, and Ernestine E., 'who married W. J.
Waldrip of Oyster Bay, Mason County. Mr. Engle died on November 10, 1907. The Ebey Diary
58
Saturday 20,
I worked very hard today scrubbing off the floors Mr Ebey went
to the Cove today and brought home 100 lbs. of flour which was owing
to us over there
Sunday 21
Today very cloudy and some rain all day Mr. Alaxander, John
Crocket, and Dr. Lansdale came over to spend the day with Mr Ebey
before he leaves for the Willammette Capt Coupe took supper and
staid until bedtime   Dr. Lansdale staid all night.
Monday 22
raining very hard this morning cloudy and drizzling all day a
vessel passed up today
Tuesday 23
Some rain fell early this morning but towards 10, oclock it cleared
off and was a beautiful day Mr. Ebey started for Salem today I was
very much distressed at seeing him start He has to be gone about 8
months, he has worked very hard this Fall to get me fixed comfortable
for the Winter before he would have to leave which he has done and
has hired Clouston's John to stay until he comes back to make fires
and get wood and work at the houses, and he gets Mr. Ingles [Engle]
to stay every night until Thomas comes with mother, John and James.
Wednesday 24
Day cool and cloudy with some rain a great deal of rain feU last
night John is chinking the cookhouse and shaving boards and nailing
on the cracks in the other house and is very industrious There are a
good many indians camped on the beach at present and are frequently
coming to the house to take a look at us, but are not saucy.
Thursday 25
Raining all day today   John is nailing boards on the cracks today.
Friday 26,
Day pleasant and clear   I washed today   J. is cutting firewood.
Saturday 27
This is a very pleasant day    the sun shines clear though the
evening is very cold.    Mr. Hill returned from Victoria this evening
after dark with a thousand pounds of flour 250 for us.    He went up
home although it was very cold.
Sunday 28
A clear and beautiful day for Winter, a heavy frost this morning.
George Allen came over today and was only here a few minutes.    He 54
Victor J. Farrar
brought me the distressing news of mother's death. O the distress of
heart I now feel. If it is so that my dear mother has died on the
plains how can I ever get over it I will reflect upon myself as long
as I live that I did not persevere a little more and bring her with me.
The word came from John Shaw who, has arrived in the neighborhood
I have not seen him yet.
Monday 29th
Another beautiful day has dawned upon us I slept but little last
night The thought of my mother being no more on this earth drives
sleep and rest from my body Yet I know it is wrong to grieve If
her spirit has left this earth I have a hope of meeting her in a far
better world than this, which is the only consolation I have. Though
I was looking for her every day and anticipating a happy winter in
her company. But this is the way with the happiness of this world It
soon vanishes never to return. John indian has almost finished daubing
the house and has slipped off to the Cove and did not come back until
after night I think he has a notion of leaving he is very idle, John
Alaxander hauled us one load of wood today.
Tuesday 30
Day clear a vessel passed up the Straits today evening quite
warm.   The indians are camped here yet.
Wednesday Dec.  1st
Day clear and warm Myself Eason and Ellison cleaned at the
yard all day We are alone today and try to keep ourselves company
by hard work John left us today for good and was half way to Port
Townsend before I knew he was going he has acted very trifling in
doing so The men at P. Townsend had sent him word to come over
there and he could make a dollar per day at loading vessels, so it
induced him to go.
Thursday 2nd
Raining all day today I have the toothache and my jaw is badly
swolen
Friday 3rd
Not raining today but all day cloudy Charles who went up
with Mr. Ebey returned today bringing a letter from Mr Ebey he
had a very hard time going up and had heard nothing of Thomas I
hired one of Charly's indians to stay here and cut wood.
Day clear but cold a heavy frost this morning, busy all day
and very tired at night. The Ebey Diary
55
Sunday 5th
Day cool but not raining Dr. Lansdale came this morning, also
Samuel Crocket and Susan came over Susan to stay a few days Capt
Coffin was here and wished to board but I refused boarding him. he
went to several of the neighbors for the same I do not know how
he will come out   he has sold out his merchandise to Mr. Alaxander.
Monday 6
I am not quite so lonely today as Susan is here Cloudy with
some rain and quite cool.
Tuesday 7th
Weather cool our indian Sam has to go to carrying wood our
hauled wood is. out again   it was so rotten.
Wednesday 8
Day cool and some rain   very windy in the evening,    no one
passing today    Susan appears to be  getting lonesome and uneasy
about home   Her father is not very well.
Thursday 9th
Some rain falling today, very windy and cool.
Friday 10
Raining some this morning about 9 o'clock the sun shone out
beautiful and Susan wished to go to John's and wished me to go
along; we went and the' evening turned to be so cold and windy
that I could not get home and had to s.tay all night. I had left
Eason at home and Mr. Engle was to be there all night. I was
very uneasy and came home early in the morning when it was quite
pleasant I found all right and them geting their breakfast I fin:
ished it for them.
Saturday 11
Busy all day preparing for Sunday and very tired after my walk
from Mr. Crocket's.   Evening very windy
Sunday 12
Morning clear and beautiful    Evening cloudy and turning very
cool.    The children and myself are alone all day   no person passing
We are reading most  of the  day    Two  vessels  going out  of the
Straits today very slow
Monday 18th
Very cold today and windy I finished Eason's pants very
cloudy this evening no more news from Mr. or Thomas Mr. Engle
is hauling us some wood today    Mr. Alaxander was. over today and 56
Victor J. Farrar
said he could have none this week as his boys and cattle are all at
work at the Cove.
Tuesday 14th
Today cool but clear nearly all day. I washed today fearing a
storm. Some sleet and snow falling this evening very cloudy and
windy    a vessel coming up this evening.
Wednesday 15
Very cold and stormy today Considerable snow fell last night
to the depth of an inch.
Thursday 16.
A little more snow fell last night, quite cool today. George
Allen is here tonight hunting his cattle Mr. Hill is here tonight
in the place of Mr. Engle who has gone to cut board timber. I
heard today that Mr. Smith has started up to Olympia with our
scow and was caught out in that storm on friday evening and run
her ashore on Mcdonough's Island68 and broke her all to pieces It
is a great loss to us and the other owners.
Friday 17
Still cold sometimes cloudy and sometimes clear and now and
then a little snow falling. Mr Allen went home today and I sent
our indian Bob with him to bring me some lard from the store He
was to return tonight but did not and we could not get the cows.
This is the coldest night we have had this winter. We have just
heard of Sneetlem's64 death which happened last night.
Saturday 18
Very cold this morning   I did not think to notice the Thermometer
Bob has just returned and Dr Lansdale soon afterwards.    Mr. Hill
esThis is the present Camano Island. It was first named McDonough
Island by Lieutenant Wilkes of the United States Exploring Expedition in
1841 in honor of Captain Thomas McDonough of the ship Saratoga, who
gained fame at the battle of Lake Champlain in 1812. The naming of McDonough Island, Saratoga Passage, etc., was a part of the plan of Lieutenant Wilkes who desired to perpetuate the names of the old naval heroes
in the nomenclature of the Sound. Most of the islands in the Sound were
named for these heroes. The publication of the Wilkes' charts was delayed;
in the meantime, Captain Kellett of the British Navy made extensive
surveys of the Sound and published his charts in 1847. He substituted for
the Wilkes' nomenclature names of old Spanish explorers. During the
early pioneer years many of the islands, watercourses, capes, etc., went
by two names, according as one used the Wilkes or Kellett charts. At
the present time Kellett's names have been preserved on most of the larger
islands, while Wilkes' names are found on the points, capes, bays, etc.,
which Kellett did not name.
64Snatelem was probably the greatest and most powerful of the sub-
chiefs who ruled on Whidbey Island. He was a friend to the 'white settlers
and this friendship probably explains the peaceful attitude of his Indian
subjects. At the time of his death he is said to have had over one hundred
slaves. His son, Kwuss-ka-nam, or George Snatelum, Sr., and his grandson, Hel-mits, or George Snatelum, Jr., were signers of the Point Elliott
Treaty made on January 22, 1855. Shatelem was a Skagit sub-chief under
Goliah, chief of the Skagits, and dwelt in the vicinity of Watsak Point,
the south cape of Penn Cove. This point is known locally as Snatelem
Point, or as  many  maps have  recorded  it,  Snakeland Point. The Ebey Diary
has been out all day after the cows and cannot find them—Dr. took
dinner and went home he brought us 10 pounds of lard and some
nails,   about two inches of snow fell last night.
Sunday 19th
Still colder ice thicker in buckets Not much wind stirring,
but what we have, is from the North and is very cold The Skad-
gets have sent over to Port Townsend for all the Klalms to come
over and mourn the loss of Sneightlem their head chief They all
seem to take it very hard, he died with the quinzy or sorethroat
The Klalms have just left here on their way over I think all the
tribe are over All the Tiees65 had to come in and warm but I would
not let any others in. One by the name of Queer handed me a
bundle of letters he had brought from Olympia for the Island among
them was a letter from Mr. Ebey dated Oregon City Dec- 5th He
does not write me much news he had heard of Thomas and the
ballance of our people coming on. He had also heard something of
Aunt Martha I am very glad to hear that Mr. Ebey is well he
has had such bad weather to travel in I had been fearing he was
sick, and had worked so hard before he left home. I wish he was
at home now I miss him a great deal in this cold weather I have a
great deal of uneasiness about our cattle and potatoes fearing we
will lose some of them in this cold snowy weather.
Monday 20th
Still very cold    Thermometer 19 degrees above zero this morning at daylight
Tuesday 21
Last night was the coldest night we have had Thermometer 17 degrees above zero this morning Potatoes froze in the cookhouse last
night The sun shines in the day but has little power. The weather
is generally clear at present Capt. BeU and John B. came from
Port Townsend this evening almost frozen and spent the night. To*
night at bedtime the thermometer is at 15 degrees.
Wednesday 22
Morning clear and cold thermometer 15 degrees above zero
before day this morning 19 degrees at present. The sun is shining very beautiful and it looks as though we might have moderate
weather. Mr. Hill killed our pet fawn this morning it had become
very shy and we thought it best to have it killed. Capt. Bell and
John has gone over to the Cove this morning and I sent word to
«STyee is a Chinook Jargon word meaning chief or headman. 58
Victor J. Farrar
the people over there to bring home our cattle and plow Which
they have been using for five weeks and in all this hard weather
when cattle ought to run out all the time so as to get enough of food.
Thursday 23
Still  very  cold    everything in  the  house is  freezeing in the
daytime   Our potatoes in the smokehouse have not frozen yet.   Thermometer 16 this morning early.    Our indian left us yesterday evening   I do not expect he will return any more.
Friday 24th
The weather is cold but I think it is a little warmer today than
usual.   Our cows are missing again and connot be found.
Saturday 25
Very cold today Thermometer at 8 degrees, this morning at
daylight Samuel Crocket and Mr Hill are hauling us some wood
This is Christmass day but it is so cold we cannot enjoy ourselves
and it seems but little like Christmass though it makes me think of
years gone by, and friends who are in their graves Mr. Ebey is
gone and this is another lonely Christmass to me. Our friends who
have crossed the plains do not come I have almost given out seeing
them this winter. I can hear nothing direct from them if they
knew of my uneasiness concerning them they would have writen Dr
Lansdale and Mr Alaxander were here today they brought me a jar
of pickles and a box of mincemeat as a Christmass present. I made
some mince pies for dinner and they were excellent.
Sunday 26th
The weather moderated last night in the night and today is quite
pleasant and thawing some out although it snowed from daylight until
12 oclock in the day The sun is shining warm this evening and a
great appearance of good weather. The thermometer is 28 degrees
above zero higher than it has been for two weeks. There is no person
passing today We are alone all day We are employing our time in
reading generally,
Monday 27
The snow is nearly gone George Sneightlem came back from
Port Townsend this evening and I had to let him and his indians camp
in the smokehouse all night I did not see that they stole anything.
Thermometer at 28 today.
Tuesday 28
This is a very pleasant day. It is my birthday. I grieved so much
about mother last night that I feel very unwell today   I wrote a letter The Ebey Diary
59
to Mr. Ebey and one to Sister Martha. Eason has gone to Mr. Alax-
ander's to get them to bring the oxen home so we can have some wood
hauled I made a duff for our dinner the first I ever made right and
it was very good.
Wednesday 29,
A good deal of rain falling today,   two vessels came up today and
went in to Port Townsend    another came last night    The water is
rough and it is windy   Thermometer is at 80.
Thursday 30th
This morning looked pleasant and I commenced washing but
before I was done it commenced snowing, very hard and in a little time
the ground was covered with snow and sleet almost shoe mouth deep
John Bartlet came over from Port Townsend on his way to Coveland
this morning I quit washing to get his dinner he appeared very
hungry, he brought the news that Capt. Gove" had come with his
two vessels and brought the word that General Pierce is elected President.   No doubt but the Democrats, are rejoicing.
Friday 31st
This morning is warm the snow is thawing off the house, there
is a thick crust of ice over the snow. John Bartlet came from the
Cove this morning after I had washed up our breakfast dishes and I
had to get a new breakfast for him and give his indians permission
to cook their breakfast in the smokehouse and after John had eaten
hearty he went to gathering up his things they had left here in my
care without saying a word he even caught four out of seven of
the chickens which I had raised for him and which I thought he had
given me for raising his hogs and feeding them every day last Summer on buttermilk and bran. He also picked the largest of our potatoes to pay for a few small ones we had used of his, without asking
me where he should get them and had them in the sacks before I knew
he was going to get them. Indeed John shewed what a peneurious
heart he has after all my kindness to him last Summer. I suppose
he thought he was shewing his independence and authority over his
own It is. thawing some. This is the last day in the year 52. let us
look back with sorrow on the past year that we have not spent it as we
should and promise to spend the coming year better.
Jan Sat. 1st [1853]
The first day of the new year has come    There are great displays made in some places this day and a great deal of feasting done,
eeCaptain I. W. Gove. 60
Victor J. Farrar
and I am sorry to say, a great deal of dissipation carried on in some
places, but here everything is peaceable and quiet, I have not even
heared a gun fire today. I do not feel well today, I have a very bad
cold and coughed a great deal last night Old Capt. Coffin came and sat
nearly all day and I had to get dinner for him I did not feel like
keeping him company or cooking for him. He is a very disgusting man,
but appears to have been well raised, he has a great deal of pride
This is a beautiful evening the sun is shining very bright. The
snow is thawing some. I see a schooner coming up this evening.
How thankful we should be to our Creator for preserving us until
another New Years day in health and bodily strength O, may He
enable us to spend this coming year more to His service and to be
more faithful in perferming our religeous duties, and in the end we
will be happier. gunday gnd
Snowing this morning very fast Sam wishes to go to the Cove
on a visit today I thought it best to let him go as it is not cold
today This is the first Sabbath in 53. We are very lonesome today I
wish Mr. Ebey was at home, I would feel much better. Eason is
reading to Ellison in his primer. Eason commenced reading the Testament through yesterday, but he is getting very careless and indolent
his pa is gone so much that he is becoming a great deal of trouble
to me I haVe often heard it said that little boys would not be industrious about everything under their mother's controll altogether, and
I find it is so, They become so accustomed to their mother's commands from the cradle that they get so they do not mind it. She
has to watch every action and keep the child from all kinds of miss-
conduct while they are small, but when little boys become old enough
to do some work they need a father to show them and to push them
forward to make them industrious. I have tried very hard to make
Eason industrious but I find I will have to give it up. He will be
idle about his book and everything else. I hope next Summer his pa
will help me to attend to him and try to get him out of his indolent
habits which distress me a great deal. I can hear nothing more of
Thomas I cannot tell what has become of them all I fear the exposure and hardship has made Thomas sick two seasons hard running—
Monday 3rd
Very pleasant today   snow going off very fast   No person passing
but Indians.   I feel better today and more able to attend to my household affairs. t< „ j      m3
Tuesday 4tn
Weather pleasant but windy a vessel came up today uncertain
as  to its name    I  see a great deal of snow has  fallen upon the The Ebey Diary
61
Olympic mountains    I have not been able to see them before today
for the clouds for some time.
Wednesday 5
Day rather windy and a good deal of rain falling snow all
gone. No news from Mr. Ebey and I cannot get an opportunity of
sending letters to him   I have been watching for one, for a long time.
Thursday 6th
Today very pleasant I washed today Sam has not returned yet
I scoured the cookhouse floor after I was done washing. George
Allen and Mr. Smith came in the time to borrow one yoke of the
oxen to plow They are all in a great way over at the Cove about
plowing—
Warm today thermometer at 50 degrees above zero Some rain
fell last night Dr. Lansdale was here a few minutes this morning to
hfear if I had any fresh news from Mr. Ebey but I had none.
Saturday 8th
Morning cooler than common. I washed up the cupboard and
everything about the house and hired an indian to scrub one floor in
the forenoon, and in the afternoon I was very sick and thought I
would have to send for some of the neighbors, but toward bedtime
I became some better.
Sunday 9th
Day rather cool and some rain I was sick all night though I
am a good deal better today but do not feel able to do much and
make every one wait upon themselves. Sam arrived today and I
gave him a scolding and told him he must not run off again. An indian
brought me a letter from Mr. Ebey's sister, Mary, today from Port
Townsend, O the distressing news it brought, the truth of the death
of my dear mother on the plains. My heart is almost broken I feel
that I cannot endure the torture of being sepperated from her in this
life, Yet I know she is happy and I have the consolation left, that
I can see her in a better and happier world But the anguish of
my heart and my reflections upon myself are so great because I did not
bring her with me, away from that sickly country. Had I thought
of this I would have brought her at the risk of everything; but I
like many others left that Country with expectations of seeing my
friends the next Season But O how wicked and thoughtless we are,
not to remember that another day or another year may bring some of
us to our graves and, O my mother it was you who must be taken
from us so soon.    Well I remember the last time I saw you    I have 62
Victor J. Farrar
spent many happy hours with you. Your kindness to me was more
than I deserved for which I hoped to be able to repay you in after
years but death has debarred me from so doing, and didst thou forgive me for leaving you almost desolate? If I could only hear and
know that thou left a word of forgiveness for me before your death
I would be happier; for, I left you in a hurry and did not take
time to consider whether I could bring you or not. I think you would
have been with me now alive and well. I have no one to blame but
myself. The Lord have mercy upon me and pardon me. Thy will be
done O Lord, and enable me to bear it with patience. Many trials
I have had but this is worse than all the ballance I pray the Lord to
enable me to be more dutiful and more faithful. I am greatly in
need of His assistance and grace to sustain me under all trials and
troubles. In a few years more I may be lain in the grave also. O may
I be prepared to meet all those dear friends who have gone before
to Heaven and to Stand before the judgment Seat of Christ and give
an account of my deeds done in the body.
Monday 10
Day pleasant, a little cloudy   Still in grief and find no consolation   Scarcely able to attend to business,   mind continually reflecting
upon past scenes which cannot be brought back.
Tuesday 11
Weather cool some rain last night Very lonely no old friend
near to converse with Still striving to keep the children at their
books, but, feel little able to attend to them. I heard of the death
of Uncle Samuel Eason and his little daughter Mary by Mary's
letter also Uncle S —was very much afflicted in this life and he
no doubt rests from his troubles. He was a christian and I hope
his children will follow in his steps and try to do that which is right
which no doubt he oftentimes tried to impress upon their minds They
are no doubt very much distressed Yet they ought not to grieve for
they were with him at his death, and their loss is his Eternal gain
Wednesday 12th
Day cloudy and quite windy    a vessel in the Straits coming up
this morning.    Some rain fell last evening    I can hear nothing from
Mr. Ebey and Thomas      I long for the time to come when I will
see them at home again, and in health
(Continued in the next issue.) BOOK REVIEWS
Mount Rainier, A Record of Exploration. Edited by Edmond
S. Meany. (New York, The Macmillan Company, 1916. Pp. 825.
$2.00.)
Under the above title the public, and particularly that portion
who dwell in this Northwest country, are favored with another contribution to local history from the handiwork of one who has already
done a great deal to enrich it with the fruit of his labors. The present
work, however, differs materially from its predecessors by the same
authority. With the exception of one chapter, it is a compilation pure
and simple. It gives in full, or in their essential parts, the authentic
reports or writings of those who have visited or explored the Mountain since its discovery by Vancouver, and who have left records worthy
of public confidence. For the most part these records are given verbatim, and in the chronological order of their occurrence.
But the book is more than a record of exploration. The first
twelve chapters (except the fourth) satisfy this description perfectly;
but Chapters XIII to XVI are rather in the nature of monographs
upon the various physical aspects of.the Park and Mountain. While
these monographs are all based upon exploration and study, they
are not records of the explorations themselves except in a purely
incidental way. Chapter XVII is an account of the creation of the
Rainier National Park, and Chapter XVIII is a statement of methods
and results in the final determination of the altitude of the Mountain.
Chapter XIX is a monograph on the Place Names of the Park from
the pen of Professor Meany himself. The scope of the work is thus
seen to be more comprehensive than the title itself would indicate.
The mechanical execution of the book is excellent, as one would
naturally expect of any work put out by The Macmillan Company.
The type is clear and large, and the technique throughout is thor-
ouhgly up to date. There are twelve pages of preliminary manner,
325 pages of text, and four pages of advertisements. There are sixteen full page portraits, all, except that of Admiral Rainier, being
portraits of the contributors, and all beautifully done. There is an
appropriate frontispiece in the form of a reproduction of the fascinating "first picture of the mountain" which dates from Vancouver's
time.    There is no map and there is no index.
Upon the whole, the book presents a very attractive appearance, and contains a fund of information which should be of positive
(63) 64
Book Reviews
value to students of Northwest history, and of genuine assistance to
visitors to the Rainier National Park.
With this general view of the work, some of its outstanding features will now be more particularly noted.
The writer is unable to determine whether the author of Chapter
IV made any exploration of the Mountain or not. If he did, no narrative is given, and the chief value of the contribution lies in its beauty
as an example of highly imaginative word painting. The writer is
quite unable to discover in the Hamitchou Legend anything of sufficient importance to justify the prominence given it in this compilation.
A most interesting historic coincidence is suggested by the account
of General Stevens' ascent of the Mountain in 1870 (Chapter VI).
He reached the summit on August 17th. At that time, in a far-distant field, a party of explorers was on the eve of starting on one
of the famous expeditions of discovery in American annals; and twelve
days later, August 29th, this party stood upon the summit of Mount
Washburn in what is now the Yellowstone Park. It was the real
entrance of the white man into the mysteries of that wonderful region.
Chapter XIII contains a touch of true romance and self-sacrifice in devotion to a scientific purpos.e. That, in pursuit, of such purpose, a life should have been sacrificed upon the treacherous slopes
of the Mountain where that purpose was being carried out, only serves
to hallow the act of devotion itself. And surely it is most remarkable
that these interrupted efforts should have yielded a result so near to
the final official determination of the altitude of the Mountain. Not
least astonishing is the fact that this close approximation (120 feet)
was obtained by barometric estimates.
Of the descriptive monographs, Chapters XIII-XVI, the writer
would particularly mention the admirable paper by F. E. Mathes on
the Glaciers of Mount Rainier, and Professor Piper's exhaustive List
of Species of the Flora of Mount Rainier. It would have been of
great advantage to the large majority of visitors to the Park if Professor Piper could have selected about one hundred of the more common varieties which fall under ordinary observation and have devoted
some especial treatment to them.
Perhaps the most interesting feature of the book to the writer
is Professor Meany's chapter on the Place Names of the Park. This
interest arises in part, no doubt, from the writer's extensive similar
work in the Yellowstone Park; but it has a far deeper meaning—one
going to the very roots of local history. In his book on the Yellowstone the writer has enunciated in the following terms what seems Mount Rainier
65
to him an underlying principle on the subject of geographical nomenclature:
"In common experience, the importance of geographical names
lies in their use as a means of identification. To describe an object
there must be a name, and for this purpose one name is as good as
another. But if the reason be sought why a particular name happened
to be selected, it will generally be found to arise, not from this practical necessity, but from some primary fact or tradition, or from some
distinguished character, in the annals of the community where it occurs. In its mountains and valleys, its lakes and streams, and in its
civil divisions, the cradle history of a country may always be found
recorded."
It is not, of course, all names that have this deeper significance;
far from it. In the Yellowstone there are upward of 360 place
names, not including those of geysers, etc. Yet the writer found barely
one hundred (and he was successful in getting at the origin of practically all) which were entitled to mention for any other reason than
their "use as a means of identification." In the Rainier Park there
are, by rough estimate, 112 personal names, the origin of only about
half of which is known. There are about 140 names which may be
styled characteristic, but of these the origin of about eighty per cent
seems to be unknown. From such casual survey as the writer has
been able to make of Professor Meany's list, he questions if there are
more than fifty names which have any significant interest; that is,
serve any other purpose than that of identification.
The writer dwells somewhat at length upon this subject because
it reveals a tendency which ought to be held in check. In the Yellowstone Park there is only about one name on the average to every njne
square miles; in the Rainier Park there is very nearly one to every
square mile. The impulse to give personal names in token of friendship is well-nigh irresistible; but any such criterion is unjust both to
the past and to the future. Service, in some form, should be, with
very few exceptions, the sole criterion. There must be some check
to the contrary tendency. In the Yellowstone that same tendency was
very manifest in the early days of exploration; but there has been
a wholesome weeding: out since. H. M. Chittenden.
Memoirs op the West, the Spaldings. By Eliza Spalding Warren. (Walla Walla, Washington, the Author, 707 Lincoln Street,
1916.    Pp. 158.   $1.50.)
The author of this interesting little book was the first American
white child born in the Pacific Northwest who reached maturity.    She 66
Book Reviews
was born at the Lapwai Mission (now in Idaho) on November 15,
1837. Alice Clarissa Whitman was born at the Waiilatpui Mission
on March 4 of that ,same year, 1837, but she was accidentally drowned
in the Walla Walla river on June 28, 1839. Mrs. Warren has passed
her seventy-ninth birthday. Having lived all these years in the
Pacific Northwest, she has probably witnessed more of the wonderful
transformations from the old wilderness days than any other living
person.
As a little girl of ten she was at the Whitman Mission school
at the time of the awful massacre of Doctor and Mrs. Whitman and
twelve others by the Indians on November 29, 1847. She says she
can still hear the sound of those blows and the cries of the stricken
ones.
As the title indicates, her book is especially devoted to the work
of her parents—Rev. and Mrs. H. H. Spalding of the Lapwai Mission. But a book by such an author would be a precious document
of human interest at any place at any time.
There are nine chapters in the book with the following titles:
"Foreword, The Miracle of the Nez Perces, Reminiscences of Eliza
Spalding Warren, Letters from Friends, In Retrospect by Martha
Jane Wigle, Diary of Mrs. H. H. Spalding, Letters from Mrs. H. H.
Spalding, Letters from Henry Hart Spalding, Excerpts from Lectures of H. H. Spalding, Joseph Chief of the Nez Perces."
There are a number of illustrations, including the Lapwai Mission cabin, the grave of Rev. H. H. Spalding and portraits of the
Spalding family.
Collectors of Northwest Americana will be sure to want this
book and about the only way to get it is by sending an order to the
author, whose present address is given in the caption of this review.
Edmond S. Meany.
Third Party Movements Since the Civil War," With Special
Reference to Iowa. By Fred E. Haynes. (Iowa City, Iowa. The
State Historical Society of Iowa, 1916.    Pp. 564.)
This volume is an addition to the widely known and very creditable
work being done by the State Historical Society of Iowa under the
very able direction of Prof. Benj. F. Shambaugh, and is a study in
social politics.
Beginning with the idea of working out the history of Third
Parties in Iowa, Prof. Haynes found that his study of Iowa parties
drew him into the broader national stream, so that he felt compelled Third Party Movements
67
in the case of each party studied to sketch the field from the national
point of view first, and we have as a result a very fine brief history
of all the third parties since the Civil War in the United States, with
the exception of the Prohibition and Socialist parties. The book is,
therefore, of considerable value aside from its bearing on Iowa parties.
In working out lines of demarkation, Mr. Haynes has excluded
those third parties which seem to have no distinctly western or American background and his book is, therefore, divided into five parts, each
one dealing with a distinct movement, viz., the Liberal-Republican, the
Farmers, the Greenback, the Populist and the Progressive. No one familiar with these movements will need reminding what an important
part Iowa has played in these new parties and the names of Larrabee,
Weaver, Dolliver and Cummins at once suggest themselves. The
notes and references are extensive and make an excellent bibliography.
To say that the work is done under the direction of Editor Shambaugh
is synonymous with saying it is exceedingly well done in every respect.
Edward McMahon.
French Policy and the American Alliance of 1778. By
Edward S. Corwin, Ph.D., Professor of Politics, Princeton University.
(Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1916.    Pp. 480.)
A careful, scholarly and detailed study of the relations existing
between France and the American Colonies during the Revolutionary
War in which the author defends the thesis that "France's intervention in the American Revolution was motived primarily by her desire
to recover her lost pre-eminence on the Continent of Europe," and
that it was not merely an "Episode in the British-French struggle for
colonial domination in the Western Hemisphere."
Jose de Galvez, Visitor-General of New Spain, 1765-1771.
By Herbert Ingram Priestley. (Berkeley, University of California
Press, 1916.    Pp. 448.    In paper cover, $2.75; cloth, $3.00.)
Mr. Priestley is Assistant Curator of the Bancroft Library in
the University of California. His book is Volume V of the University of California's Publications in History, a series that is winning
just praise for its scholarship and its excellent technique.
The author in his preface declares that Jose de Galvez though
relatively little known was certainly "the most competent Minister
of the Indies during the Bourbon regime. It was largely due to his
constructive statesmanship in that capacity that the material prosperity of the American possessions, and hence of the mother country, 68
Book Reviews
made possible the great strides in national development for which
other men have received full measure of attention and praise."
That is the thesis of the work which has been done in a sympathetic spirit and with evident skill. The book has an index and eight
illustrations, including helpful maps. The dedicatory page carries the
simple words, "To My Wife."
Manuscripts from the Burton Historical Collection. Edited by M. A. Burton. (Detroit, C. M. Burton, October, 1916.   Pp. 82.)
This is the first of a proposed series of four numbers of historical
pamphlets. The purpose of the series is to print certain of the rarer
documents contained in the Burton Historical Collection now a part
of the Detroit Public Library. Short but illuminating specimens fill
this number.    The dates range from 1754 to 1795.
Prolegomena to History, the Relation of History to Literature, Philosophy, and Science. By Frederick J. Teggart.
(Berkeley, University of California Press, 1916. Pp. 155 to 292,
being Number 3 of Volume IV., University of California Publications
in History.    In paper covers, $1.50.)
Mr. Teggart is Associate Professor of History and Curator of
the Bancroft Library in the University of California.
His book is the result of patient years of study and reflection.
The abundant footnotes reveal the breadth of his searching. In addition to the inclusiveness of the title, the brief table of contents will
give an adequate idea of the work—"Introduction, The Method of
Science, Historical Investigation and Historiography, History and
Philosophy, History and Evolution, Bibliographical Appendix."
Ten Thousand Miles with a Dog Sled, a Narrative of Winter
Travel in Interior Alaska. By Hudson Stuck. (New York,
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1916.    Pp. 420.    $1.75.)
This is a second edition of the interesting book by the vigorous
Archdeacon of the Yukon. He says he has made but little change
beyond a few footnotes, a second preface and the correction of one
printer's error.   The new edition is beautifully printed and illustrated.
Gray Memorial Celebration. By William D. Lyman and Others.     (Walla Walla, Washington, Whitman College, 1916.    Pp. 24.)
The Whitman College Quarterly, Volume XIX., Number 3, November, 1916, bears the title:    "William H. Gray and Mary A. Dix Outline History of Idaho
69
Gray Memorial Celebration." The account of the memorial ceremonies there recorded innludes the historiial address given by William
D. Lyman, Blalosk Professor of History in Whitman College. The
title of his address is: "The Place of William H. Gray in History."
Mr. Gray was a colleague of Dr. Marcus Whitman in the famous
Waiilatpui mission. For that reason his biography is of especial interest to all friends of Whitman College. The theme is also of interest to all students of Northwestern history. This issue of the
Whitman College Quarterly will be one of the choice items of collectors, within a short time.
Outline for the Study of the History of Idaho. By H. L.
Talkington.    (Boise, Idaho, State Board of Education, 1916.   Pp. 20.)
Professor Talkington is at the head of the department of history
in the Lewiston State Normal School. In this bulletin he gives an
outline as suggested by the title and he has also assembled titles
of books and other publications that will help in the pursuit of such
studies. It is, of course, intended for the use of educational institutions in Idaho.
The Eari,y History of Cuba, 1492-1586. By I. A. Wright.
(New York, The Macmillan Company, 1916.   Pp. 890.   $2.00.)
The title-page carries the phrase: "written from original sources."
It is not a source book containing the documents themselves, but is
written from those documents as studied by the author among the
archives in Spain. American historians, are always interested in fresh
studies of Columbus and his followers.
The table of contents indicates four divisions: "Book I. 1492-
1524, Spain Takes Possession of Cuba; Book II. 1524-1567, An Era
of Stagnation; Book III. 1550-1567, French Influence; Book IV.
1567-1586, The Menace of the English." The volume is equipped with
a glossary and three indexes—of topics, persons and places.
The Control of Strikes in American Trade Unions. By
George Milton Janes. (Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins Press, 1916.
Pp. 181.   $1.00.)
Doctor Janes is now a member of the faculty of the University
of Washington. For that reason, though the book does not deal with
the Pacific Northwest, it is well to mention it here.
The author tells in his preface how the book was prepared: "This
monograph had its origin in an investigation carried on by its author
while a member of the Economic Seminary of the Johns Hopkins 70
Book Reviews
University. The chief documentary source of information has been
the collection of trade-union publications in the Johns Hopkins Library. This study of the printed material has, however, been supplemented by personal interviews and correspondence with both national and local trade-union officials and with employers of labor in
a number of industrial centers."
The New Purchase, or Seven and a Half Years in the Far
West. By Robert Carlton. Indiana Centennial Edition edited by
James Albert Woodburn. (Princeton, N. J., Princeton University
Press, 1916.    Pp. 522.    $3.00 net.)
The real name of the original author was Baynard Rush Hall,
who was the first professor of the Indiana Seminary in 1824. The
editor of this centennial edition of the work is the well known professor of American history at Indiana University.
Judge D. D. Banta, an authority on early Indiana history, says
of "The New Purchase" that it is "the best and truest history of
pioneer life and pioneer surroundings in Indiana that can anywhere
be found." 	
Our Chief Magistrate and His Powers. By William Howard
Taft.   (New York, Columbia University Press, 1916.   Pp. 165. $1.50.)
The former President of the United States delivered a series of
lectures at Columbia University on the George Blumenthal Foundation in 1915. This book is the result or substance of those lectures.
The title is expressive and everyone concedes the distinguished author's ability to discuss such a theme in a way to enlighten and entertain the reader.
The Tourist's Northwest. By Ruth Kedzie Wood. (New York,
Dodd, Mead & Company, 1916.    Pp. 528.    $1.25.)
Ruth Kedzie Wood, Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society, is
the author of half a dozen books in this "Tourist's" series, including
such titles as "Russia," "Spain and Portugal," "California," and
"Maritime Provinces."
This volume is a useful and well illustrated handbook on the
Pacific Northwest. Places of interest are pointed out and also the
means of reaching them. There are two chapters on hotels, sports and
amusements.
Oregon's rivers, mountains and valleys, Washington's great peaks,
lakes, Puget Sound,  British Columbia,  Idaho, and Montana are all Russian Offer of Mediation
71
given attention. Thirty-one illustrations, and five maps add a charm
to the book.
By way of introduction, there is a quotation on "Training of a
Traveller" from an address by the Right Honorable Viscount Bryce,
former Ambassador of England to the United States.
The author has pleasant things to say about the cities mentioned
as, for example: "Chosen bride of the North Pacific, Seattle has
domain over the lesser Nereids of the inland Puget Sea."
A Brief History of the United States. By Matthew Page
Andrews. (Philadelphia, J. B. Lippincott Company, 1916. Pp.
868.    $1.00.)
This is another addition to the goodly number of text books designed for the seventh and eighth grades. There are a number of
good maps and 151 illustrations. The Oregon country is treated
accurately but with a too severe brevity.
South Dakota Historical Collections. By the State Department of History.   (Pierre, State Publishing Company, 1916. Pp. 596.)
Volume VIII., like its predecessors, is largely the work of Doane
Robinson, the tireless worker for history in South Dakota. He is
secretary and superintendent of the South Dakota Department of
History. 	
The Russian Offer of Mediation in the War of 1812. By
Frank A. Golder. (New York, Ginn & Company, 1916. Pp. 380-391,
being reprinted from the Political Science Quarterly for September, 1916.)
Professor Frank A. Golder of the State College of Washington
is making himself an authority on Russian history as. it touches America. In this case he has not only consulted American sources, published and in manuscript, but he uses materials gleaned in the archives
at Petrograd while at work there for the Carnegie Institution of
Washington.
He succeeds in the purpose of this special study, namely, to establish the uprightness of Chancellor Romanzoff, who has heretofore
been more or less under a cloud of distrust. That cloud is here shifted
to the shoulders of Czar Alexander I. The study is especially interesting just now while America is. out of war and Russia is in.
Professor Golder concludes about Romanzoff: "The stories circulated about him by Lord Walpole are false in every particular, for
which Alexander's double-faced method was largely to blame.    The
— 72
Book Reviews
documents in the archives prove conclusively that Romanzoff was truth-
ful, frank, and honest with the American commissioners. That he
was a friend of America and appreciated its problems, our envoys
knew, but even they did not realize how earnestly he worked in their
country's behalf and how much he endured in their nation's cause."
The Tertiary Formations of Western Washington. By
Charles E. Weaver. (Olympia, Washington Geological Survey, 1916.
Pp. 327. Paper covers, 40 cents. Address State Librarian, Olympia,
Washington.)
This is Bulletin No. 13 of the Washington Geological Survey,
under the direction of Professor Henry Landes, State Geologist.
It is an exhaustive report well printed and abundantly illustrated
with half-tones and maps. Professor Weaver has given years of research and field work in the collection of materials.
Those interested in local history as well as those interested in
geology should secure this work while it may be had at bare cost. It
is sure to be in demand during the years to come. Everyone connected with the preparation and publication of this work of scientific
scholarship is entitled to the gratitude and congratulations of the people of the Pacific Northwest.  	
The Purpose of History. By Frederick J. E. Woodbridge.
(New York, Columbia University Press, 1916.    Pp. 89.    $1.00.)
The three chapters are headed: "From History to Philosophy;
The Pluralism of History; The Continuity of History."
The author's tiny preface gives the reason of the book as follows:
"This book contains three lectures delivered at the University of
North Carolina on the McNair Foundation in March of the current
year. It expresses certain conclusions about history to which I have
been led by the study of the history of philosophy and by reflection
on the work of contemporary philosophers, especially Bergson, Dewey,
and Santayana." 	
Review of Historical Publications Relating to Canada. Edited by George W. Wrong, H. H. Langton and W. Stewart Wallace.
(Toro