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BC Historical Books

The Washington historical quarterly. Volume VI Washington University State Historical Society 1915

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  Principal Articles in the Washington Historical Quarterly
VOLUME t
Washington, nomenclature ' 3.-.-'tv-";-.'';■::.'•:l.,. .' ^.".t". X'Vi.--.v.":;..J:;-N. Bowman
Problems of the Pacific «^-:*Mi2s^'»^^'«'ri^i*»^'<&i»)i^i..S. B. L. Penrose
Jason Lee's place in history^H^^M^HffiK^S^^H^^H^HH .Harvey W. Scott
The Cayuse, or First Indian war In the Norhtwes^&'^^Ki,'.<X B. Bagley
Diary of Dip. David S. Maynard while crossing the plains in l&SQsii.k&M
B^^B^^B^^^^B^k^Bh&H^E^H^^B^HS^^S^^H&^B^^^^^^ W. Prosch
Collecting portraits of Washington's governors:  .    ..        .        .A*1 E Mead
Preserving our public W<»rdfr">^:v.'.iW. SHEnHj^H^HHH^B Brown
Earliest expedition against the Puget Sound Indians. ..Frank Ermatinger
The Nisqually linguistic root stock of Puget Sound.. .Charles Ms Buchanan
Efforts to save the historic McLoughlin house. .i,*>.'3.'-.-.v.Thomas W. Prosch
Recollections of a pioneer railroad builder'.^^Ji^Vj,>\.iiV^:«A'>-i,lii?.'C.'.Corbin
1 The pathfinders' ■.'.;. ..>'; .-'.■■.■'.-•.•.'■.-';:'.': .:........J J.'.i .■:'.:..'3''„3V.V".■.".".'." .W. T.~ Dovell
Cook's place in Northwest history '.;..!..;..;.. • ■•.•:••:•• • J. N..'Bowman
Taken prisoner by the Indians   .. Quincy A. Brooks
The Protestant Episcopal as a missionary and pioneer church BH 9 .v>»I•--
^w^W,ii<^^^?^apj.1|-.? ;i'i u;:>S3;Vf>.3'.;iii:';.;,i"»>»}t,v;.. .Mrs. T. W. Prosch
A vast neglected field for archeological research..... i.. ..Harlan (I, Smith
Prehistoric Spokane—An 31ndian legendK'.>";...'i'ii.;>,:>VV.f ^.f.,.-B. D. Owydir
Retrospect of half a century        ..George F. Whitworth
William Clark: Soldier, Explorer, Statesman..^.'...Reuben Gold Thwaites
Jesse Applegate ., RMp^HflP^H^HffiH^N^H^P^M^P^H^HHJoseph Schafer
The Indian Council at Walla Walla ...'.;,;.... ..fr&i^J^J^... .T. C.cJBlliott
VOLUME p.
Sarah Loretta Denny, a tribute. .'s^»^|:t^fe3^^^&^&£i$j^^^|K5S^^^''!
Last Survivor of the Oregon Mission of 18404:.'".,;«.;:.i-;r.i.. .Edmond S. Meany
The Whitman monume'^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^9 Eells
The United States Army in Washington Territory..|lp;Thomas W. Prosch
Washington Territory in the War between the States...Frank A. Kittredge
The military roads of. Washington Territory;.v|^je^^;.Thomas W. Prosch
Heroes and heroines of Long agts-^^iiySJ^S^^-^^&t&BuS'. • .Edwin Eells
Expansion of the Dewey Decimal Classification for the History of the
Pacific Northwest  ..-..'..■;'..'.."....'...-:. 3..........'....'.-•... ..Charles W. Smith
The Indian war of 1858 -'vThc^n W. Prosoh
The state archives at Olympia...»^^.4'|;t^5|^^|»te^#^^>'>J. N. Bowman
The  Oregon  pioneer   .",. \.:*,.:. 4,',.'.;.. ^...;...... .William  P.  Matthews
Marking the Washington-Idaho Boundary &k^ •<••'•'• ■"•••'•• .Rollin J. Reeves
History of San Juan Island.^^^.^:^'^j^^;,^'i^t4"'ife«^*-:Charles McKay
Seattle and the Indians of Puget Sound...:\£&?-$j3yfi^Thomas W. Prosch
Colonel Steptoe's BatUe-.Vif^.J^»^y4*'*S'^ J- Chadwick
VOLUME HL I
Contribution toward a bibliography of Marcus Whitman. .Charles W. Smith
Dr. John McLoughlin and his guests. .sy^K,^^^^i>V^V^».T. C. Elliott
, Fort;Colvile, 1859-1869 . ^^^^^^^^^S^'^^iSt^^-^'Wl'^. Wlnans
The Pacific Ocean and the Pacific Northwest.......■■%......... J. N. Bowman
Suffrage in the Pacific Nor th west iv>,y^"$^«.I:'.i ■....>."',... .Stella E. Pearce
Eastward expansion of population from the Pacific Slope...'.'....>.;.
333'.i*Vy>;:3\v>-;;.i:.i"r.y;3..:;;i:, ;;'.:::..3;:".fi f A:'y;;.Vfi;v.j. v.;'; :;'.:;>33-^.Guy Vernon Bennett
Reminiscences of a pioneer of the Territory of Washington. James C. Strong
History of the railroads in Washington.'. H. Lewis
Comparative study of constitutions for provisions not In our own...*?'
•'   '■■■• :'. ....."   .'....".; ...-'......... Ben Drlftmier
Walla Walla and Missoula. .'.;l..;?v."v»|v5.y,ii;..^^;;.C.^.'..V*>i...T. C. Elliott
From Missoula to Walla Walla In 1857 on horseback Frank H. Woody
The Whitman controversy ; ..... ...'..: -.'.'■.....'...;.. .'3.mes Clark Strong
The pioneer dead of l9li^y.i^cy*^,5S^M^^j.^^«:*5.».Thoma» W. Prosch Wbt TOagijmgton Historical ©uarterlp
VOLUME VI.
1915
THE WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY
STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY
University Station
SEATTLE, WASHINGTON  ^asijington ^fetorical (©uarterlp
JBoarb of Cbitors
Clarence B. Bagley, Seattle.
J. N. Bowman, Seattle.
T. C. Elliott, Walla Walla.
Frank A. Golder, Pullman.
Ceylon S. Kingston, Cheney.
W. D. Lyman, Walla Walla.
Edward McMahon, Seattle.
Thomas W. Prosch, Seattle.
Oliver H. Richardson, Seattle.
O. B. SPERLIN, Tacoma.
E. O. S. Scholefield, Victoria, B. C.
Allen Weir, Olympia.
jHanagtng <£oitor
EDMOND S. MEANY
32£u£.ine£g jUlanager
CHARLES W. SMITH
VOL. VI. NO. 1 JANUARY, 1915
ISSUED QUARTERLY
Contents
T.   C.   ELLIOTT     The   Fur   Trade   In   The   Columbia   .
River Basin Prior to 1811  S
THOMAS   W.   PROSCH        The Pioneer Dead  of  1914  11
VICTOR J. FARRAR    Pioneer and Historical Societies of
the State of Washington  21
T.   C.   ELLIOTT    The Jonrnal of John Work:    July
."-September   15,  1826     26
DOCUMENTS—A New Vancouver Journal     50
BOOK  REVIEWS      69
NEWS    DEPARTMENT      74
NORTHWESTERN HISTORY S3TLLABTJS     78
THE WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY
STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY
University Station
SEATTLE, WASHINGTON
Entered at the postofflce at Seattle as second-class mail matter. Wf&t ^astfjington 3Hntoerat|>
^>tate Historical Society
©i i itzvst anb Poarb of WtuHtezti:
Clarence B. Bagley, President
Judge John P. Hoyt, Vice-President
Judge Roger S. Greene, Treasurer
Professor Edmond S. Meany, Secretary
Judge Cornelius H. Han ford
Judge Thomas Burke
Samuel Hill
DEPARTMENT OF PRINTING, UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON Vol. VI., No. I
January, 1915
^asfjington historical ©uarterlp
THE FUR TRADE IN THE COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN PRIOR TO
18111
One of the present activities of the historical societies of Oregon and
Washington is the publication of source material relating to the early fur
trade along the Columbia river. It has been a popular and to an extent
a scientific habit to refer to the City of Astoria as the earliest trade center
of the Old Oregon country; some of our histories furnish evidence to that
effect. It was on the 12th of April, 1811, that the officers and employees of the Pacific Fur Company were landed from the ship Tonquin
and established a temporary encampment on the south side of the Columbia
River ten miles from Cape Disappointment and immedaitely thereafter
began the erection of the trading post named by them Fort Astoria. On the
15th of July, four months later, David Thompson, the Northwest Company fur trader and astronomer, coming from the source of the river, recorded in his journal: "At 1 P. M., thank God, for our safe arrival, we
came to the house of Mr. Astor's Company, Messrs. McDougal, Stuart
& Stuart, who received me in the most polite manner." And in another
connection Mr. Thompson has recorded that the establishment then consisted of "four low log huts." It is the purpose of this paper to designate
ad seriatim the trading posts that had been built and in use west of the
Rocky Mountains prior to the founding of Astoria and to briefly sketch
the beginnings of the fur trade on the waters of the mighty Columbia
River.
The first barter with white people by the natives residing on the Columbia River was with the masters of trading vessels along the coast, of
which little record has been left to us. When Captains Lewis and Clark,
the eitplorers, descended the river in the Fall of 1805 they found among
Indians living quite a distance in the interior "sundry articles which must
have been procured from the white people, such as scarlet and blue cloth,
a sword, jacket and hat"; and in their journals also appears a list of the
names of about a dozen traders who had been accustomed to frequent the
iA paper read at the meeting of the Pacific Coast Branch of the American Historical Association at the University of Washington, Seattle, May
21,   1914. .
(3) T. C. Elliott
coast at the mouth of the river. When Lieutenant Broughton of the British Royal Navy in the Chatham sailed cautiously into the Columbia River
in the early afternoon of October 21 st, 1 792, he passed at anchor behind
Cape Disappointment a trading brig named the Jenny, one Captain Baker
in command (after whom Baker's Bay takes its name) and Broughton records that this, captain had been there earlier in the same year. The name of
Captain Baker does not appear on the list of names set down by Lewis and
Clark; by them this same bay was named Haley's Bay after a trader then
best known to the Chinook Indians. These brief recitals in authentic records have led some to an unanswered inquiry as to whether some itinerant
trader may not have actually sailed into the Columbia River in advance of
its discovery by Captain Robert Gray in May, 1 792. The diplomats of
Great Britain raised no such claim in connection with the dispute over the
Oregon boundary line, however.
Turning now to the sources of the Columbia, an interesting contrast
exists between the beginning of trade there with that on the upper Missouri River across the Rocky Mountain range. Manual Lisa is the name
prominently connected with the Missouri River at that period; immediately
following the return of the Lewis and Clark Expedition Lisa built a trading post on the Yellowstone River at the mouth of the Big Horn and began
to purchase furs for transport to St. Louis; that was during the summer of
1807. At the same time David Thompson, a partner of the Northwest
Company of Canada, was building an establishment at the head waters
of the Columbia, from which he transported furs to the Rainy Lakes, and
Fort William on Lake Superior. Manual Lisa had troubles with snags
and Indians along the Missouri and was resourceful to overcome them.
David Thompson experienced even greater difficulties in crossing the Rocky
Mountains and descending the long course of the Saskatchewan River to
Lake Winnipeg. David Thompson is one of the most remarkable figures
connected with the history of the Columbia River; the record of his career
written with his own hand is not only of great scientific value, but an inspiration to any earnest student of the history of this Pacific Northwest.
He has been described as the greatest land geographer the English race has
ever produced.
The Columbia River is estimated to be fourteen hundred miles in
length and Kettle Falls in the State of Washington about forty miles below the Canadian Boundary marks very closely the half way point on the
river. It may be said quite accurately then that one-half of the river is
in British Columbia and one-half in the United States, speaking of the
main river and not of its branches. The statesmen who decided the Oregon
boundary question did not have this equal division in mind, but nature has
furnished this suggestion of their fairness. Columbia Fur Trade Prior to  1811 5
As if to purposely render our history romantic the first trading post
upon any of the waters of the Columbia River, including its branches, was
built almost at the very source of the main river, near the outlet of the
chain of small lakes which resolve themselves into the river. Tobey
Creek, following eastward from the glaciers of Mt. Nelson of the Selkirk
Range, enters the Columbia River from the west about one mile below the
outlet of Lake Windermere in the political division of British Columbia
known as the East Kootenay District. Upon an open gravelly point overlooking Tobey Creek and "a long half mile" (quoting from David Thompson's original survey notes) from the Columbia stood the stockade and
buildings marking the beginning of commerce in the interior of "Old Oregon." The exact site of this House has recently become known by the
unearthing of the old chimneys of the buildings, as well as by Indian tradition. An earlier location on Canterbury Point, Lake Windermere, at
first selected was abandoned before any buildings were completed because
of exposure in procuring water for domestic uses. (Compare with Lyman's
History of the Columbia River, Putnam's & Sons, 1911, page 282.)
"Kootenae House" was the name given to this trading post, and it is not to
be confounded with the Fort Kootenay of a later date and different location. Nor are we to forget that on the waters of the Fraser River Basin
posts had been established in the year 1806 by Simon Fraser and his
partners.
In this romantic locality David Thompson spent the fall, winter and
spring of 1807-8 in company with his clerk, Finan McDonald, and six
servants. He put up his thermometer and set down the first record of the
weather in interior British Columbia. With other scientific instruments
he determined the latitude and longitude of the House and of the Lakes.
He bestowed the name upon Mt. Nelson (now locally known as Mt. Hammond), which looms up so grandly to the westward of Lake Windermere,
and determined its altitude. He found bands of wild horses roaming over
the hills and caught some of them; he observed and made record of the
habits of the salmon spawning in the river. He gathered in trade one hundred skins of the wild mountain goat which brought a guinea apiece in the
London market. He was besieged for some weeks by a band of Peegan
Indians who crossed the Rocky Mountains with instructions to kill him
because the prairie Indians did not wish to have the Kootenays supplied
with fire arms, powder and ball. In March, 1 808, Mr. James McMillan
visited him from Rocky Mountain House on the Saskatchewan with dog
teams and sleds, bringing more trading goods and carrying back as many
packs of furs. His trade was with the Kootenaes of the vicinity and from
as far south as Northwestern Montana of the United States. In April,
1808, he made an exploring trip down the Kootenay River  as  far as 6 T. C. Elliott
Kootenay Lake, and in June recrossed the Rocky Mountains with his furs
and carried them to Rainy Lake House before again returning to Kootenae House for another winter. The government of British Columbia could
well afford to permanendy mark the site of Kootenae House in honor
of this remarkable trader, astronomer and pathfinder.
At the beginning of the second winter at Kootenae House Mr. Thompson felt sufficiently acquainted with the country and the Indians to begin to
push the trade further to the south. The Kootenay River, taking its rise
in the main range of the Rocky Mountains, flows southward into the United
States in Montana and in its course passes jvithin a mile and a half of the
lake out of which as its real source the waters of the Columbia River flow
northward for two hundred miles before turning to the South. The divide
between Columbia Lake and the Kootenay River is not a ridge or a mountain, but a level flat of gravelly soil not at all heavily timbered, which affords a very easy portage for canoes. Across this portage in November,
1808, went Finan McDonald, Mr. Thompson's clerk, with a load of
trading goods, and descended the Kootenay River to a point on the north
bank just above Kootenay Falls and nearly opposite to the town of Libby,
which is the county seat of Lincoln County, Montana, and there set up two
leather lodges for himself and his men, and built a log house to protect
the goods and furs and spent the winter, being joined later by James
McMillan, already mentioned. Here during the winter of 1 808-9 were
carried on the first commercial transactions of white men south of the forty-
ninth parallel of north latitude and in that part of the Old Oregon Country which afterward became a part of the United States.
News travels rapidly among the Indians and later events indicate that
furs must have been brought to this winter camp from the Saleesh or Flathead country to the southeast and from the region of Pend d'Oreille lake
to the southwest. About three years later at a point a few miles further
up the Kootenay river but on the same side (nearly opposite Jennings,
Montana) the Northwest Company erected a more permanent trading post
known as Fort Kootenay, in opposition to which in 1812 the Pacific Fur
Company built another Fort near by. At Fort Kootenay took place the
bloodless duel between Nicholas Montour and Francis Pillet "with pocket
pistols at six paces; both hits; one in the collar of the coat, and the other
in the leg of the trousers. Two of their men acted as seconds, and the tailor
speedily healed their wounds." This is the story told by the facile pen
of Ross Cox.
The year 1 809 brought to the active notice of the Northwesters the
intention of John Jacob Astor to occupy the mouth of the Columbia River
and the records of the House of Commons in London show a petition from
the Northwest Company for a charter which would give them prior rights
L Columbia Fur Trade Prior to 1811
of trade upon Columbian waters. David' Thompson, however, was not
waiting for charters, but prepared to act according to the teachings of the
later David Harum, that is, "to do to the other fellow as he would do to
you and do it fust." He knew from the results of the winter trade at
Kootenay Falls that there were Indians of a friendly disposition living to
the south of the Kootenay and doubtless he also had already some knowledge of the route of the Lewis and Clark party on their return trip in 1806,
for the following year he had a copy of Patrick Gass' Journal with him
as he traveled. So after a trip across the Rocky Mountains to leave his
furs and obtain more trading goods he returned to the Columbia during the
summer of 1809 and from there descended the Kootenay River as far as
the present site of Bonners Ferry in Idaho, where his goods were transferred to pack animals and taken southward across the regular Indian
trail (the "Lake Indian Road" as he called it) to Pend d'Oreille lake.
And on the 10th of September, 1809, upon one of the points jutting out
into the lake near the town of Hope, Idaho,, he set up his leather lodge or
tent upon the site of the next trading post upon Columbian waters which
was called Kullysspell House. A substantial log house was at once built
for the protection i of the goods and furs and another for the officers and
men, and Mr. Finan McDonald placed in charge. Kullyspell House did
not remain in active use for more than two winters probably, other posts to
the eastward and westward being found sufficient to care for the trade, but
business was lively there during the season of 1809-10. Ross Cox, who
passed that way in the Fall of 1812, makes no mention of this Post, but
John Work when crossing the lake in 1825 mentions a camp at "the Old
Fort."    No trace of its site has been found in these later years.
No sooner had the buildings of Kullyspell House been well begun
than David Thompson set off again, to the southeastward up the Clark's
Fork of the Columbia River in the direction of the principal habitat of the
Saleesh Indians, a tribe more commonly but less properly known as the
Flatheads. He traveled about seventy-five miles up the river to a small
plain ever since known as Thompson's Prairie on a bench overlooking the
north bank of the Clark's Fork River located his next trading post called
Saleesh House. Three miles below is Thompson Falls and two miles
above is Thompson River, and to the State of Montana alone belongs the
distinction of preserving to history in its nomenclature a permanent reference, to this indefatigable and remarkable man. Thompson's Prairie appears to have been in olden times the refuge of the Saleesh Indians when
pursued by their enemies, the roving Peegans or Blackfeet. Just above the
prairie to the southeastward the hills again hug the river on either side and
there is a stretch of shell or sliding rock over which the Indian trail passed.
This place is locally known to the Indians as Bad Rock and across it 8
T. C. Elliott
the Peegans did not dare to pass; and Mr. Thompson carefully placed his
"House" on the safe side of Bad Rock. After acquiring fire arms the
Saleesh were on more of an equality with the Peegans and able to defend
themselves in battle, both when hunting the buffalo along the Missouri
River and in their own country. So in later years this trading post was
temporarily at least removed further up the river beyond Bad Rock. In
1824-25 it was located where the Northern Pacific railroad station named
Eddy now is, and later it was near Weekesville, a few miles further up the
river. About 1 847 Angus McDonald removed it to Post Creek, near the
St. Ignatius Mission in the beautiful Flathead Valley. Whenever located
it was the scene every winter of very lively and extensive trade, the Saleesh being of all the tribes of Indians the most moral and friendly in their
relations with the whites, not even the Nez Perces being excepted. Mis-
solua, Montana, today succeeds Saleesh House as the commercial center
of the Flathead country and as a city exceeds Astoria in both population
and bank deposits. David Thompson spent the winter of 1809-10 at this
trading post in company with his clerk, James McMillan, who arrived in
November by way of Kootenay River with additional trading goods.
Again in 1811-12 after his famous journey to the mouth of the Columbia
Mr. Thompson wintered here.
When in April, 1810, he started on his annual journey across the
Rocky Mountains, Mr. McMillan accompanying him, by the usual long
and wearisome series of canoe routes and portages Mr. Thompson expected
to be back again in the early Fall, and he left Finan McDonald in charge
of Saleesh House with instructions or permission to assist the Saleesh Indians in the use of their newly acquired firearms. Such an activity was
very much to the liking of that restless Highlander and he even accompanied the tribe on their annual buffalo hunt and took part in a successful
battle with the Peegans on the plains along the Missouri River. The Peegans were so angered by this that they at once made trouble on the Saskatchewan River further north and prevented Mr. Thompson's party from
returning over the usual mountain pass. He was compelled to seek a route
through the Athabasca Pass and as a result did not arrive at the Columbia
at all until the middle of January, 1811, and' was ice bound for the rest
of the winter at the mouth of Canoe River.
In April, 1810, when at Kullyspell House Mr. Thompson had also
engaged the services for the summer of one Jaco Finlay (whose full name
was Jacques Raphael Finlay), an intelligent half-breed who seems to have
been already living in the Saleesh country as a sort of free-hunter; and
the presumption is that he authorized Finlay to push the trade further West
into the Skeetshoo, which would be the Cceur d'Alene Country. At any
rate, when Mr. Thompson returned to the Saleesh country in June, 181 1, Columbia Fur Trade Prior to 181
he found no one there nor at Kullyspell House, but he did find both Jaco
Finlay and Finan McDonald residing and trading at a new post designated
as Spokane House. To Jaco Finlay then, possibly assisted by or assisting
Finan McDonald, probably belongs the honor of selecting the site and erecting the first buildings at SPOKANE HOUSE, located on a beautiful and
sheltered peninsula at the junction of the Spokane (then known as the
Skeetshoo River) and the Little Spokane Rivers, a spot where the In-
'dians were accustomed to gather in large numbers to dry their fish. The
location was nine or ten miles northwest of the present flourishing city of
Spokane, which has succeeded it as a natural trade center, and which
today outranks Astoria in both population and commercial importance.
Alexander Henry states in his journal that Spokane House was established
in the summer of 1 81 0. It was maintained as the principal distributing
point in the interior by the Northwest Company and later by the Hudson's
Bay Company until the Spring of 1826, but was then abandoned in favor
of a new post at Kettle Falls (Fort Colvile) on the direct route of travel
up and down the Columbia. The cellar holes of the buildings at Spokane
House can still be indistinctly seen by those who know where to look for
them. In 1812 a very short distance from these buildings the Pacific Fur
Company built a rival establishment, which was maintained until the dissolution of that Company in the fall of 1813.-
There remain to be mentioned three other valid attempts to establish trade relations in the basin of the Columbia, the first of which may
have antedated the building of Spokane House by a brief period. This
was the enterprise of the Winships of Boston, who sailed into the river in
the spring of 1810 and began to erect some buildings on the Oregon shore
at Oak Point about fifty miles from the sea. This attempt was abandoned
almost immediately because of the sudden rise of the river with the melting
of the snows inland; it was a matter of weeks only and possibly of days.
The second was the temporary residence of Andrew Henry of the Missouri
Fur Company during the winter months of 1810-1 1 on the upper waters
of the Snake River near the present town of St. Anthony, Idaho. (Compare with Lyman's History of the Columbia River, p. 109.) The overland
party of Astorians found his abandoned cabins upon their arrival in the
early Fall of 181 1, and it was many years afterward before Fort Hall
was built as a trading post in that general locality. The third was the
only attempt of the Hudson's Bay Company to compete with their rivals,
the Northwest Company, for the Indian trade West of the Rocky Mountains. Alexander Henry makes mention in his journal of the starting off
of this expedition from Rocky Mountain House on the Saskatchewan in
the summer of 1810 under the charge of Joseph Howse, and states that
James McMillan was sent to follow and keep watch of them.     David 10
T. C. Elliott
Thompson when near the source of the Columbia in May, 181 1, on his
way from Canoe River to the Saleesh country and beyond met an Indian
who told him that this Hudson's Bay Company party was already returning and was then at Flathead Lake. It is not positive where this
party spent the winter, but in his "Fur Hunters of the Far West" (Vol. 2,
p. 9) Alexander Ross places them on Jocko Creek in Missoula County,
Montana, near where the town of Ravalli is now situated; while an early
edition of the Arrowsmith map of British North America (which maps
were dedicated to the Hudson's Bay Company and purported to contain the
latest information furnished by that Company) shows their trading post
at the head of Flathead Lake very near to where the city of Kalispell,
Montana, now is.
The editor of a prominent newspaper in Montana upon reading of the
establishment of Saleesh House by David Thompson in the year 1809
wrote that they were beginning to feel quite antiquated in Western Montana. Trade in the Kootenay District of British Columbia antedated the
building of Astoria by three and a half years, and that in the Flathead
country of Montana by one and a half years, and that at Spokane, Washington, by at least six months. The cities that have become the commercial centers of these interior districts have not been built upon the exact
sites of the early trading posts unless that may be said as to Spokane,
Washington, but all have been built along the same established Indian
trails or roads, and these have become the transcontinental railroads of
today.
Search for the existing records of these early enterprises and for
physical remains of the early trading posts may be likened to the search for
gold by the miners in the Inland Empire during the early sixties. The
Old Oregon Country is as rich in history as in the precious metals; the
search for the one adds to our culture and that for the other only to our
material wealth. T. C. ELLIOTT. THE PIONEER DEAD OF 1914
The obituaries following are those of pioneers whose deaths have
come to the notice of the biographer. The information given is chiefly
obtained from the newspapers of the day. For the purposes of this article
those only are considered pioneers who had lived upon the Pacific Coast
before 1860, and were residents of the State of Washington.
Shephard, Mrs. A. F.—Born in Racine County, Wisconsin, Aug.
27, 1848; died in Seattle, Jan. 2d, 1914. She came to Oregon in 1850,
and to Washington in 1860. She lived in Snohomish and Chehalis Counties, but in 1894 settled in King. In 1873 she became the wife of Charles
Shephard.
Kees, Samuel M.—Died at Walla Walla Jan. 23d, aged 78 years.
He came by ox team to Oregon in 1848, settling at Lebanon. In 1861
he removed to Walla Walla, where he was a cattle farmer. A widow
and two children survive him.
Cooper, W. B.—Died at Centralia, Jan. 23d, aged 71 years. He
had lived in Southwestern Washington since 1852. Five sisters survive
him.
Brannan, Sarah—Born at Mount Pleasant, Iowa, Nov. 24, 1841 ;
died at Okanogan, Jan. 27th. She was the daughter of Capt. B. F.
Henness, a Thurston County pioneer of 1852. During the Indian war
of 1855-56 Henness was Captain of a Company of Volunteers, and a fort
at or near Tenino was named after him, in which his family and others
lived for protection against the savages. Henness was one of the first
grist millers of Washington. Sarah married Joseph Brannan in 1857, and
thereafter for most of the years dwelt in White River Valley, King County. Joseph Brannan was a brother of W. H. Brannan, who, with his
wife and child, were killed by the Indians near the town of Auburn, Oct.
28th, 1855.
Gillespie, James.—Born June 28th, 1853, at Winnebago, Wisconsin; died Feb. 9th at Coupeville. He came to Portland, Oregon, in
1858, and to Whidby Island, Washington, in 1859. He married Ke-
turah, daughter of Capt. Thomas Coupe, after whom the town of Coupeville was named.    She and three sons survive.
Mustard, John—Born in Lee County, Virginia, Sept. 30, 1835;
died at Dayton Feb.   13th.    He came to Golo County, Cal., in  1854,
(ID 12
Thomas  W. Prosch
and to Columbia County, W. T., in 1866.    He was a farmer.    In 1880
he was sheriff.   A widow and six children were left.
Hemenway, Stacey—Born in Laporte County, Indiana, in 1836;
died on the Klamath Indian Reservation, Oregon, Feb. 19th. Came
to Oregon in 185 3; served in the army during the civil war, as Surgeon of
the Ninth Illinois Regiment. After the war he came to Washington
Territory, and was the first Superintendent of the Territorial Insane Asylum. For twenty-five years he was in the Indian service on the Klamath
Reservation.
Doughtery, Julia—Born in Ireland in 1826; died in Seatde Feb.
23d. She came to California in 1849; to Oregon in 1863, and to
Washington in 1873.
Ostrander, John Y.—Born in Cowlitz County, W. T., April 26,
1857; died at Olympia March 1st. He was member of one of the best
known pioneer families, after whom the town of Ostrander, in Cowlitz
County, was named. He studied law under William Strong, one of Oregon's first judges. He held several offices in Olympia, Seattle, and Juneau. Eleven years he lived in Alaska. His wife was Fanny S. Crosby,
they being married in 1880.    He had seven sisters, who survived him.
Peterson, Clara D.—Born at Steilacoom, July 13th, 1856; died at
Tacoma March 5 th. She was one of the three daughters of Capt. Warren
Gove, who, coming from Boston, made his home in Pierce County in
1853. She married Capt. John T. Cormick in 1876, who died in 1882;
her second husband being Charles E. Peterson, married in 1886. Mrs.
Peterson belonged to several different societies, but was greately attached
to the Pierce County Pioneers, of which she was one of the organizers and
treasurer to the time of her death. A husband, son and daughter and two
sisters survive her.
Sanderson, John H.—Born in Boston, June 27, 1832; died in Seattle March 22d. He came to California in 1 850, and to Washington
in 1869. He was a merchant in Seatde for many years. He and his
wife were largely instrumental in the organization of the Plymouth Congregational Church. She was also one of the Organizing members of the
Ladies' Relief Society. Both belonged to the Pioneers. The wife and
daughter were left.
Waddeli, Susan S.—Born in Lawrence County, Illinois, Aug. 6th,
1835; died in Seatde March 7th. She belonged to the Lewis family,
which came to Clark County in 1852, and to Thurston County the yew
after.     She left six children and  a number of grandchildren. Pioneer Dead of 1914
13
Sweazea, James William—Died in Seattle March 31st, aged 66
years. He came from Missouri in 1 859. He lived thirty years in Walla
Walla before  1 890.    Three sons and a daughter were left.
Sanborn, Homer D.—Born in Merrimac County, N. H., in 1833;
died at Tacoma, April 7th. He came to Oregon in 1857, and for most
of the years since lived in Portland.
Hopkins, Lucy S.—Born in Illinois in 1 833; died in Seattle April
1 1 th. She was daughter of Edward D. Baker, one of the great men of
the nation during his time—orator, statesman, soldier and citizen. She
came to California in 1850, and was married in 1854 to Capt. Charles
Hopkins. Thereafter they lived in Vancouver, Olympia and Seattle.
Capt. Hopkins was U. S. marshal in Washington Territory, and his son,
Charles, held the same office in Washington State. Three sons and a
daughter were left by Mrs.  Hopkins.
Bolton, Mary—Born in England in 1 833; died at Tacoma April
18th. With her husband, William Bolton, she came to Puget Sound in
1850, on the ship Norman Morrison. They took a 640-acre donation
claim on the Sound between Steilacoom and Tacoma. He was the first
shipbuilder in this state, three schooners of 60 tons each being turned
out of his yard during his first three years there. His death preceded that
of his wife several years.
Pontius, Albert—Born in King County in 1859; died at Seattle
May 3d. He was a son of Resin W. and Margaret Pontius. His father,
a brother and a sister survive.
Wood, Mrs. Solomon—Born in Polk County, Oregon, Sept. 12th,
1846; died at Walla Walla May 15th. She was the daughter of John
Waymire. All her 68 years of life were spent in Oregon and Washington.
To her husband, a stock farmer, she was married in 1862.
Jacobs, Orange—Born at Genesee, N. Y., May 2d, 1827; died at
Seattle May 21 st. He came to Oregon in 1852, and remained there
until 1869, in Marion and Jackson Counties. He taught school, practiced law, edited a newspaper and did other things in pursuit of a livelihood. Though in the political minority—a Republican—he was prominent in the public affairs of that territory and state. He was appointed
by President Grant associate justice of the Supreme Court in Washington
Territory and still later chief and reappointed the latter. He served as
judge six years, when he was elected Delegate to Congress and reelected,
serving four years ending in 1879. Shortly after his return to the territory he was elected mayor of Seattle, and when the city became much
greater he served the people as corporation counsel.    Some years later— 14
Thomas   W.  Prosch
1897 to 1901—he was judge of the Superior Court of King County.
,He was a territorial legislator. Between times he practiced law. Twice
he was president of the Washington Pioneers. He was also a regent of
the University. A willing, helpful man, a good talker, a writer of ability,
genial and sympathetic, he was popular, respected and honored by all. A
wife and seven children were left.
Furth, Jacob—Born in Bohemia, Austria, Nov. 13th, 1840; died
at Seattle June 2d. He came to America in 1 854. In 1 858 he was in
California, where he lived twenty-five years, first at Nevada City, then at
North San Juan and last at Colusa. He was a merchant, and by industry, foresight, saving and care he prospered, accumulated and became
well-to-do. In 1 883 he removed to Seattle, and started the Puget Sound
National Bank, he being cashier. Under his politic and skilful management, the bank extended, its capital being repeatedly increased. Later he
was president, but still the head man. When the Puget Sound was
merged in the Seattle National he went with it, the largest and most influential stockholder. Mr. Furth joined the Chamber of Commerce soon
after coming here, was a trustee twenty-four consecutive years, and once
president. He was identified with many business enterprises, the leading
one being the electric companies that owned the railways in Bellingham,
Everett, Tacoma, Seattle, the two interurbans, light and power plants, heating plant, Renton coal mine, etc., one of the largest establishments of its
kind in the world, he being its president. These things being true, he was
necessarily a citizen of great wealth, usefulness and fame. He was tolerant of others, in religion, politics and business; was shrewd, courteous and
deservedly popular.    A widow and three daughters survive him.
Landers, L. O.—Died at Lisabeula, King County, June 6th, 86
years of age. He came to California in 1 851, and a few years later to
Oregon and Washington. In 1 880 he settled on Vashon Island, where
he spent the remainder of his days.
Longmire, Ellen—Born in Oregon in 1856; died at Tacoma June
6th. She was a member of the Thornton family of Thurston County. Her
husband, John A., was of the pioneer Longmire family of the same county.
Eleven children were born to them, ten of whom are now living.
Slater, John F.—Born in Maryland; died in Seattle June 25th, aged
73 years.    He came to California in 1850, and to Washinton in 1903.
Littlejohn, James K.—Died in Seattle June 28th, aged 65 years.
He crossed the continent with the family in 1852, they settling at Olympia, and being well known in the district of country thereabout.    Three Pioneer Dead of 1914
15
brothers and three sisters survive him, residents of Tacoma, Olympia, Grand
Mound and Centralia.
Barlow, Byron—Born at Plymouth, Michigan, in 1 838; died at Tacoma July 5th. He came to Cowlitz County, Washington, in 1853. In
1862 he went into the gold mining country of Idaho and adjacent parts.
As a lieutenant he was engaged.in the Indian troubles of 1865-66. In
1870 he was member of the Territorial Legislature, and in 1890 of the
State Legislature. He held various other public offices, and also was
identified with a number of commercial enterprises, the chief one being, the
building of the first graving dock in the Puget Sound Navy Yard, by Byron Barlow & Co.
Peterson, Margaret Chambers—Born at Steilacoom June 29th, 1856;
died at Seattle July 20th. She was the daughter of Judge Thomas M.
Chambers, who crossed the plains to Oregon in 1 845, and who soon after
settled upon a land claim in what is now Pierce County. Margaret married Oliff Peterson, and was the mother of three sons. She belonged to
six different societies, in all of which she took interested, active parts. She
was secretary of the Pierce County Pioneer Association from its beginning
in 1903 to the end of her life.
Richards, Mary Elizabeth—Died in Portland, Oregon, June 26th,
aged 64 years. With her parents she came to Oregon and Washington
in 1 852.. Her father, Thompson B. Speake, was a chairmaker, the first
in this country. He made chairs to stay, and they have stayed in thoroughly
good condition for fifty and sixty years. They lived in Chehalis and
Thurston Counties. Mary was postmistress at Fulton, Oregon, for twenty
years, prior to which she had been postmistress at Tualatin.
Webb, Amanda, Jane—Born May 7, 1873, at Frankfort, 111.;
died at Tacoma Aug. 7th. In 1853 she came to California and in 1862
to Washington, her father being John T. Knox, Indian agent at Skokomish.
She married Thomas Webb in 1866, and they lived on Hood's Canal
until 1908, when they removed to Tacoma.    He died in  1910.
Sargent, Elijah Nelson—Born in Indiana Dec. 8th, 1827; died at
his home near Rochester, Thurston County, Aug. 24th. He came to California in 1 849, and in 1850 to Washington, taking a donation land claim
at Grand Mound, where he had his home for sixty-four years. He was a
member of the unfortunate gold mining expedition to Queen Charlotte
Islands in 1 852, their schooner being wrecked and the white men all held
by the Indians for ransom. The Sargent family was a noted one, the
father, three sons and two daughters—E. N. Sargent, Francis Marion,
Wilson, Mrs. Matilda Saylor and Mrs. Rebecca Kellett.
MM 16
Thomas  W. Prosch
Monohon, Martin—Born in Madison County, Ohio, Oct. 26th,
1820; died at Seattle Sept. 8th, aged 94 years. He moved on to
Indiana in 1821, to Iowa in 1844, to Oregon in 1853, and to Washington in 1871. He never went to school, but learned to read and write
after attaining maturity. He was a talker, and strong of mind and will.
In 1861 he was elected to the Oregon Legislature. He was twice married, in 1 841 and 1851, and he had two daughters and three sons.
Maddocks, Henry C.—Born in Herman, Maine, in 1 830; died at
Seattle Sept. 1 3th. He came to San Francisco in 1851, and to Washington in 1880.    He was a contractor and builder.
Davids, Thomas J.—Born in New York Aug. 30, 1 834; died near
Oregon City, Sept. 26th. He came to Washington in 1850, and lived in
the southwestern part of the state almost sixty years.
Vanderpool, James—Born in Missouri in 1835; died in Linn County, Oregon, Sept. 27th. He was an Oregon immigrant of 1846. While
he lived most of the years in Oregon, he had dwelt parts of the time at
Port Townsend and Walla Walla.
Taylor, Harriet E.—Born in Massachusetts in 1833; died at Seattle Oct. 1 1 th. She and her husband, William H. Taylor, came to California in 1859, and to Washington in 1861. They lived at Port Town-
send, Freeport, Kalama, Olympia and Seattle during the remainder of
their lives. He was in the customs service, the lumber and coal trades,
railroad and steamboat traffic and insurance business. She was of kind
disposition, helpful to her friends and neighbors in the church, in society
and in private life. Being a widow and without children, Mrs. Taylor
left a considerable estate to helpless children, needy friends and other
worthy individuals.
Parker, Isaac—Born at Waltham, Massachusetts, March 4, 1829;
died in Seattle Oct. 13th. He came to California in 1851, and to
Washington in 1853. His first occupation was as a machinist in putting
up a sawmill at Appletree Cove for San Francisco capitalists. It was
no more than completed before it was found to be in the wrong place. It
was taken down and again set up at Port Madison, where it passed into
the ownership of George A. Meigs. Parker went with it, and stayed by
it a long term of years. He knew Chief Seattle quite well, their places
being so close that the chief's home was then known as the Port Madison
reservation. Mr. Parker invested his spare money in Seattle, where he
later made his home, at one time was city treasurer, erected two brick
buildings, and otherwise did what he could. A wife and two sons were
left. Pioneer Dead of 1914
17
Jamieson, Winfield Scott—Born in Maine August 5th, 1833; died
$t Port Gamble Oct. 29th. He came to California in 1854, and on to
Washington the same year. He entered the Puget Sound lumber business, and at that was chiefly occupied the remainder of his days. For a
couple of years he was in the British Columbia gold mines. He left a
wife, two sons and two daughters.
Karr, James A.—Born in Indiana in 1834; died at North Yakima
Nov. 5th. He came to California in 1855, and to Washington in 1858.
In 1862 he settled on Gray's Harbor before any town was there begun,
and there he remained forty-two years, when he and his family removed
to Yakima. His wife was the daughter of Ekanah Walker, one of the
missionaries at Spokane in 1 838, where she was born. Mrs. Karr is said
to be the oldest native born white person living in the State. Their
daughter, Mrs. Ruth Karr McKee, is now President of the State Federation of Women's Clubs. Besides his wife, Mr. Karr left five daughters
and three sons.
Harris, George W.—Born in Lowell, Massachusetts, in 1 848; died
in Seattle Nov. 6th, aged 67 years. His father died when he and his
younger brother were small boys. The mother came to Seattle in 1859,
where she soon after married Charles Plummer, he being a prominent
citizen dating back to 1853, a merchant, wharf owner, town builder and
public-spirited man.. The boy, George, went to the town schools, including the first in connection with the University. His stepfather at one time
took him into partnership in the store. Mr. Harris served the Port Ludlow
Mill Company as bookkeeper for ten years. Upon his return to Seattle he
became agent for Wells, Fargo & Co., and at the same time entered the
banking business as George W. Harris & Co. In 1883 he and others
organized and started the First National Bank. With John Leary he
owned the Post, one of the two newspapers of the town. It was consolidated with the Intelligencer, the result being the Post-Intelligencer, of
which for two years he was a one-quarter owner. He was a quiet, unobtrusive, retiring man and in his later years was not much seen or known.
A wife and two daughters survive him.
Winchester, Frances E.—Died in Seattle Nov. 20th. He came to
California in 1852, and ten years later to Walla Walla, Washington
Territory, where he is said to have opened the first photograph gallery. His
surviving descendants were two sons.
Rhoades, Mrs. F. M.—Died at Santa Cruz, California, Nov. 25th.
With her parents, named Mounts, she came to Washington Territory nearly
sixty years ago.     Mr. Rhoades was Indian agent at Chehalis, and also 18
Thomas W. Prosch
Territorial legislator.    They were farmers in Thurston County.    She was
77 years of age.
Rowland, Susan.—pied at Roy Dec. 3d, aged 95 years. She was
born in Canada, and was married to William Rowland. She came to
Oregon in 185 3, and later to Washington.
Thompson, Edward H.—Born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, in 1827,
died at Fall City, King County, Dec. 2d, aged 87 years. In 1848 he
came to the Pacific Coast. After a long residence in Washington Territory he went to Illinois, lived for a number of years, married, and in 1882
returned to Washington.    Two daughters survive him.
Burr, Martha R.—Born at Wiscasset, Maine, March 29th, 1840,
died at Seattle Dec. 8th, aged 75 years. In 1850 she came to the
Columbia river by ship, where her father, Capt. Nathaniel Crosby, was
engaged in trade in partnership with his brother, Capt. Clawick Crosby,
in 1851 Martha married Capt. Samuel C. Woodruff, and for several
years lived at Hongkong. He died, and she and her two children came
to Olympia, where in 1865 she married Andrew J. Burr. He died in
1-890. The last seventeen years she made her home in Seattle. She left
five children.
Guild, Emily M.—Born in Washington County, Oregon, in 1854,
died at Woodland, Clark County, Dec. 1 1 th. Her maiden name was
Larue. In 1871 she married Berick C. Guild, and in 1882 they removed to Woodland, where they lived the thirty-two following years. A
mother, a sister, three brothers, a husband, five children and numerous
grand children and other relatives were left.
Martin, Harvey A.—Born in Danville, Illinois, Dec. 18th, 1840,
died in Kelso Dec. 8th, aged 74 years. He came to the Territory when
a boy. In 1856 he joined Capt. Hamilton J. G. Maxon's Company of
Mounted Volunteers. At Vancouver to fight the Indians, serving from
Feb. 1 3th until the company was disbanded in April, though at the time
he was but 1 5 years of age.
Page, Thomas Percival.—Born in Galway County, Ireland, in
1832, died at Kent Dec. 1 1 th, aged 82 years. He came to Washington
Territory in 1853, and during most of the years since he was a resident
of Walla Walla, where he served the people as Commissioner, Auditor,
Postmaster and Legislator. In 1877 he raised a company of volunteers
to fight the Indians in the Bannock- war. A widow and six children
survive him.
Bernier, Peter.—Born in Lewis County, Washington, in 1 848, died
at his home in the same county, Dec. 18th.    He was a relative of Marcel Pioneer Dead of 1914
19
Isadore Bernier, who was born at Spokane Nov. 10th, 1819, and who
died in Lewis County Dec. 27th, 1889—the first white child born in
either Oregon, Washington or Idaho. The Bernier family were among the
first white people to come here to live, being connected with the fur traders
of a century ago. In 1830 the family went back to Eastern Canada, but
in 1841 returned and located on Newaukum Prairie about half way
between Puget Sound and Columbia river, where has ever since been the
family home.
Hathaway, Elizabeth Electa.—Born in Ohio May 7, 1827, died
at Vancouver Dec. 20th, aged 87 years. She and J. S. Hathaway were
married in 1846, and came to Washington in 1852, spending the remainder of their lives at Vancouver.
Sackman, Elizabeth Ware.—Born in Philadelphia Feb. 28th, 1834,
died at Seattle Dec. 21 st, aged 81 years. Her father, named Sylvia, died
when she was small, and her mother, Sarah M., subsequently married Capt.
William Renton. In 1847 he took his family to Ireland, his ship 'being
loaded with foods for the famine stricken people there given by the
charitable men and women of the United States. In 1849 he sailed for
California, again accompanied by the family. He had the machinery
of a saw mill in his vessel, which he brought to Puget Sound in 1853, and
left in working motion at Alki Point. In 1854 he moved it to Port
Orchard, where after some years he sold it to Colman & Glidden, and put
up a new mill at Port Blakeley. The family came to Puget Sound in
1858. Here the daughter, Elizabeth W., spent most of her remaining
days, being twice married—to Joseph W. Phillips and Daniel J. Sackman.
In 1 889, then a widow, she removed to Seattle, and interested herself in
the religious, charitable, fraternal and social life of the city. She left
two children, seven grand children and other relatives.
Slocum, Laura.—Born Jan 1 st, 1838, died at Long Beach, California, Dec. 24th, aged 76 years. With her parents, Mr. and Mrs.
Reuben Riggs, she came from Iowa in 1852. The following nine years
they lived at Washougal. In 1861 she moved to Vancouver, which was
her home the following fifty-three years. Her husband was Charles W.
Slocum, deceased.
Morris, Moses.—iBorn in 1829, died in Seattle Dec. 24th, aged 85
years. He came to California in 1851, and to Washington Territory in
1854. He lived forty-four years at Tolt. The last year he was with his
daughter in Seattle.    He was buried at Snohomish.
Thompson, Susannah.—Born in 1840, died at Fern Hill, Pierce
County, Dec. 27th, aged 74 years.    She was the daughter of William 20
Thomas  W. Prosch
M. Kincaid, pioneers of 1853. She married Levant Frederick Thompson,
a leading citizen during his long life in that county, where he built the
Segwaletchew Sawmill sixty years ago, was a general farmer and extensive hop grower, a member of the first Legislature of Washington Territory, in 1854, and also member of the first Legislature of the State of
Washington, in 1889-1890. Mrs. Thompson lived sixty-one years in
Pierce County.   She was the mother of four children.
Thomas W. Prosch. PIONEER   AND   HISTORICAL   SOCIETIES   OF   THE   STATE   OF
WASHINGTON
In the State of Washington there are a number of organizations devoted to the interests of history. The Washington Historical Quarterly
desires to be as helpful as possible to all of these organizations. In the
spirit of helpfulness it has been decided to run in the first number of each
year a survey of the work being done by the various societies together with
compiled lists of the officers and their addresses. Such a list would prove
helpful to those seeking information of historical material in the several
localities, and it is hoped that the regular publication of the list, together with information regarding the activities of the organizations will
prove helpful to the socities themselves. The information gathered for
this first compilation may be at fault on account of the difficulty in reaping
over so large a field, but it is hoped that if any of the information is found
to be faulty that the attention of the Quarterly will be called to the same.
The following is a list of the societies about which the Quarterly has
been able to get knowledge:
The Pioneer Association of the State of Washington: Founded October 23, 1883, at Olympia. The
headquarters are at Seatde. The officers for 1914 were Samuel L.
Crawford, president; Edgar Bryan, secretary; W. M. Calhoun, treasurer. This society is the most noted pioneer association in the State.
The original membership requirements were residence in the Territory
prior to 1862; later they were changed to residence prior to 1870; at
present a person to become a member must have lived in the Territory
forty years prior to date of application for membership. All told, the
Association has had a membership of over 1200; the present list totals
over 800.
Washington State Historical Society: This society
was founded October 8, 1891. Headquarters of the society are at
Tacoma. The officers for 1914 were Henry Hewitt, Jr., president; W. L.
Gilstrap, secretary; W. P. Bonney, acting secretary since the death of
Mr. Gilstrap; W. H. Dickson, treasurer. The object of the society is
"to collect, formulate and preserve in permanent form, the traditional
record and object history of Washington." For two years the society
published the Washington Historical Magazine. Any citizen of the
State may become a member.
Washington    University    State    Historical    Society:
(21)
1MMM 22
Victor J.  Farrar
Founded at Seatde, January 1, 1903. The headquarters
are at the State University, Seattle. The officers for 1914 were Clarence
B. Bagley, president; Edmond S. Meany, secretary; Roger S. Greene,
treasurer. Since October, 1906, the society has published the Washington Historical Quarterly.    Any person may become a member.
Native Daughters of Washington: The headquarters
of this society are at Seatde. The officers for 1914 were Nellie
Russell, president; Julia N. Harris, vice-president; other officers not known.
Any native daughter over sixteen may become a member.
Daughters of Washington Pioneers: The headquarters are
in Seattle but the officers were not ascertained.
Native Sons of Washington: This is a State organization but the number of camps are unknown to the Quarterly at present.
-Alki Camp, No. 2, located at Seattle have the following officers: Arthur
R. Griffin, captain; T. C. Naylor, financial secretary and treasurer; F.
L. Conners, historian.
Women's Pioneer Auxiliary of the State of Washing-
tons: The headquarters of this society are at Seattle. The
officers for 1914 were Mrs. J. W. Denny, president; Mrs. H. O. Hollen-
beck, secretary; Mrs. D. T. Davies, treasurer. The society hold four
meetings a year. Membership is restricted to women who have resided
in the State prior to 1889, or the year of statehood.
Adams County :   See Lincoln County.
BENTON COUNTY: Old Settlers' Union—The headquarters of this
society are at Prosser. The officers for 1914 were: G. W. Wilgus, president; A. G. McNeill, vice-president; M. Henry, secretary. The society
has an annual meeting. Membership requirements are twenty years residence
in the County.
Chehalis County: Pioneer Association of Chehalis County.—
The headquarters of the association are at Aberdeen. The Quarterly was
unable to get the full quota of officers; J. E. Calder is secretary. The
association collects and preserves local historical documents. Membership
is restricted to those having residence in the county prior to January 1,
1885.
Aberdeen Pioneer Association.—The headquarters are at Aberdeen.
The officers for 1914 were: Mrs. Ross Pickney, president; J. B.
Haynes, vice-president; Mrs. William Irvine, secretary; Mrs. J. G. Lewis,
treasurer; Reverend Charles McDermoth, historian. There are three
meetings of the association, the annual meeting occuring in January.    Local History Organizations in Washington
23
historical documents are collected and deposited with the historian. Membership requirements are residence in Aberdeen prior to the date of the
incorporation of Aberdeen, March 20, 1888.
King County: Seattle History Society.—The headquarters are
in Seatde. The officers for 1914 were: Mrs. Morgan J. Carkeek, president; Mrs. William Pitt Trimble, vice-president; Mrs. Redick H. McKee,
secretary; Mrs. W. F. Prosser, treasurer; Mrs. Thomas W. Prosch, historian.
KlTSAP County: Kitsap County Pioneers' Association.—Organized at the Kitsap County Fair, October 10, 1914. Headquarters are
at Charleston. The officers for 1914 were: W. B. Seymore, president;
Lillie L. Crawford, secretary; G. E. Miller, treasurer. The Associa-
ttion has an annual meeting. Membership is restricted to those having, a
residence in the county prior to 1893.
Lincoln ; Lincoln and Adams County Pioneer and Historical Association.—The headquarters are at Davenport and the annual fair and
meeting is held on the Association's splendid grounds on Crab Creek. | The
officers for 1914 were: W. H. Vent, president; C. E. Ivy, secretary-
treasurer ; C. W. Bethel, historian. The annual three days' meeting begins
with the third Tuesday in June.
Okanogan County:    Okanogan County Pioneers' Association.—
■ The Quarterly was unable to get in touch with this Association although it
was known from various sources that the society has been in existence for
several years.
PlERCE COUNTY: Pierce County Pioneers' Association.—Headquarters are in Tacoma. The officers for 1914 were: Charles Boatman, president; W. O. Peterson, secretary; Mrs. Addie Hill, treasurer.
Meetings are held in January, April, July and October. The society has
erected monuments on historic sites. Local historical documents are deposited in the State Historical Building. Membership is restricted to those
who have resided on the Pacific Coast prior to 1870.
Snohomish County: Stillaguamish Association of Washington
Pioneers.—The headquarters are at Arlington. The officers of 1914
were: W. F. Oliver president; M. M. McCaulley, secretary. The annual meeting occurs in August.
Spokane County: Spokane County Pioneer Society.—The
headquarters are at Spokane. The officers for 1914 were Billy Seehorn,
president; R. A. Hutchinson, vice-president; Mary C. Mackey, secretary;
Dr.  E.  Pittwood, treasurer.     There are four meetings a year including 24
Victor J.  Farrar
the annual outing.     Membership is open to those who have resided in
Spokane County on or before November 29, 1884.
STEVENS County: Stevens County Pioneer Association.—The
headquarters are at Colville. The officers for 1914 were B. F. Goodman, president; John B. Slater, secretary; W. L. Sax, treasurer. The annual meeting is on June 30, of each year. Membership restricted to residents of the State prior to June, 1895.
Thurston County: Pioneer and Historical Society of Thurston
County.—The headquarters are at Olympia. The officers for 1914 were
Michel Harris, president; George-N. Talcot, 1st vice-president; Fred W.
Stocking, 2d vice-president; Allen Weir, secretary and curator; Mrs. G.
M. Blankenship, treasurer. There is an annual gathering at Priest's Point,
Olympia, in summer; also a meeting in March. The society gathers local
historical documents which are preserved with the curator. Membership
is restricted to those having been residents of the county prior to  1870.
Old Setders Association.—'Headquarters are at Rochester. The officers for 1914 were Mrs. R. M. Van Eaton, Mrs. Nels Sargeant, J. R.
James.
WALLA WALLA COUNTY: Inland Empire Pioneer Association.—
The headquarters are at Walla Walla. The officers for 1914 were Ben
Burgunder, president; Martin Evans, secretary; Levi Ankeny, treasurer;
W. D. Lyman, historian. The society has an annual meeting. Membership qualifications: residence in the Inland Empire or on Pacific Coast
prior to 1885.
WHATCOM COUNTY: Old Settlers' Association of Whatcom
County.—The postoffice address of this society is at Bellingham; the headquarters are located at Pioneer Park, Ferndale. The officers for 1914
were J. B. Wilson, president; T. B. Wynn, vice-president; Fred E.
Prouty, secretary; H. E. Campbell, treasurer. The annual gathering,
election of officers, etc., is in August at the headquarters at Pioneer Park,
Ferndale. Membership is granted to those who have resided in Whatcom
County for ten years.
WHITMAN COUNTY: Whiaman County Pioneers' Association.—
The headquarters are at Rosalia. The officers for 1914 were M. H.
West, president; M. W. Merritt, vice-president; B. F. Manring, secretary. The annual meeting is in June. Membership confined to those
residing in the State prior to October, 1882.
YAKIMA COUNTY: Yakima Pioneers' Association.—The headquarters are at North Yakima.    The officers for 1914 were Ella S. Hagel, History Organizations in  Washington
25
president; James A. Beck, vice-president; Mrs. Zona H. Cameron, treasurer; John H. Lynch, secretary. The regular meeting is held on the
second Saturday of December. Steps are being taken to preserve local
historical documents. Membership is restricted to all citizens of white or
Indian blood who were residents of the original county of Yakima, prior
to November 9,  1889, and their descendents.
Yakima Columbian Association.—This society has for its principal
object the preservation of the old St. Joseph's mission in Yakima County.
Victor J. Farrar. THE JOURNAL OF JOHN WORK; JULY 5-SEPTEMBER 15, 1826
(Introduction and annotations by T. C. Elliott.)
This is a chronological resumption of the journal published in the
last number of this Quarterly and which stopped abruptly just before Mr.
Work arrived at Fort Vancouver on the 12th of June, 1826. The
"brigade" now returns up the Columbia and the initial entry in the journal tells us very clearly what the word "brigade" as used by the fur traders actually meant. The various chief factors, chief traders and clerks
have spent a very enjoyable three weeks together at the original Fort Vancouver, situated on the higher land northeast of the later stockade and
buildings which were known to the pioneers of Oregon. This second
Fort was built in 1828.
It is rather an interesting company of which Mr. Work becomes
the chronicler. William Connolly is bound for Fort St. James on Lake
Stuart in the northern interior of what is now British Columbia, but was
then called New Caledonia; he is already a chief factor and is in charge of
that District. It was over the rich estate left by Mr. Connolly after his
death that a certain famous contest took place in the courts of Montreal
or Quebec which established finally the legal status of the common law
marriage of the fur traders with native Indians when residing in the
Indian Country. James Douglas, clerk, who married a daughter of William Connolly and afterward became a chief factor at this same Fort Vancouver and still later the governor of Vancouver Island, was also en route
for Fort St. James. Archibald MacDonald, clerk, had probably been
upon a brief visit to his son Ronald, then a little more than two years of
age and in the care of the grandfather, Chief Comcomly of the Chinook
tribe residing opposite to Astoria or Fort George, and was returning to
either Kamloops or Alexandria. Mr. F. Annance, another clerk, was also
bound for one of the New Calendonia posts. Doctor McLoughlin and
Thos. McKay were sending their children across the Rocky Mountains to
be educated. Finan MacDonald's Kootenay or Spokane wife was starting
to meet her husband further up the river and with him to cross the Rocky
Mountains for permanent residence.
The route followed by Mr. Work takes him over practically the
same line of travel he covered in the previous year and described by him
in the Journal published in Vol. V. of this Quarterly, except that his
destination was the newly occupied trading post above Kettle Falls named
(26) Journal of John Work
27
Fort Colvile. The route includes The Dalles, Old Fort Walla Walla,
the site of Lewiston in Idaho and of the present city of Spokane. At Ce-
lilo Falls the botanist, David Douglas, joins the party for the rest of the
journey.
This journal furnishes the record of the first grain crops raised in
what is now Stevens County, Washington, and of the first litter of pigs
born there. No opportunity has been afforded to compare this text with
the original journal, which is among the archives at Victoria, British Columbia. T. C. Elliott.
THE JOURNAL
July 1826
Tuesday, July 5th, 1826.*
Overcast, showery weather.
At about 1 o'clock the Brigade for the interior under the command
of Mr. Connelly, consisting of 9 boats six men pr boat, left Fort Vancouver. Messrs A. McDonald, J. Douglas, F. Annance, J. Cortin and
J. Work passengers, also their women, and 9 children, viz.—Dr. McLaughlin's family, Mr. F. McDonald's family, and 2 children of Mr.
McKay. The cargoes consist of 72 pieces for Ft. Colville, 52 for Thompson's Riv, 60 for Nez Perce, 106 for N. Caledonia, and 1 for York
Factory, including private orders. Besides 57 pieces of provisions, 36 of
corn, 9 of pease, 9 Ind meal, 3 of grease, for the men, and 12J/2 pieces
for the gendemen for the voyage. Besides the families' baggage and 4
cases muskets and a trading chest. In the evening encamped on an island1
a little below Sand River. The water is very high and the current very
strong. Mr. McDonald's boat struck against the end of a tree which went
through fortunately the injury was at low water.
Wednesday,
6th.
Showery, raw cold weather.
Resumed our journey at daylight, and encamped a little below the
cascades. Lost a little time repairing the boat that was broken yesterday.
Bought a sufficiency of salmon in the evening to serve all (hands) for a
day.
lProhably Lady's Island below Washougal; called Diamond Island by
Lewis and Clark.
'An evident error, as July 5 fell on Wednesday in 1826. This was
overcome by Mr. Work later by giving two days to July 12.—3E. S. M.
Pffftf* 28
T. C. Elliott
¥
>
Thursday, 7th.
Overcast weather some showers.
The people were at work at an early hour and proceeded to New
Portage2 with half cargo and (sent) the canoe back for the remainder.
The boats and cargoes were carried across the portage and the boats
with half cargoes taken to the cascades where we encamped four of the gen-
tlemen stoped with the remainder of the property at the portage. Notwithstanding the height of the water we got up better than we expected.—
Bought a sufficiency of fine salmon to serve the people two days, and
very cheap. The Indians are taking a great many salmon. A good many
Indians are about the place, but they are very quiet.    Kept watch.
Friday, 8
Showery in the morning.
In the morning the boats were taken down to New Portage for the
remainder of the cargoes and the boats and property afterwards carried
across the cascades portage3 which we left towards evening with a sail
wind which continued till we encamped. Some time was occupied in the
morning gumming the boats. The portage at the cascades was not so long
as when the water was low. Traded enough of fine salmon to serve the
people two days. We have enough now to last us till we reach the
Dalles.
One of Mr. McDonald's men, J. Cortin, got his feet lamed by
which he is hardly able to walk. An Indian slave was employed to go
in the boat.
Saturday 9
Fair weather.
Continued our journey at an early hour, and encamped a little below the Dalles4 early in the evening. Had a fine sail wind all day, were
detained some time repairing Mr. McDonald's boat which sustained damage by striking a stone.    Some Indians visited our camp in the evening.
Sunday 10
Fair pleasant weather.
Got underway before sunrise and soon reached the Dalles, and by
carrying, lightening and dragging up the boats by the line, got about
half way across,6 where we encamped for the night.    There are a great
2Probably means that at this high stage of the water they followed
a channel behind Hamilton or Strawberry Island and carried goods and
canoes  across the  island to avoid the  Garrison Rapids.
3The regular portage beginning just below Sheridan's Point and ending
at the cove or bend above the Cascades; practically where the railroad is
built today.
^Probably where the City of The Dalles now stands. Journal of John  Work
29
many Indians but a square is formed with the boats round the property.
Traded a great many salmon in the evening very cheap.
In the evening Messrs. F. McDonald T, McKy, T. Dears arrived
at the other end of the portage with two boats and 18 men and part of the
Snake expedition furs from Wallawalla, on the way to Ft. Vancouver,
Mr. Ogden6 and part of the men are gone by the Willamut mountains
with horses. The Snake returns will be but indifferent. Mr D. Douglas7
also came with the party to meet us.
Monday, July 1 1
Pleasant weather.
The boats and property were carried across the portage in the morning (when we) took breakfast—and the chutes8 which we also crossed,
having to make only a short portage on account of the high water and
proceeded to the little river9 above the chutes where we encamped for
the night. The Snake party also proceeded on to Fort Vancouver.
Messrs Douglas and F. McDonald return with us. J. Contin who got
hurt at the cascades was sent back to the Fort.—Some time was taken
repairing the boats in the evening. A dog, with a pistol and an axe and
some other things were stole yesterday, the pistol and the axe were recovered. There are several Indians about the Dales and about the chutes.
I wrote to Mr McLaughlin requesting that he would send one of the
Snake men Michel Laporte, to Spokane to act as interpreter for the Kootanies.
Tuesday 12 /
Warm sultry weather.
Continued our route before sunrise and encamped early in the evening about 15 miles above Day's River10 to gum the boats The current
is very strong and there being no wind we made but a short days march.
There are a good many Indians along the river, but owing to the height
of the water they are not getting any salmon. Bought about 20 at one
camp.
The water has fallen about 4 feet since it was at its height. The
water appears from drift trees on the shore, to have been much higher some
years (ago) than they are.
sThis portage was on the Oregon side from Big 3Eddy to the head of
Ten Mile Rapids, nearly six miles. Here stood the village of Wishram of
which Washington Irving wrote in his "Astoria."
sConsult page 364 of Vol. 10 of the Oregon Historical Quarterly as to
this. Peter Skene Ogden, with Finan McDonald, Thos. McKay and Thos.
Dears,  had been trapping and trading in  Southern Idaho.
7David Douglas, the botanist. Consult his own account at page 356 of
Vol. V of the Oregon Historical  Quarterly.
8Celilo Falls.
9The Deschutes river.
lojohn Day river in Oregon. 30
T. C. Elliott
Wed.y.   12th
Fine weather, fresh breeze from the Westward.
Embarked before sunrise and had a nice sail wind all day. Encamped in the evening a little below Big Island.11—A good many Indians
along the river, but not many salmon.
Thursday   1 3
Sultry warm weather.—
Continued our journey early and had a sail wind part of the day.
Encamped in the evening a little above Grand Rapid.12—Bought a few
salmon, to serve the gentlemen.    Few are to be got.
Friday 14
Embarked early and arrived at Ft.   Nezperces13 about   1   o'clock.
Sail wind part of the day.     The weather very warm. The cargoes are
separated, and that of Nezperces delivered.
Satd.y.   15
The weather very warm, though stormy.
It was expected that a number of horses that are required could be
procured from the Indians at Nezperces, but after different councils, and
consultations and speeches on both sides it turned out that a promise
had been made to the Nezperces Indians to go and trade on their lands
which if not fulfilled would disoblige them and make them less inclined to
trade,
Sunday   16th
Stormy but warm weather.
The forepart of the day occupied with more councils and making
presents to the Indians as return for some horses which they had presented
before. 7 or 8 horses were afterwards traded,—It appeared however
that the number required could not be got in time, and the trading trip up
Nezperces River was determined on.
(Learned) that the F. Head trade would not suffer but as little as
possible by the late arrival of the boats at Colville, Mr. Kittson14 with the
Colville and Mountain boats is to proceed at once to Colville while I am
to accompany the trading party and after completing the trade to accompany the party across land and proceed to Colville where I expect to arrive as soon as the boats.    By this method no time will be lost whereas
nBlalock Island, also known as Long Island to the fur traders; this
camp probably at "Canoe Encampment Rapids," so known to this day.
i2Umatilla Rapids.
i3Fort Walla Walla, at mouth of river of same name.
i4William Kittson, who came to the Columbia district in 1818 and died
at Fort Vancouver during the early forties. His brother was Norman
Kittson, the millionaire of St. Paul, Minn., and financial associate of J. J.
Hill. Journal of John Work
31
had all the Colville men gone to the horse trade the Flat Head summer
trade would have been lost as it is it will be too late but it cannot be
helped.
Monday 1 7
Stormy in the night and blowing fresh during the day but nevertheless warm.
The outfit for the horse trade was packed up in the morning and
about 3 o'clock in the afternoon the party consisting of Mr A. McDonald,
J. Douglas, F, Annance and myself, an interpreter and 28 men and
the Indian chief Charlie embarked in two boats and proceded till a short
way up the Nezperces River15 where we encamped for the night. Bought
two or three pieces of salmon from the Indians.—I am directed if possi-
for Ft. Colville, the others to go to Okanogan. Mr. D. Douglas16 accomj"
4>le to purchase at least 60-70 horses, more if possible, 20 of them are
panies us to make collections of plants.
Tuesday   18
Weather warm but fine breezes.
Continued our journey before sunrise, and had a good sail wind
all day. Camped at night a considerable distance below Flag River.17
The current very strong and the water high, though it has fallen about 8
feet since its greatest height this season. Several Indian lodges along the
river brought a few pieces of fish and half dry salmon. Salmon are very
dear here.    The Indians have few to spare.
Wedy 19th
Very warm sultry weather no wind.
Embarked early, passed the Flag River about 3 o'clock and encamped late in the evening a good way above it.—Got very few salmon
though we saw a good many Indians, Salmon is very scarce, Traded a
small sturgeon.—were detained some time by the Indians offering horses
for sale but they would not accept the prices offered, A party of them
accompany us on horse back along shore.
Thursday 20
Clear very warm weather very little wind.
Proceeded on our journey early in the morning and encamped early
in the evening at a camp of the Pelushes, Colatouche chief, in expectation
of buying some horses, two were offered for sale, but the prices asked were
far too high indeed the Indians appear not to be very fond of parting with
isSnake  River.
i6For Mr.  Douglas'  own  account  of  this  journey  consult  pages  357-61
of Vol. 5 of the Oregon Historical Quarterly.
MThe Palouse River; known to the traders also as Pavion River. 32
T. C. Elliott
them.—Salmon are also very (dear) we got a few pieces of dry and half
dry. Since we left the Fort we have not got in one day a sufficiency for
a day's rations for the people, however what little we do get still saves
a litde corn.
Friday 21.
Very warm sultry weather
At noon the thermometer in the shade was 94°, and 95° shordy
afterwards.
We were detained waiting for the Indians who were seeking some
horses to trade, but when they arrived with them, only one small paltry
thing was offered and the price demanded could not be given, so after losing all our morning we continued our route not in the best humor,
Passed several lodges and purchased a sufficiency of fresh salmon for nearly
a days (living) for the people, besides some dry ones to serve the party
going overland with the horses.—Encamped in the evening a little above
Le Monte18, (which we passed about 4 oclock,) at an Indian camp where
some horses (we) expected will be got, but we will probably be detained
part of the day tomorrow.—'Numbers of the Indians some of whom refused the prices offered them below are accompanying us along shore with
their horses.—
Satd.y. 22
Light clouds, very warm, though a little breeze of wind.
Did not move camp today, They were off in the forepart of the day
collecting their horses, but they would not trade till the afternoon, when 8
horses were purchased from them at from 14 to 19 skins each They were
all young horses two of them just * but not well broke in. They are
to trade three more horses tomorrow morning. Traded 1 3 fresh salmon
which made* a days rations for the people.—The tardiness of the Indians
trading their horses is really vexing, they are not keen about trading.
Sunday 23
Oppressively warm weather. Thermometer 100° in the shade at
noon.
We were detained till near evening for the Indians who were off
seeking their horses, when they returned they were traded, and we struck
our tents and proceeded up the river, and stoped at anoth lodge for a considerable time and traded a good horse, another was offered but he was too
small and we would not take him. We then continued up the river and
encamped at another lodge where the Indians promise to sell us some
horses tomorrow.—The Indians seem very indifferent about trading their
isAlmota, Whitman County, Washington; an Indian crossing place; see
note on page 89 of Vol. V. of this Quarterly. Journal of John Work
33
horses, it is really provoking to be detained so long with them.—especially
when so litde time is to spare.—We have now 12 horses 8 yesterday and 4
today, 1 1 of which we traded from the Dartry band.
Monday 24
Sultry warm weather.
Did not move untill afternoon as we waited till the Indians collected their horses when we bought four one of which a small un-
broke in one was killed.—In the evening proceeded up the river to another
Indian camp and stopped for the night as some horses are expected in the
morning.—j
Tuesday 25.
A breeze of wind the weather cooler than these days past. Bought
two horses from the Indians in the morning and started after breakfast
and stopped at different lodges as we passed and bought four more horses,
making 6 today, all pretty good at 1 8 to 19 skins each. The Indians have
a good many horses but they are not eager to part with them.—Salmon
very scarce, we hardly get what fresh ones serve the mess.
Wedy 26
Weather pleasant.
Continued our rout after breakfast, and arrived at Charlie's lodge a
little before the forks in the evening.    Traded two horses during the day.—
Thursday 27
A little breeze of wind pleasant weather.—
Traded 8 horses at Charlies lodge and in the evening came to the
Forks19 where we found upwards of 200 Indians (men), and two principal chiefs Alunn and Towishpal, Gave the chiefs and some of the
principal men a dram of mixed liquor and a smok in the hut the others
got a smok and a little tobacco out of doors, Towishpal and another principal man cut noses both presented two horses immediately on our arrival.—
We are under the necessity of accepting their presents in order to please
the chiefs though we have to give a present in return which makes the
horses much dearer in general than were we to trade them.—The Indians
have been assembled for some days and are now rather short of provisions.
Friday 28
Warm weather, a little wind afterward.
No trade was made untill after breakfast, when the Indians began
to come with horses and some chiefs presented more horses which were
paid for at a dearer rate than usual in order to encourage the others, a
injunction of  Snake  and  Clearwater  rivers;   their  camp   probably   on
north side of Clearwater opposite present site of Lewiston, Idaho. 34
T. C. Elliott
brisk trade was commenced about 10 oclock and continued untill 4 oclock.
37 horses were traded one of which was killed. The price was generally
19 or 20 skins few exceeding 20. They were mostly fine horses. Our
blankets and beads are getting short, which was the cause of the trade
getting slack towards evening.    Blue cloth does not take well with them.
Saturday 29
Pretty cool pleasant weather a shower in the night.
Not having the proper articles blankets and beads in plenty the trade
went on but slowly, only six horses were traded, the Indians are doubtless
debarred from trading a little by a dance which is stirred up by a Schulas20
chief who arrived yesterday with ( ?). However we are promised a few
horses tomorrow, when we shall complete our trade and be ready to start
the day following.—
Sunday 30
Warm weather rather sultry.
Early this morning a quarrel took place between the Interpreter
and the Indian chief Charlie. It appears that an Indian woman who
passed for a medical character, had been looking at one of the mens
hands which was sore and although she exercised none of her skill either
in the application or otherwise yet she came to demand payment and
applied to the Interpreter who refused her. Charlie interfered when
some words took place and the Interpreter was called a dog, he applied
the same epithet to Charlie who took up his gun and gave gave the other
a blow, a scuffle ensued, and the noise was the first intelligence I had of
the affray, when I ran out and found them wrestling in the other tent and
the Indian getting the better, they were separated and the Indian again flew
to his gun which was taken from him several Indians had collected by
this time, Chalrlie was now asked was this conduct a return for all the
kindness and attention that had been shown him, he replied that he had
been called a dog, and that he could not bear the insult, he remained
sulky and took up another gun which was also taken from him, an Indian
then took him away, Shortly a message came for a yard of tobacco for
the Indians to smok and that their hearts would be good. Shortly after
another message came for 2 fathoms more and 20 balls and powder,
this was refused and word sent to the chief that we wished to have an
interview with them Toupe came, but Charlie came accompanied by
the whole of the Indians several of them armed and took his station a short
distance from the tent where they formed a circle round us. He was black
with rage. We immediately went up to him and asked what he meant,
2oCayuse ? Journal of John Work
35
and was he not ashamed to begin a quarrel in such a manner about an
old woman. After some time sulky silence he replied that his heart was
bad towards nobody but Toupie, and that he blamed him for not getting
a better price for their horses, he was immediately informed that the
accusation was false, that Toupe did nothing but what we desired him,
they were also made to understand that, it was to trade horses and not to
fight that we came there, but that if no better would do we would fight
also and that as Toupe was under our protection and in fact one of ourselves any insult offered him would be offered to us and would be resented.—A demand was again made for the tobacco and that then all.
would be well and that the horse trade would immediately commence. As
we were situated, with very little ammunition, ourselves on one side of
the river and the horses with part of the men on the opposite side, two
of the horses astray among those of the Indians, and two others already
paid for not received, and also the great risk we ran of having the others
stolen, it was considered advisable to comply with their request except the
ammunition, rather than get into a quarrel as we had much to lose and
little to gain, The tobacco was accordingly delivered the whole of the
Indians smoked and then dispersed.—Charlie is certainly a notorious
scoundrel and I consider the original of this quarrel as only a pretext.
He sold a horse yesterday and was paid the price agreed upon, but he
afterwards asked a blanket more which was refused, this I conceive
was in a great measure the cause of the dispute, and the poor Interpreter
was the only one he would venture to begin with, he has however been very
useful to us since the trade commenced harranguing the Indians to trade
their horses, and ever since the dispute he has been again telling them to
trade more.—The other chiefs and principal men except (Touispel) evidently wished to make the most of the affair and get as much as they
could by it, Qld Alumie .and his men are particular, however they were
disappointed as they got only 3 yds. tobacco and a few small pieces more
besides the yard first sent them, and even this was given with reluctance,
but we could not well do otherwise. Traded five more horses which finished our goods, found the two that were astray and received the two we
had paid the Indians for and crossed the river to where the horses are in
the atternoon—Our whole trade amounts to 79 horses, two of which have
been killed.
The Indian chiefs crossed to pay us a visit in the evening, and
smoked. They seem to regret what has taken place, Charlie himself is
ashamed that he should have quarreled about such a trifle. During the
dispute, the Indians were all threatening to take back the horses.—
A few young men arrived in the evening from the buffalo, from 36
T. C. Elliott
them it was heard that the F Heads are now on their way to meet us to
trade.    Peace is again made between them and the Peegans.
Monday 31 st.
Pleasant cool weather.
Having everything in readiness, the horses that are for the different
places pointed out, after an early breakfast Messrs F McDonald, J. Douglas and myself accompanied by six men set out overland with the horses
79 in number including 2 bought a few days ago from W. Walla by Mr
F. McDonald, we encamped in the evening a short distance 15 or 20
miles from flag21 River. Mr. D. Douglas accompanied us on his botanical
pursuits.—Mr A. McDonald took his departure for W. Walla with the
two boats and the rest of the men at the same time we came of—The Indians and us were good friends when we parted.
Augt. 1826. Tuesday 1 st.
Cool pleasant weather. Some rain with thunder and lightening in
the night.
Kept a guard three men at a time on the horses all night. The horses
took fright in the night and started but they were stopped and remained
quiet till the morning, when after allowing them to feed a short time we
proceeded on our journey, and stopped again a considerable time at noon
to allow them to feed and rest, and encamped in the evening pretty late,
near where we encamped last year.—The horses are generally driven
slow.
Wid.y. 2nd.
Weather pleasant but warmer than yesterday.
Proceeded on our journey and (?) the Spokane woods before
breakfast, but missed our way crossing to the plain where we separated
last year and fell on the Spokane River below the Chutes22, later in the
evening where we encamped for the night. The greater part of the
day the road was stony and bad for the horses feet, On entering the
woods we kept too far to the Eastward and missed the plain, The horses
were allowed to feed and rest in the middle of the day.
Thursday 3rd
Pleasant weather.
Continued our route at an early hour and arrived, through a bad
piece   of  road   along   the   river,   at  the   old   Fort23   at   Spokane   before
2iCamp probably near Uniontown, Whitman County, Wash.
22They reach the Spokane 3River at mouth of Latah Creek below the
Falls.
23They followed the south side of Spokane River until opposite the
abandoned buildings of Spokane House. Consult note 145, page 279, of Vol.
5 of this Quarterly. Journal of John Work
37
breakfast time, We had separated the horses and took those for
Fort Colville across the river and after breakfasting and trading some
salmon from old Finlay,24 Mr. Douglas proceeded on his journey to Okanagan with the 59 horses alotted for that place and N. Caledonia, and we
pursued our route with 20 horses for Ft Colville, and encamped at a little
river25 in the woods late in the evening. Had we not missed the way
Mr. Douglas would have parted with us yesterday, his coming to Spokane
will cause the loss of about half a day however it is perhaps as well as
the men know the road from Spokane and are not sure of it the other way.
Mr. D. has four men with him.
Friday 4th
Warm but pleasant weather, cold in the morning.
Proceeded on our journey at an early hour and arrived at Ft Colville before sunset, part of the road was very bad,    Mr Dease26 was happy
to see us, he and his people all well.    One of the horses was jaded and a
man was left with him to bring him home in the morning.
Saturday 5
Pleasant mild weather cool in the morning.
Early in the morning the man who remained behind yesterday arrived with the two horses.
The crops27 at Fort Colville do not appear to realize the expectations
that were entertained for them. The potatoes appear pretty well, barley
midling, no wheat at all came up and only a few stocks of Indian com
green pease but indifferent. The kitchen garden stuffs turnips cabbages
etc only so so. The soil appears to be too dry.—The moles are destroying the potatoes. The horses cattle and pigs very fat, but the grass is
getting dry.
Sunday 6th
Pleasant weather.
Visited the, falls,28 today, where the Indians are fishing. They are
now taking about 1000 salmon daily. They have a kind of basket about
10 ft long 3 wide and 4 deep of a square form suspended at a cascade in
the fall where the water rushes over a rock, the salmon in attempting to
ascend the fall leap into the basket, they appear to leap 10 or 12 feet
high,    when the basket is full the fish are taken out.—A few are also
taken with scoop net and speared.
24Jacques Raphael Finlay, who had built or helped to build this trading
post  in  1810.
25Probably Chimakime Creek.
26Mr. John Warren Dease, then in charge of Fort Colville.
27A crop of potatoes had been raised here in 1825; this is the record
of the first yield of grain on Marcus Flat in Stevens County, Wash.
28Kettle Falls; the method of fishing here described was carried on
within the memory of present residents of that locality, with marvelous
success. 38
T. C. Elliott
Monday 7th
Weather as yesterday
Mr. Kittson arrived at the lower end of29 the Portage with their
(three) boats and the outfit for Colville and passengers and their baggage.
He has been ten days from Walla Walla to Okanogan and ten from
Okanagan to this place in all 20 days. Horses were sent off and part of
the property brought to the fort.
Tuesday 8.
Pleasant mild weather.
The remainder of the boats cargoes brought to the Fort, the outfit
examined and found all correct and in good order.
No certain intelligence of the F. Heads as yet, we are now waiting
for them, the sooner we hear of them now the better
Wedy 9th
Heavy rain with thunder and lightning in the night and all day.—j
Sunday 13.
Three Pendant Oreille Indians arrived from Pendant Oreille River
and report that a young man had arrived from the Plain30 who says that
a few of the F Heads have arrived at or near the Chutes, that the others
are in the plains farther off accompanied by a party of Americans, that
they are indifferent whether we go to trade with them or not, that they
have very little to dispose of, having traded with the Americans. As this
thing is second hand and the Indians do not agree among themselves little
reliance can be placed upon it, particularly as a young man a F. Head,
who had left his tribe in the plains some time ago, was at the Fort two
days since, and told us that his people were on the way to meet us but
made no mention of having seen any Americans.
Monday 14th.
Cloudy mild weather.
Six men and a boy were sent off to make a road across the portage
to the Pendant O'relle River31 through which we had to pass on our way
to the Flat Heads.
Made up an outfit for the F Heads and Kootany summer trade for
the purpose of starting tomorrow though we are not certain whether the
29The trail used by the fur traders at this portage can still be seen;
lt Is on the East bank.
soThompson's Prairie,  Montana.
siThe trail or road for pack horses from Fort Colville across the
Calispell Mountains to the Pend d'Oreille river at point near Cusick, Washington. Consult pages 147-8 of Vol. 1 of Simpson's Journey Around the
World for a description of this trail. The fur traders had not used it
before   this  time. Journal of John Work
39
Indians are arrived, if they should not we will probably be short of provisions.
Tuesday 1 5th.
Pleasant mild weather
Supposing that the men did not have the road cut through the woods
we deferred starting till tomorrow. Some Indians arrived and told us they
had made but slow progress yesterday.
Wedy 16th.
Warm sultry weather
Set out accompanied by Mr. Kittson, and 7 men which with the
6 ahead making the road makes 1 3, to mak the summer trade at the F.
Heads and Kootanies, We have 9 horses loaded with the articles of
trade, provisions, gum etc—to repair the canoes.—Mr. Kittson and I with
12 men are to proceed to the F. Heads and make the trade there, and a
man is to cross into the Kootenay country to tell them to come and meet
us to trade at the Lake82 on our return.—
Did not make a long days march, encamped in the afternoon at a
small river33 where there was a little place for the horses to feed. The
.distance made today was about 15 to 20 miles. The course from the
fort till we struck off the Spokane road34 nearly South 8 to ten miles. The
remainder of the day it was about S. E. by E 10 to 12 miles. The road
was in general good and lay through clear woods and small plains, except
a piece near the fort called the Cedar, where the woods are very thicketty
and the ground swampy and boggy and a deep gully of a river to cross.
There is a small lake35 close by our encampment.
Thursday 1 7th
Warm weather.
Proceeded on our journey before sunrise and not finding a place
that we could stop, though it was hard on the horses, did not encamp
till near sunset, when we stopped at a little river36 on the edge of a large
plain a short way from the Pendant Oreille River. The horses are much
fatigued. The road for a short distance in the morning was pretty good,
but afterwards it was very indifferent. The woods very thicketty, often
fallen trees across the road, (though the men had removed a good many).
The country very rugged a continual succession of hills some of them
steep,  and the road intersected by a number of small brooks and deep
33The Little Pend d'Oreille River.
32Pend d'Oreille Lake.
34The road leading to Spokane House, which crossed the Colville river
just above Meyers Falls; this» trail continued eastward through present site
of  city  of  Colville.
35Probably a pond on section 3, township 34 north, range 40, E. W. M.
36Probably a stream now mapped as Tacoma Creek, which empties into
the Pend d'Oreille River.
•mm 40
T. C. Elliott
gullies some places the ground boggy, Though there is not much water
in the little brooks at present yet from the height of the rubbish on the
bushes along their banks they are totally impassable for horses during the
high water -not long since. It would be needless to attempt this
portage in the spring when the snow is on the ground as it would be impracticable with horses. During this days march even at this season there
is no place to encamp where more than a very few horses could feed without the risk of their being lost in the woods.—
The distance made today I judge to be from 40 to 45 miles,
in about a S. E. by E. course.
Friday 1 8
Cold with a thick fog in the morning, but clear pleasant weather afterwards.
Had the horses loaded and started at sunrise, made the ascent of
the plain, and arrived at the Pendant Orile camp87 on the bank of the river
near where the canoe sent down in the Spring was deposited. Here we
found the men who had been making the road. The remainder of the
day was occupied repairing the canoe, as the whole of the people are too
much to embark in the canoes 5 men were sent on first to where the other
canoes were deposited in the Ceur d Alen portage. Traded 32 beaver, 3
(appichimous) and some berries and roots from the Indians.
This plain is all inundated in the season of high water, where we
slept last night the water had been more than 2 feet deep in the high part
of the plain and from the bank of the little river at present the water has
fallen at least 16 feet. This extensive plain is now clothed with a fine crop
of grass.
The Indian who arrived some time ago from the Flat Heads, is now
at Spokane, All we can hear from the others is that the old chief
Le (Brute) and party of F Heads and Pendant Oreill are waiting us
near the Chutes,38 that the rest of the tribes are in different parties farther
off wintering their horses, that they had seen a party of Americans during
the summer, said to be loaded with trading goods and that they were going
to build in the fall on the upper waters of the Missouri at a place called
the Grand (T )    No intelligence as to whether any of the (?)
or freeman were with them. It is said that the Indians have been unsuccessful and have few horses and little meat. A fine Sotiax who came from
there is off a few days ago to the fort with his (hunt).
37Near the mouth of the Calispell river, where the Indians gathered to
dig cam'as.
38Thompson Falls, Montana. Journal of John Work
41
Satd.y.   19
Warm pleasant weather
Embarked and proceeded up the River before sunrise and near dark
arrived at the (Ceur de Alan) portage.30 The men who started yesterday
are at the portage before us. The current was very slack all day in the
afternoon we passed a place called the island portage40 where everything
had to be carried over a small rock 1 5 or 20 yards. Two rocks divide the
river here into 3 narrow channels down which the water rushes with great
violence at low water the middle channel is dry.
The distance made today may be about 45 to 50 miles. For the first
25 miles or to near the Portage des Isle, the course South, afterwards it
changed to the S. E.
- The River is in general about 7 to 900 yds wide from the marks
in the bank the water has fallen 10 to 12 feet. The country hilly, but
many points of fine meadow ground along them.
Before we started in the morning sent off an Indian (Bascrorhy) who
accompanied us for the purpose, and Ribets boy (Francis), to the Fort
with the horses. Sent letters by them to the fort.—Left the saddles and
(appichimans) in charge of the little chief till our return.
Sunday 20
Light clouds warm weather.
By daylight the men were at work, brought out the canoes and by 1 or
2 o'clock had given them a temporary repair when we embarked and
encamped in the evening at the lower end41 of the lake. The canoes
had been very badly laid up in the Spring, one of them was entirely unserviceable and the other two much ( ? ) by the supports giving, away.
The paddles could not be found.
Monday 21
Weather as yesterday.
Embarked at daylight and encamped in the evening below the Heron
Rapid.42 The canoes had to be gummed, some time was also lost in the
day by having to stop to gum one of the canoes. Saw some Indians at the
upper end of the lake, among whom were two Nezperces lately arrived
from the F. Head camps from these we learned that the F Heads are
all at the Horse plains and that a lodge of Americans are with them,
that our (?)(?) are there also that the American is trading but
30The Sineacateen crossing of mining days, where the trail from Spokane to the Kootenay country and the Clarks Fork country crossed the
riVer; nearly opposite Laclede station of the Great Northern Railroad of
today.
40Albeni  Falls,-just  above  Newport,   Wash.
«Sandpoint,  Idaho.
42Heron, Montana; see note 123, page 265, Vol. V., this Quarterly. 42
T. C. Elliott
that he has only tobacco, The Nezperces camp is a little farther off at
the camass plains and that they have a few beaver, they report that the
Indians have very little provisions.
In the morning sent Mortin Kanauswapu, the only man who knew
the road, across the Auplatte43 portage with some tobacco to the Kootenay
chiefs and to desire them to come and meet us at the lake six days hence
to trade. In the event of Mortins' not finding the Indians he is directed to
wait for us unless he gets short of provisions in which case he is to leave
a mark indicating that the Indians could not be found and that he is gone
to the fort,—He is supplied with a gun and ammunition and some little
things to buy provisions.—
Tuesday, 22
Cloudy but warm weather.
Embarked at daylight, and encamped in the evening late above the
cascades. We were delayed guming the canoes and taking up ball shot
and some wire work that were hidden below Isle of Pine in the Spring.
The water had been over the place, and one of the bags of ball was found
scattered among the sand and gravel. The other bag which was entirely
rotten and the box containing the (wire)  ( ?)(?).    Got the
ball picked up as well as we could, and brought it with us, and hid the
wire in another place.
Wedy 23rd
Cloudy lowering weather, showery all day.
Embarked early and arrived at the Chutes44 near sunset, and had
the baggage all arranged and the canoes taken up.—No Indians nor any
appearance of any having been here this season.—
Thursday 24
Cold weather with fog in the morning showery afterwards.
Set out in the morning accompanied by two men, Chalifoux and De-
champ to find the Indians and apprise them of our arrival, though we expected to find some encamped at Thompson's plains, we did not see any
lodges till nea rthe big rock45 below the F. Head fort, where we learned
that the Indians were encamped at the Horse plains, here I sent back
Dechamp and borrowed two horses for Chalifoux and myself and proceeded to the camp where we arrived in the afternoon and found
about 50 lodges Heads and Pendant Oreille, and four chiefs, Le Brute, ■
Gras Pied, Grand Visage and Bourge Pendant Oreille, I stopped at Le
Brute's lodge,   The old man was glad to see me and immediately gave me
43The portage from Pend d'Oreille Lake to the Kootenay river at Bon-
ners Ferry.
•*4Thompson Falls, Montana.
45Bad Rock, just below Eddy, Montana.
MM Journal of John Work
43
to eat.—(The other chiefs and the principal Indians soon assembled and
smoked, during which we were employed giving and receiving all the news
on both sides. The old chief said he much regretted that this
year his people had been unfortunate having been able to procure but
a small quantity of provisions and very few furs. That the cause of the
scarcity of provisions was owing to the place being full of other Indians
who disturb the buffalo. They have had no war except some horse stealing skirmishes in which they killed one Indian and lost one of their own
men.—A party of the F. Heads had fallen in with some of the Snake deserters and some Americans, two of the deserters, J. Guy and Jacques accompanied them to some of the camps and Guy presented the two chiefs Gras
Pied and Grand Visage with some tobacco and a little scarlet as from
the chief of the American party Ashly,46 whom they said wished to see
the Indians, and that he was (then) off for a large quantity of supplies.—
A few F Heads, Nezperces and 2 Snakes in all 22 have gone off to see
them.—A considerable party of the natives under (Grune) and Red
Feather47 are at (Revine) de Mere, but the others say they have nothing
to trade and that their horses are very lean, that prevented them from coming in.—
A former deserter, Jacques, states that the Americans last Spring took
out48 200 horse loads of beaver, that they are to return with 150 horse
loads of goods and that another company is coming in with a quantity
equally as large, and that they were told that 3 and afterwards 5 ships
were to come to the Columbia or near the river. This report was also circulated among the Indians, but we undeceived them.—
Friday 25
Thick fog in the morning clear fine weather afterwards.
The chiefs issued orders last night and again early this morning for
all those that had anything to trade to be ready to start for our camp
at an early hour, but though the horses were all assembled at the tents
last night and a guard set upon them (as Blackfeet Indians are known to
be in the neighborhood) yet they had strayed off through the plain, and
on account of the fog could not be collected till about 9 o'clock when the
whole was soon loaded and underway. One of the chiefs accompanied
us ahead and we arrived at our camp49 some time before the others, who
reached it in the afternoon, and after smoking and some conversation, trade
commenced and continued till it was  getting dark.—The Indians  from
46Qen.  Wm. H.  Ashley;  see  page  247  et  seq.  of Vol. I.  of History of
the American Fur Trade by H. M. Chittenden for sketch of his career.
47This chief was one of Peter Skene Ogden's heroes; see chapter 2 of
the book, "Traits of American Indian Life and Character," by a Fur Trader.
48That is, to  St. Louis.
49At Thompson Falls. 44
T. C. Elliott
whom I borrowed the horses had fresh ones to change them with when I
came back to the lodges.—The men have been busy employed at the
canoes and have nearly completed repairing them.
Satd.y. 26
Cold in the morning clear fine weather afterwards.
Trade was resumed at an early hour and the whole finished by breakfast time, when the men were set to to tie up the things, and a little
past noon we embarked and encamped in the evening a little above the Isle
de Pine rapid.
Had a long conversation with the principal Indians, and made arrangements about the time they would be coming to meet us in the fall
which they said would be the usual time. Each of the chiefs got a present
of 40 balls and powder and a little tobacco, a small present was also
sent to the absent chiefs, and they were strongly recommended to exert
themselves hunting beaver and also to bring in provisions. They are
all well pleased.
A report has been spread among the Indians that this was the last
time we are to trade with them, they say they were told by a young man
from below who heard it from some white men. The Americans it was
added were now to get the country. This they were told was false. We
applied to them to bring in our deserters who are with them.
The trade is inferior to that of last year in everything. There were
only 221 beaver, 90 ( ? ) bales of meat, 66 appichimens, very little
dressed leather, and some cords, and 5 lodges.
Sunday 27
Light clouds fine pleasant weather.
Embarked before sunrise and reached the Kootenay portage50 at the
lower end of the Lake in the evening, where we found Morton and the
Kootany chief with 12 or 13 of his people, the evening was employed
smoking and giving and receiving the news. They are not satisfied because
the whites did not go to their lands to trade as usual. They say messages
were sent from the fort for them to go and trade there.—They had a
good many beaver. They passed the summer in the upper waters of their
own river.
Monday 28
Clear pleasant weather.
Commenced trading before sunrise, and by breakfast time had purchased all the disposable articles. The trade is good, better by far than
last year, and amounts to 382 beaver & 12 damaged do. 220 Rats, 20
soNear Kootenay Landing,  Pend d'Oreille Lake. Journal of John Work
45
dressed skins & 25 Deer skins besides some cords etc. They have a good
many rats and dressed skins at their lodges which they say on account of
the leanness of their horses they could not bring with them. It was therefore deemed advisable that Mr. Kittson should accompany them with a
supply of trading articles and purchase the whole, they are to lend him
horses to go & return three men accompany him & Pierre L. Etang &
a man waits for him with a canoe till he returns, while I with the other
two canoes full loaded proceed to the Pendant Oreille portage,51 and send
'off for the horses, by this means the trade can be finished without loss of
time as the remaining canoe will will be still at the portage by the time
the horses arrive from the fort.—Mr. Kittson will probably proceed down
the Kootenay river to examine52 it and send back the men to the canoe, perhaps one man and an Indian will accompany him, he is to be guided by circumstances, he will still reach the fort before us.—Accordingly about 2
o'clock we both took our departure and encamped with the canoes a
little below the Cour de Alan Portage.
Tuesday
Clear fine weather.
Embarked before daylight and arrived at the Portage a little past
noon, and immediately sent off the men to the fort58 for horses.
The Indians visited us to smoke and get the news. Traded a few
beaver skins.    No news from the fort.
Had the baggage all stored away and covered and the canoes put
bye in the evening.
Cloudy cool weather.
Had the meat54 all opened out, and assorted and packed up in bales
of 90 to 100 lb. each for the horses. The meat is in general in fine order,
only a few pieces we found a little wet and damaged. Cords were also
cut, and something done to arranging the saddles, etc., and putting them in
order. Several of the Indians revisited us some of them got a little ammunition. The chiefs and a party are going off to the buffaloes. The
Indians are wishing to trade camass, but having no bags to put it in and
as we would have to hire horses to take it to the fort which would make
it very dear I dsclined trading any. The Indians have horses themselves
but are too lazy to go to the fort.
siMouth  of Calispell River again, near Cusick, Wash.
52For  previous  attempt  to  examine  the  Kootenay  River  consult  this
Quarterly, Vol. V., p. 177-8.
ssFort Colville.
54Dried  buffalo  meat  purchased  from  the  Flatheads. 46
T. C. Elliott
Thursday 31
Cloudy, fine weather.
The men employed arranging the saddles &c, & preparing the pieces
to be in readiness when the horses arrive. A few Indians visited us during
the day, but had nothing to trade.
Sept. 1826 Friday 1
Thick fog in the morning, clear fine weather afterwards.
The men employed us yesterday. Traded a few appichimens, some
dressed skins and a robe from the Indians. The men arrived with the
horses late in the evening.    Little news from the fort.
Satdy. 2nd
Thick fog in the morning, clear fine weather afterwards.
After breakfast the canoe which was left at the Kootenay Portage
arrived. Mr. Kittson made a pretty good trade in leather, & as was intended has gone down the Kootenay River to examine it. The men were
immediately set to to arrange the pieces brought in the canoe, and application made to the Indians for the number of horses required in addition
to those brought from the fort, but it was found that it would be too late
before everything could be arranged and the Indian horses collected to
start, therefore we deferred moving till tomorrow. The horses sent from
the fort are short 2 of the number mentioned by Mr. (McDoanld.)55 The
men say all they brought from the fort are here, as there is no list of
the horses I can't tell the ones that are missing.
Sunday 3rd.
Thick fog in the morning clear fine weather afterwards.
On account of the thick fog the Indians were some time of collecting
their horses and it was late before they arrived with them, it was 10 o'clock
when we started and we encamped about 2 at the foot of a hill, good
feeding in a fine meadow for the horses. We made but a short day s
journey, but we had to put up or it would have been too much for the
horses to cross the hill to another place to encamp. The road was pretty
good mostly through plains but a piece of thick woods. Some places the
road is boggy.
Monday 4
Cloudy and foggy in the morning clear afterwards.
The people collected the horses at daylight, but before they were
loaded it was about 7 o'clock, where we entered the woods and commenced ascending the hill, the top of which we did not reach till past
osFinan McDonald, then at Fort Colvile. Journal of John Work
47
noon, and it was near sunset when we encamped on the Kettle Fall little.
river..56     In mounting the hill the woods  are  generally thick,  the road
pretty good but in many places very steep and very laborious for the horses
58The Colville River.
to ascend, gullies in many places cross the road,    In descending on the West
side it is also pretty steep and the road in some places stony.    At two or
three places in crossing the hill a little off the road there is water and a
little herbage for the horses, but it would be difficult to keep a   (large
band) for the night.    The summer and fall is the only season that this road
is practicable with horses.    The horses are a good deal fatigued.
Tuesday 5
Foggy in the morning fine weather afterwards.
Had the horses collected at an early hour, and started a little past
sunrise, and encamped a little past noon. It would have been too much for
the horses to go to the fort after the hard day they had yesterday. Had
two bales of leather that got wet by a horse falling in a swamp yesterday
evening, opened and dried, and in the evening I left the men, and arrived
at the fort after sunset, the men are to follow in the morning.
Wedy 6th.
Clear fine weather.
The people with the horses and property arrived in the forenoon,
where the loads were received and all opened and examined and in good
order.
The trade stands as follows.
Flat Heads.
Kootanians.
21 3 large beaver
297
Large Beaver
54 small
95
Small
21   pap
6
Large Damaged Beaver
6 lb.   (Coston)
6
Small
71   Appichimans
4
lb. (Coston)
6 Pr.  Buffalo Robes
7
Otters
6 Red Deer Skin dressed
505
Musquash
6 Buffalo
2
Mortis
5  Lodges
3
Minks
4396 lb. Dry Meat
1
Fisher
119 lb. Cords
2
Appichimens
21   Pack Saddles
2
Com. Buff. Robes
(Pounfluhs), etc.
109
Red Deer Skins d'st
71
1
(     ?     )
Lodge
22
Pow. flasks 48
T. C. Elliott
Kootanians— (Continued.)
7 Garnished shirts
3 Plain
4 fr. Leggins
2 (Gowns)
Cords, etc.
Thursday 7
Cloudy mild weather.
The people employed at the building.57 Settled with the Indians who
lent us the horses at Pendant Oreille River, had 72 skins to pay, 1 7
horses and one Indian 4 skins each.
Satdy 9
These two days past Mr. Kittson and I busy taking the inventory.
Preparations are making for the express boat to the mountains starting
tomorrow. Mr. Dease means to accompany it with his family, and to
send them across if he understands there is a likelihood of himself following them.
Sunday 10
Clear fine weather.
The express boat58 started in the evening deeply loaded with passengers, baggage and provisions. There are in all 20 passengers, and 23 pieces
of provisions, corn, grease and dry meat.—Mr. McDonald59 and family,
Mr. Dease and family, Dr. McLaughlin's family, (J Cahn,) (F McKye)
2 boys & old (A Popt) passengers—■
Monday 1 1
Clear fine weather, but cold in the night. The men employed at the
building.    I was arranging the papers.
Tuesday 12
Weather as yesterday.
Employed as yesterday. Rivet went off to Pendant Oreille to hunt
roots.
57Fort Colvile was staked out by Governor Simpson in April, 1825, the
timbers framed during the summer of 1825, and actually built in spring and
summer of 1826.
58The express boat bound for Boat Encampment at Canoe River, there
to meet the officer returning from the annual meeting of the officers of the
Hudson's Bay Company at York Factory or elsewhere, bringing the mail
and orders for the Columbia District for the next year.
59This is our last mention of Finan McDonald in the Columbia District;
he is returning across the Rocky Mountains with his family. He came to
the Columbia with David Thompson in 1807 and had been here continually
since  then. Journal of John Work
49
Wedy 13
Fine weather.
The boat which started on Sunday returned with Mr. Dease and his
family, he left by mistake a bundle of letters and papers of importance
for which he had to return, and finding that the boat was too much submerged he brought back his family. He went off again immediately. Two
pieces of provisions were brought back.
Thursday 14
Cloudy fair weather.
Had two men employed repairing a canoe to go off to examine the
Pendant Oreille River.
Friday 15th.
The men employed as yesterday, two Indians with the two men are
to accompany me, but one of them is off today and will not be back till
tomorrow so that we will have to defer starting till the day following.—
It is reported among the Indians that a woman is killed at a small
river on the opposite side of the Columbia, it seems she was gatherinr; nuts,
and an Indian who was hunting took her for a bear crawling among the
bushes, and shot her.
One of the sows had five young pigs60 last night.
eoThis mother was brought from Fort Vancouver by canoe route in a
crate in March and April of this year, 1826; In her company was a heifer.
See page 284, Vol. V.,  of this Quarterly. DOCUMENTS
A New Vancouver Journal
In this final portion of this new Vancouver Journal the author
gives his observations of the natives of Nootka Sound and the adjacent
coasts.
As stated in the introductions to former installments this is only a
portion of a manuscript that fell into the hands of Mr. A. H. Turnbull
of Wellington, New Zealand. The portion we have thus reproduced
is all of the manuscript that relates to the region of Puget Sound. It was
kindly supplied by Mr. Turnbull who has tried in every way to ascertain
the identity of the author of the Journal. In the two volumes of the
manuscript there is no signature or outward evidence of the writer. From
remarks in the Journal, however, it is concluded by Mr. Turnbull that
the writer was Edward Bell, the clerk of the armed tender "Chatham."
It is positive that the Journal was written by some officer of the "Chatham"
and it may well be that Mr. Turnbull's conjecture is near the truth.
While his search was going on an appeal was made for aid from
the great authorities in the British Museum, the greatest library on earth.
The published portions were forwarded and the experts there did the best
they could with such material. I. P. Gilson, Keeper of Manuscripts,
writes that he can only offer a conjecture, but he and his assistant, Mr.
Milne, point out certain phrases, such as "septum of the nose," which
would suggest Surgeon Walker as the probable author.
By eliminating such officers as are mentioned by name, these two
seem about the only ones likely to have had the education necessary to
have written the Journal. It seems quite likely, therefore, that either Clerk
Bell or Surgeon Walker was the author of the new Journal that has thus
come to light. EDMOND S. Meany.
THE JOURNAL
(Continued From Page 308, October Quarterly)
On the 18th arrived the Brig Fenis a trader belonging to Macao,
under Portuguese Colours. She had been but one season on the Coast
and was now going direct to China with a tolerable cargo of 700 Skins.
The management of this concern was under a Mr Duffin who was on
board her. This is the Mr Duffin that was in the Feluce with Mr
Mears when he first came to Nootka and built his small vessel in the
summer of '88 and that was afterwards in the Argonaut when she was
captured  (under the command of Mr Colnett)  by the Spaniards in this
(50) A New  Vancouver Journal
51
Cove in the summer of '89 and so often mentioned in Mears's Memorial
& papers respecting the captures &c,
'Twas about this time that the business between Seigr. Quadra and
Captn. Vancouver respecting the giving up and receiving of Nootka was
drawing to a conclusion and we found after all that the difference respecting the right of Possession of the English to this place, which I have
before mentioned arose between these two gendemen, and which was at
that time thought so little of, was now the very barrier to the settlement
of the business and it was now known that the Spaniards would not give
the place up to us, in the manner that we wanted. Nor did either party
conceive that they acted contrary to the Articles of the Convention.
Various letters officially passed between Captn. Vancouver & Mr
Quadra.
The Article of the Convention runs thus:— "It is agreed that the
Building and tracts of Land situated &c. &c. of which the subjects
of His Britannick Majesty were dispossessed about the month of April
1 789 by a Spanish Officer shall be restored to the said British Subjects."
The place where Mr Mears built his house was in a little hollow
of the Land31 in the N. Western corner of the Cove formed by high
rocky Bluffs at each side; here it was he built his vessel, for which purpose it was extremely commodious and as he carried on all his operations
in this corner, 'twas natural for him to have his houses, sheds &c, contiguous to his works, not, but what he had (according to his own account) an equal right to all and any other part of the Cove, having purchased the whole of the Land, of the Chiefs Callicum and Maquinna,
but he had built his house, sheds &c. and carried on all his business
here because it was a snug, convenient place. For the same reason
when we first came in, because the place seemed so convenient, we erected
a Tent here, and all the repairs of the boats, casks &c. was done here.
Our Cables, Provisions &c. when taken out to lay the vessel ashore were
landed here, and 'twas at this place the Chatham was haul'd on shore
and repaired. The two high rocky Bluffs I have spoken of were the
limits at each side, and the Sea Beach, and an old Tree towards the
end of this little nitch in the land, were the other limits of the ground
that Mr Mears's works & houses occupied and in this space there was
not altogether half an acre of ground, with in it, the Spaniards had no
buildings of any kind. Now Mr Quadra says that, as this was the only
place occupied by Mears, this spot of ground, and this spot only was all
the "Tracts of Land of which the Subjects of His Britannick Majesty
were dispossessed," that consequently this was the extent of the British
3iVancouver published a picture  of  "little hollow," which  allows  one
to pick out the exact site at the present time. 52
Documents
"VV.:"y
Territories on this Coast, and to no more than which they have any right
or claim, and that finally, according to the Letter of the Article in the
Convention, he could only give this Spot up to Captn. Vancouver as
British property and under the Sovereignty of Great Britain. He said
he would leave us in possession of the whole of the place, and his own
house, and all the other houses and buildings &c, but not as British
property, that the right of Sovereignty of the whole of the Sound (except
the little spot of British Territory I have mentioned) should belong to
the King of Spain and should remain Spanish property. I have likewise
heard that he even said, that, when he was going away the Spanish
Flag should be haul'd down from the Fort on Hog Island, and the
English Colours being hoisted in their room he would salute them, but this
was only said in conversation. Captn. Vancouver asked him to write
this officially in a letter, that however he would not do, for had he done
it, little more altercation would have taken place, as the striking their
colours, and saluting the English in their room, would be a cessation of
the place to all intents and purposes. On these terms that I have stated
Captn. Vancouver refused to receive the place and here the matter rested,
till,  as is specified in the Treaty, the two Courts decide the difference.
Mr Quadra prepar'd for sailing in a few days, he dispatched the
Hope Brig to the Streights of Defuca,32 at the entrance of which the
Spaniards have a small settlement and a Frigate lying there, with orders
to the commander to evacuate the settlement and make all haste to Nootka
where he was to remain for the ensuing winter.
Mr. Duffin happened to arrive about the time that the above difference arose respecting Nootka, and in order to substantiate Mr Mears's
rights & claims to the Land, and to do away all claims of the Spaniards
on just grounds, he drew up the following statement, and delivered to to
Captn. Vancouver.83 "To Captn. George Vancouver, commander of His
Britannick Majesty's Ships Discovery and Chatham, now lying in Friendly
Cove, Nootka Sound. Whereas different reports have been propogated
relative to what right Mr Mears had for taking possession of the Land
in Friendly Cove, Nootka Sound. I shall here state with that candour
and veracity which has always influenced me on such occasions, an impartial account of Mr Mears's proceedings in the above Port.
"Towards the end of the year 1 787 a commercial expedition was
undertaken by John Henry Cox Esq. & Co., Merchants then residing at
Canton, who accordingly fitted and equipp'd two ships for the Fur Trade
on the N. W. Coast of America.    The conduct of this expedition was
82Reference is here made to Neah Bay which the Spaniards had called
Nunez Gaona.    There Lieutenant Fidalgo was beginning a fort.
88The testimony was considered Important by Captain Vancouver, who
sets it forth at considerable length in his journal. A New  Vancouver Journal
53
reposed in John Mears Esq., as commander in chief and sole conductor
of the voyage & who was likewise one of the Merchant proprietors. These
vessels were equipped under Portuguese Colours with a view to mitigate
those heavy port charges imposed on ships of every nation (the Portguese
only excepted) which circumstanc is well known to all commercial gentlemen trading to that part of the world, therefore the above vessels were
fitted out in the name and under the firm of John Cavallo Esq., a Portuguese Merchant then residing at Macao, but he had no property in
them whatsoever, both their Cargoes being entirely British property and
entirely navigated by British Subjects.
"We arrived at the above Port in Nootka Sound in May, 1 788.
On our first arrival at that port the two chiefs Maquinna & Callicum were
absent. On their return which was about the 1 7th or 1 8th of the same
month Mr Mears and myself accompanied by Mr Robert Funter our
2nd officer went ashore and treated with the said chiefs for the whole of
the Land which forms Friendly Cove Nootka Sound in His Britannick
Majesty's name and accordingly bought it of them for 8 or 10 Sheets of
Copper and several other trifling articles and the Natives were fully satisfied with their agreement and their chiefs and likewise their subjects did
homage to Mr Mears as their Sovereign using those formalities that are
peculiar to themselves and which Mr Mears has made mention of in his
publication. The British Flag was display'd at the same time that these
formalities were used as is customary on these occasions (and not the
Portuguese Flag as has been intimated by several people who were not
present at the time and consequently advanced these assertions without
a foundation). On our taking possession of the Cove in his Maj's. name
as aforementioned Mr Mears caused a house to be erected on the Spot
where the Chatham's Tent now stands it being the most convenient spot
of the Cove for our intentions. The chiefs and their subjects offered to
quit the Cove entirely and reside at a place call'd Tashees and leave the
place to ourselves as entire Masters and owners of the whole Cove and
Lands adjacent, consequently we were not confined to that spot but had
full liberty to erect a house in any other part of the Cove, but chose
the spot we did for the abovemention'd reason. Mr Mears therefore
appointed Mr Rob; Funter, his 2nd. officer, to reside in the house which
consisted of 3 Bedchambers for the Officers and men, and a Mess room.
The above apartments were about 5 feet from the ground and under them
were apartments allotted for putting our stores in. Exclusive of this house
were several sheds and outhouses for the convenience of the Artificers to
work in, and on Mr Mears's departure the house &c. was left in good con- 54
Documents
dition,  and he enjoin'd Maquinna to take care of them until his   (Mr
Mears's)  return or else some of his associates on the coast again.
"It has been said by several people that on Don Martinez's arrival
on the Coast not a vestige of the said house remain'd, however that may
be I cannot say as I was not at Nootka when he arrived there. On our
return in July 1 789, in the said Cove we found it occupied by the Subjects of His Catholic Majesty and likewise some people belonging to the
Ship Columbia, commanded by Mr John Kendrick under the Flag and
protection of the United States of American had their Tents and out
houses erected on the same spot where formerly our house stood but I
saw no remains of our Architecture. We found lying at anchor in the
same Cove His Catholic Majesty's Ships Princessa and San Carlos and
likewise the Ship Columbia and Sloop Washington, and the second day
after our arrival we were captured by Don Martinez and the Americans
were suffered to carry on their commerce with the Natives unmolested.
This, Sir, is the best information I can give you that might tend to elucidate the propriety of Mr Mears's rights & claims to Nootka Village and
Friendly Cove, and shou'd anyone whatsoever doubt the truth of this protest I am always ready to attest it before any Court of judicature or any
one person duly authoriz'd to examine me.
I have the honor to be,
Sir, your &c. &c.
(Signed) Robt. Duffin"
Before Mr. Duffin sail'd from Nootka Sound he made oath to
the above before Captn. Vancouver. The state of affairs was now materially altered and instead of our (the Chatham) staying at Nootka it
was confidently reported she was to go immediately home to England with
dispatches. The Doedalus who was now just unloaded was ordered to
reload as quickly as possible and each of the Vessels were to take a certain quantity of stores and provisions out of her.
On the 19th at high water we hove the vessel on the Blocks and
repair'd that part of the false Keel that was knock'd off. The following
day we hove her Broadside on the beach to repair some Copper, that
was knock'd off her keel farther aft and on the 21 st the repairs being
finished w.e hove off and began reloading with all dispatch. The same
day arrived the Margaret, American ship belonging to Mr Magee. She
had made a successful trip to the Northward and had collected together
between 1 1 & 1200 Skins and as she was to come on the Coast the following season she landed here on the beach the frame of a small Schooner
with one of her Mates and a party of seamen & artificers who were to
be her crew.     These people were to remain here the winter and build A New Vancouver Journal
55
this little vessel so as to be ready to start on the coast the first ensuing
season. They were to live in the house now occupied by Mr Magee who
was going away in the Margaret to the Sandwich Islands from whence
he was uncertain whether he should proceed to China to dispose of his
cargo and come out again or spend the winter at those Islands and after
that come strait on to the Coast
On this day Mr Quadra took his farewell dinner with Captn. Vancouver on board the Discovery as he intended sailing the next day. Seigr.
Camaano was likewise there. The healths of the Spanish & English Sovereigns were toasted with great Loyalty, and accompanied by a salute of
21 Guns from the Discovery, and Mr. Quadra's health and good passage to his next port was most cheerfully bumpered, and accompanied by
a salute of 13 guns, in the evening he insisted on our all going on shore,
and spending the last evening with him which we did exceedingly pleas-
andy with Singing, Music, Dancing and all kinds of amusements. The
next morning he sail'd in the Activa Brig for Monterrey a Spanish Set-
tlemnet on the Coast of California and as he rounded Hog Island paid
the last compliment to Captn. Vancouver by saluting him with 13 Guns,
which was return'd. With Mr Quadra Mr Wethered went. Seigr.
Camaano now hoist'd his Pendant on board the remaining Spanish Vessel
the Arasansu, and became the Commandante of the Place. He took up
his residence on shore in the Government house.
Never was the departure of a man more regretted than that of
Mr Quadra's. He was universally belov'd and admired and the only
consolation we had was that we should see him again at Monterrey
(whither 'twas reported we were to go from this) there he said he
wou'd wait for us and make it his business to receive us. In such a
place as Nootka, so remote from all civilized places (except the small
setdements in California) and after having been so long there, he lived
in a style that I should suppose is rarely seen under such circumstances,
and supported the dignity of his Court in a very becoming manner. His
house was open to every gentleman, he gave few particular invitations,
they were general. He was fond of society and of social amusements
and the Evening parties at his house were among the pleasantest I have
spent since leaving England. One of the Articles in the Convention provides for all difficulties which may arise between the officers of either
party in case of infraction of the treaty being settled by only the two
Courts. Captain V. and Seigr. Quadra therefore parted on as good
terms as they met.34
34Captain   Vancouver,   in   his   own   Journal,   manifests   the   same   enthusiasm in speaking of the character of Quadra. 56
Documents
23rd. This day arrived the American Ship Columbia commanded
by Mr Grey and his sloop the Adventure.35 This little vessel was built
on this coast. He was now proceeding to China with a valuable cargo
of skins, having no less (according to report) than 17 or 1800. He
sail'd the next morning. It was very difficult here to come at the truth
of what numbers of skins ships collected; for the Masters of them and
their mates & ships company, whether from a privilege they think they
can claim by passing round Cape Horn, or from some unaccountable
species of distrust or jealousy seldom agree in their accounts of their quantity on board, many of them, and often, varying hundreds of skins. However I believe I may be somewhat tolerably near the truth in the quantities
I have mention'd throughout, at all events I am pretty sure I am not above
the mark, more likely considerably under it.
28th. We had hitherto since we came been very fortunate in our
weather having had regular Land and Sea Breezes every day with clear
pleasant dry Weather but today the wind came from the S. E. and blew
a very fresh Gale with rain, which continued all night and the neirt day,
and in the evening, by a sudden gust, the Bower Cable parted in the nip
of the clinch, and as we were moor'd pretty near the shore in the N. W.
part of the Cove, the vessel on parting swung head to wind and gently
drifted on the Rocks, but we soon clear'd her by heaving on the N. E.
Cable. We then weigh'd the anchor we parted from and bent the Cable
which the Deodalus's Launch carried it out to the S. E. corner of the Cove
where we hove into and moor'd. She had received no damage her side
only having touch'd the rocks and that slightly.
Captain Vancouver now thought proper to send his first Lieut: Mr.
Zach Mudge to England with his dispatches. He was to sail in a day
or two in the Fenis bound direct to China (touching in her way at the
Sandwich Islands) and from thence to proceed home by the first India
Ship. In consequence of this more promotions took place. Mr Paget
(2nd Lieut, of the Discovery) became first Lieut:, Mr Baker (the 3rd
Lieut:) became second, Mr Swaine our late new Master was promoted
to 3rd Lieut: and Mr Munby, a Master's Mate of the Discovery appointed
Master of the Chatham.
October. On the 1st of October the Fenis with Lieut: Mudge on
board sail'd out of the Sound as also the Jackall sloop. We had by this
time got nearly all our Provisions and Stores on board. The Guns were
this day got off and the Yards and Topmasts were sway'd up. Our
water was almost compleated, the late rain had formed a fine rim of
water in the British Territories, before this we had been obliged to send
ssThe Spaniards bought this little vessel from the Americans, paying
for  her   "seventy-five   prime   sea   otter   skins." A New Vancouver Journal
57
above two miles for that article. The weather return'd to its old pleasant
state and we had now the regular Land and Sea Breeze.
On the 2nd in the morning arrived the Spanish Frigate Princessa
commanded by Seigr. Don Salvador Fidalgo,38 a Lieut: in the Royal
Navy, together with the Hope Brig, Ingram, this is the same Princessa
which Martinez commanded when he took possession of Nootka but is
much such another Vessel as the Aransasu but carried more guns and
men.    She had 10 Guns mounted.
This Vessel came from the entrance of the Streights of Defuca,
where in a small part near Cape Classett, they as I have already mentioned had a small setdement, their only establishment being the Princessa
and her crew: they now evacuated it.37 A melancholy murder as equally
unprovoked, although not attended with such barbarous circumstances,
as that of the Spanish Boy, was committed during their stay at their
new Settlement. The first Pilot of the Princessa going on shore with his
fowling piece to amuse himself shooting, after proceeding a little distance
from where he landed was dragg'd by a party of the natives (with whom
they had till that time been on the most amicable terms) into the woods,
where they stripp'd him naked, and then taking his Gun from him which
was loaded with Ball, they shot him dead with it. No provocation was
known to have been given. Seigr. Fidalgo therefore determined very
properly to punish these Savages for so atrocious a crime in a manner
that it well deserved and with a severity that would make them ever remember it, and deter them from committing such for the future. He fired
indiscriminately on the whole tribe, laid the Village waste, and routed
them so successfully that they fled to the opposite side of the Streights.
Mr Fidalgo being an older officer than Seigr. Camaano immediately
took the command on him, and as he was to remain here the winter, where
he might expect much bad weather, he wisely began whilst the fine
weather remain'd, to repair and refit his House, Gardens &c. He brought
with him from the late settlement in Defuca, no less than 8 head of cattle,
besides Poultry in abundance, Hogs, Goats, Sheep &c. On the 4th
Seigr. Camaano in the Arasansu sail'd out of the Cove.
6th. This day the Jenny a ship Schooner, Baker, Master, belonging to Bristol, on this coast for Skins, arrived in the Cove. She had
been but one season on the Coast and being unsuitably provided with
articles of Traffic, her success had been but poor, having collected no
more than about 350 good Sea Otter Skins.    As she was to take the
3GHis name is commemorated by that of the island separated from the
mainland of Skagit County, Washington, by Swinomish Slough. Anacortes
Is the  principal city on Fidalgo  Island.
37They had begun the erection of a fort at Neah Bay, for to this day
fragments of old Spanish bricks are found where the foundations were
started. 58
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cargo home to England by orders, Mr Baker had determin'd on going
now straight home, touching only at the Island of Masafuero to kill a
few seals. Had he had a pass to entitle him to have gone to China where
he could have sold his cargo he would have in that case laid in an assortment of articles that would have suited the natives on this Coast, to
which he would have return'd and probably procured a valuable cargoe.
He had on board two poor Girls, Natives of the Sandwich Islands whom
he had brought with him from those Islands, but not wishing to touch
there on his way home (provided he could otherwise get them a passage
to their home) and hearing that Captn. Vancouver was now in Nootka he
came in here for the purpose of requesting him to give them a passage to
their native Island Atooi. This was readily agreed to, and the Ladies
accordingly remov'd into the Discovery. There the poor girls found
themselves happy and satisfied not only with the pleasing idea of getting
soon home to their friends & country, but having a companion on board
the Discovery, (one of their countrymen that Captn. Vancouver brought
with him from Owhyee as I have at that place taken notice of) to whom
they cou'd converse and who from his knowledge of our language could
contribute much to their comfort by interpreting their wants and desires.
This is the Vessel that touch'd at Otaheite and brought from that
place Mr Wethered, and the 4 or 5 others of the shipwrecked crew of
the Matilda. Besides touching at Otaheite she had likewise touch'd at
Easter Island, and, on her passage from Otaheite to the Sandwich Islds;
at Christmas Island, where Mr Baker found Captn. Cook's Bottle, and
he also found what Captn. Cook could not find on this Island, which was
the very essential article fresh water. Here he completed his Wood &
Water, turn'd about 70 Turtle, and found plenty of excellent Cocoa
Nuts. He left on the Island a fine Otaheite Boar & a Sow big with
young and half a dozen Cocks & Hens, and putting another paper mentioning what he had done here into the Captn. Cook's Bottle seal'd it up
again and left it in the same place he found it.
8th. We had very fresh Breezes from the S. E. attended with
rain and we afterwards learn'd it had blown a very heavy Gale at sea.
The Doedalus being now reladen, shifted her birth further out and was
getting ready for sea.
10th. Arrived the Butterworth English Ship, Mr. Brown, Master,
together with one of his Squadron, the Jackall. Of these Vessels I
have already given some small account. I shall only here add that the
Squadron under him had been but unsuccessful this, their first season,
but they were yet to be on the coast another season from which Mr. Brown
expected great. things. A New  Vancouver Journal
59
The sale of the effects of the late unfortunate gentlemen Messrs-
Hergest and Gooch commenced this day. Only the Officers and gentlemen of the two Vessels were permitted to purchase anything. The sale
was by auction and as wearing apparel was among the principal articles
(Books & Nautical Instruments being the chief of the remaining things)
every thing went off well and indeed the generality at high prices.
On the 1 1 th arrived here the Prince William Henry, English
Schooner, a Mr Ewing Master, belonging to New Castle and one of Mr
Alder's Squadron employ'd on the Fur Trade. She had not procured
many Skins. This Vessel made a most remarkable passage from England
to the Coast round Cape Horn having made it in no more than 5 months
including a fortnight's stay at the Sandwich Islands. I have since
understood that Mr Alder and his associates were proceeding illegally in
their Commerce not having a South Sea pass, this renders them fair and
lawful prizes to all Vessels on the Coast properly authorized to Trade.
Being now ready for Sea and having got our Boats & everything
from the shore, on the 13th the Discovery made the Signal to unmoor.
The wind that for some days before had been from the S. E. blowing
fresh with rain now shifted to its old quarter the N. W. with regular
night Land Breezes. The Jenny, Hope and Margaret sail'd out of the
Cove, at 9 warped further out, but the Doedalus not being yet un-
moor'd we brought up in 13 fathom water. At 11 we weigh'd but the
wind shifting more to the Northward the Vessel wore round upon the
point of the Cove and took the ground. We soon however hove her off
and as we then thought without receiving much damage, but in this we
were mistaken as will appear hereafter. We anchored after this outside
the Cove, and at 7 o'clock the next morning once more weigh'd and with'
the Doedalus in company made sail out of the Sound, saluting the Fort
with 13 Guns which was return'd with an equal number from the
Princessa. The Discovery having got clear out the night before did not
come to an Anchor but stood out and we .now saw her lying too for us.
As we were going out we saw a Brig working into the Sound which we
took to be the three Bs.—Alder.
We were now bound to Monterrey, a Spanish Settlement on the
Coast of California, touching on our way at Deception Bay (as 'tis
called by Mr Mears) in the Latitude of 42.18 N or thereabouts, where
Mr Grey, Master of the American Ship Columbia found a River which
he enter'd, and being the first person as he conceived that ever entered
it, he call'd it Columbia River. By a plan of it which Captn. Vancouver got at Nootka Mr Grey proceeded up the River about 50 miles
where he left it wider considerably than the Entrance, and from whence •vP
/"
m
\f
60
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nothing of its source or termination was to be seen. Our business therefore was to determine either its source or termination.
After the commencement of the month of October much bad weather
may be expected on this Coast as far to the Southward as the Latitude
of 39° and 40° N and our passage to that situation which I shall
presently relate will fully evince the truth of this observation. Had we
sail'd from Nootka at the time Mr Quadra did, or even as late as the
1st of October we shou'd have escaped perhaps one of the most disagreeable, one of the most unpleasant passages that we have experienced, or shall
experience during the voyage. S. E. Gales, with constant rain and
Fogs, is the predominant weather on this coast in the Winter Months
and we were informed by the Spaniards and others that have wintered at
Nootka that they have been most generally three months of incessant
hard rain. Very little snow falls on the low ground nor is the Frost at
all intense, the Ice on no part of their Lakes or Rivers being above an
inch thick.
These were among the comforts we shou'd have enjoyed had we
remained here for the Winter which it was certainly intended we should
had the place been given up to us as was expected.
The Latitude of Friendly Cove as it was made at the Observatory on shore was 49°34'30" N.—and the Longitude 233°33'Et of
Greenwich.
Having now given an account of our transactions in Nootka Sound
I shall proceed in the following pages to give some account of the Natives
of the Coast we have been on this season and on the Trade to it for
Skins although Mr Mears's Voyage, so generally read in England, and
Portlock's, Dixon's and tho' the last, yet the best of all Cook's, very
accurately give everything materially worth noticing.
Of the Natives of Nootka Sound and the Coast adjacent, their
Manners, Customs, &c.
Although we had now been on the Coast of America for nearly
six months—a whole summer—yet it is to be remembered all our Navigation from entering Defuca's Streights had been Inland and we had
but little opportunity of making any remarks on the Inhabitants except
those of Nootka, for as to what we saw in the Streights of Defuca they
were not very numerous, they however, as well as those we saw off Cape
Classett at the entrance of the Streights seem'd from what we could observe, to differ but little in appearance, manners, customs &c, from the
Nootkan Indians, except the language, this at the entrance of the
Streights and at the Sound into which we caine from Desolation reach
(and which led us to the Sea) was the same as spoken in Nootka Sound, A New Vancouver Journal
61
but in the interior part of the Streights, more than two or three very different languages are spoken. The generality of the men are under the
middling size, tolerably well made with long Black Hair and good teeth,
their Eyes small & Black with but little vivacity or expression in them,
their cheek bones are in general high and prominent and their foreheads
in the generality of them also very high and tapering to a small size at
the back of the head. This curious distortion of the head is occasion'd
by the manner they are treated when Infants, the head being tighdy
bound up in a Cradle with Fillets to produce the intended shape. The
women except having their heads distorted in much the same manner as
the men, in general in my opinion are superior in appearance to the men.
They are delicate, with tolerable good eyes and smooth skins and I have
seen some very handsome faces among them. The colour of these people
when they are clean and free'd from the Ochre and filth with which
they daub themselves, approaches very near to Europeans and some
women I have seen as white as an English woman.
In their countenances they have very little animation, on the contrary they are in general of a very reserved dejected appearance and
are not very prone to mirth. The women are very modest in their behaviour and cannot bear the most trifling attacks of gallantry. An indelicate word will often bring tears into their eyes but as there are few
Societies without a Bad member or two so it was here.
The married men here were very jealous and could no more bear
any indelicacy offered to their wives than they themselves. Polygamy
is allowed here, at least I know among the chiefs, who are allow'd many
wives. Maquinna had four, by all of whom he had children. Both men
and women are extremely filthy and dirty in their persons, dwellings,
manner of living and in short in everything whatever. They seldom or
ever wash themselves, and they beautify themselves highly in their opinions
by besmearing their faces with Red Ochre and white paint mixed with
Fish Oil, in different figures, which at times renders their appearance
frightful. This custom is however commonly confined to the men. As
to their Hair, very little or scarce any care is taken of it by the men except indeed that when it is long enough they often plait the hind part into
several separate long tails, which by being adorn'd on those days that
they go to Whale feast or other Gala, with a large quantity of Powder'd
Red Ochre, Oil of Fish, and down of Birds, get in time so thick and
clotted as to become next to inseparable. They never use combs but the
Women do and their Combs which are of wood are made by themselves.
The Hairs of the women hang down behind straight and in the middle of
the Front of the head is parted off towards each side but it is mixed
mm 62
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m
troughout with oil which is generally Venison Oil and with this species
of oil the women likewise are fond of greasing their faces. But the combs
they make use of are only for the purpose of combing the Hair smooth and
straight and not for destroying vermin. These they conceive too precious
to run the risk of loosing by using small combs therefore they pick them
out with their fingers from each others heads and not willing to go unrewarded for their pains—eat them. Their Garments, Canoes and fishing implements are their chief workmanship and of these I procured
samples that will better shew their ingenuity than I can explain it. The
Garments worn by all ranks are much the same, the most common kind
are made of the inside part of the Bark of the Pine tree88 which after
going through a particular process of steeping it in water, beating it out
&c. is wove in small narrow strips into the Garment, the upper edge being generally bound with a Strip of Sea Otter skin and the end terminating in Tassels & fringes either of the Bark or of a small line which they
make from a species of Flax plant. The Chiefs frequently wear Otter
Skins, either made into Garments, or in their natural state as taken from
the animal, only sewing the sides of two together and letting the head &
paws hang over like lappets, but the shape and manner of wearing these
garments I had forgot to mention, the Garment is square, or nearly so,
being deep enough to hang from the chin to just below the Calves of the
legs and long enough to wrap round them, this is passed under the left
arm and ties with a thong at the two upper corners, over the right shoulder
leaving thereby both arms free and the right side of the garment open
entirely. Over this in bad weather they commonly wear a small round
cloak if I may be allowed to call it so, it is of one piece, circular, with
a hole to admit the head, and hangs from the neck to the middle of
the body. They likewise manufacture a Woollen Cloth which they use
to wear, though not so generally as the other kinds I have mentioned,
this I believe is made from the Wool of an animal which we never
saw and call'd the Mountain Sheep.39 This last being much scarcer than
their other manufactures, are more valuable among themselves than Otter
Skins, that is, one garment is of more value than one Otter skin.
Besides their employment at these manufactures, fishing & killing
the Sea Otters are their principal occupations. As to their amusements
and pleasures I cannot say that I ever saw any, nor do I think they have
any. They are extremely indolent and lazy and in general seem devoid
of mirth. Their risible Faculties are seldom exercised and they never
appear surprized, delighted or astonished at any thing they see, however
38A mistake was here made by the observer. The bark used was that
of the cedar tree.     (Thuja plicata.)
30In reality the mountain goat which does produce wool while the
mountain   sheep   produces   hair   like   a   deer. • A New Vancouver Journal
63
new, strange, or entertaining. In their tempers I should suppose them
very suspicious, fearful and revengeful. They eat all their food (which
always is Fish) boiled or broil'd and this they perform by putting the
Fish into a Wooden Vessel with water which they heat by putting hot
stones in.
Their Houses are universally built of Wood and in the same manner as that of Maquinna's which I have described. The Natives about
Nootka have regular Summer and Winter Habitations. Their Summer
ones are near the Sea Coast and their Winter ones, on the banks of the
Arms of the Sea that run for a considerable distance Inland. All the
Indians that we have seen this year on the Coast have preferr'd Cop-.
per to all other Articles. Blue Cloth was I believe equally as valuable.
Next to these two articles all other kinds of Cloth of Woollen manufacture, large Yellow Metal Buttons, Copper Tea & Cooking Kettles
were in most estimation. They are very fond of our food, and their general
cry was for Bread and this they preferred to everything else in barter for
Fish and such like small articles. But of all the different things they get
the Woollen Cloth is almost the only one that is ever seen among them a
second time, for they wear it on them and in the same fashion they wear
their own garments. Perhaps the other articles they send inland to Barter
with different tribes of Indians, for what, those on the Sea Coast cannot
themselves attain otherwise. This indeed is known to be the case, some
of the Masters of the Merchantmen told me they saw articles among
Indians in the Latitude of 46° that they sold to Indians in the Latitude
of 55 & 56 N and the Natives explain'd that they had got them last
from an Indian tribe, and thus I suppose do the articles traverse from
tribe to tribe. Sails for their canoes they are likewise very fond of, and
use them with great dexterity.
As to the religion of these Indians I know nothing, it being a subject too profound to enter into with them, and more especially as I was
rot sufficiently acquainted with their Language for such an undertaking.
We had however frequent opportunities in Defuca's Straits of seeing the
manner the Indians there dispose of their dead and which I conceive to be
the same method they use at Nootka from the very inconsiderable distance
between the two places and the very great affinity between them in all
their other manners and customs. The corpse is wrapp'd up either in
Matts or Deer Skins, according I should imagine to the rank of the deceased, and put into a canoe which is secured in the spreading branches of
the largest Trees. About the middle of the Tree we often found canoes
fastened on the lower Branches and some of them containing four or five
dead Bodies.    Sometimes instead of a canoe we found the Corpse squees'd rail
lill 11
y
64
Documents
into a Box. This last method I shou'd suppose was used by those who
could not afford to expend a Canoe for such purposes.
Though Maquinna is the greatest chief in the neighborhood of
Nootka Sound yet Wicananish who resides at Clyonquot40 seems to me
to be the Emperor of the Sea Coast between Defuca's Streights and Woody
point, an extent of upwards of a degree & a half of Latitude, and the
most populous part of the Coast (for its extent) but Maquinna is not
tributary to him nor does he allow his rank to be inferior to Wicananish's.
Their families are united by Marriage which of course unites their Politicks. Wicannanish's property is very great and as I before mentioned
is possessed of about 400 Muskets. With such a force no wonder that
small vessels are afraid to enter the Port. He attempted to take the Ship
Columbia while she was wintering in Clyonquot but I must confess I
cannot bestow much pity on those who have been attacked when I recollect that they themselves have put the very weapons in their hands which
are turn'd against them. Notwithstanding this threacherous piratical disposition the Chiefs behave with some degree of honor to those with whom
they make bargains.
Wicananish amongst others frequently receives in advance from the
Masters of Vessels (particularly Mr Kendrick) the value of from 50
to 100 Skins to be paid in a certain time which hitherto he has commonly fulfill'd and when the Butterworth & Jenny were together in that
part I have understood they could not purchase a skin as Wicananish
was making up a quantity he owed and had likewise made a promise to
the person he was in debt to to keep all the skins for him over and above
the sum due, that he collected. From what I have seen and heard I have
not a doubt remaining in my own mind that these Indians are Cannibals.
Knowing well in what light we consider this species of Barbarity, ofcourse,
when questioned on the subject they will not own it but the circumstance of the murder of the Spanish Boy where the Flesh was clearly
cut out of the Legs & thighs and some other of the fleshy parts of the
Body puts it beyond a doubt. It was well known among the Spaniards
that Maquinna had killed and feasted on two Boys his own Slaves a
little time before Mr Quadra arrived at Nootka for which Mr Quadra
threatened to kill him. The fear of this prevented him doing it in so
public a manner as that it could be found out although it is said he had
often since privately regaled himself on human flesh. During the time
we were at Nootka Mr Hanson in passing from the Doedalus to the
Chatham had a human hand thrown into the boat to him from some
Indians in a Canoe that had not been a very long time cut from the
40Spelled Clayoquot in British Columbia literature.    Clayoquot Sound is
on the western shore of Vancouver Island, south of Nootka Sound. A New Vancouver Journal
65
Body. In short from all that I have heard and from my own observation I have no doubts (as I already observed) but that these Indians are
Cannibals.41 Having now dwelt long enough on the Indians of Nootka I
shall proceed to make some observations on the Fur Trade on the N. W.
Coast of America nor am I going to give these observations and opinions
on the subject as entirely my own, many of them being collected from
the conversation of those whom I conceive to be good judges of the matter.
The Trade to the N. W. Coast of America had it been properly
carried on might now have probably been a remarkably lucrative one.
Had England in the first instance taken possession of the Coast by making a settlement at Nootka or some other convenient place and built a
Fort and confined the Trade to themselves the Advantages arising from
it to England would I should suppose be great. The average prices of
the first cargoes of Sea Otter Skins that were carried to China (according to an account of them which I have seen published by Mr Dalrymple
and which he says was procured from a Mr Cox a Merchant residing
at China) compared to the average prices of the latest cargoes carried
there were greater in the proportion of more than three to one. Many of
the first Cargoes having sold on an average at 40 dollars per Skin whilst
the late cargoes averaged no more than from 12 to 15 dollars per skin,
though more good skins were among the cargoes of the latter, the more
considerable part of the first cargoes being composed of garments of skins
that had been worn and the average value of the articles now given in
barter to the Indians for the skins in this Coast compar'd to what was at
first given is greater in the proportion of near four to one. Both these effects were caused by the number of vessels of all nations (particularly the
Americans) who instantly jumped at the Trade on hearing the success of
the first vessels. More and more ships were seen every season and the
Indians who soon saw the eagerness of all hands to purchase their skins
demanded their own prices which was as readily given them by the purchasers who studying their private interests for the moment argued to
themselves that those who gave the most got the most. A sheet of Copper that at one time wou'd purchase four skins at last wou'd not purchase
at some places one. Muskets were early given them in Barter which
they could not use without Powder and Ball, these they demanded for
the Skins and got them and for a length of time no skins could be purchased without ammunition & Fire Arms. Some of the first Muskets that
were sold procured 6 and seven Skins, now, two skins, but more commonly one, is the price. At the district of Wicananish that chief can
turn out four hundred men arm'd with muskets and well found with am-
4ilt is probable that the cannibalism that once prevailed there was for
for supersitlous ceremonials rather than for food. 66
Documents
munition, a considerable part of which have been given him in barter by
a Mr Kendrick, Master of an American Vessel call'd the Washington.42
Their former weapons, Bows and Arrows, Spears and Clubs are now
thrown aside & forgotten. At Nootka it was the same way everyone
had his musket. Thus are they supplied with weapons which they no
sooner possess than they turn against the donors. Every season produces
instances of their daring treacherous conduct. Few ships have been on the
Coast that have not been attack'd or attempted to be attacked and in general many lives have been lost on both sides.
Such a number of Vessels soon glutted the China market and some
who were needy and could not stand out with the Chinese sold at the best
price offered. Some were ruined, some few grew rich still however the
number of Traders encreased every season. The eagerness of some of
these desperate Traders has in more than two or three instances urged
them to infamous practices for procuring their cargoes for where the Indians have refused disposing of their Skins either from disliking the
articles or from the quantity offered being too small in their opinions,
some of these Traders have by force of Arms made them part with the
skins on their own terms, nay have in some places forcibly taken their
skins from them without making any return whatever. The interval of
time between the capture of the English Traders by the Spaniards and
the concluding of the Treaty between England and Spain afforded the
Americans an opportunity of doing all that I have mentioned and the opportunity was readily embraced by them as they well knew that their
career would not be of very long duration, for should the business have
'been decided in favor of England they knew of course their trade wou'd
not be allowed and they had but little doubt shou'd the Spaniards have
been confirmed in their rights to Nootka that their Trade would from that
time be no longer allowed. If England conceived that the Trade on this
Coast was worth her while to quarrel with Spain about why did she not
in the first instance make a settlement there. Had this been done none
-of the evils I have mentioned would have come to pass and a small number of Vessels on a well regulated plan would have carried on the Trade
with (most probably) as much success now as at the beginning. The
first Vessels sent out from England on this Coast were fitted out by
Messrs Etches & Co. who unfortunately failed in business but this did not
arise from any loss sustained by their Vessels, their misfortune having
happened before the voyage was completed and  the voyage although it
42The Lady Washington which had come out with the Columbia from
Boston in 1788. Captain John Kendrick exchanged ships with Captain
Robert Gray who returned to Boston in the Columbia by way of China and
was thus the first to carry the Stars and Stripes around the Globe. Captain Kendrick remained on the Lady Washington in the fur trade between
China and the American coast. A New  Vancouver Journal
67
did not prove in the end so very lucrative as was expected was far from
being a losing one. It was those gendemen who fitted out the King George
and Queen Charlotte, commanded by Messrs Portlock & Dixon and the
Prince of Wales and Princess Royal Messrs Collnett & Duncan. But
had Mr. Portlock done what (in the opinion of those who were well
able to judge) he ought to have done he might have ensured his owner's
fortune and his own. The K. George & Q. Charlotte were fitted out on
a most liberal plan, furnished with the best Artificers and with everything necessary, not only for prosecuting their Trade on all parts of the
N. W. Coast but for making a.Settlement on it should it be deemed by
Mr P. Expedient.
We find they make the Coast in very good time but instead
of seperating and each ship taking the opposite ends of the Coast as I
think they obviously ought to have done they both together enter Cook's
River where they staid a considerable time without getting scarcely anything and after leaving that place without stopping at any other place
whatsoever they run down the Coast, made an attempt to get into Nootka,
which not succeeding in as soon as they expected, and not having patience
to persevere, they gave up and stood away for the Sandwich Islands
with no more than Eighty skins of all kinds between the two Vessels.
Here it was they missed their fortunes, this season they had no rival and
it has since been supposed and from many concurring circumstances very
rightly supposed that at the very time Mr Portlock was off Nootka there
was not less than 800 to a thousand Sea Otter skins in that Sound and its
neighborhood. When the time for the second season of their returning
to the Coast drew nigh, we find they again came together and enter Prince
Wm's Sound where they met Mears. This circumstance first gave rise to
the idea of seperating which had they not done, there is every reason to
believe they would have left the Coast with but as little success at the
ends of this Season as they did last, for after they seperated Mr Dixon
discovered the Queen Charlotte's Islands and there procured the most considerable part of their cargo. Mr. Portlock after leaving Prince Wm's
Sound only touches at one other Port in the Lat: as high as 57Yl N. Here
he stayed a considerable while picking up a few skins and from this with
but little more than two hundred skins and without again attempting
Nootka nor any other part of the Coast he goes away to the Sandwich
Islands bidding a final adieu to the Coast of America and the whole of
the two vessels cargoes did not amount to more than 1800 Otter Skins of
all sorts. For as to all the other kinds of skins they are of but little value
at China comparatively speaking with Otter Skins. But 'twould have
been of but little service had Mr Portlock even gone to Nootka this lasj 68
Documents
year, at least if his purpose had only 'been to collect skins, he was too late,
for, this last season of their being on the Coast, there was a Ship in Nootka
call'd the Imperial Eagle commanded by a Mr Berkely43 from Ostend
under Imperial Colours who procured in that Sound and its neighborhood
(for he went no further to the Nrd.) above a thousand Sea Otter Skins
the greater part of which Mr Portlock might have had had he persever'd
and gone into that place the first season.
Mr Berkly was by himself. He staid but one season on the Coast
and went to China with the above cargoes.
The Trade at present is carried on chiefly between Columbia River
in the Latitude of 46° and Cross Sound in the Lat. of 58 N though
within that extensive range I believe the Queen Charlotte's Islands have
furnished more skins than all other parts put together. Some are collected
in Admiralty Bay in about the Lat: 59° but to the Nrd. of that the
Russians monopolize everything and are making rapid strides to the S.
every year. Skins may be got to the S. of Columbia River but the Indians
there are few and the places of shelter for shipping likewise as few.
Besides Fire Arms; Woollens & Warm Cloathing are in general request all over the American Coast as also Cooking Kettles, Copper in
Sheets no farther than 53 Lat: but as we shall make some progrses next
year to the Nd. I shall here close the subject & resume it when we get
there.
END
HI I'
/
4sSee note 7 for reference to proper spelling—Barkley. The captain's
visit is commemorated by the name of Barkley Sound on the western shore
of  Vancouver  Island. BOOK REVIEWS
Alaska, Its Meaning to the World, Its Resources, Its
Opportunities. By Charles R. Tutde. (Seattle. Franklin Shuey
and Company, 1914.   Pp. 318.   $2.50.)
This is a new addition to the literature pertaining to Alaska and is
chiefly a compilation of statistics and quotations from reports of the government and other sources. The author does not claim to present new
historical or statistical material. It is valuable as a collection of material
in one volume which otherwise would require the searching of many separate records. He has drawn from the reports of the Geological Survey,
the Agricultural Department bulletins, the reports of the Governor of
Alaska, the Road Commission Reports and other publications, both public
and private.
An optimistic view of the future of the transportation and commerce
of the Pacific Northwest is followed by a valuation of past production,
present output, and future possibilities of the mines, fisheries, forests, agriculture, etc., of Alaska. A large portion of the work is devoted to the
history of the Government Railway legislation and the means by which it
was brought about. A statement of the policy proposed by the Administration at Washington occupies much space.
The views advanced on the form of government adapted to the Territory are not those of one who has been a resident of Alaska and who
expects to live there.
At times it is difficult to be sure whether the book is describing
Alaskan matters, or is eulogising Seattle, its interest in Alaska, and its
future prospects.
His conclusions, while giving a seemingly exaggerated estimate of the
possibilities of the country in some lines, are generally very well justified
and present a fairly good view of the value of the most northerly Territory
of the United States. C. L. ANDREWS
Seven Years on the Pacific Slope. By Mrs. Hugh Fraser
and Hugh C. Fraser. (New York, Dodd, Mead & Co. 1914. Pp. 391.
Illus. 16.    $3.00.)
"Seven Years on the Methow" would have been a more appropriate
title for a book whose 400 odd pages are devoted to a description of
life in a tiny frontier village situated on the Methow River a few miles
(69) 70
Book Reviews
above its junction with the Columbia, in Okanogan County, Washington.
Isolated by mountain ranges and reached only by difficult roads, remote
valleys like the Methow have developed slowly and still retain picturesque
aspects of frontier life. Of these the authors have made the most. The
"book is composd largely of anecdotes, some of them of a very trivial nature.
A good idea is given of the life of the people, but it could have been done
as well in half the space. Sidelights are thrown upon the development of
the region during the years from 1905 to 1912.
The book has litde of direct historical value. Its excellence consists in the vividness of its description and power to make the reader feel
that he has lived in the Methow. CHRISTINA Denny Smith.
Fremont and '49.    By Frederick S. Dellenbaugh.
G. P. Putnam's Sons,  1914.    Pp. 547.    $4.50.)
(New York,
John Charles Fremont has been a hazy and unwelcome figure in the
history of the West. There have been many reasons for this. The rugged
land of mountains, plains, mines and forests has stood for fair play above
all else and yet most western men shrug their shoulders at the mention of
Fremont's name. Probably every person who reads these words will at
once conjure up one or more reasons for entertaining a feeling of resentment. The author of the present volume frankly acknowledges that he
had similar notions when he began his studies. These he has overcome
and not only that he has become convinced that Fremont is one of America's most interesting characters and a true gentleman through all the dramatic epochs of his life.
Fremont started to give his own account of his life, but for some unknown reason only one volume was published. In Mr. Dellenbaugh's
large volume we have an ample biography and much more. The author
was with Major Powell in the famous Grand Canyon expedition and has
shown his familiarity with, and love for, the West by his former books.
He has brought this experience to the present task and we have ample
opportunity to discern the many bearings of Fremont's work.
The frank discussion of Fremont's faults, the tracing in sympathetic
lines the young man's drifting toward his life work, the explanation of his
candor toward Kit Carson and other real pathfinders, all these give us
a more real and more honest character than we have known heretofore under the name of Fremont.
Mr. Dellenbaugh has done his work well. He has produced a valuable book of the keenest interest. It will undoubtedly have a far reach
in its readjustment of Fremont's position in history. References on the West
71
The book is beautifully printed and carries a wealth of illustrations.
There are fifty-nine half-tones and maps besides the quaint head- and tailpieces drawn by the author.
All in all it seems as though this book is sure to meet a cordial reception in the West. EDMOND S. Meany.
Story of the Session of the California Legislature of
1913. By Franklin Hichborn. (San Francisco, The James H. Barry
Company, 1913.    Pp. 367. $1.50.)
This is the third review of California legislative sessions written by
Mr. Franklin Hichborn. As in the volumes for 1909 and 1911, the primary purpose of the author has been to give a straightforward account of
the action taken by the legislature upon the important issues of the session.
The record of each senator and assemblyman is given on all important
measures but the reader is allowed to draw his own conclusion as to
whether that record is good or bad. The volume for 1913 is of particular interest because in addition to presenting the record of legislators, it
discusses the working of the new legislative system then in operation for
the first time. The author clearly indicates the weaknesses of the new
system and shows how these have been discovered by new lobbyists who
have taken the places of deposed bosses. Mr. Hichborn has performed a
public service of immeasurable value. A similar volume for the State of
Washington would be a most desirable contribution to present politics and
future histoid.
List of References on the History of the West, By
Frederick Jackson Turner. (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1915.
Pp. 133.)
In this revised edition the pamphlet is more useful than ever to students of the West. The far Northwest is well represented in the citations to the publications of the historical societies and to books devoted to
this section. Recent works cited show how well the list has been brought
down to date.
Writings of John Quincy Adams. Edited by Worthington C.
Ford. (New York, The Macmillan Company, 1914. Vol. 4, 1811-
1813.     Pp.  541.     $3.50 net.)
The three former volumes of this serise have been noticed in previous issues of this Quarterly.    Readers in the Pacific Northwest will find 72 Book Reviews
the next volume of especial interest as it will surely cover the treaty of
Ghent and the beginning of this century of peace in the early parts of
which the Oregon Question was prominent.
The Mountaineer. Edited by Effie Louise Chapman. (Seatde,
The Mountaineers, Incorporated, 1914. Pp. 104. Illustrated. 50
cents.)
This annual report of The Mountaineers is called Volume VII.
It gives an account of the club's work for the year 1914, including full
records of the outings on Mount Stuart in the Cascades and in Glacier
National Park in Montana. Much of the park lies on the western slope
of the old Rocky Mountain boundary and was thus once a part of Old
Oregon and of Washington Territory (from 1853 to 1863). The pictures and descriptive articles give the book a permanent value.
Mazama. Edited by E. C. Sammons. Portland, Oregon, The
Mazamas,  1914.     Pp.   136.)
While this book is called Volume IV, Number 3, of the publications
by The Mazamas, it really marks the twentieth year of the existence of that
interesting mountain club. The book is twice the size of any of its predecessors and is packed with beautiful pictures and valuable articles about
the wonderful mountains of the Pacific Northwest. Last year's outing was
devoted to Mountain Rainier so that peak receives most attention. Other
articles, however, help to widen the value of this important addition to
the literature of the western mountains.
Other Books Received
American Antiquarian Society. Proceedings of the meeting
held in Boston, April 8, 1914. New series, Volume 24, part 1. (Worcester, Mass.    The Society, 191 4.    Pp.215.)
American Irish Historical Society. Journal, Volume 13,
1914.    (New York, Society, 1914.   Pp.402.)
American Jewish Historical Society. Publications, No. 22.
(Published by the Society, 1914.)    Pp.286.    $2.50.)
American Jewish Historical Society.    Index to the Publi- Other Books Reviewed
73
cations, Numbers  1-20.     (Published by the Society,   1914.     Pp. 587.
$3.50.)
American Scenic and Historic Preservation Society.
Nineteenth Annual Report,  1914.     (Albany, Lyon,  1914.    Pp.  744.)
Illinois State Historical Library. List of Genealogical publications in the Library. Compiled by Georgia L. Osborne. (Springfield,
State Historical Library, 1914.    Pp. 163.)
INNES, ARTHUR D. History of England and the British Empire. To be complete in four volumes. Volumes 1 and 2 have been
noted in previous issues of this Quarterly. Volume 3, 1689-1802. (N.
Y., Macmillan, 1914.    Pp.550.    $1.60.)
Massachusetts Historical Society. Proceedings, volume 47,
1913-1914.    (Boston, Society, 1914.    Pp.554.)
Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society. Collections, Volumes 37, 38, 1909-1910, 1912.     (Lansing, 1910-1912, State Printer.)
NELSON, WILLIAM, EDITOR. Documents relating to the Revolutionary history of the State of New Jersey, Volum e4. Extracts from
American Newspapers relating to New Jersey, Nov. 1, 1 799, to Sept. 30,
1 780.    (Trenton, State Printer, 1914.    Pp. 738.)
THALLON, Ida CARLTON. Readings in Greek history, from Homer
to the battle of Chaeronea.    (Boston, Ginn, 1914.    Pp. 638. $2.)
United States Catholic Historical Society.    Historical
Records and Studies, Volume 6, June, 1914.    (New York, The Society,
1914.   Pp. 244.)
WAYLAND, JOHN W. How to Teach American History, a Handbook for Teachers and Students. (N. Y., Macmillan, 1914. Pp. 349.
$1.10 net.)
The History of Wyoming. By C. G. Contant. (Laramie,
Wyoming, Chaplin, Spofford & Mathison. Pp. 712.) A more extended
notice will be given in the next issue. NEWS DEPARTMENT
Pacific Coast Branch of the American Historical Association
The eleventh annual meeting of the Pacific Coast Branch of the
American Historical Association was held in San Francisco on November
27 and 28.    The programmes were interesting and included the following:
Friday afternoon—"English Royal Income in the Thirteenth Century (from an unpublished manuscript)" by Professor Henry L. Cannon
of Stanford University; "Japanese Naturalization and the California Anti-
Alien Land Law," by Professor Roy Malcolm of the University of Southern California; "The Anglo-Saxon Sheriff," by Professor William A.
Morris of the University of California.
Friday evening—The Annual Dinner, Professor Ephraim D. Adams
of Stanford University, presiding. The President's Address: "Name of
the American War of 1861-1865," was delivered by Professor Edmond
S. Meany of the University of Washington. There followed a series of
a dozen short, interesting addresses by representative men and women.
Saturday morning—"Election Maps of the United Kingdom," by
Professor Edward B. Krehbiel of Stanford University; "Chinese Trade
and Western Expansion" by Professor Robert G. Cleland, of Occidental
College; "The Components of History," by Professor Frederick J. Teg-
gart of the University of California.
At the business session Professor Herbert E. Bolton of the University of California was elected to serve as president for the year 1915.
Saturday afternoon—Teachers' Session. "Hgih School Courses in
European History" 1. A Two-Year Course: a 10th Grade by Miss
Grace Kretsinger of the Berkeley High School; b. 1 1th Grade by Miss
Elizabeth S. Kelsey of the Berkeley High School; 2. A One-Year
Course in General History by Miss Anna Frazer, vice-principal of the Oakland High School. Discussion led by W. J. Cooper, vice-principal of the
Berkeley High School.
The convention sent a telegram of encouragement to Professor H.
Morse Stephens of the University of California, who was in the East arranging for the meeting of the American Historical Association to be held
in San Francisco during the Panama-Pacific Exposition.
Oregon Historical Society
At the annual meeting held in Portland on December 19 the following officers were elected:    President, Frederick V. Holman; vice-president,
(74) Northwestern Tribute to Three Diplomats
75
Leslie M. Scott; secretary, Professor F. G. Young; treasurer, Edward
Cookingham; dirctors, Leslie M. Scott and Charles B. Moores. The
principal address of the meeting was delivered by Thomas W. Prosch of
Seatde. His subject was "The Indian Wars of Washington Territory."
The press comments on the address indicate that it was worthily presented
and the speaker was unanimously thanked by the society.
President Holman spoke briefly on the great need of a permanent
home for the society's valuable collections.
Northwestern Tribute to Three Diplomats
Historians in the Pacific Northwest have known that the contest
usually called the "Oregon Question" by which soverignty in this region
was determined hinged most upon the diplomatic achievements of three
great Americans—John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay and Albert Gallatin.
The long series of events so important in this regard began with the Treaty
of Ghent in the negotiations for which it was conceded that Astoria, at the
mouth of the Columbia River, should remain American no matter what
had happened there during the War of 1812. The three named of the
five negotiators continued their work for the Oregon country throughout
their lives.
The Treaty of Ghent, signed December 24, 1814, marked the beginning of the century of peace between the United States and Great
Britain. This great event was to have been celebrated throughout the
Union but President Wilson asked that such celebration be deferred on
account of the war in Europe. His request was complied with, except
for the tribute paid to the memory of the three American diplomats by the
Pacific Northwest.
While serving as President of the Pacific Coast Branch of the
American Historical Association, Edmond S. Meany, Professor of History
in the University of Washington, took it upon himself to represent the historians of the Pacific Northwest in arranging for this tribute. Three large
wreaths of evergreens from the forests of this "Oregon Country" were
prepared and sent, one to the grave of each of the three great peace
makers.
Worthington C. Ford, of the Massachusetts Historical Society, and
editor of the works of John Quincy Adams now being published, took
charge of the ceremony which was held in First Church, Quincy, Massachusetts, where John Quincy Adams lies buried. The pastor, Rev. A. L.
Hudson, entered into the plan with zest. The President of the Massachusetts Historical Society is Charles Francis Adams. He did not feel
at liberty to take the initiative to honor the memory of his grandfather 76
News Department
with a public ceremony, but he was pleased that a dignified memorial was
sent across the continent. Brooks Adams, another grandson of John Quincy
Adams, writes: "Although the ceremony was short and extremely simple,
it seemed to me to be in admirable taste and of much dignity, and both
the address of presentation by Mr. Ford, and that of acceptance by Mr.
Hudson, the pastor, were excellent. Speaking personally, as the representative of my family at the ceremony, I wish to convey to you their and
my thanks for your recognition of the service which my grandfather rendered,
on behalf of his country, one hundred years ago, and to express to you
the satisfaction which all of us feel in receiving so appropriate a tribute
from the extreme Northwest. The wreath was hung upon the monument
to my grandfather in the church by the chairman of the Parish Committee."
Henry Clay lies buried at Lexington in his loved State of Kentucky.
Professor James Edward Tuthill of the State University of Kentucky arranged the ceremony there. A surprising number of relatives of Mr. Clay
responded to the occasion. An unusual snow storm prevailed but paths
were dug to the tomb. In the chapel, Professor Tuthill delivered a brief
but appropriate address, Dr. Edwin Muller offered prayer and the
procession then proceeded to the tomb. When the door of the tomb was
opened the descendants of Mr. Clay walked in and Master William
Brock, great-great-grandson of Henry Clay, laid the memorial wreath
upon the sarcophagus. Bishop Lewis W. Burton pronounced the benediction and the simple but dignified ceremony was ended.
Albert Gallatin's grave is in Trinity Churchyard, New York City.
Snow was on the ground, it was cold and in the congested part of the
metropolis the noise was too great for out-of-doors exercises. William A.
Dunning, Professor of History in Columbia University, and former President of the American Historical Association, called a little meeting at
the grave at 4 p. m. on December 24, to match the hour when the treaty
was signed one hundred years before. With sincere expression of gratitude for the past and hope for the future the wreath was placed and the
company went its way. Besides Professor Dunning, that company comprised the following historians: John Bassett Moore, formerly Assistant
Secretary of State; Herbert L. Osgood, William R. Shepherd, David S.
Muzzey, all of Columbia University; Livingston R. Schuyler, of the College of the City of New York; Ulrich B. Phillips, of the University of
Michigan, and B. B. Kendrick and W. W. Pierson.
Professor Frederick Jackson Turner, of Harvard University, helped
to complete arrangements for the several ceremonies, manifesting a kindly
interest in all of them. American Historical Association
77
Meeting  of  the  American Historical Association
The thirtieth annual meeting of the American Historical Association which was held in Chicago, December 29-31, was one of the most
successful meetings ever held. Aside from the very excellent program and
the opportunity to meet old friends and make new ones, interest was
centered about two points. One was the proposal looking to the reorganization of the Historical Association and the other was the special meeting to be held in San Francisco, July 20-24, 1915. The movement for
reorganization culminated in a passionate protest by Dunbar Rowland, of
Mississippi, at the Charleston meeting in 1913. Following that meeting
a number of letters appeared in the Nation relative to reorganization. The
Committee on Nominations sent out a questionaire which was quite generally
ignored by the members but the agitation continued despite the apparent
indifference of many members. The reorganizers had a representative in
the Council and the struggle went on until "the old guard," as it was
called, gave way and reported in favor of a Committee on reorganization
which is to complete a new plan of organization and report at the meeting to be held in Washington in December, 1915. Prof. H. Morse
Stephens reported progress in preparing for the San Francisco meeting
and was elected President of the Association for the new year. A special
Committee was appointed to arrange a program for the special meeting and
has as representatives of the Pacific Coast the following members,—Professors H. E. Bolton, Joseph Schafer, A. B. Show, F. J. Teggert and
P. J. Treat.
The Pacific Coast was represented at the Chicago meeting by three
members, H. Morse Stephens and E. I. McCormac of the University of
California, and Edward McMahon of the University of Washington. NORTHWESTERN HISTORY SYLLABUS
[The aim of this department is to furnish outlines that will aid those
who wish to study the subject systematically. It is expected that its
greatest use will be as a guide for members of women's clubs, literary
societies, and classes in colleges or high schools. It will be a form- of
university extension without the theses and examinations necessary for the
earnings of credits toward a degree.]
XIII.   The Land and Native Races of Washington
1. Boundaries and Areas.
a. From 1853 to 1863.
i. Included all of present area plus all of Idaho and western parts of Montana and Wyoming.
ii. Creation of Idaho in 1 863 gave Washington its present boundaries.
b. Latitude: from 46 deg. to 49 deg.
c. Longitude:  from  117 deg. to  125 deg.
d. Length from east to west about 360 miles.
e. Width from north to south about 240 miles.
f. Content:    69,180 square miles, or about 45,000,000 acres.
g. Approximate   division   of   acreage:   timber   land   20,000,000
acres; grain land, 10,000,000 acres; river valleys, 5,000,-
000 acres; mountains,  10,000,000 acres.
h.    Nearly 3,000 miles of shore lines.
i.    About 1,600 square miles of inside tide water.
2. Physical Features.
a.    Mountains.
i.      Cascade Range dividing the state,
ii.     Olympic Range along the coast,
ii.   Blue Mountains in southeast,
iv.   Okanogan Highlands in north,
v.     Individual peaks.
vi. Fifty-seven peaks named and measured above 7,500
feet elevation.
(78) Northwestern History Syllabus                              79
r
b.
Lakes.
Lake Chelan, largest and deepest.
ii.
Lake   Washington.
iii.
Medical Lake.
iv.
Lake Whatcom.
v.
Lake Kichelas.
vi.
Lake Wenatchee.
vii.
Rock Lake.
c.
Rivers.
i.
Columbia, about half its length in Washington.
ii.
Snake, Walla Walla, Palouse, Okanogan, Methow,
Spokane, Ketde, Yakima, San Poil, Wenatchee
and others in Eastern Washington.
N.T--1 1.    Cl U    Cull •-!.     C__l :. L    rv	
Grand Coulee.
Moses Coulee.
ui.
ish,   Puyallup,   Nisqually,  Chehalis,   Cowlitz,
Lewis,  Skokomish,  Quinault,  Quillayute and
others in Western Washington.
d.    Coulees,
i.
ii.
3.    Native Races.
a. Prehistoric conditions and arts.
i.      "Bow and arrow" culture plane.
ii.    Linguistic stocks.
iii.   Implements and industries.
b. Legends and myths.
c. First contact with the white people.
i.     Great desire for iron and copper,
ii.    Ready traders with furs.
d. Treaties with the white men.
i.     Ten treaties made by Governor Stevens,
ii.     Other arguments.
e. Ware.
i.     Outbreak of 1855.
ii.    Steptoe's and Wright's campaigns.
f. Reservations.
i.     Three large reservations in Eastern Washington,
ii.    One large and fourteen smaller reservations in Western Washington,
iii.   Life on the reservation,
iv.   Indian schools. 80
Northwestern History  Syllabus
See Volume XXXI,
See also Volumes I to
BIBLIOGRAPHY. The books here cited will be found easily accessible in most cases. In studying the Indians some difficulty will be encountered as to the scarcity of books. However, in many parts of the state
information may be gleaned at first hands from officers of the reservations
or from the Indians themselves. The zeal begotten of original research
will richly repay all such efforts.
Bancroft, Hubert Howe. Works of.
History of Washington, chapters IV, V, and VI.
V, Native Races, using the index in Volume V.
Geographies. Most of the geographies used in the schools of
Washington has supplements devoted to the state. Henry Landes, Professor of Geology in the University of Washington, prepared such a supplement for Dodge's Geography.
Hodge, Frederick Webb, Editor. Handbook of American
Indians North of Mexico. This excellent work in two volumes was published by the Bureau of American Ethnology as Bulletin 30, Parts 1 -2, in
1907-1910. The material is arranged alphabetically. Dependable,
though brief, information may here be found on almost any subject relating
to the Indians.
Judson, Katharine B. Myths and Legends of the Pacific Northwest. This book, one of a series, was published by A. C. McClurg & Co.
of Chicago in 1910. The stories, obtained from a wide range of printed
sources, are here re-written for young readers, though older students of the
field will find them interesting.
LANDES, HENRY, State Geologist. Bulletins of the Washington
Geological Survey. Here are a series of mongraphs and special studies on
the geology and geography of Washington. They are published by the
State and ought to be accessible in every considerable library. The titles,
contents and indexes of the reports will guide any serious student in this
field of investigation.
Meany, Edmond S. History of the State of Washington. See
chapters I, VII, XVIII, XIX, XX, XXI. Here will be found information about the prehistoric conditions and about the Indian trade, treaties and
wars.
Schafer, Joseph. A History of the Pacific Northwest. See pages
248-251 for a brief account of the Indian wars.
SNOWDEN, CLINTON A.     History of Washington.
V, Native Races, using the index in Volume V.
Stevens, Hazard.   Life of Isaac Ingalls Stevens,
ume work contains much about the geography and Indians of Washington.    Chapter headings and the index will guide the readers.
See Chapters
This two-vol- Principal Articles in the Washington Historical Quarterly
VOLU3ME IV.
Exploration of the Upper Columbia'■3V->^'^^^^!^^ffiKwi^aSj.,'iCS. B. Sperlin
Proposed amendments to the State Constitution of Washington. ..Leo Jones
William Weir •»^f...^V..sf^s^kl&!3^|^^/..j^^^^^?HrAllen Weir
The pioneer dead of 1918'>s;.,i^^^S^^;ffi^|i^«|.^^M..Thomas W. Prosch
A survey of Alaska, 1743-1799V.;.-.        .. .^I ''"■.'.* .".Frank A. Golder
Washington Territory Fifty years agrf^^^J-^V^*?1*Thomas W. Prosch
Early Days at White Salmon and The Dalles Camilla Thomson Donnell
Early relations of the Sandwich Islands to the Old Oregon Territory..
^^^^^^f^^'i^'M^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^mt^^^^'• Guy Vernon Bennett
Independence Day 1b the Far Northwest. ...>.:\~.-v.".-'.... .George W. Soliday
The Story of Three Olyniple Peaks.. ..&^2§Wi^^ii2^..Edmond S. Meany
Stories and sketches from Pacific County...ki*^...■ •<♦••?•• -Isaac H. Whealdon
Origin of the Constitution of the State of Washington... .Lebbeus J. Knapp
VOLUME" V.-- -
George .Wilkes ||^^^^B^9^^^|^^0^^^^S^^ffl^Bs|^^^^ B. Bagley
The Indians of. 3Pwget Sound HHHfl^SmL|jxgE&-. Lewis H. St. John
Pioneer Dead of 191^|^;is^,)^ip^'&?;^^ Prosch \
American and Indian Treatment of the Indians in the Pacific Nortl
fi-iwest- . .'4.'^*'|^-S!..i'feS.rt-.J^*'7i4;. rljfi-p'.*i^^i'..*:X'.--^^.,^:;,;SrJ:"J. Trimble
The Columbia River under Hudson's Bay Company Rule. ./0j O. fermatinger
Three Diplomats 3Prominent In the Oregon Question.Ufc^L,.^Edmond;S. Meany
History of the Liquor Laws of the State of Washington, .Anna Sl°an Walker
Divorce in Washington S^^^Sraro||^^^S^^gH|^5 .Ralph 3R. Knapp
The West and American Ideals (3^^^^^^^^.:'.:^3".^a^rederick X.lTurner
Eliza and the Nez Perce Indians'^Ii^^^^^^^^|p3t:^:^^-AJSlfiwin Eells
•Documents print3ed, Bumes; £*$fe
Diary of John E. Howell, an Emigrant of 1845.
Old letters from Officials of the Hudson's Bay Company, 1829-40.
Journal of William Fraser Tolmie, April 30 to May 11, 1833.
Journal of John Work, November and December,. 1824; and June,- 1825, to
> Jtnie, lS^lc^j;
A  new. Vancouver  Journal.;
Also shorter documents relating to The first attempt to ascend Mt.
Rainier, Beginnings of the Lake Washington Canal, Chief Leschi, Indian
troubles, Beginning of the San Juan dispute. Establishing of the Navy
Yard, Puget Sound, Transfer of Alaska to the United States and the Secret
Mission of War re and Vavasour.
The Washington Historical Quarterly is published by the Washington
University State Historical Society. It has taken as its field the history of
the Pacific Northwest. It is issued quarterly with title page and index
in the last number of each volume; it is also indexed in The Magazine
Subject Index. The subscription price is S2.00 per year. Back numbers
are available as follows:
Volumes I and JX, each • ?j|i§j*$.^<^jM5!fS^
Volumes III, IV and V/.eaeh^^^^^^jiV.^^^^^^^^M^ffi^^2iXlO>:
For information in regard to subscriptions or exchange, Address
CHARLES W. SMITH, Business Manager,    .
Washington Historical Quarterly,
University Station,' '
Seattle, Washington.;"/ Announcement
1% The New Vancouver Journal is com
pleted in this number of the Quarterly \
A few reprints, in separate form and
complete in one cover, are being made
for the collectors of Northwest Amej&
icana.   Copies may be obtained from
the Printing Department, University^
of Washington, Seattle, at one dollar
each.
<J Large libraries throughout the country
are among the first t^ renew their
subscriptions fbf tVolume VI, which
begins with this number.
<I Among the original source materials
published by this Quarterly is another
John Work Journal, complete in this
number.  It is especially important to
the northeastern part of the state.
The first settlement Ithere, is told in
this,document.   Mr. flpC. Elliott iff!
rendering a valuable service in editt^;
ing these valuable journals.  Principal Articles in the Washington Historical Quarterly
VOLUME.^;
Washington;tu^^^^^^^^B^S^^^^^^^B^S^^Sjg^ Bowman
JProbleins of .the. Pacific333^^^^^^^^^^^^|^^Si;ij3*^wg; b. L. Penrose.
Jason I^a'S'plaeeVinJ^tory^^ .. . .\;.-T'.'.-Harveyy-.W*2Sco^§
The'Cayuse, ^^^^gMEwiian' war  in/the.'Norhtwest.-."'.-3        ~..c| B. Bagley
3Diary-bf ^g-DaviiiHvMaynard whHev«rossing;the plains in 1850...S"._.:-:^
^^»v^^5^*%l^!^S^^S^S^S^^^^J^fi-^^^^"^^™0,aas W. Prosch
Collecting portraits of 'Wasiiihgto'n3s•spveriiori.V:"-. .3...'.'..''!';...-. :.'.-.A\ "E: Mead
Preserving- oiir 3pw6ttoRecordsUy^.-^^Sf^ffi&^sS^^B^^^If^Si^fe N.- Brown
Earliest- expedition against tfee-^uget &rtihd"IndianfK.>,.Frank Ermatinger
The Nisquaily linguistic root stock.qf.'JPiig^t Sound. .'3Charles M. Buchanan
Efforts "to save the historlp3;McLoughliS.housei^^^^fer.Thomas W^Jt'rosch
Recollections,, of a "pioneer railroad builder: :■.:-..?.-.-i-.■'. ^:~...'::i .3...-D.-C/ Corbin
. The"-ipathfindersfs.'v*3<3feM^
Cook's place in Northwest'EgtdryT'.i /.. :'-..-."J: N. Bowman
Taken prisoner 'by- the ^Indian's "3333 3-V> .'....".'. 3 V..','.'-. .,i":....Qulntey- A. Brooks
The Protestant Episcopal as a missionary and-pioneer church.."-.-.:.'.'".r. .
:.-..-. . ...'.•^;i'\-...:^.';.^;--.i.-. .-3-. 3.3_-,Mrs. -Tr W.   Prosch
A- vast "neglected field for archeologicalresearch..3';..--. 3"Jr...; Harlan-_I.-i Smith
Prehistoric Spokane—An Indian' legend ■';.. 7. .-y.-.-'. . -.V". .:'.":■..-."..".-'3 JEL-D. Gwydir
Retrospect of half a cehtury3f^«^^^^^^^^K^Sc<%:;.George F. Whitworth
William Clark-:• -Soldier, -Explorer, Statesman'.. .0. .Reuben. Gold Thwaite'sJ
Jesse- A'pplegate   .-.................:.:.-..:, 1-,.-.. ._.!.•.".'.-.'.-.> ."..•.-.',.:Joseph  Schafer
The Indian Council at Walla Walla'.;.".. .'■'.■'.-.:. 3'. ':. .-•-. .'.'.-.-.':': :-'-.'.V:.T£'"C:. Elliott
VOLUME II.
Sarah Loretta DsnaaK-BB&5-BH.»^.BMBaMHSMISBMMHM.H^
Last Survivor of the Oregon Mission offisio..:. .-f3-..-..3-.'.-.3-.>-Edmong^S Meany
The 3Whitman  monument   .':. 3.......'-. 3......'..;.:......-.:...:..':.TEld win Eells
3The"-.Uhi.tie_d States AVhiy-^ih^Wasiuhgtph'-TeriMrory:.'.-.. .-Thomas W. Proselr
Washington Territory-in the-War'hefctveen the State*v>>Frank A. Kittredge
The military roads of Washington Territory;.-. . ".•'.'•.:.-: ..-'.-".Thomas W—Prdsch
Heroes and heroines of Long ag vin Eells
Expansion of Sine Dewey Decimal Classification for the History of the
'   Pacific.'. Northwest" ..;..-':...".:...: .\ .... r.. .3.. 3.'. 3...-3. .Charles :W.  Smith;;
The Indian war of 1858 ..;..".."../.:.". 3Thomas W. Proseh
The  state archives at .30lympia3 V- 3 :.. .33/.:..... .J.  N.  Bowman -
The -■ Oregon- pioneer   ..-.-...■.. ......3 r... ...-3.. ...William" P.' Matthews
Marking the Washington-Idaho Boundary: ../...'.'.. .-...■. ,\'...R6liin. J. Reeves
History of San Juan Island..';.-.-........'.'..........'.......... .Charles McKay
Seattle and the-Indians"-of Puget .Sound;.-.."..'   .. ;.-.Th'(?mra W. Prosch
Colonel Steptoe-s Battle.........;..-...:......\..."..:;..-.. .Stephen J. Chadwick
VOLUME III.
Contribution toward a bibliography of Marcus Whitman..Charles Wi Smith
-Dr: .'John McLoughlin and his guests. ..;. ..-.V-. 3'.-.•...-.'. .'. .'.3....... .:T. C. Elliott
.*ort.Colvile;.Ts59"Al^"e9'-■>:"...''.''. .!'.......-... 3'-...-.'.'. .•'....:...."./'..-.". W. P. Wihans'
The Pacific Ocean and the Pacific North west., Sffiffl ■'•■.'•■.:'; . J.^N. Bowman
Suffrage in the Pacific Northwest: .   . ."./S^^^^ffl Pearce
Eastward expansion of population .from the Pacific Slope"-.'.-.'::...'-'..'..-.-..- :
^^^^^^^^^^^S^^s^S^yvisi^^l^^^^^^^^^^y Vernon Bennett
Reminiscences of a pioneer of the Territory of Washington. James C. Strong
History.of ...the]; railroads in Washington.........:.....".........Sol  H; Lewis
Comparative study3bf constitutions for provisions not lp^bur own...^K
.r£;33/.//-.--.";. .=^-,V»'^ Driftmler
Walla - Walla and Missoula..'. . .-■.-."..'. .'.3-'- •': - ,.-• - •■• •' -• ...."..;.. .'.■."'. .T.C. Elliott
From Missoula to Walla W^^A->8#T3^":horseback^^ip$'rank H. Woody
The Whitniah: Controversy. .'. ..:-. .','■,"'... . :'. 3.".,.-..'. .James Clark Strong
The pioneer dead of 1911...-.';'.'.- .....'. .;.... ..Thomas W. Prosch ^agfjington Historical <©uarterlj>
jgoarb of CbttorjS
Clarence B. Bagley, Seattle.
J. N. Bowman, Seattle.
T. C. Elliott, Walla Walla.
Frank A. Golder, Pullman.
Ceylon S. Kingston, Cheney.
W. D. Lyman, Walla Walla.
Edward McMahon, Seattle.
Oliver H. Richardson, Seattle.
O. B. SPERLIN, Tacoma.
E.  O.  S.  SCHOLEFIELD,
Victoria, B. C.
Allen Weir, Olympia.
VOL. VI. NO. 2
Managing Cbttor
EDMOND S. MEANY
l&usint&s Jilanager
CHARLES W. SMITH
ISSUED QUARTERLY
Contents
APRIL, 1915
F. W.  HOWAY Some   Remarks   Upon  the   New   Vancouver   Journal	
T. C. ELLIOTT Tlie Organization and First Pastorate
of the First Congregational
. Church of Walla Walla, Washington   	
DILLIS  B. WARD From     Salem,     Oregon,     to     Seattle,
Washington, in 1859	
THOMAS W. PROSCH Washington   Mail   Routes   in   1857   . .
CHARLES  M.  BUCHANAN   . .    .. Rights   of   the   Puget   Sound   Indians
to Game and Fish	
BOOK REVIEWS      119
NEWS DEPARTMENT      134
NORTHWESTERN HISTORY SYLLABUS      139
83
90
100
107
109
THE WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY
STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY
University Station
SEATTLE, WASHINGTON
Entered at the postofiice at Seattle as second-class mail matter. (Officers? anb poarb of ^Trustees:
Clarence B. Bagley, President
Judge John P. Hoyt, Vice-President
Judge Roger S. Greene, Treasurer
Professor Edmond S. Meany, Secretary
Judge Cornelius H. Hanford
Judge Thomas Burke
Samuel Hill
DEPARTMENT OF PRINTING,
VERSITY OF WASHINGTON Vol. VI., No. 2
April, 1915
^astfjtngtcm historical (©uarterlp
SOME REMARKS UPON THE NEW VANCOUVER JOURNAL
All readers of the Washington Historical Quarterly, but especially
those who are interested in the approach by sea, must have enjoyed the
New Vancouver Journal." Their one regret will be that its publication
has ended without giving us, at least Vancouver's return voyage to the coast
in 1 793; and their hope will be that the remainder, so far as it touches
the Northwest coast, may yet see the light. Although Professor Meany
has appended many interesting notes, which have added greatly to the
reader's enjoyment and intelligent appreciation of the journal, yet the following remarks are offered on the assumption that a series of cross-references
may be found useful, even to those who are well-acquainted with the
sources. These notes relate to the instalments of the journal appearing in
the issues of July  1914; October,   1914, and January,   1915.
Restoration Point was named on the 29th May, 1 792 (see Vancouver's Voyage, Vol. 2, p. 153). The reference is, beyond question, to
the restoration of Charles II, who landed at Dover on 25th May, 1 660;
yet, inasmuch as the 29th was his birthday, it was celebrated as Restoration Day. (See Pepys Diary, May 29, 1664, and May 29, 1665.)
In the troubles of 1715, the students of Oxford wore, on the 29th May,
the oak leaf in honor of the Stuart Restoration.
There is little doubt that the journalist's surmise that the natives in
the vicinity of Vashon Island had had no direct dealings with the traders
was correct. So far as the records at present available disclose Captain
Gray in the Washington in March, 1 789, marked the furthest advance of
the trader within the straits of Fuca when he reached Clallam Bay. (See
Oregon Historical Quarterly, Vol. 12, p. 32.) In 1790 Quimper
reached Port Discovery; in 1 791 Elisa made his way into the Gulf of
Georgia and examined its shores as far as Cape Lazo; but these were
Spanish exploring expeditions. Vancouver's expedition appears to have
been the first of any kind to enter Puget Sound.
The double allowance of grog (p. 21 6) was the regular concomitant of high days and holidays. It was served out, for instance, when
Vancouver took possession at the end of his survey in August, 1 794.    (See
(83) 84
F. W. Howay
Vancouver's Voyage, Vol. 6, p. 39.) Captain Dixon used it as an inducement to the sailors to desist from the usual horse-play on crossing the
equator. (See Dixon's Voyage, Letter IX., p. 30.) Captain Portlock
ordered it to be served on the occasion of the belated celebration of Christmas Day at the Falkland Islands.    (See Portlock's Voyage, p. 33.)
Spruce beer (p. 217) was always regarded as a specific against
scurvy, and its brewing was a regular thing on all properly equipped
voyages. For this voyage Vancouver had requisitioned 280 pots of essence
of spruce. (See Appendix to B. C. Archivists Report, 1914, p. 44.)
Earlier voyagers, however, made the decoction—and a horrible one it appears to have been—direct from the trees themselves. Thus, as soon as
Captain Cook had made his vessels secure in Nootka Sound, he set men
"to brew spruce-beer, as pine-trees abounded here." (See Cook Voyage,
third edition, Vol. 2, p. 273, and Kippis, Life of Cook, Vol. 2, p. 223.)
Meares's reference to a decoction of pine tree juice which he found very
efficacious in the treatment of the scurvy (see Introductory Voyage, p. xx.)
is manifestly to this preparation. The brewing of spruce beer was one of
the first duties ordered by Captain Dixon on his arrival on our coast.
(See Dixon's Voyage, p. 151.) Captain Portlock was constantly at
this work.     (See his Voyage, pp. 215, 217, 231, 234, 235.)
The meeting between the Chatham's boats and the Spanish vessels,
Sutil and Mexicana (pp. 219, 220), is thus given in the Viage, p. 48:
"After leaving the channel [i. e., of Pacheco, between Lummi Island
and the mainland] in the creek of Lara we saw two small boats, one with
a sliding sail riggin, the other with square sail, which were following the
coast to the north. We had no doubt that they belonged to the English
vessels which were in the strait, according to the information of our
friend Tetacus [the chief at Cape Flattery, otherwise Tatooche]. We
went on without changing our course, thinking to navigate all night with
little sail and be off the point of San Rafael [North Bluff] at daybreak, so as to get to the mouth of Florida Blanca [Fraser River] early
in the morning, to go within and make the survey at once, which as has
been said, we had reason to believe would be very interesting. From ten
o'clock until midnight we crossed the creek Del Garzons [Birch Bay]
and saw lights within it which indicated that the vessels to which the>
smaller boats belonged were in that anchorage." The Spaniards continued their course into Ensenada del Engano [Boundary Bay], but
finding the water shoaling rapidly they anchored "in a line with the point
of San Rafael [North Bluff] and the east point of the peninsula of Ce-
peda [Point Roberts]. The visit of the Chatham to the Spanish vessels
at this point, of which our journalist gives us so many details, is merely
mentioned by Vancouver in Vol. 2, p. 214.
1/
J'
sty*
rf Remarks Upon Vancouver Journal
85
<->
The survey which Vancouver intended to carry on in conjunction
with the Spaniards began at their meeting near Point Grey on Sunday,
24th June, and ended near Hardwicke Island on Thursday, July 12th.
The portion from Point Grey to Jervis Inlet had, however, been already
examined by Vancouver in his boats. Having reached the conclusion
that the land on his port was an island, Vancouver was anxious to proceed to Nootka, and the joint survey was by mutual consent abandoned.
Vancouver arrived at Nootka on August 28th, and the Spaniards two
days later.
The very large village called by the natives Whanneck (p. 220)
is that known to students of Vancouver's voyage as Cheslakee's village. It
was situated on the Nimpkish River. The terraces on which the houses
stood, as shown in Vancouver's Voyage, Vol. 2, p. 269, are still to be
seen on the west bank of the river. The Indians now reside at Alert
Bay, just opposite. (See Walbran's Place Names.) The journalist's
name of the chief—Cathlaginness—'does not much resemble Vancouver's
form—Cheslakee—, but neither does the Spanish—Sisiaquis. Yet the
spot is the same, as may be seen by comparison of the text with Vancouver's Voyage, Vol. 2, pp. 268-274. In a letter from Peter Skene
Ogden and James Douglas to Captain Duntze of H. M. S. Fisgard,
dated Fort Vancouver 7 September, 1 846, they refer to the same locality
as "Choslakers, latitude 50° 36'."
The journalist has no doubt that the port in which the Discovery
and the Chatham anchored on 11th August, 1792, was Duncan's Port
Safety in Calvert Island (p. 220). Vancouver, however, found the spot
too greatly dissimilar to justify him in believing it to be Duncan's celebrated harbour, hence he called it "Safety Cove." (See Vancouver's
Voyage, Vol. 2, pp. 311 to 326.)
The vessel referred to as the "Three Bs" (pp. 223 and 301) is
properly the Three Brothers. (See Vancouver's Voyage, Vol. 2, p. 336,
and Appendix to B. C. Archivist's Report, 1914, p. 28.) It is, nevertheless, strange that we find this ship mentioned in the Viage, p. 116,
as "EI Bergantin Ingles Tresbes." Vancouver states that there were on
the stocks, when he arrived at Nootka in August, 1 792, an English and
an American shallop. The Viage on page 1 16 agrees with the journalist that the English one was brought out by the Three Brothers. The
identity of the American was in doubt. We now know from the journal itself (Washington Historical Quarterly for January, 1915, pp. 54-5)
that it was to be a tender to the Margaret. The name of one of the
vessels under Mr. Alder is given in Vancouver's list—(see Archivist of
B. C. Report, 1914, p. 28)—as the schooner Prince William Henry;
the name of the other has not been ascertained.
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The latitude at which the Matilda was wrecked, which the journalist leaves blank (Washington Historical Quarterly for October, 1914,
p. 301) is given by Vancouver, Vol. 3, p. 66, where the story of the
wreck is told, as 22° S., and Longitude 1 38° 30' W. The journal names
the master of the Matilda "Mr. Wetherell" and later "Mr. Wethered,"
while Vancouver calls him "Mr. Matthew Weatherhead." The Daedalus
was, by Vancouver's instructions, to call at Otaheite on her return voyage
to Australia and take on board the survivors. '
The visit of Vancouver and Quadra to Maquinna at Tashees in
September, 1 792 (Washington Historical Quarterly for October, 1914,
pp. 303-305), is mentioned by Vancouver in Vol. 2, pp. 354-356. The
description in the -journal is in very much greater detail than Vancouver
gives either in his printed volume or in his report to the Admiralty, which
will be found in the B. C. Archivist's Report, 1914, p. 19. In the
former he speaks of the place as "Tasheis," in the latter as "Tasheer's."
The suggestion is made in the note on page 305 that the journalist has
omitted some such phrase as "for Seignor Quadra" in his reference to
the gift of the second sea-otter skin. But we find that Vancouver in
his description of the event (Voyage, Vol. 2, p. 356; B. C. Archivist's
Report, 1914, p. 19) states categorically, as the journal does, that the
two sea-otter skins were given to him. Perhaps Maquinna was wily enough
to realize that Spain's sun had set.
The journalist says (October, 1914, p. 306) that Mr. Dobson,
who acted as Spanish interpreter for Vancouver, was one of the mates of
the Daedalus; but Vancouver, both in Voyage, Vol. 2, p. 339, and in
B. C. Archivist's Report, 1914, p. 12, calls him "a young gentleman,"
and later (Voyage, Vol. 3, p. 347) "one of the midshipmen who came
out in the Daedalus."
The expedition under Mr. Brown composed of the Butterwork, Jackal,
and Prince Lee Boo (Washington Historical Quarterly for October, 1914,
p. 307) appears to have been familiar to Vancouver, as well as to the writer
of the journal. In the list of vessels on the coast in 1 792, which Vancouver sent to the Admiralty by Lieutenant Mudge, he mentions these
three vessels (B. C. Archivist's Report, 1914, pp. 28, 29), yet he makes
no reference to the arrival of the Jackal at Nootka on September 14th,
1 792, or at all; at the same time that he was familiar with this vessel is
pla'in from his reference to her upon her arrival at the Sandwich Islands
in February, 1793—(see Vancouver's Voyage, Vol. 3, pp. 198-9.)
The Viage mentions the arrival at Nootka during the early summer of
1 792, of the Butterworth and the Prince Lee Boo. The reference to the
former, on page 116, is: "An English frigate of thirty guns named the
Butterworth, Captain William Brown, that brought documents for Van- 2
Remarks Upon Vancouver Journal
87
i
couver and had orders to form two establishments on the coast and one on
Queen Charlotte's Island." The latter is on the same page called "La
Balandra Inglesa el Principe Leon." Vancouver met these three vessels
in July, 1 793, in the vicinity of Chatham Strait. (See Vancouver's Voyage, Vol. 4, pp. 1 12-121.) Brown on that occasion saluted with seven
guns, which Vancouver duly returned with five. So valuable was the geographical information obtained from him that Vancouver named in his
honour Brown Passage. The Butterworth sailed for England at the close
of the season of 1 793. In July, I 794, near Cross Sound Vancouver
again met Brown, then in command of the remaining vessels, Jackal and
Prince Lee Boo. Having just returned from China he imparted to
Vancouver the latest European news, including that of the execution of
Louis XVI and the declaration of war between France and England
(Vancouver's Voyage, Vol. 5, p. 354.) In October, 1 794, the Jackal
arrived at Nootka on her return voyage to China with over one thousand
prime sea-otter skins (Vancouver's Voyage, Vol. 6, p. 91.) Brown
was killed at the Sandwich Islands in January, 1 79Jo(, in defending his
vessel from an attack by the natives. JH/V^ *^ (A-y^-^ /. /»
The journalist seems to have been better posted than Vancouver
as to the terminus ad quern of the Hope's voyage when she sailed from
Nootka about 19th September (Washington Historical Quarterly for
January, 1915, p. 52.) He tells us that she was bound for Neah Bay—
the Nunez Gaona—of the Spaniards but Vancouver believed that she
was "charged with Spanish dispatches respecting these transactions," i. e.
relative to the delivery of the lands at Nootka. (See B. C. Archivist's
Report, 1914, p. 26.) Later however, Vancouver learned the facts
and mentions them. (See Vancouver's Voyage, Vol. 2, pp. 379-380.)
The Hope had sailed from China in April, 1 792, and on 3rd August,
1 792, her commander, Captain Ingraham, had in conjunction with Captain
Gray, given to Seignor Quadra the celebrated letter set out in Greenhow s
Oregon, 1844 ed. p. 414.
• The variance which the journalist notes (Washington Historical
Quarterly for January, 1915, p. 56) between the stories told by the
masters and the crew as to the number of skins obtained was not confined
to Captain Gray. Haswell complains of the lack of veracity in this respect. (See his log, Sept. 1 788.) Dixon too notes the same peculiarity.
(See Dixon's Voyage, Letter XXIX, page 157.)
The journalist merely mentions the fact that Lieutenant Mudge is being sent home by the Fenis and St. Joseph (Washington Historical Quarterly for January, 1915, p. 56.) Vancouver's reason for this is given ih
B. C. Archivist's Report, 1914, p. 28. He thought that the Admiralty
should know of the deadlock which had occurred between himself and
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F. W. Howay
Seignor Quadra and determined to send his report of the negotiations by
' the fastest and most expeditious conveyance." This report is printed
with other papers in the appendix to the B. C. Archivist's Report for
1914, to which frequent reference has been made in these notes. It is
strange that Vancouver and the journalist rarely agree upon the exact
date.    It would be tiresome to point out the discrepancies in this respect.
The Jenny of Bristol arrived at Nootka, according to the journal,
on 6th October (Washington Historical Quarterly for January, 1915,
p. 57), according to Vancouver, on 7th October. (See Vancouver's
Voyage, Vol. 2, p. 387.) Although this vessel was supposed to sail
from Nootka direct for England, Broughton found her in Baker's Bay
on the Columbia in November, 1792; and she had been there earlier
in the year (Vancouver's Voyage, Vo