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BC Historical Books

The Washington historical quarterly. Vol. X Washington University State Historical Society 1919

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 ^agfnngtoni>fetijrtcal ©uarterfp
Contributing Cbitors;
Clarence B. Bagley, Seattle \ W. D. Lyman, Walla Walla
T. C. Elliott, Walla Walla H. B. McElroy, Olympia
Frank A. Golder, Pullman Edward McMahon, Seattle
William S. Lewis, Spokane O. B. Sperlin, Taeoma
F. W. Howay, New Westminster, B. C.
iHanagtng Coitor
EDMQND S. MEANY
^Business Jllanager
CHARLES W. SMITH
VOL. X. NO. 1
JANUARY, 1919
ISSUED QUARTERLY
Two Dollars per Year
Up Contents!
PEARL RUSSELL.§|&S!!p&,~..Analysts of the Pacific Railroad Reports..    3
T. C. ELLIOTTf^J&i'Jxi£*V.\ .David Thompson's Journeys in the Spokane
Country  i! ^^Sf^^S^^p.'^^S^irt' V. '•£.*'"'l
HOSE M. BOENING... £Sik.. .History of Irrigation In the State "«*-£
Washlnjrton  ..^iV-i^tw<%fi%M8^r^*','ii-"*  21
VICTOR J. FABRAR....ii..Pioneer and Historical Associations In the
State of Washington...alls&SS&'Jr^f''*". 49
EDMOND   S.  MEANY. ^|S Origin of Washington Geographic Names.  S3
DOCUMENTS—Washington's   First   Constitution,   1878,   edited  by j
John T. Coiiilou..7M^^^^^^^^i^^^^^.^^^^^%^^^... ST
BOOK  REVIEWS,■^^^fM^^^E^^^M'^^^^^^^M^^^^^ •  68
NEWS DEPARTMEJOT^.-^.^i^i^ 78
THE  WASHINGTON   UNIVERSITY
STATE   HISTORICAL  SOCIETY
University Station
^^ATTLE, WASHINGTON
Entered as second-class matter, November 15, 1906, at the Postoffice at
Seattle, Washington, under the Act of Congress of July 16,, 1894  3£a£f)tngton ^fetorical ©uarterlp
Contributing Cbitors;
Clarence B. Bagley, Seattle
T. C Elliott, Walla Walla
Frank A. Golder, Pullman
William S. Lewis, Spokane
W. D. Lyman, Walla Walla
H. B. McElroy, Olympia
Edward McMahon, Seattle
O. B. Sperlin, Tacoma
F. W. Howay, New Westminster, B. C
iWanaging Cbitor
EDMOND S. MEANY
PudinesK jfHanager
CHARLES W. SMITH
VOL. X. NO. 1
JANUARY, 1919
ISSUED QUARTERLY
Two Dollars per Year
Contents;
PEARL  RUSSELL Analysis of the Pacific Railroad Reports..     3
T. C. ELLIOTT David Thompson's Journeys in the Spokane
Country      17
ROSE  M.  BOENING History of Irrigation in the State of
Washington     21
VICTOR J. FARRAR Pioneer and Historical Associations in the
State of AVashington   46
EDMOND  S.  MEANY Origin of AVashington Geographic Names.  53
DOCUMENTS—Washington's  First   Constitution,   1878,   edited by
John T. Condon   67
BOOK  REVIEWS    69
NEWS  DEPARTMENT    78
THE  WASHINGTON   UNIVERSITY
STATE   HISTORICAL   SOCIETY
University Station
SEATTLE,   WASHINGTON
Entered as second-class matter, November 16, 1906, at the Postoffice at
Seattle, Washington, under the Act of Congress of July 16, 1894 $%e 3&a£f)mgton Umbersttp
^>tate Historical ^>ottetj>
Officers and Board of Trustees
Clarence B. Bagley, President
Judge John P. Hoyt, Vice-President
Judge Roger S. Greene, Treasurer
Judge Thomas Burke
Samuel Hill
Professor Edmond S. Meany, Secretary
Seattle
Department of Printing, University of Washington
1919 Volume X., No. 1
January, 1919
Wtetyngton ^fetortcal ©uarterlp
ANALYSIS OF THE PACIFIC RAILROAD REPORTS*
The reports known familiarly as the Pacific Railroad Reports
are a storehouse of information to the student of Pacific Coast history.
The reports together with notes, letters, maps and plates fill thirteen
quarto volumes and represent years of labor on the part of men who
won distinction in their country's service. The accounts were the result of the western surveys made shortly after the discovery of gold
and the acquisition of the Mexican cession turned the attention of all
classes of people to the Pacific region.
Eugene V. Smalley in his "History of the Northern Pacific Railroad" gives an interesting summary of the situation preceding the
surveys. He states that during the period of twenty years prior to
1850 there had been more or less agitation in an effort to arouse the
interest of the public and the action of Congress in the building of a
railroad to the Pacific. At that time the only route spoken of was that
followed by Lewis and Clark. When the peace with Mexico added
to the United States the vast area now comprised in the states of
California, Nevada, New Mexico, Arizona and Utah, the project assumed greater proportions. The South which controlled the government had taken little interest in the proposed line, but the conquest
from Mexico opened the possibility of a line which should be of advantage to the Southern States and which should extend through the
newly acquired territory to the gold region of the West. It became a
generally acknowledged sentiment that a transcontinental road must
be built and that the government would have to aid its construction.
Quoting still further from Mr. Smalley's history, we find that one of
the great engineers of the time, E. F. Johnson, prepared and published a pamphlet favoring a road to the Pacific from St. Paul. The
reading of Johnson's article is said to have spurred the Secretary of
War, Jefferson Davis, to immediate action to set on foot government
surveys of all proposed routes. The historian explains that the sectional jealousies of the time rendered it impossible for Congress to
* Prepared for the Seminar in State History, University of Washington, 1918.
I Pearl Russell
secure any action looking to the survey or the opening of any particular
route, but it was feasible to throw together all the suggested routes and
obtain an appropriation of money to survey them all. This was done
and provision was made for the surveys in a section of the Regular
Army Appropriation Bill approved March 1, 1853. The Secretary
of War was authorized under the direction of the President of the
United States to employ such portion of the corps of topographical
engineers and such other persons as he deemed necessary to make
surveys to ascertain the most practicable and economical route for a
railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. The Secretary of War, Davis, had full charge of the organization of the expeditions and the selection of the routes. Early in the spring of
185S, he put five separate expeditions in the field to explore the country adjacent to the proposed routes, the first near the 82d parallel,
the second near the 85th parallel, the third near the 88th and 89th
parallels, the fourth near the 41st and 42nd parallels and the fifth near
the 47th and 49th parallels.
Of the five explorations that of the northern route is of most
vital interest to students of Northwest history. The survey for this
continental line was the one lying near the 47th and 49th parallels
and was in charge of Isaac I. Stevens, an experienced engineer and
army officer who had served in the Mexican war. The story of his
remarkable achievements in the organization of the expedition is best
told by his son and biographer, Hazard Stevens. "Early in the year
of 1853, Major Stevens, who for a number of years had held a position in the Coast Survey Office, applied for the governorship of Washington Territory, to which was attached ex-officio, the superintendency
of Indian affairs, and also for the charge of the exploration of the
Northern route. He set forth his views in such a convincing manner that within four days his proposal to lead the expedition and all his
suggestions were adopted With characteristic energy Stevens
organized, outfitted and started in the field an expedition for the survey of two thousand miles of wilderness, accomplishing the momentous
task within two months. In obtaining assistants a delicate question
arose as to the placing of army officers under the command of a civilian,
a thing almost without precedent in military usage. However, Stevens
found no difficulty in securing the voluntary service of as many able
officers as he needed. There is probably no similar instance in our
history where twelve army officers came under the command of a civilian." Among those assigned to the survey were Captain George B.
McClellan, Lieutenants C Grover, J. Mullan, A. J. Donelson and R.
S. Saxton, army officers; A. W. Tinkham and Fred W. Lander, civil Analysis of the Pacific Railroad Reports
engineers; Dr. John Evans, geologist; Drs. George Suckley and J. G.
Cooper, surgeons and naturalists; J. M. Stanley, artist. Professor
Baird of the Smithsonian Institute was placed in charge of the zoological and botanical collections, and of preparing the outfits and instructions for field work.
The historian, Mr. Smalley, gives a concise statement of Stevens'
plans. "Governor Stevens determined that the exploration should be
conducted in two divisions, operating respectively from the Mississippi River and Puget Sound; and that a depot of provisions should
be established by a third party at the St. Mary's village, at the western base of the Rocky Mountains, to facilitate the winter operations
of the exploration, and enable the exploring parties to continue in the
field the longest practicable period; and that all the parties should be
organized in a military manner for self-protection, and to force their
way through whatever difficulties might be encountered."
The narrative of the expedition and the results of the survey,
together with instructions to the members of the party are recorded
by Gov. Stevens in volumes I and XII (the latter in two parts). In
the first pages are found statements of the Acts of Congress authorizing the surveys and explorations, and the resolutions of Congress
authorizing the printing of the reports. Pages 3-80 are devoted to
the report of the Secretary of War, Jefferson Davis, who summarizes
the most important facts set forth in the reports of the engineers of
the various routes. Pages 81-83 contain tabulations of the different
routes as to lengths, ascents and descents, and distances from the
eastern termini. Then follows an examination of the various reports
by A. A. Humphreys, Captain of Topographical Engineers, and Lieutenant G. K. Warren, together With tabulations of the various routes,
chapters I-V, pp. 39-108. Chapter I, pp. 89-56, deals with the report of Gov. Stevens on the northern route. Pages 109-111 contain
notes by Lieut. G. K. Warren compiled from reports of the topographical engineers on the route via San Antonio to El Paso. The
memoranda on railways in different parts of the country, pp. 115-180,
were prepared in the office of the Pacific railroad surveys by George
B. McClellan, corps of engineers. A list of the principal railroad
tunnels of the world is also given with data as to their cost and construction. Pages 130-134 contain a short report upon the cost of
transporting troops and supplies to California, Oregon and New Mexico
by Major General Thomas S. Jessup, Quartermaster General of the
United States Army.
The numerous reports of the exploration for a route near the
47th and 49th parallels  fill  Parts  I and  II of the remainder of 6
Pearl Russell
Volume I. Part I, pp. 1-72, contain the instructions of Stevens to
the members of the expedition as to their organization, equipment
and duties, each officer, artist and scientific man being instructed to
keep a daily journal which was to be turned over as a part of its
archives; official correspondence giving an account of the progress
of the expedition; and short reports from members of the survey concerning certain phases of their work. In Part II, Chapter I, pp. 73-
75 is to be found the instructions, of the Secretary of War in regard
to the purpose and conduct of the survey. Chapter II, pp. 76-159,
embodies the preliminary report of Gov. Stevens showing the progress
of the exploration and the facts established in reference to the practicability of the northern route for a railroad. So clearly and graphically was his account written that the report served afterward as
the basis upon which the Northern Pacific Railroad project rested
when the actual building began. He gives a clear and vivid description of the country surveyed, showing its superiority in soil and
climate, abundance of fuel and building material, absence of snows,
easy grades and low elevations. His remarkable grasp of engineering problems is plainly indicated by the correctness with which he
estimated the cost of railroads and by the absolute accuracy with
which he estimated the work to be done on gradients and tunnels and
in excavations. Attentive consideration was given to wagon roads,
navigability of rivers, adaptation to settlement, Indian tribes, and
military posts that ought to be established. Stevens speaks enthusiastically of the unequalled and unparalleled good health of the
parties operating over an extent of eighteen hundred miles as being
quite remarkable. His clear comprehension of the future possibilities of the Puget Sound country are set forth in chapter X, pp.
118-116 and show the wonderful insight of the projector of a great
enterprise. His views are concisely given in his own words: "Puget
Sound has fifteen hundred miles of shore line, many capacious harbors and roadsteads, accessible, commodious and entirely landlocked.
It is particularly adapted to steam navigation. Steilacoom, Seattle,
and Bellingham Bay are good termini for the railroad; Seattle combines the greatest number of advantages The question of high-.
est importance in connection with the proposed railroad is the effect
which it will have in securing for this country the control of the
Asiatic trade. Nature has clearly indicated the northern pathway
for the commerce from the future mart of Asiatic trade to this country and Europe. The road communicates on a direct line with the
northern lake trade. It intersects the Mississippi River, thus communicating with the Southern States; it is on the line of the great Analysis of the Pacific Railroad Reports
wheat producing region of America and on a direct line of shortest
distance between centers of European and Asiatic population. A
portion of European trade and nearly all travel to Asia must take
a course across the continent and on the northern road, as the shortest route."
Following the report of Stevens are a number of papers written
by the several officers and scientific men accompanying him. The
most important of these with their paginations is as. follows:
A 1. Report of the topography of the route from the Mississippi
River to the Columbia, by Mr. John Lambert, topographer of exploration, Washington, D. C, June 1, 1854.
A 2. Medical reports by Dr. George Suckley and Dr. J. G.
Cooper, pp. 177-180.
B 4. Railroad practicability of the Cascades and of the line of
the Snoqualmie Pass by Captain G. B. McClellan, pp. 180-183. This
report made in 1854 after a winter's exploration, gives a description of the Cascade range and estimates of the depth of the snows
which were later proved incorrect. McClellan practically failed in his
work on this part of the survey, depending too much on the accounts
of Indians instead of actual investigation. In reference to the choice
of a terminus on Puget Sound he says, "Seattle as a proper terminus
for the road is far superior to other harbors on the eastern shore of
the Sound, is nearest the Strait of Fuca, secure from heavy seas,
has excellent holding ground of blue clay and a depth of thirty
fathoms of water, the deep water coming close to the shore so that
only short wharves are necessitated; the banks are suitable for a
town."
B 5. Railroad practicability of the Snoqualmie Pass by Mr.
A. W. Tinkham, pp. 184-186. This fearless engineer succeeded in
penetrating the pass, reaching Seattle in ten days after McClellan's
failure. This incident was the cause of bitter feeling on the part
of the latter and was brought out later during the Civil War.
B 6. Report on the practicability of the Columbia River pass
by Mr. F. W. Lander, pp. 186-187.
C 7. General report of Captain G. B. McClellan in command
of the western division, pp. 188-202.
C 8. Topographical report of Lieut. J. K. Duncan of the western division, pp. 203-219.
C 9. Natural history report by Dr. J. G. Cooper, naturalist
of the western division, pp. 219-221.
D 11.   Report of Mr. F. W. Lander, assistant engineer, of the Pearl Russell
crossings of the Mississippi and the length of the bridges required,
pp. 224-225.
E 14. Report of Lieutenant A. J. Donelson, corps of engineers,
of his survey of the Missouri to Ft. Union and of his reconnaissance of
the country in the vicinity of Ft. Union, pp. 281-247.
E 15. Survey of the upper Missouri by Lieutenant C. Grover,
pp. 247-249.
E 16. Report of Lieutenant Saxton of his trip in a keel-boat
from Fort Benton to Ft. Leavenworth and of the navigability of the
Missouri River by steamer, pp. 249-250.
F 17. Report of the route of Lieutenant R. Saxton from the
Columbia Valley to Ft. Owen and thence to Ft. Benton, pp. 251-269.
He speaks of the region as being rich in agricultural and mineral
resources, abounding in timber and all other materials necessary for
the construction of a railroad.
F 18. Report of Lieutenant A. J. Donelson as to railroad practicability from Fort Benton across the plain of the Columbia to
Wallah Wallah, pp. 269-273.
H 27-84.   Itineraries of the routes, pp. 352-889.
J 39. Report of Mr. George Gibbs to Captain G. B. McClellan
on the Indian tribes of the Territory of Washington, pp. 402-484.
He remarks upon the great difference in the geographic features
of eastern and western Washington Territory and states that the
"inhabitants differ not less than the geographic features. He names
the tribes of each section, giving the modes of life, habits and characteristics of each. From the Yakimas he learned the legends connected with Mount St. Helens and Mount Adams. A visit to the
Clallam tribe revealed the influence of the whites in giving names
to the families of distinction.
"The head chief of the Clallams was Lachka-nam, or Lord Nelson, but has abdicated in favor of S'Haiak, King George. Most of the
principal men of the tribe have received names either from the English or 'the Bostons;' and the genealogical tree of the royal family
presents as miscellaneous an assemblage of characters as a masked
ball in carnival. Thus, two of King George's brothers are the Duke
of York and General Gaines. His cousin is Tom Benton; and his
sons by Queen Victoria are General Jackson and Thomas Jefferson.
The queen is daughter to the Duke of Clarence, and sister to Generals Scott and Taylor; as also to Mary Ella Coffin, the wife of John
C. Calhoun. The Duke of York's wife is Jenny Lind; a brother of
the Duke of Clarence is John Adams; and Calhoun's sons are James
K. Polk, General Lane and Patrick Henry.    King George's sister is Analysis of the Pacific Railroad Reports
9
the daughter of the late Flattery Jack. All of them have papers
certifying to these and various other items of information which they
exhibit with great satisfaction."
J 40. Indian tribes of eastern Washington by Lieutenant John
Mullan, pp. 437-441.
J 41. Indian tribes of the Blackfoot nation by Mr. James Doty,
pp. 441-446.
J 42. Visit to the Piegan camps at Cypress Mountain by J. M.
Stanley, pp. 446-449.
A. Reconnaissance of the country lying upon Shoalwater Bay
and Puget Sound, by George Gibbs, pp. 465-478.
B. Geology of Washington Territory by George Gibbs, pp.
478-486.
C. Final report of Lieutenant Grover on his survey of the Missouri, from thence to the dalles of the Columbia, pp. 488-515.
For a complete list of the papers accompanying Stevens' report
the reader is referred to the table of contents, p. v, preceding the
report.
Upon the completion of the preliminary report which was made
as soon as. the governor had satifactorily solved the questions of mountain snows and climates, Stevens reported to the Secretary of War
urging further examinations of the mountain passes. Hazard Stevens
in his biography of the governor throws some interesting light on the
attitude of Davis in regard to the northern route. The following
facts are quoted from Vols. I and II of the biography:
"Davis sent a curt order to Governor Stevens to disband the winter parties and bring his operations to a close. Acknowledging the
receipt of the order, Feb. 18, Stevens declared that it should be
promptly obeyed but made a plea for the continuation of the surveys. He called the attention of the department to the peculiar circumstances of the exploration which necessitated the exceeding of
the appropriation. The field was totally new, rendering it impossible
to form an estimate. Much work of reconnaissance had to be done,
which had previously been done for all other routes, before a direction could be given to the railroad examinations and estimates proper.
Unforeseen expenses in the way of presents had to be incurred to
conciliate the Indian tribes and an investigation of the question of
snow was a vital and fundamental one, essential to making any reliable report at all. Stevens took the course which he believed Congress
and the department would have taken under the circumstances. The
Secretary's order arrived too late to frustrate the governor's thoroughgoing measures for determining the snow question.    Subsequent ex- 10
Pearl Russell
perience has fully confirmed the report which minimizes the much-
feared obstacles to the operation of a railroad through the mountains.
Stevens decided to hasten to Washington to prevent the discontinuance of the exploration. The confidence of the legislature of Washington Territory is shown in the passage of a joint resolution that
'no disadvantage would result to the Territory should the governor
visit Washington, if, in his judgment the interests of the Northern
Pacific Railroad survey could thereby be promoted.' .... On June
80, 1854, he submitted his report to the department, the first report of
all the routes, although it covered the greatest field, and was by far
the most comprehensive and exhaustive. Secretary Davis, recognizing
that in his measures for prosecuting the survey General Stevens
was actuated solely by zeal for the public service, submitted an estimate to cover the deficiency, which was duly appropriated by Congress. Secretary Davis was astonished and deeply disappointed at
the results of the survey and was of the opinion that the accounts
bearing upon the agricultural resources of the Northwest were overdrawn. In his report to Congress transmitting the surveys of the
several routes, he took great pains to belittle the results of Governor
Stevens' labors and disparage the Northern route. An extreme
Southerner, 'he had set his. heart upon the Southern route, and hoped
to secure its adoption as the national route, in order to aggrandize
his own section. He put a stop to further work on the Northern
route, prevented' any more appropriations for it, and kept up his
fight against it. Nevertheless, Stevens continued the work of exploration, survey and observation despite privation of funds. His
office in the capacity of superintendent of Indian affairs taking him
into nearly all parts of the Territory ,enabled him to take advantage
of every opportunity to increase his general knowledge of the
country."
The final report of Stevens was submitted to the newly appointed
Secretary of War, John B. Floyd, in February, 1859. This report,
published by order of Congress in two large quarto volumes, as Parts
I and II, Vol. XII., contains over eight hundred pages, with tables
of meteorological and barometric observations, plates, lithographs and
woodcuts. Part I partakes of the nature of a general report following the preliminary report of 1854 as given in Vol. I, pp. 73-154.
He gives a most interesting account of his work among the Indians
in 1855 and states that he occupied his entire time in negotiating
treaties, in gaining the good will of the tribes to give them absolute
and entire confidence in the government. The treaty operations taking  him through Washington  Territory  to the  waters  of the Mis- Analysis of the Pacific RaUroad Reports
11
souri enabled him to thoroughly examine the  mountain portion of
the railroad route.
Part I, chapters I-X, are devoted to the narrative of 1858 and give
every species of information bearing upon the question of railroad
practicability—the pas.ses of the several mountain ranges, the geography and meteorology of the whole intermediate region from St.
Paul to the Pacific, the character of the Missouri and Columbia Rivers
as avenues of trade and transportation, the snows, and rains of the
route, and especially of the mountain passes.
Chapters XI and XII, pp. 196-225, contains the narrative of
1855, and give the itinerary of the expedition from Walla Walla to
Fort Benton and return to Olympia.
In chapters XIII and XIV Stevens gives a geographical memoir.
The following are a number of significant facts brought out in this
part of the report—that the line of the 47th parallel is central to
the vast region of the temperate zone, extending from the water line
of the Great Lakes to the shores of the western ocean; that north
of this is an area which, in similar latitudes in Eastern Europe and
in Asia, is habitable, productive and at the moment increasing in
population; the region is intersected by the only streams flowing
either side of the watershed of the continent of which any considerable use could be made for purposes of navigation.
Chapter XV, pp. 261-306, includes a valuable report on the
hydrography of the coast and the navigable rivers of Washington
Territory by Dr. J. G. Kohl. The second part of the report gives a
most instructive account of the origin of some of the geographical
names within the Territory.
Chapters XVI, XVIII, pp. 307-858, cover reports on the meteorology of the route with tables of mean tempratures, between the
mouth of the St. Lawrence and Puget Sound; reports on the peculiar
features for which provision must be made, tunnels, facilities in
fuel, etc.
Accompanying the reports of Part I are seventy fine lithographs
of scenes along the route from St. Paul to the Coast, two maps, and
one sheet of general profiles.
Parts II and III of Volume XII form a separate volume and
include the zoological and botanical reports, the authors and paginations of which are given as follows:
Report No. 1 on botany by Dr. J. G. Cooper, pp. 18-39.
Catalogue of plants collected east of the Rocky Mountains, compiled by Asa Gray, pp. 40-49. 12
Pearl Russell
Report No. 8, pp. 55-71, is of special interest to Northwest
students, since it deals with the botany of Washington Territory and
gives a catalogue of plants collected therein. Dr. Cooper speaks of
the remarkable variety of botanical and zoological regions, each distinguished by more or less peculiar forms of life. He describes the
great forests of coniferous and broad-leaved trees., the plains of the
Columbia and the salt and fresh water regions. A botanical index
is found on pages 78-76.
Part III of Vol. XII, embodies the information collected by
the expedition in the department of natural history and includes Reports Nos. 1-7, on Insects, Mammals, Birds, Reptiles, Fishes, Mol-
lusca and Crustacea. Accompanying the reports are many beautiful
engravings made by competent artists within the Smitsonian Institution.
The first volume designated as Part I was entirely the work of
Stevens, with the exception of the meteorological tables and the paper
on the hyrography of Washington Territory. Governor Stevens expected to devote a year to the praparation of the final report but the
work was interrupted by the Indian Wars and his duties as congressional delegate from Washington Territory. His biographer, Hazard
Stevens, relates how the governor overcame the difficulties, completing the report in a few months, a task which only a man of his remarkable mental powers could have accomplished. "He dictated the
whole report. Every morning an expert stenographer came at six;
and the governor, walking up and down in the dining room, dictated
to him for one or two hours before breakfast. The reporter then
took his notes, wrote them out, and had the manuscript ready for
the governor's revision at the next sitting." The report so clearly
and graphically written was a convincing answer to the criticisms
of Jefferson Davis. Stevens appealed to Davis for aid "on the ground
that the valuable data in his final report ought to be published for
the benefit of the country." Davis was magnanimous enough to grant
his request. The subsequent development of the country along the
northern route has borne out the views recorded by Stevens in his
reports. Furthermore, his work was so thorough that there was little
necessity for preliminary surveys when, ten years later, the project
of a railroad assumed definite form.
In addition to the reports in Vols. I and XII, the students will
find further material on the Northwest in Vols. II, III, VI and
VIII-XI. A brief outline regarding the nature of the reports with
their paginations is as follows: Analysis of the Pacific RaUroad Reports
13
Vol. II, Part III, pp. 1-45: An introduction to and a synopsis
of a report of the Reconnaissance of a railroad route from Puget
Sound via the South Pass to the Mississippi River by Fred W.
Lander, civil engineer, who undertook the exploration at his own expense. In view of the importance of his reconnaissance and its scientific character the Legislature of Washington Territory instructed its
delegate to present the report to Congress and to procure its publication as a public document.
Vol. VI, Part II, chapter VII, pp. 58-60: Report on the general geology of the Columbia Valley. Chapter VIII, pp. 60-85, a
report on the economical geology of the Puget Sound region, including a catalogue of minerals and fossils.
Vols. VIII, IX and X embody a report upon the zoology of the
several Pacific routes. "Specimens collected were transmitted to the
Smithsonian Institution and preserved until the return of the parties.
The series of special reports prepared by the naturalists of the expedition were necessarily incomplete. It was deemed advisable to
furnish a general systematic report upon the collection as a whole,
and for the purpose materials were entrusted to competent individuals, necessary .drawings being made by a skillful artist within
the walls of the Smithsonian Institution."
In the introduction of Vol. VIII is a general sketch of the lines
explored, that on the 47th parallel being designated as No. 1, page
xiii.
The general report on zoology is divided into four parts:
Part I, on Mammals, by Spencer F. Baird, fills Vol. VIII, and is
accompanied by a number of plates, a systematic index of common
names, a list of authorities and an alphabetical list of localities.
Part II, on Birds, compiled by Spencer F. Baird, fills Vol. IX,
and is accompanied by lists of species, authorities and indices in addition to some beautiful colored plates.
Parts III and IV on Reptiles and Fishes, respectively, are found
in Vol X. The report accompanying Part III was omitted since it
had been extended beyond the limits originally contemplated.
Vol. XI contains a brief account of each of the exploring expeditions from 1800 to 1857, by Lieut. G. K. Warren, with topographical maps, profiles and sketches to illustrate the various reports and
surveys. Chapter IV, pp. 63-70, deals with the exploration of Wash-
mgton Territory. For further information on this portion of the
country, the student is referred to the alphabetical index on page
111 and to profile maps Nos. 1, 2 and 8 on the route of the 47th
and 49th parallels. 14
Pearl Russell
Although the reports on the northern routes, as previously stated,
are more exhaustive than those of other routes and fill a larger space
in the printed volumes, many detailed reports are given on each of
the other surveys. The most important reports with their paginations are as follows:
Report of Lieutenant E. G. Beckwith upon the route near the
38th and 39th parallels, explored in 1853 by Captain J. W. Gunnison, who with other members of the party was killed by the Indians
in Utah. The report is a detailed narrative of the explorations with
a minute and general description of the topographical features of
the region from the mouth of the Kansas River to Sevier Lake in
the Great Basin, of the flora, fauna and Indians. The report which
includes tables of distances, altitudes and barometric observations,
is followed by official letters of Captain Gunnison and explanations
of the maps by Lieutenant Beckwith, Vol. II, chapters I-X, pp. 1-88.
A report of a survey of the route near the 41st parallel by
Lieutenant Beckwith, 1854, with reference to the character of the
country, its resources and its practicability for a railroad, pp. 9-66,
of a new pagination.
Reports and letters on the geology of the explorations, of 1858
and 1854,including a letter on infusorial fossils by Prof. J. W. Bailey,
a report on the botany of the routes surveyed by Captain Gunnison
and Lieutenant Beckwith, pp. 120-132.
Report of the survey near the 32d parallel from the Red Pine
to the Rio Grande by Brevet Captain John Pope, corps of engineers,
1854, beginning a new pagination, pp. 1-156. This survey was made
for the purpose of examining the military features of the route and
made manifest the necessity of providing more ample means of accommodation and protection to the immense rush of immigration to
the Pacific Ocean. The botanical report is found on pages 157-178;
the geographical report in a new pagination, pp. 7-50.
Report of Lieutenant John G. Parke on the explorations of the
route near the 82d parallel, pp. 8-26.
Extract from the report of a military reconnaissance made in
1846 and 1847 by Lieutenant Colonel W. H. Emory describing the
route from the junction of the latter with the Colorado of the West,
pp.  1-20, separate pagination.
Report of Lieutenant A. W. Whipple with explanatory notes
and reports by Captain A. A. Humphrey, Vol. Ill, Parts I-VI, giving
the itinerary of the survey, a description of the topographical features of the country and an account of the numbers, modes of subsistence, traditions and superstitions of the Indians.    Part IV con- Analysis of the Pacific RaUroad Reports
15
tains the special geological report from the Arkansas River via Santa
Fe to California, with a resume and field notes by Jules Marcom.
Reportof a further survey near the 85th parallel by Lieutenant
A. W. Whipple, 1853-4, followed by the botanical and zoological reports, is embodied in Vol. IV, Parts V and VI.
Report of Lieutenant R. S. Williamson upon the routes in California to connect with the routes near the 32d and 35th parallels
with lithographs and woodcuts, Vol. V, Part I. Reports on geology,
botany and zoology are given in Parts II, III and IV, respectively.
Report written by Lieutenant Henry L. Abbott from the surveys made by Lieutenant R. S. Williamson from the Sacramento
River to the Columbia to determine the practicability of connecting
the two river valleys by rail. Vol. VI, Part I, chapters I-VII;
geology of the country bordering the Columbia is found in chapter
VII, pp. 58-68.
Report of exploration for a route from San Francisco Bay to
Los Angeles, Cal., west of the Coast Range and from Pimas Village
no the Gila to the Rio Grande near the 82d parallel by Lieutenant
John G. Parks, assisted by Albert H. Campbell, Part 1, Vol. VII.
Report by Thos. Antisell on the geology of the Santa Barbara
Mountains, the Cordilleras and the plains of San Francisco, Los
Angeles and San Bernardino, Part II, pp. 1-204. The report on botany
by John Torrey is given in Part HI, pp. 1-116, of a separate pagination.
In studying the railroad reports, one is impressed by the number of men taking part in the surveys, who later won a place in the
nation's history. It is doubtful whether there were ever railroad
parties put in the field which contained so many future great men.
Governor Stevens became a major-general in the Civil War and fell
in the battle of Chantilly, Sept. 1, 1862, bearing in his hands the
colors of the 79th Highlanders.
Captain George B. McClellan became Commander-in-Chief of
the Army of the Potomac and later Democratic candidate for President. Lieutenant C. Grover was a major-general of volunteers and
a colonel in the regular army.
Lieutenant R. Saxton was made brigadier-general of volunteers
and military governor of the department of the South from 1862-5.
Dr. Suckley was staff surgeon 1862-5. F. W. Lander was a brigadier-
general and died in 1862 while preparing an attack on the enemy.
Captain John Pope held the rank of brigadier-general in the Civil
War and was later in command of the Army of the Potomac. Lieutenant E. G. Beckwith was chief of commissariat of the  5th Army 16
Pearl Russell
Corps, and of the army of Virginia, and was in command of the defenses of New Orleans, receiving the brevet rank of brigadier-general, United States Army, 1865, for his services during the war.
Lieutenant Colonel W. H. Emory was made brigadier-general of volunteers, and raised to the rank of major-general of volunteers at the
close of the war. Lieutenant G. K. Warren rose from the rank of
lieutenant-colonel of volunteers to that of chief of engineers of the
Army of the Potomac and was later made a major-general. Lieutenant A. W. Whipple served as chief of topographical engineers on
the staffs of McDowell and McClellan and lost his life at the battle
of Chancellorsville. Lieutenant R. S. Williamson became chief of
topographical engineers with the Army of the Potomac and later
served on the Pacific Coast as superintending engineer of various
surveys of rivers, harbors and sites for fortifications. Lieutenant
John G. Parke rose from the rank of brigadier-general of volunteers
to that of major-general and chief of staff under General Burnside.
Captain A. A. Humphreys rose to the rank of major-general of volunteers and served as chief of staff under General Meade. After
the war he was made brigadier-general and given command of the
corps of engineers, the highest scientific appointment in the United
States Army, with charge of the engineering bureau in Washington.
Aside from giving some idea of the contents of the reports of
the surveys, the main purpose in writing this article is to bring to
the notice of students one of the most valuable sources of information on the history and geography of our state. The thirteen
formidable looking volumes entitled, "Pacific Railroad Reports," are
not so lifeless as they might at first appear, but are teeming with
the spirit of the dauntless men who braved the mountain winters and
the trackless regions of the West to furnish their country with a detailed account of the characteristic features and. resources of its
western domain. The student is urged to become acquainted with
these reports which served as a basis of operations when the government began the construction of the transcontinental lines which today link the East and the West.
Pearl Russell. DAVID THOMPSON'S JOURNEYS IN THE SPOKANE
COUNTRY
On the 25th day of March, 1812, at Spokane House, near the
present city of Spokane the stock of furs that had been gathered during the previous, year in trade with the Indians and free hunters of
what is now Northwestern Montana, Northern Idaho and Northeastern Washington was being prepared for shipment to Fort William
on Lake Superior. Spokane House was a trading post of the North-
West Company of Montreal and the gentlemen (bourgeois or partners)
of the Company in charge of the business in the Columbia River district were David Thompson and John George McTavish, the former
of Welsh and the latter of Scotch descent. Mr. McTavish had been
at the House all winter and David Thompson had arrived only the
day before from Saleesh House in Montana (See this Quarterly for
October, 1918).
The earlier publications in this series have indicated the usual
route traveled up to that time—between Spokane House and the
Columbia River at Kettle Falls, a distance of at least seventy miles
overland. This was the road traveled at this time also, but before
using it Mr. Thompson seems, to have had in mind building boats
or canoes at Spokane House or a little further down and traveling down
the Spokane River to the Columbia, it being the practice of the fur
traders to travel by water whenever possible. He therefore sent a
man to examine the falls in the river below the House, (where the
Long Lake dam of the Washington Water Power Company has since
been built) and other men to report on cedar timber said to be growing at some distance. He himself on the morning of the 27th followed,
evidently with men and tools to saw out the boards for canoes. Cedar
timber is not plentiful in the Spokane country, and his search for it
was not a success, but this excursion carried him eastward to within
a mile or two of Post Falls on the Spokane River. The details of this
journey are given in the journal entries now printed, but the entries
covering the journey from Spokane House to Kettle Falls are omitted,
being largely repetition of what has already been given.
It has been remarked in these articles that David Thompson was
one of the most remarkable men whose name is connected with the
Columbia River. The only book that contains an adequate account
of the career of this man is "David Thompson's Narrative," published by the Champlain Society of Toronto in 1915.    In that narra-
(17) T. C. Elliott
tive Mr. Thompson states (p. 556) that their party left Kettle Falls
for Athabasca Portage or Pass, on the 22nd of April, 1812, in six
canoes, carrying in all one hundred and twenty-two packs of furs
weighing ninety pounds to the pack, in addition to three hundred pounds
of provisions and five men in each canoe. This then is the record
of the original shipment of merchantable product direct from the
Spokane country to the markets of the civilized world. These furs
reached London by way of Montreal. Mr. McTavish accompanied the
party as far as the Athabasca Pass and perhaps further.
This contribution completes the series entitled David Thompson's
Journeys in the Spokane Country. In August, 1812, a large party of
men of the Pacific Fur Company (John Jacob Astor) arrived from
the mouth of the Columbia River and began the erection of a rival
trading post about one-quarter mile from Spokane House. Of that
enterprise we have several published accounts, but these journal entries of David Thompson furnish the original record of travel and
tiade in the Spokane country. m   „   _
r J T. C. Elliott.
JOURNAL OF DAVID THOMPSON, MARCH 25-29, 1812
March 25
Wednesday. A cloudy cold stormy day, from the west d. In
Morng. froze & a little snow. Sent off Michel on a journey to the
Columbia Falls1 & with him Cote & Deleau. to search for birch rind
& bring what they find, if good to the Falls. An Indian to go with
Methode to visit the Cedar said to be abt 25 m. hence, but altho'
spoke to yesterday at noon, cannot be got to find his horses yet. Sent
Tobacco by an old Shawpatin2 & 2 others to the Tribe in general to
cross the Mountains to the Saleesh Indians.
March 26
Thursday. 6 a. m. 16-W-tly. 1%, Cloudy. 2 P. M. SO-N.W.ly
2 Cloudy. Men sent for horses did not arrive till 4^4 p. m., too late
to set off. At noon sent 2 lads to examine the Cedar said to be at a
small lake3 on our road.
March 27
Friday. 6 a. m. 26— Moderate snow 2 In. deep. Calm. At 11%
a. m. ceased, the rest of the day mild fine weather. Eastly wind %.
at %y2 a. m. set off with 4 hourses, 3 for Baggage and Provisions.
At 3 p. m. came to the campt.4 at the parting of the Roads in the
1 Where Long Lake dam now is; but perhaps Kettle Falls.
s Nez Perce Indian.
8 Probably Newman Lake, near the road he traveled on March 23rd.
4 Near the Antoine Plante place, where he camped the night of Marcn 23rd. David Thompson's Journeys
19
Great Plain, baited 1 1-3 hours, found part of a Chevruil, that a man
had hung up, which had been run down by the wolves. 19% S. M.,
say 15% G. M., set off at 4-20, held on to 5% p. m. & put up at a
rill.5 one of our horses knocked up. here the lads came to us, they
saw only a few useless small Cedars, we have therefore lost our time
& must now turn to the Columbia.
March 28
Saturday. A cloudy windy Morng. Set the pt. of the Skeetshoo6
River, at the sortie of the Lake,6 as we think, N. 72 E 10 m. Here
a pt. stretches to the Northd., the hills to the eastd. bend round to
the S. Ed. & it is said the end of the Lake is somewhere abt. E. S.
Ed. of us. The Skeetshoo River runs nearly parallel with the road,
formg. from hence an L. of abt. .20° to the Sortie from the Lake,
abt. S. 85 E. 1% m. from us is a Fall.7 MM. Co. to the Campt S.
80 W. 2 m. At campt turn N.W. up the Banks, then hold on a little,
see the Hills of the at the Ho.8 of Trout Brook, they bear due S. 87
W. 16 m. by walking. These Hills run abt. N.N.W. by the Compass
to the Saleesch River.9 The Horse Plains formd a deep Bay to the
right, beyond which, abt. 15 m., a ridge of Hills near perpend, to
the first stretch, & these are soon hid from the view by those from the
Plain we left, which are now abt. 8 m. dist. & wind along shutting in
the Horse Plains on the right at an L of W.N.W. many isolated
Knowls &c. Cranes, Frogs, & Rooks to-day, the latter 6 days ago.
Willows budding, Grass turning a lively green; in the afternoon the
men arrived & directly sent them off, they slept about ^4 m. below
the Forks of the Trout Brook10 with the Skeetshoo River, camped with
them.
March 29
Sunday. A sharp morng., ther. 18°. Early set off 6:38 a. m.
went to the top of the Bank,11 here I set the Co. to the Ho. S. 55 E.
1% m. The Skeetshoo River passg. the Ho. runs to the north to the
meetg. of the Trout Brook, then bends round to the westd. & So.d.
to due South, & round the Pt. no Hills to be seen to the southd. &
eastd. but bold woody land; from the north end of the Pt. I set the
Co. up the Hills over the bottom & to the bend of the Defile we take
on the top of do. is N. 36 W. then turns, to the W.N.Wd. Co. from
0 This camp close to the Washington-Idaho boundary line.    The next morning he goes a
Uttle distance toward Post Falls before starting back.
" His name for the Spokane River but really for the Coeur de Alene Lake and tribe.
5 Post FaUs.
8 Spokane House.    He is now on the ridge between the Spokane River and Peone Prairie.
•The Pend d'Oreille River.
10 The Little Spokane River.
11 The camp was about M, mile below the mouth of Little Spokane River and he climbed
the hill north of the camp for these observations. 20
T. C. Elliott
So. end of Pt. to north do N. 58 W. 5 m., then N. 36 W. 1% to
Rill,12 where we baited at the foot of the Hills at 9:48 a. m. Men
on foot walked well, here the River goes off abt. due So. 5 m., at
which Pt. the Falls 1S is said to be. At 10.55 a. m. set off, at 1 1-8
p. m. at the partg. Roads for roots &c., Co. has been N. 86 W. 8 m.,
all rising hill, Co. N. 80 or 70 W. 8 m. to the wet Plain. Co. to the Pt.
of Hill from the right N. 80 W. 1 m. Met Michel & La Course, from
whom I had a Goose, abt. the size of a large stock Duck, the whole
species is of this size. Turn N. 80 W. 1 m. to the Brook,14 beneath
a Bank. 2 p. m. here we baited. The Brook comes from the Marsh
& Hills to the left and runs S.E.d, then winds round to the Wtd., at
3.5 p. m. set off, at 4-3/4 crossed the bold Brook, at 5 p. m. recrossed
the do., kept along it sometimes within view to 5.45 p. m., when we
camped at a small rill, our Co. has been N. 80 W. 3% G. M. to the
Brook, this, comes from the Hills N.Ed., held on by 3 small Ponds 'of
Water all still frozen, snow in places, Co. N. 80 W 8/5 m., recrossed
the Brook, held on N. SO W. 1-8/4 m. to a Rile at which we camped.
An Ilthkoyape Indian came along with us, he shared of our fare.
12 At Tumtum.
38 Long Lake Dam.
14 Chimakaine Creek, which they crossed and recrossed a little later.
" Note No. 6 at page 287 of this quarterly should have read Twin Lakes insteda of Spirit
Lake. HISTORY OF IRRIGATION IN THE STATE OF
WASHINGTON *
[Continued from page 276, Volume IX.]
The State Epoch of Canal Building
Private enterprises, however, did not idly await the Government's aid, but went on in leaps and bounds. The largest project is
that known as the Sunnyside Canal, already mentioned since the survey
thereof, and properly belongs to the preceding period. The first
survey was begun in 1885 by J. D. Mclntyre as chief engineer and
completed by 1889. This survey provided for the intake two miles
above where the Naches flows into the Yakima, the ditch to run
west of the Ahtanum basin, cross the Ahtanum five miles west of its
confluence with the Yakima River, follow along the steep hillside
south of Ahtanum Creek to Union Gap, then across the Yakima River
by pipe line, to the easterly side of the river, at which point the elevation obtained above the Yakima River and above the Sunnyside line
is 179 feet — thence along the foot of Rattlesnake Range in a southerly direction to a point about north of Prosser, a total distance of
ninety-eight miles of canal. The cost estimated is $500,000, and
storage reservoirs may be built at $100,000 which would double the
capacity of the canal. In order to irrigate successfully the whole
tract of 200,000 acres it was also advised that a lower canal be built.
The Yakima Canal and Land Company was organized December 4,
1889, with a capital of $1,000,000. Walter N. Granger was made
its first president. He gives us the following interesting incident:
"At the instance of friends, in 1889, I came from Montana to look
over the irrigation project presented by that portion of the lower
Yakima Valley locally called Sunnyside section. So one June morning,
accompanied by a guide, I left North Yakima. We soon passed the
Gap, Park Bottom and out into the valley. A few miles farther down
we ascended Snipes Mountain and traveled along its summit the better
to view the country on either side. . . . As I gazed on the scene I
then and there resolved that a city should some day be built. My
mind was then made up regarding the feasibility of the canal project,
and the next day we rode to the nearest telegraphic station, where I
wired for my crew of engineers."    (History of Klickitat, Yakima and
* Continuation of a thesis submitted by Miss Rose M. Boening, of Yakima, as part of her
work for the Master's degree in History in the University of Washington.
(21) 22
Rose M. Boening
Kittitas Counties, p. 222.) The company obtained an option from
the Northern Pacific Company for the purchase of all railroad lands
in the Sunnyside region. When the enterprise seemed so promising,
the Northern Pacific made advances to the irrigation company for
consolidation, with the result that the Northern Pacific took two-thirds
of the stock and the new company was known as the Northern Pacific,
Yakima and Kittitas Irrigation Company. It proposed to build seven
reservoirs in the mountains and to build one canal in Kittitas County
and two in Yakima. William Hamilton Hall, a famous engineer from
California, was procured to verify the work of Mclntyre, on which he
reported favorably.
Work was begun in the early part of 1891 on the lower Sunnyside
ditch, the one which has its intake just below Union Gap, "where the
river pinches itself between two high hills — Nature seems to have
designed it as a place for an intake of a great canal." They took
over the Kennewick ditch, which had just increased its capital stock
from $10,000 to $15,000. This they proposed to enlarge and extend
so as to carry "one thousand cubic feet of water per second of time
and serve 68,000 acres of land."
Work was continued, and on March 26, 1892, was held a great
celebration, for twenty-five miles had been completed. The Yakima
Herald says, "The announcement of the date of the ceremony was
very brief, but sufficient to attract a large throng of people, who
early in the morning could be seen wending their way down the river
road by every means of conveyance that could possibly be secured.
. . . Paul Schultze, president of the company, arrived in his special
car from Tacoma. Many prominent men were there to witness the
ceremony and inspect the great work, which is but the beginning of
the most important system of irrigating canals in America. The intake of the canal where the dams and headgates are located is seven
miles from and within sight of the two Buttes, the historic battleground. There a platform had been built, and at 10 o'clock Hon.
R. K. Nichols, as master of ceremonies, called the assembled people
to order. . . . Hon. Edward Whitson, Hon. J. B. Reavis, Hon.
Gardner C. Hubbard (of Washington, D. C.) and Paul Schultze made
speeches appropriate to the occasion. Miss Dora Allen broke a bottle
of champagne over the headgates as the water swirled into the
new canal and the band played Hvely airs." The first water was
taken by new settlers from the main canal in April, 1892. The
financial depression of 1892 caused the work to be suspended, but
even ere the panic had passed work began again, and by 1898 Superintendent Granger's June day resolution had been fulfilled. History of Irrigation in the State of Washington
23
As early as 1894 the company surveyed the site and prepared for
construction by hewing tamarack timbers for the dam, but this was
to be the work of the Federal Government and belongs to another
epoch. In 1902 Walter N. Granger claimed this project to be the
fourth largest irrigation system in the United States and the largest
in the Northwest. One million dollars had been expended. Forty
thousand dollars had been expended for the headgates. Counting the
smaller laterals at the lower end, an aggregate between 600 and 700
miles in length; the main canal had a top width of 62% feet, bottom
32 feet, banks 8 feet high, initial capacity 800 second-feet. The
canal covered an area of 64,000 acres of irrigable land, of which
32,000 are now under cultivation.
Besides this project, the Yakima Valley had many others, far
too many to give more than a passing mention; for this valley was and
is today the center of greatest irrigation interest. In January, 1892,
arrangements were made for the construction of a canal from Horn
Rapids on the Yakima to the Columbia, the ditch to extend along
the south side of the Yakima. This work was by the Yakima Irrigation and Improvement Company. The operations made things lively
in the vicinity of Kennewick during the whole of 1892 and 1893.
This ditch proved inadequate, but has since been enlarged, and now
claims to be the finest of its kind in the state.
On April 19> 1894, was completed, with appropriate exercises,
the opening of the Yakima Irrigation and Land Company Canal,
which would irrigate 4,000 acres.
In 1892, an attempt was made to irrigate the arid lands around
Kennewick by the Yakima Irrigation and Improvement Company.
It was not a complete success, though the company spent much money
constructing a canal from the Horn Rapids some seven miles below
Kiona. The ditch proved too small, but, with the financial depression,
the company could not enlarge it, and so suspended development.
In 1902, the ditch, water right and realty holdings passed into
the hands of the Northern Pacific, Yakima and Kittitas Irrigating
Company, who soon enlarged the ditch and under the supervision of
John Russell was built what is "claimed to be the finest irrigation
canal in the state." At Kennewick, twenty-one miles from the head-
gate, it is five feet deep, eighteen feet wide at the bottom, and about
15,000 acres can be irrigated. A perpetual water right costs about
$85 an acre.
Some plans never reached a realization. In 1895 the survey
for a large canal called the Naches and Columbia River Irrigation
Canal was made under the direction of the State Arid Land Com- 24
Rose M. Boening
mission. The intake was to be at the north side of the Naches River
three miles below the intake of the Selah Valley Canal; it was to
cross the Naches by means of an immense inverted syphon, circle
Moxee Valley, pass through the ridge east of Union Gap by a tunnel
6,100 feet long, continue down the Yakima Valley to Rattlesnake
Mountain and pass around it to the lands overlooking the Columbia.
It was to be 140 miles long and to carry at its head 2,000 second-feet
water.     Bumping Lake was to be used as a storage reservoir.
The Prosser Fall Irrigation Company spent much money in a
project to irrigate the high lands south of the Columbia, by raising it
100 feet. The water supplied would have irrigated 4,000 acres, but
they could not stem the financial depression, and in 1899 the company went into the hands of a receiver.
In 1892, the Cowiche and Wide Hollow Irrigation District held
an election at which was carried by a vote of fifty-two to fifteen the
proposition to bond the district for half a million dollars for the
construction of an irrigation canal. The plan was to take water out
of the Tieton River by a canal ten and one-half miles long and to
distribute the same by three laterals, one to cover the Cowiche and
Naches ridge, one the valley and a third the foothills. It was to
cover 46,000 acres.
Nor were the activities limited to the Yakima-Benton country.
The Kittitas Valley Irrigation Company surveyed a canal. The intake
was at Easton from the Yakima River and portions were constructed
previous to 1901. The Bull Ditch belongs to this portion of the
late '80s. It takes its water from the Yakima, is seven miles long
and serves 1,500 acres.
The Hawley Ditch, according to Professor Lyman (private
letter), was the first in Walla Walla "County, having been built in 1891
or 1892. We now have the West Side Ditch and the East Side Ditch
with their sources in the Touchet River and combined length of about
nine miles.    These Hawley ditches serve 1,000 acres.
According to the Annual Report of the Bureau of Statistics, January 1, 1896, Kittitas County is estimated as having about 80,000
acres under ditches and 100,000 more irrigable.
The Wenatchee country has developed little, for there, like the
Okanogan country, cattle raising was carried on, since the means of
transportation were still lacking. Fifteen thousand acres are first-
class irrigable lands, of which not more than one-tenth were under
irrigation in 1896. In 1891 Arthur Gunn, financially assisted by
J. J. Hill, constructed the Gunn Ditch.    The water was taken from History of Irrigation in the State of Washington
25
the Wenatchee River near Monitor,  and  about   12,000  acres  were
irrigated.
A canal had by 1896 been constructed in Franklin County, utilizing the waters from the Palouse River, irrigating 6,000 acres. In
Walla Walla County was built the canal which utilizes the water from
the Walla Walla River. It covers 8,000 acres between Pasco and
Wallula Junction.
The Spokane Falls Irrigation Company had twenty miles of
main ditch and expected to serve 75,000 acres.
Douglas County had the Cooperative Irrigation Company whose
canal extended twenty miles, and with the Moses Lake Irrigation
Company, made that county among the active ones.
Though the Federal Government did much to encourage irrigation, it continued to give actual aid to the wards of the government
living on the reservations. It was estimated by William Redman,
engineer, in his report of June, 1897, that by constructing more lateral
ditches, 50,000 acres could be irrigated from the system then in existence. This same year shows the main canal to be 12 45-100 miles
long with a capacity of 210 second-feet with 11 and 8-10 miles of
laterals; the Toppenish Canal to be 3 2-10 miles long with 1 86-100
miles of laterals with a capacity of 104 second-feet; the Waneto, a
natural slough, 12 miles long. In 1896 the Government built the Irwin
Canal, naming it after the then Indian agent. In 1894 Congress appropriated $80,000 for irrigating machinery and appliances on the
Indian Reservation.
Connected with the Reservation was passed by Congress an interesting act, July 28, 1894, granting the Columbia Irrigation Company a right of way through the Indian Reservation provided that
the grantee should at all times furnish the Indian allotees along said
right of way with water sufficient for domestic and agricultural purposes of irrigation, and these rights should be free.
Yet in spite of our seemingly great development, state comparison reveals some surprising facts. Bulletin 16, Department of Commerce and Labor, Bureau of the Census, gives as follows: "In total
of number of acres irrigated in 1889-1899-1902, as also in total number of farms, Washington stands lowest in state comparison—but
Washington shows the greatest relative increase in the total construction cost of irrigation systems." In 1902, Washington ranked
ninth in number of irrigated farms; last in number of irrigated acres;
ninth in constructive cost of system; last in length of main canal and
ditches.   The state had one-fourth of one per cent of its acreage un- Rose M. Boening
i#
der irrigation in 1902, but nearly four-fifths of this acreage and one-
half of the irrigated farms are in the Yakima Valley.
The year 1900 dawned rosy and red for it ushered in the period
of colossal enterprises, and the Federal Government came on the
scene as a doer of things, and not as an onlooker. The change was
perhaps due to the effective work of the National Irrigation Congress
which will be discussed later, or to the apparent failure of the Carey
Act, or to the new spirit which believed that government is beneficial
and should be active along industrial lines. The surveys made by
the Geological Department as a result of an act passed March 20,
1888, authorizing the Secretary of the Interior, through the Director
of the Geological Survey, to make examinations of that portion of the
United States where agriculture is carried on by means of irrigation,
as to the natural advantages of storages for the storage of water for
irrigating purposes, with the practicability of constructing reservoirs, under I. C. Russell in 1892, who examined Central and Southern
Washington with special regard to its water resources, and under
George Otis Smith in 1901, who made a detailed study and discussed
a number of available sites for storage reservoirs, did much towards
getting this state before the country.
To President Roosevelt may be given the title of "Father of National Reclamation." He urged it upon all occasions and that part
of his Message of December 8, 1901, relating to the subject has become "a classic upon the subject." His was undoubtedly the first
definite step taken by one in authority. This -led, June 17, 1902, to
the passing of the famous National Reclamation Act. This provided
that all moneys received from the sale and disposal of public lands
beginning with the fiscal year ending June 30, 1901, including the
fees and commissions in excess of allowances to registers and receivers, and excepting the five per centum of the proceeds of the sales of
public lands set aside by law for educational purposes, shall be set
aside as a fund known as the "reclamation fund," to be used in the
examination and survey, for the construction and maintenance of
irrigation work, for the storage, diversion and development of waters
for the reclamation of arid lands. The Secretary of the Interior is
authorized to make examinations, then withdrew from entry all lands
required for constructing the irrigation works. When it is determined that any irrigation project is practicable, he may cause to be
let contracts for the construction of the same, payment shall come
from the reclamation fund and the limit of area per entry shall be
determined according to the amount required to support a family;
also of the charges which shall be made per acre upon the said en- History of Irrigation in the State of Washington
27
tries. The said charges shall be determined with a view of returning
to the fund the amount expended. The entryman must comply with
the homestead laws and reclaim at least one-half of the total irrigable
area of his entry for agriculture. No right to the use of water for
land exceeding 160 acres to any land owner. The Secretary of the
Interior is authorized to use the fund for the operation and maintenance of all reservoirs and irrigation works constructed under the
provisions of this act. When the major portions of the payment have
been made, the management and operation shall pass to the owners
of the land irrigated thereby. Nothing in this act shall in any way
affect or interfere with the laws of the State.
In 1915, the reclamation fund, according to the Smithsonian Institute Report for that year was $100,000,000. The time over which
the payments were extended was changed from ten to twenty years.
It is believed that the absence of any test or qualification for settlers
on the projects or a lack of capital to tide them over may mean failure to themselves and the Government. Unfair benefits are derived
by private land owners, though the act was supposed to have provided against this; again it is claimed that private development is
hampered by the withdrawal of Government lands. This could be
easily remedied and perfect harmony made to exist. The short period
in which the settler must pay could be remedied by extending it to
thirty or forty years, and not demanding payment on the principal for
the first five or eight years, but expecting the settler to pay up his
interest only.
With the machinery organized, Washington was fortunate in the
almost immediate attention which it received and almost simultaneously two projects were begun, the Okanogan and the Sunnyside.
The reconnaissance and preliminary surveys for each began in 1903.
The construction was recommended by the Board of Engineers, October 9, 1905, for Okanogan, and October 16, 1905, for Sunnyside;
and the construction was authorized by the Secretary, December 2,
1905, for the Okanogan, and December 12, 1905, for the Tieton and
Sunnyside; June 16, 1906, for the Wapato; the first irrigation by the
Reclamation Service, season of 1907, by the Sunnyside unit, of 1908,
by the Okanogan unit. The Okanogan project was practically completed October, 1910, a year before the Sunnyside unit.
We need not go into the details of building these projects, for
what dweller in this great commonwealth has not watched them build ?
The Okanogan Project includes the storage dam in Salmon Lake and
the Conconnully Reservoir, controlled by the dam on the Salmon Creek,
two miles below Conconnully, Washington.   The Salmon Lake Reser- 28
Rose M. Boening
voir is controlled by a short inlet canal from Salmon Creek, and a
concrete outlet work. Conconully Reservoir is controlled by means
of an outlet tunnel discharging into Salmon Creek below the storage
dam; it also includes a diversion dam, twelve miles below the reservoir, and a canal system watering lands between Okanogan and Riverside; also a pumping system to supplement the gravity supply by
pumping from the Okanogan River to approximately 1,050 acres of land
on the sandy portions of the project known as Robinson Flat. The
power for the pumping is generated by two power plants constructed
at drops Nos. 1 and 2 on the upper main lateral, and transmitted to
the pumping station near the town of Omak by five and one-half miles
of transmission line. This project when complete could supply water
for 10,099 acres. In 1912, a board of engineers recommended that
the capacity of Salmon Lake be raised from 2,000 acre-feet to 8,000
acre-feet, by raising the outlet structure and by building a low embankment across the lower end of the lake. The last had not been
done by 1917, since the neighboring settlers feared damage to their
property by seepage. The distribution system consisted of about forty
miles of main canals and sublaterals and did not provide a direct delivery of water to each farm, except where the main canal traversed
the land, but the ranchers found it unsatisfactory to construct their
own farm ditches, and on a majority vote of the water users in their
association, and the approval of the department, the Government
constructed the laterals. By 1916, sixteen miles of small earth ditches
of ten second-feet, twenty-four miles of iron pipe lines, thirteen hundred and thirty linear feet of steel flume and one thousand feet of
minor wooden structures, as headgates, weirs, etc., had been built.
What this project has done for that country would be hard to estimate.
The next great project carried on is that known as the Yakima
Project. It divides itself into the following units: the Sunnyside, the
Tieton, the Wapato and the Kittitas units.
The Sunnyside Canal System was acquired by purchase from the
Washington Irrigation Company in December, 1905. The system consisted of a moveable diversion dam and wooden head works structure;
a main canal about fifty-six miles long; two main laterals with a total
length of about twenty-five miles; about fifty miles of smaller laterals;
a wasteway on mile seventeen on the main canal known as the Zillah
wasteway; together with other property. This the Government improved, enlarged and extended until today it consists of about sixty
miles of main and fifty miles of branch canals with increased capacity.
The  old system  could  irrigate  65,000  acres, the  present,   110,828 History of Irrigation in the State of Washington
29
acres. The Government improved the Zillah wasteway and added the
Sulphur Creek wasteway. The Snipes Mountain Canal was enlarged
from ninety second-feet capacity to a hundred and ninety second-feet,
main canal at mile fifty and twenty-three hundredths serves about
main canal at mile fifty and twenty-three hundredths, serrves about
10,000 acres lying on the opposite side of the Yakima River from the
main project. It crosses the river by means of forty-eight inch
diameter wood stave pipes placed beneath the river bed, operating
under a maximum head of one hundred and seventy feet. The Prosser
Canal, diverting from the main canal at mile fifty-five, serves 8,000
acres on the south side of the Yakima River, which it crosses in wood
stave pipes on the steel bridge. October 6, 1914, the Sunnyside was
agreed upon to be extended eastward to Benton City. This Benton
Canal serves 4,600 acres and was completed by June, 1915. Other
minor extensions were made from the Snipes Canal and Lookout District on the main canal.
Water is stored for the units taking water from the Yakima
River, at Bumping Lake, which is at the head waters of Bumping
River, a tributary of Naches River, which is itself a tributary of the
Yakima. This was completed in 1915. It covers. 1,800 acres and has a
storage capacity of 84,000 acre-feet. The first attempt at this dam
had been made by the Northern Pacific, Yakima and Kittitas Irrigation Company in 1894.
A second reservoir is formed by the Kachess Dam, located on
the Kachess River, about seventeen hundred feet below the most southerly portion of Lake Kachess. It is an earthen dam fourteen hundred
feet long; maximum height sixty feet. Surveys, for the water storage
at Lake Kachess were made by the Northern Pacific, Yakima and
Kittitas Irrigation Company, but construction was not undertaken by
that company. In May, 1908, the Cascade Canal Company commenced the construction of a crib dam at the mouth of the lake. This,
work was completed on June 1, 1904. By agreement, the Reclamation Service assumed control of this dam April 1, 1907.
The third reservoir adding to the flow of the Yakima River is
formed by the Keechelus Dam, located at the foot of the lake, six
thousand five hundred feet long, with a maximum height of sixty-eight
feet. Earlier surveys, of this were made, but no construction completed until taken up by the Reclamation Service in 1906.
The fourth is at Lake Cle Elum, at the outlet of the lake; a dam
with a maximum height of twelve hundred feet, a crest length of
seven hundred feet and a volume of four hundred and twenty-five
thousand cubic yards.    An outlet tunnel approximately two and one- 30
Rose M. Boening
half miles long is built from the lake to the Yakima River, thereby
obtaining 117,500 acre-feet of substorage.
During the year 1905 the feasibility of the Tieton unit was investigated and approved by the Secretary, March 27, 1906. This
system is designed to furnish water for 34,500 acres. This unit consists of a regulating reservoir, a diversion dam and headworks, main
canal and distribution system. The regulating reservoir created by
the Clear Creek Dam is on the North Fork of the Tieton River. The
purpose of the reservoir is to equalize the diurnal flow of the Tieton
River during the months of July and August. Construction was begun
on the dam April, 1914, and completed by November of the same year.
The diversion dam is located on the Tieton River, approximately fifteen miles above its junction with the Naches River, about eight miles
below the McAllister Dam site. It is a concrete weir three feet high
and one hundred and ten feet long. At the end of the dam on the
right side of the river is located the headworks structure of the main
canal. This structure is built of reinforced concrete and contains
three 4x5 foot gate openings, each controlled by a cast iron sluice
gate operated by hand. The left end of the dam terminates in low
retaining walls. The main canal of the Tieton unit runs along the
south side of the Tieton Canyon for twelve miles, at which point it is
five hundred feet above the river and passes through the rim of the
canyon by way of a tunnel to the project lands below. The distribution system consists, of three separate units, covering approximately
12,000 acres each, namely, the Naches Branch, which waters the lands
between the Naches River and the North Fork of Cowiche Creek; the
Cowiche-Yakima branch, which waters the lands in the Cowiche ;and
the Wide Hollow branch, which waters the lands between the Cowiche
Mountains and Ahtanum Creek. This would indicate the great length
of laterals and sub-laterals, a total of three hundred and twenty miles.
The Tieton Reservoir is to be located on the Tieton River at McAllister Meadows at an altitude of two thousand eight hundred feet.
The dam is to be one hundred and ninety-five feet in height and one
thousand feet long, and to contain nine hundred and ninety-one thousand cubic yards. The capacity of the reservoir is to be 185,000 acre-
feet. Work was begun on this in 1917, but because of the war work
was suspended in the Spring of 1918.
The Kittitas unit consists of those mains and laterals diverted
from the Yakima River in the vicinity of EUensburg. The 62,000
acres lying on both sides of the river are made productive through this
unit.
The Wapato unit consists of those mains and laterals which carry History of Irrigation in the State of Washington
81
water from the west bank of the Yakima River, near Parker, to the
reservation, irrigating 106,000 acres of land by gravity and 14,000
acres by panning with power generated at drops in the canal. These
projects are considered very successful and the purpose of reclamation, i. e., "to make homes for the homeless" has been accomplished
to the extent of hundreds, and the increase in land values is shown in
every report.
The future work of the Reclamation Service will be to complete
the Sunnyside and the Wapato units as officially approved: Kittitas
High Line, Pomona High Line, Naches High Line, Roza High Line,
Kennewick Extension of the Sunnyside Canal and the Benton or
Leadbetter Canal.
Mr. R. P. Tule gives 48,799 acres as under irrigation in 1889,
135,470 acres in 1899, and 334,878 acres in 1909, in Washington.
June 80, 1914, $6,555,299.73 was the reclamation fund in Washington.
The entering into irrigation activities by the Federal Government by no means lessened the interest of private concerns, and these
have continued to increase in numbers, in capital, and in extensiveness
of project until that part of the State west of the Cascades, too, may
boast of its irrigation projects.
In 1900, construction work was begun by the Spokane Valley
Land and Water Company. Liberty Lake is the head of this canal.
It was built four miles long and watered 600 acres, ten miles east of
the Spokane City limits. It was later extended to twenty-two miles,
serving 10,000 acres. In a 901 fields were put into alfalfa and a five-
year old orchard was ditched and put into shape for irrigation. The
results were so satisfactory that the "practicability was thoroughly
established."
The Fish Lake Canal was completed in 1902. It distributes
water from Fish Lake over 5,000 acres of rich land between Houser
Junction and Rathdrum, near Spokane. The canal is seven miles long
and eight to twelve feet in width, and carries nine cubic feet per
second.
George Otis Smith, of the United States Geological Survey, said,
in 1896, that Kittitas County is still irrigated by canal ditches, but
by 1902 this was no longer true; for in 1902 the Cascade Canal Company was formed to succeed the Inter-Mountain Irrigation Association, with a capital of $150,000. It proposed to build two canals, one
to irrigate 15,000 acres, the other 30,000 acres of Kittitas Valley
land. It began its work August 29, 1908, on the lower canal, which
has its intake on the north bank of the Yakima, five miles west of
Thorpe.    It is ten feet wide at the bottom, five feet deep, and has a 32
Rose M. Boening
capacity of one hundred and seventy cubic feet per second. Within
the first eight miles of its course it passes through a 600-foot tunnel,
and just north of EUensburg it passes through another tunnel of three
hundred and eighty-eight feet. The canal is forty-two miles long and
supplies 14,000 acres. The company built a dam at Lake Kachess,
storing a body of water twelve feet deep and covering twenty-one
square miles. The water was turned into the canal May 18, 1904.
This is claimed to be one of the best in the State and is strictly a
Kittitas County project, since all the capital stock is held by persons
residing in that county. Altogether there are 70,000 acres of land under irrigation in the egg-shaped valley, twenty-five miles by twenty
miles, and if the Kittitas Reclamation District Canal be constructed
as planned, it will put nearly all the land under water.
The largest private project in the Okanogan country is the West
Okanogan District Project, which is located along the river between
Oroville and Tonasket. This project furnishes water for 5,000
acres. The Pleasant Valley Irrigation Project, comprising the Boston-Okanogan Orchard tracts, serves about 2,000 acres, and the
Okanogan Power Irrigation Company's project furnishes Brewster
Flat with water.
The Pasco Reclamation Company in Franklin County irrigates
10,000 acres, the waters for which are taken from the Snake River
by electrically operated turbine pumps and carried through pipe line,
thirty-two to thirty-six inches in diameter.
One of the greatest projects of the Twentieth Century undertakings is the High Line Project of Wenatchee. This was attempted in
1892, but nothing came from it except that two farmers near the point
of diversion constructed a small ditch to water their farms of fifty
acres. In 1901, F. M. Scheble and L. MacLean were sent by the
Wenatchee Commercial Club to interview W. T. Clark, of Yakima,
who had built and operated the Selah Moxee Canal. Marvin Chase,
present State Hydraulic Engineer, made a preliminary investigation,
and a survey the following October, and on May 26, 1902, construction was begun. This project was financed by Robert Livingston,
Portland, Oregon. On May 10, 1903, water was. turned into the canal.
The intake is on the north side of the river, which is spanned by pipe
line in order to water the lands around the Wenatchee. This covers
about 6,500 acres. In 1906, assisted by stockholders of the Great
Northern Railroad, the Company extended the project into Douglas
County by carrying the water across the Columbia River by a pipe
line 12,000 feet long, having constructed the first bridge across the
Columbia.    This extension watered about 6,000 acres.    Since 1906, History of Irrigation in the State of Washington
88
by means of pumps, water has been given to another thousand acres.
This project is now owned by the Wenatchee Reclamation District
and is under the district management and is giving efficient service.
In 1902 the assessed valuation of Chelan County was $1,200,000. In
1916 it was $19,000,000. The assessed valuation increased $1,000,000
for every thousand acres irrigated.
Walla Walla has three principal irrigation projects today. The
Burbank Project is the largest. It was formed about 1900, and covers
about 12,000 acres. The water is pumped from the Snake River.
This company formerly had a dam nine miles long below Walla Walla,
but it proved unsuccessful, and so the pumping plant was put in.
The Attalia Irrigation Company was organized in 1917. Before
this date it was in the hands of various minor companies, entirely
private concerns. However, all these private undertakings failed.
The county then appointed three commissioners (with the approval
of the land owners), who were to have general supervision over the
company. A pumping plant was established on the Columbia River
and the water flows through a fifteen-mile canal. The Gardens
Project had its beginnings in 1905, although it had its smaller beginnings as early as 1890. It takes its water from the Walla Walla
River, and carries it through a twenty-one mile canal and waters
7,000 acres, one-fourth of which is in Oregon.
President Benjamin Fowler in his address before the Nineteenth
National Irrigation Congress said (p. 15): "The chief gift of irrigation lies in the raising of standards of excellence," and thus with
new standards for agricultural products, many lands have been made
producers of greater amounts and of better grades by added water
supply, and thus we see new projects going in even on the west side
of the Cascades. The western or coast portion of Washington is
humid, but because of the slight rainfall in the summer months there
is a growing tendency to supply water during these months.
The oldest of these projects is at Sequim. This little valley of
2,000 or 3,000 acres is located in the eastern part of Clallam County.
The water is taken from the Dungeness River. Without irrigation
it is practically worthless for farming, but with irrigation it is a gem
among the farming districts, of Western Washington. The Sequim
Irrigation District had its twenty-first annual celebration on the 20th
day of May, 1918. The Dungeness Canal has been in operation for
five years, and the Cline District is only just now constructing its
projects. These are projects built by private capital for the benefit
of the stockholders' lands.
Yelm Prairie, about eighteen miles south and east of Olympia, "~"
84
Rose M. Boening
celebrated last spring the completion of an irrigation canal coming
from the Nisqually River. About $100,000 has already been expended, and when completed the canal will serve 10,000 acres.
An irrigation district has recently been created near Centralia.
This project will irrigate about 4,000 acres of prairie land.
The   State   Epoch   of   Irrigation  Legislation
All this development did not come without the efforts of the
people grouped together under various names. It would be quite
impossible to say. which has done most and what the extent of influence wielded by any one has been. Each in itself was created by
necessity through good influence, and each has helped to supply
the need, in part at least, for which it was created.
The United States Geological Survey has played no little part.
The first survey was begun by the Government in 1888, in connection
with special studies relating to irrigation in the arid West. In 1893
the investigations of stream flow in the Yakima Basin were begun.
This survey and the data are so important in the apportionment of
water that the records have been extended to greater accuracy than
in any other basin in the United States. Of this flow, Major J. A.
Powell says that there is more than enough water flowing through
Yakima County to irrigate every acre of arable land, and in this
respect the Yakima Valley is exceptionally and especially favored,
as its water supply is superior to that of any other region in the West
with but one exception, Boise, Idaho. It has prevented many a money-
wasting proposition, as artesian wells and reservoirs. This could
have been done only by the best experts.
Another group, less expert but more enthusiastic, has been the
National Irrigation Congress. The first meeting was held September 15 to 17, 1891, in Salt Lake City, Utah, with C. C. Wright, of
California, as president. A great body of men from the Atlantic to
the Pacific, inspired by a great idea, caused "the star of empire to take
its way westward." The early congresses urged Federal cession of
lands to states for the purpose of developing irrigation, and this finds
expression in the Carey Act, but in the Congress at Phoenix, 1896,
George H. Maxwell, of California, took strong ground in opposition
to state cession of public lands and favored the national irrigation
policy. He was the apostle in this great move, but unlike most such
cases the day of fulfillment was close at hand. He carried on the
propaganda in every section, until the passage of the National Irrigation Act, June 1, 1902, and thus buried the state cession policy
of the first National Irrigation Congress.
In 1897, Chittenden reported that the subject of irrigation was History of Irrigation in the State of Washington
85
made a clause in the River and Harbor Bill passed in 1896, providing
for the examining of reservoir sites in the West, with a view to establishing the question whether or not they were practicable and desirable
for three things: First, improving the navigation of navigable rivers;
second, providing water for irrigation of arid lands; third, preventing
destructive floods. He says: "So we fought from one end of the
country to the other. We had thirty senators, and year after year
we got appropriations in the River and Harbor Bill in the Senate
to build reservoirs. The Senate passed it, but the House, in which
we had but one-tenth of the political power, turned us down, but it
was not long ere the force of our strength made itself felt." The
reader can judge the influence of this booster organization.
The State has found organization a good thing, though not until
quite recently. The Washington Irrigation Institute was born January 14, 1914, with Hon. E. F. Benson as president during its entire
life. The Institute was the outgrowth of the annual meetings of
"operation and maintenance officials" of the Washington District of
the Reclamation Service. The maintenance officials of private irrigation companies were invited, with the public officials, in October, 1912,
to go into problems with which all were concerned. The purpose was
to deal with phases of irrigation development in Washington: (1)
construction and operation of irrigation systems, (2) preparation of
land, methods of irrigation, (3) legislation that will permit greater
agricultural expansion under irrigation. It, too, boasts of having
accomplished something, and takes to itself the credit for the new
water code and the present admirable irrigation district laws. The
United States, with all its legal talent, is now displacing its "Water
Users' Association" system by the "Irrigation District Law," as the
best possible practice under which to operate. The Institute claims
to have secured even more. The last Legislature authorized the State
College to select a site for an experiment farm, but provided no
funds for the purchase of land or equipment. The college appointed
a committee to investigate. As a result a farm of about eighty acres,
a donation from the Northern Pacific Railroad with options from
adjacent owners for 200 acres more, was located near Grandview and
under the Government pumping plant for the Sunnyside Canal.
Through the agricultural associations considerable influence was
weilded, as noted by the donations made by Congress from time to
time for investigations on the part of the Agricultural Department.
In 1900, an appropriation of $50,000 was made by Congress "to enable the Secretary of the Interior with the Secretary of Agriculture
to investigate methods, of utilization of irrigation waters in agricul- 36
Rose M. Boening
ture." And again in 1908, $150,000 to enable the "Secretary of Agriculture to investigate and report upon the best methods of irrigation
and usage of irrigation waters .... and upon the use of different
kinds of power for irrigation and drainage."
We find also the local organization as the Yakima Husbandry
Association. In 1902, A. J. Splawn was the chairman of the executive committee. He brought out in a paper the fact that the grazing
of hundreds of thousands of sheep on the head waters of the streams
was affecting the supply and since agricultural interests were ten
fold greater than the stock interests, this ought not to be allowed to
continue. A set of resolutions were drawn up in consequence of these
facts and sent to the Secretary of Agriculture.
During the early eighties the projects were built by local capital,
and the stockholders of the companies were the men for whose ranches
the water was to be used. These were a financial success and his
attracted outside capital, and we have irrigation companies formed
from outside capital who developed projects for the purpose of offering for sale to the land owners, water as a commodity. This period
extends, in most states, from 1886 to 1898, but the State of Washington
has continued this to the present. In the table given in the Annual
Report of the Bureau of Statistics of Agriculture and Immigration for
January 1, 1896, there is shown the great number of companies operating independently of the land, and offering water as a commodity.
They often took options on neighboring lands and sold it to settlers
together with the water right.
The country became filled with land speculators who grabbed the
land with no intention of buying a water right and settling, but holding it until some real settlers should come along willing to pay a handsome price for his relinquishment. The Canal Company could not
tell a "real settler" from a speculator until it was ready to deliver the
water, for then the "land grabber" wanted neither water nor title to a
water right.
Many a company went under during the 1893 financial stress. To
correct the evil of separate ownership of land and water and speculative
possibilities, Congress passed the Carey Act which was to make possible a means of vesting the control of the land in the company building
the irrigation project. The Bill was introduced by Senator Joseph
Carey, of Wyoming. "This act ushers in the epoch of State and National aids in irrigation. ... It has had more far reaching effects in
producing material development in the arid West than has any other
single act of National legislation." (United States Experiment Station Report for 1910, p. 268).    However true this may be for the m
History of Irrigation in the State of Washington
87
West, or for particular states in the West, not one project was completed under it in the State of Washington, for reasons shown later on.
Federal Government legislation as to reclaiming desert land had its
beginning in 1877 as already discussed. In 1891, the 1877 Act was
amended as follows: At the time of filing, a map is required showing
mode of contemplated irrigation and showing source of water. The
amount of land was. limited to three hundred and twenty acres. No
patent shall be issued until his assignors shall have expended in the
necessary reclamation and cultivation thereof, by means of main canals
and branch ditches, at least $8.00 per acre. One dollar at least shall
be expended the first year, and not less than one dollar the second year
and also during the third year. Another law was passed the same year
to aid in the development of irrigation. This Act provided for the
right of way through the public lands and reservations of the United
States, to any canal or ditch company formed for the purpose of irrigation, and only organized under the laws of any state or territory which
shall have filed with the Secretary of the Interior a copy of articles
of incorporation. Maps of such canals, after ten miles have been built,
shall be filed within twelve months of that time with the register of the
land office.
These Acts were followed August 18, 1894, by the famous Carey
Act, an act to aid the public land states in the reclamation of desert
lands therein. By this act the Secretary of the Interior, with the approval of the President, was authorized and empowered, under proper
application of the state, to conduct and agree with each of the states,
to donate, grant and patent, free of cost, not exceeding one million
acres in each state as the state might cause to be irrigated, reclaimed
and occupied, and not less, than twenty acres of each one hundred and
sixty acre tract cultivated by actual settlers, within ten years next
after the passage of the act, as thoroughly as is required of citizens
who enter under the said desert land law. The state was required to
submit a map showing the mode of the contemplated irrigation and the
course of the water, and was forbidden to lease or rent such lands; but
might contract to secure reclamation, cultivation and settlement. No
person could receive more than one hundred and sixty acres.
This State was enthusiastic and on March 22, 1895, an act was
approved creating a Commission of Arid Lands, which began business
on June 22, 1895, by establishing an office in North Yakima, the center
of irrigation activities.. H. K. Owens, an engineer, was secured and
began in July a survey for a canal one hundred and fifty miles long and
85,566 acres were selected which had been withdrawn from the public
domain.    Water was to be taken from the Naches River.    Then the Rose M. Boening
securing of contracts for construction of the irrigation works was in
order, but here the weakness in the Federal law became more and more
apparent as one attempt after another failed, for the land could be
made the security but the security was faulty in the matter of attaining title; for patents to land could not be issued until actual operation
and partial cultivation had taken place. Again, acceptance of the
terms of the act required special legislation on the part of the state
accepting the grant. The territorial experience with special legislation was such that our State Constitution prohibits special legislation.
Then, too, the State was in no way protected in the assumption of its
responsibility. This then led to the amendment passed June 11, 1896,
which provided for a lien or liens created by the state to which such
lands are granted, and when created shall be valid against each separate legal subdivision for the actual cost. When water is obtained, the
patent shall be issued to the state, but the United States shaU not be
liable for any lien. This improved the bill greatly, but it still retained
the serious defect of a time limit of ten years in which the reclamation
must have been accomplished. This brought forth a second amendment passed as a rider to an appropriation bill, and approved March 3,
1901, which counted the ten years from the year in which the state's
grant is approved and gave the power to the Secretary of the Interior
to extend the time not to exceed five years.
In 1910, March 15, another amendment was added which authorized the Secretary of the Interior, upon the application of a beneficiary
state or territory, "To withdraw temporarily from settlement or entry
areas embracing lands for which the state or territory proposes to make
application . . . pending the investigation and survey preliminary to
the filing of maps and plats and applications for segregation. Provided that if the state or territory shall not present its application for
segregation and maps and plats within one year after such temporary
withdrawals the lands so withdrawn shall be restored to entry as
though such withdrawal had not been made."
Many states availed themselves of this opportunity. Idaho and
Wyoming, in 1908, took an additional million acres and Idaho has today
a third million acres. Oregon did not fare so well due to poor state
laws, but after adopting, in 1909, the Idaho-Wyoming laws, is at present meeting with success, and by 1914, 155,649.89 acres were applied
for but none segregated nor patented. Washington entered into the
contract but necessity for such aid was not felt, for this was the period
in which the "then most extensive Sunnyside project" was under way,
besides the many lesser ones. Then, too, the State Government was
under a conservative regime and feared much state activity.    Perhaps History of Irrigation in the State of Washington
89
the machinery which was made to put into operation the Carey Act
was the principle reason for Washington's failure to make use of it.
The legislative act of 1895 shows a lack of business experience.
This law would have worked a hardship on land speculators and these
might be men of no little influence, and so for economic, political and
personal reasons the Carey Act did not work magic in our fair State,
even though the land and water was made common ownership, and
adequate water was supplied for all lands under a project and the
State supervision should have encouraged investors.
An interesting controversy arose between the people living along
the Sunnyside Canal and those living on the reservation. We have already noted that irrigation had begun on the reservation almost immediately with the Indians accepting it as their home, with the building of the Irwin Canal and extending the others during the nineties.
Opposition came from the Washington Irrigation Company whose lands
had been already rapidly settled. In 1905, the Washington Irrigation
Company, the successor to the Northern Pacific, Kittitas and Yakima
Irrigating Company, builders of the Sunnyside Canal, brought an injunction suit, to restrain from taking the waters to use on the reservation; for on February 19, 1903, the then superintendent of the Yakima
Reservation filed on one thousand cubic feet per second of water for
the use and benefit of the reservation. While the suit was pending)
Ethan A. Hitchcock, Secretary of the Interior, undertook to compromise
and in March, 1906, awarded one hundred and forty-seven second-feet
to the Washington Irrigation Company. Much disgust at the unfairness was expressed. The Superintendent of the Indian Reservation
said, "The Sunnyside project in 1905 and 1906 had 40,000 acres under canals and being irrigated, with an ultimate irrigable area of
90,000 acres, and these lands were allowed six hundred fifty second-feet
of water, while the Indians with irrigation systems with a capacity to
serve 80,000 acres and an irrigable area of 120,000 acres, and with
irrigated area of 47,000 acres, were allowed only one hundred forty-
seven second-feet."
In 1912, a commission was created by Congress to investigate the
feasibility of procuring impounded waters for the Yakima Indian Reservation and things are being satisfactorily adjusted. (Report of Superintendent of Indian Reservation, House Document No. 1299). For
the purpose of doing justice to each party a Senatorial Committee was
created in 1912 for the purpose of investigating the justice of Mr.
Hitchcock's awards. Everything has been satsfactorily adjusted, since
the Government has taken over the Sunnyside Canal, and the great
storage reservoirs have been built, and there is sufficient water for both. 40
Rose M. Boening
The State has even been ready, to a limited extent, to aid the individual, the corporate or the federal promoter of irrigation development. Because of the humid western part and the dry eastern part,
the State has lacked an aggressive policy. Its laws have not always
been wise. This we may attribute to inexperiences and because irrigation flourished in the State, in spite of indifference on the part of the
Government. We have not reached the time where every foot of ground
must be utilized in order to support the population.
It is interesting to note that irrigation was not absent from the
minds of the citizens when they met, in 1889, to make their State
Constitution. Art. XXI, Sec. 1, provides as follows: "The use of
waters of the State for irrigation, mining and manufacturing shall
be deemed a public use."
The year 1890 marks a systematic organization of irrigation, and
in order to protect all parties in their legal right in the use of water
for irrigation an act was passed which provided that every person,
association or corporation owning or claiming any interest in any
ditch or canal, shall, on or before June 1, 1890, file with the Clerk of
the County the name and full description, giving location of the head-
gate, name of stream from which it comes, amount of water claimed
under such ditch, present capacity and the number of acres irrigated.
It also provided that the Court might, when thought necessary, appoint a commissioner with qualifications, as theoretical and practical
knowledge of the science of hydraulics, as will enable him to construct
and operate measuring devices as may be necessary to place in any
ditch.    His salary was made $7.00 per day to be paid by the County.
The year 1890 also marks the beginning of the district organization for irrigation. Utah has the honor of having enacted the first
district law on January 20, 1865. The Wright law, an amendment
on Utah's law, was enacted in California, March 7, 1887. On March
20, 1890, (Laws of Washington 1889 and 1890, p. 671) an act was
ratified by Washington's Governor providing for the organization and
government of irrigation districts and the sales of bonds arising therefrom. This law was amended in 1895 (Laws of Washington, 1895,
p. 432) and has been further improved, until today the "District
Law" is thought superior to the Water User's Association, the authorized organization of federal projects. The district system is being
substituted by the Reclamation Service for its organization. The district system is a business organization of the stockholders of a project
and the governing board levies assessments for the whole.
In 1895, the Legislature provided for a Commission of Public
Lands to take, select, manage and dispose of all public lands of the History of Irrigation in the State of Washington
41
State of Washington. All proposals for construction of irrigation
works shall be filed with him. These laws (Irrigation Laws, 1916, p.
116) are easy of access and so need not be given.
The second legislative assembly created the State Board of Horticulture which has aided the fruit growers, who in turn created a
demand for better irrigation facilities.
In February, 1904, Governor Henry McBride appointed an Irrigation Committee for the purpose of investigating the subject of irrigation, and recommending such changes in the laws "as may be
deemed for the best interest of the State." This Board stated that
since the waters of the State belonged to it, its right should be asserted; and that the State should for the present permit private individuals and corporations to use its waters to aid in the development
of its resources; and that the right to use water should be appurtenant
to, and, under ordinary circumstances, inseparable from the lands.
These were incorporated into legislation and the water code began
to have laws of real benefit to the people.
In the session of 1917, the office of State Hydraulic Engineer was
created, and on June 15, 1917, Marvin Chase, the present incumbent,
began his work. His duty is to supervise all public waters within
the State, their appropriation, diversion and use, and officers connected therewith. He shall inspect all dams, canals, ditches, irrigation systems and hydraulic power plants insofar as may be necessary
to assume safety to life and property. All persons claiming a right
to divert any waters shall petition the State Hydraulic Engineer, and
he shall investigate and file findings with the Superior Court which
shall proceed as in civil action.
During the last few years the State has shown a stronger tendency toward an aggressive irrigation policy. This was well expressed
by Governor Lister in an address before the Third Annal Washington
Irrigation Institute (Proceedings, p. 105) "If we could have a system
whereby we had a fund of say $2,000,000 for irrigation projects and
no interest charge whatever for the first five or ten years—if we could
keep that money constantly at work, and when the payments were
made covering one project, again use the money for some other project,
I think we would begin then to bring about a really steady development
of irrigation projects, and it would be better if it were done in that
manner than to have some one great big project requiring ten, twenty
or thirty million dollars that we were trying to work out and the
ultimate completion of which would require many, many years."
Governor Lister had in mind the Palouse country which embraces
100,000 acres of land, 80,000 of which are arable.   This land is largely 42
Rose M. Boening
owned by the Northern Pacific which has offered to sell it to the
State for $5.00 per acre, and which, according to Governor Lister,
(Proceedings of the Third Annual Report of the Washington Irrigation Institute, 1916, p. 105) "The officers in charge say the State is
willing to sell at the minimum price of $10.00." The Palouse River
is the only practicable source. Measurements of its flow have been
made since 1897, which have shown the flow insufficient, and thus a
series of reservoirs would be necessary. Rock Lake, Potlatch, Wash-
tucna and Coulee would be possible, but the Potlatch Reservoir lies
within Idaho and there are complications; for action on the part of
the legislature of Idaho would be necessary and protests would be
brought by the settlers of the basin who would object to having their
farms destroyed or endangered. This project has been too great for
individual enterprise and Congress has been unable to handle it with
its limited funds. Then, too, the Commission appointed in 1913 as
provided in Act (Laws of Washington, 1918, p. 298) to make a survey of the Palouse country, reported unfavorably as to the feasibility
of getting storage water. Whether feasible or not, the fact remains
that there are hundreds of acres that are needed and the State must
find a means of reclaiming this land.
The Horse Heaven country offers itself as another problem which
the State should help solve. And now (Seattle Star, August 9, 1918,)
comes the cry for "Lands with Social Centers for Veterans after the
war." This movement, led by George Dilling and Dr. Ellwood Mead,
would have the 275,000,000 acres of waste land in the United States
made homes for those who must begin life anew. We may yet have
the opportunity to take an active part in making this State, which
was once "a wilderness so unpromising that it evoked derision in the
Halls of Congress," into the land of fortune and opportunity.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Original Sources
Federal Statutes
(1) Act of July 26, 1866.    United States Statutes at Large.
Vol.  14, Sec.  9, p.  253.
(2) Act of July 9, 1870.    United States Statutes at Large.
Vol.  17,  Sec.  17, p.  218.
(3) Act of March 3, 1877.    United States Statutes at Large.
Vol.  19, Sec.  1,  p. 377.
(4) Act of August 30, 1890.    United States Statutes at Large.
Vol. 26, Sec. 1, p. 391.
(6)    Act of Oct.  2,  1888.    United States Statutes at Large.
Vol. 25, Sec. 1, p. 526.
(6)    Act of August 18, 1894.    United States Stautes at Large.
Vol. 28, Sec. 4, p. 422. History of Irrigation in the State of Washington
43
(7) Act of June 17, 1902.    United States Statutes at Large.
Vol. 32, Part I, p. 388.
(8) Act of June 11, 1896.    6 Federal Statute Annotated, 1905, p. 398.
Federal Reports
(1) United States Census Report for 1890.    Extent of Irrigation in
the various Counties.
(2) Bulletin 16, Department of Commerce and Labor, Bureau of the
Census.
(3) Experiment Station Official Bulletin, 1903.
(4) Experiment   Station   Report,   1910.     Irrigation  under   the   Carey
Act, p. 461-468.
(5) Annual Report of the Bureau of Statistics, Agriculture and Im
migration for January 1, 1896.
(6) Bureau of Statistics, 1901.    Agriculture and Immigration.
(7) Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution, 1915.    Reclamation
Act,  June,  1902.
(8) Fifteenth Annual Report of the Reclamation Service,  1916.
(9) Indian affairs, Laws and Treaties.    Charles J. Kappler, compiler.
Government  Printing  Office,  Washington.
(10) Charles Wilkes.    United States Exploring Expedition,  1838-1842,
Vol. 4.    Lea Blanchard, Philadelphia,  1845.
(11) Russell, Israel C.    Bulletin of the United States Geological Sur
vey, Nos.  107,  117.    Possibilities of Artesian Wells  in Washington.
(12) Report of the Superintendent of the Indian Reservation.    House
Document No. 1299.
(13) Senate   Executive   Document,   Vol.   5,   2nd   Sess.   63rd   Congress.
Commission created to investigate the feasibility of procuring
impounded waters for the Yakima Indian Reservation.
(14) Letters from Nathaniel J. Wyeth in the Report of the Commis
sion of the House of Representatives on the Oregon Territory,
presented February 6, 1838.
(15) Official Proceedings of the National Irrigation Congress held In
Chicago,   Illinois,   1911,   December   5-9.     Donnelly   and   Sons,
Chicago,   1912.
(16) Geological and Water Resources of a portion  of South-Central
Washington.    Water   Supply  Paper   316.     Government   Printing
Office, Washington,  1913.
Washington Laws
Act of January 20, 1864, on Riparian Rights. Laws of Washington, 1863-64, p. 113.
Act regarding Irrigation and Water Rights in Yakima County.
Laws of 1873, p. 520.
An act appropriating $1,000 for the purpose of sinking an Artesian Well in Yakima County, Washington. Laws of Washington,  1887-88, p.  5.
Act accepting the Grant of Arid Lands and authorizing the disposal thereof.    Laws of Washington, 1895, p. 452.
Act to authorize the Government to make Surveys of the Palouse
Country.    Laws of Washington, 1913, p. 298.
Irrigation Laws.    State of Washington,  1916.    Olympia,  1916.
The Water Code and its Administration. Bulletin No. 1. Office
of State Hydraulic Engineers, Olympia, 1918.
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
State Supreme Court Decisions
(1) Thorpe vs. Tenem Ditch Company.    Washington Reports, Vol 1,
p. 566.
(2) George Barber vs. Henry Isaacs.    Washington Reports, Vol. 10,
p.  124.
(3) Benton vs. Johncox.    Washington Reports, Vol. 17, p. 277. 44
Rose M. Boening
State Official and Unofficial Reports
(1) Governor Watson C. Squire to the Secretary of the Interior 1885
and 1886.
(2) Governor Watson C. Squire's Message,  Washington House Jour
nal, 1885 and 1886.
(3) Governor  Eugene   Semple's  Report  to  the  Secretary  of  the  In
terior,  1887.
(4) Secretary of State's Report for 1890.    Olympia, 1891.
(5) D.   E.  Lesh,   Ex-Commissioner  of  County,   1892,   in  State  Horti
culture Report.
(6) State Auditor's Biennial Report,  1892-93.    Money paid for Arte
sian Well In Yakima County.
(7) Hawlett, L. S.    Commissioner of Public Land, Report, 1896.
(8) Biennial Report of the  Commissioner of Arid Lands, November
1,  1896.
(9) Biennial Report of the Commissioner of Arid Lands, 1898.
(10) Bureau of Statistics and Immigration of the State of Washing
ton.    Department of State.    Public Printer, Olympia, 1910.
(11) Proceedings   of   the   Third   Annual   Report   of   the   Washington
Irrigation Institute.
(12) Proceedings   of   the   Fifth   Annual   Meeting   of  the  Washington
Irrigation Institute at Yakima, December 4-5, 1917.
Secondary Sources
Books
BANCROFT, HUBERT HOWE. History of Washington, Idaho and
Montana. 1845-1889. The History Company, San Francisco,
1890.
DURHAM, N. W. History of the City of Spokane and Spokane County.
Clarke, Spokane, 1912.
HAWTHORNE, JULIAN. History of Washington. Two Volumes.
American Historical Publishing Company, New York, 1893.
Illustrated History of Klickitat, Yakima and Kittitas Counties.    Interstate  Publishing  Company,  Seattle,  1904.
KINNEY, CLESSON S. Irrigation and Water Rights. Vol. Ill, Chap.
65, Sec. 1235-1286, and Chapter. 70, Sec. 1386-1432. Bender
Moss,  San Francisco,  1912.
LYMAN, WILLIAM DENISON. The Columbia River. Putnam's Sons,
New York, 1909.
LYMAN, WILLIAM DENISON. Illustrated History of Walla Walla.
Lever.
MEANY, EDMOND S. History of the State of Washington. Macmillan,
New York,  1909.
PARSONS, COLONEL WILLIAM. An Illustrated History of Umatilla
County.    Lever,  1902.
SHERIDAN, P. H.    Personal Memoirs.    Vol 1.
SPLAWN, A. G. Kamaikin, the Last Hero of the Yakimas. Kilhan
Stationery and Printing Company,  Portland,  1917.
SNOWDEN, CLINTON. History of Washington. Vols. II and HI. Century History Company, New York, 1909.   .
Magazines and Personal Letters
OREGON HISTORICAL SOCIETY.    Quarterly,  12:290,  September,  1911.
Charles Wilkes' Report on the Territory of Oregon,  1838-1842.
OKANOGAN.     A   Pamphlet    gotten    out    by    the    Commercial   Club.
Okanogan Independent Print, 1910.
THE COAST IRRIGATION IN KITTITAS COUNTY.    B. F. Reed, May,
1908. History of Irrigation in the State of Washington
THE YAKIMA HERALD. Celebration of the Opening of the Sunnyside Canal.     March 26, 1892.
BROWN, JUDGE WILLIAM C. Personal Letters on the Okanogan
Country.
CHASE, MARVIN. State Hydraulic Engineer. Information on Recent
Enterprises.
GRITESCH, ANTON. Information on Douglas County. Waterville,
Washington.
LYMAN, W. D. Information on Irrigation in Walla Walla County.
Whitman College.
McBRIDE, WILSON, County Engineer. Information on Irrigation in
Columbia County .
Rose M. Boening. PIONEER AND HISTORICAL SOCIETIES OF THE
STATE OF WASHINGTON
This is the fifth year in which this survey of the pioneer and
historical societies within the State has appeared in the January
number of the Washington Historical Quarterly. During the year several of the organizations have omitted their meetings on account of
war conditions. In those cases the officers remain in the lists unchanged. In 1918 the societies have lost by death four important
officers, all of them colorful men. In October, General Hazard Stevens of Olympia died. He had been president for two terms of the
Pioneer and Historical Society of Thurston County and at the time
of his death was president of the Washington State Historical Society
and vice-president of the Pioneer Association of the State of Washington. In October also, the death occurred of Major William Vance
Rinehart, of Seattle, secretary of the Pioneer Association of the State
of Washington. He had held the office for a number of years and
his loss is keenly felt. During the summer, death claimed Captain
W. B. Seymore, president of the Kitsap County Pioneer Association.
He was one of the most active men in that organization. Charles
McKay, at the advanced age of 90 years, died at his home at Friday
Harbor on December 1, 1918. He had been president and was still
historian at the time of his death of the San Juan County Pioneer
Association. He was the last survivor of the fourteen Americans who
settled on San Juan Island in 1857 and started the controversy which
ended in the famous San Juan arbitration case.
The Pioneer Association of the State of Washington is the general organization for the whole State. Many of the local organizations
send delegates to its annual meetings. These delegates are not always
listed among the local officers. It is hoped that this may be done in
the future and that the affiliation and cooperation may be made more
and more complete.
State at Large
Pioneer Association of the State of Washington. Pioneer
Hall, Seattle. Founded October 23, 1883, at Olympia; incorporated
December 5, 1895. Membership requirement: Residence on the Pacific Coast forty years prior to date of application.   There are about 800
* Victor J. Farrar, who has heretofore prepared this annual article, is now in France,
sergeant first class with Base Hospital No. 50. Daring his absence the material is revised in
his behalf and signed by his name.
(46) Pioneer and Historical Societies
47
members. Annual meeting at headquarters, first week in June, when,
among other transactions, reports are received from county and other
local pioneer organizations. Officers: Henry C. Comegys, Snohomish,
president; W. M. Calhoun, Seattle, treasurer; F. H. Winslow, M. R.
Maddocks, James McCombs, W. H. Pumphrey and Leander Miller,
trustees. The offices of vice-president and secretary are vacant owing
to the recent death of General Hazard Stevens of Olympia and Major
W. V. Rinehart of Seattle.
Women's Pioneer Auxiliary of the State of Washington.
Pioneer Hall, Seattle. Founded in August, 1911. Membership requirements: Women who have had a residence in the State (Territory)
prior to 1889. There are four meetings each year. Officers: Mrs.
Jessie Smith Parker, president; Mrs. Leila Shorey Kilbourne, vice-
president; Mrs. J. T. Handsaker, secretary; Mrs. Mattie Wade Kyes,
treasurer.
Washington State Historical Society. Tacoma: 401 North
Cliff Avenue. Founded October 8, 1891. Membership requirements:
Any citizen of the State. Officers: W. B. Blackwell, Tacoma, president; W. P. Bonney, Tacoma, secretary; William H. Dickson, Tacoma,
treasurer. Curators: Edward Meath, P. G. Hubbell, C. S. Barlow,
Walter S. Davis, Thomas Huggins, of Tacoma; John Arthur, Harry
M. Painter, of Seattle; J. M. Canse, Bellingham; Walter N. Granger,
Zillah; L. F. Jackson, Pullman; W. D. Lyman, Walla Walla; Mrs.
Henry W. Patton, Hoquiam; Charles H. Ross, Puyallup; W. D.
Vincent, Spokane; J. A. Perkins, Colfax. The Governor, Secretary
of State and State Treasurer are also ex-officio members of the Board
of Curators.
Washington University State Historical Society. University Station, Seattle. Founded January 1, 1903. Membership requirements; Any person may become a member. Officers: Clarence
B. Bagley, Seattle, president; John P. Hoyt, East Seattle, vice-president; Roger S. Greene, Seattle, treasurer; Edmond S. Meany, Seattle,
secretary. The above, with Thomas Burke, Cornelius H. Hanford and
Samuel Hill, constitute the board of trustees.
Native Daughters of Washington. Seattle. Membership requirements: Any native daughter over sixteen years of age. The society seems not to have been active during the last few years.
Native Sons of Washington. A state organization having at
one time considerable activity. Local units called camps are still found
in some of the larger cities, though not very active. 48
Victor J. Farrar
Native Daughters of Washington Pioneers. After several
years of activity, this organization was incorporated on April 20, 1918.
Headquarters are at Seattle. Membership requirements: Daughters
of white parents who were resident on the Pacific Coast prior to 1870.
Officers: Mrs. Leroy Stetson, president; Mrs. Richard Abrams, first
vice-president; Mrs. Clara Shoudy McTeigh, second vice-president;
Mrs. Pearl McCombs Clark, recording secretary; Mrs. Jessie Bryan
Crow, treasurer; Miss Nellie Russell, corresponding secretary. The
above with Miss Alice Calhoun, Mrs. Janet Wilson and Mrs. Rena
Bagley Griffith, constitute the board of trustees.
Eastern Washington Historical Society. Spokane. Crescent Department Store Building. Officers: E. A. Lindsley, president;
J. W. Duncan, first vice-president; N. W. Durham, second vice-president; B. L. Gordon, treasurer; George W. Fuller, recording secretary;
William S. Lewis, corresponding secretary; the above with Messrs.
A. L. White, J. L. Paine, J. C. Argall, W. H. McVay, T. C. Elliott
(of Walla Walla), Harl J. Cook, W. D. Vincent, Rev. Jonathan Edwards and Mrs. G. Elmer Brown and Mrs. Josie A. Foss constitute
the board of trustees; Prof. Thomas B. Bonser, curator of museum.
The Society (formerly the Spokane Historical Society) has permanently established a public museum, and receives financial support
from the Chamber of Commerce, the city, and the county, and the
local school board, and many local civic organizations are interested
in the growth of its museum. The society is now enlarging the scope
of its endeavors to include the entire Eastern part of the State, and
intends to make its work of educational value to that section.
Local Societies
Aberdeen Pioneer Association. Aberdeen. There are four
meetings each year, the annual meeting occurring in January and the
memorial meeting in memory of those who have died occurring on the
first Sunday in March. Officers: Mrs. Janette M. Walker, president;
Mrs. James A. Hood, vice-president; Mrs. William Irvine, secretary;
Mrs. Charles Pinckney, treasurer; Rev. Charles McDermoth, chaplain;
Mrs. Jean B. Stewart, historian.
Adams County. See Lincoln and Adams County Pioneer and
Historical Association.
Benton County.    Old Settlers' Union.    Prosser. Membership
requirements:    Twenty years' residence in the County. There is an
annual meeting.    Officers:   G. W. Wilgus, president; A. G. McNeill,
vice-president; M. Henry, secretary. Pioneer and Historical Societies
49
Ferry Museum of Tacoma.. Tacoma. 401 North Cliff Avenue.
Meetings are held in Hewitt Hall of the Ferry Museum Building.
Officers: W. L. McCormick, Tacoma, president; Mrs. Eliza Ferry
Leary, Seattle, vice-president; W. P. Bonney, Tacoma, secretary;
Frank B. Cole, Tacoma, treasurer.
Garfield County Pioneer Association. Postoffice address: G.
B. Kuykendall, Pomeroy, secretary. Founded July 19, 1909. Membership requirements: A residence of twenty-five years in Garfield
or an adjoining county. Officers: J. Otto Long, president; G. B.
Kuykendall, secretary; L. F. Koenig, treasurer and financial secretary.
Grays Harbor County.. Pioneer Association of Grays Harbor
County. Montesano. Membership requirements: Residence in the
county prior to January 1, 1885. Officers: Mrs. Andrew Smith,
Montesano, president; Charles. Gaddis, Elma, first vice-president;
John Carney, Aberdeen, second vice-president; Mrs. A. H. Kuhn,
Hoquiam, third vice-president; Mrs. Warren Wood, Montesano, secretary; Mrs. H. B. Marcy, Montesano, treasurer; Rev. Charles McDermoth, Aberdeen, chaplain; A. C. Girard, Hoquiam, historian; J. E.
Calder, Montesano, trustees for three years; J. A. Hood, Aberdeen,
trustee for two years; William Campbell, Hoquiam, trustee for one
year; J. E. Calder, Montesano, delegate to the State Association.
King County. Seattle Historical Society. Seattle. Officers:
Mrs. Morgan J. Carkeek, president; Mrs. William P. Trimble, vice-
president; Mrs. Redick H. McKee, secretary; Mrs. William F.
Prosser, treasurer; Mrs. Charles L. Denny, historian.
Kitsap County Pioneers' Association. Charleston. Founded
October 10, 1914. Membership requirements: Those who have resided in the county prior to the year 1893. Annual meeting on the
third Saturday in August at Bremerton. Officers: L. A. Bender, vice-
president; Paul Mehner, Bremerton, secretary; Tow Lewis, treasurer.
The annual meeting was omitted on account of war conditions. There
remains a vacancy in the presidency on account of the death of Captain W. B. Seymore.
Lincoln and Adams County Pioneer and Historical Association. Postoffice address: Charles E. Ivy, secretary-treasurer, Davenport. Annual meeting at the Association's grounds in June. Officers:
George N. Lowe, Lamona, president; H. W. Thiel, Ritzville, vice-
president; Charles E. Ivy, Davenport, secretary-treasurer; Fred Thiel,
Ritzville, historian; M. C. Lavender, Espanola; Lee Long, Harrington; H. Rosenoff, Sr., Ritzville; J. J. Kanzler, Ritzville; William G.
Danekas, Ritzville, directors. 50
Victor J. Farrar
Okanogan County Pioneers' Association. Conconully. Officers:
P. H. Pinkston, Conconully, president; George Hurley, Loomis, vice-
president,  David  Gubster,  Conconully, secretary-treasurer;  William
C. Brown, Okanogan, historian.
Pierce County Pioneers' Association. State Historical Building, 401 North Cliff Avenue. Meetings are held in January, April,
July and October. Membership requirements: Residence on the
Pacific Coast prior to the year 1870. Officers: Mrs. Thomas Hewitt,
Puyallup, president; Mrs. Minnie Burkie, Tacoma, vice-president;
Charles H. Ross, Puyallup, chaplain; Mrs. Clara M. Wilt, Tacoma,
secretary; Celia P. Grass, Larchmont, treasurer; C. S. Barlow, W. B.
Blackwell, W. P. Bonney, of Tacoma, trustees.
San Juan County Pioneer Association. Richardson. Founded
October 31, 1915. Membership requirements: Residence in the State
for twenty-five years. Officers: CM. Tucker, Friday Harbor, president; Charles A. Kent, Lopez, vice-president; A. J. Hummel, Port
Stanley, secretary-treasurer; J. Stanley Kepler, Orcas, trustee for one
year; Mrs. G. B. Driggs, Friday Harbor, trustee for two years; Mrs.
Hannah Bell, trustee for three years. Charles McKay, past president
and historian, died at his home in Friday Harbor on December 1,
1918, aged 90 years.
Skagit County Pioneer Association. Sedro-Woolley. Annual
meeting place selected for the different years. Founded August 13,
1904. Membership requirements: Those who have resided in the
County prior to January 1, 1886, are admitted as "Pioneers"; residents for twenty years as "Old Settlers." Officers: Nick Beesner,
Anacortes, president; Mrs. R. O. Wells, Mount Vernon, vice-president;
Frank A. Hall, Mount Vernon, secretary; P. Halloran, Edison,
treasurer.
Snohomism County. Stillaguamish Valley Association of Washr
ington Pioneers of Snohomish County. Arlington. Annual reunion
and picnic at Birkenheimer Pioneer Park, the second Thursday in
August. Membership requirements: Persons resident in the State
for twenty-five years admitted as "Pioneers"; for twenty years, as
"Early Settlers"; fifteen years, as "Honorary Members." Officers:
W. F. Oliver, Arlington, president; Thomas Moran, vice-president;
D. S. Baker, secretary; C. H. Tracy, treasurer.
Pioneers of Southwestern Washington. Rochester. Officers:
J. W. Lieuallen, Rochester, president; L. L. Hunter, Aberdeen, vice-
president; J. B. Stanley, Rochester, secretary and treasurer; F. G. Pioneer and Historical Societies
51
Titus, Centralia; Scott Shaser, Olympia;  J.  E.  Calder, Montsano,
trustees.
Spokane County Pioneer Society. Spokane. Membership requirements : All persons, their families, and children who came to the
County on or before November 21, 1884; members of other pioneer
associations in the State may become associate members. Business
meeting on the first Tuesday in April; annual memorial meeting and
annual picnic on dates selected by the Society. Officers: Mrs. W. J.
Mackie, president; Sam Glasgow, vice-president; Eugene Buchanan,
secretary; W. W. Waltman, treasurer; the above with E. I. (Billie)
Seehorn, W. C. Gray, W. H. Ludden, Fred Grimmer, J. I. Daniel, J.
E. Gandy, Paul Strobach, Mrs. Robert Fairley, Joseph W. Daniel,
J. H. Griner and G. B. Dunning constitute the board of trustees.
Stevens County Pioneer Association.. Colville. Membership
requirement: Residence in the State prior to June 30, 1895. Annual
meeting on June SO. Officers: P. H. Graham, Colville, president;
L. F. Ledgerwood Rice, vice-president; John G. Kulzer, Valley, treasurer; Mrs. Clara Hofstetter-Shaver, Colville, secretary; John B.
Slater, Colville, historian; W. T. Ferguson, Kettle Falls; Jacob A.
Meyers, Meyers Falls; F. W. Bickey, Chewelah; Mrs. John Ehorn,
Chewelah; Mrs. P. Betridge, Valley; Herman Zwang, Marcus; George
Thomas, Colville, trustees. The Minute Women of the county were
invited to the successful annual meeting to hear a returned soldier, C. J.
McKellar, of Kettle Falls, who had gone to the front with the Canadian forces at the outbreak of the war.
The Tacoma Research Club. Meets on the evening of the
second Tuesday of each month. Officers: Mrs. Charles E. Hill, president; Professor G. A. Stanley, vice-president; Senator Walter S. Davis,
secretary.
Thurston County. Pioneer and Historical Society of Thurston
County. Olympia, Organized on March 2, 1910. Annual election of
officers in March;.annual picnic at Priest Point, Olympia, in the summer. Membership requirements: Those who have resided in the
county forty years or more. Officers: Georgiana M. Blankenship,
president; Charles Billings, first vice-president; James Brewer, second
vice-president; Fred W. Stocking, secretary-treasurer; P. D. Moore,
chaplain; W. Scott Shaser, A. S. Moore and Mrs. J. W. Mowell,
trustees.
Walla Walla County.. Inland Empire Pioneer Association.
Walla Walla.   Membership requirements:   Arrival in the Inland Em- 52
Victor J. Farrar
pire or on the Pacific Coast prior to 1885. Officers: Benjamin Bur-
gunder, Colfax, president; J. C. Lloyd, Colfax, first vice-president;
Joseph Harbert, Walla Walla, second vice-president; W. D. Wallace,
Waitsburg, third vice-president; Marion Evans, Walla Walla, secretary; Levi Ankeny, Walla Walla, treasurer; W. D. Lyman, Walla
Walla, historian.
Whatcom County. Old Settlers' Association of Whatcom
County. Ferndale. Annual gathering and election of officers at
Pioneer Park, Ferndale, in August. Membership requirements:
There is a graduated membership; persons having been in the county
ten years are admitted as "Chechacoes"; older residents receive other
Chinook Jargon titles; the oldest living member in point of residence
receives a special badge of honor. Officers: J. B. Wilson, president; T. B. Wynn, vice-president; Edith M. Thornton, secretary; W.
E. Campbell, treasurer; Charles Tawes, John Stater, John Tarte,
Godfrey Schneider, Porter Felmley, George Baer, trustees.
Whitman County Pioneers' Association. Garfield. Annual
meeting in June. Membership requirements: Residence in the state
of Washington prior to October, 1886. Officers: William Duling,
Garfield, president; P. W. Cox, Colfax, vice-president; S. A. Manring,
Garfield, secretary; William Lippitt, Colfax, treasurer.
Yakima County. Yakima County Pioneers' Association. Yakima. Annual meeting on the first Saturday in November. Membership requirements: Citizens of white or Indian blood who are residents of the original county of Yakima prior to November 9, 1889, and
their descendents; others may become associate members. Officers:
David Longmire, president; James A. Beck, 1st vice-president; Mrs.
Jennie Shardlow, 2d vice-president; John H. Lynch, secretary; Mrs.
Zona H. Cameron, treasurer; Mrs. A. J. Splawn, historian.
Yakima Columbia Association. Yakima. A Catholic organization having for its object the care and preservation of the old
St. Joseph Mission in the Ahtanum Valley. Since 1915 a caretaker
has resided on the premises. Officers: John Ditter, president; R. E.
Allingham, vice-president; John H. Lynch, secretary; H. A. La Berge,
treasurer; Pat Jordan, general manager.
Victor J. Farrar. ■■
ORIGIN OF WASHINGTON GEOGRAPHIC NAMES
(Continued from Volume IX., page 295)
Grays Harbor, on the western shore of the state. On May 7,
1792, Captain Robert Gray, the American explorer, discovered the
harbor and named it Bulfinch Harbor in honor of one of the Boston
owners of his ship Columbia. In October of the same year, Vancouver,
the English explorer, sent his Lieutenant Joseph Whidbey to survey
the new harbor. They called it Gray's Harbor, and as their charts
were published, while the American's charts were not, the name prevailed. The Spaniards of that same year — Galiano and Valdez —
helped to establish that name by charting it "Puerto de Gray." John
Work, of the Hudson's Bay Company, called in "Chihalis Bay" in
1824. (T. C. Elliott, in the Washington Historical Quarterly, July,
1912, page 204.) David Douglas called it "Whitbey Harbor" in 1825.
(Journal of David Douglas, 1828-1827, page 60. Even American
maps sometimes showed the name as "Whidbey Harbor." (Pacific
RaUroad Reports, Volume XII, Part II, page 264.)
Grays Harbor County, created as Chehalis County by an act of
the Territorial Legislature approved on April 14, 1854. See Chehalis
City and River for discussion of that name. In February, 1907,
an act of the State Legislature was approved dividing Chehalis County
and Creating Grays Harbor County. The State Supreme Court later
declared the act "entirely indefinite and uncertain." On March 15,
1915, there was approved a very brief act of the Legislature which
simply changed the county's name from Chehalis to Grays Harbor.
Grays Point, on the north bank of the lower Columbia River, in
Pacific County. Sir Edward Belcher, in 1889, named it "Cape Broughton" in honor of Vancouver's associate, Lieutenant W. R. Broughton,
of the 1792 expedition. Captain George Davidson says the Wilkes
Expedition, 1841, called it Grays Point. Also that the earliest United
States Coast Survey charts showed it as Cape Broughton, while on later
ones it is designated Grays Point. (Pacific Coast Pilot, page 463.)
One item is a little confused, since Chart 2 in the atlas accompanying
the Wilkes Volume, Hydrography, shows the feature as "Burnie Point,"
evidently an honor intended for James Birnie, representing the Hudson's Bay Company at Astoria. The name that has prevailed is another
honor for the American Captain Robert Gray and naturally arose from
the name given the adj acent bay and river.
(58) 54
Edmond S. Meany
Grays River, flowing into the lower Columbia River at Grays
Bay, Wahkiakum County. The name is for Captain Robert Gray.
On the Wilkes Expedition, 1841, chart it has the Indian name Ebokwol,
and in 1858 it was given another Indian name, Moolhool. (Pacific
Railroad Reports, Volume XI, Part II, Chart 8.)
Great Bend (of the Columbia River), mentioned by Richard
Arnold in 1853. (Pacific Railroad, Reports, Volume I, page 284.)
The common name for this feature and the region about it is Big Bend.
Great Falls of the Columbia, a name frequently used in early
records for The Dalles. They are referred to as such by Lewis and
Clark, 1805, by Gabriel Franchere and Alexander Ross, 1811, and by
David Douglas, 1825.
Great Peninsula, see Indian or Great Peninsula.
Great Plains of the Columbia, a name which appears in early
records for portions of Eastern Washington and Oregon bordering on
the Columbia River.
Great Plateau of Spokane. The country bounded by the
Columbia, Spokane and Snake Rivers received that name on James
Tilton's Map of a Part of Washington Territory, September, 1859.
(In United States Public Documents, Serial No. 1026.)
Great South Sea, see Pacific Ocean.
Greenbank, a postoffice on the eastern shore of Whidbey Island
at the entrance to Holmes Harbor, Island County. The name was
given in 1906 by Calvin Philips in honor of his boyhood home, Green
Bank, Delaware.   (Calvin Philips, Seattle, in Names MSS., Letter 28.)
Green Lake, in the northern portion of Seattle, King County.
The name appears as "Lake Green" on the map by the Surveyor-General of Washington Territory, 1857. (In United States Public Documents, Serial No. 877.) There are several other small bodies of water
in the State bearing the same name.
■ Green Point, on the Strait of Juan de Fuca east of Port
Angeles, Clallam County. This name was given by the United States
Coast Survey. (See Report for 1854, in United States Public Documents, Serial No. 784.)
Green Point, at the eastern entrance to Carr Inlet, in the northwestern part of Pierce County. It was named by the Wilkes Expedition, 1841, in honor of Daniel Green, gunner's mate in one of the crews.
Green Point, at the eastern cape of Spieden Island in San Juan
County, and another of the same name on the northwestern shore of
Fidalgo Island, Skagit County. Both these names first appear on the
British Admiralty Chart 2689, Richards, 1858-1859. The names were
undoubtedly descriptive when given. Origin of Washington Geographic Names
55
Green River, flowing westward from the Cascade Mountains and
emptying into White River at Auburn, King County. This river is the
source of Tacoma's water supply. The name was descriptive when
used by the early writers and map-makers. James G. Swan says the
Indian name was Nooscope. (Northwest Coast, page 426.) Lieutenant A. W. Tinkham gives the Indian name as Nook-han-noo. (Pacific
Railroad Reports, Volume XI, Part II, Chart 8.) The upper waters
were apparently confused by Theodore Winthrop, 1853, with those of
the Greenwater River, a mountain tributary of White River.
Greens Spur, Whatcom County, see Standard.
Greenville Harbor, a small indentation on the ocean shore south
of Point Grenville, Grays Harbor County, is shown with this name on
James Tilton's Map of a Part of Washington Territory, September,
1859. (In United States Public Documents, Serial No. 1026.) Such
difference in spelling frequently occurs.
Greenwater River, a mountain tributary of White River and
forming part of the boundary between Pierce and King Counties. Lieutenant Robert E. Johnson of the Wilkes Expedition, 1841, gives the
Indian name as Smalocho.
Greenwood, a postoffice in Grays Harbor County. It was named
in 1914 by John Landers, the oldest settler there, after the Greenwood
Timber Company, a large holder of timber in that vicinity. (James
W. Finn, in Names MSS., Letter 542.)
Greenwood, on the south side of Nooksack River, near Lynden,
Whatcom County. The name arose from the schoolhouse being surrounded with evergreen trees. (Mrs. Phoebe N. Judson, Lynden, in
Names MSS., Letter 187.)
Gregor, a station on the Spokane, Portland & Seattle Railway in
Adams County. It was named for a prominent owner of land in that
vicinity — McGregor — but was shortened so as to avoid confusion
with the name of McAdam, another station on the same division of the
railroad.   (L. C. Gilman, in Names MSS., Letter 590.)
Griffin Bay, a large bay at the southwest extremity of San Juan
Island, San Juan County. The Wilkes Expedition, 1841, charted the
bay as "Ontario Roads." The British Admiralty Chart 2689, Richards, 1858-1859, first gave the name Griffin Bay, which has remained
on all charts since. The name is an honor for Charles John Griffin,
Colonial justice of the Peace, and an official of the Hudson's Bay
Company, in charge of their Bellevue Farm on San Juan Island. He
maintained the British claims when Isaac N. Ebey, American Collector
of Customs, undertook to exercise authority there.    The long dispute 56
Edmond S. Meany
which ended in arbitration will be discussed under the name of San
Juan.
Grindstone, in Pierce County. When the trails to the Tahoma
Mining District near North Mowich Glacier, Mount Rainier, were
being constructed, 1900, a grindstone was placed at a camp in the
woods. All the men went there to grind, and the stone being left there
the place became known as Grindstone. (Thomas E. Farrell, in Names
MSS., Letter 118.)
Grotto, in the northeastern portion of King County. The place
was named from its beauty, many of the deep gorges resembling
great caves at a distance. (W. H. Bruchart, in Names MSS., Letter 432.)
Grouse Creek, in the southwestern part of Asotin County. "The
grouse were very thick in the early days when I came here, and there
are quite a lot of them yet." (Henry Hansen, of Hanson's Ferry, in
Names MSS., Letter 236.)
Guemes Island and Channel, in the northwestern part of Skagit
County. The Spanish explorer Eliza, 1791, named it "Isla de Gueme"
in honor of the Viceroy of Mexico, under whose orders he had sailed to
the Northwest. The Viceroy's full name was Senor Don Juan Vicente
de Guemes Pacheco y Padilla Orcasitees y Aguayo, Conde de Revilla
Gigedo. (Pacific Railroad Reports, Volume XII, Part I, page 302.)
Parts of the long name are in use for geographical names. Vancouver
did not attempt to name the island in 1792, but in that year the Spaniards, Galiano and Valdez, repeated Eliza's name as "Isla de Guemes."
The Wilkes Expedition, 1841, undertook to change the name to "Lawrence Island" in honor of the famous American naval hero, James
Lawrence. To intensify the honor, Wilkes gave the name "Hornet
Harbor" to what is now known as. Guemes Channel after the vessel
Lawrence commanded when he captured the English vessel Penguin
in the War of 1812, and to the north of the island he charted "Penguin Harbor," which name has disappeared, being considered a part
of the present Bellingham Channel. In 1847, Captain Kellett restored
the name Guemes Island on the British Admiralty Chart 1911. That
name has been retained on the United States Government charts, which
have also added the names of Guemes Channel and Bellingham Channel.
Guerriere Bay, see West Sound, San Juan County.
Guetes Lake, west of Keechelus Lake, Kittitas County. Lieutenant A. W. Tinkham gave it by the Indian name of "Wee-ly-let-sarz
Lake" in 1854. (Pacific Railroad Reports, Volume XI, Part II,
Chart 8.)
(To be continued) DOCUMENTS
WASHINGTON'S FIRST CONSTITUTION, 1878
Those who have read the proceedings of the convention at Walla
Walla, which framed the constitution, will recall that the questions
of prohibition and woman suffrage were submitted as separate articles
to be voted upon at the same general election at which the constitution itself was to be adopted or rejected.
At that same election there was rather a bitter contest between
Thomas H. Brents (Republican) and N. T. Caton (Democrat) for
Delegate to Congress. There was great interest in the question of
prospective statehood but in the election itself greatest interest centered in the delegateship.
The election took place on November 4, 1878, and about that
time the Daily Intelligencer of Seattle published a table showing the
population of Washington Territory by counties as follows:
Chehalis
Clallam   .
Clarke   . .
Columbia
♦Cowlitz .
♦Island
Pacific     1,411
San Juan     700
•Skamania    ">   274
Snohomish     1,042
•Stevens     1,360
Thurston     2,971
Wahkiakum     698
Walla Walla    5,791
Whatcom     2,156
Whitman     3,709
Yakima        1,711
Total     51,833
  720
  420
  4,288
  5,820
  1,893
  616
Jefferson     1,677
Kitsap     1,548
King     6,943
Klickitat     1,999
Lewis     1,806
Mason     520
Pierce     2,801
♦Estimated from census of 1877.
Looking back through forty years, it seems that the population
was rather slender to sustain the ambitions for statehood. The proposed area was great enough. In addition to Washington Territory,
the three northern counties, or "panhandle" of Idaho, were to have
been included. Those people in Idaho were even more interested than
were those of Washington. The Democratic Press of Port Townsend,
said on December 26, 1878: "The total vote of Idaho Territory at the
recent election was 5,939, against 4,958 in 1876—a gain of 971, the
principal portion of which is in the northern counties which are nearly
unanimously petitioning to be set off to Washington Territory." The
Seattle Intelligencer of November 25, 1878, copied from the Teller
of Lewiston, Idaho: "There were a few who seemed wholly indifferent upon the question, but at this time we cannot learn of 25 votes
cast against the Constitution in the three counties.    Shoshone county
(57) 58
Documents
cast but one vote against it.   Mt. Idaho, the largest precinct in Idaho
county, cast but two votes against it.   Lewiston, the largest precinct
in Nez Perce county, cast but four votes against it.    The northern
precincts of this county did nearly as well."
Soon after the election it seems to have become generally known
that the Constitution had been adopted and that the separate articles
had been rejected.    The Seattle Intelligencer and the Port Townsend
Democratic Press published the vote on the Constitution only for
neighboring counties.    Each published editorials on the adoption of
the Constitution and a favorable comment by the San Francisco Bitl!-
letin.   Each gave the official vote by counties for Delegate to Congress.
The following record of the official vote on the Constitution is obtained
from the Portland Oregonian of December 2, 1878:
For Against
Name of County Constitution    Constitution
Chehalis     91 42
Clallam     105 8
Clarke     386 330
Columbia     426 513
Cowlitz      115 207
Island     164 1
Jefferson      332 30
King     1,284 30
Kitsap     198 35
Klickitat     229 101
Lewis     230 78
Mason      54 49
Pacific     158 93
Pierce     230 339
Skamania     17 47
Snohomish      308 20
San Juan    167 20
Stevens      ... ...
Thurston      459 118
Wahkiakum      62 28
Walla Walla    89 847
Whatcom     432 89
Whitman     746 116
Yakima     210 90
Total          6,462 3,231
Majority for         3,231
On November 16, 1878, the Seattle Intelligencer closed an editorial on "Our Constitution" as follows: "Whether we are admitted
this year, next year, or at some future time, we believe this Constitution
will keep, and that the people of the Territory will not incur the expense of forming another."
One of the most prominent members of the Walla Walla convention was Col. C. H. Larrabee who spent the winter of 1878-1879
in Washington City. He wrote a letter to the Seattle Intelligencer
which was copied in the Port Townsend Democratic Press of January
9, 1879, saying that Washington Territory could not hope for statehood until 1881 or 1882. It was hard to explain, he said, the unprecedented majority for the Republican candidate for Delegate to Congress. Washington's First Constitution, 1878
59
On October 6, 1879, Governor Elisha P. Ferry closed his message to the Territorial Legislature by referring to the proposed railroads, to agriculture, manufacturing, commerce, climate. "And," said
he, "if to those natural advantages we present a system of just laws,
wisely and impartially administered, finance honestly and economically conducted, a common school and university system, adequate for
the education of the rising generation, we will retain those who are
now here or may hereafter come, and will soon be fully prepared to
enter upon the honors, duties and responsibilities of statehood."
John T. Condon.
CONSTITUTION
PREAMBLE
We the People, grateful to the Supreme Ruler of the Universe
for our freedom, in order to secure and perpetuate its blessings, form
a more independent and perfect government, establish justice, insure
tranquility, provide for the common defense and promote the general
welfare, do ordain and establis.h this Constitution for the State of
Washington.
ARTICLE I
BOUNDARIES
The Boundaries of the State of Washington shall be as follows:
Commencing one marine league west from the mouth of the middle
of the north ship-channel of the Columbia River; thence along the
northern boundary of the State of Oregon, up said river, to where
the forty-sixth parallel of north latitude intersects the same near the
mouth of the Walla Walla River; thence, east along said parallel to
where it intersects the middle of the main channel of Snake River,
thence, southerly, along said channel of Snake River, to where it intersects the forty-fifth parallel of north latitude; thence, east along
said parallel, to where it intersects the meridian thirty-seven degrees
and thirty minutes west;1 thence, north along said meridian, to where
it intersects the crest of the Bitter Root range of mountains; thence,
northwesterly, along the crest of said mountains, to where it intersects the thirty-ninth meridian west;2 thence, north, along said meridian
to the boundary line of the British Possessions; thence, westerly along
the line of the British Possessions to a point one marine league west
from the mouth of the middle channel of the Straits of Juan de Fuca;
thence southerly, a distance of one marine league west from the east
shore of the Pacific Ocean, to the place of beginning—including all
1 "West of Washington" being 114° and 30' west of Greenwich.
' "West of Washington" being 116° west of Greenwich. 60
Documents
islands and parts of islands within said boundaries, within the jurisdiction of the United States.
ARTICLE H
EMINENT DOMAIN
Section 1. The State shall have concurrent jurisdiction on all
rivers bordering on the State, so far as such rivers shall form a common boundary to the State and any other State or Territory, now or
hereafter to be formed and bounded by the same.
Sec 2. The title to all lands or other property, which has accrued
to the Territory of Washington, by gift, grant, purchase, forfeiture
or othewise, shall vest in the State.
Sec. 3. The People of the State, in their Rights of Sovereignty,
are declared to possess the ultimate property in and to all lands within
the jurisdiction of the State; and all lands, the title to which shall fail
from a defect of heirs, shall revert or escheat to the State.3
article hi *
DISTRIBUTION   OF   POWERS
Section 1. The Government of the state shall be divided into
three separate and distinct departments, to wit: the Legislative, the
Executive and the Judicial.
Sec 2. No person, or collection of persons, holding any position
in, or exercising any authority under, one of these departments, shall
hold any office in, or exercise any authority whatever, under either of
the others, except such as may be expressly provided for in this Constitution.
article rv
SUFFRAGE AND  ELECTIONS
Section 1.   Every male person, over the age of twenty-one years,
belonging to either of the following classes, who shall have resided
in the State  for six months next preceding any election, shall be
deemed a qualified elector at such election.
1st—Citizens of the United States.
2nd—Persons of foreign birth, who shall have declared their intentions to become citizens, conformably to the laws of the
United States on the subject of naturalization, six months
before offering to vote.5
3rd—Persons of mixed white and Indian blood, who have adopted
the customs and habits of civilization.
8 This statement not found in our present Constitution but the principle of law involved
is in force in this State at this time.
* The idea of a complete and distinct separation of governmental powers seems to be expressed in Art. HI much more strongly than found a place in the present Constitution.
5 Under this provision persons were entitled to vote and to hold many State offices, who
were not citizens of the United States. Washington's First Constitution, 1878
61
The Legislature may prescribe additional qualifications for electors of municipal and school-district elections.
Sec. 2. For the purpose of voting, no person shall be deemed
to have gained a residence by reason of his presence, or to have lost
it by reason of his absence, while in the civil or military service of the
State, or of the United States; nor while a student at any institution
of learning, nor while kept at public expense in any poorhouse or
other asylum, nor while confined in prison.
Sec 3. Voters shall, in all cases except treason, felony, or breach
of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at elections, and in going to and returning therefrom.
Sec 4. No person, except a qualified elector, shall be elected or
appointed to any civil office in the State.
Sec 5. The general election shall be held biennially on the Tuesday next succeeding the first Monday of November.
Sec. 6. All elections by the people shall be by ballot, and a
plurality of votes shall elect, in all cases except where the person
who shall receive them shall be ineligible; in which case the person
receiving the next highest number of votes, and who is eligible, shall
be declared elected. Elections, by persons in their representative capacity, shall be viva voce, and a majority shall be necessary to an
election.
Sec 7. No idiot or insane person shall be entitled to the privileges of an elector.
Sec 8. Laws shall be passed, excluding from the right of suffrage, all persons who have been or may be convicted of bribery, perjury, or of any infamous crime; and depriving every person who shall
make, or become, directly or indirectly, interested in any bet or wager
depending upon the result of any election, of the right to vote at such
election.
Sec 9. The Legislature shall pass laws to preserve the purity of
elections, and to guard against the abuse of the elective franchise,
and shall, for that purpose, have the power to pass laws of registration.
ARTICLE v«
DECLARATION   OF   EIGHT
Section 1. All political power is inherent in the People, and all
free governments are founded on their authority.
Sec 2. The people of this State have the sole right to alter or
abolish this Constitution and form of government, whenever they deem
• A similar declaration of rights is found in Art. I of our present Constitution. 62
Documents
it necessary to their safety and happiness; provided, such change be
not repugnant to the Constitution of the United States.
Sec 8. All persons are by nature free, and equally entitled to
certain natural rights; among which are, those of enjoying and defending their lives and liberties; of acquiring, possessing and protecting property; and of seeking and obtaining happiness. To secure
these rights, governments are instituted, deriving their just powers
from the consent of the governed.
Sec 4. All persons have a natural and indefensible right to worship God according to the dictates of their own consciences.
No person shall be compelled to attend, erect or support any
place of worship, against his consent; and no preference shall be given
by law to any religious society; nor shall any interference with the
rights of conscience be permitted. No religious test shall be required
as a qualification for office; nor shall any person incompetent to be a
witness on account of his opinions on matters of religion; but nothing
herein shall be construed to dispense with oaths or affirmations; but the
liberty of conscience hereby secured shall not be construed so as to
excuse acts of licentiousness, or practices inconsistent with the peace
or safety of the State.
Sec 5. No person shall be deprived of life, liberty or property
without due process of law, or be denied the equal protection of the
law.
Sec 6. No person, on account of sex, shall be disqualified to enter upon and pursue any of the lawful business avocations or professions of life.
Sec 7. Every person may freely speak, write and publish his
opinions on all subjects, being responsible for the abuse of that liberty;
and no law shall be passed to restrain or abridge the liberty of speech
or the press. In all prosecutions for libel, the truth may be given in
evidence to the jury, and if it appears that the matter charged as
libelous be true, and was published with good motives and for justifiable ends, the party accused shall be acquitted; and the jury shall
have the right to determine the law and the fact.
Sec 8. No person shall be held to answer for a criminal offense
without due process of law; and no person, for the same offense shall
be put twice in jeopardy of punishment, nor again be put upon trial
for the same offense after having been once acquitted by a jury, nor
shall be compelled, in any-criminal cause, to be a witness against himself. All persons shall, before conviction, be bailable by sufficient
sureties, except for murder in the first degree and treason, where the
proof is evident or the presumption great; and the privilege of the Washington's First Constitution, 1878
68
writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended unless when, in case of
rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require. The right of
trial by jury of twelve persons, shall remain inviolate in all criminal
causes. A jury in civil causes, in all Courts, may consist of less than
twelve persons, as may be prescribed by law; and the concurrence of
three-fourths of the whole number of the jury shall be sufficient for
a verdict; provided that the right may be waived by the parties, in such
manner as may be provided by law.
Hereafter a grand jury shall consist of seven persons, any five
of whom, concurring, may find an indictment; provided, the Legislature may change, regulate, abolish or re-establish the grand jury
system.7
Sec 9. Every person in the State shall be entitled to a certain
remedy in the law, for all wrongs and injuries which he may receive
in his person, character or property; justice shall be administered to
all, freely and without purchase; completely and without denial;
promptly and without delay; and all Courts shall be open to the public.
Sec 10. The right of the people to be secure in their persons,
papers, houses and effects, against unreasonable seizure and search
shall not be violated; and no warrant shall issue except upon probable
cause, supported by oath or affirmation in writing, describing, as nearly
as may be, the place to be searched, and the person or thing to be
seized.
Sec 11. There shall never be, in this State, involuntary servitude, save as a punishment for crime, whereof the party shall have
been duly convicted.
Sec 12. No person shall be imprisoned for debt except in case
of fraud in contracting the same, or of an absconding debtor having
means legally applicable to the payment of his debts or some parts
thereof.
Sec 13. In criminal prosecutions, the accused shall have the
right to appear and defend in person and by counsel; to demand the
nature and cause of the accusation; to have a copy thereof; to testify
in his own behalf; to meet the witnesses against him face to face; to
have process to compel the attendance of witnesses in his behalf;
and a speedy public trial, by an impartial jury of the county or district in which the offense is alleged to have been committed.
Sec 14. No bill of attainder, ex post facto law, nor any law
impairing the obligation of contracts, or making any irrevocable grant
7 This was a forerunner of practical abolition of the grand Jury system as  a regular
thing which occurs in Art. I,  Sec.  26, present Constitution. 64
Documents
of special privileges, franchises or immunities, shall ever be passed by
the Legislature.
Sec 15. Private property shall not be taken or damaged for
public use without just compensation; and no person's particular services shall be required without just payment therefor.
Sec 16. The rights of the people to peacefully assemble and
consult for the common good, and to petition for the redress of grievances, shall never be restrained or abridged.
Sec 17. The military shall always be in strict subordination to
the civil power.
Sec 18. All laws in relation to the possession, enjoyment and
descent of property, shall be alike applicable to resident aliens and
citizens.
Sec 19. The right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not
be infringed; but this shall not be so construed as to justify the carrying of concealed weapons.
Sec 20. All elections shall be free and open; and no power,
civil or military, shall interfere to prevent the free exercise of the
right of suffrage.
Sec 21. Treason against the State shall consist only in levying
war against the same, or in adhering to its enemies, giving them aid
or comfort; and no person shall be convicted of treason unless on the
testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on his own confession in open Court.
Sec 22. No person shall be transported out of the State for any
offense committed within the same; and no conviction shall work a
corruption of blood or forfeiture of estate.
Sec 28. All lands within the State are declared to be allodial;
and feudal tenures, with all their incidents, are prohibited. Leases
and grants for agricultural lands for a longer term than fifteen years,
in which rent or services of any kind shall be reserved, and all fines
and like restraints upon' alienation, reserved in any grant of land
hereafter made, are declared to be void.8
Sec 24. No law shall be passed, granting to any citizen or class
of citizens, privileges or immunities which, upon the same terms, shall
not equally belong to all citizens.
Sec 25. The operation of the laws shall never be suspended,
except by the authority of the Legislature.
Sec 26. The enumeration in this Constitution of certain rights,
shall not be construed to deny, impair or disparage others retained by
the people.
* An attempt to stop long leases of agricultural lands and to prevent absentee landlordism not found in present Constitution. Washington's First Constitution, 1878
65
ARTICLE VI
LEGISLATIVE
Section 1. The Legislative power of this State shall be vested
in two distinct branches; the one to be styled the Senate, and the other
the House of Representatives; and both together, the Legislature of
the State of Washington.
The style of all laws shall be: "Be it enacted by the Legislature
of the State of Washington."
Sec 2. The number of the members of the House of Representatives shall never be less than eighteen nor more than sixty. The
Senate shall consist of one-third the number of members of the House
of Representatives.
Sec 3. The Legislature shall provide by law for an enumeration of the inhabitants of the State, in the year one thousand eight
hundred and eighty-five, and at the end of every ten years thereafter;
and at its first session after such enumeration, and after each enumeration made by authority of the United States, the Legislature shall
apportion and district anew the members of the Senate and House of
Representatives, according to the number of inhabitants, excluding
Indians not taxed and soldiers and officers of the United States army
and navy.
Sec 4. Elections for members of the Legislature shall be held
biennially. When vacancies occur in either House, the Governor shall
issue writs of election to fill such vacancies.
Sec 5. Senators shall be elected for the term of four years, and
members of the House of Representatives for the term of two years;
provided, that the members of both Houses first elected shall hold
their offices until the time fixed for the meeting of the second Legislature, but no longer.
Sec 6. No person shall be a member of the Legislature who
shall not be a qualified elector of the district for which he is chosen,
and who shall not, for at least twelve months next preceding his election, have resided therein; provided, that any person who at the time
of the adoption of this Constitution is a qualified elector in the county
or district for which he shall be chosen, shall be eligible to the first
Legislature.
Sec 7. The first Legislature shall divide the State into at least
ten legislative districts in each of which one Senator and three Representatives shall be elected at the general election then next ensuing;
and the districts shall be of convenient contiguous territory, to be
bounded by county, precinct or ward lines; and the number may be
increased, but shall never exceed twenty.    The Legislative districts 66
Documents
shall be numbered in regular series, and the Senators chosen by the
odd-numbered districts shall go out of office at the expiration of the
second year; and the Senators chosen by the even-numbered districts
shall go out of office at the expiration of the fourth year; and thereafter the Senators shall be chosen for the term of four years.
Representatives shall hold their office for the term of two years.
In all elections of Representatives, after such division, each qualified
elector may cast as many votes for one candidate as there are Representatives to be elected in the district, or he may distribute the same,
or equal parts thereof, among the candidates, as he shall see fit; and
the candidates highest in votes, shall be elected. But the legislature
may at any time after the year 1890, adopt the system known as the
preferential system, in the election of Representatives, and enact such
laws as will be necessary to carry it into effect. The terms of office
of Senators and Representatives, elected at any time subsequent to
the first election, shall commence at the end of the term of those in
office at the time.
Sec 8. Each member of the legislature, as a compensation for
his services, shall receive four dollars for each day's attendance, and ten
cents for each mile necessarily traveled in going to or returning from
the seat of government, and shall not receive any other compensation,
perquiste, or allowance whatsoever. No session of the Legislature,
except the first, shall exceed forty days. The legislature shall never
grant any extra compensation to any public officer, agent, servant or
contractor, after the service shall have been rendered, or the contract
entered into; nor shall the compensation or mileage of any public officer be increased or diminished during his term of office.
Sec 9. There shall be biennial sessions of the legislature. Each
House shall be the judge of the elections, returns and qualifications
of its own members; and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum
to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day,
and may compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner
and under such penalties as each House may prescribe.
Sec 10. Each House shall have power to determine its rules of
proceeding, and punish its members or other persons, for contempt
or disorderly behavior in its presence; to enforce obedience to its
process; to protect its members against violence, or offers of bribes,
or private solicitations, and—with the concurrence of two-thirds of all
the members elected—to expel a member, but not a second time for
the same cause; and shall have all other powers necessary for a cor-
ordinate branch of the legislature. A member expelled for corruption,
shall not thereafter be eligible to either branch of the same legisla- Washington's First Constitution, 1878
ture; and punishment for contempt or disorderly behavior shall not bar
a criminal prosecution for the same offense.
Sec 11. The Senate shall, at the beginning and close of each
regular session, and at such other times as may be necessary, elect one
of its members as President.
Sec 12. Each House shall keep a journal of its proceedings;
and may, in its discretion, from time to time, publish the same. The
doors of each House shall be kept open, except when the public welfare shall require secrecy. Neither House shall, without the consent
of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place
than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.
Sec 13. Members of the legislature shall, in all cases, except
treason, felony, violation of their oath of office, and breach of the
peace, be privileged from arrest, during their attendance at any session of the legislature, and in going to and returning from the same;
and no member shall be liable in any criminal action or criminal
prosecution whatever for words spoken in debate.
Sec 14. No act of the legislautre shall take effect until ninety
days after its passage, unless in case of emergency (which shall be
expressed in the preamble of the act) the legislature shall, by a vote
of two-thirds of the members elected, otherwise direct. No bill, except
the general appropriation bill, for the expenses of the government,
introduced in either House after the expiration of the first thirty
days of the session, shall become a law, unless the same shall have
been recommended by the Governor by special message; and no bill
except one so recommended, shall be considered or become a law,
unless referred to a committee, returned therefrom, and printed for the
use of the members.
Sec 15. No bill, except for general appropriations, shall be
passed, containing more than one subject, which shall be expressed
in the title; but if any subject shall be embraced in any act, which
shall not be expressed in the title, such act shall be void only as to so
much thereof as shall not be so expressed.
Sec 16. Every bill (except one recommended by the Governor
as aforesaid, and except a general revision of the statutes) shall be
read at length at least once in each House; all substantial amendments
thereto shall be printed for the use of the members before final vote
on the bill; and no bill shall become a law unless a majority of all
the members elected to each House shall vote in its favor, nor unless,
on its final passage, the vote be taken by ayes and noes, and entered
on the journal.
Sec 17.   No law shall be revised or amended by reference to its 68
Documents
title alone, but as much thereof as is revised or extended shall be re-
enacted and published at length as amended. The legislature shall
not pass local or special laws in any of the following cases, viz: for
laying out, opening, altering, or working roads or highways; vacating
roads, town plats, streets, alleys and public grounds; regulating county
or precinct affairs; regulating the practice in courts of justice;
regulating the jurisdictions of Justices of the Peace, police mag-
is trates and constables; changing the rules of evidence in any
trial or inquiry; providing for change of venue in ' civil or
criminal causes; declaring any person of age; the protection of game
or shell-fish; limitation of civil actions, or giving effect to informal or
invalid deeds; summoning or empaneling jurors; providing for the
management of common schools; regulating the rate of interest on
money; the opening or conducting of any election, or designating the
place of voting; the sale or mortage of real estate belonging to minors
or others under disability; chartering or licensing ferries or toll-
bridges; remitting fines, penalties or forfeitures; creating, increasing
or decreasing fees, percentage or allowance of public officers; changing
the law of descent; granting to any corporation, association or individual, any special or exclusive privilege, immunity or franchise whatever; allowing the redemption of real estate sold for taxes or under
the final process of any court.
Sec 18. The presiding officer of each House shall, in the presence of the House over which he presides, sign all bills and joint
resolutions passed by the legislature, the title of which shall be publicly read immediately before signing; and the fact of signing shall be
entered on the journal.
Sec 19. The legislature shall prescribe by law the number, duties
and compensation of the officers and employees of each House, and no
payment shall be made to any officer or employee, who does not discharge his duties in person.
Sec 20. The legislature shall provide by law that all stationery
required for the use of the State; and all printing and binding authorized and required by them to be done for their use or for the
State, shall be let by contract to the lowest bidder; but the legislature may establish a maximum price. No member or officer of any
department of the government shall be in any way interested in any
such contract.
Sec. 21. Any bill may originate in either House of the legislature, and a bill passed by one House may be amended by the other.
[To be continued] BOOK REVIEWS
The Life and Dairy of John Floyd, Governor of Virginia, an Apostle
of Secession, and the Father of the Oregon Country. By Charles
H. Ambler, Ph.D. (Richmond, Va. Richmond Press, Inc. 1918.
Pp. 248.   $2.00.)
John Floyd was by birth and ancestry a child of the frontier.
His ancestors were among the pioneer settlers who pushed the westward advancing fringe of settlement in rapid succession from the
Tidewater Section of Old Virginia, into the Piedmont, across the
Blue Ridge Mountains, the Alleghenies, and into Kentucky where
Floyd was born. Near Louisville, on April 24, 1873, twelve days
before his birth the father had fallen a victim to the savage foe that
resisted the advancing frontiersmen. Young Floyd managed to acquire something of a college education, read medicine with a Dr.
Ferguson, of Louisville, and finally graduated from the course in
medicine in the University of Pennsylvania and settled down to practice in Virginia. When the war of 1812 broke out Floyd entered the
regular army as surgeon, with the rank of major, and continued his
service in that capacity until he was elected, in 1814, to the general
assembly of Virginia.
Three years later he was sent to Congress from the famous
Abingdon district which he continued to represent for twelve years.
With Floyd's attitude on political issues in general we are not concerned here, but his early interest and activity connected with Oregon
entitles him unquestionably to "the credit of first proposing in Congress the actual occupation of the Columbia River country by the
United States Government, of promoting its settlement and organizing it as a territory with the name Oregon."
Floyd's family knew George Rogers Clark and William Clark
intimately, a first cousin, Charles Floyd, was a member of the Lewis
and Clark expedition, so that it is not hard to understand Floyd's
interest in Oregon. In December 1820 he introduced a resolution
asking for the appointment of a committee to "inquire into the situation of the settlements on the Pacific Ocean and the expediency of
occupying the Columbia River." The resolution passed and Floyd
as chairman of the committee presented a report which was accompanied by a bill authorizing our occupation of the Columbia River.
Floyd's information regarding Oregon was largely supplied by others
and his argument for our claims to Oregon rested largely on our
rights under the Louisiana Purchase.    Nothing came of the report,
(69) 70
Book Reviews
the subject being not even discussed in Congress, but Floyd had
opened the way to a discussion which came later. When Floyd's
report was handed by the President to John Quincy Adams for bis
consideration, Adams recorded his opinion that it "was a tissue of
errors in fact and abortive reasoning, of individual reflections and
rude invectives. There was nothing," he added, "could purify it but
the fire."
Floyd continued his efforts at the next session. First he introduced his resolution, then called for an estimate of the expenses involved in a survey of the harbors of the United States on the Pacific
Ocean and finally introduced a bill authorizing and requiring the
President to occupy the "territory of the United States" on the
waters of the Columbia River. The bill also made provision for the
extinguihsment of the Indian titles and for the making of land grants
to settlers. Floyd's efforts were again without result so far as Congress was concerned but President Monroe in his annual message of
1822 referred to Oregon and the question was definitely before the
country. Again he introduced his bill and this time it led to perhaps the most animated and enlightening debate of the session.
Floyd's remarks showed very clearly that he had used the intervening years in gathering a vast amount of material on the Oregon
question.
Finally, in the session of 1828-4 Floyd succeeded in getting his
bill through the House but the mighty efforts of Benton, of Missouri, and Barbour, of Virginia, failed to get a respectful hearing
for it in the Senate. Floyd, with the aid of able lieutenants, continued his efforts, however, during his congressional career. In 1838
Senator Linn, of Missouri, took up the work Floyd left unfinished
and the Oregon question was eventually pushed into the broader
stream of national politics where it became a national issue in 1844.
Floyd became Governor of Virginia in 1880, less than a year
after he closed his congressional career, and retired to private life
in 1884. The three remaining years of his life were years spent largely
in political opposition to Jackson, years in which Floyd became "an
apostle of discontent." He died Aug. 16, 1837. The latter half of
Dr. Ambler's book reprints the diary of Floyd written between March
1881 and February 1884 and is replete with iUuminating comments
on the political situation of the time. Prof. Ambler's work is exceedingly well done and every student of the History of the Pacific
Northwest will welcome his chapters on Oregon and gratefully enroll
him among the contributors to the history of Old Oregon.
Edward McMahon. History of the State of Idaho
71
History of the State of Idaho. By C. J. Brosnan, Supt. of Schools
at Nampa, Idaho. (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 1918.
Pp. 237.)
For many years there has been a need for a real history of
Idaho. Bancroft's is very good as far as 1889 but is not published as
a separate volume and is not down to date, Hailey's is a labored
product of an aged and honored pioneer, and McConnell's is impossible. This publication by the Scribner's is a finished book, well arranged as to subjects, reliable as to facts and statistics and readable
as to style. It is known to have been written at the request of the
Department of Education in Idaho and in the class of school histories it will take a high rank, but is really more than that and will
become the reference volume for the people of the state. It is a
book of moderate size, has numerous illustrations, and a series of
maps which clearly indicate the tortuous growth of the state as to its
boundaries. There is a slight lack of balance, there is no bibliography, and the index of only four and a half pages is inadequate.
The imprint of the publisher is sufficient evidence of good physical
make-up.
Mr. Brosnan, the author, is to be commended for his skill in
condensed statements and attractive chapter subdivision and in a
chronology and transition which carry along the interest of the
reader. Every librarian and historical student in the Pacific Northwest has known that he was writing this book for he has consulted
them all and has thus been able to obtain the latest scientific research
concerning the earlier periods of the history of Idaho and Old Oregon
from which it came. T. C. Elliott.
The Applewoman of the Klickitat.   By Anna VanRensselaer Morris.  (New York: Duffield and Company.   1918. Pp.271. $1.50.)
The author presents a very interesting personal narrative of her
experiences as a pioneer apple-orchardist in the Columbia River country. Weary of the life of a journalist in New York city, she is persuaded by a real estate agent to take up a quarter section of government land in the Far West, and develop it into an orchard. She
goes to live on it with a semi-invalid brother, meets many helpful
friends, and at the end of the book has lived there six and a half
years and gathered her second crop of apples.
Her views of the business and rewards, of apple-orcharding, are
perhaps more rosy than actual conditions warrant. She seems to
have had more capital, and more good advice and assistance than 72
Book Reviews
most people can count on, and one preparing to follow in her footsteps had best take her story with a grain of salt.
Occasionally the pill shows through the sugar coating—that is
to say, in some places the book reads like a real estate agent's advertisement or an apple-grower's text-book—but in general the style of
writing is smooth and easy, pleasant and interesting to read. She has
many bright and entertaining things to say of the varied types of
people resident in the country, their past experiences, their present
successes or failures, and philosophies. A slight love story—perhaps
a little more sugar coating—runs through the whole, concerning a
young man who comes to visit the author, and the young wife of a
crabbed well-borer who disposes of himself conveniently and heroically
by drowning, while rescuing a little Indian boy who had fallen into
the Columbia.
The main interest, however, is the development of the apple-
growing country, and the author has succeeded in giving a pleasant
picture which will doubtless draw the attention of many toward
orcharding. Evelyn May Blodgett.
The Cruise of the Corwin.    By John Muir.    (Boston:    Houghton
Mifflin Company.    1917.    Pp. 279.)
In a series of letters to the San Francisco Evening Bulletin and
in his private journal kept from day to day, John Muir left a very
complete and extremely valuable record of his experiences and observations while on board the revenue steamer "Corwin" in the Far
North. In June of 1881, the Jeannette, in command of Lieutenant
George W. DeLong, was. crushed in the ice and sank about one hundred and fifty miles north of the New Siberian Islands.
In the spring of 1880, when the Jeannette had been missing for
nearly a year, the Corwin was commissioned, in addition to her regular
duties, to search for traces of the lost vessel and her crew. Again in
1881 she set sail from San Francisco with the same object in view
and it was at this, time that John Muir was one of the party. He had
long been eager to study the evidences of glaciation in the Arctic
region and so took advantage of this rare opportunity.
The Corwin touched at many points in the Far North, Wrangell
Land and Herald Island being of particular interest. Mr. Muir s
report is the first and practically the only scientific account of this
part of the Arctic regions. In addition to his geological reports, some
interesting botanical notes are included.
The author showed himself much interested also in the people of
the lands which he visited, and has given us a fascinating account of Education of Henry Adams
73
the lives and customs of the various tribes of Indians found along the
Alaskan and Siberian coasts. His descriptions of their villages, their
homes and of the people themselves are extremely interesting.
The Cruise of the Corwin is edited by William Frederic Bade
and is exceptionally well done. It was a rather difficult task to take
material from two sources and put it together without danger of
repetition, but Mr. Bade has been very successful in selecting the
most important and essential material and has presented it in a very
readable form. At the end of the narrative he has included as an
appendix the scientific record of the glaciation of the Arctic and sub-
Arctic regions visited during the cruise, also Mr. Muir's botanical
notes. While these are readable they are of chief interest to scientists. The book is a valuable contribution to the literature of the
Far North. Margaret Schumacher.
The   Education   of   Henry   Adams,   an   Autobiography.      (Boston:
Houghton Mifflin Company.    1918.    Pp. 519.   $5.00.)
Readers in the State of Washington are interested in all members of America's most wonderful family—the Adamses. Within
the State there is a county and a mountain named in honor of John
Adams. His son, John Quincy Adams, was one of the negotiators of
the Treaty of Ghent, 1814, which practically saved Oregon to the
United States. Charles Francis Adams, of the next generation, succeeded his father and grandfather in the important position as United
States Minister to Great Britain. His term, from 1861 to 1868, was
filled with such firmness, tact, and good sense that it is cited "among
the foremost triumphs of American diplomacy." His third son,
Henry Adams, author of the present work, was his private secretary
during those stressful years.
Henry Adams was one of the most brilliant historians produced
by America; more from the quality than from the quantity of his
work is this true. The present book is the cap-sheaf of his intellectual harvest. Worthington C. Ford says in The Nations "The
book is unique." People and events are observed for seventy years
to value their contributions toward an education. The pages have a
peculiar fascination. They are utterly frank and, at the same time,
they sparkle with wit and a puzzling distrust of a really great fund
of knowledge.
The book circulated in manuscript form for ten years and was
then left with Senator Henry Cabot Lodge for publication after the
author's death.   The death occurred on March 28, 1918.   The Senator 74
Book Reviews
wrote a brief editor's preface and the Massachusetts Historical Society copyrighted the work and gave it over to the publishers. The
editor says that the author "used to s.ay, half in jest, that his great
ambition was to complete St. Augustine's Confessions, but that St.
Augustine, like a great artist, had worked from multiplicity to unity,
while he like a small one, had to reverse the method and work back
from unity to multiplicity."
Generations of educators and historians are sure to find inspiration in this most remarkable autobiography yet produced in the new
world. Edmond S. Meany.
Sacajawea, The Indian Princess. By Anna Wolfrom. (Kansas City,
Missouri: Burton Publishing Company. 1918. Pp. 81. 50
cents.)
The author is a teacher in the Northeast High School, Kansas
City, Missouri. She is the author of plays entitled: Albion and
Rosamond, The Living Voice and Human Wisps. The present work
is a play in three acts and on the title page is "The Indian Girl Who
Piloted the Lewis and Clark Expedition Across the Rocky Mountains." The play ends at the sea. Much is made of the Bird Woman's helpfulness, more than Lewis or Clark record. It will probably
help to give many a better idea of the girl's part in one of America's
greatest dramas in real life.
A History of Spain.    By Charles E. Chapman.    (New York:    The
Macmillan Company.    1918.    Pp. 559.    $2.60.)
The author is Assistant Professor of History in the University
of California. In 1916, he published through the same house The
Founding of Spanish California and, through other channels, smaller
papers such as Researches in Spain, The Founding of San Francisco
and Difficulties of Maintaining the Department of San Bias, 1775-
1777. He is now planning a work on Spanish institutions in the
colonies and later independent states. It is readily seen that Professor
Chapman is rapidly rearing an enduring monument to his industry
and scholarship in this field of Spanish-American history.
In this present work he has used the materials suited to his purpose in the four-volume work by Rafael Altamira entitled Espana y
de la civilizacion espanola. The author of the original work furnishes
a frank, yet graceful, introduction, saying that the English-speaking Oregon Pioneer Association
75
public will here have a faithful portrait of Spain, "instead of a caricature drawn in ignorance of the facts or in bad faith."
Professor Chapman depends on his own researches for the last
two chapters (of recent events) having spent two years, 1912-1914,
in Spain. The pres.ent work does not bear directly upon Spanish
work in the Pacific Northwest. The Pacific Ocean is mentioned four
times but in no case extensively. The book is a good, compact history of Spain with greatest emphasis placed on the period from the
sixteenth to the beginning of the nineteenth century.
Oregon Pioneer Association, Transactions of the Forty-third Annual
Reunion. Compiled by George H. Himes. (Portland: The Association.    1918.    Pp. 201 to 269.)
The pamphlet is late in its appearance as the reunion was held
in Portland on June 24, 1915. There is included a brief record of
the thirtieth annual reunion of the Indian War Veterans of the North
Pacific Coast, held in Portland during the same month. There are
other matters of historic value including a diary by Lot Livermore
relating to the winter of 1861-2, the hardest winter ever known in
Oregon.
A Brief History  of the  War.    By Frederic  Duncalo.     (Austin:
The University of Texas.   1918.    Pp. 87.)
The Professor of Medieval History here gives a short and concise review of the great war, including the part that the United States
has taken in the conflict. On its appearance it was expected that the
part of Texas in the war would be given space, but that was not the
purpose. The treatise ends with the words, "Democracy can give no
quarter to autocracy."
Possibilities in State Historical Celebrations.. By Harlow Lindley.
(Reprinted from the Poceedings of the Mississippi Valley Historical Association. Volume IX., Part II.   1918.   Pp. 807 to 817.)
Indiana set aside $25,000 with which to celebrate its centennial.
Of this sum, $5,000 was to be devoted to publication and already
three volumes have appeared with a fourth in preparation. The balance of the money was used for the stimulation and aid of celebrations throughout the State of Indiana. In concluding his report
Professor   Lindley   says:     "Beware   of   commercialized   patriotism; 76
Book Reviews
eliminate the street fair and carnival idea; do not make your organization too complex; do not attempt too many things; get a man with
a newspaper pen but with historic instinct to handle publicity; send
a good organizer over the state, into every county, to find local leaders
who may be depended on; and localize rather than centralize your
celebrational activities."
Washington is only two-thirds of its way toward a centennial
celebration but it is not necessary to wait for the centennial. Yakima
and some other counties have already begun to celebrate by marking
historic sites. It is well to encourage historic pageants and other celebrations of the important events. The educational value of such
work is appreciated by all who have given the question any attention.
Other Books Received
American Jewish Historical Society. Publications, Number 26.
(New York:    The Society.    1918.    Pp. 862.)
Brooks, Arthur A. Index to the Bulletin of the American Geographical Society, 1825-1915. (New York: American Geographical Society.    1918.    Pp. 242.)
Hamilton, J. G. de R. The Papers of Thomas Ruffin. Volume 1.
(Raleigh: North Carolina Historical Commission. 1918. Pp.
541.)
Massachusetts Historical Society. Proceedings, Volume 51, 1917-
18.    (Boston:   The Society.    1918.    Pp. 522.)
Meyer, H. H. B. Check List of the Literature and Other Material
in the Library of Congress on the European War. (Washington:
Government.    1918.    Pp. 898.)
Ontario Historical Society. Annual Report, 1917. (Toronto: The
Society.    No Date.    Pp. 59.)
Puget Sound Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Chukch.
Journal and Year-book. 1918. (Montesano, R. C. Hartley,
Secretary.    1918.    Pp. 290.)
Streeter, Floyd Benjamin. Political Parties in Michigan, 1887-
1860. (Lansing: Michigan Historical Commission. 1918. Pp.
401.)
Swem, Earl G. Bibliography of Virginia, Part 2. Richmond: State
Library.    1917.    Pp 1404.) Other Books Received
77
Teakle, Thomas. The Spirit Lake Massacre. (Iowa City: State
Historical Society.    1918.    Pp. 386.)
Washington State Federation of Women's Clubs. Twenty-second
Annual Report. 1918. (Seattle: Mrs. George C. Howard,
Secretary.    1918.    Pp. 109.)
Western Reserve Historical Society. Annual Report, 1917-18.
(Cleveland:    The Society.    1918.    Pp. 61.)
Wisconsin State Historical Society. Proceedings, 1917. (Madison:   The Society.    1917.    Pp. 59.)
Wrigley's British Columbia Directory, 1918. (Vancouver, B. C:
Wrigley Directories, Limited.    1918.    Pp. 964.)
Wrong, George M. and others. Review of Historical Publications
Relating to Canada; Index, Volumes 11-20. (University of
Toronto, Published by the Librarian.    1918.    Pp. 218.) NEWS DEPARTMENT
Death of General Stevens
In the last issue of this Quarterly there was an article about the
successful celebration of the forty-eighth anniversary of the first
escent of Mount Rainier. The principal figure of the celebration was
the last survivor of the climbers—General Hazard Stevens. He
located the site of the original camp where the Indian guide Sluiskin
waited while General Stevens and P. B. Van Trump made the ascent.
That site is now marked by a cairn and The Mountaineers plan to place
a permanent monument there.
The name of General Stevens is so permanently associated with
the mountain that his friends now rejoice that he was given that last
glad day on its snow and ice. Just two months later—October 16,
1918, the family and close friends gathered at a funeral, restricted
by the influenza, at the General's loved home "Cloverfields" near
Olympia.
He had died while attending an historic event in Eastern Washington. The Washington State Historical Society was marking the
place where Indian Agent Andrew J. Bolon was killed by the Yakima
Indians in September, 1855, which was one of the events causing
the Indian wars. General Stevens, as vice-president of the society,
took his part, but on returning to his hotel at Goldendale he was
stricken and died in a few days.
His was one of the most interesting careers in the history of the
Territory and State of Washington. He accompanied his father when
the Indian treaties were made in 1855. He was on his father's staff
in the Civil War and when the General was killed while leading his
troops at Chantilly, the son, recovering from wounds, continued and
was mustered out the youngest brigadier-general in the army. He
then devoted himself to the care of his mother and was active as lawyer,
author, and in his last years as farmer. In his death the cause of
history in the Pacific Northwest has lost an inspiring friend and a
valiant worker.
Valuable Newspaper Gift
H. E. Holmes, of the Stewart & Holmes Drug Company, writes
that he has a file of the weekly Seattle Intelligencer for the years 1871,
1872 and 1878, which he proposes to place in the Library of the University of Washington.    This is the most valuable gift since Mrs.
(78) Mr. Hill in Japan
79
J. A. Parks gave the Ebey Diaries some months ago. Such thought-
fulness as in these two cases and others like them in previous years
are most encouraging to the workers in the field of local history.
Oregon Historical Society ■
The principal address at the twentieth annual meeting of this
society in Portland on October 26, 1918, was Miles Cannon of Weiser,
Idaho, spoken of as an authority on the history of the great Snake
River Valley.
Saving a Relic
Mrs. Mary B. Haight, State Historian of the Daughters of the
American Revolution, writes from Bellingham that the historically
minded people there are anxious to save the oldest brick building in
Bellingham, which was the first brick building erected in the Territory of Washington. It is certainly hoped that their efforts will be
successful.
Indiana Magazine of History
Now in its fourteenth volume, this publication is doing much to
encourage the study of Indiana history and the collection of manuscript and other materials for such study. Theses in the history seminar of Indiana University, where the magazine is edited and published, furnish about half of the contents of each issue. The Washington Historical Quartely, working along similar lines, rejoices over
the favorable comments made about the success of the Indiana Magazine of History.
Mr. Hill in Japan
Samuel Hill, founder of the Washington Historical Quarterly and
one of its best friends from the beginning, has accepted an invitation
to advance the cause of good roads in Japan. A recent newspaper
dispatch told of his having received ovations from the most prominent
people of the empire.
United States Geographic Board
The latest report of Decisions of the United States Geographic
Board gives the record of the sessions of March 6 and April 3, 1918.
The Decisions of the Philippine Committee on Geographical Names 80
News Department
are given as approved by the United States Geographic Board. The
decisions on American names include sixteen in the State of Washington, as follows:
Bandera,* Mountain (altitude 5,255 feet), north of Bandera (on
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad), King County.
Cascade,- Mountain (altitude 5,000 feet), between East and
West Forks Miller Creek, King County.
Chickam.in; Ridge, east of Alaska Mountain, extending east of
south of Chickamin Peak, toward Park Lakes, Kittitas County.
Foggy; Peak (altitude 7,600 feet), with glacier on eastern slope,
northeast of Monte Cristo town, Snohomish County.
Gem.; Lake, small one northwest of Snow Lake, King County.
Humpback,1 Mountain (altitude 4,839 feet), west of Humpback
Creek, King County.
Lewis; Peak (altitude 5,580 feet), about two miles southwest of
Barlow Pass, Snohomish County.
Low,- Mountain (altitude 5,357 feet), west of Denny Creek, between Denny and Granite Mountains, King County.
Melakwa; Pass, between Chair and Kaleetan Peaks, King
County.
Palix; River, flowing into Willapa Bay near Bay Center, Pacific County  (not Palux.)
Pass; Creek, rising near Cady Pass and flowing west into Sky-
komish River north of Cady Creek, Snohomish County.
Pratt; Mountain (altitude 5,105 feet), northeast of Bandera
Mountain at head of Pratt River, King County.
Quartz; Creek, rising near Curry Gap and flowing south into
Skykomish River east of Goblin Creek, Snohomish County.
Rampart; Ridge, high and precipitous one along east side of
Gold Creek, forming eastern wall of Gold Creek Valley, Kittitas
County.
Tuscohacthie; Lake, source of creek of same name north of
Granite Mountain, King County.
White; Mountain (altitude 6,986 feet), Cascade Divide near
Glacier Peak, at head of White River, Snohomish County. Principal Articles in the Washington Historical Quarterly
VOLUME VIII.
Reminiscences of a Pioneer Womani'S^ggS^ '**&— Elizabeth Ann Coonc
First Immigrants to Cross the Cascades..., £»&*»} j; .David Long-mire
Pioneer Dead of 1916. "A v.  '^^&^fc£'.With G. Prosch
Pioneer Bemlnseenees.yYWv;*j!f8 A^l....^|Sa-Cv'.-';v.... .Thomas B. Beall
Washington's War Governor.»:,;feS^^.J.saStf2;.. .William Pickering
Chief SlMskin's True Narrative..-..- i'iSA... H Lucullus V. IfcWhorter
Washington Ports of the Fur Trade Begrime.S",\t^2^.s...v.J...O.B. Sperlin
Earl Becordfl of the University of Washington.. .?!&§£?}'t.Edmond S. Meany
f The Spanish Settlement at Nootka.. .3s2»... .'^ w^S* *-**&• •.. .F. W. Howay
The Pioneers and Patriotism.. .!„'lv.v. • VtS»vi/i'• ift5SX..... .Hazard Stevens
David Thompson's Journeys in the Spokane Country.'.vl'&V:"..Y. .T. C. Elliott
A Beeord of the San Poll Indians..>.i±&&!pZ&b.\.-.viTili"... .B. D. Gwydir
Pioneer Beminiscences -'.ij&^^jix&r*:.. • ■«ywkjfc»^-.. .Oscar Canfield
Washing-ton Geographic Names»^2^3*.... <>vv.. ...7t*Edmond S. Meany
W
VOLUME IX.
Alaska Whaling.. ::S*'.'?O^^^C-A^Vii?.fi^fc .£&... Clarence L. Andrews
David Thompson's Journeys in the Spokane Country.:;asisl.-... .T. C Elliott
Washington War History Committees.. .-jh%<j$K-i/sSi.. .■... .Henry Suzzallo
Origin of Washington Geographic Names... .v3.';.v..; ....Edmond S. Meany
Dogs Hair. Blanket^, of the Coast Salish.^.'&$pj$&^i'»»'•*.(?-... .F. W. Howay
Archibald McDonald:   Biography and Genealogy...'.:.... .William S. Lewis
Evolution of an Indian Hero in France. .>w jSjfe. .Charles M. Buchanan
Bibliography of Isaac I. Stevens.... ^'"siSSSijFS^&kfi.^•Rose M- Boening
The Salmon of Alaska. •*>S3KV. •- • *&gQ:.Z. .;srfi. .Clarence L. Andrews
Western Spruce and the Wan ■;. 'ifjsai^.. .''iV&«... .Edmond S. Meany
Slavery Among the Indians of Northwest America r«S/£«$j&2H>i F. Hunt
DOCUMENTS PBBSTTED. VOLUMES I.-Vni.
Diary of John E. Howell, an Emigrant of 1846.
Old Letters from pfficials of the Hudson's Bay Company, 1829-40.
Journal of William Fraser Tolmie, April 30 to May 11, 18Z&?%?iffi
Journal of John Work, November and-December, 1824; and June, 1825, to
September IS, 1826.
A New Vancouver Journal.
Journal of Occurrences at Nisqually House.
Diary of Colonel and Mrs. Isaac N. Ebey. *iM
Also shorter documents relating to the first attempt to ascend Mount
Rainier, Beginnings of the Lake Washington Canal, Chief Leschi, Indian
troubles. Beginning of the San Juan dispute, Establishing of the Navy
Yard, Puget Sound, Transfer of Alaska to the United States, the Secret
Mission of Warre and Vavasour- and the Attitude of the Hudson's Bay
Company during the Indian War of 1855-56.
The Washington Historical Quarterly'.-is published by the Washington
University Btate Historical Society. It has taken as its field the history of-
the Pacific Northwest. It is issued quarterly with title page and Index in
the last number of each volume; it is also indexed in The Magazine Subject
Index. The current subscription pripe Is $2.00 per' year, or $.75 each for
single copies.    Back numbers are available as follows:
Volumes I., II., IH. and TV., each ".-£M»$p&?- • • • •{&&*. •'•■■'$>$$' 14-00
Volumes Y-..VI., VIL, VIII. and IX., each.-^.&^l^^^^^^1.... 3.00
For information in regard to subscriptions or exchange, Address
CHABLES W. SMITH, Business Manager,
Washington Historical Quarterly
University Station,
Seattle, Washington. Announcement
^ The thirteen large and unattractive
volumes known as the Pacific Railroad Reports are vaguely known to
contain mUc^t valuable information.
However, students rarely brave their
depths. Miss Russell's study has been
made for the purpose of pointing the
way to the materials stored therein.
*I The past year has been tragic in the
loss of active officers in the pioneer
and historical societies of the State.
iff Correspondence has increased on the
Compilation of "Washington Geographic  Names."    Corrections  and
additions are  more  than welcome.
They are earnestly solicited.
<J More gifts to the University of Washington Library are acknowledged in
the News Department.
<I The death of General Hazard Stevens
made a vacancy in the board of Contributing Editors of this Quarterly
which has been filled by the appointment of H. B. McElroy of Olympia.
The appropriateness of this selection
will be recognized when it is recalled
that his father was editor of the
Columbian, the first paper printed
north of the Columbia River. WteWwton historical <&uarterfp
Contrtfiutmfl Coitotf
Clarence B. Bagley, Seattle W. D. Lyman> Walla Walla
\T.C. Elliott, Walla Walla H. B. McElroy, Olympia
Frank A. Golder, Pullman Edward McMahon, Seattle
William S. Lewis> Spokane O. B. SperlW, Tacoma
;'JF. W. Howay, New Westminster, B. C.
^Managing €Utot
EDMOND S. MEANY "
3$u&iM&$ 0mastt
■:.. CHARLES Ws SMITH
ivoL. X; no. 2
ISSUED QUARTERLY
Two Dollars pes-Year
APRIL, 1919
Contents
CHARLES W. SMITH.. .^S^.TThe   Bagley   Collection   of   Paciflc   Northwest   History '^^S?^^^^f^^4^A '• • •  88
.HERBERT H.GOWEN.^».. .The Centenary ot Kamehameba the Great.  88
HORACE-* ^AYLOR.. gSf.-^iPflelfle Whales  at Play. i'>j0mgKi$?$$&\ 88
il&iF.*AUiWEA'rHERS!v .The  Northern  Paciflc  Railroad  and-Some
of Its History *s^|^^g^^^^^Sp^5t!fC-
HAZARD STEVENS^ .'.-v^^^T'lCominenit-On Mr. Falrweather's Article^:.  99
WILLIAM S. LEWIS..'."^Sp^fHaHroad Career of Mr. Fairweather. .^.,10O
EDMOND S/ME ANY... 3^^S|BOrigIn of Washington Geographic Names. 102
DOCUMENTS—Washington's FDrst Constitution, 1878, edited by
.John T. C<M»don..<^^^^aM^i^^^g^-.^^^BSS^f>'.'.;*.,i^P:''«  11*
Spanish Friars in the Oregon Country, 1810-1811. iS^^^^^^K;.  142.
BOOK  REVIEWS   .....'........>;,,.:...!".-.,„ =.. .-/./.. ; = -.._....-, = .-.= ,\   .*..*. .^ .....~ 153
NEWS DEPARTMENT ^^S^^sS'^^^Sji^^^&&^^^^^^^^^- 158
THE   WASHINGTON   UNIVERSITY
STATE  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY
University Station
SEATTLE). WASHINGTON
Entered
*ed as second-class matter, November 15, 1906, at the Postoffice at
Seattle, Washington, under the Act of Congress of July 16, 1894 Principal Articles in the Washington Historical Quarterly
VOLTJMES I. .II, and in.
(See issue for October, 1915)
IV.
Proposed amendments to the State Constitution of Washington. .Leo Jones
William Welr-V.. V. .p^iiSg^&^^^^^.;fijfiS^3£f- ••••; 4Llen We£
The pioneer dead of 1918--'^'•*^^^^^>'j1i^^^^ • • -Thomas W. Prosch
A survey of Alaska, 1743-1799.§^.........:V.gS^*5f Frank A Golder
Washington Territory fifty years ago. ..^.-.i^.-... Thomas W. Prosch
Early days at White Salmon and The Dalles...:?.-.Camilla Thomson Donnell
Early relations of the Sandwich Islands to the Old Oregon Territory..
;..... .vis&V.'i.. JssSr^-- • ■' • ■'• '-'•''^J^i*'feS',^; • -Cuy Vernon Bennett
Independence Day in the Far Northwest^^^S^Vv. .George W. Holiday
The Story of the Three Olympic Peaks, *-<*$&&!4&£^-&*£%; Edmond S. Meany
Stories and sketches from Pacifle County.. .6t^S5-.i,. .Isaac H. Whealdon
Origin of the Constitution of the State of Washington Lebbeus J. Knapp
VOLUME V.
George Wilkes . •v#v%S$fe"' • • •"•^■I^S^^»i- • • • • .vvfSSi^Clarenee B. Bagley
The Indians of Puget Sound... •'^M^iSi^i^i^Sr^.^^4ii-ti .Lewis H. St. John
Pioneer dead of 1913. #r^8J*'^. ..-{^iS&gp^:.. .Thomas W. Prosch
American and Indian Treatment of the Indians of the Paciflc Northwest-'.-..i-.,v...'•'Igg§y&!^iJE;'• • • •''i*gKc ■- t^jS^-^rt^'ft,.u;W'. J. Trimble
The Columbia River under Hudson's Bay Company Rule.. GtSO.' Ermatinger
Three Diplomats Prominent in the Oregon Question, .t,-'/,-.Edmond S. Meany
History of the Liquor Laws of the State of Washington. .Ann Sloan Walker
Divorce in Washington... .ti^^0VS^&gf^^&3i^isi^xi.-^. .Ralph R. Knapp
The West and American Ideals. ^". "i'f^^.^g^SVv. •«-... .Frederick J.-Turner
Eliza and the Nez Perce Indians.'.....; .-i^i'i^CV.^ ....... &J+-,. Edwin Eells
VOLUME VI.
The Fur*Trade in the Columbia River Basin Prior to 1811. ft. .T. C. Elliott
The Pioneer Dead in 1914.SjS^sS^,r.-'f:^*^s'&v;i^^5^>Hv..,Thomas W. Prosch
Pioneer and Historical Societies of Washington...:.. .$&t. .Victor J. Farrar
From Salem, Oregon, to. Seattle, Washington, In 1869...... si .Dillis B. Ward
Rights of the Puget Sound Indians to Game and Fish. .Charles M. Buchanan
The Last Stand of the Nez Perces. .VSjV- • - • -~h§ik^i£&t£t>'-Ijelson C. Titus
Organizers of the First Government in Oregon..i^i%&'\'Jis. .George H. Himes
A Survivor of Four Wars. ^%ViiA'^jiji?;..: ■i-iffcWig.Junius Thomas Turner
The Story of the Mercer Expeditions....... &j£^2&i-£t>. Flora A. P. Engle
Pioneer Hotel ^Keepers of Puget Sound, .'w®-?;*^^^!^?^.'. .W. B. Seymore
Jason Lee.^v/igS^V.X^i^'ii'... .S^^^^^^^a^&T^^^Jphn Martin* Canse
VOLUME VII.
A Critical Discussion of the Site of Camp Washington
Marine Disasters of the Alaska Route... *&*«•»...'fcSS&jSr
George Bush, Voyageurv.'S^sSlsSf^. .L^iSJp^^^
Pioneer and Historical Societies of WashlngtoIE*
Pioneer Dead of 19iE'.<v;#«^.i,:.. '*0a . .'.~>J#}[
Bourne and Marshall and the Whitman Question
The "Colonel Wright". i^hA'-r-J.. .-%?;-.'.;...jjf&K&*
First American' Settlement on Puget Sound
The Sinclair Party... ..s&J^SS'VviV.. .'.?fe?3
Alaska Under the Russians. f".?^«mX^Ws3&k£
Wf>rt Hall on the Saptin River..-sfP^£*S5*-
Mtolng in Alaska Before 1867 ^^Ja^S*^
A Pioneer of the Spokane Country...;,... .v*S
Black Tamanous, Secret Society of the Clallam Indians
Mullan Road.. .Vs^r.5fT.-i''.>s''.'«^*i *'&f*^~	
. M. Orion Monroe
... .C. L. Andrews
John Edwin Ayer
^.Victor JkFarrar
. .Edith G. Prosch
 W. D. Lyman
.. iiulu. D. Crandall
.-. .Edmond S; Meany
John V. Campbell
&S&X!. L. Andrews
lll&«Miles Cannon
^.■-I'rV'i-Y.'F; A. Golder
TS^Zt: .John E. Smith
 Johnson Williams
Henry L. Talkington ■Waalnngton 3|fetortcaI ©uarterlp
Contributing Cbttors
Clarence B. Bagley, Seattle W. D. Lyman, Walla Walla
T. C. Elliott, Walla Walla H. B. McElroy, Olympia
Frank A. Golder, Pullman Edward McMahon, Seattle
William S. Lewis, Spokane O. B. Sperlin, Tacoma
F. W. Howay, New Westminster, B. C.
JWanastng; Cbttor
EDMOND S. MEANY
SSuStne&s iWanager
CHARLES W. SMITH
VOL. X. NO. 2
APRIL, 1919
ISSUED QUARTERLY
Two Dollars per Year
Contents
CHARLES W. SMITH The   Bagley   Collection   of  Paciflc   Northwest   History     83
HERBERT H. GOWEN The Centenary of Kamehameha the Great.   88
HORACE J. TAYLOR Paciflc Whales  at Play 93
H.   W. FAIR-WEATHER The  Northern  Paciflc Railroad and Some
of Its History    95
HAZARD STEVENS Comment on Mr. Fairweather's Article 99
WttLIAM S. LEWIS Railroad Career of Mr. Fairweatlier 100
EDMOND S. MEANY Origin of 'Washington Geographic Names. 102
DOCUMENTS—Washington's First Constitution, 1878, edited by
John T. Condon 1    110
Spanish Friars in the Oregon Country, 1810-1811   142
BOOK  REVIEWS       153
NEWS DEPARTMENT   158
THE  WASHINGTON   UNIVERSITY
STATE   HISTORICAL   SOCIETY
University Station
SEATTLE,  WASHINGTON
Entered as second-class matter, November 15, 1906, at the Postoffice at
Seattle, Washington, under the Act of Congress of July 16, 1894 £l>tate ^t^tortcal Society
Officers and Board of Trustees
Clarence B. Bagley, President
Judge John P. Hoyt, Vice-President
Judge Roger S. Greene, Treasurer
Judge Thomas Burke
Samuel Hill
Professor Edmond S. Meany, Secretary
Seattle
Department of Printing, University of Washington
1919 Volume X, No. 2
April, 1919
Wbt
1$a£f)tngton Jifetorical (©ttarterlp
THE BAGLEY COLLECTION OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST
HISTORY
The University of Washington has purchased the Clarence B. Bag-
ley collection of newspapers, books and other materials relating to
the history of the Pacific Northwest. Local workers are already
familiar with this collection as Mr. Bagley has made it available to
all serious students. Now that the material has become the property
of the State University, a new interest attaches to it, and it is fitting
that some account should be given of this remarkable collection and
of the man whose far sightedness, zeal and perseverance has made it
what it is.
Clarence B. Bagley was born in Illinois in 1843, a year made
memorable by the first large immigration to Oregon. In 1852, his
parents moved to Salem, Oregon, where he attended school in the
Willamette Institute until 1860 when the family came to Seattle. In
1866, Mr. Bagley moved to Olympia. Two years later he entered
the printing office of Randall H. Hewitt where he learned the printer's trade, being employed on theTerritorial Republican and the Echo.
In 1869, he worked on the staff of the Commercial Age. In 1872, be
became business manager and city editor of the Puget Sound Courier.
In the following year he purchased this paper and the printing office
connected with it.
In the Fall of 1873, he was appointed Territorial Printer. Mr.
Bagley printed the laws and journals for six legislative sessions ending with 1883. During this time he continued to edit and publish the
Courier. It was within this period also that he laid the foundation
of his newspaper collection. He returned to Seattle in 1885 and was
connected with the Post-Intelligencer and the Seattle Daily Press from
1886 to 1888. From 1894 to 1900, he was Deputy Comptroller and
since 1900 has been Secretary of the Board of Public Works of Seattle, which position he now fills.
The growth of the Bagley collection began with the saving of
copies of Seattle's first newspaper, The Gazette? which began pub-
This paper was printed on the old Ramage printing press now preserved as a relic in the
University of Washington Museum. Por account of the Seattle Gaaette and this historic press,
see Bagley, C. B., Pioneer papers of Puget Sound. Quarterly of the Oregon Historical Society
4:865-85, December, 1903.
(83) 84
Charles W. Smith
lication in 1863. Of this newspaper and its successors until it became
the Post-Intelligencer, no other complete set is today known to be in
existence. On Mr. Bagley's going to Olympia in 1866, Mr. Elwood
Evans sought his aid toward completing a file of the Gazette. To
Mr. Evans more than anyone else, Mr. Bagley attributes his early
zeal in the collecting of newspapers and other publications of historical value. He later acquired the entire Evans collection of newspapers. The State of Washington cannot overlook its indebtedness
to its first historian, Elwood Evans.2 He came to Olympia in 1851,
when that small settlement was still a part of Lewis County, Oregon.
In 1852, he joined with other people north of the Columbia River in
urging the creation of a new territory to the north of the Columbia
to embrace all of the territory within the present states of Washington and Idaho and that part of Montana west of the Rocky Mountains. It was in connection with this campaign that the first newspaper north of the Columbia was started, in Olympia in 1852, and it
was called The Columbian. This newspaper forms the starting point
of the Evans collection embracing the important papers of Western
Washington up to 1875 when Mr. Bagley acquired them. With rare
historic insight, Mr. Bagley has persevered in saving and preserving
newspaper files from that time until now. His collection contains an
almost continuous newspaper record of the history of the Territory
and State of Washington.
Prior to 1900, newspapers, laws and journals, manuscripts and
certain of the more important pamphlets of historical nature made up
the extent of the collection. At about this date, Mr. Bagley began
an earnest attempt to secure books relating to the Oregon country.
He acknowledges the stimulus in this direction of the shipments of
books obtained from England by Professor Meany for Seattle auction.
He obtained many valuable items at about this time from Mr. Clarence L. Andrews, who devoted his attention thence forward exclusively
to the history of Alaska.
About 1905, a large addition was made by the purchase of the
collections of William I. Marshall of Chicago. Mr. Marshall will be
remembered as. the man who spent over twenty-five years in a campaign of education on the Whitman question. His material includes
a large number of letters from and about the pioneer missionaries,
also much Oregon material transcribed from out-of-the-way sources.
It includes much material that has not appeared in his "Acquisition
of Oregon" or other publications.    Mr. Bagley was fortunate in secur-
aSee excellent account of the life and public service of Elwood Evans by James Wicker-
sham in Washington Historian 1:52-63, January, 1900. The Bagley Collection
85
ing many items by exchanges with Mr. George H. Himes of the Oregon Historical Society, Mr. Scholefield of the British Columbia Legislative Library, and Mr. Thomas W. Prosch of Seattle. On the
death of the latter in 1915, Mr. Bagley purchased some extremely important material not already in the collection.
That so large a collection should have been amassed and safely
preserved by one individual for so long a term of years is a circumstance worthy of more than passing comment. It should be noted
also that the collection has not been without its share of danger. The
Olympia fire of 1882 burned away the attic in which many of the
most valuable papers were stored. By tare good fortune they were
moved to safety in time to prevent injury. Again in the great Seattle
fire of 1889, the newspaper office in which the collection was stored
was completely destroyed. During the progress of the fire, Mr. Bag-
ley without assistance carried the material to Ballast Island, near the
present site of the Columbia and Puget Sound Railway Depot. Here
he deposited it in the sand and covered it with old tin cans, broken
pieces of sewer tile and such other noncombustible debris as effectually saved it from the intense heat. The narrowness of the
escape is shown by the fact that the bridge had in the meantime burned
down and Mr. Bagley was obliged to return by boat to another part
of the city. What eventually proved to be quite as serious a hazard
to certain of the newspapers was the loaning of files of The Columbian,
The Pioneer and Democrat, The Standard, The Courier, and The
Puget Sound Herald to Mr. H. H. Bancroft in 1882 for use in the
preparation of his volume on the History of Washington, Idaho and
Montana. It took fifteen years and the services of a lawyer to effect
their return in the year 1897.
Two features distinguish the Bagley Library from other private
collections of Northwest History, namely, the wealth of newspaper
files and the large number of manuscripts. The following are among
the newspapers represented with complete or practically complete sets:
Oregon American and Evangelical Unionist, 1848; The Columbian
and its successor the Pioneer and Democrat, 1852-61; Overland Press
and Tribune (Olympia), 1861-68; Puget Sound Herald (Steilacoom),
1858-63 ;Olympia Transcript, 1867-1881; Seattle Gazette and its
lineal successors to the Post-Intelligencer, 1863-75; and the Walla
Walla Statesman, 1862-69. A comparison of the Bagley newspapers
with Hitchcock's Newspaper Survey3 shows that the collection covers
'Hitchcock, Jeanette H. A survey of newspapers in Washington libraries. Thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of bachelor of library economy.
University of Washington, 1918. 86
Charles W. Smith
the early newspapers of the State better than all public libraries of
the State combined.
The manuscripts include more than one thousand documents, letters and papers covering many phases of the history of Washington
from the thirties to the seventies. The wealth of this material is illustrated by the documents relating to the history of the Hudson's Bay
Company. Here is the original plan of incorporation of the Puget
Sound Agricultural Company together with many other documents
relating to this subsidiary of the Hudson's Bay Company. Practically
every important official of the company is represented with at least
one autograph letter relating to the company's business. These names
include, George Simpson, Behrens, McLean, Anderson, Tolmie, Bernier, McKinlay, Stuart, Finlayson, Mackenzie, Grahame, Kittson, Sinclair, P. Fraser, Ermatinger and John Work. There are twelve letters each by McTavish, P. S. Ogden and Governor Douglass, and over
twenty-five letters by Dr. John McLoughlin.
Of books, there are about one thousand miscellaneous volumes
bearing on the history of the Oregon country. The collection is particularly strong in overland voyages and travels. Here are to be
found standard editions of Carver, Simpson, Franchere, Irving, Ross,
Cox, Kelley, Hastings, George Wilkes, Catlin, Farnham, DeSmet,
Mofras and numerous other Oregon classics. Of pamphlets there are
many of extreme rarity and value. A pamphlet is a form of literature often overlooked by collectors. It occupies a field half way between a bound volume and a manuscript. Its value for history is not
lessened because the publisher has failed to provide a binding. For
lack of covers it is much more likely to become scarce than bound
volumes, a fact which librarians and bibliographers always bear in
mind. Mr. Bagley is particularly to be commended for having rescued
many such fugitive items.
Other features of the collection are sets of Oregon and Washington laws and legislative journals; Seattle ordinances, charters and
early printed documents; directories of Seattle, 1876 to date with
other early Pacific Coast directories; a collection of maps and charts;
early University of Washington records; some twenty large scrap books
of newspaper clippings, mounted bill heads, receipts, bills of sale,
accounts, business and legal papers of pioneer days; and fifteen bound
volumes of transcripts and documents.
It is fitting that the Bagley collection should be acquired by the
University of Washington as Mr. Bagley is the son of Reverend Daniel
Bagley, known as the Father of the University and for whom one of
the principal university buildings is named.    The University also ac- The Bagley Collection
87
quires in the collection its own early financial records covering the
years 1861-65, when Daniel Bagley was President of the Board of
University Commissioners, together with the first class books of its
first President, Asa Mercer.
Mr. Bagley has long recognized the University as a logical place
for the deposit of his books and documents, but the capital involved
grew to a point where he felt unable to donate the collection. The
University has now paid a sum based upon an appraisal of what the
material might be expected to bring in the New York market. Its
intrinsic value to the State of Washington cannot be reckoned, but it
may fairly be placed at many times the amount paid. The University owes to Mr. Bagley a debt that can only be paid in gratitude and
recognition of his lasting service to the state.
The Northwest History materials of the University of Washington Library as augmented by the Bagley collection now offer excellent
opportunities for graduate study and research in history and allied
fields. The document section enriched by the Wallace* and Bagley
manuscripts will furnish much material suitable for publication in the
Washington Historical Quarterly. The acquisition of this collection
emphasizes once more the need of a new library building where present and future collections can be safeguarded and where adequate accommodations can be furnished to the students for whom this material
is held in trust. „ „r  0
Charles W. Smith.
•The Wallace and other manuscripts from the library of the late Thomas Prosch were presented to the University Library by Edith Prosch in 1917. See Washington Historical Quarterly 8:159, April, 1917. THE CENTENARY OF KAMEHAMEHA THE GREAT
Just a hundred years ago, at 2 o'clock in the morning of May 8,
1819, there passed out of life the greatest of the chiefs of Hawaii
"from chaos until now," — the man who by dint of forty years' valor
in war, patience in waiting, and skill in statecraft, made out of a
weltering anarchy of contending alii the Hawaiian monarchy which,
largely through his own influence extended beyond his decease, held
together through three-quarters of a century of weaker rule.
America has become in these last years the heir to Kamehameha's
kingdom; it is well that she should be also the guardian of his fame.
It need be in no condescending spirit, for there will never be another
like the first Kamehameha. Partly because the old days of mingled
savagery and chivalry in Hawaii, when la haute noblesse fought like
the demigods of Homer, are gone forever; partly also, alas, because
the race itself is a vanishing one, weakened by the inrush of the white
man's vices, since the day that Cook burst through the veil of protective isolation, and hustled along the way of the strenuous life which
has been as fatal as the wars of old.
Kamehameha's statue still stands before the Legislative Building
in Honolulu, a building once more euphoniously entitled Aliiolani Hale,
but my own mind travels back rapidly over a space of thirty years
as I think of the stalwart native whom the artist chose as his model
for the figure of bronze. His name was Kaopuiki, and