BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

The Washington historical quarterly. Vol. IV Washington University State Historical Society 1913

Item Metadata

Download

Media
bcbooks-1.0355819.pdf
Metadata
JSON: bcbooks-1.0355819.json
JSON-LD: bcbooks-1.0355819-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): bcbooks-1.0355819-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: bcbooks-1.0355819-rdf.json
Turtle: bcbooks-1.0355819-turtle.txt
N-Triples: bcbooks-1.0355819-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: bcbooks-1.0355819-source.json
Full Text
bcbooks-1.0355819-fulltext.txt
Citation
bcbooks-1.0355819.ris

Full Text

 in
tei^E^CE''B.i B'AGLEY^Sea'ttle.   ' ?. Wj &■ Lyman^ WaUaVWalla/
|^,^|:§pwiiAN, Seatde.
^|||||M^|||Jh||||li
;O^V|^^:B^MU)S6r^^aftle.'
r:^|Hattagt%;:Ci>itt&f
ISSlIED:QU4R^ERLYy'
vOi B. SPEBIiIK
. Proposed AmendmcntMto tlie State Coin-; ■ -■
V »rttutlon: of  \Va«l»lng*oii     ..  12
ALLEN WEIR         1111 rini; Weir.   -,.	
OTpbfe^iRE.'prE'tVS. ■'":...." .'',   . V ■' J.; $lj?''"      	
l^fijre^pfetjiMEKT,.,'.	
3M>R#1f»^SWERNl^ 	
33
[:36|
Mi
53
^REPRINT,; mCPARTSIEA^
?££raiiiil«-al; G.eo^^ ■ ■   •'•  6*-
STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY
University Station
, SEATTLE;. U;S.'A,-
Entered- at the .Postofflct-. At Seattle aV second-class mall matter:  Washington ^fetortcal <&uarterlp
J&oavo of Cbitorg
Clarence B. Bagley, Seattle.
J. N. Bowman, Seattle.
T. C Elliott, Walla Walla.
Frank A. Golder, Pullman.
Ceylon S. Kingston, Cheney.
W. D. Lyman, Walla Walla.
Edward McMahon, Seattle.
Thomas W. Prosch, Seattle.
Oliver H. Richardson, Seattle.
O. B. Sperlin, Tacoma.
E. O. S. ScHOLEFIELD, Victoria, B. C.
Allen Weir, Olympia.
Jflanagtng Cbttor
EDMOND S. MEANY
VOL. IV NO. 1 JANUARY, 1913
ISSUED QUARTERLY
Contents
O. B. SPERLIN Exploration of the  Upper  Columbia   .... 3
LEO JONES Proposed Amendments to the State Constitution   of  Washington  12
ALLEN 'WEIR -William W^eir  33
THOMAS W. PROSCH The  Pioneer  Dead  of  1912  36
BOOK REVIEWS  44
NEWS DEPARMENT  53
NORTHWESTERN HISTORY SYLLABUS  57
REPRINT DEPARTMENT—George  Wilkes:     History of Oregron, Geographical, Geological and Political (New York, Colyer, 1848)  60
THE WASHINGTON  UNIVERSITY
STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY
University Station
SEATTLE, U. S. A.
Entered at the Postofflce at Seattle as second-class mall matter. ®f)e Partington WLmbzxxity
§s>tate Historical Society
©iiitttf! ana ptoarb of GCrusteesf:
Clarence B. Bagley, President
Judge John P. Hoyt, Vice President
Judge Roger S. Greene, Treasurer
Professor Edmond S. Meany, Secretary
Judge Cornelius H. Hanford
Judge Thomas Burke
Samuel Hill
rtNG DEPARTMENT UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON Vol. IV.    No. 1
January,  1913
®<Hasi)ington Historical dguarterlp
EXPLORATION OF THE UPPER COLUMBIA
Of the five earliest transcontinental expeditions to the Pacific, students
or Northwest history know two by heart: the second (Lewis and Clark,
1805-06) and the fifth (the Overland Astorians, 1811-12). The first
(Mackenzie, 1793) and the third (Fraser 1808) are also familiar to us
in never varying detail. But an unkind fate, aided by a journal too voluminous for publication (40 vol. foolscap, 100 pp. per vol.) has almost buried
in obscurity the knowledge of the fourth, that by the astronomer and geographer, David Thompson (1810-11); and when even the bare outlines
have at times emerged, the sketch has been fragmentary and inaccurate, and
the details (attempted by Bancroft and others) imaginary. This is all
the more to be regretted by the people of Washington, because .Thompson's
was the only party of the five to cross our state entirely. This it accomplished both by river and by land. David Thompson discovered the
sources of the Columbia, explored the Upper Columbia, and was the first
to voyage over every foot of this, the Pacific Coast's mightiest river.
Through the courtesy of Mr. Aubrey White, Deputy Minister Lands
and Forests, Toronto, I have been furnished a copy of Bk. 17, Vol. IT.,
of Thompson's journal, detailing his "Voyage to the Mouth of the Columbia; by D. Thompson and 7 men on the part of the New Company." As
Dr. Coues says of the entire journal, the manuscript "consists of astronomical calculations, traverse tables and other mathematical data," which
makes it "largely unreadable"; but this did not deter me from an attempt to
put before the people of the Northwest a readable account, which should
at the same time be as accurate in time and place as could be made out by
his "watch of little worth" and his "compass always vibrating, caused
by the many eddys and whirlpools which continually turned the canoe from
side to side.
June 17, 1807, Thompson crossed Howse Pass in the Canadian
Rockies and came to a little rill "whose current," he wrote without hesitation, "descends to the Pacific Ocean—may God in his mercy give me to
(3) O. B. Sperlin
see where its waters flow into the ocean and return in safety." Little did
he dream then of the 1,150 miles of Columbia, the interminable maze of
lakes connected by the windings of the Kootenay, Clark's Fork, and Upper
Columbia, or of the four and a quarter years of hardships verging at
times on starvation, that lay between Howse Pass and his finished work.
He built a raft and descended the tumultuous Blaeberry Creek; but when
he reached the Columbia he was surprised to find the great river flowing
northeast instead of southwest, as McKenzie had described the Tacouche
Tesse (Frazer had not yet explored the Tacouche Tesse to the sea, thus
showing that it was not the Columbia). From the Indians Thompson
learned that the river made a great detour to the north; so instead of going
down, he went up stream, i. e., south, to Lake Windermere, at the foot
of which he established a post, Kootenay House, on the west bank of the
Columbia. In 1808 he returned from east of the Rockies to this post,
arriving November 10, after a horseback journey of sixteen days. Here
he wintered till April 27,   1809.
During the summer of 1809 he explored the Kootenay south into
Montana and Idaho, and struck across country on horseback to Clark's
Fork. September 9, he arrived at Pend d'Oreille and built a post on the
lake. September 28 he started on an expidtion down Clark's Fork some
distance into Washington. October 2 he started back up the river, evidently bewildered by the fact that all the tributaries of the great river turned
and continued northward. He returned to Pend d'Oreille, continued up
Clark's Fork into Montana, swung north again to the Kooteney, back
again to his post on Pend d'Oreille, and up Clark's Fork again into Montana, where he built Saleesh House and wintered, 1809-10. During the
winter he made three exploring trips, on one of which he ascended Clark's
Fork to its formation by the Missoula and Flathead rivers. He left
Saleesh House April 19, reached Pend d'Oreille April 21, sent his canoes
north the 23d, explored south to the Spokane by the 25th, turned north
again, and by way of the Kootenay, the Columbia, and Blaeberry Creek
reached Howse Pass June 18, where he crossed in snow four feet deep.
He had left his packs of fur behind in charge of McMillan, to wait for
horses.
From July 22 to October 29, 1810, occurs one of the very few blanks
in his remarkable journal of fifty years. From the journal of Alexander
Henry the Younger, however, we learn that Thompson went east; as far
as Montreal, according to Henry, but this is surely a mistake. At whatever place he stopped he learned of the preparations for the Astor expeditions by sea and land. This news started him out once more, on the
crowning achievement of his life. Exploration of the Upper Columbia
Obstacles came thick and fast, but he did not flinch the task. In
October, 1810, his Columbia canoes on ahead were turned back from
Howse Pass by the Piegan Indians, who had constituted themselves guardians of the pass, to keep Thompson from taking firearms to their enemies,
the Flatheads, and to capture the rich store of furs which his posts west
of the mountains were sending east. For once all of Alexander Henry's
resources in debauching Indians with liquor failed; they would not decamp. The only other northern pass then known across the Rockies
was Peace River, which would take Thompson's expedition a thousand
miles out of his way and put him on the upper Frazer instead of the Columbia. Though his provisions were short and winter was coming on, he
decided to force a new road across the Rockies. He struck northward
towards the Athabaska, "cutting his way," so Henry reports, "through a
wretched, thick woody country, over mountains and gloomy muskagues, and
nearly starving, animals being scare in that quarter.* * Their case was
pitiful." December 5, on the Athabasca, he began building sleds, the
thermometer registering 4 below zero. December 14, in dire extremities,
he dispatched seven men to Henry for supplies. His men were distracted
and suffering to the verge of mutiny. December 1 8 the thermometer stood
36 below zero. December 29 he started again, his two dogs to each sled
swimming through a deep snow road beaten down by the snowshoes of
his men. New Year's Day, 1811, the poor dogs were unable to move
their loads. A cache was made, and with light loads they struggled on.
January 8, Du Nord, one of his men, "beat a dog useless and the sled
we made got broke and was with the dog thrown aside." January 10,
he discovered Athabaska Pass. Next day, in the courcc of holding down
a little brook, he called Du Nord "a poor, spiritless wretch," and ordered
him back, but relented. January 12 he wrote his pitiful plight on boards,
to be carried back to Henry's post, there copied, and forwarded to the
Northwest Partners. January 14 his dogs could no longer haul their
loads. He abandoned everything not absolutely necessary, including his
tent; "courage of the men sinking fast, though the snow was only 3 to 3J/2
feet deep; and they were told it was no matter if it was- 20 feet deep,
provided they could get over it; but when men are in a strange country fears
gather in them from every object." January 20 Du Nord deserted under
critical circumstances; January 21 the expedition reached the Columbia.
Thompson wanted to go up the river to Kootenay House, but his men were
dispirited, "useless as old women." January 26 Le Tendre and Deaw
deserted, overcome with fear at the prospect before them. Thompson
moved down the river, northward a few miles, to Canoe River, the very O. B. Sperlin
northernmost point of the Columbia. Here the great river doubles on itself
and turns south.   Thompson's puzzle of the last three years was solved.
At Canoe Camp he built boats, and April 1 7, with four men, started
south up the Columbia, traversed Windermere Lake, portaged to the Kootenay, descended that river to Idaho, crossed to Clark's Fork, and then
crossed south to Spokane House, which his men had built in advance of
I him. He reached here June 15. He had by this swing visited
every one of his posts except Saleesh House. At Spokane he took to the
canoe again, going down the Spokane to the Columbia, and up the Columbia to Kettle Falls, whence he intended to start on his dash for the
Pacific.
It is this part of the trip that holds greatest interest for us. With
seven men and two Simpoil Indians, he started from Kettle Falls July 3,
''down the Columbia river to explore this river in order to open out a passage
for the interior trade with the Pacific Ocean." The first night was spent
with the Simpoil Indains, three-quarters of a mile up the San Poil river from
the Columbia.    Thompson gives the following account of his reception:
"On our arrival at the Simpoil camp, we pitched our tents. No one
approached us till we sent for them to come and smoke. The chief then
made a speech, and then the men all followed him in file and sat down
round the tent, bringing a present of two dried salmon, with about half
a bushel of various roots and berries for food. The chief again made a
speech in a more singing loud smart tone; smoking, with four pipes.
When all the tobacco I had given for this purpose was done, during the
last pipes being smoked, one of the Simpoil Indians who had come with
me related in a low voice all the news he had heard and seen, which the
chief in his speech told again to his people. At the end of every three
or four sentences he made a step, which was answered by all the people
calling in a loud voice, OY! The smoking being done and the news being
all told, I then told the chief what I had to say of my voyage to the sea.
Each six or seven sentences I also made a step, which the chief in his
relation to his people punctually followed, and they also regularly answered
as before. I took notice that good and bad news, life and death, were
always pronounced in the same manner, and that the answer was always
the same. A few pipes were now lighted, and they were told this was
enough for the present. They gave a long thankful OY, continuing a few
minutes.
"After, a man came asking permission for the women to come and see
us and make us a small present. To this we consented, provided they
brought us no ectoway, as we found these roots bring on the colic. They
came, accompanied by all the men, and altogether formed a circle round Exploration of the Upper Columbia
us, the women placing themselves directly opposite us, half being on the
right and half on the left of a man painted as if for war, with black and
red, and his head highly ornamented with feathers. The rest of the men
extended to the women on either hand. The men brought their presents
and placed them before me, which sonsisted wholly of bitter and white
and ectoway roots, with a few arrow-root berries. The women had all
painted themselves; although there were a few tolerable faces among them,
yet from the paint, etc., not one could be pronounced bearable. The men
are all of a middling size, moderately muscular, well limbed, and of a tolerably good mien.
"The women, we thought, were all of rather small stature, clean
made; and none of them seemed to labor under any bodily defects. Having
smoked a few pipes, we said the visit was long enough. This was received
as usual with a thankful OY, and they withdrew except a few old men,
who stayed a few minutes longer and then went away. As the chief was
going, my men wished to see them dance. I told the chief, who was highly
pleased with the request. He instantly made a short speech to them;
and all of them, young and old, men, women, and children, began a dance
to the sound of their own voices only, having no instrument of any kind
whatever. The song was a mild, simple music; the cadence measured, but
the figure of the dance quite mild and irregular. On one side stood all the
old people of both sexes. They formed groups of 4 to 10, who danced
in time, hardly stirring out of the same spot. All the young and active
formed a great large group on the other side, men, women, and children
mixed, dancing, first up as far as the line of the old people extended, then
turning round and dancing down to the same extent, each of this large
group touching each other with closeness. This continued for about eight
minutes, when, the song being finished, each person sat down on the ground
in the spot he happened to be when the song was done. The chief made
a speech of about one or two minutes long. As soon as this was ended
the song directly began; and each person starting up filed to dancing the
same figure as before. They observed no order in their places, but mingled as chance brought them together. We remarked a young, active
woman who always danced out of the crowd and kept in close along us,
and always left the others far behind. This was noticed by the chief,
who at length called her to order, either to dance with the others or take a
partner. She chose both, but still kept close to us, with her partner leading
up the dance. Having danced twice in this way, the chief told them to
dance a third time for that We might be preserved on the strong rapids we
had to run down on our way to the sea. This they seemingly performed
with great good will.     Having danced about an hour, they finished and 8
O. B. Sperlin
"
returned. The dust of their feet fairly obscured the dancers, although we
stood only four feet from them, as they danced on a piece of dusty ground
in the open air. Their huts are of slight poles tied together, covered with
mats of slight rushes,—sufficient defense in this season; and they are considered altogether as moderately cleanly; although very poorly clothed, especially the men, as animals are very scarce, and they are too poorly armed
to obtain any spoil of worth from the chase."
July 4, in running the rapids above Bridgeport, "they run too close
to a drift tree on a rock, which tore partly the top lath away and struck
Ignace out of the stern of the canoe. Although he had never swam before
in his life, he swam so as to keep himself above the waves till they turned
the canoe around and took him up."   The river was now at its flood time.
Next morning they came upon an Oachenawagan [Okonogan] chief
and sixty men, with their women and children, who made them "a present
of a good roasted salmon, and a bushel of arrow-root berries, and two
bushels of bitter white roots." A rain coming up, Thompson made presents of tobacco, rings, and hawk'6 bells, and sent the Indians away. At
2Yl P- M. they returned singing; smoked again, and discoursed of the
country to the Okonogan River.    Thompson continues:
"They offered to dance for our good voyage and preservation to the
sea and back again, and that they might be as well every way as at the
present. We accepted the offer. They all, both men, women, and children,
formed a line in elipsis. They danced with the sun in a mingled manner.
An old man who did not dance set the song, and the others danced running,
but passing over a very small space of ground, their arms also keeping time,
although hardly stirring from their sides. Some few danced apart, but
they were all old women and seemed to dance much better than the others.
Having danced three sets, each beginning with a speech from the chief and
ending with a kind of prayer for our safety, and turning their faces up the
river, and quickly lifting their hands high, and striking their palms together,
and then letting them fall quickly and bringing them to the same action
till the prayer was done. The men are slightly ornamented, but the women
more profusely, especially about their hair, and their faces daubed with
paint. Some few of them have copper ornaments hanging either to their
girdles or the upper part of their petticoat. The women appeared of all
sizes, but none corpulent, none handsome. The men, though many are
quite ordinary, yet several were well looking and almost all well made,
though not stout.—I may here remark that all their dances are a kind of
religious prayer for some end. They in their dances never assume a gay,
joyous countenance, but always one of serious turn, with often a trait of Exploration of the Upper Columbia
9
enthusiasm. The step must almost always resemble the semblance of running, as if people pursuing and being pursued."
July 6 the party arrived at the Smeethowe [Methow river]. "On our
approaching they gave several long thankful OYs. I sent my Simpoil to
invite them to smoke. The chief received the message thankfully, and they
began to collect a small present; having done which, I again invited them
and they came forward and sat down in a ring and began smoking without
any ceremony. The women then advanced, all ornamented with fillets and
small feathers, dancing in a body to a tune of a mild song which they sang.
When close to the men, an old man directed them to sit down all around the
men on the outside, with the children, etc. When in place they smoked
with the men; only the women were permitted. Women had a single whiff
of the calumet, whilst the met took from three to six whiffs. Having
smoked awhile, I explained to the chief by means of the Simpoil my intention of going to the sea to open out a road to bring merchandise to trade
with them; which they thankfully received and wished a good voyage."
July 7 they saw the Cascade Mountains, as they looked up the Pis-
cous [Wenatchee] valley, and the snow-topped Wenatchee range to the
south. That afternoon they were received by the Wenatchee Indians.
"They received us all dancing in their huts, one of which was about 209
yards long and the others 20 yards. There were about 120 families. I
invited them to smoke and the 5 most respectable men advanced and smoked
a few pipes.—They put down their little presents of roots, etc., and then
continually kept blessing us and wishing us all manner of good for visiting
them, with clapping their hands and extending them to the skies.—A very
old respectable man often felt my shoes and legs gently, as if to know
whether I was like themselves. A chief of the countries below offered to
accompany us, as he understood the language of the people below, which I
gladly accepted. We had much trouble to get away, as they very much
wished to detain us all night. When we went they all stretched out
their hands to Heaven, wishing us a good voyage and a safe return.
July 9 Thompson reached the mouth of the Snake, or Lewis river,
and erected a pole with a half sheet of paper on it, claiming the country for
Great Britain and declaring the intention of the New Company [Northwesters] to erect a factory there. The chief of the Nez Perces showed
a small medal and a small American flag, which he had been given by Lewis
and Clark. He was intelligent and friendly; "he ordered all the women
to dance, which they did as usual; he gave me two salmon, and I made
him a present of two feet of tobacco." Later in the day, the party came
in sight of Mt. Hood. v.  iSffffP:
10
O. B. Sperlin
T
,1 i
For July 10 Thompson's observations for latitude and longitude are
unintelligible; but they probably did not advance very far, as they had a
"strong head gale all day; but it increased to a storm; the water swept
away like snow." The Indians with whom they spent the night danced
"by much the best I have ever seen, all the young of both sexes in two
canoes. They made much of this hour. The dance, song, and step were
measured by an old chief. Sometimes they sat down at the end. They
gently sank down as it were; and rose up as regularly, the whole as usual
in grand style." On this day he "heard news of the American ship's
arrival."
July 1 1 records an all day trip with nothing but latitude and longitude, and that imperfectly taken. July 12 they passed the Dalles and the
Cascades, and took a few shots without effect at the many grey colored
seals. Though the Indians spoke a new and unintelligible language, the
chief "jabbered a few words of broken English he had learned from the
ships." Here, for the first time, he reports that the Indians, both women
and men, are all naked. July 1 3 he camped "a little above Point Vancouver." July 15, at I P. M., he reached Astoria, where the Astorians
in their journals give a well known account of his doings for a week.
July 22, at 1 :24 P. M., his expedition left Astoria for the return,
in company with the Stuart party, destined for the Okonogan. July 24
they reached the mouth of the Willamette; by July 31 they were at the
Cascades. At this point Stuart's party.lagged behind and Thompson and
his men pushed on ahead. The geographic record of his progress has been
rubbed out. His descriptions of geological features are preserved in detail.
August 6 he reached the forks at Lewis river, and (all other accounts but
one to the contrary), went up the Lewis river instead of the Columbia
proper. At the forks he dispatched a letter to Finley, at Spokane House,
telling him to send and meet him with horses. August 8, he saw the Blue
Mountains to the southeast. That night he writes: "Put ashore at the
mouth of a small brook [Can the Palouse river be called a small brook?],
and camped, as this is the road to my first post on the Spokane lands.
Here [on the Lewis river] is a village of fifty men. They danced till they
were fairly tired and the chiefs had bawled themselves hoarse. They forced
a present of eight horses on me, with a war garment." As there were just
eight in his party, this scores once again for the historical generosity of the
Nez Perces. With such treatment it is no wonder that Thompson had exclaimed two days before, "Thank Heaven for the favors we find among
these numerous people!"
August 1 3 he writes: "Arrived at Spokane House. Thank God for
his mercy to us on this journey.    Found all safe; but Joco  [Finley]  was Exploration of the Upper Columbia
11
with the horses sent to meet me. Late in the evening he arrived." Thompson went immediately down the Spokane and up the Columbia to Kettle
Falls, reaching there August 28. One more dash of a few days' duration,
from Kettle Falls to Canoe Camp, which he reached at the beginning of
October, and Thompson had completed exploring every foot of the Columbia.
In the thirty two months just passed, he had spent barely two months
sheltered by a rude hut; the remaining thirty he had lived out; forcing his
way with the explorer's hardihood through the New World's greatest mountains and forests; finding the mountain passes, tracing the Pacific slope s
greatest river; and (especially by failing to beat Astor's ship to Astoria)
making history. Hasn't the failure been emphasized long enough? Shouldn't
history now turn its attention to what he accomplished?
Tacoma,   December 4,   1912 O.   B.  SPERLIN. mmmm
PROPOSED   AMENDMENTS  TO   THE   STATE   CONSTITUTION   OF
WASHINGTON
Since statehood a total of one hundred and sixty-four bills proposing
amendments have been introduced in the legislature. Of these bills eighty-
one originated in the House of Representatives and seventy-three in the
Senate. Of these one hundred and sixty-four bills, only fifteen were passed
by the legislature and submitted to the people. Of the fifteen submitted
to the people, five have been rejected and ten adopted.
In order to amend the constitution of Washington, it is necessary,
first, that the bill providing for the amendment pass both houses of the
legislature by a two-thirds vote of the members elected, and, second, that
the amendment be approved and ratified by a majority of the electors of the
state voting thereon. If more than one amendment is submitted at the
same time, they must be submitted so as to permit the people to vote separately upon them. The proposed amendments must be published for at
least three months preceding the election in some weekly newspaper in every
county in the state.
The constitution can also be amended or revised by a constitutional
convention called for that purpose. Two-thirds of the members elected to
each house of the legislature can submit to the people the question of
whether or not the convention shall be called. If a majority of the electors
vote to call the convention, the next legislature must provide for calling the
same. The convention must have at least as many members as the House
of Representatives. Before the amendments or new constitution adopted by
the constitutional convention become valid they must be submitted to and
adopted by the people.
Several of the proposed amendments consist of complete laws on the
subjects covered in the amendments. In fact, the tendency has been to
embody as much of the law of the state as possible in the constitution.
The original constitution itself is much more than a mere outline of principles and contains very many provisions that could have been very well left
to the legislature. If all of the proposed amendments had been adopted,
the constitution would more resemble a code than a constitution. In some
cases the amendments proposed were not even contrary to existing provisions in the constitution, but dealt with subjects of ordinary legislation.
Later, laws were passed by the legislature putting into force some of the
same measures.
I did not find any record of amendments proposed at the first and
(12) Amendments  to  the   Washington Constitution
13
second sessions of the legislature in 1889 and 1891, but at every one of
the subsequent sessions a considerable number of bills were introduced providing for constitutional amendments. I shall consider together all of the
amendments bearing on the same sections and subjects.
Amendments to Article I.
At the session of the legislature in 1903, Senator W. R. Reser introduced in the Senate a bill providing for the amendment of Section 11 of
Article I. Among other things, this section provides that "no public
money or property shall be appropriated for or applied to any religious
worship, exercise, or instruction, or the support of any religious establishment." The amendment sought to change this section by adding a proviso
to the above words to the effect that "this article shall not be so construed
as to forbid the employment by the state of a chaplain for the state penitentiary and for such of the state reformatories as in the discretion of the
legislature may seem justified." This amendment passed the Senate by a
unanimous vote of all members present and passed the House by a vote
of 77 to 3. It was approved by the people in 1904 by a vote of 1 7,060
to 11,371.
In 1909 another attempt was made to amend this section. This
amendment, proposed by Representative Alex. N. Sayre in the House, provided that the hospitals for the insane or feeble-minded and such other state
charitable and reformatory institutions as the legislators may designate, as
well as the state penitentiary, shall be permitted to employ a chaplain.
The committee on constitutional revision, to which the bill was referred,
recommended its passage, but no action was taken.
The next section of Article I. to which amendments have been proposed is section 16, relating to eminent domain. This section says: "Private property shall not be taken for private use, except for private ways of
necessity, and for drains, flumes, or ditches on or across the lands of others
for agricultural, domestic, or sanitary purposes." The section then sets
forth the manner of determining the compensation for taking property for
public and private use, etc. A bill proposing an amendment to this section
was introduced in 1905 by Senator John T. Welsh. Its purpose was to
define private ways of necessity. According to the amendment, a private
way of necessity shall be held to include a right-of-way over the lands of
others, whether the title to the same be or be not derived from a common
grantor, for the purpose of conveniently removing any saw logs, shingle
bolts, timber, lumber, stone, crops, and other agricultural products, or the
product of any mine" to a convenient point from which the commodities
could reach the market. The private way might be taken for a year or a
term of years or permanently.    The main object of this amendment was to
ii i 14
Leo Jones
give the logging companies a way of getting their logs, shingle bolts, etc.,
across the lands of others to a convenient place for transportation. The bill
was never reported out of the hands of the committee.
Twenty days later Senator Welsh introduced another bill for an
amendment to the same section, which was probably intended as a substitute
for the first bill. This amendment provided that the use of property for
rights-of-way for agricultural, mining, milling, manufacturing, irrigation, domestic, lumbering or sanitary purposes, or for the removal of timber or timber
products, is a public use, even though the benefit may inure to a private
individual or corporation. At the end of the original section is this provision: "Whenever an attempt is made to take private property for the
use alleged to be public, the question whether the contemplated use be really
public shall be a judicial question, and determined as such, without regard
to any legislative assertion that the use is public." This second amendment
added these words: "except as to the uses which are herein declared to be
public." The reason for this addition is obvious—to remove the power
from the courts of declaring that the private uses enumerated were not
public uses—to make it easier to secure the desired right-of-way. This bill
passed the Senate by a vote of 33 to 1, but was never voted on by the'
House.
At the same session (1905) in the House, Representative Joseph
Irving introduced a bill amending Section 16 of Article I. by including
in the list of private uses for which private property may be taken a right-
of-way for the removal of timber products.
A few weeks later he introduced another bill, which was identical
with Senator Welsh's second bill. This bill was slightly amended, passed
the House 85 to 1 and the Senate 39 to 1 and was approved by the
governor. It was voted on by the people in November, 1906, and was
rejected by a vote of 15,257 for the amendment, 20,984 against the
amendment.
The same amendment was proposed in 1907 by Representative E. M.
Stephens, was passed almost unanimously, approved by the governor and
again rejected by the people in 1908 by the following vote: for the amendment 26,849, against the amendment 52,721.
At the session of 1895 Representative Nelson proposed an amendment to Section 21 of Article I., relating to trial by jury and providing
that the legislature may provide for a verdict by ten or more jurors in
criminal cases in courts of record.    The bill was indefinitely postponed.
In 1899 Representative G B. Gunderson proposed the following
amendment to the same section: "In courts of general jurisdiction, except
in capital cases, a jury shall consist of eight jurors.    In courts of inferior Amendments to the  Washington Constitution
15
jurisdiction a jury shall consist of four jurors. In criminal cases the verdict
shall be unanimous. In civil cases three-fourths of the jurors may find a
verdict."     The bill was indefinitely postponed.
Practically the same bill was introduced four years later (1903) by
Representative C. D. King. There was the further provision that a grand
jury shall consist of twelve jurors. This amendment passed the House
by a vote of 64 to 11, but was never voted on by the Senate.
The same bill was introduced at the 1905 session by Representative
E. L. Minard, and indefinitely postponed.
In 1907 Senator George U. Piper proposed to change the section
relating to trial by jury so as to read: "Trial by jury in all criminal
and civil cases is hereby abolished. The legislature shall provide that all
criminal and civil cases shall be heard and determined by judges, and the
legislature shall further provide a system of procedure to carry this provision
into effect."    No action was ever taken on this bill.
Section 26 of Article I. provides that "no grand jury shall be drawn
or summoned in any county, except the superior court thereof shall so
order." Senator George Cotterill in 1909 submitted an amendment to
this section, providing that a grand jury shall be drawn in each county at
least once a year. The bill was placed on the general file, but was never
voted upon.
Senator Daniel Landon introduced in the Senate in 1911 the first
bill that was ever introduced in the legislature providing for the recall.
This bill provided for the adding of two sections, 33 and 34, to Article
I., to contain substantially the following: Every elective officer in the
state is subject to recall and discharge by the voters of the state or smaller
subdivisions. The recall petition must contain the reasons for the demand
and be signed by not less than 25 per cent of the voters of the state or subdivision. Upon the filing of the required petition a special election is held
and the result determined, as provided by the general election laws. No
action was taken on this bill, but the House bill containing the same provisions, except that judicial officers were specifically exempt, was introduced
by Messrs. Govnor Teats and Hugh Todd and passed by the House 74
to 6 and by the Senate 29 to 7. The amendment was voted on by the
people at the November election, 1912, and approved.
If
ma
Amendments to Article II.
Section 1 of Article II. provides that "The legislative powers shall
be vested in a senate and house of representatives, which shall be called
the legislature of the State of Washington." As early as 1895 an attempt was made to amend this section by providing for the initiative and 16
Leo Jones
referendum. The bill was introduced by Representative. L. E. Rader,
and provided that the legislative power of the state shall also be vested
in the electors of the state, and that the legislative power of any municipal
division of the state (such as county, city, town, township, etc.) shall be
exercised by the legislative body thereof, and by the senate and house of
representatives and by the qualified electors in such division. To propose a measure requires 5 per cent of the qualified electors of the state if
the measure affects the whole state, and 5 per cent of the electors of the
municipal division if the measure affects less than the whole state. The
legislature may provide that measures for the immediate preservation of the
public peace, health and safety shall take effect immediately. No other
measure shall go into effect until the expiration of a specified period, during
which petitions calling for a vote on the measure may be filed. Five per
cent of the electors may require the submission of a law passed by the legislature to the popular vote.
The committee to which this amendment was referred recommended
its indefinite postponement.    No action was taken.
In 1 897 Representative C. P. Bush proposed an amendment similar
in nearly every respect to the preceding amendment. This bill passed the
House by a vote of 63 to 12. It failed to pass the Senate. The vote
was:    Yeas 15, nays 7, absent 12.
The next amendment providing for the initiative and referendum was
proposed in 1901 in the House by Representative T. C. Miles. The initiative or referendum could be invoked by 10 per cent of the qualified electors
of the state. Laws necessary for the immediate preservation of the public
peace, health or safety, or support of the state government and its existing
public institutions were not subject to the referendum. The veto power
could not be exercised as to measures referred to the people. Also the
initiative might be used as to future amendments to the constitution. The
bill proposing this amendment was indefinitely postponed.
Senator L. C. Crow introduced the same measure in the Senate,
and it was likewise disposed of there.
In 1903 the attempt of Representative J. J. Cameron to get a similar
bill through the House failed.
Senator George Cotterill in 1907 introduced a long bill providing for
an elaborate plan for the initiative and referendum. The amendment provided for both a state and local initiative and referendum. For the state
initiative 8 per cent of the legal voters was required and for the local
initiative for all local, special, and municipal legislation, 15 per cent; the
state referendum, 8 per cent, the local referendum, 10 per cent. Amendments to the constitution could be proposed by the initiative as ordinary bills. Amendments  to  the   Washington Constitution
17
A two-thirds vote of the House and Senate was necessary to declare that
the law was of immediate necessity and should take effect at once. The
legislature could reject any measure proposed by the initiative and propose
a different one for the same purpose, in which case both measures were to
be submitted to the people and the one receiving the highest number of votes
was to become law. All initiative petitions must contain the full text of
the proposed bill. No veto was allowed on measures submitted to the people. This amendment was in the form of a complete law covering the
initiative and referendum, and it provied that it was self-executing, although
the legislature might pass laws to facilitate its operation. The bill never
came to a final vote, although a majority of the committee to which it was
referred recommended its passage.
The Cotterill amendment was introduced at the same session in the
House by Representative Glenn N. Ranck. It passed the House by a
vote of 66 to 26, but was indefinitely postponed by the Senate, only
twelve voting against postponement.
In 1909 a bill identical with the Cotterill bill was introduced by
Senator R. A. Hutchinson.    The bill never came to a vote.
Messrs. Hugh Todd and George L. Denman introduced the same
bill in the House, but on motion the bill was indefinitely postponed.
It is unnecessary to discuss fully the bills which were introduced at
the 1911 session of the legislature which led to the final passage of our
present initiative and referendum amendment. It is sufficient to enumerate
them and to give the substance of the one which was passed and which is
now a part of our constitution.
Representatives Hugh Todd and Govnor Teats, in the House, and
Senator Dan Landon, in the Senate, introduced identical bills. About the
same time Representatives Denman, Phipps and Halsey introduced a bill
the same in all essential features, except it provided also for the local initiative and referendum. All of these bills were indefinitely postponed and
a new bill prepared by Messrs. Teats, Todd, Buchanan, Denman, .Phipps,
Halsey and Wright, was submitted to the House. It was approved by the
House by a vote of 79 to 12 and by the Senate by a vote of 32 to 7.
It was submitted to the people in November, 1912, and was approved
by an overwhelming majority.
The initiative and referendum amendment of our constitution provides
for a state initiative and referendum only. The initiative may be invoked
by not less than 10 per cent of the qualified voters, but in any case not
more than 50,000. The petition must include the full text of the measure
and must be filed with the Secretary of State not less than four months
before the election, at which it is to be voted on, or not less than ten days 18
Leo Jones
before any regular session of the legislature. If filed four months before
the election at which they are to be voted on the Secretary of State must
submit the same to the people at the election. If filed not less than ten
days before the session of the legislature, the bills so proposed shall take
precedence over other bills except appropriation bills, and must be rejected
or enacted without change. If enacted, they shall be subject to the referendum or they may be referred to the people by the legislature. If rejected
or if no action is taken, they shall be submitted at the next general election.
The legislature may propose a substitute, in which case the people vote, first,
as between either or neither, and, second, as between one and the other.
The referendum applies to all measures passed by the legislature except
"such laws as may be necessary for the immediate preservation of the
public peace, health or safety, support of the state government and its existing public institutions." It is instituted either by the legislature, or by 6 per
cent of the voters, but in no case more than 30,000. No act approved by
the electors can be amended or repealed within two years after enactment.
There can be no veto of measures approved by the people. The vote on all
measures referred to the people must equal one-third of the total vote cast at
such election. The number of electors voting for governor at the preceding
election. The number of electors voting for governor at the preceding
election is the basis for determining the number necessary to invoke the
initiative or referendum.
Section 2 of Article II. provides that "The house of representatives
shall be composed of not less than 63 nor more than 99 members. The
number of senators shall not be more than one-half nor less than one-third
of the number of members of the house. * * * *" Two attempts
to amend this section have been made. Representative C. J. Moore in
1897 proposed to reduce the number of representatives to not less than 40
nor more than 60. Senators H. A. Espey and A. W. Anderson in 1911
proposed that the "Senate shall be composed of as many senators as there
are counties in the state, one senator being elected from each county."
Both amendments were indefinitely postponed.
In 191 1 Representative E. A. Sims proposed to change Sections 5
and 1 2 of Article II. so as to require quadriennial elections for members of
the house of representatives instead of biennial, as theretofore. The majority of the committee on constitutional revision recommended the passage
of the bill, but no action was taken.
Section 12 of Article II. provides in part that "Sessions of the legislature shall be held biennially unless specially convened by the governor,
but the times of meeting of subsequent sessions may be changed by the
legislature.    After the first legislature the session shall not be more than Amendments  to   the   Washington Contsitution
60 days." Senator Jesse Huxtable's bill, introduced in 1911, proposed
to amend this by leaving out the clause limiting the legislative session to
60 days and by changing the date of meeting from the first Wednesday
after the first Monday in January to the second Monday in January. The
bill was indefinitely postponed.
Under the constitution, Section 23 of Article 2, "Each member of the
legislature shall receive for his services five dollars for each day's attendance during the session, and ten cents for every mile he shall travel in going
to and returning from the place of meeting of the legislature, on the most
usual route." Attempts have been made to increase and to decrease this
allowance. In 1895 Messrs. G. M. Witt and J. B. Laing in the House
of Representatives proposed to cut the per diem salary to four dollars and
the mileage to five cents per mile. This failed to get the necessary two-
thirds vote, although a majority voted for it.
Senator Andrew Hemrich in 1901 proposed to limit the compensation to not more than $200 for per diem allowance. His bill was indefinitely postponed.
In 1911 Senator Jesse Huxtable proposed to give each member of the
legislature an annual salary of $1,000. This would make his salary for
each session $2,000.    The bill was indefinitely postponed.
Senator Harry Rosenhaupt at the same session introduced a bill to
allow each member fifteen dollars for each day's attendance during the
session and five cents for every mile traveled; "but such pay shall not exceed in the aggregate $600 per diem allowance for a general session," nor
more than $300 for a special session.    This bill was never voted on.
In the House at this session Representative E. A. Sims proposed to
give each member $ 10 for each day's attendance. The committee reported
favorably, but the amendment never came to a vote.
One of the first attempts to amend the constitution was directed at
Section 33 of Article II. This section prohibits the ownership of lands
by aliens or by corporations, the majority of whose capital stock is owned
by aliens, except where obtained in certain cases, such as by inheritance,
under mortgage, or in the collection of debts. Senator John R. Kinnear,
in 1 893, proposed to amend this section so as to permit aliens to own land
within any incorporated city or town in the state.   His bill was not voted on.
The same bill, introduced in the house by Representative L. C. Gil-
man, received a vote of 39 yeas, 22 nays with 1 7 absent. The bill, therefore, failed to receive the constitutional majority.
Mr. Harry Rosenhaupt in 1899 in the House proposed to limit the
ownership of land by aliens to 320 acres by one alien. His bill passed the
House 61 to 10, but failed in the Senate:    Yeas 16, nays 8, absent 10. 20
Leo Jones
In the Senate, Senator Herman D. Crow introduced a bill making
the limit 640 acres for each alien.    No action was taken on this bill.
In 1901 Representative Harry Rosenhaupt introduced a bill similar
to Senator Crow's bill, but it was indefinitely postponed.
In 1905, at the instance of Senator M. E. Stansell, a bill was introduced which proposed to add the following words to Section 33: The
provisions of this section shall not "apply to lands conveying water for beneficial purposes; nor apply to land or waters acquired or used for mining,
smelting, refining, transporation, or manufacturing purposes; nor apply to
the ownership of lands or waters by corporations, the majority of the capital stock of which is owned by aliens." This amendment passed the Senate
31 to 5, but failed in the House.    Yeas 34, nays 32, absent 28.
At the 1911 session Senator Josiah Collins again proposed the amendment permitting the ownership by aliens of city or town property. The
Senate passed the bill 29 to 9, but no action was taken in the House.
Section 39 of Article II. provides that "It shall not be lawful for
any person holding public office in this state to accept or use a pass or to
purchase transportation from any railroad or other corporation, other than
as the same may be purchased by the general public, and the legislature
shall pass laws to enforce this provision. This provision has been the
occasion of considerable worry on the part of some members of the legislature and other state officials who were in the habit of riding on passes furnished by the railroad companies in the early days and even in some cases
collecting mileage from the state in addition. It is not strange, therefore,
that several attempts have been made to get the obnoxious section out of the
constitution. Senator Belknap, in 1895, introduced a bill providing that
this section be stricken out. The bill was reported from the committee on
constitutional revision without recommendation, but it was never voted on.
In 1897 Senator John McReavy proposed "That it shall not be lawful for any person holding public office in this state to demand or receive
mileage or compensation in lieu thereof during the time such person shall
hold and use a pass or other free transportation from a railroad or other
corporation," as a substitute for Section 39.    The bill was never acted on.
Representative A. J. Falknor in 1 899 proposed to amend Section 20
of Article 12, which provides that the railroads shall not grant passes to
public officers (essentially the same as Section 39 of Article II.), so as to
read: "Every railroad or other transportation company shall grant free
passes upon application therefor to every member of the legislature and to
every person holding any public office within this state." This bill was indefinitely postponed. Amendments  to   the   Washington Constitution
21
In 1903 Representative Samuel A. Wells introduced an amendment
to Section 39 essentially the same as the preceding, but also providing
that no mileage shall be allowed to or paid to, any officer so traveling
free. The committee recommended that it be placed on second reading,
but it stopped there.
Senator M. E. Stansell in 1905 proposed a similar amendment to
Section 20 of Article XII., relating to transportation of public officials, so as
to compel all railroad or other transportation companies to grant free passes
over its lines in Washington to all state officials, county officials and members of the legislature.    No action was taken on this amendment.
Amendments to Article III.
Turning to Article III., we find that in 1911 Representative Edgar J.
Wright proposed to amend Sections 1 and 3 so as to render the governor
ineligible for re-election for the term succeeding that for which he was
elected and to provide that the secretary of state, treasurer, auditor, attorney general, superintendent of public instruction, commissioner of public
lands and other state officers as may be provided by the legislature shall
be appointed by the governor subject to the approval of the Senate and
may be removed from office at any time by the governor upon good cause.
The legislature shall provide general laws for the recall of the governor
and lieutenant governor. This proposed amendment was indefinitely postponed.
The state constitution does not provide any method of filling the office
of governor in case the governor, lieutenant-governor and secretary of state
die, resign, or for any other reason are incapable of acting as governor. To
remedy this defect, attention to which was probably called by the death of
Governor Samuel G Cosgrove, and the succession of Lieutenant Governor
Hay, Representative Hugh Todd proposed an amendment in 1909 providing that the following state officers shall succeed to the duties of governor,
and in the order named, to-wit: Secretary of state, treasurer, auditor, attorney general, superintendent of public instruction and commissioner of
public lands. This bill passed the House 85 to 1 and the Senate 38 to 0.
It was approved by the people in 1910 by a vote of 51,257 to 14,1 86.
Under Section 12 of Article III., it requires a two-thirds vote of the
members present in both houses of the legislature to pass a bill over the governor's veto. Senator Hill in 1 899 proposed to require only a majority of
the members present to pass a bill over the veto.    No action was taken.
Frequent attempts have been made to amend Sections 14 to 22 of
Article III. and Section 14 of Article IV., relating to the salaries of state
officers.    Under the constitution, the schedule of salaries is as follows: 22
Leo Jc
IK *
Governor, $4,000 and never more than $6,000.
Lieutenant-governor, $1,000 and never more than $2,000.
Secretary of state, $2,500 and never more than $3,000.
Treasurer, $2,000 and never more than $4,000.
Auditor, $2,000 and never more than $3,000.
Attorney general, $2,500 and never more than $3,500.
Superintendent of public instruction, $2,500 and never more than
$4,000.
Supreme judges, $4,000, but may be increased.
Superior judges, $3,000, but may be increased.
Eleven bills were introduced providing for amendments lowering the
salaries of the state officers. Some of the amendments reduce the amounts in
the constitution $500 or $1,000. Others practically cut them down by
half, in some cases fixing some of the salaries for such officers as attorney
general, auditor and treasurer at $1,500 per year. None of the bills passed
both houses, and none was introduced after 1 89 7.
M
Amendments to Article IV.
An amendment providing for a non-partisan supreme court was introduced in 1901 by Senator Herman D. Crow, now one of the judges of the
supreme court. His bill provided that judges of the supreme court shall
be elected by the electors at large at judicial elections when none but candidates for judicial positions shall be voted for. The amendment provided
for an eight-year term, instead of the six-year term, as in the constitution.
Elections were to be held every four years and the judges so elected that
there would never be an entirely new court. The election could not be held
within sixty days of any general state or county election or any municipal
election in a city of over 10,000 population. No party symbol or designation was to be placed on the ticket. Any person eligible to the office could
become a candidate by filing in the office of the secretary of state sixty days
before the election a petition that his name be placed on the ballot as a
candidate, signed by not less than 1,000 qualified electors of the state at
large. Any person who knowingly received and did not decline the nomination or endorsement of any party convention was not entitled to continue as a
candidate and be voted on.    No action was taken on this bill.
As a part of the same bill, Senator Crow proposed a similar amendment affecting the superior court judges. In this case only 250 electors of
the county in which the judge was a candidate were required for the nominating petitions.    This bill applied to Sections 3 and 5 of Article IV.
Only one attempt has been made to make the supreme court judges
appointive instead of elective.    In 1911   Representative Charles R. Larne Amendments to  the   Washington Constitution
23
proposed to amend Section 3 of Article IV. so as to require the appointment
of all the supreme court judges by the governor. He further proposed to
make the term of office twelve years and that not more than one appointment shall be made in any one year. The bill proposing the amendment
was indefinitely postponed.
Representative J. P. de Mattos in 1 897 proposed to add the following
words to Section 4 of Article IV.: "The supreme court shall give its opinion
upon important questions upon solemn occasions when required by the governor, the Senate, or the House of Representatives, and all such opinions
shall be published in connection with the reported decisions of the supreme
court." This amendment passed the House by a vote of 57 to 12, but it
was never acted on by the Senate.
Two attempts have been made to require that no person shall hold
the office of judge or justice of any court in the state longer than until
the second Monday of January next after he shall be seventy years. This
amendment was proposed in 1893 and in 1895, but no action was taken at
either time.
In 1895 Representative W. H. Ham introduced an amendment to
Section 5, which involved the following important changes and additions:
"The legislature shall have power to change the number of superior court
judges and rearrange the districts when it shall deem it wise so to do:
Provided, That no rearrangement shall ever be made whereby any or
groups of counties having less than 20,000 population shall be allowed a
superior judge, and no county or group of counties shall be allowed an
additional judge unless the population shall be at least 15,000 for each
judge, in addition to the first 20,000 of population." This amendment
was indefinitely postponed.
Under the constitution, Section 6 of Article IV., the jurisdiction of
justices of the peace extends to controversies under $100. It has been
thought by many that if the jurisdiction were raised to $300, much of
the congestion in the superior courts of the state would be relieved. Accordingly in 1893, 1895, and 1909 attempts were made to make this
change or to leave the question to the legislature. They were unsuccessful.
In 1895 an amendment was proposed by Representative Nelson to Section
10 of Article IV. resuiring, in addition, that justices of the peace in cities
having more than 5,000 inhabitants be admitted to the bar.
In 1895 Senator Frank P. Lewis submitted an amendment to Section 1 7, relating to justices of the peace. It proposed to leave out of the
original section the following provisions: "Provided, That such jurisdiction granted by the legislature shall not touch upon the jurisdiction of superior or other courts of record, except that justices of the peace may
ffii 24
Leo Jones
be made police justices of incorporated cities and towns having more than
5,000 inhabitants, the justices of the peace shall receive such salary as
may be provided by law, and shall receive no fees for their own use.
The amendment provided that the term of office, powers, duties, jurisdiction
and compensation of justices shall be prescribed by the legislature. It was
indefinitely postponed.
In 1907 Senator Booth proposed to add another section to Article
IV. to be Section 29, and to provide that the term of office of supreme
court judges shall be eight years and superior court, judges six years, and
that the judicial election be held at a different time than the general or
county election.   No action.
Senator Ralph Metcalf in 1911 introduced a bill providing that
Section 29 read as follows: "All judges of the supreme and superior
courts of the State of Washington shall be nominated at direct primaries,
and the legislature shall pass laws to carry this amendment into effect."
No action was taken.
A third amendment, to be known as Section 29, was introduced by
Representative Edgar J. Wright. It provided that in counties having
more than 100,000 inhabitants, the judges of the superior court may be
paid such salary in addition to that provided by the legislature as the county
commissioners may determine.    No action was taken.
Mr. J. E. Campbell, in the House in 1911, proposed to include as
Section 29 the following: "No act or proceeding of the legislature, or
part of any act or proceeding, shall be set aside or declared unconstitutional
by any justice, judge or court whatsoever. The will of the people, as expressed by enactment of the legislature or by the people, shall be the supreme law." Only five of a total of 94 members had the temerity to
vote for this amendment.
Amendments to Article V.
The present law governing impeachment proceedings is set forth in
Section 1 Article V. and is substantially as follows: The House of
Representatives shall have the sole power of impeachment, a majority of
all members being required for impeachment. The Senate shall try all
impeachments. If the governor or lieutenant-governor is on trial, the chief
justice of the supreme court shall preside. A two-thirds vote is necessary
to convict.
Representative Solon T. Williams in 1895 proposed to change this
section so as to give the House of Representatives power to impeach only
judges of the supreme court, and the Senate to try such cases, as under the
original provision.    It further provided that all other officers liable to im- Amendments  lo  the   Washington Constitution
25
peachment shall be tried before the supreme court, and the manner of
procedure shall be such as may be prescribed by rule by the supreme
court. This bill passed the House by a vote of 62 to 3, but was indefinitely postponed in the Senate, the senators probably being reluctant to
give up the power of acting as a court of impeachment.
Senator C. W. Dorr in 1895 proposed to strike Sections 1, 2 and 3
of Article V. and to rewrite the entire article. The only important change
which his amendment contemplated was to give the supreme court power
and to make it its duty to suspend or remove any judges of the superior
court, or of any other inferior court of record of this state, for any high
crime, or misdemeanor, or misfeasance or malfeasance in office. The
amendment failed to pass the Senate by the following vote: Yeas 20,
nays 12, absent 2.
Representative Charles R. Larne in 1911 proposed an amendment to
this article by adding a section providing for a recall of all public officers
(except judicial officers) by 35 per cent of the voters. As the recall
amendment which was adopted was to Article I. it is unnecessary to consider
this amendment further.
Amendments to Article  VI.
Section 1 of Article VI., relative to qualifications of electors, has nad
an interesting history. As early as 1893, Senator B. F. Shaw (by request)
introduced an amendment to this article granting a limited suffrage to
women. His bill provided that "All female citizens of the United States,
native born or naturalized, who can read and write the English language;
who pay taxes upon real estate recorded in the county auditor's office and
who otherwise conform to provisions of Article VI., shall be entitled to vote
at all elections; Provided, They shall not have been convicted of any crime
or misdemeanor 'within the ten years next preceding any election at which
they offer to vote." This last provision is rather amusing in view of
the fact that no such restriction is imposed by the constitution on male
voters.
In 1895 three bills were introduced granting suffrage to women on
the same basis as men, but none was passed.
In 1897, however, the suffrage amendment was passed by a vote of
24 to 10 in the Senate, 54 to 15 in the House. At the election in 1898
the people rejected it at the polls by a vote of 20,658 for equal suffrage,
30,540 against equal suffrage.
In 1901 Representative J. B. Gunderson attempted to amend Section 1 by adding: "Provided, That there shall be no denial of the elective
franchise on account of sex at any election for the purpose of electing a
II: 26
Leo Jones
H
county superintendent of common schools." The bill was indefinitely postponed.
It was not until 1909 that the woman's suffrage question was again
opened. At this session the legislature by a vote of 70 to 18 in the House,
30 to 9 in the Senate, passed an amendment granting equal suffrage to
women. In 1910 the amendment was approved by the people: 52,299
for the amendment, 29,676 against the amendment.
Section 1 of Article VI. was also amended by inserting an educational
test for all voters. Representative O. B. Nelson in 1895 introduced the
bill. It provided that the electors of the state shall be able to read and
speak the English language. The legislature shall enact laws defining the
manner of ascertaining the qualifications of voters as to their ability to read
and speak the English language. The amendment was approved in 1896
by a popular vote of 28,019 to 11,983.
In 1901 Senator J. J. Smith proposed to require that in order to
be qualified voters naturalized citizens must have become citizens at least
six months prior to the election at which they desire to vote. This amendment passed the Senate by a vote of 24 to 6, but was never voted on by
the House.
Other similar amendments were proposed to Sections 1, 4 and 9 of
Article VI.    An unimportant amendment was proposed to Section 8.
Amendments to Article VII.
Article VII. relates to revenue and taxation. A number of attempts
have been made to amend it, but none of the amendments was approved by
the people. One of these amendments, introduced in 1907, provided that
Sections 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 of Article VII., relating to the annual state tax,
uniformity and equality of taxation, assessment of corporate property,
etc., be stricken and the following section substituted: "The power of
taxation shall never be surrendered, suspended or contracted away. Taxes
shall be uniform upon the same class of subjects, and shall be levied and
collected for public purposes." The essential provisions that would have
been abolished under this amendment may be summarized as follows: "All
property in the state not exempt under the laws of the United States or
under this constitution, shall be taxed according to its value. For the
purpose of paying the state debt, if there be any, the legislature shall provide for levying a tax annually, sufficient to pay the annual interest and
principal of such debt within twenty years. The legislature shall provide
a uniform and equal rate of assessment and taxation on all property in the
state, according to its value in money; Provided, That a deduction of
debts from credits may be authorized; provided, further, That the property of the United States, and of the state, counties, school districts, and Amendments  to  the   Washington Constitution
27
other municipal corporations, and such other property as the legislature
may by general laws provide, shall be exempt from taxation. The legislature shall provide by general law for the assessing and levying of taxes
on all corporation property, as near as may be by the same methods as are
provided for the assessing, and levying of taxes on individual property.* *"
The probable purpose of the amendment was to give the state more freedom in selecting sources of revenue, such as a corporation tax and a single
tax.
The amendment striking these provisions and substituting the above
clause was voted down by the people in 1908 by a vote of 60,244 to
23,371.
In 1909 Senator Charles E. Myers proposed to strike Sections 1,2,
3, and 4 and to substitute an amendment in substance as follows: The
amendment follows the words of last amendment discussed and further
provides "that property used for public burying grounds, public schools,
public hospitals, academies, colleges, universities, and all seminaries of
learning, property used by all religious organizations or associations, as parsonages, or houses of religious worship, by young men's and young women's
Christian associations, and by all institutions of purely public charity, and
all public property used exclusively for public purposes, shall be exempt
from taxation."    This amendment failed to pass the Senate.
Similar bills to the above were introduced in 1909 and 1911. In
all, seven bills were introduced at different times exempting the personal
property of individuals or heads of families to an amount not exceeding
$300. In 1899 such an amendment was passed by the legislature and
approved by the people in 1900 by a vote of 35,398 to 8,975. The
clause reads: "And provided further, That the legislature shall have
power, by appropriate legislation, to exempt personal property to the amount
of $300 for each head of a family Kable to assessment and taxation under
the provisions of the laws of this state, of which the individual is the actual
bona fide owner."
Senator Ralph Nichols (by request) introduced a long amendment
in 1909 striking Sections 1, 2, and 3 of Article VII. and inserting in lieu
thereof Sections 1 to 6, embodying the following essential changes: In
Section 1, the period during which times the state must provide for the payment of interest and principal on a state debt was changed from 20 to
25 years. There were provisions exempting charitable institutions, etc.,
and to heads of families, personal property to the amount of $300.
"The legislative power shall provide a uniform and equal rate of
assessment and levy upon all real property in the state according to its
full value in money.
i 28
Leo Jones
"Taxes upon all personal property shall be assessed to and levied
upon the owner thereof upon the basis of the yearly income and proceeds
received therefrom. * * * * Provided, That the assessment and levy of
taxes upon the personal property of all companies and corporations doing
business on any railroad or steamboat in the state and companies and
corporations having no personal property to assess shall be made upon the
basis of their receipts"; and Provided, That all insurance companies doing
business in this state shall pay a tax on their gross premiums, less the
amount of losses actually paid.
"The legislative power shall have authority to provide for the levy
of state, county or municipality, of license, franchise, gross revenue, excise,
collateral and direct inheritance, legacy, succession, graduated collateral
and direct inheritance, legacy and succession taxes; upon the basis of value
or revenue.
"Taxes may be assessed and levied by the state upon the personal
property of all public or quasi-public service corporations and companies
doing an inter-county business upon the basis of income or proceeds received from said business.    *   *   * *"
No action was ever taken on this amendment.
In 189 7 the following proviso was submitted as an amendment to
Section 2 of Article VII.: "Provided, That it shall be optional with each
municipal corporation in the state to fix and determine by a majority vote of
such municipal corporations the class or classes of property upon which
taxes for municipal purposes shall be levied, which tax shall be uniform as
to persons and class." This amendment was designed to give counties
and cities in the state some freedom in providing for their own revenues.
The bill passed both houses, but was voted down by the people in 1 898:
For the amendment 1 5,986, against it 33,850.
Senator T. B. Sumner in 1907 proposed to add the following proviso
to Section 2: "Provided, That provision may be made for the payment
of specific taxes on certain classes of personal property, and that public
service property may be taxed by such methods and for such purposes as
may be fixed by general law.    The bill was not voted on.
In 1903 the following proviso was suggested for Section 3 relating
to the assessment of corporate property: "Provided, That the legislature
may provide for the levy, assessment and collection of taxes for state,
county and municipal purposes, upon the franchises and intangible property
of all corporations or individuals."    The bill was indefinitely postponed.
Section 6 of Article VII. provides that all taxes shall be paid in money.
An amendment was proposed in 1895 permitting their payment in money
or state warrants.    The bill failed to pass, as did similar bills in 1 897. Amendments  to  the   Washington Constitution
29
Two attempts have been made to limit the rate of taxation by constij
tutional amendment. In 1903 Representative Joseph B. Lindsley proposed
to add Section 10 to Article VII., limiting the rate to 3 mills on each dollar
of valuation. If the taxable property in the state shall exceed $ 100,000,-
000, the rate should not exceed 2Yi mills; $300,000,000, \Yi mills.
The committee recommended indefinite postponement.
In 1909 Representative E. B. Palmer proposed that the rate for
state purposes shall not exced 5 mills; for county purposes, 5 mills; for
municipal purposes, 5 mills; for township, road district, or school district
purposes, 5 mills.    No action was taken.
Amendments to Article VIII.
The only amendment ever proposed to Article VIII. was offered by
Representative Edward L. French in 1911. It provided: "Section 4.
All bills providing for the appropriation of money shall originate in the
House of Representatives, but the Senate may propose or concur wath
amendments, as on other bills." The committee recommended the passage
of this amendment, but no action was taken.
Amendments to Article XI.
Section 2 of Article XI. provides that a county seat shall not be
removed unless three-fifths of the electors vote for it at a general election.
An amendment proposed in 1 895 provided that the vote be had at a special election to be held not less than 90 days before or after a general election. The committee recommended that the bill do not pass for the reason
that there is not sufficient change sought to be effected to warrant the necessary expense.    The report was adopted.
In 1907 Senator Peter McGregor proposed to amend Section 3 of
Article XL, relating to the establishment of new counties by raising the required population for the creating of a new county from two to ten thousand
and also that new counties may be created out of an existing county or
counties, provided a majority in the county or counties affected vote for the-
new county or counties. The bill passed the Senate 33 to 0, but failed in
the House.    Yeas 23, nays 48, absent 24.
Senator McGregor introduced the same amendment at the next session in 1909, but it never came to a vote.
Two amendments were introduced in 1905 and 1911, respectively,
to remedy a clause in Section 4 of Article XI. The clause reads: "The
legislature shall, by general laws, provide for township organization, under
which any county may organize whenever a majority of the qualified electors
of such county voting at a general election shall so determine."    It was 30
Leo Jones
proposed to amend it so as to permit township organization if a majority
of those voting on the question of township organization shall favor it.
Neither amendment was passed.
Sections 5, 6, 7, and 8 of Article XI. provide for the election and
compensation of county officers, that all vacancies shall be filled by the
county commissioners, that no county officer shall be eligible to hold his
office more than two terms in succession, and that the legislature shall fix
the salaries of all county officers. Representative Edgar J. Wright in 1911
proposed to strike these sections and to insert in lieu thereof sections containing the following innovations: The sheriff, clerk, treasurer, auditor and
assessor shall constitute the board of county commissioners, and such
board shall have power to appoint such other county officers as are necessary,
regulate their salaries and duties and fix their terms of office, not exceeding
their own term of office. The section limiting county officers to two terms
in succession was omitted. All elective county officers were to be recalled
by the electors of their county under general laws to be provided by the
legislature.    The proposed amendment was indefinitely postponed.
Several other attempts have been made to exclude certain county
officers from the provision limiting officers from two terms in succession. In
1901 Representative G B. Gunderson proposed to exempt county superintendents from this section. In 1903 Senator E. B. Palmer proposed to
allow the county assessor to hold office more than two terms in succession.
In 1909 Senator Evan C. Davis proposed to allow all but county treasurers to hold office more than two terms in succession. The last amendment
was passed in 1911 and rejected by the people in 1912.
The original provision in Section 6 of Article XI. provides that county
officers appointed to fill vacancies shall hold office "till the next general election, and until their successors are elected and qualified." Amendments
introduced in 1893 and 1895 change this provision so as to read: "Officers
thus appointed shall hold office until the second Monday of January next
succeeding the general election and until their successors are elected and
qualified."    Both bills were killed.
An amendment to Section 8 of Article XI. was introduced in 1895
providing for the following changes: The county commissioners and not
the legislature shall fix the salaries of county officers, except county commissioners; provided, however, the total cost of conducting the offices of
county sheriff, auditor, and clerk shall not exceed in any one year the
earning of their respective offices, and that the expenses of the treasurer's
office shall not exceed 2 per centum of all the moneys received and paid
out by him during such year.    The amendment was indefinitely postponed. Amendments  to the  Washington Constitution
31
Section 10 of Article 11 relates to the incorporation of municipalities.
Section 1 1 provides that any county, city, town or municipality may make
and enforce within its limits all such local, police, sanitary and other regulations as are not in conflict with the general laws.
In 1895 Senator C. W. Ide tried to amend Section 10 by striking
out most of the matter setting forth the steps necessarry in incorporating a
municipality, and thus leaving such details to the legislature. His bill passed
the senate and was reported favorably, but never voted on, in the House.
In 1911 Representative William Wray of Seattle proposed to leave
all matters of purely local concern in cities of 10,000 inhabitants or over
to those cities to the exclusion of the authority of the state government and
state laws.    No action was taken.
Representative George W. Hoff in 1903 introduced an amendment
adding the following words to Section 12 of Article XI.: Provided, That
the legislature shall have power to impose taxes upon the property, privileges,
and franchises of railroads, and other intangible property of all corporations
or individuals, and to provide means for the collection and apportionment
of such taxes to counties and the several municipal corporations or divisions
of the state."    The committee recommended its indefinite postponement.
Amendments to Article XII.
Senator Warburton's amendment to Section 18 of Article XII. in
1903 is a complete law providing for a railway commission. The bill provided for a commission of three members to be chosen for a term of six years
and receive an annual salary of $5,000 per year. The commission was to
have power to fix reasonable maxinmum rates, prevent discrimination and
extortion, fine for contempt, etc. An appeal from its decisions could be
taken to the supreme court. The bill was never reported back by the committee.
Amendments to Article XVI.
In 1893 an amendment to Section 5 of Article XVI. was passed by
the legislature and approved by the people by a vote of 18,884 to 5,598,
providing that the permanent school fund of the state may be invested in
national, state, county, municipal or school district bonds.
Amendments to Article XIX.
Section 1 of Article XIX. provides: "The legislature shall protect
by law from forced sale a certain portion of the homestead and other property of all heads of families."
Representative John R. Rogers in 1895 proposed to substitute the
following provision:    Real estate and improvements to the extent of $2,500 —
32
Leo Jones
held, used and occupied as a homestead by a citizen of the state is forever exempted from all taxation. No action was taken. The same bill
m 1897 met a similar fate.
Amendments to Article XXI.
Section 1 of Article 21 reads: "The use of the waters of this
state for irrigation, mining, and manufacturing purposes shall be deemed
a public use."
In 1905 Representative E. L. Minard proposed to extend this provision to cover the use of waters for the removal of timber products. The
amendment was passed, but was defeated by the people in 1906. The vote
was: for the amendment 18,462, against it 20,258. The same amendment was introduced in  1907 and indefinitely postponed.
Amendments to Article XXIII.
In 1897 and 1899 amendments were proposed cutting down the two-
thirds majority required for the passage of constitutional amendments by
the legislature to a mere majority, and in one amendment to a three-fifth?
majority.    None received the approval of the legislature.
Representative John Catlin in 1895 proposed an amendment to Section 4 of this article substantially as follows: On a demand of 10 per
cent of the electors or of 20 per cent of either house, any article or section
of the constitution shall be submitted to the people at the next general election
for amendment, substitution or abolition. The committee recommended
that the bill be indefinitely postponed
Senators Dan Landon and Henry M. White and Representatives
Govnor Teats and Hugh Todd at the 1911 session of the legislature proposed an amendment providing for the initiative for amendments to the
constitution. Their bill provided that the people reserve to themselves the
power to propose, independent of the legislature, any amendment by petition
setting forth the full text of the amendment signed by 8 per cent, but in any
case not over 50,000, of the legal voters of the state. The amendment so
proposed was to be voted on at the next general election and approved or
rejected in the usual manner. This amendment passed the House by a vote
of 77 to 1 5, but it was never voted on by the Senate.
LEO JONES.
1 WILLIAM WEIR
The subject of this sketch was born in Kentucky, in 1 787, of Scotch-
Irish parents. He was a very hardy, adventurous spirit, enterprising and
aggressive, and left home at about the age of fifteen, going out to seek
his fortune. He crossed over into Missouri and entered the employ of
the Missouri Fur Company, and in that employ he was regularly trained
as a hunter and trapper, and gained the expert knowledge as a woodsman
and frontier prospector that enabled him to perform valuable service to
the country in exploring the then far off and all but unknown country of
the Pacific Northwest. He was continuously in the employ of the Old
Missouri Fur Company until upwards of fifteen years had passed by,
while the greater part of the continent was an unbroken wilderness, tenanted
only by wild beasts and still wilder Indians. He made hunting and trapping his life occupation during the period mentioned, and in the course of
his duties went nearly all over jhe continent, and passed through many
thrilling experiences with hostile Indians, dangerous animals, and all perils
known to a new and unsettled country. In those days the hunters, trappers
and explorers had to literally take their lives in their hands, going far
beyond the confines of civilization, depending on the country for their sustenance, and facing perils by night and by day. Mr. Weif, upon three
separate occasions in the course of such trips, was the only man escaping
with his life out of the party, all the others being killed by the Indians.
His life seemed to be charmed. His personal experiences, if narrated simply as they happened, would be as interesting as any of Fennimore Cooper's
tales of the Indians and pioneer white people of the Atlantic coast. In
1816 Mr. Weir married and settled on land in what afterwards became
Crawford County, Missouri. Even after this he made a trip through
Mexico and the wilds of Texas in the interests of his old employers, returning home in 1821, where he died in 1845, after clearing a farm in
the wilderness and raising a family of ten children, who became in turn
pioneers on the frontiers of the newly developing country of the United
States.
The purpose of Mr. Weir's introduction in this connection is to
recount briefly his services historically to the country in the early explorations of the old "Oregon Country." He explored its confines four years
after the date of the Lewis and Clark expedition, and more than two years
before the Astor expedition,  which established  the  trading post  at  the
(33) 34
Allen Weir
^
mouth of the Columbia river known ever since as "Astoria." The only
reason why Mr. Weir's explorations in this northwest were not as prominent as were those of Lewis and Clark was that they came under the auspices of the United States government, with a military .escort, while he was
in private employ. The facts and date of his coming have been gathered
by his grandson, the present writer, and have been verified as to dates
from the records of the Missouri State Historical Society.
In 1809, in company with about fifteen other hunters and trappers,
all in the employ of the Missouri Fur Company, Mr. Weir went up the
Missouri river from St. Louis to its headwaters, crossed the Rocky Mountains, found the headwaters of the Columbia river, and followed them
down toward the Pacific Coast, making their winter encampment during
the next winter on the Columbia river near the mouth of another rive*
emptying into it. From the description given of these waters and the
country generally by Mr. Weir to his descendants afterwards, this encampment must have been just above the mouth of what was afterwards named
the Willamette river, and it could not have been far from where the city
of Portland, Oregon, now stands. On the way out, the party went
through the Mandan Indian country in what is now the Dakotas, where
they captured a Mandan chief and took him along with them as a hostage,
returning him to his people the following year on their way home. On
their way o'ut they cached their furs at intervals on the route, and took
them up on their way back.
Mr. Weir always predicted that the Pacific Northwest, the wonderfully rich country through which he passed, would some day develop into a
splendid commonwealth to be inhabited by a rich and prosperous people.
At the time he was here there was not a white person to be found west of
the Rocky Mountains and north of Southern California. It was nearly
twenty years before the Hudson Bay traders invaded this country, aad
about a quarter of a century before the American missionaries and settlers
came.
Mr. Weir's expedition is mentioned in Bancroft's History of the
Pacific Northwest, but otherwise has never been published. His eldest
son, John Weir, emigrated from Missouri to Texas in the "thirties," where
he lived when it was a republic under President Sam Houston, and from
whence he enlisted in the Texas Mounted Volunteers in the war with
Mexico, and fought through that conflict under General W. S. Harney,
who was then a colonel, and in the command of General Zach. Taylor;
afterward, in 1853, crossing the plains from Texas to California with his
family, and in 1858 coming from California to Puget Sound, where he William  Weir
35
spent the remaining years of his life, and where his descendants remain.
William Weir was a man of great force of character, a noted rifle shot,
unlettered and modest, who performed the most heroic duties of frontier
life as matters of everyday life without thought of praise or exploitation in
history, and he literally knew not the meaning of the word "fear."
ALLEN WEIR. THE PIONEER DEAD OF 1912*
Miller, Margaret.—Died in Seattle, January 14th, aged 85 years.
She came from Maine in 185 7, .to Washington Territory. She, then Miss
McElroy, was soon married to Amasa S. Miller, who had come from
Maine to California in 1849 and to Washington in 1853. Their long
married life was spent wholly in Port Gamble and Seattle. Mr. Miller
died several years ago.    Mrs. Miller left six grandchildren.
Miller, Rachel C.—Died in Clarke County, January 26, aged 94
years. She was an Oregon immigrant of 1850. She was born at Jackson, in Virginia. "She is survived by five children, all residents of Oregon
and Washington.
Wooten, Shadrach.—Born in Florida, died on Cypress Island in
January, aged 78 years. He came to Puget Sound in 1851. He left a
wife and six children.
Geddis, S. R.—Died at Lebanon, Oregon, Feb. 2d, aged 74 years.
He came to Oregon in 1846, served in the Indian war of 1855, settled
at Ellensburg, in Kittitas County, in 1869, where he made his home, and
where three of his seven surviving children yet live.
Kanavan, Thomas.—Died in Pierce County, Feb. 4th, aged 86
years. He came from Ireland in 1 852, locating the following year in or
near the present city of Tacoma. He was a volunteer in the Indian war
of 1855-56.    He left a wife, four sons and four daughters.
Longmire, Virinda.—Died at North Yakima, Feb. 12th, aged 82
years. She came to Washington Territory in 1853, with her husband,
James Longmire. They settled at Yelm, in Thurston County. The famous Longmire Springs, on Mount Rainier, were discovered and acquired
by Mr. Longmire. Mrs. Longmire left nine children, and it is said 159
other descendants.
Camp, Moholoh Schluesher.—Born in Missouri in 1838; died at
Kettle Falls, Washington, Feb. 18th. In 1852 she came to Oregon,
where, the next year, she was married to Benjamin Camp. In 1864 they
moved to Waitsburg, Walla Walla County. Seven of her eleven children
survive her.
Smith, James.—Died at Oakville, Chehalis County, March 12th,
aged 88 years. He was born in New York, but came to Washington,
around Cape Horn, in 1 854.    He became an extensive land owner, hav-
*In this article those persons only are considered pioneers who lived
in Washington, and who came to the Pacific Coast before 1860. The information given is derived chiefly from the newspapers of the day. In
some cases it was meager. No doubt there were other departed pioneers,
but of them  the  biographer had  no  knowledge. T.  W. P.
(36) The Pioneer Dead of 1912
37
ing a tract of one thousand acres in Chehalis valley. Upon this tract
was built a blockhouse for protection of the settlers during the Indian war,
from which circumstance he acquired the name of "Blockhouse Smith." A
widow, son and daughter were left.
Stephens, William.—Died at Monroe, Snohomish County, March
13th, aged 68 years. He came to Oregon in 1852, and from there to
Washington thirty-five years later, locating at Marysville. A widow and
seven children survive him.
Carson, Isaac.—Born in Hendricks County, Indiana, Aug. 1st,
I 832; died in Pierce County, Washington, March 14th, aged 80 years.
He came to Oregon in 1851. In the Rogue river Indian war he served
as a volunteer, for bravery being promoted from the ranks. In 1860
he was married (Sept. 30th) in Danville, Indiana, he and Mrs. Carson
immediately coming to the Pacific coast. Settling later in Pierce County,
he was elected sheriff, and afterwards was a member of the territorial
legislature from Walla Walla, Garfield and Asotin Counties. Mrs. Carson and three married daughters survive him.
Beuston, Adam.—Born in Scotland'in 1824; died in Pierec County,
March 25th, aged 88 years. As an employee of the Hudson Bay Company, Mr. Beuston came to Puget Sound in 1841, and lived in Washington a longer period than any of the other deceased pioneers of 1912,
nearly 71 years. He became a citizen of the United States, and as such
took a 320-acre donation claim in Puyallup valley, and later took a preemption claim near Hillhurst. Mr. Beuston was married three times. The
town of Beuston, on the Tacoma & Eastern Railway, got its name from
him.    A son and eight grandchildren were left.
Fryberg, John P.—Died in Seattle, April 12th, aged 77 years.
He came to Puget Sound in 1 85 7, and here dwelt the remainder of his
life.    He left a son and two daughters.
Davis, Henry C.—.Born in Indiana, he died near Chehalis, April
21 st, aged 66 years. With his parents he came to Washington Territory
in 1851, settling at Claquato, in Lewis County, which at that time included all of Puget Sound.   A wife and son were left.
Frye, George F.—Born in Germany, Jan. 15th, 1833; died in Seattle, May 2d, aged 79 years. When 16 years of age he came to America, and three years later (1852) traveled overland from Missouri to
Oregon. The following year he moved to Seattle, and remained there
59 years, to the end of his days. In 1860 he and Louise Catherine Denny
were married, she and four daughters surviving him. Mr. Frye was engaged in various occupations as steamboating, farming, conducting a meat
shop, a grocery, hotel, etc.    He built several dwellings, and three of the 38
Thomas W. Prosch
finest hotel buildings in his home city—the Stevens, the Barker and the
Frye.
Boren, Livonia Gertrude.—Born at Abington, Illinois, Dec. 12th,
1850; died in King County, June 4th, aged 61 years. She was the
daughter of Carson D. Boren, and, as a child one year of age, was a
member of the party of twelve adults and twelve children who were at
Alki Point, November 13th, 1851, and who are now commonly regarded
as the "Founders of Seattle." Miss Boren lived all her life except the first
eleven months in or near Seattle. Her family connections—-cousins—
were very numerous.
Jarman, William.—Born in England; died at Ferndale, Whatcom
County, June 1 1 th, aged 92 years. He came to Puget Sound in 1 846 on
one of the ships of the Hudson Bay Company, and here spent the remainder of his life.
Smalley, Martha Ann.—Born in Missouri, Nov. 23d, 1835; died
at Rocky Point, Washington, June 1 7th, aged 77 years. In 1 849 she
crossed the continent with her parents—named Magan—to California. In
1850 she married James A. Smalley, and in 1852 they settled at Portland, Oregon. In 185 7 they went back to Missouri, from which they
again came west in 1865, finally locating in Washington territory. A husband, son and six married daughters were left.
Littlefield, Maria C. Hastings.—Born in Portland, Oregon, Dec.
28th, 1850; died at Port Townsend, July 1st, aged 62 years. Mrs. Littlefield was the daughter of Loren Brown and Lucinda Bingham Hastings,
who came from Vermont first and Illinois later, settling at Portland, where
they lived four years, beginning in 1847. In 1851, with the Pettygrove
family, they removed to Port Townsend, where the men took land claims,
Mrs. Hastings and her young daughter, Maria, being the two first whites
of their sex there to place foot. In 1869 Miss Hastings married David
M. Littlefield. She was survived by her husband, three daughters and
four grandchildren.
Hastings, Oregon Columbus.—Born in Illinois in 1846; died in
Victoria, B.C., Aug. 2d, aged 66 years. Mr. H. was a brother of Mrs.
Littlefield, and, of course, son of Mr. and Mrs. L. B. Hastings. He was
an infant when the parents crossed the plains. With them he came to Port
Townsend in 1851. He spent the remainder of his life in that town and
Victoria, in the latter city conducting a photograph gallery for many
years. The Hastings family is permanently and honorably connected with
the history of Puget Sound.
Boren, Carson D.—Born Dec. 12th, 1824, at Nashville, Tennessee ; died at his home near Seattle, Aug. 19th, aged 88 years.   Mr. Boren The Pioneer Dead of 1912
39
was one of the famous party who crossed the plains in 185 1 and settled
at Alki Point in November of that year. With one exception (his sister,
Mrs. D. T. Denny), he was the last survivor of the twelve adults who
there and then began the settlement that has since become the city of Seat-
tie. Mr. Boren spent the last sixty-one years of his life in King County,
as a town proprietor, carpenter, farmer and in other vocations incident to
a life in a new country. He was the first sheriff, in 1853. His land
claim was located in what is now the heart of Seattle, including the Hoge
building site, where the Boren home was established sixty years ago.
Carr, Ossian J.—Born in Dryden, N. Y., Oct. 18th, 1832; died
at Seattle, Aug. 23d, aged 80 years. Mr. Carr came to Oregon in 1858,
where he lived about three years, when he and his family came to Seattle.
In the latter place he engaged as a mechanic in the construction of the
first university buildings. The following year they went back to Oregon,
where they stayed until 1876, when they returned to Seattle. Mr. Carr
served nearly three years as assistant postmaster, following by eight years
as postmaster of Seattle.    He left a wife and daughter.
Whitesell, William Henry.—Born in one of the eastern states in
1841 ; died at Orting, Sept. 8, he being struck by a Northern Pacific
train while walking on the track. He came with his parents, brothers and
sisters to Pierce County in 1 854, and from that time on his home was in
the Puyallup valley. He was unmarried; his nearest relatives left being
three brothers and five sisters, all residents of Pierce County.
Hadlock, Samuel.—Born in New Hampshire in 1829; died in the
same state, Sept. I 8th, aged 83 years. He came to California in 1852,
where for a number of years he was engaged in milling, steamboating and
somewhat similar lines of trade. In 1868, as one of five partners, he
located the first steam sawmill in Tacoma, and he had charge of the construction. Later he acquired a large body of land on Port Townsend Bay,
where the town of Hadlock is now. He was a widower, with one son.
At the time of his death he was visiting his native state, and was in a
sanitarium at Nashua.
Dunbar, Ralph Oregon.—Born in Illinois, April 26th, 1845; died
at Olympia, Sept. 19th. He came to Oregon with his parents' family in
1 846. They settled in Marion County. There the son remained until
1867, when he came to Olympia. He studied law in the office of
Elwood Evans, being admitted to practice in 1869. He went (1871)
into the country east of the Cascade mountains. Until 1889 he was
editor of a newspaper, practicing attorney, legislator, etc. In that year
he was a member of the convention that framed the state constitution, and
at the first election was chosen by the people as a member of the new 40
Thomas W. Prosch
It-l
state supreme court, an honor which was continued to him at subsequent
elections during the remainder of his days—twenty-three years. He left a
wife and three children.
Carr, Lucie L. Whipple.—Born in Pennsylvania, Dec. 2d, 1832;
died in Yakima County, Sept. 26th, aged 80 years. Miss Whipple married Ossian J. Carr in 1856. They were of the same age, had known
each other from infancy, and her body was laid in the grave with his five
weeks following his interment. She came to Oregon in 1858, to Washington first in 1861, and a second time in 1876. In the summer of 1862
she taught a three-months' term of the Seattle public school in the first
territorial university building, hers (following A. S. Mercer's) being the
second school there taught. There were then only about twenty-five or
thirty children in Seattle's public school, where now are about forty thousand. Mrs. Carr was one of the five sisters who were pioneer women of
Oregon, the others being Mrs. Susannah Bagley, Mrs. Jane West, Mrs.
Edna A. Colbert and Mrs. Ann E. Mann.
McGowan, Patrick J.—Born March 1 7th, 1817, in Ireland; died
Sept. 29th, in the town of McGowan, Washington, aged 95 years. In
1842 he came to New York, in 1849 to California, and in 1850 to
Oregon. After three years in Portland he removed to Washington territory, on the Columbia river near its mouth. He, at an early day, engaged
in the salmon fishery, salting and barreling the fish, later erecting several
canneries at different points. He had a wife, five sons and two daughters. For sixty-two years he was a business man of prominence and
wealth in this state.
Sherwood, S. F.—Born in New York state, Dec. 1 6th, 1 832; died
in Kitsap County, Oct. 1 1 th, aged 80 years. He came to San Francisco
in 1853, to Fraser river in 1858, and to Washington territory in 1861.
He was a soldier in the Mexican war. Fifty years ago he was auditor
of Skamania County, but for forty years dwelt in Stevens County.   •
Barlow, George W.—Born in Michigan in 1 842; died at his home
in Steilacoom, Oct. 15 th, aged 70 years. He came to Washington territory in 1 852, where he lived a long term of years and until his removal
to Pierce County. He was a steamboat owner and master, not only on
the Columbia river, but on Puget Sound. His more recent vessels were
the Skagit Chief, Greyhound, Multnomah and others of their time. He
left a wife and daughter.    Three brothers and a sister also survive him.
Jackson, Samuel.—Born at Plymouth, Massachusetts, Nov. 17th,
1832; died at Seattle, Oct. 16th, aged 80 years. Captain Jackson
went to sea as a boy, and in a few years had been pretty well over the
globe.    In the early  1850s he headed for the Pacific, but was wrecked The Pioneer Dead of 1912
41
on the way. Not long detained, he was soon in the California gold mines,
and afterwards in those of British Columbia. In 1 859 he came to Puget
Sound. From that time on his principal occupation was steamboating, he
navigating and managing many of the early day craft. When not employed on steamboats, he was engaged in piledriving, wharf building, shin-
building, invariably something on or near the water. He left a wife and
daughter.
Stockand, Mrs. P. R.—Born in Scotland, June 12th, 1832; died
at Port Townsend, Oct. 28th, aged 80 years. She left home in 1859 for
Victoria, B. C, by way of Cape Horn, arriving Jan. 14th, 1860. A
few weeks later she came over to Port Townsend, where she lived with
her family thereafter. She was survived by a husband and six children,
all residents of Seattle, Yakima, Bellingham and Port Townsend.
Bozorth, Christopher C.—Born in Missouri, Jan. 1, 1832; died at
his home in Cowlitz Coutny, Nov. 5th, aged 81 years. He came with
his people to Oregon in 1845, but in 1851 settled in what is now Washington. In 1 881 he founded the town of Woodland. During his long
residence in that locality he was fourteen years justice of the peace, was
assessor of Clarke County, assessor of Cowlitz County, and member of
the territorial legislature.
Willson, Eliza Kirkland.—Born in 1 848; died in Pierce County,
Nov. 10th, aged 64 years. She was the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Moses
Kirkland, who came to King County in 1853, and settled on a farm in
White river valley. In the Indian war that prevailed in 1855-56 the
Kirkland live stock, crops and improvements were destroyed, his claim for
damages on that account amounting to $2,667. Mr. Kirkland enlisted
for the war, serving first in the Capt. Hewitt Company of Seattle, and
afterward in the Capt. Lander Company. Subsequently the family removed to other parts of the territory. In 1864 Eliza was married to
Edward A. Willson, one of the prominent men of Mason County. He
came to Oregon in early days, and participated in one of the first Indian
troubles there, in which he was so wounded that he never fully recovered.
He has long been dead.    They had several children.
Schnebley, F. Dorsey.—Born in Maryland in 1832; died at El-
lensburg, Nov. 1 1 th, aged 80 years. In 1854 he came by way of Nicaragua to California. After a few years he came north, and for a time
made his home in Columbia County, Washington. In 1872 he moved to
Kittitas County, then Yakima, where he remained. He was county sheriff four years. Eight years he owned and published the Ellensburg Localizer, a paper that was established by D. J. Schnebley, who for a time
i
it 42
Thomas W. Prosch
published the Oregon Spectator, the first newspaper on the Pacific Coast.
"Uncle Dorse's" relatives are numerous in this state.
Betz, Jacob.—Born in Bavaria; died at Tacoma, Nov. 16th, aged
69 years. He came to America in 1849, to California in 1856, and to
Washington territory in 1872. He was councilman and mayor of Walla
Walla, prospered in business and was a substantial citizen. In 1904 he
removed to Tacoma.    A widow, two daughters and two sons survive him.
Sullivan, Michael J.—Born in Massachusetts; died in Skagit County,
Nov. 18th, aged 82 years. He came to the Pacific in the rush to the
California gold mines, working his way on a steamer. In 1866 he began
farming on the Swinomish Flats, near LaConner, where his sagacity and
industry were well rewarded.    He left a wife.
Barnes, George A.—Born in New York state in 1821 ; died at
Olympia, Nov. 29th, aged 91 years. He came to Oregon overland in
1848, and in 1849 went on to California. The following year he returned to the east, but was soon again headed for the North Pacific
Coast. During the sixty years ending with his death he lived in Olympia.
He was town trustee, mayor, president of the chamber of commerce, merchant, banker, and in other respects one of the leading citizens. Three times
he was married, but had no children and the only near relative he left was
a sister.
Bernier, Julien.—Born in Washington territory; died Dec. 1 st in
Lewis County, aged 67 years. The first Bernier to come to Washington
was one of the French Canadians brought here by the Northwest Fur Company in 181 1. In 1 819 he had a son born at Spokane House, who was
the first white child born in Oregon, Washington or British Columbia—
Marcel Isadore Bernier. The Bernier family settled in Lewis County about
seventy years ago. When Michael T. Simmons and the other first American settlers came along in 1 845, Marcel Bernier showed them the way
to  Puget Sound.
Rader, Solomon.—Died at Medford, Oregon Dec. 2d, aged 85
years. He came to the Pacific by the overland route in 1852. He mined
for gold in California and Oregon, fought in two Indian wars, and finally
settled in Walla Walla.    He left a wife and one son.
Christopher, Thomas.—Born in Norway in 1832; died in King
County, Dec. 6th, aged 80 years. He left home at ten years of age, and
after nine years at sea went ashore at San Francisco in 1852. He
mined in California for several years but came to Steilacoom, Pierce-
County, in 1858. In 1863 he settled on a land claim in King County*
where the town of Christopher now is.    He was one of the first (if not the The Pioneer Dead of 1912
first) Norwegians in Pierce and King Counties.    He left a married daughter.
Burk, Peter.—Born in Ireland; died in Pierce County, Dec. 6th,
aged 90 years. He came to the United States about sixty years ago. He
enlisted in the army at Fortress Monroe in 1853, and the following year
was sent to the Pacific. In 1855-56 he was doing military duty at Forts
Vancouver and Steilacoom. He located in the territory at the expiration
of his term of enlistment. He lived on the county farm during the last
twenty-three years.
Williams, Robert.—Born in Wales, May 13, 1834; died at Vancouver, Washington, Dec. 9th, aged 79 years. He came to America in
1850, and in 1855 came to the Pacific Coast as a private soldier in the
Fourth U. S. Infantry. His company, under Capt. Wallen, was sent
to Vancouver, from which point Williams was sent with others to Yakima
in the Major Rains expedition, to fight the Indians. In 185 6 he was in
the fight at the Cascades. In 1861 he enlisted again to fight dissension,
and served with distinction, becoming a captain by several promotions. In
1877 he located at Vancouver, where he again became connected with the
army, serving in the ordnance branch until his retirement in 1 896. Capt.
Williams married a woman named Turnbull in Scotland in 1860.
Arnold, A. W.—Born in New York in 1830; died at Coupeville,
Island County, Dec. 14th, aged 82 years. Mr. Arnold came to Puget
Sound in 1857, and during the following fifty-five years lived most of the
time on Whidby Island.    He left four sons and two daughters.
THOMAS W. PROSCH. BOOK REVIEWS
id
II    i
The Oregon System; the Story of Direct Legislation in
Oregon. By Allen H. Eaton. (Chicago, McClurg, 1912. Pp. 195,
$1.00.)
A traveller may never spend his time to better advantage than when
he pauses at some vantage point to glance backward over the road he has
travelled. It is with similar profit that the student of American government
can avail himself of such a survey as Mr. Allen H. Eaton's "Story of
Direct Legislation in Oregon."
This timely volume covers the history of the "Oregon System" from
the adoption of the initiative and referendum in 1902 to the beginnings of
the presidential campaign in 1912. A convenient tabulation is first made
of the sixty-four measures passed upon by the voters of Oregon in the
elections of 1904, 1906, 1908 and 1910, showing the numbers of votes
cast for and against each proposition, the per cent of the total electorate
received by each measure and the per cent of the vote cast received by the
measures passed. A general survey is then given of the thirty-three measures rejected and of the thirty-one passed with estimates of the wisdom
shown by the people in disposing of the various propositions. Special chapters are devoted to several of the more important measures adopted, namely:
the primary law, the direct election of United States senators, the recall
of public officials, the corrupt practice act and the presidential primary.
The author has studied at first hand the operation of these measures,
having been reelected in November last for a fourth consecutive term as
state representative from the county in which the State University is located.
His attitude is that of the student and his analysis of the results of direct
legislation in Oregon is the clearest and fairest that the writer has seen. He
has shown an unmistakable preference for the party convention, but he
states that the people were justified in demanding the direct primary. He
condemns the use that has been made of the recall in Oregon, but shows
that certain abuses are not inherent in the principle. The corrupt practice
act and the direct election of United States senators are both highly commended. Mr. Eaton's appraisal of the Oregon system will satisfy neither
its ardent advocates nor its detractors. It is an excellent summary, however, of results to date and the author's suggested remedies for the evils
and defects of direct legislation should be read by progressive even more
than by conservative.
(44) When the Forests Are Ablaze
45
Aside from a misprint which makes Mr. Holman's name in the preface read as 'Holeman," the book seems to be clear from serious typographical errors. A useful reading list contains seven pages of references
to the Oregon system. A debt is not only due to the author for this concise
and readable book, but to the publishers, A. C. McClurg & Co., as well,
for their enterprise in developing a line of books relating to Western
America. CHARLES W. SMITH.
When the Forests Are Ablaze." By Katharine B. Judson.
(A. C. McClurg & Co., Chicago, 1912, pages 380; illustrations 6,
$1.35.)
This delightful new book by Miss Judson deals with the difficulties
and perils of the present day frontier life of the Northwest. The scene is
laid in the wilds of the Cascade Mountains of Washington. The theme
reveals the perils and the romance of the pioneer and the relations of the
lumberman and the United States Forest Service to the developmnt of
this section of the country. Disappointed in love an dtired of the life of
the teacher, the heroine leaves the schoolroom to take up a claim in a
national forest. With this setting the author has developed a thrilling story,
interwoven with a strong love feature, depicting the life of the homesteader and the work of the forest service and its fire fighting heroes.
Throughout the story the author shows her intimiate knowledge of the life
and the conditions of the mountain forests; the trees and shrubs, the wild
animals and their habits, the life and the ways of the squatter, the difficult
and the pleasing sides of the life of the homesteader, the troubles of the
cattle and sheep men, the work of forest ranger, the sportsman and the
camper from the city, and the dangers of the forest fire. All of these
have been woven into her story to show the ever changing conditions which
plunge the human emotions from one extreme into another in this region
where primitive wilderness and civilization come in conflict; and they have
been combined in her story into situations that are both interesting and
instructive. To the layman who is not acquainted with the forest conditions
of this region the book offers many practical lessons.
The author is to be especially commended for the excellent presentation, in story form, of the work of the forest ranger. Few of the people of
the busy city and the broad farms and ranches realize the importance of the
work of these heroes of the forest. With the work that is being done by
the United States Forest Service, the ranger is taking his place with the
pioneer in opening up the remotest corners of the wilderness to civilization; mm
m
46
Book Reviews
but, unlike many of the pioneers of the past, his work is  always  constructive.
To the uninitiated, Miss Judson's description of the forest fire may
seem overdrawn, but there have been many fires that would admit of a
far more lurid description. As she shows, the majority of the forest fires
are preventable, and it is to be hoped that her book may bear fruit in
awakening our congress to the need of an appropriation large enough to
prevent them. HUGO WINKENWERDER.
South America: Observations and Impressions. By James
Bryce. (New York, The Macmillan Company, 1912. Pp. 61 1. $2.50
net.)
Mr. Bryce's book on South America, appearing at a time when the
eyes of the world, especially those of the commercial world, are turned
with increasing interest toward that great continent, is a most timely publication upon a subject too little known.
The British embassador, whose powers of analytical scholarship combined with breadth of vision are so splendidly evidenced in "The American
Commonwealth" and "The Holy Roman Empire," has here presented in
a more casual way the impressions and observations formed by him during
a four months' visit to our sister republics on the South. Seeing his subject
from the sympathetic and unbiased viewpoint of the world scholar, Mr.
Bryce has made his work interesting and illuminating in the extreme.
The scope of the work includes the aspects of nature, the inhabitants,
the economic resources of the several countries, the prospects for the development of industry and commerce, and the relics of prehistoric civilization,
the native Indian population, and the conditions of political life in the
several republics.
One of the most interesting chapters is the first, which deals with the
. Isthmus of Panama, and the Canal. Speaking of this undertaking, the
author says: "It is the greatest liberty Man has ever taken with Nature."
He describes this stupendous engineering project clearly and entertainingly,
and highly praises the efficiency of those in charge of the work. To quote:
"Never before on our planet have so much scientific knowledge, and so
much executive skill been concentrated on a work designed to bring the
nations nearer to one another and to serv the interests of all mankind." The
marvelous work of sanitation done by our government officials in the Canal
Zone is described, and the reader learns with surprise that the Isthmus is
now as healthy as any part of the United States, and that no case of yellow
fever has occurred since   1905. South America
47
Discussing the government of the Zone, Mr. Bryce instances the success of the commission, as an example of the results obtainable by vesting
full administrative control in a "benevolent autocracy," composed of men
who have nothing to gain by misuse of their powers. "So far as any
political moral can be drawn from the case," he writes, "that moral recommends not democratic collectivism, but military autocracy."
The author indulges in speculation as to the influence this new highway will exert over the routes of world commerce, but declares that the
results are largely problematical, and that forecasts on the subject would
doubtless make curious reading in the year A. D. 2000.
From Panama, Mr. Bryce journeyed down the west coast and up
the eastern coast, visiting the chief places of interest between Lima and
Rio de Janeiro. Two-thirds of the volume are devoted to a more or less
detailed description of the countries visited. The most interesting chapters,
however, are the last one, in which are treated the relations of South America to Europe and to the United States, the conditions of political life in
Spanish-America, and certain reflections and forecasts as to the future.
There are more contrasts than resemblances between the people of
North America and those of South America. The author states that "Teutonic Americans and Spanish Americans have nothing in common except
two names, the name American and the name Republican. In essentials
they differ as widely as either of them does from any other group of people."
It is pointed out that the Latin-American republics, in their regard
for the United States, and confidence in its purposes, "never quite recovered
the blow given by the Mexican War and the annexation of California; but
this change of sentiment did not affect the patronage and good will extended
to them by the United States." On the whole, it would seem that the
United States has abused its strength less than the rulers of the smaller states
have abused their weakness. The Monroe Doctrine formerly provided a
political tie between them, but now the need for it being felt less, the South
American states have begun to regard the situation differently. "Since
there are no longer rain-clouds coming up from the east, why should a
friend, however well-intentioned, insist on holding an umbrella over us?
We are quite able to do that for ourselves if necessary."
Owing to his official position, the distinguished author abstained from
discussing current political questions concerning the Spanish-American republics, but contented himself with discussing the philosophy underlying
their political life. Too much has been expected of them on account of
the magic word "Republic." Their history has not reflected credit upon
democracy.    Physical, racial, economic, and historical conditions have been 48
Book Reviews
against them; the sham democracies which were established in 1825 were
unsuited to their needs. With the happy exceptions of Chile and Argentina,
they have never been democracies in fact. Their career has been extremely
checkered; but the judgment passed upon them should be more lenient.
"Their difficulties were greater than any European people had to face, and
there is no need to be despondent for their future."  ■
The country has tremendous possibilities of development. The part
that her people will play in the great movements of the world "must henceforth be one of growing significance for the Old World, as well as the
New."
In adding this book to his list of great works, Mr. Bryce has performed a valuable service to mankind, and especially to the people of the
western hemisphere. It will help to develop an intelligent appreciation and
sympathy between the United States and her sister republics of South
America. MALCOLM DOUGLAS.
::ot.
I
Guide to the Study and Reading of American History.
By Edward Channing, Albert Bushnesll Hart, and Frederick Jackson
Turner.     (Boston and London, Ginn & Co., 191 2.    Pp.650.    $2.50.)
This is a work already well and favorably known to every progressive
teacher and student of American history. The first edition was prepared
by Professors Channing and Hart and was published in 1896. This
completely revised edition has received the attention of the original authors
and that also of Professor Turner, who recently went to Harvard from the
University of Wisconsin. With the accession of Professor Turner, it is
perfectly natural to expect the new edition to be strengthened on western
phases of American history.    That expectation is abundantly sustained.
The Pacific Coast and the section between the Coast and the Mississippi River receives fuller treatment than ever given such sections in a similar work. Not only are publications cited, but the development is recognized in the outline.
In addition to this more generous recognition of the West, the authors
have combined their skill to make every portion of the book useful. Furthermore it is brought down to date, including such topics as "conservation"
and the political contests of 1910. The last section is entitled: "American
Society in the Twentieth Century."
The young teacher in his first school, as well as the veteran of much
experience in any part of the country whatever, will find this Guide a
helpful book. EDMOND S. MEANY. Baptist History of the North Pacific
49
Baptist History of the North Pacific Coast With Special Reference to Western Washington, British Columbia,
AND ALASKA. By Rev. J. C. Baker. (Philadelphia, American Baptist Publication Society, 1912.    Pp.472.)
The author of this book was evidently well equipped for the large
task. On the title-page beneath his name is this cross-section view of his
career: "Sometime Sunday-school Missionary and Depositary of the
American Baptist Publication Society, Superintendent of Missions of the
American Baptist Home Mission Society, Agent of Educational Institutions in the Northwest, Editor of the-'Baptist Beacon,' and Pastor."
With such an experience, it is not likely the author would overlook any
important phase of his subject.
A review of the book was sought from an eminent member of the Baptist Church, but through the stress of the holiday season it has not arrived.
The book is too important to remain longer unnoticed, so the editor will
himself call attention to its purpose and contents.
Eight of the nine parts carry one hundred and eighty-five chapters.
The ninth part is devoted to twenty-three personal sketches. There are
seventy-two portraits.
The plan and purpose of the book are shown by the larger subdivisions. "Part I.—Conventions" traces the organizations from the first
effort at Tualatin Plains in 1848 down to the thirteenth year of the Northwest Convention in 1900. Part II. deals with the Puget Sound Association from its organization in 1871 to 1888. Part III. gives the record of
individual churches in one hundred and twenty-nine chapters. Part IV.
has the Baptist history in British Columbia from 1874 to 1900. Part
V. is devoted to auxiliary organizations, such as the Baptist Young People's
Union and Women's Foreign Mission Society. Part VI. is devoted to
education. Part VII. deals with the Publication Society and Part VIII.
with the Home Mission Society.
The tenderness of spirit in which the extensive work of research and
compilation has been done may be judged from this conclusion of the
author's introduction: "All honor to these pioneer men and women, and
to their worthy successors, living and acting in the twentieth century!"
Civics for the State of Washington. By George Chandler.    (New York, American Book Company, 1912.    Pp. 418.    $1.00.)
The author has prepared this textbook in the "belief that instruction
m civics is the best preparation for fitting the youth for the duties and responsibilities of citizenship." Those who have used his book declare he
has justified the belief in which he prepared it.
11 50
Book Reviews
The Canadian Annual Review of Public Affairs, 1911.
By J. Castell Hopkins. (Toronto, Annual Review Publishing Co., 1912.
Pp. 672+120.   $3.50.)
Another volume of this important reference book' will be welcomed
by a wide class of readers. While primarily for Canadians as a great
annual review of Canada, its usefulness in the United States is hardly less.
It shows the Canadian reaction on things American. One hundred and
forty-one pages are devoted to the subject of reciprocity with the United
States. Of especial interest in the Pacific Northwest is the article on
British Columbia and the Yukon. The report carries a list of Canadian
books published in 1911.
Kansas Historical Collections, Volume XII.    (Topeka,
State Printing Office,  1912.    Pp. 569.)
Our readers will find an interest in the article by George H. Himes,
of the Oregon Historical Society, on "Crossing the Plains," occupying
pages 261 to 269. The editor of the volume has kept well within the
special field of Kansas history, but one other feature making an appeal to
the farthest West. That is "The West; Its Place in American History,"
by John Lee Webster.    This occupies pages 25 to 36.
,\
Ecological and Economic Notes on Puget Sound Kelps.
By George B. Rigg.    (Washington, Government Printing Office, 1912.)
Professor Rigg's article appears in the Report of the Secretary of
Agriculture on the fertilizer resources of the United States, submitted by
Congress by President Taft and published as Senate Document No. 190
in the second session of the Sixty-second Congress. We are concerned
with Appendix L of the large report found on pages 1 79 to 193 and with
plates 9 to 1 8 and maps 1 to 3. People living in the Pacific Northwest will
be interested in following this study of a resource heretofore wholly unknown as being of any economic value.
Elements of the Kato Language. By Pliny Earle Goddard.
(Berkeley, University of California Press, 1912.    Pp.176.    $2.00.)
This work is one more in the lengthening list of highly technical works
being issued by the University of California on the archaeology and ethnology of the Pacific Coast. The book carries forty-five plates, showing the
nasal and laryngal vibrations in uttering the sounds of the language when
spoken. A survey of the book leaves the impression that certainly here
has been attained the limit as to minuteness of accuracy.
:li i: The Mountaineer
51
Mountaineers' Songs. Compiled by The Everett Mountaineers.
(Everett, privately published,  1912.    Pp.  16.    20 cents.)
The Mountaineers is a well known organization of mountain climbers
and nature lovers. The campfires and trails have called forth a number of
characteristic songs, the words of which are here collected for the first time.
The songs were written by Rev. Francis J. Van Horn, Harry E. Wilson,
J. T. Hazard and Dr. H. B. Hinman.
The Mountaineer, Volume V. Edited by Lulie Nettleton.
(Seattle, The Mountaineers, 1912.    Pp.107.    50 cents.)
Of this interesting series this is the second Rainier number devoted to
Grand Park and Summerland. Besides a number of beautiful plates from
photographs by members of the club, the book is packed with valuable information about Washington's greatest mountain and its surroundings. It
opens with beautiful salutations from John Muir and Enos A. Mills. Other
contributors include William Frederic Bade, Mary Paschall, Charles S.
Gleason, E. M. Hack, Dora Keen, Francois Matthes, J. B. Flett, Trevor
Kincaid, R. L. Glisan, Winona Bailey, A. H. Albertosn, Gertrude Streat-
or, O. B. Johnson, Redick H. McKee, H. B. Hinman, Charles M. Far-
rer, P. M. McGregor, H. A. Fuller, Irving M. Clark, William H. Gor-
ham, G. R. Hurd, Charles Albertson and Edmond S. Meany.
Other Books Received
Birch, Walter de Gray.
Lincoln, Henry II. to William III.
York, G P. Putnam's Sons, 1912.
The Royal Charters of the City of
(Cambridge, University Press; New
Pp. 308.    $3.00 net.)
Early, R. H., editor. Lieutenant General Jubal Anderson Early,
C. S. A. Autobiographical Sketch and Narrative of the War Between the
States. (Philadelphia and London, J. B. Lippincott Company, 1912.
Pp. 496.    $3.50 net.)
Giles, HERBERT A. China and the Manchus. (Cambridge, University Press; New York, G P. Putnam's Sons, 1912. Pp. 148. 40
cents net.)
LovAT-FRASER, J. A. John Stuart Earl of Bute
University Press; New York, G P. Putnam's Sons, 1912.
cents net.)
(Cambridge,
Pp. 108. 40 52
Book Reviews
Pickett, LaSalle Corbell. Literary Hearthstones of Dixie.
(Philadelphia and London, J. B. Lippincott Company, 1912. Pp. 305.
$1.50 net.)
Spence, LEWIS. The Civilization of Ancient Mexico. (Cambridge,
University Press; New York, G P. Putnam's Sons, 1912. Pp. 121. 40
cents net.)
Upham, Warren, and Dunlap, Mrs. Rose Barteau, compilers. Collections of Minnesota Historical Society, Volume XIV., Minnesota
Biographies, 1655 to 1912 [nine thousand biographies with references to
more complete sources]. (St. Paul, Minnesota Historical Society, 1912.
Pp. 893.)
Ward, J. S. M. Brasses. (Cambridge, University Press; New
York, G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1912.   Pp. 159.   40 cents net.) I 1 Ik
NEWS DEPARTMENT
Historic Statuary in Seattle
Seattle is adding to art treasures in the form of statuary. The three
first statues were obtained during the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition in
1909. These were the large George Washington, presented to the University of Washington by Rainier Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution, the work of Lorado Taft of Chicago; the William H. Seward by Richard E. Brooks of Paris and New York, presented by citizens,
through a Chamber of Commerce committee, to the City of Seattle, to commemorate the purchase of Alaska; a large bust of James J. Hill by Finn H.
Frolich, then of Seattle, presented by citizens to the University of Washington.
On November 13, 1912, Founders' Day was celebrated by unveiling
a statue of Chief Seattle by James Wehn of Seattle. The ceremonies were
in charge of the Tillicums of Elttaes and were participated in by many
prominent people, including Sir Thomas Upton, a guest of the city at the
time. The actual unveiling was done by Miss Myrtle Loughrey, a great
granddaughter of the Indian chief for whom the city of Seattle was named.
Richard E. Brooks is now completing a statue of the late Governor
John H. McGraw. It is to be a gift to the city from the friends of the
governor. Announcement has also been made by Charles A. Kinnear that
the city is to receive a statue of his father, George Kinnear, a pioneer who
recently died. This is to be an equestrian statue to show Mr. Kinnear
as he appeared in the Civil War. It is to stand near Kinnear Park, which
was itself given to the city by the pioneer a quarter of a century ago.
The Curtis Picture Musicale
The Pacific Northwest is justly proud of the wonderful work being
done by Edward S. Curtis of Seattle. He has devoted fourteen years to
the photographing and studying of the North American Indians. The work
is very expensive and is in part aided by J. Pierpont Morgan. When completed, after eight more years of researches, the work will comprise twenty
volumes with a like number of large portfolios of photographs. To facilitate the sale of the work Mr. Curtis has developed "A Vanishing Race"
or "The Curtis Picture Musicale," a remarkable entertainment, which
New York critics likened to grand opera. The music to accompany the
moving and dissolving pictures was arranged by Henry F. Gilbert from Indian records secured in the field by Mr. Curtis. On December 6 and 7,
1912, this entertainment was given to splendid audiences in Seattle, and
later dates were scheduled for other Pacific Coast cities.
(53) 54
News Department
New Edition of the Pickett Book
There are many persons in the Pacific Northwest who know that
General George E. Pickett of Gettysburg fame was a young officer on
Puget Sound just before the outbreak of the Civil War. His talented and
lovable widow still survives, her home being in the national capital. Her
fine book entitled "Pickett and His Men" was originally published by a
house that met reverses. She now announces that a new and revised edition is about to be issued by the J. B. Lippincott Company. This is good
news for readers of this Quarterly, as the book contains valuable chapters
on Pickett's experiences in the Northwest.
History Student in Okanogan
William C. Brown, an attorney of Okanogan City, is an earnest student of the early history of the upper Columbia River country. He conducted the centennial celebration of old Fort Okanogan on July 4, 1911,
and issued an important pamphlet in connection with that event. He recently spent several busy days examining manuscript records in the University
of Washington collections.
History Lost in the Cheney Fire
Readers of this Quarterly will sympathize with a member of the
Board of Editors, Ceylon S. Kingston, of the State Normal School at
Cheney. He had prepared an article on "Family Budgets of Early Immigrants," covering actual expenditures made in crossing the continent by
ox teams. Unfortunately that paper with all the notes, many manuscripts,
and most of the professor's private library were destroyed in the recent fire,
which burned the main building of that institution.
American Historical Association
The American Historical Association held its twenty-eighth annual
meeting in Boston and Cambridge, December 27-31, 1912. The programmes were rich and varied. The Mississippi Valley Historical Association met with the larger organization. This gave a sort of western flavor, as
did the participation by Professor H. Morse Stephens of the University
of California and Professor Pphraim D. Adams of Stanford University.
The president of the association for 1912 was Theodore Roosevelt. His
presidential address was entitled:    "History as Literature."
The Pacific Coast Branch
The tenth annual meeting of the Pacific Coast Branch of the American Historical Association was held at the University of California, November 29 and 30,  1912.    Those who participated in the programmes Historical Association Meetings
55
were the following: From Stanford University—Professor Arley Barth-
low Show, Professor Percy Alvin Martin, Professor Edgar E. Robinson;
from the University of California—Professor H. Morse Stephens, Professor Richard F. Scholz; from the State College of Washington, Professor
Frank Alfred Golder. The paper by the last named was the only one
devoted to the history of the Pacific Coast. It was entitled: "The Background of Alaskan History."
Heretofore the meetings of the branch have been held alternately at
Berkeley or Stanford. It is now decided to meet at other centers on the
Pacific Coast—Los Angeles for 1913 and possibly the University " of
Washington for 1914.
Oregon Historical Society
The Oregon Historical Society held its fourteenth annual meeting
in Portland on December 21, 1912. The principal address was given by
Clarence B. Bagley, a pioneer of 1852, who is Secretary of the Seattle
Board of Public Works, and President of the Washington State Historical
Society. Mr. Bagley's accumulation of materials on the history of the
Pacific Northwest is one of the most extensive in any library, public or private.
Teachers of History
The Northwest Association of Teachers of History, Government and
Economics is an organization formed during the last session of the Inland
Empire Teachers Association. Efforts are now being made to widen its
scope. The present officers are as follows: President, Charles G. Haines,
Whitman College; Vice-President, Ceylon S. Kingston, State Normal
School, Cheney; Secretary and Treasurer, L. F. Jackson, State College
of Washington. Those officers, with C. A. Sprague and W. L. Wallace,
constitute the executive committee.
Washington Educational Association
The twenty-sixth annual meeting of the Washington Educational
Association is scheduled to be held in Everett, December 26 to 18, 1912.
In the published programme there are two references to history: In the
Higher and Secondary School Section, Friday, December 27, Miss Elizabeth Rowell, of the Broadway High School, Seattle, will present a paper
on "Theory and Practice in History Teaching." The other reference is a
statement that the Northwest Association of Teachers of History, Government and Economics may hold a meeting at the same time as the section
meetings.
: | &
56
News Department
Joint Seminar
The Departments of Law, Political Science, and History in the University of Washington have combined to hold throughout the academic year
a joint seminar to consider problems in the three fields as they pertain to
the Northwest. The seminar is designed for graduate work. A few qualified seniors are also admitted. Several of the papers prepared for that
seminar have appeared in former issues of this Quarterly. In this issue
appears another, the study by Leo Jones of the amendments proposed to
the constitution of the State of Washington. NORTHWESTERN HISTORY SYLLABUS
[The aim of this department is to furnish outlines that will aid those
who wish to study the subject systematically. It is expected that its
greatest use will be as a guide for members of women's clubs, literary
societies, and classes in colleges or high schools. It will be a form of
university extension without the theses and examinations necessary for the
earning of credits toward a degree. ]
IV.    American Voyages of Discovery
1. First Appearance of the Stars and Stripes, 1 788.
a. The Boston Company.
b. Captains Kendrick and Gray.
c. The "Lady Washington" and "Columbia."
d. Lure of the fur trade.
e. The famous medal.
f. Details of the voyage.
g. Gray transfer-red to the "Columbia."
h. His voyage home by way of China.
2. Captain Gray's Second Voyage, 1791-1792.
a. Winter quarters at Clayoquot.
b. Building a sloop.
c. Kendrick on the Coast.
d. Gray meets Vancouver.
e. Discovery of Grays Harbor and Columbia River.
f. Harvest of furs.
g. Return voyage,
h. Influence of Gray's discoveries.
3. Captain Joseph Ingraham,  1791-1792.
a. An officer on Kendrick's first voyage.
b. Returns in brig "Hope" from Boston.
c. Successful fur trader.
4. Captain James McGee, 1 792.
a.     In ship "Margaret" from Boston.
5. Captain R. D. Coolidge,   1792.
a. In ship "Grace."
b. Came from New York by way of China.
(57) 58
Northwestern History Syllabus
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
6.    Tragic Fate of Ship "Boston," 1803.
a.     Her master, John Salter.
Ship owned in Boston.
Captain's inexperience brought on massacre.
Indians destroy ship.
John R. Jewitt and John Thompson survived.
Enslaved by the Indians at Nootka.
g.     Jewitt's famous little book.
'Boston Men" and "King George Men."
a. Many ships from Boston.
b. Enquiries for crew of "Boston."
c. Chinook jargon adopted name for Americans.
d. Also "King George Men" as name for British.
e. Both names endure among Indians.
Bibliography.—Nearly every book purporting to deal with the
history of the Pacific Coast has something to say about the voyages of Cap-'
tains John Kendricks and Robert Gray. There are fewer real sources than
in the case of the English voyages, but the following references will be found
helpful and will lead to other materials if needed.
Bancroft, Hubert Howe. Works of. Vol. XXVII. (Northwest Coast, Vol. I.), pp. 1861192, 204-206, 258-264, and others, for
which see index in Vol. XXVIII. Not all. editions contain Haswell's
journal, but Vol. XXCII., edition 1886, pp. 703-735, gives this valuable document. When consulting the index cited use such words as Gray,
Kendrick, Haswell, Ingraham, "Columbia," "Lady Washington," Columbia River, Grays Harbor, Bulfinch, Nootka, Jewitt, "Ship Boston."
BuLFINCH, CHARLES. Extracts from the Log-book of the Ship
Columbia. Mr. Bulfinch was one of the owners of the "Columbia."
Grays Harbor was first named "Bulfinch Harbor" in his honor. Years
afterward, in seeking compensation from the government, he submitted this
extract. It was published in the Public Documents, Serial No. 351, being
a part of Document 101 in that volume. It covers the discoveries by Captain Gray.
Greenhow, Robert. The History of Oregon and California. In
the London edition of 1844 the reader will find especial help on pages
1 78 to 259. The materials will be easily found in any of the editions.
The whole book is interesting and has been abundantly cited by later writers. Bibliography
59
JEWITT, John R. Narrative of the Adventures and Sufferings of.
There are several editions of this little book. It is a fine source book on
the tragic fate of the ship "Boston."
MEANY, EDMOND S. History of the State of Washington. Pages
32 to 44 will be found helpful, as will footnote citations.
SCHAFER, JOSEPH. History of the Pacific Northwest. See pages
32 to 42 for brief but reliable information.
Wright, E. W., editor. Lewis and Dryden's Marine History of
the Pacific Northwest. The title indicates the special character of this book.
It is found in most of the libraries of the Northwest. Chapter I. includes
a brief account of the voyages of Captains Kendrick and Gray. REPRINT DEPARTMENT
George Wilkes:   History of Oregon, Geographical, Geological and
Political.    (New York, Colyer, 1845.)
[The reprint of this rare work was begun in the first number'of the
Washington Historical Quarterly and has been continued in portions of
varying lengths. For the sake of librarians and others who have kept the
files, the work is here continued.—Editor.]
. We soon arrived at the waters of the Portneuf, and from this point
reined up our panting steeds to gaze upon the valley of the Saptin which
lay at last before us. In an instant every head was uncovered, and a cheer
rang back into, the gorge to the ears of our companions, which made every
team strain and wagon crack with renewed exertion. It is impossible to
describe the enthusiasm which this event created in our party. Each wagon
as it arrived at the point unfolding to the view the region which had been
the object of our dearest hopes and the occasion of our weary travel, set
up a cheer, which, taken up by those behind, rang through every sinuosity
of the pass and reverberated along the sides of the beetling crags which
hemmed it in. Jim Wayne, who was always "about" when anything of
moment was afoot, was among the foremost to reach the point of sight,
and there, with his bugle which he had burnished and swung around his
neck for the occasion, he planted himself, receiving every wagon with "Yankee Doodle," "Hail Columbia," or "The Star Spangled Banner," and
only pausing in the tunes, to wave the instrument in the air, in immense
sweeps, to the measure of the answering shouts.
This passage was performed on the 29th of August, and on the afternoon of that day we pitched our tents in the valley of the southern arm of
the great River of the West. The region we had passed through from the
30th July up to the 29th August, comprised all the passes through the Rocky
Mountains, and was by far the most arduous and difficult portion of the
whole journey. We performed it, however, without sustaining any loss
or injury beyond the bursting of a single tire, and yet averaged while doing
it the distance of about twelve miles a day. In many parts of this region
we had to move sharply to secure water and range for our cattle, and
(60) Wilkes:    History of Oregon
61
the scarcity of game forced us, so far as we were personally concerned,
pretty much upon the resources of our private larders. Though consisting
to a large extent of beetling rock, arid plains, craggy defiles and frowning
gorges, Nature has provided throughout a large portion of this route, a continuous line of valleys, nourished by gentle rivers, whose fertile banks furnish abundant pasture for your cattle, and provide a road from the eastern
to the western limits of the Rocky Mountains and through the spurs of the
intermediate region, better than many of the wagon routes in some of the
eastern states. The greater portion of this country, however, is a sterile,
flinty waste, and except in occasional dots, and in the green ribbons that
bind the edges of the stream, is worthless for agricultural purposes. One
of the features of this section, of singular interest, is the number of soda
springs it contains, of a most remarkable character. They are situated
mostly on Great Bear river, at the end of the valley leading up to the pass.
There you will find them, bubbling, and foaming, and sending up from
their clear depths and gravelly bottoms a continual discharge of gas and
steam, as though they were sunken cauldrons of boiling water. They are
represented to possess highly medicinal qualities, and it is said the Indians
set a great reliance upon their virtues for a numerous class of disorders.
One of these springs makes a loud bubbling sound, which can be heard at
a great distance, and there are others which eject their waters some distance
into the air; and others, in addition to these peculiarities, have a temperature above blood heat. To such an extent do these phenomena prevail,
that the surface of the river, in the neighborhood of those on the shore, is
fretted for several hundred yards with large numbers of them, some of
which force their jets many inches above the surface. The scenery about
this spot is wild and impressive; but though composed mostly of towering
rocks, the faithful bunch of grass still fastens to the vales, and offers its
tribute of sustenance and refreshment to the cattle.
On the morning of the 30th, we performed our orisons for the first
time in Oregon.
For the first time in many dreary days the beetling crags of the Rocky
Mountains ran their frowning barriers in our rear, and a broad unbroken
plain spread out before us. Our hearts swelled with gratitude and joy,
and with these combined emotions came a mingling of surprise, that the
passage through the valley and the shadow of that misrepresented gorge, had
proved so slightly formidable in its character. This can only be accounted
for by the fact that most of the pioneers upon the route, from need of the
experience of others who had gone before, in the direction of their preparations, set out without providing properly against the difficulties and privations
*:
Jfw
lllu-
m 1
aw-    fl —
62
Reprint Department
of the route. Neglecting the important item of provisions, they have relied
entirely upon their rifles, and their chance for game, and the result has
been, that their stomachs, pinched by occasional deprivation, have spread
their dissatisfaction to the mind and magnified and discolored every difficulty
and trifling inconvenience into a monstrosity of hardship. It may readily
be imagined, that a traveller on horseback, who was obliged to fly from rise
to set of sun, over a barren patch of desert to obtain range and food,
would be anything but flattering in his descriptions of the scene of his sufferings and perils; but a well appointed caravan, carrying water in their
vehicles, and driving their provender along with them, would enjoy a greater
measure of contentment, and be inclined to treat the account of their wayfaring with a far greater degree of fairness and liberality. I do not hesitate to say, as I said before, that any wagon which could perform the
journey from Kentucky to Missouri, can as well undertake the whole of
this route, and there need be no dread of difficulties, in the way of natural
obstructions, of a more serious character. I would be willing to traverse
this road twice over again, if I possessed the means to purchase cattle in
the States, and this opinion will appear less strange, when I assure the
reader that several of the female emigrants feel in the same way disposed
for the pleasures of a second expedition. It is true, there is a good deal
of labor to perform on the road; but the weather is so dry, and the air so
pure and bland, that one turns to it, as he does to the savory meals of the
prairie, with a double alacrity and relish. Besides, many of the cares as
well as troubles of a first expedition, would be avoided in the second. Experience would be our pioneer, and the continual apprehension of difficulties
of an unknown character ahead, would vanish. We would not be continually harassed, whether we should abandon our horses at the pass, whether
we should be out of provisions, or whether the route was practicable for
travellers like us, at all! These uncertainties are dispersed forever. Emigrants may come now without fear. They will find a road broken to their
use; they know the quantity of provisions they need; they know also the
supplies they can gather by their rifles; they know that they will not suffer
for want of water, and they have also been made aware that all the
property they bring with them, is worth double its value as soon as they
arrive. Fuel, it is true, is scarce at some points, but proper care and a
little trouble, will provide against any suffering for want of that.
You travel along the banks of streams all the way, and you can almost always reap a harvest of dry willows on the surface of the waters,
and where these do not offer, you find an equivalent resource in the sedges
on their shores. Wilkes:    History of Oregon
CHAPTER VI.
Arrival at Fort Hall—77ie Three Regions of Oregon—Salmon Falls—
The Saptin and the Platte—Fort Boise—Burnt River—The Lone
Pine—"Woodman, Spare That Tree"—77ie Grand Round—Scientific Speculation of Mr. McFarley—A Fall of Snow-—An Indian
Traffic.
We killed a bullock this morning in a fit of extravagance, and after
replenishing ourselves with a most substantial breakfast, set out with renewed energies and brightened prospects. We arrived in the afternoon at
Fort Hall, a trading post belonging to the Hudson's Bay Company, on the
Snake or Saptin River, and encamped in a fine piece of timber land, under
cover of its wooden battlements. We past a most pleasant evening in exchanging civilities with its inmates, who were not a little surprised at this
tremendous irruption in their solitude. Some of the members told us
that they could scarcely believe their eyes when they saw the' immense
stretch of our line, the number of our lowing herds and our squads of prancing horsemen, and they inquired laughingly if we had come to conquer
Oregon, or devour it out of hand. They treated us, however, with every
attention, and answered with the utmost patience and particularity, all our
inquiries in relation to the country.
We paused here a day to recruit our cattle, and when we set out in
the morning following (1 st September), we received a parting salute from
one of the guns of the fort, and answered it with a volley from our sma
arms. Our journey today commenced through a piece of country we
timbered, and possessing a soil apparently capable of raising the grains and
vegetables of the States. I learned, however, that the climate of this region
is subject to frequent frosts, the severity of which are fatal to agricultural
operations of any magnitude.
Oregon, or the territory drained by the Columbia, is divided by
immense mountain ranges into three distinct regions, the climate and other
natural characteristics of which are entirely different from each other. The
first region is that lying along the coast of the Pacific and extending in the
interior to the line of the Cascade range; the second region lies
between the Cascade chain and the Blue mountains, and the third, between
the Blue and the Rocky mountains.
The first of these has a warm, dry and regular climate, and it is the
abode of continual fertility. The second, or middle region, consists chiefly
of plains between ridges of mountains, the soil of which is poor. The timber also is very scarce upon it, and what there is is soft and poor. The
climate during the summer is agreeable and salubrious; but the winter
brings with it frequent rains.    Many of its plains, though generally unfit 64
Reprint Department
for agricultural purposes, are covered continually with an abundant crop of
short grass, which renders it a splendid field for raising stock, and for
grazing purposes.
The third region is called the high country, and is a mere desert, consisting of ridges of rocks of volcanic strata and alternate sandy plains. It
has its occasional fertile spots, it is true, but they are few and far between.
Its distinguishing features are its excessive dryness, and the extraordinary
difference of the temperature between night and day. This extremity
amounting sometimes to a variation of 40 or even 50 degrees, is modified
somewhat in the approach toward the middle region, but this outside section
is doubtless incapable of being reclaimed to any great extent by the hand
of man.* We emerged from the patch of vegetation around Fort Hall
in a few hours upon wide barren plains of yellow sandy clay, which among
its short and dry grass, bore nothing but the wild wormwood and the
prickly pear, with here and there some stunted cottonwood or willow.
We crossed the Portneuf at the distance of eleven miles from our
starting place, and still kept along the lower bank of the Saptin, the country remaining the same in its character—a desert wilderness except in the
partial vegetation on its streams. We found the evenings now getting to be
quite cold; the nipping air driving us to our camp fires and directing our
attention to extra coverlets; but the morning sun, after getting an hour high,
would give us another temperature, and till evening came again, we would
have genial summer weather.
We reached the Salmon Falls (or Fishing Falls, as they are called
from the great numbers of fish which abound in them) on the 1 1 th, after
having passed through a piece of country still the same in its barren and
volcanic character, for the distance of one hundred and forty miles from
Fort Hall. We here caught an abundance of fine salmon, and after a short
enjoyment of the sport, moved onward on our course. Our eagerness, now
that we had conquered the Rocky mountains, to get to the limit of our final
destination, was extreme.
On the 14th we arrived at Boiling Spring. The country around this
spot was wild in the extreme, the same arid, volcanic plain, flowing its
sterile billows on before us—a vast lake of barren waste, hemmed in and
bound by shores of beetling crags and towering mountains.
We were all the journey up to this point, still on the western bank of
the Snake or Saptin river, but we crossed to its eastern shore above these
springs, and followed the course of the other side. As this river is of the
same importance to the emigrant for his travel in this region, as the Great
•Mr. Wyeth saw the thermometer on the banks of Snake river, in
August, 1832, mark eighteen degrees of Fahrenheit at sunrise, and ninety-
two degrees at noon of the same day. Wilkes:    History of Oregon
65
Platte is for the Western Prairies, it is deserving of a special notcie. The
Platte is a tributary to the Missouri and unrolls its loveliness and vegetation
from the States to the base of the Rocky Mountains; while the Saptin takes
up the task on the western side of this stupendous barrier and leads the
wayfarer in the same manner along its banks, until it yields its waters to
the Columbia near Wallawalla.
Another striking feature of similarity is, that the country on either side
of the Rocky mountains is a dry and barren desert for the space of two
hundred miles. Through these sierras roll the streams of the respective rivers, trellicing the vast and naked wastes with their strips of fruitful green.
The headwaters of the Lewis, Snake or Saptin river, as it is variously
called, rise in the mountains between the 42d and 44th degree of latitude.
Thence it flows westwardly, passing through a ridge of the Blue mountains,
and so on northwestwardly to its junction with the Columbia, receiving in
its way the Malade, the Waptitacos, the Salmon River, the Malheur, the
Burnt River, Powder River, and others of less significance. Its waters
are very clear, and its current is, at some places, extreemly swift. The
rapids on it are extensive and frequent, and in consequence, the river is not
navigable, except in occasional spots of still water between.
Forty-eight miles more through deserts sprinkled writh volcanic rock,
and we struck the Boise river. We had diverged from the bank of the
Saptin into a valley stretching northwest, which brought up to the Boise.
We crossed this stream at its junction with the Saptin, and thence followed
the eastern bank of the latter for eight or nine miles, until we arrived at
Fort Boise. This was on the morning of the 20th September. For the last
twenty miles, the country had changed its character entirely. As soon as
we struck the valley of the Boise, instead of parched and sandy plains, cuf,
rock and frowning crags, our eyes were gladdened with green vales, flowering shrubs and clustering timber lands. The grateful sight was welcomed
with a common spring of joy, and our wearied and hunger pinched cattle
revelled in the luxuries of its heavy herbage.
On the 22d we left Fort Boise, and after traveling over an excellent
road for fifteen miles, we came to a creek in the latter part of the afternoon.
This we crossed without serious difficulty, and encamped upon its western
bank. Throughout this day the wind had blown quite cool from the
N. W. and we had to suffer also from an impoverished and scanty range
and a scarcity of fuel.
On the 23d we started off again with the same cutting wind that had
visited us the day before, and which staid with us over night. Our road
today was tolerably good, and after haying accomplished sixteen miles over
it, we brought our day's journey to a close on the bank of a dry creek,
111 66
Reprint Department
w>
with no water at hand, except what we found in a sort of puddle in its
bed. Two miles further on would have taken us to a good encampment,
with plenty of fine range and water, but the Indian pilot who had been
employed for us by Dr. Whitman was ahead, and out of reach with the
foremost wagons.
On the 24th we had to encounter a very hilly road, which retarded
our progress most seriously. The hills, however, were not high, neither
were they rugged or abrupt, but they were frequent and thence our difficulty.
We saw the Saptin today for the last time, for it now left our track in a
bold northward curve till it returned to the Columbia near Wallawalla.
We were able to make no more than ten miles today, encamping at the
close upon another creek called Burnt river. This stream derives its title
from the numerous fires which have consumed portions of the timber in its
banks. This consists principally of cottonwood and birch, which abound In
its valley; and these are also intermixed with aspen and willow. The
stream does not deserve the name of a river, being merely an ordinary
sized creek, but as others of less importance claim that title in this region,
it may as well be accorded to it.
September 25th we started up the line of the Burnt river. The valley
of the stream is very narrow, at some points being not more than twenty
yards across, and it is hemmed in by mountains on either side. Though
it abounds in timber, quite a safe and passable road could be made through
it by clearing out the space for a track, but to do this effectually several
crossings of the stream would have to be made. This could easily be performed in consequence of its low banks and firm bottom, but we had no
time to clear out the way, and of late, the tortuousness of the roads had so
scattered and divided o