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BC Historical Books

The Washington historical quarterly. Vol. IX Washington University State Historical Society 1918

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 &asrf)mgton iJistorical ©uarterip
Contributing Cbitorsi
Clarence B. Bagley, Seattle. W. D. Lyman, Walla Walla.
T. C. Elliott, Walla Wallas. Edward McMahon, Seattle.
Frank A.- Golder, Pullman. O. B. Sperlin^ Tacoma.
William S. Lewis, Spokane Hazard Stevens, Olympia
F. W. Howay, New Westminster, B. C.
illanaging Cbitor
EDMOND S. MEANY
Jlusttnefts Manager
CHARLES W. SMITH
VOL. IX. NO$|f JANUARY, 1918
ISSUED  QUARTERLY
Contents!
CLARENCE L. ANDREWS Alaska Whaling 'j^^^^«j^^^^^m->M.^=
LT. C. ELLIOTT. wj&^'M&^Jw.. .David Thompson's Journeys In the Spokane Country \%&\'i}£^i^^.si'J^,.f'X ..     11
VICTOR J. FARRAR.. .Si";..Pioneer and  Historical Associations  In
the State of Washington... r. iij&M,!. •     17
HENRY SCZZALLO v^ilSf..Washington War History Committees... 'i{'-'?&j.
EDMOND S. MEANY &&/. .Washington Geographic Names.SJ^^'i^.Jjjl^'
DOCUMENTS—Beginning   of   Government   Surveys — Early   Political
'   Scheme — Futile Attempt at Extradltion'^^^tSK^^r^^pS^p^V;.    S3
book RKViB^rs\^Sa^^p^^^.^pS^i^^^B^S>^^^3^te'.i   «8
NEWS  DEPARTMENT ■,t^^^^^^XM>^^^^^S^>%ii^^^&Mw'-:-.   7*
p^'THE WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY
.STATE HISTORICAL'SOCIETY
University Station W$&&
SEATTLE, WASHINGTON
Entered at the poftoffice at Seattle as second-class mail matter. Principal Articlesih the Washington Historical Quarterly
VOLUMES L and II.
(See'Issue for October, 1915)
VOLUME III.
Contribution toward a bibliography of Marcus Whitman. .Charles W. Smith
Dr. John McLoughlin and his guests..■■^tfix^^^^'f^:--' "-'' *T" c- E11Iott
Fort Colville, 1859-1869. ^-.MmM^^^W^^^W- P' WinanS
The Paciflc Ocean and the Northwest. •'sM*M@W¥M*LW&&'J' Bowman
SUffrage In the Paciflc Northwest. &^%®jffl; ■■•-• >:?&••-^Stella E. Pearce
J^erainiscences of a pioneer of^JEhe Territory of Washington .James C. Strong
History of railroads-in Washingto^^j&^^^^^%^^!(^^-» Sol H. Lewis
Walla Walla and Missoulajj^!^'-'.... '(3^^lw*a|':'T ';,T" -C" Elliott
From Missoula to Walla Walla in 1857 on horseback. 4$tf. -Frank H. Woody
The pioneer'dead of l9li^i^^#fe##^*S5^^^p/rhomas W. Prosch
VOLUME Wf^
Proposed amendments to the State Constitution of Washington^. Leo Jones
William WeVr^^^t^S^^^^|gK^^^^4«i|^^j^'^^-..--•Allen Weir
The pioneer dead of WJ^^"^|%''S^»'"i^#/'3W^^^*Tn01nas w- Proscn
A survey of Alaska,. 17*3-1799.. ...|^^^^^S^^^^r<:.Frank A. Golder
Washington Territory.fifty years ago. .ii^^WMg^^^;^.Thomas W. Prosch
Early Days at White Salmon and The Dalles..... .Camilla Thomson DonHMfc
:Ea$y relations of the Sandwich Islands to the Old Oregon Territry:';   '*
JteJ^Wfe'*>i»V?^^^|- • •• *j^^fi.'r%i3^^s^^^S%# fr*^uy Vernon Bennett
Independence Day in the Far Northwest... .g&^^rfjffiK.George W. Soliday
The Story of the Three Olympic Peaks ^J&^*SwSm>4M^ • Edmond S. Meany
Stories and sketches from Pacific County vf;fi^£®JSjP* .Isaac H. Whealdon
Origin of the Constitution of the State of Wastingtonte^. .Lebbeus J. Knapp
VOLUME V.  .
George wilkRS^^fe^^^;^^<^^^^^^^^3,'^^SaClarence B. Bagley
The Indians of Puget Soii"n^rf^Sfc^|^^v^^^^^^^CvLewis H. St. John
Pioneer dead of 1913 . .. ,*^0^^^^&i^^^^l£0f^Mhoma.s W. Prosch
American and Indian Treatment of the Indians of the Paciflc Northwest. ..'•.•'•^•5^-'-'-.-H^^^^^%^^^M^^*^S^.W. Ji -Trimble
The Columbia River under Hudson's Bay Company Rule...C. O. Ermatinger
Three Diplomats Prominent in the Oregon Question,ig||'- .Edmond S. Meany
History of the Liquor Laws of the State of Washington.. Anna Sloan Walker
Divorce in Washington..^'f^^&j^^^^^f^0--^t:> >:■ ■ .Ralph R. Knapp
The West and American Ideals. ■ • >*m§»»«!»SSPkW*Frederick :Ji%*urner
Eliza and the Nez Perce Indians..'^Wii^^?^^0^mi}li^7-'*.'•'■ .Edwin Bella-:
VOLUME VI.
The Pur Trade ip the Columbia River'Basin Prior to 1811;...^ T  C  Elliott
The Pioneer Dead of MHJ@ga^$ ffi CjS&fii?*homas W.' Prosch
Pioneer and Historical Societies of Washington.MiM&l--.. .Victor J. Farr**
From Salem, Oregon, to Seattle, Washington, in i859:"|Ittiif.Ptllis B Ward
Rights of the Puget Sound Indians to Game and Fish. .Charles M. Buchanan
The Last Stand of the Nez Perces *S^«»pyife&'•    I Nelson C   Titus
Organizers of the First Government in Oregon. .m&.'.,'.-■.George H Himes
A Survivor of Four Wars...:..'.. ^.Junius Thomas"Turner
Pione     I °t E3 Me FCer Bxl>edltlon8 • • • • I • | Mm F1°ra A. P. Engle
Pioneer Hotel Keepers of Puget SoundiMi;.. 'S32$S& w  B  Sevmore
Jason Lee. JK:;  • ■.■■£$¥$?$&£$$ i C   »', B-°e^more
.'-*-, ^*^v-r-f^SsyV*,-• 'vip'SsfeSagavv...-.. John Martin Canse Wfyt ^asfjmgton Hfetottcal ©uarterfp
1918
VOLUME   IX.
THE   WASHINGTON   UNIVERSITY
STATE   HISTORICAL   SOCIETY
University Station
SEATTLE,  WASHINGTON HR
tog ^agijtngton Historical <&uarterlp
Contributing Cottons
Clarence B. Bagley, Seattle. W. D. Lyman, Walla Walla.
T. C. Elliott, Walla Walla. Edward McMahon, Seattle.
Frank A. Golder, Pullman. O. B. Sperlin, Tacoma.
William S. Lewis, Spokane Hazard Stevens, Olympia
F. W. Howay, New Westminster, B. C.
jdanagmg Cbitot
EDMOND S. MEANY
IBu&int&i iflanager
CHARLES W. SMITH
VOL. IX. NO. 1 JANUARY, 1918
ISSUED   QUARTERLY
Contents
CLARENCE L. ANDREWS. . .. Alaska Whaling     3
T. C. ELLIOTT David Thompson's Journeys in the Spokane Country  11
VICTOR J. FARRAR Pioneer and Historical Associations  in
the State of Washington  17
HENRY SUZZALLO Washington War History Committees  28
EDMOND S. MEANY Washington Geographic Names  26
DOCUMENTS—Beginning   of   Government   Surveys — Early   Political
Scheme — Futile Attempt at Extradition  A3
BOOK  REVIEWS      68
NEWS  DEPARTMENT     79
THE WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY
STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY
University Station
SEATTLE, WASHINGTON
Entered at the postoffice at Seattle as second-class mail matter.  Vol. IX., No. 1
January, 1918
||1
l^aglnngton Jpfetortcal ©uarterlp
ALASKA WHALING
In the waters of Alaska there are several kinds of whale—the
sperm, howhead, right, humpback, finback, blue or sulphur bottom,
beluga or white whale, and killer or orca.1 The right whale is one of
the most valuable; as it yields both bone of the best quality, and oil.
It is found in temperate waters in the Pacific Ocean, south of the
main part of Alaska. The bowhead is an Arctic whale and is found
along the margin of the ice of the polar sea or in Bering Sea. It
much resembles the right whale, and is valuable for the same products.
The sperm yields both sperm and oil which were formerlly highly
prized but in recent years they have greatly decreased in value. The
range of the sperm is along the lower coasts of the mainland and
islands. The humpback, finback, and sulphur bottom are found
on the same grounds as the sperm. The killer is found from Bering
Sea southward and the beluga frequents the coasts and the mouths
of the rivers from Cook Inlet to the Kotzebue Sound. The right
whale was One of the most desired during the height of the whaling
prosperity, but it has been so nearly exterminated that at the
whaling stations during the past two years but one right whale has
been taken out of a total of 859, notwithstanding the fact that
the Akutan station is at the western side of what was once one of the
greatest of the right whaling grounds of the world. Bone in the jaw
of the right whale is reported to have been taken of an extreme length
of 17 feet, and is, ordinarily, of eight or nine feet. One of the
largest of these whales would yield from 2,500 to 3,000 pounds of
bone, and some of the largest produce 250 barrels of oil. The sperm
whale is not so large and the yield of oil is seldom over 100 barrels.2
The blue whale is the largest of the animals captured at the stations,
being taken of as great length as 80 to 100 feet and weighing from
Hn addition to these there is taken at Akutan a small whale, resembling the finback, called the sie whale. In the Arctic near Point Barrow
the Eskimo kill a smaller 'whale than the bowhead known to them as the
ing-ah-took, which is considered by them to be a separate species.
2Starbuck, History of American Whale Fishery, pp. 155-157.
(3) Clarence L. Andrews
80 to 100 tons. The finback is taken in the greatest number, in 1915
numbering 239 out of a total catch of 470.
The waters of the North Pacific Ocean, along the Alaskan shores
from Kodiak to the Arctic Ocean, ranked at one time among the
greatest whaling grounds of the world. The earliest visitors, to these
waters note the abundance of these animals, and when the Billings
expedition sailed there in 1790, the number of whales is made a subject
of mention by both chroniclers of the voyage. Sauer says, "Whales
are in amazing numbers about the straits of the islands, and in the
vinicity of Kadiak." Sarychef records, "During the whole night the
whales swam round our ship, and perpetually occasioned, by their
violent lashing of the waves, a report very similar to that from the
discharge of a cannon."
The natives of the country gained a large part of their livelihood
from the pursuit, and manifested much hardihood in the capture of
the different kinds of whales. The chase was invested with much
superstition, both by the Aleutians and the Eskimo. Certain ceremonies were observed, particular care being taken as to the weapons
used, and much dependence was placed in charms and medicine.
Among the Aleutians even human bodies were stolen and secreted
to give the possessors good fortune in the hunt.8 The Kodiak whalers
used a harpoon with a slate head which detached from the handle
and remained in the wound, causing death, after which the carcass
was towed or drifted with the tide to the shore. The Eskimos used
harpoons of fine workmanship equipped with heads of ivory and slate;
and floats were attached to impede the progress of the animal. The
taking of a whale was an occasion of great rejoicing among the native
inhabitants.
The history of the whaling by civilized nations in Alaska is a
story of the larger part of a century. Since the first ship entered
the Pacific Ocean, in 1790, and returned with a catch of 139 tons of
sperm oil, the whalers, have worked northward. The War of 1812
stopped the progress for a time, but in 1822 they had reached the
coast of Japan. The Kodiak grounds, sometimes called the Northwest
Coast Right Whaling Grounds, were first brought to notice by a
Nantucket whaler, Captain Barzillar Folger, of the ship Ganges, who
cruised to those grounds in 1835; and they soon became the most important in the North Pacific.
From 1835 to 1889 the whaling grounds in the Pacific Ocean
north of 50° north latitude were the greatest in existence and produced
• • ^^t^ff^WSS^i^^S^ in the Year 1803< I ■» -d 6, Alaska Whaling
sixty per cent, of the oil secured by the American fleet, amounting
to 3,994,397 barrels. The principal localities were discovered by
Americans between 1845 and 1848 and were largely controlled by
them, few foreign vessels being engaged there. At its height, in 1846,
292 ships sailed north of the 50th parallel. At this time the ocean
was alive with ships; from the masthead the lookout in the height of
the season might count s.eventy or eighty sail, and from many of these
the black smoke denoted that they were boiling their oil-pots.4
The Russians in the Colonies took notice of the coming of the
American and English whalers to these waters and protested against
their acts, as in coming into these seas they considered the foreigners
were intruding on their domain. In addition the whalers at times
landed and took property and food from the caches of the inhabitants,
both Russian and native. Protests being unavailing, they attempted
to enter the fishery. A company entitled the Russian-Finland Whaling Company was organized under a charter dated December 13, 1850.
At the port of Abo, Finland, a ship, called the Suomi, was built, which
made a successful cruise. Two other ships, the Turko, and the
Ayan, were placed in the trade, but with indifferent success. The
Crimean War interfered with their operations; after the war the
enterprise was not prosecuted with vigor, and was finally abandoned.5
In 1848 Captain Royce passed through Bering Strait with the
bark Superior, of Sag Harbor, and had a very successful cruise in the
Arctic Ocean. The high latitude was favorable in some ways, enabling
the work to be followed night and day, and the first whale was taken
at midnight. Within the next three years 250 ships obtained cargoes
in those waters8; but all were not successful, for in 1854, 30 ships of
a fleet of 50 vessels in the Arctic Ocean were reported to have returned
without a drop of oil. The first whalers were said to have passed to
the east of Point Barrow in August, of 1854, and to have returned
about September of that year. Later they equipped for a stay of
from one to three years in the Arctic, and in more recent years
Herschel Island became a favorite rendezvous for wintering.
Whaling vessels have a crow's-nest at the masthead for the lookout, who is constantly on the watch for whales. It is of canvas, made
rounding to enclose and protect the inmate, painted to exclude the
wind, and in it the men stand their watch from sun to sun in periods
of two hours each.    When the spout of the whale is seen they send
*Starbuck, History of the American Whale Fishery.
oTikhmenef, Historical Sketch of the Russian American Company, pp.
129 et seq.
Petrof's Report (10th Census, 1890), pp. 350 et seq.
eStarbuck, op. cit., p. 98. In 1849 the Arctic catch sold for $3,419,622.
Spears, Story of the New England Whalers, p. 324. Clarence L. Andrews
the word below, "There she blows." When whaling was done from
the sailing ships the boats were lowered away, and a race ensued to
see which could first fasten to the prize. If they were successful in
fastening the iron, the whale frantically endeavored to escape either
by sounding to the depths of the sea or by plunging ahead at a speed
estimated to be as great as twenty-five miles an hour at times. The
immense strength of the great brutes may be imagined from the record
of a steamer of the Akutan fishery which struck a blue whale near
the tail with a bomb harpoon which fastened and exploded but did
not disable the animal. The wounded whale towed the steamer at
the rate of four miles an hour from 5 p.m. until 9 a.m. of the
following day, although the propeller of the ship was kept going
reversed at half speed during the entire time. The crews paid out the
line to allow the whale to sound, or held fast and to let it tow the
boat until they could approach closely enough to "put the lance into
its life," as they termed the final thrust into the vitals. Some whales
fought viciously, different kinds varying in their resistance, and individuals of the same kind differing as do other animals in their fighting
qualities. When killed, the prize was brought alongside the ship, the
blubber cut away and hoisted on deck, and the head taken on board to
save the bone which was contained in the upper jaw. When the
whalers first came to Alaskan waters the killing was done with ;the
hand lance, but soon the whaling gun came into use. In modern
whaling it is done with a bomb gun which fires an explosive charge
into the vitals of the animal calculated to kill him instantly. From
the sailing ships and whale boats with lances, the method has changed
to steam-propelled craft with swivel guns mounted on deck, and the
larger number of whales are now captured from boats operated from
shore stations. Even the Eskimos in the Arctic, when whaling from
their skin oomiaks, use guns which contain an explosive charge. These
are of two kinds: one fired from the shoulder, the other thrown after
the manner of a harpoon, and called a darting gun.
Whaling, at its best, was an uncertain and dangerous employment.
The quick profits and the excitement of the pursuit led men to
take great risks. When the ships began to hover the edge of the
Arctic ice to secure their prey the business was on the decline. At
the beginning of the Civil War the fleet was still of enough importance to attract the attention of Confederate privateers, and no
less than fifty vessels were destroyed during the war. The Shenandoah
steamed into the whaling grounds of Bering Sea in 1865, and, as the
whalers of that day were sailing ships, easily captured and set them
on fire.    The smoke of the burning ship attracted other vessels, which, Alaska Whaling 7
thinking to render assistance, approached and thus became easy
Victims. She captured and burned thirty-two ships, and captured and
bonded three others as transports.7 During the war forty of the fleet
were purchased and loaded with stone, taken to the harbors of Charles-
town and Savannah, and sunk to prevent vessels entering these ports.8
In 1871 the greatest disaster of the sea occurred to the fleet in
the Arctic Ocean when thirty-four ships were crushed by the ice near
Point Belcher on the Arctic Coast. During that season forty-two
whalers gathered at the edge of the ice-pack, and in August most of
them entered the lane of water that had opened between the land and
the ice while the wind was off shore. The whales were plentiful and
the ships were being rapidly filled with bone and oil; but on the 15th
the wind changed to the westward and the pack penned them against
the shore. On the 25th the wind again changed and drove the ice to
sea a few miles. The Eskimos came and begged the whalers to
go, telling them that when the ice came in it would not again go out.
A few ships, heeded the warning, but most were too deeply engrossed
in the pursuit of the bowhead, and for four days the work went on.
Then the wind shifted to the southwest, lightly at first, increasing to
a gale, and the great ice-field that reached across the Siberian shore
came moving in like a vast continent. On the 2d of September the
brig Comet was crushed and her crew barely made their escape to
another ship. On the 7th the bark Roman, while cutting a whale,
was caught between two immense floes off the Sea Horse Islands,
crushed, and raised out of the water. Then the ice parted and she
sank out of sight, while her crew fled for their lives. The next day
the Awashonks met a similar fate. There was no sign that the ice
would open again that season. Consultations were held from day to
day by the captains of the remaining ships, and three boats were sent
along the shore to find out how far the ice extended, and what chance
there was, if any, to escape. Captain D. R. Frazer was in charge of
this party, and he returned on the 12th and reported that it was entirely
impracticable to get any of the main body of the fleet out of the ice;
and that there were ships eighty miles down the coast in the clear sea
below the Blossom Shoals. On the 14th of September orders were
given to abandon the ships. At noon the flags were set at the masthead of every ship, union down, and all on board, among whom were
the wives and children of some of the officers, entered the whale-boats
and made their way through the narrow strip of open water along the
70n May 27th, 1865, the "Shanondoah" began taking prizes in Bering
Sea, and by the end of June had captured 24 whalers and one trader.
Ibid., p. 384.
8lbid., p. 102. 8 Clarence L. Andrews
coast. On the afternoon of the second day the refugees reached the
ships below the Blossom Shoals and were stowed away on the seven
vessels that lay at anchor at that place. Of the whole number, 1217
persons, who left the ships, not one was lost on the journey, and in
October all safely reached Honolulu.9 The financial loss in ships and
equipment was over two millions of dollars.
The fishery was continued with 27 vessels in 1872, and this was
increased to 29 in 1873; but in 1876 misfortune again visited them,
and 12 of the fleet were destroyed near the same place. Several lives
were lost through exposure and hardships endured, and 53 men stayed
among the Eskimo during the winter.10 The ships so abandoned were
valued at $442,000, and the bone and oil on board amounted to the
sum of $375,000. Some of the ships were carried into the Arctic with
the ice-pack, and this fact gave rise to strange stories of phantom
vessels drifting to and fro in the mysterious northern ice-fields.
In 1898 the four ships, Orca, Jessie M. Freeman, Rosario, and
Navarch, were crushed by the ice near Point Barrow. A whaling
station had been established at Cape Smythe, and the shipwrecked men
reached this refuge. Captain Tilton, mate of the Belvedere, one of
the ice-bound ships, made his way along the coast southward to ask
for aid. He succeeded in his quest, but meantime the Government
had despatched a relief expedition under the command of Lieutenant
D. H. Jarvis of the United States Revenue Marine. Accompanied by
Lieutenant Bertholf and Dr. Call of the same service, Jarvis left the
Bear at Bristol Bay and made his way overland to Cape Prince of
Wales, meeting Captain Tilton at St. Michaels. At Cape Prince of
Wales the reindeer herds at that place were secured, and, with the
assistance of Mr. W. T. Lopp and his native herders, they were driven
slbid., p. 103; San Francisco Bulletin, Nov. 6, 1871. But one ship survived the winter of the whole number abandoned this year. In the summer
of 1877 the "Minerva" was found afloat in Wainwright Inlet, safe and sound.
—Spears, Story of the New England Whalers, p. 408.
lOThe Fisheries and Fish Industries of the United States (Washington,
Government Printing Office, 1887), p. 84. There have been many stories told
of the ships that went off to the Arctic with the understanding that the
crews were on board the vessels. This does not seem to be true, as the
account of Captain Barnes of the bark "Sea Breeze" says "The men that
spent the winter among the natives report most kind treatment. ' They say,
however, that occasionally they had to flee from one house to another, when
the Inmates of the first were on a drunken frolic, as at such times they
could not be sure of their lives. A few years ago these people did not know
$™J*lt£l lnt°xi°atlne liquors."—Ibid., p. 77; and, "Several men perished
£5™, ?osure.in journeying from one beleaguered vessel to another appar-
?« -J*L e s,afe* tnd ma?7 died on the toilsome, perilous march and voyage
to the rescuing ships.    Many more preferred to stay by the ships and risk
tSe n™Ce,ST,Sf ?Z7*VitiB aurinSthe terriWe Arctic winter! tra^suminS
the nearer, and, to them, apparently no less dangerous alternative of an
amon^hl n!?fvP£ Three h"ndred ™en escaped, Ind fifty-three r^mamed
whitef- SS« of%.0-„-. I °nly, ^°.?f the abandoned vessels survived the
sVptembe? 1817 * ThiTaSrAU/ned-,,by ^e natives and the other was lost in
?£?IV? ' 1817i—Ibid., p. 84. The most authentic accounts do not indicate
that the crew of any ship went away into the Arctic and was lost. m<"Cate Alaska Whaling
9
to Point Barrow as provisions for the whalers. Fortunately no loss of
life ensued, and the following year all returned in safety.11
The off-shore fleet continued to decrease until 1913, when it was
the lowest on record in the history of the industry, there being but
three vessels, the whole catch returned amounting to but 32,430 gallons
of sperm oil, valued at $12,072. This was taken by the Gay Head.
The remaining two vessels contributed nothing. The Belvedere was
frozen in the ice and compelled to remain in the Arctic, while the
Elvira capsized and became a total loss. In 1914, five vessels took
35,000 pounds of bone valued at $26,250; during 1915 and 1916 the
results have been so insignificant that the reports of the fisheries take
no cognizance of them.12
There are at present two shore stations, in Alaska at which whales
are taken. One of these is at Port Armstrong on Baranoff Island, the
other on Akutan Island. The shore stations operate by sending out
small swift steamers equipped with a bomb gun mounted at the bow
with which the animals are killed. The whales are then towed to
the station, where they are converted into oil and fertilizer. The system is a great advantage over the old off-shore whaling methods, where
all the carcase was thrown away except the oil and whalebone. The
shore stations are efficient and expeditious, and economize against waste.
An 80-ton whale can be cut up to the last fragment and put in the
-■boiling vats in half a day. The investment in the shore stations in
1916 amounted to $1,091,471. During that year 233 persons were
employed and the product was valued at $363,721.1S
The future of the fishery points to but on conclusion, namely, the
reduction of the animals to that point below which it is unprofitable to
hunt them. No business that takes from a public stock without a
restraint upon the amount taken, and that kills promiscuously males
and females from the herd, will continue. In whaling both male and
female are killed, gravid females included; thus not only the breeding
females but also the unborn young are destroyed.    The low price of
nCruise of the U. S. Revenue Cutter Bear and the Overland Expedition
(Washington, Government Printing Office, 1899). Tilton was accompanied
by an Eskimo and his wife who had come with him from Point Hope.
Charlie Artisarlook, an Eskimo of Cape Prince of Wales, who gave his herd
of deer to be driven to Point Barrow, and who went with them to drive, is
entitled to mention. Also Taotuk, another of the Eskimo reindeer men who
accompanied Mr. Lopp to drive the deer. Taotuk is now a wealthy reindeer
man of Seward Peninsula, near Nome, Alaska. There were 275 men at the
station of the Cape Smythe Trading & Whaling Co., and there was but one
death after the arrival of the relief party.
i2Reports of Alaska Fisheries for 1913, 14, 15, 16.
i3ld.,  (1916).  DAVID THOMPSON'S JOURNEYS IN THE SPOKANE
COUNTRY
It has been indicated in the earlier articles of this series (for
which see Vol. 8 of the Washington Historical Quarterly) that David
Thompson was the first white man of whose travels through the Spokane Country there is any written record; and it is this record which
designates the location of the principal trails or roads used by the
Indians before the white man came. One favorite meeting place
for the Indians at that time was the triangular flat lying between the
Spokane and the Little Spokane Rivers, nine or ten miles northwest of
the present city of Spokane. The main river was then known as the
Skeetshoo River, at least as far as the junction of the two streams,
and Spokane House, which was the first trading post erected and
used by white men in the entire state of Washington, was situated on
this flat.
When traveling from the falls or "chutes" of the Spokane River
to the Colville Valley the Indians were not accustomed to follow the
present line of road northward by way of Loon Lake but kept to the
westward across Five Mile Prairie to Spokane House. There the Little
Spokane was • forded at its mouth and the trail kept on to Tumtum,
and then cut acros the hills north and westward to Chimakaine Creek,
and thence northeast to the head of the Colville River near Spring-
dale. This route, the writer has been informed, was the first used
by wagons and stage between Spokane and Colville and is still much
used, with deviation from Spokane over the Northwest Boulevard
and the water grade by way of Nine Mile Bridge.
From Springdale the Indians continued down the Colville Valley on the west side of the River. The main objective point was Kettle Falls, where in the proper season the Indians maintained the
most romantic salmon fishery of the entire Columbia River. The
number of fish caught there was enormous and the manner of catching was peculiar. Spears were also used, of course, but the main
catch was by means of baskets hung from the end of poles across
and close to the falls, into which the fish dropped after a vain attempt
to swim up through the water running over the ledge or reef forming
the falls. These baskets were constructed of hazel or birch osiers
woven together with withes and roots. The name attached to these
falls in David Thompson's time was Ilth-koy-ape, pronounced with a
deep gutteral and with a slight accent on the middle syllable, derived
(11) 12
T. C. Elliott
from two Salish words, Uth-kape, meaning "kettle," and hoy-ape,
meaning "net." The word was intended to describe the place where
fish were caught in the net or basket kettle.
Those parts of the David Thompson Journals reproduced herewith contain his account of two journeys from Spokane House to
Ilthkoyape in the year 1811. The first journey was in June immediately after his arrival at Spokane House from the headwaters of the
Columbia River by way of the Kootenai and Pend Oreille Rivers.
(See Washington Historical Quarterly, Volume 8.) He was then on
his way to the mouth of the Columbia River. His knowledge of the
Spokane and Colville Valleys had been obtained from the Indians,
from his two clerks, Finan McDonald and Jaco Finlay, and from
some of his former canoemen who had settled and intermarried in the
region and were trapping on their own account. These men were
French-Canadians or half-breeds.
The water in all streams was exceedingly high in 1811, and
that fact renders it difficult to identify some of the creeks crossed by
Mr. Thompson on the first journey. This condition compelled him
to cross over to the east side of the Colville Valley and make use of
the higher trail coming from the Calispell district across the mountains between the Colville and the Pend Oreille Rivers.
Mr. Thompson uses the figure eight written horizontally for the
word "across," and a circle with dot in the center to represent the
sun.
Mr. 3. A. Meyers, of Meyers Falls, has rendered valuable assistance in preparing these annotations.
Beginning with June 17, 1811, Mr. Thompson's journal reads as
follows;
[1811]
June 17th.
Monday. A very hot day, like those past. Sent Tobacco to the 4
Chiefs of the Skeetshoo1 & the Chief of the Shaw pa tins2 to desist
from war on the Teck a ner gons8 & to make Provisions, also to
hold themselves ready for the war on the Peagons4 by next September.
Not being able to find the horses till late we did not set off till 8 3/4
a. m., when we returned down the river the same way we came, abt.
iThe Coeur d'Alene Indians.
2The Nez Perce Indians.
sThe Okanogan Indians.
the ^^^^^^^^1^^^ * -mmon menace to all David Thompson's Journeys
13
300 yds below the place of the Kullyspel5 Road, we went up the
Banks to the Ilth Koy ape9 Road at 9% a. m., and held on abt. N. 20
W. to 11V2 a- ,m- 9 miles, when we baited at a small rill, having again
come upon the River & followed it near a mile.7 The River here
turns off abt. S. S. W., constant strong current. At 1.50 P. M. set
off & held on till 5 P. M., the Men at 6 P. M. Say N. 10 to 20 W.
10 M. here 2 Roads separated, we took the left & go off abt. N. 50
W. to a Brook8 1 M. & camped. Very many Musketoes & very troublesome. The Brook is abt. 4 yds cc killed an old Horse, bought of
Buche for Food. The Road of this Morning cuts a large Point of
the Spokane River, we then leave it entirely and go straight for the
Columbia River,—the Road of the morning good but hilly, the soil
sandy, rocky & much small gravel at times. Woods only of Cypress,9
red Fir & Fir Pine, along the River Poplar & Aspin, but not in quantities :—in the afternoon Wood of Red Pine, with Fir Pine & Cypress.
The first part hilly & rocky, then tolerable level & much of it along
a Brook that runs on our left & joins the one we camped on somewhere before us I should suppose, perhaps not. Observed Merid.
Altde. of Mars, 40° 44%' but the Star was falling, it may serve as
a good guess.    Lat. 48° 4' 4" N. Decn. 21. 37. 24. S.
June 18th
Tuesday. A morning of much Thunder & Lightning with a little Rain.
At ty% a. m. set off. Michel Alloric paid us a visit for a few minutes. We went abt. N. 50 W. % M. & recrossed the Brook10 of yesterday eveng., then 2% M. to another Brook, crossed it to the westd.
cc 4 yds., held on say 1% M., crossed a bold Brook in 2 Branches,
say 8 yds. cc, iy2 M. to the Indians, where we traded 1% Sacks of
Roots & crossed the Brook of 3 yds. cc then N. 80 W 3 M. to the
Tent to Reve,11 & 4 Tents of Indians. Here we baited the Horses
at liy2 a. m., at 1.50 P. M. set off & held on abt. N. 60 E., say
a Brook of 3 yds. cc directly then 6 m., a Brook12 of 6 Yds, cc then
BThe trail leading north to Calispell Lake and the camas meadows between that Lake and the Pend Oreille River.
«The trail leading to Kettle Falls.
7At present Tumtum; consult any map of Stevens County for this road
and camping place.
8Chimakaine Creek (Tshimakain).
sTamarac.
loChimakaine Creek again. Beyond this he evidently crossed several
streams forming head of Colville River, and Deer Creek in two branches.
uProbably Francois Rivet, a French-Canadian, and afterward for many
years an interpreter for the North-West Company and the Hudson's Bay
Company. He settled in the Willamette Valley during the forties and died
on a donation land claim there. His daughter became the wife of Peter
Skene Ogden.
i2Probably Smith or Dunn Creek. 14
T. C. Elliott
-L. 3 M. a Brook18 of 6 yds. cc deep, put up at 5 P. M. Killed 1
Curlew, 1 Pigeon & 1 large Partridge; fine Ground all day & all
the Brooks we crossed are from the left to the right & the Road
always following down in the direction of the main Brook. Obsd.
Mars. Merid. Altde. 40° 12y2 OG. The ground of the day seems
very fit for cultivation, black deep mould & the higher Ground a kind
of black gray greasy Earth. Woods as yesterday, mostly all red Fir.
Latde. 48° 20' 42" N. Decn 21° 36' 41" S.
June 19
Wednesday. A fine day, tho' a few smart showers of Rain in the
Afternoon. At 5% a. m. set off & held on abt. N. 20 W. say 5 M.,
iy2 M. gone, crossed a Brook to 7 A. M., the Men at 7*4 a. m., here
I sent Michel for a Canoe to cross us over the Main Brook,1* which we
got done by 9% a. m. ready to set off. Paid for Roots & Fish 12 In.
of Tob. Gave for the use of the Canoe 6 In. do., traded 22 Rats,
at 9.40 a. m. set off Co. abt. N. 30 W. 8 M. 11-3/4 a.m. when we
baited the horses, near 2 Tents of Hoy koy ape Indians. Abt. 3 M.
gone we crossed a Brook15 of 6 Yds. cc At 1-3/4 P. M. set off &
held on abt. N. 20 W. 3 M., crossed a bold Brook16 of 12 yds. cc
then N. 40 W. 2 M., crossed another Brook17 6 yds cc also from the
Northd. they both in a short distce. join the Main Brook W. 20 N.
■abt. 6 M. to the Ilth Koy ape Fall & Indians on the Banks of thje
Columbia. Thank kind Heaven for this safe voyage. Here we
■camped as we are now to make Canoes for the rest of our Voyage.
In August David Thompson again reached Spokane House, having returned from Astoria by way of Snake River and the trail from
the mouth of the Palouse River; and almost immediately set out for
Kettle Falls again. He was to build new canoes and ascend the Columbia River through the Arrow Lakes and thus complete his survey
of the entire River that year. His second journey was over nearly
the same trail as the first and is. for the most part confirmatory. The
-text of the original journal is very much faded and is difficult to decipher and there are seeming contradictions in both these excerpts
which cannot be clearly explained.
isProbably Stranger Creek.
presen^town'of Arden!* ^ C°1VUle RiV6r "»* thlS cr0ssln^ was near the
lKThe Little Pend Oreille River.
16MI11 Creek, after baiting the horses on present site of Colville
i7A slough from the Colville River, draining Spanish Prairie. David Thompson's Journeys
15
Beginning with August 14, 1811, the journal reads:
[1811]
Aug. 14th.
Wednesday. A fine day, much Indian business & arranging the Furrs
&c. for to take the acct. of do. They catch but few Salmon & those of
a poor quality.    Merid. Altde. of O LL. 117° 30' W. 112° 58 V. G.
Aug. 15th.
Thursday.   A fine day.   Sent Michel to the Saleesh18 River.   Several
Kullyspells arrived.   Finished the acct. of the Furrs &c.
Obs. 0 LL. 112° 21' G.  Latde. 47-47-2m.   Decn. 14-11-3W.
Aug. 16th.
Friday. A fine day. Many of the Indians, mostly Skeetshoo, went
away. Put our things in order to go off the Morrow & arranging
many little matters.    Acct. of the Goods &c. &c.'
Aug. 17th
Saturday. A blowy cloudy day. Early began arranging, but it was
\y± p.m. before the men could get off, before the Horses could be
found &c. Our baggage &c. is on 3 Horses. At sy2 p.m. set off,
having waited Michel. Co. by the Compass down the Spokane River
N. W. 8 m. to the place where we baited formerly in June, here we
camped19 at 5-1/3 p. m. Killed 2 Ducks, & 1 pigeon. We have with-
us 32 lbs of Salmon dried.
Aug. 18th
Sunday. A fine day. at 6-3/4 a. m. set off & held on up the Banks
& by 9 a.m. below the banks at the Brook.20 Co. by the © N. 10 W.;
4% m. there is a plain. At 10 a. m. crossed a brook 2X of 2 yds. cc
that goes to the Spokane River. Co. N. 30 W. 2 m. then to noon
crossing a Ridge of Knowls to a Brook of 1 yd. cc that runs to the
North.22 Co. N. 20 W. 4 m. baited the Horses at 2.10 p. m. Set
off. Co. W. 14 m- UP a mil which came from S. 30 W. 3 m. Co. N.
10 E. 6I/2 m. to a Brook from Wd. to N. E. -f- y2 m. to a large Brook,
Co. do. to N. ed. 5 yds. cc Co. N. 15 E. 3 m. to a Brook at which we
isThe Pend Oreille River. David Thompson applied this name Saleesh
to the River running from the Saleesh or Flathead Lake clear through to
the Columbia River.    A "South Branch" came from the Bitter Root Valley.
isTumtum, Stevens County, Washington.
20Chimakaine Creek.
2iCompare with entry of June 17th, prox. Mr. Thompson evidently took
the right hand road this time, to neighborhood of Springdale, crossing a
small creek flowing into Chimakaine Creek on the way.
220ne of the small creeks at head of Colville River. 16
T. C. Elliott
camped at 6-3/4 p. m. the last 1 m. nearly down along the Brook,28
Michel joined us.
Aug. 19th.
Monday. Froze to Ice this morning. A fine day. At 7 a. m. set off,
Co. N. 30 E. zy2 m., a Rill, Co. N. 20 E. 2*4 m. to a Brook, Co.
North 6 m. to a Rill, baited at 11% a- m-> tne lftst s m- we nave
been along a considerable Brook.24 2 p. m. set off, Co. N. 10 E. 2 m.
to a Rile from S. Wd., Co. N. 10 E. 2 m., passed a Brook2B of 3 yds.
cc Co. N. 8*4 m. to where we crossed in a Canoe in June. Co. North
6 m. & put up at 7 p. m. Bon Vieux26 in company. We keep on the
So. Side of the Brook.27
Aug. 20th
Tuesday. A fine day. Froze to Ice this morning. At 6-3/4 a. m.
set off, Co. N. 10 W. 3 m. Co. N. 40 W. 5 m. to where we crossed
the Root Brook,28 the crossing place29 is good, & quite shoal, say 1 ft.'
of water, in this Co. is 2 Rills,80 abt. 1 m. -j- 1 m. beyond the crossing
place. Co. N. W. %y2 m. to the Ilthkoyape Falls on the Columbia
at 1 p.m. thank Heaven. The Ilthkoyape & Cochenawyer81 Indians
gave us a dance & made me a present of Berries & dried Salmon, for
which I laid down Tob. & other things to the amount of 32 Skins. 8
Spokanes with us.
T. C. Elliott.
23impossible   to   identify   these   streams,   but   the   camp   probably   on
Huckleberry Creek.
24Probably Dunn Creek.
25Probably Strenger Creek.
26Jacques Hoole.    See Vol. 8 of this Quarterly.
27That is, on the west and south side of the Colville River.    This camp
just west of present city of Colville. '
28His usual designation for the Colville River.
29Just above Meyers Falls.
soOne of these was Gold Creek.
3iThat is, the Okanogan Indians. PIONEER AND HISTORICAL SOCIETIES OF THE STATE
OF WASHINGTON
According to a policy established in 1915, a survey of the pioneer
and historical societies within the State is given each year in the January number of The Washington Historical Quarterly. The exact
number of such societies is not known, but after a diligent search
extending over a period of three years the results compiled below-
give twenty-nine organizations. Of this number seven can be called
state societies, and of these seven, two are national in scope. The
remaining twenty-two are local in character: One of these, the
Yakima Columbia Association, is distinctly memorial, having for its
object the care and preservation of the old St. Joseph's Mission in the
Ahtanum Valley. It may be said herewith that no attempt has been
made to include such well-known societies as The Mountaineers, Sons
of the American Revolution, Daughters of the American Revolution,
and other organizations whose contributions to historical endeavor
need no advertisement.
State at Large
Pioneer Association op the State of Washington. Pioneer
Hall, Seattle. Founded October 23, 1883, at Olympia. Membership
requirements: A residence on the Pacific Coast forty years prior to
date of application. There are 800 members. Annual meeting, first
week in June at the headquarters. Officers: Edmond S. Meany, Seattle, president; Henry C. Comegys, Snohomish, vice-president; W. V.
Rinehart, Sr., Seattle, secretary; W. M. Calhoun, Seattle, treasurer;
F. H. Winslow, M. R. Maddocks, James McCombs, W. H. Pumphrey,
Leander Miller, trustees.
Women's Pioneer Auxiliary of the State of Washington.
An auxiliary society to the Pioneer Association of the State of Washington. Pioneer Hall, Seattle. Founded August, 1911. Membership
requirements: Women who have had a residence in the State (Territory) prior to 1889. There are four meetings each year. Officers:
Mrs. Gardner Kellogg, Seattle, president.
Washington State Historical Society. Tacoma: 401 North
Cliff Avenue. Founded October 8, 1891. Membership requirements:
Any citizen of the State. Officers: Henry Hewitt, Jr., Tacoma, president; Hazard Stevens, Olympia, vice-president; W. P. Bonney, Tacoma, secretary; William H. Dickson, Tacoma, treasurer.    Curators:
(17) 18 Victor J. Farrar
Edward Meath, P. G. Hubbell, C. S. Barlow, Walter S. Davis, Thomas
Huggins, of Tacoma; John Arthur, Harry M. Painter, of Seattle; J.
M. Canse, Bellingham; Walter L. Granger, Zillah; L. F. Jackkson,
Pullman; W. B. Lyman, Walla Walla; Mrs. Henry W. Patton,
Hoquiam; Charles H. Ross, Puyallup; W. D. Vincent, Spokane; J.
H. Perkins, Colfax.
Washington University State Historical Society. University Station, Seattle. Founded January 1, 1908. Membership requirements: Any person may become a member. Officers: Clarence
B. Bagley, Seattle, president; John P. Hoyt, East Seattle, vice-president; Roger S. Greene, Seattle, treasurer; Edmond S. Meany, Seattle,
secretary. The above, with Thomas Burke, Cornelius H. Hanford and
Samuel Piles, constitute the board of trustees.
Native Daughters of Washington. Seattle. Membership requirements: Any native daughter over sixteen years of age. Officers:
Nellie Russell, president; Julia N. Harris, vice-president.
Native Sons of Washington. A state organization having at
one time considerable activity. Local units called camps are still found
in some of the larger cities, though not very active.
Native Daughters of Washington Pioneers. Seattle. Membership requirements: Daughters of a pioneer resident on the Pacific
Coast prior to 1870. Officers: Mrs. Rena Bagley Griffith, president;
Miss Hilda Gaches, secretary.
Local Societies
Adams County.    See Lincoln and Adams Counties.
Benton County. Old Settlers' Union. Prosser. Membership
requirements: Twenty years' residence in the County. There is an
annual meeting. Officers: G. W. Wilgus, president; A. G. McNeill,
vice-president; M. Henry, secretary.
Garfield County Pioneer Association. Postoffice address: G.
B. Kuykendall, secretary. Founded July 19, 1909. Membership requirements: A residence of twenty-five years in Garfield or an adjoining county. Officers: W. L. Howell, president; G. B. Kuykendall,
secretary and financial secretary; L. F. Koenig, treasurer.
Grays Harbor County.    Pioneer Association of Grays Harbor
County.    Montesano.    Membership requirements:    A residence in the
County prior to January 1, 1885.     Officers:    O. H. Fry, Oakville
president; Mrs. E. P. French, Elma, 1st vice-president; J. J. Came/ Pioneer and Historical Societies
19
Aberdeen, 2d vice-president; Mrs. J. S. McKee, Hoquiam, 3d vice-
president; Mrs. J. E. Calder, Montesano, secretary; Mrs. H. B. Marcy,
Montesano, treasurer; J. A. Hood, Aberdeen, trustee; Rev. A. Wilson,
Oakville, chaplain; A. C. Girard, Hoquiam, historian; M. J. Luark,
delegate.
Aberdeen Pioneer Association. Aberdeen. There are four
meetings each year, the annual meeting occurring in January and the
memorial meeting in memory of those who have died occurring on the
first Sunday in March. Officers: James B. Haynes, president; Mrs.
James A. Hood, vice-president; Mrs. William Irvine, secretary; Mrs.
Julia Pinckney, treasurer; Rev. Charles McDermott, chaplain; Mrs.
A. D. Wood, historian.
King County. Seattle Historical Society. Seattle. Officers:
Mrs. Morgan J. Carkeek, president; Mrs. William P. Trimble, vice-
president; Mrs. Redick H. McKee, secretary; Mrs. William F.
-Prosser, treasurer; Mrs. Frederick E. Swanstrom, historian.
Kitsap County Pioneers' Association. Charleston. Founded
October 10, 1914. Membership requirements: Those who have resided in the county prior to the year 1893. Annual meeting on the
third Saturday in August at Bremerton. Officers: W. B. Seymore,
Charleston, president; L. A. Bender, vice-president; Paul Mehner,
Bremerton, secretary; Tom Lewis, treasurer.
Lincoln and Adams County Pioneer and Historical Association. Postoffice address, C. E. Ivy, secretary-treasurer, Davenport.
Annual meeting at the Society's grounds on Crab Creek during the
third week in June, 1918. Officers: F. R. Burroughs, Ritzville, president; George N. Lowe, Lamona, vice-president; C. E. Ivy, secretary-
treasurer, Davenport; George M. Witt, Harrington, historian.
Okanogan County Pioneers' Association. Conconully. Officers: P. H. Pinkston, Conconully, president; George Hurley, Loomis,
vice-president; David Gubser, Conconully, secretary; William C.
Brown, Okanogan, treasurer.
Pierce County Pioneers' Association. Tacoma: State Historical Building, 401 North Cliff Avenue. Meetings are held in January, April, July and October. Membership requirements: Residence
on the Pacific Coast prior to the year 1870. Officers: M. F. Hawk,
Roy, president; James. Sales, Parkland, vice-president; Mary F. Bean,
Tacoma, secretary; Celia P. Grass, Larchmont, treasurer; C. S. Barlow, W. B. Blackwell, W. P. Bonney, trustees. 20
Victor J. Farrar
San Juan County Pioneer Association.. Richardson. Membership requirements: Residence in the State for twenety-five years.
Founded October 31, 1915. Officers: Charles McKay, Friday Harbor, president and historian; Charles A. Kent, Lopez, vice-president;
R. J. Hummel, Port Stanley, secretary-treasurer; J. Stanley Kepler,
Orcas; Mrs. G. B. Driggs, Friday Harbor; Mrs. C. F. Kent, Lopez,
trustees.
Skagit County Pioneer Association. Sedro-Woolley. Annual
meeting place selected for the different years. Founded August 13,
1904. Membership requirements: Those who have resided in the
County prior to January 1, 1886, are admitted as "Pioneers"; residents for twenty years as "Old Settlers." Officers: Nick Beesner,
Anacortes, president; Mrs. R. O. Welts, Mount Vernon, vice-president;
Frank A. Hall, Mount Vernon, secretary; P. Halloran, Edison,
treasurer.
Snohomish County. Stillaguamish Valley Association of Washington Pioneers of Snohomish County. Arlington. Annual reunion
and picnic at Birckenheimer Pioneer Park, the second Thursday in
August. Membership requirements: Persons resident in the State
for twenty-five years admitted as "Pioneers"; for twenty years, as
"Early Settlers"; for fifteen years, as "Honorary Members." Officers:
W. F. Oliver, Arlington, president; Thomas Moran, vice-president;
D. S. Baker, secretary; C. H. Tracy, treasurer.
Spokane County Pioneer Society. Spokane. Membership requirements : All persons, their families and children who came to the
County on or before November 21, 1884; members of other pioneer
associations in the State may become associate members. Business
meeting on the first Tuesday in April; annual memorial meeting and
annual picnic on dates selected by the Society. Officers: Mrs. W. J.
Mackie, president; Sam Glasgow, vice-president; Eugene Buchanan,
secretary; W. W. Waltman, treasurer; the above with E. I. (Billie)
Seehorn, W. C. Gray, W. H. Ludden, Fred Grimmer, J. I. Daniel, J.
E. Gandy, Paul Strobach, Mrs. Robert Fairley, Joseph W. Daniel,
J. H. Griner and G. B. Dunning constitute the board of trustees.
Spokane Historical Society. Spokane: Crescent Department
Store Building. Officers: N. W. Durham, president; W. D. Vincent,
1st vice-president; Mrs. E. F. Rue, 2d vice-president; William S.
Lewis, corresponding secretary; George W. Fuller, recording secretary; B. L. Gordon, treasurer; Thomas A. Bouser, curator of the
museum. The above (excepting Thomas A. Bouser), with Jonathan
Edwards, J. Neilson Barry, G. O. Foss, T. C.  Elliott  (of Walla Pioneer and Historical Societies
21
Walla), and Jacob A. Meyers (of Meyers Falls), constitute the board
of trustees.
Stevens County Pioneer Association. Colville. Membership
requirements: Those who have resided in the State prior to June 30,
1895. Annual meeting on June 80. Officers: Frank Habein,.Colville, president; P. H. Graham, Colville, vice-president; John G. Kul-
zer, Valley, treasurer; Mrs. Clara Shaver, Colville, secretary; John B.
Slater, Colville, historian; W. T. Ferguson, Kettle Falls; Jacob A.
Meyers, Meyers Falls; F. W. Bickey, Chewelah; Mrs. John Ehorn,
Chewelah; Mrs. P. Betridge, Valley; Herman Zwang, Marcus; George
Thomas, Colville, trustees.
Thurston County.. Pioneer and Historical Society of Thurston
County. Olympia. Annual election of officers in March; annual
picnic at Priest Point, at Olympia, in the summer. Membership requirements: Those who have resided in the county prior to 1870.
Officers: George N. Talcott, president; Charles A. Billings, 1st vice-
president; James Brewer, 2d vice-president; Fred W. Storking, secretary-treasurer; P. D. Moore, chaplain; Scott Shoser, A. S. Moore and
Mrs. Georgiana Blankenship, trustees.
Pioneers of Southwestern Washington. Rochester. Officers:
J. W. Lieuallen, Rochester, president; L. L. Hunter, Aberdeen, vice-
president; J. B. Stanley, Rochester, secretary and treasurer; F. G.
Titus, Centralia; Scott Shaser, Olympia; J. E. Calder, Montesano,
trustees.
Walla Walla County. Inland Empire Pioneer Association.
Walla Walla. Membership requirements: Those who arrived in
the Inland Empire or on the Pacific Coast prior to 1885. Annual
meeting. Officers: Benjamin Burgunder, Colfax, president; Frank
Lowden, Touchet; Joseph Harbert, Walla Walla; W. D. Wallon,
Waitsburg, vice-president; Mervin Evans, Walla Walla, secretary;
Levi Ankeny, Walla Walla, treasurer; W. B. Lyman, Walla Walla,
historian.
Whatcom County. Old Settlers' Association of Whatcom
County. Ferndale. Annual gathering and election of officers at
Pioneer Park, Ferndale, in August. Membership requirements:
There is a graduated membership; persons having been in the county
ten years are admitted as "Chechacoes"; older residents receive other
Chinook Jargon titles; the oldest living member in point of residence
receives a special badge of honor. Officers: J. B. Wilson, president; T. B. Wynn, vice-president; Edith M. Thornton, secretary; W. 22
Victor J. Farrar
E.  Campbell, treasurer;  Charles  Tawes, John  Stater,  John Tarte,
Godfrey Schneider, Porter Felmley, George Baer, trustees.
Whitman County Pioneers' Association. Garfield. Annual
meeting in June. Membership requirements: Residence in the state
of Washington prior to October, 1886. Officers: William Duling,
Garfield, president; P. W. Cox, Colfax, vice-president; S. A. Manring,
Garfield, secretary; William Lippitt, Colfax, treasurer.
Yakima County. Yakima County Pioneers' Association. North
Yakima. Annual meeting on the first Saturdday in November. Membership requirements: Citizens of white or Indian blood who are residents of the original county of Yakima prior to November 9, 1889, and
their descendants; others may become associate members. Officers:
David Longmire, president; James A. Beck, 1st vice-president; Mrs.
Jennie Shardlow, 2d vice-president; John H. Lynch, secretary; Mrs.
Zona H. Cameron, treasurer; Mrs. A. J. Plawn, historian.
Yakima Columbia Association. North Yakima. A Catholic
organization having for its object the care and preservation of the old
St. Joseph Mission in the Ahtanum Valley. Since 1915 a caretaker
has resided on the premises. Officers: John Ditter, president; R. E.
Allingham, vice-president; John H. Lynch, secretary; H. A. La Berge,
treasurer; Pat Jordan, general manager.
Victor J. Farrar. WASHINGTON WAR  HISTORY  COMMITTEES
The National Board of Historical Service has appealed to the
State Councils of Defense in the forty-eight states of the Union for
co-operation in gathering all possible records of the war and preserving them at convenient centers. The importance of this appeal
was quickly appreciated by the State Council of Defense for Washington, and it designated Professor Edmond S. Meany as the proper-
person to undertake the organization necessary to carry on this important and patriotic historical work. With his usual responsiveness
to public need, Professor Meany has accepted the responsibility, and
the State Council of Defense earnestly requests all patriotic citizens
to co-operate with him and his associates in this significant task.
Already, through the courtesy and co-operation of the County
Councils of Defense, every county has a committee busily at work
gathering newspaper clippings, photographs, manuscripts and all
other records which will be helpful to a thorough study and understanding of the great events when the war is ended. These records
are to be deposited in the most central and most adequate public library
in each county. While this plan makes thirty-nine units in the state
of Washington, it has the advantage of keeping the records of each
community most available to the home-folks. Each committee is also
working on the basis of patriotic service by providing funds to meet
expenses as they arise in the work.
The Washington War History Committees now at work under
the leadership of Professor Meany are as follows:
Adams County—Charles A. Sprague, Ritzville; Guy W. Ogden,
Othello; J. H. Gill, Washtucna; John Dirstine, Lind.
Asotin County—Mrs. Louise Windus, Clarkston; Mrs. Kay L.
Thompson, Asotin; Mrs. Samuel Barkley, Cloverland.
Benton County—P. A. Durant, A. H. Wheaton, M. C. Delle,
all of Prosser.
Chelan County—Mrs. Terry Rose, Mrs. Harry Jones, Miss
Susanne Brown, all of Wenatchee.
Clallam County—Hon. A. A. Smith, Port Angeles; Mrs. E. F.
Geirin, Sequim; Mrs. Horace Horstman, Port Angeles,
Clarke County—Professor P. Hough, Miss Elizabeth Yates,
Elmer Beard, Mrs. June Bowen, Mrs. Ada E. Brown, all of Vancouver.
Columbia County—Judge C. F. Miller, Mrs. Blanch Beckett,
H. C. Benbow, all of Dayton.
(28) 24
Henry Suszallo
Cowlitz County—John L. Harris, Kelso; Mrs. C. C. Ruckles,
Kalama; S. L. Moorhead, Castlerock.
Douglas County—L. O. Anderson, Waterville; Mrs. M. R.
Leahy, Mansfield; Harvey Freeman, Bridgeport.
Ferry County—George V. Alexander, Fred W. Cleator, Harold
Zwang, all of Republic.
Franklin County—Riley Conrad, Edward Onstadt, R. B. Mc-
Farland, all of Pasco.
Garfield County—Dr. G. B. Kuykendall, Peter McClurg, May
Elsensohn, all of Pomeroy.
Grant County—R. L. Blackburn, Ephrata; James Howell,
Coulee City; W. E. Knapp, Corfu.
Grays Harbor County—W. C. Birdwell, Montes.ano; A. C.
Girard, Aberdeen; O. M. Moore, Hoquiam.
Island County—Mrs. F. A. P. Engle, Coupeville; Jerome Ely,
Oak Harbor; Paul Cunningham, Langley; Mrs. Earl Lindsay, R. D.
No. 3, Stanwood.
Jefferson County—Charles G. Campbell, James G. McCurdy,
Mrs. J. C. Pringle, all of Port Townsend.
King County—Vivian M. Carkeek, George W. Soliday, Clarence
B. Bagley, E. Inez Denny, B. W. Pettit, all of Seattle.
Kitsap County—Captain W. B. Seymore, Charleston; Mrs. S. M.
Wetzel, Port Orchard; A. P. Burrows, Poulsbo; H. J. Hart, Port
Gamble.
Kittitas County—J. C. Kaynor, EUensburg; H. B. Averill, Cle
Elum; Professor Selden Smyser, EUensburg.
Klickitat County—E. T. Hinshaw, Goldendale; G. W. Borden,
Goldendale; Mrs. George Flower, Bickleton; C. H. Estes, White
Salmon.
Lewis County—Rev. Thomas R. Alleeson, Chehalis; Mrs. John
W. McCutcheon, Adna; W. B. Kier, Centralia.
Lincoln County—N. Russell Hill, William U. Neeley, G. W.
Weeks, all of Davenport.
Mason County—-Miss Imogene Piatt, Mrs. A. E. Hillier, Miss
Lucy Angle, all of Shelton.
Okanogan County—Judge William C. Brown, O. H. Woody,
Mrs. Edna Vieh, all of Okanogan.
Pacific County—Mrs. Miles H. Leach, South Bend; Mrs. W.
B. Murdock, Long Beach; Frank G. Crawford, Menlo.
Pend Oreille County—Mrs. Esther Rogers, Newport; Mrs.
Maurice P. Johnson, Newport; Fred Trumbull, lone. Washington War History Committees
25
Pierce County—Miss Mary Lytle, Tacoma; Mrs. Bernice Newell, Tacoma; Miss Helen F. Driver, Tacoma; George H. Plummer,
Tacoma; Edward A. Peters, Tacoma; Robert Montgomery, Puyallup.
San Juan County—Miss Etta Crow, Rosario; Mrs. *T. R. Rams-
den, Friday Harbor; Mrs. John E. Bruns, Shaw Island.
Skagit County—Miss Jennie Cotton, Mount Vernon; Finas
Ragsdale, Sedro-Woolley; Marian L. Watkinson, Anacortes.
Skamania County—George F. Christensen, E. E. Shields,
Charles H. Nellor, all of Stevenson.
Snohomish County—Mrs. Anna Reichmann, Mrs. F. F. Swale,
Mrs. J. J. Clark, all of Everett.
Spokane County—James A. Ford, William S. Lewis, Mrs. Harl
J. Cook, all of Spokane.
Stevens County—John B. Slater, Colville; W. H. Brownlow,
Chewelah; J. C. Harrigan, Colville.
Thurston County—George E. Blankenship, J. M. Hitt, Harry
B. McElroy, all of Olympia.
Wahkiakum County—Dr. George Pierrot, Skamokawa; W. W.
Head, Cathlamet; S. G. Williams, Skamokawa; Mrs. John Heron,
Cathlamet.
Walla Walla County—Professor W. D. Lyman, Miss Bernice
Richmond, C. H. Showerman, B. E. La Due, Miss Elen Garfield
Smith, Professor Walter C. Eells, all of Walla Walla.
Whatcom County—A. J. Craven, Miss Olive Edens, J. P. De
Mattos, all of Bellingham.
Whitman County—J. A. Perkins, B. F. Manring, Mrs. Ivan
Chase, all of Colfax.
Yakima County—Mrs. J. V. Ellis, Charles Lombard, Mrs
Harvey Young, all of Yakima.
Henry Suzzallo. ORIGIN OF WASHINGTON GEOGRAPHIC NAMES
As stated in the last issue of the Quarterly, it is proposed to
continue this series of articles until all of the important geographic
names in the State are published. Some readers have responded to
the invitation to send in corrections and suggestions. That invitation
is here repeated. Every scrap of additional information is welcomed.
The completed work will be all the more serviceable if corrections and
additions are sent in during this preliminary publication in the Washington Historical Quarterly.
[^Continued from page 290]
Bow, a town in Skagit County. William J. Brown secured a
homestead in 1869 and his place became locally known as Brownsville. When the railroad brought growth, a postoffice was secured
in July, 1901, and E. E. Heusted, the postmaster, had it named Bow
at the suggestion of Mr. Brown in honor of the great Bow railroad
station of London, England. (History of Skagit and Snohomish Counties, page 236.)
Boxer Cove. This is now called Flounder Bay on the United
States Coast and Geodetic Survey Chart Number 6380. It is on the
northwest extremity of Fidalgo Island, facing Burrows Island. J. G.
Kohl (Pacific Railroad Reports, Volume XII., Part I., page 300)
says that he obtained verbal information (in 1854) that Wilkes had
named Burrows Island in honor of Captain William Burrows, United
States Navy, who lost his life in the ship Boxer. This naming of
the island for the man and the little cove for his ship is in perfect
accord with the Wilkes scheme of honors.
Boyd Creek, in Skagit County. It was named for L. A. Boyd,
who located a home there in 1882.    (Names MSS., Letter 130.)
Boyleston, a town in Kittitas County. It was named by H. R.
Williams, vice-president of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway Company after the town of that name in Massachusetts. (F. L.
Olmstead, in Names MSS., Letter 405.)    (Names MSS., Letter 530.)
Brace Point, the southern cape of Fauntleroy Cove, south of
Alki Point, King County. It was named by the United States Coast
Survey in 1857.    (Pacific Coast Pilot, page 612.)
Brackenridge Bluff, on north shore of Grays Harbor, west of
Hoquiam, Grays Harbor County.    It was named by the Wilkes Ex-
(26) Origin of Washington Geographic Names
27
pedition, 1841, in honor of J. D. Brackenridge, assistant botanist of
the United States ship Vincennes of the Wilkes Expedition. The same
expedition sought to give another honor to this same man by naming
for him "Brackenridge Passage," connecting Puget Sound and Carrs
Inlet, between Fox and McNeil Islands, but that name did not persist.
Braden Creek, in Jefferson County. It was named for L. E.
Braden, the original settler there in 1890. (Isaac Anderson, in
Names MSS., Letter 157.)
Branum, see Whelan in Whatcom County.
Branham, an obsolete town in Skagit County. Its name was in
honor of a man who once ran a shingle mill there. (Noble G. Rice, in
Names MSS., Letter 48.)
Breakers, a town in Pacific County. It was named by J. M.
Arthur in December, 1900, on account of an excellent view of the surf
from a prominent sand ridge covered with grass to the edge of the
ocean beach.    (Names MSS., Letter 419.)
Bremerton, a city on Port Orchard, Kitsap County. It has
grown into importance on account of the location there of the United
States Navy Yard Puget Sound. It was named in honor of William
Bremer, who is regarded as the founder of the city. He was born
in Seesen, Duchy of Brunswick, Germany, in 1863. His experiences
in Washington reached back to Territorial days. He died at his home
in Seattle on December 28, 1910.
Brender Canyon, near Dryden in Chelan County. It was named
for A. B. Brender, the first white settler in the canyon, 1882. (A.
Manson, in Names MSS., Letter 800.)
Brewster, a town in Okanogan County. John Bruster was the
original homesteader there. He and Captain Alexander Griggs named
the place in 1896. When the postoffice was being secured in 1898
D. L. Gillespie, the postmaster, sent in the name spelled Brewster
instead of Bruster and it was accepted by the postoffice department.
(L. A. Dall, in Names MSS., Letter 550.)
Brisco Point, southern extremity of Hartstene Island, in Mason
County. It was named by the Wilkes Expedition, 1841, in honor of
William Brisco, a member of one of the crews of the expedition.
Broad Spit, on the eastern shore of Bolton Peninsula, Jefferson
County. The Wilkes Expedition, 1841, charted it under the Indian
name "Pildsh Point."
Broken Point, on the northwest shore of Shaw Island, San Juan
County.    The name appears on the British Admiralty Chart Number 28
Edmond S. Meany
2840, corrected to 1872, and has also been placed on the United
States charts.
Brookfield, a town in Wahkiakum County. It was named by
J. G. Megler in 1873, the year of his marriage, in honor of Brookfield,
Massachusetts, the birthplace of his wife. Mr. Megler was proprietor
of a salmon cannery at that place. He often represented his county
in the Legislature.    (Mrs. J. G. Megler, in Names MSS., Letter 816.)
Broughton Point, on the southeast shore of Cypress Island,
Skagit County. The name does not appear on recent charts. It is
found on the British Admiralty Chart 2689, for 1858-1859, and was
undoubtedly given in honor of W. R. Broughton, a lieutenant under
Captain George Vancouver, in 1792.
Brown Island, on the United Coast and Geodetic Survey Chart
6880, dated January, 1912, two islands are shown with that name in
San Juan County. One is at the mouth of Friday Harbor, San Juan
Island, and the other between the western extremities of Orcas and
Lopez Islands. The latter, on the Wilkes Chart, 1841, is included
in the name of "Wasp Isles," but the same chart shows the other
island (at the present Friday Harbor) as Brown's Island. Wilkes
does not say for whom he named this island. There were fourteen
men in his crews by the name of Brown and there were many heroes
of the American Navy by that name. From careful study the conclusion is reached that the honor was intended for John G. Brown,
listed as Mathematical Instrument Maker on the Vincennes of the
expedition. The British Admiralty Chart 2840, corrected to 1872,
shows both the Brown Islands and it may be that the one between
Orcas and Lopez Islands received its name from the British map-
makers.
Brown Lake, west of Riverside, Okanogan County. It was
named for William Brown, locally known as "Horse" Brown, who
settled there in 1889.    (H. T. Jones, in Names MSS., Letter 319.)
Brown's Cove, see Nellita, Kitsap County.
Brown's Island, off the northeast end of Puget Island, in
Wahkiakum County. This island is so named on the county maps
though no name for it appears on the United States Coast and Geodetic
Survey Chart Number 6152, dated April, 1914. The Wilkes Expedition, 1841, charted it as "Bag Island."
Brown's Junction, see Elbe, Pierce County.
Brown's Lake, southwest of Chewelah, Stevens County. It was
named in 1862 after the nearest settler, Henry Brown, who came
from Red River, Canada, in the fifties.   With his family he frequently Origin of Washington Geographic Names
29
camped near the lake that now bears his name. (J. W. Patterson, in
Names MSS., Letter 259.)
Brownsville, see Bow, Skagit County.
Bruce Channel, a former name for that portion of Carrs Inlet
lying between McNeil and Fox Islands. The Inskip Chart, 1846,
sought to establish several names near Nisqually. This one, like most
of the others, failed to survive. A similar fate befell the name of
"Brackenridge Passage," charted by the Wilkes Expedition, 1841,
for this same waterway.
Bruceport, a town on Willapa Harbor, Pacific County. The
name comes indirectly from the famous King of Scotland. In 1850
Captain Feldsted discovered oysters in what was then known as Shoalwater Bay and shipped a quantity to San Francisco. They arrived
in bad condition but Anthony Ludlum then fitted out the schooner
Sea Serpent and took a cargo of the oysters in safety to San Francisco. A company was at once formed to go into the business. James
G. Swan, who was on the harbor at the time, gives the names. (Northwest Coast, page 63) as "Messrs. Winant, Morgan, Hanson, Milward
and Foster." Hubert Howe Bancroft (Works, Volume XXXI., page
34) gives a list of six partners, three of whom are different from the
Swan list, as follows: "Alexander Hanson, George G. Bartlett, Garrett, Tyron, Mark Winant, John Morgan and Frank Garretson." This
company secured the schooner Robert Bruce and sailed for Willapa
Harbor with Captain Terry in command of the schooner. They proceeded to load the boat with oysters but on the third day the schooner
was burned to the water's edge. Elwood Evans (History of the
Pacific Northwest, Volume I., page 313) says that it was reported
that the cook made the crew and partners unconscious by putting
laudanum in their food, after which he set fire to the schooner. An
old man named McCarthy, then living on the bay, aroused and rescued
the men. They were without means and built cabins on the beach.
They were known as. the Bruce Company and the place secured the
name of Bruceport. James G. Swan's book was published in 1857.
Writing about 1854 he says: "We had now grown into the dignity of
a village, and, at a meeting of the settlers, it was voted to name the
town BruceviUe (which has since been changed to Bruceport)." The
Bureau of American Ethnology (Handbook of American Indians,
Volume II., page 938) says the Chinook Indians had a village there
at one time, called "Wharhoots."
Brush Prairie, a town in Clarke County. It was. named by
Elmorine Bowman from a large, bushy swamp on her father's homestead.    (Birdella Levell, in Names MSS., Letter 575.) 30
Edmond   S. Meany
Bryant, a town in Snohomish County. It was probably named
for the Bryant Lumber and Shingle Company, about 1892.
Bryn Mawr, a town in King County. On April 19, 1890, Lillie
R. Parker and her husband, William E. Parker, filed a plat of this
place under its present name. "As I understand it, the Parkers came
from Pennsylvania and imported the name from that state. The
words are Scotch and mean 'big brow' or 'big hill.' " (Melissa B.
Dorflinger, in Names MSS., Letter 459.)
Buck Bay, on southeastern shore of Orcas Island, where the
town of Olga is located, San Juan County. The British Admiralty
Chart 2689 shows it as "Stockade Bay."
Buck Island, off southwest coast of Lopez Island, San Juan
County. The Wilkes Expedition, 1841, charted it as one of the "Geese
Islets."
Buckeye, a town in Spokane County. It was formerly known
as "Hoch Spur" but was changed by the Buckeye Lumber Company,
which operated a sawmill there.    (Names MSS., Letter 191.)
Buckingham, a former postoffice in Douglas County. It was
named for J. A. Buckingham. (B. C. Ferguson, in Names MSS.,
Letter 77.)
Buckley, a city in Pierce County. It was first known as "Perkins
Prairie" and later as "White River Siding." In 1888 it was given
its present name in honor of Superintendent Buckley of the Northern
Pacific Railroad division between EUensburg and Tacoma. G. S. B.
Dovell, in Names MSS., Letter 484.)
Bucoda, a city in Thurston County. The first settler there was
Aaron Webster, 1854. Mr. Webster used the water power of Skoo-
kumchuck to run a little sawmill in 1857. Mr. Webster sold his
farm to Oliver Shead, who gave to the little community growing around
the mill the name Seatco, an Indian word supposed to mean "ghost"
or "devil." Coal was discovered across the river and that property
passed into the hands of Samuel Coulter. The Territorial penitentiary
was located at "Seatco." The convicts were worked on a contract scheme
and this gave rise to an unfavorable marketing condition for the
lumber and coal products. In the meantime Mr. Coulter had associated with him John B. David, a Portland capitalist, and J. M.
Buckley of the Northern Pacific Railroad. In 1890 the name of
the town was changed to a word made up by taking the first syllables
of the three names—Buckley, Coulter and David. Colonel W. F.
Prosser (History of the Puget Sound Country, Volume I., page 249) Origin of Washington Geographic Names
31
says that this combination name was first proposed as early as 1878
but that Mr. Shead insisted upon his choice of "Seatco."
Budd Inlet, in the southern portion of Puget Sound, Thurston
County. In later years it has often gone by the name of Olympia
Bay. It was named in 1841 by the Wilkes Expedition in honor of
Thomas A. Budd, who shipped as acting master of the United States
ship Peacock when the expedition started but was transferred to the
Vincennes at "Feejee." He was in charge of one of the exploring
boats while the squadron was anchored at Nisqually. Others of the
younger officers were similarly honored by having their names given
to portions of Puget Sound. Wilkes sought to give Budd another
honor by naming "Budd Harbor," but recent charts have changed
that to Washington Harbor, in Clallam County.
Bull's Head, a portion of the shore of Port Ludlow, Jefferson
County. The Wilkes Expedition, 1841, gave the name but it does
not appear on recent charts.
Bumping Lake, east of Mount Rainier, in Yakima County.
Preston's Map of Oregon and Washington West of the Cascade Mountains, 1856, shows it as "Lake Plehnam" and the United States
General Land Office Map of Washington, 1897, calls it "Tannum
Lake." Bumping Lake seems well established as the name on the
most recent maps.
Bumping River, in Yakima County. It drains Bumping Lake
into the Naches River.
Bunker Hill, a town in Skamania County. It was named by
B. Tillotson and a man named McGinty.   (Names, MSS., Letter 324.)
Burbank, a town in Walla Walla County. Will H. Parry of
Seattle, who recently died in Washington City while a member of
the Federal Trade Commission, was interested in an irrigating enterprise which he called the Burbank Power and Water Company, and
the site of the power house Burbank in honor of Luther Burbank,
the famous horticulturist.
Burke, a town in Grant County. Among the early settlers here
were some American Germans from a place known as Alloeze, in
Minnesota. For about two years the place went by the name of
"Alloweze." In 1907 James M. Burke, postmaster (who now lives at
Newport, Tennessee), was honored by a petition which caused the
name to be changed to Burke. (Mark M. Connell, in Names MSS.,
Letter 390.)
Burke Island, in the Columbia River, Cowlitz County. The
Wilkes Expedition, 1841, shows it as "Paia Island."    It appears as 32
Edmond. S. Meany
Burke Island on the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey Chart
6153, dated April, 1914.
Burksville, once a postoffice not far from Marengo, in Columbia County. It was established on the claim of Marshall B. Burk
in 1875. He became postmaster and his name was given to the
office. It was discontinued when the postoffice at Marengo was established in 1878. (Illustrated History of Southeastern Washington,
page 378.)
Burley, a town in Kitsap County. It is at the mouth of a
creek by that name and it is said that the creek got its name from
a pioneer settler.    (Leola E. Stein, in Names MSS., Letter 894.)
Burlington, a city in Skagit County. John P. Millett and
William McKay established a logging camp there in 1882. Mr.
McKay platted the town January 1, 1891, and a postoffice with the
new name was secured the same year. It has become an important
railroad center.
Burnett, a town in the coal mining district of Pierce County.
It was named in honor of Charles H. Burnett, one of the pioneer
coal mine operators in the Pacific Northwest. (Meany's Collection of
Pioneer Lives of Washington.)
Burnie Point, see Grays Point, west cape of Grays Bay in Pacific County.
Burrows Bay and Island, west of Fidalgo Island in Skagit
County. The island was named by the Wilkes Expedition, 1841,
in honor of Lieutenant William Burrows. Under the item of Allan
Island it is shown how Wilkes intensified the honor for Captain William Henry Allen by naming the waterway "Argus Bay" after the ship
in which Allen was mortally wounded. In a similar way, after naming Burrows Island, Wilkes named the waterway to the north "Hor-
ets Harbor," though the present charts show it as Bellingham Channel. It was in the Hornet that Lieutenant Burrows gained great
praise as a seaman. After his death Congress voted a gold medal for
his nearest male relative. What was "Argus Bay" is shown as Burrows Bay on recent charts. Burrows and Allan Islands were shown
on the Spanish charts as (Sutil y Mexicana) "Las dos Islas Morros."
Burton, a town on the east coast of Vashon Island in King Coun-
ty. It was named in 1892 by Mrs. M. F. Hatch after the town in
which she formerly lived in McHenry County, Illinois. (Mrs. A.
Hunt, in Names MSS., Letter 84.)
Bush, a town at the southern end of Lake Samamish in King
County. It was named for the first settlers in Squak Valley. (J. B.
Scott, in Names MSS., Letter 499.) Origin of Washington Geographic Names
38
Bush Point, on the west coast of Whidbey Island, a cape of
Mutiny Bay, in Island County. The Wilkes Expedition, 1841, called it
"Point Leavett," but in 1855 the United States Coast Survey changed
its name. The report, after speaking of neighboring bluffs, says: "A
low point with one or two clumps of trees, and bushes, to which has
been given the name Bush Point." (U. S. Public Document, 1005,
page 448.)
Bush Prairie, near Olympia in Thurston County. It was named
in honor of George Bush, a colored man of high character, who came
to Puget Sound in the party with Michael T. Simmons. Bush was
the first settler on the prairie that bears his name. There is a post-
office there called Bush.   (H. B. McElroy, in Names MSS., Letter 46.)
Bushelier Lake, see Spanaway Lake.
Butler, town in Skamania County, changed in name to Skamania.
Butler's Cove, on the western shore of Budd Inlet, near Olympia, in Thurston County. It was named for John L. Butler, who
secured the adjoining upland as a government donation claim. (George
N. Talcott, in Names MSS., Letter 226.)
Byron, a town in Yakima County. The first inhabitants there
found a railroad post marked "Byron," and that name has continued.
(E. E. McMillen, in Names MSS., Letter 401.)
Caamano Island, see Camano Island.
Cactus Islands, north of Spieden Island in San Juan County.
They seem to be first named on the British Admiralty Chart 2689,
Richards, 1858-1859.
Cain, in Skagit County, see Kane.
California Mountains, see Cascade Mountains.
Calispell, a town in the southwest part of Pend Oreille County.
In the same county there are a Calispell Lake and Creek. Kalispel
is the name of the tribe of Indians popularly known as Pend d'Oreilles
or "Ear Drops."
Callepuya River, near Vancouver in Clarke County. The Narrative of the Wilkes Expedition, 1841, Volume IV., pages 826, says:
"We entered the Callepuya for the purpose of avoiding the current
of the river [Columbia]. At this time of the year this branch forms
an extensive range of lakes, which reaches to within a mile of Vancouver."   It is probably the present Lake River.
Calvert, in Spokane County.   See Amber.
Camano Island, east of Whidbey Island, in Island County. The
Wilkes Expedition, 1841, charted it as "McDonough's Island" in honor
t- 34
Edmond S. Meany
of Master Commandant Thomas Macdonough of Lake Champlain fame
during the War of 1812. His flagship was the Saratoga and so Wilkes
changed the name of Port Gardner to "Saratoga Passage." This last
name has remained, but the island's name was changed to Camano on
the British Admiralty Chart, Kellett, 1847. Kellett sought to place
a number of Spanish names. The Spanish Captain Elisa had honored
Don Jacinto Caamano in 1790 by placing the name "Boca de Caamano"
where the English Captain George Vancouver in 1791 placed the beginning of Admiralty Inlet, near the present Port Townsend. Kellett
lifted the Spanish name clear over Whidbey Island and planted it
permanently on Camano Island. There is a town on the island by
the same name and the southern end of the island is called Camano
Head from which juts Allen Point.
Camas, a town in Clarke County. It is an old settlement and
was formerly known as La Camas. The name is taken from that of a
favorite food of the western Indians, Camassia esculenta, and other
species related to the hyacinth. The word was derived from the Nootka Indian word chamass, meaning "fruit" or "sweet." It was adopted
into the Chinook jargon as camas, kamass, lacamass and lakamass.
For a time the town in Clarke County was known as La Camas, but on
recent charts and in postoffice usage the name is Camas. Evidently
the locality of Camas was a place where the Indians gathered supplies
of the sweetish bulbs of the blue-flowered "Lakamass."
Camas Prairie, in Klickitat County north of Fulda and west of
Conboy Lake. On August 12, 1858, the railroad surveyors in command
of Captain (later General) George B. McClellan camped on the prairie
and called it Tahk Prairie. The United States land office map of 1897
shows the name Camas Prairie.
Camp Washington. This has been called the "First Capital" because it was the first camping place of Governor Stevens and party
within the present limits of the State of Washington. It is located at
the forks of Coulee Creek in Spokane County. The Washington State
Historical Society in 1908 located a marker for this camp on Four
Mound Prairie, which is about five miles distant from the true site.
For a discussion of the site see the Washington Historical Quarterly,
Volume VII., pages 3-20, 177-178 and 276-277.
Canal de Haro, see Haro Strait.
Canel River, see Fish River.
Canoe Island, in Upright Channel, between Shaw and Lopez
Islands, in San Juan County. The name first appears on the British
Admiralty Chart 2840, Richards, 1858-1860. Origin of Washington Geographic Names
35
Canton, a town on Green River in King County. It was named
by the Northern Pacific Railway Company. (Page Lumber Company, Eagle Gorge, in Names MSS., Letter 56.)
Canyon, a town in Whitman County. It was named because of
its being at a canyon eight miles long and five hundred feet deep.
(Postmaster, in Names MSS., Letter 57.)
Cape Alava, on westernmost shore of Clallam County. It is
farthest west of any portion of the United States mainland south of
Alaska. Manuel Quimper placed it on the Spanish chart as "Punta de
Hijosa" and the adjacent indentation he called "Boca de Alava." The
British Chart, Kellett, 1847, called it Port Alava, and the northern
projection is there shown as Cape Flattery, the one which American
charts show as Cape Flattery being shown as "Cape Classet." Recent
charts show the larger point as Cape Alava and nearby are shown
Flattery Rocks, indicating the former confusion of names.
Cape Broughton, see Grays Point.
Cape Classet, see Cape Flattery.
Cape Disappointment. This is one of the oldest geographical
names in Washington. On August 17, 1775, Bruno Heceta, the Spanish explorer, found a bay with indications of a river. The bay he
called "Bahia de la Asuncion," the northern cape he called "San
Roque" and the southern, "Cabo Frondoso." Later, the Spaniards called
the bay "Ensenada de Heceta" in honor of its discoverer, John Meares,
an English explorer, knew of the Spanish charts and on Sunday, July
6, 1788, he rounded the cape and looked for the river which was surmised by the Spaniards. Being unsuccessful, he changed the name of
San Roque to Cape Disappointment and the bay he called "Deception
Bay.' Four years later the Columbia River was discovered and named,
but the name of Cape Disappointment has remained. Some effort was
made to give it the name of "Cape Hancock."
Cape Flattery, in Clallam County, at the southern entrance of
the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the northwestern extremity of the state
of Washington. The name originated with the English explorer,
Captain James Cook, who on Sunday, March 22, 1778, made the
following entry in his journal: "Between this island or rock, and the
northern extreme of the land, there appeared to be a small opening
which flattered us with the hopes of finding a harbour there. Those
hopes lessened as we drew nearer; and, at last, we had some reason to
think that the opening was closed by low land. On this account I
called the point of land to the north of it Cape Flattery." One of
Captain Cook's crew was George Vancouver, who, in 1792, came to
the same coast in command of an expedition.    He sought to identify 36
Edmond S. Meany
Captain Cook's Cape Flattery, and finally placed it where it has since
remained. Reference to the confusion of names has already been
made under the item of Cape Alava. In the vicinity of the latter
cape, government charts still show Flattery Rocks. Kellett, 1847, and
other British charts show Cape Flattery in the place of Cape Alava,
and the promontory now known as Cape Flattery is shown as Cape
Classet. That name is supposed to be of Indian origin and is sometimes spelled Claaset or Klasset. Rev. Myron Eells is authority for
the statement that Makah means "people who live on a point of
land projecting into the sea," and Klasset means the same thing in
another Indian language. (American Anthropologist, January, 1892.)
George Davidson says that in 1852 he found the head chief of the
Makahs bearing the name of Clisseet. (United States Coast Survey
Report, 1858, page 414.) Captain Vancouver knew about the name of
<• Cape Classet, but he concluded that Captain Cook intended the name
of Cape Flattery for that place and so charted it. The Spanish name
of "Cape Martinez" did not have much usage except on the Spanish
charts.
Cape Foulweather, see Cape Shoalwater.
Cape George, the east cape of Port Discovery, in Jefferson
County. The name appears first on the British Admiralty chart, Kellett, 1847. The explorer evidently intended this as added honor for
Captain George Vancouver, who had named Port Discovery in 1792.
At the same time, Kellett charted "Vancouver Point," on the west shore
of Port Discovery. The last named point is now known as Carr's
Point.
Cape Hancock, see Cape Disappointment.
Cape Horn, on the Columbia River, in the southwestern corner of
Skamania County. The name of this prominent feature was mentioned
in the journals of John Work of the Hudson's Bay Company as early
as 1825 and 1826. (Washington Historical Quarterly, Volume V.,
pages 85 and 287, in the latter spelling it Cape Heron.) Rev. Gus-
tavus Hines (Exploring Expedition to Oregon, 1851, page 158) says
that the name arose from the great difficulty of navigating that part of
the Columbia in canoes. Governor Isaac I. Stevens (Pacific Railroad
Reports, Volume I., page 111) says that Cape Horn Mountain would
have to be tunneled unless a way could be found around it. A town
in Skamania County has the name of Cape Horn. On the lower Columbia River, in Wahkiakum County, there is another Cape Horn (United
States Coast and Geodetic Survey Chart, 6152), and still another near
the entrance to Hammersley's Inlet, Puget Sound. (United States
Coast and Geodetic Survey Chart, 6460.) Origin of Washington Geographic Names
37
Cape Labelle Creek, in Okanogan County. Sometimes it is
called Cape Bell Creek. Instead of "Cape" it should be Kate Labelle.
It was named for an old Indian woman of that name, who was the
first person known to have located on it. (Charles Clark, Aeneas, in
Names MSS., Letter 288.)
Cape Martinez, see Cape Flattery.
Cape St. Mary, the southeast cape of Lopez Island in San Juan
Island. George Davidson (Pacific Coast Pilot, page 562) says it was
so named on the British Admiralty chart, and that a quarter of a mile
outside the cape lies Kellett Ledge. The last name is in honor of the
one who prepared earlier Admiralty charts. The United States Coast
Survey chart of 1855 shows it as Johnson Point.
Cape San Roque, see Cape Disappointment.
Cape Shoalwater, the north cape at the entrance to Willapa
Harbor, Pacific County. On a number of maps the cape is shown as
Toke's Point, but on the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey
Chart, 6100, Toke Point is shown to the eastward well within the
harbor. In 1854, an Indian chief by the name of Toke lived in that
vicinity, which gave rise to the use of that name. The name of Cape
Shoalwater was given by the English explorer John Meares in July,
1788. In April, 1792, Captain George Vancouver tried to identify
the cape named by Meares. Lewis and Clark saw the cape from the
north side of Cape Disappointment in 1805 and gave it the name of
"Point Lewis." The Indian name of the point is Quaht-sum. (United
States Coast Survey Report, 1858, page 402.)
Capsize Island, see Willow Island.
Carbon River, in Pierce County. This river and its branch,
South Prairie Creek, leading to the Puyallup River, was called the
"Upthascap River" by the Wilkes Expedition, 1841. About 1876 coal
was discovered on the banks of the river, suggesting the name of
Carbon River. That name was carried on up the river to the Mount
Rainier glacier furnishing its source.
Carbonado, a town on the Carbon River in Pierce County. The
name came from that of the river, which was named after the discovery
of coal on its banks.    (George Williams, in Names MSS., Letter 591.)
Carley, a town on the north bank of the Columbia River in Benton
County. It was named in honor of M. E. Carley, who settled there
.in 1904.    (M. E. Carley in Names MSS., Letter 377.)
Carpenter Creek, in Whatcom County. It empties into Lake
Whatcom. It was named on January 1, 1884, after William Carpenter.    (Hugh Eldridge, Bellingham, in Names MSS., Letter 136.) 38
Edmond S. Meany
Carr Inlet, frequently shown as Carr's Inlet, is in Pierce County,
between Fox and McNeil Islands and extending northward. The
British Chart 1947, Inskip, 1846, shows the portion between the two
islands as "Bruce Channel." The present name was given by the
Wilkes Expedition, 1841, in honor of Lieutenant Overton Carr, a
member of his crew.
Carrs Point, on the western shore of Port Discovery in Jefferson
County. It was named by the Wilkes Expedition, 1841, probably in
honor of Lieutenant Overton Carr of the expedition. The British
Admiralty Chart, Kellett, 1847, gave the name "Vancouver Point,"
which did not survive.
Carrell River, see Fish River.
Carrolls, a town on the Columbia River in Cowlitz County. It
was formerly known as Carrollton, the name being changed on March
17, 1915. The name was in honor of Major Carroll, one of the first
settlers.    (Postmaster, in Names MSS., Letter 391.)
Carson, a town in Skamania County. The town derived its
name from a creek of the same name. It is said that the name is a
corruption from the name of Katsner. (Postmaster, in Names MSS.,
Letter 406.) A former name was "Ash," as. Lewis and Clark there
found the first ash timber of the West. The place is becoming gamous
from the Carson Hot Springs. (L. C. Gilman, in Names MSS., Letter 590.)
Carter Point, on the southern extremity of Lummi Island, in
Whatcom County. It was named by the Wilkes Expedition, 1841,
probably in honor of William Carter, one of the petty officers of the
expedition.
Cartys Island, see Dago Island.
Cascade Bay, on the east shore of East Sound, Orcas Island, in
San Juan County. The name first appears on the British Admiralty
Chart 2689, Richards, 1858-1859, and was suggested by the outlook
of an elevated lake leaping over a bank. At present the name is being
supplanted by Rosario, name of the postoffice there and the home
of Mr. Robert Moran.
Cascade Mountains or Cascade Range, the chain of mountains
running through Washington and Oregon. Probably the first attempt
at a name for the range was by the Spaniard, Manuel Quimper, 1790,
who roughly mapped it as "Sierra Madras de S. Antonio." In 1792,
George Vancouver, the English explorer, gave names to a number of
the most prominent peaks, but referred to the range as "snowy range,"
"ridge of snowy mountains," or "range of rugged mountains."    Lewis Origin of Washington Geographic Names
39
and Clark, 1805-1806, mention the named peaks and frequently
refer in general terms to the range of mountains. Lewis wrote: "The
range of western mountains are covered with snow," and Clarke wrote:
"Western mountains covered with snow." (Thwaites, Original Journals of Lewis and Clark, Volume IV., pages 813 and 305-306.) "Western Mountains" is the nearest to a name for the range adopted by
Lewis and Clark. John Work, of the Hudson's Bay Company, wrote
in December, 1824: "a ridge of high mountains covered with snow."
(Washington Historical Quarterly, Volume III., pages 218, 215.)
David Douglas, the botanist, in writing his journal had great need
of a name for those mountains, and he seems to have been the first
one to use the name "Cascade." He refers again and again to the
"Cascade Mountains" or "Cascade Range of Mountains." (Journal
Kept by David Douglas, 1823-1827, pages 221-222, 252, 257, 342.)
Douglas does not claim to have originated the name for the range, and
earlier use of it may yet come to light. William A. Slacum's report,
1836-1837, says the mountains were sometimes called "Klannet range,
from the Indians of that name." (Oregon Historical Quarterly, Volume XIII., page 200.) Hall J. Kelley, an early enthusiast on the
Oregon Question, sometimes referred to as "The Boston Schoolmaster," sought, 1834-1839, to change the names of the great peaks
by calling them after former presidents of the United States and to
christen the range "President's Range." For a few years his scheme
of names was followed in a few publications. The Wilkes Expedition,
1841, charted the mountains as Cascade Range. That name, or Cascade Mountains, has continued in general use to the present time.
Cascade River, a tributary of the Skagit River at Marblemount,
in Skagit County.
Cascades, obstruction in the Columbia River and a town on the
bank nearby, in Skamania County. Lewis and Clark, 1805-1806, the
first white men to see this geographical feature, used the word "cascades,"
but not as a name. The Upper Cascades they called "Great Shute."
Alexander Ross, in his Oregon Settlers, writing as of 1810-1813, mentions the cascades a number of times, indicating the obstruction in the
river. David Thompson, of the North-West Company of Montreal, on
July 13, 1811, referred to "Rapids and Falls" and on July 27 to
"Great Rapid." John Work, of the Hudson's Bay Company, on June
22, 1825, wrote: "Embarked at 3 o'clock and reached the Cascades
at 1." (Washington Historical Quarterly, Volume V., page 85.)
David Douglas, the botanist, in his journal for 1826 uses the word
often, but not always for the same locality. Rev. H. H. Spalding,
writing from Fort Walla Walla on October 2, 1836, uses the words: 40
Edmond S. Meany
"The Cascades or rapids." Later writers are quite uniform in the use
of "Cascades" as a definite name.
Case Inlet or Case's Inlet, east of Hartstene Island and projecting northward, forming the boundary between Mason and Pierce
Counties. It was named by the Wilkes Expedition, 1841, in honor of
Lieutenant A. L. Case, an officer of the expedition. One portion of
the inlet is said to have borne the Indian name of Squakson.
Cashmere, a city in Chelan County. It was formerly known as
"Mission" because of the establishment there of an Indian mission.
In June, 1903, on the suggestion of Judge J. H. Chase, the name
was changed to honor the beautiful and productive Vale of Cashmere
in India.    (A. Manson, in Names MSS., Letter 300.)
Castle Island, off the southeast shore of Lopez Island, just
north of Colville Island, in San Juan County. It first appears on the
British Admiralty Chart 2689, Richards, 1858-1859. In the United
States Coast Survey Report, 1855, Chart 44, it is shown as "Old
Hundred Island."
Castle Rock, a city in Cowlitz County. In 1858 William Huntington gave that name to a huge solid rock, 150 feet high, covering
more than an acre and having the appearance of an old castle. The
rock was on his government donation land claim. When a settlement
and town developed there, it very naturaUy took the same name.
(Mrs. E. B. Huntington, in Names MSS., Letter 158.) Lewis and
Clark gave the name of "Beacon Rock" to a large rock in the lower
Columbia River. It was later called Pillar Rock, and often goes also
by the name of Castle Rock. This same name has also been given to
a number of less important geographic features in the State.
Catapootle River, see Lewis River.
Cathcart, a town in Snohomish County, named in honor of Isaac
Cathcart, a prominent lumberman who located there in early days.
Cathlamet, a city on the Columbia River, in Wahkiakum County.
Lewis and Clark, 1805-1806, wrote the name "Cathlamah." Rev.
Myron Eells says the word is evidently from the Indian word
calamet, meaning "stone," and was given to the river because it has
a stony bed along its whole course. (American Anthropologist, January, 1892.) Henry Ganett says the name is from the tribe of Indians
known as Kathlamet. (Place Names in the United States.) The
channel of the Columbia River north of Puget Sound is known as
Cathlamet Channel. Dr. W. Fraser Tolmie, of the Hudson's Bay
Company, writes in 1838 of having arrived at Kahelamit village.
(Washington Historical Quarterly, Volume III., page 282.) Origin of Washington Geographic Names
41
Cathlapootle River, see Lewis River.
Catlin, a town in Cowlitz County, named in honor of the pioneer,
Charles. Catlin. (Tillicum Tales of Thurston County, page 228.)
Others believe the honor was for Seth Catlin, pioneer settler and
legislator.
Cattle Point, southeastern point of San Juan Island, in San
Juan County. The name first appears on the British Admiralty
Chart 2689, Richards, 1858-1859. It is probable that the Hudson's
Bay Company landed cattle there prior to the dispute over possession
of those islands..
Cave Creek, in Klickitat County. J. K. Duncan, topographer
with Captain McClellan of the Pacific Railroad surveying party of
1858, reported at length about the creek that flowed partly underground through the lava caves. He also refers to the mouse legends
of the Indians giving rise to the name of Hoolhoolse, from the Indian
word hoolhool, meaning "mouse." (Pacific Railroad Reports, Volume
I., page 207.)
Cayote, once a postoffice in Garfield County, named in September,
1882, while John P. King was postmaster. (History of Southeastern
Washington, page 549.)
Cecil Creek, in Okanogan County, named after Cecil, a half-
breed, who owned an allotment at the mouth of the creek. (Postmaster Loomis, in Names MSS., Letter 264.)
Cedar Falls, Lake and River, all in King County, including a
postoffice by the name of Cedar Falls. Governor Isaac I. Stevens in
the railroad surveys of 1853 reported that the lake and falls had the
Indian name of Nook-noo. (Pacific Railroad Reports, Volume I.,
pages 119 and 194.) At first the reports showed the Nook-noon flowing into the Duwamish, and thence into Elliott Bay at Seattle. In a
supplementary report by A. W. Tinkham in January, 1854, "Cedar
Creek" is shown flowing into Lake Washington. (Pacific Railroad
Reports, Volume XL, Part II., Chart 3.) The region has gained
importance in recent years as being the source of water, light and
power for the city of Seattle. Douglas, the botanist, reported another
Cedar River near the Columbia River, above Kettle Falls. (Journal
Kept by David Douglas, 1823-1827, page 203.)
Cedarville, a town in Whatcom County, named after the Cedar-
ville Shingle Company. (Postmaster Lawrence, in Names MSS.,
Letter 272.)
Cement City, a townsite by that name was platted in Skagit
County in July, 1905.    (History of Skagit and Snohomish Counties, 42
Edmond S. Meany
page 244. Recent editions of the Postal Guide do not show such an
office at present.
Cementville, on the Columbia River in Pacific County. Machinery was installed there by a man named Hopkins, for the making of
cement.    (H. B. Settem, Knappton, in Names MSS., Letter 93.)
Center, a postoffice in Jefferson County, so named because it
was supposed to be near the center of the county. (Thomas S. Ambrose, in Names MSS., Letter 303.)
Center Reef, between Spieden and Henry Islands, in San Juan
County, in the center of Spieden Channel. The name first appears on
the British Admiralty Chart 2689, Richards, 1858-1859.
Centerville, a town in Klickitat County. The probable reason
for the name is that it is located centrally in the lower part of the
valley. (L. C. Gilman, in Names MSS., Letter 590.) This name
was also at one time used for the present Centralia in Lewis County.
Central Ferry, in Garfield County, changed its name in 1881 to
Reform, while H. M. Jenkins was postmaster. It ceased to exist
under either name.    (History of Southeastern Washington, page 549.)
Centralia, a city in Lewis County. George Washington, a colored man, founded a village and called it "Centerville," in the early
fifties. Confusion of mail resulted because a town near Goldendale
in Eastern Washington bore the same name. When a replat was
planned, David Fouts suggested the name of Centralia after the Illinois town in which he had formerlly lived. Many deeds still read
"according to the plat of Centerville, now Centralia." (Henry A.
Dunckley, in Names MSS., Letter 54.)
Ceres, a town in Lewis County, named by the railway officials in
honor of Ceres, Goddess of Grains, in recognition of the fertility of the
soil.    (Eugene Froenner, in Names MSS., Letter 149.)
Chablat River, see Hoh River.
Chachanucah, see Protection Island.
Chah-choo-sen Island, in Whatcom County. The island does
not appear on recent charts. The Indian treaty, known as the Point
Elliott Treaty, January 22, 1855, says: "and the island called Chah-
choo-sen, situated in the Lummi River at the point of separation of
the mouths emptying respectively into Bellingham Bay and the Gulf
of Georgia."
Chambers Creek, at Steilacoom, Pierce County. It was named
in honor of Thomas M. Chambers, who built there the first mill in
Pierce County. He was a pioneer of the year 1846, and settled with
others of his family near Olympia.    (H. H. Bancroft, Works, Volume Origin of Washington Geographic Names
XXXI., page 8.) The British chart bearing the name of Inskip, 1846,
shows the creek with the name "Chudley."
Chambers Lake and Prairie, in Thurston County. The names
came from David J. and Andrew J. Chambers, sons of Thomas M.
Chambers, all of whom came to Oregon in 1845 and to Puget Sound
in 1846. The father has been mentioned in connection with the
name of Chambers Creek. The two sons settled near the lake and
the two prairies near Olympia which have since borne their name.
Andrew Chambers lived there longest, and probably was most responsible for the perpetuation of the name. (H. C. McElroy, in Names
MSS., Letter 45.)
Chamokane Creek, a tributary of the Spokane River, in Stevens
County. The name has been variously spelled. WiBies says it is an
Indian word meaning "the plain of springs" from the fact that the
streams sink in the earth and in passing underground a few miles
burst forth again in springs. (Wilkes Expedition, 1841, Volume IV.,
pages 488.) This creek and the prairie through which it flows became well known as the location of the Indian mission established in
1838 by Elkanah Walker and Cushing Eells.
Charles Island, off the southern shore of Lopez Island, in
San Juan County. The name first appears on the British Admiralty
Chart 2689, Richards, 1858-1859.
Charles Point, west cape of Prevost Harbor, Stuart Island, in
San Juan county. The name is. first shown on the British Admiralty
Chart 2840, Richards, 1858-1859. Captain Richards here sought to
confer full and lasting honors on Captain James Charles Prevost of
her Majesty's ship Satellite. He named the harbor Prevost, the
west cape Charles and the adjacent island James.
Charleston, a town in Kitsap County adjoining the United
States Navy Yard, Puget Sound. It was named in honor of the
United States steamship Charleston on June 5, 1891. (Captain
W. B. Seymore, in Names MSS., Letter 8.) J. B. Chapman located
a townsite on the upper Chehalis, calling it Charleston. It never had
any real existence. (H. H. Bancroft, Works, Volume XXXL,
page 47.)
Charley Creek. There are two creeks with this name. One in
Clallam County and was named for Charles Welker, the first homesteader there. (Postmaster at Clallam Bay, in Names MSS., Letter
265.) The other is a tributary of Green River at Eagle Gorge, and
was probably named on account of Charley Settler having a homestead at its mouth. (Page Lumber Company, Eagle Gorge, in
Names MSS., Letter 56.) 44
Edmond S. Meany
Charley Fork, an upper tributary of Asotin Creek, in Asotin
County. Charles Lyon settled at the mouth of the creek and it was
named in his honor in 1870.    (History of Southeastern Washington,
page 650.)
Chatham Mountain, see Mount Chatham.
Chattaroy, a postoffice in Spokane County.
Chaudieres, see Kettle Falls.
Chauncys Island, see Lopez Island.
Chee-al-koh, a bluff on the Tulalip Indian Reservation, near
Priest Point. The meaning of the Indian name is unknown. (Charles
M. Buchanan, in Names MSS., Letter 155.)
Chehalis City and River, The river rises in Pacific County
and flows through Lewis, Thurston and Grays Harbor Counties into
Grays Harbor. George Gibbs, an early authority, says the word
means "sand" and was at first applied to a single Indian village at the
entrance of Grays Harbor. (Handbook of American Indians, Volume
I., page 241.) Rev. Myron Eells gives the same definition, and says
that the early settlers gave the same name to the river and the upper
Indian tribes, though originally neither was called by that name.
(American Anthropologist, January, 1892.) The name was spelled
in a great variety of ways by the early explorers and writers. The
city that now bears the name was laid off on the donation claim of
S. S. Saunders and wife in 1878, and was first called "Saundersville."
In the winter of 1850 John Butler Chapman began a city on Grays
Harbor under the name of Chehalis City. It failed, and he moved to
Steilacoom. Grays Harbor County was until a few years ago known
as Chehalis. County. There is a Chehalis Indian Reservation in
Thurston County.
Chelachie Creek and Prairie, in the northern part of Clarke
County, near the town of Amboy. The Indian name was found and
recorded by the railroad surveyors in 1853. (Pacific Railroad Reports, Volume I., page 878.)
Chelan. This is an Indian word to which two meanings have
been given. Henry Gannett, of the United States Geological Survey,
says it means "deep water." (Place Names in the United States.)
John C. Wapato, grandson of Chief John Wapato, says he learned
from his grandfather that the word means "land of bubbling water."
(L. B. Sines, in Names MSS., Letter 360.) Probably the first time it
was reduced to writing was by Alexander Ross, 1810-1818, and he
showed its true Indian character by the spelling as follows: "passed
a small but rapid stream, called by the native Tsill-ane, which descended over the rocks in white broken sheets."    (Oregon Settlers, Origin of Washington Geographic Names
45
page 149.) The name has been given a wide geographic use. A long
narrow lake extends from near the Columbia River for sixty miles
Jjack into the Cascade Mountains. For a long time it was said to
be "bottomless" in depth. Its depth is now known to extend below
sea level. As applied to this lake the name might well mean "deep
water." The lake drains into the Columbia River through the swift
Chelan River in which are the Chelan Falls, and at the southern end
of the lake is the town of Chelan. Chelan Butte has a height of
8892 feet, and overlooking the deep waters is a rugged ridge known
as Chelan Mountains. In 1899 a new county was. planned to be known
as Wenatchee. The law was approved on March IS of that year, but
the name of the new county had been changed to Chelan.
Chemakane, see Chamokane Creek.
Cheney, a city in Spokane County. As the railroad surveys
passed that way the place became known as "Depot Springs." The
early settlers wanted an academy or school. They renamed the place
in honor of Benjamin P. Cheney of Boston, one of the originators of
the Northern Pacific Railroad, and frankly told him of their educational ambitions. Correspondence led to his giving the sum of ten
thousand dollars. An academy was begun. When the Territory
attained statehood that academy evolved into one of the first State
Normal Schools.
Chenoke, see Chinook.
Cherana River, see Cow Creek.
Chester, a town in Spokane County. Old settlers say that the
Oregon Railway & Navigation Company named the place, but they do
not know when or for whom. (W. H. Berkley, in Names MSS.,
Letter 470.)
Cheviot, in Kittitas County. The engineers of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway Company imported for new stations the
names of old cities in the East or in foreign lands. A vice-president
of the company says that Cheviot was "a chance selection." (H. R.
Williams, in Names MSS., Letter 589.)
Chewack Creek, see Methow River.
Chewelah, a town at the mouth of Chewelah Creek, a tributary
of the Colville River in Stevens County. Rev. Myron Eells says
Cha-we-lah means a small striped snake and "was applied to that
place either because the snake abounded there or because of the
serpentine appearance of the stream." (American Anthropologist, January, 1892.) There is an Indian legend to the effect that an old
Indian chief saw a snake reaching from east to west, from mountain
to mountain, and so they called the place Chewalah.    In the sixties 46
Edmond S. Meany
a military post was placed there and the old Indian name was accepted.
(J. W. Patterson, in Names MSS., Letter 259.) The creek has also
received the same name on recent maps. Captain George B. McClellan
of the railroad surveying expedition, 1858, camped on the stream
and called it "Kitsemawhep." (Pacific Railroad Reports, Volume I.,
page 386.) Governor Stevens of that same expedition says the Indians
on the Colville trail were Skecheramouse, a band of the Spokane. A
form of the same word appears on the United States Land Office map
of Washington, 1897, as "Chiel charle Mous Creek" for what we now
know as Chewelah Creek.
Chewiliken Creek, a tributary of the Okanogan River in Okanogan County. It was named in honor of Chief Chewilican of a tribe
in that vicinity.    (T. S. Anglin, in Names MSS., Letter 263.)
Chickeeles Point, see Point Chehalis.
Chico, a town on Dyes Inlet in Kitsap County. It was named
by B. S. Sparks in 1889 in honor of the Indian Chief Chico, who
owned adjacent land. The Indian died in 1909 at the great age of
105 years.    (Mrs. Nina A. Marx, in Names MSS., Letter 60.)
Chihalis Bay, see Grays Harbor.
Chiklisilkh, see Leadbetter Point.
Chilacoom, see Steilacoom.
Chiliwist Creek, a tributary of the Okanogan River at Olema.
It was named in honor of Indian Charley Chiliwist, who formerly
lived at the mouth of the creek. (E. Holzhauser, Olema, in Names
MSS., Letter 298.)
Chimacum, a town on a creek of the same name in Jefferson
County. The name is that of a small but brave tribe of Indians who
lived between Port Townsend and Hood Canal. The tribe is now
supposed to be almost extinct. The name is sometimes spelled
Chimakum.
Chimikaine, see Chamakane.
China Creek, a tributary of the Columbia River at Evans in
Stevens County. It was named in 1908 from the fact that Chinamen
were using the water for placer mining. (W. O. Lee, Evans, in
Names MSS., Letter 139.)
Chinom Point, on the east shore of Hood Canal in Kitsap
County. On the charts of the Wilkes Expedition, 1841, it is spelled
"Tchinom."
Chinook. This name was used for a group of Indian tribes
occupying the lower banks of the Columbia River. The word is said
to come from Tsinuk, the Chehalis Indian name for the Chinook
Indians.    The Chinook Jargon, or trade language, was begun from the Origin of Washington Geographic Names
47
brief vocabulary recorded at Nootkka by Captain James Cook in
1778. The headquarters of the fur trade was removed to the Columbia River after the founding of Astoria in 1811. Many Chinook Indian
words were added, and in that way it became known as the Chinook
Jargon instead of the Nootka Jargon. The word, becoming familiar,
was frequently used for geographic names, some of which have persisted. On early charts there was shown an Indian village on the
eastern shore of Port Discovery as Chinook. That name has disappeared. An early settlement on Baker Bay in Pacific County received and has retained the name Chinook. What is now known as
Scarborro Hill was once called Chinook Hill. A small stream flowing
into Baker Bay has been mapped a number of times as Chinook River,
while others use Wappalooche as its name. James G. Swan says:
"which would carry us down the Wappalooche, or Chinook River, to
its mouth." (Northwest Coast, 1857, page 98.) Chinook Point mentioned by Swan as the headquarters of the once powerful tribe of
Chinook Indians, was called "Point Komkkomle" in 1811 by David
Thompson of the North-West Company of Montreal. Concomly was
the famous, one-eyed chief of the Chinooks in early Astoria days.
Chismil, see Fish River.
Chlayarnat, see Port Discovery.
Chockai^ilum, see Columbia River.
Christopher, a town in King County, named by the citizens in
honor of Thomas Christopher, a pioneer in 1887. (Postmaster, in
Names MSS., Letter 73.)
Chuckanut Bay, a part of Bellingham Bay in Whatcom County.
It was named by Henry Roeder on December 1, 1852. It was supposed to be an old Indian name. (Hugh Eldridge, in Names MSS.,
Letter 136.) A valuable quarry of building stone would ordinarily
have supported an independent community. As it is, it is counted a
part of Bellingham. On the Spanish charts of Elisa, 1791, and Galiano
and Valdes, 1792, the bay is shown as "Puerto del Socorro."
Chuh-chuh-sul-lay, the Indian name for Gedney Island, Snohomish County.    (Charles M. Buchanan, in Names MSS., Letter 155.)
Clallam, the name of a once powerful Indian tribe, which name
has developed into a number of geographic terms. Rev. Myron Eells
believes that the word has developed from the Twana Indian name
Do-skal-ob applied to the Clallam Indians and meaning "big brave
nation." In the so-called Point-no-Point Treaty, January 26, 1855,.
Governor Stevens wrote the name "S'Klallam." (Indian Laws and
Treaties, Volume II., page 674.) The Territorial law creating the
county of that name, approved April 26, 1854, had the name written Edmond S. Meany
"Claim." Clallam Bay, off the Strait of Juan de Fuca, was called
"Ensenada de Roxas," Quimper, 1790, and Galiano and Valdes, 1792.
George Davidson says the Indian name of the bay was Kla-kla-wier.
(Pacific Coast Pilot, page 524.) The present name was given to the
bay on the British Admiralty Chart 1911, Kellett, 1847, but it was
there spelled Callam. The same chart shows the west cape of Port
Discovery as "Challam Point," which shows poor spelling of the same
name for both places. The British Admiralty Chart 2689, Richards,
1858-1859, corrects the spelling to Clallam Point. The Wilkes Expedition, 1841, had given this point the name of "North Bluff," but
it did not persist. The same fate befell the Spanish name of 1790,
"Punta de San Juan." (Manuel Quimper chart in United States
Public Documents, Serial Number 1557.) At Clallam Bay a creek
empties into the Strait of Juan de Fuca, which is called Clallam River.
Claquato, one of the early settlements in Lewis County. Lewis
H. Davis in 1852 laid out a town and built a courthouse which he
gave to Lewis County.   (Hines, History of Washington, page 542.)
Clark Island, northeast of Orcas. Island, in San Juan County,
was named by the Wilkes Expedition, 1841. This island and the
nearby Barnes Island were named by the Spaniard Elisa, 191, "Islas
de Aguays" after part of the long name of the Viceroy of Mexico.
Wilkes sought to honor many heroes of the United States Navy in
naming these islands of his "Navy Archipelago." The one here honored was probably Midshipman John Clark, who was. killed in Perry's
Battle of Lake Erie. Congress presented a sword to the nearest male
relative. (E. S. Maclay's History of the Navy, Volume I., pages'
515, 518, 519.)
Clark Point, on the northern end of Guemes Island in Skagit
County. It was named by the Wilkes Expedition, 1841, in honor of
Levin Clark, captain of the top in one of the Wilkes crews.
Clark Fork River, in Pend Oreille County, was shown as
"Saleesh" River on the map of David Thompson, 1811, of the North-
West Company of Montreal. It was called "Clark's River" by the
Lewis and Clark Expedition, 1805-1806, and is now mapped as a considerable tributary of the Columbia River under the name of Clark
Fork River.
Clarke, a town in Lincoln County. It was named by the Post-
office Department about 1890 in honor of a prominent mining engineer
of those days by the name of Clarke. He was also a pioneer of Lincoln County.   (C. Miller, in Names MSS., Letter 268.)
Clarke County, oldest county in the State of Washington. It
was named in honor of Captain Clark of the Lewis and Clark Expe- Origin of Washington Geographic Names
49
dition of 1803 to 1806. The addition of the letter e to the name
has given rise to much inquiry and discussion. The blunder is one
of ignorance, but is probably now too deeply imbedded in law, literature and custom to be completely corrected. The question was ably
discussed by Frederick V. Holman in his presidential address before
the Oregon Historical Society, December 18, 1909. (Oregon Historical Quarterly, Volume XL, pages 3-6.) On August 20, 1845,
Governor George Abernethy approved a law by the Provisional Legislature of the Territory of Oregon creating Vancouver District out of
that part of Oregon lying north of the Columbia River. The same
authority, on December 21, 1845, subdivided the vast area by creating
the western portion into Lewis. County. Vancouver District was
then changed to Vancouver County. On September 8, 1849, the Oregon Territorial Legislature passed a law, Section 1 of which briefly
enacted "That the name of the county of Vancouver be, and hereby
is, changed to Clark." In the law as printed the name is in italics
and is without the final e. Washington Territory was created by
Act of Congress, dated March 2, 1853. The Oregon Territorial Legislature on January 3, 1854, passed an act to release Clark County from
the payment of certain taxes due to the Territory of Oregon. This
legal farewell used the name without the final e. The new Territory of Washington began the blunder at once. No law was passed
changing the name, but the journals of the first legislative session,
1854, always referred to Clarke County. The first newspapers, such
as the Columbian, Pioneer, and Pioneer and Democrat, all used the
final e in Clarke County. Territorial laws on mentioning the name
of this county used the final e. While attention has often been
called to the blunder in late years no effort at legal correction has
apparently been made.
Clarke Lake, a small" lake near Bissell in Stevens County. It
was named in honor of James Clarke, who, in 1888, had it surveyed.
(Postmaster, Bissell, in Names MSS., Letter 105.)
Clarkston, a town in Asotin County, on the opposite bank of
the Snake River from Lewiston, Idaho. It is named in honor of
Captain William Clark of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, 1803-
1806. It is a fine honor for the two leaders of that great expedition
to have their names thus, borne by thriving cities connected by an interstate bridge. Clarkston was begun with the name of "Concord," as
some of the promoters of the irrigation plans had their homes in
Concord, Massachusetts. By petition of the citizens the name was
changed to Clarkston on January 1, 1900. 50
Edmond S. Meany
Classic, a town on the west bank of Holmes Harbor, Whidby
Island, in Island County. It was founded in 1911 by B. B. Daniels,
who sought a name that would mean "beautiful," "well located." (Virgil A. Wilson, in Names MSS., Letter 33.)
Clear Lake, south of Medical Lake in Spokane County. It was
named by W. F. Bassett on account of the great clearness of its water.
(H. S. Bassett, Harrington, Lincoln County, in Names MSS.,
Letter 327.)
Clearlake, a town in Skagit County. The site was first settled
by Robert Pringle. In 1890, when the railroad arrived, Jacob Barth
platted the townsite. It was first named "Mountain View," but was
changed to Clearlake after a nearby body of water known as Clear
Lake.    (History of Skagit and Snohomish Counties, page 240.)
Clear View, a town that was projected in Spokane County but
did not survive the free-excursion-lot-selling scheme. (Postmaster,
Medical Lake, in Names MSS., Letter 248.)
Clearwater, a town in Jefferson County, named after a creek of
the same name. The creek is a tributary of the Queets River, which
flows into the Pacific Ocean.
Cle Elum, a town in Kittitas County. The United States Postal
Guide, Geographic Board and Land office maps give the name in two
words. Many other maps, however, show the name as Clealum. The
lake and river of the same name have been called "Kleallum" Lake and
"Samahma" River. (Pacific Railroad Reports, Volume I., pages 210
and 382.) James Tilton's Map of Part of Washington Territory,
1859, shows "Kleattam" Lake. (United States Public Documents,
Serial Number 1026.) The several forms of the Indian word are said
to mean "swift waters."
Cleman Mountains, in Yakima County. They were named after
John Clemans, an old settler. (Mr. Benton, Postmaster, Nile, in
Names MSS., Letter 806.)
Clements Reef, north of Sucia Islands, San Juan County. The
name first appears on the British Admiralty Chart 2689, Richards,
1858-1859.
Cliff Island, one of the seven Wasp Islands northwest of Shaw
Island in San Juan County. The name first appears on the British
Admiralty Chart 2840, Richards, 1858-1860.
Cliff Point, on the lower Columbia River, in Pacific County,
The land is high and steep to the water's edge. (H. B. Settem, Knapp-
ton, in Names MSS., Letter 83.) Origin of Washington Geographic Names
51
Cliffs, a railroad station on the bank of the Columbia River, in
Klickitat County. Named after a succession of cliffs in that vicinity.
(L. C. Gilman, in Names MSS., Letter 590.)
Cline, a town on the Colville River, in Stevens County. It was
named in honor of John James Orlando Cline, who for twenty years
was agent of the Spokane Falls & Northern Railway at Springdale.
(Jerry Cooney, Springdale, in Names MSS., Letter 89.)
Clinton, a town on Whidby Island, in Island County. Edward
C. Hinman built a hotel in 1885 and soon thereafter made arrangements to sell wood to passing steamers. Settlers came to patronize
the steamers and a town was begun. Two miles away John G. Phin-
ney had been employing wood cutters and kept a little store for their
benefit. He also had a postoffice. When the new place developed he
consented to the removal of the postoffice. For a number of years it
was known as "Phinney," but was then changed to its present name.
(Names MSS., Letter 344.)
Clipper, a town in Whatcom County. It was named in 1900
after the Clipper Shingle Company. (J. P. Peterson, in Names MSS.,
Letter 199.)
Clisseet, an Indian village on the Makah Indian Reservation, in
Clallam County. The name sounds like the one suggested for Cape
Flattery.    It appears on Kroll's map of Clallam County.
Cloquallum Creek, rising in the southwestern corner of Mason
County, it crosses into Grays Harbor County, and empties into the
Chehalis River near Elma. That it is an old Indian name is shown
by the record made by the Wilkes Expedition, 1841, as follows: "the
old chief joined the party and they all proceeded down to the river
to the point where the Kluckullum enters the Chickeeles, where they
halted."    (Narrative, Volume V., page 126.)
Clover Creek, a small stream that empties into Steilacoom Lake,
Pierce County. It was. named by Christopher Mahon, an old soldier
who had served under General Scott. He took up a government claim
one mile square and because wild clover was so abundant along the
creek he gave that name. (Clara G. Lindsly, Spanaway, in Names
MSS., Letter 254.)
Cochenawga River, see Okanogan River.
Coeur d'Alene. This is an Indian name for a lake and a city. It.
is inentioned here because in early days the river which drains the lake
was called "Coeur d'Alene River" until joined by the "Little Spokane
River," after which the combined waters had the name of Spokane
River. The last name is now used from the lake throughout its
length.    The French term means  "awl-heart"   or   "sharp-hearted." 52
Edmond S. Meany
Some claim the traders, applied it to the shrewd Indians and others
say the Indians applied it first to the grasping traders.
Cohassett, a town in Grays Harbor County. It was named
about 1892 by John Wooding, a banker of Aberdeen, Washington, in
memory of a pleasant visit he had paid to the summer resort of Cohassett, Massachusetts. (Postmaster, in Names MSS., Letter 461.)
The officials, of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway Company
have undertaken to change the name of Ashby in Kittitas County to
Cohassett, after the same eastern city. It is not likely that the post-
office authorities will approve two such names in the same state.
Colby, a town in Kitsap County. About 1884 some lumps of
coal were found along a small creek. This gave rise to the local name
"Coal Bay," which was later shortened to Colby. (Joseph S. Grant,
Colby, in Names MSS., Letter 2.)
Coldcreek, a town in Benton County. On some maps Cold
Creek is shown as a branch of Rattlesnake Creek and on others both
creeks go by the name of Cold Creek. The Indians named the creek
from its cold springs.    (Postmaster, in Names MSS., Letter 388.)
Cole Point, the southeast cape of Anderson Island in Pierce
County. It was named by R. M. Inskip, 1846, on the British Admiralty Chart 1947, in honor of Edmund P. Cole, master on the
Fisgard.
ColL|Etta, a town in the southern part of Grant County. It was
named by Mike Rohlinger in honor of his daughter, Colletta. (Robert
N. Getty, Smyrna, in Names MSS., Letter 63.)
Colfax, a town in Whitman County. N. W. Durham makes the
following statement: "James A. Perkins, J. H. Logsden and Mr.
Lucas, a committee authorized by the Legislature to locate the county
seat of the new county of Whitman, reported in February, 1872, that
they had selected the Forks of the Palouse. The lands were still un-
surveyed, but a town was platted and called Colfax, in honor of the
vice-president of the United States." (Spokane and the Inland Empire, page 630.)
College Place, a town in Walla Walla. It was named about
1892 on account of growing up about a college established there by
the Seventh Day Adventists. (Postmaster, in Names MSS., Letter 182.)
Colseed, see Quilcene Bay.
Collins, a postoffice in Skamania County and known sometimes
as Collins Hot Springs.    (L. C. Gilman, in Names MSS., Letter 590.)
Columbia. This is the most abundantly used geographic name
in America.    Aside from the beauty of the word, its history reflects Origin of Washington Geographic Names
58
efforts to honor the achievements of Christopher Columbus. Its greatest use in the Pacific Northwest is as the name of the great river.
Captain Robert Gray, in the American vessel Columbia, on May 11,
1792, at 8 a.m., sailed through the breakers and at 1 p.m. anchored
in the river ten miles from its mouth. On May 19, Captain Gray gave
his ship's name to the river. (United States Public Documents, Serial
Number 851, House of Representative Documents 101.) This was the
American discovery and naming of the river. Prior to this, the river's
existence had been suspected and other names had been suggested.
In 1766-1767, Jonathan Carver, while exploring among the Indians
of Minnesota, wrote about a great river of the west and called it
"Oregon," a beautiful word which he is now believed to have coined.
In 1775, Bruno Heceta, Spanish explorer, noted the indications of a
river there. He called the entrance "Bahia de la Asuncion," the
northern cape "San Roque" and the southern point "Cabo Frondoso."
Later Spanish charts showed the entrance as "Ensenada de Heceta"
and the surmised river as "San Roque." In 1778, John Meares, English explorer and fur trader, sought for and denied the existence of
the Spanish river "Saint Roc." He called the Spaniard's "San Roque"
Cape Disappointment and the entrance he changed from "Bahia de la
Asuncion" or "Ensenada de Heceta" to "Deception Bay." That was
the situation when Captain Gray made his discovery. In 1798, Alexander Mackenzie, of the North-West Company of Montreal, made his
memorable journey to the western coast. He came upon a large river
which he said the Indians called "Tacootche-Tesse." This afterwards turned out to be the Fraser River, but for a time it was confused with the Columbia. Captain Meriwether Lewis mapped it as a
northern branch of the Columbia, spelling it "Tacoutche." William
Cullen Bryant in his great poem Thanatopsis (1812) revived and gave
wide circulation to "Oregon" as the name of the river. Another literary name was "Great River of the West," which, of course, did not
disturb Columbia as a geographic term. There are a number of other
geographic uses of the word in the state of Washington; in fact,
when the bill was introduced into Congress to create the new territory
it bore the name "Territory of Columbia." This was changed to
Washington during the debate in the House of Representatives, February, 1853.
Columbia, now a sub-station of the Seattle postoffice in King
County, was established about 1890 as an independent town. The
promoters, Bowman & Rochester, made it known by one line of advertising: "Columbia, Watch It Grow!" The name was here taken
from the pet-name of the Nation rather than from that of the river. 54
Edmond S. Meany
An effort was once made to change the name of Vancouver, Clarke
County, to "Columbia City."
Columbia Center. A town was platted under this name in Garfield County by T. G. Bean and Andrew Blackman on December 26,
1877.    (History of Southeastern Washington, page 548.)
Columbia County, created on November 11, 1875, and named
for the great river. The Governor had vetoed a bill to create a county •
bearing the name of "Ping," after Elisha Ping, a member of the Territorial Council. A new bill avoiding the Governor's objections was
hastily passed and approved. Among other changes, was that of name
from "Ping" to Columbia. (History of Southeastern Washington,
page 292.)
Columbia Falls, one of the obstructions in the Columbia River
usually referred to as the Dalles. Alexander Ross, 1811-1813, wrote:
"we arrived at the falls—the great Columbia Falls, as they are generally called."    (Oregon Settlers, page 182.)
. Columbia River, a town in the southeastern corner of Douglas
County.    It is on the bank of the river from which its name is derived.
Columbia Valley. This name, used over a vast area, was first
applied by the Lewis and Clark Expedition, 1808-1806, while near
the present Kalama. They say: "which we call Columbia or Wap-
pa-too Valley from that root or plants growing spontaneously in this
valley only." (Thwaites, Original Explorations of Lewis and Clark
Expedition, Volume III., page 202.)
Columbus, a town on the Columbia River, in Klickitat County.
It is an old settlement and was evidently named after Christopher
Columbus, als othe indirect source of the great river's name.
Colville, a city in Stevens County. The name is derived from
that of Andrew Colville, who succeeded Sir John Henry Pelly as
Governor in London of the Hudson's Bay Company. The name is
JS ft?^-/ sometimes spelled "Colvile." John Work, of the Hudson's Bay Company, indicates the actual beginning dates of old Fort Colville as
Thursday, September 1, 1825, and Thursday, April 13, 1826.
(Washington Historical Quarterly, Volume V., pages 113 and 284.)
On the first date men were cutting timbers and on the second were,
departing from Spokane House to establish the new place near Kettle
Falls whch was later to receive the name of Fort Colville. It became
one of the important trading posts of the Hudson's Bay Company. A
few miles to the east, the United States established a little fort in
command of Major Pinkney Lougenbeel, and in his honor the place
was called "Pinkney City." Close by was a small settlement known
as Colville.    When Stevens' County was organized, the name of "Pink-
y
\**- Origin of Washington Geographic Names
55
ney City" was changed to Colville and that became the county seat.
Colville Island, at southeast end of Lopez Island, in San Juan
County. It appears first on the British Admiralty Chart 2689, Richards, 1858-1859.
Colville Lake, near Sprague, on the boundary between Adams
and Lincoln Counties. The railroad surveyors called it by the Indian name "Silkatkwu." (Pacific Railroad Reports, Volume I.,
page 216.)
Colville River, in Stevens County. At first it was called "Mill
Creek" or "Mill River" because the Hudson's Bay Company built a
mill there. (Jacob A. Meyers, in Names MSS., Letter 86.) In the
Wilkes Expedition, 1841, and the Pacific Railroad Surveys, 1853, it is
called "Mill Creek" or "Shawntehus." (Pacific Railroad Reports,
Volume XL, Part II., Chart 3.) Later, the word Colville becoming
familiar in that section, was applied also as the name of the river.
Colvos, a small settlement on the west shore of Vashon Island in
King County. Its name was derived from that of Colvos Passage, between Vashon Island and the mainland.
Colvos Passage, between Vashon Island and the mainland, forming the boundary between King and Kitsap Counties. George W.
Colvocoressis was a Passed Midshipman in the Wilkes Expedition,
1841, crews. His name being too long for geographical honors was
abbreviated and applied as above by Captain Wilkes.
Colvos Rocks, north of the entrance to Port Ludlow, in Jefferson
County. The name was given by the Wilkes Expedition, 1841, in
honor of Passed Midshipman George W. Colvocoressis of the crew.
Commencement Bay, now usually called Tacoma Harbor, in
Pierce County. It was named by the Wilkes Expedition, 1841. Lieutenant-Commandant Cadwalader Ringgold of the United States brig
Porpoise undertook to survey Admiralty Inlet from The Narrows.
The record says: "On the 15th of May [1841] the Porpoise left
Nisqually, and anchored the first night near the point where the surveys were to begin, but outside of the Narrows. The first bay at the
bottom of Admiralty Sound was termed Commencement Bay." (Narrative, Volume IV., page 479.)
Conconully, the name of a tiny lake, a creek and a town in
Okanogan County. Rev. Myron Eells says the word is a corruption
of the Indian word meaning "cloudy" and was applied to a branch of
the Salmon River. The Indian name for the valley where Conconully is located was Sklow Ouliman, meaning "money hole" because
a hunter could get a beaver there any day and use it as money at the
Hudson's Bay Company's Fort Okanogan.    (American Anthropolo- 56
Edmond S. Meany
gist, January, 1892.) George Gibbs, an earlier authority, says a tribe
lived on a creek by the name of themselves, "konekonl'p." (Pacific
Railroad Reports, Volume I., page 412.) Local authorities say the
original name was Conconulp as nearly as it can be put in English
letters. It mean "money hole" because the basin now occupied by the
government reseervoir was a great beaver ground, and beaver skins
were money at the old trading post. (C. H. Lovejoy to Frank Putnam, in Names MSS., Letter 345.)
Concord, see Clarkston.
Concrete, a town in Skagit County. The site was first settled
upon in 1888 by Richard Challanger. In 1892, a postoffice was secured
and the name "Baker" applied, as it was at the junction of the Baker
and Skagit Rivers. In June, 1905, the first steps were taken to
organize there the important cement industry. On account of this
industry the appropriate name of Concrete has replaced that of
"Baker."
Cone Hill, see Eagle Cliff.
Cone Islands, east of Cypress Island, in San Juan County. The
name was given by the Wilkes Expedition, 1841.
Connelly, a settlement in Spokane County near Four Lakes.
It was named after Ed. Connelly thirty or forty years ago. (C. Sel-
vidge, Four Lakes, in Names MSS., Letter 168.)
Connell, a town in Franklin County. The main line of the
Northern Pacific Railway is here crossed by a branch, which has given
increased importance to Connell in recent years.
Conway, a town in Skagit County. Thomas P. Jones and
Charles Villeneure settled on the site in 1873. The Great Northern
Railway built a line through there in 1891 and Mr. Jones platted the
town.    (History of Skagit and Snohomish Counties, pages 245-246.)
Cook, a boat-landing and town on the Columbia River, in Skamania County. It was named by S. R. Harris, first postmaster, in
1908, in honor of Charles A. Cook, who homesteaded the tract on
which the townsite is located. (Laura J. Wallace, in Names MSS.,
Letter 815.)
Cook Point, at the entrance to Hammersley Inlet, in Mason
County. It was named by the Wilkes Expedition, 1841, but is apparently omitted as a name from more recent charts.
Coolidge, a town on the Columbia River, in Benton County. It
was named by recent promoters of the townsite. (L. C. Gilman, in
Names MSS., Letter 590.)
Copalis, a town at the mouth of the river by the same name in
Grays Harbor County, eighteen miles north of Grays. Harbor.    The Origin of Washington Geographic Names
57
name is from a Salish tribe of Indians who lived on the banks of the
river. Lewis and Clark, 1803-1806, called the tribe "Pailsh."
(Handbook of American Indians, Volume I., page 848.)
Coppei. A town once flouished on the creek by this name in Walla
Walla County. It was founded by Anderson Cox, a pioneer who came
to Oregon in 1845. In 1861 he became one of the pioneers in the
Inland Empire. His new town got a postoffice in January, 1863, and
Luke Henshaw was the first postmaster. In 1865 Cox and others
moved from Coppei to the new and thriving town of Waitsburg in the
same vicinity. (Elwood Evans, History of the Pacific Northwest,
Volume II., page 289.) The Stevens railroad map shows the creek's
name as "Kap-y-o."  (Pacific Railroad Reports, Volume XII., Book 1.)
Cora, a former postoffice near Lewis in Lewis County, which was
discontinued in 1907. (Walter Combs, Lewis, in Names MSS., Letter 150.)
Corbaley Canyon, at Orondo, in western part of Douglas County.
In 1883, Piatt M. Corbaley settled at the head of the canyon and in
1884 J. B. Smith settled at its foot. In 1885 the latter circulated a
petition for a road down what he called Corbaley Canyon. The
County Commissioners adopted that name, which has since become
well known.    (J. B. Smith, Orondo, in Names MSS., Letter 95.)
Corfu, a town in Grant County. The name was probably imported from Greece by the officers of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St.
Paul Railway Company. (H. R. Williams, in Names MSS., Letter 580.)
Cormorant Passage, between Ketron Island and the mainland,
in Pierce County. It was named by R. M. Inskip, 1846, as shown on
the British Admiralty Chart 1947 bearing his name. The name was
given in honor of Her Majesty's paddle-sloop Cormorant, Commander
G. T. Gordon. She was on the Northwest station from 1844 to 1850,
being the first naval steam vessel in these waters. (Captain John T.
Walbran, British Columbia Coast Names, page 113.)
Cornet, a town on a bay of the same name on Whidby Island,
near Deception Pass, in Island County. John Cornet, with his Indian
wife, settled there in the early sixties. In 1876 he was accidentally
shot while traveling in his canoe. (Fred H. Finsen, in Names MSS.,
Letter 768.
Cosmopolis, a city at the head of Grays Harbor, in Grays Harbor
County. It is quite clear that the early settlers desired to impress
the idea of having a future seaport of the world at that place by
choosing such an old Greek name.   However, there are local traditions 58
Edmond S. Meany
that the name came from that of an old Indian chief. (Charles
L. McKeloey, in Names MSS., Letter 474.)
Cottonwood Island, in the Columbia River, near the mouth of
Cowlitz River, in Cowlitz County. It was named "Kanem" Island
by the Wilkes Expedition, 1841, but on the United States Coast and
Geodetic Survey Chart 6153 it is shown by the present name, taken
no doubt from the bundance of cottonwood trees. The Indian name
Kanem means "canoe."
Cottonwood Point. The Wilkes Expedition, 1841, gave this
name to the eastern extremity of Puget Island in the Columbia River.
That name does not appear on recent charts, but river-men have been
using the name for a point southeast of Washougal and southwest of
Cape Horn in the Columbia River, Clarke County. It has recently
been shown that this, is probably the true Point Vancouver named by
Broughton in 1792. (T. C. Elliott, in Oregon Historical Quarterly,
Volume XVIII., pages 73-82.)
Cougar, a town in Cowlitz County. The postoffice was established in 1906, and of the several names submitted to the Postoffice
Department this one of a wild animal was selected. (John Beavers,
in Names MSS., Letter 201.)
Cougar Gulch, in Kittitas County. It was named by G. D.
Virden, who killed a cougar there. (E. G. Powers, Liberty, in Names
MSS., Letter 295.)
Coulee City, a town in Grant County. It was so named in
1889 because it is situated in Grand Coulee. (Postmaster, in Names
MSS., Letter 281.)
Coulee Creek, a tributary of the Spokane River, in Spokane
County. Captain George B. McClellan of the railroad surveyors
called it "Helse-de-lite." His camp was there October 26 to 29,
1858. (Pacific Railroad Reports, Volume I., page 886.) The place
has since been identified as the true site of Camp Washington, the
"First Capital." (Washington Historical Quarterly, Volume VII.,
pages 8-20, 177-178 and 276-277.)
Coupeville, a city on Whidby Island, in Island County. It was
founded in 1853 by Captain Thomas Coupe, whose name was given
to the place.    It is the seat of government of Island County.
Couse Creek, empties into the Snake River at Dodd, in Asotin
County. It was so named because large quantities of couse roots were
gathered there by the Indians for making bread. (E. C. Lathrop,
Craige, in Names MSS., Letter 287.) The Nez Perce Indian name
for the plant is kowish, and from that has come "kouse" or "couse."
(Handbook of American Indians, Volume I., page 729.) Origin of Washington Geographic Names
59
Covada, a town in Ferry County. The name is a composite made
by the prospectors, who took the initial letters of the following: Columbia Camp, Orin Mine, Vernie Mine, Ada Mine, Dora Mine and
Alice Mine.      (Postmaster, Covada, in Names MSS., Letter 487.)
Coveland, a settlement at the extreme western end of Penn's
Cove, Whidby Island, in Island County. The settlement was founded
by Dr. R. H. Lansdale in the early fifties.
Covello, a town in Columbia County. The settlement was first
known as "Pioneer." In 18882, Wulzen & Shroeder, from San Francisco, erected a large store there. In November of that year a post-
office was secured and the name Covello chosen. (History of Southeastern Washington, page 278.)
Cow Creek, draining Cow Lake into the Palouse River, Adams
County. The railroad surveyors of 1858 used three Indian names for
the creek—"Stkahp," "Cherana" and "Cherakwa." (Pacific Railroad
Reports, Volume I., pages 216 and 887.)
Coweman River, a tributary of the Cowlitz River, near Kelso, in
Cowlitz County. It was once known as "Gobar's River" from Anton
Gobar, a herder in the employ of the Hudson's Bay Company, who
occupied a small prairie on the east side of the Cowlitz River. (Olympia Transcript, April 18, 1868.) The present name is from the Indian
word Ko-wee-na, which in the Cowlitz language means "short man."
An Indian of short stature bore than name, and his home being in the
vicinity of the river a modification of his name was given to the river.
(Henry C. Sicade to John L. Harris, in Names MSS., Letter 482.)
Cowiche, a creek and town in the Yakima Valley, Yakima
County. Its name is of Indian origin. The railroad surveyors of
1858 spelled it "Kwiwichess" and "Kwai-wy-chess." (Pacific Railroad Reports, Volume I., pages 208 and 880.)
Cowlitz Bay, on the southwest shore of Waldron Island, in Sah
Juan County. It first appears on the British Admiralty Chart 2689,
Richards, 1858-1859. As the locality is far removed from the region
of the Cowlitz Indians, it is quite probable that this bay was named
for the Hudson's Bay Company's vessel Cowlitz.
Cowlitz County, created by the Territorial Legislature on April
21, 1854. The name was taken from the tribe of Indians or the river
of the same name.
Cowlitz Farm, one of the early homes of white men in Lewis
County. Retired employes of the Hudson's Bay Company settled
there. It is indicated on the maps of the Wilkes Expedition, 1841,
and also on Preston's Map of Oregon and Washington West of the
Cascade Mountains, 1856.    In 1858 the Legislature passed an act to 60
Edmond S. Meany
locate the proposed Territorial University of Washington at that
place.    (University of Washington Catalogue for 1910-1911, page 37.)
Cowlitz Landing, near the present location of Toledo in Lewis
County. Boats were used on the Cowlitz River up to this point, from
which passengers would proceed overland to Puget Sound. The name
appears on early Territorial maps.
Cowlitz Pass, through the Cascade Mountains between Lewis
and Yakima Counties. The Cowlitz River has its main source in a
Mount Rainier Glacier of the same name. One branch of the river,
however, rises near this pass, which accounts for the name.
Cowlitz River. Of all the geographic uses of the word Cowlitz,
the name of the river is oldest and most important. Lewis and Clark,
1803-1806, say the Indians called the river "Coweliske." (Journal,
Coues Eddition, Volume II., page 698.) Subsequent writers made
various attempts at spelling. Dr. W. Fraser Tolmie, 1833, wrote it
"Tawallitch." (Washington Historical Quarterly, Volume III., page
238.) The word is said to mean "capturing the medicine spirit," from
the fact that the young Indians of the tribe were sent to a small prairie
to commune with the spirits to get "medicine" or "power." (Henry
C. Sicade to John L. Harris, in Names MSS., Letter 488.) The
River's early importance was its use as a highway between the Columbia River and Puget Sound.
Coyle, a town in Jefferson County, at Oak Head. Originally
the place was known as "Fisherman's Harbor." In April, 1908, a
postoffice was secured and the name was changed to honor George
Coyle, a former resident. (Albert A. Gregory, in Names MSS.,
Letter 416.)
Craige, a town in Asotin County. In 1897, C. Thomas Craige
and Charles H. Dodd got a mail route. Two new postoffices developed. They sent in a hundred different names, but the Postoffice
Department selected Craige and "Dodd." The last named has since
been discontinued.   (E. C. Lathrop, in Names MSS., Letter 287.)
Crane Island, northwest of Shaw Island, in San Juan County.
It first appears on the British Admiralty Chart 2689, Richards,
1858-1859.
Craven Peninsula. The Wilkes Expedition, 1841, sought to bestow an honor upon their Lieutenant Thomas. T. Craven by writing
"Craven Peninsula" on what is now charted as Marrowstone Island.
Vancouver had named the point Marrowstone in 1792 and the application of that name has been extended to the whole island. The name
Craven Rock appears on the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey Origin of Washington Geographic Names
61
Chart 6450, off the northeast coast of Marrowstone Island.   Marrowstone Island is near Port Townsend, in Jefferson County.
Crescent, a town in the central part of Pend Oreille County.
The postoffice was established in 1906. A number of proposed names
were submitted, and the Postoffice Department selected this one as
most suitable on account of the crescent-shaped curve of the mountains in that vicinity. (Mrs. N. H. Emery, in Names MSS., Letter
66.) There was an older settlement by the same name in the northeastern part of Lincoln County.
Crescent Bay, on the coast of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, west
of Port Angeles, Clallam County. Elisa, 1791, and Galiano and
Valdes, 1792, gave the Spanish name as "Ensenada de Villalva." The
name Crescent appears first on the British Admiralty Chart 1911,
Kellett, 1847. The United States Coast and Geodetic Survey Chart
6800 gives the name and adds the name Crescent Rock near the entrance to the bay. The name was evidently suggested by the shape
of the bay.
Crescent Harbor, east of Oak Harbor, on Whidby Island, in
Island County. Dr. Richard H. Lansdale made a canoe trip from
Olympia to Oak Harbor in February, 1851, and made his first location
there. In the following year William H. Wallace and family settled
at Crescent Harbor, which name had been bestowed by Doctor Lansdale within the year. The Wilkes Expedition, 1841, had called this
"Duncan's Bay" in honor of an officer in the ship Saratoga, commanded by McDonough in the War of 1812. Wilkes honored the ship
by naming Saratoga Passage, and he placed the name "McDonough"
on what is now known as Camano Island.
Creston, a town in Lincoln County. Local tradition has it that
the Northern Pacific Railway engineers suggested the name because
Brown's Butte overlooking the town on the south is the crest of the
land in the Big Bend Country. It was named about 1889. (D.
Frank Peffly, in Names MSS., Letter 378.)
Crocker Lake, in Jefferson County. The lake was named about
1870 and a settlement there bears the same name. (Robert E. Ryan,
Sr., in Names MSS., Letter 172.)
Crocketts Lake, near the western shore of Whidby Island in
Island County. It was named for the Crockett family, who were the
first settlers there, in the early fifties.
Cromwell, a town on Hales Passage, in Pierce County. It was
named about 1902 in honor of J. B. Cromwell, who was postmaster at
Tacoma.    (M. B. Kellogg, in Names MSS., Letter 420.) 62
Edmond S. Meany
Crosby, a town in the western part of Kitsap County. It was
named by Mrs. Graham in 1891 after a town of that name in England.
(M. A. Hoenshell, in Names MSS., Letter 552.)
Crown Creek, a tributary of the Columbia River, near Marble,
Stevens County. It is supposed to have been named for a man
named Crown who lived near the creek. (Joseph T. Reed, Marble, in
Names MSS., Letter 125.)
Cruzatte. Lewis and Clark, 1808-1806, gave the name of one
of their party to a river now known as Wind River. Near there a
settlement, in Skamania County, received the name of "Cruzat," but
it has since been changed to Prindle.
Cultus Bay, a shallow bay at the southern end of Whidby Island,
Island County. The name is from the Chinook Jargon and means
"worthless."
Cumberland, a town in King County. The coal mine there was
opened in 1893 and F. X. Schriner suggested the name Cumberland
after the famous Pennsylvania coal region. (J. F. Paschich, in Names
MSS., Letter 198.
Curlew, a town at the mouth of Curlew Creek, a tributary of
Kettle River, in Ferry County. There is also a Curlew Lake, which
is drained by Curlew Creek. The Indian name was Karanips, meaning "curlew." Guy S. Helphrey named the town Curlew in June,
1896.     (John P. Helphrey, in Names MSS., Letter 242.)
Curtis, a town in the western part of Lewis County. It was
named for Ben Curtis, the first postmaster. (Postmaster, in Names
MSS., Letter 393.)
Custer, a town in the northwestern portion of Whatcom County.
There is also a settlement on Steilacoom Lake, Pierce County, by the
same name. This latter name was for a settler who lived there
about 1890. (Hilda Swanson, Fort Steilacoom, in Names MSS.,
Letter 232.)
Cypress Island, in the western portion of Skagit County. Elisa's
map of 1791 shows the Spanish name as "Isla de S. Vincente" in
honor of a part of the Mexican Viceroy's long name. Captain George
Vancouver, the English explorer, named the island Cypress in 1792,
from the trees he thought were cypress. Botanists have since declared
the trees to be junipers, but Cypress Island has remained unshaken
as a geographical name from the time it was first thus charted. (Vancouver, Voyage, second edition, Volume II., page 178.)
[To be continued] DOCUMENTS
The following documents throw light on the beginnings of the
economical and political history of the territory of Washington at a
time when it embraced Idaho and parts of Wyoming and Montana.
The documents are among the manuscript collections in the University
of Washington. They were rescued from the garret of the old capitol
building in Olympia upon the request of Governor John R. Rogers
in 1897.
Beginning of Government Surveys
The following letter was written by Governor Isaac I. Stevens
to the United States Commissioner of the General Land Office. It
was dated at Olympia, Washington Territory, December 28, 1853, two
months before the first Territorial Legislature assembled:
I will respectfully call your attention to the importance of establishing a separate Surveyor Generalship for this Territory and of the
surveys being made according to the geodetic method.
This Territory is, as you are well aware, just attracting the attention of settlers, and though now numbering only five thousand inhabitants, a large emigration is expected next year, and under the donation
law the best land in the Territory will be occupied. The commercial
advantages of the sound are unrivaled, have already attracted the
attention of all parts of the country, and a flourishing trade is rapidly
springing up. In consequence of the military road now in progress
of construction across the Cascade Mountains, and to be completed
the ensuing year, communications between the Puget Sound region
and the east of the Cascade Mountains will be established; and land
east of the Cascades will at once be brought into requisition for
grazing and the usual crops of the husbandmen. Already are several
fine valleys partially occupied by a hard and industrious population.
I will particularly mention the Wallah Wallah and Colville Valleys.
A beginning has been made in the valleys of the St. Marys and Spokane Rivers. Under these circumstances I will urgently recommend
the passage of a law establishing the office of Surveyor General for this
Territory, and directing these surveys to be spread as rapidly as
possible over the valleys and on the routes of the great railroad communications. The method to do this, most rapidly, most easily, and
in the most accurate manner, is undoubtedly by the geodetic method.
The peculiar geographical formation of the country especially calls
for it; much of the country is occupied by extensive mountain ranges
of which the surveys need not be undertaken till the arable and grazing
land is disposed of. The series of primary triangles need not be
spread over the Territory at all till by a secondary and tertiary series
(68) 64
Documents
the wants of settlement are entirely provided for. Thus the St. Marys
Valley between the Rocky and Coeur d'Eleine Mountains, which has
already attracted the notice of emigrants, and extends across nearly
the whole width of the Territory, could be easily surveyed in a single
season with the several valleys leading into it from the Rocky and
Coeur d'Eleine Mountains. So with the Wallah Wallah Valley and
the Colville Valley, the Coeur d'Eleine Prairie, the Spokane Plain and
the Coeur d'Eleine Valley. I regret that I cannot now send a sketch
of the exploration which has been made of the Territory, in the
progress of the railroad survey, and which would furnish the strongest
argument in favor of surveys by the geodetic method. This method
is peculiarly adapted to the region west of the Cascades, where between the Olympia and Cascade Ranges the magnificent waters of
the Sound, with its numerous beautiful and fertile islands, enter far
towards the southern boundary of the Territory. These islands are
now partially, and will be another year entirely, covered with claims,
as will the adjacent shores of the Sound, and the fertile valleys of
the rivers for a considerable distance from their mouths.
As soon as a sketch of the Territory can be prepared, I will send
a copy of it to your office, with information in reference to the generality of arable land in the Territory, the valleys first requiring surveys, and such other information as may bear upon the subject matter
of this communication.
Early Political Scheme
The following pair of letters relate to one of the most interesting
men in early territorial history. Charles H. Mason was born at Fort
Washington on the Potomac, the son of Major Milo Mason of Vermont.
He graduated from Brown University with distinction in 1850. In
his twenty-third year he was recommended to the President for
appointment as District Attorney for Rhode Island. Instead of that
office he received appointment as the first Secretary of the new Territory of Washington. As he himself states, he often served as Acting
Governor. He was reappointed, as the petition requested. Governor
Fayette McMullin, whose request he rejects, was removed from office,
and Secretary Mason again became Acting Governor. The Olympia
Pioneer and Democrat of July 29, 1859, recorded his death and published an extended eulogy. The Legislature had created a county
under the Indian name "Sawamish." This name was changed to Mason
in honor of the brilliant young officer.
Olympia, Dec. 12, 1857.
To the President of the United States:
Sir:—The undersigned Democratic members  of the Legislative
Assembly of Washington Territory would most respectfully  recom- Beginning of Government Surveys
65
mend   Hon.   Charles   H.   Mason as Secretary for the Territory of
Washington.
He has held that position for the last four years, and by his
faithful discharge of official duties commanded our highest respect
and warm admiration, and as a sound and efficient Democrat we most
cordially endorse him.  .
We are, Sir, respectfully,
Your obedient servants,
(Signed): W. W. Miller, R. V. Peabody, B. F. Shaw, Stephen
Guthrie, / William H. Morrow, Thomas W. Glasgow, Thomas J.
Fletcher, J. S. M. Van Cleave, J. Bullard, Henry Jackson, Archibald
Taylor, David Phillips, Silas B. Curtis, R. S. Moore, William Hutchinson, James Seavey, C. C. Phillips, C. S. Irby; A. J. Cain, Clerk of
the House of Representatives; Rufus Willard, Assistant Clerk; H. J.
G. Maxon; C. C. Pagett, President of the Council; S. B. Crockett,
Crumbine La Du, C. B. Baker, Lewis Van Fleet, James W. Wiley.
(Signed): O. B. McFadden, Associate Justice of the Supreme
Court; Fayette McMullin, Henry C. Wilson, T. D. Hinckley, James
Tilton, United States Surveyor General for Washington Territory; J.
T. Turner, Chief Clerk of the Council; Travers Daniels, Assistant
Clerk of the Council.
Those thirty-four names, written sixty years ago, are still echoed in
the names of a number of present-day citizens. They will be interested
in the efforts of their fathers to secure a political favor for a worthy
man. A little more than three months from the date of the petition
Mr. Mason wrote the following letter to Governor McMullin:
Secretary's Office.
Olympia, March 25th, 1858.
His Excellency
Fayette McMullin,
Governor Wash. Terr'ty.
Dear Sir:—
Your letter of this date referring to my contemplated departure
for the States, in the steamer which is hourly expected, and in which
you state "you do not wish me to leave until your return from the
States," &c, has just been received.
In reply I have to state that I was not aware until yesterday
evening in our conversation that you contemplated leaving the Territory during the present Spring. I then first learned that some time
since you applied for a leave of absence, time so long passed that
you expected an answer by the coming steamer.
My application was based upon a peculiar state of affairs, which
even at the moment demanded my personal attention. Before however the leave which I now have was received, the Legislative Assembly was in session, and my actual presence was absolutely necessary.
Having delayed that long, I deferred my departure until I could close 66
Documents
up the work incident to the last session, which has now been accomplished.
The present is the most opportune time for me to be absent,
and the duties that call me away are as imperative as any personal
duties can be.
I have been in this Territory for four and a half years, twenty-
one months of which I have had to discharge the duties of both Governor and Secretary of the Territory, together with the Superintend-
ency of Indian Affairs, and during that whole time I have never left
it except on business.
I have therefore to regret that at this moment, when I have but
a brief period to attend to most pressing matters, that I cannot comply
with your request.
I have the honor to remain,
Yr. obt. servt.,
C. H. Mason,
Secy. Wash. Ter.
Futile Attempt at Extradition
During the international dispute over the possession of the San
Juan Islands, a number of American soldiers were landed on San Juan
Island from Fort Bellingham. Some of these deserted, giving rise to
the following correspondence:
Executive Office.
Olympia, Washington Territory,
March 31st, 1858.
Sir:—
Agreeable to the provisions of the Treaty of 1842 between Her
Majesty's Kingdom of Great Britain and the United States, it becomes my duty to request that you will cause to be delivered into the
custody of Capt. George E. Pickett, who is hereby authorized to receive them, the following named persons to-wit: Mathew Doyle, John
Fallen, Martin Lennard, Solomon Pinkerhoff, Thomas Wilson and
George Francis, who stand charged with the crime of robbery in
this Territory.
I enclose herewith the affidavits which constitute the charge, together with an accurate description of the persons charged; and a
list of the property taken. I have been informed that these persons
are on the Island of Vancouver, and within the bounds of the terri-
tor yover which your executive authority extends.
With sentiments of high regard, I am,
Your Excellency's obt. servt.,
(Signed)    F. McMullin,
Gov. of Washington Territory.
To His Excellency,
James Douglass,
Governor of Vancouver Island. Futile Attempt at Extradition
67
Sh
Victoria, Vancouver Island,
16th April, 1858.
I have had the honor of receiving your letter of the 31st of March,
making requisition on this Government for the rendition of certain
refugees from justice, who are supposed to be at present resident in
this Colony.
I have also received the affidavits made before E. C. Fitzhugh,
Esquire, United States Commissioner, declaring the offences with
which the individuals in question are charged.
A careful perusal of those documents has satisfied me that the
offences stated in the affidavits are not within the terms of the Treaty.
The cases provided for in that instrument are "murder," "assault with
intent to commit murder," "arson," "robbery," "forgery," and the
"utterance of forged paper."
The intention in the present instance is doubtless to bring the
offences under term robbery. Robbery is defined to be the felonious and forcible taking from the person of another, goods or money,
or putting him in fear. To constitute robbery therefore there must
be a theft from the person of an individual effected through force or
fear. The affidavit does not state any such offence, but simply the
desertion of certain individuals and the felonious taking or stealing
certain articles from the United States, and a canoe belonging to
F. D. Warbass, Suttler.
The evidence contained in the affidavit in fact merely goes to
prove a larceny, and I am therefore of opinion that I have no authority
in this case to order a rendition of the individuals in question.
I have the honor to be, Sir,
Your most obt. servant,
James Douglas,
Governor.
To His Excellency,
Governor McMullin. BOOK REVIEWS
The Life of James J. Hill. By Joseph Gilpin Pyle. In two volumes. (Garden City, N. Y.: Doubleday, Page & Company.
1917.    Pp. 498, 459.    $5.00 net.)
"Land without people is a wilderness; people without land is a
mob."
That is one of the wise sayings of James J. Hill, the great
empire builder whose biography has now appeared in two well-made
and boxed volumes. It has long been known that Mr. Pyle was engaged on literary work for and about Mr. Hill. He was well equipped
for the work. Besides editorial writing on St. Paul papers for twenty
years or more, he was editor of the Seattle Post-Intelligencer from
1899 to 1908. He certainly knows the West in which Mr. Hill wrought
his wonderful career. He also knew and appreciated the man. On one
of the first pages he prints:
"Make it plain and simple and true."
He says this was the instruction and the only one given by Mr.
Hill to his biographer. The words will sound exactly natural to all
who knew Mr. Hill and Mr. Pyle has been faithful to them. In twenty-eight chapters the rich materials are sifted and assembled in a
straight-forward, gripping narrative. As must be expected in the record of a life devoted to multitudinous railroad problems, there are
statistics, but never are these obtrusive. Any layman can find entertainment in these pages; any constructive genius can find inspiration
there.
After the story is told to the end, there are added nine appendices
giving statistical facts and forms of agreement, making a sort of
source-book for the history of the Great Northern Railway.
There is not space here for even a brief analysis of these two
large and overflowing volumes. However, the following quotation from
Volume II., pages 289-291, wil not only reveal the style of the author
but will also be warmly welcomed in the State of Washington:
"Nowhere was he held in higher esteem than on the North Pacific Coast. He was, in a peculiar sense, the founder of the fortunes
of the state of Washington. His railroad had transformed the plucky
little town of Seattle into a metropolis. His hand had multiplied
transcontinental connections in that fortunate land. With the magic
wand of a low rate on lumber he had lifted from its low estate what
became  a lordly industry.    On the trade that he  opened with the
(68) Voyages on the Yukon
69
Orient, the Pacific Coast built great hopes. Popular admiration was
universal and genuine. Even anti-railroad agitation could not embitter
the kindliness that his name evoked from Bellingham Bay to San
Francisco. When the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition was opened at
Seattle, he was selected as the orator of the day. He lifted the occasion to a higher level than the glorification of a country growing rich
out of the profusion and possibilities within it. He drew a moral
from the display of a world's industry, and stamped upon it and its
accessories a high thought. He said: 'There are four great words
that should be written upon the cornerstones of every public building
in this country with the sacredness of a religious rite. These watchwords of the republic are Equality, Simplicity, Economy, and Justice.'
From these he would have all men and communities begin anew. The
people of Seattle desired a more permanent memorial of the great
man of their affection and honour than the ceremony of a day. In February, 1909, Mr. Finn Frolich was commissioned to prepare a bust
from which should be made a statue of Mr. Hill, to be cast in bronze.
This was to be placed in the Exposition grounds, and afterward removed to the campus of the Washington State University. The bust
was unveiled in August of the same year. It rests upon a granite
base containing blocks from Japan, Canada, Minnesota, and Washington. These far four corners of the earth unite to form a pedestal
of honor. Eminent men of many countries sent messages of congratulation. Long before this, Mr. Hill had become in the largest and
finest sense, a citizen of the world. His fame was international. His
services were cosmopolitan. This event was only part of the official
confirmation of his title."
Mr. Hill died at his St. Paul home on May 29, 1916. There were
many expressions of sorrow. One of the most eloquently simple tributes was in an editorial in the New York Times: "Greatness became
him, and was a condition of his errand here. Whatever he had done,
it had been greatly done. He trusted democracy perhaps more than it
trusts itself. He believed in its economic destiny. Giving much, he
received much.   We salute the memory of a great American."
Edmond S. Meany.
Voyages on the Yukon and Its Tributaries.   By Hudson Stuck. (New
York:    Charles Scribner's Sons.    1917.    Pp. 897.    $4.50 net