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BC Historical Books

The Washington historical quarterly. Volume I Washington University State Historical Society 1907

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 Boaru of lEhitoru
Clarence B. Bagley, Seattle
]C N. Bowman, Bellingham
Clinton A. Snowden, Tacoma
Myron Eells, Union City
Ashmun N. Brown, Olympia
W. J. Trimble, Spokane
W. D. Lyman, Walla Walla
Thomas W. Prosch, Seattle
Ceylon S. Kingston, Cheney
Allen Weir, Olympia
Edward McMahon, Seattle
Frank Carleton Teck, Bellingham
managing Ebitor -
EDMONDS. MEANY
VOL. I   No. 1
ISSUED QUARTERLY
OCTOBER, 1906
(ExmtrctB
J. N. BOWMAN.    ^^^^^ Washington Nomenclature—A Study
STEPHEN B. L. PENROSE
HARVEY W. SCOTT-,-.'
CLARENCE B. BAGLEY
THOMAS W. PROSCH
EDWARD McMAHON
Problems of the Pacific
Jason Lee's Place in History ^*f^~%^i!?fsi^£n^
The Cayuse, or First Indian War in the Northwest
Diary of Dr, David S. Maynard While Crossing the
Plains in 1850        s^^fH    • •    M£&
Some Evidences of the Influence of Politics on the
Efficiency'of the Army, 1861-65        hKm
DOCUMENTS—Echo of the Dred Scott Decision; Northern Emigrant Route; Beginnings-of the Lake Washington Canal; Pickett Grateful for Recognition; Decapitation of Colonel Ebey;   Sovereign Americans on San Juan;   First Attempt to
Ascend Mount Rainier ilwife    ' i    lIsP^    • •       • •       *" ■ SHHp
BOOK REVIEWS—     '^^^^m^^^^^^^^^M   • •    ^1^*1111811
NEWS DEPARTMENT—    ..   ^|i|Sf!|ps    ••    lP|   "'•       ••    :^^^^    ••
REPRINT DEPARTMENT—George Wilkes:    History of Oregon, Geographical and
Political (New York, Colyer, 1845)   :^^i'M^^^^£,'   ■■       ■■   :j^&i0@m
5
14
21
34
50
63
71
82
86
91
THE WASHINGTON  UNIVERSITY
STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY
University Station
SEATTLE,  U.  S. A.
Application made for tpfjfy "tfilT p"7*"ffl™1 ftf Seattle p second-class mailmatter.
L.f S R A ft$M
UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON
SEATTLE.
r-^j  
Hoaru of lEottnra
Clarence B.  Bagley, Seattle
J. N. Bowman, Bellingham
Clinton A.  Snqwden, Tacoma
Myron Eells, Union City
Ashmun N. Brown, Olympia
W. J. Trimble, Spokane
W. D. Lyman, Walla Walla
Thomas W. Prosch, Seattle
'Ceylon S. Kingston, Cheney
Allen Weir, Olympia
Edward McMahon, Seattle
Frank Carleton Teck, Bellingham
JHanaging lEattnr
EDMOND S. MEANY
VOL. I   No. 1
ISSUED QUARTERLY
OCTOBER, 1906
Qlanttnta
J. N. BOWMAN       ..
STEPHEN B. L. PENROSE
HARVEY W. SCOTT ..
CLARENCE B. BAGLEY
THOMAS W. PROSCH
EDWARD McMAHON
Washington Nomenclature—A Study
Problem's of the Pacific
Jason Lee's Place in History
The Cayuse, or First Indian War in the Northwest
Diary of Dr. David S. Maynard While Crossing the
Plains in 1850       .. 	
Some Evidences of the Influence of Politics on the
Efficiency of the Army, 1861-65 ...
DOCUMENTS—Echo of the Dred Scott Decision; Northern Emigrant Route; Beginnings of the Lake Washington Canal; Pickett Grateful for Recognition; Decapitation- of Colonel Ebey; Sovereign Americans on San Juan; First Attempt to
Ascend Mount Rainier.
BOOK REVIEWS— 	
NEWS DEPARTMENT—         	
REPRINT DEPARTMENT—George Wilkes: History of Oregon, Geographical and
Political (New York, Colyer, 1845)        	
5
14
21
34
50
63
71
82
86
91
THE WASHINGTON  UNIVERSITY
STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY
University Station
SEATTLE,  U.   S. A.
Application made for entry at the Postoffice at Seattle as second-class mail matter.  The Washington University State Historical Society   j
PURPOSES OF THE SOCIETY.
The purposes for which this corporation shall be formed are
as follows, to-wit:
To establish and' maintain a society for the collection and
preservation of historical facts and records; to gather and preserve memorials of the pioneers and early settlers of the Territory and State of Washington; to purchase, own, hold, enclose,
maintain and mark the places of historical interest within this
State by suitable and appropriate monuments, tablets and enclosures ; to promote and engage in historical research relating to
the Indians and Indian tribes; to engage in, carry on and promote historical, antiquarian, archaeological, literary and scientific
researches, and to publish the results of the same; to collect,
collate, bind and put in convenient form for use and preservation the papers, documents, materials and records collected by the society; to publish, provide for and superintend the publication and distribution of, any papers, manuscripts, documents and records collected by the society;
to establish and maintain a library; to encourage and promote the study of history, and especially of the history of
the Territory and State of Washington, at the University of
Washington; to act as trustee and custodian of any historical,
literary, scientific or other books, documents or property entrusted to its keeping; to purchase or construct a suitable building for safely housing and preserving the historical and other
records belonging to the society or committed to its care, and
for its use and accommodation in all other respects; to receive,
accept and fully acquire by purchase, lease, gift, or otherwise,
lands, tenements and hereditaments, and all such personal property as it may deem desirable for its interests, including stocks
in other corporations, promissory notes, bonds, mortgages, bills
receivable and choses in action, and to sell and dispose of the
same (except that the papers, books, documents, historical and
other records belonging to the society, shall never be sold, mortgaged or disposed of, but duplicates or superfluous copies thereof
may be exchanged or otherwise disposed of) ; to borrow money
and to make and deliver its promissory notes or other agreements to pay money, and to issue and sell its negotiable bonds
and secure the same by making, executing and delivering mortgages and deeds of trust of its real property, or any thereof, for
the payment or performance of all notes, bonds, contracts and
other obligations which it may at any time make or incur; and to
do each and every act and thing whatsoever which may at any
time be or become necessary, convenient and advisable for it to The Washington University State Historical Society
do, in order to accomplish and carry out all or any of the objects
or purposes or exercise any or all of the powers aforesaid, to the
same extent that an individual or natural person might or could
do in the premises; as well as each and every of the powers expressly or impliedly conferred in or by the laws of the State of
Washington relating to the organization and management of
such associations.—Article III. of the Articles of Incorporation.
MEMBERSHIP.
Life membership Twenty-five Dollars
Annual membership Two Dollars
All members receive the Quarterly and all other publications
issued by the Society. Vol. I   No. i
October, igo6
2tye
jUasfyttujtfltt ^tstnrtal (fpuarierig
WASHINGTON NOMENCLATURE.
A Study.
The geographical names in the United States are derived from
two great sources: Indian and European. Among the first explorers and settlers the former dominated; with the second generation of colonists the European names began to dominate.
These early colonists looked to their European homes and personages for Plymouth, Boston, Albemarle, St. Mary's, Ft. Christina, New Rochelle, New Orleans, St. Louis, Santa Fe; or else
from their own languages derived names indicative of local conditions or feelings: Providence, Philadelphia. When these settlements themselves began to send off scions to the upper waters
of the Atlantic streams or into the transallegheny country, new
names were taken from a variety of sources; from the old European places and personages, from Greece, Rome, or from classical
compositions, e. g. Louisville, Athens, Rome, Oxford, Gallipolis.
The Indian names were taken from the local Indian designations,
and today stand as .monuments to the natives' haunts and homes
and as milestones to their westward movement before the coming
white man. As the white man came his names told of the fond
recollections of his distant home; but as he penetrated the wilderness and the mountains, these recollections dim and finally fade,
to be replaced from the new native home in the old Atlantic colonies. Yet the names scattered from the Alleghenies to the
Pacific by the constant stream of colonizing immigrants tell of
the nomenclatural geneology; the Swede, Italian and German,
the Russian, Dutch and Pole, even in our own days repeat the
christening of the cavalier and Puritan.
The great bulk of the earlier and elemental names of the
United States is derived, aside from the Indian, from those Euro-
(5) J. N. Bowman
pean natives first settling on the Atlantic coast: England, Spain,
France, Holland and Sweden. The distribution of these names,
according to nationalities, varies with different parts of the country. The New England states lead in number with six, mixing
with the Indian the names from Holland, Sweden, England,
France, and the later America; the south Atlantic states and the
Pacific Northwest both ha-ve five: Indian, English, American,
Spanish and French. The central states find four in the Indian,
English, American and French. Like the Indians, in their westward and. reservation movement, most of the European names
in turn have been superceded by the newer American, and the
scattered immigrant.
In the Pacific Northwest—composed for historical purposes
of Oregon, Washington and Idaho—Washington is the most representative of them all. She has practically as many Indian and
American names, and more English, Spanish and French names
than either of the other two states. Oregon has a few Spanish
names; Idaho has none; both Oregon and Idaho have a few
French terms. Owing to the presence and activity of the Hudson's Bay Company, Washington has more designations of English and Indian sources due to the Englishmen than either of the
other states. Indian names are well scattered through them all;
while both Indian and American, in their proportion in the three
states, depend upon the demand for names by the increasing
population.
Washington is still a coast and river state. Excepting the
broad plains about the head of the Cowlitz, Chehalis and Puyal-
lup rivers, and about the Palouse and Spokane, the pioneer has
as yet but scattered settlements in the interior. On the Sound
and Grays Harbor, on the Columbia and its numberless branches
Washington's population still resides. It must be noted, however, that the railway, penetrating the territory inaccessible by
steamers, has expanded the settled lands, especially east of the
mountains, and widened the country about the few centers heretofore drained by the trails and packroads. It is along the shores
and river banks that the elemental nomenclature of Washington
must be studied; on the trail and the railroad the settler is planting new American and immigrant names, or those derived from
the aborigines.
The Indian, in naming rivers or parts of rivers, mountains,
falls, villages and burial places, has scattered his names for the
white man fairly regularly on both sides of the Cascades   yet Washington Nomenclature 7
with an evident majority on the side of the west. Today1 the
east has 124 Indian names, the west 175; the former being 11
per cent, of the whole list of names from all sources, the latter
13 per cent. In 18912 the number was somewhat Jess: 111 east
and 116 west of the Cascades, with a result that of the sum total
of names from all sources the east had 23 per cent, and the west
but 19 per cent. The difference in these two readings seems to
be due to two reasons. The Century Atlas of 1S91 is no doubt
incomplete, even though it is a representative map of the state
and as accurate as any accessible map of that date. Again, in the_
settlement of new locations in the last decade and a half, the Indian names are frequently retained.
It is interesting to note the peculiar way in which the names
of the passing race have been retained by the white man. The
Lower Sound counties—composed of the Sound-bordering counties northward to Snohomish and Island inclusive, and those
counties on the Strait—have a majority of 96—23 more than the
nearest competitive section. Here is where the white man first
made his home and first met the Indian as the possessor of the
soil: Here is Tumwater, Nisqually, Alki Point, Seattle, Steila-
coom, Puyallup, Chehalis; the Cowlitz, the Snohomish, the Sko-
komish, the Dwamish, the Skukum Chuck. In this same section
the Indian played his principal part west of the mountains, and
defined the historical geography of the Indian wars of the fifties.
This but reiterates the truth, true the country over, that the
Indian—in names—had his greatest influence, where he had influence at all, either in the first decade of the pioneering or, which
is rather evident in the Western states, in the period stretching
from the settlement to the first boom. As second stands the district composed of those counties between the Columbia river and
the Cascades. The Yakima valley, the rivers entering the Columbia from the mountains and those flowing from their sources in
British Columbia, give the great majority of these names. As
third stand the southwest counties—those bordering on the Pacific and the Columbia west of the Cascades ; as fourth, the Upper
Sound—composed of Skagit, Whatcom and San Juan counties;
as fifth, the counties between the Columbia, the Snake and the
Idaho line. As last, with 20, the southeastern comities between
the Snake, and the Idaho and Oregon lines.3
1 Rand-McNally,  Map  of Washington,  1905.    The  figures  are given  in  round
numbers.
2 Century Atlas, 1891.
s The Lower  Sound,  96;   the Cascade-Columbia,  73 ;   the southwest,  44;   the
Upper Sound, 35;   the eastern, 31;   the southeast, 20. J. N. Bowman
In the distribution of the English-American names, the Lower
Sound again vastly dominates; then the eastern, centering
around Spokane and the Palouse country. Then the territory in
the Yakima valley and along the right bank of the Columbia;
followed by the southwest. The Upper Sound has almost twice
as many as the counties in the opposite corner of the state.1
No Spanish name is found east of the mountains. All but
one of the fifteen Spanish names in the state are found in the
Upper Sound country; and the single exception in the Lower
Sound. With the French names it stands differently, in that of
the 24 found on the map of 1905, 22 are east of the mountains
and the other two in the Lower Sound territory. East of the
Cascades 11 are located in the eastern division : 10 in the Columbia-Cascade lands, especially in the Okanogan country, and one
in the southeast. There seems to be no Russian reliques of nomenclature in the state. The early attempt of 1806 to settle on the
Columbia was defeated by the breakers on the bar at the mouth
of the river; the successful settlement on Bodega Bay was too
far south to effect the Pacific Northwest in other way than
through the Monroe Doctrine; and the fur traders' activity in
its southern course was stayed by the treaties with America and
England in 1824 and 1825, wherein a limitation was placed at'
54° 40'.
The manner and the periods in which these names came into
existence varies with the peoples giving them origin. The Indian,
as the original inhabitant, gave to favorite places many names
which the explorer, the trader and the settler retained. Among
the whites the names find their origin in three great sources:
The explorer, the trader and the settler. Galiano and Valdez,
Meares and Vancouver, Lewis and Clark, Gray and Wilkes left
the earliest and most abiding names along the Straits, in the
Upper and Lower Sounds, along the Coast and the Columbia.
The fur trader of the old Northwest Company and the Hudson's
Bay Company either gave new names or gave permanence to the
native designations. Especially is their activity seen between
the Sound and the Columbia, and along the latter, naming the
posts, factories, rivers and lakes. Their names follow the hunters' and trappers' trails, radiating in all directions and connecting
with the central factory on the shores of Hudson's Bay. In the
service of the Hudson's Bay Company were the French-Cana-
1 The Lower Sound, 631; the eastern, 443; the Columbia-Cascade, 359; the
southwest, 297;   the Upper Sound, 215 ;   the southeast, 110. Washington Nomenclature g
dians, who, as voyageurs, mingled freely with the Indians. He
blended his own tongue with the Chinook about the lower banks
of the Columbia, and left his name at The Dalles, on the Sans
Poil river, with the Coeur d'Alene Indians, and their spelling in
the Wallamette and the Coutenais. The settler succeeded the
trapper and trader; he continued and increased the list of names
of the Indian, explorer and hunter, and with his natural increase
in population and expansion our territory has found demand for
new names. These he has supplied by drawing upon his memory of his old home, his own experiences, or his impressions of
local features.
It may seem that the missionary has been unjustly omitted.
The missionary, in Washington as well as in the whole Pacific
Northwest, has been so closely bound up with his activity as
settler that in the question of nomenclature he loses his identity
in the latter. Where he located at Waiilaptu, Chimikane and
Nisqually he accepts the names of the natives or of his forerunners, the Hudson's Bay Company men. Scarcely has he turned
the soil as settler, and as missionary taught the natives to repeat
the Lord's Prayer, than he is driven from his cabin-home by
Indian outbreaks or is discouraged by Indian indifference; ere
he returns to resume his work the settler, per se, is on his trail.
The missionary then becomes the pastor of the settlers' church,
the "sky-pilot" of the ranges, or the missionary-chaplain on the
reservations. The age of transition through the missionary from
the trader to the settler is short, indeed;' and shorter on the
Sound than east of the mountains.
I.
Indian Names. The native names as they are now found in
the state came into origin by either of two ways. Where the
Indian had names for definite places, mountains, rivers, etc., the
white man, in the person of the early settler and trader, was content to retain the native terminology.1 But the white man was not
content with the localization of the Indian; his culture demanded
more generic terms, names for whole river courses rather than
parts, whole bodies of waters rather than villages on their shores,
for new towns and sections rather than the tribal village and
range.   To supply these needs he frequently drew from the tribes
1 Whatcom Creek and Lake; Puyallup, Walla Walla; Cowlitz, Palouse; Spokane, Okanogan ;   and Nooksack, rivers ;   Orcas Island. 10
J. N. Bowman
near at hand or applied a name according to his own usage. In
this way the early explorers named Tatouche and Neah bay; the
early trader and the Hudson's Bay Company designated Ft.
Okanogan and Spokane House in the north; Ft. Walla Walla;
the Cowlitz Farm, not far distant from Ft. Nisqually. Where
the traders in the forties ended their work, the early settlers began in the fifties. The towns of Chehalis, Seattle, Whatcom, Tacoma, Walla Walla arose; counties were christened Snohomish,
Spokane, Skagit, Kitsap, Wakiakum; and a section named The
Palouse. The missionary, in his zeal for the Indian, did not disturb the native ear with foreign names, but baptized his missions
Waiilaptu and Chimikane. These four—the explorer, the trader,
the settler and the missionary—have given new meaning to the
native terms. The Indians' rivers, mountains, and a few villages,
have been supplemented by the white man's cities, counties and
sections.
English Names. Captain Cook, two years after the signing
of the Declaration of Independence, christened the first English
name found within the State of Washington. Cape Flattery, the
name he used to designate that hazy and indistinct point of land
where he thought he had found the Fucan Straits, as the first
born of English names, has become permanent. Meares left Cape
Shoalwater, Shoalwater Bay, Cape Disappointment, Mt. Olympus, etc. But the early explorer, Vancouver, was the most prolific of names. He made use of ten of the designations of his
predecessors; he retained the "Columbia" as the American term
for the Oregon. Five Indian and three Spanish names find
places within his volumes; but when he entered the Straits and
coasted the shores of his "Gulphe of Georgia," which so often
reminded him of his English home, he lavished sixty-eight names
upon its waters, points, bays and mountains. Baker and Rainier,
near Hood's Canal, and Bellingham Bay, stand as monuments
over Vashon Island and Gray's Harbor. After these explorers
the Hudson's Bay Company and its men scattered a few English
names among their greater number of Indian origin. Vancouver,
on the Columbia, seems to be the only name within the present
State of Washington that is left of that long list stretching from
Ft. George on the Pacific to Ft. Nelson on Hudson's Bay; and
Franchere's name, the Great Basin of the Columbia, too, has
passed away.
American Names. Gray, in the year of the inauguration of
Washington, was the first American on the Northwest coast, as Washington Nomenclature
ii
well as the first to unfurl the national flag to all the breez.es
around the globe. After the ship, the Columbia, was named the
River of the West, the Oregon of Carver and Bryant; and the
southern point of its mouth, Point Adams, still bears witness to
his few days' sojourn in Baker's Bay. His name, Bulfinch, for
that harbor, which the English named Gray's in his honor, is
found on but a few of the early maps. Lewis and Clark were
profuse in names, but most of them were the designations of the
Indians. Lewis river has disappeared; Clark's river is still sometimes used; and even of the Indian names he used, it seems that-
Chinook river is the only one on his map that finds a place on the
more modern atlas. The Wilkes' expedition, in its careful examination, used the terms so familiar to the Indian and trader.1 Yet
within the state limits the nine places which he named still bear
his designations. The American traders, in their westward
course from St. Louis to the upper Columbia and the territory
to its south, were unable to compete with the old Northwest and
Hudson's Bay Companies. Within the lands north of the River
of the West they have not left a single name to mark their presence. The American settler, however, more than retrieved the
ill-showing of the trapper. From Smithfield, now lost, to the
latest name of Benton of the newly-created county, he has generously named after himself, places, people and local conditions,
the mills, rivers, and lakes where he erected his cabin, and the
visionary sites of boom towns.
Spanish Names. These names were left for the most part by
the early explorers themselves within the present limits of Puget
Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca. The latter, however,
was named by the Englishman, Meares, after the legendary
Greek who sailed for Spain. The American has given the name
of San Juan to a county, and in some instances" has transferred
some of the Spanish names to other places.
French Names. No names mark the presence of La Perouse,
Marchand or Saint Amand. It was the voyageur from French
Canada in the services of the Northwest and Hudson's Bay Companies who named The Dalles, the Petit Dalles, the Nez Perce,
the Coeur d'Alene, the Pend d'Oreille, the Sans Poil.
II.
The substitution of names occurred with frequency among
the explorers and traders;  only occasionally since the advent of
1 Within Washington 71 English names were retained;  four of American origin ;
four of Spanish;   and eight of French. 12
J-. N. Bowman
the settler has this taken place. English-American Mount Baker
has succeeded Kulshan; Rainier, Tacoma; Bellingham, Whatcom ; and Columbia has usurped both the Oregon of Carver and
the Tacoutche Tesse of the Washington-Oregon tribes. Even
the English-American form of Indian names has taken .the place
of the original: Tahoma is now Tacoma; Tsqually became Nis-
qually; Chi 'Keeles, Chehadis; and Wainape and Pischous are
but slightly recognizable in Wenatchee. But, on the other hand,
Orcas has persisted over Hull; Lewis has gone before the Shoshone, or rather its translation, the Snake; and the local pride
of Tacoma encourages the passing of Rainier for the original
name. English names have also been at war with rhe Spanish,
and in some instances have been victorious. Bellingham Bay
has overcome Sino del Gaston; Mount Baker, Montana del Car-
mel; Vancouver, Quadra and Vancouver's Island. The Americans have been busy with the English names. Oregon has succeeded New Georgia; Commencement Bay took the place of
Puget Sound when it was raised by the Americans to the place
occupied by the English Gulphe of Georgia. On the other hand,
the Americans failed to make Bulfinch permanent on Gray's
Harbor.
III.
Spelling, and in some instances pronunciation, have undergone changes, often quite a struggle, before the present forms
were adopted. The dropping of the " 's" as possessives is quite
evident in the middle of the century, excepting where it has been
retained for the sake of euphony. One now reads and hears
Puget Sound; yet on the other hand, Gray's Harbor. Spokane
of today was written Spokan by Simpson, Greenhow and Fran-
chere, and Spokein by Parker. The present Palouse Wilkes
wrote Peluse, and Simpson, Paaylops. Walla Walla was written
Wallawalla by Franchere, Simpson and Wilkes; Wallahwallah
by Bonneville; and Walla Walla by Greenhow. Okanogan
Greenhow finds to be Okinagan; Simpson and Nicolet, Okanagan; and Ross, Oakinacken. The Cowlitz is read Cowalitz by
Parker, Cowelitz by Ross and Greenhow, and by Franchere both
Cowlitzk and Cowlikt. Nisqually became with Greenhow Nas-
qhally; 'Squally—but Ft. Nisqually—with Simpson; and Nos-
qually with Ross. Chehalis is written Checayles by Simpson,
Chekelis by Greenhow; Chickeeles by Wilkes, and Tschikeyles
by Franchere. Washington Nomenclature
13
Among the Spanish names Haro is sometimes written Aro;
and Comano no longer bears its native marking.
In pronunciation some of the changes follow the spelling. In
the case of Chehalis, with its peculiar gutteral "Chi," it has been
simplified in both. 'Squally was changed in speech by the "Hudson's Bay Company. Sea.lth in the white man's mouth became
Seattle, and Tahoma became Tacoma. The old Spanish names
of Lopez, Comano, Rosario, have all been Americanized in speech.
The greatest change, perhaps, is in the name of the united names
of Whatcom and Fairhaven; Bellingham in England drops the_
"h," shortens the "a" and accents the ante-penult, while in the
English town of Bellingham and the old family of that name it
becomes Bellingjem, accented in the usual English way.
IV.
Some names have taken on a new meaning, either increasing
or decreasing their range. Bellingham Bay was enlarged to include the older Spanish Sino del Gaston; Puget Sound, since the
forties, designates the whole Sound. The Gulphe of Georgia, as
defined by Vancouver, has become the small body of water north
of the San Juan Islands. Upper and Lower Sound have changed
places so that they now follow the cardinal points of north and
south as located on the map. The old Northwest has become the
Pacific Northwest, and this shrinks gradually in meaning to the
State of Washington and then to Whatcom county. Old Oregon
became the state of that name. East and west of the mountains
are now fixed terms, synonomous in part with the Sound country and the Inland Empire.
It is to be hoped that in the future numbers of this magazine
an extensive study of this subject may be made, and these few
observations from a few of the sources may be corroborated or
corrected.
J. N. BOWMAN.
June 28, 1906. PROBLEMS OF THE PACIFIC.
The event which we celebrate today was only an incident in
the life of the distinguished man whose name this monument
will bear through future ages, but looked at in the perspective
of history it assumes a significance worthy of the consideration
of every thoughtful American. When in 1841 Captain Wilkes
with his fleet was exploring the Pacific ocean and this coast of
North America, the ocean upon which he sailed was almost an
unknown sea. It was an ocean of mystery, of unfathomed vast-
ness, of a peace which was the peace of stagnation. Its value
to the world was undiscovered, and its meaning lay wholly in
the future. Since that first celebration of the Fourth of July
upon the Pacific coast this ocean has acquired a meaning and
a value scarcely dreamed of at that time. That it is destined to
play an ever greater part in the drama of human life I firmly
believe, and instead of discussing the topic which I learned only-
yesterday had been assigned me, "The Patriotism of the Washington Pioneers," I propose to discuss what seemed to me most
significant of the day when first the brief invitation of your committee came to me by telegraph, namely the "World Problems
of the Pacific"—its place in the future and the relations of the
United States to it.
In the life of the nations since Captain Wilkes' voyage, three
great developments stand out conspicuously; the first was the
birth of the new Japan so-called, the emergence of the Empire
of Nippon into a world power. Not until fifteen years after
Wilkes' voyage did another great representative of the American navy, Commodore Perry, open the gates of Japan to the
world's civilization. Trained for 5,000 years into an isolation
such as the world has never known, Japan had shut herself in
against contact with foreign powers, and by law visited with
death the Japanese subject who left her shores and the foreigner
who landed upon them. You are all familiar with the marvel
of the new Japan. They say that grains of wheat buried in
mummy cases of Rameses II. and lying'dormant for 4,000 years
will, when brought to the light of today and properly nourished,
germinate  and  bring forth their  destined  harvest.    So Japan,
Address at the Commemorative Celebration at Sequalitchew Lake, July 5, 1906.
(14) Problems of the Paciflic
15
buried in an equal aloofness from the world, has come forth as
from the tomb and blossomed into an unexpected life of power
and promise to the world. As at the beginning of the last century the United States, making its steady way westward, reached
at last the Pacific on its eastern shore through Lewis and Clark,
and brought the light of Christian civilization across the mountains to the misty sea, so at the end of the century the western
shores of the great Pacific were illuminated with the light of the
new Japan, and a century of progress showed, that the portentous
and gloom-enshrouded sea had light upon its eastern and its.
western coasts. An empire of forty million had won the respect
and fear of the western world by its swift progress in the arts
and sciences, and by its successful grapple with one of the great
world powers of the west.
And now at the beginning of another century another and
still greater Oriental nation is waking from its sleep. The Chinese empire, whose antiquity is even greater than that of Japan,
is fast arousing from its age-long lethargy, and 400,000,000 of
people are threatening the world with their potential power and
potential needs. I think that we must pause for thought when
we reflect how this great sea is being opened to a new world life.
The war between China and Japan in 1898 was the galvanic touch
of a living hand upon an apparent corpse, and since then China
has been stretching itself with signs of real strength. To be sure,
it was in 1842, the year after Captain Wilkes' visit to this spot,
that Great Britain first battered at the door of China by the opium
war, and secured permission by imperial edict that thereafter
foreigners might reside in Shanghai, but though year after year
more foreigners on business bent have invaded the Chinese empire, and more treaty ports have been opened to them, yet it is
true that still China is largely a closed land and its life remote
from Western thought. Such at any rate it has been until within
the last few years, but now her great walls are crumbling into
eternal uselessness and the nation is stretching out its hands for
the gifts of the West. Foreign armies have marched upon its
soil, foreign cannon have battered at its portals, foreign railroads
and telegraphs and telephones have penetrated its domain.
Christianity with the open Bible in one hand and the merciful
ministrations of the medical physician has softened Chinese hostility to Western learning, and has brought the dawn of a new
day into the gloom of a world-old empire.
And if the" resurrection of Japan has brought into the arena i6
Stephen B, L. Penrose
of the nations a great world power whose prowess and capacity
are already honored, how much greater the future honor and
influence of the far greater empire, China, now coming to the
front. I remind you not only of her 400,000,000 of people as compared with Japan's 40,000,000, but of her vast area of fertile lands
and treasure-laden mountains. We pride ourselves upon the
fertility of the Mississippi valley and the wheat lands of the West,
but China has a greater productive area whose fertility is not
less, and has besides in coal and iron, in gold and silver and all
the precious metals incalculable resources which European experts say are unequaled elsewhere in the world. If you are of
those who believe that resources and commercial shrewdness
make a nation great, and that the progress of the United States
is to be explained in terms like these, then you will herald as
greatest of the nations the future China, with its illimitable
resources and its long-trained business ability. It seems to me
that the awakening of these two Oriental powers, Japan and
China, is to change the fate of the world, and to alter the complexion of human history. Heretofore the Mediterranean and
Atlantic have been the sites of the world's conflicts and the
world's trade; hereafter the Pacific will wrest supremacy from
the Atlantic, and the ocean which has been peaceful in its loneliness will become busy with the commerce of the world.
11 is significant that the three great wars of the past ten years
have been fought in the main upon the Pacific, and Admiral
Dewey's victory at Manila, Japan's victory over China on the
Yellow sea, and the overwhelming victory of Japan over Russia
within recent years have stained with blood the waters of this
peaceful ocean in prediction of future conflicts which shall mar
its surface, conflicts, let us hope, of peace and not war. These
two Oriental nations stand side by side on the western shore of
the Pacific, animated with a common life, common religion or
lack of it, and a blood relationship which manifests itself in the
deeper psychological resemblances which make Japan and China
one at heart. If the past forty years have given Japan an apparent leadership and impressed her people with a quickness and
versatility which justify their being called the "French of the
Orient," nevertheless China has no less capacity, and as the best
observers think, a deeper moral earnestness, a stronger fiber of
character, an indomitableness which will make her influence upon
the world's life greater, perhaps, than that of Japan. In these
two awakened nations we see the spirit of the Orient first claim- Problems of the Pacific
M
ing a part in the world's life and demanding a share of the world's
responsibilities. A new era in human history has begun. Heretofore Asia has been a passive continent, self-sufficient, isolated,
remote; now Asia is meeting Europe and America with a youth-
fulness of energy to be explained perhaps by her sleep of centuries, and hereafter the world forces which must be reckoned
with will be not England, France, Germany, Russia and the
United States, but Japan and China as well. One in spirit as in
blood, greedy for new life, but insistent upon new justice and no
longer content to sit passive under the contempt of the Western
world. The Orient has taken its place as a world power, and it
seems to me that the twentieth century is teeming with portent
when in its first decade the giant powers of China and Japan
launch their fleets upon the western shores of the Pacific and
invade the domain of the world's commerce and the world's life.
But I had said that there were three developments since 1841
in the world's life as affecting the Pacific. The third is no less
momentous. It is the birth of a national consciousness in the
United States, with the assumption of national responsibilities.
The West has had much to do with this. The conquest of the
Pacific coast has enlarged the national horizon, and the problems
of the Pacific have penetrated the nation's mind. When at Manila Commodore Dewey raised the flag of the United States upon
the Philippine islands, America unwittingly and unwillingly
entered upon a new epoch, the epoch of international relations
and a part in the world's life. The first century of our national
existence had been one of isolation; our aim had been self-
development; our problems were the problems of the interior.
Despite the gloriqus achievements of our navy, the ■ United
States had not claimed to be a world power, but thought that
she could live her life alone, untroubled by European politics,
unfettered by alliances with other nations. We had developed
a national self-consciousness, which was self-satisfied and self-
admiring, and now, against our will, in large degree, and by a
sudden change of events, which makes it look as though it were
a matter of destiny, of divine over-ordering, we are brought into
sudden relations with the nations of the world and compelled to
take our place in the lists with them. Our enlarging manufactures have made us seek for foreign markets. Our industrial
supremacy developed by a hundred years of isolation has itself
compelled us to abandon our national policy of exclusion, and at
the beginning of the twentieth century we are standing facing
B i8
Stephen B. L. Penrose
the Pacific ocean, no longer with the mere sense of national self-
sufficiency and our national bigness, but with the troubled conviction that a new age has come and that we must struggle with
the nations of the world for the supremacy which we have been
idly hoping was to be ours by divine decree.
Of the commercial and industrial greatness of America I need
not speak. We lead the world in manufactures, in railroads, in
the application of science to the needs of human life, in the productivity of our fields and the richness of our forests. In wealth,
which is potential greatness, we stand unrivaled. The per capita
riches of our inhabitants exceed those of any other nation upon
earth. And yet here is where I would bid you pause to consider
whether America is ready to take her part in the world's life.
In the developments of the future not wealth alone will count,
though there will be a long struggle for industrial supremacy
and our merchants will need to set their wits and skill against
the skill and wits of Germany and England and Japan, yet in
the long run other features will enter into the contest, and
it is of these which I would remind you. Who shall be
entitled to the leadership of the West against the growing power of the Orient? Who shall be worthy of the
hegemony of the nations facing the imminent peril of a militant
orientalism? Shall the conflict between the West and the East,
which is to be waged, I believe, upon the Pacific, brought 10,000
miles closer to Europe by the opening of the Panama canal, be
a conflict of antagonism of a conflict of peace? It seems to be
that the question must be settled in large measure by the attitude
of the United States toward China and Japan.
If, in the recklessness of selfish power, with the advantage
of position which possession of the Hawaiian islands and the
Philippine islands now gives us, we rush at the East in the lust
of new riches and careless of our nation's honor and our Christian
name, then the Pacific ocean will cease to bear that name worthily, but will be stained, if not with the blood of battle, yet with
the blackness of dishonor. In her new-found sense of international responsibility, I would charge America that she remember
first of all that justice and judgment are the foundations of an
unending existence, and that in the spirit of fairness, of open-
heartedness, of brotherly kindness, she must meet the new nations, China and Japan. We of the'Pacific coast have not hidden
our intolerance and contempt of these yellow-skinned Asiatics.
If Japan has compelled our admiration, we have all the more dis- Problems of the Pacific
19
played our narrow and unphilosophical contempt for the patient
and unresisting China.
We are confronted by the problems of the Pacific, and the
powers of the Pacific, China and Japan, are met before us face
to face. If we wish to enter worthily into the world's life, if we
wish to be worthy of leadership in the new relations between
the Occident and Orient then we shall be obliged to abandon the
self-conceited and intolerant contempt, unjust, disdainful, cruel,
with which we have regarded heretofore the oldest of the nations
of the world. And if as merchant princes we wish to win the.
riches which China has for the world, if we desire our share
in the commerce of the future, which in scarce imagined measure
is to fill the coffers of the world as China's four hundred millions
demand their part of the world's produce, and open an unimag-
ined market for the world's manufactures, if American ships
under the American flag are to carry American lumber and manufactures to the great markets of the new China, then we must
disavow the mental attitude of the past, we must recognize the
Chinaman as of the same blood as ourselves. The spirit of the
Declaration of Independence, which we say that we celebrate
today, must enter more deeply into our national conscience, and
we as a nation come to believe that in reality and not in pretense
all men are created free and equal.
But if the United States thinks that it can meet England and
Germany in the markets of China and win Chinese friendship
and Chinese trade while still our heart is bitter with contempt,
and our shores are barred in manifest hostility to every Chinaman, merchant, or traveler or student, then we might as well
recognize the fact that the new markets, which are our present
great commercial need, will be closed to us forever, and the
Panama canal will be a pathway not for American ships sailing
from New York, and Philadelphia and Baltimore for Shanghai
and Hongkong, but rather a pathway for ships of other European
nations, which by justness and fairness and brotherly kindness
shall win the friendship and open the markets of that proud and
ill-understood people.
We commemorate today the first celebration of the Fourth
of July upon the Pacific coast. How rapidly in these sixty-five
years since then has the Pacific ocean developed in its relation
to the world's life! How portentous these new nations loom
upon the earth's horizon! How weighty the problems of international responsibility which burden our national consciousness Stephen B. L. Penrose
as we look westward across the Pacific, and feel the impending
duty. And yet the spirit of the Declaration is what we need;
nay, more, back of the spirit of the Declaration that spirit which
was in the minds of the founders of our nation, the spirit not
only of freedom for all but of justice to all. And back of that,
the Christian spirit of brotherhood for all mankind, without which
no nation shall forever^ endure. The moral character of the
United States is then the chief consideration which I would leave
with you at this time. If in the s