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BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

The Washington historical quarterly. Vol. XIV Washington University State Historical Society 1923

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 Seattle, Washington, under 'the  act of Congress' of July Francis Heron, Fur Trader: Other Herons-
Death of #0. S. Scholefield	
 P. W. Howay
William S. Lewis
 C. B. Bagley
Pioneer.and Historical Societies of Washington Victor J. Farrar
Origin of Washington Geographic Names—yjfm>y ; Edmond S. Meany
Reopening of the Russian-American Convention of 1824 Victor J. Farrar
Beginning of Misatw Work in Alaska—^j^k<^^/ii^, -William S. Holt
^jyjapd Thompson's Journeys in Idahg^L^^^?i-J^^^;^^>-'.t:;-..T. C. Elliott
John Work's Journsffof ■*Trip from Fort Colville to Fort
Vancouver and Return in 1828 William S. Lewis and Jacob A. Meyers
Shipbuilding in. the Pacific Northwest -%^^- Helen D. Goodwin
Beginning of Militia in Washington ■S^aSiu'- George Gibbs
First Militia Companies in Eastern Washington Territory—William S. Lewis
Judge E. P. Oltphgfcfc,r>^jF#^&- , :lW^-    7nt"" E. Babl
Bibliography l^^Ke Anthropology of the Puget^ound Indians—.—^~
r?i%iiiijij^i&^ -:?SjK" J- L>. Leechmon
VOLUME XII
Authorship of the Anonymous Account of Captain Cook's £a$^oyage
 -^Zl^^df^'-- ' 'V-t^C-'v'%« W. Howay
Origin of Washington Geographic Names , '&«$.F.dmond S. Meany
Joseph Lane McDonald and the Purchase of Alaska -Victor J. Farrar
Bibb'ography of Railroads in the Pacific Northwest Marian Cords
Facts AbplftrGeprge Washington   *??-~hli&jfa'y&~> Junius T. Turner
^B^»foh Traders in Hawaiian Islands, 1789-1823 S. E. Morison
Captains Gray and KendricJfVThe Barrell Letters F. W. Howay
Naming Stampede Pass A-^>^\-^ W. P. Bonney
The Oregon' Laws of 1845*^^. John T. Condon tEJje Washington ^fetorical (fiuarterip
1923
VOLUME XIV
THE WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY
STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY
University Station
SEATTLE, WASHINGTON  Igasiijmgton ^toxical ©uarterlp
Contributing ©tutors
Clarance B. BageEy, Seattle        Whuam S. Lewis, Spokane
W. P. BonnEy, Tacoma .    H. B. McEeroy, Olympia
T. C. Eeeiott, Walla Walla Edward McMahon, Seattle
Frank A. GoedER, Pullman O. B. SpErein, Rolling Bay
F. W. Ho way, New Westminster, B. C.
ifflanagtng €bttor
EDMOND S. MEANY
J&u&im$g JManager
CHARLES W. SMITH
VOL. XIV.  NO. 1
JANUARY, 1923
ISSUED QUARTERLY
Two  Dollars per  Year
I/.  C.  GIL-MAX Spokane
EDMOND    S.   MEANY Xeirspaj
CHARLES   W.   SMITH Historic
SAMUEL,   FtAGG   BEMIS Profess<
EDMOND    S.   MEANY Origin «
BOOK  REVIEWS	
PACIFIC   NORTHWEST   AMERICANj
NEWS   DEPARTMENT	
Portland & Seattle Railway-,
era of Washington Territory-.
1  Services  of  Thomas W. Pros*
Washington Geographi<
THE WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY
STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY
University Station
SEATTLE, WASHINGTON £§>tate fttetorical §>otkty
Officers and Board of Trustees
Clarence B. BageEy, President
Judge John P. Hoyt, Vice-President
Judge Roger S. Greene, Treasurer
Judge Thomas Burke
Judge Corneeius H. Haneord
Samuee Hiee
Professor Edmond S. Meany, Secretary VOL. XIV., No. 1
JANUARY, 1923
®Ba*fnngton JHstoucal ©uarterlp
THE BUILDING OF THE WALLA WALLA & COLUMBIA
RIVER RAILROAD*
Recording at this time accurately the happenings of fifty
years ago would ordinarily be a difficult task. The man, however,
who built the Walla Walla and Columbia River Railroad left unmistakable footprints to mark his career. His personal books of
account taken in connection with his daily diary provide undisput-
able records of the early history and development of the Inland
Empire, so far as his personal effort had to do with them. Tracing his ancestry, it is found that Alexander Baker came to Boston
from England in 1635. Among his descendants was Ezra Baker,
the grandfather of Dorsey Syng Baker and a cousin of Ethan Allen. Doubtless these sturdy ancestors endowed Dorsey Syng
Baker with the courage and strength to build, with but little assistance in the face of seemingly unsurmountable difficulties, the first
railroad in the Northwest east of the Cascade Range.
Dorsey Syng Baker, generally known as Doctor Baker, was
born in Illinois October 18th, 1823. He graduated from the Jefferson Medical College at Philadelphia in 1845, and for the next
three years he practiced his profession in the Middle West. Early
in the spring of 1848 he took Horace Greeley's advice and reached
Oregon late in the fall of the same year. He attended the sick of
the emigrant train with which he traveled, and in consideration of
his services, he was provided with board and bed—he, himself,
nding horseback. During the gold excitement he made two trips
to California, but finally returned to Douglas County, Oregon,
where he erected the first flour mill in the southern part of that
state. In 1858 he engaged in a general mercantile business in
Portland. An advertisement in the Oregonian of March 15, 1859,
shows that he was advocating profit sharing at that time as we
of Dr. Dorsey i
aghington Histork
(3) W. W. Baker
know it today, but on a more extended scale, embracing the sharing of one half his net profits to all his cash customers. "Quick
sales for cash and no losses" was his motto. Later he became interested in navigation on the Columbia River, controlling the
steamers E. D. Baker and the Spray, and finally he purchased the
steamer Northwest, plying on the upper Columbia and Snake Rivers. All of these boats were sold to the Oregon Steam Navigation
Company. In 1859 he engaged in general merchandising at Walla
Walla, to which place he moved in 1861 and permanently resided
thereafter. Out of his mercantile enterprise, in 1869, grew the
first bank in >the Territory of Washington, now the Baker-Boyer
National Bank of Walla Walla. Briefly these are the records covering the life of Doctor Baker up.to the time he became seriously
interested in connecting by rail the little town of Walla Walla
with navigation on the Columbia River.
As early as the year 1862 the question of building a railroad
from Walla Walla to Wallula was considered. A charter with
this in view was secured. According to Lyman's history thirty of
the prominent citizens of Walla Walla were included as incorporators. Doctor Baker was among this number. Various propositions were presented and considered whereby money might be obtained for the purpose of financing the construction of the road.
However, nothing tangible resulted.
March 23rd, 1868, marked another era of popular discussion
of this same question which resulted in the incorporation of the
Walla Walla & Columbia River Railroad Company with Doctor
Baker, A. H. Reynolds, I. T. Reese, A. Kyger, J. A, Lasater, J.
D. Mix, B. Scheideman and W. H. Newell as incorporators, but
as in the former instance nothing materialized from the effort.
Following this, however, in 1869 authority was granted to the
County of Walla Walla to issue bonds in the sum of $300,000.00
to aid in building this road conditioned upon its confirmation by a
two-thirds vote of the legal voters of the county. The election for
this purpose was delayed and did not occur until Spetember 18th,
1871, and it then failed to carry by eighteen votes. The reason
for the failure can rightfully be' attributed to no greater nor less
an influence than that a tiny insect commonly known as the bed
bug. This fact was not given to the press nor was it generally
known, but the writer well remembers the incident. Doctor Baker
was deeply interested in the success of the election in question
and made a personal house-to-house canvass in the rural districts "The 'Doctor Baker Road"
of the county in the interest of carrying the necessary vote. At
that time Walla Walla County covered a large area and was an
empire within itself. A well known and influential resident in a
section of the county, which is now in Columbia County, owned
a stage station, store, hotel and saloon. It was on one of these
canvassing trips that Doctor Baker and the writer accepted the
hospitality of this man for the night. This was purposely arranged
in order that his influence might be had in favor of carrying the
bonds at the coming election. But little argument was necessary
to convince him of the merit of the cause, and he agreed to join
in the effort to carry the election. All went well until the following morning when our host learned that a change to the hay loft
had been made by his guests during the night, in their sleeping
quarters, due to the presence of insects in the room assigned to
them. The landlord became greatly incensed and declared that
liis house was not so infested. He thereupon bent his best efforts
to defeat the carrying of the bonds at the election, which without
doubt was the cause of its failure. This illustrates how some trivial incident often changes the whole course of history.
Doctor Baker doubtless had some misgivings as to what the
result of the election would be, for he had, several months previous to this date, made preparation to build the road himself.
This is evidenced by his check, still in existence, drawn in payment of stock subscribed by him, and the calling of a meeting of
the board of directors of the company which had already been organized, the record of which is duly preserved.
Early in the summer of 1871 Doctor Baker sent scouting expeditions to the headwaters of the Yakima river in Washington
and the Clearwater in Idaho, with a view of determining the best
source of supply of timber for construction purposes. He also
had preliminary surveys of the road made and filed as early as
May of the same year.
Thus the real date of the beginning of the enterprise is established as 1871 instead of 1872 as recorded by some historians. On
the fourth of December of that year he and his wife and baby left
for New York by stage, taking the train on the Union Pacific at
Kelton, Utah. In the latter part of December he was in Pittsburg
where he made purchase of his first locomotive. This weighed
only seven and one-half tons and cost $4,400.00. It arrived at
Wallula June 3rd, 1872, via steamer around the Horn. On the
11th day of March, 1872, Doctor Baker was again at home for- W. W. Baker
mulating plans to construct the road. He realized that he did not
have sufficient capital to do this work unaided, and therefore he
associated with himself several of his friends in the enterprise.
These men were of limited means and as it afterwards appears,
they were not of great assistance in a financial way. Stock was
subscribed and issued, the first assessment being 15%. Other assessments followed, but the stockholders did not respond uniformly, some paying and others not. In one of the president's reports
a statement of these facts appears, and he calls attention of the
stockholders to the unfairness of this condition, at the same time
urging each one to fulfill the agreements contained in their subscription or otherwise to surrender enough of their stock for resale to others, so as to make the portion retained fully paid up to
100%. He reminded them, however, that when the road was completed, it would be a very profitable investment, and urged each
and every one to retain his holdings in the company. Nevertheless most all of them ultimately sold their stock to him. Thus it
appears that practically the whole burden of financing the building
of the road fell upon one man.
As president of the road he received a salary of $2,400.00 per
year payable in stock of the company. He gave every detail his
personal attention, going over the line at least twice each week
during the construction period in the interest of the greatest possible economical administration.
At the date of the beginning of construction, it must be remembered Walla Walla was but slightly developed. Agricultural
interest had been overlooked up to that time. Indeed in the year
1874 there were only 134,000 bushels of grain exported—a fair
production now for only 5,000 acres. This data is taken from the
records of the Walla Walla & Columbia River Railroad Company,
and may be slightly incorrect in view of the fact that some grain
may have been transported to Wallula in that year by wagons. On
January 1st, 1870, the total deposits in banks of the Territory
were $17,223.57. The banking house of Baker & Boyer was the
only bank then in Washington. Its capital and surplus on that
date was $120,008.46. This was the state of the country's development when Doctor Baker undertook to build thirty-two miles of
railroad. The supplying of necessary funds to meet expenditures
soon began to assume a serious aspect as one stockholder after another, losing faith, sold his stock. Bonds secured by a mortgage
failed to be negotiated.   Even as late as 1874 and 1875, when the "The Doctor Baker Road"
road was nearing completion, treasury stock was offered for sale
but failed to find purchasers.
In January of the latter year the company had a cargo of
steel en route from England for twenty miles of road. The cost
of this delivered at Wallula was $65,000.00, which sum had to be
met upon its arrival there or within five months from date of shipment. At this time the company also had a large floating indebtedness, in fact larger than was permitted under its by-laws. It
was then that the president of the road had to resort to his private resources to tide over this emergency.
All* these were the conditions when Walla Walla was anxiously awaiting and urging the prompt completion of the road.
The company in January, 1875, responded to this urgent request
by proposing to make the necessary additional purchases of steel
rail and complete the entire system within sixty days after its arrival on condition that the citizens of Walla Walla subscribe and
pay for $75,000.00 of the stock of the company then in the treasury, at the same cost to them that the old owners had paid. This
offer was rejected on January 19th by a communication signed
by five leading citizens, they having been appointed a committee
in charge of the conference. Certainly this showed a lack of confidence in the success of the enterprise, or the stock was not considered good from an investment point of view. One bright ray
of hope appeared in the hcrizen, however, in an offer coming vol-
nutarily from the committee providing a "subsidy subscription" to
the company of $20,000.00.
The communication, which was dated January 19th, 1875,
was answered on January 21st by the railroad company in the
form of a counter proposition increasing the amount to be paid
to $25,000.00 and a deed to three acres of land for depot purposes within a half mile of the intersection of Main and Third
Streets in Walla Walla, together with some other minor changes..
This proposition was finally accepted, the extra steel purchased
and the road completed before the expiration of that year. It has
frequently been stated that this subsidy was exacted by the company as a condition precedent to the final completion of the road
to Walla Walla. This is not true, as shown by the communications which are still preserved and are very clear on the question.
Doubtless without this contribution the road would not have been
completed for another year as the company's financial condition at
that time was already strained to the utmost. W. W. Baker
Doctor Baker's vision into the future probably foresaw these
financial difficulties that were encountered, and caused him to decide in favor of the building of a "strap iron road" in the first instance instead of the usual steel rail. Necessity and not preference thus actuated him, for in 1871 he examined a wooden constructed road in the state of New York which did not meet with
his approval, and he sought to improve this by putting strap iron
on the wooden rails. While many people have made light of this,
still it served the purpose for which it was built. It extended the
day when the purchase and payment of steel rail had to be finally
made. In the meantime the owner by realizing profits
on his other investments together with the profits derived from
the traffic on the road, was enabled to purchase and pay for this
steel rail. It is a fact that when the road was finally completed
and paid for, thirty-five per cent, of the cost was paid from the
earnings of the road itself, and only 65% was represented by invested capital.
The entire cost of the road completed up to the date of its
sale, which came in 1878, was $356,134.85. In this amount is included practically all the cost of locomotives and other rolling
stock. This equipment consisted of enough cars to handle all
freight expeditiously. There were two passenger cars. One was
built locally and the other purchased in the East and shipped
"knocked down" and assembled in Walla Wall^. The road owned
five locomotives, two of which were light weight, but three were
up to date construction passenger and freight engines for that
period. Thus it will be seen that the cost per mile including equipment was about $11,000. This is remarkably small considering the
conditions under which the road was built. It is to be noted that
there never was a mortgage on the property, which is rare in railroad construction.
Early in 1872 logging outfits were sent into the woods at the
headwaters of the Yakima River. Timber was cut and hauled to
the river's edge. By this time it was so late in the season that a
drive was impossible due to the low water stage. Some logs,
nevertheless, were run in October and November. They were
boomed at the mouth of the Yakima and from there rafted to the
mill which had been built on the banks of the Columbia one and
one-half miles north of the old town of Wallula, a big eddy at
this point making it possible to land and hold logs  for milling "The Doctor Baker Road" 9
purposes. Here a small town was built. The necessary living
quarters, store, blacksmith shop and engine houses formed the nucleus of the new town. The name "Slabtown" attached for the
reason that the building material used was principally slabs. The
first ties were milled on November 11th, 1872. From that time
until the road was finished expeditions were dispatched each season for additional logs, with varied success. In 1873 but few
logs were secured owing to the lack of flood waters. The following year, however, the drive was successful. From Slabtown the
road was projected eastward toward Walla Walla. As soon as it
became a factor in the shipping of freight a branch line was built
in 1874 from a point which is now Wallula Junction to the old
town of Wallula on the banks of the Columbia, to which place the
Oregon Steam Navigation Company's boats ran regularly in seasonable weather enroute to and from Portland. Now there is
scarcely a vestige to mark where either Slabtown or old Wallula
were once prosperous villages. One might say as Goldsmith did
in his Deserted Village, "And the long grass o'ertops the mouldering wall," but for a fact that no walls remain, and man knows
that no grass grows in those beds of gravel or dunes of shifting
sand.
The road was constructed in the first instance by laying on
the road bed, ties that were gained to fit the wooden stringers,
4x6 inches forming the rails. As soon as iron could be secured
the wooden rails were surmounted by a strap of iron one-half inch
thick by two inches wide, forming the bearing surface on which
the trains ran. This was spiked to the wooden rails and bent
down over each end and securely fastened, to prevent the iron
from curling up at the ends due to the friction exerted by the
driving wheels of the locomotives. Nevertheless this precaution
was not always effective, with the result that the ends of the iron
would sometimes be forced up through the floor pf the cars.
These were termed snake heads and they had no respect for either
freight or passengers. However, nothing serious ever resulted
from them, and it might be added here that during the years of
construction and operation of the road by Doctor Baker no lives
were lost as the result of accidents. Sixteen miles of this strap
iron road were completed by 1874. This brought the road to
Touchet station, from which point it began to take wheat shipments.    On this character of road it was not possible to make 10
W. W. Baker
fast time, and it also often happened that the train became derailed. On one of these occasions a pedestrian came along and
generously lent his assistance in getting the train back on the
track. When Doctor Baker cordially extended the stranger an invitation to ride, the reply came back: "No thank you, Doctor, I
am in a hurry:" During that year 5,167 tons of freight were carried. This lent encouragement towards being able to purchase and
pay for steel rail, and before the season had passed an order for
twenty miles of steel had been placed abroad. As soon as it
arrived the old strap iron stringers were abandoned and regular
steel rail replaced them.
The fact that a portion of the road was constructed of strap
iron, and strap being thought of in connection with rawhide, probably gave rise to the name "Rawhide Railroad," according to a
story in the Saturday Evening Post on May 6th, 1922, entitled
"The Rawhide Railroad," and credited by many of its readers as
being true. This, of course, is purely fiction and existed only in
the wild imagination of the author of the story.
The story is told that the engineers in laying out this line of
railroad did not have any surveying instruments, and that if they
had they would not have known how to use them. In their stead
a whiskey bottle half filled and held horizontally was used as a
level. By sighting along the surface of the liquid the proper levels were obtained. Of course this is amusing, and. granting the
truth of it for that reason, still let it be known that the Union
Pacific System has owned and operated this road for many years
with the grades unchanged as laid out originally by these pioneer
engineers.
The following is a schedule of the freight shipped over the
road during the time Doctor Baker operated it:
Grain and Flour Merchandise
1874 4,021 tons 1,126 tons
1875 9,155 tons 2,192 1-10 tons
1876 15,266J^ tons 4,034 tons
1877 28,807 1-20 tons 8,368 tons
1878 .27,365 1-20 tons 10,454 1-3 tons
Totals 83,614 tons       26,174 tons
Making a total of exports of 83,614 tons and imports of
26,174 tons, or a total of practically 110,000 tons.    The average "The Doctor Baker Road"
11
tariff covering these years was $5.50 per ton. Reports of passenger traffic for these years seem to be misplaced except for one
year, 1877. Paid fares for that year amounted to $14,824.38, covering 4,941 tickets sold, or an average of 6H passengers each way
per day.
During the year following the completion of the road a peculiar condition arose, for although freight rates had been reduced one-half of what they formerly were by wagon, still a
great clamor arose for a further reduction. The farmers and
merchants combined against the road, and the movement of freight
again began by team even at a higher rate. This created a serious problem for the owner. He could not afford to lose the
freight on the year's crop and it required quick and decisive action to outgeneral this unexpected movement. Accordingly he
made an arrangement with the Oregon Steam Navigation Company to the effect that that company would receive and transport
to Portland all freight offered by the Walla Walla and Columbia
River Railroad billed as fast freight over its line, giving preference in point of time of shipment, to any other freight by whomsoever offered. Wheat at this time was commanding a good figure, but proceeds could not be had for it until the wheat reached
Portland. As soon as it became known that preference was being given to fast freight shipments, wheat began to move again by
rail, and the backbone of the opposition was broken, notwithstanding that the railroad established a rate of $1.00 per ton more
for wheat shipped by fast freight than the regular tariff rates.
The story that the road carried fast freight on the front cars and
slow freight on the last cars of the train is interesting but, of
course, is not true. This class of freight originated in opposition
to express companies, and as a result the latter only carried valuables. Fast freight was transported over the different portages
and arrived in Portland on passenger schedules and was handled
more cheaply than at express rates. It is recorded that a Lewis-
ton firm even expressed a keg of silver billed as a keg of nails by
fast freight. For some days this keg was lost somewhere enroute
which gave the consignees considerable anxiety. It thus became
a very valuable keg of nails. It will be understood that wheat
shipped as fast freight did not take the passenger schedule, for
just as soon as this movement became general, the schedule was
necessarily unchanged from the slow schedule, as it existed previously. 12
W. W. Baker
During the period following the completion of the road the
owner, with his usual keen perception, drew the following conclusions: That within a reasonably short time a transcontinental road
would be constructed down the Columbia, paralleling and rendering valueless his short road. He argued that water transportation with several portages could not compete with a through line
of railroad. He considered the advisability of extending the line
to Portland himself, but failing health caused him to decide
against this plan, and he finally concluded that the best policy
would be to sell the line to the Oregon Steam Navigation Company. The owners of this company were not favorably inclined
to this purchase, but when they were reminded of an axiom that
he had formulated, to-wit: that he who controls the freight to the
approaches to the river owns the river, they altered their views.
Wallula at this date was the gateway to the Northwest east of
the mountains, including Idaho and Montana. Realizing the
force of these facts, the result of this interview was that the Oregon Steam Navigation Company purchased the property from
Doctor Baker at a figure which, taken in connection with the dividends he had already received, gave him a very handsome profit.
On February 18th, 1878, Dr. Baker entered into an agreement whereby 6-7th of the capital stock of the Walla Walla &
Columbia River Railroad was to be sold and transferred to S. G.
Reed and C. E. Tilton on or before the 19th day of January, 1879.
These men represented the Oregon Steam Navigation Company
in this purchase. The contract covering this transaction is quite
long, containing fourteen pages of closely written matter, and
among other things secures each of the contracting parties one-
half of the net profits arising from the operation of the road during this interim. In order to make the contract absolutely binding each party required of the other a bond in the sum of $200,-
000.00 as liquidated damages for failure to comply with the terms
of the contract. These were performed on the day specified as
shown by written acknowledgments signed by all parties and attached to the contract. Subsequently on the 4th day of May,
1879, Dr. Baker sold to Henry Villard the balance of the capital stock of the road, which deal was consummated finally on October 1st, 1879. Thus the ownership of the stock of the Walla
Walla & Columbia River Railroad by Doctor Baker became a
closed chapter. The property is now a part of the Union Pacific
System. Thereafter Doctor Baker built two additional lines of rail- "The Doctor Baker Road"
13
road connecting Walla Walla with Dixie and Dudley (now
Tracy), Washington, of a total length of fifteen miles. These
properties are now owned by the Northern Pacific Railway Company.
The next annual meeting of the Walla Walla & Columbia
River Railway Company was held in April, 1879. The new owners with expressions of "continued confidence" elected Doctor
Baker president for the coming year with an increased salary. His
memorandum book shows that he at onec took up the locating for
the new owners a branch line to Weston, Oregon, but as a matter
of fact this line was not extended further than Blue Mountain
Station, a distance of about twelve miles from Old Whitman Station, the point of divergence from the main line. When this year
had expired Doctor Baker retired from active transportation
problems.
Governor Miles C. Moore once said: "Few men living in pioneer surroundings ever had the opportunity of seeing the happy
fruition of their early efforts such as Doctor Baker witnessed, for
he beheld the transformation of a crude pioneer section—a wilderness of opportunities—into a thriving center of civilization.
His railroad enterprise contributed greatly to the settlement and
upbuilding of the Inland Empire. It was his foresight more
than any other human agency which made Walla Walla the early
commercial metropolis for eastern Washington and for Montana
and Idaho as well.
"It has been sixty years since Doctor Baker located in Walla
Walla. Looking back over the vista of years it is impossible for
the two generations which have come upon the scene since his arrival to realize just what foresight, genius- and determination
were necessary to enable him and his associates to brave the dangers and surmount the difficulties which confronted them among
the hardships of early frontier days. Doctor Baker had the keenness of vision, the constructive genius and the tenacity and courage to build for the future. His insight and practical grasp enabled him to do heroic work in the pioneer field of development
of one of the richest and most beautiful areas on the American
continent. In consequence of his remarkable career his monument lives in the comforts and conveniences of life and is seen in
the fertile fields and happy homes which his foresight and energy
made possible in the beautiful Walla Walla Valley."
W. W. Baker
I THE SPOKANE, PORTLAND AND SEATTLE RAILROAD
COMPANY*
The building of a railroad from Spokane to Portland by the
route along the North Bank of the Columbia River did not result
from a hastily conceived plan or sudden conclusion on the part
of the Great Northern and Northern Pacific interests. The determination to carry out this project was reached after a long period
of discussion and consideration.
For many years prior to the undertaking of actual construction the question in the councils of the Great Northern and North-
em Pacific popularly known as the "Hill Lines," was not whether
this line would be built, but when.- The necessity of the Hill lines
for such a railroad was obvious. The traffic of the rich Oregon
country was completely controlled by the Union Pacific and
Southern Pacific systems, generally known as the "Harriman
Lines", between which and the Hill lines there was at that time
the most intense rivalry. True, the Northern Pacific reached a portion of this territory, but only by a circuitous route via Puget
Sound, while the Great Northern had no line or connection enabling it to participate in Oregon traffic.
Mr. James J. Hill was in control of the Great Northern and
determined its policies, as well as being an influential factor in
shaping the policies of the Northern Pacific. The heavily timbered areas of the Coast Range and of the Cascade Range in Oregon, the rich Willamette Valley, the enormous fisheries of the
lower Columbia, all lay within striking distance of his completed
lines. It goes without saying that this aggressive and sagacious
pioneer railroad builder would not long brook a situation that shut
out his lines from a field so important presently and so rich in
promise for the future.
In 1904 it seemed that the time was ripe for the consumma- I
tion of the plans that had been formed. The parent lines—the
Great Northern and the Northern Pacific—were prosperous and
amply able to finance an undertaking of this magnitude. The
business of the West was expanding rapidly, and from 1904 to
1907 there was a very heavy traffic on these lines, amounting almost to a congestion. In order to handle the business that was
being offered, the creation of additional facilities was necessary.
of the   Spokane,
the Washington Histo
nd Seattle Kailway •
'  Company.—Editoe.
(14) "The North Bank Road"
15
Instead of double tracking the existing lines it was deemed better
to build an alternate line which would not only give the necessary
relief to the existing lines but would also reach new territory.
A line was, therefore, laid out from Spokane following the
Marshall Canyon until it reached the undulating lava plateau of
Central Washington, continuing thereon until it entered the narrow and rugged Devil's Canyon and through same to the Snake
River, thence following the Snake River to Pasco. From Pasco
the line crossed the Columbia River, and followed its right, or
north bank, to Vancouver, Washington, thence across the Columbia and the Willamette to Portland. A considerable portion of
the route laid out, especially along the Columbia, was a canyon
route. If separate, lines had been built by the Great Northern
and the Northern Pacific it would have been necessary over a considerable distance that they use the same rails. In the interest of
public economy, as well as of railroad economy, it was, therefore,
decided to build a joint line—one-half to be owned by the Great
Northern Railway Company and one-half by the Northern Pacific Railway Company.
The first active step toward construction was the purchase at
Portland of a considerable tract of land, which was regarded as
the key tract for the Portland terminals, the purchase being made
in such a manner as not to make public the purpose for which it
was intended. It is interesting to note in passing that this prop-,
erty was later the subject of long contnued litigation between the
Hill interests and the Harriman interests, and that this litigation
was only finally settled and disposed of in the year 1920 by a contract admitting the Great Northern and Spokane, Portland and
Seattle, to the use of the Portland Union Station and passenger
terminals.
In the spring and early summer of 1905 a considerable additional property was purchased for the Portland terminals. These
purchases were so extensive that they tended to increase prices,
and to obtain at a fair price property for terminal and right of
way purposes it was essential to organize a corporation with the
power of eminent domain. It was not considered prudent at this
time to make public the plan—therefore, in organizing a corporation the personnel of the organizers was so chosen as not to reveal
the. interests that were behind the enterprise. The corporation
was organized on August 22, 1905, and was given the name of 16
L. C. Gilman
the "Portland and Seattle Railway Company." The original incorporators were Mr. James D. Hoge, of Seattle, and Mr. John S.
Baker, of Tacoma. The first Board of Trustees was composed of
James D. Hoge, of Seattle, John S. Baker, of Tacoma, S. B| Lin-
thicum, C. F. Adams and J. C. Flanders, of Portland. The articles of incorporation took power to build a railroad from Seattle
to Portland and from Portland to Spokane As this was a time
when new railroad enterprises were constantly being launched
there was much speculation as- to who might be behind this new
undertaking, but the articles of incorporation and the personnel
of the incorporators were such that the public was mystified, and
the nature of the enterprise and the interests involved remained
secret until September 26th, 1905, when Mr. C. M. Levey, Third
Vice President of the Northern Pacific, was made a Trustee in
the place of Mr. Linthicum, and the writer, then Western Counsel of the Great Northern, was made Trustee in the place of Mr.
Hoge, and organization was perfetced by the selection of C. M.
Levey as President, L. C. Gilman, Vice President, M. P. Maetin,
Secretary, C. A. Clark, Treasurer, and H. A. Gray, Comptroller,
who were all officially connected with the parent lines—the Great
Northern and Northern Pacific. The corporate name of the company "Portland and Seattle Railway Company," was retained until January 31st, 1908, when it was changed to "Spokane, Portland and Seattle Railway Company."
The acquisition of real property for terminal and right-of-
way purposes continued during the months of September and October, 1905, and in November of that year the actual work of
construction commenced. As soon as it became publicly known
that the "Portland and Seattle Railway Company" was an enterprise of the Hill lines the Harriman interests interposed the most
active opposition, using obstructive tactics of every character
known to able and experienced railroad builders. Right-of-way
necessary for the new line was purchased by the Harriman interests and held for ostensible public purposes. Wherever there
was a strategic point every possible means were used to prevent
the acquisition by the "Portland and Seattle" of property for
right-of-way and terminals at such point. For the first year of
construction the Spokane, Portland and Seattle Railway was literally compelled to "hew its way through." Nevertheless, every obstacle was met and overcome, and construction proceeded so rap- "The North Bank Road"
17
idly that in December, 1907, a section 112 miles in length "between Kennewick and Cliffs, Washington, was opened for operation. Track was laid from both ends, and the junction was made
near the Cascade Locks on Washington's birthday, 1908, and operation formally opened for the entire length of the line between
Portland and Spokane in November, 1908.
As this railroad was intended to furnish a low grade line,
calculated to economically handle the highest class of traffic, the
construction standards followed were of the most modern and approved engineering t3»pe. This railroad may be said to have been
"built to order," and is regarded today as an example of the
highest class of railroad construction. Between the stations of
Vancouver and Snake River, a distance of 246 miles, a maximum
grade line, with no adverse and compensated for curavture, of
two-tenths of one per cent., or 10 feet to the mile, was established, and from Snake River to Spokane a maximum of four-
tenths, or 20 feet to the mile, was adopted, except for a short distance in the Marshall Canyon, near Spokane, where it was necessary to increase the grade to eight-tenths westbound. Maximum
curvature for the entire railroad between Vancouver and Spokane
is three degrees.
The highest water on the Columbia of which there was any
record was in the year 1894, and the line was laid at a minimum
of 7 feet above the line of high water of that year. The structures are all of a permanent character, capable of carrying the
heaviest present day loading. Very large steel bridges were
built, of which the most important were four steel and concrete
viaducts east of Pasco, one of these having a length of 1245 feet
and a height of 233 feet, and the bridges between Vancouver and
Portland crossing the Columbia River, Hayden Island, Oregon
Slough and the Willamette River. These last named bridges are
notable as to their type, permanence and cost of construction. The
bridge across the Columbia River, Hayden Island and the Oregon Slough is a continuous double track steel structure approximately 6,400 feet long. The Columbia River crossing consists'of
ten truss spans, including a draw span 466 feet in length, operated with electric power and provided with an auxiliary gasoline
engine. The piers are of concrete, faced with ashlar masonry,
and were placed by the pneumatic, caisson method deep down into
the bed of the river.    The Hayden Island crossing comprises 26 18
L. C. Gilmai
deck plate spans, each 80 feet in length, resting on concrete piers
erected on pile foundations. The Oregon Slough crossing consists of nine truss spans, including a draw span 332 feet in length,
all carried on concrete piers resting on pile foundations. The
Willamette River bridge has a total of seven truss spans, a total
length of 1767 feet, including a draw span 521 feet between the
centers of the end piers. This draw span is said to be the longest
double track railroad draw span in the world. Five of the concrete piers of the Willamette River bridge were built by the pneumatic, caisson method, the remainder being on pile foundations.
nl the construction of this double track system of bridges between Vancouver and Portland there were used 20,120 net tons
of steel, 67,529 cubic yards of concrete and 10,811 cubic yards of
ashlar masonry, and the cost thereof was approximately $4,000,-
000.00. The entire rail traffic between California at the south
and British Columbia at the north traverses these bridges, as there
is no other rail crossing between them and the mouth of the Columbia on the west and a point 105 miles to the east, where the
steel bridge of the Oregon Trunk Railway crosses the Columbia
River between Fallbridge, Washington, and Celilo, Oregon.
The rugged character of the territory traversed by this railroad is indicated by the statement that between Spokane and
Portland, approximately 28,000,000 cubic yards of material was
excavated, of which approximately 12,000,000 cubic yards were
solid rock, and that nineteen tunnels, having a total length of
three miles, the longest being 2494 feet, were driven. Throughout the entire line between Portland and Spokane passing tracks
were built at frequent intervals of sufficient length to handle 100-
car freight trains, or, otherwise stated, trains approximately a mile
in length. Block signals were installed between Portland and
Vancouver, and at several stretches east of Vancouver where tunnels and large bridges make these traffic safeguards desirable.
Additional lines to serve as branches and traffic feeders were
acquired and constructed as follows:
In March, 1907, there was acquired for the Spokane, Portland and Seattle Railway the properties of the Astoria & Columbia River Railroad, consisting of a line extending from Goble, on
the Columbia River, about 40 miles from Portland to Seaside and
to Fort Stevens via Astoria. From Goble to Portland the Spokane, Portland and Seattle Railway leased a line from the Northern Pacific Railway.    This purchase and lease gave the Spokane, "The North Bank Road"
19
Portland and Seattle Railway a continuous line from Spokane to
the sea, and enabled it to reach the fish and timber -resources of
the Lower Columbia and the beach resorts on the seashore south
of the Columbia.
In March, 1908, the Spokane, Portland and Seattle Railway
purchased the property of the Columbia River and Northern
Railway, extending from Lyle, a point on its line 85 miles east of
Portland to Goldendale. This line is now known as the Golden-
dale Branch.
At the same time it purchased the properties of the Dalles,
Portland and Astoria Navigation Company, consisting of three
river steamers. These steamers were operated until 1915. Their
operation was considered to be in contravention of the Panama
Canal Act, which carries a provision forbidding the operation of
railroad owned steamboats which do or may compete for traffic
with the railroad owning them, and they were, therefore, disposed of.
In 1910 there was purchased a controlling interest in the Oregon Electric Railway, owning an electric line serving the Willamette Valley, extending from Portland to Salem and having
branches to Forest Grove and Woodburn, and an extension was
constructed from Salem to Eugene, with branch to Corvallis.
In 1910 there was also acquired the United Railways, an electric line extending from Portland to Wilkesboro. This line with
extensions since made and acquired reaches the timber areas of
the Coast Range.
In the year 1910 the Spokane, Portland and Seattle Railway
commenced the construction of a line called the "Oregon Trunk
Railway" from Fallbridge, 106 miles east of Portland, across the
Columbia and into Central Oregon. This line was extended south as
far as Bend, about 150 miles, and reaches the agricultural and
stock raising sections of Central Oregon and the pine timber areas
on the east slope of the Cascades.
The main line above described, together with these properties
since constructed and acquired, constitute the Spokane, Portland
and Seattle Railway system—all these properties being operated
together and under one management, and having a main line mileage of approximately 850 miles with main line extending from
Spokane to the sea, and branches reaching the grain fields of the
Klickitat Valley,  the  agricultural,   stock  and timber regions  of 20
L. C. Gilman
Central   Oregon,   the  highly  productive  Willamette  Valley,  and
the timber resources of the Coast Range.
This railway system has proven a valuable asset to
its owners and an important transportation link to the public. Its
location and construction are such that it is not subject to washouts, snow blockades and other disabilities arising from climatic
conditions as are the lines traversing the Cascade Range, and
when these lines are blocked traffic is kept moving by detouring
over this railroad. Many times during its history it has been for
considerable periods the only means of rail communication between the East and Western Washington and Oregon. While
the earnings of the system itself have not been large, it has furnished much valuable long haul traffic to its owners—the Great
Northern and Northern Pacific—and to the affiliated Burlington,
and established itself as an important adjunct to those lines. Both
as a traffic producer and as a public convenience it has amply
demonstrated the wisdom of those who conceived and carried out
the enterprise.
L. C. Gieman NEWSPAPERS OF WASHINGTON TERRITORY
[Continued from Volume XIII., Page 268]
ORONDO, DOUGLAS COUNTY
News, listed in 1890 as a weekly independent paper by the
Lord & Thomas Newspaper Directory. The editor of the Entiat
Times is authority for the information that a file of the News is
in the hands of Rufus Woods of Wenatchee and that John B.
Smith of Orondo should have another file.
ORTING, PIERCE COUNTY
OraceE, established on January 11, 1889, by Watson & Yar-
ington. W. W. Watson retired in August of that year and was
succeeded by James M. Parker. About that time a former paper,
Orting Tribune, was absorbed by the Oracle. (Edwin N. Fuller,
in Washington Press Association Proceedings, 1887-1890, page 87.)
Files of the Oracle have been kept at Orting since 1903.
OYSTERVILLE, PACIFIC COUNTY
Pacific Journae, on December 6, 1884, Alf D. Bowen took
charge of the paper which on that date issued its Volume II., number 16. (Edwin N. Fuller, in Washington Press Association Proceedings, 1887-1890, page 82.)
PALOUSE, WHITMAN COUNTY
Boomerang, files from Volume I., number 2, September 20,
1882, to February 22, 1884, are in the Seattle Public Library.
News, established the last week in May, 1884, by Pickerell,
Irwin & McMillin. (Edwin N. Fuller, in Washington Press Association Proceedings, 1887-1890, page 82.) No files have been
located.
PASCO, FRANKLIN COUNTY
Headeight, Edwin N. Fuller gave the date of establishment
as February 10, 1888, and the publishers as Muncy & Crane.
Charles Prosch said that the editor, I. N. Muncy, was not the least
versatile member of the Press Association, and continuing: "Be-
(21) 22
Edmond S. Meany
sides editing and managing the business of said paper, Mr. Muncy
is agent for the sale of a patent lamp, real estate agent, attends all
conventions as a delegate, and is a tiller of the soil." (In Washington Press Association Proceedings, 1887-1890, pages 40 and 86.)
Pieot, established on September 27, 1889, by M. V. Harper &
Sons.    No files have been located.
PATAHA, GARFIELD COUNTY
Spirit. In June, 1880, the citizens raised a fund of $1,000
with which to start a paper to combat the pretensions of the
town's rival, Pomeroy, situated only three miles away. On June
25, 1881, the Spirit appeared, a six-column folio, printed at home,
Republican in politics, and edited by G. C. W. Hammond. Dr.'
J. S. Denison and Charles Wilkins bought the paper on February
a, 1882. In October, 1883, the plant was sold and moved to
Asotin and a year later the name was changed from Spirit to
Sentinel.    {History of Southeastern Washington, page 817.)
POMEROY, GARFIELD COUNTY
East Washingtonian. The Washington Territorial Legislature
established Garfield County by an act dated November 29, 1881.
That necessitated the selection of a county seat and the election
of a complete set of officers. Pomeroy, being ambitious, realized
that another newspaper would advance their hopes. Promptly, on
December 10, 1881, the Republican, a four-column folio, made its
appearance with T. C. Frary and E. T. Wilson as publishers, the
paper being issued from the plant of the Washington Independent,
which had been published in Pomeroy for a little more than a
year. After the election, the Republican suspended until it could
get a plant of its own. On March 4, 1882, it started anew as
Volume I, number 1, with E. T. Wilson as sole proprietor. The
venture was not very profitable, judging from the frequent changes
in ownership. In May, 1882, F. M. McCully bought a half interest
and Harry St. George became proprietor in January, 1883. Swift
changes then followed: Dr. L. C. Cox, on July 21, 1883; J. B.
Lister, August, 1883; Pomeroy Publishing Company, March 22,
1884.
On July 26, 1884, W. L. Lister, F. H. Washburn and E. H.
King organized the firm of Lister, Washburn & King, secured the
paper and changed its name to East Washingtonian. Mr. Washburn withdrew from the firm on August 23, 1884, and Mr. King, Newspapers of  Washington Territory
23
on October 25, 1884, leaving Mr. Lister as sole proprietor. He
sold out on September 7, 1889, to E. M. Pomeroy, who continued
the publication through the period of transition to statehood, Peter
McClung becoming proprietor in 1893. Complete files are in the
office of publication. Partial files are in the University of Washington Library. {History of Southeastern Washington, pages 817-
818.)
Republican, see East Washingtonian.
Times, founded in May, 1886, by Alf. D. Bowen, a member
of the Legislature from Pacific County, who brought his printing
plant with him. One of his objects was to fight local option and
prohibition and after the election he sold out to his foreman,
Henry Bowmer. The paper was increased to eight columns and
in December, 1886, it became Democratic in politics when A. J.
Thomsen secured a half interest. He later became sole proprietor
but in July, 1887, he sold to J. V. Hamilton. The paper suspended
and the plant was moved to Garfield, as three papers were thought
to be too many for Pomeroy. (History of Southeastern Washington, page 819.)    No files have been located.
Washington Independent, was first issued on August 12,
1880, by Rev. F. W. D. Mays, a man of interesting personality.
He was a soldier in the Confederate Army and in 1870 became a
minster in the Methodist Episcopal Church South. In 1873, he-
was transferred to the Columbia Conference of the same church.
Charles Prosch, in reporting that Mr. Mays was still editor and
proprietor of his paper in 1889, said of him, "who manages by the
exercise of economy to keep the wolf from the door." (In Washington Press Association Proceedings, 1887-1890, page 40.) The
paper was Democratic and also supported the People's Party. The
plant was destroyed by fire on July 18, 1900, with a loss of
$3500 and no insurance. It suspended publication until March,
1901. (History of Southeastern Washington, page 817.) No files
have been reported.
PORT ANGELES, CLALLAM COUNTY
Democrat,  merged   into  Democrat-Leader   and   later   into
Olympic-Leader.
Leader, merged into Democrat-Leader and later into Olympic-
Leader. 24
Edmond S. Meany
Modee Commonwealth. In May, 1887, under the leadership of George Venable Smith, a Seattle lawyer, the Puget Sound
Cooperative Colony was incorporated and lands were secured at
Port Angeles. Among the enterprises undertaken was the newspaper known as the Model Commonwealth, of which Mrs. Laura
E. Hall was editor. (Edmond S. Meany, History of Washington,
page 321.) On November 18, 1887, the paper appeared in deep
mourning in memory of the executed anarchists. Venier Vando's
name appeared as editor on March 30, 1888, and E. B. Mastic was
listed as business manager. Albert E. Sanderson and M. C.
Dwight withdrew on account of the rigid censorship of the colony
trustees. (Edwin N. Fuller, in Washington Press Association
Proceedings, 1887-1890, page 85.) The colony went into the
hands of a receiver in 1895.
Olympic, merged into the Olympic-Leader.
Oeympic-Leader. E. B. Webster says the first of this combination paper was founded in 1881. A. J. Grosser, of Port Angeles, former publisher of the Democrat-Leader, has the early
files. The Olympic was founded in 1904 and in May of that year
was merged, the product being known as Olympic-Leader. In the
office of that paper are files from 1901.
Times. A weekly paper by this name at Port Angeles was
listed in Lord & Thomas Newspaper Directory for 1890.
PORT ORCHARD, KITSAP COUNTY
Independent. The founding of this paper is placed at August 1, 1888. It has absorbed two other Port Orchard papers—
the Broadax in 1891, and the Kitsap County Pioneer in 1893. The
early files were destroyed in 1913 by fire. Since then files have
been kept in the office of publication.
PORT TOWNSEND, JEFFERSON COUNTY
Argus, see Puget Sound Argus.
Caee. "Other papers have been published at the port of
entry for short periods, but have left no record of their existence.
Among those now remembered is the Call, which is still believed
to be living." (Charles Prosch, in Washington Press Association
Proceedings, 1887-1890, page 36.) The paper was established on
April 11, 1885, by Glenn & O'Brien, Glenn selling his interest to Newspapers of Washington Territory
25
O'Brien on July 1, 1885. The firm became George W. O'Brien
& Co. on October 14, 1887. (Edwin N. Fuller, in Washington
Press Association Proceedings, 1887-1890, page 83.) The paper
became a daily in 1888. (Polk's Puget Sound Directory for 1888.)
The paper was Democratic in politics. (Lord & Thomas Newspaper Directory for 1890.)    No files have been located.
Cyceop. The Seattle Intelligencer, on October 16, 1871, announced: "Julius Dickens, Esq., late of the Message, has commenced the publication of a daily newspaper at Port Townsend,
printed on a half sheet and containing three or four columns of
reading matter. Its appearance is very creditable. It is called
The Cyclop." The Seattle paper also commented editorially saying that an "s" should have been added to the name. The Cyclop
was of short life and no file has been reported.
Democratic Press, founded in 1877 by Dr. H. C. Willison
and H. L. Blanchard, a young lawyer from Seattle. Charles
Prosch says the paper was begun in opposition to the Argus and
the custom house clique and continuing: "The Press soon became
an elephant on their hands, the sustenance of which cost more
than they had bargained for." (In Washington Press Association
Proceedings, 1887-1890, page 35.) Frank Meyers bought the paper
from its founders and continued its publication for about two
years. Files of the first three volumes and for half a dozen issues
in 1880 are in the University of Washington Library.
Leader,  an independent daily  (including  Sunday),  founded
on October 1, 1888, by W. I. Jones.    The burden was too great
• for his health and he sold out in May, 1889, to J. E. Clark.    Partial files are in the State Library, Olympia.
Message, founded in May, 1867, by Al. Pettygrove, was a
small paper of only local interest. (H. H. Bancroft, Works, Volume XXXL, page 379.) Captain E. S. Fowler bought the paper
in 1869, made it Democratic in politics under the editorial guidance of Henry L. Sutton, formerly publisher of the Port Town-
send Register. (Olympia Transcript, April 10, 1869.) Two
years later, on August 12, 1871, the Olympia Transcript reported
that the Message had announced its own suspension of publication.
No files of the paper are reported.
Northern Light, the Olympia Pioneer and Democrat, on
November 2, 1860, reported the receipt of the first issue of such
a paper. 26
Edmond S. Meany
North-West, a weekly Republican paper established on July
5, 1860, by E. S. Dyer and John F. Damon, was edited first by
Mr. Dyer but soon Mr. Damon assumed editorial control. He
advocated most vigorously the claims of Port Townsend as the
port of entry and waged relentless war against Victor Smith, Collector of Customs, who was attempting to move the port of entry
to Port Angeles. The Olympia Washington Standard announced
on October 19, 1861, that Mr. Damon had withdrawn from the
North-West and on December 7, 1861, that he had resumed control of "the paper. The North-West expired in December, 1861.
(H. H. Bancroft, Works, Volume XXXI., page 378.) No files
have been reported.
Charles Prosch said that Mr. Damon had been the editor of
one or two papers in California, San Francisco correspondent of
eastern papers and a travelling correspondent for Victoria and
California papers. After his experience with the North-West,
Mr. Damon became an intinerant minister of the Congregational
Church, and during the last years of his life was the most popular
marrying and burying preacher in the whole Puget Sound district. (In Washington Press Association Proceedings, 1887-1890,
page 35.)
Port oe Entry Times, established as a semi-weekly on January 9, 1884, by R. R. Parkinson and Hugh Gleen. (Edwin N.
duller, in Washington Press Association Proceedings, 1887-1890,
page 82.)    No files are reported.
Puget Sound Argus, established on July 21, 1870, by Al
Pettygrove , who had purchased the plant of the defunct Steila-
coom Herald. Three years before Mr. Pettygrove had established
the Port Townsend Message. His new venture was to be an independent weekly. The Puget Sound contemporaries spoke well of
the paper and of its young editor. On October 31, 1872, the
Argus announced temporary suspension of publication while new
printing equipment was being secured from San Francisco. The
Seattle Intelligencer, November 11, 1872, announced that the people of Steilacoom had bought back the plant used by the Argus in
order to re-establish in Steilacoom a paper of which Julius Dickens was to be publisher. The new materials for the Argus left
San Francisco on the barkentine Harrison on January 23, 1873,
and on March 3, 1873, the Seattle Intelligencer announced that
the Puget Sound Argus had resumed publication as a semi-weekly,
presenting "a very creditable and neat appearance." Ill health over- Newspapers of Washington Territory
27
took Mr. Pettygrove, who sold his plant to C. W. Philbrick in February, 1874. The press of the defunct Message was added to the
plant of the Argus, which was enlarged and entered upon a prosperous career. "In 1877, Philbrick, after accumulating considerable property, sold the Argus to Allen Weir." (Charles Prosch, in
Washington Press Association Proceedings, 1887-1890, page 35.)
Mr. Weir added a daily edition. On August 31, 1883, Mr. Weir
sold one-half interest in the paper to W. L. Jones. In 1890, the
entire plant was destroyed by fire and the paper was not resumed.
(Edwin N. Fuller in Washinfiton Press Association Proceedings,
1887-1890, page 80.) The complete files of the paper were lost in
the fire. A few numbers have been saved in the University of
Washington Library.
REGISTER, established on December 23, 1859, by Travers
Daniels, was devoted to news, literature and local interests. When
Mr. Daniels returned to Virginia in March, 1860, Mr. Whitacre
became editor. The Olympia Pioneer and Democrat on August
17, 1860, reported that the paper was suspended for a few weeks
"owing to the sickness of Mr. Whitacre, the editor, and a law
suit." In November it was revived for a time by H. M. Frost
and P. M. O'Brien as publishers and H. L. Sutton as editor. (H.
H. Bancroft, Works, Volume XXXI., 378.) No files have been
located.
Star, established on February 8, 1883, by F. M. Walch, who
continued its publication for about six weeks. (Edwin N. Fuller,
in Washington Press Association Proceedings, 1887-1890, page
82.)
PULMAN, WHITMAN COUNTY.
Heraed, established on November 3, 1888, with Thomas Neill
as publisher and J. J. Sargent as editor. (Charles Prosch, in
Washington Press Association Proceedings, 1887-1890, page 42.)
Publication has been continuous and two complete files are in
Pullman, one at the office of publication and the other in the editor's home.
PUYALLUP, PIERCE COUNTY.
Citizen. On May 10, 1889, A. G. Rogers established this
paper under the name of The Puyallup Valley Citizen. (Edwin
N. Fuller, in Washington Press     Association Proceedings, 1887- 28 Edmond S. Meany
1890, page 87.)    It was an independent weekly.    No files have
been reported.
Commerce, established in Tacoma under the same name by E.
N. Fuller, the first issue appearing on May 15, 1886. It was
moved to Puyallup in May, 1887, where it became a hop and
fruit journal. In August, 1888, it was sold to J. W. Redington,
a veteran of the Nez Perce Indian War of 1877. A campaign
daily was published in the fall of 1889. (Edwin N. Fuller, in
Washington Press Association Proceedings, 1887-1890, page 84.)
No files have been reported. Mr. Redington continued the publication on into statehood. In 1922, he was foreman of the Home
Printing Office, Pacific Branch, National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Soldiers' Home, Los Angeles County, California.
Reae Estate Journal, established on February 13, 1889, by
Baird & Howell. Only a few numbers were published. (Edwin
N. Fuller, in Washington Press Association Proceedinges, 1887-
1890, page 88.)    No file has been reported.
Republic, established as a weekly by J. H. Baird and Albert J. Roscoe on May 2. 1889, and the last number was published on June 6, 1889. (Edwin N. Fuller, in Washington Press
Association Proceedings, 1887-1890, page 87.)
RITZVILLE, ADAMS COUNTY.
Adams,County Record, established by G E. Blankenship,
fhe first issue appearing on May 12, 1885. (Edwin N. Fuller, in
Washington Press Association Procedings, 1887-1890, page 83.)
Incomplete files of Volumes I-IL, October 13, 1885, to December
11, 1886, are in the University of Washington Library.
Adams County Times, first issued on July 2, 1887, by W.
E. Blackmer. (Edwin N. Fuller, in Washington Press Association Proceedings, 1887-1890, page 85.) It was listed as an independent weekly using patent insides. (Lord & Thomas Newspaper Directory, for 1890.) The paper was continued on into statehood.    No files have been reported.
ROCKFORD, SPOKANE COUNTY.
Bunch Grass Realm, established in July, 1888, by W. C.
Clark. Charles Prosch said it contained a large amount of reading matter and was not  dear at $2 per annum,  adding:    "Mr. Newspapers of Washington Territory 29
' Clark combines novel writing with his legitimate calling." (In
Washington Press Association Proceedings 1887-1890, page 41.)
No files have been reported.
Enterprise, established in the last week in August, 1885, by
Frank J. Spencer. (Edwin N. Fuller, in Washington Press Association Proceedings, 1887-1890, page 83.) It was listed as an Independent-Republican weekly, using patent insides. (Lord &
Thomas Newspaper Directory, for 1890.)
ROSALIA, WHITMAN COUNTY.
Rustler, established by Matthews & Ruker on August 2,
1888. (Edwin N. Fuller, in Washington Press Association Proceedings, 1887-1890, page 85.) It was listed as an independent
weekly using patent insides. (Lord & Thomas Newspaper Directory, for 1890.)    No files have been reported.
ROY, PIERCE COUNTY.
Ray, first issued on October 17, 1889, by Kullmer & Dexter.
(Edwin N. Fuller in Washington Press Association Proceedings,
1887-1890, page 87.)     It was listed as an independent weekly.
(Lord & Thomas Newspaper Directory, for 1890.) No files have
been reported.
RUBY, OKANOGAN COUNTY.
Miner, reported as being published on November 1, 1890, by
Dr. C. F. Webb and A. H. Alford. It "was then a six-column
folio, all home print and sold for $2.50 a year. Advertising was
rated at $2 per inch per month. In June, 1891, the Ruby Publishing Company became publisher with Mr. Alford as editor. On
September 2, 1891, George J. Hurley became editor. Three years
later the mines closed down and the paper suspended. (History
of North Washington, pages 846-847.)
(To be continued.) NOTES ON THE LIFE AND HISTORICAL SERVICES
OF THOMAS W. PROSCH
Among the pioneers of Puget Sound, the Prosch family
occupies a secure and honored position- From the Bagleys, Bells,
and Borens down to Yesler in the alphabet, no name brings to
mind longer service or higher esteem. Charles Prosch,1 the founder
of the Western branch of this family, came to Washington Territory in 1858, bringing his wife and three boys: James Wiley,
Frederick, and Thomas Wickham.2 A printer by trade, he at
once established the Puget Sound Herald* at Steilacoom and conducted it there as a high grade weekly newspaper from March
12, 1858, to June 11, 1863.
Judged by present standards, the publication of a journal
of this character in so sparsely settled a community was a remarkable achievement. When this paper was established there were
but four towns on Puget Sound; Port Townsend, with a white
population of about fifty people; Seattle, with about one hundred;
Steilacoom, with perhaps one hundred fifty; and Olympia, the
Capital of the Territory, with possibly two hundred. There were
but a few thousand persons in all Western Washington.*
Despite the limited patronage that could be hoped for the
new enterprise, the paper prospered and proved a worthy rival
to the Pioneer and Democrat, the only other newspaper in the
Territory at the time of its launching. Fortune was at first favorable. The Fraser River gold discoveries brought thousands of
people from Oregon and California in the Spring, Summer and
Fall of 1858. Times were prosperous and the number of permanent settlers had doubled by 1860. Rival newspapers sprang up,
however, and the Civil War soon brought on serious financial conditions. The continuation of the paper was made possible only
by the assistance of the sons, all of whom worked in the printing
office. The newspaper was a family industry and succeeded where
modern methods of specialization would surely have failed-
of   age.     ThomaB
', '1
Charles Prosch was boi
■a.  in La
nca
ter Cou
iity,   Pennsylvani
i,   in 1
ther
a  nat
ve   of   Thuringen
Char
John
s College,   an  Bpi
scopal  Churc
He learned tl
office
New York Expre
ss.    He
e to California in 1853
and wo
OaUfo
ntil 1858, when h
ashingtc
n Territory.
2
youngsters were
respectively
nine  and  seven
Brooklyn, N. X.,
1850.
3
the
family  is  on fl
e  in   t
Wash!
ngton
Library.    Another
rly
is in the Prov
British Coin
mbia.
Charles Prosch in Beminiscencei
of
Washington Territory, p
42,  n
5,000,
but on p.  47,  elves 3
000  per
The C
onkUn
1-Prosch Family, p.   95.
(30) Historical Services of Thomas W. Prosch
31
On a favorable opportunity in 1864, the Herald was sold and
the proceeds invested in merchandise for a general store which
was opened in the room formerly occupied by the printing office.
This venture was at first highly successful but over-confidence
and a too ready extension of credit brought on its termination in
the second year.
In January of 1867, Mr. Prosch took over a logging camp
which had been abandoned by four men whom he had set up in
business. With the help of the two boys,6 he was just able to
make expenses for the following ten months. In November he
bought out the Pacific Tribune of Olympia andi moved to the
Capital. He secured appointment as Public Printer and began
legislative and commercial printing in December of that year.
Public printing proved a severe disappointment. He realized far
less than he had anticipated, due in part to payments in depreciated currency.
•During the legislative session of 1867-68, he ran The Daily
Pacific Tribune, a small evening paper, the first daily newspaper of
Olympia. In 1869, he resumed the daily edition of the Tribune and
continued to publish it for several years. In 1872, the Prosch
newspaper plant was forced to the wall and sold at sheriff's sale.
Mr. Thomas W. Prosch, the youngest son, by money which he
had elsewhere earned and saved was able to buy in the business
and save the day.
As proprietor, he continued the Tribune in Olympia until June, .
1873, when Tacoma was announced as the terminus of the approaching Northern Pacific Ralroad. No time was lost in moving
to the new village which seemed destined to become the metropolis. Daily and evening editions of the Tribune were here published from August, 1873, to June, 1875. The financial crash of
1873, however, followed by the failure of Jay Cooke, caused great
hardship to all business in Tacoma. After a two years' struggle
in this city, Mr. Prosch picked up his newspaper and moved to
Seattle, which then appeared to be the most promising town.
Seventeen years of residence in three towns, each in turn
expected to outrival its neighbors, brought the Prosch family at
last to the goal of their ambition. The days of hardship were not
yet over but Seattle proved to be the leading town and conditions gradually improved. The foundations of future success were
securely established. -The resourcefulness that had enabled them
to withstand the lean years was rewarded by years of plenty. 32
Charles W. Smith
The main facts in the life of Thomas W. Prosch are matters
of record.6 He took his place in his father's printing office at
nine, was a salesman in a general store at fifteen, hand in a logging camp at seventeen, legislative clerk at nineteen, customs clerk
at twenty. In the intervals, he worked at the printer's trade. In
1872, at the age of twenty-two, he became the owner of the
Pacific Tribune and for the next fourteen years he followed all
the ins and outs of the newspaper business in the towns of Olympia, Tacoma and Seattle.
The Tribune was moved to Tacoma in 1873, to Seattle in 1875,
and was discontinued in 1878. In 1879, Prosch and Crawford
bought the Intelligencer. In 1881, Prosch, Leary and Harris established the Post-Intelligencer, Mr. Prosch owning one-half interest. In 1884 he became sole owner, and in 1886, he sold the
paper7, and retired from active journalistic work.
Mr. Prosch was a prime mover in Seattle civic affairs. He
was postmaster from 1876 to 1878, member of the school board
from 1891-1893. In 1894-1895, he was one of three men who
platted and appraised the tide lands fronting Seattle, Ballard and
Tacoma. He was an active member of the Chamber of Commerce, being for three years its secretary and for fourteen years
a trustee.
The recital of these facts gives some idea of his versatility
and of his ability to succeed. He was married in 1877 to Virginia
McCarver, the daughter of General Morton M. McCarver, an immigrant of 1843, prominent in the development of four states,
Iowa, California, Oregon and Washington. To this fine heritage
six children were born8 and Mr. Prosch proved a most devoted
and loyal parent. He was an active worker in the church and
while never an office seeker, he was in politics a strong party man
and firm Republican.
Physically, Mr. Prosch was not robust, but as a result of
careful and abstemious livng he was always well. In carriage, he
was erect and proud. An apparent stiffness in bearing was due
to extreme nearsightedness. This handicap prevented his taking
part in athletic games and effectually checkmated his boyish ambition for the course at West Point.    He resembled his mother in
"he Oon
r"!)
-Prosoh Fam
t Mr.  Prosch
Ml.
Uec
in the 'eight!
is.     D
T
daughters
Edith
II;
Seattle,
W
ishington. Historical Services of Thomas W. Prosch
33
dark skin and brown eyes. His countenance was singularly open
and manifested great candor and sincerity.
His educational opportunities were limited to the village
schools of the time. His instincts were scholarly and he was a
life long student of those subjects that interested him. He had
a fine memory for names and dates. He excelled in penmanship
and furnished "copy" that was a delight to compositors.
During the later years of his life, he became deeply interested in historical matters. He was one of the leading supporters
of the Washington Pioneer Association and other historical societies. When the Washington Historical Quarterly was started, Mr.
Prosch became a Contributing Editor and nearly every number
until the time of his death contains evidence of his helpfulness.
The writer remembers most clearly his first visit at which time
he held out a crisp ten dollar bill, saying: "This will pay my
subscription for some years in advance. Let me know when that
is gone." On numerous occasions he called with documents or
articles to submit, and his attitude was always one of inquiry as
to what service he could render.
Writing and book collecting were destined to become his most
enduring work, but his life was cut short when this service was
but fairly begun.9 Only students acquainted with his published
and unpublished work can fully appreciate the public loss in his
untimely death.
As a writer Mr. Prosch aimed at clearness rather than literary
effect. He had a scrupulous regard for accuracy and few workers in the field of Pacific Northwest history have labored with
equal care and conscience. He liked a good story, nevertheless,
and has enlivened his pages with not a few anecdotes of the first
settlers.
His book collecting was dominated by the wish to know and
preserve the essential facts of history as they were related to his
own life: his family, his friends, his town, and the Northwest
He collected with great industry the essential needs of the student, whether manuscripts, photographs, newspapers, pamphlets
or books. He had no interest in books as pieces of merchandise
and no sympathy with the man who speculates in rare volumes.
Although he began late, he had at the time of his death one of
the best private collections in its field.
tag  of Marcl
30,   1915,   Mr.   and  Mrs.   Thomas   W.
t Poster  Beecher were  plunged to  death
n  which  they  were riding skidded and
?e at Allento
wn on  the road from Tacoma to  Seattle
the  Seattle  Post-Intelligencer of March
i Washington
Historical  Quarterly 6:136-138,  April,  1 34
Charles W. Smith
The estate was administered by his daughter, Edith G. Prosch,
and thanks to her judgment and foresight the historical material
was not allowed to become dissipated. Instead, opportunity was
given to important local libraries10 to add the material most needed
and most appropriate to the several collections.
The published works of Thomas W. Prosch include the following titles:
1. The Complete Chinook Jargon, or Indian Trade Language
of Oregon, Washington, British Columbia, Alaska, Idaho, and
Other Parts of the North Pacific Coast. (Seattle: G. Davies and
Company, 1888.    Pp. 40.)
2. David S. Maynard and Catherine T. Maynard. (Seattle:
Lowman and Hanford, 1906.    Pp. 83.)
3. McCarver and Tacoma. (Seattle: Lowman and Hanford,
1906.   Pp.198.   Illustrations; two portraits.)
4. The Conkling-Prosch Family. (Seattle: For the Author
by the General Printing and Lithographing Company. Pp. 141.
Illustrations.)
Of the first item, no copy apparently is extant in the Northwest. Most of the copies were destroyed in the Seattle fire of
1889. The above description is taken from Pilling's Bibliography
of the Chinookan Languages, pages 60-61. Mr. Prosch revised
and enlarged his work for republication and apparently did not
wish to preserve the first printing. Manuscript printer's copy of
the revised edition is preserved in the University of Washington
Library.      ,
The Maynard volume is based on the diary of Dr. David S.
Maynard and recounts the experiences of a physician in crossing
the Plains to Oregon in 1850. It records important events in the
early history of Seattle. In McCarver and Tacoma, the main
theme is biographical and relates to the events in the lives of the
father and mother of the author's wife. It gives data on the
founding of the city of Tacoma. The story of The Conkling-
Prosch Family was prepared for the author's immediate relatives
and friends and was issued in an edition of 150 copies. It is
valuable as giving the part which the Prosches have taken in the
development of the Puget Sound Country.
Mr.  Prosch was a frequent contributor to newspapers and Historical Services of Thomas W. Prosch
35
magazines.     Numerous  historical   articles   are  to   be   found   in
various periodicals.
Of unpublished works, the following items are most noteworthy :f
1. The Chinook Jargon or Indian Trade Language of Alaska,
British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Other Parts of
the Northwest Coast, with Examples of Speech, Illustrations, Historical Notes and General Information. Pp. 115, on paper 8x10
inches.
2. [Record Book of Anecdotes and Incidents.]    Pp. 236.
3. Chronological History of Seattle and Puget Sound, 1850-
1897.   Pp. 432, on paper 8x14 inches.
The Chinook Jargon Dictionary was planned for private distribution in an edition of 500 copies. No plans had apparently
been formulated for the publication of the other two items. The
Record Book contains much material which might have been drawn
upon for subsequent volumes. The Chronological History would
probably have been thoroughly revised and later printed. As it
stands it is an important contribution.11
Among the unique treasures of the library of Thomas W.
Prosch were many manuscript letters and documents. There
were a half dozen albums of historical photographs, carefully
identified, located and explained. A series of scrapbooks contained further data of value. One of these contains the original
letters and telegrams relating to the Seattle Fire Relief of 1889.
This large volume gives a practically complete official record of
the aid received and the disbursements made by the Committee in
charge. Another book is wholly devoted to the history of the
Seattle Totem Pole, while a third relates to the Washington Mill
Company and its important business relations for thirty years on
Hood Canal.
Bound volumes of pamphlets on specific subjects added greatly to the working value of his collection. Several of these relate
to the coming of the railways, two are devoted to military affairs
on Puget Sound, others tell the story of the Hudson's Bay Company. Their value lies in the fact that each volume represents
years of collection from far and wide and that here are brought
conveniently together fundamental sources, some of which have
now become practically unobtainable.    By frequent notes of cor-
e Seattle Public Llbi
iological  History  is  1 36
Charles W. Smith
rection, criticism, and explanation, Mr. Prosch put the stamp of
his personality upon the material in his library and thus added
greatly to its working value. All of the material above described
is now the property of the University of Washington Library.
Makers are not usually the recorders of history. Pioneers
as a rule lack leisure as well as perspective. Thomas Wickham
Prosch was a marked exception to this rule. His active life saw
the development of a metropolis from a crude settlement to a
modern city. With middle age he had acquired a well earned
leisure and had the instinct and capacity for historical narrative.
At his death at the age of sixty-four, he had laid the foundation
for much promising historical work. His father had died less
than two years previous in his ninety-fourth year and there was
every reason to expect many years of productive labor from the
youngest son. This, however, was not to be. Though his work
was cut short in the midst of his greatest activity, he had already
accomplished much of high and enduring value. Subsequent historians in the Pacific Northwest will yield grateful recognition to
this industrious and painstaking workman.
Charles W. Smith. PROFESSOR CHANNING AND THE WEST
"No historian can hope to live as can a poet or an essayist,
because new facts will constantly arise to invalidate his most careful conclusions * * * " says Professor Edward Channing in
closing the chapter on American Literature in Volume Five.
New facts have constantly arisen, by the thousands, since
this period was covered by the last general history of the United
States. Hundreds of research students in scores of universities
from Cambridge to Berkeley have been turning over the sources
for the history of the country, particularly the history of the
West. In a survey of the years 1815-1848, the American historian has to digest these myriad articles and papers located in
the voluminous pages of numerous historical reviews. He must
gorge himself on these as well as chew up the countless printed
and unprinted sources which bestrew the path of the careful investigator. It must often be a question which is the more indigestible. But Professor Channing has eaten through the mass
and emerged with undamaged appetite to attack, in the next volume, the slavery controversy and the outbreak of the Civil War.
The result of this gargantuan task of digestion is Volume Five.
It will be some years before new facts constantly arising will invalidate the general narrative in which Channing has set down
his most careful conclusions.
The introduction to Volume Five is really the last sentence
of Volume IV: "The American Nation, with its back to Europe
and its face to the West, addressed itself to the solution of the
problems of the nineteenth century." Professor Channing has
now addressed himself to an analysis of our period of national
growing-pains. The question in every scholar's mind as he opens
the book is what does the author think of the West? How has
the recent generation of the disciples of Turner affected the
thinking of the man whom Mr. Albert J. Beveridge calls "the
dean of American historical scholarship" ? How shares the West
in what will be at least for the next dozen years the definitive account of the period?
The titles of the chapters do not give true measure of western
content in the volume. Seven of the eighteen chapters deal principally with western subjects, from "The Wonderful Century,"
and "The Westward March." to "The Year 1846," but the savor
(37) 38
Samuel Flagg Bemis
of newly-turned western sod clings to a much larger portion of
the narrative. We may conclude that Professor Channing himself
throughout the volume keeps his face turned toward the West,
and overlooks no study of even minor importance contributed by
the recent school of investigators. Nevertheless his feet are fixed
on the Atlantic Coast.
An interesting phase of the study is the intellectual and religious stirring which caracterized the second third of the century.
The peculiar social and emotional manifestations of American
life, an extraordinary gamut running from transcendentalism to
Mormonism, are, in general, expressions of a "revolt" of a new
generation of men and women "from the ideas of their fathers
and grandfathers." This "transition" was an accompaniment of
the changing economic conditions ushered in by the "Wonderful
Century" which witnessed "The Westward March." Perhaps
this is why the author has turned aside a little from the order of
narration of previous volumes and has devoted the first half of
his 600 pages to economic and social subjects. The beginnings
of "Urban Migration" and "The First Labor Movement" may
well prove to historical investigators in the latter half of the
twentieth century as important as the westward movement is to
the research students of our own times. Now that the frontier is
gone everybody agrees that American history will of necessity revolve about social and economic hubs. If this is so must not the
student of the future turn more and more to the origin of these
subjects somewhat overlooked during the grand procession west?
The last half of the volume rapidly runs over the general
events of the times. There is no one living who can better smell
out an Ethiopian from the political woodpile than Channing. The
reader turns with expectancy to the pages on the politics of Jack- •
sonian Democracy. He is not disappointed. The old idea of
Jacksonian Democrat as a product pure and simple of the West
must melt away somewhat before a keen analysis of just what
that "democracy" was. Jackson himself was no radical—as Professor Bassett's study of the platitudes of his Inaugural Address
shows. There was nothing new or reforming about his expressed ideas of political principles. He was elected on no wave
of reform. He won the presidency because he was a popular
hero of the West, was aided by shrewd politicians of the North,
and above all, as Professor Channing points out, he was the representative of the solid South, albeit in a strongly national way. Profet
■ Channing and the West
39
To know Jacksonian Democracy one must study more than the
economic background of the war on the bank. One must consider
Van Buren and Lewis and Blair and other wire-pullers, as Bas-
sett and Channing have done. The reader of Volume Five may
be somewhat disappointed, however, at the length of the five-page
narrative in which the administrations of Van Buren and Tyler
are dismissed. Some readers may also feel annoyed at the brevity
of Pacific Coast history before 1846, but they must remember that
before Polk the Pacific West did not loom very large in the national consciousness. We might note here that Professor Channing follows Justin Smith's conclusions as to the aggression of
Polk.
Who will say that there is a historian more objective than
Channing? Yet the most objective historian has his subjective
moods, and it was quite delightful to this reviewer to come on
them. For example, Edgar Allen Poe was a "genius who knows
no geographic bounds," but whose prose is.not read now "except
by professors of English and their pupils. It is hard to believe
that library attendants would accept this opinion. Nor will western ranchers appreciate the statement that the farmer of the
prairie "watches the forces of nature bringing the crop to fruition
with a little hoeing or cultivating now and then." On the other
hand there are many readers who will agree that nationalism is
by no means complete in America now, and others, including Mr.
Ellsworth Huntington, who will not be startled by the suggestion
(p. 457) that sunspots have a great deal to do with history. These
personal touches help make the History of the United States what
it is. Only a great historian could "get away" with them. They
are among the many other greater features which give to the History its unique character.    There is charm in Channing.
Samuel Flagg Bemis ORIGIN OF WASHINGTON GEOGRAPHIC NAMES
[Continued from Volume XIII., Page 292.]
Tenino, a town in the south central part of,Thurston County.
George T. Reid, of Tacoma, says: "Most railroad men claim that
the town derived its name from the coincidence that, in numbering
the survey stations, this point was numbered 1090, usually spoken
of as 'ten-nine-o.' I have, however, heard this disputed, some persons claiming it to be an Indian word signifying a fork or crotch."
(In Names MSS. Letter 94.) William Farrand Prosser says that
when the Northern Pacific Railroad built its line from Kalama to
Tacoma in 1872 this place was named Tenino from the Indian word
meaning "junction" and adds: "The junction referred to was that
of the old military roads. During the Indian war [1855-1856] a
military road was constructed from Fort Vancouver up the Cowlitz
valley, then over to Fort Steilacoom. Near the farms of Hodgson
and Davenport it forked, and a branch ran into Olympia. In the
Chinook Jargon the fork was called a tenino." (History of the
Puget Sound Country, Volume I., page 248.) Another use of the
name is recorded as early as April, 1862, when the Oregon Steam
Navigation Company had a steamer so named on the Columbia
River. (Illustrated History of Southeastern Washington, page 87.)
J. A. Costello says that in the Nisqually Indian language the name
of the particular site of Tenino was Kla-pe-ad-am. (The Siwash,
Seattle, 1895.)
TenmilE Creek, a small tributary of Asotin Creek in the central part of Asotin County, named by miners because it was ten
miles from Lewiston, Idaho, the nearest town in the early days.
(Postmaster at Asotin, in Names MSS. Letter 260.) See Anatone.
The Indians still refer to the creek as "Anatone." (Illustrated History of Southeastern Washington, page 693.)
TenmilE CrEEK, a small tributary of the Nooksack River, at .
Ferndale, in the west central part of Whatcom County. It is ten
miles from Bellingham and received its name when a small settlement of military was sent there on the old telegraph line road in
1858 for protection from the Indians. (Fred L. Whiting, of Fern-
dale, in Names MSS.  Letter 156.)
Tennant Lake, south of Ferndale, in the west central part of
(40) Origin of Washington Geographic Names
41
Whatcom County, was named for John Tennant, on whose land the
lake is situated. (Fred L. Whiting, of Ferndale, in Names MSS.
Letter 156.)
Ter-cha-bus, see Port Orchard.
Termination Point, at the north entrance to Squamish Harbor, Hood Canal, in the northeastern part of Jefferson County, was  i
first charted by the Wilkes Expedition, 1841.    (Hydrography, Volume XXIIL, Atlas, chart 78.)    The name was evidently used to
indicate the northern end of Hood Canal.
Terra Vaughn, see Harper.
Territory oe Columbia, see Washington, State of.
Texas Rapids, near Riparia, in the Snake River, Columbia and
Whitman Counties. A small creek flowing into the Snake River
nearby bears the same name. Lewis and Clark, on passing through
these rapids on October 13, 1805, pronounced them dangerous but
did not give them a name. Elliott Coues, editor of the journals,
says that the name of Texas Rapids was in use when he wrote,
1893. (History of the Lewis 'and Clark Expedition, Volume II.,
page 629, footnote.)
Thatcher Pass, a waterway between Blakely and Decatur
Islands, in the east central part of San Juan County, was, in 1841,
made a part of "Macedonian Crescent" on the Wilkes Expedition
chart. It was changed in 1854 by the United States Coast Survey.
See Lopez Sound. A postoffice on the west shore of Blakely
Island is called Thatcher.
The Brothers, a peak with a double summit in the southeastern part of Jefferson County. The elevation is 6,920 feet. (United
States Forest Service map of Olympic National Forest, 1916.) The
peak was named by Captain George Davidson of the United States
Coast Survey, in 1856, in honor of Arthur and Edward Fauntleroy.
(Edmond S. Meany: "The Story of Three Olympic Peaks," in the
Washington Historical Quarterly, Volume IV., pages 182-186). At
the same time he named this peak, Captain Davidson honored other
members of the Fauntleroy family. See Fauntleroy Cove, Mount
^Constance and Mount Ellinor.
The Dalles, the greatest series of obstructions in the Columbia
River, which are faced by the southwestern margin of Klickitat 42
Edmond S. Meany
County. The obstructions are twelve miles long and the fall of the
river there is eighty-one feet at low water and sixty feet at high
water. Celilo Falls, at the head of the series of obstructions, has
a descent of twenty feet at low water but at high water a boat can
shoot over the steep slope. (W. D. Lyman, The Columbia River,
page 329.) The Lewis and Clark expedition passing down these
obstructions in October, 1805, and returning in April, 1806, referred
to them as "Long Narrows," "Short Narrows," and "Great Falls."
The editor of their journals, Elliott Coues, gives an analysis of
these names and tells of the later application of the name Dalles.
(History of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, Volume III., pages
954-956, footnote.) H. H. Bancroft discusses the word "dalles"
and shows that the French once used it for "troughs," "waterways,"
"or canals," though the modern popular meaning is "pavements"
such as are frequently found in cathedrals. He says, further, on the
authority of the Dalles Mountaineer of May 28, 1869, "The first
voyageurs on their way down the great river of the west found many
little dalles, but this was, as they said, Le Grand dall de la Columbia." (Works, Volume XXVIII., page 44, footnote.) In 1853,
Theodore Winthrop wrote about the Columbia River: "* * *
where the outlying ridges of the Cascade chain commence, it finds
a great, low surface paved with enormous polished sheets of basaltic
rock. These plates, Gallice [French] dalles, give the spot its name."
(The Canoe and the Saddle, John H. Williams edition, page 212.)
In 1826, David Douglas frequently applied the name "The Dalles"
to the famous obstructions. (Journal of David Douglas, 1823-1827'.)
The Henry-Thompson Journals record the name as early as May
19, 1814. (New Light on the Early History of the Greater Northwest, Volume II., page 856.) The historic city, The Dalles, on the
Oregon side of the Columbia River has added much to the familiarity of the geographic tern*. See Cascades, Grand Dalles, Hellgate
and John Day Rapids.
The Narrows, where the shores of Puget Sound approach
each other in the northwestern part of Pierce County, were named
by the Wilkes Expedition, 1841. The journal of the Expedition
mentions the waterway on May 10, 1841, saying: "* * * towards
evening anchored just below the narrows leading into Puget Sound."
The next day the record says: "This narrow pass seems as if intended by its natural facilities to afford every means for its perfect
defence." Later, when the hydrographical monograph was issued
the name was invariably capitalized and furthermore it was charted Origin of Washington Geographic Names
a.s Narrows in the atlas accompanying the monograph. The reference in the monograph is as follows: "The distance through the
Narrows is 4 miles; at its narrowest place it is nearly a mile wide,
though from the height of the shores it appears much less." (Narrative, Volume IV, page 304; Hydrography, Volume XXIII., pages
318-320; Atlas, chart 78.) Six years later, Captain Henry Kellett,
who changed many of the Wilkes Expedition, names, let this one
stand, expanded to The Narrows. (British Admiralty Chart 1911.)
See also Commencement Bay and Point Defiance.
Theon, a place in the central part of Asotin County, was
named for its founder, Daniel Theon Welch, who opened a store
there in June, 1880. D. D. Welch platted the townsite on May 15,
1884. (Illustrated History of Southeastern Washington, page
695.)
The Pointers, the Wilkes Expedition, 1841, game this
to three small islands or rocks off the southeast coast of Blakely
Island, San Juan County.    (Hydrography, Volume XXIII., Atlas,
chart 77.)    Subsequent charts have changed the name.   See Black
Rock, Lawson Rock and White Rock.
The Sisters, see Sister Islands.
The Tooth, see Tooth.
Thomas, a small town in the southwestern part of King
County, was named for John M. Thomas, earliest pioneer settler
in the White River Valley. He was born in Nicholas County,
i Kentucky, on July 8, 1829. He crossed the plains in 1852 and in
July, 1853, he came to the White River Valley. He participated
in the Indian war of 1855-1856. He served as County Commissioner for the years 1857-8-9. (History of the Pacific Northwest:
Oregon and Washington, Volume II., page 602.)
Thompson CovE, a small bay on the south coast of Anderson
Island, in the west central part of Pierce County, was first mapped
and named on the British Admiralty Chart 1947, Inskip 1846.
The honor was evidently for Rev. Robert Thompson, chaplain of
the Fisgard, a British vessel in Puget Sound in 1846.
Thompson Creek, there are several small. streams in Washington bearing this name. The one for which information has
been obtained is a tributary of Methow River in the west central
part of Okanogan County. It was named for George L. Thompson, who vied with his neighbors in telling weird and impossible 44
Edmond S. Meany
tales. They carried the practice so far as to have a championship
belt. This gave rise to the local name of Liar's Creek, still in
use by old timers there. (Guy Waring, of Winthrop, in Names
MSS.   Letter 291.)
Thompson Rapids, in the Columbia River, below Kettle Falls,
in Ferry and Stevens Counties. They were named on Friday,
April 21, 1826, by the botanist, David Douglas, who wrote: "This
rapid, which nearly equals the Grand Rapids, 150 miles from the
ocean, having no name, I called it Thompson's Rapid after the
first person who ever descended the whole chain of the river from
its source to the ocean." (Journal, 1823-1827, page 165.) The
man thus honored was David Thompson, the distinguished geographer of the North West Company of Montreal. A satisfying
biography may be found in the introduction to David Thompson's
Narrative of His Explorations in Western America, 1784-1812,
edited by J. B. Tyrrell and published by The Champlain Society,
Toronto, 1916. The name thus given in 1826 was continued on
the Arrowsmith (London) maps as late as 1846, but the name in
local use now is Rickey Rapids, after John Rickey, a settler there.
(T. C. Elliott, in the Quarterly of the Oregon Historical Society,
Volume XV., page 43.)    "Grand Rapids" was the name at times.
ThornE, in Skagit County, was homesteaded in 1895, by
Woodbury J. Thorne and a postoffice by that name was established there in 1900. (History of Skagit and Snohomish Counties,
page 247.)
Thornwood, a station on the Northern Pacific Railway, in
the west central part of Skagit County. The name is in honor of
W. J. Thorne, a settler in that vicinity. (Noble G. Rice, in
Names MSS.   Letter 48.)
Thorp, a town in the central part of Kittitas County, was
named in honor of Milford A. Thorp, who bought land there in
1885. Mr. Thorp died in March, 1910. (Postmaster at Thorp,
in Names MSS.   Letter 384.)
Thorp Creek, a tributary of Cle Elum River, in the northwestern part of Kittitas County, was probably named for the
same man as was the town of Thorp.
Thrall, a town in the southeastern part of Kittitas County,
was named in honor of an official of the Northern Pacific Railroad in 1889.    (M. T. Simmons, in Names MSS.   Letter 468.) Origin of Washington Geographic Names
45
Three Brothers Mountain, in the southern part of Chelan
County, between Ingalls Creek and the head of Negro Creek, was
named for the triple summit. The elevation is given as 7,370 feet.
(Henry Landes, A Geographical Dictionary of Washington, page
277.)
Three Finger Mountain, in the north central part of Snohomish County, was named because the peaks resemble three
fingers.    (Charles E. Moore, in Names MSS.   Letter 193.)
Three Forks, see Pullman.
Three Lakes, a town in the west central part of Snohomish
County, is near three lakes, Panther, Flowing, and Storm. In
addition to this discriptive quality, the name is said to have been
given in honor of a town by that name in Wisconsin, by John
Lauderyon in 1903. (A. C. Campbell, in Names MSS. Letter
247.)
Three Spits, see Bangor.
Three Tree Point, see Point Pully.
Thurston County, was created on January 12, 1852, while
Washington was still a part of Oregon Territory, and was named
in honor of Samuel R. Thurston, Oregon's first Delegate to Congress. Elwood Evans wrote: "At that session, several new counties were established. The northern part of Lewis was set off.
When reported, the act contained the name of 'Simmons,' in honor
of the pioneer settler [Michael Troutman Simmons] in the Puget
Sound basin; that name gave place to Thurston, a legislative
tribute to the memory of the first delegate." (History of the
Pacific Northwest: Oregon and Washington, Volume I., page
326.)
TrEToN RrvER, a tributary of the Naches in the west central
part of Yakima County was mapped by the Wilkes Expedition,
1841, by the Indian name "Shanwappum River." (Hydrography,
Volume XXIII., Atlas, chart 67.)
Tifeany Mountain, in the central part of Okanogan County,
elevation 8,275 feet, was named for Will Tiffany. There were
three Tiffany boys, who, with associates, maintained a camp for
about two years in a meadow at the foot of the mountain. They
were all rich men's sons, the Tiffany boys being closely related to
the famous "New York jewelers.   Will Tiffany was one of Roose- !
46
Edmond S. Meany
velt's Rough Riders and lost his life in Cuba during the Spanish-
American war. (Letter from C. H. Lovejoy to Frank Putnam,
of Tonasket, dated April 6, 1916, in Names MSS.   Letter 345.)
Tiflis, a town in the southeastern part of Grant County, was
named after the Trans-Caucasian town, some of the settlers having come from that region. (H. R. Williams, Vice President of
the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway Company, in Names
MSS.   Letter 589.)
TiGER, a town in the central part of Pend Oreille County,
was named for George Tiger, one of the oldest settlers there.
(Postmaster at Tiger, in Names MSS.   Letter 417.)
Tilton RivER, a tributary of the Cowlitz River in the central
part of Lewis County, was undoubtedly named for James Tilton,
Surveyor General of Washington Territory, in 1857.
Tinkham Peak, in the east central part of King County,
was named by The Mountaineers on June 15, 1916. "Abiel W.
Tinkham, under orders from Governor Isaac I. Stevens, made a
reconnaissance through Snoqualmie Pass on snowshoes with two
Indians in January, 1854, a few days after Captain George B.
McClellan, who had been entrusted with the same duty by Governor Stevens, had failed in the attempt." (Recommendations of
the Mountaineer Trustees to the United States Geographic Board,
a copy of which is in Names MSS. Letter 580.) The elevation
of the peak is 5,356 feet.
Titusi Bay, see Filuce Bay.
Titsuville, see Kent.
' Tiye Point, at the southern entrance to Filuce Bay, in the
northwestern part of Pierce County, was mapped first by the
Wilkes Expedition, 1841. (Hydrography, Volume XXIII., Atlas,
chart 79.)
TlEE-al-um Lake, see Cle Elum.
Toad Lake, in the west central part of Whatcom County,
was named by George Nolte, on August 1, 1884, "on account of a
great number of toads." (Hugh Eldridge, in Names MSS. Letter
136.)
Toandos Peninsula, near the head of Hood Canal, in the
east  central part of Jefferson County, was first mapped by the Origin of Washington Geographic Names
47
Wilkes Expedition, 1841. (Hydrography, Volume XXIIL, Atlas,
chart 78.) The name is undoubtedly of Indian origin as were
most of the other names given at the same time in that locality.
In this case the word may have been derived from Twana, a
tribal name of the Indians of that region.
Tocosos RivER, flowing into the Strait of Juan de Fuca, just
east of Neah Bay, in the northwestern part of Clallam County. In
1847, Captain Henry Kellett mapped it as "Okho River." (British
Admiralty Chart 1917.) The United States Coast and Geodetic
Chart 6300 shows the name Tocosos River.
Toe Point, the east cape of Patos Island, in the north central
part of San Juan County. The name is descriptive and was first
mapped on the British Admiralty Chart 2689, Richards, 1858-1859.
Toke Point, on the north shore of Willapa Bay, in the northwestern part of Pacific County, was named for an Indian chief.
Early maps confused this point with Cape Shoalwater, but the
United States Coast and Geodetic Survey Chart 6185 establishes
both with accuracy, showing Cape Shoalwater at the ocean front
and Toke Point about five miles to the eastward within the bay.
James G. Swan in 1857 described the chief as follows: "Toke had
been a man of a great deal of importance among the Indians, but
advancing years and an inordinate love of whisky had reduced
him to being regarded as an object of contempt and aversion by
the whites and a butt for the jests and ridicule of the Indians. But,
when the old fellow was sober, he was full of traditionary tales
of prowess, and legends of the days of old. He was also one of
the best men in the Bay to handle a canoe, or to show the various
channels and streams; and often afterward I have called his services into requisition and have always found him faithful and efficient. His wife Suis was a most remarkable woman, possessing a
fund of information in all matters relative to incidents and traditions relating to the Bay, with a shrewdness and tact in managing
her own affairs uncommon among the Indian women." (Northwest Coast, pages 33-34.) In recent years Toke Point has gained
prominence through the oyster fisheries.
Tokeland, a town on the eastern shore of Toke Point, derives its name from the Point.
Toledo, a town on the Cowlitz River, in the south central part
of Lewis County, was named for a steamboat. August Rochon
and his wife, Celeste Rochon owned the land.   The Kellogg Trans- 48
Edmond S. Meany
portation Company operated on the river a boat named Toledo.
In 1879, Orrin Kellogg arrived from Portland on the boat and
bought one acre of land on which to build a warehouse and docks.
The Rochons game a dinner at which Mr. Kellogg, Mr. Caples
and Mr. Hillaire Nallette were guests. Mr. Kellogg asked Mrs.
Rochon to name the new town and she promptly chose the name
of the boat.    (R. W. Bell, in Names MSS.   Letter 373.)
Toliva Shoal, off the south shore of Fox Island in the south
central part of Pierce County, was named by the Wilkes Expedition, 1841. (Hydrography, Volume XXIIL, Atlas, chart 78.)
The Britsh Admiralty Chart 1947, Inskip, 1846, changed the name
to "Scarboro Shoals," but the United States Coast and Geodetic
Survey Chart 6460 has retained the original name, Toliva Shoal.
Tolt River, a tributary of the Snoqualmie River, in the north
central part of King County, derived its name from the Indians.
A town on the river was authorized by the Legislature in 1917
to change its name from Tolt to Carnation in honor of the large
establishment maintained there by the Carnation Milk Products
Company. The Surveyor General's Map of Washington Territory,
in 1857, shows the stream as "Tolthue River." (United States
Public Documents, Serial Number 877.) On September 3, 1919,
a party of Indians, including relatives of the great Snoqualmie
Chief Patkanim, visited the writer at the University of Washington to urge the erection of a monument to the memory of the
chief who had signed the treaty with the white men and had fought
for them against the hostiles in the Indian war of 1855-1856. One
of the party was Susie Kanim, last surviving child of the chief.
She was born at a place they called H'lalt her father's principal
home. It was on the present site of Tolt, or Carnation. Their
pronunciation of the Indian word sounds much like the one the
white man has been using for the same place.
Toh-ma-luke, an Indian name for the place where the Rattlesnake Creek flows into the Yakima River, near the central part of
Benton County, is mentioned in the two treaties made in June,
1855, by Governor Isaac I. Stevens with the Yakima and Walla
Walla tribes.
Tomar, on the bank of the Columbia River, in the southern
part of Benton County, was named for the second grand chief of
the Walla Walla tribe. (L. C. Gilman, President of the Spokane,
Portland and Seattle Railway Company, in Names MSS. Letter
590.) Origin of Washington Geographic Names
49
TonaskET, a small stream flowing into the Okanogan River
near the foot of Osoyoos Lake, in the north central part of Okanogan County, and a town about fifteen miles southward on the
Okanogan River, both received the name from Chief Tonasket,
sometimes spelled Tonascutt. (Julian Hawthorne, History of
Washington, Volume II., page 538.)
Tongue Point, a descriptive name for the east cap of Crescent Bay, in the northern part of Clallam County, was first
mapped by Captain Henry Kellett in 1847. (British Admiralty
Chart 1911.) The Wilkes Expedition, 1841, applied the same
name to the cape at the entrance to Drayton Harbor, in the northwestern part of Whatcom County, but the United States Coast
and Geodetic Survey Chart 6399 shows that point as Semiahmoo.
Lieutenant Broughton in 1792 applied the same name to a point
on the south bank of the Columbia River, near Astoria. The
United States Coast and Geodetic Survey Chart 6151 shows that
the original name has remained.
Tono, a town in the south central part of Thurston County,
was named by officials of the Oregon-Washington Railroad and
Navigation Company. It is claimed that the word came from
"ton of coal" and was chosen for its brevity as it would have to
be written many times daily by the station agent. (Postmaster at
Tono, in Names MSS.   Letter 245.)
Tooth, a descriptive name applied to a peak near Snoqualmie
Pass, in the Cascade Mountains, in the east central part of King .
County, was variously referred to as "Denny Horn" and "Denny
Tooth." (Recommendations of the Mountaineers Trustees to the
United States Geographic Board, June 15, 1916, a copy of which
is in Names MSS.   Letter 580.)
Toppenish, a creek and a town near the central part of
Yakima County, derived their names from the Indian word
Qapuishlema, meaning "people of the trail coming from the foot
of the hill." (Handbook of American Indians, Volume II., page
785.) In 1853, Captain George B. McClellan used a variant of
the word by calling part of the creek "Sahpenis." (Pacific Railroad Reports, Volume I., pages 377-389.) The same surveyors
gave part of the creek the name "Pisko," which was continued by
James G. Swan in 1857 and the Surveyor General of Washington
Territory in 1859. (Northwest Coast, map; and United States
Public Documents, Serial Number 1026.)    The Bureau of Amer- 50
Edmond S. Meany
ican Ethnology says Pisko means "river bend" and was the name
of a Yakima band living on the Yakima River between Toppenish
and Setass Creeks. (Handbook of American Indians, Volume II.,
page 263.)
ToTTEN InlET, a southwestern extremity of Puget Sound,
locally known as "Oyster Bay," was named by the Wilkes Expedition, 1841, in honor of Midshipman George M. Totten, who explored it for the expedition. (Hydrography, Volume XXIIL,
Atlas, chart 79.)
TouchET, a tributary of the Walla Walla River and a town
at its mouth, in the southwestern part of Walla Walla County,
was spelled "Toosha' by Rev. Gustavius Hines, the Methodist
missionary, when he wrote on Saturday, May 27, 1843, as follows:
"Travelled fourteen miles and camped for the Sabbath on a branch
of the Walla Walla River called Toosha, near its mouth." (Exploring Expedition to Oregon, page 185.) "Gambler's River was
the name given by Lewis and Clark [1805-6] to what is now
Coppei Creek and White Stallion to the main Touchet." (Illustrated History of Southeastern Washington, page 278.) The
name was changed before Mr. Hines made his journey in 1843,
and was referred to with the present form of spelling in 1853 by
Lieutenant A. W. Tinkham. (Pacific Railroad Reports, Volume
I., page 377.) The town was platted by John M. Hill on April
12, 1884. (Illustrated History of Southeastern Washington, page
166.)    Dayton was once known as Touchet.
TouTLE RivER, a tributary of the Cowlitz River, may have
derived its name from Indians referred to by Lewis and Clark on
March 27, 1806. They wrote of the Cowlitz River as "Cowel-
iskee" and continuing: "On the same river, above the Skilloots,
resides the nation called Hullooetell, of whom we learnt nothing,
except that the nation was numerous." (Journals, Elliott Coues
edition, Volume III., page 911.) The Wilkes Expedition, 1841,
first charted the present name of Toutle River. (Hydrography, .
Volume XXIIL, Atlas, chart 67.) The railroad surveyors, in
1853, showed the river as "Seh-quu." (Pacific Railroad Reports,
Volume XL, Part II., chart 3.) The Bureau of American Ethnology says Sekwu is. the Klickitat name of a village at the forks'
of the Cowlitz River, presumably belonging to the Cowlitz tribe.
(Handbook of American Indians, Volume II., page 500.) The
present name of the river was restored in 1856. (Preston's Map
of  Oregon and Washington West  of the Cascade Mountains.") Origin of Washington Geographic Names
51
Subsequent maps have shown the name as Toutle River although
old settlers use the local name of "East Fork of the Cowlitz."
(Mrs. E. B. Huntington, of Castle Rock, in Names MSS. Letter
158.) For years, Silver Lake, six miles northeast of Castle Rock,
was known as "Toutle Lake." A town on the river, in the central
part of Cowlitz County wears the name of Toutle.
Towal, a town on the north bank of the Columbia River, in
the south central part of Klickitat County, derives its name from
an Indian chief. (L. C. Gilman, President of the Spokane, Portland and Seattle Railway Company, in Names MSS.   Letter 590.)
Towarnahiooks, an Indian name for Deschutes River.
Tracy Point, on Loon Lake, in the southeastern part of
Stevens County, is interesting to visitors because the famous outlaw, Harry Severence Tracy, lived there before he turned out bad.
He cut cord wood for a living and cleared much land. (Evan
Morgan, in Names MSS.   Letter 109.)
TracyTon, a town on Dyes nlet, in the central part of Kitsap
county, was named in honor of Benjamin Franklin Tracy, who was
Secretary of the Navy, under President Harrison, from 1889 to
1893. (E. E. Riddell, Postmaster at Tracyton, in Names MSS.
Letter 39.)
Trafton, a neighborhood and former postoffice in the northwestern part of Snohomish County. In 1889, George Esterbrook
acquired the claim on which the former postoffice "Glendale"
was located. Confusion with places similarly named caused him
to coin a new name, using Trafalgar (Indiana) as a base. The
Trafton postoffice is discontinued, mail, going on a rural route
from Arlington, but the name Trafton continues in use for the
locality. (Dr. W. F. Oliver, of Arlington, in Names MSS. Letter 196.)
Tr-cha-duk, an Indian name for the site of the present Navy
Yard, Puget Sound.    (J. A. Costello, The Siwash, Seattle, 1895.)
Tree BluEE, the descriptive name of a bluff on the Strait of
Juan de Fuca, in the north central part of Clallam County, was
first mapped by Captain Henry Kellett in 1847. (British Admiralty Chart 1911.)
Triangle Cove, a small bay on the northeast shore of Camano
Island, in the east central part of Island County, was given this 52 Edmond S. Meany
descriptive name by the Wilkes Expedition, 1841.    (Hydrography,
Volume XXIIL, Atlas, chart 89.)
Triton Head, on the west shore of Hood Canal, in the north
central part of Mason County, was named by the Wilkes Expedition, 1841. (Hydrography, Volume XXIIL, Atlas, chart 78.)
A small bay to the north has been named Triton Cove.
TroutdalE, a town on Green River, in the southern part of
King County, was named by officials of the Northern Pacific
Railway Company. (Page Lumber Company, of Eagle Gorge, in
Names MSS.   Letter 56.)
Truax, a town on Snake River, in the south central part of
Whitman County, was named by officials of the Oregon-Washington Railroad and Navigation Company in honor of Major
Truax, who had bought the bar on the opposite bank of Snake
River.    (Postmaster at Bishop, in Names MSS.   Letter 61.)
Tsachwasin, see Pe Ell.
Tsa-la-te-LITCH, an Indian name for the present site of
Tacoma.    (J. A. Costello, The Siwash, Seattle, 1895.)
TsescuT-kuT, an Indian name for Dungeness. (J. A. Costello, The Siwash, Seattle, 1895.)
Tsill-ane, an Indian form of the name Chelan.
Tsutsko, see Hazel Point.
Tshinakain, see Chamokane Creek.
Tsooyes, see Waatch River.
Tsu-tlat-u-kwaT, see Port Townsend.
Tucannon, a tributary of Snake River, in the northwestern
part of Columbia County, was called "Kimooenim Creek" by
Lewis and Clark on October 13, 1805. (Journals, Elliott Coues
edition, Volume II., page 629.) Rev. Gustavus Hines, during his
journey of 1843, refers to it as "Tookanan." (Exploring Expedition to Oregon, page 174.) In 1853, the railroad surveyors had
difficulty with the name. They spelled it "Tchannon," "Tukanon"
and "Two Cannon," and the map artist drew in two cannons.
(Pacific Railroad Reports, Volume I., pages 376 and 536; Volume
XL, Part II., chart 3; Volume XII., Book L, map.) F. T. Gilbert
wrote: "Tu-kan-non is also a Nez Perce word meaning 'abundance  of bread-root'  or   'bread-root  creek.'    The  root  is  called Origin of Washington Geographic Names 53
'kowsh'."    (Historic Sketches of Walla Walla, Whitman, Columbia, and Garfield Counties, page 89.)
Tu-che-cub, see Old Man House.
Tukeys Landing, on the east shore of Port Discovery, in the
northeastern part of Jefferson County, was named for John F.
Tukey, who settled on a farm there is 1852. He was a native of
Maine. He died in 1913. (Postmaster at Port Discovery, in
Names MSS.   Letter 253.)
Tukwila, a town in the west central part of King County,
was named when the postoffice was obtained in 1905. The former
name was Garden Station. When asked for a list of acceptable
names, Joel Shomaker suggested the Indian word Tuck-wil-la,
meaning "land of hazelnuts." The Post Office Department shortened it and accepted it as it was different from any other name of
a postoffice in the United States. Later Mr. Shomaker became
mayor of the town. (Mrs. M. M. Lutz, Postmistress of Tukwila,
in Names MSS.   Letter 532.)
Tulalip Bay, near Everett, in the west central part of Snohomish County, derives its name from the Indian word Duh-hlay-
lup, meaning a bay almost land-locked, or having a small mouth.
(Rev. Myron Eells, in the American Anthropologist for January,
1892; and Dr. Charles M. Buchanan, in Names MSS. Letter
155.) The name was used in its present form in the treaty negotiated by Governor Isaac I. Stevens with the Indians on January
22, 1855. The bay is surrounded by the Tulalip Indian Reservation and the Government maintains a successful Indian school
there.
Tumtum, a town on the Spokane River, in the southeastern
part of Stevens County, derives its name from the Chinook Jargon
word meaning "heart" or "thump, thump."   (William J. McDonald,
in Names MSS.    Letter 175.)
Tumwater, a town near Olympia, in the central part of
Thurston County, is the oldest settlement of Americans on Puget
Sound. The Indian name for the place was Spa-kwatl, meaning
"waterfalls." (J. A. Costello, The Siwash, Seattle, 1895.) The
Hudson's Bay Company men called them "Puget Sound Falls" in
1829, and contemplated the building of a sawmill there. (H. H.
Bancroft, Works, Volume XXVIIL, page 487.) The Wilkes
Expedition, 1841, charted simply "Falls" but also referred to them
as "Shute's River Falls."    (Hydrography, Volume XXIL, chart 54
Edmond S. Meany
78; Narrative, Volume IV., page 414.) Michael Troutman Simmons was leader of the party of Americans who settled there in
1845. They called the place "New Market," but later changed
it to Tumwater. (Elwood Evans, History of the Pacific Northwest: Oregon and Washington, Volume II., pages 558-560.) The
word comes from the Chinook Jargon and reflects the Indian idea
that the sound of falling water is similar to the throb of the heart,
which they called tumtum. (Rev. Myron Eells, in American
Anthropologist, for January, 1892.)    See also Olympia.
Tunnel Creek, a small stream which flows into Coal Creek
and that into Keechelus Lake, in the northwestern part erf Kittitas
County, was named by The Mountaineers on June 15, 1916.
(Recommendations to the United States Geographic Board, a copy
of which is in Names MSS.    Letter 580.)
Turn Island, on the east shore of San Juan Island, in the
southwest part of San Juan County, was named "Point Salsbury"
by the Wilkes Expedition, 1841. (Hydrography, Volume XXIIL.
Atlas, chart 77.) This was intended as a honor for Francis Sals-
bury, Captain of the Top, in one of the vessels of the expedition.
The "point" was found to be an island at a turn in the channel
between San Juan and Shaw Islands and was mapped as Turn
Island on the British Admiralty Chart 2689, Richards, 1858-1859.
The name is retained by American geographers and about a third
cf a mile eastwardly from the north point of the island is a rock
which bares at low tide. This has been named Turn Rock and
has been marked for the aid of navigators. (George Davidson,
Pacific Coast Pilot, page 555.)
Turn Point, the west cape of Stuart Island, in the northwestern part of San Juan County, was so named because it lies
at a turn in Haro Strait. It was first mapped on the British
Admiralty Chart 2689, Richards, 1858-1859.
Turner, a town in the central part of Columbia County, was
named for B. M. Turner, who owned the land and filed the plat
of the townsite on January 17, 1902, when the Oregon-Washington Railroad and Navigation Company had extended its line from
Dayton to that point. (History of Southeastern Washington, page
376.)
Turnours Bay, see Filuce Bay.
Turtle Back Range, on the northwest coast of Orcas Island, Origin of Washington Geographic Names 5!
San Juan County, was intended as a descriptive name, given on the
British Admiralty Chart 2689, Richards, 1858-1859.
TuTL-kE-TEh-nus, see Strawberry Bay.
Tuton, see Longview.
Tu-wa-dad-shud, the neighboring Indians used this name foi
the creek running through the land where Tacoma now stands.
(J. A. Costello, The Siwash, Seattle, 1895.)
Tuxpam River, see Snohomish.
Twality District, see Washington, State of.
Twana, a village on the eastern shore of Mason Lake in the
east central part of Mason county, was named for the Indian
tribes occupying the lands adjacent to Hood Canal.
Twin, this descriptive name has been applied geographically
about fifteen times or more to rivers, mountains, lakes and rocks.
A town bears the name. It is located on the Strait of Juan de
Fuca at the mouth of Twin Rivers, in the north central part of
Clallam County.
Twisp River, a tributary of the Methow, in the west central
part of Okanogan County, was evidently named from some Indian
word as the railroad surveyors first spelled it "Twitsp." (Pacific
Railroad Reports, Volume I., page 383.)
Tye, see Monroe.
TyKel's Cove, two small bays near Olympia in the central
part of Thurston County, are locally known as "Big and Little
TyKel's." The name was derived from George TyKel, the pioneer
who took the upland adjoining as a donation land claim. (George
N. Talcott, of Olympia, in Names MSS.    Letter 226.)
Tyler, a town in the southwestern part of Spokane County,
was formerly known as Stephens and in fact, the precinct is stil
known by that name. The Northern Pacific Railway officials
named their station Tyler and later the name of the postoffice was
changed to correspond. There is a local tradition that the officials
had settled a damage claim in Montana and named this place
after that claimant. (George Lindsay, in Names MSS. Letter
241.)
. Tyrrell Prairie, in the northeastern part of Thurston Coun- 56
Edmond S. Meany
ty, is locally known as "Hawk's Prairie." It was named for the
pioneer, Freeman W. Tyrrell, who was first to settle there in 1851.
After Mr. Tyrrell moved away, about 1870, Tyrus Himes, the next
oldest settler, refused to have the name changed to "Himes Prairie." George H. Himes says the old name of Tyrrell Prairie
should be retained.    (In Names MSS.    Letter 598.)
Tzee-sa-ted Cove, see Pleasant Harbor.
Tzee-tzeE-lal-itch, see Seattle.
U
Ucunas, this name was given to the south shore of the Strait
of Juan de Fuca in 1792 by the Spanish officers of the Lutil y
Mexicana expediton. (J. G. Kohl, in Pacific Railroad Reports,
Volume XII., page 278.)
Umatilla Rapids, in the Columbia River, off the south central portion of Benton County, were called "Muscleshell Rapid"
by Lewis and Clark in 1805. (Journals, Elliott Coues edition,
pages 646, 1247, and 1261.) Umatilla is much used in Oregon
geography.   It is the name of a tribe of Indians.
Umatilla Reee, about one mile northwest of the westernmost
Flattery Rock, off the northwest coast of Clallam County, was
named because the steamship Umatilla was driven onto the reef in
a blinding snow storm on February 9, 1884, and given up for lost.
The crew left, but First Officer John O'Brien and sailors Hanlin
and Hardness returned to the steamer from their light raft, set
the head sails and got her off shore. She was picked up by the
steamship Wellington and towed to Esquimalt. (Lewis & Dry-
den's Marine History of the Pacific Northwest, page 324.) "In
some respects this is the greatest danger on the northern coast,
because in thick weather it is a very difficult object to make out."
(George Davidson, Pacific Coast Pilot, page 509.)
Umtanum, a tributary of Yakima River, in the southeastern
part of Kittitas County, and a railroad station twelve miles south
of Ellensburg, were named from an Indian word. It was first
mapped by the railroad surveyors in 1853 as "Em-te-num." (Pacific
Railroad Reports, Volume XL, Part II., chart 3.)
Um-tu-lah, see Humptulips River.
Underwood, a town on the north bank
if the Columbia Rivei Origin of Washington Geographic Name
57
in the southeastern part of Skamania County, was named for
Amos Underwood, who crossed the plains in 1852 and spent the
rest of his life along the Columbia. He settled at the place which
bears his name in 1875. He was still livng in 1915, at the age of
81 years.    (H. S. Adams, in Names MSS.    Letter 235.)
UnEriEd, a postoffice on Alpowa Creek in the east central
part of Garfield County, was named for the first postmaster in
Tanuary, 1911. A former postoffice at Alpowa had been discontinued six months before that. (Fred W. Unfried, in Names
MSS.   Letter 322.)
Union City, on the south shore at the elbow of Hood Canal,
in the central part of Mason County, was named by Willson and
Anderson, who began a store there in 1858. John McReavy
bought the store and townsite from F. C. Purdy in 1868. About
1904, the Post Office Department dropped the word "City" and
now the town has the old name and the postoffice is known as
Union. (Postmaster at Union, in Names MSS. Letter 490.)
The Indian name for the place was Do-hlo-kewa-ted. (J. A. Cos-
tello, The Siwash, Seattle, 1895.)
Union Mills, a sawmill town north of Olympia, in the central part of Thurston County, was named by F. J. Shields and F.
A. Leach in 1901. (Postmaster Greenman and J. W. Mayes, in
Names MSS.    Letter 133.)
Union Ridge, see Ridgefield.
Unity, see Ilwaco.
Unsal Point, the southern extremity of Squaxin Island, in
the southeastern part of Mason County, was named by the Wilkes
Expedition, 1841. (Hydrography, Volume XXIIL, Atlas, chart
79.)
Upright Channel, the passage between Shaw and Lopez
Islands, in the central part of San Juan County, was named
"Frolic Straits" by the Wilkes Expedition, 1841. (Hydrography,
Volume XXIIL, Atlas, chart 77.) This was an honor for one of
the sloops in the War of 1812. The changed name, Upright
Channel, first appears on the British Admiralty Chart 2689, Richards, 1858-1859.
Upright Head, at the, north end of Lopez Island, in the central part of San Juan County, derives its name from the adjacent 58
Edmond S. Meany
channel. The Wilkes Expediton, 1841, named it "Point Lloyd,"
an honor intended for William Lloyd, Captain of the Top, in one
of the crews.    (Hydrography, Volume XXIIL, Atlas, chart 77.)
UpThascap, see Carbon River.
Urban, a postoffice on Sinclair Island, in the northwestern
part of Skagit County, was named by L. U. Stenger in honor of
his son Urban Stenger. (Elizabeth A. Schultz, in Names MSS.
Letter 113.)
Useless Bay, on the southeastern shore of Whidbey Island,
in the southwestern part of Island County, was named by the
Wilkes Expedition, 1841. (Hydrography, Volume XXIIL, page
312, and Atlas, chart 78.) The name refers to its exposure to
storms.   See Cultus Bay.
Usk, a town in the south central part of Pend Oreille County,
was named about 1890 by George H. Jones in honor of the Usk
River in Wales. (Postmaster of Usk, in Names MSS. Letter
78.)
Utah Rock, a large rock just outside of and along the southwest shore of False Bay, on the south shore of San Juan Island,
in the southwestern part of San Juan County, was named in
honor of the State of Utah. (Walter L. C. Muenscher, in Puget
Sound Marine Station Publications, Volume I., Number 9, page
82.)
Utsalady, a village and former sawmill town on the north
end of Camano Island, in the northeastern part of Island County,
was named from the Indian word meaning "land of berries."
(History of Skagit and Snohomish Counties, page 1P5.)
Vader, a town in the southwestern part of Lewis County,
was named by act of the Legislature, dated March 25, 1913. (Lam
of Washington, 1913, page 662.) George T. Reed, of Tacoma,
Assistant to the President of the Northern Pacific Railway Company gives an interesting account of this name as follows: "There
is some humor connected with the naming of Vader. The town
formerly had the name of Little Falls. Our company had another
town of the same name on its line in Minnesota, and because of
the frequent miscarriage of express and freight matter, we changed
the name of the station to Sopenah,  so that the town had the Origin of Washington Geographic Names
59
name of Little Falls and the station the name of Sopenah. The
citizens were not satisfied with this and finally asked me to confer with them on the subject. I visited the town and met many
of the citizens. I refused to change the name of the station to
Little Falls and suggested that if they would change the name of
the town I would change the name of the station to conform to
it, with only one limitation, namely, that it should not be the name
of any other station along our line of road or that of the Great
Northern or Oregon-Washington Railroad & Navigation Co. They
then got up a petition to the Legislature to change the name to
Toronto. There was a faction of 'standpatters' in the town who
objected to changing the name of the town at all and they appeared before the committee of the Legislature and among other
arguments objected to Toronto because tfiere were five other post
offices in the United States bearing that name. The Legislative
committee finally told us that they favored changing the name but
asked us to select a name that would not be a duplicate of any
other post office in the United States. We held a consultation in
the hall and I asked them if they could not find the name of some
citizen that would be suitable. After canvassing the matter briefly,
one of the gentlemen mentioned the name of an old German by
the name of Vader and we finally recommended his name to the
committee and that name was inserted in the bill and it became a
law. The humor of the matter is that we supposed the old gentleman would be highly flattered in having the town named after
him but instead of that he took it as a personal indignity and immediately moved to Florida."    (In Names MSS.   Letter 94.)
Valentine, an abandoned post office in Garfield County, was
named for A. L. Vallen, of Clarkston. (Fred W. Unfried,
of Unfried, in Names MSS.   Letter 322.)
Valley City, see Algona.
Valley Grove, a town in the south central part of Walla
Walla County, was probably given by Mr. and Mrs. Charles Mc-
Inroe, who settled there in 1879. The name was established there
for a station in 1881 by the Oregon Railroad and Navigation
Company. Mrs. Mclnroe was postmistress for a number of years.
(W. D. Lyman, in Names MSS.   Letter 246.)
Vanbrunt, a settlement in the northeastern part of Okanogan
County, was named for Harry Van Brunt, an old settler there.
(Merrill & Rowe, of Wauconda, in Names MSS.  Letter 313.) 60
Edmond S. Meany
Van Buren, a town in the north central part of Whatcom
County, was named about 1900, after an old settler who was the
first postmaster there. (Postmaster at Van Buren, in Names
MSS.    Letter 435.)
Vance, a postoffice in the east central part of Lewis County,
was named for Zebulon Baird Vance, United States Senator from
North Carolina, "who, in the fall of 1886, secured for us the
extension of the mail route running east from Mossy Rock into
the Big Bottom country, a distance of thirty miles, being the first
post office east of Mossy Rock in eastern Lewis County." (J. S.
Siler, in Names MSS.   Letter 409.)
Vancouver, a town in the southwestern part of Clarke County, is the oldest continuous home of white men in the State of
Washington- See Fort Vancouver, Point Vancouver and Clarke
County. Samuel R. Thurston was sent to Congress in 1849 as Oregon Territory's first Delegate. He hated the British and sought
to remove their geographic names- While he was in Washington,
the Post-Master General changed the name of Vancouver to Columbia City- (H. H. Bancroft, Works, Volume XXX., pages 118-
119, quoting Oregon Statesman for May 28, 1851.) It is annoying to find Bancroft forgetting this information when writing the
next volume of his long series. In Volume XXXL, pages 77-78,
he has this footnote: "Vancouver is called Columbia City in the
act- This patriotic change of name occurred about 1851 or 1852,
but I fail to find any mention of it. I think it was done on the
motion of the first postmaster at that place, R. H. Lonsdale, who
had the post-office called Columbia City. The name, however,
would not pass in the face of long usage, and the Washington legislature at its second session changed it to Vancouver." The act
which named "Columbia City" as the county seat of Clarke County located it "on the east side of Mrs. Esther Short's land claim"
and Mrs. Short's house was made the legal place of holding court
until the county should provide a more suitable building- (Laws
of Washington, 1854, page 475.) James C Strong says that he
and another man surveyed that land into lots, blocks and streets.
("Reminiscenses of a Pioneer," in Washington Historical Quarterly, for July, 1912, page 182.) The act by which "Columbia
City" was changed back to the old name of Vancouver may be
found in Laws of Washington, 1855, page 44. As explained in
items above cited, the Vancouver honored by this city's name was
Captain   George   Vancouver, the   great   English   explorer,   who Origin of Washington Geographic Names
named many geographic features in the Pacific Northwest during
the years 1792, 1793, and 1894- His biography may be found in
Edmond S. Meany's Vancouver's Discovery of Puget Sound, pages
7 to 21. The Indian name for the site of the city is given as Alash-
ikash. (E. S. Curtis, The North American Indian, Volume VII.,
page 182.)
Vancouver District, see Washington, State of.
Vancouver Lake, in the southwestern part of Clarke County,
near the Columbia River, like the city nearby, was named in honor
of Captain George Vancouver. It was mapped with that name in
1856. (Preston's Map of Oregon and Washington West of the
Cascade Mountains.)
Vancouver Point, see Point Vancouver-
Vancouver Straits, was once applied as the name of Ro-
sario Straits.
VanderEord's Harbor, see Whollochet Bay.
Van Horn, a town in the central part of Skagit County, was
named for the founder, James V. Van Horn. (Postmaster at
Van Horn, in Names MSS- Letter 363.)
Van Wyck, a town in the west central part of Whatcom
County, was named on July 1, 1889, for Alexander Van Wyck.
(Hugh Eldridge, in Names MSS. Letter 136.)
Van Zandt, a town in the west central part of Whatcom
County, was named in February, 1892, for J. M. Van Zandt, the
first postmaster there- (John H. Turrell, of Van Zandt, in Names
MSS. Letter 137|)
Vashon Island, in the southwestern part of King County,
was named by Captain George Vancouver on Tuesday, May 29.
1792, after his friend Captain (later Admiral) James Vashon of
the British Navy. (Vancouver's Voyage Round the World, second edition, Volume II., page 145.) For a portrait and biography
of Vashon, see Edmond S- Meany's Vancouver's Discovery of
Puget Sound, pages 145-147-)
Vashon Point, see Point Vashon.
Vassar, a town in the central part of Adams County, was
named for Vassar College.    (H. R. Williams, Vice President of Edmond S. Meany
the   Chicago,   Milwaukee  and   St.   Paul   Railway   Company,   in
Names MSS-, Letter 589.)
Vaughn, a bay and town on the east shore of Case Inlet, in
the northwestern part of Pierce County, were named for W. D.
Vaughn, who crossed the plains in 1851 and took up a homestead
on the bay. Illness caused him to lose his rights to the land but
his name was given to the bay. (Alfred Van Slyke, of Vaughn,
in Names MSS., Letter 577.) In crossing the plains, Vaughn kept
the party in game and was always fond of fishing and hunting. He
was called "Nimrod" by pioneers in Oregon and Washington. He
served in the Indian wars of 1855-56, and later had a gunsmith
store and livery stable at Steilacoom. (H. K. Hines, Illustrated
History of the State of Washington, page 808-) In 1917, Mr.
Vaughn was still living in Steilacoom, 86 years of age. (Pioneer
Biography Manuscripts, University of Washington.)
VeaziE, a town in the south central part of King County, was
named in 1890 for Thomas Veazie of the Veazie & Russell Logging Company. (Joseph T. Paschich, Postmaster, in Names MSS-,
Letter 31.)
VELVET, a town in the north central part of Stevens County,
was first known as "Frontier," so named by the Superintendent
of the Red Mountain Railroad. The station is near the international boundary. It is the shipping point of the Velvet Mine, located ten miles north in British Columbia. The name was
changed from "Frontier" to Velvet in honor of the mine. (Postmaster at Velvet, in Names MSS., Letter 148-) BOOK REVIEWS
The Covered Wagon.    By Emerson Hough.    (New York:   D.
Appleton and Company, 1922.   Pp. 379.   $2.00.)
The Young Alaskans on the Missouri.  By Emerson Hough. (New
York:   Harper and Brothers, 1922.    Pp. 378.    $1.75.)
The authentic hstorical character in The Covered Wagon is
the noted trapper and scout known for thirty years in the Rockies
as "Old Jim Bridger." Some attempt has been made to furnish
a real portrait but it is both less interesting and less picturesque
than the truthful account of the man as found ua The Yellowstone
Park, by Chittenden, and more recently in The Bozeman Trail,
by Hebard and Brininstool.
The adventures of Bridger furnished inspiration for a long
series of dime novels by Ned Buntline in the seventies and
eighties. These idealized the scout into a super-hero. This later
novelist leans the other way and with horse-play, boasting, and
much vernacular takes away from the man such dignity as properly belonged to him. The Paramount version of the novel, reported to be filming, can hardly be expected to mitigate the comic
supplement flavor of the character of Bridger as found in the
book.
The destination of The Covered Wagon is the Oregon Territory, but the story relates only to the crossing of the Plains. According to one critic it is "fictionally negligible." Nevertheless,
it is a novel which will find many readers. It will almost certainly
interest any student of high school age. And as it is in the main
historically accurate, and deals with events in themselves important, it may properly be included in lists of high school books, in
spite of obvious literary shortcomings.
Intended for younger readers than the book just mentioned,
The Young Alaskans on the Missouri recounts the adventures of
three Boy Scouts and their leader who follow the train of Lewis
and Clark as far as the Rocky Mountains. It should give the
youthful readers a very good idea of the nature and importance
of that expedition, as well as a knowledge of the history and
geography of the greatest of rivers.
Christina D. Smith.
(63) 64
Book Reviews
History of Oregon. By Charles Henry Carey. (Chicago-
Portland: The Pioneer Historial Publishing Company, 1922.
Pp. 1016.)
This bulky volume is the product of an industrious layman
who has the poise and insight of a trained historian. Judge Carey
has practiced law in Portland since 1883. His firm, Carey &
Kerr, has been counsel for various railways, public service corporations, industrial and commercial companies. He has found
time to serve associations for the advancement of comity and
knowledge. These organizations have been city, state, national
and international in their scope. He now gives the public the
fruit of long years of study and careful reflection.
On the title-page are these words: "Author's Edition." In
the preface is this sentence: "I am responsible for the volume
of history, but not for the biographical volumes that are a part
of the publisher's edition." It thus appears that the complete
work is one of the old-fashioned subscription state histories.
In acknowledging assistance received the author mentions
Albert Hawkins; fellow trustees of the Oregon Historical Society, T. C. Elliott and Leslie M. Scott; George H. Himes, curator,
and Miss Nellie Pipes, librarian, of the same society; Edgar B.
Piper, editor of the Oregonian; Sam A. Kozer, Secretary of
State; W. B. D. Dodson, general manager of the Portland Chamber of Commerce.
With becoming modesty, Judge Carey concludes his preface
as follows: "In submitting the result of my labors I take occasion to say that there are many excellent histories of Oregon, and
many special works covering features of the story. I do not
assume that this production is superior to any of these, excepting in so far as it may now for the first time assemble some of
the facts that time has brought to light and which were unavailable before. If I have been able to obtain some information that
has not heretofore been presented in narrative form, I have also
availed myself of the labors of many who have covered much of
the field before me."
On page 934, is a "Bibliographical Note" in which the author
shows the efforts he made to get at the original sources. Use of
these he has acknowledged in numerous footnotes which will guide
any who may seek further information on the topics discussed.
The last chapter of the book, covering pages 865 to 899, deals
with "Patriotism and the World War." Here is an accumulation
of information that must have cost much time and care.   An ap- The Pacific Triangle
65
pendix gives abundant statistics about the Territorial and State
officers of Oregon, initiative and referendum measures, important
dates in Oregon history, Oregon death roll in the World War, and
other matters of importance.
By way of illustrations, the book contains eleven maps, nineteen portraits and one hundred and thirty-nine historical pictures.
In no feature of the volume has the painstaking labor of
Tudge Carey been better shown than in the copious index. This
covers eighty-two double-columned pages, making the vast storehouse of historical materials instantly available for the searcher.
There is no doubt as to the important place Judge Carey's
History of Oregon will take among the reference books in the
Pacific Northwest.
Edmond S. Meany
The Pacific Triangle. By Sydney GreenbiE. (New York: The
Century Company, 1921.    Pp. 402.   $4.00.)
The Problem of the Pacific in the Twentieth Century. By General
N. Golovin in Collaboration with Admiral A. D. Bubnov;
Translated by C. Nabokoff; Introduction by Harold Williams.
(New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1922.   Pp. 256. $3.50.)
The sea has been the inspiration of countless tales, epics,
songs, and dramas. Something of this epic and dramatic character appears in these two very different books.
The first is primarily a book of travels. The traveler is mature, observant, and possessed of a very readable literary style,
along with an effectively used camera which has furnished a number of illustrations. To the observations of a traveler, the author
has added some exposition and comment on the problems that an
. extended voyage in the South Pacific and Orient suggests. These
comments are in part a continuation and elaboration of those expressed in an earlier book, Japan: Real and Imaginary. The
work is divided into three books: Book One,- Historical and
Travel Material; Book Two, Discussion of Native Problems—
Personal and Social; and Book Three, Discussion of the Political
Problems Involving Australia, Asia, and America.
The book of General Golovin, a staff officer before the
Russian Revolution, is in a much more serious strain. The first
half dozen chapters deal with the growth and development of
^apan and with Japanese imperialistic policies. Chapters VII-X
are the contribution of -Admiral Bubnov, who was Chief of the 66
Book Revii
Naval Section of the Staff of the Commander-in-Chief in the
Great War. These chapters outline the strategic considerations
of the possible conflict between this country and Japan. Our
General again takes up the pen, first for a chapter on the relation
of Russia and her Far Eastern Dominions upon the problem, and
for a final chapter on the Washington Conference of a year ago.
This conference is declared to be barren of real results.
The thesis of the book is that with human nature and economic considerations making a struggle in the Pacific inevitable,
the United States can defeat Japan only in alliance with a strong
Russia, a regenerated Russia. The author does not give any definition of his adjective, "regenerated"; American statesmanship
should. It is true, moreover, that this country has, as the author
urges, an enormous stake in the regeneration of China and Russia.
The data supplied by the book adds to the proof of how great this
stake is for us.
William A. Spencer.
Publications  of the Nebraska State Historical Society,   Volume
Twenty.    Edited by Albert Watkins.    (Lincoln: The So-
.   ciety, 1922.   Pp. 400.)
All students of Pacific Northwest History are placed under
enduring obligations to the Nebraska State Historical Society for
the wealth of newspaper and other material relating to emigration
to the Pacific Coast that is furnished in this new volume of its
Publications. A mere examination of captions and running titles
will convince a casual reader that the editor is right in presuming that "the most valuable information in the book is that of the
traffic on the great highways to Oregon and California." More
careful study reveals a wealth of contemporaneous comment upon
overland travel to Oregon. No volume with which the writer is
familiar gives a more colorful and vivid picture of the adventurous pioneer crossing the Plains to the Pacific.
While indebtedness is chiefly due to the rendering accessible
of this data hidden away inr the cumbrous files of rare and to
most people inaccessible newspapers, the value of the book is enhanced by editorial notes, a carefully made index and a map of
the Nebraska Territory specially designed and drafted for this
noteworthy volume.
Charles W. Smith. The Bozeman Trail
67
The Bozeman Trail. By Grace Raymond Hebard and E. A.
Brininstool. (Cleveland: The Arthur H. Clark Company,
1922.   Two volumes.    Pp. 346 and 306.    $12.50.)
The sub-title is: "Historical Accounts of the Blazing of the
Overland Routes Into the Northwest, and the Fights with Red
Cloud's Warriors."
General Charles King closes an illuminating and sympathetic
introduction as follows: "In the ten years of profound peace
enjoyed by the nation after the final muster-out of the last volunteers of the Civil War, we, the regulars, lost scores of officers and
hundreds of men in battle to the death with our red wards. It
is comfort to know that there are those in civil life who, even in
their sympathy for the cause of the Indian, have learned to estimate at something like its true worth the service rendered to the
people of the United States by, and the sacrifices demanded of,
their little army of the old frontier, especially along that line of
battle and humiliation, the Bozeman Trail by way of Powder
River."
With commendable industry and admirable insight, the authors
have earned this praise by General King. The two volumes are
an interesting expansion of a pamphlet planned to tell the story
of the famous "Wagon Box Fight." So much original and valuable information developed that it was wisely determined to continue the research. The result is these two beautiful volumes,
elaborately illustrated and carrying valuable maps. The story of
one of these maps is a fair example of the fortunate researchers |
"The map of the Oregon Trail and the Overland Stage Route
has a unique history, as the original draft of the streams and
watersheds, the old trails of the Indians and emigrants, and the
stations along the road to the West, was made by Jim Bridger in
1863, at the request of Colonel William O. Collins, who, for a
number of years, had this greatest of scouts for his special guide
while he was fighting to establish the line of the Western frontier.
This map was first drafted with a pointed stick, using the ground
as a background; afterwards the map was enlarged and made into
greater detail by the use of charred embers on the whitened skin
of a deer. From these rough outlines, though most accurate and
painstaking in their details, Colonel Collins constructed the map
on mounted linen paper with pen and ink. This map was given
by Colonel Collins to John C. Friend, who, after possessing the
drawing for over half a century, donated it to the authors—a
cherished possession."     •
1 68
Book Reviews
i
Other maps and illustrations have similar interest attached to
them. Quotations and citations evince an earnestness of workmanship. Many of the struggles are given in detail down to the
treaty of i868. Some readers may miss an extended account of
Custer's defeat in the Battle of the Big Horn of June 25, 1876.
That disaster is referred to often. It is called the finale of the
struggle and in the scheme of this work does not seem to call
for the same detailed treatment as that given the Fetterman disaster and other earlier battles. The greatest Indian portrayed in
the work is Red Cloud, the Ogallala Sioux war chief, and the
treatment of the famous scout, Jim Bridger, makes what is probably the best biography yet written of one of the most effective
personalities of the West.
The authors and the publisher should be congratulated upon
this beautiful and valuable addition to Western American literature.
Edmond S. Meany.
Rand-McNally Guide to Alaska and Yukon. (New York and
Chicago: Rand-McNally and Company, 1922. Pp. 175.
$2.50.)
A recent publication relating to Alaska is the Rand-McNally
Guide, giving data for travelers or settlers in the northern Territory. It is profusely illustrated and contains maps—one of the
Territory as a whole, and several of details of different routes
and localities.
A considerable portion of the work is given to descriptions
of the country, the climate, productions, conditions, and mode of
life prevailing there. The tables of distances are comprehensive
?nd sufficiently detailed.
This is the first guide to the Territory published since the one
prepared by Eliza Ruhama Scidmore was issued by Appleton and
Company, in 1898, and should fill a widely extended need for just
such a volume of information.
Clarence L. Andrews.
Descriptive Booklet on the Alaska Historical Museum. By. A. P.
KashEvaroee, Curator. (Juneau, Alaska: Alaska Historical
Association, 1922.    Pp. 61.)
This interesting pamphlet gives the story of the creation of
the Alaska Historical Museum with an account of the specimens History of Washington 69
that have been acquired. It is a cross between a guide book and
an elementary history of the Alaska Indian tribes. Numerous
illustrations add to the value of the booklet.
The English Traveler in America, 1785-1835. By Jane Louise
Mesick. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1922. Pp.
370.    $2.50.)
This volume does not fall within the geographical area of the
Facific Coast. Its contents nevertheless should prove of interest
to students of Western history since it throws light on early travel
to the West. The experiences of the emigrant and the traveller
had much in common. The returned traveller gave out the information which encouraged or retarded emigration to the West. The
author of this monography has made use of the publications of
the best known English travellers during the period covered and
has made useful generalizations upon conditions in the frontier
settlements of the time.
Students' History of the Northwest and the State of Washington
By Laura B. Downey BartlETT. Volume I. (Tacoma:
Smith-Digby Company, 1922.    Pp. 232.)
The need for a good grammar school history of the State of
Washington has been long apparent. There has been and is a
similar need for a documentary source book covering the history
of the Pacific Northwest for the use of high schools and colleges.
The present volume by Mrs. Bartiett appears to have been compiled for the purpose of filling both needs within the compass of
one volume.
As a history, the work lacks proportion. No less than twenty-
eight pages are devoted to preliminaries: title page, contents, preamble, two notes of appreciation and an index to epochs. Twelve
pages arc given over to a history of the United States before
1776 and an equal amount of space is devoted to biographies of
the Presidents. Of the limited space left for the Pacific Northwest, seventeen are given to Astoria and fourteen to Lewis and
Clark, while many important topics are barely mentioned.
As a source book, little of the material, barring the Constitution of Washington, comes within the scope of the book.
Thirty-five pages are employed to reproduce in full the Declaration of Independence^ the Articles of Confederation and the
Constitution of the United States.   That it should take forty-four 70 Book Reviews
pages to print the Constitution of the State of Washington with
the Amendments illustrates the difficulty of carrying out the
apparent design of the book within the limits of a small volume.
The combination of sourcebook and history is not to be commended since the documentary material can hardly be of use
before the high school, whereas the stories and precepts of the
volumes are not beyond the calibre of grade pupils.
The Trans-Mississippi West, 1803-1853. By Cardinal Goodwin.
(New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1922. Pp. 528.
$3.50.)
The author is Professor of American History in Mills College. He dedicates the volume "To Herbert Eugene Bolton and
to the group of young scholars who owe their love of western
history to the inspiration and training which they received from
bis instruction."
The book will have an interest in the Pacific Northwest.
Three of the fourteen chapters are devoted to "Early Claims to
Oregon," "The Settlement of the Oregon Country," and "Oregon
Diplomacy Through 1846."
Bibliographical notes at the end of each chapter will give the
volume a value in academic work. This was part of the author's
plan for he wrote in his preface: "There has been a growing
interest in the western history of the United States during the
last few years. Several colleges have introduced courses in the
subject and the number is increasing. It is hoped that classes
organized for such study will find this volume helpful."
The general reader will also find Professor Goodwin's book
interesting and worth while. He has equipped it with maps, footnotes and an adequate index.
Canada, Descriptive Atlas. By Hon. Charles Stewart, Minister
of Immigration and Colonization. (Ottawa: Government,
1922.    Pp. 81.)
The numerous maps are copyrighted by Rand, McNally &
Company of Chicago and evidently the attractive book was made
by that well known firm for the Canadian Government. As indicated by the title the book is intended to attract settlers. It will
undoubtedly serve that purpose well. In clear, large type the text
tells a direct story and the numerous half-tone illustrations will
furnish lures for tourists, settlers, investors and sportsmen.    The Canada's Greatest Geographer
71
maps and historical paragraphs make the booket worth saving for
its permanent values.
Here, in the Pacific Northwest, readers will find pages 72-81
of most interest since they deal with the neighboring provinces of
British Columbia and Yukon Territory. The map of British
Columbia, the pictures and the descriptive paragraphs show most
graphically what lies immediately to the northward of the State of
Washington.
The   Canadian  Reciprocity   Treaty   of  1854.     By   Charles   C.
Tansill.    (Baltimore:  The Johns Hopkins Press, 1922.   Pp.
96.)
This scholarly study by the Professor of American History
in the American University, Washington, D. C, will have a timely
interest during the diplomatic and economic adjustments now
going on between Canada and the United States.
David ■ Thompson,   Canada's   Greatest   Geographer.    By   J.   B.
Tyrrell.    (Toronto: The Author, 1922.    Pp. 8.)
Mr. Tyrrell is a mining engineer who has earned for himself
a comfortable position among historians by his scholarly work in
editing David Thompson's Narrative of His Explorations in
Western America, 1784-1812, published at Toronto in 1916 by
The Champlain Society.
The present little booklet contains an address, or, as the
author calls it, "An Appreciation." The address was delivered at
the ceremonies opening the David Thompson Memorial Fort at
Lake Windermere, B. C, on August 30, 1922. Those who were
not fortunate enough to attend those ceremonies are grateful to
Mr. Tyrrell for making his address available to all readers. The
spirit and purpose of his address are well related in his opening
paragraph as follows:
"David Thompson was the greatest land geographer who ever
lived; and, therefore, one of the greatest scientists. He came to
Fort Churchill a 14-year-old boy from a London charity school
in 1784. While his greatest work was being done during twenty-
eight years, he was never within a thousand miles of any civilized
community of five hundred souls. He died in obscure poverty
sixty-five years ago and lies in a nameless grave at Montreal. The
opening of the memorial museum and hall at Lake Windermere, Book Reviei
B. C, is the first public recognition of the debt that civilization
owes him, for, though the Thompson River is called after him,
a few years ago not one geographical student in a thousand knew
anything 'about him."
Through the historical work of such men as Mr. Tyrrell, Mr.
T. C. Elliott, of Walla Walla, and Judge F. W. Howay, of New
Westminster, B. C, students are now being led toward a proper,
though tardy, estimate of David Thompson.
Jlistory of Oregon, A Teachers' Outline for Use in the Eighth
Grade. By Committee. (Salem: J. A. Churchill, Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1922.    Pp. 40.)
Through the recommendation of the History Teachers' Section of the Oregon State Teachers' Association and the Sons and
Daughters of Oregon Pioneers, the Superintendent of Publication
appointed a committee representing those organizations to prepare
this outline. The committee consisted of R. C. Clark, H. G.
Starkweather, R. H. Down, Suzanne Homes Carter and Mrs. W.
K. Barnum. The outline will prove serviceable. It carries the
work down.to the admission of Oregon to statehood, February
14, 1859.
Lincoln's Last Day.   By John W. Starr, Jr.    (New York: Frederick A. Stokes Company, 1922.    Pp. 100.    $1.50 net.)
Though not within the field of the Washington Historical
Quarterly, this book is mentioned here for the benefit of those who
are collecting Lincolniana. The work is well indicated by the
title. The volume contains seven portraits of Lincoln and a picture of the well known statue by St. Gaudens.
Forests of Mount Rainier National Park. By G. F. Allen, Supervisor of Rainier Forest. (Washington: Government Printing
Office, 1922.    Pp. 33.    Twenty cents.)
Tourists will appreciate this pamphlet prepared for their enlightenment and their enjoyment. There is a generous supply of
illustrations—twenty-five of them, showing different species. That
the author has a fine appreciation of his theme is shown by the
opening paragraph, as follows:
"The remarkable development of the forests about the base
of Mount Rainier results from climatic conditions peculiarly favorable to tree growth.    The winters are mild and short.    The ocean The Mountaineers
72,
winds that pass through the gaps of the Coast Range are laden
with moisture which falls in the form of rain or snow on the
west slope of the Cascades. The trees are nourished by this
moisture through a long season of annual growth, and form an
evergreen forest which is, in some respects, the most remarkable
in the world. This forest, distinguished by the extraordinary size
and beauty of the trees and by the density of the stand, extends
into the deep valleys of the rivers which have their sources in the
glaciers. On the dividing ridges and in the upper stream basins
the composition and character of the forest change with the increasing severity of the climate."
Several of the photographs used in this Government publication are credited to A. H. Barnes and A. H. Denman, of Tacoma.
The Mountaineer. Edited by Elizabeth T. Kirkwood. (Seattle:
The Mountaineers, Incorporated, 1922. Pp. 108. Seventy-five
cents-)
Mazama. Edited by Robert W. Osborn. (Portland: The Ma-
zamas, 1922.   Pp. 80.   $1.00.)
Each year these two publications attract the attention of all
who love the natural beauties of the Pacific Northwest. Both the
mountaineering clubs are gaining reputation for consistent forward
work in their field of endeavor-
Mount Adams, Mount Saint Helens and the Goat Rocks
were the scenes of the 1922 outing by The Mountaineers. At least
one thing is demonstrated by the pictures and articles in this
number and that is the fact that Goat Rocks are not merely rocks
but an imposing group of mountain peaks in the Cascade Range
between Mounts Rainier and Adams.
The greetings this year are from Aristides E. Phoutrides,
whose name is associated with explorations of Mount Olympus, in
Greece. This is the more appropriate since Miss Winona Bailey
furnishes an article on "Eight Days on Mount Olympus in Thes-
saly," telling of work on that famous "Home of the Gods" by
herself and Mrs. Laurie R. Frazeur. The first ascent of Mount
Constance, in the Olympics, is told by A- E. Smith, first winner
of the Thomas J. Acheson cup for exceptional mountaineering in
1922. Rodney L. Glisan describes his ascent of Mount Popocatepetl.
These and other articles give this publication a real value in
the history and exploration of the West, and the same may be 74
Book Reviews
said of Mazama., which gives the year's record of the older club,
having its headquarters in Oregon. This number centers interest
in the region of the Three Sisters, of the Cascade Range. The
articles are well written and the pictures are superb. It is worth
while that Alfred F. Parker, in writing the leading article, uses the
title, "The Twenty-ninth Annual Mazama Outing." Such efforts
in the Pacific Northwest are gaining the dignity that comes with
years.
OTHER BOOKS RECEIVED
Beauchamp, Rev. William M, Iroquois Folk Lore. (Syracuse,
N. Y.: Onandaga Historical Association, 1922.    Pp. 250.)
Dale, William HealEy. Fossils of the Olympic Peninsula.
(Reprinted from the American Journal of Science 4:305-314,
October, 1922.)
Esarey, Logan. Harrison's Messages and Letters. Collections
of the Indiana Historical Society, Volume 7. (Indianapolis:
Indiana Historical Commission, 1922.    Pp. 744.)
McGregor, James C. The Disruption of Virginia. (New York:
The Macmillan Company, 1922.    Pp. 328.    $2.00.)
North Carolina State Literary and Historical Association.
Proceedings of the Twentieth and Twenty-first Annual Sessions. (Raleigh: North Carolina Historical Commission,
1922.    Pp. 128.)
Parks, Frank Sylvester. Arthur Parke of Pennsylvania and
Some of His Descendents. (Washington, D. C.: Author,
1922.   Pp. 20.)
Preston, Howard H. History of Banking in Iowa. (Iowa City:
The State Historical Society of Iowa, 1922.    Pp. 458.)
Scudder, Winthrop S. The Longfellow Memorial Association,
1882-1922: An Historical Sketch. (Cambridge, Mass.: The
Association, 1922.    Pp. 21.)
Wallace, William Kay. The Trend of History. (New York:
The Macmillan Company, 1922.    Pp. 372.    $3.50.)
Washington Bankers' Association. Proceedings of the Twenty-
seventh Annual Convention. (Spokane: Wm. Hatch Davis,
Secretary,  1922.    Pp.  139.) PACIFIC NORTHWEST AMERICANA
New Auction Records
The present auction season is bringing to the market many
choice items of Western Americana. There is a general increase
in prices, with some fancy records and not a few genuine bargains. At Henkels, on October 10, a copy of the excessively rare
book by Charles Saxton, The Oregonian; or, History of Oregon
Territory, (Checklist 3420), was sold for a matter of $29.00,
while a practically unknown railroad pamphlet with a large folding map of Oregon published in Stuttgart in 1853 (Not in Checklist) brought but $5.00.
The most important sale of the Autumn occurred at Anderson's November 27-29. Many of the significant pieces offered
were pamphlets and newspapers relating to California and Utah.
Several of these brought sums in excess of one thousand dollars
each.
Many standard items relating to Oregon were sold at fair or
low prices. For example: Dunn's Oregon Territory, $11; Glisan's
Journal of Army Life, $2.50; Gray's Oregon, $4; Kip's Army
Life, $3; Lee and Frost, $5; Dodge's Coos and Curry Counties,
$4; Rush's Residence at the Court of London, $1; Oregon Laws
of the Fourth Session, $2; Ronan's Flathead Nation, $3.50; St.
Amant $5; Sturgis' Oregon Question, $3; Victor's All Over Oregon and Washington, $1; Wallace's Sketch of E. D. Baker, $3.
Eager competition for the items of greater rarity is indicated
by the prices realized on the following titles:
Amoretti, Voyage a I'Ocean Pacifique.    (Checklist 1226) $130.00
Brown, Political History of Oregon.    (Checklist 491)     62.50
Damon, Trip from the Sandwich Islands.    (Checklist 892) 165.00
Duflot de Mofras, Exploration du Territoire de
I'Oregon.    (Checklist   1036)    210.00
Duniway, Captain Gray's Company    (Checklist 1050)     70.00
Grover,  Oregon Archives    (Checklist  1552) 215.00
Harnett, Lectures on British Columbia (Not in Checklist)    42.00
Hastings, New Description of Oregon    (Checklist 1625)_ 290.00
Prosch, McCarver and Tacoma   .(Checklist 3231)     50.00
Taylor, Will There be War?    (Checklist 4409)     57.50
Samuel, Westshore, for the year 1885 (Checklist 4344-46)    72.50
Sutherland, Howard's Campaign    (Checklist 3896) 200.00
(75) Pacific Northwest Americana
New Items Brought to light
Two rare pieces not listed in the Checklist of Pacific Northwest Americana were sold at the Anderson Galleries in the sale
of November 27-29, 1922. One of these is a third part to Espin-
osa's Relacion del Viage por las Goletas Sutil y Mexicana
(Checklist 1154). It is a twenty-page quarto pamphlet entitled:
Appendice o Continuacion del Viage de Las Goletas Sutil y Mexicana al Estrecho del Juan de Fuca. It was published in Madrid
in 1805 or three years later than the main work. The price paid
for this appendix was $405.00.
The other item is a twenty-three page pamphlet issued by
Daniel W. Lowell and Company, bearing the title of: Map of the
Nez Perces and Salmon River Gold Mines in Washington Territory. It contains a large folding map of the Nez Perces and
Salmon River Mines. It was published in San Francisco in 1862
by Whitton, Waters and Company. The price brought was $760.00.
Isaac I. Stevens Material
The University of Washington Library has added the following pamphlets relating to Isaac I. Stevens, not listed in the Checklist:
Opinion of Hon. F. A. Chenoweth, delivered on 24th May,
1856, on the return of the Marshall to his Service of Writs of Habeas Corpus, for the bodies of Chief Justice Lander and Others, at
Steilacoom, W. T., also a Letter to Members of the Bar. Pp. 14.
(Steilacoom, n. pub. May 24, 1856.)
Proceedings of a Meeting of the Bar, 3d Judicial District,
Washington Territory, on the Arrest of the Hon. Edward Lander,
Chief Justice of said Territory, and John M. Chapman, Clerk of the
District Court, by an armed force under orders of Gov. Isaac I.
Stevens; together with the Proceedings of a Mass Meeting of Citizens of Pierce Co. W. T. Pp. 8. (Steilacoom, n. pub. May 7,
1856.)
Vindication of Governor Stevens, for Proclaiming and Enforcing Martial Law in Pierce County, W. T. Pp. 8. (n. p. n. pub.
May 10, 1856.) NEWS DEPARTMENT
Oregon Historical Society
Judge F. W. Howay, of New Westminster, B. C, gave the
principal address at the twenty-fourth annual meeting of the Oregon Historical Society, held at Portland on October 28, 1922. His
subject was "Captain John Kendrick and His Sons." Kendrick
and Gray were the American captains who were first to bring the
Stars and Stripes to the Northwest Coast. Judge Howay's researches will undoubtedly be published in full.
At the same meeting the following officers were re-elected:
President, Frederick V. Holman; Vice President, Charles B.
Moores; Secretary, F. G. Young; Curator, George H. Hines;
Trustees, John Gill and Leslie M. Scott.
British Columbia Historical Association
At a meeting in the Provincial Archives Department, Parliament Building, Victoria, B. C, on November 24, 1922, a constitution was adopted and the first officers were elected for the British
Columbia Historical Association.
Following a suggestion by John Forsyth, Provincial Archivist, a preliminary meeting had been held on October 31. Such a
spirit of enthusiasm prevailed that committees were appointed to
prepare for the next meeting, where the Association was launched
as stated above.
The officers chosen are as follows: Patron, His Honor the
Lieutenant-Governor; Honorary President, Hon. J. D. Maclean,
Minister of Education; President, His Honor Judge F. W. Howay; First Vice President, Beaumont Boggs; Secretary,-Treas-
urer, J. Forsyth; Editor, Professor Sage. These officers with the
following seven shall constitute the Council: Dr. C. F. New-
combe, Mrs. McMicking, Mrs. McCree, of Victoria; Rev. R. G.
McBeth, Prof. Mack Eastman, of Vancouver; Dr. M. S. Wade,
of Kamloops; Basil G Hamilton, of Kootenay.
The Provincial Archives Department has one of the richest
collections of historical materials to be found in the West. Those
who took part in the this new organization pointed out the desirability of publishing at least a quarterly periodical to make fuller
use of those accumulations.
«       (77) 78
News Department
The Washington Historical Quarterly extends welcome to the
new association and cherishes the hope that the "British Columbia
Historical Quarterly" may soon make its appearance.
The Oxen at Naches Pass
In "Van Ogle's Memory of Pioneer Days," which appeared
in the Washington Historical Quarterly for October, 1922, the old
pioneer was shown (pages 269-270) to differ with George H.
Himes, the eminent historical authority of Oregon, about the famous story of killing oxen at Naches Pass in order to make rawhide ropes, with which to let the immigrant wagons down what
was called "the jumping-off place." Mr. Himes promptly took exception to such criticism of his historical work and painstaking
efforts at accuracy as follows:
"I just saw your October Quarterly and read Van Ogle's
account. A lot of what he gave Miss Judson is an after thought.
There was not a single wagon driven down from the summit with
a team attached, even one yoke. I began the preparation of my
article, as printed in the Transactions of the Oregon Pioneer Association, 1907, fully twenty-five years before that, at the request
of James Biles, one day when I was his guest at Tumwater.
" 'Why, Mr. Biles,' I said, T am not the person to write an
account of that trip through the Naches Pass. Some one or more
of the adults ought to do it. I was nothing but a boy and am not
positive about the facts. I remember many of the details of the
trip—that is, I think I remember them.' Finally, upon Mr. Biles'
insistence, I said T will jot down my recollections, make several
typed copies of the same, and send one to every adult that can be
found that belonged to that party and ask for criticisms.'
"That was the course I pursued and among others that I read
my account to in person was Van Ogle in his home in Tacoma.
Before that, however, the substance of it was recounted in Van
Ogle's cabin one night when I stayed with him when he lived
close to the spot on Puyallup River where we crossed in 1853.
Then again I went over it with him when I stayed all night with
him in the Soldiers' Home at Orting. Nelson Sargent, the oldest
son of the Sargent family, an adult when he came west to California with his father in 1850, saw my account. All in all, the
portions of my paper relating to the trip through the mountains
passed the scrutiny of at least twenty adults of our company.
"James Longmire did not see it, as he was away more or less Decisions on Names
79
during the years that the copies of my paper were being passed
around from one to another. Finally, I found that he had caused
an account to be" prepared giving his recollections of the trip
through the Cascade Mountains, and, after I saw it, I was amazed
to observe the' substantial agreement there was in our accounts.
"The account (mine) was read to David Byles when I was a
guest at his house, just a few weeks before he was killed by the
railroad near Ehna. His brother, Charles N. Byles, once in the
banking business in Montesano, also read my account. However,
he was not an adult when making the trip in 1953.
"Anyway, my account will have to stand for what it is worth
on the basis of whatever value there may be in any expression
uttered by me.    'So mote it be'."
Government Decisions on Names
The United States Geographic Board has issued a pamphlet
containing the decisions arrived at from 1920 to 1922. The following are those bearing on place names in the State of Washington:
Battle; butte, about 10 miles west of Spokane, T. 24 N, R.
41 E, Spokane County, Wash.    (Not Wright.)
Big ShEEp; creek, rising in British Columbia, crossing international boundary about long. 117° 56', tributary to Columbia River
near Northport, Stevens County, Wash. (Not Sheep, White Sheep,
nor Yomelsin.)
Lane; peak, three- pointed (altitude 6,000 feet), in Tatoosh
Range, rising one-third mile northwest of Cliff Lake, Mount Rainier
National Park, Pierce County, Wash. (In honor of the late Franklin K. Lane, former Secretary of the Department of the Interior.)
LapoEl; point, southern shore Lake Crescent, Sec. 32, T. 30
N., R. 9 W., Clallam County, Wash.    (Not Pancake.)
Ohanapecosh; hot springs, on the Ohanapecosh River, Sec. 4,
T. 14 N, R. 10 E., Rainer National Forest, Lewis County, Wash.
(Not Cowlitz.)
Rich; passage, entrance to Port Orchard from Puget Sound,
south of Bainbridge Island, Kitsap County, Wash.    (Not Rich's.)
Captain Gray in Song
From Chinook, Washington, there comes a song, all home product, entitled "On the Shores of Baker's Bay," in memory of Cap- 80
News Department
tain Robert Gray who discovered the Columbia River o
1792. The words and air are by Elton S. Durkee. The
arranged by John Olin and Sterling Rothermal, all of Chin
the printing was done in the office of the Chinook Obseri
first stanza runs as follows:
"If you've ever studied hist'ry
You have heard of Captain Gray    >
Who discovered our great river
On a far and distant day.
And it's written in the record
Of the Captain's old log book
That he Cast his anchor in a bay
Near the village of Chinook."
ook, and
The
Compliments from Tacoma
In its issue for September 2, 1922, the Tacoma Daily Ledger
reviews the contents of the last issue of the Washington Historical
Quarterly in complimentary terms.    Such evident purpose to help
along the work is highly appreciated.
Pioneers of Lewiston
Robert D. Leeper, chairman of the pioneer reunion at Lewis^
ton, Idaho, in sending an invitation for the festivities on September
21-22, 1922, said they were making an effort to get out many of
the old original pioneers of that section. Principal Articles in the WashingtonHistorical Quart^tl^
volume-'xisr-
The Cowlitz Convention: Inception of Washin^^J^^^^^-
TerritS*^ii.'ii^^^^^^^^^^^^fe^«^^^&*.-".-HdfHOK'f 'S. Meany
Advertising and the Klon^&^.^^^^^^^^%,...Jeannette Pr mefioW':
The Wreck of the St. Nicholas...,'^^^^f^^^^^^^'-y- £. Andrews
.Origin of Washington Geographic Names. '^Ugegi^'^^lidmond S. Meany
The Loss of the "T-ot^Wf^^^i^^^^^2f^^^^^^^^^^:}^MV^ Howay
The Background of the Purchase of Alaskifi^^^Ki'S^^Victor J. Farrar
A Daughter of Ai^u^*mficDon^d>V«^£'^.^^K^i^rAmfi»a Williams '
Crossing the  Ptah^^t^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^i'^iT^^ence B.  Bagley
Newspaper]^ ©| Washington-^^3^^i^>*3te§3aam'......Edmond S. Meany
Finan McDonald, *. ,/> ^^i'Sz^^^S^^S^^^^^^^^^"l$- Meyers
E^ly-Development of Railroads jn the Pacific Northw§^tr;;»i^rW_7. Smith
Van Ogle's Memory of Pioneer Days^^.i^M^^pV^^^^f^^Kow Ogle
DOCUMENTS:  The John  Boig*^ S|pM=4<a|^§>;'tfie. Joseph
Barrell Letters! the Nisqually Journalcontinued,     j$Sa&i&2§&^$
The Washington Historical QualfcSJy is publishedi^>y" the Washington
Uffivershy State Historical Society.'-^'is issued quarterly wi^title page
and index fn the last number pi each voluffle^j^fe^i^d".indeed in The
Magaziae Subject Index and the International?Index to Periodicals. '"The v
current subscription price is $2.00 per year, or $075 each for single .eqjgiesi;
Back numbers are available as follo^sV^-
Volumes I-X, Complete with General j&fitefc
(Single numbers, when avaj^le,' w^Kyfe^S^;v? .-:
Volumes XI, ^li^^^^^^^^^^^^^k^^^S^'-' ■   3-°°
(Single numbers,: j5jS'ead£> V |h
For information in regard to subscriptions^o^^xchange, Address
#^^CRlj)gS W. SMITHj'TBusiness ManagScjC-
Washington  Histbdg^l ' (Quarterly,
Univershy?^|j&tion, Seattle, Wash. \
Announcement
ffA tributellfi^treen recently paid to the Washington Hprferfcal Quarterly in 'having been
chosen for indexing ifi>3^ International Index to Periodicals published by the H.W.
C^^^sbn ^Company of New' Yof&r** The sub-*-;
scribers I^Hthis Index include many of the
important libran^of the world, and it is
-    their vote which determines what magazines
shall be indexed.    The. tributieHJs; the more
gratifyirlgiffiom the fact that it Was paid with-
•/tttt Mh£ J£fl$)wledge of the Business Manager
ij, ,<jrj£he Editor.
flTwo more' articles on early transportation
'-fexwsriences in Washington appear in this
number. W. W. Bakie^JsV the son of Drj-jg
Dorsey Syng Baker who built the Walla
Walla & .Columbia Riv&fr^RaiJroad.^ H£3kI||
written the valuable arti£|£r: from the original
records sa%$| by the family. L. C. Gilman,
who wril^lhe authenlicjarticle on the Spokane, Portland & Seattle Railway, was at one
time President id^||ati,€pmpany and he jgE
.^tbwVVice President of the Great Northern
Railway ..Company.
IfThe usual portion of the important Nisqually
Journal is omitted from this number on account of the illness of Victor J. Farrar.    Itv^
is planned to resume that feature later."  XFrtiicipal Articles in the^i^hift^iCHistorical Quarterly
, \ -f^Vj^MES I-X ;
^^^MSBe for October, 1919)
VOLUME XI
lie Voyage of the Hope^^-c-j^^jjdla^.—- F. W. Howay
Francis Heron, Fur Traderr,OCher Herons^^H^^^S-William 'S. Lewis
Death of Ef O. S. SchdiiM^^^^^^^^^^^^^^iyjidgiey
Pioneer and- Historical Societies of-v^siishington ^——^y-Viit^r^J. Farrar
Origin of Washington Geographic Names-aiS&y&u^-^ipjBdmond S. Meany
*S*^etiin£ 6f the Russian-American Convention of 1824 Victor J. Farrar
Beginning of'Mission Work^n-"Alaska-—^J^^a?^S^.T--William S. Holt
David Thompson's Journeys uiTdaho____^-^s?f£,^>-^^j4^Jj^^i^B«
John Work's;Journal of a Trip from Fort ComUif fo Fort
Vancouver and Return in 1828—William S.;Le^^and Jacob A. Meyers
^Shipb&lwqg tfp&tt Pacific Northwest ^-^.,^-^^Sjt^Helen D. Goodwin
Beginning .of/Militia in WiS^t^0tt^^^^!^^!^i:^^Ji'--u---George Gibos
<t^ir^Mil^vCompanies in Eastern Washington TeTT0^~William S. Lewis
Judge Eri^lQliphant ^jL^^^l^^t^^^^'^^-     r"m'" &■ Ba®>
BibliographyJpf^tjae Anthropology of the Puget Sound Indians—i.~_^~ ^
^^Sf^f'j^^rJ^:. -^±jMzi£f%^■$$-% •'^■Wri^ir: ^J?.?'- "-'J- D. Leechntan
VOLUME XII
Authorship dlc^e' Anonymous^JteJcpunt of Captain Cook's Last Voyage
^^'^^ffl^^ff^y^y^fr^Y:r*"^':^«^^^^^^'V" -TF. W. Howay
Origin of Washi^t^fGeographic Names^i||jfeL- Edmond S. Meany
Joseph Lane Mc|)0hajd: and the Purchase o£$Jaska -VM%£ p Farrar
Bibliograp^ of Railroads:^^ie*^|^p_e Northwestfei^J-—Marian Cords
-.pacts Ahmit n<-r>rgf» w3Cti;r.gt"" ■ ^&^^^^^^0>*^Junius T. Turner
f&q^p&^in Hawaua^sfcnds, 1789-1823 ^-^-^^.Morison
Captains Gray and Kendrick: ThVjij^ell Letters—-~.-r-.--F. W. Howoy
Naming M^ede p-»° "r^^^^^M^'B" Sf £l ' W P' B°nm
The Oregon Laws of 1845 -/jBsj^ -^^l~John T- Condon Wtft
l^astfjmston historical ©uarterlp
Contributing Chitons
CifARENCE B. BAGtEY, Seattle        Wieuam S. Lewis, Spokane
W. P. BonnEy, Tacoma H. B. McEeroy, Olympia
T. C. Eeeiott, Walla Walla Edward McMahon, Seattle
Fkank A. Goeder, Pullman O. B. Sperein, Rolling Bay
F. W. Howay, New Westminster, B. C.
ifflanagtng Cbitor
EDMOND S. MEANY
IBu&intgg fWanager
CHARLES W. SMITH
VOL. XIV.  NO. 2
APRIL, 1923
ISSUED QUARTERLY
Two Dollars per Tear
tnd the Ram's
EDMOND   S. MEANY Newspapers   of   Washington   Territory	
ALBERT.  J.  THOMPSON—Memories of White Salmon and Its Pione*
EDMOND  S.  MEANY Origin of Washington Geographic Names.
DOCUMENTS—The  Nisqually Journal, Edited by  Victor  J.  Farrar__
BOOK REVIEWS   	
PACD7IO   NORTHWEST   AMERICANA	
NEWS  DEPARTMENT	
THE WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY
STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY
University Station
SEATTLE, WASHINGTON
, Washington, under
i matter, November
: the  Postoffic
of Congress of July 16, £§>tate gfetorical Society
Officers and Board of Trustees
CearEnce B. BageEy, President
Judge John P. Hoyt, Vice-President
Judge Roger S. Greene, Treasurer
Judge Thomas Burke
Judge Corneeius H. Haneord
Samuee Hiij,
Professor Edmond S. Meany, Secretary
University of Washington Press VOL. XIV., No. 2
April, 1923
Cfje
OTastytngton historical (©uarterty
THE ORPHAN RAILROAD AND THE RAMS HORN
RIGHT OF WAY
The Act of Congress granting to the Northern Pacific Railroad Company all odd numbered sections of public lands within a
strip forty miles wide co-terminous with the road to be built in
Territories of the United States, was a floating grant, that is to
say, the lines of the road had to be definitely located before the
granted sections could be identified. The Charter of the company,
as amended, authorized construction of two lines in Washington
Territory; one called the Main Line was to be via, the valley of
the Columbia River to a terminus on Puget Sound and the other,
called the Branch was to diverge from the Main Line and extend
across the Cascade Mountains to the same terminus. To make up
for necessary subtractions from the grant on account of lands in
odd numbered sections to which adverse rights attached prior to
definite location of the railroad, the company was authorized to
select lieu lands within specified limits.
Between the date of its Charter, July 2nd, 1864, and the year
1869, the company perfected its organization as a corporation and
that is about all that it did do within that time. Then, the banking house of Jay Cooke & Co. of Philadelphia undertook to finance
the enterprise by selling bonds; and enough money was provided
to make surveys and build a division of the road at its east end
and another division extending from Kalama on the Columbia
River to Tacoma, which was chosen as the western terminus.
Surveys in Washington Territory were extensive but of a preliminary character. From such surveys maps were made and filed
in the General Land Office, merely indicating general routes that
might, or might not, approximate the lines on which the road was
to be built. Thereupon, in the years 1870, 1872 and 1873, the
Department of the Interior promulgated orders withdrawing from
(83) 84
C. H. Hanford
settlement and sale all odd numbered sections within twenty miles
on each side of the lines of general route indicated on said maps.
Those orders were based upon an assumption that the company
had an inchoate right to as many of those sections within the
several forty mile strips reserved as might be found to be subject
to the grant when the two lines of road should be definitely
located. The line of the Branch was not definitely located until
1884 and until then, those orders were continued in force, shutting
up from use half of the public land within the major part of
Washington Territory. That was an instance of injustice characteristic of bureaucratic misgovernment.1
Failure of Jay Cooke & Co. in 1873 obliged the company to
suspend construction and the building of the main line was only
resumed in a feeble way shortly before Henry Villary took the
company in hand in 1881. At the time of the suspension the land
grant within Washington Territory except for the Kalama-Tacoma
division, was all unearned and still afloat.
Seattle was grieved by the location of the Northern Pacific
terminus at Tacoma, but not disheartened; her loyal citizens resolved that the best harbor in the whole world should not be
without railroad service to bring traffic from the productive regions of the Inland Empire. The Seattle and Walla Walla Railroad & Transportation Company was promptly organized. Names
to be remembered as representatives of Seattle spirit and grit at
that time are: Arthur A. Denny, John J. McGilvra, Dexter Hor-
ton, John Collins, Franklin Matthias, Angus Mackintosh, Henry
L. Yesler, James McNaught, and James M. Colman; they constituted the first board of trustees of the new company. Contributions to its capital in money were not large, but many owners of
real estate conveyed to the company land and water front property the present value of which runs into millions of dollars.
Evincing the spirit of the inhabitants generally, they turned out
en masse to give a start to construction of a narrow gauge railroad by their own manual labor, on the first day of May, 1874.
Under direction of Thomas B. Morris, a railroad construction
engineer, commencing near the south shore of Elliott Bay a day's
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sustained Nelson': The Orphan Railroad
85
work was done. Men and boys cleared the right of way and
levelled the roadbed for a distance of about three miles and the
women helped by serving a picnic lunch. Next, a piece of the
road was built and put into operation extending from the coal
mines at Renton to a steamboat landing on the Duwamish River;
its use was for hauling coal from the mines. That much was
accomplished with money furnished by William Renton, principal
owner of the Port Blakely saw mill, and W. C. Talbot of San
Francisco, who were interested in the coal mines. Then, to carry
the project forward, $60,000 was advanced by citizens of Seattle,
one-third of which was contributed by James M. Colman, and
to that was added his time and talents so that the holdings of the
company had a mortgagable value of $100,000, and that amount
of money was obtained by Mr. Colman on a mortgage. Mr.
Colman had no expectation of other financial support, but, with
the courage of a man confident in his own abilities, he took personal charge of the enterprise in all of its details and in superintending construction labored in all kinds of weather, often in cases
of emergency foregoing sleep at night. His most able and faithful
assistants were a young engineer named Robert L. Thorne and
Chin Gee Hee, a Chinaman who furnished and directed Chinese
laborers. By engineering skill, energy and strict economy, a substantial railroad was constructed from coal bunkers at the foot
of King Street in Seattle to the Newcastle coal mines, and equipped with rolling stock and coal bunkers, with facilities for loading
ships. This was accomplished before the end of 1877, and the
road then began to earn some profit above operating expenses^
After extensions were made to the Black Diamond and Franklin
coal mines, the road became a producer of wealth. It was added
to Henry Villard's acquisitions of various and sundries, but its
existence as a distinct property was preserved under the name of
Columbia & Puget Sound Railroad Company, making an addition
to the group of Villard corporations, and Mr. Colman was employed in the capacity of manager of that new corporation. In
a period of thirty months, under his management, the net earnings
of the road amounted to a sum equad to the whole price that
Villard paid for the entire assets of the Seattle and Walla Walla
Railroad & Transportation Company, including its real estate in
Seattle; a showing which in contrast with its subsequent earnings
under the management of John L. Howard, is quite extraordinary.
During the time of Colman's management the rates for passenger
and transportation services were reasonable and the road was a 86
C. H. Hanford
popular public utility. Subsequently the "public be damned" policy
supplanted good business policy. This was well illustrated in a
particular instance; Mr. Colman owned a saw mill situated adjacent to the road about twenty-five miles from Seattle; he desired
to bring lumber for his own use in the City, but, it was impractical to do so because, to buy the same grade of lumber in Seattle
would cost no more than the railroad charge for transportation
from his mill.
Economical construction of the railroad to the Newcastle coal
mines required scientific engineering to surmount the topographical
obstructions of a rugged region; in one instance a ravine was
bridged on a trestle one hundred and twenty-eight feet high. After
forty-five years of use that trestle has been kept in repair so that
it is still a safe structure for heavily loaded trains to run over.
Mr. Colman's qualifications as an engineer, combined native genius ■
with education and profound study, and, his superior abilities as
a financier and business man were equal to the task of extendiing
the road to the grain fields of eastern Washington. He would
have completed that undertaking if Villard's comprehensive system
had not justified expectation that Seattle interests would be well
cared for, to the extent of furnishing railroad service adequate ■
to enable it to maintain its position as the chief city of Puget
Sound.
Recurring to the Northern Pacific land grant, the Land Office
orders withdrawing odd numbered sections from«settlement and
sale were made to forestall speculators and settlers from acquiring
rights antagonistic to the grant and would have been wise if the
maps of general routes had been made honestly to indicate where
the roads were intended to be located so as to not cover and tie
up more territory than was reasonably necessary. For some time
the people endured the imposition in silence, but, when construction of the railroad stopped and growth of the Territory was
impeded the orders rested oppressively upon every part of it and
murmurs and protests against it awakened resentment against the
apparent disposition of the company to grasp an undue share of
the Territory's resources. The Legislature in 1877 set forth the
conditions and grievances in three memorials to Congress; the first
of which represented that in 1873 the company located its western
terminus at Tacoma; that in 1870 and 1872, lands were withdrawn for the Main Line beyond Tacoma as far north as Belling-
ham Bay, embracing over two million acres of public lands which
was still withheld from settlement, notwithstanding the location The Orphan Railroad 87
of the terminus at Tacoma. And in 1873 the lands withdrawn
for the branch extended from Lake Pen d'Oreille to Tacoma via
the Skagit Pass, amounting to over eight million acres; that in
1876 the company filed a map of general route for its Branch in
the office of the Commissioner of the General Land Office which
last named Branch leaves the Main Line near the mouth of the
Snake River and runs over the Cascade Mountains to Tacoma
via the Natchez Pass. And the memorial prayed for restoration
to the public domain to be dealt with as other public lands, of all
lands withdrawn for the Main Line north of the adjusted limits
of the earned lands near Tacoma; and of all lands withdrawn for
the Branch via the Skagit Pass.
The second memorial after certain recitals, represented that,
the company "has no authority to sell lands within the grant not
earned, and having fixed no price upon said lands, at which settlers
could purchase the same after the company acquired title thereto,
the settlement and prosperity of the Territory has been greatly
retarded. That while the Northern Pacific Railroad Company is
daily selling and disposing of its lands it has instituted suits
which are now pending to restrain our tax collectors from collecting the taxes. That this company demands and receives protection
of our civil officers, and that its refusal to bear its proportion of
the taxes to pay these officers is oppressive and unjust to the tax-
paying settlers of the Territory. That we realize the fact that
the speedy completion of this road would be a great benefit to the
Territory. We nevertheless regard an extension of the time for
that purpose without terms and conditions, wrong and injurious
to the people of our Territory." The memorial ended with a
prayer for legislation as follows:
"First. That the price of the lands within the limits of the grant
be fixed at two dollars and a half ($2.50) per acre.
Second.    That the registers and receivers of the United States
land offices be the only persons authorized to dispose of any
of these lands and that they be disposed of only by entry and
payment under such rules as the department may establish.
Third.   That these lands be sold to actual settlers only and in such
quantities as your honorable bodies may deem best.
Fourth.   That the money arising from the sales of the lands aforesaid be paid to the Northern Pacific Railroad Company from
time to time as the different sections of the road are completed. C. H. Hanford
Fifth. That the time within which said road shall be completed
be limited by law, and that a failure to complete the road
within the specified time, shall cause all the lands to revert
to the government which have not been sold.
Sixth. That the company be required to pay taxes on all of its
property whether acquired by purchase or otherwise upon the
same terms and conditions now imposed by law upon the
settlers of the Territory."
The third memorial was in the interest of settlers on railroad
lands who made improvements thereon relying on certificates
issued to them guaranteeing the first right to purchase when
the company acquired titles which it could convey.
These memorials brought no relief to the people in responsive
action by Congress and had no effect except to alarm the officials
of the company and investors in its securities and boosters for
Tacoma the terminus City, many of whom got busy in Territorial
politics in a way that' engendered animosities, especially between
Tacoma and Seattle.
The national census for the year 1880 shows that the population of Seattle was then 3,533. And the magnitude of its business was so much greater than that of any other Puget Sound
town or city that, it had to be reckoned with by Henry Villard
when he came to take control of the transportation business of
the entire Northwest. The temporary success of that magnate
was marvelous; without training or experience in practical
business, but having a practical mind and some friends among
capitalists, he was able to, and did, organize corporations and
grasp opportunities for great achievements. Having acquired
control of the Oregon Steam Navigation Company, the Oregon
Steamship Company and the Willamette Transportation and Locks
Company, he amalgamated the properties of those corporations in
a new corporation named Oregon Railway & Navigation Company, and projected railroads to be built by it extending from
Portland into eastern Washington and Idaho and to connect in
eastern Oregon with the Oregon Short Line Railroad; and he
conceived the plan of making a connection with the Northern
Pacific at a point on the Columbia River, so that the O. R. & N.,
line from that connecting point to Portland would be a division
of the Northern Pacific's Main Line. To carry out that plan,
he performed the extraordinary feat known as the "Blind Pool"
that is to say, he obtained from New York and Boston capitalists
eight  million dollars without divulging the intended use to be The Orphan Railroad
made of that large amount, until after it was used to gain control
of the Northern Pacific Railroad Company. He then became
President of the company and responsibility rested upon him to
justify the confidence of the contributors to the blind pool, by
completing the construction of the railroad so that for their
investment the value of the property would remunerate them.
He then saw that a city on Puget Sound would have great advantage in competition with Portland for commercial supremacy;
and that the Seattle and Walla Walla Railroad & Transportation
Company was likely to become an active competitor for the
traffic of the Inland Empire. New hopes for the success of that
company were inspired when, in July 1880, Victor E. Tull discovered large deposits of a superior quality of coal a few miles
from its railroad and extension thereof to those mines would be
in the direction towards the mountains over which it aimed to
cross via the Snoqualmie Pass. Tull was employed by P. B. Cornwall, President of the Black Diamond Coal Company of San
Francisco, to find better coal than that company's other mines
contained and his discovery was what he was sent for. Cornwall
was financially able to provide means to extend the railroad to
the newly discovered mines, and that would afford the most
economical transportation of the coal to Seattle where it could
be.loaded into ships. While the mines were being exploited and
Cornwall's company was acquiring ownership, in 1881, Villard
came and bought the entire holdings of the local company, which,
then became the Columbia & Puget Sound Railroad Company,
and in 1882-3 it extended the narrow guage railroad to the Black
Diamond and Franklin coal mines. Villard visited Seattle several
times and his friendly speeches stimulated the growth of the City;
on one of those occasions the subject of actual railroad connection
was discussed and he declared that construction of the Northern
Pacific's Branch over the Cascade Mountains would be postponed
until the remote future, but he proposed to give Seattle a railroad
by constructing a standard guage railroad from a point in Puyallup valley connecting with an existing railroad extending^ from
Tacoma to the coal mines in Pierce County; that new piece of
road to cross White River valley to a junction with the Columbia
& Puget Sound Railroad at Black River and by laying a third
rail on its roadbed make it both a narrow guage and a standard
guage railroad from Black River to Seattle, so that Seattle would
thereby have connection with the Northern Pacific. As a condition for that accommodation he exacted  from Seattle a free 90
C. H. Hanford
right of way along the waterfront northward to the real estate
purchased from the Seattle and Walla Walla Railroad & Transportation Company, and that condition was agreed to. March
14th, 1882, the City Council granted so much of the required
right of way as it controlled; the rest of it had to be acquired
from individual property owners, which involved difficulties.
Some would not give space inside, that is on land side of existing
structures needed for their business; others were equally obstinate
in retaining the water side of their holdings, so when the complete
right of way was obtained it was winding, that gave it the name
of the "Rams Horn Right of Way." To comply with the agreement on Villard's part, one of his corporations named the Oregon
& Transcintinental Co. built a section of standard guage railroad
from Black River to Stuck Junction which became known as the
"Orphan Railroad," and to complete the connection with the
Northern Pacific a spur line was built from Puyallup to Stuck
Junction. Those joints of railroad were completed and service
thereon commenced in the summer of 1883, just preceding Villard's "gold spike" party, celebrating completion of the Northern
Pacific Railroad to a connection with the O. R. & N. Railroad at
Wallula on the Columbia River and by those pieces of railroad
and the Northern Pacific line between Puyallup and Tacoma
Seattle was served for a period of only one month when the service stopped abruptly.
The business of the Oregon and Transcintinental Co. for
which it was organized was to build feeder lines to bring traffic
to the Northern Pacific Railroad and it did not engage in the
operation of railroads. A new corporation named the Puget Sound
Shore Railroad Co. was organized, its officers being T. H. Tyn-
dale, President and Treasurer; A. A. Denny, Vice President; I.
A. Nadeau, Secretary and Manager; Charles F. Munday, General
Counsel, and its Board of Directors were A. A. Denny, Charles
F. Munday, Ed. L. Terry, T. H. Tyndale and I. A. Nadeau. The
operation of the Orphan Railroad, when it was operated prior to
January 1st, 1890,- was by that new corporation and it was sold
by those officers January 1, 1890, to the Northern Pacific Railroad Co. for the price of one million dollars.
Construction of the Northern Pacific Railroad proceeded
from Wallula eastward simultaneously with building westward and
a date in August, 1883, was set for the joining of the rails that
would  complete the line  from  Duluth on Lake Superior to a The Orphan Railroad
91
junction with the O. R & N. road to Portland. Another section
of the Main Line was built from Portland on the Oregon side of
the Columbia River to a point opposite to Kalama and a ferry
was provided on which trains crossed the river and proceeded to
Tacoma. Villard considered that the joining of the rails would
be, in a practical way, completion of the Main Line and he invited
the investors and many distinguished persons to be present on
that day to witness the driving of the last spike. Many of the
invited ones came, a gold spike was driven and the programme
for the day's ceremonies was carried out and the first through
train was an excursion train on which the guests came to the
coast. That event was a triumph for Villard and it also signalized
his downfall; he had accomplished a great task, but knockers
were successful in persuading many of the investors to believe that
their money had been squandered in building a railroad that could
not be a financial success in operation. The Board of Directors
instead of being loyal to Villard exacted his resignation as
President of the Company. The situation then as Seattle was
concerned was exasperating. Villard whose promise to give the
City railroad service was shorn of power; that service was discontinued; the grant of the rams horn right of way was irrevocable and it was regarded as a nuisance; residents of the City had
parted with control of the narrow guage railroad and there was
no hope of any extension of it beyond coal mines in King County;
the Northern Pacific land grant for the Main Line, except parts
thereof between Portland and Tacoma and east of Wallula, was
not earned, and yet the departmental orders withdrawing lands
from settlement hung like a black cloud over the Territory. That
condition could not be endured quietly; it provoked hostility to the
Northern Pacific company which grew into a popular demand
for forfeiture of the entire land grant; and a member of Congress
from the State of Illinois was outspoken in favor of such action
so that there was more than a mere probability that, if the company remained inactive, legislative action detrimental to the
company would be taken. Spurred to action by the menace to
its land grant the company under its new management initiated
measures to build the Branch immediately. But, so long as doubts
existed as to its ability to do so, the agitation could not be suppressed. Settlers in eastern Washington on odd numbered sec-
tioins within the lieu limits were vexatiously oppressed by conduct of the company in contesting their rights to land occupied 92
C. H. Hanford
and improved by them and the people generally were in warm
sympathy with those settlers.
Friends of the company deemed it advisable to secure expressions of public sentiment opposed to forfeiture of the land
grant; Hon. Joseph N. Dolph, a Senator of the State of Oregon,
appealed to the Chamber of Commerce of Seattle to protest
against the proposed forfeiture and a meeting of that body was
called to consider the matter. Most of the citizens who were
active in public affairs attended the meeting and Paul Schulze,
western land agent of the company, was present. A Committee
of which Hon. Orange Jacobs and Hon. Joseph R. Lewis, former
Chief Justices of the Territory, were members, drafted a resolution opposed to forfeiture, and it was adopted by a nearly unanimous vote; G. Morris Haller and Richard Osborne were the
only members who voted against it. Immediately after adjournment trouble began; Schulze, who was a very conceited and
insolent person, started it by boasting as if his personal presence
and influence had secured the adoption of the resolution, and
followed that by reminding those who lingered after adjournment
of the meeting of the destruction by burning of the Steamship
Yaquina in a manner to create an impression that the outrage
was another of his personal triumphs. His conduct betrayed a
purpose to do mischief and he was successful in arousing the
Seattle Spirit. The Yaquina incident had connection with the
origin of the Seattle Chamber of Commerce, for it came into
being to protect the commerce of the City against predatory
aggressions. In 1882 Rev. James P. Ludlow, owner of the
steamer Evangel, obtained a contract to carry the United States
mail to Sitka, Alaska, and expected to use the Evangel in that
service, but, she was found to be not seaworthy for navigating
the northern waters. Then John Leary to help Ludlow bought
the Yaquina. On her arrival at Portland with a cargo of lime
before the sale could be consummated by delivery to the purchaser,
the vessel and cargo were burned, and, on inquiry for another
vessel it was ascertained that, Goodall, Nelson & Perkins of San
Francisco who operated the ships monopolizing the Alaska business had forestalled Ludlow by purchasing or hiring every other
seagoing craft on the Pacific Coast, so the mail contract had
to be, and was, surrendered. Then the Seattle Chamber of
Commerce was organized.
Its anti-forfeiture resolution was speedily regretted by those
responsible for it and was vigorously denounced by the newspapers; The Orphan Railroad
93
and pro-forfeiture was made a political issue in the Territorial
election campaign of 1884. The Democratic party nominated as
its candidate for Delegate to Congress Charles S. Voorhees, a
lawyer residing at Colfax, who was the attorney and champion of
the lieu land contestees. The King County Republican Convention
was strongly anti-railroad and it nominated as candidates for the
Legislature Judges Jacobs and Lewis and elected twelve delegates
to the Territorial Convention which was held later in Seattle.
Eleven of those acted as a unit in the Convention on the side of
the minority; the twelfth member gave his proxy to former Governor Elisha P. Ferry who voted with the Tacoma delegation
which was pro-railroad and dominated the Convention. Thus,
the campaign had to be carried on with an apparent issue between
the two parties of for and against the Northern Pacific company.
The Territory under normal conditions was republican, but Voor-
hees won by a narrow margin although his majority in King
County was over 2,100. Jacobs and Lewis were elected to the
Legislature and served during its next session which did not
convene until more than a year subsequent to the election. At
that time building of the Branch was progressing rapidly and
animosity towards the company had subsided. The first train
came across the mountains on a temporary switchback construction into Tacoma on the 3rd day of July 1887 and Seattle joined
with Tacoma in a Fourth of July celebration in the latter city.
In the summer of 1885 there lived in White River valley a
public spirited citizen named Green, known as "Fog horn Green"
on account of his deep base voice. The orphan railroad continued
to go unoperated for a year and a half and there was no promise
on the part of any one that it would be operated. Green arranged
for a mass meeting at Kent to devise some plan whereby the
orphan might be put to work. He advertised the meeting extensively and personally requested members of the Legislature,
representative of Villard corporations, County Officers and others
to attend it. The meeting was held with a large attendance of
farmers and others including Judges Jacobs and Lewis, Hon.
Charles F. Munday, also a member of the Legislature, James
McNaught, attorney for the Northern Pacific company, John L.
Howard, agent of the Villard corporations, and Thomas J. Milner,
superintendent of the Oregon Improvement Company. Judge
Jacobs told a funny story about an ignorant fellow who standing
in front of a slaughter house and seeing a calf's tail protruding
out of an augur hole in the door, wondered how the calf jumped 94
C. H. Hanford
through the hole and got pinched by its tail. Mr. Howard
explained that, a stub railroad could not be operated profitably,
except as a feeder to bring traffic to a main line; and he took
it for granted that this piece of a railroad beginning and ending
at no concentration point for traffic could neither earn revenue
nor be of any value as a feeder. Green called on Cornelius H.
Hanford to speak; he did so and used an important fact, knowledge of which had been communicated to him by Mr. Milner who
knew what the road earned in the first month after it was built.
Hanford said: "Railroads are for public use. A railroad franchise
imposes a duty to serve the public. This road is a tangent, it
takes a slice out of meadows, orchards and gardens; where
houses and barns wore obstructions they were removed to make
way for a railroad. If you farmers did not consent to have your
improved land cut into ribbons, the law of eminent domain gave
consent, that means that public necessity is paramount to individual rights. After a railroad has been built it is a public highway,
the public is entitled to use it; the same reasons that justifies
condemnation of land for public use likewise sanctions condemnation of an existing railroad that is not serving the public. If
whoever has proprietary rights in this road cannot, or will not,
operate it you farmers can acquire possession of it rightfully
and put it to work. Do not hesitate to proceed on that course,
lest the road in operation may not produce income sufficient for
its maintenance, I have here the figures showing that when it
was operated for only one month its earnings in cash amounted
to fifty percent more than the expenses incurred for operation."
Judge Lewis approved the suggestion for condemnation of the
road and promised that if existing laws were inadequate for the
purpose, the Legislature would enact laws to supply any deficiency.
Somebody in New York, having authority in the premises, acted
with knowledge that it would be unwise to permit a new agitation
to gain headway, for before the meeting adjourned, John H.
Mitchell, Jr., McNaught's law partner, arrived on horseback with
a telegram from New York announcing that the road would be put
in operation, and it was within two weeks next after the date of
that meeting, and it has been continuously in service ever since.
In 1893, during receivership times, Leigh S. J. Hunt was
appointed Receiver of the Puget Sound Shore Railroad Company
and he acted in that capacity for a short time and then turned
over its assets whatever they were to the Receivers of the Northern
Pacific Railroad Company; and when that company was re-incor- The Orphan Railroad
95
porated under the name of the Northern Pacific Railway Company
it absorbed the little one and it ceased to be an orphan.
The Ram's Horn right of way made trouble when after the
conflagration of June 6th, 1889 the city took advantage of the
opportunity for changing the grades of First Avenue and intersecting streets extending into the harbor; In litigation between
the city and the Columbia and Puget Sound Railroad Company,
the supreme court of the state decided in one case that the city
was estopped to deny the existence of those extentions as streets,
by reason of prior acts of the city in recognition thereof. Columbia
and Puget Sound R. Co. v. Seattle, 6 Wash. 332; 33 Pac. 824; 34
Pac. 725.
And in a subsequent decision, the supreme court affirmed
the right and power of the city government to project extentions
of streets over tide-submerged land. Seattle v. Columbia and Puget
Sound R. Co., 6 Wash. 379; 33 Pac. 1048.
Those decisions, in effect, sustained the right claimed by the
Railroad Company to enjoin the city from raising the grades of
streets, intersecting the right of way, so as to obstruct the movements of trains continuously thereon. That deprivation of power
to affect railroad crossings would have been a serious handicap,
which was only obviated by a compromise arrangement, for which
Honorable Orange Jacobs claimed credit. As corporation counsel,
he was the city's representative in litigated cases, while the above
cited cases were pending, but he permitted other lawyers to make
the fight for the city, and they carried on the litigation in disregard of the compromise agreement which the city had entered
into. By the newspapers and popular clamor, Jacobs was censured for having approved the compromise, therefore, the court
decisions, affirming the rights claimed by the Railroad Company,
were his vindication. The final adjustment of grades and railroad
crossings was facilitated by the use made of Railroad Avenue, a
street one hundred and twenty feet wide, extending along the
water front over tide-submerged land, laid out and established by
the city, especially to provide for railroad access into and a way
through the city.
In 1883, Daniel Hunt Gilman came to Seattle and became
active in public affairs. At that time Seattle suffered from the
active hostilities of the Northern Pacific Railroad officials and
agents. When the Canadian Pacific Railroad was completed as
a transcontinental line extending from Vancouver, B. C. eastward,
Seattle merchants  and business men  found it  advantageous to 96
C. H. Hanford
patronize that road for transportation of freight in preference to
the Northern Pacific Railroad terminating at Tacoma; water
transportation being necessary for part of the service, steam-boat
carriers were to a considerable extent depended upon to connect
with the Railroad at Vancouver B. C. instead of a shorter distance from Seattle to Tacoma. That situation was explained to
Mr. Gilman making an impression that opened to his view the
opportunity for, and feasibility of,a railroad from Seattle to a
direct connection with the Canadian Pacific. Mr. Gilman's
capital was not in cash but in brains, and after studying the situation he took in hand the task to promote the organization and
capitalizing of a corporation to build that railroad, and associated
with Judge Thomas Burke, John Leaty, and J. R. McDonald,
he effected the organization of the Seattle, Lake Shore and
Eastern Railway Company. A number of Seattle men, resenting
the injustice of the Northern Pacific Company's policy of discrimination against Seattle, subscribed to the capital of the new
company to the extent of their means, and having gained so much,
Gilman and Judge Burke were successful in inducing Philip D.
Armour of Chicago to advance the money required to start the
enterprise. The road was built from Seattle to Sumas on the
international boundary line with a branch extending eastward
from the north end of Lake Washington to Snoqualmie Falls, and
another section of railroad was built in eastern Washington,
extending fifty miles west from Spokane.
How to gain access into Seattle from the north and extend
the railroad track to a desirable location for a passenger depot,
was one of the problems which had to be solved. Judge Burke
consulted with C. H. Hanford on the subject, and together they
evolved a plan to provide access for all railroads by the creation
of a level street along the water front wide enough for several
tracks and their plan was adopted by the City Council in Ordinance No. 804 establishing Railroad Avenue.
The middle sixty feet was intended for tracks and the eastern
half of that space was granted to the Seattle, Lake Shore and
Eastern Company for its right of way. The Northern Pacific
refused to accept a free gift of the other thirty feet, so, very
happily for Seattle, that space was available for use of the Great
Northern Railway, when it came seeking an entrance to Seattle.
The Seattle, Lake Shore and Eastern Railway Company built a
small building for a passenger station at the foot of Columbia
street.    Its rolling stock equipment included two fine locomotives' The Orphan Railroad
97
named respectively, A. A. Denny and Thomas Burke in honor of
those gentlemen for all of their intelligent efforts for the upbuilding of Seattle. The new railway was operated successfully
about two years, when the Northern Pacific Company gained
control of it by leasing it. That was a good business stroke for
the Northern Pacific Company, but in their blindness and prejudice, New York capitalists condemned it and it was made one
of the specifications of mis-management charged by Brayton
Ives and others in a campaign to secure proxies of stock-holders
for use in changing the Board of Directors. The proxies were
secured but before the time of election, the movement was forestalled by court proceedings in the United States Circuit Court
for the eastern district of Wisconsin. When the newly elected
Board of Directors, with Brayton Ives as President of the Company, were installed, the property and business of the company
were already in the hands of the receivers appointed by that court.
The local road was separated from the Northern Pacific system
by the United' States Circuit Court at Seattle, which appointed
Thomas R. Brown and John H. Bryant receivers to take
charge of it. Their good management demonstrated the wide
difference between business efficiency of local management, and
the blindness of absentee officials. The power of the court sup-
plantd the Board of Directors. The receivers took the property
in hand without money for working capital; they made it serve
the purpose for which it was constructed in a manner highly
satisfactory to travelers and shippers, notwithstanding, interference by Coxey's common-weal army and the Deb's sympathetic strike; out of its earnings they paid all expenses of operations
and court expenses, including the salaries allowed by the court;
they improved the roadbed by balasting and kept the equipment in
repair and accumulated a surplus.
During the time of its operation as a distinct railroad, the
orphan was helpful to the business interests of Seattle, although
the service was very unsatisfactory; the Northern Pacific officials
controlled it and they were no better than an unkind step-mother.
Failing to appreciate the benefit to the transportation business, due
to the expansion of Seattle business, immediately after the conflagration of June 6th, 1889, the Northern Pacific continued to
discharge passengers from trains on the Ram's Horn right of
way without over-head covering until subsequent to the reorganization of that company in 1896. When Mr. C. S. Mellen became
President of the company, there was a radical change of policy; C. H. Hanford
the Seattle, Lake Shore and Eastern road was again annexed,
and ground for a passenger station was acquired; a plan for a
magnificent station was adopted, and $500,000 was appropriated
to build it. The acquired site was situated west of Western
Avenue between Columbia and Marion Streets. Freight warehouses were to be built north of Madison Street on property
acquired for the purpose. To work out the plan it was
desirable to have the extensions of Spring and Seneca
Streets west of First Avenue vacated, which required
action by the city council. The plan could have been
worked out in a way to give Seattle the great benefit of having
a magnificent terminal centrally located. But it was opposed
by James J. Hill, the Great Northern Railway Company having
entered the field as a competitor for business, and popular prejudice was aroused so that when Mr. Mellen presented the plan
and asked the City Council to vacate those extentions of streets,
the council refused to grant the request. In the discussion of
the matter, prejudice against the Northern Pacific Company was
appealed to, and representations were made that a depot so
located would obstruct traffic along the water front preventing
access to the steam-boat landings. In a political convention, a
resolution was adopted containing the phrase, "There is land
enough without donating streets to a railroad company," and
the newspapers published interviews with citizens expressing
their views for and against the scheme. One man characterized
it as, "the out-rage," another said: "Give nothing to the Northern
Pacific Railroad Company." Another opposed it giving as his
reason that: "In the future, if I should desire to go to the water
front to catch a torn cod, I might be charged more for passing
over private property than the fish would be worth." By those
specious arguments and misrepresentations, the City Council was
influenced, so that the opportunity for securing to the city the
great benefit of an ideal terminal at the best location for it, was
voluntarily sacrificed. One of the most meritorious features of
the scheme was in the proposed construction of freight warehouses north of Madison Street, the ground floor of which would
have been on a level with the railroad tracks and wharves, and
the superstructure could have been built up to a height above
the level of First Avenue, so that there would have been convenience and economy in handling baggage and merchandise in
two ways; what was destined for vessels could have been moved
on a level from the lower part, and what was to go into the city The Orphan Railroad
99
could have been elevated vertically to First Avenue in near
proximity to the retail store district and hotels; then, the saving in
expense of delivery from cars to ultimate destination would have
amounted to millions of dollars annually.
For the convenience of pedestrians in passing to and from
the steamboat landing at docks, an elevated way has been constructed on the south side of Marion Street west of First Avenue,
making an elevated crossing over Railroad Avenue. If the passenger station had been located as proposed, convenient access
thereto from First Avenue could have been provided by means
of that elevated way and another on the north side of Columbia
Street.
The vacation of streets desired by Mr. Mellon would not
have been detrimental to the City. Spring Street west of First
Avenue has a steep grade and is of little use; Seneca Street
drops vertically so that passage therein from First Avenue is by
means of a long stairway.
Considering what might have been, the lost opportunity
amounts to a calamity.
C. H. Hanford. NEWSPAPERS OF WASHINGTON TERRITORY
[Continued from Volume XIV, page 29.]
SEABECK, KITSAP COUNTY.
REbee Battery, McKennett's Pacific Coast Directory, for
1880-1881, lists this paper with Edward Clayson as editor. No file
is known to exist, but from its title and from a knowledge of the
editor's vigorous personality, the copies of Rebel Battery would
be well worth saving. In his later years he published the Patriarch in Seattle. He had quarreled with his son and thereafter always signed himself Edward Clayson, Senior. At the time of
his death, on January 2, 1915, he was the last known survivor on
the Pacific Coast of the Sweaborg bombardment of the Crimean
War.
SEATTLE, KING COUNTY.
Aeaska Times and Seattle Dispatch, a paper with a short
but rather spectacular career. In 1868, T. G. Murphy issued the
Sitka Times weekly in manuscript form. It contained advertisements and unimportant local items. The first printed number
appeared on April 29, 1869, and the last on September 13, 1870.
Owing to lack of support and to changes in the military department in Alaska the paper was removed to Seattle, October 23,
1870. (H. H. Bancroft, Works, Volumes XXXI., page 379, and
XXXIL, page 677.) The Seattle Intelligencer, on August 1, 1870,
announced that Mr. Murphy was in the city and "informs us
that he intends removing his printing material from that hyperborean region and publishing a paper in Seattle." The Seattle
Intelligencer published numerous articles about its contemporary.
On Monday, October 31, 1870, it announced: "Alaska Times was
issued yesterday." On February 13, 1871, it published a long
article saying that T. G. Murphy was severely flogged by F.
Lampson for a scurrilous article printed by Murphy. Lampson was
released on $100 bail, pled guilty to a charge of assault and battery, was fined $25, which the citizens of Seattle raised. On
May 15, 1871, it announced that the materials of the Alaska Times
were sold to James McNaught who held a mortgage on it. On
August 7, 1871, it said that Hall & Wilson, (Ike M. Hall and W.
(100) Newspapers of  Washington Territory
101
Wilson) who had been publishing the Alaska Times and Seattle
Dispatch discontinued their work and turned the property back
to James McNaught. On March 18, 1872, the Seattle Intelligencer
announced that T. G. Murphy had been admitted to the bar as
an attorney and counselor at law at Port Townsend on March
11, 1872.
American Continent, the Seattle Directory for 1884-1885
shows that M. Choir had an office in rooms 19 and 22 Yesler-
Leary Building and that he was publisher of such a paper.
Cau„ an advertisement in the Seattle Directory for 1884-1885,
says: "The Seattle Daily Call. Every day except Sundays by the
Hall Publishing Company. Subscription rates: ten cents per week,
delivered by carrier. Fifty cents per month or $5 per year by
mail. Office: Mill Street, Rear of Postoffice. (Formerly Han-
ford's Job Printing Office. Hall Publishing Company (Walter
A., Frederick M., and Frank L. Hall), proprietors." Edwin N.
Fuller says the Daily Call appeared on May 5, 1885, and the
weekly edition on May 9, 1885. He says a clipping from another
■ Seattle paper announced that the daily lived sixteen days and the
weekly appeared but once (Washington Press Association Proceedings, 1887-1890, page 83.) This statement of extreme brevity
of life is an exaggeration. The paper was counted radical as it
espoused vigorously the anti-Chinese issue of the day. Citizens
made up a subsidy to establish a rival. (Frederic James Grant,
History of Seattle, page 368.) See Times. On May 3, 1886, the
Call was merged into a new publication.    See Press.
ChroniceE. Kirk C. Ward, on losing control of the Seattle
Post in 1881, began at once the publication of the Chronicle.
Associated with him were Beriah Brown, Jr., W. M. Leach and
Jud R. Andrews. Clarence B. Bagley says Mr. Ward was a fluent
writer and a promoter of no mean sagacity. ("Pioneer Papers of
Puget Sound," in the Quarterly of the Oregon Historical Society,
Volume IV., page 383.) The paper was started as an evening
journal but was changed to a morning journal until 1884. In that
year the Chronicle passed under the management of Thaddeus
Hanford for political reasons. The paper failed and Mert Dishon
was appointed receiver. Through these financial troubles the
paper passed into the ownership of the legal firm of McNaught,
Ferry, McNaught & Mitchell. Mr. Dishon changed the Chronicle
back to an evening paper. S. G. Young became editor on September 20,  1884.    He gave way to Frank C. Montgomery, as 102
Edmond S. Meany
editor, on February 17, 1885. (Charles Prosch and Edwin N.
Fuller, in Washington Press Association Proceedings, 1887-1890,
pages 32 and 82.) Mr. Bagley, in the article cited above says
Frank C. Montgomery was "a Bohemian from Kansas." He
remained editor until the paper was merged with the Call forming
a new publication.   See Press.
Citizen, after parting with his interest in the Seattle Journal,
Alexander Begg issued a handsome weekly paper called the Citizen.
It was listed in the Seattle Directories for 1889 and 1890.
Citizen's Dispatch. Issued at the Puget Sound Gazette
office and bound with that paper dated October 23, 1864. The
paper is ten by three inches and contains the first telegraphic
dispatch received direct. It is saved in the University of Washington Library, Bagley Collection. Mr. C. B. Bagley, speaking
of Seattle's first newspaper and editor says: "But when the first
telegraphic dispatch to Seattle, on October 26, 1864, brought
Civil War news, the primitive newspaper office on the outpost of
civilization was electrified to activity. The dispatch arrived
from Portland at 4 o'clock. Portland had received it from Kansas
City and Kansas City from New York. It gave the news from
Chattanooga of the operations of Sherman against Hood in the
Atlanta campaign. The Gazette did not lose any time in issuing its
Citizen's Dispatch, giving the first published dispatch coming by
wire. At 1 o'clock the day before the cannon had been fired to
celebrate the completion of the Western Union Telegraph line to
Seattle." (History of Seattle, Volume I., page 190.) In the following week Editor Watson gave his "extras" the name of
People's Telegram. See Puget Sound Gazette and People's Telegram.
Commercial Gazette and Puget Sound Maritime Reporter
was listed in Polk's Puget Sound Directory for 1887.
Commercial Herald, listed in 1890 as a monthly publication.
(Seattle Directory.)
Die Puget Sound Post, this German paper was reported as
established in Seattle on November 5, 1883, by Schmidt &
Hunter. (Edwin N. Fuller, in Washington Press Association Proceedings, 1887-1890, page 80.)
Die TribuEne. Frederic James Grant says the paper was
first issued in 1883 and "was the first paper published in the Newspapers of Washington Territory
103
German, or, for that matter, in any foreign language, in Seattle
or Washington." (History of Seattle, page 370.) The Seattle
Directory, for 1884-1885, on page 50, carries an advertisement proclaiming it the oldest German paper in the Territory and giving
Phil. Schmitz as proprietor. The Seattle Directory, for 1885-1886,
gives Rudolph Damus as proprietor and publisher. The Seattle
Directory, for 1889, still shows the same publisher and advertises
the claim that its circulation in Washington and the Northwest
exceeded that of all other German papers combined. On January
17, 1915, the Post-Intelligencer carried a long article praising the
Daily Washington Staats-Zeitung and Jacob Schaefer, its editor
and publisher.    This larger paper had absorbed Die Tribuene.
Dispatch, see Puget Sound Dispatch and Post-Intelligencer.
Enterprise. On August 14, 1889, Charles Prosch wrote:
"Repeated efforts have been made in past years by leading members of the Democratic party to establish an organ in Seattle.
On the 30th of April, 1888, these efforts culminated in the incorporation of the Enterprise Publishing Company, which straightway proceeded to disseminate the principles of the party mentioned. After a checkered career of one month, the Enterprise
died from lack of support. Litigation for wages and material
followed the suspension, and, to crown the misfortunes of the
venture, the plant was destroyed by fire on Thanksgiving night."
(Washington Press Association Proceedings, 1887-1890, page 33.)
Fin-Back, published at varying intervals by Stewart & Eber-
sold. The intervals are shown by the files preserved in the University of Washington Library. In Volume I., it is a weekly from
December 8, 1879, to November 29, 1880. Volume II., shows the
paper as a monthly from December 25, 1880, to February 1,
1881; and as a tri-weekly from February 5, 1881, to June 28, 1881,
which runs into Volume III. With the tri-weekly the publishers
changed to Bowman & Austin, while Stewart & Ebersold retained
the job printing office. On August 31, 1881, the paper appeared
as the Daily Evening Fin-Back, with the label Volume III., number 123 and continued as such to Number 151, October 4, 1881.
In the intial number it was claimed that "1000 copies circulated
up and down the Sound free of charge." Another announcement
was: "Published for the instruction and amusement of its readers.
Devoted to the interests of the world at large and Seattle in
particular."
Gazette, see Puget Sound Gazette. 104
Edmond S. Meany
Herald. "The evening Herald was first issued on July 5,
1882, by a company consisting of W. G. C. Pitt, T. H. Bates, and
Thaddeus Hanford. It was printed with the material of the old
Pacific Tribune. (H. H. Bancroft, Works, Volume XXXL, page
379.) The Seattle Directory, for 1882, carries a full-page advertisement calling the Daily Herald the "People's Paper", "Bold and
Fearless", "Enterprising and Truthful". By mail, the price was
$6 the year. On September 19, 1884, the paper explained its
suspension for a single issue owing to financial troubles. "It
died on October 8, 1884, from lack of resources." (Edwin N.
Fuller, in Washington Press Association Proceedings, 1887-1890,
page 83.)
Illustrated Budget, was started a few weeks before the
great Seattle fire of June 6, 1889. The editor and proprietor was
Samuel R. Frazier, a former Pittsburg newspaper man. Hem
paper was steadily increasing in favor until the fire checked its
course. Mr. Frazier accepted the position of editor of the Press
and his Budget was disposed of and soon ceased publication.
Intelligencer, first appeared on August 5, 1867, as a weekly,
neutral in politics, with S. L. Maxwell, as publisher. Beginning
on August 9, 1870, the Intelligencer, continuing its weekly edition
at $4 a year, published also a tri-weekly on Tuesday, Thursday
and Saturday of each week at $8 a year. In September a daily
issue was begun but about February 4, 1871, all issues were discontinued except the weekly. (H. H. Bancroft, Works, Volume
XXXL, page 379, and inspection of files by Victor J. Farrar.)
On August 9, 1873, and on September 5, 1874, Mr. Maxwell
advertises in his own paper and offers to sell out on account of
sickness in his family. L. M. McKenney, of San Francisco, in
his Pacific Coast Directory, for 1878, listed the Intelligencer as a
daily and weekly with Higgins & Hanford as publishers. In 1878,
the Intelligencer absorbed two other papers, the Pacific Tribune
which had begun its existence in Olympia in 1863 and moved to
Tacoma and later to Seattle before its absorption by the Intelligencer; the other, the Puget Sound Dispatch, which had been
established in 1871 by Col. C. H. Larrabee and Beriah Brown.
See Pacific Tribune under Olympia, Tacoma and Seattle, and
Puget Sound Dispatch. After this amalgamation, the Intelligencer
continued. The Pacific Coast Directory, for 1880-1881, lists it
with Prosch & Crawford, as proprietors. This firm was composed
of Thomas W. Prosch and Samuel Leroy Crawford.    They had Newspapers of Washington Territory
105
acquired the Intelligencer in 1879, after Mr. Prosch had ceased to
be postmaster of Seattle. On October 1, 1881, the Intelligencer
was merged with the Post. See Post-Intelligencer. The Seattle
Public Library has incomplete files beginning with Volume I.,
Number 1, August 5, 1867 and extending to June 3, 1876. The
University of Washington Library has the weekly issues from
Volume I., Number 1, to Volume VI., Number 52, August 2, 1873,
and another volume containing the issues from August 9, 1873 to
July 31, 1875. The same library has a file of the Tri-Weekly
Intelligencer from Volume I., Number 1, August 9, 1870, to
Number 77, February 4, 1871. This form of the paper was
discontinued at the end of six months.
Journal. Charles Prosch and Edwin N. Fuller have saved the
information that, in 1888, Alexander Begg, Edmond S. Meany and
David B. Murray established in Seattle the Daily Trade Journal.
Mr. Prosch says: "As its name indicated, it was designed strictly
as a commercial paper, and for some weeks was devoted exclusively to market reports, stock quotations, etc. By degrees its
sphere was enlarged, until finally it contained daily an epitome
of passing events, local and general, in addition to commercial
matters." (Washington Press Association Proceedings, 1887-
1890, pages 34, 86.) In 1889, the paper passed into the hands of
a company which included such well known men as Judge Thomas
Burke, John Collins and D. E. Durie. The word "Trade" was
dropped from the title and it became the Journal, a morning paper with Democratic leanings. The Seattle Directory, for 1889,
announces E. W. S. Tingle, as editor, Charles S. Painter, as Business Manager. The paper was delivered by carriers at seventy-
five cents a month and was sent by mail at six dollars a year. The
paper survived the great fire of June 6, 1889, and passed on for a
short time into the early days of statehood.
Leader, established in the very year of statehood this Paper
flourished for a few years as the only temperance publication in
Washington. Its first isue is given by Edwin N. Fuller as of
April 11, 1889. (Washington Press Association Proceedings,
1887-1890, page 88.) An incomplete file, embracing parts of
Volumes I., and II., is preserved in the University of Washington Library. The issue for August 1, 1889, shows the following
officers: President, Everett Smith; Secretary, H. E. Kelsey;
Treasurer, John B. Denny; those and A. Macready and F. H. 106
Edmond S. Meany
Terry constituted the Board of Directors.    Jonas Bushell was
Manager.
Mirror, about six years before the appearance of the Leader,
another temperance paper was attempted in Seattle, under the
name of Mirror. Edwin N. Fuller says the last issue was Volume
I., Number 45, bearing the date of September 14, 1884. (Washington Press Association Proceedings, 1887-1890, page 83.) This
would place the first issue at November 11, 1883.
NordvEst Kusten, in the Seattle City and King County Directory, for 1885-1886, page, 38, an advertisement says that such a
paper is published "at the foot of Columbia Street opposite the
bay." It was to appear twice a month at $1.20 per year. Frans
Lager was given as the publisher, though on page 108 his name
was spelled Lagerof.
North PaciEic Rural, Benson L. Northrup, a veteran of
the Civil War, arrived in Seattle with his family on September
11, 1875, and on the next Monday morning he went to work as
foreman in the Intelligencer office. In 1876, he rented from the
publisher of that paper the job printing department. Among
other works turned out from that office was Seattle's first Business Directory. It carries on the little page the date 1876, with
the line: "Comprising a history of the first settlement, after development and present population and business of the City." It
was compiled by Kirk C. Ward and published by B. L. Northrup
who was credited with the printing. From this same office Mr.
Northrup also published the North Pacific Rural, a monthly agricultural Paper. Mr. Charles Prosch says it obtained some circulation in the country and became the nucleus of a new daily.
(Washington Press Association Proceedings, 1887-1890, page 31.)
On November 15, 1878, Mr. Northrup formed a partnership with
Kirk C. Ward, who had helped him with the Directory, and on
that date merged his agricultural paper into the new daily which
took the name of Post.    See Seattle Post and Post-Intelligencer.
North Seattle Advocate, the Seattle Directories, for 1888
and 1889, show this paper as being Published by H. Leland &
Co. An advertisement in 1889 shows the company to consist of
Henry Leland and John J. Knoff. They sought job printing of
every description and gave their address as "2317 Front Street."
Northern Light, this name appears at least three times in Newspapers of Washington Territory
107
the Territory of Washington, in Bellingham, Port Townsend and
Seattle. In the case of Seattle, the name appears merely in an
announcement in the Olympia Pioneer and Democrat for February 8, 1861: "Mr. Daniel Dodge proposes to commence a newspaper at Seattle, W. T., about the first of May. Terms $3 in advance.   Mr. Dodge's paper will be called the Northern Light."
Northwest Trade Review, listed as a semi-monthly by the
Seattle Directory, for 1890.
Observer, listed as a weekly in the Seattle Directory, for
1890.
Pacific Tribune, established in Olympia in 1863 by R. H.
Hewitt and passed into the control of Charles Prosch and his son
Thomas W. Prosch, who, in August, 1873, moved the paper to
Tacoma. On June 15, 1875, the paper, under the same-name, with
Thomas W. Prosch as publisher made its first appearance as a
Seattle publication. The moving was chronicled by the Seattle
Intelligencer, on June 19, 1875. The first Seattle Directory, 1876,
carries a full-Page advertisement for the Pacific Tribune, daily
and weekly. The price was $10 for the daily and $3 for the
weekly. Job printing was solicited and Thomas W. Prosch was
publisher. Edward A. Turner, a native of Maine, came to Seattle in 1875. He became editor of the Pacific Tribune for a
short time. In 1878, Thomas W. Prosch became postmaster of
Seattle and in that same year the Pacific Tribune was purchased
by Thaddeus Hanford and merged into the Intelligencer. (Charles
Prosch in Washington Press Association Proceedings, 1887-1890,
pages 31-33.) See same title under Olympia and Tacoma and
also see Post-Intelligencer. Incomplete files of the Pacific Tribune
are in the University of Washington Library. MEMORIES OF WHITE SALMON AND ITS PIONEERS
I    I
The beginnings of history are like the sources of some mighty
river, hidden and obscure. First, the individual, then the family,
the community, the State, the Nation, ever increasing and becoming more powerful for good or evil, but ever partaking in large
measure of the spirit and character of its founders.
The little stream is hidden in the mighty river: "Men may
come and men may go" but the "Brook" goes on forever. The
Pioneers lived, labored and endured, and then went to their well-
earned rest, yet how few of them have left for us the record of
their lives, other than in the communities where they lived and the
states which they founded. It is well for us who remain, who
knew these men and women, to put on record what we know of
them.   There is yet a great deal of interesting unwritten history.
In the fall of 1852, Erastus S. Joslyn arrived at Portland
from Massachusetts. With him same his wife, Mrs. Mary L.
(Warner) Joslyn, and a young school teacher, Miss Abigail
Clark, who taught for some years in Portland and Oregon City
schools, and later became the wife of Byron P. Cardwell. They
came via the Isthmus route, which in those days was something
of an adventure itself.
Seth Warner, Jr., a brother of Mrs. Joslyn, had preceded
them, but he died I think, before they arrived,—at any rate,
it was a sore disappointment and grief to them. Seth Warner, Jr.,
is buried in Lone Fir Cemetery, Portland.   His age was 33 years.
Mr. Joslyn's work hitherto had mostly been in factory or
shop; he had had little chance to obtain an education, but both
himself and wife were young and hopeful, courageous and ambitious, but with very limted means; they had a good endowment
of honesty, industry and common sense, and the great expanse
of the Inland Empire beyond The Dalles was theirs to choose
from. By the advice and assistance of friends, they decided in
March, 1853, to go there and engage in raising cattle and dairying.
With a stock of provisions and seed for their first year, they
went by the little river steamer to the Lower Cascades, where
everything had to be transferred to the "Upper Landing," with
much risk and hard labor. This accomplished, their provisions
were loaded upon a flat-boat for The Dalles. Then came long
days of waiting for favorable winds.   Their cook stove, set up on
(108) Memories of White Salmon and Its Pioneers
109
deck, under an awning, did double duty for them and another
family less fortunate than themselves. Mrs. Joslyn tells of
"sharing their potatoes which had cost them three cents a pound,
with them", and of "feeding one man who had narrowly escaped
drowning in crossing 'Dog River'." Finally, after a long struggle with adverse winds they reached The Dalles,—three weeks
from Portland. The first night they slept in a warehouse,—or
tried to, but the wind was so tempestuous that they almost feared
for their lives. On their way up they had seen something of
White Salmon and soon determined to return and locate there.
White Salmon is twenty miles west of The Dalles, on the
north side of the Columbia, and the same distance east from the
Cascades. At that time the Indians held undisputed possession.
The scenery there is unrivalled anywhere else along the Columbia,
and its climate different; it being where in summer the rain and
the sunshine meet, and in winter the warm "Chinook" and the
cold "Walla Walla' winds wage their fiercest battles.
The meadows and arable land here extend for about four
miles east and west along the Columbia, varying in width from
a few rods at each end, to one-half mile, or even more, at the
widest part. A short distance from the "Upper Landing" is a
small lake, covering five or six acres. In the early days there
were ■ many groves of willows and Cottonwood trees, and the
open meadows covered with a heavy growth of native grass, the
meadow foxtail. In extreme high water much of the lower land
was flooded in June and July. It is not strange that the Indians
loved their home.
Mr. Joslyn's ideals were high, and he dealt squarely and
honestly with white man and Indian alike. He first called in
their chief men and bought his land outright, paying them in
blankets, flour, cloth and "hyas ictas," "many things dear to their
childish fancy". Some of the Indians were good workers and
soon found it for their interest to help in improving the claim.
So, everafter, the Indians recognized Mr. Joslyn's title to the
land, and with a few exceptions remained friendly and loyal
during the Indian troubles of 1855 and '56, when the murderous
Yakimas drove them from their home and burned their house and
barn.
Mr. Joslyn chose for the site of his home, a sheltered spot
about one mile west of the present "Upper Landing"; well
above high water mark. Here, a short distance to the north, a
beautiful stream of pure soft water came foaming down a defile 110
Albert J. Thompson
in the rocky bluff. It is now known as Jewett Creek. At the
base of these cliffs in those days was a grove of giant pine trees.
This was an ideal shelter for cattle in winter, and the stream gave
a never failing supply of pure water at house and barn. In later
years these pine trees were cut and a peach orchard planted there.
At that time there were a great many magnificent oak trees
here, giving shade for house, barns and corrals.
A little northwest of this place, the cliffs give place to hil