Open Collections

BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

The story of the years : a history of the Woman's Missionary Society of the Methodist Church, Canada,… Strachan, E. S.; Ross, E. W. 1917

Item Metadata

Download

Media
bcbooks-1.0354338.pdf
Metadata
JSON: bcbooks-1.0354338.json
JSON-LD: bcbooks-1.0354338-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): bcbooks-1.0354338-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: bcbooks-1.0354338-rdf.json
Turtle: bcbooks-1.0354338-turtle.txt
N-Triples: bcbooks-1.0354338-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: bcbooks-1.0354338-source.json
Full Text
bcbooks-1.0354338-fulltext.txt
Citation
bcbooks-1.0354338.ris

Full Text

Array  THE LIBRARY
THE UNIVERSITY OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA
The F. W. Howay
and R. L. Reid
Collection   of   Canadiana
V   THE STORY
OF THE YEARS
A History of the Woman's  Missionary
Society of the Methodist Church,
Canada,   1906-1916
By
MRS. E. S. STRACHAN
Field, later Foreign, Secretary since 1881
With Introduction, Foreword (China). Home Base
and Distinguished Service Order Chapters
By
MRS. W. E. ROSS
Dominion President since 1897
VOL. III.
TORONTO
WOMAN'S MISSIONARY SOCIETY METHODIST CHURCH. CANADA
WESLEY BUILDINGS Coorrieht, Canada, 1917,
by
WOMAN'S  MISSIONARY SOCIETY
METHODIST  CHURCH
CANADA PREFACE
i
IT is difficult to compress within suitable
bounds and at tbe same time give anything
like an adequate " Story of the Years," 1906-
1916, during which the Woman's Missionary
Society of the Methodist Church, Canada,
has continued its God-given work.
Following the account of the first twenty-
five years of the Society's operations, so faithfully and so ably presented by the late Mrs.
H. L. Piatt in the first and second volumes,
we find an embarrassment of material—
informing and interesting—concerning the
wonderful expansion and consolidation so
obvious in all departments.
In harmony with the plan previously
adopted we consider the missions in the
same general order, only striving to mark
their development and the opening of new
stations.
Elizabeth S. Strachak.
Hamilton, Ont., 1917.  CONTENTS
CHAPTER
Preface ....
Illustrations
Introduction ....
Indian Field
I. Crosby Girls' Home
II. Elizabeth Long Memorial Home
III. Coqualeetza Institute
IV. Cross Lake     .       .       .       .
Nelson House ....
French and Foreign Work
Montreal, Que.
V. French and Foreign, Montreal
French Methodist Institute .
French Protestant Home
Syrian School     ....
Strangers and Foreigners
VI. Asiatic Foreigners .
Orientals in British Columbia    .
Oriental Home and School, Victoria.
B.C	
Japanese and Chinese, Vancouver
VII. European Foreigners
Ruthenians or Austrians in Alberta
Wahstao ....
Kolokreejsa      ....
Chipman	
Edmonton
17
25
31
34
34
41
41
43
43
51
51
51
60
69
79
81 CHAPTER
VIII.
Contents
Many Nationalities ....
All Peoples' Mission, Winnipeg .
Frank, Alta.; Fernie and Michel, B.C.
Prince Rupert, B.C.   .
Vancouver, B.C	
Fort William, Ont.
Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. .
Italian—Toronto, Hamilton, Montreal
Japan
IX. Japan
X. Tokyo      .
XI. Shizuoka .
XII. Kofu
XIII. Kanazawa
XIV. Toyama  .
XV. Nagano   .
XVI. Ueda
88
88
89
91
91
92
92
94
103
117
124
137
150
153
157
China
XVII. A Foreword 175
XVIII. Chengtu 181
Girls' School . . . . .181
Women's Schools .... 190
School for Evangelists' Wives   .       .193
Medical Work 211
XIX. Kiating   .  234
XX. Jenshow 244
XXI. Junghsien 254
XXII. Tzeliutsing 267
XXIII. Luchow 281
XXIV. Penghsien 293
XXV. Chungking 297
XXVI.
XXVII.
The Heart of the Problem
The Home Base      .
"Distinguished Service Order"   .
301
320
Appendix
A. Branch Schedules, 1905-06, 1915-16       .   332-333
B. Officers of the Board of Managers, 1906-1916. 334
C. Missionaries Appointed since 1906   .       .       . 337
6 illustrations
PAGE
Map, Dominion of Canada 16
Crosby Girls' Home, Port Simpson, B.C.     .       .    18
Girls in Crosby Girls' Home       .        .       .        .18
Elizabeth Long Memorial Home, Kitamaat, B.C.    26
Girls in Girls' Home, Kitamaat   .        .        .        .26
Coqualeetza Institute   .       .       .       .       .       .32
Hospitals, Hazelton and Port Simpson, B.C.       .    32
Miss Jackson's Home, Nelson House, Man.       .   34
Miss Jackson and her Dog Team .       .       .       .34
French Protestant Home, Montreal, Que.     .       .   42
Syrian School, Montreal, Que 42
Oriental Home and School, Victoria, B.C. . . 52
Children in Oriental Home and School . . 52
Missionaries' Home, Vancouver, B.C. . . .60
Miss J. L. Howie and her Japanese Assistant,
Hibi San 60
W.M.S. Home and School, Wahstao, Alta. . . 72
WiM.S. Home and School, Kolokreeka, Alta. . 72
Ruthenian Home, Edmonton, Alta. . . .84
Hospitals, Pakan and Lamont, Alta. . . .84
All Peoples' Mission, Winnipeg, Man.—
Stella Ave. and Sutherland Ave. Institutes     .    88
Miss Cunningham and Group, Sault Ste. Marie   .    88
Italian Missions, Toronto 94
Map, Japan 100
Girls' Boarding School, Tokyo, Japan .       . 103
Academic Department, Tokyo, Japan . . . 103
Senior Class, Household Science, Tokyo      .       . 105 Illustrations
PAGE
Junior Class, Household Science, Tokyo . . 105
W.M.S. Home and Boarding School, Shizuoka,
Japan .       .x US
Primary Building, Shizuoka, Japan . . .118
Home and Boarding School, Kofu, Japan . . 124
Evangelistic Centre, Kofu, Japan       .       .       .124
Yamanashi Province 128
Strachan Hall, Kanazawa, Japan . . . 144
Herbie Bellamy Home, Kanazawa, Japan . . 144
Kawakami, Kindergarten, Kanazawa, Japan . 148
Baba Kindergarten, Kanazawa, Japan . . 148
Kindergarten and Home, Nagano, Japan . .154
1916 Graduation Class, Kindergarten,  Nagano,
Japan 154
Missionaries' Home, Ueda, Japan . . . 158
Kindergarten Building, Ueda, Japan . . . 158
Girls' Boarding School, Chengtu, China . . 182
Boarding Pupils, Girls' School, Chengtu, China . 182
Map, Szechwan Province, China .... 184
Missionaries' Home, Chengtu, China . . .186
•Gymnasium, Girls' School, Chengtu, China . . 186
W.M.S. Hospital, Chengtu, China . . .216
Dr. Anna Henry, Supt, of W.M.S. Hospital. . 216
Missionaries' Home, Kiating, China . . .234
Boarding Pupils, Kiating School .... 234
Home and School, Jenshow, China . . . 244
Missionaries' Home, Junghsien, China . . . 244
Boarding School, Tzeliutsing, China . . .276
Home and School, Luchow, China       .       .       . 276 INTRODUCTION
SO much is crowded into the days and
months of the swiftly passing years that
it is well, at the close of each decade in the
history of the Society, to gather up the scattered threads of thought and action and weave
them into an imperishable record.
During the last more than two years of the
period, sorrows hitherto unknown, losses irreparable, and cruel anxieties have been the
portion of many of the women of our sisterhood, but they have been sustained by the
surety that their sacrificial offerings have not
been in vain, for we are all one in the hope
that after this heart-breaking war is over, in
which the ends of the world have touched
each other, we shall live in a new world where
brotherhood aiid love, justice and righteousness shall prevail. In order to this all men
must become acquainted with the Christ;
must know, cherish and pursue His ideals.
It is a great satisfaction that our beloved
Foreign Secretary, Mrs. E. S. Strachan, who
has been " an eyewitness and minister of the
word from the beginning," has been able to
set in order for us the events of the past ten
years interwoven with the charm of her own
personality.
9 Introduction
The introduction to the first volume of the
series referred to the work of the Women's
Missionary Societies of the world as a revelation of the new life which came to Christian womanhood in the latter part of the
nineteenth century. Since then there has
been merely an unfolding of this higher life,
an evolution toward increased spiritual and
mental power in the individual and greater
efficiency in methods of work; just an earnest
effort to reach the highest in the service of
Jesus Christ our Lord; therefore those who
come to this " Story" expecting something
new, something spectacular, may be disappointed, for throughout it has only been
possible to indicate the outward signs of that
silent growth of the soul that s cometh not by
observation," but is seen through a vista of
years.
All will rejoice in the manifest increase in
our fellowship, both abroad and at home.
Where in our Educational and Evangelistic
work in the Orient we had hundreds of young
people and children we now have thousands.
A larger number of trained Bible-women and
a greatly increased staff of educated Christian Japanese and Chinese teachers, with
added adequate and beautiful buildings, well
equipped, have multiplied efficiency and
enriched the quality of service rendered.
But above all, those who are one in heart
with our missionaries will exult in the goodly
10 Introduction
•number of baptisms recorded from time to
time, which is merely indicative of the
"larger hope" that has come to multitudes
not yet ready to identify themselves openly
with the Christian Church.
At home, as we shall learn, new avenues
have been entered along the line of Social
Service, and to all advances in the different
fields an added membership in the Society
and an increased annual income have given
joyous response.
The student will note that the Board has
with steadfastness adhered to its first well-
considered plan of establishing in the East
strong centres from which to extend Christian influence and effort. The city of Kofu,
Japan, is an example, where from an adequate base five missionaries and seven Bible-
women reach forty-six out-stations with their
thousands of children. This plan of central
concentration in strategic cities has proved
an immense success, but the time has now
come in Japan and China when forces could
be widely distributed were they available.
Favorable public sentiment, open and inviting towns and villages; eager, waiting hearts
here and there, all combine to urge this
course, and the only hindrance is the lack of
missionaries.
Will every member who reads these pages,
whose dominant desire is the coming of the
Kingdom, pray that this reproach may be
11 Introduction
lifted; pray for added missionaries and
native helpers abroad and for leaders at
home—sorely needed; pray that the women
of Methodism in this crucial hour may not
fail to respond to evident forward leading ?
Caleb said, " Let us go up at once and possess the land," but the people answered, " We
are not able to go up." Then the Lord spake,
" But as truly as I live, all the earth shall be
filled with the glory of the Lord."
This definite prophecy, coupled with the
promise given by the Son of our Lord, " Lo,
I am with you," should enable us with triumphant courage to, with Him, "go up," and
thus seek to share in His ultimate glory.
Elizabeth W. Boss,
President of the Board of Managers.
Hamilton,
January, 1917.
12 INDIAN FIELD
Crosby Girls' Home
Elizabeth Long Memorial
Home
Coqualeetza Institute
Cross Lake, Manitoba
Nelson House, Manitoba INDIAN FIELD
THE place of Christian effort among our Indian
population is evidently not lessening in import
ance or obligation, nor in its privilege.
Their need, their circumscribed possibilities, their
lack of ambition, their inherited diseases and superstitions, their ignorance, their degradation—largely
through contact with evil white men bringing the
drink traffic and its diabolical retinue—all sound a
loud, insistent appeal to everyone having a sense of
justice (to say nothing of generosity), but especially
to the Church of God, that the utmost possible be
done to atone for such wrongs, to replace darkness
and disease with light and health, to proclaim liberty
to the captives of ignorance, fear and evil habits by
the knowledge of God's Word and world, and the
saving, cleansing power of Jesus Christ our Lord.
Canada's Indian population in 1914 was 103,531,
of whom 5,086 were members of the Methodist
Church. It is said that 8,209 are still worshipping
the Great Manitou, and sacrificing to the Great
White Dog.
There are 18,000 of school age and our Church is
educating about 3,000. Six hundred are in its boarding and industrial schools.
Many are of the opinion that the co-education of
Indian boys and girls up to the age of eighteen (as
at Coqualeetza, where the W.M.S. shares responsibility), and ultimate enfranchisement are the only
means that will solve the difficult Indian problem.
So far, in the Homes entirely under the care of the
W.M.S., Kitamaat is the only one where small boys
are admitted, but everywhere social intercourse is
being encouraged more and more.
Hospitals.
In the line of medical work not directly under its
own* control, the W.M.S. has continued to supply the
salaries of eleven nurses—four at Port Simpson
Hospital, four at Hazelton, and three at Bella Bella*  V       *        3        3       0 CHAPTEE I.
CROSBY GIRLS' HOME, PORT SIMPSON, B.C.
THE early years of the Crosby Girls'
Home were naturally full of intense
interest, as a new path was being trodden and
expansion was crowning the effort made
while stimulating to further steps. The intervening years do not stand out through any
startling events, but there has been the steady
" continuance in well doing," that valuably
quality in life or in an institution.
Bain! Bain in 1906! Bain and yet more
rain all through the years, yet the Home still
presents an attractive appearance, thanks to
constant supervision and frequent painting,
also to improvements in the two acres surrounding it. Tourists approaching the harbor instinctively ask, f What is that building
in such a beautiful position, with so many
magnificent views ?"
Constant vigilance has to be exercised
against that great foe of Indians, tuberculosis, and many times the hearts of the
teachers have been saddened when promising
pupils, earnest-hearted Christian girls, who,
it was hoped, might live to be leaders and
helpers in the uplift of their people, have
2 17
Tuberculosis. Indian Field
Out-door
Play-room.
Government Aid.
succumbed to this dread disease. (Cases of
this kind are now excluded.) It therefore
brought great joy when in 1909-10 an outdoor playroom was built, having a roof and
board floor, but with open sides2 where in
rainy weather exercise might be taken.
One of the teachers writes: f It is impossible to estimate the value of our new playroom in the improvement of the general
health of the girls. Through its use a great
nervous strain has also been taken from the
teachers. Four basket-ball teams have been
organized, and the girls enter into this form
of recreation with great zest."
In 1910-11 the foundation was made more
secure at an expenditure of about $600, the
work being done by Indians and approved by
an architect. A well costing $350 was also
furnished. We can imagine its value when
pipes in winter become frozen, or water from
the dam on the hill-side is exhausted in summer. A fire-escape, granted by the Government, was installed, and a Hyloplate blackboard for the schoolroom.
In all educational institutions among the
Indians the authorities acknowledge their
obligation as guardians by furnishing an
annual grant, which for this Home since
1911 has been $100 per capita for forty-five
pupils. The number has varied between
twenty-eight and forty-six, and five workers
now are necessary.
18 1
CROSBY  GIRLS'  HOME,
Port Simpson. B.C.
FUTURE CANADIAN HOME-MAKERS
Girls in Crosby Girls' Home  Crosby Girls' Home
Children come and go, but character-building and the industries that contribute to it
are continuous. We report, as ten years ago,
gratifying progress both in studies and in
household arts, prizes at local exhibitions
having been obtained several years in both
departments. Some specimens sent east, of
composition, penmanship, maps, music score,
accounts, crocheting, drawn-work, etc., would
secure prizes anywhere. Equal excellence is
shown in the making of bread, biscuits and
cake, also in plain sewing.
In 1913 the Advisory Committee thought
it well to comply with the Government suggestion to grant a general holiday at the close
of the cannery season. This has become an
annual event.
The comment made in 1915 is: "This
month's vacation was undoubtedly beneficial
physically, but of the moral effect we do not
feel so confident. However, it is more and
more felt that the parents' right and control
must be recognized, and that through the girls
the people, too, may be uplifted, for it is the
life to which they must return."
The ever-recurring reward: " Many of our  Happy
girls who have left us during past years are  Homes*
doing unusually well.   Four were married at
Christmas and are making happy homes. Six
others are maids in good families, giving satisfaction."   " Capable, well-trained, industri-
19 Indian Field
Distinguished
Visitors.
ous, faithful." What more could be asked of
any girls ?
Welcome calls from passing tourists have
been received at various times, who by their
kind words and evident appreciation have
encouraged the missionaries and enlivened
the ordinary routine. Among them have been
Earl Grey (at the time Governor-General),
his daughter, Lady Sybil Grey, our present
Governor-General, the Duke of Connaught,
with the Duchess of Connaught and the Princess Patricia. Even more welcome, " a joy
and an inspiration," the visits from the close
friends of the school, including Rev. Dr.
S. D. Chown, Dr. T. Albert Moore, Eev.
T. Ferrier, our President, Mrs. W. E. Ross,
Mrs. Thos. Crosby, with her sister, Mrs.
Brown, and their daughters. The name
Crosby is "as ointment poured forth " in
all British Columbia, but more especially so
ait Simpson.
Our Roll of Honor includes the names of
Misses Paul, Baker, Ida Clarke, Scholefield,
Deacon, Hudson, Gray, Black, Powell; and
v in this connection, though not residing in the
Home, we would not omit the name of Miss'
Laing who, after returning from five years in
Japan, resumed her ministry to the sick,
spending four years at Morley, and since
1910 being the efficient lady superintendent
of the hospital at Port Simpson.
20 Crosby! Girls' Home
To Dr. Large and his staff, as well as their  Medical
predecessors,   grateful   appreciation  is  felt        p*
for their invaluable aid to the Home in times
of sickness.
In regard to the social life Miss Gray
writes:
" We had a very happy Christmas season.
Each girl tried her best to make someone else
happy, and it was a really joyous time.
" All but two girls spent Sew Year's Day
with their friends in the village. There were
sports and games of various kinds, the raising
of a new flag-pole being one of the chief
events. In the evening we had a fancy dress
party. One of the girls played and we all
marched around the girls' dining-room for
some time. The girls were very picturesque in their impersonations of Old Mother
Hubbard, Little Bo-Peep, Little Miss Muf-
fett, and many other friends of children. We
then had a short programme, games, and
refreshments. Miss Humphrey very generously sent us a gift of Christmas crackers,
one for each girl, and these provoked much
merriment.
" Last autumn Mr. Marchant, of Victoria,
Inspector of Customs, visited us and was so
interested in our school that he offered to give
prizes. He gave Mr. Sharp, the Hudson's
Bay factor here, ten dollars for that purpose.
This was supplemented by Mr. Sharp, and
21 Indian Field
books were chosen with the hope that they
would stimulate a greater desire for reading.
On the evening of January 12th, a book was
presented to each girl by Mr. Sharp, those
who were the most worthy receiving the best
books. These books are a splendid selection
from the best girls' stories and are being much
enjoyed by all.
"On February 6th, ten of the ex-pupils
were invited to an afternoon tea by Miss
Hudson. Nine came, one being out of the
village. They related many incidents of their
school days and when leaving expressed their
thanks for the happy afternoon."
"March 17th our Mission Band held an
apron sale and five-o'clock tea in the girls'
dining-room, which had been made attractive
with the pretty colors of the aprons and the
dainty tea-tables. The older girls in the
Band did the serving.
" The social event of the season has been
a dinner party given by Mr. and Mrs. Charles
Abbott; a bountiful repast was served. After
dinner, speeches were made by Drs. Spencer and Large and Rev. Mr. Richardson, of
Amyox. Mrs. Spencer poured tea and Dr.
Large attended to the substantial part of the
dinner. Mr. and Mrs. Abbott have been
Christians for many years and true friends
to the missionaries ever since Dr. Crosby's
first work at Port Simpson.   Mr. Abbott went
22 1
Crosby Girls' Home
.on many missionary trips on the Glad Tidings
in the early days."
The patriotic side:
" It pleases us that several of the girls who Patriotism.
have graduated from our Home in the last
two years come to see us frequently; some of
them have joined a Women's Patriotic Society that has been formed for the purpose of
knitting for our soldiers. Over two hundred
pairs of socks were contributed in 1916. We
meet alternate Tuesdays at the Mission House
or here. To-morrow the meeting is here in
the girls' dining-room. It was a very happy
suggestion of Miss Deacon's and is working
well; women come whom we have not been
able to draw into any of the meetings previously. We meet at three, talk, knit, drink
tea, have our closing exercises and disperse
about 4.45."
The religious effort. Miss Powell writes:
" Work such as is being carried on in the
Crosby Girls' Home, Port Simpson, has to be
done largely in faith, with the hope that in
the future a harvest will be reaped. The
worker needs all the love and patience and
tact of a mother, and that toward children
who not only are not her own2 but who are
of a different race. All womanly virtues,
graces and accomplishments can find scope
here. The best, the very best, is not too good,
and one, conscious of limitations, so often
23 Indian Field
sighs to be more efficient,   and   turns   for
encouragement to the assurance that 'our
sufficiency is from God.'
Revival. "Late in the winter a revival came to
Simpson. It lasted about two months, and
during the first three weeks the meetings
were held night and day. We have been
awakened at 4 a.m. by the people out parading the streets, accompanied by the band, and
that after being at the meeting until midnight. Many professed conversion, and many
who had grown cold have been brought back
again.
"There was a wonderful influence in the
meetings, especially while they sang—short
choruses over and over again. Indians sing
with much pathos and feeling. Often the
whole congregation would be in tears.
" Some of us will never forget one Sunday
afternoon when, in the attitude of  prayer,
they sang again and again this refrain:
'' They crucified Him;  they crucified Him
And nailed Him to a tree.
And there He died, a King, crucified
To save a poor sinner like me!
"Never before, as then, had we felt the
wonder of the sacrifice of Christ.
" Several of our bigger girls stood up one
night to testify for Christ, and some, we
believe, are trying to be true to their testimony. This, and the fact that our numbers
are increasing, gives us cause for thankfulness and encouragement."
24 npapm
CHAPTER II.
GIRLS'   HOME,  KITAMAAT,   B.C.
*l Elizabeth Long Memorial Home.''
THE last glimpse of Kitamaat in the
previous volume revealed a sad condition—Home in ashes, teachers and children
scattered, the beloved Superintendent, Miss
Long, obliged through ill health to return to
her friends in Ontario, her life's active work
completed; the founders of the Home, Rev.
Geo. H. and Mrs. Raley, removed—no
wonder all felt bereft. But morning always
follows night.
The new building erected by the W.M.S. in
1908 and named " The Elizabeth Long Home.
Memorial Home," began even before completion to receive the waiting children, a new
feature being that provision was now made
for eight or ten little boys. Twenty-seven
children were admitted during the year. The
full capacity, thirty-four, is usually occupied.
The Government had built a new village
schoolhouse quite close to the Home, which
was a great boon, especially in wet weather.
For ten years Miss Alice H. Jackson had
given her strength to the uplift of these
people, and in 1910 she was succeeded in
the superintendence of the Home by Miss
Donogh.
25
New Indian Field
Water
Power.
Additional
Dormitory.
As at Port Simpson, the visit of Mrs. Ross
and her friend Miss Nixon in 1911 gave great
inspiration and pleasure.
Improvements in the surroundings rejoiced
all—stumps cleared away, the hill-side
graded, cribbings built, making it possible to
have a level lawn in front of the Home, and
an open play-house, 24 x 30 feet.
" The swings were a great attraction, but
one child having been hurt, the Kitamaat
Council forbade the little ones to swing, but
did not enforce its law. The boys and girls
had a meeting of their own next day, and all
signed a petition respectfully asking the
Council to change its mind, and then immediately proceeded to swing as often as they
chose."
" The sanitary conditions of the Home are
good—there is a good, modern water system,
with water taps on each of the four floors,
supplied from a dam on the hillside, of three
hundred feet elevation, and carried to the
house by sunken water pipes. All sewage is
carried to tide water by a large drain pipe.
"A most important addition of a dormitory with capacity for twelve beds has been
built in the attic, which, with the large dormitory for girls and a small one for boys,
gives air space for thirty-four beds, live hundred cubic feet for each child being the
requirement of the Indian Department.   On
26 "ELIZABETH LONG  MEMORIAL HOME'
Kitamaat.^B.C.
VICTORIOUS COMPETITORS
A group of Children in the Girls' Home. Kitamaat. and eight members of the
Auxiliary.     This-Bannerwas won by the-Kitamaat-Mission Band
afthe 1916 B.C. Branch Meeting  Elizabeth Long Memorial Home
his last visit the Inspector said we have the
best sleeping accommodation of any school he
had seen in his recent visits.
" Operations are now going forward for a  Class A.
cement foundation and basement floor, to be
completed before winter, which places the
building in. Class i A.'"
Miss Ida M. Clarke, who had spent six successful years at Port Simpson and three in
Edmonton, was in 1912 appointed in charge
at Kitamaat, a post she still occupies with
advantage to all.
Soon after arriving she organized a Mission Band, which proved an education, and
the meetings were much enjoyed .
At the beginning " the members all ex-  " Do some-
pressed a wish to give themselves to Jesus  thin&*°r
and to ' do  something  for somebody else.'   else."
Since then two of the older ones said that
they made up their minds to be Christians
when they joined the Mission Band."    In
two years, chiefly by sale of their work, they
contributed    $90.90    and    $101.60;    1916
brought $146.00, and to them was awarded
the banner for the year.   A flourishing Auxiliary also exists.
By the kindness of Mrs. Reddick, wife of
the missionary, music lessons on the organ
had for a number of years been given several
of the girls, who at length were able in turns
to play at the church services.
" 27 Indian "Field
English It seems "it is an endless struggle to get
Required. the children to talk English among themselves," but by instituting a reward system
great improvement has been manifest, and
consequent progress in the schoolroom.
With no doctor within one hundred and
fifty miles and mails but once a month the
appointment and arrival of a trained nurse
brought great relief to the over-strained teachers, as well as an untold benefit to the village.
Miss S. E. Alton, who since 1895 has ministered so faithfully to the sick at Port Simpson, Bella Bella and, since 1914, at Kitamaat,
thus writes:
" There are problems to be solved by a
nurse in Kitamaat, how best to really help
these people. In going around daily, in and
out of the village homes, giving treatment
or medicine as required or dressing wounds
when necessary, the problem comes how to
help these women to understand the ordinary
care of their children, to clean up their homes
and to grasp something of the principles
of sanitation and ventilation.
" There are few in the village who consider
it necessary to ventilate their homes.
" The best work can be done among the ex-
pupils of the Home. It means much to the
Kitamaat people to have such a home as the
Elizabeth Long Memorial right in the village.   The general health is very good, with
28 Elizabeth Long Memorial Home
the exception of tubercular cases; these are
hard to help in their homes."
Miss Scouten says:
* " Miss Alton is busy every day nursing and
looking after the sick of the village, even having some night calls, which are not very
pleasant these cold nights. Once a week she
holds Mothers' Meetings, which are well
attended. With all her work she is never
too busy to help us in the Home. She is just
the right person in the right place.
" Miss Alton has started the Indian women
knitting and holding Mothers' Meetings. She
gives them talks on the care of children, and
germs, and things like that. I am sure it will
be helpful. Tuberculosis is the only disease
they need dread here. We give them plenty
of nourishing food, and it is amusing when,
after a hearty meal^ the little boys rub their
stomachs and say, ■ I am plenty.'"
To growing girls accustomed from infancy Camping.
to an outdoor life, a few weeks of camping in
summer are delightful in prospect, in realization and in retrospect. For some years this
has been enjoyed, with more or less of inconvenience. To add to the zest of all, 1916
brings visible signs of permanence and added
comforts.
Following are extracts from personal letters:
29 Indian Field
" Rest
Cottage."
"We are looking forward to the usual
camping time, four or Hive weeks in July and
August, and we are arranging to have Mr.
Moore put us up a small shack, which we
speak of as our 'rest cottage.' We can go
there sometimes for a few days' rest when we
are tired and want to be quiet. As it is quite
near Mr. and Mrs. Moore's, one will not feel
nervous being alone. It will be very useful
for keeping our tent, stove and other camping
outfit in through themyear.
" During camping season the teachers will
use the shack, the girls will have our tent and
we have the use of a government tent for our
little boys.
" The lumber for the shack has come and is
on the wharf now. One of the men in the
valley is bringing his launch to take it across
the water, and will have- his horses haul it
up to the camp ground. This is his donation ; a splendid one, is it not ? It is encouraging to have people willing to help us out.
" The little son recently born to Mr. and
Mrs. Moore (formerly Miss Lizzie Donogh,
of the Home staff) will be an added interest
to* us while camping."
30 CHAPTER III.
COQUALEETZA INSTITUTE,
CHILLIWACK, B.C.
DIFFERING from the two preceding Manage-
stations, for whose management and g^^ot
support the Woman's Missionary (Society is
wholly responsible, the Coqualeetza Institute,
while under the control of the General
Society or Mission Board of the Church, has
by agreement an equal claim on both Societies
for support. Fortunately neither is called
upon for any large amount, as the annual
Government grant, together with the produce
of the farm and other industries, in general
meets the current outlay.
There is little to be added to the succinct history and description already given.
Through succeeding years continued faithful
instruction, godly example and fervent prayers have built into the lives of hundreds of
Indian boys and girls truths and principles,
knowledge and inspiration, as well as practical skill in many handicrafts, which must
result in purer, happier lives and more useful
citizenship.
Mr.  R.  H.   Cairns,  who was the valued  Business
principal for seven years, tells of an ex-pupil,  Ablllty-
31 Indian Field
Three-fold
Pledge.
one of the Kitamaat boys, visiting Coqualeetza, having six hundred dollars in his
pocket, which he and his brother had saved
from their earnings in lumber camps. Their
intention was to open a small store at one of
the fishing stations.
The problem for the Indian here is not the
earning of money, but the spending of it, and
as elsewhere the drink traffic is the great foe.
To fortify against this evil it is pleasing to
read the record of Rev. Geo. H. Raley, who
has been in charge since 1914, that " with the
exception of three, the total enrolment (110)
have taken the three-fold pledge against intoxicants, cigarettes and profanity."
A new open-air dormitory has been erected,
accommodating twenty additional pupils, and
still between sixty and seventy are waiting
admission, showing growing appreciation.
Good progress has been made in the classrooms, markedly in the use of English, so
necessary as a means of communication
among children of different tribes and languages. Sixty attend school in an outdoor
class-room.
" A good proportion of the graduates of the
Institute are doing well. One is studying for
the Methodist ministry; one went with the
first contingent and one is with the second,
while several others have enlisted.
" Every child knows that Canada is at war,
32 COQUALEETZA INSTITUTE
Sardis. B.C.   :
HAZELTON HOSPITAL
PORT SIMPSON HOSPITAL  Coqualeetza Institute
and every night the movements of the armies
of the Empire are demonstrated with the aid
of the blackboard, maps and diagrams. The
patriotic spirit is maintained at a white heat."
Social Service at Chilliwack.
Since 1908 a neighborhood visitor has been
engaged, who has found ample opportunities
for the exercise of all her gifts. The work
can scarcely be tabulated, but year in and
year out Miss Minnie E. Hunter has ministered to these people.   She writes:
"We have seven different Reservations,
covering a distance from east to west of about
fifty miles and from north to south of about
ten miles. There are a number of Roman
Catholic families scattered among the Methodist Indians. We have on the church roll a
membership of 110. Being so scattered it is
almost impossible to do any organized work,
but we have the poor to help, the orphans to
care for, the weak ones to strengthen, the sinning ones to point the way to the world's
Saviour, the sick to nurse, the dying to pray
with, and the sorrowing to comfort."
Seven
Reservations.
33 CHAPTER IV.
Beginnings.
CROSS LAKE AND NELSON HOUSE,
MANITOBA.
IN 1912 Miss Alice H. Jackson, formerly
of Kitamaat, after taking a course of
home nursing, spent a year at Cross Lake,
ministering to the Indians, relieving their
sufferings, teaching a sewing class, and conducting a small Sunday school.
Towards the end of 1913, after a journey
of four days by dog-team, she arrived at Nelson House, Man., which is still the centre of
her labors. Perhaps this is the most isolated
of all our fields, yet how cheerfully she
describes her surroundings:
" On my return from my holiday in the
fall of 1914, the first work undertaken was
converting the log shack set apart for my use
into a livable home. With the missionary's
assistance I was able to move into it Hive
weeks later. The rough part of the work
only was done, the finishing has taken the
whole year, for I could only have men working when I had time to oversee them; the
Chinese are not the only men who need
watching when building.
" Finally it is almost complete. It is cosy
and   comfortable   and   an   example   to  the
34 1
IThis building was converted into a home for Miss Jackson, Nelson House. Ma
She has taken six little Indian girls to live with her.
A LONE WOMAN IN THE NORTHLAND
Miss Jackson'with her motor power, off for an eight mile trip.
50° below zero, to visit the sick  Cross Lake, Manitoba
people, showing them how they can make
their homes more comfortable and attractive.
" As spring advanced I began to think of
a garden, for the only way to have vegetables
here is to grow them. The outcome is a nicely
fenced garden one hundred feet square, where
I have sufficient potatoes for the year, and
other vegetables which I have enjoyed
throughout the summer. The days are so
long during the summer months vegetation is
very rapid, which adds to the flavor, so I have
never enjoyed more delicious vegetables.
" As soon as I was settled in my own home
I had an Indian girl live with me; she speaks
good English, so acted as my interpreter. I
found her very helpful as well as companionable, and my work was muck more effective
by having her on hand to talk for me, but
after she had been with me six months her
mother planned a marriage for her. Although
Susie did not want to leave me and was not
anxious to be married, such strong influences
were brought to bear that she finally yielded.
Subsequently she and her husband camped
near-by, so she was still available to act as my
interpreter.
" After four months of not too happy married life her husband died, so she is going
away with her mother for the winter."
Among other things sent from Toronto was
a gramophone, which proved a great source
of pleasure to Miss Jackson and many others.
35 Indian Field
Modes of
Travel.
Picnicking
50 Below
Zero.
In her daily round of visits to the sick,
especially the more distant ones, the dogteam,
subsequently supplied, was a great help and
a saving of time and strength, while 1916
furnished another most valuable aid to locomotion in the form of a small motor boat,
quite a curiosity to the Indians. Some thrilling experiences in travelling make it very
clear that no possible aid is too good for such
noble service.
" It required a little courage to start off at
5 a.m. with the mercury down to 50 degrees,
but once on the way I did not mind. The
trails were very heavy, so we could not travel
fast. Instead of four days for the round trip
it took us six. At the camp I found all were
suffering from colds, etc. They had no medicines of any kind. I remained until noon the
next day and was busy all the time. I left
medicines with them and heard later that all
recovered.
" We had a nice little service in one camp
where several understood English. While
crossing lakes and going through forests I
saw tracks of moose, caribou and other denizens of the wilds, but none came in sight. I
did hope I might catch a glimpse of one of
the big moose I hear them talk about. I literally lived in my cariole while on the trail,
just getting out to eat breakfast and supper.
Picnicking in the forest with the temperature
fifty below zero was a great experience. What
36 Cross Lake, Manitoba
impressed me most was the feeling of oneness
with the * Unseen Presence,' especially at
prayers morning and night, As we lifted up
our voices in song and prayer, the loving
Father was very real, and prayer was truly
talking to God. That hymn, * Anywhere with
Jesus I can safely go,' etc., has a new meaning to me since."
Again: " With the exception of a siege of la
grippe, my health has been good. Though
often very tired, through being busy every
minute of every day, I have been happy and
content. There have been lonely hours, but,
for these and all I am deprived of, there have
been abundant compensations. As we look
back on the year's work, we have no great
deeds to report, no great victories won, but
just the doing of little things day by day.
Suffering relieved, a sick one made more
comfortable, a mother's fears removed, sad
and lonely hearts comforted and strengthened, sympathy given, hungry ones fed and
little children made happy. And through
all there has been an endeavor to so live
among these people as to give them Christian
ideals and a higher standard of home life,
and to reflect the Christ, who has been meeting . every day's need with His abundant
fulness and blessing."
Triumphant
Ministry.
37  FRENCH AND FOREIGN WORK
MONTREAL, QUE.
French Methodist Institute
French Protestant^ Home
Syrian School FRENCH WORK
WHEN thinking of work among our
French-Canadian compatriots there
comes a warmer throb of fellowship as we
recall the thrilling and pathetic history of
their brave ancestors struggling with fierce
and powerful Indian tribes.
The heroism and zeal of their early spiritual leaders, both priests and nuns, in shepherding their people and binding them to
faith in God and Christ, evoke our highest
admiration.
The bright, cheery disposition of the
French, their domestic happiness, courteous
manners and neighborly generosity attract
us. These elements, together with their busy
life of industry, leave many in contentment
with very little education, so essential to the
highest development of any community or
nation. It is this, and still more, the open
Bible, available to all, that our Church, and
our Society, is striving to make possible and
universal.
To secure an intelligent, moral, united
people, ever loyal to Great Britain, to whom
we are bound by so many ties, this is our aim
in all our home fields through the spread of
scientific and practical knowledge of the
truth in nature and revelation.
As early as 1806 missionary colporteurs,
sent by the American Methodist Church,
were at work in what was then known as
Lower Canada. In 1815 the Wesleyan Church
in England sent Jean de Putron, who for
nine years itinerated among the people, distributing Bibles and Testaments, sowing the
seeds of eternal truth. The Church in Canada
did not begin real mission work in Quebec
till 1856, but when the Montreal Conference
was formed in 1874 several small missions
were found scattered throughout the Province. CHAPTEE V.
FRENCH AND FOREIGN, MONTREAL, QUE.
French Methodist Institute, Greene
Avenue, Westmount, Montreal.
THE record year after year of success
achieved in all departments gives evidence of intelligent direction, earnest, faithful teaching and spiritual influence on the
part of the principal and staff of the French
Methodist Institute. It also shows ability,
diligence and responsiveness in the pupils.
Professor Villard, M.A., D.D., M.D., has  Honors
not only proved to his home co-workers his p°^Jce
eminent fitness to preside over this important
Institute, but twice during the past few years
he has received special honors from the Government of France, his native country.
One cannot but take note of two who have
continuously devoted their energies to the
successful carrying on of this institution, not
merely as a school but as a home, contributing largely to the health and comfort of all,
as well as creating much of the social and
spiritual atmosphere so influential in young
life.
41 French and Foreign
Valued
Former
Workers.
One whose impress still abides was Mrs.
E. H. Eoss, who in 1906 completed ten years
as superintendent of the home life, in which
position she was succeeded by Madame Vil-
lard, who still holds it. Another whose excellent work must ever be remembered was
Miss Masten, who in 1910 retired after
twenty years as teacher and lady principal.
Educationally, as well as numerically, there
has been marked success, a number of students matriculating each year, some passing
on to take the Arts course in McGill University, others going to the Normal Department
of Macdonald College.
As the Woman's Missionary Society shares
equally with the Board of Missions in the
ordinary maintenance of the Institute, we
rejoice equally in all its successes, but especially do we gratefully read, year after year,
of conversions and additions to the Church.
A still more joyous thrill comes from the
fact that two or three of the pupils have
become candidates for the ministry.
Patriotism and loyalty are shown in the
statement that forty-two names are on our
"Eoll of Honor," two with a cross having
paid with the sacrifice of their life their devotion to their country and to the cause of justice. The girls are bearing their share by
their industry and self-denying contribution^
42 FRENCH PROTESTANT HOME
Montreal
SYRIAN SCHOOL
Montreal  French Protestant Home
French Protestant Home, Belmont
Place, Montreal.
This Home, which was opened in 1906, has
continued through the interval to shelter from
twenty to thirty children. The little ones
have a kindergarten; the older girls attend
the Protestant public school, while a few pass
on to the Institute. According to capacity all
are taught little household arts and, of course,
Scripture truth. Occasionally one is adopted.
Some are removed by friends, but their places
are soon filled.
Syrian School (East End),
Montreal, Que.
In her valuable leaflet, "The Origin of
Work Among the Syrians in Montreal," Mrs.
T. G. Williams writes as follows:
" Descending a few steps into the basement
of the first French Methodist Church, corner
Craig and St. Elizabeth Streets, Montreal, in
1904, would be found our missionary teacher,
Miss Bouchard, busy with her little flock,
mainly French children, with here and there
an English child.
" This school was under the' auspices of the
Woman's Missionary Society of the Methodist Church, Canada, and this church for
French-speaking people had been erected dur-
43 French i and Foreign
ing the incumbency of the late Eev. Louis M.
Beaudry, one of the optimists regarding
French evangelization.
" One year later a Syrian boy was brought
to the school by a Syrian gentleman who was
deeply interested in his countrymen. The
boy, who had been denied admission to the
public school, was anxious to learn English,
and was delighted that someone was willing'
to accept him as a pupil. He proved to be
a bright, intelligent lad, and now, developed
into manhood, he is making his way in the
world as partner in a wholesale firm.
Syrian | This was  really the beginning of the
Pupils. Syrian Mission  School.     Soon  twenty-five
pupils were in attendance, but gradually the
French pupils absented themselves and were
admitted into the public schools. Since
vacating the church, which was sold by the
General Society, the school has been held in
three different places.
"In 1912, when in great perplexity as to
where a building could be found to carry forward this work, the trustees of the St. Nicholas Greek Orthodox faith kindly let their
church for this purpose.
" In November of that same year, the
Woman's Missionary Society purchased a
good building, corner Dorchester and San-
guinet Streets, convenient to the Syrian
colony, and during the following summer this
44 Miss
Bouchard.
Syrian School
building was fitted up for school work according to city requirements."
There are now two teachers in this evergrowing school, but since 1902 Miss Lillian E.
Bouchard has devoted herself to the French
and Syrian children of this section, and
besides teaching them has won her way into
many of the homes, to their great benefit.
Lately a small first aid outfit has been supplied, which she finds most useful. So valuable has her work proved it has received recognition from the city health authorities.
Anyone in need of a tonic should visit this
centre of life, either at Christmas time or at
the summer closing, when the building is
crowded to capacity by interested parents, as
proud of their children as are Canadian
fathers and mothers.
A Sunday school and evening service also
find here a home, and the Boy Scouts suitable
headquarters.
The following indicate modes of effort:
" Some children are naturally clean, others Health via
naturally dirty, but are so simply because SoaPand
they know no better. I therefore devised a
satisfactory plan through the winter, when the
water was always warm. Certain pupils came
on certain days about a quarter to eight, and
I devoted the time until nine o'clock in bathing them well with plenty of soap and water.
45 French and Foreign
Rescued.
The doctor was delighted with the improvement in the children. Ladies of Douglas
Church sent vaseline, glycerine and boracic
acid for my first-aid work (1915). I have
attended to nine hundred cases of cuts,
bruises, burns, abscesses, extractions, etc.
11 thought it important that the children
should enjoy their play-time, so donations
were freely given, with which we purchased
swings, see-saws, skipping-ropes and games,
also a few goldfish and some plants. Now,
some prefer staying in the schoolroom to
going home.
" I have formed a Kewpie Club, the object
of which is to get the Kewpie smile and keep
it. We have a bank we call \ God's Bank.'
We give what we can, and with the funds
help the sick and poor. We get the Kewpie
pictures and cut them out, and some have
Kewpie dolls which they love dearly. We
have Bible stories and pass a pleasant half-
hour as often as I can spare the time each
week after work is done.
" There was one case came to my notice
which caused me a great deal of anxious
thought, a girl of mine who was lured away
by a Jew. He promised great things, marriage included, took her out west, and
there deserted her. I located her, and wrote
to her, and continued to do so until I persuaded her to return home.    She is with her
46 Syrian School
Who are
These?
parents now and is so thankful to be back
again.
" Young readers in Mission Circles and
Bands may ask, ' Who are these people and
from whence do they come V
" They are said to be descendants of the
Hebrew, Greek, Phoenician and Bedouin
tribes, obliged to leave their own country on
account of the oppression of the Turk. Their
homes were in Damascus and Beirut—
Damascus being associated in our minds with
Paul's vision of Christ.
" Only about two thousand Syrians are living in Montreal and among them are some of
the Eoman Catholic faith, but those who
attend the school of our Woman's Missionary
Society are of the Greek Orthodox Church
and have their own priests and substantially
built places of worship.
" I have visited the homes after school, Teaching
keeping in touch with the parents, and have fcy a Doll.
tried to teach them how to care for and dress
the new babies. Their ways are so different
to ours it was difficult to make them understand until the young ladies of Douglas
Church bought me a baby doll and dressed
it in the approved fashion. I have carried
it in my club bag, undressed and dressed it
countless times, and have found the results
well worth the effort."
47 French and Foreign
A Bible-woman and a Deaconess also are
doing what is possible by visiting, holding
women's meetings, and helping in various
ways to uplift the people spiritually and
materially, centering their work at the All
Peoples' Mission building on St. Urbain
Street.
48 STRANGERS
AND FOREIGNERS
Asiatic Foreigners
Orientals in British Columbia—
Home and School, Victoria, B.C.
Japanese and Chinese, Vancouver, B.C
European Foreigners
Ruthenians or Austrians in Alberta-
Wahstao
Kolokreeka
Chipman
Edmonton
Many Nationalities
All Peoples' Mission, Winnipeg, Man.
Frank, Alta.; Fernie, Michel, B.C.
Prince Rupert, B.C.
Vancouver, B.C.
Fort William, Ont.
Sault Ste. Marie, Ont.
Italian—Toronto, Hamilton, Montreal 11 Thou  shalt  neither  vex   a  stranger  nor
oppress him.''
tl Thou shalt not pervert the judgment of
the stranger.''
ti The Lord your God loveth the stranger.''
" Love ye therefore the stranger.''
'' I was a stranger and ye took me in. \'
" Go ye and teach the next one whom you
meet-
Man, woman, child, at home or on the street—
That ' God so loved them ' each in thought
so sweet, *
He could not have them lost through sin's
defeat,
But sent you with His message to repeat
That   pardon   through   His   Son  might   be
complete,
So shall our land be saved from sore defeat
And gather with the nations at His feet.'' CHAPTEE VI.
ASIATIC FOREIGNERS.
Orientals in British Columbia.
LESS than three years ago we find this
.j startling statement:
" In addition to an Asiatic population
already numbering forty.thousand, more than
seven thousand Orientals entered Canada
during 1912. From the poll tax ($500)
on Chinese immigrants the Dominion and
Provincial treasuries received last year no
less than $3,339,443, not one-half of one per
cent, of which was spent by all agencies combined in giving Orientals in Canada an adequate opportunity to know and receive Jesus
Christ as Saviour and Lord."
In the early part of the period we are considering, a view given by one of our observant
staff expresses much:
" While the labor unions are exercised
about the influx of so many foreigners, we
are more alarmed because of the very inadequate efforts toward their evangelization."
Oriental Home and School,
Victoria, B.C.
Earnest work has been done by our W.M.S.
since 1887 in rescuing and sheltering, for a
51 Strangers and Foreigners
Evil
Traffic
Diminished.
New
Building,
1909.
longer or shorter period, both Chinese and
Japanese girls, and women with their children. Difficulties and hindrances have been
many, ranging from ignorant and degraded
self-will in individuals to dealing with cruel
and mercenary highbinders in law courts, but
surely there is a sufficient reward in liberated
slaves, respectable, happy homes established,
and the knowledge that many, having received
in their hearts as well as in their minds the
instruction given, are trying to lead Christian
lives.
Unceasing watchfulness on one side and
heavy court costs on the other have resulted
in a great diminution of this execrable traffic
in human lives, so that more> attention has
since been given to the education of the little
girls of Chinatown, in addition to those in the
Home, for whom regular teaching for years
has been provided.
In 1908 a little kindergarten was opened
which met with great favor and was a noticeable help in the acquiring of English by the
wee tots when they passed on into the school.
The language teaching in some of the homes
secured also a favorable introduction.
It was a great joy to our faithful missionaries, Mrs. Snyder, Miss Margaret Smith,
and Miss Annie T. Martin, but especially to
Mrs. Snyder, who for ten years (with one
furlough) had poured out her heart and
strength as home-mother, when in 1909 pos-
52 ORIENTAL HOME AND SCHOOL
Victoria. B.C.
CITIZENS OF TO-MORROW
Children in Oriental Home and School, Victoria. B.C.
The baby in high chair to the left named Ross, after our President  Asiatic Foreigners
session was taken of the beautiful new building the erection of which had been of daily
interest for some months. Mrs. Snyder
writes: " The new building is a constant delight, not only to us but to the friends here
and those who visit us. It is very, much
larger and finer in appearance than I ever
hoped for, and so convenient after the crowding in the old Home." Another says: " Our
new schoolroom, so bright, airy and well-
equipped, has added not a little to the success
as well as to the pleasure of our work."
An encouraging evidence of fidelity and
ability in both teacher and pupils appears in
the record of 1916, showing that this whole
effort is well worth while:
" As I look back to the Home and School as Clever
I found it nine years ago, I think of four Students-
pupils. Two who attended our day school
then are just closing their first year at high
school. They are from Christian homes, the
girl the eldest of eight and the boy the eldest
of seven. They are workers in our Mission
Band and Sunday school.
" The other two were not only in our School
but lived in our Home. One was with us nine
years. She is just closing her last year in
high school and is looking forward to studying medicine. The other one, after being in
our Home five years, was taken back to China
in 1909 by his father to study Chinese.   He Strangers and Foreigners
Chinese
and
Japanese
Auxiliaries.
returned this summer to continue his English
studies. He has a room at the Mission and
seems very happy to attend Sunday school
and the church services.
" I am sure he will never forget the good
training he received from Mrs. Snyder."
Again, " Our entrance girls, Agnes Chan,
Chinese, and Annie Nakabayashi, Japanese,
have worked well. The results of the provincial examination show that out of the 350
city candidates our girls are found in the first
rank."
Much satisfaction was felt when some
women, whose interest the teachers had tried
to arouse, suggested the holding of a women's
meeting. This resulted in the organization
of a Chinese Auxiliary with seventeen members and the promise of a few more, " and all
are starting with a good fund of enthusiasm
and are anxious to help on the missionary
cause and to learn all about our field, at home
and abroad." An interesting coincidence is
narrated by Miss Smith in this connection:
" At the first meeting of the Mission Band
this year, May 21st, Auxiliaries were formed
out of the older members. Subsequently we
happened to look through the secretary's book,
and on the first page found the following:
* The Chinese Girls' Home Mission Band was
organized by Miss Bowes (a former much-
esteemed superintendent of the Home), May
54 Asiatic Foreigners
21st, 1897, with eighteen members.' Was it
not strange that twelve years after, to a day,
this Band should be divided, so that now we
have a Japanese Auxiliary with thirteen
members, a Chinese Auxiliary with seventeen,
and a Band of thirty members % In 1915 over
$329 were contributed by these organizations."
The meeting of General Conference in
Victoria made 1910 memorable, and as over
three hundred callers registered their names
at the " Oriental Home and School," expressing great admiration and pleasure, may we
not hope that the efforts put forth for these
people from " the land of Sinim " may have
a more distinct and growing place in their
sympathy and prayers. There is need, as
the following incident will show:
" At 4.40, on the morning of July 8th, I
was awakened by the door bell, and on going
down found a Chinese slave girl, aged eighteen, who, as I opened the door, smiled on me,
picked up her little handkerchief bundle and
quickly entered. We were at once drawn to
her, as she has such a nice face. Two little
girls of six years from the home in which she
lived attended our kindergarten for some
time, and she learned of the Home from
them. They told her it was a pretty white
house on the other side of the same street
two blocks up, so she found it easily. Ten
days after she came she gave birth to a baby
General
Conference.
Ah Ho. Strangers and Foreigners
boy, her master being the father. From all
we can learn she has always been a "good girl
and is very happy in our home. Her name is
Ah Ho. Her master brought her into this
country six years ago, and swore she was his
daughter to escape the payment of $500 (as
merchants' daughters enter free of the head
tax). This month he has been brought before
the immigration authorities and had to pay
not only the $500 head tax, but a fine of $500
and, as the girl is nice looking, he probably
would have received at least $500 for her,
when he gave her in marriage. We cannot
but wonder what would have become of her
if we had been at camp, where we have been
on that date for years past. The girls say
that, of course, it was God kept us home, for
we had taken Him into our plans of camping,
and had planned, all being well, on going the
following day."
For some years one of our staff was
engaged in superintending the night school
for Chinese young men in connection with
the church. Though there were transients,
quite a number attended regularly, and among
them three who were baptized by Eev. Dr.
Carman during the B. C. Conference of
1912. Four others joined the Y.M.C.A.,
which was also a source of joy.
One would need to read the Annual Eeport
and letters to form any idea of the treacher-
56 Asiatic Foreigners
ous, cruel and persistent ways employed to
entrap and hold Chinese girls for gain, even
in our own beloved country. Though it was
hoped the traffic was almost eliminated, yet
most pitiful cases strain the nerves and wring
the hearts of our missionaries from time to
time.
Here is one as late as 1915, "that of a Thrilling
second wife who was kidnapped away to Case-
China by her husband (so-called). He had
asked her many times to go, but she feared
she would be a slave to the first wife, and as
he had threatened at times to sell her into
slavery and even to take her life, she was terrified to go with him. Early in April, however, by representing her as insane, he secured
the help of two detectives, and the poor
woman was dragged by main force from her
home, placed in an auto and taken to the
wharf, where a Japanese steamer, outward
bound, stood. There a shameful scene took
place, as she was dragged on the boat, fighting
every inch of the way for her freedom. Those
who witnessed it were shocked, but did not
interfere because of the presence of the two
officers. Once on the boat she was locked in
a room and forcibly prevented from screaming.
" This did not come to our ears for two
days, but when we did hear it we at once set
to work to give her some protection. Her
father raised funds, and the Chief of Police Strangers and Foreigners
Pastors
and
Helpers.
Kindergartens.
sent a cablegram to the Shanghai police to
protect her and have her sent back if she
wished to return. The ministers of the city
also took the matter up and interviewed the
Attorney-General, who sent another cablegram. Accordingly, at Shanghai and again
at Hong-Kong, police officials boarded ,the
boat and interviewed her. She is now in the
care of friends in Hong-Kong until it can be
decided what is best to be done for her. Her
husband fled, frightened, to some inland town
in China, where he will probably be glad to
remain until the affair is settled. A warrant for his arrest stands ready if he ever
attempts to return to Canada."
Tribute is again and again paid to the
valuable work done by the Chinese and Japanese pastors and their wives, also to the
Bible-women, who have secured attendance at
meetings, interpreted, visited and helped in
all ways possible.
Much is expected from efforts continued
through the years in the Sunday school.
Attendance has increased since the opening
of another kindergarten, held in the mission
premises, Chinatown.
Even hardened faces smile at the children
as the teachers take them back and forth
from school, and remarks of appreciation are
heard. In a house where a picture was being
shown of Jesus blessing little children, one
58 Fruitful
Seed.
Asiatic Foreigners
of the mothers suddenly said to the interpreter, "Oh, I understand now why the
teacher loves the little ones so and tries to
help them; it must be because Jesus, the One
she worships, loved them so much." She had
caught the idea.
" Our visiting work among the women
grows in interest. During the year we found
a young wife who had recently come from
China and had during a short residence in a
Mission School there heard something of the
Gospel. She longed to know more of its precious truths, but her husband would not allow
her to go to church nor Sunday school, where
she could receive religious instruction. She
begged us to come often and teach her. 11
love to study the Gospel,' she said, as she
picked up our Bible and handled it eagerly."
The Immigration or Customs authorities Marriages,
for several years had sent to the Home new
arrivals whose coming had been awaited by
Japanese young men, or where parties had
arrived by the same steamer, in order that a
legal Christian marriage should at once take
place.   In one year the number was 185.
In 1915 we learn that " owing to a change
in the immigration laws the Japanese ( picture marriages' are recognized in this
country, and," Mrs. Dever, whose gracious
influence in the Home for Hive years was a
benediction, says, " we no longer have the
59 Strangers and Foreigners
Treasure
Found.
opportunity of meeting these sisters as they
come to our shore to offer them help and present them with a copy of the Scriptures, as
we have been doing in the past.
" God speaks in a wonderful manner to
some of these people. One young Japanese
woman, who came from Japan to become the
wife of a young Christian Japanese, began
to study the Gospel. She came out from her
room one day, her face so radiant that her
companion could not but notice her joy, and
asked the cause. i Oh,' she replied, I I have
been studying about the Gospel. I never
knew it was so beautiful. I am so happy. I
want to study about it all the time.' "
Miss
Preston.
Japanese and Chinese in Vancouver.
For years some effort had been made to
influence Japanese women for Christ through
occasional visits from the missionaries in Victoria and the employment of a native Bible-
woman, who also carried on a small day
school.
It was evident that much more could be
accomplished if there were a resident missionary, especially if she were acquainted
with the language and the customs of the
people. The Society was very fortunate in
that Miss Preston, who had rendered so many
years of valuable service in Japan, was now
available (1908) for this important post.
60 o
<
o
I  1
Purchased
1909.
Asiatic Foreigners
The following year, 1909, shows that with
the help of one Bible-woman work had been
commenced in eleven places, some meetings
necessarily being held only once a month,
" recalling the early years of our toil in
Japan, when it meant years of patient effort
to produce much apparent result, but then in
time came the readier, the more abundant
harvest."
A home for our missionary and as a centre *?om,e
of our work was soon found necessary. A
suitable building on a convenient site (652
Keefer Street) was purchased, and possession
taken the first of November, 1909. Very
soon there were not only meetings and social
gatherings for Japanese or Chinese, but a
weekly union prayer-meeting was held by
members of the W.M.S. Auxiliaries of the
city.
A kindergarten class was opened in the
Japanese Mission in 1911, which brought the
missionary into closer touch with some of the
women. An Auxiliary was also organized,
with thirty-one members; this in addition to
the Mission Band, which took great interest
in the outlined studies.
Also for the Chinese a kindergarten was  Centres
started in September, 1911, and a second ofLight-
among the Japanese the following year.
Eegular work has been carried on for both
nationalities at various points in the cityNand
61 Strangers and Foreigners
Buddhists
Stimulated.
Buddhist
Institutional
Temple.
in outside places—Steveston, Sapperton, New
Westminster—and fruitful evangelistic trips
made to Nanaimo and the mining camps at
Cumberland on Vancouver Island.
Miss Preston writes:
I We visit in the homes to the limit of
our capacity, but when we consider that there
are about 800 Japanese women and 250
Chinese women in Vancouver and suburbs
alone, we realize the largeness of the task
before us. We rejoice to know that in the
community we have come to stand for high
ideals and an uplift towards the good. It
is said that the Buddhist women in their
monthly meetings aim to have helpful talks,
because they wish their women to improve
as much as do the women who attend the
Christian women's meetings."
The need of Christian effort and instruction is evident when we read:
" The Japanese have a fine new Buddhist
temple in Vancouver of an institutional character, built to suit the needs. The Buddhists
have various activities, as dormitory work, a
night school and a boys' club. The old religions are still entrenched in the hearts of
many, but the distinction between Christianity and Buddhism is sometimes not
clearly made. It is ? God and Christ and
Buddha all the same.'
62 Asiatic Foreigners
" In the homes one frequently sees the god God
shelf. In one home I visit there is a god shelf Shelf*
in the sitting-room and another in the adjoining bedroom. The good woman in a certain
home feared that the frequent illness in their
family might have been caused by the god
shelf facing towards the north, which is
regarded as an unlucky omen of sickness.
Her husband assured her there was nothing
in that, but she could not free herself of the
impression, and in a later visit I found the
shelf had changed its position. Here then
was our opportunity to point to better things,
to seek for possible unhygienic causes, and
above all to give the light and cheer of that
Truth which alone can fully illumine the
darkness of the soul, give strength to the faith
that is weak, with hope and comfort to the
discouraged and troubled one."
The time came when heed must be given
to the claims of a venerated mother, Mrs.
Preston, who had unselfishly for twenty-six
years relinquished the companionship of her
daughter for the service of Christ through
the ^ activities of the Woman's Missionary
Society.
In giving her sixth and closing report from
Vancouver, Miss Preston says:
"We have had to find a path and make a
trail, and gratefully we acknowledge the
guiding, helping hand of our Lord as step by
63 Strangers and Foreigners
Miss
Howie,
1914.
Japanese
Helper.
step He has led us into the open where, by
His grace, we have been laying foundations,
and some building has been accomplished."
Again was the Society fortunate in being
able to appoint to this field in 1914 another
missionary—Miss Jessie L. Howie—who had
had experience in Japan. The advantage of
some command of the language is no small
one, and the work opened up by her predecessor has been faithfully and zealously continued.
Early in January, 1915, a'very glad welcome was given to a young Japanese Christian who had come to assist in the work
among her countrywomen. During the four
years Hibi San was studying in Japan, Miss
Howie had had much to do with her, and her
first year of evangelistic work in Tokyo was
spent under Miss Howie's supervision. It is
a great satisfaction to have the work thus
linked together, and subsequent months have
shown valuable results.
As an instance of how combined effort in
causes that are good may be made with happy
effect, Miss Howie writes the following:
"In July Miss Kawai, one of the Y.W.C.A.
secretaries of Japan, paid a flying visit to
Vancouver.. The Japanese women of the city
united to do her honor, and she spoke at a
meeting held in our Mission under the aus-
64 Asiatic Foreigners
pices of the Women's Buddhist Society, the
Women's Patriotic Society and our Women's
Christian Society. Over two hundred were
present and the majority were women. Miss
Kawai gave an eloquent address and pleaded
with her countrywomen to ' follow after righteousness.' After the meeting the women
served a banquet in the night school room.
Seventy-five sat down to the table. That gathering showed me the wonderful possibilities
of this field, as yet sadly indifferent to the
religion of Jesus Christ.
" As I work among these people I do not
meet with much opposition, but there is a
spirit of indifference that is deadly to spiritual life. And why this indifference ? First,
the Oriental is here to earn a living and not
to learn a new religion. Here we have no
leisure class, like we have in Japan; all are
young and ambitious to make good, and that
means to make money. Second, they have
their old religion—for here in our midst is
a Buddhist temple and a priest in charge—
and although under ordinary circumstances
many are indifferent to its claims, yet when
death enters their homes they turn to the
Buddhist priest to bury their dead, as they
would in their own land.
" Then again the Oriental knows well the
evils of this Christian land, and treats with
indifference a teaching that doesn't work out
in a practical way in the world around him.
5 65
Indifference
the Foe. Strangers and Foreigners
Prayer
Urged.
I We are greatly in need of workers, but
above all we need the prayers of the Christian Church. Pray that we who are called
to serve here may be anointed with power and
love and patience. Pray that the coldness
and indifference of the people may be broken
and that they may long for God and seek Him
with their whole heart."
66 CHAPTEE VII.
EUROPEAN FOREIGNERS.
THE opportunity and the obligation arising from the unexampled immigration
to our country for many succeeding years,
especially from South-eastern Europe, have '
met a glad and earnest response from the
Woman's Missionary Society. In different
stations this has been manifest in various
forms. In some cases it has assumed full
responsibility and supervision; in others it
has annually contributed the salaries of deaconesses and other workers, who were under
the guidance of the General Board.
EUTHENIANS OR AuSTRIANS IN ALBERTA.
Difficulties many, problems perplexing and
of long continuance, have resulted from the
proud, selfish ambitions of the Babel-tower-
builders, and these are painfully evident in
our own age and country. The following,
quoted in the Missionary Outlook of September, 1908, from The Christian Guardian is
an instance:
" When Italians or Germans or Swedes English
come to our shores, do we expect them to language
remain Italians, Germans and Swedes ? What Strangers and Foreigners
language shall they speak % This question is
suggested by a petition from the Euthenians
of Manitoba to the Hon. Geo. E. Caldwell,
Minister of Education for that province,
praying that the Euthenian language be
taught in the Euthenian training school at
Brandon, and that text-books in the Euthenian
language be used in the Euthenian schools of
the province. There seems to be no possibility of the Manitoba authorities granting
this request, yet the fact that it has been made
shows us very clearly some of the disintegrating forces that are at work, and it should
cause us the more earnestly to insist that
those who come to our shores must be prepared to accept our flag and to adopt our
language. There can be no compromise here
without national disaster. The Union Jack
must fly over our territory and our thousands
of new citizens must be prepared to learn,
and have their children learn, the English
tongue."
Their own language is by no means prohibited, but if life to them in our land is
preferable to their native country, or if they
desire their children to be no longer termed
" foreigners," then the laws and language of
their adopted country should be accepted as
dominant; otherwise we would become a sad
conglomeration of divided, misunderstanding
sections.
68 1
European Foreigners
The ability to speak in more than one
tongue is desirable, but one must surely be
recognized and required as essential to unity.
Wahstao.
(Centre from -which light radiates.)
" To what purpose is this waste ?" might
naturally have been exclaimed when in 1905
a graduate of Victoria University, Toronto,
Miss Edith A. Weekes, B.A., was appointed
to work among the Galicians or Euthenians
of Alberta. The fitness of the appointment,
however, was soon manifest.
Few of these people could read; no teacher; Miss
no books; interpreter not very expert.    ISTo Wee.kes
wonder the language was found to be " a daily p^f *
and  crying  need."     At length some books
ordered from Austria arrived, and in some
way our clever graduate, through her knowledge of German, began to see daylight, and
after a time wrote out a small primer which
has been of immense service to her co-workers,
both men and women.
Three years later Miss Ella A. McLean,
B.A., pays this tribute: "In looking over
the year I cannot but think of Miss Weekes,.
especially the permanent value of her language study. We who follow find that she
blazed the trail, and what at first seemed
an insurmountable task is now within the
reach of any who have the will and heart to
work at it."
69 Strangers and Foreigners
Miss
McLean.
School in
Home.
It will be of interest in connection with
these two devoted workers to state that Miss
Weekes in 1910 was married to Mr. W. M.
Leonard. After a time of faithful labor in
Alberta they were appointed to Chinas where
they are helping to build up the Master's
kingdom in connection with our Church.
Miss McLean, in December, 1913, became
the wife of a fellow worker among the Aus-
trians, Eev. P. G. Sutton, and in three months
was called to larger service in the presence of
her Saviour. A little body with a brave, big
heart, she left a wide gap in the community
she so loved and helped.
The previous volume tells of a day school
of twenty in our little home at Wahstao (over
eighty miles north-east of Edmonton) and in
winter a night school for men and boys.
In 1907-8 a Government school was built
in the vicinity, and since the people were
made to some extent responsible for its support, the attendance has increased. One of
our missionaries, Miss E. Eubie Eobinson,
is now the teacher and under her the children
rapidly progress.
Through subsequent years this public
school has been open from May to October,
with an average attendance in 1916 of over
forty, and in the winter months our little
mission school in the Home has welcomed all
who would come.
10 European Foreigners
Miss Chace, a worthy successor of our
pioneers, writes: " The strategic importance
of the public school cannot be over-emphasized. It is, humanly speaking, the surest
weapon that can be used against ignorance
and bigotry."
The diligent zeal of the missionaries in
visiting the homes of the people, teaching
them to read the Bible for themselves, urging
the putting away of strong drink and other
evil practices, was not acceptable to the Greek
Orthodox priest, who occasionally looked
after his flock, and the effect of his interference was manifest in reduced attendance
at Sunday school. Soon, however, it was
observed that there was " a growing spirit
of independence and freer thought among the
people, which, with further development and
under the Spirit's guidance, augurs well for
the future advance of the Kingdom."
The physical strain of driving in a few Long
months 2,500 to 2,700 miles over rough roads Drives.
is no light one. " Daily distances are necessarily limited by the necessity of being at
home at night. There are no stopping-places
by the way," Miss Sanford says, " and there
are disadvantages about staying over-night
in a one-roomed house."
To reach a little Sunday school held in a
private house three miles distant " four fences
have to be opened, requiring nerve, patience
and muscle."
71 Strangers and Foreigners
Six Little
Boarders.
Home
Enlarged.
Tornado.
Early it became evident that there were
greater possibilities than the day school could
afford, and though this house was small our
missionaries made room for six little resident
boarders. " Two of these have already given
themselves to Christ, and only those living
with them can realize how much this means."
In 1914-15 the staff was increased by the
arrival of a third worker, Miss S. E. Ferguson, which was a great relief. Conference also
stationed one of the Euthenian pastors, Mr.
Hannochko, at Wahstao, and all rejoiced at
having a service every Sunday evening.
Encouraged by what had been accomplished, and being more and more impressed
with the growing need of instruction and
careful training, it was decided to enlarge the
Home, so as to accommodate more children,
who were clamoring to be admitted, especially
in sixty-below-zero weather.
Plans were made and operations commenced in the summer of 1916, when,
although it was properly " jacked up " for
the purpose of laying cement foundations, a
tornado in a few minutes overturned the
building enough to necessitate thorough reconstruction.
Gratitude predominates because no harm
came to our two missionaries, Misses Hickman and Ferguson, who were in the building,
nor to the contractor and three workmen, but
it was a close call.
72 HOME AND BOARDING SCHOOL
Wahstao. Alta.
X
HOME AND BOARDING SCHOOL
Kolokreeka. Alta.  European Foreigners
The visit, especially at this time, of Mrs.
James Harrison, secretary for the Austrian
field, was much appreciated. Her counsel
and cheer at all our stations did much to help
these somewhat isolated toilers, as well as
those in Edmonton.
KoLOKREEKA, SMOKY LAKE.
(Russian word meaning "Beside the Creek.M)
Missionaries are genuine pioneers, ever
alert for enlarged opportunities of service.
Our own are no exception, and so we find
them in 1909 at Kolokreeka, about sixteen
miles north-west of Wahstao.
It does not surprise us to discover that the
Misses Weekes and McLean moved over from
Wahstao, bringing their experience to bear
on the development of this new centre.
The house was built under their supervision, with a temperature ranging from zero
to fifty below, and they moved in during the
first week of January, while the carpenters
were still in possession.
Miss Weekes describes the house as " cosy
and comfortable. We have a splendid stable
and drive-shed under one roof, with a loft
large enough to hold hay for the whole winter. We are proud of our little home and are
already much attached to the place and
people."
73
L Strangers and Foreigners
" Cricket
and
Spider,"
" Peter
and Pat."
" Austrian."
Feeling
After
God.
The need of a stable and occupants is very
evident when we remember the widely-scattered homes to be visited, the various Sunday
schools and sewing meetings to be conducted.
Thus " Cricket and Spider " at Kolokreeka,
with " Peter and Pat" at Wahstao, deserve
an honorable place in the record of our work.
The faithful teaching of the Word bore fruit
in the establishment during this year of a
church under Dr. Lawford, with fifteen
adult foreign members.
About this time " it was decided at the
Alberta Conference that the name - Austrian'
should be applied to the work among the foreigners of Northern Alberta. The name
■ Galician,' so much used, is non-comprehensive, and, applied to the large majority, is
just as much a mistake as it would be to call
an Irishman ' Scotch.' ' Austrian' includes
all our people coming from different provinces " of south-eastern Europe.
Our missionaries are not wedded to any
special method. One writes: " We used to
think our visiting must be somewhat formal,
singing, reading, prayer, etc., and if the
women happened to be at work outdoors this
could not very well be done, but we are learning the value of making opportunities. If a
woman is weeding her garden and we offer to
help, we get close in touch in a few minutes,
and often without a book or anything that
suggests another faith (of which they are so
74 European Foreigners
much afraid), we find that she is deeply in
earnest. To the question, ( Can we know our
sins forgiven V many a time they say, ' Oh, it
would be good to know, but from where can
we know?' An old lady over eighty was
visited a number of times, and one day she
said, c When we confess our sins to God, He
makes it easy here,' laying the old withered
hand on her heart.
" Another woman in the hospital, when we
read to her, ' I am the way, the truth, and
the life,' said, I Oh, if I have Jesus, I have
the way, the truth, and the life—without
reading.' This had been her grief, that she
could not read, and she thought without reading she could not find Jesus.
" I overtook a lad one day and gave him
a ride. I spoke of seeing him at the sacrament service, and asked if he did not want
to follow Jesus. His answer was, J Very
much I want to, but I do not know. I cannot
read.' A chum of his walks four railed to the
school and is seldom absent. It is pathetic
to see them treasuring up the new words on
bits of paper to take home and learn during
the week."
Is it not worth while to help such ?
A little group of children " had learned in
English \ eyes,' ' ears,' 6 mouth,' 'nose,' etc.,
and were telling the use of these various
organs in Eussian. Eyes are good to see, ears
to hear, mouth to eat, etc.    They hesitated
75 Strangers and Foreigners
Building
Enlarged
1911.
over nose, until one little fellow suddenly
remembered, ' Nose good to sneeze?
" One little girl learned very rapidly to
speak English, for talk she would, and Eus-
sian was forbidden."
In the winter of 1910-11 " Miss McLean
and Miss Code took four children into their
own already close quarters in order to give
them the influence of a Christian home and to
teach Canadian ways of living." Neighboring little ones joined them in the daytime
and larger boys in the evenings.
Over a dozen parents urged the taking in
of their children, and with such good prospects, extension was resolved upon. The
door of opportunity was very evident to Mrs.
Eoss as well as to the workers concerned, and
her visit here, as elsewhere, gave much
encouragement and assurance.
The planned extension grew to be larger
than the original building, and its erection
was no light task. Difficulties were neither
few nor light, and they furnish a little
glimpse of the inconveniences of life far from
a railway—delays, repeated storms, a haul of
lumber sixty miles by fourteen teams, slippery hills, a drop in temperature to thirty
below—no wonder the undertaking had to be
postponed till spring. At length the building
was completed and opened, November 1st,
1911.
76 European Foreigners
Summer
Conference and
Language
most refreshing
The children took great pride in their dormitories and were so proud when permitted
to show their clean, comfortable beds to their
parents when they called. The picture of
their daily routine is very attractive.
This Home at Kolokreeka has been selected
as the gathering place for the yearly conference of all the workers among the Euthenians,
followed by a fortnight's language school, School,
devoted to Euthenian grammar, conversation,
composition, Bible and hymn study. This
little summer conference is
and helpful.
During the winter months of 1913-14
thirty day pupils and thirty-one boarders for
a longer or shorter period were registered,
among them several clever students. Miss
Yarwood says: " The school work is in a state
of transition and we must keep adapting ourselves to changing conditions. Government
summer schools are being opened all about
us, and aspthey become yearly schools we may
have to go farther afield for pupils."
Eussian is taught by Miss Varwood for an
hour four mornings in the week. Miss Stone,
in charge of the school and the night classes,
finds the reading of war reports an opportunity of enlarging the vocabulary of the
senior pupils.
During the year over 1,100 Euthenians
came with various needs and requests—287
77 Strangers and Foreigners
for treatment of toothache, colds and wounds,
83 to have letters read and written.
" In the pastor's absence we held a Sunday
morning service ourselves on the plan of a
Mission Band, which aroused considerable
interest and enthusiasm, resulting in one of
our boys saying, c I want to give some money
to missions; it is one thing I can do for Jesus,
and another thing I can do is to pray. I just
thought if, when I am a preacher and no one
would send money to missions, how could I
get my living ?' "
Miss Sanford writes: " East and west,
north and south, this Home and its workers
are beloved. The hymns that have been sung,
the stories read and explained, the English
and Eussian taught, and, I believe, most of
all, the hours that have been spent by the
side of sick and dying, have all had a precious, lasting influence. The work is slow,
but sure, for it has been started on the best
of all foundations—loving prayer and faith
in God."
Miss Black asks: "Is time and money
spent in Euthenian work worth while? If
others could see the Christian character of
Annetza, Katrina, Mena, Willie, and others,
especially one home where we hold Sunday
school, the answer would be, ' Yes.'    These
78 European Foreigners
alone are worth the price. If you could get
a glimpse of these young lives I am sure we
would hear whispers, (It is worth while.' "
Chipman.
One of our faithful representatives, Miss
Ethelwyn G. Chace, after her return from
furlough in 1912, eagerly took up a new
section, not in the country, but in Chipman,
an English-speaking town on the C.N.E.,
about forty-seven miles south-west of Wahstao, surrounded by a foreign colony.
A place in the home of Eev. C. W. W. and
Mrs. Eoss was most kindly offered and
accepted, and for four years a busy life of
visiting, teaching in Sunday school, and in
all available ways, has evidenced the comradeship and real interest of the true Christian missionary, but the ground being well
covered by the missionaries of the General
Board, with an organized church and 'Sunday
school, .Miss Chace was appointed in 1916 to
the ever-growing work in Edmonton.
One little instance illustrates:
" The happiest visit I have had at a certain home was one day when I found the
whole family out in the field hoeing. I took
the hoe from the wife's hands and used it on
the potatoes while she rested, and we all
chatted together.    Mine host invited me to
79 Prohibition
Campaign
Helped by
Foreign
Vote.
Strangers and Foreigners
come and live with them this winter to teach
them English and perfect my Eussian. I
gladly consented, at least for part time,
though I do not think he believed me in
earnest; but he will see."
The year 1914-15 was especially marked
by two lines of effort—a protracted series of
evangelistic services in connection with the
church and the memorable prohibition campaign which culminated in such a successful
vote on July 21st. The foreign vote was one
of the doubtful features, and nothing was
left undone that could be thought of to ensure
a Euthenian " dry " majority. The resulting vote itself was only one of the good
results of the campaign. The Methodist
Church stands for the good of the people,
such is the people's conclusion. On voting
day one of our Euthenian women was
taunted by neighbors because her boys were
seen in our children's parade.
" Let them be Methodists," she retorted.
" better that than hotel loafers like some of
you!"*
The campaign also furnished an opening
into many new homes; so the circle widens.
Medical.—The Society supplies a nurse
for the hospital at Pakan, under the superintendence of Dr. Lawford, and another for
the one at Lamont under Dr. Bush.
80 European Foreigners
Edmonton.
It was early recognized that the city, with
its ever-increasing influx of foreigners, furnished a most insistent plea for the watchful,
friendly effort of Christian workers, especially on behalf of young girls seeking
employment in homes, hotels and restaurants.
Under the counsel of a committee appointed
to look into conditions, a room in the east
end was secured, February, 1908, which soon
had to be abandoned for a larger one. Here
an afternoon class was formed for sewing,
which had an average attendance of twenty-
five. By degrees there was introduced the
singing of hymns, a Bible story and the
Lord's Prayer.
Soon it was felt that more should be done
for girls in domestic service, so a second room
was rented, this time in the west end. Here
night school was held five evenings in the
week, having one or more volunteer teachers
each evening. Thirty-four names were enrolled, jfcwo Germans and thirty-two Galicians.
Mrs. Ash, formerly Miss Sherlock, of our
Home in Victoria, very kindly supervised this
work, giving much time, sympathy and practical aid to these exposed but unsuspecting
newcomers.
It is in the nature of healthy plants to
grow, and soon we find it was decided to
establish a " Home for Euthenian Girls.."
6 81 Strangers and Foreigners
A Home
for
Ruthenian
Girls.
A house was rented, 23 Eice Street, and
possession taken October 22nd, 1908, with
Miss Munro (our pioneer at Wahstao, the
beginning of our Austrian work) in charge.
The following week the classes under Mrs.
Ash's supervision were transferred. Miss
Munro writes:
" For some months the success of the
experiment seemed doubtful. But knowing
the great need, and realizing that our aim was
in perfect accord with that for which Christ
came into the world, and encouraged by the
Advisory Committee and our associate workers, we went on, until now c The Home' seems
to be really established.
" Our hope is that this Home may be an
uplifting force for every Euthenian girl in
household work in the city. To this end we
have classes in English reading, that they
may learn to read the Bible. But we hope to
make our Home and work helpful even to
the many girls who do not wish to learn to
read. We have tried to make it homelike,
restful and attractive, a place in which the
girls are always sure to find a welcome and
a friend. The wide verandah, shady lawn
and prolific pansy bed have been no small aid
in doing this.
" In order to get acquainted with girls we
have visited many hotels. To some we have
gone again and again, for we have learned
82 European Foreigners
that six visits to one hotel produces better
results than one visit to six. Much time has
been given to girls out of work. To these we.
give a night's lodging for ten cents, and meals
at ten cents each. Of course, sometimes this
charge has had to be remitted. We advise
them about places and try to find respectable
places for them and to induce them to prefer
such. Sometimes these transients wash their
clothes in the Home, and sometimes we have
helped them to make new garments. Very
often, after having done much for them, they
take a position and we never see them again,
but sometimes it is the beginning of a helpful
friendship."
A very acceptable gift to the Home was a
telephone from the ladies of the three Methodist city churches, saving much time and
strength.
At the expiration of a year, removal was
made to more commodious quarters on Elizabeth Street, and Miss Munro's failing health
having obliged her to relinquish her loved
work, for which she was so eminently fitted,
the Home was placed in charge of another
capable and experienced worker, Miss Ida M.
Clarke.
A new step was taken this same year, 1909, Three New
in the opening of a sewing class in a tent in Centres*
Norwood, a section of the north end of the
city, also at Fraser Flats (later called Eiver-
83 Strangers and Foreigners
dale), in the east end, down in the valley of
the Saskatchewan, where half the residents
are foreigners. This tent, placed at our
disposal by Professor Eiddell, was called
" Bundle Mission," where Sunday school was
held and preaching services conducted by
students of Alberta College. Again, in September, 1914, similar work was begun in
Strathcona, making three helpful centres in
the city, besides the Home.
Property Growth is still evident, property having
Purchased, been purchased by the Society at 520 Third
Street, and possession being taken by the
Edmonton Home and School for Euthenian
Girls in March, 1911.
" Much time was spent, and many meetings held by the property committee, before
a suitable place for our new home was
secured, into which we moved in March. We
hope to make it so attractive that many poor
girls spending their days in close, hot hotel
and restaurant kitchens, may come to us to
pass a pleasant hour and feel they have a
home.
" The house is small—six rooms and a
lean-to kitchen. It was thought at first that
it might be repaired and enlarged, but when
examined was found to be too poorly built
and the foundation too badly gone. So we
are asking for a new building, which will be
commodious enough to carry on the work
more efficiently."
84 sPf
RUTHENIAN HOME
Edmonton, Alta.
L: 1 'Vm!t
HOSPITAL
Lamont. Alta.  European Foreigners
No little planning, consultation and corre- **•}*
spondence preceded the removal temporarily E^ectecf
of the house, with its occupants and continued  1912.
work, to the back of the lot, and the erection
of  the   convenient  and  commodious  three-
story building, which it is hoped will remain
the permanent centre of our city work.    In
this undertaking the local churches took a
very  deep interest,  cheerfully contributing
no less than $1,800, with more expected.
The new Home was completed in December, 1912. Its many conveniences were much
appreciated by the staff, and having a reception room of their own was a great attraction
to the girls. The endeavor was to make the
room as inviting as possible, so that they
would bring their friends to the Home rather
than meet them elsewhere.
Dealing with human lives is vastly different from handling bricks and mortar; the
appliances may be as complete as possible,
but how to approach souls and win them is
a more delicate problem.
Any influence must be personal and exerted
casually in such a fluctuating household, with
transients in search of work and staying perhaps a day or two, or even with roomers who
go to work at 7 or 7.30 in the morning and
who, naturally, love to be out in the evening;
but notwithstanding the difficulties and discouragements, it is evident that the Home is
85 Strangers and Foreigners
Night
School.
a centre of blessing reaching nine or more
nationalities.
" Through the night school we have been
able to touch many lives; we have reached
not only the Euthenian people, but girls of
other nationalities who were anxious to come
to our school; we were fortunate in securing
the help of three public school teachers, whose
zeal for the work and deep interest in the
girls went a long way towards making our
school a success. The half-hour after class,
when the girls gathered around the organ to
help in the singing, was a deep attraction to
the girls, and who can tell what words may
not have found a response in some heart and
given that one a vision of a higher life ? Many
times have I seen tears in the eyes of different
girls, and I knew they were thinking of their
life that had been marred by sin, and I am
sure by the words of the hymns was born a
wish for a purer life. We had an enrolment of
one hundred and eighty-eight, with an average
of nineteen.
" The work, with all its problems and promises for the future, claims our hearts' deepest interest. In our impatience we would
see the light of Jesus Christ dawning in these
lives in our own time; some writer has said,
' God never works only for to-day; His plans
run on and on. The web He weaves is from
everlasting to everlasting, and if I can fill a
86 ■%
European Foreigners
part of that web, be it ever so insignificant,
it will abide forever.' It is a comfort to us
to know that whether our work be small or
great, if done in the spirit of the Master it
will not be lost but will bring forth fruit to
the glory of God."
During 1915-16, from various causes,
changes occurred in the staff—Miss Code
withdrawing to become the wife of Eev. P. G.
Sutton, Miss Addison to take her furlough,
Miss Inglis returning home on account of
ill-health, Mrs. Snyder also taking a rest after
her years of earnest labor as the Home Superintendent, caring for the ninety-three girls
who during the year had been sheltered for
a longer or shorter period. Thirty-one of
these were steady roomers, twelve attending
Sunday school; twenty-one were on the roll
o'f the night school, and there were also classes
in cooking and fancy work.
Besides Sunday schools and sewing classes
we read of Mission Bands at Eiverdale, Kin-
istino and Norwood studying "China for
Juniors " and " Japan for Juniors," and contributing money out of their poverty to the
Kingdom of God, while thus having their
vision widened.
87 Classes
and Clubs.
All People.
CHAPTEE VIII.
MANY NATIONALITIES.
All Peoples' Mission, Winnipeg.
IT would be difficult to express in more
condensed and at the same time more
comprehensive terms the varied work carried on among our new populations in Winnipeg and elsewhere than is found in the first
edition of " The Story of the Years," from
the pen of Eev. J. S. Woodsworth, B.A., to
whom the continuance and guidance of this
mission are so largely indebted.
The forms of effort are thus outlined: Work
among English-speaking people; among children of all nationalities (this includes Sunday
schools, Boys' Brigades, Bands of Hope,
Junior Leagues) ; immigration work; kindergartens ; deaconess work, which includes visiting, relief, sewing classes, kitchen-garden,
night school, fresh-air camp, etc.; work among
Poles, Germans, Euthenians, Bohemians,'
Hebrews and Syrians. There are four centres: Maple Street (All Peoples'), Burrows
Avenue, Stella Avenue Institute and Sutherland Avenue Institute.
Eev. Arthur O. Eose, the present Superintendent of  the Mission, says:   " The fact bault Sti  Many Nationalities
that our Mission stood for - All People' has
won the way to the hearts of our Austrian
Slavs in this time of great international antipathies, and our Institutes have been crowded
night after night with men and women who
had found in us true friends. We believe that
the constructive work of the past (among
children), accentuated by present-day conditions, has opened to us the hearts of the
adults. In districts from 50 to 90 per cent.
non-English-speaking, our eleven paid and
one hundred and twenty-seven regular volunteer workers go about preaching the Gospel,
a gospel of love to God and Christian brotherhood among men."
In this effort the representatives of the
W.M.S. act the part of the " big sister," one
Polish woman's testimony being, " I never
expected to meet in my life so kind and good
a young woman."
The need is increasingly apparent; the
efforts made are still unflagging; the results
are more and more encouraging.
Frank, Alta.; Fernie and Michel, B.C.
The presence of numerous foreigners in
the mining region of Crow's Nest Pass furnished a strong call for an earnest, common-
sense, courageous Christian woman to visit
the homes and help in the uplift of the people.
Since 1911 Miss Hannah M. Paul (formerly
89 Strangers andi Foreigners
Itinerant.
Social
Service.
teacher in our Crosby Girls' Home) has been
going in and out, showing kindness, visiting
the sick, distributing relief when necessary,
teaching English, sewing classes, Bible
classes, etc.
The townsite of Frank, however, having
been condemned by mining experts following
the extensive earthslides of 1912, the Executive advised removal, and Fernie was chosen.
Several settlements or hamlets cluster in this
neighborhood, 70 per cent, of the inhabitants
being Austrian and Italian.
Miss Paul has adopted the plan of spending one week in Michel and Natal and the
following in Fernie. From the Sunday school
at Natal three Hungarians and two Slavs, also
two women of Slav descent (previously Lutherans), joined our church at Easter, 1915.
A Mission Band has been formed at Fernie,
an evidence that the sympathy and efforts of
the local church are not confined to the Pass.
As elsewhere, drink is the great enemy of
the community. Let us hope that since the
establishment of the prohibitory law there
may come a greater desire for education and
other uplifting influences. Classes in English and sewing have been continued. Bush
fires, floods and a terrific mine explosion in
the summer of 1916 brought sorrow and loss
to many of these foreign settlers, to whom
Miss Paul has endeavored to bring comfort
and courage.
90 Many Nationalities
Prince Eupert, B.C.
A few years' experience in our W.M.S.
certainly produces capable pioneers to open
up new places, another instance being the
appointment to Prince Eupert in 1915 of
Miss Frances E. Hudson, who had for years
so efficiently presided over our Home at Port
Simpson. Here she had the satisfaction of
finding several of the Indian ex-pupils settled
and " doing well, living straight, and true to
the teaching received."
An Auxiliary, a Mission Band (attended
by many nationalities), a weekly prayer-
meeting and a sewing class were soon formed.
Though the foreigners may not yet understand English, they do understand kindness,
and they also greatly appreciate copies of the
Gospel in their own language and ours
together.
Vancouver, B.C.
A deaconess was granted in 1915 to Central
Church to work among foreigners, of whom
she found there were in her district 2,832, of
forty different nationalities and having newspapers printed in twenty-five different languages. The undertaking must seem tremendously formidable, but a beginning has
been made in a kindergarten, a Sunday school,
personal visits, classes for women and young
girls.
91
Fruit
Abidin Strangers and Foreigners
Wesley Institute, Fort William, Ont.
Similar work, but on a much larger scale,
is being carried on at Fort William, but here
there is the immense advantage of having a
centre where many activities can be con- •
ducted. Wesley Institute was opened December, 1912. With an enthusiastic Superintendent, Eev. J. M. Shaver, and a corps of sixteen
voluntary helpers, the W.M.S. bears its share
by providing for two missionaries or deaconesses.
Miss Cunningham.
A Winning
Force.
All Peoples' Mission, Sault Ste. Marie,
Ont.
Some six years ago a small Sunday school
was started by two gentlemen in a district of
Sault Ste. Marie known as " Little Italy," a
name misleading to outsiders, it being as
cosmopolitan a spot as one might find anywhere.
As the Sunday school had occupied the
Finnish Temperance Hall, naturally the large
majority of the pupils were Finns.
September, 1913, was marked by the
arrival of Miss M. J. Cunningham, under
appointment of the W.M.S., so familiar to its
members through her twenty years of labor
in Japan.
It did not take long for her affectionate
nature to respond to the bright-eyed, lovable
little foreigners, nor for her experienced mind
92 Many Nationalities
to devise ways of winning them to better
things than their surroundings presented.
Sewing, stories, games, singing, concerts, picnics, the use of a playground through the
kindness of the School Board and equipped
with games by the W.M.S., all had their part
and helped to open the doors of forty homes
during the first year.
Feeling the need of some place in which to
welcome the women, Miss Cunningham succeeded in finding "a room, nine feet by twelve
feet, and no way of entering it except through
a store and poolroom combined." The furnishings were donated, and here during the
winter she had the pleasure of entertaining
107 women and children, besides distributing
many articles of clothing.
A glimpse of another side of the work
appears—"a depressing, heart-sickening side.
Drunkenness, congestion in the manner of
living, no church, no building in which an
evening service could be held, no Sabbath—
for work goes on three hundred and sixty-five
days in the year—' strangers in our midst'
generally living in little separate communities and seldom coming in touch with the best
side of Canadian life. So much to keep them
down!   So little to help them up!"
With courageous heart and faith in God, Promoted.
Miss Cunningham applied herself to her task,
and was steadily winning her way, when in
the midst of her activities she became ill, and
93 Strangers and Foreigners
after three weeks she was at rest in the Home
above.
Her pastor, Eev. G. S. Faircloth, who had
been her friend and adviser, testified to the
value of her work and in every way possible
supplied the place of a brother.
Just before her illness she was preparing
the mission children to present the cantata
" Gates Ajar."
Her memorial service was on Easter Sunday, 1916, and this cantata, given the Sunday
after, " came as a message from the world
above." " Who could plan a'more fitting service? Who could leave a more Christ-like
good-bye with the scores of bereft little
hearts ?"
It was with much satisfaction the Executive was able to secure a trained and
experienced deaconess—Miss Haddock—to
undertake the work at Sault Ste. Marie.
Italians.
In 1906 a beginning had just been made
to reach the strangers from sunny Italy. Our
efforts in Toronto have centred chiefly in the
Elm Street Italian Mission of our Church,
though two new stations have more recently
been opened, at 160 Claremont Street and on
Dufferin Street.
Kindergartens, Sunday schools, night
schools,  Boys'  and  Girls'   Clubs,  Mothers'
94 ITALIAN MISSIONS, TORONTO
1.   Elm Street. 2.   Claremont Street. 3.   Dufferin Street.  Many Nationalities
Meetings, and visits by Bible-women and deaconesses have resulted in improved conditions
both in hearts and homes. Many of the children have graduated into the public schools,
and are in a fair way to become intelligent
and useful citizens.
Similar though not as extensive work was
commenced in Hamilton in 1914. The
W.M.S. also supports a worker among the
Italians in Montreal.
95  JAPAN
Tokyo
Shizuoka
Kofu
Kanazawa
Toyama
Nagano
Ueda JAPAN
JAPAN! Is there another geographical
term that presents to the imagination
another such picture as the word Japan?
England, Paris, Greece, Rome, these names
likewise affect the imagination, and each
calls up before the mind a variety of scenes
and associations which are full of interest:
England, the romance of history, the flower
of character, the spread of empire; Paris,
brilliancy, gaiety, pleasure; Greece, the perfections of antiquity; Rome, age, power,
splendor, ecclesiastical domain.
Japan stands for something different from
all of these, and in some ways a good deal
more, though in most ways on a smaller scale.
But for situation, for scenery, for venerable
years and bounding youth, for possessions
and ambitions, for actual performance and
for hopeful promise, Japan is almost by
itself among the nations. "Unique" means
the only one of the kind. Japan is '' unique.''
There is only one Japan.—Edward Abbott. CHAPTEE IX.
JAPAN.
MABVELLOUS transitions have occurred
in the 'Sunrise Kingdom during the
last sixty-three years; an awakening not only
of its own people but of other nationalities
concerning it; a growing mutual respect and
interest, with profit on both sides, from better
acquaintance and exchanged benefits. The
Anglo-Japanese Treaty of recent years has no
doubt strengthened confidence and led to increased favor towards Western thought and
Christian ideals.
In a population of say sixty millions there
are but some thousands who acknowledge
themselves followers of Christ; their influence, however, is far beyond their numerical
standing.
Even royal appreciation has been evidenced
by posthumous honors to Joseph Neesima,
LL.D., and Kakewa Yamamoto, the founders
of Doshisha, the first Christian University in
Japan; and, at the coronation of the present
Emperor serven out of the fourteen decorations were conferred on well-known Christians, one being the Hon. S. Ebara, a member
of the House of Peers and a Methodist; the
other Colonel Yamamura, the head of  the
99 \^    1
«1 x\
Kr\N&tA*<{^
ysyvi
AHpW(/y
JflPA". Japan
Salvation Army. Also prominent Christian
women were recognized—Mrs. Yajima for
her work in the W.C.T.U., and Miss Tsuda,
the principal of a large school for girls.
Education has been generously fostered
until practically all the nation is at school
from six to twelve years of age, but even non-
Christian statesmen recognize the necessity of
something more to produce moral character
and a sound nation. Some of their leading
men freely acknowledge the marked superiority of results from the teaching and true
life of Christianity to those produced by any
other form of religion.
Our Church began its work in Japan in
1873, and the Woman's Missionary Society
nine years later.
An event of marked importance occurred Union of
in 1906, the first year of our continued story,  Methodist
viz., the union of the three Methodist organ- Churches-
izations already operating—the M. E. Church,
the M. E. Church, .South (both of the United
States), and the Canadian—forming what is
now known as " The Methodist Church of
Japan."
This consummation was effected through -
Commissioners from the respective bodies, in
co-operation with the Japanese. Our own
honored representatives were Eev. A. Carman, D.D., General Superintendent, and
Eev. A. Sutherland, D.D., General Secretary
of the Board of Missions, whose visit was
•    101 Japan
highly valued not only for the official help
given but for its refreshing influence socially.
The membership of this united Methodist
Church now numbers 12,750, an increase of
60 per cent, since 1907, and the enrolment in
Sunday schools is 32,734, an increase of 80
per cent. Cheering, but how few in comparison with the four and a half millions for
whom our Church is held responsible.
102  GIRLS'  BOARDING  SCHOOL
Tokyo, Japan
ACADEMIC  DEPARTMENT
Tokyo, Japan
118 girls'waiting for their new class rooms CHAPTEE X.
World's
Christian
Students'
Federation.
TOKYO.
THE year 1906-7 seems to have been one
of special privilege, an important event
being the Conference in Tokyo of the World's
Christian Students' Federation. Besides
general meetings, which were most inspiring,
there were three afternoon gatherings of
school girls held in our Azabu school, when
forty of the teachers, students and servants
took a definite step Christward.
A welcome indication of rising moral sentiment was shown by an official request for
help in dealing with strangers at the railway
station, especially with young women who
were crowding to the city during the Exhibition—virtually Travellers' Aid work. In
conjunction with others a house was secured
where many found shelter and guidance.
Over 13,000 gospels and more than 100,000
tracts were distributed.
On a busy street not far from our property Juban.
is the site on which was the first Methodist
church in that district—Juban. This small
lot was generously passed over to the Woman's
Missionary Society by the Board of Missions.
Towards the erection of a building $1,200
was granted by our Board, the girls of the
10? Carman
Hall.
Japan
Azabu school adding $400 and promising
more. It was with great joy the little orphanage
family took possession, November, 1908. Miss
Hargrave writes: " Carman Hall! I trust it
was a pardonable liberty we took when we
gave the above name to the Juban building.
True, it is not just the kind of edifice we
would name after our great Dr. Carman,
but when we consider former days, and what
the building stands for—orphanage, model
Sunday school, kindergarten, a place for
women's meetings, for general evangelistic
meetings, free bath and a free dispensary in
contemplation—we are glad to have the name
Carman connected with it."
Here, with the help of the pastor and
members of the Azabu church, evangelistic
meetings were opened. " The large front
room, seating about a hundred, was well filled
every night, inspiring addresses being given
by Dr. Coates, Dr. Hiraiwa, Hon. Yaro Ando
and others. As a result nineteen expressed
a desire to study Christianity.
"The normal class for Sunday-school
workers under Miss Craig numbers thirty,
who in their twelve little meeting-places
touch an average aggregate of about four hundred children each Sunday afternoon, one
thousand names being enrolled during the
year."
The year 1907-8 witnessed the erection of
an addition to the Azabu building consisting
104  I
i|WB«Wj
JMs
ii
THE SENIOR CLASS
Household Science Kitchen, Azabu School,
Tokyo, Japan
THE JUNIOR CLASS
Household Science Dining Room, Azabu School,
Tokyo, Japan Tokyo
of three stories, one of which was planned,
furnished and fully equipped by the late
Mrs. Massey-Treble, of Toronto, Ont., for
the Household Science Department. Her intelligent grasp of what was needful, her
experience, her attention to the minutest
detail, and her generous heart, gave to our
mission what is considered the finest plant in
Japan for the prosecution of this study. For
years Miss Hargrave and others in all the
stations had accomplished much in this line
with very limited facilities, so that great satisfaction was felt when in January, 1909,
classes found accommodation in the new
building.
A graduate from the Lillian Massey
School, Toronto, Miss Margaret D. Keagey,
B.H.Sc, after some months at the language,
was ready to take charge. Bible instruction
regularly accompanies the lessons on home
life, and thus many ladies who would not
otherwise be reached are brought under
Christian teaching.
Ebb and flow is not confined to the watery
deep; popular opinion or feeling is apt to be
unstable, and in 1909 there came a sudden
and adverse change in regard to higher education for women. Miss Blackmore, the capable principal, at that time, of our Azabu
school, writes: " The attendance at the government schools of the city has* fallen about
105 Japan
Gymnasium.
Memorial
to Miss F.
E. Palmer.
Night
School for
Factory
Girls.
30 per cent.; our own loss is less than 10 per
cent., and really 210 pupils give all the opportunities for missionary work that can be made
use of. The good we are able to accomplish
is limited only by our capacity for doing
good."
November 6th, 1909, the twenty-fifth anniversary of the opening of this school, was
marked by the alumni providing two hundred
yen ($100) as* a beginning towards a gymnasium. Subsequently this amount was
doubled and another Ave hundred yen contributed by the teachers, pupils and friends.
The building was completed the following
year and proved " a boon which seems to grow
as time passes."
The room for the library was also enlarged
and improved, through the generous gift of
the N.B. and P.E.I. Branch as a memorial
of one who for twenty years had thought and
toiled as president or corresponding-secretary
in the interests of the Society—Miss Frances
E. Palmer, St. John, KB.
A very gratifying feature of the life in our
boarding schools is the Christian atmosphere,
the awakening of personal responsibility, the
stimulus to effort for others. This was evidenced by " two or three of the young helpers
in children's meetings expressing the wish to
do something for the little girls who were
leaving their classes on Sunday because they
106 Tokyo
were beginning to work in factories, and so
were busy then as on other days. It was
decided to open a little night school for such
girls in the kindergarten room (Juban) three
evenings in the week. There was no lack of
volunteer teachers, and fourteen little girls
availed themselves of the opportunity to learn
a little reading, writing, arithmetic, sewing
and the Bible. One child walks fully three
miles to this class after her long day's work,
showing a very real appreciation of the chance
given her."
Good work has been done by the King's
Daughters, Temperance and Literary Societies. These are under the direct control of
the girls themselves, with some advice from
the teachers. Their training in planning and
conducting religious and, business meetings is
a valuable part of their education, while their
contributions have been a help to the Famine
Belief Fund in China, the Leper Hospital
and the Blind Asylum. Six of the students
are looking forward to becoming Bible-
women. With some this decision means the
giving up of former ambitions, with others
the overcoming of strong prejudice in their
homes. ^ Throughout the year was felt the
helpful influence of the special meetings conducted by Mr. Wilkes in the early part of the
session, and the quiet daily work and prayer
of the Christian girls and teachers was not
without fruit.
King's
Daughters,
Temperance and
Literary
Societies.
107 Japan
School-
Room Provided by
Factory
Proprietor.
Factory
Conditions.
A pleasing but very uncommon evidence of
care for the operatives by the proprietor
appears in a calico factory where | a schoolroom has been built and a teacher engaged
who holds school three times a day; but even
so, he only reaches three hundred of the three
thousand girls who spend their lives in the
factory. Here, as well as in another, we are
now giving direct Bible talks, also in a
hospital in connection with this factory.
Eecently one of the nurses came and asked
for a Bible."
Miss Allen writes:
" About seven years ago, Miss Howie succeeded in obtaining permission to hold a meeting twice a month in one of the many large
factories in Kameido, a suburb of Tokyo.
It is a factory employing about 2-700 girls.
There are usually two or three hundred of
them at our meeting, but as many come only
once or twice out of curiosity, and as the
employees change so frequently, our talks
have to be rather a series of beginnings than
a connected and progressive teaching of the
truths of Christianity. Still there are always
some who show real interest and who are
present whenever possible.
" Most of the girls come from distant parts
of Japan and live in the factory dormitories,
which, while better than those of many other
factories,   are  still  far  from  being  either
108 Tokyo
hygienic or inviting. The girls work on the
night and on the day shifts alternately, the
change being made every seven or eight days
when the machinery stops for twelve hours,
giving the workers twenty-four hours' rest
instead of twelve. This extra time the girls
are free to employ as they wish, there being
no restriction to their going where they
please, provided they return to the factory
by ten at night. This arrangement certainly
does not give any too much time for rest and
recreation, but it does unfortunately give an
opportunity for the girls to spend their time
in ways that are evil.
" ISTo one can wonder at their natural and
innocent desire for a little amusement after
days of a weary and monotonous round of
work, but their lack of wisdom and experience, as well as their lack of money to enable
them to go to respectable places of entertainment, often lead them to the worst places.
Consequently, we were very much pleased
last winter when several of the girls came
all the way to the school—a trip of nearly
two hours on the electric car—with the
request that we tell them something more
about Christianity. It was time for them to
return before they had heard half of what
they wanted to listen to, or we to tell, but
they went away very happy, each carrying a
ISTew Testament and a number of very easy
tracts and booklets.
109 Japan
House
Secured as
a Social
Centre.
" Since then, whenever we have gone to the
factory to hold our meeting we have taken
special literature for these girls, and as they
obtained permission to follow us into the factory hospital where we have a little meeting
for the nurses, they heard two talks instead of
one. Still this did not give us an opportunity
to speak to them personally, and so arose the
plan to rent a little house in the neighborhood
to which they could come on their holidays.
" The factory managers are very polite and
friendly, but they have made it clear that any
personal and direct appeal to their employees
would result in having our meetings stopped,
though they have no objection to our teaching
the girls hymns and telling them Bible stories.
This attitude arises not so much from any
objection i^o Christianity as from the fear
that if a report spreads that they are making
Christians of their employees, parents will
send their daughters to work in other factories. But they have no objection to the
girls coming to our house for Christian teaching, as the responsibility then rests upon the
girl and not upon themselves.
" After some searching we found a suitable
house and a middle-aged Christian woman to
look after it and take care of the two little
daughters of the Bible-woman living there.
The latter works in connection with the
Shitaya church, so is out most of the time,
but she is at home in the evenings and on cer-
110 Tokyo
tain afternoons, while Hibi San and I are
there on the days when girls we know are
free to come.
" I wish the people who supplied the money
for the rent and furnishing of the house could
have seen the delight of those specially interested girls I mentioned, when we told them
where the house was and that they might
come to it any time. They have not yet
missed coming whenever they were free to
do so, and are beginning to bring their
friends.
" The house is a small one, but is large
enough for our purpose. Downstairs, in addition to a small hall and a tiny kitchen, where
you can reach any article without moving
from the centre, there are two rooms nine feet
by twelve, which can be thrown into one.
Here the Bible-woman, the caretaker and the
two little ones live, and here we hold a weekly
meeting for children. The twelve-by-twelve
upstairs room is especially for the factory
girls. In it there is a little bookcase containing Bibles and tracts, which we give them,
and easy stories which we lend them, and are
delighted to see them take, for the lowest
class of novels by Japanese writers and translations of the scum of western literature are
only too cheap and plentiful.
" We also keep sewing materials, so that
any girl who has a dress to make over can
bring it with her.    Perry pictures do much
111 Japan
Wayside
Teaching.
to make the room attractive and to furnish a
starting-point for conversation leading to the
great central theme. As we have had the
house for only six weeks, it is too soon to
estimate the worth of our venture, but I feel
sure it will be a good investment of time and
money. rJot that so many girls have come
yet, but those who have been there once return
on every possible opportunity, eager to hear
more of Christianity.
11 am afraid in the limits of a letter to
attempt to touch upon the problem of factory
work generally. The more one looks into it
and thinks about it, the more one realizes how
terrible are the conditions. But they are conditions that in some other countries have been,
if not made perfect, at least vastly improved,
and there is no reason why the same should
not be true of Japan. But this will never
be until the Japanese people themselves begin
to realize the sufferings and needs of factory
employees. With this thought in mind, the
c house-warming' we planned when we were
settled was made to include not only those
from the school already interested, but some
of the church ladies who should be interested."
Wayside teaching is also blessed, as in the
days of the Saviour, for it is His truth that
brings light and joy. " Here is a little group
of women in one of the side streets who, while
112 Tokyo
they smoke their pipes and drink their tea,
listen with tears in their eyes to the Gospel
message. Their hostess, who had found her
way into one of our street Sunday-school
meetings, being attracted by the singing, had
called her neighbors together and sent for us
to come and tell them more of those wonderful
words of life."
To a discouraged invalid was brought " the
sure word of comfort, and one glance at her
happy face is sufficient to assure one that the
Lord has fully compensated her for all her
losses."
Others were led to feel their responsibility
for those dependent upon them, whether in
the home or in sewing schools, and little meetings were arranged for these. The church
services showed the effect of the women
undertaking to bring their neighbors, and
the building of the new Sunday school and
parsonage in Azabu became a great quickener
of their generosity and Christian activity.
At the TJeno Exhibition many assisted the
Bible-women and the missionaries, f some
standing for hours in front of the Gospel Hall
inviting people to enter, and there was simply
no limit to tract distribution."
In 1914 Miss Blackmore writes concerning
the orphanage in Juban: " Our little Home
has passed its twentieth birthday. On that
occasion one of the c grown-up children ' said,
1 When mother died eighteen years ago, grand-
Orphanage.
Rescued
Lives.
8
113 Japan
25th Anniversary of
Honored
Mission-
Kindergarten in
Azabu.
mother struggled to keep us "respectable," but
our invalid father decided to sell my sister
and me (aged four and six) into " the evil
business." God saved us from that horrible
fate through Christian women of Canada who
stretched kind hands across the sea to help us.
Now we both have happy Christian homes of
our own, but we never forget what we might
have been, and shall teach our children to
thank God and the women of Canada.' It
was beautiful to the eyes of those who have
watched her development to see, at our last
baptismal service, this young mother present
her boy to the Lord—mother and child the
embodiment of joyous, vigorous life. They
are a type of the work of the twenty years."
This same year, 1914, marked the twenty-
fifth anniversary of the arrival in Japan of
three of our most valuable and honored missionaries, Misses Hargrave, Blackmore and
Hart, and the event was delightfully remembered at the annual meeting of the Council.
For some time it has been felt that there
was " a missing link" in our educational
work in Tokyo, a foundation one for the following generation, so it was with great joy
when " a small but successful " kindergarten
was established, " exactly meeting our purpose, namely, bringing under our care the
children of our graduates, the little brothers
and sisters of the present pupils and a few
children in the immediate neighborhood."
114 Tokyo
The cost ($440) was met by the graduates Y.W.C.A.
and students, who had also responded gener- Formed-
ously to many regular and special requests,
their work and voluntary gifts amounting in
the year to $220. Among the objects were
the famine relief fund, the new church, Sunday school and parsonage, special evangelistic
Work, and sending delegates to the Y.W.C.A.
Summer Conference. " Although from the
early years the King's Daughters Society had
taken the leading part in the religious work
of the school, from time to time the advisability of disbanding and organizing a
Y.W.C.A. had been discussed." In 1915
this action was taken " in the hope that the
girls' outlook and sympathies might be broadened by bringing them in touch with the
wider student movement."
In the minutes of the Japan Council, 1913,
we find this record: " The trustees of the
Azabu church having offered part of the
church lot for sale, resolved, that the immediate purchase of the one hundred tsnbo—
adjoining the school property be authorized."^
This additional strip of land was of great
advantage, and 1916 finds a three-storey
extension beinsr erected to provide necessary
class rooms, science room, etc.
For some years it has been apparent to the Union
missionaries of several denominations that  rh[igtla£
there was urgent need for an advanced course Women,
of education under Christian influence.    To
115 Japan
provide this was too great an undertaking for
any one Board, but by combining forces a
Union Christian College for women, well
equipped and efficiently conducted, might be
established, thus bringing great benefit to the
graduates of the various mission schools.
Much time and close thought have been
given by the Promoting Committee, on which
Hon. Soroku Ebara has been appointed our
Japanese representative, an honor to our
Canadian Church.
A suggested basis has been submitted to the
Boards who propose to unite, and high hopes
are entertained for the not too distant realization of this statesmanlike vision.
At a Conference held in [New York, June
27th, 1916, a " Committee of Co-operation "
of the Woman's Christian College of Japan
was organized, representing the following
Boards: American Baptist Woman's Foreign
Missionary Society; Board of Foreign Missions, Presbyterian Church in U. S. A.;
Woman's Foreign Missionary Society of the
Methodist Episcopal Church; Board of Foreign Missions of the Methodist Episcopal
Church; Woman's Foreign Missionary Society of the Eeformed Church in America;
Woman's Missionary Society of the Methodist Church, Canada.
116 CHAPTEE XL
Work,
1904-05.
SHIZUOKA.
OlSTE of the closing paragraphs in the
second volume of the " Story of the
Years " concerning Shizuoka (page 51) gives
a touching little reference to the war between
Japan and Eussia, 1904-5.
The following year Miss Cunningham Red Cross
writes: " After the war was concluded last
fall, and the troops began to arrive from Manchuria, the members of the Eed Cross Volunteer Nurses' Association were divided into six
classes, each class to take its turn in meeting
trains and serving tea to the soldiers. For
nearly six months from four to eight trains
passed daily, and as they stopped from thirty
to forty minutes, many of the Eed Cross
ladies took their lunch and remained at the
station the greater part of the day. Miss
Tweedie and I went as often as possible and
became very friendly with the members of
our class. Two years of constant thought and
work for the soldiers—meeting trains, visiting and providing entertainment for wounded
soldiers, etc.—had given many women an
interest outside of their homes, and when the
war was ended all were not content to go back
to the monotonous life of former years.   One
117 Japan
Miss Cunningham's
Return to
Canada.
Memorial
Service.
Abiding
Fruit.
lady expressed a wish to learn English; other
requests quickly followed, and for several
weeks Miss Veazey had a class of thirteen
ladies, among them the wife of the governor."
The most marked event of 1906-7, bringing
a touch of sadness to Shizuoka school life, was
the return to Canada of Miss Cunningham
after her third term of service. From the opening of this our second station she had watched
its development, most of which had been
under her own influence and effort, and she
could rejoice in a school of seventy-one, with
a staff of two foreigners, eight Japanese teachers (five being Christians), a kindergarten of
sixty, besides the English class of twenty
Eed Cross ladies.
Evidencing the deep impression made by
Miss Cunningham during her fifteen years
in Japan was the touching memorial service
held in the church at Shizuoka on receiving
word of her passing to the better land at Sault
Ste. Marie, Ont., April 22nd, 1916. About
forty of the former graduates were present,
some from near-by towns. Later in the day
they had a social gathering in the school to
talk over the early days, and as they separated many gave expression to resolves for
more unselfish living as the result of the influence recalled of their honored teacher.
" Be not weary in well-doing, for in due
season ye shall reap if ye faint not." This is
exemplified in the record of Miss Crombie in
i 118 HOME AND BOARDING SCHOOL
Shizuoka, Japan
PRIMARY BUILDING
Shizuoka, Japan  Shizuoka
connection with the evangelistic work. " It
was very gratifying to find active Christians
who had been members of the church for
twenty years or more, to see them taking a
lively interest in temperance work, and the
women of the church conducting a woman's
meeting once a month, all the members taking
their turn in sharing the responsibility, and
to find homes where both parents and all the
children are members of the church. These
and other visible results are the fruits of past
labors."
In one town a fortnightly meeting was held
in the home of one of the principal ladies,
who was always inviting the women and keeping them stirred up. Formerly, in the busy
tea season, these meetings were closed, but
during one summer at least it was decided
this should not be done, as it would be very
" lonesome " without them.
Always and in all the stations our mission- Temporaries have been earnest pioneers in the cause ance-
of temperance. One of the numerous forms
of effort was the publication of The Children s Herald, which, under the able management of Mrs. Pinsent and her Japanese
assistant, had a circulation in 1908 of 6,500
copies monthly. The following year the editing of this paper was passed over to the
department of the World's W.C.T.U. in
Tokyo, as there was now a "Y " missionary
in residence there.    A Temperance Legion
119 ment.
Japan
was formed among the boys who considered
themselves too big for Sunday school.
Primary October, 1909, the twentieth anniversary
™!5?rt> °^ ^e foundation of our work in Shizuoka,
brought special rejoicing through the opening
of the new building for the long-desired
Primary Department, thus making provision
for a child to enter the kindergarten and proceed through the various grades up to graduation, spending ten or twelve years under
Christian instruction.
The crowning joy of the following year
came with the decision, during the last three
months, of thirteen .of the students to give
themselves to Christ. There was also great
satisfaction in being able to open in October,
1910, a kindergarten class in Temma Cho, a
very poor district about a mile from our
school. This resulted in a flourishing Sunday school of nearly one hundred children
and a well-attended Mothers' Meeting. The
room for this Christian work had been supplied by Hive young men of the church, but
being small and in a very noisy place, could
not be used permanently. Miss De Wolfe
and her Japanese helpers met once a week to
pray about this and other things. Unknown
to them the young men also met for prayer,
and in a wonderful way a most suitable piece
of land (Futaba) was secured by the latter
and a building planned to accommodate fifty
children and carry on other settlement work
120 Hama-
matsu.
Shizuoka
This property was purchased and fenced by Kinder-
the W.M.S. in 1915, the young men who had
owned it desiring to be relieved. Marked
improvement in the neighborhood was manifested from this little centre, which enrolled
eighty-eight little pupils in 1915. In addition we have two other kindergartens in the
city, one (Shizuhata) in connection with the
large Orphanage maintained by the General
Board and the one (Eiwa) attached to our
Boarding School.
Miss Crombie reports in 1911-12 the opening of women's meetings in eight new places,
with a wonderful readiness to hear the Gospel, especially in the Hamamatsu district
(about three hours by train west of Shizuoka) . " On an average," Miss Crombie says,
" I have made a trip in this direction once a
month, taking two or more meetings in different places each time, with audiences varying from fifty to one hundred and eighty,
mostly women. The Japanese pastor says
that the women in his church have all been
brought in by our work. They invariably
make the start in a women's meeting. Hundreds have heard the Gospel for the first time
and the Christians have been encouraged to
work with greater faith and earnestness. The
women of Kega, assuming responsibility
toward the neighboring villages, have gone, in
company, to each new meeting, riding several
hours in the stage coach, even through the
121 Japan
Government
Recognition.
rain and late at night. The zeal of the new
places is also having a reflex influence on the
older ones."
It has been a great disappointment that
through lack of workers the eager desire to
have Hamamatsu occupied as another centre
by our Canadian women missionaries has as
yet been unfulfilled.
For some time our school in Shizuoka had
desired Government recognition, and an
application was made to the Education
Department. By complying with specified
regulations (which do not interfere in any
way with the teaching of Christianity), private schools may obtain certain privileges for
their graduates, who, in addition to some
minor advantages, can enter without examination into the Normal Schools and are
eligible for the entrance examination into the
Higher Normal School. This long-waited-
for " Government Eecognition," granted in
December, 1913, added much joy to the
Christmas celebration of that year, and was
a great satisfaction to the Principal, Miss
Veazey, who through so many years has with
such grace and ability watched over the interests of this school. Through this measure
" entrance was secured for one of our brightest graduates into the Provincial Normal
School, where she can receive the regular
three-year diploma at the end of one year and
so return in the spring as a primary teacher."
122 Shizuoka
The year 1914-15 claims attention in two
respects: first as presenting from the Primary Department its first class of graduates,
fourteen in number, of whom eight remained
for academic work; and second, in securing
a fine Christian teacher of experience as
head of this important branch.
As a result of the general evangelistic
effort of this year special openings were
afforded for work among High School girls
through Bible study classes, the distribution
of Christian literature, regular hospital visiting, addresses in factories, etc., fourteen new
weekly and several monthly meetings having
been started.
123 CHAP TEE XII.
New
School
Building,
1907.
Well and
Electric
Light.
J
KOFU.
ANUAEY 19th, 1907, witnessed the
formal opening of the long-anticipated
new home for our school in its fine elevated
position on the side of a high hill overlooking
the city, with its magnificent inspiring views.
The structure, though not very artistic, is
conveniently arranged and well planned to
secure the utmost of sunshine and good air.
Many new furnishings, though of the simplest kind, had to be provided, and for these
the King's Daughters Society through their
industry contributed ninety-three yen. Naturally the grounds required much attention,
and it is pleasing to note that the first trees
or shrubs planted were the gift of that year's
graduates.
Digging a well was the next great undertaking. " Begun in the fall, completion was
promised before the year closed. After digging, as required by contract, desirable water
was not forthcoming. Water we must have,"
writes Miss Eobertson. " Should fire occur
we are in jeopardy. Assured that a few more
feet of digging would strike the water vein
in the rock below, we went into a day com-
124   Kofu
pact. Spring (1908) was here before the
well was finished, but the memory of weary
watching, slow labor and daily anxiety over
accumulating expense was partially obliterated by the joy of beholding the rushing fountain from beneath fill the well to the brim,
giving us over sixty feet of water." May we
not look upon this as a parable and prophecy
of the spiritual fountain springing up into
everlasting life from the careful planning
and plodding, the patient teaching, the gifts
and prayers both there and here in the homeland ? The Divine Spirit alone can give the
water of life, but we must dig the well.
The next improvement was the installation
of electric light throughout the building,
bringing a sense of relief and security.
The great event of the year 1911 to all
interested in the external welfare of the
school was the building of the gymnasium,
" a monument to the patient efforts of a
faithful few of the Alumnae," supplemented
and its completion hastened by a generous
donation from the Board. Its advantages
were much appreciated, especially during the
rainy season, but after serving a useful purpose for four years this one-storey building
was reconstructed in 1915 on a new model,
supplying a fine large class room in addition
to a well-equipped science room in the second
storey.
125
Gymnasium. Japan
A New
Church.
Showing how the active interest of the students is not limited to their school, but is
linked to the general work of the mission, an
extract may be taken from Miss Strothard's
letter, appearing May, 1916: " For some time
the missionary workers and the Japanese
Christians in Kofu have been looking forward to and working for a new church, the
congregation having quite outgrown the original structure. All our Christian community
have been seeking to do their share in helping
to meet the expense involved. In the Government schools it is customary to take the
graduating class on a trip to some place of
historic interest, or to some large commercial
enterprise, a visit to which would be of educational value to the students, and for the
past two or three years the girls of our graduating class have been taken on similar
excursions. Accordingly plans were being
made for the trip, when the girls of their
own accord came to the Principal, Miss Bobertson, and said that if she would allow them
to take a walking trip over the mountains to
the Mitake Falls, to visit the famous old
temple there, they would give up their other
trip and appropriate the money they would
have thus spent towards the building fund of
the new church. This proposition, coming
voluntarily, delighted Miss Bobertson, and of
course she quickly consented. At the Christmas entertainment the pupils had thirty-five
126 yen to offer as their first contribution to the
church fund."
The students have many opportunities of
" showing sympathy. Every week or so some
of the girls take a little rice to a poor family,
some flowers to an invalid or a little money to
some unfortunate. On Flower Sunday, after
distributing flowers in the hospitals, each one
had an incident to relate which showed how
her heart had been touched with the sight of
suffering."
Every year there are decisions for Christ, Decisions
and those who reach graduation are almost
without exception His confessed followers.
This is true of all our schools. Many pass
on to higher training with the avowed purpose of obtaining greater efficiency in Christian service. They are sent out with the
prayer that their influence may work as
leaven in the centres where they may live,
that they may stand true to their Master, and
that their spiritual life may be saved from
being smothered by the materialistic and
degrading influences about them.
In no province has what is specifically *r^nge"
termed the evangelistic work been more Work,
extensively or successfully developed than in
Yamanashi, of which Kofu is the chief city,
situated on a plain surrounded by lofty mountains, having many villages and towns scattered through the district, some in places difficult of access and only in recent years brought  Kofu
into closer communication in certain directions by the introduction of the railway.
Travel by jinrikisha, basha or kago is still
the weary method on some roads, but our
ladies and the Bible-women feel well rewarded as from month to month they note
the welcome given to the message, the
enlarged intelligence and devotion of the
women as they grasp Bible truth, and the
bright, responsive faces of the children, who
eagerly attempt, and ultimately learn, to sing
. the songs of Zion and memorize Scripture
verses.
Miss Alcorn, ably seconded at different
periods by Miss Tweedie and Miss Killam,
B.A., has organized and carried out a wide
itinerary with numerous meetings and systematic visiting, which has brought the Gospel
to many a secluded hamlet, purifying and
enriching individual lives, and through them
families otherwise unreached.
Very careful instruction is regularly given
to Bible-women and senior students who take
part in these evangelistic efforts.
Miss Alcorn writes in 1913: " Our Yaman-
ashi Ken Bible-women deserve a place of
honor among the names of those who are
faithful.
" We are now seeing the result of what Bible-
years of   training can do for our workers. women'
Mrs. Yoshii—naturally reticent—after thirteen years of service has found herself.   Her
9 129 Japan
fear in entering new homes or going to new
places seems lost in her zeal for her work."
The members and friends of our- Kofu
church recently celebrated the thirtieth anniversary of Mrs. Wadda's spiritual birthday.
For twenty-two years she has been associated
with us. Very touching was the story she
told of seeking and finding salvation in the
days when it was not easy to become a Christian. Her testimony to the keeping power of
God could not but inspire a deeper faith in
the hearts of all who heard her.
Another interesting gathering in our church
was a surprise party for Watanabe San. For
fifteen years she has given herself freely to
the uplift of the people of our province.
Eepresentative men came from far and near
to testify to her worth, and numerous incidents were given of changed lives and ideals
because of her faithful efforts.
Surely the lives of these three good women
will inspire our Christian students to lose
themselves in loving service for others. Never
before have homes opened and hearts responded so readily to Christian teaching.
This came in answer to definite, persistent
prayer. It pays to work long and patiently
with souls. Christ's limit of time is " until
ye find." The visit once in two or three weeks
seems little, but by keeping our people " moving along the way of Jesus, like a river, the
very motion is a cleansing process."
130 Kofu
As showing the estimate in which Christian literature is held by our missionaries,
and as a sample of its use, we insert Miss
Alcorn's report for 1908-9:
" Evangelistic.—In summing up the work L*terature'
of the year we find a large expenditure for
literature in our province. The ordering and
distributing of tracts and papers is no haphazard work. It takes careful thought and
planning. Before ordering, sample tracts are
read, to be sure for what department of our
work we need them. What would help a
factory girl would not be suitable for our
women's meetings. What we give at our
women's meetings is not what we plan for the
girls in the sewing schools. Then there must
be a tract for free distribution in the homes.
Twice this year we have placed something to
read in every home in the vicinity of our
school. Tn other districts this has also been
done. As we travel through our province
there is abundant opportunity for scattering
helpful thoughts to those whom we only meet
in passing.
"We have a good 'lending library,' and
are often delighted at the interest shown in
helpful books by many of the women.
Twenty-five of < The Story of My Life '—
Helen Keller—have been distributed through
the province.
131 Japan
" Quite a number of our women have this
year subscribed for magazines.
1 The i Daily Bible Eeadings ' are in every
home where we are seeking to awaken interest
in a daily study of the Word.
" We meet one thousand women in our
regular work every month. At our children's
meetings in the country we have an aggregate attendance of six hundred. In our Kofu
children's meetings we have an aggregate
attendance of one thousand. We take nine
hundred papers a month for the children,
eight hundred for the women, sewing girls
and factories.
" Once the largest factory in our province
opened its doors, and thirteen hundred women
and girls had permission to hear a fifteen-
minute talk from Miss Strout, our W.C.T.U.
missionary. Because of there being no suitable place where all could gather, only five
hundred were able to hear. The same day the
principal of a sewing school of one hundred
and fifty girls allowed us to speak to her girls.
In February, at a large special meeting in our
Kofu church, ninety of the best women of
our city came to hear a lecture on \ The Mission of Women.' On such occasions as these
three cited we plan specially to give each one
a further message by putting into her hand
something she can read afterwards and then
pass on to her friends.
132 Kofu
" As the years pass by, the preparing and
carrying of these bundles of tracts and papers
does not become monotonous. On the contrary, there is a growing interest in the great
possibilities of this department of our work,
for may it not be the time when a message
will touch the keynote of some life and there
will be a response, a seeking for God.
" Grateful for the privilege of service, we
close our work with the same prayer offered
last year, t Lord, if we may, we'll serve
another day.' "
The following year shows further extension:
" Evangelistic.—In the north-western part Hungry
of the Province, new work has been opened Hearts-
during the year. In February, while having
a children's meeting at Hinoharu village, we
met a man from Oizumi, who gave us a pressing invitation to visit his village. We went
in March and had over two hundred women
at our afternoon meeting. At six o'clock we
had a large children's meeting, and from
seven a meeting of over two hundred and fifty
men and women, which lasted until after
eleven o'clock. These were the first Christian
services ever held in this village.
" About two miles from this place is a village called Kabuto, where we were invited to
speak at a large sewing school of eighty
pupils.   We could not find time to go until
133 Japan
Doors
Opened.
Faithful
Living.
April, and when we did go we were sorry to
find that about half the girls had already left.
We had a good meeting with the forty present,
and at the close every girl in the school and
the teacher also expressed their willingness
to accept salvation through faith in Christ.
Thirty-four of the girls bought Bibles and
promised to read them. We had another
meeting with them before the school closed
for the summer, and the joy of hearing from
the teacher herself that she had accepted
Christ at our first meeting, and since then
her heart had been filled with peace. She
has promised to use the daily Bible readings
and have the girls take a little time every day
for Bible reading when the school opens again
in the autumn.
" Our prayers for entrance to factories
have surely been answered beyond what we
are able to receive. Ten additional factories
have been entered, making twenty, in which
we may have meetings once or twice a month.
" It may be interesting to know that on one
occasion we were invited to stay over night
at the Buddhist temple of this place, and
immediately after a late supper, our hostess,
who had charge of the temple, invited her
neighbors in for a meeting, which continued
until after midnight.
" In this same district at Hinoharu station
new work has developed during the year.
Two years ago a Christian woman came here
134 Kofu
to live, and like the seed planted in good
ground has been bearing fruit abundantly.
Her husband is in the railway service, and
her life amongst the railway men and others
has had a wonderful influence. Several have
confessed faith in Christ and are living new
lives. We have a most interesting meeting
for men and women every two weeks in her
house. Her home is always open to us,
and her unbounded hospitality is a great
comfort."
During the years following the removal of
our headquarters in Kofu to the fine site on
the hillside it had become increasingly apparent that while admirable for a school and a
home, it was not advantageous as a centre for
work among the women and children of the
city.
After considerable searching and negotiation a very desirable lot was secured not far
from our former location and convenient to
the church. Plans were carefully studied
and a most suitable building erected (1914-
1915), making provision for a kindergarten,
a sewing school, mothers' meetings, a hostel
for a dozen students, and a residence for
the Bible-women and kindergarten teachers,
besides the two or more missionaries in
charge. In honor of their former co-worker,
the Council adopted as a name for this
new school, " Shiritza Yamanashi Cartmell
Jojiku."
185
Down
Town
Centres. Japan
Miss Alcorn writes: " Our sewing school
opened in April. Many have shown their
appreciation of this Christian home, the latest
gift of our loyal workers in Canada. Messages have come to us from parents who are
grateful for a place provided in our own
province where the daughters may learn the
arts of home-making. In our first class of
thirty-two we have ten graduates from the
Government School for Girls and four from
our own. The second class are all graduates
of the Higher Primary School. As these
girls daily associate with the Bible-women
and kindergarten teachers, there cannot but
come to them higher ideals which will result
in a desire to know the source of life that
makes us new women in Christ Jesus."
Miss Hargrave says: " In January kindergarten teachers, children, parents and friends
rejoiced with us as we took possession of the
classrooms in the new building. It was a
never-to-be-forgotten occasion, and it was an
inspiration to see the pride and pleasure on
the faces of all who came under our roof,
especially as we saw the promise of increased
numbers and therefore a wider circle of
opportunity."
136 CHAPTEE XIII.
KANAZAWA.
TUENING from our work in the eastern
coast cities of Tokyo and Shizuoka and
from inland Kofu, we find our fourth station
in Kanazawa, near the sea on the north-west
coast of Japan. This is a large city and possesses the third finest park in the Empire, a
place of beauty and refreshment.
Here our activities have been on a somewhat different line, not having a boarding-
school as a centre, owing to that need being
met, at least in part, hj the American
Presbyterian Board.
Our efforts have largely been in carrying
on various day and night classes—industrial
(embroidery) sewing, cooking, kindergarten,
English, Bible study, Sunday schools, and
numerous meetings for women and children
involving much visiting—all aiming at leading to Christ, to the building up of His
Church in piety and intelligence, and to
improvement in the conditions of the people,
the majority of whom are poor.
Property has been purchased in three sections of the city, buildings renovated and
enlarged or new ones erected.
The situation of our home and headquar-  New Site
ters was central and the site valuable, though  an(*
the buildings were not adequate to the needs
137 Japan
Miss
Hargrave
as a
Builder.
of the work, with its growing opportunities.
For some years occasional intimations had
been heard that the city, whose public offices
were adjacent, greatly desired our property,
and after some very courteous and satisfactory negotiations an exchange was made in
1913 whereby a fine lot in a desirable locality
became ours, with the privilege of remaining
in our old quarters for a year while a new
building was being erected.
Miss Jost, in writing of this transaction,
says: " The city has given us such a fine site in
what we think will prove a better centre for
our work that our regret at leaving 75 Hiro-
saka-dori is lost in the joy of possessing 14
Shiritarezaka-dori." She adds: "We would
like to record our sense of gratitude that we
have Miss Hargrave with us for the superintendence of building operations;' and still our
wonder grows that one small head can carry
all she knows' of building. We are sure
there will be few better built houses in Japan
* than ' Strachan Hall' and \ Herbie Bellamy j
Home.'"
The Society is to be congratulated that not
only in planning but in practical supervision
of the erection of these buildings Miss Hargrave, our secretary-treasurer, has rendered
such efficient service, giving unlimited time,
thought and patience, attending to the smallest details, and making sure that foundations
138 Kanazawa
especially should be proof against moisture,
white ants, and all other intruders. In all
the stations she has been indefatigable in her
search for these insidious, almost invisible,
white pests which, unperceived, carry on their
destructive work wherever moist wood can be
entered.
June 30th, 1913, was the day chosen for
the laying of the corner-stone, and we cannot
do better than insert Miss Armstrong's vivid
account of this interesting event:
" At the hour appointed for the ceremony
we wended our way along that busy thoroughfare for students, Hirosaka-dori^ as far as
the Park; then, skirting the picturesque
remains of the old castle perched high up
on the stone wall which now surrounds the
barracks, turned to the left into the street
on which our new building is to stand, Shiri-
tarezaka-dori. Passing the new court-house,
an imposing red-brick building, the carpenter's sheds and generally busy aspect of the
adjoining place showed us that we had
reached our destination.
"In spite of threatening skies the little
groups of men and women gathered there for
the occasion were in gala attire, excepting,
that is, the workmen and workwomen, whose
costume is beyond my powers of description.
| But the most attractive thing on the
grounds was not the interesting-looking work-
139 Japan
Ceremony
at Laying
of Cornerstone.
men, nor the well-dressed Christian men and
women, nor the foreigners in white frocks,
but the foundation.
1 Deep and broad, strong and solid it stands
there, a monument to the wisdom and ability
of the presiding genius, Miss Hargrave; and
indeed it seemed to invite inspection and criticism. Inspection it received, too, of the
closest kind, but none could criticize, or do
aught else than heap encomiums on the head
of the aforementioned lady.
" The taking of a photograph was, of
course, the first item on the programme, and
it bid fair to be the only item, from the
length of time required in the process. However, it was over at last.
" The next thing was the laying of the
corner-stone; but owing to the absence,
through unexpected illness, of Eev. J. W.
Saunby, who was to have read the accompanying service, the ceremony was omitted,
and the workmen and visitors gathered in the
long sheds, where impromptu benches were
made to accommodate us.
" Hymn sheets were passed around, and the
company joined in singing the abbreviated
story of the prodigal son to the tune ' Imayo,'
so popular with our Japanese friends. Prayer
by Mr. Nomura, one of our Japanese coworkers, was followed by a short address from
Miss Jost.
140 Kanazawa
" Her voice rang out clearly and distinctly
as she told the workmen and women of the
reason for this building, in the erection of
which they are so necessary. She told about
the women at home in Canada collecting the
money for it and for the support of us missionaries that we may live here and teach,
especially the women and children, about
Christ, our Saviour, who loves and cares for
all people. She told of the condition of
women in Western lands before this Saviour
was known, and of the change that has been
wrought through Him, and urged His claims
in Japan, where He can do for Japanese
women what He has done and is doing for
their Western sisters.
" Mr. Watanabe, the able Japanese pastor
of Kanazawa, spoke after this about foundations. It was an eloquent address, couched in
simplest language that all might understand.
" At the conclusion of this address Miss
Hargrave gave each of the ninety workmen
and workwomen a box of cake (instead of
the sake invariably served by the Japanese
on similar occasions) and a copy of St.
Mark's Gospel, together with a tract of Dr.
Imbrie's, giving a summary of the tenets of
Christianity.
" A hymn and prayer, and the meeting
broke up quietly, reverently; and as we dispersed we felt that the laying of the foundation of the new Strachan Hall and Herbie
141 Japan
Bellamy Home had been made the occasion
of the preaching of the Gospel to those workmen in a most attractive and judicious
manner.
111 intend to have several more such meetings whenever any special phase of the building is completed,' Miss Hargrave remarked
when we were talking it over later on.
1 The men and women at work on the
building are among the most prejudiced class
in the city, and it would take many a year
before they would be induced to attend a
Christian service, but when the Christian service goes out to them they cannot fail to be
attracted to the Saviour, who in His earthly
life was a carpenter."
" Moving Day " and " House Warming "
are always memorable times, and it would be
a pity to miss the realistic description given
by Miss Jost:
" We moved into our new house the first
week in November. The carpenter, the tinsmith, the painter and the grocer all sent men
with handcarts to help in the great work.
This was a surprise to us, as we had not
before had occasion to learn of this Japanese
custom, and we appreciated the kindness
perhaps more than the men did by the time
night came, for on that day, for once in the
annals of history, \ the West hustled the East.'
House « we Were practically settled in ten davs,
and then, feeling that such an opportunity for
142
Warming. Kanazawa
reaching people should not be lost, we invited
everyone we knew to visit us. This house had
created a good deal of interest in the city as,
day by day, it grew in size and beauty, and
our invitations were largely accepted. One
bright day, when the house was flooded with
sunshine and everything looked its best, forty
little ladies came to enjoy all with us, another day the church people—about fifty,
another the mothers of the children in
our three kindergartens—nearly sixty of
them. Again twenty Government school
teachers came, and then there were smaller
parties, until I think there was not a man
or woman among our acquaintances in Kanazawa who had not had an opportunity to see
the inside of c Strachan Hall' and the ' Her-
bie Bellamy Home,' and to taste our sandwiches, cake and coffee. For my part it will
be a long time before I can look again with
anything like interest on that particular kind
of cake and sandwiches, so tired did I get of
them. But all our guests were so plainly
delighted to inspect things and so sympathetic
in regard to the work we hope to carry on
here that it was a pleasure to have them. A
number of them, to show their good-will,
brought gifts for the new home. The gift
of the church people—a great surprise to
us—was a beautiful large vase, which they
had especially handpainted and inscribed at
the industrial school here.
143 Japan
How
Utilized.
Herbie
Bellamy
Home.
"It would be useless to try to describe
1 Strachan Hall,' the home of our missionaries, and where numerous and varied classes
are held. As soon as the grounds are fixed
up a bit I will have it and the } Herbie
Bellamy Home' photographed. Even so, it
must be seen to be appreciated.
I Often I have wished Mrs. Strachan, Mrs.
Boss, and other friends could visit us. One
day, especially, I wished for friends from
home. At the time, in two of the school
rooms, English lessons were going on; in
another twenty girls were having a cooking
lesson. In a small room we call the \ waiting-
room,' one of our teachers had her Sunday-
school class, drilling them for Christmas,
while in the room which has been furnished
in Mrs. Whiston's memory, Miss DeWolfe
was preparing for the Sunday-school Normal
Class. An hour later I was in our own little
parlor helping a Government school teacher
with some music she was preparing for our
Christmas celebration. That is the way it is
always—every room is useful and every room
is almost constantly in use. The house is so
comfortable throughout without being extravagant, and could not be better suited to our
needs.
" I must ask you to be patient a little
longer while I 'hold forth' on the subject of
the e Herbie Bellamy Home.'    Such a cosy,
144 H
STRACHAN HALL
Kanazawa, Japan
HERBIE BELLAMY HOME
Kanazawa, Japan  Kanazawa
homey little place it is! And we are trying
our best to make it, ,in spirit as well as in
appearance, a real home without the capital
i H.' In a short time we will have sixteen in
it—ten of whom are pay boarders. I should
love to write you all about these girls, but I
shall only say that nearly all are from homes
where Christianity is wholly or almost unknown, and almost all, little or big, are absolutely without training along Christian lines.
We realize our great responsibility and wonderful opportunity. The Japanese teacher
who shares the responsibility with me is one
of our old Shizuoka supported girls, and is
a great help. She rooms in the hostel, and
is thus brought into constant and close
connection with the boarders.
" A letter came to me a few days ago which
shows the need of such a Home as this now
is. A man away out in the country—a total
stranger—wrote saying that he and his wife
had been wanting to send their daughter to
Kanazawa to school for a long time, but
almost gave it up, as they knew of no safe
place where she might board. Then, from a
friend, he heard of this hostel, and wished
me to appoint a time when he might meet
me and make arrangements for her to enter.
" I cannot close without saying how full of
gratitude Miss DeWolfe and I have been for
all that has come to our work and to us the
10
145 Japan
last few months. It has almost overwhelmed
us at times. It would overwhelm us were it
only for us and the little we can do. But we
look ahead to the time when we shall be far
removed from it all, and others will be teaching here and these buildings will still be
standing—a monument to the generosity of
W.M.S. women and their love for Japan."
Another quotation from Miss Jost sets
forth the change from the little Orphanage,
begun in 1893 and continued till 1913, but
now transplanted and assuming another form:
toHwtcf* "The 'Herbie Bellamy Home' demands
more than a passing notice this year. Since
the opening of the Kanazawa Orphanage we
have felt that as a refuge for orphans our
little house was not especially needed and
that we might broaden its influence and help
our work more by making it a hostel for girl
students with a fund for helping deserving
and needy girls. Having received Mrs. Bellamy's hearty approval of this scheme—also
the approval of the Home Board and our
Executive in Japan—we were convinced that
no more suitable time than the present could
be found to make the change. So, when we
enter our new Home in October, our Orphanage disappears and the ' Herbie Bellamy
Home' as a hostel begins its history. The
police readily granted permission for this
change on condition that we dispose satis-
146 Kanazawa
factorily of the orphans still with us. Three
of these we have put in our i Jo Gakko' in
Shizuoka and one in our Kofu school. Two
will enter the General Board Orphanage in
Shizuoka. Three we will keep to help in
the Home and school until they finish the
Primary School, and then provide for in
some way.
" Those of you who read the ' Findings of
the Mott Conference' will remember that the
Conference emphasized the supreme importance of establishing Christian hostels for girls
—we are but keeping abreast of the times in
making this change. As to the prospect for
the hostel, we have now two boarders with
us who will go to the new Home, and two
others have made inquiries about entering.
Also, a young girl of sixteen came to us a
few days ago for help. She is a daughter
of a country school teacher with a large
family and a small salary. Since April, she
has been coming to Kanazawa to school every
day, leaving home about 5 a.m. to travel here
by 'basha,' which is cheaper than the train.
This travelling back and forth left her no time
to study, and, moreover, was breaking down
her health, but her father could not afford to
pay her board in Kanazawa. She began her
story by saying, ' I am not an orphan, but I
need help.' On inquiry, we found her to be
worthy of help, and so, to her joy, as well as
our own, promised to help her.    Many times
147 Japan
we have, with sorrow, turned such girls away
because the police orphanage regulations
forbade us taking them into the Home.
1 Now, to be able to respond to such calls
and know at the same time that no orphans
in Kanazawa need go homeless while the
spacious Kanazawa Orphanage exists, is a
pleasure indeed. We earnestly pray: God
bless the ( Herbie Bellamy Home' and make
it a true home to many a young girl and a
blessing to Japan."
Nineteen hundred and sixteen finds the
accommodation fully taxed, some applicants
having to be refused. The class of girls is
good and much gratitude is felt for this
" safe and happy home."
The visit to Japan in 1914 of Herbie's
mother, Mrs. John Bellamy, of Moose Jaw,
Sask., was much appreciated by our missionaries, and to her it must have been a special
joy to see some of the fruits of her little boy's
faith, enterprise and devotion. The story of
his life has had many readers. A few years
ago the governor of the province, a representative of the Minister of State for Home
Affairs, and a baron interested in charitable
work visited the Home and made a thorough
inspection. They seemed satisfied with all
they saw. The two gentlemen from Tokyo
were much interested in the story of Herbie
Bellamy, and asked to have a copy made of
148 KAWAKAMI KINDERGARTEN
Industrial Rooms upstairs, School downstairs
Kanazawa, Japan
BABA KINDERGARTEN
Kanazawa. Japan  Kanazawa
his photograph, to be sent to them with an
account of his life. This was done, and a
very kind letter was received in acknowledgment. This little life sketch has been translated into several languages, and must prove
a stimulus and encouragement to other
"shut-in" lives.
Our Embroidery School at Kawakami Kawakami.
(about a mile from the centre of the city)
has been continued with very beneficial effect,
not only to the girls themselves, giving them
superior working conditions to those prevailing in factories, with social and spiritual
advantages unknown before, but also to their
families, who are frequently visited by the
Bible-women and thus drawn to the Church
and the knowledge of the truth.
Similar industrial and evangelistic depart- Baba.
ments have been carried on at our other city
station, Baba, where enlarged grounds and
improved -buildings have made better work
possible. In all these three centres the kindergarten has been a prominent feature, shedding light and love into many hearts and
homes. One has also been opened in connection with our church in another section
(Shirokanecho), 1913, composed mostly of
children from better families.
149 CHAPTEE XIV.
TOYAMA.
FOE some few years our Society had supplied a Bible-woman to work in the
adjoining province — Toyaxna — under the
direction of the missionary's wife, Mrs.
Prudham, but opportunities became so abundant and enquirers so numerous as to create
a demand for greater help. In 1906 we find
this record:
" There seems to be limitless opportunity
for helping the women in and about Toyama.
As our Bible-woman poetically put it, ' It is
changing from winter to spring in their
hearts now.' "
In the joint Council of 1909 the following
action was taken:
" Moved by Mr. Wilkinson, seconded by
Miss Hargrave, and resolved: I That whereas
our Church has undertaken the responsibility
for the evangelization of the larger part of
Toyama province, with its great population
of 800,000; and that whereas our resident
force of workers there, being only one foreign
missionary, one native pastor and three evangelists, is altogether inadequate to meet the
demand of the work; and whereas in recent
150 Toyama
years the opportunities for work among
women have greatly increased in Toyama province, we, the united Mission Councils of the
C.M.S., request the W.M.S. to increase the
number of workers in Japan, so that at the
earliest moment possible two workers may be
stationed in this province."
We were only too glad even partially to
meet this request, and the following year Miss
Margaret E. Armstrong was reappointed to
Kanazawa, with the understanding that she
was to reside a part of each week in the city
of Toyama. Later this was found unsatisfactory, and too great an expenditure of
strength to be travelling back and forth.
During 1910-11 property was purchased,
and gladly Miss Armstrong took possession
of the Japanese house on the premises. She
writes:
" The new home is situated conveniently
for all the work, and is in a pleasant neighborhood as well. It is an old place, one of
the few left unharmed by the great Toyama
conflagration of ten years ago, though it narrowly escaped a few months past, when a
house of refuge near by was destroyed by
fire. My heart beat fast when someone rushed
in, exclaiming, ( Your pines are on fire.' But
it was a mistake. The fence only was burned,
and the pines stand there straight and tall,
whispering softly with the night winds of the
151
Japanese
House
Purchased. Kindergarten
Magnet.
A Fathers*
Meeting.
Japan
wonderful protection and care of the great
All-Father."
The next year witnessed the erection of a
suitable building for the kindergarten, its
daily growth proving a matter of interest to
the whole city, and it was opened with due
ceremony.
" Our work in Toyama consists largely in
preparing bait, and the kindergarten, with
its seventy-five happy little people, adapts
itself admirably to this object, even the most
prejudiced homes opening their doors to us
because we come from the kindergarten."
The efforts of our missionaries are by no
means confined to the cities. Many towns and
villages are visited regularly, classes of various kinds established, literature distributed,
and faithful Bible instruction given.
A novelty appears in the following: "At
the solicitation of one or two fathers we had
a ' fathers' meeting' in the beginning of
January (1916), while the public offices
were still closed for the New Year. A good
number attended, and all talked freely about
the improvement the kindergarten had made
in their children and its influence through
them upon themselves."
152 CHAPTEE XV.
NAGANO.
ABOUT one hundred miles east of Kanazawa we find Nagano, the large inland
city, famed for its great Buddhist temple,
Zenkoji, with its pronounced opposition to
Christianity. For nearly twenty years the
Woman's Missionary Society has had a foothold here amidst many difficulties, but
gradually overcoming prejudice.
In 1909 a grant was made for a much-
needed home and centre. Fortunately land
was secured in a fine locality, adjoining that
of the General Board, the cordial sympathy
and active co-operation of Eev. D. and
Mrs. Norman making this a delightful
arrangement.
Under the supervision of Miss Hart a suitable building was erected the following year,
which provided a kindergarten room as well
as a home for the missionaries, the Bible-
women and Japanese teachers.
The line of effort in Nagano and vicinity
has been chiefly evangelistic through meetings, classes, visiting, kindergartens, etc.
Miss Tweedie writes in 1912:
" Last autumn we began in Nagano under
rather trying conditions.    Miss Scott and I
153
Choice
Locality. Japan
Witnessing
and
Winning.
came in September, and as the Japanese
workers were all comparatively new, it took
us a long time to get acquainted with our
work. We had no Bible-woman for three
months, which was the greatest drawback of
all. Oki San came to us in November, when
our hopes grew brighter.
" In February some High School girls who
expected to graduate in April asked us for
special help in their English studies. Miss
Scott gave them English and singing lessons
twice a week. Through this opportunity one
became an earnest seeker, and has lately
decided for Christ. Another entered Azabu
school in April, and three others have begun
to attend the Sunday school and church
services.
" Through the Bible-woman's faithful
teaching in the homes some women during
the year have been led to Christ. One is specially worthy of mention. She accepted
Christ as her Saviour upon Oki San's second
visit with her, and since then her faithful
study of the Word and bright testimony to
the power of God in her life have been a great
help and blessing to other women. In March
she visited her younger brother who was seriously ill, and had the joy of hearing him
express his faith in God ere he passed away.
Since then she has been trying to lead her
father and husband, and the latter, who was
at first strongly opposed to Christianity, has,
154 «r   A
*&££^?
ii*
IIIPHhI
^&Sh5ibii£&''
*: '/j*-" *
;- -'■>.     . 'f^V .    ';,/>■   ^    :
;.*..   r,J
■Es&»i***-"v*^
^"^vSH 1
KINDERGARTEN  AND  HOME
Nagano, Japan
1916  GRADUATION CLASS,  KINDERGARTEN
Nagano, Japan  Nagano
through her influence, attended special meetings in the church and given his consent to
her being baptized.
" Her testimony just before her baptism in
June was, ' I am so full of joy that I cannot
keep silent.'
" Many of the homes that we visit in
Nagano have been opened to Christian teaching through Mrs. Norman's cooking class and
her untiring interest and faithful work for
the women in other ways. I know in many
cases that we are reaping where she has
broken the soil and faithfully sown the seed.
" We were given a special opportunity during a great Buddhist festival in April, and
gave away six thousand Gospels and over ten
thousand tracts."
" At the Christmas season we were able to Postmen,
do something for the postmen of Nagano city.
This came about through our acquaintance
with the head official of post-office affairs for
the province. His little girl entered the kindergarten in September, and his wife, who
came sometimes to our mothers' meetings,
asked for Christian teaching. When we made
request to have a Christmas gathering for the
postmen, it was readily granted. We had the
meeting twice, as half were on duty while the
others came, and they all greatly enjoyed the
Christmas singing and addresses from Eev.
Mr. Norman and the pastor of the church.
It was the first time many of them had heard
155 Japan
the old story, and for days afterwards when
our mail was brought around we received with
it smiles and kind words of gratitude. We
were glad to know that many of them realized
that it was the religion of Jesus Christ had
caused us to do this for them. A letter of
deep appreciation was also received from the
head official. We regret to say that he has
since been appointed to another place, but
hope that at the next Christmas season the
opportunity may again be given to us.
" The Young Woman's Society, organized
and led by Miss Scott, has done good work.
The object of this meeting is to help young
women by getting them to take an interest in
and work for others. The members of the
society meet for two hours each month, and
after a half-hour of devotional exercises the
rest of the time is given to fancy-work, sewing, and making picture books for sick children in the hospital or in their homes. At
Christmas time over twenty yen raised by this
society was spent for rice, clothing and sumi,
and taken by the members with a Christmas
message to a few families in extremely poor
circumstances."
156 CHAPTEE XVI.
UEDA.
ASHOET ride by train from Nagano
brings us to the town of Ueda, where
our interest centres chiefly in work for the
little ones.
In the previous volume of " The Story of
the Years " there occurs this short reference:
"A training class for kindergarteners is in
operation at Ueda." From the report we
learn that with some trepidation it was
opened, September 5th, 1905, with two students. The results have amply justified the
undertaking of this school of preparation, at
first under the superintendence of Miss De
Wolfe and subsequently of Miss Drake.
Through it Christian teachers, well equipped,
have been provided for the many kindergartens under our care.
Miss Drake in 1914 sums up some of the
visible results of the previous years during
which she had had charge:
" From the Training School, during these Training
five years, we have graduated nineteen girls
from the full two years' course, and Hive
others have prepared themselves as assistant
teachers by studying one year. Of the twenty-
157
School for
Kinder-
gartners. Japan
four, eighteen are still teaching, and of the
remaining six, four are married or just about
to be, leaving only two who are unemployed.
Taking these eighteen girls and giving each
the small average of thirty-five children to
teach, we find that our Training School is
every day influencing about six hundred children. Besides this, each girl is conducting
every week one or more children's meetings
at which she teaches the regular Sunday-
school lesson. These teachers also visit regularly in the homes of the children. This goes
to show how necessary it is for our girls
to receive the best training possible, both
along educational and evangelistic lines, and
although we desire to give them these advantages our plans are often frustrated because
of the difficulty in keeping our best graduates
for teachers of the Training School. This
year a teacher doing good work, but who has
only been with us two years since graduation,
left us to study in the Salvation Army training school, to fit herself to become the wife of
one of the officers. Because of this we had
to put in one of this year's graduates; and so
year by year this goes on. How thankful we
would be if we could get one to stay long
enough to become the mature, influential
teacher we need.
" The reports from the places where the
girls are working are, on the whole, encouraging.   Each girl has her own distinctive char-
158 MISSIONARIES' HOME
Ueda, Japan
'.*-\^.ii
1:1 lilt
11 111    *   ^^"^L*&.'
Il   jl  Il^J 1 .  ^^
KINDERGARTEN -BUILDING
Ueda, Japan  Ueda
acteristics, and these seem sometimes to
develop in unexpected ways, surprising those
with whom she is working, and her training
teacher as well. However, the work here has
been done faithfully through the years, and
we know that God is blessing the different
girls and leading them on through various
experiences to be useful workers for Him.
One of our married girls wrote me a letter
recently, telling me of the renewed interest in
her studies of child training, which came with
the birth of her own child. She says she is
reviewing her work, copying her notes out in
a new book; and she now sees as never before
what a great privilege it is for girls to have
the kindergarten training to fit them to be
good mothers."
Graduates receive provincial certificates
from the Governor, which gives them an
advantageous standing in the community.
We have a fine property in Ueda, a comfortable house for our missionaries, built
under the direction of Miss Crombie, with
an excellent, well-equipped kindergarten on
one side and on the other a Japanese house
for the teachers and students in training. In
the rear is a good plot of ground, which is
growing in beauty. Some years since the
mothers of the little kindergarten graduates
presented two large plum trees, saying that
each year one would be given.   The name of
159 Japan
Tobacco
Overcome.
Victory
Over
Death.
the school is the Baikwa (plum blossom)
Kindergarten.
Showing the practical effect of the instruction given these little ones, the following i uci-
dent is related: "In calling at one of the
homes during the year a father told us that
for three years he had not used tobacco
because his little boy, then attending kindergarten, had talked to him about it and had
shown him Sunday-school papers telling of
its evil effects. A mother in another home
said that she always gave the papers she
received at mothers' meetings to the men in
the store, and one young clerk, after reading
the articles on tobacco, also gave it up.
" The victory of 1 Cor. 15. 55-57 has been
illustrated in the case of one brought to Christ
through the children's meetings. Miss Beatty
visited her during her last illness, and after
her death was surprised as well as delighted
to be told that the family wished to study
Christianity for themselves. They told her
that, in addition to the doctor, they had consulted priests, fortune-tellers, had offered
prayer at various shrines, but all to no effect.
The Christians' God alone had brought comfort and joy to the daughter's heart, and her
death had been a falling asleep. Even the
doctor had been unable to understand such
a peaceful end, both of body and mind, to one
suffering from that disease.
"One  little boy,  who had been in the
160 Ueda
Baikwa kindergarten for four years, died this
spring, about two weeks after having received
his diploma. His mother is the president of
our mothers' meeting and wife of a prominent
physician of the town. These parents are not
Christians, but were so touched with the
child's Christian spirit—as they expressed it
—that they asked us to have a Christian service for him. We met at the home on Easter
Sunday, and our pastor conducted an impressive service, listened to reverently by all the
members of the family. The mother afterwards brought to us his little savings, and
asked that with the money something be
bought for the kindergarten. During his illness he often asked his parents and teachers
to pray with him, and when they did so he
became quiet and happy. We feel that this
little missionary has done his work, and are
hoping for, and expecting, results.
"A man who formerly practically owned
the whole of Kazawa, but who, in spite of
heavy losses through drink, still had a comfortable home and influence in the town,
visited the Lanaka children's meeting last
fall, in search of something to comfort the
heartache caused by the death of his favorite
daughter. The result was the opening of his
home as a centre for Christian work in that
town.
" In April, 1908, we opened a kindergarten
Co-operation in
in Komoro.   The people of Komoro provided Komoro.
11 161 Japan
the land and building, we the furnishings and
teachers. This plan has worked splendidly.
The Komoro people have been generous and
earnest, doing their part of the work with
enthusiasm. Over one hundred children
desired to enter the kindergarten, but accommodation had been provided for fifty only.
The people who could not enter their children were so disappointed that we have promised to open an afternoon session from September. The earnestness of the Komoro
people is wonderful, and plans are on foot
to build a kindergarten to accommodate one
hundred children. It is delightful to see
some of the wealthiest and most influential
men alive with interest over the education of
the babies; and, better still, to know that they
leave us perfectly free to teach Christ and
His gospel of love. The first mothers' meeting was held in June. Sixteen were present,
thirteen of whom had never attended a
Christian meeting before."
The next year Miss Hart reports the
following:
" The founders of Komoro kindergarten
gave a farewell dinner for Miss De Wolfe,
at which they thanked her most heartily for
her work in connection with the kindergarten,
and added that in thanking her they were also
thanking the Woman's Missionary Society,
162 Ueda
not only for themselves and Komoro, but for
Japan.
"The principal of the primary school, in
expressing his sympathy with the kindergarten, said he had been deeply impressed by the
spirit of love that permeated our work, | love
which,' he said, 'I believe vou call the love
of Christ.'"
Not from lack of continued interest or success, but because of the difficulty in supplying
teachers properly to supervise from Ueda, it
was resolved in 1916 to notify the Komoro
founders (according to agreement) of our
desire to pass the work over to them, offering
the use of the tables, chairs, organ, etc., if
they continue it.
The year 1912 in Ueda was marked by a
new church, of which we find a very modest
record in Miss Drake's report: " Miss Beatty
has returned home on furlough, but has left
behind her, as a result of painstaking labor,
a much-needed church building, which the
workers in Ueda will always gratefully
appreciate." Subsequently we learn that,
owing to the representations of Miss Beatty
to her home church in Parry Sound, a most
generous contribution was forwarded. This
was supplemented by personal friends of the
missionaries, while the Japanese were stimulated also to give liberally.
163
New
Church. Japan
Turning
Christ-
ward.
The following glowing account of spiritual
conditions is from Miss Beatty herself:
"Our year's work closed with a week of
special meetings conducted by Eev. Kawabe,
of Osaka. Deep indeed is our gratitude for
the many who came each night to hear the
Gospel message; for the one hundred inquirers who gave in their names desiring to know
more of the Christ so clearly revealed to them
in these meetings; for those for whom we
have been working and praying for months
and years who decided to accept Christ as
their Saviour; and for the Christians and
workers, especially those of our own household, awakened to a sense of their unclaimed
privileges in Christ and their responsibility
towards others.
I These meetings came as a beautiful preparation for the opening of our new church
the following week, dedicated June 29th, by
Bishop Hiraiwa."
Miss Hart writes:
"Among the many causes for constant
thanksgiving during the year are the bright
new church, with accommodation for about
two hundred, in place of the former small,
unattractive, dark room; the life of faith
and works of the nine who received baptism
the Sunday after the dedication; the growing
congregation; the deeper spiritual life of our
Bible-woman and kindergarten teachers, and
164 Ueda
the many times our Father has allowed us to
know of direct answers to our united prayer
and effort for the salvation of those around us.
" A Christian woman who was hiding her " Go home
light, being ill-treated by husband and family *° thy
and thoroughly unhappy, has again found ancj tell
peace, is letting her light shine through efforts them."
to lead others, and rejoices in being allowed
to attend church.   After an especially helpful
sermon one evening she said to her husband,
'I wish you could have heard that sermon
to-night.'   ' I did,' was his answer.
"Another wife was in despair over an
unfaithful husband, a neglected family and
business. The man began to stay at home,
listen secretly to the Bible lessons, put in
practice what he learned, and one day took
his wife by surprise by asking questions on
the lesson just given her, and when she was
unable to answer without reference to her
Bible, repeated what he had overheard."
The condition of girls in factories,
whom there are so many thousands, has
appealed strongly to our missionaries, and
wherever possible some rays of light and cheer
have been introduced; but with infrequent
and very limited opportunities to instruct,
one is surprised that anything could be
accomplished beyond satisfying curiosity and
affording a pleasant variety in a very monotonous life of hard work and long hours,
165
of  Factory
Girls. Request
from
Factory.
Japan
seven days in the week; but now and again
we are encouraged by items such as the
following:
"A post-office savings department official,
who addresses factory hands quite often, told
me this spring that he had noticed a great
factory since we began work there, adding,
c I wish you could go and teach in all the factories around here.' This from a non-Christian was good new3, for, apart from the hearty
welcome they give us "themselves, we have
little chance of knowing the effects of our
" For several years, for a few weeks in the
spring, we have been allowed to hold meetings
in one of the large silk factories in Ueda.
This year the manager of an adjoining factory, where until now Buddhist teaching has
been resirilarlY given, came over to see what
the Christians were teaching. Evidently the
report was satisfactory, for immediately came
an invitation to hold meeting^ in that factory
"Last fall a special effort was made to
extend our work in the silk factories, with
been entered. Three of these have allowed a
meeting once a month all year, and the others
willingly gave permission for a single meeting, with the promise of another invitation
166 Ueda
later. In the Ueda factory Shimada San's
faithful teaching has resulted in two baptisms."
It is impossible with limited space to outline all that is being done in towns and
villages, as well as in the cities, by our faithful and alert missionaries, aided by their
zealous and increasingly-competent Bible-
women and assistants, nor fully to indicate
the methods employed; but what has been
accomplished is but a beginning. A fragment
only of the community has been reached.
Some openings rather surprise our weak faith,
but surely call for grateful praise.
"We have had help from a rather unex- A Brewer's
pected source this year. A brewer offered his Offer.
branch home for work in that place. Upon
my remarking that his business and mine
could not work together, he answered, '1
know; but I also know that temperance work
is much needed there, so please make that a
strong point in your teaching.' We took him
at his word, began a children's meeting, which
has had the largest attendance of any of our
meetings. Later he closed that branch, but
secured another house for us. He has since
brought more invitations to new places than
we can possibly follow up. Influence
"After several requests I started a Bible Reaching
study class in December for Middle School men*™"
students.   We use the English Testament, but Schools.
167 Japan
Vacation
Employment.
the lesson is taught in Japanese. A banker
and two teachers asked to join the class and
in a short time we had twenty-five members,
and nearly all have become regular attendants
at church.
" Our class for High School girls has been
larger than usual this year. Last summer,
while in Karuizawa, we had a Bible class on
Sunday with the eleven policemen there, and
are to have it again this year with a larger
number.
" Our kindergarten building has been the
home of a small school for blind children this
year. About once a month the patrons—also
blind—have a meeting and have asked for a
Gospel message each time.
"During the winter three young ladies
from the town attended my Sunday Bible
study class with our teachers and pupils.
"Knowing the influence of teachers in
Japan we are inclined to credit the large
attendance at my class for students to the
fact that their teachers attend Miss Bird's
Bible class. Although that class came for
English at first, one member has been converted and others have acknowledged their
earnest desire to know the Truth.
" To God we give, all the praise.
"In September, by special request of the
Methodist Episcopal Conference, we took over
the work at Matsushiro, and along with it the
Bible-woman, who has been able to help us in
168 Ueda
Nagano as well. As we now have two Bible-
women, Yashiro has been visited from Nagano
instead of Ueda as formerly.
" There have been twenty-one new homes Fruit
opened for visiting this year. We are encour- ^-^
aged by having seen new proofs that seed Days.
which seems sometimes to have been sown in
vain is watched over by a Higher Power and
does spring up and grow. One woman who
has been a Christian for a long time, but who,
in spite of many prayers offered for her and
much teaching, has always insisted that Christianity and Buddhism were two ways of reaching the same goal and one as good as the
other, has lately met with troubles and has
realized that there is something lacking in
her faith and has changed her mind completely. She is searching her Bible diligently
and has requested special Bible instruction.
Another woman who received Bible teaching
for years without any interest whatever in it,
has had her heart touched and now wonders
at her former lack of interest and is most
enthusiastic in her efforts to find the truth.
" A splendid spirit has existed amongst our Taking
workers all year, consequently it has been a ppPortun-
real joy to work with them.    The teachers Hand,
have been especially earnest in their evangelistic work in the homes, starting out every
calling day with an intense desire to lead the
mothers to a knowledge of the true God.   One
teacher decided that under no circumstance
169 Japan
Tested and
Found
True.
would she leave a home without having presented the message. Perhaps one of the forces
which led to this decision was the death of
the wife of the caretaker in our Tokida kindergarten. This teacher and her co-worker
used to eat their lunch in her home the day
they called in that district. While they rested
they took the opportunity of pointing her to
the Saviour, and she really found Him, and
her joy and satisfaction were great, her faith
simple and beautiful. One day the news came
that she had suddenly passed away, and how
great was the joy of the two who had prepared
her for her journey! This made a deep
impression upon them, and they were so
thankful that they had used the opportunity
to teach one who, being so near, might have
been overlooked.
" Our janitor one day received at the bank
ten dollars above the amount asked for,
although two cashiers had counted it. He
returned it, much to their surprise. On coming back he said, (I cannot but feel that the
Lord gave me that test, as an opportunity to
witness for Him before men of position that
I, a poor, ignorant man, could not otherwise
have had.' The ordinary thing under such
circumstances would have been to keep the
money."
At the close of 1916 our missionary staff
consists of 24 Canadian ladies, with 5 on
170 Ueda
furlough; 87 Japanese teachers; 23 Bible-
women and 68 senior student helpers. Number of towns and stations occupied, 151.
It should be noted that from the first we
have had regard to the self-respect of the
Japanese in the matter of meeting necessary
current expenses in the education of their
daughters, while not at all excluding those
unable to do so. During the Hive years,
1911-16, there were received from fees,
$52,772.80, toward the cost of Japanese
teachers and helpers, fuel, light, board,
supplies, etc.
At the annual meeting, 1916, the Board
very reluctantly acceded to the request for
retirement of two of its most valued missionaries—Miss Hargrave, after twenty-seven
years of unsurpassed service, %nd Miss
Alcorn after twenty years, a great evangelistic
leader.
Not in a spirit of boasting, but in humble
acknowledgment of God's gracious benediction, and with sincere gratitude to Him, we
count the baptisms in connection with our
woman's work, and find the total number of
these confessed disciples during the ten years
to be 955.
As all have received careful and continued
instruction and more or less training in Christian service, may we not hope for much added
strength to the Church of Christ and the
extension of His Kingdom?
171  CHINA
Chengtu
Kiating
Jenshow
Junghsien
Tzeliutsing
Luchow
Penghsien
Chungking TOPSY-TURVY WAYS IN CHINA
THEY mount a horse on the right side
instead of the left; the old men play
marbles and fly kites, while children look
gravely on; they shake hands with themr
selves instead of with each other; what we
caU the surname is written first and the other
name afterward; they whiten their shoes instead of blacking them; a coffin is a very
acceptable present to a rich parent in good
health; in the north they sail and pull their
wheelbarrows in place of merely pushing
them; and candlesticks fit into the candle
instead of the candle fitting into the candlestick, and so on. . . . China is a country
where the roses have no scent and the women
no petticoats; where the laborer has no Sabbath day of rest, and the magistrate no sense
of honor; where the roads have no carriages
and the ships have no keels; where the needle
points to the south, the place of honor is on
the left hand, and the seat of intellect is
supposed to lie in the stomach; where it is
rude to take off your hat, and to wear white
clothes is to go into mourning. Can one be
astonished to find a literature without an
alphabet and a language without a grammar?—Temple Bar. BEFOEE entering upon the record of the
activities of the Woman's Missionary
Society in the Province of Szechwan it seems
necessary to state briefly the causes that have
given our missionaries a new environment, a
more assured standing-ground, as well
greatly enlarged opportunities, imperatively
calling for large additions to our staff.
1906-1916. A decade! A mere pin-point
of time in the life of a people to whom "a
thousand years are but as yesterday," yet in
the ten years since the last volume of the
" Story of the Years " was written, China—
official China—has changed as if by magic.
The whole gamut of national life has been
played upon. The sounds evoked may not all
have been musical, to say nothing of having
been harmonious, yet they have been strong,
virile, and, in process of time, we have faith
to believe that purity of tone will dominate
the whole when this great people find the true
' deal, which they unconsciously seek, in Jesus
Christ.
175 China
Official Edicts.—All are familiar with the
revolutions and riots of the period which
eventuated in the sweeping away of that absolute, hereditary government, the Manchu
dynasty, giving place to a republic—in name
at least, but which will be in time the real
thing, "for the people, by the people "—with
its new flag so gaily appealing to all the provinces. Then followed the passing of the
queue, that mark of conquest worn since
1644. The order was " immediate," and it
was gone.
Educational Revolution.—Gone, too, forever, the old classical education. China now
takes her stand with Western nations, meets
them on their own ground. Government
schools, colleges and universities, some of the
latter with almost fabulous endowments, have
been opened all over the land. As Christians
we are greatly interested in the several Union
Missionary Universities, especially the one
in Chengtu, in which Canadian Methodists
co-operate with three other missions. Eev.
Dr. Goucher tells us that sixty-five million
children are waiting for schools. Mission
schools have now one hundred thousand
pupils, but could have ten times that number
if teachers were available.
Educational Unions are lifting the lower
school system to a higher level.
Perhaps the most striking illustration of
advance in the ten years has been in the
176 A Foreword
education of women, which reached -a picturesque climax last year when ten girls—the
product of mission schools—were sent to
American colleges under the Boxer Indemnity
Fund! Hitherto only boys had enjoyed that
privilege.
Conquering and to Conquer.—We are
thrilled by proof of this when we find a
chronology, dating prior to the time of Abraham, changed to agree with the Christian
calendar. The Chinese officially changed
their New Year from February 18th to
January 1st, the lunar to the solar year, in
1912. Another proof: the official adoption
of'the Christian Sabbath as a holiday or rest
day, thus closing all government offices. This
liberates public-school children and makes
possible the attendance of thousands at Sunday school. A Pekin shop displays this sign
every Sunday, " To-day is worship day "—a
new idea to those who have worked seven days
in the week.
Religious Liberty.—Men high up in the
state are now free to serve the Christ publicly,
and they do; free to propagate the faith, and
they do. The foundation work of many
missionaries paved the way for the marvellous evangelistic campaigns of Dr. John E.
Mott and Mr. Sherwood Eddy, carried on
during the past three years; these, coupled
with the undenominational work of the
Y.M.C.A., have changed not only the attitude
;?
177 China
of official China, but, what is still more important, the attitude of the large student
body, the tap-root of future power and
influence.
Number of Christians.—In 1834 there
were three Protestant Christians; in 1876
only thirteen thousand; now four hundred
thousand, and doubling every six years.
Moral Reform.—China has led the way in
moral reform through the official wiping out
of the opium curse; Eussia valiantly followed
with the law against the selling of vodka. In
the land of Sinim there are no halfway
measures; obey the law or suffer the consequences; lose the poppy trade or lose your
head. Some actually took the chance, and
lost. All opium smokers were disfranchised
during the 1913 elections.
Foot-binding.—We are not prepared to
admit that women are more difficult to govern
than men, but we are forced to confess that
the edict forbidding foot-binding has not
brought whole-hearted or universal obedience.
That may be because the lady of the " lily
feet" is more eagerly sought in marriage by
* men of wealth, but little feet have had their
senseless day and will soon be of the past.
All the above official changes, great though
they are, merely serve to indicate the amazing turn-over in social and industrial life.
Of the latter the most ominous from every
178 A Foreword
point of view is the decay of the old-fashioned
household industries, which is forcing women
and children by tens of thousands into nerve-
racking, exhausting factory life, a life that
knows neither day nor night, week-day nor
rest-day, for they run two long twelve-hour
shifts. " The cry of the children," wrung
from little hearts through our Western
industrialism!
Superstition is passing. The bar against
railways has been raised, and thousands of
miles are now in process of construction;
mines are being opened, discovering vast
mineral wealth, with coal in abundance.
Modern Utilities.—All the larger cities
possess electric lighting, paved streets, water
systems, police organization—in a word, all
the facilities of Western city life, leaving out
neither automobiles, aeroplanes nor "movies."
The public press is equally progressive,
with its foreign news, wireless communications and up-to-the-minute happenings. Certainly this is a new day to the Tching Taoy
the official gazette of Pekin, which has just
celebrated its one thousand and eighth birthday. We wonder what its first editor thinks
of it all—he being theoretically alive.
All who study the following history should
keep in mind this new background if they
would grasp the potentialities of the present
hour for the advancement of the kingdom of
our Lord Jesus Christ.—E. W. E.
179 Szechwak Province.
(Pronounced Sich-wan.    Population, 100,000,000.)
At the close of the period recorded in the
previous edition of "The Story of the Years,"
the Woman's Missionary Society was represented in China by nine Canadian young
women, residing and working in three cities—
Chengtu, Kiating and Jenshow. Since that
time four additional cities have been occupied—Junghsien, Tzeliutsing, Luchow and
Penghsien—our staff in 1916 numbering
twenty-seven; but we shall first take note of
our varied work in the capital city of the
province. CHENGTU.
(Pronounced Chen-doo.   Population, 500,000.)
THE compound in Chengtu comprises
about three and a half acres. This
sounds spacious, but it is none too large to
accommodate buildings for a residence, a
boarding school of sixty pupils, with separate
dining-room, a gymnasium, an orphanage, a
hospitaj. and dispensary with native guest
rooms, leaving limited ground for play.
Girls' School.
Our missionaries need to be architects, master masons, carpenters and painters, as well as
teachers, physicians, nurses and musicians,
and they find full scope for all qualifications.
Uncounted hours and endless thought had
been given to the erection of these buildings
by Miss Sara 0. Brackbill (our efficient secretary-treasurer and principal for many years),
while at the same time carrying on the boarding school, said to be the finest and best-conducted school west of Chungking. Furlough
time arrived before the school building was
completed, but Miss Hambley proved an able
successor.   Her comment is:  " Some people China
Value
of Gymnasium.
may wish to build their own foundations, but
I could wish for nothing more than the place
given me in this school, where years of successful work have laid a broad and sure foundation, and where at last a properly-built
and equipped school is ready for use. On
May 29th, 1907, when one classroom was
finished, the school was moved over, just
fourteen months from the laying of the first
stone. That very week the iron beds arrived,
and a number of the dormitories were at once
put to use to relieve the crowding in the few
rooms over the dining-room building."
One lack remained—a gymnasium—a most
necessary adjunct to a girls' school, as during
the spring and fall months it is impossible to
exercise out in the sun. This was happily
completed in 1908, the floor space measuring
fifty feet by thirty, affording standing-room
for fifty girls using dumb-bells or for other
such exercise. May not this throw an added
light on the following:
" In the old school building girls were constantly going with consumption, that dreadful
plague of China's young women, and malaria
was too common to mention. In a whole year
in our new building we have had only one
case of malaria, and girls who were subject
to it every couple of months have never had
it here at all. How we praise God for a good
building and plenty of light and air.    Thou-
182 Chengtu
sands of young girls die in China every year
who might be saved by fresh air, cod liver oil,
milk and eggs."
We are happy to live in an age of progress, Govern-
one of the signs being a clearer recognition of 5?e?
the necessity of education, generally diffused Education,
(accompanied by righteousness), to bring any
nation to its highest development.    It was a
great day for China when she changed her
aim and mode of education.   In 1909 we find
the following steps were taken:
" China has asked six prominent missionaries there to accept chairs in its universities
and teach Christianity. China is moving, and
moving towards compulsory education. At
present the following reforms are under way:
" (1) Viceroys and governors are ordered
to open at least one hundred preparatory
schools in each political capital within twelve
months, each school to enrol fifty children.
" (2) Eich Chinese are also ordered to
open as many other schools as possible, and
they will be rewarded for so doing.
" (3) All boys over eight years of age must
go to school, and in case of failure the parents, guardians or officials will be held responsible for the neglect and will be punished for
the same.
" (4) Every prefecture must have forty
preparatory schools, and every town or village
one or two.
183  Chengtu
" (5) The viceroys and governors must
report the opening of the schools, and a government inspector must visit them."
The Church of God, through its various Mission-
missions, had been the first to recognize the pioneers.
absolute need for the education of girls and
to provide for it, as we have seen.
" In days gone by each mission school followed its own sweet will, made out its own
course of study, selected its own text-books
out of scores of available ones. Truly in
China at present 'of making many books
there is no end.' But when the Chinese waked
up with such a sudden start, and began in
earnest to open government schools, our mission schools felt the need of union for strength
to make them all they should be to command
the respect of the people.
"In 1905 the various missions sent repre- Christian
sentatives to Chengtu to consider the subject Educational
of union in school work. They met again
in 1906, as a committee on primary and
secondary education, and to act for the Board
of Education which should later be formed
of this committee and the Senate and Faculty
of the proposed union university. The aim
has been to promote the unification and centralization of primary educational institutions for boys and girls by means of a uniform
course of study, similar text-books, and com-
185
Union. China
Uniform
Studies
and Examinations.
mon examinations, and to promote the
organization of a Union Christian University.
I The Union has met the great need of the
present situation in our schools. We went to
work with a will to get our girls' school into
line with the new course of study. The first
public examination in 1907 helped greatly to
show us our defects. All through the following year our pupils had the stimulus of failures behind and honors to be won in the
future, and they have worked hard.
" Our schools are graded Junior Primary,
Senior Primary, and Secondary or Middle
Schools. Examinations are set by the Union
on the fourth and fifth years of the Junior
Primary and in each of the four years of the
Senior Primary and the Hive years of the
Middle School. According to this grading, a
student would take fourteen years to complete
the course and be ready for the University.
But we have arranged tilings elastic enough
these first years that a student may come in
who is already well up in Chinese classics,
und who will be able to take two years' work
in one in some of the other subjects. We have
several girls who came in six years ago and
have passed in a good many of the subjects
in the first year of the Middle School, which
would correspond somewhat with the first
year of High School work in Ontario.
"The examinations the second year were
met with considerable trepidation but with a
186 MISSIONARIES' HOME
Chengtu, China
GYMNASIUM, GIRLS' SCHOOL
Chengtu. China  Chengtu
settled, quiet determination that was very
gratifying. There were certainly proofs of
a great deal of moral training since the previous year's examinations, which was the first
experience of the kind they had ever encountered, and the tears shed almost outdid the
writing. Thirty-nine wrote on the various
subjects."
By 1915 we have the following gratifying
record:    ^§1,
"Every girl has her individual strong
point. We have an excellent gymnasium
teacher in training. One is a natural artist
and can teach classes quite well, using the
methods she has seen her teacher use.
Another leads everything in mathematics.
Some others take specially to music and are
becoming good players. Several girls have
good alto voices, others have a specially good
soprano. The oldest pupil-teacher, Miss
Whang, is a tower of strength for managing.
For instance, she gets up at five o'clock in
the morning to give out the day's supply of
rice, rather than leave it over night, for fear
some may be stolen. The girl, Lin Ho Nin,
of the Orphanage, is a bright student. One
of her accomplishments is the use of crayon
or pen to illustrate her lessons. Fang Nin
Lan, only ten years old, can lead the whole
school in physical exercises—another gymnasium teacher in miniature.    There is a
187 China
First
Diploma,
Day
Schools.
regular swarm of girls coming on from the
lower classes, all jealous for the honor and
good of the school they love so dearly."
At the annual meeting of the West China
Christian Educational Union, the Secretary
reported:
"It is sincere matter for congratulation
that this year for the first time a Middle
School diploma has been granted to a woman
student, who comes from the school of the
Woman's Board of the Canadian Mission in
Chengtu.
" It is also a subject for some consideration
that of sixty-two diplomas granted for the
primary grades forty-two, or over two-thirds,
went to girls. The most probable reason for
this is that the girls' schools are directly
under the control of missionaries trained at
home for teaching and giving their whole
time to the schools. There is also a greater
proportion of boarding-schools for girls than
boys."
Day schools in all the stations, and many
outside places, bring light and truth to numerous little lives and homes, and also furnish
a field of usefulness and training to some of
the senior students in our boarding-schools.
One missionary writes:
1 The  day  school  work  has been  more
encouraging than  ever.       goes  daily,
except when I go two hours a week, and she
188 Chengtu
is doing splendid work. At Chinese New
Year there came in over twenty entirely new
pupils, who had never even heard the name
of our God. The first lesson I gave them was
on the fact that each child was one individual
soul. They had never heard the word soul
before. By steady, slow steps we got them to
understand a little of God's love for them."
One government officer, on leaving his boy
at a Methodist day school, said to him: " This
is the best school in the city. You must
remember that these Christians are different
from the rest of the Chinese. When they
teach the Bible and the facts about their religion, I want you to give special attention, so
that you may learn what it is that makes
them different."
Orphanage.—Through the years the " Jennie Ford Home" has sheltered with tender
care from thirteen to twenty girls at a time,
some just infants. A few have early passed
away, owing to inherited disease and
enfeebled constitutions through previous
neglect and exposure. The majority, however, have developed healthily in body and
mind and, better still, have become true disciples of the Lord Jesus. Two or three have
married evangelists and are showing in their
own homes and churches the good results of
their training. Those old enough have, as
day pupils, attended classes in the boarding-
school, but in 1915 the Orphanage was placed
189
Jennie
Ford
Home. China
Schools for
Women.
under the management and direction of the
school workers rather than as a distinct
department. " Under these circumstances the
girls are in the position of supported school
girls."
"The removal of the medical department
from our compound," writes Miss Thompson,
"gave the Orphanage the use of a building
and some additional land space. This has
been very much appreciated and has made a
great difference in the dormitory problem.
Another of the older girls has been received
into the Church. Now, with the two oldest
girls Christians, one of whom is an especially
earnest little follower of the Master, we hope
and pray that all these children, who are so
peculiarly dependent on us, may learn the
way of life."
Women's Schools.
The desire of grown women for instruction,
and their great need of it, seems pathetic in
contrast with our highly-favored conditions,
and more or less provision has been made to
meet this need. In 1907 we find "a little
school for women was opened in some rented
rooms in April, continuing for six weeks, and
was fairly satisfactory, but there were difficulties, such as some tiny crying babies, who
disturbed the peace very often."
" The church members from the surrounding towns and district are themselves *enquir-
190 Chengtu
ing if we will not let their wives come in and
study, and the women are eager to come.
Words fail to carry to you the great cry that
goes up from this little corner of China (Jen-
show), from its women to our women, and
surely the young women of Canadian Methodism will hear and, hearing, will respond."
The following is shown in 1910:
I Only a few of our women had arrived
when we re-opened our j Woman's School'
early last September. The weather was still
very hot, and those living at a distance waited
for a few days, hoping for a drop in the temperature. During the term eight women and
one girl have been with us as boarders and
three women as day students. They have all
followed our course of study for Bible-women.
This course includes the studies in the Gospels, Old Testament history, primary hygiene,
physiology and geography. These secular
studies, though very elementary, are opening
a new world to our women. To find that the
Holy Land was not in Canada, but in the
same continent as their beloved China, was a
great surprise. A large portion of the time
has been given to studies in the life of Christ
as recorded in the Gospels of Mark and Luke.
-We believe Christ is more real to-day to our
women than at the beginning of the term.
Some of these women will, we hope, become
workers in the near future; others will return
191 China
to their homes, there to witness for the
Master. One is the wife of an evangelist,
and will probably go with her husband to one
of our out-stations after Council meeting.
Another was the bride-to-be of one of our
church members."
Further advance is witnessed in 1914:
"On September 1st we opened our Woman's
School. Most of our former students were
present; also several new ones. Thirty women
have enrolled this year. Several have been
with us only part of the time, but some have
attended regularly. We could accommodate
only ten women as boarders, as our building
is so small. Some of our day students have
walked a long distance each day. They have
also shown great earnestness in their studies.
Last year it was decided to have our women
pass examinations, and at the completion of
the two years' course give a certificate. This-
was something new, and at first we feared
our women would not take kindly to such an
innovation, but we were mistaken. All have
been ambitious to take high marks, and real
good, painstaking work has been done.
" Mrs. Chen, who entered the school when
it was first opened, received a certificate this
year.   We hope for more next year."
Added joy comes in 1916:
" This past year has been the most eventful
in the history of our Woman's School, for we
192 T
Chengtu
have experienced the joy long anticipated of
moving from cramped and unsuitable quarters to our new and commodious building.
When we say 'new,' we are not forgetting
that this building has been used as our
Woman's Hospital for over twenty years, but
it is new to us. Some necessary alterations
and a coat of paint have transformed our old
hospital into a Woman's School which we
think is almost ideal.
"We have two well-ventilated classrooms,
fourteen cosy bedrooms, a bathroom, dining-
room, kitchen, gymnasium and, last but not
least, a sitting-room lighted by electricity.
"During the year thirty-five women have
been with us for a shorter or longer time.
Our rules are elastic enough to admit a woman
for one month, if she cannot remain longer.
Five of the women have completed our two-
year course of study, successfully passed their
examinations and received certificates. Four
of these plan to become Bible-women."
Similar schools are held in all the stations
as far as time and strength permit. Everywhere they have been eagerly welcomed and
have proved an immense blessing.
Evangelists' Wives.
Akin to this (but a distinct effort) has been Evangel-
the teaching of the evangelists' wives.   While ists* Wives,
the husbands were taking their regular course
13
193 China
of instruction the wives (many of whom have
had no educational advantages) have been
brought together and a more or less regular
school has been maintained, to their great
advantage personally and their increased usefulness in the Church.
Some seasons our W.M.S., on request of
the Council of the General Board, has taken
charge.   At other times some of the wives of
the missionaries have superintended.     The
results already have proved very satisfactory,
but for the sake of continuity and consequent
efficiency the persuasion grew that a stated
teacher should be engaged by the General
Board, and in 1916 the Board of the W.M.S.
offered and appropriated $600 towards her
salary.
Showing the need of instruction and the
joy of seeing the darkness dissipated by the
true Light, we quote from a letter of Miss
Steele:
" The other day a woman called to ask
some questions. She had been to church two
or three times, and there were some things
she could not understand. She wished to
know if the worship of God was like that of
Buddha; if the worshippers presented themselves before Him wearing their best clothing
and their jewelry. One had been beating
time, during the singing of the hymns, and
the old lady wanted to know if he were
194 Chengtu
trying to beat the doctrine into their minds.
But the listening women could scarce suppress a smile when she inquired into the
reason for the worshippers bowing their heads
and going to sleep for a short time during the
service. The word for prayer could convey
no meaning to the stranger. The missionaries have had to take a word and teach the
Chinese to read our meaning into it. So it
is no marvel if the women are frequently
puzzled when they first come in contact with
us. We pray that this one may speedily learn
to sit at the feet of the Master who can teach
her so much of Himself.
"So is the seed being sown in this city.
While there is much definite planting and
watering, there is also much wayside sowing,
and in both cases God gives.the increase. The
harvest is plenteous, and there is every
encouragement to work and to pray. In more
senses than one, the day of salvation in China
is now."
And again:
" Several of the women have been going,
two or three at a time, to small places to
preach the Gospel, and during the warm
weather, when there are large gatherings at
the temples, they go in little companies to tell
the Gospel and distribute tracts.
" There is an old lady, about sixty years of janf Led
age, by the name of Mrs. Chang (we always to Christ.
195 China
call her ' the Dame'). She was a vegetarian,
and had been for twenty years. (In taking
the vegetarian vow, the devotee absolutely
trusts in it for salvation. Vegetarianism has
more superstition connected with it than have
other forms of idolatry.) She came to do a
little needlework and to live with us. She
could read a little, so every evening she, with
two or three others, would sit and read the
Bible. After three months she was led by
reading God's Word to know that Jesus is
the Way, the Truth and the Life. She gave
herself to the Lord, broke her vow, and was
baptized. Her life has been a sweet savor of
Christ ever since. She had a very serious illness last winter, and as we were afraid she
might not recover we suggested that she go
home to her friends. 'No,' she said,6 if Jesus
is going to take me home, I want to go from
the place where I first learned to know Him.'
We are very thankful that she recovered.
Three months ago we appointed her to accompany one of the senior primary school girls
who had to enter Dr. Cox's hospital for
three months' treatment, and Mrs. Cox has
said that it was remarkable to see the old lady
going from one patient to another, with Bible
in hand, reading to them, and trying to point
them to the way of life. Her face bears witness that she has a joy and peace in her heart
that the world cannot give, neither can it take
away.
196 Chengtu
"There is also with us a young lady by
the name of Miss Ts'ao. She came to pay a
visit for a month, at the end of which time
we invited her to stay longer. She gladly
accepted, and did much in teaching Mrs.
Chang, the old lady to whom we have just
referred. They read the Bible every evening, and after some time she came to me one
night and said, 'I am convinced that Jesus
Christ is the Saviour of the world. Will you
point me to him V One passage after another
of God's Word was read, and through John
5: 24 she was led into the Light. We had
prayer together, and from then her life has
borne testimony to the power of our living
Lord. She also was under this awful vow
(the vegetarian). We prayed constantly, and
asked many friends to pray that she might
break it, but nothing would persuade her
until a short time ago. One morning we
noticed she was exceedingly happy, but did
not know the reason until later on when she
came and said her decision was made, she
would break her vow, and now she was going
to wholly follow the Lord."
After a season of rest and recuperation in Revolution,
the mountains, above the enervating heat of
the plain, our missionaries were returning to
their various posts in the late summer of
1911, eager for the reopening of schools, hospital and other activities, when suddenly a
deep shadow fell.
197 China
The London Christian says:
I For years China has been like a glacier,
moving slowly, surely but imperceptibly;
to-day she is like an avalanche. The success
of the revolutionary movement is nothing
short of astounding. City after city quietly
capitulates; and concessions have already
been made from the throne, which point to
great changes affecting popular rights and
liberties. When we remember the greatness
of China's provinces—Szechwan, with sixty-
eight millions of people, and Shantung, with
thirty-eight millions—it is clear that such
provinces are well worthy to be states; and
if it is possible to compact the whole under
one supervising government, the progress of
China, and therefore the progress of the world
—and (may we not say) the progress of the
Kingdom of Christ—should be enormously
advanced."
From Miss Brackbill, writing of Chengtu,
we learn:
"On August 24th we opened the school
after the summer holidays with all pupils
from a distance there, and a better attendance
and better work from the first than ever
before, and we looked forward to a good
term's work. However, such was not to be
the case.
"On August 31st we attended a meeting,
held  at   Si-Shen-tsi   (General  Board   com-
198 Chengtu
pound), at which it was decided, on advice
from the Consul-Oeneral, that many leave for
down river because of the anticipated trouble.
None of the government schools had opened,
which looked ominous, and, on consultation,
we decided it was wise to close our girls'
school for a time for fear of drawing attention to it in the present state of the city. The
teachers agreed it was a wise thing to do, as
otherwise we might have a notice in the daily
papers (which by this time were publishing
all sorts of cartoons) of its being still open;
but the pupils, when told we had so decided,
could see no reason for it, and begged they
might continue to study, as otherwise they
were afraid they could not pass their examinations in the winter."
From September 7th the foreign community was, by request of the authorities, housed
(and protected) in the uncompleted hospital
of the General Society, where they remained
for a time, hoping for quiet to be restored.
" However, when it became evident that
we must all leave, we scattered our girls, putting the oldest ones in the homes of the school
teachers, who were elderly married men, and
my two girls, Ida and Annie, with the smaller
orphanage children in the home of my personal teacher, who was also to finance matters
until such time as the foreigner could return."
An interesting glimpse of the little mis-
199
Shelter.
Pupils Di:
tributed. China
En Route
to Coast.
sionary squadron retiring to the coast is given
by Miss Turner:
"I know you will like to know how we
passed the month of October. September witnessed our departure from our stations, and
November saw us on board our boats for the
trip from Chungking to Ichang. October was
a month of rest and quiet, and fitted us all
better for the changes that have come and
that still lie ahead of us. We lived quietly on
the Chungking Hills, across the river from
the city, and there had our regular student
life. We were fortunate in having quite a
number of teachers, and were able to make
good use of them. The weather was unusually fine for a fall in China, I believe, and we
had some delightful climbs over the hills. The
community prayer-meeting met each Thursday afternoon, and our own mission prayer-
meeting was held on Sunday afternoons.
" On October 29th, as we were assembled
in our mission prayer-meeting, Mr. Morti-
more asked permission to read a communication which had just been received from the
Acting Branch Consul, W. B. Brown, urging
for the last time that all the refugees here go
down river. It was what we had been expecting for some time, and hence was not the
shock it would otherwise have been.
" We boarded our boats on November 4th,
and on November 6th began our journey
down this great river.    We are escorted by
200 mmm
Chengtu
the British gunboat Widgeon, while 'two
Chinese lifeboats bring up the rear. Our
flotilla is said to consist of thirty-four boats,
of which thirteen are occupied by Canadian
Methodist missionaries.
" It would be interesting to have a list of Different
our fellow passengers down the Yangtse. As Nationali-
one looks down on the flotilla lying at anchor
one can discern the red sun on the white
ground that marks a Japanese boat; the red,
white and blue vertically striped flag of the
French; the red, white and black horizontal
bars of the German houseboats; here flies the
Union Jack and there the Stars and Stripes.
A large boat, flying the sun and dragon,
anchors with us each night. The Missions
represented are the China Inland Mission,
the Bible Society, the American Baptist, the
Methodist Episcopal and our own Mission.
The others are business people, some of whom
are agents of the British American Tobacco
Co., who speak of leaving " their work," as if
the introduction of the cigarette habit were
one of the most important duties of mankind.
"It is hardly a year since we reached the
Celestial Empire, and it is a source of great
regret to us all that we have to withdraw for
a time from our own province, which, though
our residence in it has been for such a short
time, we have come to love. In a very few
days now we shall reach Ichang, where we
expect to find steamers in waiting to convey
201 China
Red Cross
Work.
Us  to   Shanghai.     November  29th
anniversary of our arrival there.".
is
the
In these days of terrible war and frightful
carnage (1916) we cannot but read with
added interest and more vivid perception the
experiences of our medical staff on their way
to Kuling, a health resort some distance west
of Shanghai. Hankow is a large, progressive
city at the junction of a river from the north
with the mighty Yangtse. On the opposite
shore of the smaller river is Hanyang, while
on the other shore of the Yangtse is Wuchang
—three cities in a cluster, about six hundred
miles from the sea. The following narrative
is from the pen of Miss Asson:
" Red Cross Work.—While on the way
from Chungking to Shanghai last November
our W.M.S. party was obliged to stay over
in Hankow, and saw for the first time the
ravages of war. The native city lay in ruins,
and during that night one of the fiercest
battles that had taken place was fought.
" Churches, warehouses and many other
buildings were converted into temporary hospitals, and the wounded, both Imperialist and
Eevolutionary, were alike cared for by the
corps of Eed Cross workers in Hankow.
" A local Eed Cross Society had been
formed by the missionaries in Hankow and
Hanyang at the beginning of the war in October, and later their forces were strengthened
202 Chengtu
Hankow.
by workers from the Chinese and Japanese
Eed Cross Societies.
" It was at first suggested that Dr. Anna
Henry, with Dr. Barry and Miss Crawford,
should proceed to Hanyang and reopen the
hospital belonging to the American Baptist Missionary Society, but after a meeting
of the Eed Cross workers it was thought
unwise, as a big battle was expected, and we
left Hankow very much disappointed.
" God's ways are not our ways, and He
who knoweth all things stopped the way.
" On Friday of that week the expected  Fighting at
battle took place, and during the day twenty
shells burst inside the hospital building, and
very thankful we were that work was not
being carried on.
" The next day a telegram came to Kuling
asking that Dr. Henry and I return to
Hankow. We did so, and were met by Dr.
Cox and escorted across the river to Wuchang,
and after about two miles of chair riding
reached our destination.
" The beautiful university building belonging to the Wesleyan Methodist Society of
England had been opened for emergency
work, and splendidly located it was, half a
mile beyond the city, yet near enough for the
wounded to be carried by the field corps of
Eed 'Cross soldiers.
"For the first few days after our arrival
the noise of shot and shell was heard, and the
203 China
In 1916
President
of Republic of
China.
flames from General Li's yamen, which was
set on fire by the Imperialists, were seen quite
distinctly from the hospital. Many wounded
were brought in4—as many as forty and fifty
a day.
"The patients were first carried into a
large receiving room, and, after examination,
the light cases and those who did not need
immediate operation, were allotted to different wards, while the urgent cases were
attended to as soon as possible.
" There were five large wards containing
from twenty to thirty beds, and three small
ones with ten beds in each, operating, dressing, bandage rooms and a large chapel. The
soldiers were, without exception, most appreciative of the attention given and, on the
whole, patient and uncomplaining—anxious
to recover as quickly as possible so that they
might return to fight for their liberty.
" There were only Eevolutionary soldiers at
Wuchang, it being the headquarters of General Li and his staff, and one day we were
honored by a visit from the General, who
thanked the doctors and nurses for their
kindness to his poor men, and the next day
sent Hive thousand dollars toward the Eed
Cross work.
" The staff consisted of three doctors—two
foreign, one Japanese—and three Chinese
lady nurses, and ten students from the Eed
Cross College in Shanghai.   For the first few
204 Chengtu
days it was my pleasure to assist Dr. Henry
in her operations and dressings, and afterwards, when one of the foreign nurses had
to leave, I had charge of the wards, and it
was then my work to superintend the cleaning, etc., see that the patients' dressings were
changed, and feed with condensed milk or
rice gruel those who could not take rice and
vegetables. There were between twenty and
thirty who had to be fed five or six times a
day, and it used to take about an hour each
time to feed 'my babies,' as I called them,
speaking a word of encouragement to this
one, or of help and cheer to that one, and it
is with feelings of pleasure that I look back
upon the month's work at Wuchang.
" Every morning Mr. Eattenbury, who had
of the University, would visit the
wards, distributing books and tracts, talking
to the men, and many were found who were
already Christians or knew about the Gospel.
"On Sunday, when services were held in The
the chapel, invitation was given to all to come
—no one was urged—and about seventy-five
were present. In they came, with bandaged
arms, legs and heads, some walking, others
hobbling with the aid of sticks and benches;
still others were carried by comrades less disabled than themselves. It was an inspiration
to watch them, as they listened attentively to
the simple Gospel message.
" Two services were held each Sabbath, and
charge
Wounded
Hear the
Gospel.
?05 China
were well attended. We were most sorry
when, on December 23rd, word came that hostilities were to be renewed, after an armistice
of three weeks, and it was impossible to
remain longer, the hospital being in direct
firing line. The helpless patients were sent
over to the International Hospital at Hankow, which was well manned by workers.
" We feel sure that the seed sown will bear
fruit for the Master, and are thankful for the
privilege of ministering to these needy ones
in His name."
Furloughs. During this enforced absence it was thought
best for those of our missionaries whose fur-
' lough time was approaching to take this
opportunity of returning to Canada; others
settled down to study in Shanghai; a few
went over to Japan. All sought to make it a
time of preparation for increased power in
service when permitted to resume their loved
labor.
A few sidelights given at this time should
prove an inspiration and stimulus to us at
home. Miss Sparling writes from Shanghai,
December 17th:
" We feel these days must be a time of
trial to you ' on the banks of the Besor,' but
God is certainly leading on, and we feel
assured that all this trouble and turmoil will
eventually tend to the furtherance of the Gos-
206 Chengtu
pel. Indeed we have evidences of this
already.
"A few of the missionaries remained in
Nanking. Heavy fighting was expected there.
When the Eevolutionists at last attacked the
city they obtained the victory in a very few
days, saving great loss of life and property.
The business men of the city expected the
Imperial troops would take a much firmer
stand than they did against the enemy and
thus cause much bloodshed. Events happening so differently, they felt it must be in
answer to the prayers of missionaries. The
official class and business men, who heretofore have been so hard to reach, flocked to the
chapels to hear the Gospel. The front doors
of the chapel were taken off in order that
more might hear the message. Although in
the midst of trouble, there is much joy in
that city.
" There is still another reason why we think
this disturbance will work out to the advance
of the Gospel. Before leaving Tzeliutsing
many meetings were held, addressed by leading men of the city, who told the people that
the foreigners had nothing to do with this disturbance, but that we were here to preach a
doctrine that helped people to live better lives.
We feel that this brought our work before the
people in such a way as would otherwise have
required years. The gentry feared the people
would associate the trouble with us, and they
207 China
might destroy our property and thus complicate matters. So far as we know no mission
property has been destroyed.
" We do hope this war will soon be at an
end. Even if it should be, we fear it will
still be several months before we would dare
travel to our stations, as the country is
infested with bands of robbers. We are putting in long hours of study, hoping to be
better prepared for our work when we do
return.
| May God richly bless the laborers in the
homeland."
From Miss Estabrook's letter of December
17th, 1911, on the journey from Chengtu, we
take the following:
" You have heard that on September 6 we
were ordered to leave our homes and move
into the hospital compound at Si Shen Tsi.
Again, by the order of the British Consul, we
left the walls of that compound on December
9th, and started this journey.
I From the pens of more experienced missionaries than I, you will receive detailed
accounts of events in the agitation of the
Eailway League here and in the revolution
movement in Szechwan province. However,
interwoven with the work of your representative missionaries here were certain incidents
that impressed me. They happened aside
from the strife and were in strange contrast
to it all.
208 r
Chengtu
" Tuesday, September 19th, Nien Fu Chen,
one of the sixteen-year-old boarding-school
girls, died. Her best-loved home on this earth
had been Chengtu School, and there she had
learned to love and to serve Jesus. During
Nien Fu Chen's illness, Miss Brackbill had
her removed from the place, secured when
the school had been so hastily closed, and
placed here in even more comfortable quarters. In Miss Wellwood she had the services
of a trained nurse, and in Dr. Eetta Kilborn
the services of a doctor. Thus loving hearts
were with her. It seemed sad to think that
no foreigner could be permitted to go outside
the city to the Mission cemetery on the day
of the funeral. However, Eev. Jas. Neave
conducted a simple service at the house, and
then the Chinese evangelist went out to the
cemetery.
"What had not the Chengtu Boarding-
School, with all its helpful and sweet influences, meant to her! Let us remember, too,
that the influence of a sixteen-year-old Chinese girl and a true Christian is no small thing
to measure.
"Sunday, October 15th, witnessed a most
impressive service in the Chengtu church.
The Chinese evangelist preached, and four
Chinese men, one Chinese boy, and two Chinese women were baptized by Eev. J. Neave,
and received into the church. Among the
four men was the father of the lad who was
Triumphant
Passing
of a Pupil
of Chengtu
School.
Baptisms
Even in
Troublous
Times.
14
209 China
received. One of the two women was Heh
T'ai T'ai, a woman whose husband was once
a small official. She is not the favorite wife,
and that fact has brought sorrow into her
experience. She is a woman of singular
charm of manner, refined and quiet. Of the
women studying last year in the school conducted by Miss Brimstin, Heh T'ai T'ai was
the most promising, as regards the evident
work of grace in her heart and life, and Miss
Brimstin hoped to have her full service as a
Bible-woman in connection with evangelistic
work in Chengtu. Let us pray that this dear
Chinese sister of ours may be a faithful witness for Him who has called her into this
blessed fellowship with Himself.
"Now in a very special way the Holy
Spirit would lay on your hearts the responsibility of the Chinese Christians and non-
Christians left behind in your Mission's share
of Szechwan province, the Chinese girls
scattered to their homes from the boarding-
schools, also the Chinese women who were
studying in the Woman's School in Chengtu.
"Your prayers can help to effect multiplied spiritual quickenings in the hearts of
Chinese Christians who are heads of families.
A Christian home established and sustained
in the midst of heathen homes is a powerful
witness to the power of God. They will have
many temptations in these times of disorders
210 Chengtu
and confusion.  Scenes of carnage and violence
do not mark the real struggle.
" I cannot express how keenly I realize my
own responsibility in view of this privilege
of being an intercessory missionary in Sze-
chwan province, even while I have to be
absent from that loved province of my adoption, and I pray the prayer—'Make me a
truer intercessory missionary for China.' "
Medical.
For some time it had been evident that the Woman's
medical work required more room and better Hospital,
equipment. Much had been accomplished
in the breaking down of prejudice by the
relief given to many afflicted ones, through
unwonted kindness shown by our capable doctors and nurses, instruction imparted, intellects quickened, and in many cases spiritual
life received through the power of the Divine
One. Thus " Woman's Gospel Hospital" had
abundantly vindicated its name.
Authority was early given for the purchase
of a new site, but it was not till 1911 that,
after long searching and negotiation, a suitable plot of about three acres was secured.
It is most advantageously situated, not far
from our church nor from the General Board
Hospital, with whose staff there are the most
pleasant relations.
The season's work was just being resumed
after the summer of 1911 when, to their great
211 China
disappointment, the shock of revolution scattered our forces and put a stop to the enterprise for over a year.
To Mrs. Dr. Gifford Kilborn we are
indebted for the following in 1912:
" Medical.—Since the last report of medical work was written, changes have come
thick and fast to this oldest Empire. It has
laid aside its old traditions, its old forms of
government and become the youngest republic,
and still happiness has not come to the people.
'Poor China, thou cravest a better day;
Thou must learn of the love of Christ which alone
can set men free.
I mourn thou art not as thou mightest be,
But the love of God would do all for thee.'
"When I returned to Chengtu the end of
September, 1912, in fact before I returned,
I learned that many enquiries were being
made as to when the Women's Hospital would
reopen. Drs. Henry and Austen were in
Canada on furlough, so Miss Asson and I in
consultation decided to reopen our women's
medical work.
Rx6Tv?en^g "Dust and cobwebs were everywhere, and
Miss Asson immediately set to work to clean
up. On October 30th everything was in readiness and the dispensary opened, having six
patients that day. The number has steadily
increased, the largest number seen in one day
being 105  patients.    We have treated  all
212
of Dis
pensary. Chengtu
classes and conditions,  from the wives of
wealthy officials to the lowly beggar child.
"Fifty minor and six major operations opSSS?"*
have been performed. One of these cases was
most interesting. About three months after
opening the dispensary a patient with a very
large tumor came in to consult me. I told
her an operation was the only method of giving relief, and advised her to come into the
hospital at once. She said she would go and
talk it over with her friends. We saw no
more of her until four months later, when she"
returned and requested us to operate. By
this time she was in a very critical condition.
It was evident to the patient herself, that
without an operation she could not live more
than a few days. I explained the dangers of
the operation after this long delay, but she
was most anxious to have it done at once.
We made immediate preparations, and I
invited Dr. Kilborn to perform the operation for me, Drs. Service, Canwright and
myself assisting. The woman weighed 2131/2
pounds before operation and after operation
93^ pounds. She made an uninterrupted
recovery, returning to her home at the end
of a month feeling most grateful for all that
had been done. She says she will worship
idols no more, but will serve the one true and
living God. During the past months we have
had many interesting cases, but none to equal
213 China
this one. I believe the tumor was one of the
largest on record.
"Eighty-one patients have been cared for
in the wards. Prayers have been conducted
in the large ward each morning by Miss
Asson. She has also held a Sunday afternoon
service.
" The returns in money have been very
satisfactory, the receipts amounting to
$579.75 Szechwan currency. There are still
two accounts to collect, which will place our
income for the past few months well over
Sze. $600—approximately $300 Canadian
money. Eternity alone will reveal the returns
from suffering relieved, lives prolonged, the
Word preached, and hearts pointed to the
Saviour.
" Soon after opening we were able to engage
a Bible-woman, and she has preached faithfully to the patients in the waiting-room. As
Miss Asson has dispensed the medicines she
has handed to each patient a tract or Scripture portion. In the rush of seeing patients
it is difficult to do much direct preaching;
but words have been spoken as opportunity
offered, and we believe that God will bless
the seed sown. The Bible-woman invites the
women to attend the services in the church,
and many of them have accepted it.
" When we re-opened we were able to
secure the services of three old hospital
helpers.    These have done good work, par-
214 Chengtu
ticularly the nurse, Miss Wu. More nurses
are needed. Will you pray that the right
girls may be sent to engage in this work ?
li I am convinced there never was a time ^om.e?
when medical work for women was so badly Needed,
needed as it is to-day. With changing conditions Chinese women have more freedom than
ever before. They do not know how to use
this freedom. They have not learned where
the line should be drawn. It is stated that
immorality is very much on the increase, and
from what I have seen in the consultation
room I believe it. Women, and women only,
should treat women in this country, should
train them and teach them that liberty does
not mean license—should teach them that
minds and bodies must be kept pure and made
fit dwelling-places for the Holy Spirit of God.
" Dr. Austen reached Chengtu the middle
of May and assisted me in the medical work
until the arrival of Dr. Henry, a couple of
weeks later, when the whole work was handed
over to them.
" I am very thankful to have had the privilege of doing this work for the Master, and
for our Woman's Missionary Society."
We believe the time has come, as it has
come in almost all lines of missionary
endeavor in China, when we must specialize
in preparing the Chinese to carry on this
work.    We need Chinese women physicians
215 Dispensary
Built 1913.
New
Hospital.
1915.
China
as well as nurses. More and more this
becomes evident in the changing conditions
of New China.
As speedily as possible the new property
was cleared of its old buildings, walls were
built around the compound, and a dispensary
erected, which was opened October, 1913. In
1914 the staff was strengthened by the arrival
of Dr. Ada Speers.
The hopes and prayerful efforts of many
years at length found embodiment in 1915,
a year memorable because of the closing of
our first dispensary and hospital and removal
to the new quarters so liberally provided by
the women of our Methodism.
" The four-story building is of brick, 109
feet long by 52 feet wide, having accommodation for sixty-five beds. There is plenty
of ward space, with many large windows
for light and ventilation, besides* generous
verandahs.
" The ground floor, or basement, contains
the laboratory, drug room, nurses' lecture
room, dining-room, etc.
" On the second, third and fourth stories
are wards, public and private, the charge for
a bed in the former being one hundred cash
a day (about Hive cents) ; in the latter, which
is well furnished, from twenty-five cents to
one dollar. On each floor are bathrooms,
dressing-rooms and diet kitchens.
216 W.M.S. HOSPITAL
Chengtu, China^
ml
$
DR. ANNA HENRY
Supt. W.M.S. Hospital, Chengtu, Chin  Chengtu
" The superintendent's rooms, guest room,
sitting-rooms and chapel are situated on the
first floor. In addition to the wards, there
is a suite of operating-rooms and an obstetric
ward on the second floor, while on the third
are an open-air ward for tubercular patients,
a dark room for eye examination and a ward
for opium patients. The fourth floor is
mainly occupied by nurses in training, of
whom there are more applicants than can be
accommodated. One of the educational
requirements is the grade of Senior Primary, equivalent to entrance to the High
School in this country.
"On Monday, Tuesday, Thursday and
Friday mornings out-patients are seen in the
dispensary near the gate. Those who wish
to sit in the t'ai tfai guest room and be seen
first, pay 100 cash (20 cash is equivalent to
one cent in Canada) extra each visit. For
private consultation, out of dispensary hours,
the fee is 50 cash each."
September 16th and 17th, 1915, were
marked by the very auspicious opening and
dedication of this building, the evidence of
thought and prayer, of work and money from
many hundreds in Canada. These must be
continued to make the work permanently
effective. We must never forget those at
the advance posts, and new recruits must be
ready to fill the depleted ranks.
217 China
Of the eight physicians and eight trained
nurses sent to China during these twenty-two
years, six have married, one has died, three
have retired and one is on furlough, leaving
at present three doctors, of whom one is a
language student, and two nurses.
" Those admitted to our wards represent
all classes of society, all kinds of diseases,
many opium cases—one a child of twelve
years. Special interest was awakened by the
daughter of an official, because of her strong
personality and winning ways, who occasionally brought some friend to the dispensary.
Through inveterate opium smoking her parents had been reduced to poverty. The daughter, well educated from a Chinese standpoint,
was able to open a private school. It was a
shock when this beautiful, cultured girl came
and said, 'I want to come into the hospital
to break off opium.' For the first few days
it was a hard fight. When too ill to come to
morning prayers she said, 'When I'm better
I'll help you preach the Gospel to the
patients.' One evening, as we sat talking of
the strength that only Christ can give, she
said, (I am a Christian. I do believe the
Bible, and in Jesus and in God,' and she went
on: lSome years ago, when my father went
into the men's hospital to break off opium, he
first heard the Gospel from Dr. Kilboru.
He brought away Gospel books and read
them.    He became a believer.    You know,'
218 Chengtu
she said, while a smile lighted up her face,
' I am my father's pet. We are chums. That
is why he got me a tutor and gave me an
education. His official duties call him away
from home most of the time to another province, but when he returns to Chengtu he
gathers us around him in the evenings and
reads the Bible and prays. My mother
believes, too.' What gladness this rehearsal
brought us, proving again the promise, ' My
word shall not return to me void.' We had
many long talks together. 'I have over
twenty pupils,' she said. • My disciples.
Jesus had twelve. I will try and make them
His disciples.' Dr. Henry writes: ' Oh,
how much China's daughters need the intercessory prayers of their Canadian sisters.
Will not those who are the Lord's remembrancers give Him no rest until every heathen
soul that comes into your hospital in West
China accepts Christ as her personal Saviour? As we work, will you not bear the
burden of souls in prayer V "
Dr. Anna Henry writes:
" The most encouraging thing to me in our
work this year has been the case of a young
Tai-tai named Foeng.
"At first I was called to see her in her Body and
home, but as her hygienic surroundings were |PU*
such as to militate against her, and her disease was far advanced, I told the family, after "
219 China
a few visits, there was no use sending so often
for me, I could not cure her.
" In a few days the husband called to ask
if I would take his wife into the hospital, for,
he said, 'I hear you have a God-healing
method in your hospital, and I would like her
to try that, and if she dies in the hospital we
will not blame you.'
"With her servant she came in, and for
some time was in a very weak condition; then
she began to improve gradually. As she commenced to feel better she firmly believed that
God was healing her, and listened with interest to the Gospel story, which she seemed to
accept as would a child. Most of her leisure
time she spent in learning to read, until, when
able to join in the hospital service, she could
read her verses correctly, and would ask and
answer questions, showing she understood the
truth.
" When it seemed her recovery was assured,
in the middle of the night I was called to her.
She was suffering intensely, and it looked as
if she might leave us after all. I asked her
if she feared death; she smiled very sweetly
and said,' No, I believe in Jesus, and He will
take care of my soul.' She rallied from this
attack, and from that time on she made an
uninterrupted recovery. Her pinched, wan
face became round and full, and beamed with
the sweet, peaceful expression of one at peace
220 Chengtu
with God.  Her servant woman, too, professed
to have accepted the new faith.
"After being with us three months,
although her husband thought she should
stay longer, she felt she must go.
" With a New Testament, a hymn book and
several tracts she went home, occasionally
coming on dispensary days to get her medicine repeated. 'I read my Testament and
pray every day,' she would smilingly tell us.
Jler genuineness was proven by the way in
which she tried to lead her family to Christ.
She came to church several times, bringing
three or four of her sisters-in-law with her.
" Early in June she came to see us one day,
saying she had friends in the mountainous
part of the country, and she was going to
spend the hot summer with them, and would
we let her have some Gospels and literature to
take with her so she could tell clearly what
it was that had come to her, making her life
full of joy. A good parcel was soon made up,
and as she went out, with thankful hearts we
praised God that the IGod-healing method'
for both body and soul had been verified in
this child of His won from heathen darkness."
" The early part of the past year was sad-  Death of
dened by the sickness and death of our first Nurse in
nurse in training.    Between the interval of Training,
her first sickness and the fatal hemorrhages
which  at last could not be controlled, we
hoped she might be spared to us  a little
221 China
longer; but it was not the Father's will. We
believe the influence of her beautiful Christian life still lives, for she was ever ready to
witness for her Lord and try to win others to
Him. In her case we believe * Death was the
dropping of the flower that the fruit might
swell.' Seven years' training in the school,
a good musician, and a very evident love of
and aptitude for nursing, made her all we
could desire. We cannot understand the
Father's reason for removing one so much
needed, but we know the work is dearer to
Him than to us, and IHe knows.'"
Dr. Austen writes:
"We have lost one of our nurses, Hong
Bing Ehu. Personally, I cannot tell you how
much I have missed her. I love all the girls
very much, but she was the dearest one to me;
having lived so long with foreigners she had
grown to be most companionable, and we
found in her one that promised to be so useful
in the Master's service.
" Few girls have more talent in presenting
the Gospel story than she had. and Dr.
Henry and I had so often remarked about her
earnestness in using opportunities among the
hospital patients. She had very severe hemorrhages, but it did not seem possible until the
last day that the Master really meant to take
her to Himself. Because of her knowledge
of the Gospel story and true application of it
222 Chengtu
to her own life, we feel we have lost a valuable worker, but it has been worth while, for
because of it also she is able to-day to enjoy
the reward of one of our Saviour's redeemed
" In the hospital we have had an unusual Sight
number of eye affections. Two cases were es ore '
especially interesting—double cataracts—
neither patient being able to walk without
being led. When the bandages were taken
off the first case the other patients gathered
around to see, and when the patient looked
at me and said,' Oh, doctor, I see your teeth!"
and then, c I see the trees outside,' the others
said to one another, 'That was what Jesus
did; He cured the blind; and the patient said,
f Yes, and I'm going to worship Him; and
when I'm better I am going to learn to read.'
"When able to be up she continued eager
to learn. Sitting by the side of some who
could read, she tried to memorize the catechism. I am hoping that when she gets her
glasses, which have been sent for to Shanghai,
she will learn to read, as we try to impress
upon them that in order to serve the true God
aright and know what He would have them
do they must read His book.
" The other patient came from the country, some distance, and had never seen a
foreigner before. When told she could not
be cured without an operation, and that she
must come into the hospital, she was quite
223 China
uneasy. We sent her into the ward to see
the patient mentioned above, and while there
she asked if they really were not afraid of us,
and did we not eat children? Could they
really assure her that these things were not
so? All such questioning caused considerable merriment to those who heard. However, in she came, and though at first nervous,
she soon became very much at home, and
went out rejoicing at being able to see, and
saying she had a great many relatives with
eye diseases, and she was going to tell them
to come to us.
" We hope and trust that while with us
her spiritual eyesight got a view of the true
light, and that she will be as eager in telling
of this new light as of her own recovery of
sight."
Miss Marshall, of Tzeliutsing, met this
case:
" Haye Yo" " Last week an old lady, partially para-
im lyzed, said: ' I have heard something about
a great doctor named Jesus. They say He
can cure every kind of disease. Have you
met Him? Do you think He can cure me?'
Then I told her the ' Old, Old Story.' "
The year 1916 shows advance and some
new features, marking the wonderful revolution in feeling and attitude of the people
towards Christian foreigners,
224
^1 Chengtu
The hospital had been built for sixty, or
at the most sixty-five, beds. Dr. Henry
writes:
"We had expected that for some time to
come the third story could be used for a
Chinese nurses' home, but with such rapidly
growing demands, other plans must now be
made.   An extension, was decided upon.
" But just at this time the political situa- Refugees.
tion was ominous, and fearing looting and
fighting, Chinese women and children, mostly
from the higher classes, flocked to us for
safety. Three times have we had this influx
of refugees ranging from one hundred and
fifty to one hundred and seventy. At one
time forty were packed into one room.
" This has been an excellent opportunity
for giving the Gospel message, and as, unlike
earlier years, many of the ladies could read,
Gospel tracts were freely distributed and
read.
" Since last September, between six and
seven thousand patients have been seen by
Dr. Austen and Miss Smith in the dispensary. Office calls, out-door calls, and the
many demands of the in-patient work have
filled up the day's work.
" Under Miss Wellwood's capable management the nurses in training have demonstrated their ability to do effective work.
"Continue   in   prayer   that   our   united
15
225 China
Training
School for
Nurses.
efforts—yours in the homeland and ours in
the field—may be mighty through God in the
bringing of these people to Jesus Christ—
China's only hope."
Glimpses of early experiences, aims and
methods are not only interesting but valuable.
The following records are given by Miss
Wellwood, who has proved such an able secretary, builder, nurse and superintendent of j
the hospital.
"Nurses9 Training School.—Nurses we
have had in our Chengtu Hospital for the
last seven years, but it was not until after
the opening of our new hospital last fall that
it assumed the dignity worthy to be called a
f Training School for Nurses.' One nurse
who has been with us during these years, and
another who had two years with us during
the days of many changes and makeshift,
proved themselves valuable helpers when we
came to adjust things in our new hospital
and put our training school upon a firmer and
better basis. Miss Un, our oldest nurse,
came to us with little or no education, but
during these years has faithfully and untiringly plodded on with her books and practical
work, until we feel she has reached a degree
of efficiency in her practical work quite
worthy to be considered a graduate, although
her theoretical work has not reached the
standard set as our aim.
226 Chengtu
" We now require students to be graduates
of Higher Primary or about the equivalent
of entrance to High School at home. We set
this standard with some fears, but many
months ago those fears vanished, and it is
most satisfying to see how the attitude toward
caring for the sick is changing from one of
menial to one of dignified service for humanity. Much credit is due Miss Uh in helping to bring about this change, for amid
continual taunts along that line she has been
able to see beyond their narrow vision and
feel its true value in her own life, thus making it easier for others who followed.
"During the year that is just closing we
have had six students. Miss Smith has
taught them practical work in dispensary
and operating-room, as well as teaching bacteriology and English. Dr. Austen has
assisted by teaching physiology, while the
practical work of the wards, as well as teaching ' Theory and Practice of Nursing,' has
been my privilege. We are aiming at the
course adopted by the Nurses' Association
of China, and with pupils coming to us who
are Higher Primary graduates*, feel we
should have no difficulty in accomplishing it.
True, we cannot think of these nurses as
assuming the same responsibility that nurses
will at home, and lacking any home training
that would prepare them for hospital cleanli-
227 -I
China
Nurses'
Prayer
Meeting.
ness and order, they have many lessons to
learn that a nurse would instinctively know
at home. Although eternal vigilance has
been necessary, it has not been without its
reward, and we believe that as the years go
by these things will grow easier.
"The nurses are all Christians andvhave
helped as time would permit in teaching the
patients in the ward. Among the bright spots
during the year has been our nurses' prayer-
meeting each Monday evening, when they
gathered around my desk in my study, for
Bible study and prayer. The first half-hour
we spent in free discussion of some subject
previously selected, and it has been most
pleasing to see the development of ideas in
the lives of these young Christians. The last
half-hour we have talked over their experiences in personal work with the patients and
mentioned those whom we especially wanted
to remember in prayer. In this way we also
follow up those who have gone to their homes
and who have shown a special interest in the
Gospel while with us.
"Thus we launch our ITraining School'
with a prayer that it may prove a genuine
power in preparing some of China's young
womanhood for a worthy place in the uplifting of her home life and making them strong
in service for the Master, who came not to be
ministered unto but to minister."
33§ Chengtu
Nobmal School.
For years the need of trained native teach- Union
ers for the many schools under our care had Christian
been painfully felt.    Of the few that could School
be obtained, scarcely any were Christians.      1915.
To establish a Normal School was rather a
heavy undertaking for any single denomination, and the pupils from each mission, far
enough advanced, were as yet few in number, so after considerable negotiation a
Union Christian Normal School for Girls
was resolved upon. Then came a prolonged
search for a suitable site, resulting in a very
desirable property being secured. After complete renovation of the buildings, the school
was opened, January 11th, 1915. Our
Society had the honor of providing the first
Principal, Miss Alice L. Estabrook, who was
eminently fitted for the position. To give
an idea of the aim and scope of this enterprise we cannot do better than append her
first report.
" Union Normal School for Young Women.
—■ They shall abundantly utter the memory
of thy great goodness; they shall speak of
the glory of thy kingdom and talk of thy
power.'    (Psalm 145.)
" This Chengtu Union Normal School for
Young Women is the first institution of its
kind in West China. For some years it has
been in the desire and prayerful plans of
229 China
some of the missionaries of wide experience
here.   Now they see it as an established fact
"Appointed last year by Council to the
staff of the school, I was later appointed by
the Union Committee of Management to be
Principal of the school. Let me, at the very
outset, say that in Miss Irene Chambers, of
the American Baptist Mission, I have found
a friend of helpful personality and a colleague of excellent teaching ability and
influence among the students.
"School opened in January, 1915. Fourteen students have completed the work of this
first half-year. They represent Missions as
follows: Methodist Episcopal, two; Friends'
Mission, four; and our Canadian Methodist
Mission, eight. The largest of the two girls'
boarding-schools of the Baptist Mission tell
us they expect to send us a student in September of this year. The students now represent seven different boarding-schools and six
cities of the province, the most eastern
city being Chungking. Each student is a
Christian.
" The subjects in the regular time-table for
this half-year have been: Principles of Teaching and General Method, School Management, Psychology, Calisthenics, Chinese Literature and Essay-writing, English (optional
and for those who have previously studied
and who wish to keep it up for future work),
a course in Bible study and also one in
230
L Chengtu
Studies in Christian Service, and Special
Method in all the subjects of their practice
teaching. These have been their subjects of
study. They have also done, under supervision, regular practice-teaching in the Junior
Primary day school in these subjects: Chinese Literature, Arithmetic, Geography,
Hand-work, Physiology, Ethical readers, and
Calisthenics.
"Next term, in addition to the study
courses mentioned, we shall have two more:
Telling of stories to Primary pupils, and
School and Home Science. In the latter
course, the up-to-date text-book will be supplemented by a course of ten demonstration
classes given by Miss Wellwood in the new
hospital of our Woman's Missionary Society.
The hospital compound is just across the
street from the Normal School property.
"As the students began their Normal
training course—to them an entirely new
department—we endeavored to lead them to
put themselves freely into their work and
free themselves from the hindrance of fear
of criticism, harmful self-consciousness, delays in carrying thought over into action, fear
of advancing original thought, and fear of
getting away from the written page of the
text-book.
" Chinese young women need to recognize
the difference between moods and judgments.
They also need to learn that a wonderful
231 China
power of memorization does not mean a wonderful power of comprehension or executive
ability. Therefore, to a greater degree than
with Canadian students of the same age at
home in a teacher-training course, we have
stressed such points as these: to summarize
lucidly a discussion on a subject; to compare
text-books on the same subject in the Public
School course and to judge both defects and
estimable points; to imagine practical school
problems and decide how to meet them; to
make out workable time-tables for a Public
School; to prepare examination questions on
the course they taught.
" By these things we have tried to build up
constructive powers and a sense of values. We
belieVe that good beginnings have been made
in all these points and a good foundation laid
for the next half-year. I think each student
has sought to give a whole-hearted character
to her work and to know the invigoration
thereof.
" At the beginning of the term, I told the
class that, aside from the subjects written on
their time-table, we would emphasize in their
life two other subjects, viz.: self-control and
the manifestation of an earnest spirit in
Christian service. I believe each student has
prayerfully sought to keep these ideals before
her. There has been a healthy spirit of
co-operation and mutual enjoyment shown in
the student life among themselves.    In ser-
232 Chengtu
vice, each girl has taken definite teaching
-work, either in the Beginners' Sunday school
or in the regular Sunday school. Each week
I met the two classes and together we studied
the best methods of presenting the lesson and
of reviewing the truths taught.
"Beginning last March our students are
to be responsible for one meeting a month,
giving the Gospel talk at the Sunday afternoon service in the chapel of our Woman's
Society's new hospital.
" Next September we expect to have a new
class of at least four students enroll with us.
" We pray that these students now with us,
and also those coming to us, may ever know
the rich streams of joy in service, joy that
comes from the heart of Christ Himself. He
has in His hand great opportunities for them,
as they go out trained to lead in the paths of
true knowledge and to scatter the brightness
of life. Pray for them. You can help by
your prayers.   God has willed it so.
" To God we give the praise for all, and
in the further development of the work we
place our reliance in Him. (Not by might,
nor by power, but by my Spirit, saith the
Lord.'"
In 1916, on the retirement of Miss Esta-
brook, Miss Chambers became the Principal.
233 CHAPTEE XIX.
Kiating
Home,
1908.
KIATING.
(Pronounced Jah-din.   Population, 70,000.)
OUE second station, Kiating, is situated
at the junction of the rivers Min and
Tung, about one hundred and twenty miles
south of Chentu, the capital of the Province.
A few miles west of the city is Mount Omei,
sacred to Buddha, possessing many large
monasteries, and annually attracting thousands of pilgrims from China and Thibet.
The year 1908 brings the following gratifying intelligence of progress:
"Kiating is very glad indeed to report a
large, comfortable Home ready for occupancy. The good workmanship, an ideal site,
magnificent views of river, mountain and
dale, all combine to make this one of the
most desirable Homes in West China.
"This Home, we think, will be a good
advertisement for our work. Its high elevation makes it appear prominent from the
City Gate, City Wall, and even from the
opposite bank of the river. Numerous
requests for permission to look through the
Home and stand for a while on the level
234 ■"*
*HOME OF THE MISSIONARIES
Kiating, China
*Cost $2,750.
BOARDING PUPILS
Kiating School. 1915.  Kiating
part of the roof have been granted. The
questions asked on such occasions are quite
amusing, Why have so many chimneys ? Will
not one stove cook all your food? Why use
so many rooms ? Could you not cook, eat,
sleep and study in one or two rooms, as we
do ? etc., etc.
"We still need two guest-rooms, one for
the use of the school and business in general,
another for the use of the Chinese women.
The latter we plan to make very cosy. An
open fireplace, pictures and comfortable
chairs, together with the necessary requisites
for a social cup of tea, will, we hope, make
this room very attractive to our Chinese
sisters.
I Upstairs a large bedroom, where we could
entertain women coming in from our out-
stations for a time of Bible study, would be
very useful. These rooms, together with
steps, drains, etc., will, we hope, complete
the necessary work on this compound."
The completion of this home for the mis- Outdoor
sionaries set free the native buildings for the School,
proper housing of the school. " Several were
torn down and the timber used in constructing new rooms in more convenient places.
During part of that time," Miss, Steele writes,
"my study was the verandah, while school
was kept in the open air, a few feet away.
The chipping of  stone, with the sound of
235 Unbound.
China
hammers and saws on every side, frequently
made study impossible. The girls were sheltered from the rain, but so exposed to the
cold winds that we were anxious for their
health. However, they quite enjoyed the
experience, and often assured us they were
having a splendid time. Now we have one
large and two small class-rooms, sitting-room,
dining-room, kitchen, bathroom, laundry,
and six bedrooms, accommodation for not
more than forty girls.
Feet "During the year several girls have un
bound their feet. They always agree to do
so when they come, and usually set about it
themselves, unbinding gradually. But one
little girl refused to stay when she found she
must unbind, so her mother came and took
her home. The girls rejoice in their ability
to run about so easily and quickly. They
continue to take their Sunday afternoon
walks, and nothing can exceed their delight
when in the spring they are able to gather
their arms full of flowers. Then they sometimes compare themselves to the children who
carried palm branches when Jesus rode into
Jerusalem.
"One of the little girls, who is trying to
follow her Lord, has one overpowering ambition. She wishes to be a good girl; but, above
all else, she longs for wisdom. So she clings
to the text, ' If any lack wisdom let him ask
of God,' and she daily prays for wisdom, and Kiating
begs the other girls to pray for her that she
may have it. She has found her studies
rather difficult, and she has shed many tears
over them, but apparently her prayer is being
answered, for in a recent examination she led
her class. May she be given the true wisdom
which is from above, and which will fit her
for the Lord's work.
1 To be in a large measure responsible for
the moulding of so many young lives, each
one different from the other, is a serious task,
and the question may well be asked, * Who is
sufficient for these things ?' Like little Tsong
Chin, we need wisdom, and we are glad we
can rely upon One who is Infinite in love, as
well as Infinite in wisdom.
"In the beginning of April, 1912, a small &ay
day school was opened on a busy street in the ^2,° *
heart of the city. We were happy to secure
the services of a Christian teacher, and
twenty-seven girls were enrolled. They were
very restless, but bright and eager, and it was
a pleasure to tell them a Bible story or to
teach them a verse of the children's favorite
hymn,(Jesus loves me.' "
The next report includes the following:
" The downtown Day School is apparently
the outstanding success of this half-year's
work. This may be partially because of the
spirit of the times, but it is also largely due
to the teacher, Mrs. Chong.   Before her mar-
237 China
riage she was pupil teacher in the Boarding
School. The building we rented is directly
opposite the street chapel, and in the busiest
part of the city. Before school had been
opened a week we were crowded, and in three
weeks I had to use the loft and engage
another teacher. Our roll is fifty, with an
average attendance of forty-two.
" The children come from the better class.
We have daughters of officials, silk and silver
merchants and teachers. Some of the larger
girls can repeat whole chapters from the
Bible, and are doing very well in foreign
subjects for the time they have studied.
"I have visited most of the forty homes
represented, received a warm welcome, and
found in many instances what seemed to be
a real interest in the Gospel story. In some
homes I met girls who had been in the Boarding School for a short time, or women who
had been in Miss Foster's classes. With these
it is quite easy to find a point of contact.
We sometimes have a little service in such
places, the school children singing."
Mrs. Hockin, from Kiating, writes in
1915:
"Mr. Quirmbach's church in the centre
of the city is a fine large room with a gallery
and large class-rooms opening off it capable
of seating six hundred people.
"Between the church and the street, on
238 Kiating
both sides of the main entrance, are guestrooms, a room for games, a large lecture-
room, and a reading and book room. The
reading-room is already very popular, and
here Mr. Quirmbach posts the daily telegrams as they come in bringing the war news
and other items of interest. The rooms at
the back of the church are taken up with a
splendid gymnasium, school-rooms and baths.
Mr. Quirmbach's idea is to carry the work on
somewhat along Y.M.C.A. lines. My work
will be directly with the women in this
church.
"Before Mrs. Sinton's (Miss Srigley)
marriage she had rented a compound running at right angles to the church property,
separated from it only by the partition wall
but opening on another street. Here she
opened a day school for girls under fourteen.
Mrs. Chong, one of our former school girls,
who was married during the Bevolution to
a farmer's son, has had charge of the day
school. Her husband learned to read since
his marriage, and has shown considerable
interest in the Gospel, though his own people
are quite antagonistic to all Christian teaching. We have also a male teacher for writing, and some of the other Chinese subjects.
"At the back we have two school-rooms
which we hope to keep pretty well filled with
girls between seven and fourteen years. In
the  front there is  a fine large place  for
239 Union
Evangelistic
Effort for
Women.
China
women's meetings, a Chinese guest-room, and
a large room I am fitting up as a general
reading and class-room, where we hope girls
in their teens may come, especially those
from the Government schools. There we hope
to keep Christian magazines, pictures, a few
games, etc. I think we may be able to get
quite a number of girls for English Bible
classes later on. Just now the work is in its
infancy.
"Perhaps one of the most interesting
things to report in connection with this year's
work is the evangelistic campaign for women
in which all three Missions—China Inland,
Baptist, and our own—united this spring. A
union committee, foreign and Chinese, met
and planned the details. This in itself was
very helpful. It was decided that the first
meeting should be a Union one for the higher
class women who are not usually willing to
come to church. A /committee waited on
the head official's wife and were cordially
received by her. She promised to help us
and to come with several of her friends,
which she did. For this meeting special invitations were printed, and these were enclosed
with a longer tract-letter, which was afterwards used generally. This tract-letter,
clearly setting forth the plan of salvation,
ended with a list of the weekly women's
meetings, when and where held, and an invitation to come to the same.    Besides these
240 Kiating
letters a calendar of the Sundays, a small
tract, and one or two tickets to the meetings
were enclosed in an envelope and sent to the
different homes. The result was that on the
appointed night some seven hundred women
gathered in the San Iuh Shae, the new downtown church, and saw the main events of the
life of Christ thrown by the magic-lantern on
the screen. An address of welcome and singing by the school girls added to the interest of
the meeting. Each woman carried home with
her a portion of Scripture with a good colored illustration. An invitation to those
interested to meet in oUr girls' school, drink
tea, and talk was given for the following
Thursday. Some fifty responded and we had
a nice time with them.
" This first meeting was followed by meetings in each of the churches, in every case
followed by an after-meeting with the Gospel
story retold. Some two thousand women had
the life of Christ given to them in picture
and story, and many more than that were
reached by the literature. It is hoped that
we may be able to follow up this work, in
much the same way, later in the year.
" During this New Year's time, especially,
there seemed to be a revival of many of the
old customs. The pendulum perhaps swung
too far in one direction during the revolution, and now there is the tendency to swing
16
241 China
back  again.    However,  the  old times  can
never return.
"Theidols        "During the past month an interesting
utterly thing has taken place on this street.   The old
pass white pagoda, which has guarded this end of
away." the city for several hundred years, was torn
down. It had been leaning rather badly, the
authorities needed some money, so they sold
the property. A few years ago a thing of
this kind might have precipitated a riot, but
to-day the people who had a few cash contented themselves with buying the old bricks
at about half a cent apiece. Some of the
bricks are very interesting, stamped with
figures of Buddha, and pagodas with very
clear characters. They claim some of the
bricks date back eight or nine hundred years.
" I am glad to say that Katharine has had
an unbroken record of good health and that
her pride in her | star pin' still continues. It
is only worn on special occasions for good
conduct. She often says, j Of course I can't
be naughty when I have my star pin on. It
has Jesus' name on it and He helps me to
be good.'"
This last reference is to the incident occurring at the Board meeting in 1913, on the
eve of Mrs. Hockin's sailing for China—the
scene of her former labors—under appointment of our Society. We were rejoiced to
have her as one of our representatives, and,
as one expression   of  our   satisfaction, the
242 Kiating
ladies made the little daughter a life member
of the Society, presenting her with the membership pin.
The year 1916 brings tidings of continued
progress, necessitating enlargement of accommodation; scholastic success, a few pupils
attaining 100 per cent, on some subjects; a
sort of self-governing body improving the
discipline of the school; increased interest in
spiritual things; two taken into full church
membership, two others baptized, several
teaching in Sunday school, sixty or seventy
girls at the regular church prayer-meeting; a
widening influence among the women of the
city—wives of the officials and others—*
leading to the organization of an anti-foot-
binding society, etc.
243 CHAPTEE XX.
Onward
and
Upward.
JENSHOW.
(Pronounced Ren-sho.)
ABOUT seventy miles south of Chengtu
is our third station, Jenshow, and the
description as given by Miss Fox will be the
most restful method of seeing our land, which
certainly is " beautiful for situation," and
must be healthful.   Miss Fox writes, in 1907:
"During the past year our property has
changed considerably in appearance. It is
situated on a hillside which has quite a steep
incline, and much terracing has been necessary, that we might have level places for
building and at least a few feet of level
surrounding the building.
"The wall is completed except finishing
tiles. The gateway and servant quarters, on
the first level, are finished, and a gateman
duly installed. On the next level, about
thirty feet above, stands the day school and
guest room, which still requires a few weeks'
work, as we have been unable to obtain bamboo for the plastering. Going up another
terrace of thirty odd feet is the boarding-
school, ready for opening. Still up another
terrace of over twenty feet stands our little
house.     The stone steps from the gateway
244 HOME AND SCHOOL
Jenshow, China
MISSIONARIES' HOME
Junghsien, China  Jenshow
leading past the other buildings up to the
house are about three-fourths up; they
already number over a hundred and twenty."
In 1908:
"Still more changes are to be noticed in
the appearance of your property in Jenshow. Last year, when we came back from
our holidays, we found two of the large terraces much damaged by the rains and floods
during the summer. The drains were mostly
destroyed and we were quite minus a backyard; one end of it had slid down into the
waterway, while the rest of it had built itself
up on a level with the lower part of the windows of the house, by the continual sliding
of the earth from the hill behind; consequently the rebuilding of drains and terraces
has gone on for most of the year. We hope
we have made things a little more secure this
time, though we fear there will for the next
few years be some repairs necessary after the
summer rains, at least until the whole hillside is well sodded over and trees are induced
to grow on the terraces. Once your little hillside plantation is green with grass and trees
it will be a very beautiful spot, and the view
out on the surrounding hills is especially fine.
"The women as yet are very reluctant
about coming to church, as they are in danger
of losing the respect of their friends by
assembling in the same congregation as the
245 China
Good
Advertising.
men, but receive you gladly in their own
homes, or are glad to come to your home, for
a few weeks' teaching, if you can accommodate'them. Two evangelistic workers at the
present time could find more work than they
could well look after, that is, including that
of the out-stations.
"A year ago, while attending Council
Meeting, I had fifty notices printed at the
Press and distributed throughout the Jenshow District. These give the date of opening, curriculum of school, and some of the
conditions upon which we admitted pupils.
The result has been that we have in our
school pupils from four different towns
besides Jenshow; our present school is
full, but the teacher's bedroom and study
take up some room in the building, and as
soon as she can move elsewhere about ten
more pupils can be added. During the year
forty odd applications have been received,
but more than half have been refused because
of lack of room.
" Our greatest opportunity and pleasure is
in the Bible teaching in the boarding-school.
It is so new and interesting to the pupils, and
certainly more so to the teacher as she sees
it worked out in their lives, and knows that
the Lord is gaining control there, and will
perfect the work. The Sunday after Christmas was a great day in our Jenshow church,
when fifty-six persons were baptized, nine of
246 Jenshow
them girls from our school. Two were
baptized at the same time as their mothers.
We believe the girls were all able to realize
the importance of the step they were taking.
They were very earnest and definite in their
purpose to give their lives to the Lord.
"It is with much thankfulness that we
acknowledge the goodness of the Lord in letting us see such abundant results in this
corner of His vineyard."
Gain rather than conscience has influence
in China, as elsewhere.
"I wanted a Chinese teacher whose home
is in this town, and who has a talent for
drawing, to illustrate the forty-fourth chapter of Isaiahj verses 10-17; but when he read
the chapter, he said he would draw anything
else, but not that, because he had a relative
whoi makes idols for the temples, and he was
afraid it might injure his business. Another
man who was reported to be an artist was
approached, and he refused because all his
people worshipped idols, and he also feared
to offend. A Western picture, or a drawing
made by a Westerner, is often not intelligible
to the Chinese, especially to the poor women,
and so I was anxious to have the truth presented to them through a drawing made by
one of their own people."
The buildings previously mentioned were
chiefly of a Chinese character and somewhat
" What
shall it
profit?"
247 China
Home
Completed
1910.
temporary, but by 1910 we find the house for
the missionaries completed. Appreciation
appears in the following:
" The varied activities of the work in Jenshow would be hard to report under separate
headings, for in actual operation everything
comes in one's day's work. The work on the
new house was given up during part of July
and August, but the workmen all came back
early in September, and the noise of hammer
and the buzz of saw again seemed to fill
everything, especially the rooms we occupied
behind the new building. But it did not
wear on our nerves like it did in June, and
the end was always in sight. At last We had
the joy of moving in, and it has been a pleasure to us ever since. The house is so restful
and homelike. We hope those who will live
here through the years to come may find some
of our enjoyment and may it be a home to
them, too.
" The boarding-school began again on September 2nd after the holidays, with the same
number of girls. Later six were added,
making twenty-four in all. As we have only
two not very large sleeping-rooms in the
present school building, the girls have been
crowded in an altogether unsanitary way, but
that will be relieved before long by the new
school.
" Judging from the interest the girls take
in their  studies,  and their  willingness  to
248 Jenshow
work, one would never think that most of
them have been in school less than two years.
They are so deeply appreciative of the teaching done by the foreigner that one feels
repaid a thousand times for all the trouble
spent on them. The only difficulty is that
they want their foreign teacher all the time,
dispensing with the Chinese teacher altogether, so it is much more difficult making
them get up his work than if one could teach
it all oneself. We do not expect the Chinaman to teach geography, arithmetic, drawing,
hygiene, botany or music, but we have to
depend on him entirely for the teaching of
classics, history, and Chinese readers.
" At the close of the year sixteen girls took
several subjects of the examination prescribed by the Christian Educational Union
for the Junior Primary fourth year. It is
their first attempt, and as they have only
been in school two years, it was certainly a
venture, but one that promises to turn out
even better than our expectations.
"Just as soon as we received word that
money was granted for a new school building, preparations were at once begun.
Money has been paid out for lumber, brick,
etc.,, which is coming in as fast as we have
time to measure and pay for it. The main
building itself has not been started, but a
small two-story brick building is being
erected to serve as kitchen in the future, and
249 China
for general school use till the large building
is completed. We hope the day is not far
distant when school work here can be carried
on without the present limitations of space
and equipment."
Revolu- This hope was  rudely dispelled by the
tion, 1911. Eevolution of 1911-12, necessitating the withdrawal of the missionaries, and one can form
a little idea of the sorrow and anxiety occasioned as we read these few lines, written
after reaching Shanghai by Miss Martha E.
®wann, who for years has been the efficient
and successful Principal in Jenshow—
architect, builder, teacher, missionary:
i| We are assured there was an advance in
Christian character, and seldom have we seen
such depth of feeling as was shown when we
were compelled to leave. One mother came
to me in great distress, and said: * My daughters and I cried all night for fear something
should happen to you.' And one of the girls,
who had been sent to some friends, came
hurrying back, weeping as if her heart would
break, for she had heard on the street that
there were threats to kill us, and so she came
to warn us and beg us to hurry away. These
girls whom we have loved, worked and prayed
for, we know not what may befall them, yet
we trust, hope, and pray that the righteous
Father will protect and keep them, and that
they will not forget the teachings of His
Word.
"250 Jenshow
"Just a word about the building:   The ^°£l
main part of the new school was up, although Tjnder
some of the doors had not been hung;  we Construc-
expected to have the school and some fifty tion.
new desks  painted  when the trouble  prevented.   We had looked forward to enjoying
the new class-rooms, but we fear as the tiles
were too few to properly cover the roof the
school may suffer from the rains.   We have
heard of the looting of our houses and know
not if the school escaped.    Plans and preparations   were   far-reaching:    Clean,   airy
dormitories,   comfortable  dining-room,  well
equipped class-rooms; all to uplift the Chinese girls physically, mentally and spiritually.
To-night we know not what poverty, sickness,
and danger they may be passing through; but
our ways are not His ways, yet
4 We dare to hope that He wiU make
The rugged smooth, the doubtful plain;
His mercy never quite forsake;
His healing visit every realm of pain.-* "
What can better illustrate the power of
Divine grace and the faithful training given
by our teachers than the following ?
" In a recent letter to the Outlook I spoke Wide-
of the ten girls who were received into the ^^e
church last winter.    When the girls left for
their New Year's  vacation  they were  impressed that they ought to witness for their
Saviour in their homes, and to seek every
251 China
opportunity to tell others the good news.
Upon their return each had something to
tell—one, the daughter of an evangelist,
told of praying as she was carried home in
her sedan chair, and how, when the chairmen
put the chair down to rest, she told the story
to two women who came to talk to her, and
also how she was able to help her father teach
the small children of the village in the Sunday school. Another, who had taken tracts
to teach the children in the village where her
married sister lived, told of the crowds of
children, and how she had not enough tracts
for all, but taught them to sing the hymn
6 Jesus Loves Me.' A girl from the country
told how she put off from day to day the telling to her mother that she had been baptized,
and how the longer she waited the harder it
became, until one day she was compelled to
speak out, and how much happier she was
afterward. Still another, the youngest of the
class said, 'You know when I was walking
along the road with my father I thought, Now
is the best time to tell him, for I can never worship the idols again. But,' she said, \ father is
old, and it was hard to make him understand.'
This child lives eighty Chinese miles away,
and her father is one of the most gentlemanly
Chinese men I have met, and I do hope that
the daughter may yet be able to lead him to
Christ. Still another child, with perhaps
little tact,  told how her sister-in-law  was
252 Jenshow
cursing the spirit in the stove, because the
fire would not burn, and she just told her
that they were always talking about a spirit
in everything, and worshipping, all sorts of
idols, and they should know there was only
one true Spirit and Him only should they
worship."
Political  strife  arose  in   1915-16,  when   Revolt,
revolt   against  the  monarchical   claims   of I9I5-16-
Yuan Shi Kai led to sanguinary conflict in
the western provinces, followed by a period   ,
of lawlessness  and terrorism  from robber
bands.   Miss Swann says:
" We had a very exciting day when a band Under Fire-
of robbers came to our town. We awoke
in the morning to find the soldiers had
entrenched themselves on two high hills on
opposite sides of our school. In firing on the
robbers, who reached the town, the bullets
flew past our windows, and one, passing
through the front door, passed the length of
the hall, through a second door, and lodged
in the opposite wall. It was difficult to conduct the morning worship, as the bullets
repeatedly struck the wall near the classroom, and the girls would jump from their
seats.
"The year has been one of many blessings,
and it is with grateful hearts we praise our
Heavenly Father, who has led us all the
way."
53 CHAPTEE XXI.
JUNGHSIEN.
(Pronounced Yuin-shan.   Population, 30,000;
District, 800,000.)
NOT until 1910 was it found practicable
to comply with the request of the General Board Council to take up work, in
Junghsien, a city east by south of Kiating,
inhabited by a people of marked friendliness.
Seven years previously Dr. and Mrs. Smith
had entered this place as the pioneer representatives of the Canadian Methodist Church.
Among the results of their labors was a girls'
day school, which was generously handed over
to the Woman's Missionary Society when we
entered the "Glory City." Very soon plans
were being made to open a boarding-school
on the small lot of ground already purchased.
A temporary building was erected, which,
with "the mud house somewhat modified,"
was considered sufficient for a time.
It is evident that not surroundings but
souls were paramount in the thought of the
missionary teacher, Miss Edna Speers, who
writes of " the deep and wordless joy of work
among girls, Chinese not excepted. We doubt
if girls of any country are more affectionate
or more responsive than they are right here in
this great empire."
254 Junghsien
The fame of the .Kiating School as early
as 1907 had drawn ten girls from Junghsien
to share in its advantages. As soon as provision was made for their education in their
home town, these were transferred. It is
interesting to note the agreement made.
" The contract used in our work here looks
to the parents for the child's supply of clothing, books (that is, the native books), paper,
pens, and ink; extracts the promise that in
arranging for their daughter's marriage the
parents shall confer with the missionary-in-
charge, and that in default of keeping the
girl in school till the expiration of the contract, the parents shall meet the financial
obligation of the agreement up to the time
of its close. In return for this, the pupil is
to be nourished in body, mind and spirit."
The advantage of the above stipulation
appears in a circumstance occurring two
years later.
" Death claimed none of our pupils during the revolution, but heathen marriages
claimed two, while still another was bound
by a heathen engagement, which, we are
thankful to relate, has since been satisfactorily cancelled, as the fiance's family decided
they could not wait till the girl's term of
study had expired—a condition upon which
we emphatically insisted.
"There seems no doubt we returned to a
255
Form of
Contract. China
How to
Pray.
changed people, and the girls of Junghsien
form no exception. The numbers in which
they came, and the earnestness with which
they studied gave evidence of greater appreciation of the opportunity for so many
months denied them.
" Day School.—The day school opened on
February 21st, as soon as the Chinese festivities were over. We began with one teacher,
but so many pupils enrolled that in March
we engaged a second teacher. Then in May
we engaged a third, for by this time our enrolment was over a hundred. Many of them are
kindergarten age, and as I watch their interest in calisthenics and singing, etc., I wish
we could give them the joys of child life that
are enjoyed in the kindergartens of our home
land. But even in our small school-rooms,
with the unpedagogical teaching of a Chinese
teacher, they are much happier than in their
own homes, or roaming the streets, for they
get some knowledge of their Chinese textbooks, and in addition have the benefit of
prayers conducted by Mrs. Batdorf each
morning and an hour with me in the afternoon.
"One rainy April day I went to the day
school feeling that probably there would be
few there, and the afternoon of little profit,
but it proved to be a day of richest blessing.
When I went into the highest room the girls
surrounded me and asked me to teach them
256 Junghsien
how to pray. They went over some formal
phrases that they had heard the evangelists
and Christians use, and seemed to feel that
their petitions were imperfect because their
expressions did not conform to those they had
had in mind. We had an informal talk about
prayer, and I tried to explain to them that
as the earliest lispings of a child express adequately to a parent his need, so our Heavenly
Father understands our needs, however
simply we express them.
" This formed the basis of a catechumen
class with the older girls, and each Thursday
after Hive we meet for a little prayer-meeting.
Sometimes I take them around the city wall
to my study, which they enjoy very much
indeed. At other times we meet in a classroom. We have singing, and I have been taking the Lord's Prayer, clause by clause, with
them. Then an opportunity is given them to
lead in prayer. The last meeting we had they
seemed to wish to pray, but not to know just
what to pray for. Several of our community
had left for Chengtu that day to attend a Chinese Conference. Miss Speers had also left for
the capital. I asked them if they would not
like to ask God to give her a safe and pleasant
journey. One pupil asked to be allowed to
pray for this; another said, (Dr. Smith
has gone; I'll pray for him'; another prayed
for our evangelist, who had accompanied
him; a fourth reminded us that Mrs. Wang,
17 257 China
one of our teachers, had accompanied Miss
Speers, and several wished to pray for her.
Do you wonder that I felt happy as I
returned home that night, and that it gives
me much joy now to think of them, with
their minds so open to the Gospel ?"
The influence of the educational work was
not limited to the children. An interesting
example of the effect on one of the boarding-
school teachers appears in an early record:
A Valuable "Thank God, He sent us a competent
leacner. native teacher, Mr. Chueh, a man of forty
years or more, and a prince among teachers,
who took such a lively parental interest in
the welfare of the girls, both in and out of
school hours, that what success the school has
had in its infancy is, under God, very largely
due to his efforts. So far as we know a non-
Christian when he came, he, from the beginning of his stay among us, showed signs of
drinking in the Gospel teaching. In our
household morning devotions he would personally pray for the girls, and finally entered
the church as a probationer. He taught all
the subjects on the curriculum except Bible,
music, arithmetic, geography, drawing and
calisthenics, and gave, besides, the drill on
the Sunday-school lesson each Saturday
morning."
What better glimpse can we give of some
phases of our evangelistic work than the fol-
258 Junghsien
lowing from the pen of Miss E. Hall, who
for so many years has labored in Junghsien
and numerous adjacent places,:
" Evangelistic.—After returning from our
Council meeting last winter the first thing we
seemed bent on doing was to prepare a building for a Woman's school. Dr. Smith had
succeeded in buying the rest of the property,
and a woman's Bible school being very much
needed, we set to work, but owing to a little
difficulty arising over the very place which
seemed most suitable, we were obliged to wait
until such time as the difficulty might clear
away, so decided to do some country work in
the meantime. This work is always most
interesting, and many results are seen from it.
" It is wonderful how the work in different Lights in
districts differs. For instance, in some dis- 2i*riL
tricts children come in such large numbers,
and are glad to be taught, while in another
district the women come in goodly numbers.
In some cases at first the women are not much
interested, but after a time they settle down
and are also anxious to be taught, desiring
Bible classes to be opened. All the places
visited are out-stations, which have been
opened by the General Board, where services
are occasionally held. In one plaee, Lo-teh-
kin, a very interesting company of women
gathered, among them the resident evangelist's wife, who had studied in the Bible school
opened by Miss Brimstin in Chengtu.    She
259
Places. China
was a bright little woman, but very bashful.
However, after a few days' stay with her, and
the women continually coming, she began to
shine forth, and volunteered to hold a weekly
class for the women who would attend. One
evening while there, as her husband, the evangelist, was away from home, the people gathered in, and we had a short meeting in which
a short talk was given on i Jesus, the Light
of the World.' The women were very much
interested. The next morning, a dozen or
more gathered quite early in the chapel, and
as they sat there for a few moments, they
talked together of the wonderful Light they
had heard of the night before. After a little
visit (it is always a good plan to sit down and
talk a little with a company of women rather
than at once beginning a meeting) we sang
and had a short talk on prayer, and the
reality of Jesus being present with us. A dear
old lady, aged eighty-three years, listened. She
became so interested that she began to ask
questions. These dear women gathered
around her, and tears came to my eyes
when I heard them relating to her the simple
message they had heard the evening before.
They were all so interested in her and the
message. When opportunity permitted one
explained to her that Jesus understood our
difficulties, and He understood us when we
asked Him for anything and would answer
us, and forgive all our sins, because He bore
260 Junghsien
all our sins on the cross. They further
explained to her the plan of salvation, telling
her of the willingness of Jesus to forgive us
our sins, and that He was the only true way
to life everlasting. The dear old soul reached
forth her two hands, taking mine in hers with
such a longing look in her face; she looked
right into my eyes and said: ' Will you please " A Mes-
send a message to Jesus, and tell Him right sage to
now that I want to be saved, and know my
sins are forgiven.' After giving a little further explanation, we had a glorious prayer-
meeting. I believe that dear old soul got a
vision of Jesus Christ. She was from a good
family, and could read a little. A suitable
book was given her, and the evangelist's wife
said she would help her a little every day.
" One might go on and tell many interesting items that come into our lives as we go
forth sowing the seed. Time after time the
answer that comes from these dear people is,
e Oh, we never heard it before.'"
Miss Steele writes, March 10th, 1914:
"At length I am settled in the comparatively sunny city of Junghsien. We left
Chungking with very real regret, having been king!
there just long enough to obtain a glimpse of
the need. Many avenues of work seemed to
be open to us, and the women appeared to be
very approachable.
" The two girls' day schools are well filled,
261
Laborers
Too Few
for Chung- China
A Vegetarian Won.
and some quite large girls are still attending.
But the difference between girls trained in
boarding-schools and those trained in day
schools was very evident. Day schools have
an important place, but naturally a girl in
one of them cannot develop, spiritually, as
fully or as rapidly as she can in a boarding-
school, where she is constantly breathing a
Christian atmosphere.
" One of the pleasant features of coming to
Junghsien, was the meeting with some of the
schoolgirls who were formerly pupils of the
Kiating school. It was interesting to notice
how these girls have developed. One little
one, in particular, is wonderfully changed.
She was rather1 naughty and difficult to manage. Now, having yielded herself to the
Lord, she has become a very bright young
Christian, whose daily life is a living witness
to the transforming power of the Holy Spirit.
" Perhaps the one woman here who interests me more than any other is Miss Ts'ao, a
young girl of about twenty-two years of age,
who was betrothed to an opium sot. In order
that she might not be compelled to marry
him, she took a vegetarian vow and attended
one of their schools. The vegetarians form
a religious sect, apparently remotely connected with Buddhism. Those who take their
vows consider that they are thus secure in
their hope of ultimate salvation.
262 Junghsien
"Miss Hall called in Miss Ts'ao's home,
and invited her to church and to the woman's
meetings, but she did not respond. She came
to the house, however, to do a little needlework, but would not stay lest she should be
tempted to break her vow. A little later she
was persuaded to come and spend a week in
the home here. The novelty of the thing
attracted her, and she remained to study
Chinese characters with some of the women.
Her conversion is better told in her own way,
as she related it only this morning:
"' From when I was a child twelve years
of age I was always looking for the right way,
and when I met the vegetarians they told me
theirs was the only right way. When I came
here I watched the missionaries very closely,
as they were in their home life, and in their
intercourse with those who came to them, and
I found that always they were just and right
in their dealings. Miss Hall talked a great
deal of Jesus Christ, and I thought He was
her father, and also the father of all the missionaries, and that He was a very good man,
who sent His children here to do good deeds.
Then I read in the Gospel of Matthew of the
birth of Jesus, and I knew He was not the
Father of the missionaries. In the Sunday-
school lessons I had read of the creation of
the world, and now I read the life of Jesus
to find out who He was, and as I read I knew
that He was the Son of  God.    Miss  Hall
263 —i
China
seemed to be so happy in talking of Jesus,
and in her hope of one day seeing Him, that
I wanted to have this joy in my life. I was
convinced that this was the right way. After
several rather wakeful nights I went and
asked her how I could know my sins were forgiven, and she told me. Now everything is
different. I love Jesus and I love to read
my Bible, and I no longer worship the goddess of mercy as I did formerly. I, too, have
joy in my heart, and I know that my sins
are forgiven.'
" When Miss Ts'ao came to Miss Hall, they
spent some time together, searching the Bible
and talking over certain passages on the forgiveness of sins, and it was when John 5: 24
was quoted to her that the light came. She
has broken with her vegetarian friends (not
an easy task, as they did not let her go without a struggle), and is here studying the
Bible. She is beloved by every one because
of the sweetness and sincerity of her character. She has one of the sweetest faces I have
seen.
Betrothal " This winter a younger sister came with
Set Aside. her> Xhe sister has studied quite a little
for a Chinese girl, and is helping to teach
the women to read. We are all earnestly
praying that she, too, may learn to 'know
Him.' Mr. and Mrs. Ts'ao have been most
unfortunate in the betrothing of their daughters.   This younger sister was engaged to an
264 Junghsien v
idiot, but neither she nor her parents knew it
until she went to his home in her bridal chair.
As the betrothing of the children is done altogether by the parents, such deception is frequently practised. When this girl found she
had been deceived, she refused to become the
young man's wife, and returned to her own
home. Negotiations ensued, and the engagement was broken and the girl set free. Unfortunately, not every girl has the courage or
the family standing to be able to so assert
herself.
"Mrs. Chen, a dear, grandmotherly old p"ns^y
lady, is brimming over with the joy of the
Lord. She did not wish to have anything to
do with the missionaries, but her sister-in-
law, who was a Christian, gave her no peace
until she consented to go to church just once.
Then she went to call on Mrs. Smith, who
gave her such a very urgent invitation to
attend the services that she went again. She
became so interested that she finally told the
Lord that she would close her business on
Sunday and go to church if he would make
up the loss to her during the week. She tried
it one Sunday, and on Monday she made
twice as much money as she had previously
taken in any one day. So Mrs. Chen decided
that it was good to serve the Lord. That was
five years ago, and Mrs. Chen with beaming
face testifies to the continued faithfulness of
the Master, and to the many blessings she has
265 —■<
China
received at His hands. She is now bringing
another old lady for whom she has asked us
to pray.
"In pitiful contrast to Mrs. Chen's happy
countenance comes to mind the sad face of
another Christian woman who has fallen a
victim of the terrible opium habit. She took
the drug because of illness. It gave her relief
then, but now it is killing her body, as well
as having destroyed all her joy as a Christian. Would to God that China were completely rid of this terrible curse!"
266 CHAPTEE XXII.
TZELIUTSING.
(Pronounced   Zil-yu-jin.     Population,   700,000.)
A BEQUEST from the Council of the
General Board that the Woman's
Missionary Society take up work in three
additional cities met a glad response. In
November, 1910, land was purchased in
Tzeliutsing, the greatest industrial centre of
West China, the immense salt-well district,
with a population of over one million people.
" More than ten thousand tall derricks are to
be found within a group of cities known as
Tzeliutsing, and each of these derricks marks
a salt well which has been bored to a depth of
three thousand feet. This industry has been
in progress for about three thousand years.
The business men are enterprising and
responsive to the new ideas of Western
civilization. The city is really a group of
densely populated cities, closely distributed
over an area of about twenty-five miles long
by four or five miles wide."
Miss Asson thus speaks of the wells:
"It was quite interesting to see first the Salt
drilling and afterward watch the one-hundred-foot bamboo pipe drawn to the surface
267
Industry. China
by six water buffaloes, emptied into a tub,
from which another bamboo tube ran underground to the building where the brine is
boiled down by natural gas. Most of the
population of Tzeliutsing are employed either
at the wells or in carrying salt from Tzeliutsing to surrounding places. We were all
impressed with the immensity of the city and
the possibilities for work among the women
and children. There is a fine church very
nearly finished, and our W.M.S. property is
" nicely situated, so that when we do open the
boarding-school the girls can go to church
without walking far along the street.
"Many thanks are due Eev. E. 0. and
Mrs. Jolliffe and Eev. Geo. W. and Mrs.
Sparling for the assistance which they so
freely and untiringly gave in the initiation
of the work."
Miss Edith P. Sparling writes:
"Not  until  April   3rd, 1911, was work
begun on the mission compound, as the stone
contractors at first asked exorbitant prices.
Lights for " Part of the compound had formerly been
Spirits a graveyar(i-   Before it became mission pro
perty the coffins were all removed. Some of
the graves were six or seven feet high. In
levelling this portion of the compound many
tons of earth had to be removed. For years
past on September evenings there might be
seen on the graves on this hillside the lights
268 Tzeliutsing
of many candles lighting the spirits of the
departed through difficult places in their
wanderings to and fro. Pray that this compound may now be a centre from which the
living may be illuminated by the Gospel of
Jesus Christ.
"The temporary dwelling was begun on
May 25th, and completed on July 3rd. The
superintending of workmen hardly seems to
be real missionary work, and yet even in this
work there are many opportunities to preach
the Gospel; showing a spirit of patience with
their shortcomings, giving a tract here and
a copy of the Gospel there.
" On April 22nd a girls' day school was
opened with an attendance of twelve. Not
one of these girls had studied before, and yet
within six weeks the most of them had memorized a small catechism, the Lord's Prayer,
the Beatitudes, and several hymns; besides
this they had studied a small book of the
Chinese classics and the writing of Chinese
characters. It was a privilege to visit in
their homes, and thus have an opportunity to
witness for Jesus. The women were very
friendly; many of them were anxious to
study too, and we had hoped in the fall to
open classes for them.
" This day school, and one which the Gen-  Two Day
eral Board opened some four years ago, are Schoolsfo
the only schools for girls in this great city.  Women
At least 250,000 are women and girls.   They and Girls.
269 China
Holidays
Not
Wanted.
Thirty
Boarding
Pupils
Under a
Banyan
Tree.
have been waiting for long centuries for the
message of Jesus Christ to them, j The fields
are white unto harvest, but the laborers are
few. Pray the Lord of the harvest that he
may send forth laborers into his harvest.'"
The year 1913 finds Miss Hambley, on her
return from furlough, stationed in Tzeliutsing, and from her we receive an unusual
view:
" The children are so keen to learn that
school life is a delight to them as well as to
the teacher. About half of them already can
read ordinary Mandarin, and we read books
together. The only difficulty we ever had
was in trying to close school. One day I
wanted to give them a half-holiday and they
wouldn't take it. The day I came away to go
to Council meeting in Chengtu I wanted
them to take Saturday as a holiday so that
the Chinese teacher could get caught up with
his work, but they begged so hard to be
allowed to come that I gave in. They cannot
see why holidays are necessary; they are
having so much better time at school.
" Besides the actual teaching during these
four months there has been building to look
after. There must be something more permanent th&n a day school in the future as
well as a more suitable place for it. So half
the old building (said to be one hundred
years old) was^pulled down and the material
270 Tzeliutsing
used in putting up another school over at one
side under a big tree. We have one good-
sized school-room with two rooms upstairs,
all finished and painted ready for use. Then
the other half of the old building will be used
to help finish this. It will be very comfortable and airy, under the big banyan tree, and
when completed will accommodate perhaps
thirty boarders. If there is not room inside
they can live outside a good deal.
" By following out this plan the main part
of our property is left free for the permanent
building or boarding-school, while the temporary place can be used at once for boarding
pupils and afterwards for a day school as
long as the old timbers will last.
" The Tzeliutsing people have been looking
forward to this boarding-school for some
years, and bright, clever girls up towards
twenty years of age have been kept by interested fathers and mothers that they might
have the chance of it when it does come. We
have a splendid site, though not large enough,
and are ready to begin any time on a boarding-school large enough to measure up in some
way to the vast population of Tzeliutsing
with its wonderful opportunities."
The long-cherished hope was at length fulfilled, but not till after some trying disappointments.
271 China
Lives
Desired
Rather
Than Fees.
" On our return after the holidays (1913)
we were quite discouraged to find the embankment had been washed away, and great stones
had gone pounding into the temporary school
building, which was almost completed. There
was so much damage done that it was near
the end of November before any rooms were
ready for boarders.
" In a new place like Tzeliutsing one can
open a boarding-school on any basis desired,
and with an entrance fee however large there
would be no doubt about getting pupils who
pay a certain amount. But these pupils, we
find, are so independent and cannot be relied
upon to stay after the novelty wears off.
What we want is not money, but lives. We
want girls who will be with us seven or ten
years, capable of teaching our schools and
willing to work for the Mission. The only
way to do this is to take the bright, intelligent girls from the middle classes on agreement for a term of years with a moderate fee.
We have put the fee at one thousand cash a
month, as we find it all this class can afford
for a girl's education. Others may come in
on a two-year term by payment of a larger
sum. It was this policy, carried out by Miss
Brackbill years ago, that has given us those
splendid girls who have grown up in our
Chengtu School.
" A word, perhaps, should be added about
the building of the new boarding-school, but
272 Tzeliutsing
that will be more interesting next year.
Building in China is hard to report, for our
methods are so different and labor so slow,
the people in the homeland must get impatient with it all. Since the first brick was
laid in March, ninety days' work has been
put in with seventy-five or one hundred men
a day, and they have put up the brickwork
for the central part of the building with
joist and roof complete, but the wages paid
wouldn't hire two men in Canada for more
than three-quarters of that time.
" These large gangs of human beings working on our place day by day have not been
left entirely outside our mission endeavor.
The evangelist has very kindly come over on
Saturdays and given the workmen a half-
hour's gospel talk, to which they listen very
attentively. Our desire is that they, too, may
know for what they are putting up this big
school, and something of the Divine Love
which prompts a foreign people to build
schools and send teachers to help their own
daughters."
The following attractive picture is shown
in 1915:
"If, instead of writing a report, I could New
carry you all to Tzeliutsing and place you Building
on the hill opposite the Woman's Missionary Completed
Society's premises to see with your own eyes, 1915.
you would decide that surely something has
18 273 China
been accomplished during this year.    The
new building looms up in its stateliness, filling up the whole place, looking far larger
than if it were placed in open, level ground.
Last year at this time the roof was on just
one section of it, a little over three months
of work having been done.    In the fall we
were very late starting on account of the
intense heat in September, the actual school
work being all we could manage.   Then came
the order of the Executive of the Council to
go  to   the   annual  educational  meeting  in
Chungking, so it was the 5 th of November
before work was at last resumed.    Now the
building is practically done except the finish-
ing-off of the kitchen wing and the hanging
of some doors and windows.   Counting all the
time spent on the building, there has been
less  than   eleven  months   of  actual  work.
Three or four months more of as strenuous
work would entirely complete it.    We have
been so thankful to have the use of the bedrooms in one-half of the building during the
heat of June, not only for our own sakes but
for the schoolgirls.    Thirty-three people had
been sleeping in the little, low upstairs of
the old school, and the rooms in the brick
building have been much appreciated.
"We are very thankful to have at last
secured the new property that Mr. Jolliffe
has worked so hard to get. It had been such
a task inducing them to sell at a proper figure
274 1
Tzeliutsing
that it was a night of rejoicing when the deed
was duly signed. This will give our schoolgirls a good playground.
" The greatest cause for gratitude at the
close of this year is not in the completion of
the building and our being able to use it, but
in the fact that we have twenty-nine lovely
girls as a real beginning of a boarding-school.
All are in on seven-year agreements except
some little ones for ten years, and four older
ones, grown women really, who will study
from two to four years and then take positions in our schools in the district. Already
they are farther ahead than the best women
teachers we can secure for these out-station
schools. In a few years we hope to be able
to supply more and more teachers for these
schools from our boarding-school.
" So let us hope that all my work this year
has not been in brick and mortar, but that
real building has been done in the lives of
these girls, as each individual becomes a real
part of the boarding-school with its bright
future of usefulness."
A most delightful change occurred after Out-loud
removal to the new building, when " our Discarded.
teacher, Miss Wei, found herself in a properly-equipped school. I asked her one day
what she did when she wanted anything memorized ; how she did it without yelling it out
as all Chinese do ?   She said she did not need
275 China
to, and had not done it for years. I asked
when she changed, and the answer was a
great surprise. She said it was when I took
them into the new school in Chengtu years
ago. I remember being so discouraged then,
wondering if I would ever get away from the
old style, and now, nine years after, one of
those girls can more easily change a whole
school of new pupils than any efforts of mine
could. It has been so fortunate for me in
these busy times to have our own Chengtu
girls to rely upon. No teacher that we could
secure can begin to do what they can in getting new pupils to understand our standpoint
and our standard of conducting a school."
Thus Miss Hambley writes, adding the
encouraging item that one-third of the girls
are from the out-stations, before whom the
ideal is kept that they must come in and
prepare to be teachers, so as to go back and
teach in their own home towns.
While schools may be more prominent
through the buildings and the stirring life
making them daily vocal, another form of
effort, unobtrusive but far-reaching and eminently effective, is being carried on in all the
stations. It is specially designated as the
"Evangelistic." Tzeliutsing has had very
encouraging development on this line. Miss
Ellwood writes:
"So rapidly has our evangelistic work
developed, we can hardly realize that it is
276 BOARDING SCHOOL
Tzeliutsing, China
HOME AND SCHOOL
Luchow. China 1 stations.
Tzeliutsing
less than three years since our Woman's Missionary Society first appointed an evangelistic
worker to the Tzeliutsing District, and when
we do stop and think of it our hearts echo the
Macedonian cry, ' Come over and help us.'
" Miss Marshall had charge of the evangel- ^°rk
istic work until the first of March, after SSI--
which I took charge of it. Upon visiting it
one is surprised at the magnitude of the work
one woman has built up in less than two
years. She has opened up woman's work in
nine out-stations. Six girls' day schools have
been opened or have been given over to our
charge by the General Society, while in four
other stations where there are union boys'
and girls' schools we have the privilege of
teaching. She has travelled each year over
six thousand li by sedan, and her plan has
been to visit three stations each week, thus
covering her whole field every three weeks.
Besides holding services for the women in
each station, she has taught in the different
day schools, in which there are over two
hundred girls.
" These towns and cities in our district are
rapidly growing in importance and we hope
will become centres of strong Christian influence in the surrounding district. To the
north-east and north-west of the city of
Tzeliutsing we have women's work in the
chapels in the following places:
277 China
Eagerness
to Learn
and to Win
Others.
"At Chao Teo Pu (the Big Bridge Town)
we have a day school of about forty girls,
besides a good women's work. The city is
rather noted for its lawlessness and opium
dens, but the people are very receptive to the
Gospel message and our rooms are crowded
to the doors with women and children. We
have a good work among the best class of
women at Long Tan Chang (the city of the
Dragon Eapids), and our girls' school there
is very promising. Lien Wha Chang (the
Lotus Flower Town), in a beautiful dell
away up among the hills, has such a beautiful situation that one of our missionaries
calls it * The Home of the Fairies,' and the
people are as fine as the situation. There is
a union boys' and girls' school here and a
splendid class of women studying the Gospels. We receive such a strong welcome from
these hardy mountain people, and they are so
eager to learn more of the Gospel."
Miss Marshall says:
" One of the most encouraging features of
this work is the readiness of the women to
pass on what they have learned to someone
else.
"One day Mrs. Wei brought a little girl
to us, saying that she could not attend school
because she had to mind her little brother,
but Mrs. Wei had been teaching her every
day, and asked me to examine her in the little
278 Tzeliutsing
book that we used as a primer, i First Steps
to the Gospel.'   Her recitation was perfect.
"In another station we met a young girl
of seventeen, Miss Salt, whose home adjoins
the chapel. The first day she learned almost
all the characters in the little book referred
to above, and also in the hymn, 6 Jesus Loves
Me.' She turned to the truth as a flower to
the light.
" We eagerly looked forward to seeing her
again, but learned during the next visit that
her father was much displeased with her for
attending the meetings, and had forbidden
her to do so again, so at every meeting she
opens a little crack in the curtain and listens
to every word. She is now reading in the
Gospel of Mark. The last time a boy of
eleven was with her. We asked her if he was
her brother. l Oh, no,' she said, ' he comes
every day to study, and knows nearly all the
characters that I do.' On learning what
hymns were to be sung next day at the service, she taught him one of them, which she
had already learned, holding a little Chinese
lamp in one hand and a primer in the other
to perform this task. We hope to get her into
the boarding-school in the fall.
"Another encouraging feature in our district is the willingness of the people to buy
books. Over nine hundred and fifty small
books have been sold.    Often, as the chair- China
bearers stop to rest at some little village, the
people gather around and want to buy books.
" Thus the work goes on. It is in the
pioneer stage, and we are sowing the seed.
What will the harvest be ?"
AChil- A delightful feature of 1916 is the inaug-
rnf™u uration of " a children's church, with attend-
L-nurch. >
ance 01 about one hundred and ninety little
girls, in the old hospital buildings. Eev. E.
O. Jolliffe is planning to build a children's
church to accommodate about six or seven
hundred boys and girls."
It is good to hear of our Bible-women and
senior boarding-school girls helping in the
teaching of these children, also of evangelistic
services and decisions for Christ.
280 CHAPTEE XXIII.
LUCHOW.
(Pronounced Loo-jo.   Population, 200,000.)
THE city of Luchow fronts on the Great
Yang-tse, facing east. It is only four
years since our Canadian Methodism opened
work here, but just outside the South Gate
the China Inland Mission have their headquarters, and have been doing a fine city
and country work for over twenty years.
This city, like Chungking, is especially
densely populated, having very narrow
streets. A baby mountain, covered with
ancient graves and with a pretty temple on
its summit, stretches to the West.
I Our street (' Three-cornered street') follows from the West Gate, quite close along
the north wall of the city. Just below this
the Lu Eiver flows and empties into the
Yang-tse, so the city is hemmed in on three
sides by mountains and rivers."
Property had been secured through the Transfor-
kind help of Eev. C. J. P. Jolliffe near that mation-
of the General Board in 1911, and we find
the usual experience of pulling down old
houses and replacing them with home and
school, turning the wilderness into a " garden
of the Lord."
281 China
Miss Charlotte A. Brooks, who has been
in charge at this station since its opening,
thus writes:
" The largest, highest room of this house
is being arranged for a Woman's School,
floored and enlarged, and now desks are being
made, partly from some of the old lumber.
The other two large rooms, with a tiny kitchen and pantry, and one single upstairs
room, will form a home for me until the new
house is built. I can look after the school
and the workmen with greater ease, being so
close to both.
Rain " One drew a sigh of relief when the last
Cleansing, of the houses disappeared. The wind and
sunshine and rain have since been cleansing
those dirty, disease-infected places.
"Notwithstanding its age, you should see
how pretty my little cottage looks, and at
only a small expense, but of course it cannot
stand much longer. I have put an inexpensive bamboo fence around a little garden plot
in front, which will be an oasis in the desert
of brick and stone, lumber and tile which are
strewn over all the rest of the place, and will
be so for a year to come, hurry as we may.
"I have eight carpenters at work making
some desks for the Woman's School (Mrs.
Jolliffe and I made a pattern between us).
Nine brick masons working on a wall, and
about thirty-five stone masons digging for the
282 Luchow
foundation and cutting and placing stone
in it.
" The customary Chinese wage is a mere
pittance, and here it is less even than in
Chengtu. Although they begin work at daybreak, about 5.30 these June days, and keep
it up until dark, which is about seven, they
really do very little, and the cost of one's
building amounts to a considerable sum just
the same. They breakfast at 7 a.m., have two
ten-minute recesses for smoking, and after
an hour's dinner-time two more ten-minute
afternoon smokes; supper at seven, after closing work. They have a brick mud stove fixed
up in one of the old rooms along the street,
where they take their meals, and many of
them sleep there as well, on a board, in any
old loft, or on some shavings.
"Each set of workmen has its own head
man, who takes the orders and passes them
on to the men; this - boss' coming every Saturday night for the wages of all under him.
We deal with only one man. Generally these
head men are very bright, interesting fellows.
" It rains, rains, rains. I think there have
been scarcely more than ten clear days in the
two months and a half I have been here.
Apparently these districts along 'the Great
Eiver' get a good deal of rain. Chungking
is in the same mood just now, while Chengtu
has been having beautiful weather.
283 China
Rain     . "Yesterday the first stones were laid in
Destroying.   ^ trench fop ^ foimdation 0f tlie front 0f
the house, and to-day's rain since before daybreak, even with quite constant dipping out,
is nearly floating them out of their places.
The carpenters and some of the stone masons
can work, under cover, but the rest work a
little—digging and carrying earth, largely
protected by their wide-rimmed bamboo
>merry widow' hats—until it pours a little
too heavily, when even they have to make a
dash for shelter. I have been wanting to get
the foundation finished by the first of August
so I could go away for a month, but the prospect just now is not very cheerful. When
hot weather does come to Luchow it is said
to be very hot, but I must get the foundation
done before I go away so as to be able to go
on with the brickwork in September.
" While building is under way one cannot
do much else, and this seems like waste time
compared to one's real work—telling the Gospel story. And Luchow needs it so badly.
The China Inland Mission have been here
for about twenty years, a few of them, and
have quite a nice area I under cultivation,'
but there are wide, wide spaces where no one
knows anything about the Gospel.
"I am helping Mrs. Jolliffe with three
women's classes a week, but that is so little,
against the great heathen masses around us.
"Until I have an associate I am living
284 Luchow
with Mr. and Mrs. Jolliffe, who have so
kindly opened their home to me and who do
everything in their power to make it pleasant.
I am most happy and have great visions for
the future Luchow when the Kingdom will
have come to her.
"Besides the day school, which had been
handed over to us by the General Society,
another branch of work has opened, by
means of which we are getting in touch with
some of the wealthier, more cultured classes.
Some of the progressive women of Luchow
have banded themselves together into a
I Society for the Education of Girls and
Women,' which also urges, aside from that
reform which its title indicates, such measures as anti-footbinding and hygiene. A
normal class for women has been begun, as
well as the less advanced course. When a
request came to us for help in their efforts
to bring enlightenment to their countrywomen, we considered it an opportunity to
get into closer relations with this class, which
seems, at times, rather difficult to reach.
Especially did it seem advisable, as there is
no boarding-school yet to demand constant
attention. The work there has been a decided
pleasure. I have met with the greatest courtesy and respect, and have enjoyed very much
the coming into close personal touch with the
ladies and girls of this interesting and intelligent class of our city.
285
Chinese
Society
for
Education. China
A Year's
Interruption.
Welcomed
Back 1912.
"By the last week in August, 1911, the
schoolroom, house foundation and west compound wall were all finished and ready for a
vigorous, telling work in the autumn. So,
tired but happy, I closed it all and came
down to the Chungking hills for a two-weeks'
rest with friends. During this time the
trouble broke out."
How pathetic is her comment written from
Shanghai:
" That is all—just a little beginning made,
just a little seed sown, but the Father, who
knoweth all things, and in His own mysterious ways ! His wonders will perform,' is, we
know, watching over His own, and we have
but to patiently bide His time."
Not till the fall of 1912 was return
feasible.
" It was good to see the old surroundings.
The warm welcome from our Chinese people,
and the two mission families already arrived,
gave me the glad feeling of being home again.
" I found my rooms not so badly disturbed
by the robbers as I had feared, the dishes
being the greatest loss.
" Our W.M.S. property, the scene of many
bu,sy workmen a year ago, was well grown
up with weeds, the house foundation being
scarcely distinguishable. Alas for our plans!
I   had   thought  to  urge   the  building   on
286 Luchow
rapidly, so as to be ready to open work at the
earliest possible time, and a year had gone
by, leaving not only the building deserted,
but so many changes in other things. Clearly
our ways are not God's ways, and the change
in the minds and attitude of the people at
large can hardly be estimated, so thorough
has been the revolution.
"Arrangements for the building of the IJJ^J*
street wall had to be made at once, as we
were never safe from thieves as it was. A
new head stone-mason was commissioned to
buy a quarry and get stone out for both the
wall-base and the final layer of stone on the
house foundation. In a month from the
time of my arrival I had a good-sized gang
of men at work, and by the first of February
the wall and gateway were almost finished,
and the house foundation ready to begin the
brickwork. My head carpenter was clever
in his way, the head brick mason one of
the best in the city, and things might have
gone on fairly satisfactorily, but the former
died suddenly in April, and the latter, in
spite of all I can do, is going rapidly with
tuberculosis. Both cases are sad ones to us.
The work, however, is going on as rapidly as
can be expected, and we hope, by continuing
the workmen all summer, the house may be
completed by September. It is a long, tedious process, and with untrained workmen,
especially now on the inside woodwork, con-
287
Necessary. China
stant supervision is needed, and one does not
dare leave it to do very much other work.
"At first, beside the usual Sunday work,
I tried to do some week-day evangelistic work,
keeping up the Tuesday church class with the
women, and at least two classes a week in
members' homes, where the average attendance was about ten. It was hard to give these
week classes up, but it could not be helped,
the building held me too closely.
" In January I engaged a nice old teacher,
and about ten women have been in attendance, as they could, and among them a Bible-
woman in training.
I They are studying Gospel books and the
Bible, but even to this little school I could
give only a limited amount of attention.
"Miss Thompson joined me in January,
and we immediately began housekeeping in
our own wee cottage, with its tiny garden,
where we have lived so cosily and happily,
even with the sound of workmen's tools within a stone's throw of us, from early morning
until night. So our life has been a busy
and a noisy one, and there is the constant
anxiety lest, in our ignorance of building,
there should be bad mistakes made, but we
hope the house will stand, and will be for the
glory of God for many years to come. But
there has been the daily hurt, that there was
such need of work everywhere around us, and
we were having so little time to give to it.
288 Luchow
But our Father knows; ever He has been
with us, accepting our daily consecration of
time and affairs, so wonderfully giving guidance and wisdom in things that would otherwise be impossible."
Of 1913 Miss Brooks says:
" Last year I continued the building of the
house right through July and August, the
urgency of its completion, and also the
unsettled state of the country, making it
unwise to stop, or go away an eight days'
journey to attend Council; so I kept the men
steadily at work even while the fighting in
connection with the rebellion was going on.
We had a few exciting days and nights when
bullets were falling all around us, and two of
Miss Thompson's pupils were wounded by
bursting shells, but the Luchow troops finally
won out, and then the enemy retreated.
" The house was finished and we moved in
about Christmas, but during the painting I
succumbed to paint poisoning, and Miss
Thompson had to largely give up her school
work and superintend the painters, of whom
we have very poor samples in our city Lu.
"Now, instead of a small village of huts,
we have a comfortable and substantial home
surrounded by green lawns; and although our
former Chinese cottage is very inadequate
for school purposes, yet during the year
between 130 and 150 children and a good
19 289 China
Troops
Fighting.
Terrified
Refugees.
Wounded
Cared for.
many women have learned the important
principles of the Gospel and are learning to sing hymns of praise to Him before
whom we all bow and love to name Father
and Saviour."
We cannot better tell the exciting experiences of 1915-16 than in Miss Brooks' own
words:
"Between Christmas and Chinese New
Year, Yuan Shi Kai, having announced the
monarchy, forestalled possible trouble by
having some thousand troops in our city,
nominally to put down robber bands. When
the fighting actually began, during the first
week of February, and the Szechuan 2nd
division went over to the side of the rebel
Yuannanese, the women and children of our
city became terrified of the soldiers, and also
of possible firing and looting of their homes,
so all our mission compounds became refugee
homes for as many as they could accommodate. There was only about a week's fighting
across the north-east corner of the city, when
the Yuannanese were driven some distance
away, but the fighting went on for weeks, and
wounded Northern soldiers were brought in
daily for treatment. The medical people
were overworked, and throughout the city
people were excited, and there was no peace
anywhere. The Northern troops, as well as
roving robber bands, went through the coun-
290 Luchow
trv districts, robbing and otherwise ill-treating the people. The countrv home of one of
otlt teachers was robbed, of much, of their
stuff, and the women folk scattered in all
directions. The members of this one brother's
family were finally collected, and are at present living in a vacant room over onr gatehouse, and two of the daughters have entered
since been robbed of everything, the old
giandmofher has died of grief, and thev are
asking that a daughter of that family come
into the school. A youncr married son of one
of Mr. JoDiffe's school teachers was shot dead
while trying to defend his home.   There has
of thing in the
our citv wherp
dealo
country districts, and eve
" This  term   we  hav<
twenty hoarding
th written airr elements to pay a third of their hoard expenses,
and finally to give two years' service as pupil
teachers. Two others are paying all their
expenses and others are temporarily resident, bnt twelve have their food brought from
■I xl_ 1_    J A «■V x"L * L
nome to tnem eacn day. Among these tnirty-
fcnr, seven are daughters of teachers, and
several belong to well-to-do families, owning
property or silk shops, and one family is that
of a wealthy native doctor.
" The day school has enrolled 165 pupils,
but only an average attendance of about 125.
291 China
Miss Jack is taking charge of the singing,
which is a very great help.
" This war cloud has had its silver lining,
in that it has brought us into contact with
more representative people of the city. The
women folk of one wealthy family have been
refugees with us since February, along with
the wife and family of an ex-official. They
gave us a contribution of twenty dollars
(gold).
"Because of the disturbed * conditions, so
much coming and going of people, the daily
anxiety re news of the local fighting, the
people at times terrified lest the city be
entered by the enemy, our work necessarily
has not been what it should have been. Our
compound, crowded with refugee families
and school children, is a small village in
itself.
"We are facing the prospect of spending
all the hot summer here with them, but our
blessings are innumerable. God has kept and
is keeping. While we might repeat Paul's
words that the c whole creation groaneth and
travaileth together' at the present time, yet
our faith is strong that through it all, perhaps even because of it all, His Kingdom is
coming."
292 CHAPTEE XXIV.
PENGHSIEN.
(Pronounced Pen-shan.)
ABOUT a day's journey north of the
capital we reach Penghsien, a city of
over 50,000, in a district estimated to have
the densest rural population in the world
(800,000), about 1,700 to the square mile.
From its elevation it is considered the health
resort of the Mission.
It was a joy to the Council of 1911 that
there were sufficient workers to make possible
an opening in Penghsien, as well as Tzeliutsing and Luchow.
Although evangelistic work was the first
anticipated, yet the opportunity of a day
school for girls was shown to be more feasible.
A vacant room on the premises of the Gen-
eial Board was kindly placed at our disposal,
and school opened with an attendance of
eight, which rapidly grew to thirty, the limit
©f the room's capacity. The majority of
these girls proved bright and capable. This
continued three months; then vacation, followed by the revolution and dispersion.
After the return in 1913 Miss Virgo
writes:
" Two years' sunshine and rain had not
improved the appearance of our home, but
293 China
with carpenters and painters at work for a
month, the house is now in readiness for
occupation in the fall. A number of schoolgirls and women have called expressing their
desire to study when school opens, and we
look forward with joyful anticipation towards
helping to spread the Gospel of good tidings
in this corner of the great vineyard."
And later:
" In December, thirteen obtained certificates for the first three years Junior Primary
Chinese language, and six for arithmetic for
the same period.
"Miss Harrison's help in teaching the
women and girls singing has been much
appreciated. The girls have made good progress, until now they help materially with
the congregational singing.
" Our property is small, too small for the
needs, and we are constantly praying that the
way may be opened for the securing of more,
that our work may not be hampered. We feel
that only a feeble beginning has been made
in this corner of the vineyard, but pray that
the great Lord of the harvest may water the
seed sown, that it may bring forth fruit, some
even an hundredfold."
The following letter from Miss Virgo,
April, 1916, gives a little idea of some of the
difficulties in purchasing land.    These are
294 Penghsien
accentuated when lots are small, irregular in
shape, and owned by several parties.
" We have at last obtained possession of Difficulties
the new piece of land purchased almost two \n Buy~
years ago. The property was owned by a mg an '
society. This society sold to a Mr. Liao for
taels 1,500, and Mr. Liao sold to our ■ middleman ' for taels 2,700. That one man should
make such a Jsqueeze' as that on one deal
was not to be considered, and a lawsuit
ensued. The Chinese demanded that at least
a portion of the ' squeeze' be given over for
public use. Whether this lawsuit is settled
yet or not I do not know. The case went
from Penghsien to Chengtu, and from
Chengtu to Peking. H.B.M. Consul finally
appealed to the Foreign Office in Peking, and
as a result the Foreign Office instructed the
magistrate here to order the tenants to vacate
at once. And then came more delays. The
magistrate asked first for ten days, then fifteen, then twenty, but at the expiration no
move had been made. I wrote the official
that we would proceed on a certain date to
take off the tiles from the roof. Even then
he asked for more time, but we refused, and
on April 4th we had fifty masons on hand
to pull down old buildings. That morning
some of the tenants had heard of our decision
and accordingly moved out, others the next
day, and soon all had vacated. The old shops
and houses were sold or torn down for fire-
295 China
wood, and now our property is cleared off
and foundation for a wall already laid.
Help from       "With this added work, also weighing of
Chenetu       lbme, stone, etc., for walls, I feel highly privi-
Pupil. leged because I have had the help of Mrs.
Loh, who was our first pupil in the Girls'
School, Chengtu, now the wife of an evangelist. She came up here last fall on account
of ill-health, and the change and rest have
done so much for her that she is now able
to help in the school. She is very happy
because she can teach again, and, as she says,
help in the Lord's work. She is a beautiful
Christian character, and I know her influence will be most helpful upon the lives of
the girls whom she teaches day by day."
296 CHAPTEE XXV.
Chungking.
Chungking.
IN south-eastern Szechwan, at the junction Oppor-
of the Yang-tse and Kialing Eivers, we find {5§jj^8j[
the city of Chungking, the great commercial
metropolis of West China, and one of the
most important cities in the country. Having a population of over. 700,000, it is one of
the most densely crowded cities in the world,
but fortunately it is largely situated on a
high, rocky hill. Over two hundred foreigners live in Chungking, engaged in consular
and civil service and some lines of business.
All our missionaries pass this way, but
instead of proceeding further by water, in
many cases they prefer taking the ten days'
overland journey to Chengtu by chair.
The opportunities for Christian work in
such a centre are manifest, and it has been
exceedingly disappointing that hitherto our
Society has been unable to seize them.
In 1912-13 a disastrous fire levelled numbers of houses in a central block, and the missionaries were not slow to secure for the
W.M.S. a very desirable lot. There were
high hopes of building and establishing a
much-needed boarding-school. Two of our
missionaries were assigned to open work, but
297 China
after a very short time the demands of other
stations obliged them to withdraw, and with
reluctance they had to relinquish what seemed
so promising.
Not for lack of money, not for lack of
land, not for lack of will, not for lack of need,
but for lack of consecrated young lives, earnest Christian girls, educated and experienced,
willing to go to China to make known to its
young womanhood Christ, the power of God
to save and purify and make them a blessing
to their own kindred. Do we not hear the
call, "The Master is come and calleth for
thee"?
298
*■! THE HEART
OF THE PROBLEM
The Home Base
Distinguished Service
Order CREDO
Not what, but WHOM, I do believe,
That, in my darkest hour of need,
Hath comfort that no mortal creed
To mortal man may give;—
Not what, but WHOM!
For Christ is more than all the creeds,
And His full life of gentle deeds
Shall all the creeds outlive.
Not what I do believe, but WHOM!
WHO walks beside me in the gloom?
WHO shares the burden wearisome?
WHO all the dim way doth illume?
And bids me look beyond the tomb
The larger life to live?—
Not what I do believe,
BUT WHOM!
Not what,
But WHOM!
John Oxenham. CHAPTEE XXVI.
THE HOME BASE.
"TTHIS  Canada of Ours "—a Land of
j^    Promise.   This chapter is not easy to
write. One is so near to it, so much a part
of it, the perspective is somewhat blurred.
Yet one sees at a glance a country of vast
extent with unknown and undeveloped resources; a sparse but strong, virile, liberty-
loving population; a young nation destined
to play a large part in the Federation of the
British Empire.
It has an area of 3,729,665 square miles— Area.
one-third of the British Empire; proportion
of population about two to the square mile;
England and Wales, 558. The official census,
1915, gives the population as 8,075,000.
Total foreign population, 752,732. Of this
62.2 per cent, live in the Western Provinces;
40 per cent, of aliens have come from the
United States.
Since 1867, the date of Confederation of
the Provinces, Canada has greatly increased
in power; has become first in status of British possessions; has attained self-government,
and is now sharing in the defence of the
Empire.
301 The Heart of the Problem
Education.
Resources.
Days to
Come.
The Government and Church authorities
have ever been alive to the value of education. Universities and colleges of every
description afford large opportunity to every
class of student, and nearly a million and a
half of children attend the public schools.
Ontario leads in the number of those who
can read and write; percentage, 93.17.
The natural resources of the country are
beyond computation—mineral riches untold,
including gold and silver. British Columbia
has the largest coal areas in North America,
and it is said that directly under the city of
Edmonton there are coal beds containing
many thousand million tons; wealth in water-
powers and in waterways; in raw material
for manufacturing, and, in addition, Canada
is one of the world's great " bread-baskets,"
containing not only the finest of wheat, but
all else necessary for the sustenance of a great
people.
We are thrilled by the vision of days to
come when tens, yea, hundreds of millions,
shall tread the lands we now call our own,
reap the wheat of our vast prairies, delve in
our mines and sail our great waters; but we
are sobered by the thought that much of the
glory of that future time depends upon the
character of the foundation we are now building, upon which they must erect their superstructure.
302 —I
Brave
Men.
The Home Base
We have a noble ancestry, British and
French; we have entered upon the goodly
heritage of free speech, free schools, free
press and liberty of worship. May we hold
all we have and add our share to what has
been won at a great price.
We glory in the fact that at this moment—
December, 1916—Canada is represented in
the armies of Britain and at the front by
400,000—soon to be 500,000—of the best
and bravest men of our land, who are counting not their lives dear unto them, who are
fighting for these very things, fighting against
oppression, against the age-long idea that
might is right. They are contending for the
liberty of small nations to live their own
lives. God grant that soon all peoples may
learn and practise the watchword of the
Christ, given by St. Paul, " By love serve
one another."
In this law of service Methodism has taken I739-
a worthy share. Born in 1739, its first Conference was held June 25th, 1744, when only
John and Charles Wesley, with four friends
of the English clergy and four lay preachers,
were present. A small plant, but its leaves
have been for the healing of the nations; its
ministry has circled the globe and its members and adherents now number approximately 33,000,000. Its ideals were high—
"To spread scriptural holiness throughout
the land"—yet its terms of church member-
303 The Heart of the Problem
ship were and are very simple—" a desire to
flee from the wrath to come." On this broad
basis of dominant desire millions have entered
into church fellowship, become children of
God and heirs of the Kingdom.
1766. Methodism came to America in 1766.   All
women of our communion should know the
story of how Barbara Heck, alarmed and
aroused by the life her acquaintances and
friends were living in the new land, where
old restraints were removed and new temptations assailed, after vigorously warning and
remonstrating with them, prevailed upon her
cousin, Philip Embury, who had been licensed
in the Old Country, to preach, which he div'
in his own house and afterwards formed two
classes, one for men, the other for women.
But before this, in 1765, Newfoundland,
the oldest colony, had received the Gospel as
preached by the Wesleys, and from there it
made its way westward and northward. There
is a pleasant story told of some Methodist
soldiers in the army of General Wolfe at
Quebec holding services in their camps and
barracks as early as 1763, thus antedating by
about three years the organization in New
York.
J7<53. 1763-1916.—" What hath God wrought ?"
We contrast with grateful amazement these
small beginnings with the present standing
of the Church. In the United States members
and adherents number over 23,000,000, com-
304 mm
5,000.
The Home Base
municants 7,000,000; in Canada, 1,079,892;
of these 378,802 are communicants.
A few facts: The Church in Canada has Status,
one General Conference, held every four
years, and twelve Annual Conferences; 5,319
preaching appointments; 2,860 ministers and
probationers; 3,818 Sunday schools, with
415,337 scholars* 42,590 officers and teachers. Total contributions from Sunday schools,
$429,094; of this amount $62,414 for missionary purposes; Young People's Societies,
including Junior Leagues, 2,327; members,
93,530.
From the first Methodism has been a Students
strong, aggressive force for righteousness,
possibly the more so because in its early days,,
both in England and here, it had to contend
vigorously—one might almost use a stronger
word—for those rights now so freely granted
to all denominations without question. Born
in a university, its standards have not been
lowered; it yields to none in the status of its
ministers or of the fifteen colleges under its
care, with over five thousand students. Of
these colleges eleven are co-educational. In
reference to the depletion of numbers during
the war, the Secretary of Education, Eev.
Dr. J. W. Graham, writes: "We are justly
proud of these gallant boys who have gone
forth from our halls to fight the battles of
Empire, and though many of them fill unknown graves across the sea,  fTheir high,
20 305 I The Heart of the Problem
souls burn on to light the feet of men to deeds
that make the dying sweet.' " In passing we
would like to pay tribute to those " glorious
days of old," to the men who by their devotion and sacrifice made possible the founding
ef these colleges. The ministers' wives of that
time should have a share in their glory, for
while the husbands, under the spell of a glowing Conference appeal, promised certain sums,
the wives by their closer economy, sometimes
by privation, implemented the promise.
Value of college property over seven millions.
Educational Fund, 1916, $64,000.
Home Such is our Home Base in Church and
State. What is the business of the Home
Base ? The business of the Home Base is to
gather together, to so weld into one its
Christian forces, that they shall take on the
semblance of personality, sensitive and responsive to need anywhere and everywhere.
This our Church seeks to do through its various departments, Social Service and Evangelism, Deaconess Order and its missionary
efforts centred in the General Board of
Missions, which we of the W.M.S. seek to
supplement.
General Missionary Society.
General Missionary Society organized
1824. Income, $140. Income, 1916, $651,-
450.   Of this $117,562 has been contributed
306 ■^
The Home Base
by Sunday schools, Young People's Societies
and juvenile offerings.
Home Department.—Missionaries among
English-speaking people in Canada, Newfoundland and Bermuda, 716.
Foreign Department.—China: Missionaries, 79; of these ten are ladies, seven
nurses and three teachers in the School
for Missionaries' Children. The Woman's
Missionary Society has the pleasure of pay- .
ing the salaries of four of these nurses.
Japan: Missionaries, 20; including two
ladies in Methodist Academy (School for
Missionaries' Children).
The Foreign Department has undertaken
to evangelize fourteen millions of people.
Impossible! " We have a God who delights
in impossibilities."
The difficulties for the Societies in the ^^f11.
home fields are greatly multiplied by the
enormous foreign population that has come to
us since 1906. These legions who need the
Christ constitute our greatest opportunity,
and yet hold a menace; they send forth a
challenge to the Church, and now is the time
to meet it, not after the war, when we may
be overwhelmed, if not submerged, by the
semi-civilized hordes from the Balkan States.
Not one in one hundred and fifty comes from
the sources of supply twenty-five years ago.
Our problems and perplexities are enhanced
from the fact that these new-comers, who are
307 The Heart of the Problem
home-seekers, have elected and been permitted to settle in certain districts in the
cities and in colonies in the country sometimes of great extent, where one may travel
all day without passing a Canadian home.
And so an Italy, an Austria or a Eussia
grows up within our borders, self-contained
and almost self-sufficient. The men, through
work and trade outside the colony, learn in a
way to speak our language, but at home they
use their own, so the women and family life
are untouched by the new world: religion,
manners and customs remain unchanged. In
the providence of God these people are here,
and the question is how shall they be reached
—for reached they must be—by our larger
hope, our higher life, or we ourselves shall
lose the gleam.
The public school, the greatest unifying
force in the world, boarding-schools, kindergartens and settlement work—all kinds of
social service—must be multiplied a thousandfold. In the foregoing chapters it has been
seen that we have only made a beginning, just
touched a thread here and there of the fringe
of this alien population.
Present Thirty-five years ago the call came to the
:Pay women of the Church to "lend a hand" on
the other side of the world. To-day more
loudly and more insistently we hear it, to
neighbor with foreign people—all races of
men—at our own door.   It may be we find it
308 The Home Base
easier, through our missionaries, through
prayer, through gifts, to neighbor with those
thousands of miles away than we do to visit
the foreign woman at the other end of the
city. "Love the stranger" is the command.
Love will find a way to serve.
Woman's Missionary Society.
To the broad-minded, far-seeing statesman- Monthly
ship which in 1881 gave to the organization Meeting,
the strong foundation of sole responsibility
for work under its care and large liberty of
action regarding it must be credited, in great
measure, whatever success it has  attained.
But its greatest influence and power have
come from the persistent holding, all over
the Dominion, by Auxiliaries,  Circles and
Bands,  of   the   monthly meeting   with   its
trinity of prayer, inspiration and education.
Prayer has brought a oneness with Jesus in
His compassion:  the conviction that if we
were responsive He would work through us
has given wings to faith; and knowledge of ;
achievement gained through study has given I
enthusiasm and power to surmount obstacles
almost insuperable.
Status, 1882: Missionaries, 2 ; Auxiliaries,   1882.
20; members, 900; income, $2,916.
Status, 1906: Missionaries, Japan 21,
China 11, Canada 21; Auxiliaries, 946;
members, 26,741; income, $70,570.89;
Circles and Bands, 545;   members, 16,100;
309 ThelHeart of the Problem
income,    $14,623.69;     Leagues,    $427.42;
Branches, 10; income from all sources, including Best Fund, $93,346.34.
1916. Status,   1916:    Missionaries,   Japan   29,
China 27, Canada 64; Auxiliaries, 1,246;
members, 44,135; income, $126,818.70;
Circles, 405 ; members, 10,616 ; income, $24,-
628.64; Bands, 616; members, 20,443; income, $17,264.29; associate members, 1,859 ;
Little Light Bearers, 5,210; Leagues,
$204.81; Branches, 12; income, $168,-
916.44; bequests, $4,459.66; other sources,
$26,778. Total income, including Eest
Fund, $206,548.78. Amount received during decade, $1,540,345.74. Property owned
by the Society (approximate) : In Japan,
$123,390; China, $88,227; Canada, $137,-
232; total, $348,849. See Appendix A. for
Branch reports.
All moneys are in hand before appropriation; thus all bank interest is saved.
Member- Considering that approximately there are
ship. 200,000 women communicants in our Church,
to say nothing of adherents, our membership,
while a matter for gratitude, is not a cause
for pride. Our ideal, " An Auxiliary on every
circuit and every woman a member of the
Society," is still far in the distance. But
these are no days to be daunted by a mountain climb. Let us seize our alpenstocks of
faith and effort and we shall soon reach the
top.
310 The HomelBase
The Best Fund, so vital to the welfare of
our missionaries when the time comes for
retirement, grows more and more important
as the number of annuitants increases. 1906
status: Permanent Fund, $12,366.04. 1916:
Permanent Fund, $46,938.78; Annuity
Fund, $5,500.65. Total Best Fund, $52,-
439.43.   Aim for 1926, $150,000.
In 1908 the following resolution was forwarded to the General Board of Missions:
i{ In view of the W.M.S. being authorized by the Sunday
General Conference for the evangelization of heathen Schools,
women and children, and, in consequence of the pressure being brought to bear upon the young people of
the Church by the Forward Movement, the General
Society was memorialized to make full provision for
co-operation in the presentation of the aim and scope /
of the two Mission Boards; and it was further agreed
that information concerning our special work should
be adequately represented on Sunday-school missionary programmes, not on a separate day, but as a
part of the missionary effort of the Church, and
that a certain percentage of the contributions from
Sunday schools for missions be annually passed over
by the Mission Board to the W.M.S., or that some
other method be adopted, which will further the ends
we have in view.
11 Some of the reasons presented were as follows:
" 1. Because this department of work is committed to it.
tl 2. Because the W.M.S. shares to some extent
with the Board of Missions in the maintenance of
more than one institution, and failure to meet its
obligation would be a serious embarrassment.
" 3. It supplements the Board in many places
by furnishing nurses, Bible-women, kindergarten
teachers, etc.
311 The Heart of the Problem
"4. It supplies the majority of the Sunday-school
teachers on the foreign field, well instructed in the
Scriptures, and trained in the art of teaching, and,
in addition, in its own little neighborhood schools
scattered through the various cities, has as many as
two thousand children under tuition (now over eight
thousand).
"5. In its schools and by its evangelistic workers
it gives fundamental teaching and training to the
girls and women, most essential to the upbuilding of
a true and intelligent Church.
tl 6. It furnishes bands of singers whose trained
voices are a marked and valuable feature in the
services of God's house.
" 7. It instructs and leads in the obligation and
practice of Christian stewardship,-which will mean
much to the Church in future.''
This petition was subsequently considered
by the joint committee of the two Boards and
then forwarded to the General Conference of
1910, which granted it, the following being
authorized: "The W.M.S. shall receive a
sum not exceeding 20 per cent, of the
amounts contributed to the General Missionary Fund by Sunday schools." Eeceived as
W.M.S. share, 1916, $11,492.30.
Great
Nerve
Centre.
Literature and Publication Department.
The Literature Department may be described as the great grand-trunk nerve system
of the organization, sending out life-currents
to its remotest parts. Depletion comes with
age to ordinary nervous systems, but to this
years bring only added potency.   If the his-
312 The Home Base
tory of the decade could show in some way
the output from what used to be Boom 20,
but is now Boom 410 in the new Wesley
Buildings, Queen Street West, it would be
a revelation that would revolutionize our
ideas concerning its value. The Literature
Committee, with Mrs. A. M. Phillips as its
leader, is ever looking for helpful literature,
and its bi-monthly meetings are an earnest
effort to secure the best.
The Eastern and Manitoba depots continue
to be valuable distributing centres. This
" Story " would not be complete without an
appreciation of the efficient, faithful service
rendered for twenty-eight years by Mrs.
Charles Stewart as Secretary-Treasurer of
the Eastern Literature Depot.
The number using. the Study Books has Study
increased steadily, both for seniors and juniors, and in like manner Study Classes. The
Society is greatly indebted to Mrs. H. A.
Lavell for the skill and spiritual insight with
which she has for eight years prepared the
"Suggested Programmes," so that Auxiliaries with limited facilities have been enabled
to make the most of the Study.
Through the Annual Eeport, the Mite
Boxes (income last year $14,051), Easter
appeal and envelopes, certificates, etc., Eoom
410 is constantly in touch with the whole constituency. Note the volume of business that
must be done each year to reach the grand
313
3ooks. The Heart of the Problem
total of the decade, which says nothing of
'thousands of letters, packages, etc., sent out:
Total Receipts (including Grant,$26,595.32). $70,179.48
Books and Pamphlets—Issued    999,067
"                "          —Purchased      121,231
Text Books Sold  39,200
Easter Thank-offering Envelopes  855,942
Mite-Boxes  220,319
Mile-of-Copper Holders  57,460
Membership   Pins     2,096
11              " —Silver  936
Suggestive Programme Leaflets    138,320
Monthly Letters  343,900
Circle Pins  200
-  Band Pins  200
Periodicals. Periodicals.—The Outlook remains the
official missionary organ of the Church. Miss
Henrietta MacCallum, the former talented
Associate Editor, was followed in 1907 by
Miss E. J. McGuffin, who has maintained
the high standard of her department. Subscribers: 1906, 13,500; 1916, 14,052. To
credit of Outlook, $381.
Palm Branch.—In 1907 Miss Harriet
Stewart, M.A., succeeded the former versatile Editor, Miss L. Lathern. This little
paper this year celebrated its twenty-fifth
birthday. It grows in favor with its years
and should be found in Sunday schools as
well as Circles and Bands. Subscribers:
1906, 4,034; 1916, 6,330.
Since retiring from the Palm Branch Miss
Lathern has ably edited the W.M.S. column
in the Wesleyan and Miss McGuffin has ren-
314 The Home Base
dered   the   same   valuable   service
Guardian.
The Monthly Letter, so carefully prepared
by Mrs. Bascom, is a great boon to Heralds
and Associate members. Subscriptions:
1905-6, $231.57; 1915-16, $365.03.
One writes in reference to these papers:
I Our hope has been to stimulate the world-
thought of the present missionary day, to
quicken spiritual life, to enlarge mental
vision and to press the obligation of Christian Stewardship upon our members."
Easter-tide.—The Resurrection, the appear- Easter,
ance of the living Christ having been first to
Mary, and the commission then given to
women, combine to make Easter the supreme
festival of the Society. Easter offering, 1906,
$11,854; 1916, $26,233.
The Supply Committee.—The name of the
Secretary, Mrs. Wm. Briggs, who is still the
heart and soul of this beneficent department,
is " as ointment poured forth" in many
lonely homes and isolated places. The blessing of the needy resteth upon her, and she
continually calls forth the affection and
admiration of her comrades. Over $80,000
worth of goods have been sent out during the
decade.
Once in ten years is not too often to
call attention to the rule, "In no case shall
the funds of the Auxiliary be used for the
315 "   The Heart of the Problem
Constitution.
purchase of material or the payment of
freight."
Industrial Work (Silk Embroidery).—Is
still carried on in Kanazawa to assist the
older sisters of some of the pupils, so that
they may have the advantages of night school,
Sunday as a rest day with Sunday school and
religious services. Appropriation during ten
years, $11,800. Work sold in Canada, $8,165.
As the author in Volume I. outlined the
Constitution and various departments, and
the Society's Blue Book is always at hand,
it is only necessary to note a few changes and
the growth of each division. Democratic in
form, Auxiliaries, Circles and Bands are
represented in the Branches, and the
Branches, on a certain basis, in the Board.
With the Board of Managers lies the power
of legislation. It makes the rules, formulates
plans, decides policies, etc.; selects and
appoints all missionaries, and receives and
disburses all moneys given for its purposes.
The Branches carry out the plans of the
Board, which in many cases they have suggested, and gather up and make effective the
resources of Auxiliaries, Circles and Bands.
The three latter divisions form the foundation of the whole structure, and their function is to inform and win the individual unit
in the local church,
"To live and love and labor
In God's larger  ways.''
316 The Home Base
Their fidelity and zeal during the strain of
the past three years have been beyond all
praise.
The Constitution has changed but little
during the decade, and any changes that have
been made have been necessitated by growth
in membership at home or extension in the
different mission fields. In 1906 representation from Branches to the Board was " one
for every thousand members or major fraction thereof"; now one for " every three
thousand," etc. In 1914 the following was
added: " Associate officers may be appointed Associate
as the needs of the work may require, who
shall be ex-offlcio members of the Board of
Managers." We now have an Associate Secretary for Chinese work, one for Japanese,
and another for Austrian and other European I
immigrants; also a Secretary for Special
Objects and an Associate for Statistics. A
wise division of labor for voluntary service
should not be too exacting or overtaxing.
Branches.—In 1909 Saskatchewan and
Alberta were organized according to Conference boundaries. The Auxiliaries of the
former North-West Branch, with the exception of those within the bounds of Manitoba
Conference, and the Auxiliaries within the
Province of Alberta, agreed to form two
Branches instead of one. 1916, Newfoundland organized.
317     , The Heart of the Problem
Branches have added to their officiary a
Treasurer for Circles and Bands and a Superintendent of the Department of Christian
Stewardship.
The District Constitution has been made
more effective. District Organizers have such
a place of power and influence, they are
expected to give wise and enthusiastic leadership.
Auxiliaries and Circles have also added a
Superintendent of Christian Stewardship
and have won a point of long contention, the
right to elect by ballot with or without nomination, as they shall choose.
In 1915 "Little Light Bearers" became
the new name for the Cradle Roll, so that it
might not even seem to interfere with a similar roll used in Sunday schools. This year a
new annual member's certificate has been
designed and a beautiful life member's certificate is now ready.
During the decade greater attention has
been paid to the young people, with very
gratifying results.
Associate members are still very few, when
they might number many thousands.
Christian Stewardship has taken the place
of " Systematic and Proportionate Giving,"
as it refers to life as a whole and not merely
to the giving of money. By the appointment
of superintendents in all Auxiliaries, knowledge and liberality have greatly increased.
318 -I
The Home Base
National Training School and Deaconess National
Home.—This school continues, for seven school18
months in the year, to be the training ground
for missionary candidates, and all who have
spent the session there speak in the highest
terms of its value, especially in Bible study
and the quickening of spiritual life.
Day of Prayer.—Feeling the need of in- Day of
creased intercessory prayer, the Board this     rayer-
year appointed a Day of Prayer, with special
programme,   which   was   largely   observed
throughout the Dominion.
The presentation of the work of the Society
to General and Annual Conferences continues, also special Sunday services where
practicable. The Every-Member Canvass is
undertaken by all wide-awake Auxiliaries.
The Birthday Party in January has yielded
large returns, but there is no need to enumerate; glowing enthusiasm is ever working
out new plans, new methods. Efficiency, efficiency is the slogan of the hour, and it is a
good one, but the deeper truth must be remembered. " Not by might, nor by power,
but by my Spirit, saith the Lord of Hosts."
E. W. E.
319 CHAPTER XXVII.
" DISTINGUISHED SERVICE ORDER."
" Love like the light silently
wrapping aU."
TT has long been our thought that the
„ Society should have an Order of Merit;
a reward for long or distinguished service, as
in the army. Not something that could be
purchased for money, but a decoration given
as a mark of honor and appreciation. It
might be a star with bar for ten years of service; two bars for twenty; three for thirty.
The trouble would be that so many would
merit the honor the Society would be in
danger of bankruptcy.
In this connection we are not now thinking of Board and Branch officers, but of that
silent company of women—who shall form
a part of that " great multitude which no
man could number "—who, by their devotion
and zeal have really written the foregoing
history. Through the years we see them at
the monthly meeting, no matter how great
the obstacles to be overcome" by the way; we
see them taking part, often with faltering
lips, but soul undaunted, and we see above
all, love-crowned, sacrificial gifts.    We like
3'20 Distinguished Service Order
to put in contrast these groups of women,
young girls and little tots with those other
groups on the other side of the world, the
first-fruits of their endeavor, and who, in
turn, will win others to Christ, a divine multiplication.
How often we shower praise on our missionaries, and that is well, that is right; but
how seldom do we speak of the valuable service being rendered by many others. The
Society was singularly fortunate in the character of its early messengers—women of
vision, of judgment, of strong faith and practical ideas—and it was equally favored in
the life of those who formed its first officiary,
who mapped out its rules and decided the
policies which have, in the main, guided it
ever since. They were no less rich than
the missionaries in all things necessary to
pioneers who enter an unknown territory, to
tread an untried way; their safety, however,
was in the fact that they sought to follow
the Christ; where they saw the light there
they followed, and He has led them, with
thousands whom they have influenced, to
cities of habitation, even here, where they
eat of the hidden manna and drink of the
water of life.
In looking at a summer landscape certain
points of light attract the eye, so, in looking
at a landscape of years certain events, certain
21 321 The Heart of the Problem
personalities emerge from the background
and make themselves both felt and seen; (
strange to say, they are more plainly visible
to those of " one heart, one way." For instance, we of the Society see clearly in the
centre of the picture the Vice-President, Mrs.
A. Carman, wife of the senior General
Superintendent; who, from the time of the
union of the Societies (Wesleyan and Methodist Episcopal) in 1885, has, by her statesmanship and wise counsel, greatly strengthened the organization. Mrs. E. >S. Strachan,
now Foreign Secretary, has stood by her side
in counsel and " sweet reasonableness " all
through the years. Mrs. G. P. McKay, former Home Secretary, though obliged to retire
in 1909 after thirteen years of service, is well
in the foreground, her excellent judgment
and Christlike spirit not having been forgotten ; quite near her, Miss Annie Ogden, who,
from 1892 to 1912, devoted herself with skill
and self-denying labor to the interests of the
Literature and Publication Department. She
should have a royal decoration, even though
she bears the title of Hon. Sec-Treasurer.
Miss Marcella Wilkes, Treasurer for almost
twenty years, who will appear in another
picture, is in the group on the left, and with
her Mrs. A. M. Phillips, a Secretary unsurpassed, for fifteen years; Mrs. George Kerr,
Home Secretary from 1907, and Mrs. N. A.
322 -I
Distinguished Service Order
Powell, Secretary for Special Objects from
1909; just a little apart Mrs. W. W. Ogden,
Treasurer of the Rest Fund from 1902 to
1914.
Clustered about these central figures may
be seen a larger group of equally clever and
devoted women, to whose labors the Society
is, perhaps, quite as much indebted. Who
can estimate the influence of the following
elect women; Mrs. J. B. Willmott, who, by
her loving leadership, coupled with her
capable and indefatigable Corresponding
Secretary, Mrs. Wm. Briggs, has guided the
fortunes of the Toronto Branch for the last
twenty-two years; Mrs. T. G. Williams, who
has been the heartening friend of every officer in the Montreal Branch for fourteen
years, as Corresponding Secretary, and nineteen as President; Mrs. J. D. Chipman2 for
fourteen years President of the N. B. andv
P. E. I. Branch, and who still lives in the
hearts of those who through her reached the
highlands of service; Mrs. T. W. Jackson, for
thirteen years, also presided over the Hamilton Branch with such spiritual vision that her
people see it still: she was followed by Mrs.
J. E. Baker in 1907; Mrs. Gordon Wright
for fifteen years President of the London
Branch, and for a great part of the time
Dominion President of the W. 0. T. U., by
her catholicity of spirit enlarged the outlook
21a 323 The Heart of the Problem
of her Branch. It was a matter of great regret that she retired this year. Mrs. G. H.
Young, pioneer President of Manitoba
Branch for fourteen years, opened a new
door to the women of the West, and was followed, in 1909, by an equally good pioneer,
Mrs. G. N. Jackson. Mrs. J. F. Betts stands
among the first in length of fruitful service
—much of which was the breaking of virgin
soil—having been President of the British
Columbia Branch for twenty-five years. Held
in love and honor she lives in all hearts, and
it was amid lamentations she refused office
this year. Mrs. John Dolmage, President of
the former North-West Branch, and Mrs. W.
W. Chown, President of Alberta Branch,
have each a share, though for a shorter time,
in pioneer work in the West. Time fails to
speak of others, but these are all entitled to
wear a decoration, star and bar or two bars.
There is one position in the Society which
calls for unusual talent, that of Treasurer,
so there was something like dismay felt by
the Board when it learned that Miss Wilkes,
who had so long guided its financial policy,
thought it necessary to retire; but, in view
of her long service it dared not ask more.
The Board at its Annual Meeting, September, 1916, found it difficult to express its
324 Distinguished Service Order
appreciation.    We quote a paragraph from
the Resolution:
Dear Miss Wilkes:—We find it difficult to express in any adequate terms our indebtedness to
you for all the years of service you have given the
iSociety, or our appreciation of the manner of
that service. We think of you as the large, loving-
hearted woman who has endeared herself not only
to the officiary, but to the missionaries in the different fields and to the whole constituency of the
Society by an efficient, auiet, unobtrusive doing of
an onerous task. Day after day you have attended
to the details of an ever-increasing income, which
in 1897, when you first assumed office, amounted
only to $39,016.00, but now has reached the noble
sum of $206,548.78. You have borne the burden,
the responsibility of this great financial undertaking, and borne it cheerfully, gladly, for the Master's sake, with no thought of reward or remuneration—a love-offering which excites our admiration as well as our gratitude—when the expert
knowledge and skill which you possess might have
commanded a large monetary return.
While you will ever abide in our love, we desire
that your name shall always be associated with
the Society. The Board has in mind setting aside
the sum of ten thousand dollars for the erection
of a Girls' Boarding School in the city of Chungking, to be called the Marcella Wilkes School, and
in it, we trust, the beautiful, upright character of
our beloved Treasurer may be many times reproduced.
During the last half of the decade, retirement from the foreign field of senior missionaries brought not only regret, but real sorrow
and loss irreparable, for confidence, ripened
judgment through experience, and facility in
the use of a language with understanding of
325 The Heart of the Problem
a foreign people are not gained in a day. The
history, as given by the author, needs no further words to reveal the life and work of
each ambassador of Christ, whose name follows : Miss Jessie K. Munro, Japan, eleven
years, and Hive among Euthenians in Alberta; Miss E. A. Crombie, Japan, twenty-
one years; Miss Isabel Masten, twenty years
French Institute, Montreal; Miss E. A.
Preston, twenty-six years, twenty in Japan
and six in Vancouver; Miss Sara C. Brack-
bill, twenty-one years in China; Miss Isabel
M. Hargrave, twenty-seven years in Japan,
and Miss Elizabeth H. Alcorn, twenty years.
It is the hope of the Board that nearly all
of these ladies, who are held in loving regard,
may, after rest has renewed their strength,
serve in other ways if not in the foreign field.
ARRIVED IN THE CITY OF GOD.
" O Saul, it shall be
A face like my face that receives thee:  a man
like to me,
Thou shalt love and be loved by forever: a hand
like this hand
Shall throw open the gates of new life to thee!
See the Christ stand."
—Browning.
In our book of life's most pleasant memories we have inscribed the names of four of
our comrades who all too soon passed from
among us; passed ere yet we had thought of
326 Distinguished £ Service Order
their departure or were in any way prepared
for it.
May Day, 1908, Miss Frances E. Palmer
exchanged the limitations of time for the
freedom of that " new life." Hers was a
rarely gifted personality with a positive
genius for organization; she had also the useful faculty of discernment, so was able to
draw to her side women of like mind and
heart; a spiritual leader who, for twenty
years, devoted her life to the interests of the
New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island
Branch.   She still lives.
Mrs. S. E. Whiston, from 1884 to 1904
either President or Corresponding Secretary
of the Nova Scotia and Newfoundland
Branch, and Hon. President until 1912, was
a woman greatly beloved. A ready writer,
with subtle play of humor, she won many to
service. One of those rare spirits only given
to the world now and then.
In the early days of 1914 the Master suddenly called Mrs. H. L. Piatt from the little
family circle where she seemed indispensable.
Only three months previous, when she retired
from office, the Board thus expressed itself.
We quote two paragraphs:
Resolved, " That this Board desires to place on
record its appreciation of, and gratitude for, the
efficient, devoted sacrificial services rendered to
God and the Church by Mrs. G. D. Piatt, through
the Bay of Quinte Branch, for two years Corre-
327 The Heart of the Problem
sponding Secretary, for seventeen years its President. Often in feeble health and pressed with
home duties, yet, faith and zeal undaunted, she
has by voice and pen led her people forward in
the stewardship, not only of money, but of life.
For the " Story of the Years " it owes her much,
and has nothing with which to pay except loving
thanks and the hope that she may find herself able
to bring it up to date in the near future.
Miss M. J. Cunningham, one of our senior
missionaries, went home at the glorious
Eastertide, 1916, from the work she loved
to the Father whom she had served so devotedly among foreign peoples—twenty-four
years in Japan, and three among Europeans
in Sault Ste. Marie, "The Story of the
Years " makes manifest her beautiful, helpful life and work.
HEBE BEOHnTNETH A ]$TEW DECADE.
E. W. R.
Note.
As the President of the Society, Mrs. W. E. Ross,
is the author of the chapter, " Distinguished Service Order," it is not surprising to find that the
group of officers she has so beautifully sketched in
the fourth paragraph is incomplete. It therefore
becomes necessary for another to take the artist's
brush and insert an additional figure, a central one,
the President, around which her fellow officers cluster.
In the author's reference to the Vice-President,
Mrs. Carman, wife of the General Superintendent
Emeritus, Rev. Dr. Carman, one is reminded that the
head officiary of the Society during the last decade
has leaned somewhat toward '' apostolic succession. 13
328 Distinguished Service Order
Mrs. Ross, daughter of the late General Superintendent, Rev. J. A. WiUiams, D.D., has shown much
of her father's administrative ability in connection
with her regime as President since 1897. Whether in
the capacity of presiding officer, speaking on the
public platform, planning hospitals, school buildings
or W.M.S. Homes, drafting Constitutions for the
conduct of the affairs of the Society or educational
institutions on the field, advising with candidates and
missionaries, or in the many other duties devolving
upon a presidential head, she has shown a rare combination of executive ability, business acumen, tactful
oversight and spiritual vision that have made the
wheels of the organization run with unusual smoothness—a worthy captain leading her comrades on to
higher achievements, until the year 1916 registers a
greater advance in membership and contributions
than any previous record.
All hono*? to a noble chief whose associates delight
to follow.
S.  P.
329   I
z
a.
a.
<
o
PL,
I
<
p
<
•laitufeaij, jiuauaf)
11340 14
11424 78
14710 00
11444 51
os
co
I
C-      o
o      CO
-rH        OS
©    .
CM
'SaOItlOg I8*q*JO
$1950 45
844 92
2174 21
. 1775 52
o
CO
©
eo     o
eo     eo
oo     m
eo
eo
%4
•si9dx8H a**.*stoossv
Ci       CO       «
;         HO
eo
©
os
CO
co     eo
■~i     eo
-rH        CO
CO
OS
$200 00
10 00
1400 00
130 40
°
©
o       •
co
•sisan'bag;
$899 16
1810 1-8
1E65 88
2003 28
os
1
iO
CO
co     ©
co     o*
i
•auueso-^n-eqi
cm     a
cm     oc
dM     o
OO        OO
§
eo
CO
CO       <N
C
»
OS
CO
•SUOT^'BUOQ
1ft             T-
ia     cc
a
eo
CO
co     la
oc
CM
co
OJ
•S8d018AUa
ptre s9xoa-9*HH
CM       -*
Cv
a>
©
CM
°
f
I
CO
00
eo
0*
•sSat^aapi oxiquj;
eo    i>
cm
CO
CM
<=
i
©
Ol
•sanSBaT; xftioAYdjj
CO       o
eo     c
CO      cc
CC
er
00
oo
CO
CO        t>
T-         CO
eo
©
©
CM
CO
CO
eo
•spuBg; puB
©     c.
o     «■
«j"     o
o
CM
CO
o
©     ©
it-       OS
er
eo
©
•saa^siaqina j\[ qj-vj
$3609 85
3702 00
3740 20
4249 15
1
S
o     eo
©     co
©     os
22
•saaji csiaqraaj^
1    1
-ri         CM
CO
o
©     co
(
CO
1
•diqsiaqniajft
pxreg uoissip\[
OO       xf
lO       «
1     S
©
1
CM        CM
^
•spirea pui3
sajoitQ uotssipi
1    §
-l-l         CM
CO
ss
1
i S
i §
(N
•as-eaioai ;a^;
l         l
o
1
1
©
a
•dxqsiaqraaH V^°iL
«
£5    ^
o
§
J>        OS
cm
I
•feiaqraapi 8Jn
CC
er
1    1
eo
1
eo
S
•siaqraap^ jBtiuuv
|
i>
^   aP
eo
f
**     s^
co
"
•asBaioui
jj
CO        iH
©     co
eo
§
OS       CM
S
I
•sariBjlixiiv
P
o
P
c
P
c
ft
c
p
1
fl
fl
O
s
5
a
*
o
'fl
1
o
ft
IS
a
0
«
CONFERENCE
BRANCHES.
c •i9i usual j,
auuaBO-^n'eq.L
i9-*.s«a:
•satiSwaq; q^JtoMd^
spu^a uorsBtn
UIOIj; 6ldt909$[
•89pIJO UOIS8JH
UIOIJ S"|idl909£[
dxqs jaqtnapi pm?g
•sprung aoissiw.
diqsiaqxnapj opitQ
•B9X0IT0 uotsst$[
sigqxngpf a^toossy
-r-l ©
!>     ©     os     eo
-rH OS CM
' eo
"cm
oo
,_,
CM
CO
JN_
OS
eo
i>
o
CM
©
CM
co
GM
CO
eo
eo
CM
*i
CM
CM
CM
CM
CM
eo
©
*
w
US
co
co
eo
co
eo
l>
US
|
CO
co
eo
10
*
CM
"^
H
os
eo
ji
CM
eo
CO
S
!§
CM
CO
©
CO
us
CO
-
CM
OS
CM
■*■
eo
CM
""#
eo
CO
CM
■*f
m
m
CO
US
US
eo
US
CM
CM
eo
^
"
Jj
t-     eo     t-
t>       iO       CM
diqsigqragw. [Vioj,
CM       ©       ©
eo     oo     us
•si9qni9yi qjvj
©       OO       ©       CM
oo     i-(      os     oo     eo
'sigqtagpf centray
t->     co     co
*aSV9IDUI
i-i        (M       CM
CM       CM   I   US
I*"5
•sarrBijTxtiv
Dcq
Hft
fctf
OpQ
D
^       CM       OS       »>-       ©   I
©     ©     co     eo     us I
.3     3      *
§ a
a  ft
*-.       O      43      •»
»  a   i*   s
S     QQ APPENDIX B.
(Continued from Vol. I.)
Officers of the Board of Managers 1906-1916.
President:
Mrs. W. E. Boss, Hamilton, Ont 1897-	
Vice-Presidents:
By Election
Mrs. A. Carman, Toronto, Ont 1885-....
By Virtue of Office
The Presidents of Branches.
Becording Secretary:
Mrs. A. M. Phillips, Toronto, Ont 1901-	
Field (named Foreign 1909) Corresponding Secretary:
Mrs. E. S. Strachan, Hamilton, Ont 1881-....
Associate Foreign Secretaries:
For Chinese Work
Mrs. J. D. Chipman, Toronto, Ont 1914-1916
Mrs. James Hales, Toronto, Ont 1916-....
For Japanese Work
Mrs. W. B. Coulthard, Toronto, Ont 1914-	
Home Secretary (Canadian Fields):
Mrs. George Kerr, Toronto, Ont 1907-	
Associate Home Secretary:
Mrs. James Harrison, Hamilton, Ont 1914-....
334 Officers of the Board of Managers
Home Secretaries of Statistics and Special Objects:
Mrs. G. P. McKay, Toronto, Ont 1896-1909
Mrs. N. A. Powell, Toronto, Ont 1909-1916
Mrs. George J. Bishop, Toronto, Ont..... .1916-....
Associate Secretary:
Mrs. J. D. Chipman, Toronto, Ont 1916-..
Treasurers:
Miss Marcella Wilkes, Toronto, Ont 1898-1916
Mrs. N. A. Powell, Toronto, Ont 1916-	
Best Fund Treasurers:
Mrs. W. W. Ogden, Toronto, Ont 1902-1914
Mrs. E. A. McCulloch, Toronto, Ont 1914-	
Vice-Presidents :
By Virtue of Office
Western or London Branch
Organized 1882.   Divided 1894 into
London Conference Branch
Mrs. Gordon Wright  1903-1916
Mrs. W. E. Pescott .'.'.'.' .1916-	
AND
Hamilton Conference Branch
Mrs. T. W. Jackson 1894-1907
Mrs. J. E. Baker !l907-
Central or Toronto Branch
Organized 1882.   Divided 1893 into
Toronto Conference Branch
Mrs. J. B. Willmott 1894-	
AND
Bay of Quinte Conference Branch
Mrs. G. D. Piatt 1896-1913
Mrs. A. W. Grange 1913_	
Eastern or Montreal Conference Branch
Organized 1883
Mrs. T. G. Williams 1897-.
335 Officers of the Board of Managers
Nova Scotia and Newfoundland Conference
Branch
Organized  1884.    Divided  1915  into
Nova Scotia Conference Branch
Mrs. J. Wesley Smith 1904-1911
Mrs. W. B. Chittick 1911-....
AND
Newfoundland Conference Branch
Mrs. E. G. Hunter 1915-	
New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island
Branch
Organized 1884
Mrs. J. D. Chipman 1898-1911
Mrs. W. B. Coulthard 1911-1913
Mrs. C. F. Sanford .* 1913- -
Manitoba Conference Branch
Organized 1895
Mrs. G; H. Young 1895-1909
Mrs. G. N. Jackson 1909-	
Divided and North-West Branch formed 1904
Mrs. John Dolmage 1904-1909
Again divided
Saskatchewan Branch
Organized 1909
Mrs. J. Dolmage 1904-1911
Mrs. John Bellamy 1911-1914
Mrs. M. M. Bennett 1914-....
Alberta Branch
Organized 1909
Mrs. W. W. Chown 1909-	
British Columbia Conference Branch
Organized 1891
Mrs. J. F. Betts 1895-1916
Mrs. F. B. Stacey 1916-	
336  Missionaries Appointed Since 1906
Turner, Olive M. Virgo, Ethel M.
Thompson, Mabel E.
Thompson, Mary I. Wellwood, Caroline.
Tuttle,  Martha J.,  B.A. Wheeler, Myrtle M.
Tait, Sadie O.
Young, Dell.
Ure, Jennie. Yarwood, Mary.
Fifteen of these have been married.
Eleven not now on the field—withdrawn.
* Miss Bouchard has served since 1902, but her name
did not appear in the earlier volume list.
338      

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/cdm.bcbooks.1-0354338/manifest

Comment

Related Items