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The Scotsman in Canada: Eastern Canada, including Nova Scotia, Prince Edward island, New Brunswick, Quebec… Campbell, Wilfred, 1858?-1918 1911

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     The Scotsman in Canada    The Scotsman in
Mastern Canada, including Nova
Scotia, Prince Edward Island, New
Brunswick.    M uebec   and    Ontario
By Wilfred Campbell^ LL.D.
1 !
(Hen.) of Aberdeen U*h»
In Two Volumes,    Volume I
Sampson Low, Marston &* Co., Ltd.
ioo, Southwark Street, London, S.E.
^ -■  The Scotsman in
Canada ' -i
Eastern Canada, including Nova
Scotia, Prince Edward Island, New
Brunswick,    Quebec   and    Ontario
By Wilfred Campbell^ LL.D.
(Hon.) of Aberdeen University;   F.R.S.C.
In Two Volumes.    Volume I
Sampson Low, Mars ton &* Co., Ltd.
ioo, Southwark Street, London, S.E.
_ '•_;- *(■"''
r  TO
TN the making of this volume my chief object
"■■ has been to produce a work which will be of
use to those desiring a knowledge of the origin of
the early Scottish settlements or community-centres
of Canada.
Keeping this idea steadily in view, I have in this
volume, which covers all Eastern Canada, dealt,
first of all, with the many settlements which were
essentially Scottish, and have laid stress on the
other chief centres of Scottish life and influence in
some of the leading cities, commencing with Nova
Scotia and concluding with the later but scarcely
less important immigration into Huron and Bruce
in the Upper Lake region of Ontario. I have
also in this connection given, where I was able
to do so, lists of the founders and pioneers of such
settlements, hoping that they might be of value
to students in future individual research.
Following this, I have endeavoured to deal with
the Scottish influence in religion, education,
politics, and other important questions connected
—a Preface
with the national life. If I have paid a good deal
of attention to the part played by the Scotsman
in our higher education, it is because I am convinced that in this direction, more than in any
other, he has performed his greatest work toward
the development of the Canadian nationality as a
part of the Empire.
Throughout this work I have laid stress upon
the Ulster Scotsman and the importance of his
place in the Canadian community ; and have
pointed out that the movement into Ulster was the
first great emigration of the Scottish people in
their attempt at settlement outside of their own
In dealing with Scotsmen as individuals in
Eastern Canada, it would be utterly impossible to
include all persons deserving of mention in the
necessarily limited confines of such a work as this
is. Those only are referred to who represent, or
were connected with, the different movements in
the many communities or colonies out of which the
dominion has  gradually  grown.
In sending this volume out to the public, I feel
that it is but an imperfect result of the ideal
which prompted its making. There is much more
that I would like to have included in the presentation of this important subject. Such, however, as
it is, I send it forth, hoping that it may have its
8 Preface
share in giving to the student of the history of the
Scottish race some slight idea of the great part
which has been played by that illustrious stock
during the last three hundred years, in the founding, peopling, and upbuilding of Britain's Western
It might be added, in conclusion, that in
addressing the readers of Scottish extraction, one
is appealing to a vast constituency; as in
Canada alone, outside of purely French Quebec,
there are few families which are without a strain
of the old Scottish blood in their veins.
BARONETS    .......      65
II  Contents
.    201
.    266
.    288
Sir William Alexander of Menstrie, Kt., Earl of
Stirling and Viscount Canada, Founder of Nova
Scotia       ....... Frontispiece
Rt. Hon. Sir John Alexander Macdonald, K.C.B.
His Grace the Ninth Duke of Argyll, K.T.   .
The Honourable and Right Reverend John Strachan,
D.D., LL.D. ......   271
Principal Grant
William Lyon Mackenzie   .
Chief Justice Haliburton (at the Age of 45) .
• 335'
• 39i
Sir Sandford Fleming, K.C.M.G.   .
By crag and lonely moor she stands,
This mother of half a world's great men,
And kens them far by sea-wracked lands,
Or Orient jungle or Western fen.
And far out 'mid the mad turmoil,
Or where the desert-places keep
Their lonely hush, her children toil,
Or wrapt in world-wide honour sleep.
By Egypt's sands or Western wave,
She kens her latest heroes rest,
With Scotland's honour o'er each grave,
And Britain's flag above each breast.
And some at home,—her mother love
Keeps crooning wind-songs o'er their graves,
Where Arthur's castle looms above,
Or Strathy storms or Solway raves.
Or Lomond unto Nevis bends
In olden love of clouds and dew;
When Trosach unto Stirling sends
Greetings that build the world anew.
Out where her miles of heather sweep,
Her dust of legend in his breast,
'Neath Aged Dryburgh's aisle and keep,
Her wizard Walter takes his rest.
VOL 1.
17 The World-Mother
And her loved ploughman, he of Ayr,
More loved than any singer loved
By heart of man amid those rare,
High souls the world hath tried and proved ;-
Whose songs are first to heart and tongue
Wherever Scotsmen greet together,
And, far out, alien scenes among,
Go mad at the glint of a sprig of heather.
And he, her latest wayward child,
Her Louis of the magic pen ;
Who sleeps by tropic crater piled,
Far, far, alas! from misted glen;
Who loved her, knew her, drew her so,
Beyond all common poet's whim:—
In dreams the whaups are calling low,
In sooth her heart is woe for him.
And they, her warriors, greater none
E'er drew the blade of daring forth;
Her Colin1 under Indian sun,
Her Donald8 of the fighting North.
Or he, her greatest hero, he,
Who sleeps somewhere by Nilus' sands.
Grave Gordon, mightiest of those free,
Great Captains of her fighting bands ;—
Yea, these; and myriad, myriad more,
Who stormed the fort or ploughed the main
To free the wave or win the shore,
She calls in vain! she calls in vain!
1 Colin Campbell (Lord Clyde), hero of Lucknow.
• Sir Donald Mackay (ist Lord Reay), whose Mackay Dutch
Regiment was famous in the Thirty Years' War.
18 The World-Mother
Brave sons of her, far severed wide
By purpling peak or reeling foam;
From Western ridge or Orient side,
She caUs them home! she calls them home!
And far, from East to Western sea,
The answering word comes back to her ;—
"Our hands were slack, our hopes were free,
We answered to the blood astir;—
"The life by Kelpie loch was dull,
The homeward, slothful work was done,
We followed where the world was full,
To dree the weird our fates had spun;
"We built the brigg, we reared the town,
We spanned the earth with Ughtning gleam;
We ploughed, we fought, 'mid smile and frown
Where all the world's four corners teem.
" But under all the surge of life,
The mad race-fight for mastery,
Though foremost in the surgent strife,
Our hearts went back, went back to thee."
For the Scotsman's speech is wise and slow,
And the Scotsman's thought it is hard to ken;
But through all the yearnings of men that go,
His heart is the heart of the northern glen;—
His song is the song of the windy moor.
And the humming pipes of the squirling din;
And his love is the love of the shieling door,
And the smell of the smoking peat within.
And nohap how much of the alien blood
Is crossed with the strain that holds him fast;
'Mid the world's great ill and the world's great good,
He yearns to the Mother of men at last. The World-Mother
For there is something strong and something true
In the wind where the sprig of heather is blown;
And something great in the blood so blue,
That makes him stand, like a man, alone.
Yea, give him the road and loose him free,
He sets his teeth to the fiercest blast;
For there's never a toil in a far countrie,
But a Scotsman tackles it hard and fast.
He builds their commerce, he sings their songs,
He weaves their creeds with an iron twist;
And making of laws or righting of wrongs,
He grinds it all as the Scotsman's grist. . . .
Yea, there, by crag and moor she stands,
This mother of half a world's great men;
And out of the heart of her haunted lands
She calls her children home again.
And over the glens and the wild sea floors,
She peers so still, as she counts her cost;
With the whaups low-calling over the moors,
Woe ! woe ! for the great ones she hath lost.
'JjgP,    IN CANADA       jg • J
27iis mighty dream of the race !
When, O when will it die?
When the magic of being burns from the blood,
When the violet fades from the sky ;
When the mother turns from her child,
When the son his father spurns ;—
And the blood of the mightiest race on earth
To bloodless water tarns.
IN this introduction to a necessarily imperfect
memoir of the exodus and wanderings of a
great northern race, it will be my cihief object to
impress upon my readers the importance of the
keeping alive of the dominant historic spirit which
has in the past made noted our Scottish ancestors
in their own land and throughout the world. I may
say, at the start, that I am not going to indulge in
any mere historical or literary retrospect. My
object is neither to flatter nor to condemn. ' As
regards success, the Scottish race speaks for itself
the world over ; and as for failure, the signs of this
are also apparent.
It would be easy to catalogue Scottish virtues
21 The Scotsman in Gcmada
and Scottish vices, and clothe the list in a flippant
dress or a false rhetoric, as has, alas I too often
been done.
But this should be an age of few words and
deep and serious thought, when great and vital
subjects, such as this we are considering, should
not be touched upon lightly or superficially. There
never was a period in their history when our people
needed all their sanity, all their ideals, all the aid
that the spirit of the past can give them, more
than they do to-day. We stand in great danger,
and the keenest minds are too much engrossed
in what one might call, to put it mildly, | the
financial possibilities of the purely material." So
that we, who represent, and strive to maintain, the
ethical and spiritual aspects of life, cannot afford
to make light of any influences which may keep
alive or inspire the greater imagination of our
people ; such as the splendid memories, the large
and intense drama, the classic atmosphere of the
history of Scotland.
Yet, sad to say, for so tragic and so subtle a race,
no people has been dealt with so often, in so
childish, so shallow, and so claptrap a manner
as has Scotland at the hands of orators and writers
innumerable throughout the world.
It is seemingly so easy to lecture on Burns or
Scott, and these names are used as stalking-horses
for all sorts of superficial efforts to acquire a
patriotic or a literary reputation ; and all the
while the real Burns and the true Scott remain
utterly unknown and unappreciated, buried beneath
22 The Scottish Ideal
the volcanic irruption of cheap democracy, false
patriotism, and pretence at religion and culture.
The phrase I a man's a man for a' that | has been
dinned into our ears, but how many who have
quoted it know its real meaning and application?
Burns was the first great founder of the true
modern democracy, and, like all great reformers,
he has been most shamefully misrepresented by
those claiming to be his friends and disciples,
who have interpreted him in a class, rather than
in a human sense. Likewise has Sir Walter Scott
been Wrongly ignored by men claiming to be
scholars and. writers. Instead of being, as
many would class him, merely a delightful
romancer, he is, without doubt, one of the truest
realists, and a remarkable student of humanity.
It is marvellous how much of all Scotland is
mirrored in  his  truly magic  pages.
Indeed, men may rave of the heather, the hills,
the pibroch, and the Brig of Ayr, and all the time
the real Scotland and the true Scottish people are
a mystery to themselves and to others as they, to
a great extent, remain to this day.
As this essay is an attempt at some sort of
explanation of the Scottish people, I may, in
places, be seemingly harsh in pointing out what
without doubt appear to be degeneracies and misrepresentations of the Scottish race and character
as an historical entity*
Poetry and feeling are a boon, indeed necessary
in their place, and belong to the finest instincts
of   a   race.     But   where   they   degenerate   into
23 The Scotsman in Ccmada
mere cheap sentimentality and vulgar melodrama,
nothing is so nauseous and sickening in a community.
For this reason, the greatest evil which has
inflicted Scotland of late has been the rise of the
so-called Kail Yard School of Fiction, It is
already virtually dead. But it has accomplished
in its short reign immeasurable harm*. Hypocrisy
and hysterics are an abomination in religion, but
when they enter popular literature they are even
worse. Some races, like the Irish, can afford to
open their minds freely. It seems natural to that
often frank and genial race. But it does not become
the Scot. The true characteristic of the latter is
his secretiveness, his un-get-at-abkness, his control
of his inner feelings. This, in the past, made him
the strong force that he became, and rendered his
religion such a power in his personality.. It
simply permeated him in the subtlest manner, and
was only recognised outwardly through his
character. What his inner feelings were he kept
to himself. But in these later, seemingly more degenerate, days, when religion from this standpoint
had decayed, and what might be called literary
emotion took its place, there came a change over
the Scotsman's individuality which was not for
the better ; and when he began to spout cheap
sentiment to his neighbours, he became an object
of ridicule to the serious-minded. When he began
to grow enthusiastic over and self-conscious of
what he should simply, have lived, namely, his
religious beliefs and character, he came down from
24 The Scottish Ideal
his unconscious dignity of centuries and became a
very commonplace buffoon in the hands of Ian
Maclaren and his ilk, who, made a burlesque of
what the Scotsman might have been at his worst.
It may be difficult to realise this, but to the student
who knows his Scott and Burns, and is in close
touch with the real Scotland and the Scotsman of
the past, it is very apparent.
The present-day habit of trading in the Scottish
dialect and idiosyncrasy is not only harmful to the
race, but it is virtually bearing false witness
against the people before the world.
Of the Scotsman of to-day, the least said the
better. He is being weighed in the balance. But
with regard to the Scotsman of the past, if he
was a force, it was not because of his angularity,
his dialect, his red hair, his so-called meanness,
his poverty, his narrow 1 pig-headedness," as some
have called his determination, and for all of which
virtues or defects he has had to stand in literature
and journalism. But it was because, in spite of
all these, he was, for some occult reason, a man,
and as an individual became a power at home and
wherever he adventured throughout the world.
It was not one of his special qualities to enjoy
life and to give others pleasure, but it is through
his ability for struggling with existence and overcoming obstacles that he has become famous. In
short, the Scottish have been in the past a race
of individual builders, a strenuous, adventurous,
striving, ambitious folk.
They are not a people who can afford to descend
25 The Scotsman m Canada
from this level of existence. They are an angular,
dour, silent race, who must maintain, through all
their kindliness and Jiumour, a stern dignity, as
one of their chief virtues, or else lose their influence
and personality as a people.
Now I do not intend here merely to scratch the
surface of the Scottish idiosyncrasy, but to endeavour to show wherein the Scottish ideal in
Canada and in the motherland is worthy of our
serious consideration.
If we let our minds go out so as to grasp a
comprehensive view of Scottish history and the
Scottish race, we will realise that in the past,
in what might be called the golden age of the
Scottish people, they were a force in the world
because of two things, namely, their religion and
their determination to be freemen and rule themselves.
Now these are two very important impulses in
the life of any nation, and they mean a great deal
more than appears on the surface of this statement. I Religious consciousness," and " a determination to be freemen and self-ruling," the one
the natural result of the other, make a great combination in the life of any nation. But we must not
be misled into thinking that religion, as Scotland
realised it then, was the mere formalism that the
Scotsman in Canada and the Old Land, in common
with all Christians, makes of it to-day. Religion
then meant much more than mere empty creed,
mere class prejudice, mere observance of ceremony,
mere hope of heaven or fear of hell. It was
26 The Scottish Ideal
something divine, something vital in the very life
of the people, which so affected their whole nature,
their very character as a community, that they
rose above the common and the mean, and moulded
gradually, during half a thousand years, their
national ideals ; until out of these ideals grew,
side by side with them, conceptions of life and
sacred institutions as a part of the State, the
Church, and the general fabric of society, and,
with these, a highly ethical literature. It was
essentially true of Scotland that her religion permeated her whole national life. It was not
crystallised into an isolated institution, but was
found in the State, the University, and the family.
The family, that most sacred of all human institutions, and the oldest on earth, was especially
revered in Scotland ; and it was this, together
with the rural and out-of-door character of her
people, which was the real foundation of her
national greatness.
In present-day religion there seems to be a
far cry to the lives of the New Testament Apostles
as alone worthy of consideration ; whereas in old-
time Scotland their own and all history was teeming
with heroes, apostles and saints of God. I do not
say that this was so of all Scotland. No country,
no people is purely of one ideal. There was then,
as now, the indifferent and the selfish, and added
to these elements there were other conflicting
influences for ever at work in the life of the people.
Roughly speaking, there were three Scotlands
—the extreme wild, purely Celtic and Scandinavian
.. The Scotsmcm m Ccmada
west; the great middle Scotland, stretching
from Berwick to Cape Wrath ; and the purely
Lowland folk and city dwellers. These three
elements represented three distinct ideals, which
fought for supremacy—namely, feudalism, intellectual religion, and practical materialism. Of
these three, the religious and intellectual element
largely dominated, but feudalism even down to
this day has left its influence in the heredity of the
best of the Scottish people.
Against feudalism I bring no charge. It was
one of the most ideal forms of organisation of
society that was ever developed on earth, and
nowhere else did it arrive at such a perfect condition of development as in the clan system of
Scotland. It was aristocratic, but that was its
virtue, as it made every man, from the highest
to the humblest, a gentleman in blood ; and I
claim that to be the most divine condition of society
which makes every man, no matter how poor in
intellect or worldly goods, proud of his lineage
and his race. It linked the peasant and the king
on the throne in one vast common kinship in
this mutual pride in the past, and stimulated, as
no other influence has done, the whole community
to uphold the ancestral honour of the race. It was
not the sharp antagonistic division between the
rich and the poor of the present much-boasted
democratic age. In it lay the secret of the spirit
of the great Scottish fighting clan-regiments, and
to it is owing much of that strong sentiment for the
motherland which animates the Scotsman through-
28 The Scottish Ideal
out   the   world,   even   to   the   third   and   fourth
The modern vulgar mind of a mongrel people,
which has lost its race individuality, is inclined to
sneer at the Celt's pride in his lineage. The
other day a newspaper contained the following :
The man who is no good is he who is always
bragging of his ancestors." This flippancy is as
absurd as it is false. The truth is that to-day
few men " brag" of their ancestors, for the
simple reason that few can even tell who
their grandparents were : a sad condition in a
race having such a notable part in history and
so long civilised. The influence that has brought
this about, and which inspires the flippancy just
quoted, is one not on the side of man's best
It is the trail of the serpent of a modern
money-tyranny, which would gradually degrade
and trample on and break the high spirit of ja
once great people. It is the same influence which
has destroyed faith in Deity and a sense of
responsibility, and is now attempting to throttle
true culture and the intellect. It has striven to
convince man that he is but a more capable ape,
and that all of life is rolled up in the material
possibilities of a bank cheque-book. The answer
to this superficial cavil at what was once a part
of religion, of Christianity itself, is, that for one
person who is proud of his ancestors one hundred
are ashamed of theirs, for some unholy and inconsistent reason ;   and others there are who impu-
' The Scotsman m Canada
dently and blasphemously boast that they made
themselves, and demand special privileges because
they have done so. " He is a self-made man " is
a common expression of praise. But, considered
seriously, is it a worthy citizen who reflects on
his own parents? Why should men vote for a man
merely because he says his parents were humble
any more than because they were lords or
millionaires ?
Is not this man also using his ancestry Xonty
in a more contemptible manner) to his advantage?
It should be the man alone and not his environment
which should count. And this is the true application of Burns's | A man's a man for a' that."
He is not a man merely because he is not rich,
or not titled, or not otherwise favoured, any more
than he is a man because he is all or any one of
these. It is not the title or the obscurity, the
rich apparel or the rags that make the man, but it
is the man himself. There is too much pure
flattery of and truckling to the poor to-day, and
he is not the true friend of any class of men who
flatters them for a base purpose. Every class
should be educated to a stern sense of its own
responsibilities. Therefore I would direct the
sneerer at Celtic aristocracy to the instance of the
Perfect Man, who, though in His generation said
to be the son of a carpenter, is traced back through
a line of kings to God Himself. I am not here
making a plea for what is vulgarly called snobbery.
I desire rather to carry the whole matter much
deeper, to show a strong influence in certain races,
30 Thi Scottish Ideal
and an influence for good, in spite of so much cant
and hypocrisy concerning the whole matter. This
side of the Scottish ideal, the feudal pride and
sense of honour, is very much needed to-day on
this continent, where society is altogether too much
dominated by what Mr. Dooley sarcastically calls
| the plain rich."
The feudal system no doubt had its weaknesses,
as all human systems have. But it never lied to
the average man. It never flattered him into a
false idea of life, as the democracy has done.
It never pronounced that monstrous absurdity that
all men are born free and equal. No ! But it
gave man high and austere ideals toward which to
climb, and it recognised and fostered genius and
all that genius has to give mankind. While it
recognised the necessary social grades, into which
all complex communities crystallise sooner or later,
it dignified the humblest lot in life, a thing which
the present-day democracy has signally failed
to do.
The next element in the Scottish community,
and closely associated with feudalism, for which
it had some affiliation, was that of religion -and
the intellect. These two influences, religion and
the intellect, dominated the race and made the
aristocrat and the cottar as brothers. A stern,
uncompromising sense of religious conviction permeated the people, and affected them more than
religion, in the deeper sense, has influenced any
other race outside of the Hebrews. I would like
to point out a strong similarity, which is plainly
31 The Scotsmcm in Canada
manifest, between these two great races, a similarity
that is almost next to identity. In both peoples the
Old Testament is lived or re-lived in the life of
the people ; in both, religion is firm and unbending, and the sense of sin is sure and real ; in both
the theocratic idea in the nation is remarkably
prominent and deep-seated ; and in both the intense and almost undying feud between the Church
and the State—or rather the fear of State interference on the part of the Church—is more than
remarkable. Certainly no people in modern days
has appreciated and absorbed the Jewish Scriptures
as has the Scottish people. Then, in the poetical
gift and temperament and their general nature they
are singularly like the Hebrews ; and, sad to say,
in their weaknesses, especially in their almost fatal
genius for material success, and subserviency of
all their highest ideals to the slavery of mere
gain, the Scots are almost world-brothers to the
Jew. ,   "• '   |§    |£"-'"#-
Here we have something more than mere coincidence. We have, without doubt, a great
ethnological study, which goes back into the
remotest ages of human history. But the lesson
we learn from both peoples is that the abnormal
individual passion for gain on the part of the
Jew destroyed the national fabric and alienated
and scattered the race, and that such a disintegration likewise threatens the Scottish nation and race
In likening the Scottish people to the Hebrew
I am paying the highest, the very finest, complL-
ilzx The Scottish Ideal
ment to the race to which I belong ; because of
all peoples in the annals of extant human history
the Jewish is by far the greatest. Supposing we
were to deny all belief in Christianity. Jesus
Christ still remains without compare the ideal man,
the highest type ever produced on earth, and un-
explainable to the scientific mind ; and the Jewish
literature is the greatest, ethically and humanly,
and the one having the most tremendous and
lasting effect on earth's greatest peoples. But
if we accept the Divine idea, they are God's chosen
people ; and if they have become in any sense
inferior, it is not because of Christ, or their great
literature, their mighty prophets, poets, rulers, and
lofty ethics, but because they have allowed a,
material individualism to degrade and denationalise
them ; and—let the Scot and the average Briton, the
Canadian and American take warning and beware !
—I am to that extent a prophet. Give but another
century to our peoples—over-material, over-cosmopolitan, over-fond of the present hour, and self-
worshipping, self-indulgent and vulgar, with
commonplace surroundings and the idea that they
are but superior apes—and he who lives will see
a spectacle beside which the Jew will appear
colossal and noble.
But it may not be realised that the Scotsman
has an affinity to another great people of the past,
namely, the Greek ; and it is the marvellous admixture of ethics and reason, of imagination and
thought, of insight and feeling, that produced the
Scottish   interpretation   of   the   Bible,   and   the
vol. I. c 33 The Scotsman in Canada
Scottish quality or level of Christianity, with its
ethical and yet purely human literature, in Scott,
Burns, and Carlyle. And I would go even farther.
I "claim to be something of an ethnologist, and
believe that not all Scotland is north of the Tweed,
and that the man who produced that wonderful
combination of the Greek drama and the Hebrew
conscience, | Macbeth," must have had some drop
of the Scottish blood, somewhat of the northern
heredity in his veins.
This whole subject which we are now considering, this historical and prehistorical personality
of a people so subtle, so tragic, so spiritual, so
heroic, and 'so intensely human as the Scottish
personality, is almost a mystery to the historian
and the ethnologist, but one which is well worth
the study of the present-day thinker and
The whole history of this people is a wonder—a
seeming contradiction. Historians have been too
narrow and dogmatic in classifying personality.
To the man who gets beneath the surface, Knox,
Carlyle, and James the Sixth have an affinity in
temper ; Burns and James the Fifth are brother-
poets and individualistic men. It is only the superficial student, influenced by an ignorant class -
prejudice, who would separate them. The genius
for thought, for scholarship, for poetry, for piety,
the strong, intrinsic love of race, permeated all
ranks and made them one. But through it all
there ran the silver or golden thread of a nine
sense of pride, a high ideal of honour in the man, The Scottish Ideal
a deep conviction that religion is in the life, that
faith and conduct cannot be separated, and that
the supreme blossom of all is character.
To-day, however, the religious element has been
largely supplanted by a cold, clear tendency of
the mind working in purely material channels, and
we now come to the third influence which has
largely usurped the place of the other two, namely,
the purely monetary and mercantile element in the
Scottish people. The genius of the Scotsman for
business is notorious the world over. He has been
in the past the principal pioneer in commerce and
mercantile pursuits. He has shown in this respect
a single-mindedness and an indomitable force of
character that has challenged the admiration of
all peoples. Now, the combination of these
three elements or influences in Scottish life,
namely, feudalism, the religious intellect, and the
genius for material advancement and acquirement,
produced a wonderfully unique, forceful, and
picturesque people. But the degeneration came
when the more commonplace and material element
crushed out the other two. The importance of the
other elements may not appear to the average man
in this age of | Does it pay? " | What is it to
me? I "It will last our time," and many other
expressions of a similar spirit or tone. But when
religious ethics and ideals depart from a people
that people is surely doomed. Some races cannot
afford to practise even what others have thrived
upon. The Saxon can safely be much more
material than the Scot.    But the Celt cannot risk
I! The Scotsmcm in Canada
the loss of his ideals and the vast dreams of his
sensitive and subtle imagination.
It was while the Scotsman was at his best in
the influences of religion and feudalism that jhe
pushed forth into the world. It was then that he
came to Canada and founded this country for
Britain. It was he who discovered her wilds, named
her rivers, her mountains, and her lonely outposts.
It Was he who planted religion, founded institutions of learning, and placed on them the seal
of his ideals of culture and piety of that day.
It was the Scot who largely peopled the wilds, and
gave a thorough, honest, careful, and conservative
character to Canadian business and financial life.
He had much to do with the framing of laws,
the fostering of legislation and education. This,
in short, is the story of the sturdy Scotsman of
the past who came to Canada and accomplished
so much in the building-up of this country.
But how does the Scotsman stand to-day? What
part does he play? Is he a force in the community—or only an absorbed unit? Have all of
the ideals which he brought with him wholly disappeared? We have seen the force which he was
in the past ; but now, when things have changed,
can and will the Scot still hold his own? Can
he be successful under the new conditions? Will
he, and does he, still hold his former ideals of
creed, of the home, the family, the State, education and culture, with a sense of honour in public
places and in commerce, and stability in business?
Does he—will he^—demand that these shall all be
36 The Scottish Ideal
maintained? It is to be feared not. The signs
are that he has let go many of these ideals. But
if we seek the one great Scottish national weakness, we will discover the answer to all this—and
that weakness is the over-development of the mere
individual at the expense of the community. In
short, the Scot has carried this now long-exploded
democratic idea to an extreme. He has, both here
and in the old land, perhaps fatally crystallised into
an ultra-conservative antagonism to any ideal save
what he calls the j individual good." The community to him means nothing any more ; and while
he is sometimes narrow as regards things which
do not really matter, he is often careless regarding
the interests of his religion and faith, his ethics
and his national ideals, which his fathers struggled
and died for, and continually sacrifices these in
his attempts at compromise.
Fifty years ago the Scottish faith and ideal were
a power in this land, and its adherents were uncompromising in their determination to perpetuate
them in the community. But to-day, what a
change ! A subtle influence has been at work
(an influence which only he who has closely and
patiently studied the life of our people can discover)
to extinguish gradually this spirit and ideal in the
interests of what has falsely been called toleration,
but in which, sad to say, the Scotsman himself has
taken a prominent part. It has been, in short, a
distinct self-effacement as a community for the
sake of personal interest and commercialism ; and
it   is   just   the   natural   result—the   virtual   self-
-</ The Scotsman in Canada
destruction of a race which has bartered its ideals
and faith, its national dreams and ancestral pride,
for the false favours of any community which
demanded the sacrifice.
At home, in the beautiful old land, the Caledonia
and Scotia of the past, the country of Bruce and
Wallace, of Knox and Argyll, of Scott and Burns,
and a thousand and one other heroes and saints,
leaders of men and martyrs, sad to say, the conditions are much the same. The feudalism, Scotland's glory, which Bruce lived and Scott sang is
virtually dead ; and with it has largely died Scotland's faith, and with them both, it is to be feared,
has perished the real spirit of that once great
people. There they lie : a beautiful wreck of a
former glory and power, buried under a confusion
of infidelities and petty heresies, and all submerged
in a vulgar muck of commercialism, which is not
even true commercialism.
In Canada we seek for the old spirit, but we find
it not. The ancient Church of Scotland no more
acts as a community. To the individual pulpit
alone is left the attempt to arouse, inspire, and
anchor the people. The Church as an organisation no more stands for anything. It never dreams,
as a body, of agitating or instituting reforms for
the community. It has been gradually chained
and muzzled, chiefly in the interests of party politics,
and as it was never merely ornamental, it cannot
live for ever. The Anglican Church, likewise
leashed and manacled like the Scottish in the
interests of party politics, may linger long in the
38 The Scottish Ideal
twilight charm, the dim religious light of its
cultured ritual and its appeal to formalism and
refinement. But the Scottish Church has none of
this outward attractiveness, and when it has lost
its stern, aggressive Calvinistic personality, with
its historic appeal to rugged truth and national
and individual conduct, it is in danger of becoming
merely a part of that vast element of the commonplace and dreary which dominates present-day life.
The other great ethical influence of the past was
the University. But what power in national affairs
does it wield to-day in Canada or Scotland? Is
it really the same institution with the same ideals
and objects for which it was founded? Has it not
really abdicated its old place? Has it not drifted
with the selfish tide in the direction of material
success? Has not the word "success" replaced
those of % ethics " and " culture " in the scrolls
of its ideals? Has not the University, which
originally stood side by side with religion for spirit
and mind, for the soul and intellect, which demanded
a place for character and genius in society, which
really represented the middle, one time ruling,
classes, and which mothered the formerly dignified
and cultured professions of law, the Church, medicine, and the higher education—jhas it not departed
from its old-time place in the community? Has
not this institution, this one-time tremendous force,
which represented faith, scholarship, culture, literature, legislation, and justice, which provided for
the dignity and impeccability of the courts of
justice, and from which there radiated a general
~-*r°—*—". - -: --, ,''-'..'-._  "f^f^. The Scotsman in Canada
influence of learning and refinement, been given
over to or metamorphosed into a gigantic technical
or scientific institution, run not so much in the
interests of human truth or knowledge as in that
of the mighty dollar?
In the face of all this—in the face of the fact
that in the Church and the University the only man
wanted or encouraged is he who can touch men's
pockets, and not their hearts, minds, or imaginations ; that the Universities no more contain the
national prophets and thinkers ; that in the legislative halls the conditions are similar and real freedom shackled and crushed—can you ask if it is
well with the Scotsman here and in the old land?
This is my creed, in face of cynic sneer,
The cavilling doubt, and pessimistic fear ;
We come from some far greatness ; and we go
Back to a greatness, spite of all our woe.
BEFORE dealing with the Scottish settlements
in Ulster and the New World, we will take
a short survey of the Old Land and its several
communities, of the Lowlands and Highlands and
their different characteristics, which have, through
a thousand years, guided the fate and evolved
the spirit of this great people whose migrations
and settlements are the subject of this work.
It has been in the past, however, a weakness
of many chroniclers of New World history to begin
their account somewhere about the period of the
Flood or the Roman Conquest of Britain, and
devote so much of their volume to this ancient
and much overdone portion of the story as to
leave little or no room for the real subject
supposed to be dealt with.
Now, no such mistaken course will mar or curtail The Scotsman in Canada
this work, which will be solely an account, however imperfect, of the Scottish origins and settlements in Canada. But it will add much to the
value of the story of these settlements if a brief
picture of the people under consideration and their
history and environment in the Old Land be given
at the outset.
The northern half of the Island of Great Britain
has been called North Britain, Scotland, and
Caledonia. The latter was the ancient name of
the country, when Scotia comprised what is now
the province of Ulster in the North of Ireland.
Caledonia stern and wild,
Meet nurse for a poetic child,
Land of brown heath and shaggy wood,
was the ancient home of the Caledonians who
kept the Roman cohorts at bay. But when we
go back to the kingdom of Dalriada in Northern
Ireland, South-Western Scotland, and Northern
England, we feel that the origins of these ancient
peoples, who were the ancestors of the northern
Celts, are wrapped in a mystery, out of which
looms the certainty of a tremendous civilisation
coeval with, if not anterior to, the greatest civilisation of remotest antiquity.
Without doubt, the history of the ancient Britons
would show, if all the facts were known, that
they had been one of the three or four great
kindred races reaching back to Noah and the
Deluge. The others are without doubt the
42 The Scotsman in Scotland
Egyptian, Hebrew, Greek, and Carthaginian
Those who in a superficial spirit sneer at the
old British chroniclers, who assert this high origin,
have no single proof upon which to base their
Jdoubts. If a study of all the evidence is carefully made, there is but one conclusion to arrive
at with regard to this subject. Everything points
to the fact that the so-called Darwinian theory
of evolution is but a partial truth, and not the
complete truth. That a portion of mankind
evolved through the ape from the lower species
may be true. But there is much stronger evidence
to prove that a portion of mankind has come
down a long way in the scale of human greatness.
Indeed, the proof of the fall of man is as plainly
written in the pages of human history as is that
of the evolution from the primordial germ.
Accepting this theory, which is here proclaimed
for the first time in modern history as a solution of the mystery of the human origin, we can
easily come to a conclusion as to the strong
kinship in civilisation and ideal between the few
great races already mentioned.
Not only is the evidence of the Fall, as it is
plainly and tersely stated in the sacred Scriptures,
deeply graven in the whole history and existence
of mankind, but there is also, as all scientists
admit, abundant evidence of the fact of the Deluge
and the Garden of Eden. There is no space
here to consider this important subject. Sufficient is it to assert, as a well-authenticated fact,
1 The Scotsman in Ccmada
the Divine origin of man, which the present writer
hopes to deal with in a future volume.
That the ancient history of Britain goes away
back coeval with that of the Jewish, and beyond,
is without doubt ; and that the four or five great
stocks—such as the Egyptian, Jewish, Norse,
Greek, Carthaginian, and British—are of a
common ancestry and descended from' colonies
existing anterior to or at the time of the Deluge,
is also, beyond dispute, verified by the facts.
Much harm to the truth has been caused by
a wrong conception of what is called mythology,
which is, after all, largely decadent history. The
simpler an account, the greater proof there is that
it goes a long way back in the annals of time.
It has been said of the old British historians that
they dealt with their eras of a thousand years
with a magnificent assurance, and marshalled kings
and dynasties of kings in complete chronology and
exact succession. They carried their genealogy
so far beyond the Olympiads that, by the side of
it, Greek and Roman history seem but a thing
of yesterday. British antiquity is made to run
parallel with Egypt's ancient lore and with the
prophets and kings and judges of Israel. It stops
with the Deluge and is everything but antediluvian. The old Welsh-British pedigree goes back
to Brute, who is the great-grandson of ^Eneas
the Trojan—wjio lands on the shores of Albion
in the time of the Prophets Eli and Samuel B.C.
The pedigree  is  as  follows :   Ap-Brutus,  Ap-
11 The Scotsman in Scotland
Silvius, Ap-Ascanius, Ap-^Eneas, Ap-AnChises,
Ap-Lapsius, Ap-Anarachus, Ap-Troas, Ap-Erich-
thonias, Ap-Darden, Ap-Jupiter, Ap-Saturnus, Ap-
Ccelus, Ap-Ciprinus, Ap-Chetim, Ap-Javan, Ap-
Japheth, Ap-Noachen, Ap-Lamech, Ap-Methusa-
lem, Ap-Enos, Ap-Seth, Ap-Adda (Adam), Ap-
Duw  (God).
This tree agrees with that of Genesis, which
records (chap. x. 2-5) : " The sons of Japheth
were Gomer and Javan, and the sons of Javan
were Elishah and Tarshish, Kittim [Chetim], and
Dodanim. By these were the isles of the Gentiles
divided in their lands ; every one after his tongue,
after their families, in their nations."
From Brute to Chetim (Kittim) the manuscript
follows and agrees with the accepted record of
(so-called) mythological history, Silvius, or, as
sometimes written, lulus, being the son of
Ascanius, the son of ^Eneas, the son of Anchises.
Thus it goes on through Erichthonias and Darden
to Ciprius, the father of Ccelus. Here what has
been called sacred and profane history are interlinked. In other words, they substantiate each
other, and prove the great historical earthly line
of the Divine race. To those old historians, to
quote the words of a modern historian, jEneas
the Trojan, from whom! the Britons came, was
no more the creation of Virgil than, to us,
Richard III. is a mere fancy of Shakespeare.
Also Dardan, Jupiter, and Saturn were not regarded as deities, but once living men, who were
of Divine origin.
nf The Scotsman in Canada
Surely the ancient traditions of a great people,
like the British, are preferable to any, mere modern
speculation based upon baseless doubt.
In the face of this pedigree, it is clearly evident
that nowhere in the history, of any people is proof
of a primal aristocracy, in the race more plainly
present or hinted at in a thousand witnesses to
a great and tremendous past than in Northern
Coming down to the more recent stages of the
Scottish and Caledonian peoples, we find a region
divided into two portions by a range of mountains
called the Grampians. This vast natural rampart
was a place where a 'great race at different periods
stood for liberty, and independence. It is broken
by noted passes or glens, through which, at certain
times, the tide of invasion flowed north or south
in the stress of the force of the peoples upon
either verge. North of this line, which stretches
in a north-easterly direction diagonally across the
country, was the region of the Gaelic speech and
the wild imagination and almost lawless spirit of
the Highlands, and south of it and east was the
Lowland tongue and tSe more careful ways of
men and communities. The northern localities—
common to the Gaelic and the tartan—were Argyll,
Bute, the Western Isles, or Hebrides, Nairn, Inverness, Ross, Cromarty, Caithness, and Sutherland,
and portions of Moray, Stirling, Banff, Perthshire,
Dunbarton, Aberdeen, and Angus. There is
throughout all this region, especially in the west
and north, a great strain of the Norse blood and
'----. -       — The Scotsman in Scotland
influence, While even in Caithness and largely
in the east the Lowland dialect is spoken by, most
of the inhabitants.
There is no space here to dwell upon the many
attempts to unravel or explain the mystery of the
Celtic peoples, or to explain the personality of
the Picts and the Scots. But there is no doubt
that from the ancient kingdom of Argyll there
flowed out a civilisation that influenced the culture
and ethics of all Europe. There at some remote
period flourished the purest religion and the noblest
poetry and arts, together with a type of human
ideal towards life only dreamed of now in the
twentieth century.
With such a great past, can we wonder that
not only the people but also the very environs
of Scotland are enfolded in a garment of mystery
and lofty tradition, which have set the place and
the race among the rarest and most hallowed in
the history of the world?
It is a significant fact with regard to Scotland
that the people still dwelling there, even down
to the close of the eighteenth century, could look
back to a tradition of occupancy and race association with the local glen and mountain through
many centuries into the mists of antiquity.
Lost in this long vista of historic perspective is the
origin of the various famous clan communities, with
their noble and, in some cases, regal feudal rulers,
whose claims to hereditary kingship went back to
remote ages. Very significant are the famous earldoms of Ross, Mar, Fife, Orkney, Strathearn, and
1 The Scotsman in Canada
Caithness, which were in truth ab Initio, or from
the beginning of time. In the days of Queen
Mary the Earls of Argyll lived in regality, and
the Earls of Huntley and Orkney assumed regal
state, while the chief of the Mackays, with 5,000
men behind him in the fastnesses of Strathnaver
and Farr, forced even Queen Mary herself to make
a treaty with him. No Wonder that even to this
day there is yet an atmosphere of an unconquered
pride that permeates this country and its peoples,
as it has no other land or race in modern times.
The present Castle of Inveraray, the seat of
the Duke of Argyll, is but a model on a much
smaller scale of the ancient Castle of Inverlochy,
which in very early times was the centre of a
great capital of Caledonian or Scottish civilisation.
Twenty-one Highland chiefs fought under Bruce
at Bannockburn. They were—Stewart, Campbell,
Macdonald, Mackay, Macintosh, Cameron, Mac-
Pherson, Sinclair, Drumniond, Menzie, Sutherland,
McLean, Ross, McGregor, MacFarlane, Munro,
McKenzie, Cuming, MacNab, McGuarrie, Mac-
dougall, and Robertson. Other old families were
those of Rose of Kilravock, Bannatyne of Karnes,
Buchanan of Buchanan, which were all of ancient
In 1745 a memorial was drawn up by the Lord
President Forbes and transmitted to the Government, showing at that time the force of every clan,
and the number of retainers the chieftains could
bring into the field. 111111
48 The Scotsman in Scotland
It was, in brief, as follows :—
Campbells—in Gaelic, Clan O-Duine ; Chief,
the Duke of Argyll; called in Highlands
MacCallean Mor. And his kinsmen can raise
5,000 men ; that is, Argyll, 3,000 ; Breadal-
bane, 1,000 ; and the Barons named Campbell,
Arkinglas, Auchinbreck, Lochnell, Inverair, and
others, 1,000. In addition, there is Campbell of
Calder, and others of the name in Dunbarton,
Stirling, and Perthshire. They are the richest and
most numerous clan in Scotland.
Maclean—in Gaelic, Clan Lein; Chief, Sir
Hector Maclean of Dewart, lands under Argyll;
500 men.
Maclachlan—Gaelic, Clan Lachlan ; Chief, the
Laird ;   300 men.
Stewart of Appin—Chief, the Laird ;   300 men.
Mcdougall of Lorn—Chief, the Laird ; 200
Macdonalds of Sleat—Chieftain, Sir Alexander
Macdonald, in Skye and Uist ;   700 men.
Macdonald of Clanronald—Captain of Clan-
ronald, in Moidart and Arnaig and Uist, Benbe-
cula and Rum ;   700 men.
Macdonald of Glengarry—Chieftain, the Laird,
in Glengarry and Knoidart ;   500 men.
Macdonald of Keppoch—Chief, the Laird. He
is a tacksman ;   300 men his followers.
Macdonald of Glencoe—Chieftain, the Laird ;
150 men.
These five chieftains of the Macdonalds all
claim a lineal descent from Alexander Macdonald,
vol. 1. D 49
1 The Scotsman in Canada
Earl of Ross ; but none of them have any clear
document to vouch the same, so that that great
and aspiring family, who waged frequent wars with
our Scotch kings, and who acted as sovereigns
themselves, and obliged most of the clans to swear
fealty to them, is now utterly extinct. The last
Earl of Ross had no sons, nor any near male
relation to succeed him. (The female descent
in several lines exists to-day in a north of Scotland
family, and with it the right to the Earldom of
Ross, both through, and anterior to, the Macdonald
Cameron—A very potent clan in Lochaber;
Chief, the Laird of Lochiel; has a good estate,
but most of it holds of the Duke of Argyll, and
the rest of the Duke of Gordon ;   800 men.
Macleods—Two distinct and very potent families
of old, Macleod of Lewis and Macleod of Harris,
both extinct and their lands possessed by the Mackenzie ; Chief, the Laird of Macleod ; he has a
considerable estate in Glenelg and Skye ; 700
men. (The representative of the Macleods of
Lewis was living some years ago in the
village of Inchnadamph, Assynt, Sutherland. He
was in poor circumstances, but bore himself with
the dignity of a gentleman, though living as a
mere crofter. He is descended from a brother of
Neil of Assynt.)
Mackinnons—The Laird is chief ; lands in Skye
and Mull, 200 men.
There are several persons of rank, and gentlemen who are chieftains, commanding many
>jjr|_ The Scotsman m Scotland
Highlanders in Argyll; Monteith, Dunbarton, Stirling, and Perthshire, such as the Duke of Montrose
(Graham), the Earl of Moray (Murray), and Bute
(Stewart) ; also the Macfarlane, McNeill of Barra,
MacNab of MacNab, and Buchanan and Colqu-
houns of Luss, Macnaughtons, Lament of La-mont,
who can raise among them 5,000 men. There are
Border families, Kilravock (Rose), Brodie of
Brodie, Innis of Innis, Irvine of Drum, Lord Forbes
and the Earl of Airlie, all loyal except the Ogilvie.
Few or none have any followers except Lord Airlie
from his Highland estate.
Duke of Perth—Is no clan family ; the Duke
is chief of the barons and gentlemen called Drum-
mond in the Low Country ; commands 300 Highlanders in Perthshire.
Robertsons—Strowan is chief ; lands in Ran-
nock and Braes of Athole, Perthshire ; 200 men ;
500 Robertsons follow the Duke of Athole.
Menzies—Sir Robert of Weem is chief; a
handsome estate in Rannock and Appin, Dule,
Athole ;   300 men.
Stewart of Grandtully—Lands in Strathbane
and Strathay in Athole ;   300 men.
Clan Gregor—Name called down by Act of
Parliament. Clan dispersed under name of Drum-
mond, Murray, Graham, and Campbell, living in
Perthshire, Stirlingshire, and Dunbartonshire ;
chief (none) ;   700 men.
Duke of Athole—The Murrays are no clan
family ; the Duke is chief, head of a number of
barons and gentlemen of the name in the Low-
51 The Scotsman in Canada
lands ; 3,000 men from his estate and other
followings, such as, Stewarts of Athole, 1,000 ;
Robertsons, 500, Fergusons, Smalls, Spaldings,
Ratrays, Mackintoshes in Athole, and Maclarens
in Balquidder.
Farquharsons—The only clan family in Aberdeenshire ; chief, Laird of Invercauld ; several
barons of same name, such as Monaltrie, Inverey,
Finzean ;   500 men.
Duke of Gordon—No clan family ; the Duke
is chief of a powerful name in the Lowlands ;
following in Strathaven and Glenlivet ; 300
Grant—Chief, Laird of Grant ; in Strathspey,
700 men ;  in Urquhart ;   150 men.
Mackintoshes—Chief, Laird of Mackintosh ; 800
men, including McQueens, McBeans, and McGilli-
Macphersons—Chief, Laird of Cluny ; 400
men ; has lands in Badenoch from the Duke of
Frasers—Of Aird and Stratherrick in Inverness ;   chief is Lord Lovat ;   900 men.
Grant of Glenmoriston — A chieftain of the
Grants ;    150 men.
Chisholms—Chief, Chisholm of Strathglass ;
200 men.
Mackenzies—Next to Campbells one of the
most considerable clans ; Chief, the Earl of Sea-
forth ; in Kintail, Lochbroom, Lochcarron, and in
the Isle of Lewis, all in Ross-shire, 1,000 men ;
the Earl of Cromartie, with the Lairds of Gairloch,
52 The Scotsman in Scotland
Scatwell, Killcowie, Redcastle, Comrie, 1,500 men
Monro—Sir Henry of Fowlis is chief ;   300 men.
Rosses—Chief, Lord Ross ;   500 men.
Sutherlands—Chief, Earl of Sutherland ; 2,000
Mackays—Chief, Lord Reay ; 800 men. (Mackay of Strathy was a leading cadet.)
Sinclairs — Chief, Earl of Caithness ; 1,000
men ; many of them are under May, Dunbeath,
Ulbster, Freswick, &c.
This was the condition of the Scottish clans
at the middle of the eighteenth century. Since
then many thousands of kilted children of strath
and glen have been dispersed to the ends of the
earth. To-day they are an important element in
many of the great colonies of the Empire, and, as
will be shown in this work, have been largely,
with the United Empire Loyalists, the founders and
makers of British Canada.
This short sketch of the Scottish race in the
Old Land is given here to show from what a great
stock the larger portion of our people have come,
and through what iron strife of the centuries they
have achieved their fame as a race.
With such a past, such an origin, such great
traditions and ideals, the Scottish peoples in
Canada, if they do not forget their high origin
and their race responsibilities, should yet carry
out in the New World the best ideals of the Old.
This will be so if they are loyal to the Old Land,
to the old Flag, to the Crown and the Constitution.
1        llN  CANADA
While far and wide their brethren swept,
To build up Empire fair and free ;
Or safe at home old Scotland slept,
Forgetful of old feuds and thralls ;—
These faithful warders trod the walls,
Sounding their grim old battle calls,
For freedom, truth and unity.
IT must always be pleasant to an historian to
write of a strong race or stock, just as it is
a pleasure to be able to describe a rugged mountain or a great cliff of sea-wall, such as that which
girds the historic coasts of Antrim, Derry, and
Among the men of Scottish blood who have
done so much to build up Canada, none is more
important than those who came to the country by
way of the North of Ireland.
It might be said that they are the only true
Scotsmen, if one was a stickler for exact history ;
as in all the old maps of British antiquity, as far
back as maps such as we have them go, the Scot-
55 11
The Scotsman in Canada
land of to-day is called Caledonia, and the original
Scotia is that portion of Ireland, along its northern
end, represented to-day by the countries above
mentioned—Antrim, Derry, Donegal, and Down.
It was from this region that the Scotsmen came
and spread over the southern portion of what is
now modern Scotland. So that, if history is to be
carried out literally, the title Ulster Scot is a
redundancy, and Scot and Caledonian Scot would
be more nearly correct when speaking of the great
race dealt with in this work.
Be this as it may—and if we go back far enough
in history it is strictly true—it might also be said
with equal truth that the first great Scottish settlement from modern Scotland was that of Ulster in
the North of Ireland. Ever since the days pf
Queen Elizabeth there has been a movement of
emigration from Western and Southern Scotland
into Ulster ; and so strong has been the movement
and so persistent the development as a pure stock
of northern Scottish people, in what is called the
Scottish Pale, that it might be said that for the
last four hundred years the province of Ulster has
been held by Scotland.
It is not to be denied that there is some of the
Irish stock as well as much English blood in the
north. But in every way—in blood, religion,
speech, character, and prejudice—the Scotsman has
dominated, and still dominates, the country.
For many centuries the Scotsman had ventured
forth over the Continent of Europe in search of
jadventure  equal  to  the  desire  of  his   spirit  for
I The Ulster Scotsman in Canada
conquest. In most cases he went as a soldier
and became a professional fighter in other men's
quarrels, for there was little to do or to be had
at home.
But this, the first great colony of adventurers
who went forth from the land of the heather, was
of a {nature more peaceful and positive in its results,
though, as the sequel showed, even here the
Scotsman's share of fighting had to be performed.
This migration was largely a question of overpopulation in the homeland, so that Scotland
became too small to hold her children. Then in
the (beginning of the seventeenth century, the
struggle with England having been settled by the
union of the Crowns, the Scotsmen, Celts,
Normans, Saxons, and Danes in their origin, like
the earlier hordes, men, women, and children,
began to go forth, and crossing the narrow seas,
from the Campbelltown, Ayrshire, and Galloway
ports, swarmed into the North of Ireland, and by
right of population possessed themselves of the
land, which they have held, more or less, ever
isince. As one writer puts it : | The numbers
which went were large. They took with them their
Scottish character and their Scottish Calvinism."
Or, as another writer says : 1 The foundation of
Ulster society is Scottish. It is the solid granite
on which it rests." The story of this the first
great Scottish colony should evoke a deep interest.
All Scotsmen should have a pride in its history,
the tales of its sufferings and struggles. The
men it has produced are well worthy of the parent
m The Scotsman in Canada
stock. Perhaps more than those who stayed across
the Channel have the Ulster men been true to the
faith and ideals of the Scottish people at their
strongest period. But the great lesson that they
have shown to the world is that Ireland where
inhabited by the Scotsman is a land of the prosperous and the contented.
It was really King James the Sixth who planted
his people, brave and true, in this, then new, colony,
and it was the success of this one which suggested
the (possibility of the second, or New Scotland,
colony in North America.
But all colonies must have their leaders or
founders, and the first Scotsmen interested in lands
in Ulster were Hugh Montgomery of Braidstone
and James Hamilton, the first Earl of Clandeboye,
ancestor of Lord Dufferin. Montgomery also
became an Irish lord, as Lord Montgomery of the
Ards of Down, and both obtained extensive land
grants in the north. This was only the beginning,
and the great houses of Ranfurly, Castlereagh,
and many others in Ulster are but branches of
the Knoxes, Stuarts, Hamiltons, Campbells, Boyds,
and other famous families and clans of Scotland.
The following quotation will give a slight conception of the Scottish element in the North of
Ireland. Harrison, in his " Scot in Ulster," says :
| The Scots of the Ards of Down have scarcely
intermarried with the Irish during the three
hundred years they have been in the Island." He
further describes the people of Down and Antrim :
% It is strange for any man who is accustomed to
58 The Ulster Scotsman in Canada
walk through the southern districts of Scotland
to cross into Ireland and wander through the
country roads of Down or Antrim. He cannot
feel as if he was away from his own kith and kin.
The men who are driving the carts are like the
men at home ; the women at the cottage doors
are, in build and carriage, like the mothers of
our southern highlands ; the signs of the little
shops in the villages bear well-known names—
Patterson, perhaps, or Johnstone, or Sloan ; the
boy sitting on the \ dyke,' with nothing to do, is
whistling *A man's a man for a' that.' He goes
into the village inn and is served by a six-foot,
loosely hung Scottish Borderer, worthy to have
served drams to the Shepherd and Christopher
North ; and when he leaves the little inn he sees
by the sign that his host bears the name of James
Hay, and his wonder ceases. He gets within sight
of the South Derry hills, and the actors in the
scene partly change. Some are familiar ; the
smart maid at the inn is very like the housemaid
at home, and the principal grocer of the little
village is the very image of the elder who taught
him at the Sunday School."
One of the strongest evidences of Scotland in
the North of Ireland is the great strength of the
Presbyterian Church. It is a proverb that the
really strong, old-time or % Black " Presbyterian
is only to be found in Ulster. Nowhere, as
Orangeism has shown, has Protestantism such a'
stronghold ; and nowhere has it had to fight so
long and persistently for its rights and very
I Ml,  ■' The Scotsman in Canada
The very men of Derry were, most of them,
Scotsmen. The historian of the siege was a
Graham, whose ancestor was among the defenders
of Enniskillen. ' The names of the Scottish clergy
in Derry during the siege were : John Rowan ;
Thos. Temple ; John Campbell ; Barth. Black ;
John Knox ; — Johnston ; Wm. Carnighan;
Thos. Boyd ; John Rowat ; John McKenzie ; John
Hamilton ; Robt. Wilson ; David Brown ; and
Wm. Gilchrist. The commanders of sallying
parties were mostly Scottish, as : Colonel Murray ;
Captains Noble ; Dunbar ; Wilson ; Adams ;
Hamilton ; Beatty ; Sanderson ; Shaw ; Wright ;
Cunningham ; and Majors Stewart and Dunlop.
Among the names of the leading signers of the
address to William and Mary by the inhabitants
of Derry, dated July 29, 1689, were the following
of Scottish origin : Col. John Mitchelburn;
Col. Wm. Campbell ; John McLelland; Jos.
Graham ; Wm. Thompson; Jas. Young; Alex
Knox ; Patk. Moore ; — Humes ; Robt. Deniss-
toun ; Marm. Stewart ; Jas. Flemming ; Andrew
Grigson ; Christopher Jenny; Thos. Smith;
Barth. Black ; Col. John Campbell ; John Cunningham ; H. Love ; Geo. Hamilton; Andrew
Baily; John Hamilton ; Robt. Boyd; Ralph
Fulerton ; Michael Cunningham ; Jos. Johnson
Robt. Bailey; Danl. McCustin ; John Bailly
Robt. Lindsay f Francis Boyd ; Wm. Hamilton
Arthur Hamilton ; Jos. Cunningham; And
McCulloch ; Alex. Sanderson ; Arch. Sanderson
Arthur Noble jj Phil. Dunbar ; Geo. White
b, The Ulster Scotsman in Ccmada
Robt. King
Hamilton :
Alex. Rankin ;   Jas.
; Thos. Adair ; John
Thos. White ; Jos. Gledstanes ; Adam Murray ;
Henry Murray ; Henry Campbell ; Alex. Stuart ;
Thos. Johnston ; Jos. Gordon ; James Hains ;
And. Hamilton ; Jas. Moore ; Nich. White ; Jas.
Hunter ; Abr. Hillhouse ; Robt. Wallace ; Richd.
Flemming ; Thos. Lowe ; Jas. Blair ; John
Buchannan ;  Wm. Stewart ;   Mathew McLelland ;
;   John Logan ;
John Cochrane
Jas. Case ; and Win. Montgomery.
These comprise seventy out of the hundred and
thirteen names on the address.
It has wrongly been said that Scottish Ulster
has produced no men of genius. This statement
is decidedly misleading. No people in the world
has produced more noted men than have this breed
of Ulster Scotsmen. In the Anglican Church in
Britain and Ireland, some of the most distinguished
bishops, preachers, and scholars have been of
Ulster blood. Archbishop Magee, and Boyd-
Carpenter, the present distinguished Bishop of
Ripon, are two examples of many noted divines of
this race. Among soldiers, Sir Henry Torrens and
Lord Roberts have been men of Ulster descent.
In literature alone, such names as Browning, Poe,
Kipling, and the Canadian Drummond are sufficient to redeem Ulster from the long silence as to
her men of genius. She has been exceedingly
prolific in great scholars, divines, poets, soldiers,
scientists, jurists, business men, and statesmen.
A great many of the Ulster Scotsmen, during
the  eighteenth  century,   removed   to  the   United
ills -f& The Scotsman in Canada
States ; and such prominent men as McKinley,
Roosevelt, Hanna, and James Stewart, the late
merchant prince, are a few among the thousands
of prominent Americans who have been proud of
having the Ulster Scottish blood in their veins.
Canada is one of the countries which owes much
to the Ulster Scotsman, who has been a prominent
factor in her progress and development. There
is scarcely a part of the country where Ulster
Scotsmen have not settled. There are many sin
the Maritime Provinces, in Prince Edward Island,
Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick, whose ancestors
came out in solid settlements, or are mingled with
the other Scottish elements in the cities, towns,
and country places.
The county of Truro, Nova Scotia, was jfirst
settled by Ulster Scotsmen. In 1761, fifty-three
families, comprising in all one hundred and twenty
souls, who had emigrated from Ulster to New
Hampshire, then a colony of Britain, became dissatisfied and removed to Truro. They came under
the guidance of Colonel McNutt, himself an Ulster
Scotsman, who for years had been an active agent
in the settlement of the Maritime Provinces.
These emigrants were no poor crofters or outdriven fisher-folk. But they were a good independent stock of the Scottish race. They brought
with them from New Hampshire household
utensils, farming implements, seed-corn, and
potatoes, besides over one hundred head of cattle.
It was in the pleasant month of May when they
arrived at their destination and got their first view
62 The Ulster Scotsman in Canada
of the land that was to be theirs and their
children's for generations to come. They were,
for the most part, of the stern Presbyterian stock,
and the names of many of these first settlers and
grantees of lands are strong evidence of their
Scottish blood and general character for meeting
the obstacles and privations of pioneer life in the
New World.       | § \  J|    i
The list of Scottish names on the original grants
are in this order : James Yuill ; James Yuill,
jun. ; Alex. Nelson ; James Faulkner ; Andrew
Gamble ; John Gamble ; Jemet Long ; Wm.
Corbitt ; W. Corbitt, jun. ; Mathew Fowler
iWm. Gillmour ; Wm. Nesbitt; Charles Proctor
Thos. Gourlie ; Jas. Gourlie ; John Gourlie
Samson Moore ; James Moore ; James Johnson
Jas. Johnson, jun. ; Adam Johnson ; James Dun-
lop ; Thos. Dunlop ; Ely Bell; John Crawford
Adam Boyd ; John Morrison ; James Whidden
Alex. Miller ; Thos. Archibald ; John Rains
Robt. Hunter ; Wm. Kennedy ; John McKeen
John McKeen, jun. ; Wm. McKeen ; John Fulton
Wm. Logan ; Samuel Archibald ; Mathew Archibald ; John Archibald, jun.; David Archibald;
Charles McKay ;   Alex. McNutt.
From these settlers have descended some of the
most noted men and families in the province, including the Dickies and Archibalds ; and they
have been represented especially by Senator Dickie,
one of the Fathers of Confederation ; his noted
son, the late Honourable Arthur Rupert Dickie,
Minister of Justice for Canada ;   the Honourable
t- 1 BM The Scotsmcm in Canada
Adams Archibald, Lieut.-Governor of the Province ;
and Senator McKeen.
Quebec has also many Ulster Scotsmen among
her most progressive inhabitants in the cities and
towns and among her farming population.
Ontario has a large admixture of this element,
as is evinced in her strong Orange population.
Many of the rural classes are of Ulster Scottish
descent. There is hardly a county in the province
that has not a large number among its well-to-do
farmers and townsmen. The counties of Grey
and Bruce have whole townships of Ulster men,
who have made loyal and respected citizens and
subjects of the Empire. They are to be found in
all walks of life. The Anglican, Presbyterian,
and Methodist Churches have contained many able
clergy of this noted stock. Many of Canada's
leading divines, legislators, jurists, financiers,
scholars, and writers have been of the Ulster Scottish stock, whose families, through a period of
residence in the North of Ireland, trace their blood
and heredity back through a thousand years of
Scottish history. It is therefore plain that no
proper chronicle of the Scotsman in Canada can
be complete without an account of this great and
important  portion of the Scottish race.
All through the pages of this work mention will
be made of the Ulster Scotsmen as they appear
on the stage of the country's development.
Over the hazy distance,
Beyond the sunsets rim,
Forever and forever
These voices called to him.
Westward! Westward! Westward!
The sea sang in his head;—
At morn in the busy harbour,
At nightfall on his bed—
Westward! Westward! Westward!
Over the line of breakers,
Out of the distance dim,
Forever the foam-white fingers
Beckoning, beckoning him.
ONE of the most remarkable and interesting
chapters in Canadian history is that dealing
with the Scottish dependencies in the New World.
Much has been written of New England, New
France, and New Amsterdam. But few even among
scholars know the real history of this page in our
British colonial annals, and the story of New Scotland in North America is almost unknown to the
average reader of works on early America. This
is the more to be deplored, considering that Scots-
vol. I. E 6$ The Scotsman in Canada
men have had so much to do with the subsequent
development of our country, and form such a large
and important portion of the population.
Like many attempts at early colonisation, this
project, so far as its immediate objects were
concerned, was destined to failure. But the
attempt was far-reaching in its consequences.
Its story reads more like a romance of the
days of chivalry or a fairy tale than a plain
chapter of our annals. But in all matters
which have to do with Scotland and her
history this element seems inevitable. Then, as
has ever been the case in connection with the
Scottish settlement and development of Canada, we
have here to do with a strong, masterful and ambitious personality, that of Sir William Alexander,
Earl of Stirling and Viscount Canada, the first great
Scotsman to couple his name and fame with our
The story which leads up to the founding of New
Scotland may be related briefly.
In 1497 John Cabot and his son Sir Sebastian,
those adventurous spirits, discovered Cape Breton^
and set up the flag of Britain on its shores. Thus
the territory became a part of the dominion of the
British monarchy Henry the Seventh. Within a
century afterwards, over three hundred fishing
vessels were found upon the coasts in the vicinity
of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. They were of the
leading sea-going nationalities, British, French, and
Spanish. But the harbours of the vicinity were
held by the British.
66 Nova Scotia
A marvellous but not exaggerated account, as
subsequent history has proved, was given in the
Old World as to the vast riches of the New. The
early explorers spoke of the mines of gold and
silver, the forests rich in furs, the seas, rivers, and
lakes, teeming with fishes, and there were even
stories told of precious stones in the far interior
to the north, and those stories are believed to this
day. These tales of a vast, wealthy continent
created a keen rivalry between the leading
European Governments regarding the exploration
of this dazzling treasure-house of the Far West-
In 1583, Sir Humphrey Gilbert took possession
of Newfoundland in the name of Britain ; meanwhile the King of France, Henry the Fourth, had
sent explorers to colonise Acadia.
In 1608, Champlain's ship was steered up the
St. Lawrence by the Scottish pilot—Abraham
Martin. So it was a Scotsman who had to do with
the founding of Quebec, and gave his name to the
famous heights.
It was not until 1613 that Captain Argall, whose
name suggests the Scottish one of Argyll or
Ergadia, a brave Briton who had already made a
name in the Western world by carrying off the
famous Indian Princess Pocahontas, captured, with
a single ship of one hundred and thirty guns, the
whole vast territory of Acadia, and took possession
in the name of King James the Sixth of Scotland
and First of England.
This great and diligent Scottish monarch, the
first of the later line of Stuart kings, was both a
fliliull The Scotsman in Canada
■  !
statesman and a scholar, and moreover a man of
wide knowledge of the world as it then existed ;
and he at once realised the great possibilities of
his new possessions in the Far West. He also saw
that here was a chance to form a rich colony in
close connection with the great northern kingdom
of his forefathers, and out of this grew the scheme
for founding a New Scotland in North America.
King James was a man of practical brain, and he
saw that something would need to be done to persuade his northern subjects to take a part in this
royal project. But though kings can plan, they
need men of affairs to carry out their schemes, and
he found the man to his hand in his friend, favourite,
and brilliant courtier, Sir William Alexander, a poet
like himself, and, like all large Scotsmen, a
strange mixture of the man of affairs and the
That was a great age, like the Elizabethan which
preceded it, when all from the monarch down were
poets, scholars, and thinkers, and Alexander, the
head of the first Scottish-Canadian community,
could not escape the inspiration for verse-making
which then prevailed. It was said sneeringly of
him and his royal master, that James was a king
who dared to be a poet, and that Alexander was
a poet who would found a kingdom. This last
dream was indeed realised when, two hundred and
sixty years later, his great fellow-clansman, Sir
John Alexander Macdonald, proposed the union or
federation of the British North American provinces
under the title of the Kingdom of Canada.
i Nova Scotia
The biography of Sir William Alexander Macdonald, for such was his true name, is one of the
most romantic and tragic in Scottish history. It
not only carries the reader back to the peculiar
relationship which formerly existed between the
two great clans of Campbell and Macdonald, but
also introduces us to the Earl of Stirling's first
patron and friend, Archibald, seventh Earl of
Argyll, to whom he became tutor and travelling
Sir William Alexander, afterward Earl of Stirling, was of distinguished Scottish ancestry. He
was descended from a collateral branch of the
great family of whom the famed Somerled was
the noted progenitor. His ancestor was Alexander
Macdonald, and a branch of this family was that
of the Macalisters of Loup, which like the
Alexanders became residents in Argyllshire, and
possessed of lands under the lordship of the Earls
of Argyll.
Sir William was the only son of Alexander
Alexander of Menstrie, which place was the family
seat for many generations, and he was born in
the manor-house of that place. There is some
dispute as to the exact date of his birth, but the
best authorities place it at about 1567. Owing
to the early death of his father, he was brought
up by his paternal grand-uncle, a burgess of the
historic old city of Stirling, and he was probably
educated at the grammar school of that city under
Thomas Buchanan, nephew of the famous George
Buchanan, historian and tutor of James the Sixth!.
69 The Scotsman m Canada
Having gained some reputation as a scholar,
Alexander became travelling companion to Archibald, seventh Earl of Argyll, with whom he visited
many European countries, including Italy, France,
and Spain. This Earl became his friend and patron,
and introduced him at the court of James the Sixth,
where he became tutor to the young Prince Henry.
Alexander's literary ability and general qualities
appealed to James, and at the King's accession to
the English throne, the Scottish poet and adventurer became one of the thirty-two gentlemen
attendants of the Prince of Wales.
He had, ere leaving Scotland, already made a
reputation as a poet. | The Tragedy of Darius,"
printed in 1603, was his first contribution to
Scottish poetry, and was dedicated to the King.
He wrote several other meritorious works. But
it is rather of his work as a founder of Canada that
we must speak here.
In 1609 he is described as a knight, and soon
became interested, though without profit, in some
of the King's schemes to develop the gold and
silver mines of Scotland. He at this period carried
on a literary correspondence with the distinguished
Scottish poet, Drummond of Hawthornden. In
1614 he became Master of Requests, and in 1620
the King sought his advice regarding his new
acquired lands of Acadia, and Sir William wrote
regarding this adventure : | My countrymen would
never adventure in such an enterprise, unless it
were, as there was, a New France, a New Spaine,
and a New England, that they might likewise have
a New Scotland."
70 Nova Scotia
This great and promising undertaking at once
appealed to the poet's daring and active spirit,
and he determined not to rest until there should
be a newer Scotland, a | Nova Scotia," in the
far continent beyond the Hesperides.
Firmly fixed in this purpose, he obtained from
the King that the new territory should be called
New Scotland, and immediately acquired a vast
territory, which now includes all the Maritime
Provinces, the peninsula of Gaspe in Quebec, and
all the islands in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, west
and south of Newfoundland. This area included
Anticosti, Cape Breton, and all other adjacent
islands as far as Newfoundland. The bounds set by
the King himself were : on the north the river St.
Lawrence, on the east the Gulf of St. Lawrence, on
the south the Atlantic Ocean, and on the west
the river St. Croix to its head, and a line thence
to run north to the first station for ships, or river
falling into the great River of CanadTa, and thence
northward by that river.
The royal letter, dated August 5, 1621, communicating the King's purpose to the Privy Council,
is, in part, as follows :—
Having ever been ready to embrace anie good occasion
whereby the honour or proffete of our kingdome might be
advanced; and considering that no kynd of conquest can be
more easie and innocent than that which doth proceede from
Plantations, especially in a countrey commodious for men to live
in, yet remayneing altogether desert, or at least only inhabited by
Infidels, the conversion of whom to the Christian fayth (intended
by this means) might tend much to the glory of God; since
71 [■?
:. ••{!'
The Scotsman m Canada
sundry other kingdoms, as likewise this our kingdome of late,
vertuously adventring in this kynd, have renued their lands
considering (praysed be God) how populous that our Kingdome
is at this present, and what necessity there is of some good means
whereby Ydle people might be employed preventing worse
courses. Wee think there are manie that might be spared who
may be fitt for such a forraine Plantation, being of myned as
resolute and bodyes as able to encounter the difficulties that such
adventurers must at first encounter with as anie other Nation
whatsoever, and such an enterprise is the more fitt for that our
Kingdome it doth crave the transportation of nothing from thence,
but only men, women cattle and victualls, and not of money, and
maie give a good return of other commodityes, affording the
means of a new trade at this tyme when traffique is so much
decayed. For the cause above specifcit, Wee have the more
willingly harkened to a motion made unto us by Our trusty and
wellbeloved Counsellour Sir William Alexander, Knight; who
hath a purpose to procure a forraine Plantation, haveing made
choice of lands lying betweene our Colonies of New England
aud Newfoundland, both the Governors whereof have encouraged
him thereunto.
Our pleasure is, that after due consideration, if you find this
course, as wee have conceeded it to be, for the good of that our
Kingdome, that you grant unto the said Sir William, his heirs
and assignes or to any other that will joyne with him in the whole
or in anie part thereof, a Signatour under our Greate Seale of the
sayd lands lying between New England and Newfoundland as
he shall design them particularly unto yow, to be holden of us
from our Kingdome of Scotland as a part thereof.
The Privy Council having consented, a Royal
Warrant for the Charter was issued on September
10, 1621, and the Charter passed the Great Seal
on the 29th of the same month1, appointing Sir
William hereditary Lieutenant of the new colony.
The patent was embellished with portraits of James
and his lieutenant.
:i| Nova Scotia
But the first attempt to carry out the work proved
a failure. Alexander obtained a royal Charter of
the Cape Breton portion of New Scotland for his
friend Sir Robert Gordon of Lochinvar, under the
title of New Galloway, and dated November 8,
In 1622, Alexander sent forth his first colonising
ship to New Scotland. Early in the spring
she sailed from London to Scotland, where,
at Kirkcudbright, on Sir Robert Gordon's lands,
emigrants were to be recruited. But though
many inducements were offered, only a blacksmith and a Presbyterian minister were induced to make the venture. The rest were
agricultural labourers. The ship sailed from
Old Scotland in June, but was delayed at the
Isle of Man until August, and Newfoundland was
not reached until the middle of September, where
she was held by a storm. Sir William Alexander
gives an account of the many difficulties encountered
in his famous work, | Encouragement to Colonies."
But the failure of the first vessel to arrive at
New Scotland did not discourage its ardent Governor. A second ship, the St. Luke, sailed in March,
1623, an(l arrived at St. John's on June 5th. Impeded by fogs and adverse gales, the emigrants
finally arrived at Port de Miouton ; but the expedition was, like the other, a failure, though by both
Alexander sustained serious loss to his fortune.
But he steadily persevered. In 1624 he published his work, " Encouragement to Colonies,"
which is, without doubt, the earliest serious emigra-
73 The Scotsman in Canada
tion literature published in connection with Canada.
It is a great pity that the British people have not,
since that date, done more in this way, especially
during the last century, to direct British emigration to. the colonies, instead of allowing it to
scatter over the globe.
In his work referred to, Alexander included a
map of New Scotland, and he traced the history of
colonial enterprise from the days of the sons of
Noah through the Phoenicians, Greeks, and
Romans to his century. He praised the Spanish
energy in establishing transatlantic colonies. He
spoke of the success of Virginia, and proclaimed
the discovery of America as the call of Providence
to Britain to occupy the New World. We, in this
later day, realising what has shice happened,
should appreciate the efforts, foresight, wisdom,
and ardour of this, the first great colonist of
British North America. He also hoped that the
dignity of the royal sceptre would be further increased by the plantation of New Scotland, which
would carry into unexplored tracts the influence of
British culture and of the Christian faith. He
described the richness of the country awaiting its
inhabitants, and pointed out that each year, like
to a beehive, Scotland sent forth swarms of her
people to expend their energies in foreign wars.
This was only too true at that.time and for long
after, when we remember the famous Scottish
Brigades, whose activities in different countries of
Europe are a part of history. But Alexander
invited his fellow-countrymen to settle in a country
74 Nova Scotia
where the arts  of peace  might have  full  sway,
where commerce and agriculture might  develop,
and the missionary have a  vast  field of work.
Saw visions in the future, round the west
Of Europe's fading sunsets; held a hope
Of some new Paradise for poor men's cure
From despotisms of old dynasties
And cruel iron creeds of warped despairs.
This stirring appeal fell, however, upon stony
ground. The period was evidently too early a
one for such attempts to have any real effect.
And the Governor of New Scotland was forced to
resort to another method, which had already been
adopted in settling the Northern Pale of Ulster, or
Scottish Ireland. This was by means of the
establishment of the now famous order of Baronets
of Nova Scotia, or New Scotland. The Ulster
order of Baronets suggested to Alexander the idea
of the Scottish Baronets, whereby Scottish landowners and younger sons of the nobility might
form a new noble order and also thereby benefit
Western colonisation.
Again, on his recommendation, a royal letter
was issued from the Court of Roystown to the
Privy Council of Scotland informing the Council
that Royalty had determined that the colonisation
of New Scotland should succeed, and that the
King himself was, in this connection, about to
establish a new order of Baronets.
To  this  the  Council,  under   the  guidance  of
''V The Scotsman m Canada
Alexander, agreed, and in its reply, dated November 23, 1824, asked that the honour be kept select,
and given only to those of station, birth, and
fortune ; and it also suggested that the scheme
of colonisation might relieve Scotland of many of
her surplus population. There were twelve signatures to the Council's answer, among them those
of the Earls of Mar, Morton, and Lauderdale.
The whole text of the royal letter, the reply, and
the subsequent royal proclamation, are given in
the Register of Royal Letters. The proclamation
recapitulated the substance of the Council's reply,
and invited the leading Scottish gentlemen to contribute to the colonisation fund and become
members of the order of Baronets of New Scotland,
and to repair for enrolment, either by person or
agent, to the Lords of the Council.
Even this apparent reward of honours to
aspirants did not have the desired effect, and Sir
William renewed his appeals in the form of a royal
mandate dated March 23, 1624-5, inviting candidates to apply to him personally or to his agent,
Sir John Scott, Knight ; and the fee of
3,000 merks was reduced to 2,000, to be
applied strictly to colonial purposes.
But the whole scheme was again retarded by
a grave event, the death of the King on Sunday,
March 27, 1625, just four days after the date
of the royal missive referred to.
However, on May 28th, the first three Baronets
of Nova Scotia were made in the persons of the
famous Sir Robert Gordon, Knight, younger son
76 Nova Scotia
of the Earl of Sutherland, who thus became premier
baronet of Nova Scotia ; William1 Keith, Earl
Marischal ; and Alexander Strachan of Strachan.
The next day five more were added : Sir Duncan
Campbell of Glenorquie, Knight ; Robert Innis of
Innis ; Sir John Wemyss of Wemyss, ancestor to
the Earl Wemyss ; David Livingston of Dunipace ;
and Sir Robert Douglas of Glenbervie. On
July ist Charles the First granted to Sir William
Alexander a charter of Novodamus, with a re-
grant of all lands, powers, and privileges cited
in the former charter, and additional clauses
respecting the order of Baronets. By the new
arrangement, Sir William resigned all his lands
in New Scotland to the King, who re-granted them
to the different baronets. It was also provided
that infeftment should take place at Edinburgh
Castle, as New Scotland was already made a part
of the kingdom of Scotland. The whole of the
grants were afterwards ratified and confirmed in
the first Parliament of Scotland at Edinburgh on
June  28,   1633, the King himself being present.
An additional clause also promised that the
former grant would be confirmed by Parliament.
Under the charter the baronets were to be
barons of large territories in New Scotland, which
was parcelled out among them. The first created
received, each, estates six miles in length by three
in breadth.
The second proclamation, that under Charles the
First, was issued on August 31,  1625, giving the
77 The Scotsman in Canada,
I fill
rank,  powers,  and responsibilities  of the undertakers who became baronets.
The King took a deep interest in the new order.
He even wrote strong letters of rebuke to the
Earl of Stair and others who were opposed to
the making of the new baronets. Among the
others was the Laird of Wemyss, who received a
sharp summons to take advantage of the opportunity of acquiring the offered rank, which he
accepted, together with the promise that it would
lead to higher promotion.
There are some facts not generally known to
the average student in connection with the Nova
Scotia baronetcies. One of these is, that by right
the titles are connected with New Scotland, rather
than with the Old Land. For instance, the Campbell Baronetcies of Ardnamurchan and Auckin-
breck, so-called, are rather New Ardnamurchan
and New Auckinbreck in the Gaspe portion of
New Scotland. Likewise the Laird of Wemyss
became Sir John Wemyss, Baronet of New
Wemyss. Thus it is seen that the whole undertaking was indeed the creation of a great Canadian
aristocracy, whereby a long list of noted Scottish
families became the nobility, though now in title
only, of a great part of Maritime Canada and
Southern Quebec. This significant historical fact
should be of deep interest to all Canadians of
Scottish extraction.
The first Baronet of Nova Scotia, Sir Robert
Gordon, was so created May 28,   1625, and the
last to be created was Craigie of Gairsay in 1707.
mm Nova Scotia
The descendants of these Baronets of Canada
have, many of them, been since connected with
the history of Canada, as governors, soldiers,
colonists, statesmen, clergy, and in other important
walks of life. Some of these families have become
extinct and others lost to history, the titles becoming dormant through the loss of tjhe rightful heir.
It is known that some cadets of these families
have drifted to the colonies, and have there lost
sight of their connection with this old historic
order of lesser nobility.
The scheme of colonisation went steadily on.
Sir William had been made Secretary for Scotland, as well as Lieutenant of New Scotland.
A small fleet was then announced as being in
preparation to proceed to the new colony. The
royal letter containing this pronouncement is
dated: I Whythall," January 17, 1627. Money
was also furnished from the royal Treasury to the
amount of six thousand pounds. The ships, bearing
the suggestive names of the Eagle and Morning
Star, finally got under way. A Captain David
Kirk, a colonist of Scottish descent, whose people
had settled in France, was appointed Deputy-
Admiral under Sir William. With a small force,
he defeated the French squadron bound for Quebec
and Port Royal, and captured eighteen transports.
This gave prestige to Sir William's scheme, and
fourteen patents of baronetcy were added between
October,   1627, and February,   1628.
Alexander now chartered new vessels, and Jiis
son and heir, Sir William, who was made Knight
79 The Scotsman m Canada
Admiral of New Scotland, sailed with four ships
in May, 1628, carrying seventy colonists, who were
safely landed at Port Royal, now Annapolis. Some
English adventurers now attempted to procure the
right of trafficking with the new colony, but were
frustrated, and a royal patent was grianted to Sir
William Alexander the younger and others, as
I sole traders " in the Gulf and River of Canada,
and they were empowered to settle a plantation
" within all parts of the gulf and river above those
parts which are over against Kebeck [Quebec]
on the south side, or above twelve leagues below
Todowsack  [Tadousac]  on the north side."
They were also, on February 4, 1629, empowered I to make a voyage into the Gulf and
River of Canada and the parts adjacent for the
sole trade of beaver, wools, beaver skins, furs,
hides, and skins of wild beasts."
Sir William, the elder, was now made Keeper
of the Signet for Scotland, with a deputy at Edinburgh ; and, to further his colony, he established
in 1627 a shipping port at Largs at the mouth of
the Clyde, and secured a charter to build a free
port and haven at that place j for advancing trade
and commerce between the Old World and the
New." This was the first beginning of what afterwards developed into the world-wide shipping and
vast trade of Glasgow and the Clyde.
Sir William and the King intended that Nova
Scotia should be, in the New World, the same complement of Scotland as the sister Province of New
England was to the mother country from which
80 Nova Scotia
it derived its name. It must not be forgotten,
however, that Nova Scotia was a royal colony.
Much injustice has been done to the memory of
James the Sixth of Scotland and First of England.
He was in many respects a man far in advance
of his times. His colonial policy may have been
paternal, but it was not any the worse because
of that. It was certainly eminently practical and
far-seeing, and decidedly commercial in its object,
feut the difficulty was to get men to leave their
homes and adventure over an unknown sea into
a far country, unless they were compelled thereto
by persecution, a strong unrest, or a dissatisfaction with their own surroundings. It was in that
age a difficult matter to move any people to
emigrate, and hence the failure in interesting the
people of Scotland in the new colony.
That the scheme was strong in the mind of
James is evident, as on his death-bed he referred
to it plaintively but earnestly as " a good work,
a royal work, and one beneficent to the kingdom
in general," and he left it as an heritage of duty
to his royal son to carry out. His object had
been, no doubt, to found on the American continent a country which should be a part of his
kingdom of Scotland, and joined to it by bonds
of sentiment and mutual commerce. It is a great
pity that this great scheme, as originally intended
by the King and Sir William Alexander, was not
carried out in its entirety. The founding of the
order of Baronets and Barons of the new community was for the sole purpose of interesting the
vol. I. F 81
4£ The Scotsman m Canada
well-to-do people in this important scheme. Those
writers who have sneered at or ignored this important undertaking have certainly missed the real
significance of the adventure. If it had been made
successful, what a blessing it would have been
to the New World1.
The premier baronet of New Scotland, Sir
Robert Gordon, was created by Charles the First
on May 28, 1625, and received a grant of
16,000 acres of land in New Scotland. By
July 19th nine other baronets with similar grants
were added, and by 1630, fully fifty in all were
created ; and between 1663 and 1707, when the
union of Scotland and England occurred, one
hundred and twenty had been created.
In the year 1845 the memorandum on the Nova
Scotia question stated that there were in Great
Britain one hundred and sixty baronets of this
order, of whom forty were peers of the realm.
The following is the correct roll of the baronets
of Scotland and New Scotland, with date of
creation and designations.
May 29.
1625 May 28.     Gordon of Gordon (Sir Robert),
Premier Bt.	
Strachan of Strachan	
Keith, Earl Marischal	
Campbell of Glenurchy (Marquess of Breadalbane)
Innis of New Innis (Duke of
Wemyss of New Wemyss (Earl
of Wemyss)	
Livingston of Dunipace
Nova Scotia
New Brunswick
May 30.
New Brunswick |r     Nova Scotia
1625 May 30.
Douglas of Douglas ft New Brunswick
luty 14
Macdonald of Macdonald (Lord
Macdonald)         ...               „
luly 19.
Murray   of    Cockpool    (Earl
Mansfield)             ...              „
Aug. 30.
Colquhoun of Colquhoun      ... Nova Scotia
Aug. 31.
Gordon      of      New      Cluny
(Marquess of  Huntly)       ... New Brunswick
Sept. 1.
Lesly of Lesly               „
Sept. 2.
Gordon of New Lesmure       ...              „
Sept. 3.
Ramsay of Ramsay                    „
Nov. 17.
Forester of Corstorphine (Earl
Verulam)        Nova Scotia
Dec. 28.
Erskine of Erskine       Anticosti
Graham of Braco                  „
Hume of Palworth      ...       ...         „
1626 Mar. 30.
Forbes of Forbes         New Brunswick
Mar. 31.
Johnston of Johnston               „
Apr. 21.
Burnett of Leys Burnett        ...              „
Apr. 22.
Moncrieff of Moncrieff          ...              „
Apr. 24.
Ogilvie of New Carnnosie
May 1.
Gordon of Lochinvar (Viscount
Kenmore)                     „
June 1.
Murray of Murray                      „
July 18.
Blackadder of Blackadder     ... Anticosti
Sept. 29.
Ogilvy of Ogilvy, Innerquharity New Brunswick
1627 Mar. 18.
Mackay of Reay (Lord Reay)... Anticosti
Mar. 28.
Maxwell of Mauldslie  New Brunswick
Stewart of Bute (Marquess of
J3U LC I       • • •                   • • •                   ■••                   •••                                     f.
Apr. 18.
Stewart of  Corswall (Earl of
Galloway)      ...       ...       ...              „
May 2.
Napier of Napier (Lord Napier)              „
June 25.
Livingston of Kennaird (Earl
of Newburgh)           Anticosti
Cunningham of Cunningham...         „
July 17.
Carmichael of Carmichael     ... Nova Scotia
Tulv iQ.
McGill of McGill          Anticosti
iil-M Anticosti
New Brunswick"
June 20.
Sept, 29.
Oct. 2.
1629 June 26.
Hope of CraighaU
Skene of Curriehill     	
Preston of Preston Airdrie   ...
Gibson of Durie 	
Crawford of Kilbirnie ...
Riddell of New Riddell
Murray of Blackbarony
Murray of Elibank Murray (Lord
Cadell of Cadell...
Mackenzie of Tarbat (Earl of
Elphinstone of New Glasgow New Brunswick
Forbes of Castle-Forbes (Earl
Granard)        Nova Scotia
Hamilton of   Killach  (Down)
(Marquess of Abercorn)
Stewart of Ochiltree (Earl of
Castle-Stewart)                 „
Barrett, Lord Newburgh       ... New Brunswick
Bruce of Stenhouse       „
Nicholson of Lasswade ... Anticosti Nova Scotia
1629 June 26.
June 28.
Nov. 30.
1630 Mar. 31.
Apr. 20.
Apr. 24.
Nova Scotia
New Brunswick
June 2.
1634 June
1635 Jan. 6.
June 8.
June 18.
June 29.
Arnot of Arnot Anticosti
OHphant of Oliphant	
Agnew of Agnew        	
Keith of Ludquhairn	
St. Estienne of La Tour
Hannay of Mochrum	
Forbes of New Craigievar
Stewart (Lord Ochiltree)
Orosoie ...       ...       ...       ...
Crosbie of Crosbie Park Wick-
1 d I J. Li ••• • • • • • • • • 4
St. Estienne of St. Denniscourt Nova Scotia
Sibbald of RankeiUor Sibbald Anticosti
Murray of New Dunearn       ... New Brunswick
Richardson of Pencaithland ... „
Maxwell of Pollock       Nova Scotia
Cunningham of New Robert-
13.11. d • • • ••• • • • •••
Wardlaw of Wardlaw	
Sinclair  of   Canisby (Earl   of
Caithness)      Anticosti
Gordon of New Embo  „
McLean of Movaren      „
Balfour of Denmiln      Cape Breton
Cunningham of  Auchinharvie
Vernat   of   Carington   (York-
snirc) t• •        •••        •••        • • •
Bingham of Castle bar (Mayo)
(Earl of Lucan)	
Munro of Foulis 	
Foulis of Colinton       	
Hamilton   of Hamilton (Lord
Gascoine of   Barnbow (York-
snire)  ...       ...       ...       ...
Norton of Chestone (Suffolk)...
Pilkington  of   Stainlie  (York-
snire) ...       ...       ...       ...
mm Widdrington   of   Cairntington
(Northumberland) Cape Breton
Hay of Smithfield
Bolles of Cudworth (Notts)
Raney of Rutain (Kent)
Fortesque of Salden (Bucks)
Thomson of Duddington
Browne of Neale (Mayo) (Lord
More of Longford (Notts)
Abercombie of Birkenbog
Sinclair of Stevenson	
Curzon-Keddlestone (Derbysh.)
(Lord Scarsdale)     	
Bailie of Lochead
Nicholson of Carnock
Preston of Valleyfield
Ker of Greenhead
The baronets created from 1638 to 1707 were :
1638, Pollock of Jordanhill ; Musgrave of Hayton
Castle ; 1639, Turing of Foveran ; 1642, Gordon
of Haddo (Earl of Aberdeen) ; 1646, Hamilton
of Silverton Hill; 1648, Seton of Abercorn ;
.1651, Primrose of Chester (Earl of Rosebery) ;
1663, Carnegy of Southesk ; Hay of Park ; 1664,
Murray of Stanhope ; Dalrymple of Stair (Viscount
Stair) ; Sinclair of Longformacus ; 1665, Purves
(Hume Campbell) of Purves ; Malcolm of Bal-
beadie ; 1666, Menzies of that Ilk ; Dalzell of
Glencoe (Earl of Carnwath) ; Erskine of Alva
XEarl of Rosslyn) ; Erskine of Cambo (Earl of
Mar and Kellie) ; Wood of Boyentown ; Elliot
of Stobs ; Ramsay, of Banff ; 1667, Shaw-Stewart
of Greenock ; Don of Newton ; Douglas of Kel-
86 Nova Scotia
head  (Marquess of Queensberry) ;   1668, Barclay
of   Pierston ;    1669,   Wallace  of  Craigie ;    Cun-
yngham   of   Caprington   (now   Dick-Cunyngham,
Earonet of Preston Field) ;   1671, Halkett of Pit-
firrave ;   Cockburn of that Ilk ;   Home of Black -
adder ;   Scott of Ancrum ;   1672, Cunningham of
Corsehill;    Ross    of    Balnagowan ;    Jardine    of
Applegirth ;    1673, Murray of Ochertyre j   Mackenzie of Coul ;   1675, Hamilton of Preston ;   1679,
Clerk of Penicuik ;   Cochrane of Ochiltree   (Earl
of Dundbnald) ;   1680, Baird of Saughton Hall ;
Dundonald;    1680,    Baird   of    Saughton    Hall;
Maitland of Hatton (Earl of Lauderdale) ;   1681,
Maxwell of Montreath ;    1682,  Maxwell of  Pollock ;   Kennedy of Culzean  (Marquess of Ailsa)
Bannerman of Elsick ;    1683, Stewart of Grand-
tully ;   Pringle of Stitchel ;  Maxwell of Sprinkell
Seton of Pitmedden ;   1685, Grierson of Lag ;  Kil-
patrick   of   Closeburn ;   Laurie   of   Max welton
Dalzell of Brims ;   Montcrieff of that Ilk ;   1686
Broun    of    Colstoun ;    Kinlock    of    Gilmerton
Nicholson   of   Tillicoultry ;     Gordon    of    Park
1687, Calder of Muirton ;   Stuart of Allanbank
Hall of Dunglas ;  Thriepland of Fingask ;   1688
Dick-Lauder of Fountainhall ;   Grant of Dalvey
1693,   Stewart   of   Coltness ;   Dunbar   of   Durn
1698, Dalrymple of North Berwick ;   Dalrymple
of Cousland  (Viscount Stair) ;    1700, Mackenzie
of Gairloch ;   Forbes of Foveran ;   Livingstone of
Westquarter ;   Johnstone of Westerhall ;   Elliot of
Minto  (Earl of Minto) ;   Dunbar of Northfield ;
1702, Cunninghame of Milncraig ;  Grant-suttie of
H|b-a—i The Scotsman in Canada
Balgone ; 1703, Mackenzie of Scatwell ; Cathcart
of Carleton ; Ferguson of Kilkerran ; Reid of
Barra ; Hay of Alderston ; 1704, Murray of)
Melgun (Count Murray) ; Wemyss of Bogie/
Grant of Grant (Earl of Seafield) ; Sinclair of
Dunbeath; Wedderburn of Blackness; 170^,
Grant of Monymusk ; Holbourne of Kirshie ;
1706, Gordon of Earlston ; Naesmith of Posso j
Dunbar of Hempriggs (Lord Duffus) ; 1707, Dick
of Preston Field (also Baronet of Capington) ;
Stewart of Tillicoultry ;   Cragie of Gairsay.
It is interesting to trace the representatives or
scions of these old houses who have since then been
connected with Canada. There are descendants
of Sir Robert Gordon's elder sister, Lady Jane
Gordon, living in Canada to-day. The great
Bishop Strachan represented well his family or
clan, as the first Bishop of Nova Scotia represented the Inglis family. A Douglas was one
of the founders of British Columbia, and the
Macdonalds have been notable. A Ramsay, Lord
Dalhousie, was a noted Governor. Mackay of
Reay has descendants in Canada. The noted
Bishop Stewart of Quebec was a younger son of
the Earl of Galloway. Several of the Campbell
families, such as Arkinglas, Auchinbreck have
representatives, and the distinguished chief of the
clan was a Governor. No clan on the list but
has had some one of its name playing an important part in the subsequent life of the whole
country from Cape Breton to Vancouver.
The map of New Scotland, issued1 by Sir William
88 Nova Scotia
Alexander in 1630, is exceedingly interesting. It
shows New France on the north bank of the St.
Lawrence, with Kebec (Quebec) and the river
Saguenay and Tadousac ; and New England
parcelled out among the many English adventurers. The St. Croix, which to-day is the
boundary, is there called the Tweed, which, as
that river separated England and Scotland, so the
Tweed of the New World separated New England
on the south-west from New Scotland on the northeast. The St. John River, in what is now New
Brunswick, was called the Clyde, and the Bay of
Funday was called Argal Bay, and the Sound
west of Prince Edward Island, whUch had no name,
was called the | Forthe 1 ; the St. Lawrence was
called I the great river of Canada," and the gulf
j Golfe of Canada." One of the large rivers
running north into the St. Lawrence was called
the * Sulway," and all the land south of the St.
Lawrence belonged to New England and New
Scotland. The latter was divided into two provinces. All, now New Brunswick, and all Quebec
from the Sulway down south of the St. Lawrence
with Anticosti, was the Province of Alexandria ;
while what is now Nova Scotia, with Cape Breton
and Prince Edward Island, was the Province pi
New Caledonia. In this map the southern part
of Newfoundland is called Alexandria.
Sir William Alexander, in his " Encouragement
to Colonies," gives an insight into his own
personality, his scholarship, and original thought.
The student reading this important work by this
89 turn
The Scotsman in Canada
remarkable man, in the light of subsequent history
and research, cannot but realise that his insight
into the history of the human race Was far beyond
the common, and that his knowledge of the earth's
surface and the emigration of the races, even those
of the remote East and West, was that of no
ordinary person.
History will yet acknowledge that this, the first
Scottish coloniser of America, was one of the great
men of history, and, like Sir Walter Raleigh, a
lofty soul, whose imagination and aspiration for
his race went far beyond his native borders and
his own day and generation. Faults he, no doubt,
had, as had Columbus, Champlain, and Cabot.
But his signal virtues of insight, vast courage,
and imagination, his great knowledge of the New
and Old Worlds both East and West, his deep
scholarship, his indomitable energy, all directed
toward the opening up of new worlds in the
West, place him high up in the ranks of that
immortal band of the world's adventurers—| The
Discoverers "—who—
Feared no unknown, saw no horizon dark,
Counted no danger, dreamed all seas their road
To possible futures; struck no craven sail
For sloth or indolent cowardice; steered their keels
O'er crests of heaving ocean, leagues of brine,
While Hope, firm, kept the tiller; Faith, in dreams,
Saw coasts of gleaming continents looming large
Beyond the ultimate of the sea's far rim. . . .
Souls too great for sloth
And impotent ease, goaded by inward pain
Of some divine, great yearning restlessness,
90 Nova Scotia
Which would not sit at home on servile shores
And take the good their fathers wrought in days
Long ancient time-ward,—reap what others sowed;
But, nobler, sought to win a world their own,
Not conquered by others, but a virgin shore,
Where men might build the future, rear new realms,
Of human effort; forgetful of the past
And all its ill and failure; raising anew
The godlike dreams of genius, knowing only
Immortal possibility of man
To grow to larger vastness, holier dreams.
We know their story, read the truth, where they
Knew only in man's hope and loftier soul,
Which strove and dared and greatly overcame,
Conquering scorn of man and veils of doubt,
Wresting from Nature half her secret, cruel,
Wherewith she darkens down in glooms apart
The mystery of this planet. . . .
We marvel at that stern defiance, where
A single man in a degenerate age
Would throw the gauntlet down against a world.
We are a part of that great dream they dreamed,
We are the witnesses that they were right,
And all the small and common minds were wrong,
The scorners of their faith, the laughers-down
Of their sublime enthusiasms; like as all
Dim ages of this world have heard and seen ;—
Yea, we are witnesses that they who hoped,
And greatly planned, and greatly dreamed and dared,
Were greater and more godlike, truer souls
And wiser in their day than those who sat
With shaking head and shallow platitudes,
Made foolish, vulgar prophecy of defeat.
We are the dream which they did dream; but we
If we are great as they were, likewise know
91 That man is ever onward, outward bound
To some far port of his own soul's desire ;
And life is ever the same in East or West,
And human nature lost in its own toils
Of earthly strivings, loses that gold thread
Of life's sincerity, repeating o'er again
The grim despotic tyrannies of old.—
All lands alils*e to tyrants are a spoil,
From ills of race no continent is immune,
We bear with us the despot in our blood.
And we, who have no continents new to find,
No shadowed planet darkening back our dream,
We, too, as they, are earth's discoverers
Dreaming far peaks of greatness on ahead,
If we but strive and beat our weakness down,
Setting our sails, invincible, for those ports,
Beyond the common, sheltered shoals of self;
Cleaving with daring keel those open seas
Of larger life, those heaving floors of hope;
Marking our course by those fixed stars, alone
Forever steadfast, witnesses of God;
Pointing to continents vast of holier dream.
Iron-welded, O my people! Saxon, Celt,
Victorious Northmen ; strenuous, masterful!—
Not to be strangled in time's ocean flood,
Sucked down in vortex of old ruin dire;
But to remain, contend, depose and rule.
The Sailing of the Hope
O valiant venturers on the deep!
Whence bound? Where steering?—
Toward life and hope beyond the sweep
Of old dead daring!
THE history of the most noted of the Scottish
communities of Nova Scotia and the Maritime  Provinces, that  of  Pictou,  is  an  important,
chapter   in  the   annals   of  the   Scottish   race   in
It has two distinct periods. First, that dating
from' the earliest British settlement in 1765 to
the arrival of the Hector in 1773 ; and the second,
that of the direct Scottish settlements commencing
ft The Scotsman in Canada
with the arrival of that ship, and continuing until
late in the first half of the nineteenth century.
Among the early pioneers of the province, and
especially in this locality, were many persons of
Scottish and Ulster-Scottish stock, who had much
to do with the early settlement and1 development
of the province. In the early half of the
eighteenth century several persons had already
secured and taken up large tracts of land.
Among these ambitious landowners was the
subsequently prominent American revolutionist,
Benjamin Franklin, who was in truth one of the
greatest and most covetous landgrabbers and
absentee landlords that our continent has ever
In a letter from the Lieutenant-Governor to
the Lord-Commissioner of Trades and Plantations,
under date April 30, 1765, it is shown that
several persons had arrived from Pennsylvania,
New Jersey, and other colonies with the object
of settlement. Prominent among these was
Alexander McNutt, who with his associates applied
for very extensive grants. He is described by
Haliburton as an enthusiastic adventurer from the
north of Ireland, and had already helped to settle
Truro, Onslow, and Londonderry. Two of McNutt's
associates were William and Richard Caldwell,
also north of Ireland Scotsmen. The amount of
their grants reached hundreds of thousands of
This grant was called the Irish (more properly
the Ulster-Scottish) grant, or that given to Scots
94 The Pictou Settlements
from Ayrshire and the other parts of Scotland
who had settled in Ulster before removing to
The other important grant of lands was called
the Philadelphia grant. It is dated October 31,
1765, and is granted to several persons, among
them the Reverend James Lyon, Thomas Harris,
and Robert Harris ; the whole grant was for
180,000 acres. In connection with this grant,
which is of special interest as being closely connected with the early history of Pictou, the real
promoters were Lyon and the two Harrises, with
Dr. John Harris. The Rev. James Lyon, as his
name shows, was a Scotsman from Ulster. The
Harrises, Mathew and John, says the chronicle,
were of the Scotch-Irish race, their ancestors,
Edward Harris and Flora Douglas, having left
Ayrshire in Scotland in the reign of Charles the
Second, losing a fine estate for their attachment
to Presbyterian worship. They settled near
Raphoe, in the county of Donegal, Ireland,
where so many other Scotsmen had settled since
the Scottish plantation in 1608. Thomas, grandson of Edward, and father of Mathew and John,
and an elder son Robert, were members of the
Philadelphia Company. Thomas was then of
Maryland, and his son John a physician in Philadelphia. John, the younger son, had most to do
with the Pictou settlement. He was born on
July 16, 1739. He acted as attorney for the Company, recorded all the deeds in the vicinity, was
the first magistrate, being appointed in 1769, and
isafi The Scotsman m Canada
first registrar of deeds. He at first lived near
Browns Point, but about 1778 removed to
Onslow, became Clerk of the Peace, a Member
of the Assembly for Truro, 1779 to 1785, and died
in Truro April 9, 1802. His descendants are
numerous in Colchester, Pictou County. His son
John was Sheriff of Pictou. Mathew Harris was
born in 1731 or 1735. His son Thomas was a
surveyor of much land in Colchester, and Sheriff
of Pictou. He had many children. One daughter
married John Patterson and was ancestor of the
Rev. George Patterson, the historian of Pictou
The immediate result of this grant was the
arrival of a small brig, the Mope, from' Philadelphia, bringing the first little colony, consisting of only six families, including the Harrises,
already described. Dr. Harris, being the agent,
was of the number, and the night after they reached
the harbour Mrs. Harris gave bir,th to a son on
shipboard, Thomas Harris, afterwards Clerk of the
Peace, who died in 1809, and was the first British
settler born in Pictou. Among the others on the
Hope was John Rogers, with a wife and four
children. He was a native of Glasgow, Scotland,
as was his wife, a Miss Richie. He emigrated
to Maryland, and thence to Pictou. He left many
descendants. He took up land and gave his name
to Roger's Hill, and some of the apple-trees grown
from seed he brought from Maryland were still
standing in 1876. He helped to blaze the road
to   Truro,   and  also   gave   his   name   to  Roger's
96 The Pictou Settlements
Settlement. Another pioneer on the Hope was
Robert Patterson, who came as the surveyor for
the Company ; he brought his wife and! five
children—the eldest nine years, the youngest three
months old. He has been called the father of
Pictou. He was a native of Renfrew, in Scotland,
but had emigrated to Maryland, and had been
a pedlar and sutler to the army previous to 1763.
He was for many years a surveyor and a leading
man in Pictou, and was "made magistrate in 1774.
He built the first frame house in the place, on land
conveyed to him by Governor Patterson. He died
in 1808. He was long an elder in the Presbyterian Church, and left many descendants, among
them a daughter Margaret, afterwards wife of
Capt. Pagan of the Hector, and the Rev. George
Patterson, the county historian, already mentioned.
The Hope reached Pictou Harbour on June 1 oth.
But a party from Truro, having Come over to
receive them, built a fire on the shore to guide
them, which made those on the Hope think them
savages. But the next day the ship stood in for
the shore, where those on board saw the wild, unbroken forest and virgin country yet to be conquered, the famous white pines looming up conspicuously to the height of 150 or 200 feet " like
masts of some huge admiral."
It was, indeed, a brave and indomitable stock
which could, without misgivings regarding the
future, become the pioneers in such a wilderness.
But what of the wives of the settlers? Mrs.
Patterson afterwards said that when they finally
vol. 1. G 97
I ir
The Scotsman in Canada
landed she leaned against one of those great trees
and thought that if there was a broken-hearted
creature on the face of the earth she was one.
Indeed, so desolate did the place look, with the
horror of savages in the minds of the newcomers,
that the captain of the vessel, after landing their
supplies, slipped out of the harbour in the night
and left them to their fate.
Of the five or six young men who had1 set out
from the sister settlement of Truro to welcome
and aid the immigrants we will now speak. They
aided in building huts and in laying a rude road
to Truro. The leader was Thomas Archibald, of
Scottish descent.
The Rev. James Lyon was already in Nova
Scotia when the Hope arrived. He appears as one
of the Philadelphia Company, being sent as their
minister, but did not continue with the settlement.
He was ordained in New Jersey and arrived in
Nova Scotia late in 1764 or early in 1765, and was
the first Presbyterian minister in the province of
whom there is any account. He was residing in
Pictou with his family since 1769, and gave his
name to Lyon's Brook.
Of the other early settlers in Pictou, many had
arrived by 1769. A return of inhabitants taken
in this year shows a decided increase, and most
of them of Scottish or Ulster-Scottish origin.
Of these were Thomas Skead, born in Scotland ;
William Aiken, of Scottish descent ; James Fulton,
an Ulster Scot ; Robert Stewart and William
Kennedv, Ulster Scots.    Kennedy erected the first
98 The Pictou Settlements
sawmill in the country. Barnabas McGee was born
in the north of Ireland. In this connection it may
be interesting to state that the McGees are a sept
who came from the Rhinns of Isla, and settled
at Island McGee, in Antrim. They are a sept
or branch of the great Scottish clan of Macdonald,
who settled and owned Antrim' for centuries.
James Davidson was another early settler of
Pictou. He was born in Edinburgh, where he
married, and where the first of his family was born.
He came out with the Rev. Dr. Cook, of Truro,
and was the first schoolmaster of Pictou.
Such was the stock of the first settlement of
Pictou down to the coming of the good ship Hector
in 1773-
The Arrival of the Hector, 1773
Unhappy Greenock,
Thou port of wailing!
Thou far-famed Burg!
From thee outsailing,
Hath Scotland poured
Her restless horde
Of master-men !
On every tide
Of ocean wide,
From mountain-side
And misty glen,
Her brood out-hurled,
Hath won the world.
Jm The Scotsman in Canada
The sailing of the Hector, with her Highland
emigrants, from the Port of Greenock, was an
event of significant importance in the history of
Western emigration, and especially in that of the
settlement of the Maritime Provinces and of all
With the arrival of her passengers there began
the really effective settlement, not only of Pictou,
but of the whole province. She was the first
emigrant ship from Scotland to Nova Scotia or
New Brunswick since the days of Sir William
Alexander. With her voyage began that vast but
steady stream of Scottish immigration which, as
the years went on, flowed into, and over, not only
the county of Pictou alone, but over much of the
eastern portion of the province, into Cape Breton,
Prince Edward Island, and portions of New Brunswick, and even into what was afterwards Upper
and Lower Canada.
It might be said that all the subsequent Scottish settlements originated in the coming of this
one ship, because those who then came out wrote
back to their relatives and friends in Scotland.
These pioneers, after enduring great hardships and
sufferings, not only achieved a position of independence, but also acquired an appreciation of
the real value of the country and gave a good
report of the land ; so that those at home likewise
ventured their all and followed, to greater or less
success, according to their ability and fortune.
There is no one element in the population of
Canada upon which its social, moral, and religious
ioo * The Pictou Settlements
development has depended more than upon its
Scottish inhabitants ; and of this great element
for good to the whole Dominion, the members of
that little band in the Hector were the pioneers
and vanguard. What the arrival of the Don de
Dieu was to French Canada, that of the Hector
might be said to represent to the Scottish element
of our country. History records that this was her
last voyage ; that on her return to Scotland she
was condemned as unseaworthy and went to sea
no more. It is a pity that there is nowhere
preserved, so far as is known, a picture of this
historic ship, which, in her last sailing, made so
remarkable and epoch-making a voyage.
The Scot in America has ever seemed to have
had to endure special hardships ; and it is said
that no Nova Scotia settlement had such obstacles
to encounter as that of Pictou. They came out,
unbonused by any Government grant, and unprovided for, to a country covered with heavy forest ;
and were, from the first, thrown altogether on their
own resources. One cannot but admire the
heroism which faced such odds in winning a foothold in the New World.
So far, the few settlers had struggled against
great difficulties, until in 1773 the ship Hector
arrived with her Highland emigrants ; and a new
era in the history of the settlement began.
John Pagan was a merchant of the town of
Greenock, who purchased several shares of the
stock of the Philadelphia Company. He had been
engaged in the undertaking to settle the colonies
_J=iI*-iS^£S£=; I
ii 'V
The Scotsman in Canada
of the South—and this was not the first voyage of
the Hector, which was owned by Pagan, in carrying emigrants to American shores. Pagan's
partner was a Dr. Witherspoon, presumably of
Philadelphia, who also had an interest in the
Their Scottish agent was one John Ross, who
was an earlier example of our present-day emigrant
agent in the Highlands. He pictured in glowing
colours the New World and its advantages as
over the Old, and hundreds of poor souls, who
knew nothing of the other side of the shield, and
attracted by the prospect of owning a farm, without payment, accepted his terms, and, gathering
together their all, prepared to seek their fortune
across the ocean. The Hector (John Spear,
master ; James Orr, first mate ; and John Anderson, second mate) was the vessel fated to bear
these pioneers to their destination.
She sailed from Greenock, where three families
and five young men embarked, and went north to
Lochbroom, Ross-shire, where 33 families and 25
unmarried men were added to her quota of passengers. One account gives 189, and another
179, as being the number of souls on her list.
Legge, the Governor, in his dispatch, refers to
them as 200 on their arrival.
She sailed from Lochbroom early in July (probably the 1st), and was eleven weeks making the
passage across the Atlantic.
On her departure a piper went on board, and
was ordered ashore ; but the emigrants interceded,
1 The Pictou Settlements
and he was allowed to sail. They were all new to
the wide ocean, even the ship's officers—only one
sailor having crossed before—and hope beat in
every bosom, in spite of the fact that their native
hills soon faded from view.
But the Atlantic soon had them in its rolling
trough, and their merriment was changed to tears
and sea-sickness ; and home-sickness seized their
dismayed bodies and souls. The ship was an old
Dutch hulk, and a slow, lubberly sailor ; so that
she made but a poor headway against contrary
winds that smote and buffeted her dingy rotten
hull and veered her sails ; and ere many days
many an eye was scanning anxiously the grey
sweep of desolate waters and skyline for the
longed-for glimpse of solid land.
But the brave Scottish hearts bore up with the
lion-souls within, and the leaders encouraged the
weak and the young by all sorts of amusements
to overcome the tedious hours and days of waiting.
At last, when they arrived off Newfoundland, a
severe storm beat them once more out into the
bleak ocean. All this time the accommodations,
never good, were becoming unendurable ; and
their food, not over-well-provided, began to fail.
Had it not been for the fantastic thrift of one of
the emigrants, Hugh McLeod, who had gathered
in a bag all the food cast away by the others,,
they would have starved to death at the last. Then
smallpox and dysentery broke out, so that most of
the poor children that had embarked died, cooped
up in that rotten hulk ;  and many a poor mother
#i II lflfl':
f \m
The Scotsman in Canada
must have landed mournful and sad on the shores
of the New World, who had left the Old hopeful,
with her all in her infant shawled in her arms.
Such is the tragic side of the making of new
lands. Many must suffer th|at in after-days others
may reap the glory.
However, nothing lasts for ever, not even
sorrow ; and on September 15th this pioneer shipload of Scottish immigrants dropped anchor in the
harbour of Pictou.
In spite of their sad voyage, the Highlanders
adorned themselves in their kilts and plaids for
the disembarking; and the Indians, who had
threatened to be troublesome, on hearing the weird
sound of the pipes, and seeing what Ihey thought to
be the dreaded petticoated soldiers who had captured Quebec, fled in terror to the forest, and from
that day ceased to be a menace to the pioneers.
But the poor travellers were fated yet to endure
hardship and suffering. Though the sick were
cared for, several died, and only landed in the New
World to be borne to their graves. So that it
might pe said that the first city established was
that of the dead. Disease and death had lowered
their spirits, and a sight of the bleak, unbroken
forest and lonesome, desolate coast-line added to
their despondency.    But worse was yet to come.
A free farm and plenty in the New World they
had been promised, but the reality was a rujde
awakening from their dream of the Far West.
Landing without provisions or shelter, the lateness
of the season made their situation even more
104 The Pictou Settlements
desperate, as no planting could be done until the
land was cleared during the following year. They
also found that they would have to go inland for
their farms, all these facing the shore being preempted. Many of them were fishermen, and had
counted on the sea for a portion of their substance.
The result was hunger, hardship, and misery ; with
much heartburnings, even open rebellion, when
some of the leaders of the party in desperation,
raided the Company's stores and took what they
needed for the requirements of the suffering. That
first winter was one of hardship and misery never
to be forgotten. Many moved to Truro and
Londonderry, some even to Halifax, Windsor, and
Cornwallis, and hired themselves out, men, women,
and children. The majority returned afterwards,
but none forgot that dread winter, with its deep
snow and its want of food and clothing, where
a little flour and a few potatoes, often frozen, were
all that, sometimes carried miles on a man's back,
kept life in the community.
Patterson, in his History, gives numerous incidents which illustrate the great privations endured
not .only that winter, but in some instances afterwards. But they struggled on with the Scottish
pertinacity and belief in the future ; and, in spite
of all, made themselves successful, and the land,
if a land not of great plenty, a place of dignified
land frugal comfort in which to cradle a Go|d-
fearing and ambitious race.
There is a list given in Patterson's History,
which  was   drawn   up   about   1837,   by  William
> l I
a^m*Jr The Scotsman in Canada
McKenzie of Lochbroom, containing the names
of the passengers in the Hector, with short accounts
of their personal and family history arid of the
record of their places of settlement.
As one of the objects of this work is to give as
much information as possible regarding the real
people themselves, the rank and file of the Scots
who have made our country, I quote this important
list in full as it is given, though omitting many
notes and remarks, which will be found by the
student  in  Patterson's  " History of  Pictou."
i. Those shipped at Glasgow.
Mr. Scott and family, history unknown. George Morrison and
family from Banff; settled west side of Barney's River; gave his
name to Morrison's Island, left one daughter—Mrs. David
Ballantyne of Cape George. lohn Patterson, mentioned in
Patterson's " Pictou." George McConnell, settled at East River ;
descendants numerous. Andrew Man and family, of Dunfermline,
settled at Noel; descendants. Andrew Wesley, history unknown.
Charles Fraser, a Highlander, settled at Cornwallis. Fisher
Grant, married, has descendants. lohn Stewart, history unknown.
2. Those from Inverness-shire.
William Mackay and family, afterward Squire Mackay, settled
at East River ; died in 1828* aged ninety-seven, a leading man,
left three sons—Donald, Alexander, and James; had a daughter
Sarah, married Wm. Fraser. Roderick McKay and family of
Beauly, Inverness-shire; came with three brothers, William,
Colin, and Donald, to Pictou, was a blacksmith ; a man of great
character; placed the chain across Halifax Harbour to prevent
the entrance of hostile vessels during the Revolutionary war.
He died at East River. One daughter married Dr. McGregor.
Another was mother of J. D. B. Fraser, Esq., and one son was
Robert McKay, Esq. Colin McKay and family, in Fraser Highlanders at Quebec and Louisburg; settled at East River. McKay
106 The Pictou Settlements
Bros., of Liverpool, England, were his grandsons. Hugh Fraser
and family; was a weaver of Kiltarlity, Scotland; had three
children in the Hector— Donald, Jane, (Mrs. Cameron), and Mary
(Mrs. John Fraser); another son was John. The Rev. Wm.
Fraser, Bondhead, Ont., was a grandson. Donald Cameron and
family—the only Roman Catholic on the Hector; served at
Quebec, settled at East River, drowned ; family removed to
Antigonish. Donald McDonald and family, settled at Middle
River; his daughter Marion married Alex. Fraser ; his niece,
Mary Forbes, married Wm. McLeod. Colin Douglas and family,
settled at Middle River; his daughter married Peter Fraser.
Hugh Fraser and family, settled at West River; descendants
numerous. Alexander Fraser and family, settled at Middle River;
descendants numerous; said to be connected with Lord Lovat.
His family involved in the "forty-fives." Had three brothers
fighting for the Pretender at Culloden, two killed ; was witness,
though too young to fight, of the scene of the day; married
Marion Campbell, youngest daughter of Laird of Skriegh in
Inverness, also a Jacobite at Culloden. Fraser had six children
in the Hector—Alexander, Simon, Catherine (married Alex. Ross,
afterward to John Fraser), Isabella (married David McLean, Esq.,
of East River, Hugh at Middle River), Donald and Hugh
James Grant and family, went to King's County ; sons, Alexander,
Robert; grandfather of Dr. W. R. Grant of Pennsylvania Med.
Coll. Family afterwards claimed connection with President Grant.
Donald Munro, went to Halifax; one son, Henry; descendants
numerous.   Donald Mc—, name illegible and history unknown.
3. Those from Lochbroom.
John Ross, agent, history unknown. Alex. Cameron and
family, was seventeen years old in 1745. His brother followed
the Prince; was a herder ; gave the name of Lochbroom, his
native parish, to the place where he settled. Children, several,
among them Alexander and Christiana, born in the Hector j the
latter married Alex. McKay of New Glasgow, died 1831, aged
104. Alex. Ross and family, advanced in life, parents of Alex.
Ross and family ; settled at Middle River. The children went to
Ohio; Alexander, had daughters married to Arch. Chisholm and
— Blair.   Colin McKenzie and family, settled as East River, said
jy& The Scotsman in Canada
to have died aged 104; one son, Duncan, died 1871, in his 100th
year. John Munro and family, history unknown. Kenneth
McRitchie and family, probably on lists as Kenneth McClutchcon.
William McKenzie, engaged as schoolmaster of the party, settled
at Lochbroom ; descendants there. John McGregor, history
unknown. John McLellan, settled at New Glasgow, gave his
name to McLellan's Mount. William McLellan, relative of John,
settled at West River; descendants there. Alexander McLean,
settled at East River, one son; descendants there. Alexander
Falconer, settled near Hopewell. Donald McKay, brother of
Roderick, settled at East River ; a grandson, Duncan, living there.
His brother Hugh died without a family. Archibald Chisholm, in
84th Regt, said to have settled at East River. Charles Matheson,
history unknown. Robert Sim, settled at Pictou, then went to
New Brunswick, never married. Alexander McKenzie, history
unknown.   Thomas Fraser, history unknown.
4. Those from Sutherlandshire.
Kenneth Fraser and family, settled at Londonderry, then
Middle River; Pictou descendants numerous. William Fraser
and family, history unknown. James Murray and family, at
Londonderry; descendants there. Walter Murray and family, in
Mengounish; descendants there. David Urquhart and family, at
Londonderry; one daughter, Mrs. Thos. Davidson. James McLeod
and family, at North River; had no children; his farm descended
to his relative, Geo. McLeod. Hugh McLeod and family, at
Middle River; one son, David, three daughters—one Mrs. Donald
Ross, another Mrs. Shiels. Alexander McLeod and family; three
sons, one Donald of West River ; left descendants. John McKay
and family, history unknown. Philip McLeod and family,
uncertain. Donald McKenzie and family, probably at Schuben-
acadie. Alex McKenzie and family, history unknown. John
Sutherland and family, history unknown. William Matheson
and family, at Londonderry, afterwards at Roger's Hill, where his
descendant, John S., resided in 1876. Donald Grant, history
unknown. Donald Graham, history unknown. John McKay,
piper, history unknown. William McKay, went to work with
McCabe and took the latter's name; descendants still known as
McCabe. John Sutherland, went to Windsor, then settled at
108 The Pictou Settlements
Sutherland River.   Angus McKenzie, sixteen years old on the
Hector, finally settled at Green Hill; descendants there.
This is, in brief, the history of the Pictou Scottish settlements, which also included many Ulster
Scotsmen. These were the pioneer settlements for
the Dominion. From here many families at a
later date removed into Upper Canada, and helped
to form Scottish communities in what is now
11 \
Stem tide of time, roll back thy crest!
Re-surge from history's, memory's shore!—
Give back the names of those who rest,
Who once were all;—but now no more!
FROM the earliest days of the British colonisation, Nova Scotia was, in keeping
with its name, extremely Scottish. In 1843
statistics from authentic sources gave one-third
of the whole population as Scottish or of Scottish
Many of the early settlers, before the United
Empire Loyalists, were from Scotland or were
Ulster Scotsmen, as is shown in the Pictou settlements. Among the United Empire Loyalists there
were also many Scotsmen, and wherever their
people  settled Scottish  surnames  were plentiful.
There were many descendants pi the famous
Fraser Highlanders, such as John Fraser, who died
at Shelburne in 1840, aged eighty-eight. This
clan was one of the most noted in connection
with the history of Canada. As soldiers, dis-
110 Other Nova Scotia Settlements
coverers, statesmen, and divines, many representatives of the name Fraser are famous in our annals.
At Pugwash Harbour there were important
Highland settlements. They were men from the
Hebrides, and were hardy and industrious. Fort
Wallace was  another successful  settlement.
In 1774 a number of Lowlanders from Dumfriesshire were brought from Prince Edward Island
to Pictou. In 1783 the 82nd or Hamilton Regiment was disbanded at Halifax, and the men
received grants in Pictou.
Early in the nineteenth century the Frasers
made a settlement at Millbrook, and from there
certain Macdonalds, Rosses, and Gordons went to
Middle River. The Mount Thorn settlement was
Protestant. The settlers were McLeans, McLeods,
Macdonalds, Chisholms, Camerons, Thompsons,
Grants, and Browns.
During the years 1790, 1791, and 1792 many
Roman Catholic Highlanders came to the Maritime Provinces, and their numbers were added to
year by year up to 1828. Those in Nova Scotia
settled chiefly in Antigonish County, Pictou, and
Cape Breton. They were principally Chisholms,
Macdonalds, Camerons, and Frasers. It is said
that the chief of the Chisholms evicted many of
his tenants to establish sheep-walks on his estate
of Strathglas. A great many left there in 1801,
and another party in 1803.
The first Highland Catholics settled the
parish of Arisaig in Antigonish County. Bishop
Macdonald,  in  a dedication  sermon,  said :    "In
. The Scotsman in Ccmada
1787 the first Catholic Highlander, the pioneer
of the faith, took up his solitary abode in the
* forest primeval/ which then wound in unbroken
grandeur on these shores."
For years there was a steady stream of immigration into Nova Scotia of people from Sutherland and Lewis. All Antigonish was purely Scottish. Fox Harbour in Cumberland County was
settled by Highlanders, and New Edinburgh in
Annapolis and Grenville Township were settled
by Scotsmen. From the opening of the nineteenth
century the Scottish Highlanders flowed steadily
into Cape Breton. The late Edward Fraser aided
much in the movement. At Grand Anse there
was a Scottish colony. Along the Straits of Canso
the majority of the inhabitants were descendants
of Scottish Highlanders.
The principal immigration into the province in
the earlier days was from Inverness, Ross, and
Sutherland, and in later years from Argyllshire,
Perth, and Caithness. These were chiefly Macdonalds, MacdoneUs, Frasers, McKenzies, Mackays,
Camerons, McLeods, Campbells, Grants, Robertsons, Stewarts, Mclntoshes, Malcolms, Mclntyres,
McNeills, MacNabs, Munros, McLeans, McDougals,
Chisholms, McPhersons, Sutherlands, McKinnons,
and McQueens.
By the returns in 1887 there were in the province 48,000 Presbyterians, and 47,000 Catholics,
upwards of one-half of which were Scotsmen by
descent. In the 50,000 inhabitants of Cape Breton
of that date, nearly half were Presbyterians, and
112 Other Nova Scotia Settlements
a   large   proportion   of   the   remainder   Scottish
The county of Pictou in 1843 had a population
of 25,000, principally Scottish and Presbyterian,
from Inverness, Ross, Argyll, and Sutherland.
The shores of the Gulf were lined with Highland settlements such as Wallace, Tadmagouche,
and other places.
Boulardie Island, St. Anne's Harbour, Bedeque
Inlet, and the Straits of Barra were all settled by
The city of Halifax, long a great military dep6t
as well as a great seaport and commercial centre,
has had from the first a large Soottish element
in its population.
Probably the best picture of Scottish Halifax
is given in the history of the Halifax North
British Association, the strongest and oldest Scottish organisation in Canada. We get in its
published transactions a long list of Scotsmen of
all walks of life—soldiers, merchants, divines, professional men, and statesmen ; some with worldwide reputation and others obscure; but all
representing the great clans and families of Scotland. In Halifax were stationed some famous
Scottish regiments. Here His Royal Highness
the Duke of Kent, of the Royal Scottish line
of Stuart, spent some years as a military commander. Here, like the Allans at Montreal, the
Cunards, another noted Scottish family of shipowners, founded the greatest Atlantic line of
steamships. Here lived the great Scottish families
of Haliburton, Archibald, Inglis, and Young ; and
vol. 1. H 113 The Scotsman in Canada
here to-day, as half a century ago, the names of
Scotsmen are prominent and powerful, as is but
fitting in this famous capital of New Scotland.
Among the leading Scotsmen of the city of
Halifax and Nova Scotia have been distinguished
and noted men, like Lord Dalhousie ; Sir Colin
Campbell ; Hon. Wm. Annand ; Hon. Alexander
Brymer ; Hon. John H. Duncan, R.N. ; Hon.
Jas. Fraser ; Hon. Wm. Garvie ; Lieut.-Col.
Charles Gordon ; Principal Grant ; Sir Brenton
jwW-WM**.  Hdlife-aston ;    Thomas   Haliburton ;    Hon.    John
Haliburton ; Col. Irving; Hon. Alex. Keith ;
Chief Justice Macdonald ; Col. Macdonald ; Prof.
Macdonald; Col. McGregor, 93rd Regiment ;
Prof. A. Murray ; Gen. Ogilvie ; Hon. James
Stewart ; Hon. Alex. Stewart, C.B. ; Hon. Judge
Sedgewick ; Chief Justice Strange ; Hon. Wm.
Wallace ; Hon. John Young; Chief Justice
Young ; Hon. Wm. Young ; Hon. Senator Dickie ;
and Hon. Arthur Rupert Dickie, Minister of
Justice for Canada. At the present day, there is
the able Premier of the province, the Hon. *jf. H.
Murray ; and the late Lieut-Governor, one of the
most eloquent and enthusiastic Highlanders in
Canada; His Honour the Hon. D. C. Fraser,
who has just passed away. He was a noted
politician and later a justice of the Provincial High
Court, which position he resigned to become
Lieut. -Governor.
Nova Scotia has given to the Dominion some of
her most distinguished men, and it is safe to say
that at least the majority of these were of Scottish
extraction. -
O little Isle down by the blue,
Where glad seas wander in between
Your balmy hills of pleasant green;
Kind to the lonely folk were you,
The dour, lone folk from Inverie.**—
They laid aside the targe and glaive,
They left the mountain and the glen
To climb the ever-mounting wave—
And show the world that Scots were men.
IN 1758, Lord Rollo, a Scottish Peer, and a
trusted colonel under Wolfe, captured Prince
Edward Island, and as early as the year 1767 the
island was parcelled out among a number of
landed proprietors from the Old Land. Three of
these, who were prominent as having established
fisheries and having made other extensive improvements on the island, bore Scottish names, such as
Spence, Muir, and Cathcart. Capt. Walker Patterson, another son of Southern Caledonia, and who
was one of these proprietors, was appointed
Governor, and arrived at the island in 1770.
In  the   following  year  Mr.   John  Stuart   was
115 ill f
The Scotsman in Canada
appointed agent for the island in London by the
House of Assembly. Another proprietor was
Capt. Macdonald, who had much to do with the
early affairs of the colony. At that period there
were trouble and strife among the colonists concerning the lands, which continued for some years.
In 1803 the successors to Stuart in London were
William and Thomas Knox, two Scotsmen, and at
the same time Messrs. McGowan, Stuart, and
Macdonald were made members of a committee of
five to draw up a new Bill for the province ;
showing that Scotsmen were the leading spirits
in the affairs of the colony.
A Scottish chief who was prominently associated with the island was John Macdonald of
Glenaladale, who purchased an extensive tract of
land there, and conceived the idea of emigration
of Highlanders on a large scale. He sent jhis
brother, with an overseer and labourers, provided
with all the requirements for farming for several
hundred settlers, whom he shipped out soon afterwards. It is said that Macdonald's real object
was to relieve the wants of his distressed clansmen and other Highlanders, whom the late Jacobite
wars and other causes had impoverished. His
emigrants were gathered from his own estates and
from those of his cousin and chief, Clanronald,
in Moydart ;   with others from the Island of Uist.
From this large immigration many descendants
remain to this day.    In 1843 there was estimated
to be fully 24,000 people of Scottish descent in
the island, and of these not less than 4,500 bore the
116 In Prince Edward Island
name of Macdonald. Capt. Macdonald of Glenal-
adale took a leading part in the life of the
province. He refused the position of Governor, but,
at the head of a portion of the 84th Regiment of
Highland emigrants, he performed good service for
the Crown. During the war of the Revolution an
American man-of-war landed part of her crew on
the Nova Scotian coast near where Glenaladale
was stationed with a portion of his regiment. Capt.
Macdonald, with a few men, captured this vessel
and sailed her to Halifax, then returned with more
men and captured the surprised crew of Americans and French. He died in 1811. Though a
good Catholic, he was of a broad, tolerant nature,
and made no difference because of the religion
of his settlers or acquaintances. He left behind
him a good record as a fine type of the old-time
Highland military gentleman.
In 1803 another great Scottish immigration
came to Prince Edward Island, when Lord Selkirk
brought out about eight hundred Highlanders to
occupy his lands. These people were located in
the vicinity of Point Prim, and many of them
made very successful inhabitants.
The earliest historian of the island colony was
the Rev. John McGregor, who was a Scotsman
by descent, but a native of the island. He gives a
faithful description of its settlement and growth.
In 1813 Charles Douglas Smith became Governor, and the Receiver-General was John Edward
Carmichael. At this period, says the historian,
King's County, the most thickly populated district
mm MI ill
' |'
if I ■«
5%0 Scotsman in Canada
on the island, was inhabited by Highlanders, whjo
spoke no other language than their native Gaelic.
I They were men," he says, | who would have
faced open fire in the field with the courage
characteristic of the Celtic race, and had a profound respect for law."
During that period we find John McGregor,
afterwards Member of Parliament for Glasgow,
High Sheriff of the island.
In 1827 the membership of the House of
Assembly included the following names of Scotsmen — Cameron, McAuley, Camjpbell, McNeill,
Montgomery, and a Stuart was Speaker.
In 1830 Cobbett wrote thus flippantly of this
colony as a home for emigrants. " From Glasgow," he says, | the sensible Scots are pouring
out amain. Those that are poor and cannot pay
their passage, or can rake together only a trifle,
are going to a rascally heap of sand, rock, and
swamp, called Prince Edward Island." Such were
the views of this much over-rated man. But he
knew even less of the island than he did of the
Scotsmen who went there and made for themselves happy and comfortable homes in this veritable garden of the Canadian Gulf.
The late Col. Fraser also did much toward the
colonisation of Prince Edward Island. Indeed,
it can be seen that the greater part of its settlement was brought about by Scotsmen from
Highlands and Lowlands. The result of all this
was, that in 1841 the statistical returns showed
natives of Scotland, 5,682 ; adherents to Church
118 In Prince Edward Island
of Scotland, 10,000 persons, and Presbyterians,
5,089, and nearly 20,429 Highland Roman
So much for the Scottish settlements, and we
may glance at some of the leading personages
connected with Prince Edward Island who were
of Scottish birth and extraction.
In 1834 there died John Stuart of Mount Stuart,
aged seventy-six. He came to the island in 1778,
and was Speaker of the Assembly for many years.
This worthy old pioneer was a good friend to the
inhabitants, and a dignified official. He took an
interest in the early struggles of the people, and
wrote a valuable book dealing with the island and
its colonisation.
Another prominent personality was John
McNeill, who did much for education. In 1837
he was appointed official visitor of schools, being
the first appointment, and in his return he shows
the number of schools to be 51, and the total of
pupils, 1,533. He instituted important reforms in
education, and, when he retired ten years later,
there were over 120 schools and 5,000 scholars.
Walter Johnston, writing in 1824, says that the
agriculture of the island was largely improved
through the influence of the Lowland Scots from
Perthshire and Dumfriesshire.
The Scotsman was also prominent in politics.
In 1847, at the elections in the Belfast district
for the Assembly, there were four candidates, all
Scotsmen, as their names, Dowe, McLean, Little,
and McDougal, will show.
119 The Scotsman in Canada
About this date, Sir Donald Campbell, of Dun-
staffnage in Argyllshire, was sent out as Governor,
and as a noted member of a distinguished Highland family, he received an enthusiastic welcome.
He possessed all the qualities of a good Governor,
but unfortunately died within a year of his appointment. The next Governor was Sir A. Bannerman,
and later, in 1857, George Dundas, Esq., M.P. for
Linlithgowshire,  filled  the  position.
In 1859, there died at St. Dunstan's College, the
Right Rev. Bernard Donald Macdonald, the Roman
Catholic bishop. He had for years been a hardworking and faithful missionary among his people,
and a worthy member of his famous clan. Another
noted figure in the Roman communion was the
Venerable Bishop McEachern, who came to the
island in 1790, and was long a prominent personality in his own Church, and as a public man. One
of his duties was that of Road Commissioner, and
he had an earnest co-adjutor in the Rev. William
Douglas, another worthy Scotsman of the Presbyterian fold. These two divines not only pointed
the road to heaven, though by different theological
paths, but also worked loyally together to promote
good roads and highways on earth, in so far as
Prince Edward Island was concerned. It seems
that much evil has been done of late in thrusting
the clergy out of public affairs and into mere
ecclesiastical functions. This has had as one result
to separate the Churches and deteriorate them as
organisations for the community's good. What
greater aid to religious union can there be than
120 In Prince Edward Island
where the leading divines of different communions
work together on committees for the common good?
They not only learn to know and respect each
other, but it broadens and humanises their outlook,
and gradually teaches them and their respective
followers that in the best interests of all that pertains to the weal of the community, all religions
are, or should be, one.
The Rev. Donald Macdonald, who died bewailed
in 1867, was another venerable Scotsman, who as
a Protestant missionary was known and beloved
all over the island. He was a remarkable preacher
and a fine scholar, and his funeral was said to have
been the largest ever witnessed in the colony. The
Rev. D. Kerr, who succeeded Dr. McCullough, became the leading representative of the Presbyterian
Church. He, like many of his confreres of his
day, was noted for his strong moral fibre and his
great influence as a personality throughout the
whole community.
That was the day of strong men in religion.
They were scholars, statesmen, and rulers in their
way. , Since they have been driven out of public
affairs, not only have the divines deteriorated, but
the public men as a class have sadly declined and
degenerated, and public spirit and opinion are
almost dead.
Prince Edward Island has given its share of
strong, useful, and brilliant men to the life of the
Dominion. Among them are many of Scottish
The most distinguished islander now living is
121 The Scotsman in Canada
Sir William Macdonald, the noted philanthropist
and merchant prince of Montreal, whose career
will be dealt with in another place, and who is a
descendant and the representative of Macdonald of
Glenaladale, one of the leading colonisers of the
island. Another noted son of the island province
is Dr. Falconer, President of Toronto University.
That the colony was, in its early foundation,
largely Scottish, will be shown by a return of the
inhabitants in 1798. Out of a list of 750 heads of
families, 350 bore Scottish names, many of them
being Highlanders. Thus it will be seen that the
beautiful little island-province of the Gulf owes
much to the daring and courage of Scottish navigators and colonisers from Sir William Alexander
down, and that the character of its people is
founded on the energy and high moral qualities of
its Scottish settlers, who have done so much to
give it the place it holds among the provinces of
the Dominion.
Thus might the early islanders, the pioneer emigrants from the great British Island, have sung
with the Poet Marvell—
What should we do but sing His praise,
Who led us through the watery maze
Unto an Isle so long unknown,
And yet far kinder than our own,
Where He the huge sea monsters wracks,
That lift the deep upon their backs ? . . .
He lands us on a grassy stage,
Safe from the storms' and prelates' rage,
And on these rocks for us did frame
A temple where to sound His name.
They were a simple rugged folic,
A lonely people by the sea:—
But rov/nd their coasts old ocean broke,
One vast sTwre-sounding harmony :—
And from the old unrest awoke
A spirit surging to be free.
WHILE there are not as many people of Scottish
descent in New Brunswick as in the sister
province of Nova Scotia, there are a large number
of the population who are prpud of having in their
veins the blood of the race of Albion.
In the year 1761, Fort Frederick in St. John
Harbour was garrisoned by a Highland regiment,
and during the same year the harbour was for the
first time regularly surveyed by a Scotsman, Captain
Bruce, of the Royal Engineers, and a map then
made is still extant.
In the following year, an exploring party, consisting of about twenty persons, came to St. John
from Newburyport in New England, and journeyed
up the river as far as Fredericton and beyond.
They found at the mouth of the Nashwack River
M The Scotsman in Canada
the remains of a very old fortress. The single
Frenchman whom they encountered told them that
it was originally built by a party of settlers from
Scotland, who were without doubt those sent out
by Sir William Alexander, under Claude de la Tour.
In 1764, William Davidson, a native of the north
of Scotland, most probably Caithness, came and
settled at Miramichi, and received extensive grants
of lands. With him was associated a Mr. Cort of
Aberdeen. Four years before, in 1766, a prominent
trader named Walker, who also hailed from Scotland, founded a trading post on Alston Point.
These were a few of the very early, hardy pioneers
who settled on those coasts and who were of Scottish
As already shown, a large portion of the United
Empire Loyalists and Treasury or Military Loyalists
were of Scottish birth or extraction. They were
for the most part soldiers. In McGregor's
" British America" it is shown that of the
thousands of Loyalists who poured into the province, many were of Scottish descent. They settled
principally on the St. John and St. Croix rivers,
and the list, which is still, extant, shows their origin
and place of settlement.
It would be impossible in a work of this limited
nature to include the names of all the United Empire
Loyalists of Scottish origin who settled in Canada
or the Maritime  Provinces.
A few of the leaders in New Brunswick will,
however, be referred to. A prominent Scotsman
Was Captain Archibald McLean, who settled in St.
124 The Scotsman in New JBnmswicJc
John in 1783. Another founder of that city was
Charles McPherson. Hugh Mackay and two
others of his clan were early settlers at this
time, and the military Loyalists furnished eleven
The county of Restigouche was a leading Scottish
settlement, as the place-names of Dunlee, Glenlivet,
Glenelg, Campbelltown, and Dalhousie show. The
settlers here were direct from the Old Land. Many
were fisher-folk, and not really by experience fitted
to till the soil. But they were a sturdy folk in
the main, and managed to make their way.
A great many of the Scotsmen entered the lumber
trade on the different rivers in the province, and
many acquired large fortunes. The great drawbacks to the settlements for nearly a century were
the terrible fires that swept the country, partly
owing to the great areas of pine lands.
One of the Governors, Sir Howard Douglas, who
was a Scotsman, took a deep interest in education
and the general improvement of the people. He
did much to foster the foundation of colleges and
schools, and, being of that Church, he encouraged
Presbyter ianism.
John Fraser, father of the Hon. John James
Fraser, Provincial Secretary, was an early settler.
He came from Inverness-shire in 1803, and settled
at Miramichi. Alexander Wedderburn of Aberdeen was an author and a public officer in the
province. His son was the Hon. William Wedderburn, Speaker of the Assembly. Urbain Johnston,
Member of Parliament for Kent County, was the
125 The Scotsman in Canada
representative  of a  Scottish family  which  intermarried with the Acadians.
In connection with the history of the Scotsmen
in New Brunswick, there is no more interesting
chapter than that dealing with the Queen's Rangers,
Simcoe's famous regiment, as there was a large
element of Scotsmen among its soldiers. It was
the most noted of all Royalist colonial battalions,
chiefly because Simcoe was its commander. In
official documents it was sometimes called f The
King's First American Regiment." It was founded
in 1776, in the colonies of Connecticut and New
York, and soon mustered fully four hundred men
who were at first all American Loyalists. But as
time went on, the composition of the regiment
changed, and it became more European than
American. According to the muster rolls, dated
August 24, 1780, out of the forty commissioned
officers attached to the regiment, nineteen were of
Scottish birth. This was during the period when
Colonel Rogers held the command and before
Colonel French succeeded him. French had as his
successor a Scotsman, Major Wemyss, under whose
command the regiment on September 11, 1777,
at the victorious battle of Brandy wine, covered
itself with glory. The worst of the battle fell
upon the Rangers, then about four hundred strong,
and a detachment from the 71st Regiment under
another Scotsman, Major Ferguson. After this
period the regiment consisted of eleven companies,
one of which was purely Highland, with kilts and
a piper.
126 The Scotsman in New Brunswick
The regiment, on its disbanding, settled mainly
in New Brunswick, and there are many descendants
of the officers and men in the province.
The muster roll of 1781 includes the
following list of Scotsmen, who were officers
and privates :—Major Richd. Armstrong ; Rev.
John Agnew; Quartermaster Alex. Matheson ;
Surgeon's Mate James Macaulay; Capt. John
Mackay ; Ensign John Ross ; Sergeants, Donald
Macdonald, John Macdonald, and George Sutherland ; Corporals, Geo. Walker, James Gunn ;
Drummer Wm. Mackay. Privates, John Craigie,
Alex. McKinnon, Alex. McLean, R. McDougal,
Angus McDonald, Hugh McKinlay, Murdoch
McLeod, Alex. McDonald, Lachlan McKinnon,
Alex. McClure, Alex. Curry, Wm. Smyth, John
Capt. Stephenson's Company : Capt. Francis
Stephenson ; Lieut. Alex. Matheson ; Corporals,
Michael Burns, George Miller ; Privates, Carbray
Burras, Wm. Chisholm, Thos. Lowe, David Oliver,
John White, N. Ayres, Jos. Dawson, Jas. Sparks.
Capt. McCrea's Company : Capt. R. McCrea ;
Lieut. Chas. Dunlop and Lieut. Patterson; Sergeant W. Burnett ; Privates, Digory Sparks, Wm.
Davidson, Michael Mclntyre, James Smith, Michael
McDonald, Peter Wood, John Brown, Thos.
Capt. Murray's Company : Capt. Jas. Murray ;
Ensign Edward Murray ; Sergeants, Jas. McConell
and Samuel Burnett, ; Privates, N. Huston, J.
McEwen, John Burns, Wm. Kirk, Alex. Ross, Jas.
Gremer, J. B. Miller.
127 The Scotsman in Canada j
Capt. Kerr's Company : Capt. Jas. Kerr;
Ensign Creighton McCrea ; Privates, Jas. Cochrane,
Patrick Read, Wm. Armstrong.
Capt. Agnew's Company : Capt. Stair Agnew ;
Lieut. Hugh McKay ; Ensign S. Armstrong.
Capt. McGill's Company : Lieut. Adam Allan!
Robert Richey ; Privates, Patrick Allan, T. Coyne,
J. Brown, Wm. Scoby.
Capt. Smith's Company : Ensign Andrew Armstrong ; Sergeant S. Stevens ; Privates, Wm.
Burns, John Thomson, Wm. Graham, Alex.
Capt. Whitlock's Company : Capt. John Whit-
lock ; Sergeant John King; Drummer Daniel
McKay ; Privates, Henry Adam, Chas. Boyd, Chas.
McKinley.     K^ . -jj|f 1
Capt. Shaw's Company : Capt. ^Eneas Shaw ;
Lieut. Andrew McCan ; Ensign Jos. Matheson ;
Drummer Black Prince ; Privates, Hugh Morris,
Jno. Scriver, John Smith, Jas. McFarland, Geo.
Murdock, Thos. Patterson, Thos. Crawford, Jno.
Capt. Wallop's Company : Lieut. St. John
Cavalry Hussar Troop : Lieut. Allan MacNab
(father of Sir Allan MacNab) ; Quartermaster John
McGill; Privates, Robt. Ferguson, John McConnel,
Saml. Lindsay, David Lindsay, Andrew Shields, H.
Cochrane, David Mitchell, John Stephens, Jas.
Campbell, Geo. Killan, Duncan Campbell, Jno.
Capt.   Shanks'   Troop :   Lieut.   Geo.   Spencer;
128 The Scotsman m New JBrtmswick
Privates, Angus Mclntyre, N. Gladstone, John
Houston, Jas. Johnston, Jos. Mitchell, F. Miller,
Archd. McKinley, Jno .Clark.
Capt. Saunders' Troop : Corporal John Haney ;
Privates, R. Brown, Jas. Campbell, J. Inglis* J.
Sparks, J. Blair.
Capt. Sutherland's Troop : Cornet B. Thompson ; Quartermaster Wm. McLachlin.
At the settlement of the regiment in Nova
Scotia at the peace in 1783, the return of the
Rangers totalled 575. They were disbanded at St.
John on October 13, 1783, and settled largely in
York County, the parish of Queensbury being
named after the regiment, and formed the
largest body of military Loyalists that settled in
the Maritime Provinces.
Of the officers, Major James Wemyss was afterwards Lieut.-Col. of the 63rd Regiment. In 1819
he petitioned the Prince Regent from New York
for assistance. He was then in his old age, and
said he had hopes to end his life in Scotland, his
native land. But he suffered a loss of property, and
at the time of the petition was in indigent circumstances. He was of the noted Scottish family of
whom the Earl of Wemyss is the head. Capt.
Arthur Ross was killed in the West Indies. Capt.
Michael Armstrong saw a great deal of service.
Simcoe recommended him. He went with the
regiment to New Brunswick, where he received
a large grant of land at the mouth of the Nacawick.
He became a mjagistrate, and was afterwards Lieut.-
Colonel of the Militia, but finally rose to be Lieut.-
vol. 1. 1 129
11]| The Scotsman in Canada
General in the British Army. He died at Frederic-
ton in 1817. The Rev. John Agnew was of an old
family in Wigtonshire, of which shire he was a
native. He became Rector of Suffolk, Virginia.
He settled in New Brunswick, and became a member of the House of Assembly. He died in 1812,
aged eighty-five. Capt. James Kerr was born in
Dumfries, was in New York at the time of the
Revolution. He raised a part of a company of the
Rangers. He returned to Scotland, but later settled
in Nova Scotia at Parrsboro. He died at Amherst
on June 6, 1830, in his seventy-sixth year. He-
was a Colonel of the Militia, and had several sons :
Thomas, an ensign in the Royal Newfoundland
Regiment, was killed at the battle of Frenchtown j
James died in the Navy on board the Royal
William; another son, John, became a wealthy
merchant of St. John, New Brunswick ; and
another, Joseph, an extensive mill-owner at Wallace,
Nova Scotia.
Capt. John McGill was a native of Scotland. H3
went to St. John at the peace, and had lands there ;
but he moved to Upper Canada, and became a
member of the Legislative Council.
Capt. Stair Agnew, son of the chaplain, followed
the war, and being captured, was imprisoned at
St. Malo, in France, until the peace. He settled
in York County, New Brunswick ; was a member
of the House of Assembly for thirty years, and a
judge of the Court of Common Pleas for York
County. Capt. Jas. Murray drew land in Parrsboro,
Nova Scotia, close to Capt. Kerr, but did not
Si The Scotsman in New JBrtmswick
remain there. Capt. John Whitlock settled in
Queen's County, was colonel of Militia and a
Justice of the Peace. Capt. John Mackay, a native
of Scotland, settled in York County, where he died
in 1822. Lieut. Allan MacNab settled in Upper
Canada. Ensign Hugh Mackay, settled at St.
George, New Brunswick, and was elected a member of the Assembly during thirty years. He was
a colonel of Militia and Senior Judge of Common
Pleas for Charlotte County. He died in 1843,
aged ninety-seven. Adam Allan settled in New
Brunswick in York County, and became lieutenant
in the King's New Brunswick Regiment.
From many sources there was a continual influx
of Scottish peoples, until in the year 1843 the
census showed about 30,000 persons of that descent
in the province. Many of them were, as is shown,
of United Empire Loyalist or military ancestry.
Many soldiers of the famous Black Watch
Regiment, or 42nd Highlanders, settled on the
St. John close to Fredericton. The towns of
Bathurst and Dalhousie on the Bay of Chaleurs
were also largely of Scottish origin.
The following list of Scottish Presbyterian
families in New Brunswick in the year 1843
may be of interest in this connection : St. John
City, 300 to 400 families ; Kingston, 100 families ;
Parish of St. James, Charlotte County, 150
families ; St. Andrews, Charlotte County, 150
families ; Digdequash, 100 families ; Magaguave-
dick, 100 families ;  Sudbury County, 150 families.
There were also many settlers of Scottish origin
<iOHt& BE
1 w •
1 n! l
1 t ■■'
■ ^
hi illII
I'ltt     111 1
The Scotsman in Canada
at Nashwack, in York County, at Fredericton, Newcastle, Chatham, Richibucto, Restigouche, Dorchester, Norton, and Woodstock. It must not be forgotten that many of these Scotsmen were of Ulster
Scottish origin—as a large number of Ulster Scotsmen came into the country. A noted Ulster Scotsman was the late Senator Wark, of New Brunswick,
who was sitting as a Senator of the Dominion at
Ottawa only a few years ago, in his one hundred
and first year—and still having all his faculties.
He died a year later aged one hundred and two.
There is a fine portrait of the old Senator, aged
one hundred and one, painted by a leading
Canadian artist, which is now hanging in the gallery
of the Senate at Ottawa. It may be interesting to
know that the portraits of almost all of the
Speakers of the Senate or Upper House at Ottawa
that are not Frenchmen are those of Scotsmen.
The names are : Ross, Miller, McPherson, MacNab,
Allan, Sir William Campbell, and Sir Alexander
Some notable Scotsmen in early New Brunswick
are well worth chronicling. Many of the clans
and families were represented. Daniel Grant, who
settled at the purely Scottish colony of St.
Andrews, was from Golspie in Sutherlandshire,
where Dunrobin Castle stands. He died in 1834,
aged eighty-two. The family of Gray, Scottish
United Empire Loyalists, numbered thirteen,
children of Joseph Gray, who settled at Halifax.
A brother William became a magistrate in King's
County, New Brunswick, and died in 1824, aged
ill The Scotsman m New Bru/nswick
ninety-six. The Scottish settlements in New Brunswick date from the very earliest period, that of Sir
William Alexander's settlement on the St. John
River. While the present population is not as
distinctly Scottish as that of Nova Scotia, there
are many people of that and Ulster Scottish blood
in the province, and no chronicle of this province
can be perfect without reference to the influence
and personality of the Scotsman.
Further mention of Scotsmen in New Brunswick will be found in the chapter on Scottish
M Ill
Whose heart was loyal to h/is word,
Whose hand was faithful to his sword,
Who won a hero's world-renown,
In every quarrel save his own.
IT is not generally known that from the very
earliest period of the history of the Province
of Quebec the Scottish race have been in some-
manner connected with its settlement and development.
Every Canadian of Scottish extraction should
be proud of the fact that the very vessel which
sailed up the St. Lawrence, and from the arrival
of which was to date the foundation of French
Canada, was steered by a Scotsman, the now noted
Abraham Martin, dit ecossais, whose Christian
name is immortalised in connection with the famous
heights along with the memories of Wolfe and
The fact that the Scottish sailor was the pilot
of the Don de Dieu is merely one more instance
of the worldwide genius of the Scotsman as a
M The Scotsman m Quebec
toaster-man in all ages and among all lands and
That he received the lands where the battle
was afterward fought as a reward for his skill
and labour is also evidence of the Scotsman's gift
in acquisition the world over.
The sons of the land of the heather had to penetrate everywhere in their restless adventuring, and
even French Canada could not escape the almost
universal experience. In truth it has seemed that,
the world over, wherever practical skill, sagacity,
and hard work were needed, a Scotsman has ever
been found in the forefront, ready to essay the
difficult task, and to achieve the seemingly
impossible undertaking.
It is, however, a strange picture to contemplate,
this presence of the Scotsman, Abraham Martin,
on this pioneer vessel of New France. This
adventure to Canada was the undertaking of a
French people ; a great French discoverer was
the leader of the expedition ; the Don de Dieu
was a French ship sailing from' a French port to
found a French province in the wilds of the New
World, under the mandate and prestige of a .French
monarch ; and yet as the brave little vessel forged
her way past the gloomy and forbidding entrance
and sailed up that vast lonely gulf into the great,
silent, eld-haunted river it was the hand of that
lonely, self-contained, dour Scotsman who guided
the wheel ; and it was his indomitable will that
would not be defeated, and his unerring brain that
marked  the  latitude  and longitude,  and  guided,
M The Scotsmcm in Canada
by the compass or the stars of heaven, the first
Canadian vessel into her virgin port.
How true a prophecy was this of the future
of the vast region which lay beyond that narrow
river gateway, wherein many notable Scotsmen,
chief among whom were Macdonald and Strathcona, were to control, during a remarkable century
of our own history, the direction and development
of its great destinies. Indeed, this picture of the
pilot Abraham Martin is but one of many
examples in Canadian history of the energy,
endurance, and daring of that remarkable people the
iron-souled children of famous Northern Britain,
who had then, and have had ever since, their hands
on the wheel-spokes of all great ventures of the
modern world.
Sir James McPherson Lemoine, the noted
Quebec historian and essayist, himself a Scotsman
in descent, makes, in his " Scot in New France,"
a suggestive remark to the effect that Master
Abraham, the Scotsman, may have experienced but
a mild regret at seeing a new Governor of Scottish
descent, Louis Kirke, the Calvinist, hoist his
standard on the bastion of Fort St. Louis, which
had just been evacuated by Champlain.
Another significant picture is given by Lemoine ;
he writes : | The first British Governor of Quebec,
a Scotsman, General James Murray, as it were,
took loyally and bravely the keys of the city gates
from the last French Commandant of the place,
Major de Ramezay, a Ramsay of Scottish
136 The Scotsman in Quebec
He also hints, as others have done, that some
of Cartier's sailors were Scotsmen, and he suggests
that Michel Heme was no other than a Scotsman,
Michael Harvey.
A very interesting and remarkable work is
that of the French savant, Francisque Michel,
entitled " The Scot in France."
It shows that for centuries there was a close
connection between Scotland and France, and that
since the year 1400, when Scotsmen landed by
thousands in France to fight the English, many
of that nation have continually settled in the
country, and he cites many names of noted families
showing plainly a Scottish origin, such as Siche-
lant (Sutherland), Coninglant (Cunningham), Dro-
mont (Drummond). For centuries the Scottish
Ramsays had settled in France ; De Ramezay's
father was for twenty years Governor of Montreal.
Later, under British rule, another Ramsay, the Earl
of Dalhousie, was to represent his monarch at the
Castle of St. Louis.
In 1745, when the Scottish Highlanders had
made a vain and last attempt to restore the
Jacobite Prince to the British throne, France was
indifferent ; and it is significant that many of the
Fraser Highlanders who stormed and took Quebec
under Wolfe so shortly afterwards had been strong
Jacobites and followed Prince Charles in 1745.
It has been suggested that the kilted scalers of
the Heights of Abraham, were only too eager to
avenge on her chief colony what they considered
as France's bad faith with the Jacobite cause.
4> The Scotsman in Canada
Those hardy mountaineers, who thought nothing
of exposure to frost and cold, whose diet and dress
and manner of life inured them to all hardships,
became ideal soldiers and afterwards splendid
settlers, when once they had become accustomed to the necessities and habits of a pioneer
The Highland garb they wore by choice in
their regiments and out of them ; and even an
Act of Parliament failed to do away with this
most picturesque of all costumes civil or military.
In 1780, it will be remembered, the soldiers of
the 42nd and 71st Highlanders mutinied when
ordered to wear the Lowland military dress, and
in the end they recovered their rights to wear
their ancient dress ; so that to-day among the
finest British regiments, both Regular and Militia,
are the kilted corps of the Highlanders.
History shows that as soon after Culloden as
I7S9y it was Fraser's kilted Highlanders who
stormed and captured Quebec, and planted the
British flag on the ramparts.
The Master of Lovat had been a Jacobite, and
his father, the noted Lord Lovat, was one of the
two last Scottish lords beheaded at the Tower
in London, paying the penalty of treason in the
Jacobite cause. The young Master, who, but for
his father's attainder, would have been Lord Lovat,
commenced early to evince his loyalty to the House
of Brunswick in gratitude for the pardon granted
to him ;  and seeing, as so many soon did, the rank
138 The Scotsman in Quebec
folly of the late rising and the great injury which
it had caused to the flower of Scotland's clans, he
turned his attention to the purpose of using the
sjplendid fighting stock of the Highlands in the
cause of Britain rather than against her. His
estate had been lost, his wealth gone, and he a
suspected man ; all he had left was the hereditary
attachment of his clan to their chief. In spite
of all this, he went to work to raise a Highland
regiment, and in the space of a few weeks had
recruited fully 800 men, who were ready to fight
anywhere under his leadership.
The Cadet gentlemen of his clan and other
officers and neighbouring gentlemen added 700
more ; and the result was the famous Fraser
Highlanders. They wore the full Highland dress,
with musket and broadsword, dirk and pouch.
The list of the officers of the Fraser Highlanders,
whose commissions are dated January 5, 1759,
were :—
Lieutenant-Colonel Commandant : Hon. Simon
Majors : James Clophane ; John Campbell, of
Dunoon, afterwards commanding the Campbell
Highlanders in Germany.
Captains : John McPherson, brother of Clunie ;
John Campbell, of Ballimore ; Simon Fraser, of
Inverlochy, killed on the Heights of Abraham,
l79S j Donald Macdonald, brother of Clanronald,
killed at Sillery, 1760 ; John Macdonald, of Loch-
garry, afterwards Colonel of the 76th or Mae-
donald's   Regt. ;   Alexander   Cameron,   of   Dun-
y The Scotsman in Ccmada
gallon; Thomas Ross, of Culrossie ; Alexander
Fraser, of Culduthel; Sir Henry Seton, of Aber-
corn, Bart. ; James Fraser, of Belladrum ; Simon
Fraser.    Capt. Lunn died a general in 1812.
Lieutenants : Alex McLeod ; Hugh Cameron ;
Ronald Macdonald, of Keppoch; Charles Macdonald, of Glengarry, killed at St. John;
Roderick McNeill, of Barra, killed on the Heights
of Abraham ; Wm. Macdonald ; Archibald Campbell, son of Glenlyon ; John Fraser, of Balnain;
Hector   Macdonald,   brother  of   Boisdale,   killed
1759 ; Allan Stewart, son of Innernaheil ; John
Fraser ; Alexander Macdonald, son of Boisdale,
killed on the Heights of Abraham ; Alexander
Fraser, killed at Louisburg ; Alexander Campbell,
of Aross ; John Douglas ; John Nairn ; Arthur
Rose, of the family of Kilravock ; Alexander
Fraser; John Macdonald, of Leeks, died at
Berwick, 1818 ;   Cosmo Gordon, killed at Sillery,
1760 ; David Baillie, killed at Louisburg ; Charles
Stewart, son of Col. John Roy Stewart; Ewen
Cameron, of the family of Glenevis ; Allan
Cameron; John Cuthbert, killed at Louisburg;
Simon Fraser ; Archibald McAlister, of the family
of Loup; James Murray, killed at Louisburg;
Donald Cameron, son of Fassifern, died on half-
pay,  1817.
Ensigns : John Chisholm ; Malcolm Fraser, of
Errogie ; Simon Fraser ; James Mackay ; Malcolm
Fraser, afterwards Capt. of the 84th Regt. Royal
Emigrants ; Donald McNeill; Henry Munro;
Hugh Fraser, afterwards Capt. 84th Regt.;
140 The Scotsman in Quebec
Alexander Gregorson, Ardtornish ; James Henderson ;  Robert Menzies ;  John Cairipbell.
Chaplain :   The Reverend Robert Macpherson.
Adjutant :   Hugh Fraser.
Quartermaster :  John Fraser^.
Surgeon :   John McLean.
The Fraser Regiment comprised thirteen companies, numbering in all 1,460 men, who upheld
the military honour and reputation of the Scottish
A host of men of the Fraser name throughout
Quebec and other parts of Canada trace their
descent back to this famous regiment. Likewise
do numerous Macdonalds, Campbells, Rosses,
Stewarts, Murrays, McPhersons, Camerons, Mc-
Kenzies, and Munroes, who are now Canadians of
several generations.
The regiment was disbanded in 1764. But in
1775, when the call to arms to defend the country
for the King went forth, none were more eager
to respond than the Fraser Highlanders who were
settled in Canada ; and out of them, and other
loyal Highlanders from the St. Lawrence to
Newfoundland, was raised the 84th or Royal
Emigrants, spoken of elsewhere in this work.
These became the garrison of Quebec during that
awful winter of siege when they held Canada for
the Empire.
The following extracts are from the manuscript
journal of Col. Malcolm Fraser, then lieutenant
of the 78th Regiment of Fraser's Highlanders,
relating to the operations before Quebec in 1759.
141 The Scotsman in Canada
Colonel Fraser died in 1815 at the age of eighty-
two :—
Sth May 1759.—Set sail from Sandy Hook, under convoy of
the Nightingale, Captain Campbell, having Colonel Fraser's
Regiment on board. . . . Captain Campbell was of Colonel
Fraser's Regiment.
Sunday, 1st July.—I was ordered with Ensign McKenzie to the
i%th July.—Kennedy's Grenadiers were on board the Diana.
20th July.—A man of Capt. Simon Fraser's Company (63rd)
21st July.—Lieutenant Charles McDonald of our Grenadiers
wounded in the thigh. . . . About fourteen privates, all Highlanders, wounded.
2$th July.—Col. Fraser with 350 men of his Regt. marched
down river to take prisoners.
26th July.—Lieut. Alex. Fraser, junior, returned to camp. . . .
In evening the Colonel came to camp, wounded, with Capt.
McPherson wounded by the same shot.
31st July.—Col. Fraser's Regt. embarked in boats to cross the
river at Point Levy.
1st August.—This day General Wolfe in his orders had the
following paragraph : " Amherst's and the Highland Regiments
alone, by the soldier-like, cool manner they were formed in,
would undoubtedly beat back the whole Canadian Army if they
had returned to attack them."
i$th August.—Capt. John Macdonald, seven subalterns (of
whom I was one), eight sergeants, &c, crossed over from Point
Levy to the Island of Orleans.
2yrd August.—We were reinforced by a company of Rangers
under Capt. Montgomery of Kennedy's or 43rd Regt. . . . Joined
by Capt. Ross, with his company. . . . Capt. Ross joined
Colonel Murray. . . . Brigadier Murray has returned to his
yd  Sept.—This day  died,  my  worthy Captain,   Alexander
Cameron of Dungallon, universally regretted by all those who
knew him as a fine gentleman and a good soldier.
142 The Scotsman in Quebec
<\th Sept.—Arrived Captain Alexander Fraser of Culduthel with
a 14th Company to our Regt. Capt. Cameron was interred in
front of our colours.
13/A Sept.—In a short time the whole army was landed at a
place called Le Foulon (now Wolfe's Cove. . . . Our regiments
were then ordered by Brigadier-General Murray to draw their
swords and pursue them (the enemy who were now fleeing). . . .
Our Regiment, the Highlanders,... behaved extremely well.
At this time the rest of the army came up. . . . General Murray
having put himself  at the head   of   our   Regiment,  ordered
them to march through the bush of wood.
We had a few
men killed and officers wounded. . . . The enemy . . . began
firing on us from the bush and from the bank . . . they killed
and wounded a great many of our men, and killed two officers,
Lieutenant Roderick, McNeill of Barra, and Alexander Macdonald, and John MacDonald, and John McPherson, volunteer,
with many of our men were killed before we were re-inforced :
and Captain Ross ... of the third Regt. . . . was mortally
wounded in the body by a cannon-ball from the hulks
in the River St. Charles. . . . We had of our Regiment, three
officers killed and ten wounded, one of whom, Capt. Simon Fraser,
afterwards died. Lieutenant Archibald Campbell, thought to be
mortally wounded, recovered. Capt. John McDonald through
ooth thighs; Lieut. Ronald McDonald through the knee ; Lieut.
Alex. Campbell through the leg; Lieut. Douglas through the arm,
who died of the wound; . . . Ensign Gregorson, Ensign
McKenzie, and Lieut. Alex. Fraser, all slightly; I received a
slight contusion in the right shoulder or rather breast, which pains
me a good deal. . . . Thus (he says) ended the battle of Quebec,
the first regular engagement that was fought in North America,
which has made the King of Great Britain master of the Capital
of Canada, and, it is hoped, ere long will be the means of subjecting the whole country to the British Dominion; and if so, this
has been a greater acquisition to the British Empire than all that
England has acquired by conquest since it was a nation, if I may
except the conquest of Ireland in the reign of Henry the Second.
Thus writes this gallant Scottish officer in his
143 The Scotsman in Canada
journal, and how true were his words as to the
importance of this battle our history has since
shown. The most significant fact, however, for
the purposes of this work, was that this history-
making battle was fought and won, as this journal
shows and as all history acknowledges, largely by
But though the day was won, the French, a
gallant foe, were not yet conquered ; and we learn
more of what happened in Col. Fraser's journal.
He continues :—
We lay on our arms all the night of the 13th of September.
17th Sept.—Monsieur de Ramsay (Fraser gives it the Scottish
spelling), Governor of Quebec, sent out a flag of truce.... Article
of Capitulation signed on the 18th.
— Oct.—Admiral Sanders sailed for England.   On the 	
General Moncton sailed, having appointed Brigadier Murray (a
Scotsman) Governor of Quebec.
Col. Fraser does not bear out Lemoine regarding the kilts and the severe climate.    He says :—
1st Dec.—The winter is now very severe.
20th Dec.—The winter is now almost unsupportably cold. . . .
The garrison in general are but indifferently clothed, but our
regiment in particular is in a pitiful situation, having no breeches,
and the Philibeg is not at all calculated for this terrible climate.
Col. Fraser is doing all in his power to provide browsers for them,
and we hope soon to be on a footing with other regiments in that
13/A Feb., 1760.—Detachments sent over to drive the French
from Point Levy (they crossed on the ice), Lieut. McNeill of
our Regt. and some men wounded.
24th Feb.—The General went to attack him (M. St. Martin) with
the 15th, 28th, and Col. Fraser's Regts.
144 The Scotsman in Quebec
2nd March.—Capt. Cameron of our Regt. was pitched on by
the General as a proper person to command at Lorette, as he
spoke French.
ijth March.—Capt. Donald McDonald of Col. Fraser's Regt.
with the Light Infantry, &c, attacked the French Post—took
eighty persons
having suffered very much by
the excessive cold of the preceding night; several having lost
the use of their fingers and toes. The scurvy, occasioned by
salt provisions and cold, has begun to make fierce havock in the
26th Apr.—Information that Levis with 12,000 men, regulars
Canadians and savages coming.
2*jth Apr.—Governor marched out with Grenadiers, &c. . . .
Vanguard of the French army appeared. . . . Sent orders the
28th, 47th and 58th and Col. Fraser's Regt. to march to St.
Foy and cover his- (the Governor's) retreat. . . . The company of
volunteers of the garrison, commanded by Capt. Donald
McDonald of our Regt. . . . having been almost destroyed . . .
Colonel Fraser's Regt. being in danger of being surrounded. . . .
We had about sixty killed and forty wounded, and of thirty-nine
officers, Capt. Donald McDonald and Lieut. Cosmo Gordon,
both killed; Lieut. Hector McDonald and Ensign Malcolm
Fraser died of their wounds.. . . Twenty-three officers wounded,
of this number Col. Fraser . . . Capt. Alex. Fraser wounded.
1st May.—Capt. Cameron, dangerously burnt and bruised. . . .
Lieut. McGregor, left on the field wounded, narrowly escaped
being killed . . . said he saw the savages murdering the
These extracts afford some idea of the prominence of Scotsmen in the memorable battle and
Another vivid picture is possible fifteen years
later, when the 84th or Highland Emigrant
Regiment defended Quebec from the Americans.
During all that terrible time, in the face of
fearful   odds,   Col.   McLean,   the   head   of   the
VOL. 1. K 145 The Scotsman in Canada
regiment, proved himself to be a fine type of
Scottish commander. With traitors, disease, and
famine to contend with, and the whole province
outside of the walls of Quebec in the hands of
the American Army, the Governor, Guy Car let on,
with his brave officers, McLean, McKenzie, and
Hamilton, and others equally brave, withstood the
foe and kept the province for Britain.
For these important services the officers and
men received grants of land in the province.
Major Nairn received the seigniory of Murray's
Bay and Lieut. Malcolm that of Mount Murray.
The men of their companies settled about them,
and one of the noted Scottish colonies in Quebec
Province was formed.
In that locality the names of McLean, McNeill,
and other clan names connected with the famous
78th Regiment are to be found. But the mass
of this noted fighting stock has been so absorbed
in the French population that it is doubtful how
much of Scottish stock is not now animating
the present-day French Canadian. They settled
all over the province ; and in the year 1880 the
then known descendants numbered fully three
But there are other Scottish settlements in
Quebec, besides the great scattered stock, which
has come in from time to time during the
nineteenth century. Among these, Metis was
founded in the year 1823 by Mr. McNider, of
Quebec : and there are many Scotsmen of good
standing and means settled in the Baie des
Chaleurs district.
146 The Scotsman in Quebec
These are neither of United Empire Loyalist
origin nor descended from the Fraser Highlanders.
Of these, Lemoine mentions William McPherson,
who was for years Mayor of Port Daniel. Lemoine
himself was grandson of another McPherson, a
noted United Empire Loyalist, who was born in
Inverness, Scotland, in 1752. With this family
there had settled, about the year 1790, a numerous
colony of Kennedys, Arnetts, Morrisons, and other
Scottish and United Empire Loyalist families. In
addition to these settlements, all through the
province will be found intermarriages, with the
best French families, of Scottish officers of the
different regiments, as is instanced by such families
as those of Stuart, Fraser, McPherson, and Campbell. The present Baron de Longuiel is in the
male line of the great clan of Grant.
It will be impossible to deal with all the Scotsmen  in  the  province  since  its  foundation.   But
:he Scottish element in the cities of Quebec and
Montreal will  be  of  interest  to  readers  of this
york,  and much  of this  will  be  referred to  in
)ther chapters later on.    In this connection, how-
ver,   the   religious   element   in   the   life   of   the
province,   which  will  be  examined  later,   is   im-
ortant, as the Scotsman is nothing if not religious.
n the year 1802 a memorial to King George the
hird was signed at Quebec city by leading Scots-
ten asking for a site for a Presbyterian church.
: is dated October 5th.    The list of names which
)llows is representative of the business and pro-
ssional   men   of   the   day:   Alexander   Sparks
I The Scotsman in Canada
'(Minister) ;   Jas. Thompson, jun. ;   Fred Stuart
Jno.    Greenshields ;    Chas.    G.   Stewart;    Jas
Sinclair;      Jno.     Urquhart ;      Wm.     Morrin
Jno.   Eifland ;    Jno.   Bar lie ;    Geo.   McGregor
Wm.    Holmes ;     James    Ward;     Jno.    Purss*
J.   Brydon ;    Jno.   Fraser ;    James   Somerville
J. A. Thompson ;   Wm. Hall;   Wm. Thompson*
jun.r;    D.   Monro ;    J.   Blackwood ;    M.   Lym-
burner ;    W.  Roseburg ;   Jno.  McCordr;   J.   G.
Hanna ;   J. McNider;   Adam Lymburner*;   Jno.
Lynd ;     Peter   Stuart ;     Wm.    Grant?;     J.    A.
Todd ; Jno. Mure ;  Jno. McLeod ;  Hugh Munro ;
Geo.    Geddes ;    Arohd.    Donaldson;    Sandford
Hoyt ;    Robt.   Haddon,   sen. ;    Robt.   Haddon,
jun.-;   Alexander  Hadden ;   Wm.  Brown ;   Geo.
Morrison ; Jno. Goudie ; G. Sinclair*; Walter Car-
ruthers ; W/m. Petrie ; Jno. Ross ; Wm. McKenzie ;
Thps.   Saul ;    J.   Ross,   jun. ;    Jas.   Mitchell 5
Geo. King ;   Alex. Thompson ;   Jas. Orkney ;   J.
Neilson ;    Danl.   Fraser ;    A.   Ferguson*;    Robt.
Eglison;   Robt.   Cairns ;   Wm.   A.   Thompson;
Wm. McWhirter ;   John McDonald;   Jno. Auld;
Jno.  Shaw;   Charles   Hunter ;   Wm.  Anderson*;
Hugh McQuarters, jun.
That the influence of the Scotsman in the intellectual life of the province was not wanting is
shown by the royal charter granted to the Quebec
Literary and Historical Society by William the
Fourth on October 5, 1831. In the list of charter
members appear the names of many prominent
men of Scottish birth—such as George Earl of
Dalhousie; John Caldwell ; Hugh Caldwell;
148 The Scotsman in Quebec
Archibald Campbell ; Charles Campbell; John
Saxton Campbell ; John P. Cockburn ; Andrew W.
Cochrane ; John Davidson ; Wm. Findley ; Jas. B.
Forsyth ; John Fraser ; John Malcolm Fraser ;
James Hamilton ; Wm. Henderson ; Wm. Lyons ;
Fredk. Maitland ; John McNider ; Wm. McKeei;
Wm. King McCord ; Rodk. McKenzie; John I.
Mills ; Wm. Rose ; James Smillie ; Hon. and
Rt. Rev. Chas. James Stewart, Lord Bishop of
Quebec ; James Stuart ; David Stuart ; Andrew
Stuart ; Robt. Symes ; Rev. Daniel Wilkie. In
1835 the corresponding secretary was George Okill
Robert Sellar, in his history of Huntington,
Chateauquay, and Beauharnois down to the year
1838, gives us a glimpse of the Scottish Settlement
in that part of Quebec.
The first Scotsman whom1 he mentions, as in
the settlements, is a Scottish United Empire
Loyalist, John Fisher, who was a native of Killin,
in Perthshire, Scotland. Fisher moved into
Hemingford in 1800. A little earlier, in 1798,
Rach Gordon, a Scottish Loyalist, at Sorel, settled
on one of the first three lots in Havelock. In
1801 Andrew Gentle, of Stirlingshire, a brewer,
arrived with certificates of his good character from
the minister of Dunblane. He came by way of
the States and brought an American wife. He
settled in Hemingford. Near him5 settled James
Gilfillan, a Highlander. About 1808 Archibald
Muir, another Scotsman, was manager of the first
great  mill  on  the  English River.   In  Franklin,
M& The Scotsman in Canada
Dewar, a Scottish blacksmith, established his trade
in 1811.
As has been seen, Hemingford's infant settlement had her Scotsmen. Likewise the young
settlement on the Chateauguay had its representative of this indomitable race. In 1800 a Mr.
t}oudy came to the settlement. He was the forerunner of the great body of Scotsmen who were
afterwards to settle the community. He sold his
farm to a relative, William Ogilvie, who left
Scotland in 1802. About 1810 John Milne, from
Aberdeen, was the agent for making out deeds
of the Seigniory. In 1800 John Simpson, a
Scottish millwright, built a mill at Beauharnois.
Opposite St. Martine there settled William Reed.
Each year saw the coming in of more Scottish
settlers. Alexander Hassock, from Cromarty, came
in 1801, and settled in North Georgetown. He
was followed by his nephew-in-law, James Wilkinson, and John Raleston, from Ayrshire, who
claimed to have known Robert Burns.
At English River in 1807 settled James Wright,
a shoemaker, of Cupar. Other Scottish settlers were
Somerville, a miller, Andrews, Williamson, Alex.
Logan, from Ross-shire, John Hervie, Neil
Morrison, from Lochgilphead, Argyllshire, John
Stewart, Thompson, James McClatchie, from Ayrshire ;   Renshaw, a schoolmaster.
In   1802 the Nephton arrived at Quebec with
seven hundred Highlanders on board.    They were
chiefly from Glenelg, in Ross-shire.   Many of them
at first settled on Sir John Johnson's property in
150 The Scotsman in Quebec
Chambly, but finding much of the land too swampy
three of their number, John Roy McLennan, John
Finlayson, and Finlay McCauig, in 1812, found
lands for many of them in Beauharnois. The rest
went to Glengarry in Upper Canada.
Many of the officers of the Scottish regiments
settled in the city of Montreal, and some of them,
with other adventurous Scottish spirits, founded
the North-West Trading Company, so noted in
the fur trade. Others became prominent business
men and financiers. These were augmented by
many other Scottish emigrants, who, as time went
on, made themselves masters of Canada's trade
and finance. Wherever her vast wilds were, by
her lakes and rivers, in the lone North-West, there
Montreal Scottish traders adventured or sent their
agents, until they became the builders of financial
and trading Canada. Many of the most noted of
these progressive and persistent Scotsmen will be
mentioned in other parts of this book. But there
are to-day many distinguished representatives of
the Scottish colony in Montreal. The names of
a few, like the late Honourable Sir George Drum-
mond; the Honourable A. B. Angus ; Sir
Montague Allen ; Sir Hugh Graham ; the
Honourable Robert Mackay ; the Honourable Jas.
Meighen ; and Sir William Macdonald, are among
a long list of present-day Scotsmen who dominate
the financial and commercial world of Canada.
151 in
The Coming of the Scottish Loyalists
True to Empire and to King,
They deemed all loss of wealth and lands
As little, as a petty thing
Weighed in the scales.    Heroic bands,
Devoted, patriot, wandered forth
To build new Empire in the North.
The Loyalists
UNLIKE that of Pictou, the Glengarry settlement in Upper Canada was a great military
community. It had its origin in the disbanded
Scottish regiments composed largely of members
of the great clan Macdonald or Macdonell, a name,
as history shows, famous in Canadian as well as in
British annals.
Claiming a common descent from the stock of
the Lords of the Isles, the several branches of
the clan spell the name differently. The Mac-
donells of Antrim and those of Glengarry are of
the same stock as Lord Macdonald of Slate in
Antrim and the late Sir John A. Macdonald.
152 The Glengarry Settlements
The history of the Glengarry settlement is, in
a sense, a history of the Highland regiments and
of the great Jacobite wars. These Macdonells
were of an undaunted stock of fighting men, who
strove to the last for the Stuart cause. But since
then they have been as steadfjastly true to the
House of Hanover, which now represents the Royal
House of Stuart.
When Pitt, in 1757, started out to raise the
Highland regiments, as one writer says, j this call
to arms was responded to by the clans ; and
battalion on battalion was raised in the remotest
parts of the Highlands among those who, a few
years before, were devoted to, and too long had
followed, the race of Stuart. Frasers, Macdonalds,
Camerons, McLeans, McPhersons, and others of
disaffected names  and clans  were enrolled."
All the world knows how they soon, at Quebec
and Aboukir, added fame to Britain. Lord
Chatham, in his famous eulogy of their regiments,
said : "I sought for merit wherever it could be
found. It is my boast that I was the first Minister
who looked for it and found it in the mountains
of the North. I called it forth and drew into your
service a hardy and intrepid race of |men—men
who, left by your jealousy, became a prey to the
artifices of your enemies, and had gone nigh to
have overturned the State in the war before last.
These men in the last war were brought to combat
on your side ; they served with fidelity, as they
fought with valour, and conquered for you in every
part of the world."    Of these, this account has to
\\ The Scotsman in Canada
do with those who emigrated to the Crown colonies
in America, and who proved their worth and loyalty
on this continent, as their brother Scots had done
in other parts of the Empire and the world.
Since then the name of Macdonald has continued
famous in Canada and elsewhere. One has only to
mention Sir John A. Macdonald, Sir William Macdonald, John Sandfield Macdonald, Bishop Mac-
donell, and a host of others of this clan, in the
State, the Church, the Bench, and many other
walks in life in Canada, to show how one at least
of the great Highland clans has made its name
synonymous with the best life of this country.
The history of the Glengarry settlement is
similar to that of Pictou, in that it has to be dealt
with under several heads, those of the first and
second and third immigrations. The first immigration was the United Loyalist one, under Sir
John Johnson, from Tryon County, New York.
It was on a small scale, but the second and third
were great movements, the third being the coming
of a whole regiment of Highland soldiers in 1802.
One of the most important of all the United
Empire Loyalist settlements was that of Glengarry,
which contributed during the wars more fighting
men in proportion to its population than any other
portion of the province.
But $0 explain its settlement we must go back
to the Old Land and the old days, as no people or
generation lives merely in the present. We are
a part and parcel of the past, and are much what
our forefathers made us ere we were born. To
154 M  The Glengarry Settlements
understand and explain the Scotsman in Canada
we must know of the Scotsman in the Old World.
And as he was inspired there, so his children and
children's children will be led here.
Among the leading Jacobites were the sept of
the Macdonald clan, the Macdonells of Glengarry.
They had followed Montrose and Claverhouse. In
1715 they joined the Earl of Mar, and in 1745
were staunch adherents of Prince Charles Edward.
They met defeat, and paid the penalty like men.
And yielded, indignant, their necks to the blow,
Their homes to the flame, and their lands to the foe.
After the disarming Acts and the abolition of
the feudal system, thousands of Highlanders were
forced to emigrate.
Among these were several gentlemen of the clan
Macdonell of the Glengarry branch—Aberchalder,
Leek, Collachie, and Scothouse, so designated from
their several estates. These, collecting a number
of their people together, emigrated to America,
and settled on tracts of land in what was then
called Tryon County, in the beautiful valley of
the Mohawk in the Province of New York.
They had hoped, in crossing the ocean, to live
in peace and make up for the disasters of fortune
which the Jacobite wars had helped to cause in
the Old World. ||
But their fate was destined to be otherwise ;
and it was not long ere they had to take up arms
for George the Third, as they had for the Stuart
cause.   And once more for an ideal—the monarchy
II The Scotsman in Canada
—they forsook all, and went forth into the northern
Canadian wilderness to establish the foundation
of a new Empire on this continent.
The man who was to lead them was Sir John
Johnson, son of the famous Sir William Johnson,
the friend and ally of the Redman. Sir William
was from Ireland, and descended from a branch
of the famous Lowland Scottish family of Johnson
of the borders.
When the rebellion broke out in 1775 Sir John
armed his retainers for the King, and his Scottish
allies, who were Roman Catholics, took the side
of their monarch against the rebels. It was not
long before the Highlanders were denounced by
the Continentals as Tories, and were commanded to
deliver up their arms. This they appeared to do,
but an attempt was made to seize Sir John Johnson
and his friends and allies, the Highlanders. But,
being warned in time, he escaped and made his
way, after a hard march, to Canada, accompanied
by many of his friends and associates, chief among
whom were the Macdonnells and other Highland
gentlemen and their clansmen who had followed
his fortunes and had stood for the Empire.
On their arrival, Sir Guy Carleton issued a commission to Johnson to raise a fenoible regiment
from among the two hundred followers who had
accompanied him from New York. This regiment
was called | The King's Royal Regiment of New
York." Among others the Highland gentlemen
from Tryon County received commissions, and
their men enlisted.    The following is a list of the
156 The Glengarry Settlements
Scottish officers in this regiment, in Butleri's
Rangers, and in the 84th or Royal Highland
Emigrant Regiment :—
King's Royal Regiment, N.Y.—1st Battalion.
Capt. Alexander Macdonell (Aberchalder).
Capt. Angus Macdonell (Ensign 60th Regt.).
Capt. lohn Macdonell (Scotas).
Capt. Archibald Macdonell (Leek).
Capt. Allan Macdonell (Leek).
Lieut. Hugh Macdonell (Aberchalder).
Ensign Miles Macdonell (Scotas).
King's Royal Regiment, N.Y.—2nd Battalion.
Capt. James Macdonell.
Lieut. Ronald Macdonell (Leek).
Butler's Rangers.
Captain John Macdonell (Aberchalder), Lieut, in 84th Regt.
1st Lieut. Alexander Macdonell (Collachie).
2nd Lieut. Chichester Macdonell (Aberchalder).
Seventy-first Regiment.
Lieut. Angus Macdonell.
Other Scottish gentlemen who held commissions
in the King's Royal Regiment of New York were :—
Major James Gray.
Major lohn Ross.
Capt. S. Anderson.
Capt. John Munro e.
Capt. William Morrison.
Capt. Redford Crawford.
Lieut. Malcolm McMartin.
Lieut. Joseph Anderson.
Lieut. Jacob Farrand.
Lieut Walter Sutherland.
Lieut. Hugh Munro.
Lieut. William Mackay.
Lieut. William Fraser.
Ensign Duncan Cameron.
Ensign John Mann.
Ensign Ebenezer Anderson.
Ensign Alexander McKenzie.
Ensign Samuel Mckay.
Ensign John Mackay.
Chaplains, the Rev. John Doty
and the Rev. John Stewart.
James Stewart, Surgeon's Mate,
157 The Scotsman in Canada
As will be seen by these lists, the Macdonells,
who are in a list by themselves, are in the great
The Royal Highland Emigrant Regiment, or the
old 84th, was raised from the Highland emigrants
then arriving in Canada, and Lieut.-Col. Allan
McLean, of the 104th Regiment, was Commandant
of the First Battalion, and Captain John Small was
Commandant of the Second Battalion, raised from
the discharged soldiers settled in Nova Scotia, who
afterwards re-settled there.
A large proportion of the King's Royal Regiment of New York and the Royal Emigrants were
of the Scottish stock.
The First Battalion of the Royal Emigrants
settled in Canada. The following is a list of its
officers in 1778 :—
Lieut.-Col. Allan MacLean; Major Donald McDonald.
Captains: Wm. Dunbar, John Nairne, Alexander Fraser,
George McDougall, Malcolm Fraser, Daniel Robertson, George
Lieutenants: Neil McLean, John McLean, Lachlan McLean,
David Cairns, Donald McKinnon, Ronald McDonald, John
McDonell, Alexander Stratton, Hector McLean.
Ensigns: Ronald McDonald, Archibald Grant, David Smith,
Archibald McDonald, John Pringle, Hector McLean.
Rev. John Bethune, Chaplain; Ronald McDonald, Adjutant;
Lachlan McLean, Quartermaster; James Davidson, Surgeon;
James Walker, Surgeon's Mate.
In 1778 this regiment was numbered as the
Though many of the United Empire Loyalists
158 The Glengarry Settlements
were of Scottish stock, yet Glengarry must be
considered as the great centre of the Scottish
Loyalists. The Empire Lists, Which are only partially complete, show that the name Macdonell,
or Macdonald, outranks in the numbers of its
representatives any other United Empire name in
the Province of Upper Canada. There were on
the Lists the representatives of almost every Highland clan and Scottish name. Then there were
many of the Highlanders who never registered
their names. Bishop Macdonell, who came to
Canada more than twenty years after the Loyalists,
wrote that he had not been long in the province
before he discovered that few or none among the
earliest settlers had legal tenure of their properties, and it took him months' of hard labour to
secure for the Highland emigrants of Stormjont
and Glengarry proper deeds for their lands.
Lord Dorchester's original United Empire List,
which was only the nucleus of the Royalist
immigration into Upper Canada, showed nearly
six hundred Scottish names, of which 84 were
Macdonells, 35 Grants, 28 Campbells, 27 Frasers,
and 25 Camerons.
Of these Scottish Celtic settlers in early Canada,
their enemies have striven to say that they had no
mental qualifications to rank them with the early
settlers of Massachussets, Virginia, Maryland, and
Connecticut ; that long subjection to their Highland
chiefs had paralysed those nobler qualities which
make men desire freedom and progress. But their
manner of conquering nature in their new home
159 The Scotsman in Ccmadalk
during the earlier years of pioneer life, the spirit
they showed in repelling the foe in 1812 and 1837,
give the lie to such a false estimate of the Glengarry, Stormont, and other Scottish settlers of
In the grave crisis of the summer of 1812, when
the gallant Brock stood alone, when cowards and
traitors had combined to make the holding of
the young province for Britain almost impossible,
who was it who stood loyally, as Brock himself said,
but his loyal Glengarry men? And it was a Macdonell of the clan who died on the same field of
glory while rallying his forces at the untimely
death of his great general.
But they have evinced a host of other qualifications, mentally, morally, and physically, to show
them to be the equal, if not the superior, of the
members of any other community which ever
settled on this continent. Almost supreme as has
been the Scot in many parts of the great Republic
to the South, it seems that there is somewhat in
the very climate and austere seasons and natural
environment of Canada that brings out the Scottish
nature, as in his own dear homeland, at its very
best, and blossoms, as nowhere else outside of the
northern isle, the very flower of the Scottish personality. Where else has there developed a Lord
Strathcona, a Sir John Alexander Macdonald, a
Sandfield Macdonald, a Lyon McKenzie, an Oliver
Mowat, a Principal Grant, a Sir William Dawson,
a Bishop Strachan, a Bishop Macdonell, or a
thousand other remarkable individualities, rugged
160 The Glengarry Settlements
scions of the Scottish stock, but Canadians of the
Canadians, because this land of ours is so much
of Scotland and Scotland so much a part of us?
This individuality has been both the strength and
curse of the Scottish race, and it is alike the curse
of the Canadians, because we are too strong as
individuals in our own conceit and will not band
together for any cause—save a vulgar party one—
and therefore, though we still are Grits or Tories,
at least in name, we have ceased to be true
The early settlement of Glengarry developed
slowly. The county of Glengarry, where the
settlement was made, is the most easterly county
of what was old Upper Canada, now Ontario,
Alexandria, the centre of the county, being about
halfway between the Ottawa and the St. Lawrence
Rivers, and about fifty miles from Ottawa jcity.
The neighbouring counties are Stormont, Dundas,
and Prescott, where many of the early settlers
found their homes, and most of them were soldiers
and United Empire Loyalists of Scottish descent.
Cornwall was the great early county town for
these districts, and a famous Scottish centre in
old Upper Canada. Here Bishop Strachan, then
plain John Strachan, taught his famous school ;
and near here, at Williamstown, the Rev. John
Bethune founded the first Presbyterian Church in
Upper Canada. Here, during the early pioneer
days, the eighteenth century wore itself out, and
early in the nineteenth came the third great influx
of Scotsmen, with the disbanded regiment of the
VOL. I. L 161
...?a«re-- The Scotsmcm in Canada
The second immigration into the Glengarry
community took place soon after the close of the
The Rev. Alexander Macdonell brought out
some five hundred colonists, who came chiefly from
the Knokdart portion of the Glengarry estates in
the Western Highlands. These Highlanders came
and settled on land among their fellow-clansmen
in the county of Glengarry. They sailed for
America in the ship McDonald, Captain Robert
Stevenson, from Greenock. She arrived in Quebec
on September 7, 1786, and her reverend colonist
and her 520 pioneers made their way up the St.
Lawrence to the land which was to be their home.
Father Alexander Macdonald was one of /the
earliest Catholic missionaries, not French, in Upper
Canada. He founded the parish of St. Raphael's,
the pioneer parish of Upper Canada, and died at
Lachine in 1803, aged about fifty-three years, after
a long and faithful pastorate.
Mr. Macdonald, of Greenfield, who emigrated in
1792, also brought out emigrants who were of his
clan. He was brother-in-law of Col. John Macdonald, the first Speaker of the Upper Canadian
The county now became noted as a Scottish
colony, and emigrants were attracted to it from all
parts of Scotland; and among them came
McPhersons from Badenoch and Camerons from
LochieFs country, who settled in Lancaster and
There is also a tradition that a Capt. Alexander
162 The Glengarry Settlements
McLeod, of the family of Moule, in 1793 chartered
a vessel and brought from Glenelg in Scotland
forty families, principally of McLeods, Mclntoshes,
McGillivrays, and McCuaigs. They arrived in
Glengarry in 1794, and settled in the north of the
These were the principal Scottish immigrations
into these settlements prior to the coming of the
regiment in 1802.
The Coming of the Fencible Regiment from
Hearts of Scotland who inherit,
As of old, her martial blood;—
Bouse, once more, the hero spirit
Of her ancient island brood!!
OVER one hundred and sixty years after Sir
William Alexander sent his first shipload
of Scottish colonists across the Atlantic, there
laboured on the borders of the counties of Perth
and Inverness in the Highland mountains of Scotland a devoted missionary of the old Celtic blood,
whose name was Macdonell. He was of the same
race as the Earl of Stirling, those descendants of
the renowned Somerled. He was a practical man
as well as a dreamer, and was, no doubt, a poet
at heart as all his race are. But unlike Alexander
—the poet, courtier, colonist, and psalm-writer—
this man was a priest of the Roman Church, whose
chief interest was the spiritual welfare of that great
mass of Catholic Celts who, since the decay of
ST* The Glengarry Settlements
the clan system, were out of place in the Highlands, which were then being turned into sheep-
walks and agricultural experiments on a large
Of this great man I will speak at length later.
But here his work as a successful coloniser of one
of the most important Canadian communities will
alone be dealt with. Affected by the distress of his
countrymen, who, as he said, had been driven out of
their glens to turn the latter into sheep-walks, he
was debating what to do to alleviate their condition, when he heard of an emigrant ship which,
sailing from Barra, had been wrecked and had
put into Greenock, leaving her passengers in a
destitute and helpless condition. He at once went
to Glasgow in the spring of 1792, and by interest
with the University authorities and merchants,
strove to get the evicted farmers and shipwrecked
people into the local manufactories. For this
vocation, however, these poor people were ill-fitted
both by inclination, ability, and knowledge. They
preferred the wild life of the open, and made
splendid soldiers and deer-stalkers. Then they
spoke only the Gaelic and were Catholics in
religion, so that a double barrier separated them
from the factory people of Lowland English-
speaking Protestant Glasgow. But the College
professors and merchants appreciated his efforts,
and in spite of all the difficulties enumerated, in
two months he had procured employment for fully
six hundred Highlanders.
The faithful and energetic  priest  became the
!.. The Scotsman in Canada
spiritual father of these people, and for a couple
of years all went well, though his followers failed
to learn English. But soon came the troubles
of the French Revolution, and war between
England and France and the subsequent decline of
trade and labour ; and amid the general misery
the poor Highlanders lost their employment.
Again the ardent missionary met the crisis. He
conceived the daring idea of embodying his idle
labourers into a Catholic Corps in His Majesty's
service, and setting to work he soon received the
Royal assent, and by June, 1795, had embodied
the Glengarry Fencible Regiment, the first Catholic
Corps raised since the Reformation.
Becoming chaplain of the regiment, with his
chief, Macdonell of Glengarry, as colonel, he got
the regiment to offer their services where they
might be wanted. At first starting in Guernsey,
they soon went to Ireland, where they, with the
Reay Fencibles, put down the Rebellion of 1798.
Their faithful chaplain was their constant attendant down to the year 1802, when all the Scottish
Fencibles were disbanded.
In 1798 there were twenty-six Scottish regiments
in the British Army, and the Glengarrys were, no
doubt, among the finest of that splendid group of
fighting men who made the British soldiers dreaded
all over the world. The following list of the
officers of the Glengarrys is found in the British
Army List of 1798 :—
Macdonald   of   Glengarry,
General of the Brigade.
Col. Donald Macdonald.
Lieut-Col. Charles McLean. The Glengarry Settlements
Major Alexander Macdonald.
Capt. Archibald McLachlan.
Capt. Donald Macdonald.
Capt. Ranald Macdonell.
Capt. James Macdonald.
Capt. Archibald Macdonell.
Capt. Roderick Macdonald.
Capt. Hugh Beaton.
Capt. Lieut. Alex. MacdonelL
Lieut. John Macdonald.
Lieut. Ronald Macdonald.
Lieut. Archibald McLellan.
Lieut. James Macdonell.
Lieut. James McNab.
Lieut. D. Mclntyre.
Lieut. Donald Chisholm.
Lieut. Allan McNab.
Ensign Alexander Macdonell.
Ensign John Macdonald.
Ensign Charles Macdonald.
Ensign Donald Macdonell.
Ensign Donald McLean.
Ensign Archibald Macdonell.
Ensign Alexander Macdonell.
Ensign Andrew Macdonell.
Ensign Francis Livingston.
Adjutant Donald MacdoneU.
Quartermaster Alexander Macdonell.
Surgeon Alexander Macdonell.
Could a regiment be any more thoroughly
Scottish and Highland than this?
On the disbanding of the Fencibles, the
Glengarrys found themselves in as desperate
a position as ever. But their resolute chaplain conceived the idea of their emigrating
to Canada, and appealed to the British Government for assistance to enable them to do so.
The Government, while regretting the great flow
of emigrants from Scotland, offered to bear
a colony of the regiment to Trinidad. Thanking
the minister for his offer, the chaplain replied that
his people preferred to go to Upper Canada where
their friends were already settled and doing well.
The result was that Mr. Addington, the Premier,
procured an order with the Sign Manual to the
Lieut.-Governor of Upper Canada to grant two
hundred acres of land to every one of the Highlanders who should arrive in the province.
1 The Scotsman in Canada
This wholesale emigration alarmed the Scottish
landlords of the Western Highlands, and an effort
was made to induce the Highlanders to stay at
home. They were even offered the waste lands
of Cornwall.
At this juncture, however, as in the case of
Sir William Alexander, a member of the great
rival clan Campbell came to the Reverend Mr.
Macdonell's assistance in the person of Major
Archibald Campbell, who proposed a plan of
making a complete military organisation of all the
Scottish Fencible regiments which were disbanded,
and of sending them all to Upper Canada and so
prevent them going to the United States. This
was a feasible and wise scheme, could it have
been carried out, but just then Addington resigned,
Pitt returned to office, and the war was renewed
with France under Napoleon, who was just then
rising in power, so the greater, part of the Fencibles remained at home or drifted into other units
of the army.
At this time also strict regulations were enforced
as to vessels carrying emigrants abroad, owing to
cruelties said to be practised by owners of vessels
in that business. The result of these regulations
was that an embargo was laid on all emigrant
ships in British harbours. By good fortune the
Glengarrys had, the most of them, got away ere
this was enforced, and set sail for the New Scotland
across the water.
Curiously, at this time their chaplain, who had
stayed behind in London to complete his business,
was approached by another noted Scottish colonist
168 The Glengarry Settlements
in Canada, Lord Selkirk, whose operations will be
dealt with by Dr. Bryce in another volume of this
work. Lord Selkirk proposed to join with Macdonell in his colonisation scheme, but announced
that his idea was to settle the country between
Lakes Huron and Superior with Highlanders, the
climate there being similar to that in Scotland
and the soil richer and more productive. This
offer was refused because the location chosen was
beyond the jurisdiction of the Government of Upper
Canada, and too remote from other settlements.
The Fencibles arrived in Upper Canada iand
received their lands according to the despatch from
Lord Hobart, Secretary of State for the Colonies,
to Lieut.-Governor Hunter, dated March i, 1803.
By this order twelve hundred acres were granted to
Mr. Macdonell, and two hundred acres to every
family he introduced into the colony.
Of other Scottish immigrations into Glengarry
since that date, those of Locheil and the McLeods
have been mentioned.
The year 1803 saw other emigrations of Scotsmen, and in the ships that carried the Glengarry
Fencibles were other Scottish immigrants into
Canada, many of them' from Kintail and Glenelg.
One old resident of the county, Murdoch
McLennan, had released a valuable farm in Kintail
rather than separate from his kinsmen and friends
who were emigrating. He said that there were
eleven hundred persons on the ship, and that they
were four months crossing in stormy and wintry
weather, especially off Labrador.
The   county   was    divided   into   settlements":
ill The Scotsman in Canada
Breadalbane of the Campbells and others of North
Argyllshire who settled there ; Dunvegan, named
by the McLeods, a large number of whgm settled
in that locality; Strathglas suggests the Chisholms ; and Uist and Knokdart certain septs of the
Stormont, the adjacent county, was also settled
originally by Scottish United Empire Loyalists, and
St. Andrews in that county is a suggestive name.
The early settlers in Glengarry came chiefly
from the neighbourhood of the Mohawk River in
New York. They selected their land on the shores
of the St. Lawrence and Lake St. Francis, and
on the borders of the river Raisin as far inland
as Williamstown and Martintown. They were
joined in 1784 by officers and privates of the 84th
Regiment, and of that of Sir William Johnston,
from whose Christian name the former place
acquired its name.
From the very first the greater proportion of
the people were Scottish folk, most of whom had
come to the colony in 1783. Such names as those
of Grant, Rose, McLean, Murchison, and Bethune
are witness to this fact.
Among the officers who settled in the township of Lancaster were Col. Sutherland and Mr.
Gunn. In 1786 Capt. John Hay, from Glen-
brae in Aberdeenshire, who had come out to Prince
Edward Island in 1773 and afterwards joined the
84th Regiment, settled on the border of the river
Raisin. His place was named Glen of Hay
(Gaelic, Gleana-feair).
Among others who settled in Lancaster were the
170 The Glengarry Settlements
McPhersons from Badenoch. Kenneth, the son
of John, was for over thirty years postmaster and
general merchant at Lancaster village. His father
was John McPherson, who came out and took up
lands. Kenneth came out in 1822 as a follower of
Cameron of Thora. One of the McPherson family
named Murdoch died in his   107th year.
In the Scottish emigration of 1802 there came
out Mr. Donald Fraser, who became a merchant at
Williamstown. He bought Sir John Johnson's
place at Point du lac, and renamed it Fraser's
Point. His son, Lieut.-Col. Alexander Fraser, of
the Glengarry Militia, was living and over eighty
years of age in 1887.
A number of retired officials of the Hudson's Bay
Company settled in Glengarry. Among them were
the Hon. John McGillivray, whose eldest son, Neil,
became heir to the chiefship of that clan and to
the ancestral estate in Scotland ; Duncan Cameron,
father of the late Sir Roderick Cameron, of New
York city ; Mr. John McDonald, who resided at
Gray's Creek ; and Mr. Hugh McGillis, of
This is the story of this famous old Canadian
community whose history is linked with the martial
valour and prowess of 1812. Many of the
descendants of the rugged old Highland settlers
have drifted west or into other parts of Ontario.
But whenever the Scotsman in Canada is spoken
of, the Glengarry settlements have a foremost place
in the memory and hearts of our people.
Bonnet, plaid, and dirk in nan'
The heilan chiel's a fightin' man.
"Behold the Tiber," the vain Roman cried,
Viewing the ample Toy from Baiglie's side;
But where's the Scot thai would the vaunt repay,
And hail the puny Tiber for the Toy ?
" A ^ONG a*Q ^g provinces in Scotland," says
-£jl Sir Walter Scott, | the most fertile and the
most beautiful is the county of Perth." If this
cannot be said of Perth in Ontario, at least it
can be asserted that it has much beauty and
fertility of soil and is a pleasant home for Scotsmen in the New World. This was one of the
Canadian settlements of purely Scottish and
military origin. The names of the old town
and of the river on which it is founded at once
suggest the famed city and stream of Perth and
Tay in Scotland. The terrible depression in trade
and manufactures in the Old Land that followed
the close of the Napoleonic wars produced a
large class of people who were out of employment;
and suffering and privation began to be felt in
4mm The Perth Settlement
different parts of Britain and, among other places,
in certain districts of Southern Scotland. Realising
the necessity of some relief from this condition,
the British Government deemed that it would be
wise to send many of the superfluous population
to Upper Canada, and not only relieve the Old
Land of her burden, but also fill the young colony
with loyal subjects of the Crown. As a result
of this idea, late in May, 1815, three transports
sailed from Greenock in Scotland, that famed port
of departure for emigrants, loaded with Scottish
families destined for Upper Canada.
These ships were the Atlas, the Baptiste
Merchant, and the Dorothy. These vessels, for
some strange reason, were all summer on the
ocean, and did not reach Quebec until the middle
of September. Arriving too late to go to the
new settlements that winter, the emigrants were
brought up to Brodkville and Prescott, and kept
there in quarters until the following spring. By
April 18, 1816, they were conveyed to their future
home in the back townships on the Tay and Rideau,
having to travel through blazed trails in the, as
yet, uncleared forest. A letter of the Deputy
Quartermaster-General of October 13, 1816,
describes this settlement as follows :—
j I   iii
Rideau.—This settlement was commenced on the 18th April,
1816. The new village of Perth is situated on a small river, now
the Tay, formerly the Pike, which empties itself into the Rideau
Lake, at about five and a half miles below; it is distant from
Brockville forty-two miles, twenty-one of which is an established
and good road. ... In the village there are twenty houses, and
173 ft      The Scotsman in Canada
in its immediate vicinity there are 250 habitations, which will be
in readiness for occupation before the winter. . . . The settlement generally is provisioned to the 24th October, about fifty
families of Scotch, to the 24th December.
Meanwhile another source was to provide settlers
for the new settlement. After the close of the
war of 1812-14, many of the regiments which had
taken part in the struggle were disbanded, and
the rank and file were induced to become dwellers
and landowners in the country which they had
helped to defend. In the month of June following
the settlement of the Scottish emigrants at Perth,
three regiments—the Glengarry Fencibles, the
Canadian Fencibles, and what was known as De
Watteville's Regiment—arrived at the settlement,
and the town plot of Perth was laid out, a bridge
was built over the Tay, and the foundation of the
settlement was carried forward.
The first settlers were purely Scottish, and many
of them Highlanders. A great number of the
military settlers were also Scotsmen ; and during
1816 many other ships, such as the Canning, the
Duke of Buckingham, and the Commerce, brought
hundreds of families, the majority of whom were
Scotsmen and Ulster Scotsmen. .
The settlement at its foundation was a military
one, and under the control of the commander of
the forces. The troops were used at first to build
houses for the rest of the settlers and provide
roads and bridges. Among many other necessaries, axes for felling the forest were given the
settlers ; and though they had much to contend
174 The Perth Settlement
with, they were lucky in having the care and aid
of the Government during the first years of pioneer
life. Clothes and rations were also served out,
and everything was done to give these sturdy
pioneers a favourable start in their conquest of
the wilderness. There are in the archives at
Ottawa lists of supplies that were furnished ; and
that under the heading of hardware included all
sorts of articles from palliasses, blankets, billhooks,
and Flanders kettles, down a long list to shingle-
nails, brads, and iron wedges.
Another letter, dated Quebec, November 21,
1815, refers to the first settlement as follows :—
I have the honour to report to His Excellency that, of the
settlers recently arrived from Scotland in the Transports, Dorothy,
Atlas, and Baptiste Merchant, and since forwarded to Upper
Canada; eight or nine unmarried men have proceeded to
Kingston, and are there employed by the Engineer Department
on the King's works. At Brockville thirty large families are
accommodated in the Barracks, in some adjoining huts, and in
the neighbouring farmhouses, where most of them have procured employment; this station being considered the principal
depot of the Settlement about to be formed under the superintendence of Alex. MacDonell, Esq.; the Staff Surgeon, Mr. Thorn;
the Deputy Adjutant-Commissary-General, Mr. Grieg; and Lieut.
McTier, Acting Deputy-Supt.
It is seen that those in charge were all Scotsmen.
The following statement will be of interest. It
is dated Scotch Settlement, Perth, August 10,
1818   (over two years later) :—
We, the undersigned Scotch emigrants, do hereby certify that
Mr. John Holiday, who accompanied us from Scotland as our
Schoolmaster, taught our children in Brockville Barracks from
ii The Scotsman m Canada
I   111
ill 111 It
Martimmas, 1815, to Whitsunday, 1816, for which he received
no fee whatever, nor did we even hear Mr. Holiday express an
idea of making charge for the same. {Signed) John Thompson,
James Taylor, James McLaren, James Millar, Ann. Holdness,
Hugh McKay, Abraham Loner, Thos. Baker, John Ferguson,
James Fraser, John Furrier, Wm. McGillivray, James McDonald,
Alex. McFarlane, Thomas Barrie, John Brash, Alexander Kidd,
George Wilson, Wm. Johnston."
Another petition of inhabitants of Perth shows
" Much regret at the removal of the Rev. Wm.
Bell from the public school at this place, having
the highest opinion of his abilities as a teacher,
as well as of his moral and religious character."
The petition, which is a long one, is addressed
to the Deputy Quartermaster-General, and is dated
at the Scotch Settlement, Perth, December 27,
1820, showing that the settlement was still under
military supervision. It is signed by the following
fifty-five inhabitants, who are all Scotsmen :—John
Alston ; Jos. Taylor ; A. Fraser ; Wm. Mackay ;
J. Watson ; John Adamson ; Jas. McLean ; Jas.
Ferguson ; John Campbell ; N. B. Thomas ; Wm.
Brown ; Jas. Robinson ; Angus Cameron ; Peter
McPherson ; John Ferguson ; John Paterson [
Robt. Smith; Chas. Jamieson ; James Bows ;
Wm. McPherson ; Jos. Barrie ; Jas. Bryce ; John
Fletcher ; Hugh Scott ; Edwd. Harkness ; Jas.
Roberts ; Jas. Scott ; John McLaren ; John
McLeod ; Austin Allan ; Geo. Wilson ; John Allan ;
Abraham Ferrier ; John Ferrier.; Jas. Fraser;
Samuel McEachern ; Jas. McCraken; Donald
Gillies ; Alex. Kidd ; E. C. Mallock ; John Hay ;
Alex. McDonald; Richard Jamieson; Jas. Mc-
176 The Perth Settlement
Intosh ; Francis Allen ; John McNee ; Duncan
Cameron; Wm. McGillivray; Jas. McDonald;
John Holiday ; Wm. Rutherford ; John McNie*;
Colin Campbell.
The following petition, addressed to the Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada, asks for title
deeds to their lands, without which they were not
qualified to vote at the elections. Perth was just
then set apart to elect a member to the Provincial
House, and hence the request to be legally qualified as electors. The petition, which is dated at
Perth, Upper Canada, March, 1820, is signed on
behalf of the inhabitants of the Perth Settlement
by twenty-four persons, all ScotsESen : Al. Thorn,
J.P. ; A. McMillan, J.P. ; R. Matheson ; Wm.
Bell; Josh. Taylor ; J. Watson ; Alex. Matheson ;
John Jackson ; Josh. Holesworth ; Robt. Winch-
worth ; Thos. Cousitt; John Ferguson; W.
Morris; G. H. Reade ; Wm'. Baily; N. B.
Townes ; John Alston; James Young; Wm.
Matheson ;  H. Graham ; David Bay ; A. Fraser.
The officers of the Glengarry Light Infantry
Fencibles in 1816 were—Col. Edward Baynes ;
Majors Robt. McDonald and Alex. Clark;
Captains R. M. Cochrane, Alex. McMillan, Wm.
Campbell, W. Coates ; Lieutenants Jas. Stewart,
A. Leslie, Walter Kerr, Jas. McCaulay, Rodk.
Matheson, Angus McDonald, Robt. Kerr, John
McKay ; Ensigns Jos. Frobisher, Alex. McDonell,
Alex. McDonald, John Fraser, John Wright;
Adjutant Wm'. Blair ; Surgeon Alex. Cunningham.
The    Scotsmen    among    the    officers    of    the
VOL. I. M 177
Jr The Scotsman m Canada
Canadian Fencibles, 1816, were : Lieut.-Col. Geo.
Robertson ; Capt. G. R. Ferguson ; Lieutenants
John Johnston, Alex. Grant, J. McKenzie ; Ensigns
Walter Davidson, Wm. Mitchell, J. H. Kerr;
Quartermaster Alex. Fraser ; Surgeon T. Robertson.
The following letter from the Rev. William Bell,
who has already been mentioned, will be of interest
in its picture of early conditions in the settlement.
It is dated Perth, Upper Canada, October 10,
1818.   He says :—
This being a military settlement, there are a great number of
discharged soldiers amongst us, but few of them come to church.
My congregation consists chiefly of Scotch settlers, together
with the half-pay officers of four regiments who are settled in the
neighbourhood. You will scarcely credit the extent of country
over which my labours at present extend. It is no less than
fifty miles around Perth, there not being any Protestant clergyman
nearer in any direction; but the country is still very thinly
inhabited, though extremely fertile. The number of emigrants
arriving every year is great, but they are in a manner lost in a
country of such great extent. The town of Perth is situated on
the banks of the Tay, a beautiful river which falls into the
The Rev. William Bell was the youngest son
of Andrew Bell, of the parish of Audrie in Scotland. He was teacher of a grammar school in
Bute before entering the ministry. Of his many
sons, Andrew, the eldest, was the father of Dr.
Robert Bell, Chief Geologist of the Canadian
Geological Survey. His fourth son, Robert Bell,
was Member for North Lanark during the
178 Hie Perth Settlement
McKenzie regime. James, the seventh son, watf
the first male child born in Perth, and was foi
forty years Registrar of Lanark. The youngest
son, Rev. Dr. George Bell, was the first student
enrolled at Queen's University, and afterwards
Registrar of that institution. The only daughter
married John G. Mallock, first Judge of the county
of Lanark.
Another Perth family was that of Peter Camip%
bell, who came out in 1817. He was descended
from an old Highland family. Three of his sons
were Presbyterian ministers, the most noted being
the Rev. Dr. Robert Campbell, ex-Moderator and
present Clerk of the General Assembly of Canada.
Another son was Archibald, of Perth, father of
Archibald M. Campbell, the Ottawa explorer and
economic geologist.
Judge Mallock, of Brockville, was a brother of
Judge Mallock, of Lanark.
The Hon. Roderick Matheson was paymaster of
the military settlements on the Rideau. He was
afterwards appointed to the Legislative Council for
Upper Canada, and became one of the first
Dominion Senators. One of his sons is the
Honourable A. J. Matheson, Provincial Treasurer
for Ontario. Another was the late Marshall
Matheson, Master-in-Chancery at Ottawa.
The Honourable William Morris and Malcolm
Cameron are mentioned elsewhere in this work.
Judge John Wilson fought a duel in Perth in
1833 with Robert Lyon, and killed him. Wilson
gave himself up, pleaded his own cause, and was
■ 1 The Scotsman in Canada
acquitted. Perth was the scene of the famous
litigation in connection with the MacNab and his
unfortunate settlement.
The McLaren family, the well-known lumbermen of Buckingham and Ottawa, were Perth
settlers. Some noted members of this family have
been the late Senator McLaren, Peter McLaren,
of Perth, David McLaren, of Ottawa, and Professor McLaren, of Knox College, Toronto.
James Wilson, M.D., was a well-known practitioner of Perth. He became a noted geologist.
He died in Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1881.
The Honourable John Graham1 Haggart, late
Postmaster-General and Minister of Railways and
Canals, is a prominent citizen of Perth. He has
represented Lanark County in many Parliaments,
and is one of the veterans of the Macdonald regime
still in the House of Commons. In addition to
his energy and abilities as a politician and a man
of business, Mr. Haggart is a fine scholar and a
close student of classical literature.
Another prominent Perth family is that of
Balderson, one of the oldest and most respectable
in the locality. Lieut,-Col. Balderson, of Perth,
and his brother, Mr. James Balderson, barrister,
of Ottawa, are the present representatives of that
Should fate command me to the farthest verge
Of the green earth, to distant barbarous climes,
Bivers unknown to song ; where the first sun
Gilds Indian mountains, or his setting beam
Flames on the Atlantic isles, His nought to me,
Since God is ever present, ever felt,
In the void waste, as in the city full;
And where He, vital, breathes, there must be joy.
DURING the years from 1816 to 1820, there
was, as pointed out in the last chapter,
much depression in the motherland owing to commercial declension, and this caused a great deal of
privation among certain classes of people in the
south of Scotland whose means of living depended
largely upon production and manufactures.
This class of people in the Scottish counties of
Lanark and Renfrew had suffered a great deal
from this depression, so that many of them, despairing of eking out an existence at home, began to
look abroad with that hope eternal which inspires
the human breast to dream of a new life in the
more promising regions of the Western world.
Having this object in view, a considerable number of families in the two counties, during 1820,
ill [R The Scotsman in Canada
banded themselves together into societies for the
purpose of petitioning the Government for the
power and means of emigrating to Upper Canada
and for grants of land in that province. The
Colonial Secretary of the day was Lord Bathurst,
and to him and his Majesty's other ministers the
petitions of these societies were presented by
several Members of Parliament, who were aware
of the distress existing in Glasgow and the surrounding country, and of the difficulties affecting
the petitioners. During the following winter much
was done by philanthropists to relieve the suffering of the poor, and work was made by the
magistrates of Glasgow to relieve the existing
Meanwhile the interests of the several emigrating
societies were advanced by Lord Archibald
Hamilton, Kirkman Findlay, Esq., and John Maxwell, Esq., Members of the Commons. The result
was that grants of land were procured in Upper
Canada for heads of families and individual
petitioners, whose names were entered on lists
sent into the Colonial Office. These grants were
given on the understanding that the expense of
their passage and sustenance as far as Quebec
would be guaranteed by the societies.
Fully a thousand heads of families or individuals
in the county of Lanark were, through local assistance, able to accept this offer ; while a local subscription in Glasgow enabled those in that vicinity
to do likewise. Each man received one pound1,
which was to be paid to the owners of the vessels
as part payment of passage money.    The ships
182 The Lanark Settlement
which carried out these people were the Prompt
and the Commerce.
Immediately after this an additional sum of £500
was raised in London to enable the remaining
families in the societies, who had no means to do
so, to emigrate. These were decided on by ballot,
as out of 149 persons, only one-tenth of the expense
could be raised. One hundred of these families
were sent out in the ship Broke. Some account
of the details of this emigration will be of value
in showing the great difficulties undergone, and
the privations endured in early emigration to
Canada from the Old Land by the sturdy Scottish
On October 24, 1820, a meeting was held at
the Black Bull Inn, in Glasgow, at which Lord
Archibald Hamilton, Colonel Mure, Kirkman
Findlay, James Oswald, Robert Dalglish, William
McGavin, and Robert Brown were the gentlemen
present. The following list of societies, including
altogether 6,281 individuals, was laid before the
meeting :—
Cambuslang and Govan, 227 persons ; Kilbride,
40; Stonehouse, No. 1, 70; Stonehouse, No. 2,
89; Strathaven, 70; Wishawton, 81 ; Hamilton,
295 ; Lesmahagow, 112 ; Glasgow Highland and
Lowland, 167 ; Brownfield and Anderston, 395 ;
Glasgow Wrights, 200 ; Glasgow Junior Wrights,
205 ; North Albion, 127 ; Barrowfield Road, 269 ;
Rutherglen Union, 175 ; Camlachie Transatlantic,
215; Rumford Streets, 115; Glasgow Loyal Agricultural Union, 118 ; Stockwell Street, 162 ; St.
John's    Parish,    202;     Kirkman   Finlay,    158;
183 The Scotsman in Canada
i        (I J
Lanarkshire, 158 ; Parkhead, 145 ; Glasgow
Union, 119; Paisley Townhead, 603; Cathcart,
100 ; Emigrants from Renfrewshire, not of
societies, claiming means to emigrate, 188 ;
Glasgow Canadian, 284 ; Abercrombie, 160 ;
Bridgetown, 284 ; Bridgetown Transatlantic, 225 ;
Mile-end, 225 ; Spring Bank, 139.
The agent appointed was Mr. Robert Lamond,
43, Ingram Street, Glasgow.
The Government aid to these Lanarkshire, Renfrewshire, and West of Scotland emigrants was
on the following terms :—
One hundred acres were assigned to every family
on arrival in Canada on condition of residence
and partial cultivation within a limited period.
The Government were to defray expense of surveying and charge of removal of emigrants from
Quebec to the place of location. The emigrants
were to arrange means and pay passage to Quebec
at rate of four pounds a head ; that the settlers
should receive at place of settlement not less than
three pounds a head for every emigrant, and
another advance of three pounds a head to be made
six months after their arrival ; all to be advanced
to enable them to establish themselves in the
The following ships sailed carrying the Canadian
emigrants to their destination in the New World.
The ship Broke sailed from Greenock, July,
1820, with 176 passengers, the greater portion of
whom belonged to the Abercrombie, Transatlantic,
and Bridgetown societies. They were all poor,
and unable to pay thjeir passage. They left in good
184 The Lanark Settlement
spirits. A letter to the Secretary is dated on board
at Greenock, July 8, 1820, thanking the Committee
for the care and accommodation, and for being
relieved from their miseries of years past. It is
signed on behalf of the others by John McLachlan
and Thomas Whitelaw.
The ship George Canning, registering 485 tons,
sailed from Greenock, April 14, 1821, carrying
490 individuals, men, women, and children ; and
arrived in Quebec on June 1st, all well, there
being only one death, that of a boy, who fell overboard.    Three children were born on the voyage.
A letter dated Gourock Bay, April 14, 1821,
from the representatives of the heads of families on
board the George Canning, thanks the Committee
who had embarked them, and also the owners of
the vessel. The eleven representatives who signed
in the name of the societies on board the Canning
were : Wm. McEwen, John McPherson (probably
father of Kenneth of Lanark), Duncan Mclnnis^
James Braidwood, James Youll, jun., James Paul,
James Borrowman, Walter Black, John Kilpatrick,
Robt. McLaren, and James Aikenhead.
The sjhip The Earl of Buckinghamshire, Captain
Johnson, sailed from Greenock on Sunday morning,
April 29, 1821, with 607 passengers, old and young,
of whom 287 were from Lanarkshire. She arrived
at Quebec on June 15th, all well. There were
seven births on the voyage, and one death from
premature birth.
The Greenock Advertiser of May 2nd, describing
the sailing of the vessel, said : " The emigrants,
generally, have a most respectable appearance ;
i 1
iM\ The Scotsman in Canada
and amongst them are various artificers, such as
smiths, joiners, &c, whose labours in their respective occupations must prove peculiarly valuable
to the other settlers in their agricultural operations,
to which the whole purpose to devote themselves
under the encouragements held out by the Government, whose bounty, we are well persuaded, has
in few instances been more judiciously bestowed."
The ship Commerce, Captain Cover dale, sailed
from Greenock, May 11, 1821, with 422 individuals.
She arrived at Quebec, all well, on June 20th. Two
children and one woman died on board. There
were no births.
The ship David, Captain Gemmell, sailed from
Greenock on May 19th, carrying out 364 individuals. She was sent off in a fair wind under favourable circumstances, all on board in good spirits.
The passengers were chiefly from the counties of
Lanark, Dunbarton, Stirling, Clackmannan, and
Linlithgow. A letter to the Secretary of" the Committee on Emigration, Mr. Robert Lamond, was
dated on board the ship David at Greenock,
May  19,   1821.
It was written on behalf of the several societies,
and thanked the Government for the several grants
and other advantages conferred upon the members
going to Canada, and also thanked the Emigration
Committee for their exertions on their behalf,
among other things for the many copies of the
Bible received from the British and Foreign Bible
Society. The letter was signed by five representatives : Samuel Stevenson, John Blair, David Young,
George Bremner, and Archibald Paterson.
186 The Lanark Settlement
The comfort of the passengers in these ships was
well provided for by the Committee. The ships
themselves were thoroughly inspected, and pronounced sound and staunch, and in every way fitted
for conveyance of emigrants to Canada, and the
ship's officers and men were also certified to be
sober and expert seamen, and well acquainted with
the navigation of the Gulf of the St. Lawrence,
that most dreaded part of the voyage to Canada.
The emigrants were exhorted in the new land
to I call to mind the days of old, the precept and
example so beautifully exemplified in Scotia's
cottages, where the daily worship of God might
have been heard in every family ; . . . see," the
advice ran, " that you do likewise ; and with the
blessing of God on your exertions, the difficulties
which may bear hard upon you for a little time,
will gradually pass away like a cloud."
The principal settlement in Upper Canada, which
was the destination of these emigrants, was the
Lanark settlement. It was described in 1820 by
Captain W. Marshall, the superintendent of the
settlement, as consisting of three townships each
ten miles square, situated immediately behind the
Perth settlement, and named respectively Dalhousie, Lanark, and Ramsay. These three townships were named respectively after the Governor-
General, Lord Dalhousie, his family name Ramsay,
and Lanark, the county in Scotland from whence the
settlers had come. The village of Lanark, fourteen
miles from Perth, contained a Government store
and dwelling-house, three stores, and about a dozen
other houses.    It was fifty miles from Brockville
\\t The Scotsman m Canada
on the St. Lawrence, and sixty-five from Kingston.
The land was described by a settler as hilly and
well watered.
There were in all forty different Scottish societies,
engaged in this settlement, which actually sent out
settlers. According to the original receipt of instalments of loans authorised by Earl Bathurst, and
paid by Colonel William Marshall, the agent, there
were six hundred and five heads of families who as
settlers received these loans in three instalments,
which were paid during 1820, 1821, and 1822.
Each Preses, who represented the members of a
society, had to sign his name and to witness each
member sign his. The names of the Representatives, or Preses, are as follows :—
Kirkman Finlay Society, James Donaldson.
Parkhead Emigration, William Wallace.
St. John's Parish, Robert Grant.
Rutherglen Union, Alexander Wark.
North Albion, John Miller.
Camlachie, William Bryce.
Spring Bank, Hugh and Robert Campbell and Robert Ruthven.
Balfron, John Blair.
Govan, Andrew Hill.
Milton, Dumbartonshire, Archibald Paterson.
Brownfield and Anderston, Thomas Craig.
Bridgetown Transatlantic, James Braidwood; William Walker
and James Murray.
Wishawton, Walter Gordon.
Cambuslang, John McPherson.
Glasgow Union, James Paul.
Glasgow Trongate, John Gemmill.
Glasgow Wright, Robert McLaren.
Glasgow Wright, Junior, Duncan Mclnnis.
Glasgow Emigration, Duncan McPherson.
188 The Lanark Settlement
Glasgow Canadian, Walter Black.
Glasgow Loyal Agricultural, Wm. McEwen.
Bridgetown Canadian, John Cumming and William Stirling.
Cathcart, William McLellan.
Transatlantic, Daniel McFee.
Hopetown Bathgate, David Young.
Anderston and Ruglen, James Hood.
Hamilton, Robert Chalmers.
Abercrombie Friendly, Wm. Gordon.
Abercrombie, John Young.
Abercrombie Street, James Horn.
Abercrombie Society, James Youll, junior.
Alloa, Samuel Stevenson.
Strathaven and Kilbride, James Aikenhead.
Muslin Street, Peter McLaren.
Lesmahagow, Thos. Scott and James Brown.
Barrowfield Road, James Barrowman.
Deauston, George Bremner, senior.
Paisley Townhead, Daniel Richie.
Lanarkshire Society, James Gilmour.
Different Societies, David Freeland.
Lord Dalhousie, Governor-General, in a letter to
the Duke of Hamilton, dated Quebec, January 23,
1821, says that he has received during the past
summer nearly 1,200 emigrants from Lanarkshire,
and has placed them in a special district named
after their old home shire, Lanark. He says that
they are likely to prosper as they are willing and
have a good example of prosperity around them.
He adds that one of the earliest wants, aidf to build
a church and schoolhouse, he cannot grant, but
hopes that the Duke, or Lord Archibald Hamilton,
may be able to raise £200 or £300 in Lanarkshire
for the purpose. The money asked for was, as a
result, raised and forwarded.
He was a chief of high renown,
Of ancient line was he:—
But he had to leave his ain, and dree
His weird far o'er the sea.
ONE of the most interesting and instructive
episodes in the history of Scottish settlements in Canada is that of the founding of the
township of MacNab by the last laird or phief
of that Ilk.
This settlement, like that of Col. Talbot, was
the result of the ambition, effort, and ideal of
one man, and has about it, moreover, a suggestion
of what some have called the feudal system of
founding society in the New World. This aspect
has been somewhat exaggerated by writers whjo
had but a superficial idea of the real facts concerning the matter. It is true that MacNab's effort
failed, so far as his ambition aimed. But, in spite
of the amount of abuse and scorn heaped upon
the founder of this settlement, the greater portion
of the settlers were the gainers as the result of
what some would call their chief's absurd attempt
190 The MacNab Settlement
to transplant a Celtic feudal community into the
New World. The only real loser and sufferer was
the poor old chief himself, who, owing to his own
impracticability and the ingratitude and disloyalty
of his settlers, failed to make any profit out of
his years of struggle to colonise a portion of Upper
Canada. It seems that, owing to some strong
prejudice, it is impossible for the average man to
see anything but evil and tyranny in the attempts
at colonisation made by such men as Talbot, Macdonald of Glenaladale, and MacNab. The whole
idea is scouted as dangerous to what is called the
democratic idea. The cry of landlordism and
feudalism is raised by people who have been
wrongly educated to believe that such men as
George Washington and Benjamin Franklin had
freed the world from such Old World serfdoms
as these colonisations would suggest. So cruelly
has the truth been hidden from the masses on this
continent and in Britain that it is only now, after
a century and a quarter of false teaching, that
the public are being informed of what a few have
always known, that Benjamin Franklin was the
engineer of a similar scheme of colonisation, only
on a far larger scale ; and that he and a few
other colonists approached the British Government
shortly before the Revolution with the modest
request for about 2,500,000 acres of land west
of Virginia, of which they were to be masters by,
charter, to dispose of, settle, and rule as they
thought fit. Now that a century has gone by
since, and men are discovering that the idols of
4 w The Scotsman in Canada
the democracy are not as white as they have been
painted, and that the people on the other side of
the struggle were not all wrong in their endeavours
to be loyal to a strong and long-tried social and
political system and tradition, it may be that they
may find that even men like Talbot and MacNab
were not all evil and absurd in their ideals, though
they have been somewhat misunderstood and misjudged by persons whose mere prejudice was
stronger than their knowledge of human social
conditions. The press and the average political
orator had much to do in falsely educating the
people into an exaggerated idea of what was
wrongly called the rights of man, with an utter
tfbrgetfulness or an unprincipled ignoring of his
responsibilities to others. It was this false conception—namely, that the land belonged essentially
to the people—iwhich incited thousands in the States
at the Revolution, and in Canada afterward, to
strive to repudiate community contracts made
under sacred obligations.
Though Mr. Fraser, the clever chronicler of the
MacNab settlement, and others holding the same
popular views, see nothing but oppression and
tyranny on the part of the chief, and nothing but
heroism and love of liberty and unmerited suffering
on the part of the people involved, yet, in spite of
this, the very bare account of MacNab's settlement
which they give shows that their attitude is an
unjust and partial one.
It is not intended here to palliate or ignore any
of the failings of this sturdy Celtic chief ;   but it
192 The MacNab Settlement
is not only wrong, but absurd, to see no wrongdoing or failure of contract on the side of any
of the settlers.
The plain truth of the whole affair is as follows :
MacNab, like many another Scottish gentleman
at that day, had been ruined partly as the result
of his own fault and partly owing to the times.,
He hoped to retrieve his fortunes in Canada, and,
coming out, formed a scheme of colonisation similar
to those of Talbot and Bishop Macdonell, the latter
of whom encouraged him strongly to attempt the
undertaking. Having first approached the Provincial Government of the day, they looked favourably on his offer to colonise a portion of the then
desolate, forest-clad regions of the Upper Ottawa.
They offered him a township—no great tract in
those days, where the settlements were sparse,
and land so far from markets and uncleared was
virtually worth nothing. The next proceeding was
to appeal to his brother-in-law, Dr. Hamilton, in
Scotland to send out settlers who would be willing
to be assisted to settle on the land on the chief's
terms. While his detractors have accused MacNab
of duplicity and deceit toward the settlers and
the Government, they fail to remember that these
people were virtually conveyed from Scotland to
Canada and aided to settle by MacNab ; that they
had not any means of their own ; and that it was
not reasonable that any man in his senses would
undertake to perform all this for such settlers and
expect no return. Thousands of people have since
settled in Ontario on Government lands, and, to
vol i. n 193
Mi The Scotsman in Canada
enable them to do so, have placed far heavier
liens on their property in mortgages than did Mac-
Nab's settlers to their chief. It is true that
MacNab was often a hard master ; but the fact
that the people came under his community rule as
they did proves that they did not altogether resent
this attitude on the part of their chief. They, on
their part, were not altogether an ideal people.
The Western Scottish Celt was not a purely
self-reliant person. He had for centuries depended upon his superiors to act for and to protect him, and these settlers would never have seen
Canada at all had it depended on their own means
and initiative.
In 1823 MacNab left Scotland, where his estates
were deeply involved owing to the Jacobite movement and his own extravagance. He was the last
of one of the oldest families in Scotland, and was
first cousin of Buchanan, or Hamilton, of Arnproir,
head of another old family of royal descent.,
MacNab, when he arrived in Canada, was well
received by the gentry of Montreal ; but he was
not to be turned from his heart's project. He
proceeded to Glengarry, where he was for some
days the guest of Bishop Macdonell. Then, visiting
Toronto, he was offered, and accepted, his township of 81,000 acres, which had been surveyed by
P. L. Sherwood. This tract of land adjoined the
township of Fitzroy. MacNab gave to the district
his own name, and agreed to the terms offered by
the Government, dated November 5, 1823, which
were as follows : | That the township be set apart
194 The MacNab Settlement
and placed under MacNab's direction for eighteen
months as an experiment ; that patents be issued
to settlers on certificate from MacNab that the
settling duties are well performed, and that his
claims are arranged and settled, or that patents
do issue to the petitioner in trust for any number
of settlers ; that the conditions between MacNab
and each settler be fully explained in detail; that
a duplicate of the agreement be lodged with the
Government ; that MacNab may assign not less
than one hundred acres to each family, or male of
twenty-one years of age, on taking the oath of
allegiance ; that a grant of twelve hundred acres
be assigned to MacNab, to be increased to the
quantity formerly given to a field officer on his
completing the settlement of the township ; that
the old settlers pay the interest on the money
laid out for their use by MacNab, either in money
or produce at the option of the settler ; and that
the settler have liberty to pay both principal and
interest at any time during the first seven years.
MacNab at first built a large log-house on his
place as a headquarters of operation, and which
he named Kennel Lodge, after his ancestral place
in Scotland. Then he wrote to his brother-in-law
to send out settlers. His own letter to Hamilton
speaks for itself, and shows his honesty of purpose
in settling the township. It is dated August 10,
1824. He states that he has already informed
Hamilton of his purpose and progress. He now
says that he is ready for the proposed settlers,
that he desires twenty families at first ;   they are
195 a   .VIP I:
- £ 1 hUE
The Scotsman in Canada
to be provided with three months' provisions arid
passage tickets. But before receiving such, each
head of a family is to sign a bond of agreement.,
Hamilton is to see to the embarkation at Greenock,
and MacNab promises to meet them at Montreal
and see each one located on the land, and to provide for their transport to their destination. This
was no slight task for these two men to perform.
One was to procure the emigrants who might be
willing to venture, arrange for their leaving their
places, get them and their families to Greenock
on the Clyde, arrange for their passage, and provide food, passage and other supplies ; while
MacNab's part was to meet the emigrants at
Montreal and keep them there and provide their
passage, and provide for them until they could
procure homes in the new settlement, which was in
a remote place up the Ottawa. MacNab had also
to pay for the surveying of their lands.
The bond signed by the settlers bound each
man to the amount of £36 for himself, £30 for a
wife, and £16 for every child, with interest in
money or produce. On April 19, 1825, the settlers
sailed from the Port of Greenock in the ship
Niagara, and arrived in Montreal on the 27th of
May following. Here they were met by MacNab
and his attendants, and before the end of June
they had reached the township and were put up
at Kennel Lodge, or in camps in the vicinity..
The following list of first settlers is given in
Mr. Fraser's book as having signed in the preceding January the bond which had been especially
196 The MacNab Settlement
prepared by the Attorney-General of Upper
Canada : James Carmichael; Donald Fisher ;
Peter Campbell; Peter Drummond ; James
Robertson ; Alexander MacNab ; James McFar-
lane; Duncan Campbell ; James McDonald ;
Donald McNaughton ; John McDermid ; John
Mclntyre; Peter Mclntyre ; Donald Mclntyre ;
James McLaren ; Peter McMillan ; James Storie ;
James McFarlane ; Alexander Miller ; Malcolm
McLaren;   and Colin McCaul.
In spite of the condemnation of MacNab, the
whole proceeding on his part seems to have been
a particularly hazardous one. He had gone to all
the expense referred to, besides providing each
settler with three months' provisions after leaving
Greenock ; and there was little chance of his
ever getting any compensation. In the end he
was virtually ruined. He had undertaken an
impossible task to establish a community in
the New World wherein he would be the
leader and intermediary between them and the
He was accused of having pretended to settlers
that he owned the township. But as Judge Jones,
who presided at the trial for libel brought by
MacNab against Mr. Hincks, of the Examiner,
remarked : " The chief gave the settlers location
tickets, in which he promised to procure them
patents from the Crown, which proved that he
never claimed the township at his own property."
The reply to this was that poor ignorant emigrants
such as these were could not know the difference
197 I
The Scotsman in Canada
between a patent and a title-deed. Such a statement is a sad reflection on the class of settlers,
and does not hold good, as there were persons in
the community, one of them a schoolmaster, who
from the first were hostile to the chief, who could
read and did know better. No doubt MacNab
naturally felt that he had a certain power in the
township under the superintendency granted him
by the Government. It must be remembered that
he felt a responsibility to the whole community,
even if he exercised it in the feudal manner.
The great mistake was his attempting such a
scheme at all. He might have known that so soon
as the settlers who came out under his guidance
and at his expense came into contact with others
who had made no such agreement, that dissatisfaction would ensue ; and, as is ever the case, the
settlers would be persuaded that they were justified
in repudiating all obligations. He, on his part,
was no doubt exacting and arbitrary, and played
the laird overmuch in a community which fancied
that Jock was as good as his master. Then there
were the demagogues and the reformers, who were
only too glad to show up the idiosyncrasies of
such a conservative as the exacting old chief probably was ; who would exaggerate all his demands
into tyrannies, and proclaim his rights as wrongs
against the people. In this world there are always
the two sides to a question, and the historian
should strive to do justice to both sides.
The real difficulty in Mac Nab's case was that
only the first settlers were brought out to the
198 The MacNab Settlement
country by him, and that the more recent settlers
came in under different terms. In all cases, however, the laird lacked judgment in exacting terms
which were never carried out, and only hurt his
reputation and prevented his finally recovering
what was his own by right. In 1830 MaoNa,b
met a band of emigrants in Montreal, and persuaded them to become settlers in his township.
They were from Isla, in the Campbell country,
and were MacNabs, Camerons, Campbells,
McKays, and McNevins. These he agreed to settle
and to procure their patents, but demanded a
feudal quit-rent—for him and his heirs as Chief of
MacNab for ever—of three barrels of flour, or their
equivalent in Indian corn or oats, for every two
hundred acres.
We are not told what expense MacNab went to
in getting them from Montreal or in settling these
peoples ; but they accepted these terms, which
were never fulfilled. It is not fair to be too hard
on the old laird. He was no more peculiar than
his settlers, who at first were willing to be assisted
and promise anything, which afterwards they did
not perform. The whole miserable succession of
after-troubles was but a translation into the New
World of what has often been repeated in the
Old. It meant the relations existing between a
Highland chief and his people or dependants, and
there were faults on both sides.
In 1834 a large party of Stewarts, Fergusons,
Robertsons, McLachlans, and Duffs arrived from
Blair Athol, in Scotland, and settled in the town-
&iM The Scotsman in Canada
mm fill
ship, accepting the same terms as the last
emigrants, with the addition that all the pine
timber was reserved for the Arnprior Mills. We
are told that these people accepted these terms
without a murmur, because " all this time they
believed that the land was MacNab's own
property." And yet we are told that the location
tickets were the same as those of others, which
promised that MacNab would procure their patents
from the Crown.
It seems that there was something wrong on
both sides ; and while MacNab was no doubt improvident, impractical, and somewhat of a tyrant,
who, by heredity, thought his will the only law,
yet what sort of people were these who would go
blindly into such a bargain as we are told they
made during several years? There is a strong
suspicion of either crass stupidity on their part
or else a feeling that they could afterwards do
what many of them certainly did, namely, avoid
or ignore the obligation made, and thus, in their
turn, play the part of dishonour. No one wants to
palliate any attempt to rob or oppress the poor of
any land or clime, but the mere abuse of so-called
landlords in the Old Land, and of colonists on a
large scale in the New World, has gone too far,
and too many writers have painted the picture
of pretended or fancied oppression in far too
glaring colours. Even a man like MacNab deserves the justice due to him for his well-meaning,
if impractical and narrow, attempt at providing
a home for his peasant countrymen in the wilds
of the New World.
Where are ye goiny, my canny, canny, Scot,
Far o'er the salt, salt sea?
Fm goin' to fare wi\ honest Johnnie Gall
And the Canada Companie.
THE foundation of the city of Guelph and the
settlement of the surrounding country by
John Gait, the Scottish novelist, is an interesting
and important chapter in the annals of Scottish
settlements in Canada.
After the war of 1812 Upper Canada became
better known in the Old Land as a country of
promise and possible prosperity. The fine struggle
made by the loyal settlers side by side with the
Regulars to keep the country under the British
flag had gained respect for the province in Britain ;
and the returning officers of the regiments proved
good emigration agents in the interest of the young
Later, in 1822-23, the debates in the Imperial
Parliament on the subject of the proposed Union
of Upper  and  Lower  Canada,  and  the  vote  of
201 ? *
The Scotsman in Canada
£100,000 for the payment of losses sustained by
citizens of Upper Canada in the late war, turned
the tide of emigration in that direction.
At this period the founding of the Canada Company by John Gait was brought about ; and in
this connection he had seriously considered the
emigration on a large scale of Scottish and English
settlers to the western part of Canada.
Of a keen, shrewd, practical nature, and well
known as a writer and as a student of the
people of his own country, Gait was able to
secure the confidence of the Government and
the public, and a favourable consideration of his
Consulted by Mr. Robertson, Chancellor of the
Exchequer, on Canadian affairs and Upper
Canada's liabilities, Gait established the Canada
Company, and became its secretary.
He was then appointed, with Sir John Harvey,
Col. Cockburn, and Messrs. McGillivray and
Davidson—four other Scots—a Commissioner of
the Government for the valuation of Upper
Meanwhile he had consulted a noted Scotsman,
Bishop Macdonell, of Glengarry, Upper Canada ;
and when the question of the Clergy Reserves
had to be settled it was left to arbitration between
him and another noted Scotsman in Upper Canada,
the Honourable and Rev. John Strachan, then
Archdeacon of York.
He early turned his attention to the new lands
in the western peninsula, where Gait, named after
: Galfs Settlement at Guelph
him' by his friend Col. Dickson, was already a
flourishing village. Near here was the noted township of Dumfries, a well-known Scottish centre
of settlement.
On April 23, 1827, Gait started out into the
virgin forest, some miles north of the village of
Gait, for the purpose of founding what was afterwards known as the town, then later the city of
Guelph, which he named after the Royal Family.
With him on this memorable occasion were
other Scotsmen—Dr. Dunlop, a noted character
in Western Ontario; Charles Pryor ; John
McDonald, land surveyor, afterwards Sheriff of
Huron County ; George Corbett, since of Owen
Sound ; and James McKenzie, who finally settled
in Guelph.
The ceremony consisted in the felling, in a
solemn manner, of a large maple-tree, each man,
commencing with Gait, cutting a few strokes. We
are told that the tree was duly cut down, an impressive silence following the thundering jar of
the fallen forest monarch ; while Gait says : " The
silence of the woods that echoed to the sound
was as the sigh of the solemn genius of the
wilderness departing for ever."
Then the humorous Dr. Dunlop produced a flask
of whisky and | we drank prosperity to the city
of Guelph."
Among the earlier settlers were the following
of Scottish origin : Thomas Stewart, shoemaker ;
Wm. Gibbs, baker ; Jas. Anderson, carpenter.
Others arriving in 1827, with their place of settle-
203 t
The Scotsman in Canada
Ment,   are   found   in   the   books   of   the   Canada
Company as follows :—
Lot  i Jos. D. Oliver.
2 Allan McDonelL
6 Aaron Anderson.
12 Jas. Thompson.
13 Jas. McLevy.
14 Robt. McLevy.
15 David Gilkison.
Lot 19 Andrew McVean.
20 Wm. Elliot.
23 Wm. Reid.
24 Jas. Smith.
27 Dobbin.
42 Jas. Corbett.
71 Chas. Armstrong.
Another party of emigrants arrived later in the
summer of that year direct from Scotland, and,
being for the most part farmers, they founded
what was afterwards known as the Scotch Block
on the Elora Road.
In Burrows' f Annals of Guelph " the names of
the most of these good Scottish settlers are given.
They were : Alex. McTavish ; Donald Gillis ;
Alex. Reid ; McFie ; Peter Buchart ; Angus
Campbell ; Halliday ; Joseph McDonald ; Capt.
McDonald, uncle of a Lieut.-Governor of Ontario ;
Jas. Stirton ; Jos. McQuillan j Wm. Patterson ;
Rose ; McCrae ; John Dean ; Jas. Mays ; Thos.
Knowles | the Kennedys, three families.
Many of these moved elsewhere afterwards ; the
Bucharts, I think, going north to Owen Sound.
Those who stayed became well-to-do citizens of
the community.
A third party came to the locality of Guelph
about the same time and settled in what was called
the Paisley Block, from the city of that name in
Scotland.     Prominent  among  these  were :   John
z&naausxx Golfs Settlement at Guelph
Inglis ; Robert Laidlaw ; J. McCorkindale ; Drew ;
Campbell; Alexander ; Gideon Hood ; Wm. Hood ;
Thos. Hood ; Boyd ; McKenzie ; John Spiers ;
Thos. Jackson ; John Jackson ; Jos. Jackson ;
Wm. Jackson ;   and George Jackson. I||
These people all had families ; and many of
them became prominent and wealthy members of
the community and the province.
The historian gives John as the name of the
Laidlaw whose name is second on the list, but
his real name was Robert. He was grandfather
of Mr. Robert Laidlaw, the present able attache
of the Dominion Archives, the discoverer of many
valuable collections of historical documents, and
formerly a well-known journalist.
Gait took a deep interest in the educational
facilities of the young community, and insured half
the price of the building lots as an endowment
and maintenance of a school.
During the summer of 1828 Mr. Pryor was
sent out by Mr. Gait to survey the Huron tract
and lay out the plot of the proposed town of
In September Mr. Buchanan, British Consul of
New York, came to Guelph and inspected the
affairs of the Company, there being a conspiracy
to wreck it. The result of his inspection was
that he wrote to England praising Mr. Gait's
management. Before leaving Canada Gait paid
a visit to the sister settlement of Goderich.
On his leaving Guelph an expression of regret,
signed by   144 heads of families,  expressed the
M The Scotsman in Ccmada
obligation he had conferred upon the settlers whom1
he had brought into the country.
He left the country regretted by all in the
community ; for through the busy, indefatigable
energy of this wonderful Scotsman a large portion
of what is now the Province of Ontario was opened
up and settled by a number of sturdy, self-reliant
communities, the most of whose citizens were
emigrants from that glorious land of Wallace,
Bruce, Robert Burns, and Walter Scott, his onetime friend. For his able management of the
Canada Company alone the province owes Gait's
memory a debt of gratitude which can never be
repaid. Is there a statue to this remarkable man
in Guelph or Goderich or Gait? If not, there
should be one erected in the public square of
each of those places.
Certainly Guelph and Goderich should pay some
lasting tribute to the memory of that doughty
Scottish genius who laid their first foundations.
Far over the wave, in the old maritime city
of Greenock, from whose quays so many vessels
have sailed bearing Scottish adventurers to
Canadian shores, this fine writer and father of
Western Ontario communities sleeps in the tomb
of his fathers.
What a farce, Henrico, is this public will
We hear so much about, but never see:—
Who lies to the mob, may ever use them ill
Where honest Jack could never set them free.
Old Play.
The Talbot Settlement
ONE of the most remarkable chapters in the
history of Canadian pioneer life is that of the
Talbot settlement, in what is now the county of
Elgin in Ontario.
The history of this important undertaking, with
that of the eccentric and remarkable undertaker
is related in a very able and exhaustive contribution to the Royal Society of Canada by Dr. Coyne,
F.R.S.C., of St. Thomas, whose grandfather was
a prominent member of the early Talbot settlement.
The Honourable Thomas Talbot, of Port Talbot,
"11 The Scotsman in Canada
on the shores of Lake Erie, and the founder through
long years of toil and expense of one of the most
successful Upper Canada settlements, remains today as one of the most picturesque and interesting
personalities in the history of our country. About
the lives of few men has there gathered so much
of the romantic and the mysterious as has become
attached to his. When his real story is known,
the elements of tragedy lie deep beneath the seemingly strange events of his life and his sudden
self-banishment from the court and camp of the
Old World to the rough hardships of a pioneer
condition in the New.
As regards the man himself and his evident
life-tragedy, those who care to study the subject
will find all the details in the ably-collected memoirs
of Dr. Coyne, with its long list of documents bearing on the subject. Let it suffice here to say that
Col. Thomas Talbot, the intimate friend of the
Duke of Cumberland and Arthur Wellesley, afterward Duke of Wellington, suddenly sold his commission in the army in 1800, and came out to
Upper Canada, where he go£ a grant of 5,000
acres of land, with the avowed object of settling
that part of the province with emigrants from the
Old Land. He had been in Upper Canada some
years before as aide-de-camp to Simcoe, and his
settlement included a large area along the northern
shore of Lake Erie.
Because of his aristocratic connections, his
prominence in British society, and for other reasons,
Talbot has by some been compared with MacNab,
208 The Talbot and Middlesex Settlements
whose settlement has already been dealt with. In
some few superficial aspects there is a similarity
in their object, but there the comparison ceases.
Both, it is true, were regarded as eccentric, but
whereas MacNab has been shown to be impractical
in his ideals and methods, the opposite is true of
Talbot. Dr. Coyne, who is an impartial and not
by any means a too lenient student of this remarkable man, says of Talbot : " But aristocrat as he
was, and with all his eccentricities, there was a
practical side to Talbot's character, and he looked
forward as well as backward. His importance as
one of the makers of Canada is based upon the
plan of settlement which he formed, or rather
adopted, and which he continued to carry out with
characteristic determination for nearly half a century." Dr. Coyne gives a proper estimate of
Talbot's place in Canadian history in the following
summary of his accomplishment as a father of
Canadian pioneer settlement : "As founder of the
Talbot settlement, he attached his name to one
of the richest and most prosperous agricultural
regions in the world, extending from Long Point
to the Detroit River. The Talbot Road is the
longest, and was for many years the best, as it
still is one of the best, in the province. The property of the Talbot settlers was systematically and
extensively advertised. The Government made use
of it for the purpose of attracting immigrants to
all parts of the province. Throughout Upper
Canada the settlement was held up as a model for
vol I. O 209 The Scotsman in Canada
Talbot's scheme of settlement, so far as the
Scottish settler was concerned, included especially
the townships of Dunwich, Aldborough, South Dorchester, and North Yarmouth, which he settled
largely with Argyllshire Highlanders. Their language was principally Gaelic, and many of them
had emigrated as a consequence of proclamations
offering grants of from one hundred to two hundred
acres to each settler. The settlement, which was
started in 1803, was for many years stayed by
the war of 1812-14 ; and these pioneers suffered
much from invaders from the south across the lake.
When the war was closed in 1816, a few Scottish
and Ulster Scottish settlers arrived from the United
States and settled in Dunwich and Aldborough. In
the same year some families of the Selkirk settlement of Kildonan on the Red River, who had
removed into Upper Canada, among them the
McBeth family, came in and settled. These were
followed about 1819 by a large influx of Argyllshire Highland emigrants who took up land in
Aldborough. These settlers formed a very desirable addition to the population, being of a superior
class. So many came from Argyllshire, that when
the Marquess of Lome, as Governor-General,
visited St. Thomas in 1881, the descendants of
these early settlers gathered in thousands and presented him with an address. A printed copy of this
address, which was composed by the Rev. Dr.
McNish, a noted Gaelic scholar and a native of
Argyll, is in the Library of Parliament at Ottawa.
It is signed by hundreds, including many Camp- The Talbot and Middlesex Settlements
bells. The Marquess, in his reply, informed his
audience that he had never seen, even in Argyllshire itself, so many Argyllshire people present
at one time.
The following is a list of persons of Scottish
extraction who were settled by Col. Talbot in the
townships of Dunwich and Aldborough, dated
March 20, 1820 :—
William Bannerman ; George Bannerman ;
James Black ; Neil Blue ; Arhd. Blue ; Duncan
Brown ; Robert Blue ; John Brodie ; Alex. Brodie ;
Alex. Baxter ; George Brodie ; Hugh Black ; Henry
Coyne ; Donald Currie ; John Currie ; John Clark ;
Wm. Clark ;   Alex. Cameron j   Donald Campbell
Donald  Campbell   (2) ;   Archd.   Campbell
Donald  Campbell   (3) ;   Archd.   Campbell
Dougald Campbell (1) ; John Campbell (1) ;
John   Campbell   (2) ;    Dougald   Campbell   (2)
Duncan   Campbell ;    James   Campbell ;
Campbell   (3) ;   Archd.   Coswell ;   Neil
bell ;   John   Campbell;   Alex.   Campbell ;
Campbell ;     Archd.     Campbell      (4) ;
Campbell    (4) ;    John    Campbell    (4) ;
Cameron ;     Donald      Campbell      (5) ;
Dewar \   John   Douglas ;   James,   George
and   John   Dixon ;   Thos.   Dewar    (2) ;
Dewar ; Malcolm Downie ; Colin Ferguson ; John
Ferguson ;  Duncan Ferguson (1) ;  Alex. Forbes ;
Mungo Forbes ;   James Ferguson ;   Donald Ferguson ;    Angus   Gunn ;   Donald   Gunn |    George
Gunn ;   Alex. Gunn j   John Gibson ;   Jas. Gibson
(1) ;  James Gibson (2) ;   Hugh Graham ;  David
Alexd. If,
rr I
The Scotsman in Ccmada
Gibson ; Wm. Gibson ; Robt. Gibb ; George Gibb ;
John Gillies (i) ; Archd. Gillies ; Colin Gillies ;
John Gillies (2) ; Wm. Gunn ; Angus Gray ; John
Gillies (3) ; John Gillies (4) ; Alex. Gray ; John
Gray ; Duncan Gillies ; Neil Galbraith ; Neil
Haggard ; Alex. Haggard ; John Kerr ; Robt.
Kerr ; John Livingston jj John Leitch (1) ; Duncan Leitch ; Colin Leitch ; Malcolm ; Leitch ; John
Leitch (2) ; Neil Leitch ; Donald Mclntyre ; John
McPherson ; Duncan McLelland ; Robt. McDer-
mand ; Wm. McDermand ; Abr. Mclntyre ; James
McKay ; John McCallum (1) ; John MeCallum
(2) ; John Matheson ; John McLyman ; Hugh1
McKean ; Carson McCurdy ; James McLean ;
Neil McPhail ; Alex. McNabb ; Duncan McNabb ;
Daniel McKinley ; John McLean ; Peter McKinley
(1) ; John McDugald (1) ; Duncan McFarland ;
Donald McGregor ; Archd. Mclntyre (1) ; Angus
Mclntyre (1) ; Findlay McDermod | Donald Mclntyre (2) ; Donald McNaughton ; Allan McDonald ;
Angus McKay ; Gregor McGregor ; John Menzie ;
Laughlan McDugald ; Donald McEwen ; Neil
McLean ; Duncan McLean ; Duncan McKinley ;
James McKinley ; Peter McKellar (1) ; Arch.
McLean ; Donald McLean (1) ; John Mclntyre ;
Malcolm Mclntyre ; Duncan Mclntyre (1) ; Donald
McDermod ; Malcolm McNaughton ; Duncan
McCallum; Duncan McCall ; Thos. McCall (1);
Samuel McCall ; Duncan McKillop; Archd.
McKillop ; Donald McKillop ; Donald McAlpine ;
Malcolm McAlpine ; Donald McGregor ; Angus
Mclntyre (2) ; Donald Mclntyre (3) ; John
y 1
1 The Talbot and Middlesex Settlements
McTavish ; John Munro ; Colin Munro ; Archd.
Munro (i) ; George Munro ; John McKellar (i) ;
Peter McKellar (2) ; Neil Munro ; Archd. Munro ;
Alex. Mclntyre ; Dugald Mclntyre ; Duncan
Mclntyre (2) ; Dugald McLarty ; Donald McPha-
drain ; Neil McPhadrain ; Alex. Munro j Donald
McArthur ; John McKellar (2) ; Archd. McKellar jj
Dougald McKellar ; Archd. Mclntyre (2) ; Duncan McCallum (2) ; John McLean ; Donald Mclntyre (4) ; Alex. McPhail ; Archd. McTavish ; John
McCachna ; Donald McCugan ; Donald McKean
(2) ; John McDougald (2) ; Archd. McArthur ;
John McArthur ; Duncan Patterson (1) ; Archd.
Patterson (1) ; Donald Patterson (1) ; James
Paul; Donald Patterson (2) ; Archd. Patterson
(2) ; John Patterson ; Duncan Patterson (2) ; Hugh
Ruthven ; Colin Ruthven ; James Ruthven ; Malcolm Robertson ; Wm. Stewart ; Duncan Stewart ;
Robt. Shaw ; Donald Sutherland ; George Sutherland ; Alexander Sutherland ; John St. Clair ;
Daniel St. Clair ; John Smith ; David Full ; Neil
Walker ;   Angus Walker ;   Donald Walker.
What is especially remarkable in this list is the
number of emigrants bearing the same name.
There are four Archibald Campbells and the same
number of Donald Mclntyres, and in the list they
are each known by their special number. The
descendants of these 207 heads of families number
thousands in all parts of Canada who are among
our most prominent citizens.
213 The Middlesex Scottish Settlements
The county of Middlesex was largely settled by
Scottish immigrants, and many of the townships,
such as McGillivray and Lobo, bear witness to
this in their names.
The first ministers of the Church of Scotland
in Middlesex were Alexander Ross and Donald
McKenzie, who both took the oath of allegiance
in 1832. Other early Presbyterian clergy were
John Scott ; William Proudfopt ; W. McKellican,
1833 ; Alexander McKenzie, 1837 ; Daniel Allen,
1838 ; Donald McKellar, of Lobo, 1839 ; Duncan
McMillan ; Williams, 1839 ; Lachlan McPherson,
Ekfrid, 1846 ; and William R. Sutherland^ Ekfrid,
In the history of Middlesex there is given the
following lists of Scottish marriages, by Presbyterian ministers. Twenty-four marriages, from
August 6, 1833, to April 29, 1835 ; twenty-three
from May 7, 1835, to Nov. 20, 1836; and nine
from February 17, 1837, to December 8th of same
year ; all recorded by the Rev. Wm. Proudfoot of
the Associate Secession Church.
In 1835 seven marriages are recorded by the
Rev. James Skinner, of the United Secession
Church; and in 1836-7 he records four others.
In 1835 the Rev. Wm. Fraser registered two contracts ; and the Rev. D. McKenzie four in 1834-7.
All of these marriages are, with a few exceptions,
214 The Talbot and Middlesex Settlements
between Scottish persons, and will be valuable
data for family history.
Owing to a scarcity of clergy of the Scottish
Church, many of the settlers joined the Baptist
and Methodist Churches. In the former denomination and its offshoot, The Church of the Disciples,
prominent clergy in Middlesex were : Dugald
Campbell, 1838 j Isaac Elliot, 1839 ; Dugald Sinclair, Lobo, 1839; and Richard Andrews, 1840.
There are also recorded marriages by Baptist and
Methodist clergy, many of which were between
persons of Scottish birth or origin.
In 1831, the chairman of the Quarter Session
was John Bestwick, while two other Scotsmen, Duncan McKenzie and John Mitchell, sat as magistrates. In 1842 the County Council contained the
following Scotsmen : Lawrence Laureson, Andrew
Moore, Thomas Coyne, Thomas Duncan, John D.
Anderson, Archibald Miller, Isaac Campbell, Hiram
Crawford, John Edwards, and John S. Buchanan.
In 1843, Thomas Graham replaced Moore, James
Murray replaced Buchanan, and Samuel Kirkpatrick
replaced Duncan.
In the First Regiment of the Middlesex Militia
were the following Scottish names : Lieut.-Col. L.
Patterson; Major J. McQueen; Captains A.
Gillis, J. McKinlay, J. Patterson, G. Munro;
Lieutenants McCall, Gillies, D. McKinley, Blackwood, and E. McKinley; Ensigns Mclntyre,
McGregor, and Sinclair.
The first settler in London, the county town, was
Peter McGregor, a Scotsman,  who settled there
215 if
The Scotsman in Canada
in 1826. In June of 1827 Robert Corfrae, another
Scotsman, came to the place.
The township of Ekfrid was one of the leading
Scottish settlements in Middlesex. Among the
pioneers were : John Campbell, Angus Campbell,
Donald McTaggart, Archibald Miller, John
McLachlan, John Elliot, Donald McGugan, and
Duncan McCall. Among those who came in 1835
were Dougald Patterson, Duncan Campbell,
Donald McFarlane, Hugh Rankin, and Alexander
McMaster. j
Among the pioneers and early settlers of Ekfrid
still living there in 1880 were, with the date of their
settlement : Angus Campbell, 1828 ; Duncan
McGregor, 1830; Lachlan and Angus McTaggart,
1831 ; Robt. Orr and N. McLellan, 1832 ; Jas.
Gowanlock, A. Stevenson, and A. McDougal, 1833 ;
David Dobie, 1834 ; Jas. Allen, Hugh McLachlan,
Hector McFarlane, and C. McRoberts, 1835 ;
Angus Chisholm, 1836 ; Alexander McBean, 1837 ;
John E. Campbell, 1839 ; John A. Dobie, Alexander McKellar, and Archibald Mclntyre, 1840;
Jas. G. Begg, Alexander Eddie, George C. Elliot,
Robert McKay, Alexander McNeill, and Daniel
McCrea, 1842 ; David Cowan and Adam Clarke,
1845 ;   Duncan McRea,  1849.
The first township offices on record are those
of 1833. Those elected then were : Duncan
McLean, clerk ; Christopher Sparling and James
Mclntyre, assessors ; D. McLean, collector; John
Mcintosh, John Campbell, Hugh McAlpine, John
Galbraith, Robert Parker, James McLellan, Andrew
ii The Talbot and Middlesex Settlements
Wilson, Malcolm Galbraith, John McCallum, Alex.
Mclntyre, and Peter McDonald, road masters ;
Thos. Curtis, Donald McTaggart, and Joseph Provo,
In 1840, John Mclntyre, Malcolm Campbell, and
John McKellar were elected Wardens, with Malcolm
McFarlane, collector. The first mentioned school
and library commissioners, in 1844, were John
Mclntyre ; Donald McFarlane, senior ; John R.
McRae, senior, Humphrey Campbell, and John
The township of Lobo was another noted Scottish
settlement. It was surveyed in 1819 by Burwell,
and the next year a large immigration of settlers
from Argyllshire in Scotland poured in, and took
up land throughout the whole township. Archibald
McArthur and Thomas Caverhill were the senior
or first councillors. John Harris was the first
treasurer, Duncan McDougall was collector of
taxes. In 1842, Hugh Carmichael was clerk, and
Duncan McLean was chairman of Council. Among
the pathmasters were John Edwards, Neil Mclntyre,
Archd. Paull, McLean, Donald McAllister, Hugh
Johnson, John Campbell, Hugh Dewar, Duncan
McBain. Other officials were Archd. McKellar,
Malcolm Gray, Jos. Mcintosh, Hugh Johnson, and
Donald Johnson. In 1844 Alexander Sinclair was
chairman of Council ; John Brown, clerk ; John
Gray, assessor ; and Archd. McVicar, collector of
taxes. In 1842 there were six schools in the township. The Scottish teachers were John Campbell,
Donald McCrea, William Munro, and John Ross.
1 Ifl   The Scotsman in Canada
The first inspector for Lobo in 1844 was Alexander
Sinclair, and in 1862 Thomas Ure. The names of
the first settlers who were heads of families in
1820 were : Malcolm McCall, Donald Lamont,
Dugald McArthur, and the Johnson, Sinclair, and
McKellar families ; also Duncan McKeith, Neil
McKeith, Hugh Carmichael, Charles Carmichael,
John Mclntyre and family, Duncan Mclntyre,
Archibald Campbell, Malcolm Campbell, John
McLachlan, John McCall, John McDugall, afterwards Justice of the Peace, and John Gray and
The township of McGillivray was not as
thoroughly Scottish in its origin as Ekfrid and
Lobo, but contained a very strong Scottish element. Scotsmen are mentioned at different periods
as being among the leading township officers. In
1843, Thos. Laughlin was pound-keeper ; W.
Henry, R. Long, and Isaac Moodie, wardens ; and
Thos. Laughlin and George Barber, school commissioners. In 1846, James Simpson was assessor.
In 1848, Andrew Neil was a warden, and in 1850,
John Graham was an auditor. In 1852, John Cor-
bett was reeve. Andrew Erskine took up land in
1852. David Cameron settled here in 1849, aged
seven years. His father Samuel came from Scotland in 1842 and settled in Lobo. Other names
are : Donald McKenzie, Jas. Corbett, 1843 ; A.
Erskine, 1849 I Wm. Fraser, 1858 ; T. Mclnnis,
1853 ; James Marr, 1852 ; C. T. McPherson,
1853 ; R. Neil, 1852 ; Duncan Stevenson, 1851.
Other families mentioned in 1866 were either
218 TJie Talbot and Middlesex Settlements
Scottish or Ulster Scots, such as the Hannas,
Kennedys, Camerons, Nichols, Lathrops, John
McVicar, Logans, and Christies.
Another strongly Scottish settlement of Middlesex was the township of Mora.
Leading Scotsmen among its early settlers were :
John Coyne, Archibald McCallum, Archibald Campbell, Andrew Fleming, George Fleming, John D.
Anderson, Donald Ferguson, who married Jane
McLachlan in 1818, and died in 1851. Hugh
McLachlan was another old settler.
Capt. William Symes, of Glencoe (1834) ;
Donald McLean (1834), and Archd. Campbell
(1818), were other noted settlers. Other names
are Dobie, Parr, Mclntyre, Walker, Simpson,
McAlpine, and Armstrong. In the oldest extant
record-book, dated 1857, Neil Munro, George
Currie, and Charles Armstrong are councillors.
The village of Glencoe is so called after the famous
glen of that name in Scotland. The first surveyors were A. P. McDonald and Ross. As late
as i860 the leading citizens included many Scotsmen. J. W. Campbell was the first reeve. Other
names are Dr. Mclntyre, Charles Murray, John R.
McRae, Dr. McKellar.
The township of East Williams formed part of
the lands of the Canada Company, and were surveyed by McDonald, of Goderich. It was settled
in 1833 hy many Scotsmen and their families, such
as those of Donald Mcintosh, Donald Henderson,
Donald Fraser, James Ross, James McPherson,
James Bremner, Hugh McKenzie, and Hugh Crawford.    Alexander  Stuart,   1832 ;   John  Stewart,
219 The Scotsman in Canada
1832 ; Donald Henderson, 1832 ; David Clu-
ness, 1833 ; John Levie, 1834, were early
settlers. The Rosses and Mclntoshes were
noted families. Capt. Hugh Mcintosh, the
Andersons, Campbells, McQuillicans, McNeills,
Colin Scatcherd, Wm. Fraser, David H. Craig,
Alex. B. McDonald, Neil McKinnon, William Hal-
bert, were all noted residents. In 1880 the leading
old residents of the township were : Tafford Campbell, 1847 ; James Campbell, 1846 ; John Ding-
man, 1833 ; Donald McNaughton, 1834 ; John
Levie, 1834 I John Leitch, 1843 ; Neil McTaggart,
1831 ; Wm. Mcintosh, 1831 ; Hugh McDonald,
1840 ; David McKenzie, 1836 ; John L. McKenzie,
1831 ; Malcolm Mclntyre, 1875 ; Wm. Menzie,
1844 ; John More, 1846 I John Milligan, 1848 ;
Tas. D. McDonald, 1848; A. J. Ross, 1833;
Donald Ross, 1832 ; Duncan Stewart, 1844;
Donald C. Stewart,   1833 ;   John Stewart,   1845.
This is a good example of the Scottish stock
in a representative Canadian community founded
by men of Scottish extraction. The village of
Nairn, in 1885, was also composed largely of
Scottish inhabitants.
West Williams was settled by the same stock as
East Williams, the names being Stewart, McKenzie,
Campbell, Cameron, Cluness, Ross, McNeill, &c.
There are to-day hundreds of families in that
and adjoining districts who are descendants of
these early settlers in the Middlesex townships.
There are also thousands of people of Scottish
descent scattered all through Western Ontario, of
220 The Talbot and Middlesex Settlements
whom no mention can be made in a work of this
size and purpose. The author has endeavoured in
this volume to give but a general description of the
leading and most noted Scottish hives or central
communities, and it is to be hoped that the material
gathered together in this work may encourage local
historians to pay more attention to the archives
of the counties and towns throughout the
different provinces of the Dominion. As Joseph
Howe said : ** A wise nation preserves its records,
gathers up its monuments, decorates the graves of
its illustrious dead, repairs the great public structures, and fosters national pride and love of country by perpetual reference to the sacrifices and
glories of the past."
|    I      MACKAYS
A homely folk,
They filled one glen,
With Highland dream and glee;
But now they're George's fighting men,
To win across the sea,
And find their graves where none may ken,
In a far countrie.
THE Scottish settlers of Western Ontario were,
for the most part, folk who had dared to
come out from the Old Land because they willed
to do so. They were, sojme of them; evicted tenants
from strath and glen. They were, however, not,
like the people of other Highland settlements,
driven forth, or led by some Moses of colonisation, into a new and strange country, depending
on a leader to bring them into their promised
land of milk and honey. There were in all the
counties sturdy Lowland settlers from Glasgow and
the Clyde borders or other Lowland county places.
Then there were Highlanders in groups, or mingled
with Lowlanders and other folk not of the land-
o'-cakes, southern men and women, who knew not
the heather and loved not Robbie Burns.
222 i
Zorra Settlement and the Mackays
Chief among this great body of Scottish folk
was the noted Highland settlement of the township of Zorra, in the county of Perth, in Western
As early as 1820 two Scotsmen, brothers, named
Angus and William Mackay, came there into the
dense, uncleared wilderness, and started to make
it their home. They were sturdy Highlanders from
the far north of Scotland, and belonged to the
great clan Mackay, whose land is historic Suther-
landshire. They cleared a bit of the forest and
planted the ground, and fought the fight of the
early pioneer with brave hearts and a faith in
the future of their adopted land. Nearly ten years
later one of the brothers, Angus, returned to Scotland and bore favourable witness concerning the
new land in the northern Scottish shire of his
fathers ; and the following year returned to
Canada, accompanied by his aged parents and a
whole shipload of his fellow-shiremen.
Many of these were the former tenants of glens
made over into sheep-walks by the middle fanners
or better-class tenants, who were willing to rent
the land from the landlord for a fair rental. Much
has been written on this subject, and writers have
waxed eloquent over what they have considered
the brutal treatment of the evicted glensmen. But
the truth was that the glens were overcrowded
with a well-meaning, but often impracticable,
people, who had for centuries depended on their
lord or chief for livelihood. They had all been
fighters    or    deerstalkers    or    cattle-drovers    or
I Win The Scotsman in Canada
fisher-folk. For farms there were none, seeing
that nine-tenths of those regions were mountains
and lochs, and the glens deep and narrow and
only fit for a covert for deer or a place of ambush
when besieged by an invading foe. They had
been for centuries the children of a feudal system
of clan-fealty and clan-service, where chief made
war on chief, and his men followed at their leaders'
beck and robbed their enemies and harried their
lands. It was an age of fighting and open
robbery, where now, under a democratic system,
men steal and dispossess others of their worldly
gear in a more subtle and crafty, though less
noble, manner. It was an age when life itself
was the price of failure, and the leader and his
followers went down together to the last man.
But after the first half of the eighteenth century,
with the ending of the Jacobite wars, all of this was
changed. The old order of clan foray against clan
and Highland raids of the Lowlands was put down
with an iron hand, and the great chiefs became
civilised, or were in hiding or driven abroad, and
the great mass of the Highlanders were left without
any leaders or without any means of subsistence
beyond deer-stealing or the making of illicit spirits.
Then was the one great cure for all this found
in the formation of the Highland Fencible regiments, whereby thousands of idle glensmen were
(made to perform great martial service for the
Empire. But a great many more there were who
were at a loss what to do. In the Ojd days they
were retainers on great chiefs or lords, who fed
224 Zorra Settlement and the Mackays
and clothed them in return for services performed.
But when left to their own resources they knew
not what to do ; the men especially were impractical, not loving to cultivate the land, and
with no knowledge of the art if they had cared
to. To this great surplus population of Northern
and Western Scotland the idea of emigration to
the New World came as a godsend, and was,
though at the time considered as a terrible hardship, a real blessing. Serious as was the pioneer
life of the New World, they were thrown on their
own resources, and it was a case of struggle or
perish. They had no landlords to house and feed
them, no factors to blame for their ills ; they
had to get up and put their own shoulders to
the wheel and literally do or die.
Too much has been written in a prejudiced
manner of the cruelty of the landlords by writers
who have not made a complete study of the subject.
It has been falsely represented that these people
were driven off lands that they had owned or had
tilled for centuries.
The truth is that in Scotland in those days the
people no more owned the land than the people
of Canada do to-day. Then, as now, the land
belonged to the man who had the wealth to keep
it up or own it. How much of the land of Canada
to-day belongs to the people? Scotland was a
small country with a dense population in places ;
but we are a small population in a vast territory,
and yet how little, if any, of our millions on
millions of acres of land is owned by the bulk of
VOL I. p 225
Ml     M The Scotsman in Canada
our people. The very descendants of those who
were said to have left Scotland to become landowners in the New World own less of the land,
and get less off it than their ancestors did in
On the other hand, there was then, and is now,
little good tillage land in many of the Scottish
There was probably, in cases, cruelty on the
part of landowners and factors ; but such cruelty
and injustice exists in some form in Canada and
the United States to-day. In the vicinity of the
capital of Canada there are now large tracts of
land held by speculators and others who refuse
to sell it unless extravagant prices are paid, and
which literally places the privilege of owning a
portion of the soil of this country out of the power
of many of our Canadian citizens.
But, be the reasons for their leaving Scotland
what they may, those hardy Highlanders bade
farewell to their straths and glens, and sailed to
the westward, feeling that if their position was
to be improved at all, they must seek homes abroad.
Those good Zorra" pioneers were a fine and
superior stock. They were, as has beeen said of
the Pilgrim Fathers of New England, the sifted
wheat, chosen men. They had a good education,
or in its place a proper estimate of its value in
the preparation of a life career. Wherever they
settled there rose the walls of a schpolhouse ; and
the few books brought into the wilderness were
of a high standard and deeply valued. The names
226 Zorra Settlement and the Mackays
most common in this prominent Scottish settlement were those of Mackay, Sutherland, Morrison,
Gordon, Murray, Bruce, Ross, McLean, McDonald,
Gilchrist, Matheson, Fraser, Gunn, McKenzie, and
Munro. Many bearing these names have gone
forth from the pioneer community and made themselves prominent places in the life of our country
and in that outside its borders. There has been
a great group of distinguished Churchmen,
scholars, financiers, and others who have made
the Zorra community noted in the history of
Probably no Canadian community has made its
influence felt over a wider sphere of action and
effort than has the Zorra settlement and its
adjoining groups of Scottish families.
It has been especially noted in the missionary
world ; so much so, that it might be called a
nesting-ground for preachers of the gospel. This
has been owing largely to the fact that the men
and women of Sutherland were, in the pioneer
days of Canada, and before then in the Old Land,
the most earnest, God-fearing element in the north
of Scotland.
But scholarship, and literature, and the more
worldly interests of life have had worthy
followers in the sons of this the most distinctive
Scottish settlement of Western Ontario. In
connection with the history of such a settlement as this of Zorra a great lesson is
taught Canadians ; and it is this, that we are
liable to forget the great influence which heredity
and the social influences of the Old Land have
''.   ■*<" ■■ The Scotsman in Canada
had on our whole community. It is true that the
Scottish race has been a peculiarly strong, hard-
headed, careful, cautious, and deep-thinking
people. But much of this is the result of
their peculiarly strong, deep nature, which has been
influenced as perhaps that of no other people by
a long-continued conservative training in a severely
spiritual school. Religiously speaking, to know
God inwardly and to keep His commandments has
been the great impulse and national intent of the
Scottish people ; and grave as are their weaknesses, no people on earth have developed so deep
and self-punishing, self-searching a conscience as
have this people. This is true of both Highlanders
and Lowlanders, and of that large community of
Scottish folk who are a mixture of both.
The Rew. W. A. Mackay, in his interesting
little work " Pioneer Life in Zorra, says : " No
Zorra boy to-day is ashamed of either the porridge
or the Catechism on which he was reared." He
also adds : | The motto of the typical boy is
4 Don't sleep when you ought to be awake ; don't
stay awake with eyes closed and hands folded;
work with your hands ; think with your head ;
and love with your heart ; and never forget that
character is capital.' " The best result of this
creed of life has been such noted men as Archdeacon Gody ; the late Hon. James Sutherland ;
Rev. C. W. Gordon (" Ralph Connor"); and
the distinguished Eastern missionary, I Formosa
Like the Glengarry settlement, the Zorra community was, in its day, a little Highland Scotland
228 Zorra Settlement and the Mackays
in itself. But, as in the other* the Macdonell clan,
the great Roman Catholic Highlander of the
Western Isles predominated ; so, in Zorra and its
surrounding settlements, it was the great northern,
Protestant, Presbyterian clan Mackay that formed
the bulk of the population. It is remarkable, after
all, how alike Highlanders are. Though separated
in creed, both of these were fighting clans ; and
both produced great soldiers and " saints of God."
Strange to say, these two clans contributed the
two most famous of the Scottish Fencible regiments. The first Lord Reay, the chief of the
Clan Mackay, was the commander who made the
Reay Regiment famous in the fighting annals of
Europe. Lord Reay was one of the first baronets
of New Scotland, and his uncle, Sir Robert Gordon,
was Premier or First Baronet of Nova Scotia.
General Hugh Mackay of Scourie was William
the Third's Captain-General of his Scottish forces,
and met Claverhouse at Killiecrankie. A ballad
of that day ran :—
Valiant Jockey's marched away
To fight the foe with brave Mackay.
Mackay of Scourie was If a great Christian
soldier ; and without doubt he saved Scotland for
William. He died afterwards in the action at
Steenkirk fighting the French. The King attended
his funeral, and when the body was laid in the
grave said, | There he lies ; and an honester man
the world cannot produce." Comparing Mackay
with another general who was also killed in the
same action, William said :   | Mackay served a
Ml ■a
The Scotsman in Canada
higher Master, but the other served me with his
In 1798 the Glengarry Fencibles and the Reay
Fencibles were both ordered to Ireland to quell
the rebellion there ; which they did in a short
time. It may not be known that a granddaughter
of the commander of the Reay Regiment which
went to Ireland, lived and died in Woodstock, and
is buried in the Scottish graveyard there in the
heart of the Zorra settlement of "fighting Mac-
kays." She was a descendant of the great Lord
Reay and of the family of Hugh of Scourie, his
famous cousin. Her father-in-law and cousin was
the last Mackay of the family who owned lands
in Scourie.
Thus is the Zorra Mackay settlement, as is the
Glengarry settlement with the great Macdonald
chiefs, closely associated with the great Mackay
names in Scotland's history and that of the
The Glengarry settlement was, as has been
pointed out, closely associated with the Macdonald
settlements in Prince Edward Island.
The Zorra settlement was also linked to the great
Pictou settlement of Mackays, many of the latter
of whom removed to Zorra from Nova Scotia on
the decline of the shipbuilding trade.
The men of Zorra are now to be found scattered
all over the Dominion, in the far west and middle
west, and some in the republic to the south. But
all are bearing witness to the splendid ideals and
fighting qualities of the great race to which they
Domed with the assure of heaven,
Floored with a pavement of pearl;
Clothed all about with a brightness
Soft as]the eyes of a girl;
Girt with a magical girdle,
Rimmed with a vapour of rest,
These are the inland waters,
These are the lakes of the west.
Miles and miles of lake and forest,
Miles and miles of sky and mist,
Marsh and shoreland, where the rushes
Bustle, wind and water kissed;
Where the lake's great face is driving,
Driving, drifting into mist.
TWO leading ideas are for ever closely associated in our minds with patriotism, and
they are the land of our birth and upbringing
and the race or stock from which we have sprung.
In these two respects the hardy sons and ,the
fair daughters of Huron and Bruce are, without
doubt, among the highly favoured of earth's
231 The Scotsman in C&nada
Nowhere in the world is there to be found a
more healthful and beautiful region than that
bordering upon Lake Huron, where it forms the
coast-line of those two picturesque and progressive
With a splendid soil, productive of fine fruits
and grains, and rich in pasturage for cattle, a
climate at once' invigorating and salubrious, it is
a {region of pleasant meadows and sloping hillsides, delightful streams, and a bold and, in many
places, sublime coast-line of cliffs and bays and
jutting promontories, facing one of the most
splendid sweeps of fresh water in either hemisphere. It is a region in all respects the fit cradle
for a hardy, self-reliant, and happy race of men
and women—fit home alone for the indomitable
and nobly strong.
But dear as is the soil whereon we tread, and
the waters and lands and hills and sky-line of the
region of our birth and youth, even dearer to us
all must ever be the thought and memory of the
race or stock to which we belong, and from which
we have sprung.
If of late we, as a people, have failed to realise
this idea, it is not because it is not a sacred
obligation thrust upon our higher nature, as the
proper attribute of any great and heroic people,
but rather because our life in a new country has so
exaggerated the stern necessity and the ephemeral
achievement of the present, that all natural and
fine feelings and ideals have been forced into the
background. If we only go back to the days of
232 The Huron and Bruce Settlements
our grandparents we will enter a condition of
society where it was quite common to have three,
and even four, generations dwelling under one
roof ; and we will witness a community where
for generations all were knit in the same bonds
of blood and kinship, where the joys and sorrows,
the good and ill, the faith and speech and song
were those of one people, when the rich and poor,
the great and humble, were all, though remotely,
of a common stock or origin.
On this Western continent of aliens from many
lands, in this hurried day of constant change and
mutual struggle, it is difficult for us to understand
the conditions of society just described. But if
we pause to remember and consider, we must
realise that it was from just such a stock that we
have sprung.
When, less than three-quarters of a century ago,
the pioneers of Huron and Bruce began slowly at
first an influx of settlement, which continued up
to the latter end of the last century, into what
was then a wild and lonely region of almost trackless forest, they came in for the most part in
companies—sons, fathers, and grandfathers, new
from the more strict, more narrow, but ideal
society of the loved Old Land of mountain and
misty glen.
Whatever of good, whatever of hope, whatever
of ideal and character they brought out and established in the New World was the product and gift
of the Old Land and the old days. The very
manner of life, the quaint accent of speech, the
1 The Scotsman in Ctmada
wonderful old Gaelic tongue, the stern faith in
God, the very manner of prayer and praise were,
and have continued ever since as, the blessed gift
of the old homeland away a whole ocean apart
from the new, yet ever near and dear to the
remembering heart and the Celtic imagination.
It is impossible for the observant traveller to
visit this region of a sturdy, happy, industrious,
and intellectual people and not see, down every
roadside and village street, in the school, the
church, the market, and home, strong evidence,
even yet, that the bone and sinew, the brain and
ideal, the faith and energy, that have made these
counties what they are to-day, are the product of
the great Scottish and Ulster-Scottish race, cradled
for a thousand years in the storied land of Wallace
and Burns and Bruce, and Bannockburn.
While we are all Canadians in this promising
young land, yet it is well that we should not forget
how much of our blood is of the old Scottish and
Ulster-Scottish stock—that people of the iron will
and the dourest, sternest, most uncompromising
Christianity in the whole world. While we lead in
the mart or senate, or guide the ship or the plough,
or weld the character or the iron at the anvil, it
is for our good to remember that the faith in earth
and heaven is still at root the old faith ; that
even though we may forget the Old Land and
the old accent, the old slower, sterner, narrower
ways, that we have to think of God as did our
fathers, and that though in a stranger and far
land He leads us still.
234 The Huron and Bruce Settlements
In this connection it is but due to our ancestry
if we, not in any spirit of boasting, but of reverence
and thoughtfulness, remember what Scotland has
meant to our sires and grandsires in this land of
their adoption, and of what it may yet mean to
us in the present and the future.
It is significant to recall that the first British
connection with Canada was a purely Scottish one,
and that the first name given to the Maritime
Provinces and all of Quebec south of the St.
Lawrence was New Scotland, or Nova Scotia. This
vast territory was, by act of the Scottish Parliament, made an adjunct of the Scottish kingdom,
and Sir William Alexander was constituted its
Governor. Nearly three hundred years have
passed since then ; and during all this time there
has not been a portion of what is now under our
vast Dominion that has not been conquered,
reclaimed, and settled by members of our hardy
From Sir William Alexander, the first Governor
of New Scotland, and Abraham Martin, the brave
old Scottish pilot who guided Champlain's ship
up the St. Lawrence, to Lord Strathcona, we have
had a long list of mighty men in all walks of
life, prominent in the upbuilding of Canada, bearing the clan and family names of our race—such
as Macdonald, Mackenzie, Gait, Fraser, Mowat,
Campbell, Drummond, Ross, Cameron, McLean,
Logan, Fleming, Wilson, Grant, and Smith.
Indeed, there is not a clan or family name .of
Highland or Lowland Scotland that has not been
m PMmmnp.
The Scotsman in Canada
in some way associated with Canadian development
from sea to sea.
The people of Huron and Bruce have been
specially favoured in this respect. It is true they
have a notable proportion of English, Irish, and
German stock among their population who have
borne witness to the fine qualities of their stock ;
but it is not any the less a fact that the greater
portion of the two counties is settled by direct
Scottish or Ulster-Scottish stock. Everywhere in
the towns and country places of this beautiful
lakeside region are met the characteristics of the
Scotsman, either direct from the old land of Burns
and Scott or from that first great Scottish colony
of sturdy Scotsmen, Ulster ; where Edward Bruce,
the .brother of the famous Robert, made the first
Scottish invasion, and where, throughout the centuries since, the Scotsman has settled and made
the land his own, and where to-day he is more
Scottish, and his Presbyterianism is more of the
old school,  than anywhere else in the world.
The very name of the more northerly of these
two counties is significant and fitting. The name
of Bruce will ever be associated with Scotland and
Scotsmen, and is synonymous with the cause of
liberty and national freedom ; and as the great
Scottish royal hero and patriot fought against
oppression without and ills within, so may the sons
of Bruce and Huron ever be found on the side of
true liberty of thought and action, and enemies
of all tyranny and ill in the community and State.
Goderich, the leading town of the county of
236 The Huron and Bruce Settlements
Huron, was founded by a noted Scottish writer
and coloniser, that remarkable man John Gait,
who was second only to Sir Walter Scott as a
novelist, and who had so much to do with the
pioneer settlement of Western Ontario. The
present city of Gait bears his name, and Guelph
was founded by him and named in honour of the
Royal Family. He called the beautiful capital of
Huron County after Lord Goderich, the Colonial
Minister for that day. Associated with Gait in his
early settlements for the Canada Company was
that eccentric and original character Dr. Dunlop,
another Scotsman, who personally built the first
building erected  at  Goderich.
In his autobiography Gait describes the first
appearance of the Huron coast and the site of
Goderich :—
We then bore away for Cabot's head ... we saw only a woody
stretch of land, not very lofty, lying calm in the sunshine of a
still afternoon . . . and beheld only beauty and calm ... in the
afternoon of the following day we saw afar off, by our telescope,
a small clearing in the forest, and on the brow of a rising ground
a cottage delightfully situated. The appearance of such a sight
in such a place was unexpected; and we had some debate, if it
could be the location of Dr. Dunlop, who had guided the land
exploring party already alluded to; nor were we left long in
doubt, for on approaching the place, we met a canoe having on
board a strange combination of Indians, velveteens and whiskers,
and discovered within the roots of the red hair, the living features
of the Doctor. About an hour after, having crossed the river's
bar of eight feet, we came to a beautiful anchorage of fourteen
feet of water, in an uncommonly pleasant small basin. The place
had been selected by the Doctor, and is now the site of the
flourishing town of Goderich.
237 mm
The Scotsman in Canada
The chief agents in the early settlement of the
county of Bruce were Scotsmen. The townships
have nearly all Scottish names, the rest being
mostly Indian. The Scottish ones are Lindsay,
Arran, Carrick, Bruce, Culross, Elderslie,
Greenock, Kincardine, and Kinloss.
The surrenders of the lands from the Indians
were procured through Scotsmen. Lord Elgin,
for whom Bruce was named, was the Governor of
the day. His Secretary was Lawrence Oliphant, a
noted Scottish writer who was the author of the
account of Elgin's mission to China. The village
of Oliphant, on the Huron shore opposite Wiarton,
was named after him. Oliphant also held the
position of Superintendent of Indian Affairs. He
effected in 1854 the surrender to the Government
of |what is called the Saugeen Peninsula, comprising the greater part of Northern Bruce. He
had as coadjutors three noted Scotsmen—James
Ross of Belleville, a well-known lawyer ; Charles
Rankin, a noted land surveyor ; and Alexander
MacNab, the Crown Lands Agent, who resided
at Southampton, and was father of Mr. John
MacNab of that place.
In 1848 the Lake Huron shore in this region
was surveyed by Alexander Murray, Assistant
Geologist to Sir William Logan. One of the
earliest pioneers of Bruce was Capt. Alexander
McGregor of Goderich, who, in 1831, developed
the fishing trade at the famous Fishing Islands
above Saugeen. The old stone building—now a
ruin—on Main Station Island, opposite Oliphant,
238 The Huron and Bruce Settlements
was the first permanent building erected in the
county of Bruce. Doctors Dunlop and Hamilton
of Goderich formed a new company to exploit
these fisheries. Another fishing company of Scotsmen of Southampton was that formed in 1848 by
Captains Spence and Kennedy, who purchased the
rights of the Goderich Company. Capt. Kennedy
was a Scottish half-breed. He went in command
of a party to discover Sir John Franklin. Spence
was an Orkney man, probably of the Selkirk settlement. The present writer knew Spence. He died
in 1904. He was a cousin of Mr. Williaim
Houston, ,the well-known journalist and compiler
of the Constitutional Documents on Education.
One of the two pioneer settlers of Kincardine
landed at that place in the spring of 1848. His
name was Allan Cameron, or fj Black " Cameron.
The pioneer settler on the Durham Road was ja
young Scotsman named John Beatty. His sister,
Miss Beatty, was the first white woman to undertake the hardships of bush life in Bruce County.
The jBeatties walked on foot from Owen Sound
by way of the Indian trail to Southampton, and
from there they followed the beach to Kincardine.
This was in 1848.
This year more Scotsmen began to come into
the Kincardine district. They were - Alexander
McCallay ; William Dowall ; three brothers,
Donald, Alexander, and John McCaskill ; George
McLeod ; two brothers, James and Alexander
Munro ; and Patrick Downie. The following year
Capt. Duncan Rowan and his brother John arrived,
jmemmm The Scotsman in Canada
and the land was gradually taken up. In 1849 the
first free-grant lands in Huron township were
settled by a Scottish group—Duncan and Alexander
McRae and Findlay McLennan and their families.
Among the pioneers of Brant township were
John Lundy ; Thomas Todd ; Jos. L. Lamont ;
and three Stewarts—Archibald, Alexander, and
Up to 1852 the settlers were mixed, with a good
average of Scotsmen ; but in that year 109
families, from the Island of Lewis, in Scotland,
settled in the township of Huron. They were
mostly fishermen, shepherds, and crofters, who only
knew Gaelic, so that they had a hard time for
many years. The Island of Lewis is in the Western
Hebrides, is a part of the shire of Ross, and is a
famous  place.
From there have gone forth many adventurers
into our West and North-West, and into all parts
of the world. The people are a hardy crofter
and fisher-folk, who have endured much from
Nature in the past and have looked mostly to the
sea for a living, and often a burial. The land
of the Island of Lewis was, in the past, largely
in the hands of certain families of the McLeods,
Mackenzies, Rosses, and Mclvors, with some
McDonalds, all of whom were connected with the
Hudson's  Bay  Company.
The people who came to Bruce were a simple,
God-fearing, and steadfast folk, but who had all
their troubles ahead of them by reason of their
utter  ignorance  of  farming  as  it  is  carried  on
240 The Huron and Bruce Settlements
upon this continent. A complete list of the Lewis
emigrants is given in Robertson's "History of
Bruce County." Of the 109 heads of families
there were 29 Macdonalds, 16 McLeods, 10 Mac-
kays, 11 McLennans, and 7 Mclvors. These
people were mostly fishermen, and had their
passage provided by the proprietor of the Island
of Lewis.
There were many other Scottish Highlanders
settled in Bruce besides the Lewis emigrants, and
so numerous were the | Macs " that all sorts of
nicknames had to be given to distinguish individuals—such as Little, Big, Black, Red, Long,
and Short ; and Robertson says of one school
section the John Macdonalds were so plentiful that
they had to be separately designated by a letter
of ,the alphabet, as John A, John B, until John U
closed the list.
With such a stalwart and enduring stock, it is
not to be wondered at that these counties became
noted among the finest of the Canadian communities, j They not only produced able local representatives in all walks of life, but they also sent
their sons and daughters out to the settlements
of the Far West, and had their part in the building
up of that part of Canada. The youth of Bruce and
Huron distinguished themselves in South 'Africa,
as well as in our own North-West Rebellion.
From the first settlement, the Bruce people were
loyal and ready to defend their country. The
earliest Militia rolls of 1859 show that the majority
were of Scottish origin.    A list of these veterans
vol. 1. Q 241 The Scotsman in Canada
Adair ;
Spence ;
is interesting : Col. Alexander Sproat ; Richard
Mclnnis ; Neil McLeod ; John MacNab ; Donald
Campbell ; William Walker ; James Hogg ;
George Hamilton ; Alex. Angus ; Peter Angus ;
Donald McPherson ; James Calder ; Alex. Mcintosh ; James Mcintosh ; Edward Ferguson;
Andrew Laurie ; Thos. Smith ; Edward Kennedy ;
Wm. Chisholm ; James Jack ; James George ;
Thomas Sharp ; Thomas Montgomery ; John
Murray ; Alex. Munro ; Peter McGregor ; James
; James Mason ; Duncan Ross*; Thomas
James Orr ; Alex. Robertson.; John
W. S. Scott, M.D.;|Neil Campbell.
This comprises the Scottish members of No. i
Company,   ist Battalion of Bruce in   1859.
When the Militia Act was amended in 1868,
the following year three Bruce Scotsmen received
commissions—Lieut.-Col. Andrew Lindsay ; Major
John Gillies ;  and Major James Rowand.
The Captains of Companies were also all Scotsmen : Robt. Scott; M. McKinnon; J. H.
Coulthard ; John Mclntyre ; James Stark;
Andrew Freeborn ;   and James  Allan.
In the Reil Rebellion of 1870 the Scotsmen
from Bruce were Capt. Hunter; Capt. Thos.
Adair; A. Mclvor ; Jas. Glendenning ; Wm.
McVicar ; Duncan Kerr ; James Gilmour ; J. Gil-
roy ; Donald Robertson ; George Smith ; Robt.
McFarlane ; and John Kerr. In 1885 the second
North-West Rebellion broke out, and the Bruce
battalion distinguished itself under Capt. Douglas.
In South Africa, Bruce gave a hero to the
MSB The Huron and Bruce Settlements
Empire in Trooper Gordon Cummings, of
Kitchener's Horse. He was born in Saugeen in
December, 1875, and was killed at the Battle of
Nooitge-dacht on December 13, 1900, while gallantly striving to procure ammunition for his
An account of some noted residents of the
county of Bruce of Scottish extraction must close
this brief essay.
Lieut.-Col. Alexander Sproat, who was one of
the earliest settlers, was of Scottish descent, a
graduate of Queen's College, a provincial land
surveyor ; then a bank manager ; County
Treasurer, 1864 to 1873 ; first Member for Bruce
in the Dominion Parliament ; and Colonel of the
32nd Battalion. He was made Registrar of Prince
Albert, North-West Territory, in 1880, and died
in 1890.
The Rev. John Eckford was born in Scotland,
educated at Edinburgh University, and came to
Canada in 1851. He was a noted preacher in
Bruce County, Reeve of Brant in 1857, and
Superintendent of Schools up to   1871.
Alexander Shaw, K.C., came to Bruce in 1858 ;
was .County Solicitor in 1867 ; was elected to
Parliament in 1878 in the Conservative interest.
Donald Sinclair was born at Islay in Scotland
in 1829, and came to Bruce in 1853. He taught
school, became a merchant at Paisley, and was
elected to the House of Assembly from 1867 to
1883, and was appointed Registrar that year ; a
*Hi The Scotsman in Canada
William Gunn was born in 1816 near Glasgow.
In 1852 he came to Kincardine from Napanee.
He was a merchant ; then Superintendent of
Schools from 1853 to 1858; and Deputy Clerk
of the Crown to 1894. He was also a Commissioner to Scotland on the Herring Industry.
Henry Cargill, Esq., M.P., was of Ulster-
Scottish stock. He was born in 1838, and
educated at Queen's College, Kingston. He
became a successful lumber merchant in the
•county of Bruce, and was elected to Parliament
for East Bruce from 1887 to 1903. He was a
Alexander McNeill, Esq., M.P., was a distinguished Member of the Canadian House of
Commons, where he represented North Bruce for
eighteen years in the Conservative interest, being
noted as a leading Imperialist, He introduced the
first motion in the Canadian House of Commons
leading to closer commercial relations with the
mother country. He was born in Larne,
county of Antrim', Ireland, of Ulster-Scottish
and Scottish stock. His father's family was
a branch of the McNeills of Gigha, who went
into Ulster with the Scottish settlements and
had lands in Antrim. His mother, his father's
cousin, was a sister of the famous Duncan
McNeill, Lord Colonsay, Lord Justice of Scotland. Mr. McNeill's maternal grandfather was
McNeill of Colonsay. He studied for the Bar
at the Inner Temple, London, England, but came
to Bruce County about 1870, and has been a
WiQHilKSBSSa The Huron and Brace Settlements
successful farmer. His residence, " The Corran,"
near Wiarton on Colpoys Bay, is one of the most
beautiful places in the county. He is an earnest
and able student of all public questions concerning
both Canada and the Empire.
Alexander MacNab was born in 1809. He was
appointed Crown Lands Agent for Bruce, and was
for thirty years connected with the Land Office in
the county. His son, John M. MacNab, residing
at Southampton, is an authority on the county
John Gillies, Esq., M.P., was born at Kilcalom-
nell, Argyllshire, Scotland. He came to Canada
in 1852 ; was Warden of Bruce in 1863, 1869,
1870, 1871, and 1872 ; was elected to Parliament
from 1872 to 1882, when he was defeated by
Alexander McNeill.    He was a strong Liberal.
John Tolmie, Esq., M.P., the present popular
Member of the Dominion House for North Bruce,
is a Scotsman by birth, having been born in the
parish of Laggan in Scotland in 1845. His
mother was Mary Fraser. Mr. Tolmie came to
Canada in 1868, and has been a farmer and salt
manufacturer. He has been returned to the House
of Commons four times in the Liberal interest for
West and North Bruce.
James Ernest Campbell, Esq., J.P., merchant
and manufacturer, of Hep worth, is a prominent
man in the county. He was nominated three times
in the Liberal interest in North Bruce. Mr. Campbell is of Ulster-Scottish stock, being a son of
the Rev. Thomas Swainston Campbell (Anglican),
245 The Scotsmcm in Canada
of jWiarton, whose father, the Rev. Thomas
Campbell, M.A., of Glasgow University, and first
Rector of Belleville, Upper Canada, was son of
James Campbell, Esq., of Kilrea, of a cadet branch
of the House of Argyll. Mr. Campbell was
appointed by the Canadian Government as Commercial Agent for Canada at Leeds and Hull,
England, but declined the position. His elder
brother, Thomas Francis Campbell, M.D., of Hep-
worth, is a well-known local physician.
L HP L! 1
-I ■-s-^-^-*-** CHAPTER XIX
Such were our memories.   May they yet
Be shared by others sent to be
Signs of the union of the free
And kindred peoples God hath set
O'er famous isles, and fertile zones
Of continents !   Or if new thrones
And mighty states arise; may He,
Whose potent hand yon river owns,
Smooth their great future's shrouded sea!
jj Quebec," a poem by the Duke of Argyll.
NO stronger link has bound Canada to the
Motherland than that of her Governors-
General, who have so ably and faithfully represented the British Sovereign in the Western world.
It must naturally be a matter of pride to all men
of Scottish descent in Canada to realise that the
greater majority of our viceregal representatives
have been of Scottish birth or extraction. Certainly,
in a work of this nature, it is but right to lay
stress upon this remarkable fact, which is but one
more witness to the proof that Canada is, indeed,
newer Scotland.
When we go back in our Canadian history to
» 1/
ii y
27^ Scotsman in Canada
the first quarter of the seventeenth century, down
a period of nearly three hundred years, we find
that Canada, or New Scotland, is made part of,
or an outlying extension of, Scotland ; that even
then our country was connected with the Scottish
race ; and the object of movements and ambitions arising among and influencing that ancient
people. Ever since, in some manner, Canada has
been connected with Scottish success or Scottish
failure. Scottish dreams, having their birth in the
Old Land of mountain and glen, have had more
than their fulfilment in the forests and plains and
seaports of the Caledonia of the West. From
Alexander to Strathcona Canada has been closely
woven into the web of Scottish life and its trusteeship of the outer-lands of the broad earth.
Likewise can it be said that the history of Canada
is but an extension of that of Scotland, and that
during a period of three hundred years past the
secret of the greatness and weakness of the greater
portion of our Canadian peoples is to be sought
for and found, not so much in our borders, as in
the misty mountains and glens, the castles and
sheilings of the loved Old Land. The pride and
race-ideal of the Canadian boy and girl should,
if truly inculcated, go back beyond Wolfe and
Brock and Queenston and the Heights of Abraham
to Bruce and Bannockburn. Truly if the race
and the blood count for anything (and if they do
not, what else should?), the greater majority of
our people have in their veins that fierce and hot
blood which brooked no conqueror, either martial
1 The Governors-General
or religious, for the glorious period of a thousand
years of Scotland's greatness ; and it would seem
worse than madness to expect to build up on
this continent a new race^patriotism from which
so much of splendid achievement and venerable
race-memory were excluded.
Therefore, from this important standpoint, it will
be more than merely interesting to the Scottish
Canadian to know that the greater number of our
viceregal representatives were of Scottish blood,
and connected with, or representatives of, families
renowned in the splendid history of North Britain.
Whatever may be the future fate of the country
now called Canada, she will never, so long as the
present race predominates, be separated from the
history and dominant spirit of Scotland ; and if
we but travel from Nova Scotia to the Fraser
River, we will find many a name of place or
treasured chronicle as lingering witness to the
conquering will and fearless spirit of those, her
missioners of material advancement and intellectual and spiritual enlightenment, whom she has
sent forth into all lands.
The first Scotsman appointed a Governor in
Canada was the famous Raleigh, of Scotland ; Sir
William Alexander, Viscount Canada, and Earl of
Stirling, who was in 1621 by James the Sixth and
the Scottish Parliament appointed hereditary Lieutenant of New Scotland. Alexander's Governorship was over all that country now known as the
Maritime Provinces, including Prince Edward
Island and all the islands in the Gulf, except New-
,. The Scotsman in Canada
foundland, with all of what is now Quebec south
of the river St. Lawrence. Canada has every
reason to look back with pride upon this her first
Governor, who was also her first founder.
It is about time that a statue to this great man
should be erected in the Dominion ; and it is no
credit to the Canadians of Scottish extraction and
no witness to their exact knowledge of Scottish
and Canadian history that long ere this no monument to him as the real founder of British Canada
has been thought of or deemed necessary.
It is a disgrace to British Canadians to have
to say that while monuments to Champlain have
been erected in the Maritime Provinces and Quebec
—and one is soon to be placed in the capital at
the expense of the Canadian Government—that no
monument has ever been suggested to this great
The second Governor, if we except the second
Earl of Stirling, who, like his illustrious father,
was deeply interested in the founding and colonisation of early Canada, was Sir David Kirke, another
distinguished man of Scottish extraction.
The first Governor of Canada under British rule
after the capture of Quebec was another Scotsman,
General Murray, a brother of Lord Elibank, who
succeeded to the command on the death of Wolfe ;
and when the civil Government was formed in
1763 he became the first civil Governor. In 1782
Henry Hamilton, a Scotsman, was Lieutenant-
Governor ; and he was Administrator in 1784.
In 1805 Thomas Dunn was President and
BWWSrSfs f tF¥ *—' The Governors-General
Administrator of the Government of Lower
Canada. In 1797 Peter Hunter was Administrator of Upper Canada ; and in 18 14 Sir Gordon
Druntmond, a distinguished soldier, occupied the
same position.
The Duke of Richmond, who was Governor-
General from 1818 to 1819, when his able career
was ended in so sudden and tragic a manner, was
of royal Scottish extraction on the paternal side,
being descended from Charles the Second, while
his mother was the daughter of the fourth Marquess
of Lothian, head of the great House of Kerr.
When the Duke died in so sad a manner, the
result of the bite of a mad fox, he was on a
journey through the Ottawa district, studying the
country in the interests of development and emigration. The privations consequent on his journey
in the wilderness, where he succumbed, must have
added much to his sufferings in his last hours.
He died literally in the performance of his duty,
as so many faithful Britons have done in connection
with the upbuilding of Canada.
The Duke's daughter, the Lady Sarah Lennox,
married Sir Peregrine Maitland, a scion of another
noted Scottish family. He became Lieutenant-
Governor of Upper Canada, and was Administrator
of the Canadian Government in 1820, following
the Duke's death. He was fated to govern in a
difficult period when restless spirits, suffering under
some real grievances, were being influenced by
less sincere intriguers to break the bond to the
Motherland.    There is proof that ever since the
I.? m
Mill The Scotsman in Canada
\m f
early years of the nineteenth century, when Wilcox
was sent over from the United States as a paid
emissary of insurrection, there was always such
an influence in the country.
Lord Dalhousie was appointed Governor-General
in 1820, as successor to the Duke of Richmond.
He was the representative of the noble Scottish
House of Ramsay, and his mother was of the old
family of Glen in Linlithgowshire. He was a distinguished scholar and statesman, and a successful Governor in that difficult period which preceded the Lower Canadian Rebellion. History
shows this Governor to have been a kindly and
refined gentleman, with a fine mind and a strong
ideal to serve his Sovereign and the country well.
Lord Dalhousie was recalled and sent to India
as Governor, where his son, the tenth Earl, went
later, in 1847, and remained until 1856.
Lord Gosford, who became Governor-General
in 1835, and remained up to 1837, was of the
ancient Scottish family of Acheson of Gosford,
county of Haddington, Scotland ; from which place
the family take their title as Earls of Gosford,
though the title belongs to the Irish peerage. He
was also a baronet of Nova Scotia. His ancestor,
Sir Archibald Acheson, of Gosford in Haddington, was one of the noted undertakers for land
in the great Scottish settlement in Ulster in the
seventeenth century.
Lord Gosford was fated to be a Governor in
a critical period of our history, when no Governor
could   cope   with   the   extreme   conditions   which
252 The Governors-General
existed in both Upper and Lower Canada, and
which evidently had to come to a sharp ending
in the Civil War which ensued. It has now been
proved that much of the so-called misrule of the
Governors was really traceable to the local
politicians, whose several factions each strove to
use the Sovereign's representative for their own
particular uses. Lord Gosford strove to, do his
duty under a trying ordeal which neither he nor
any other single man could prevent. In Lower
Canada it was a plain case of a clever demagogue and his short-sighted allies, who foolishly
dreamed that they could destroy British rule and
set up a pocket republic of their own on the St.
Lawrence. The 1 representative Government "
plea as the cause of this rebellion was just as
much a pretence as was the | no tax without
representation " of the American rebels in 1776.
In Upper Canada it was different ; but the Upper
Canadian Rebellion would never have come to a
real active head had there been no previous
outbreak in Lower Canada.
Lord Cathcart, 1845-46, was the next Scottish
Governor. He belonged to one of the oldest
Scottish families, who were Barons since 1447.
His mother was of the Border Scottish family of
Elliot, and was first cousin to the Earl of'Minto.
His connection with Canada was during the interesting period of the Union, the last and vain
political experiment before Confederation. During
this period the seat of Government was removed
from place to place in both provinces,  and the
253 The Scotsman in Canada
continual race jealousy between Upper and Lower
Canada was becoming stronger year by year. The
truth was that the great growth of the Upper
Province demanded an adequate representation not
agreeable to the claims and privileges of the
Lord Cathcart's successor was Lord Elgin,
during whose tenure of office the party and race
feeling reached their climax for the second time.
Lord Elgin was one of the finest of our Governors ;
but he was made the victim of extreme party
hatred, and was hooted and insulted in the streets.
In spite of this he did his duty as he conceived
it ; and history has justified him; and now condemns the actions of both parties in the country,
who made his position as Governor almost impossible. The idea has been instilled into the
minds of our people that the whole trouble arose
out of what was called the family compact, and
the cruel tyranny of withholding from the people
the free boon of responsible Government. Since
Confederation we have had this glorious gift so
much expatiated upon by cheap orators. But alas
for human consistency and the much-be-praised
democracy ! Has it improved matters ? Have we not
now even more than formerly of party strife and
mutual abuse? Does not the Press of each party
continually educate us into the idea that the party
in power is robbing and ruining the rest of the
country? Have we not had enough land-grabbing
and fraud on the part of public officers ventilated
in our present-day Press during the last twenty
' .- ££S££3SsS3 The Governors-General
years to totally eclipse all the charges brought
against any Government official since that arch-
grafter, Benjamin Franklin, first inaugurated such
nefarious practices upon this unfortunate continent?
Then, when we think of the present day and the
much-abused family compact of the 1837 period,
it is much to be feared that if Lyon McKenzie
were living to-day he would feel that the intermarried ruling class of his . day sank almost into
insignificance before its counterpart of the present
time. |H
It is for the Scottish Canadian to correct this
grave evil, and to explain this strange failure in
the infallibility of this democracy, which he has
so long regarded as the sole panacea for all social
and political ills. It is now becoming realised
that the early British Governors in this country
had a good deal of right on their side, and had
often only acted for the best. Lord Elgin's experience of Canada was, however, not a pleasant
one ; and he was glad to leave the country, where
he had striven to do his duty. He was in no way
to blame for the stormy period, as both Provinces
had, at the Union, one resfxmsible Government ;
and Elgin had full instructions to consult his
Ministers. The whole difficulty was in the people
themselves. His distinguished father-in-law, Lord
Durham, who had so much to do with the granting
of responsible Government, had an equally disagreeable experience as Governor.
Lord Elgin was male representative of the
famous   family  of   Bruce,   renowned   in   Scottish
11 The Scotsman in Canada
history, because one of its greatest kings, Robert
Bruce, whose daughter married a Stuart, and
through lack of male heirs of Robert Bruce carried
the royal line of Scotland into that family. Lord
Elgin's ancestor was a cousin of the illustrious
monarch whose name is immortal in Scottish
The next Canadian viceregal representative of
Scottish extraction was Lord Lisgar, 1868-72.
This statesman and nobleman was in the male
line the descendant and representative of the
Scottish family of Young of Auldbar, who removed into Ulster at the settlement of that
province. He was also descended of the Houses
of Douglas and of Knox of Ranfurly, kinsman of
John Knox. Lord Lisgar thus was strongly
Scottish in his descent, and whatever good he did
for Canada was owing to his Scottish blood. He
was the first Governor-General under the Canadian
Confederation, and proved himself a dignified and
competent representative of the Queen in the new
Dominion of the West.
He was succeeded by one of the most popular
of all our Governors, and one who was, like himself, of the Ulster-Scottish stock, Lord Dufferin.
In previous accounts these Ulster Governors have
been classed as Irishmen. But, as in this chapter
I have taken the trouble to show for the first
time, this is neither correct nor fair to the Scottish
race as a race. Therefore, as this work has for
its object to deal with the Scottish peoples in
connection with Canada, it is necessary to point
256 The Governors-General
out  very  definitely  the  true  facts  in  the  cases
Lord Dufferin, though exceedingly proud of his
Hamilton descent, was paternally of the Scottish
family of Blackwood, of whom the famous Edinburgh publishers of that name are a noted branch.
The Blackwoods were originally a Fifeshire family,
and Lord Dufferin's ancestors came into Ulster at
the Settlement.
On the maternal side the distinguished Governor
was representative and senior heir-general of the
Hamiltons, Earls of Clanbrassil. The first of the
family to leave Scotland for Ulster was James
Hamilton, son of the Rev. Hans Hamilton, Vicar
of Dunlop, in Ayrshire, who became the first
Viscount Clanbrassil. While Lord Dufferin's titles
were Irish, he was very much of a Scotsman in
blood and tradition, and it is interesting to
Canadians of Scottish stock to remember that he
was Governor at a period of our country's history
when the two pre-eminent leaders of Canadian
party politics were also of Scottish stock—Sir
John A. Macdonald and the Honourable Alexander
Mackenzie. It is not necessary in this chapter to
go into the whole career of this noted statesman
and diplomat, as it is well known to all Canadians.
Other members of the noted clan or family of
Hamilton have been associated with Canadian
history. One family of merchants of the
name were prominent in our history and were
associated with Quebec and Hamilton in Upper
Canada. The Honourable Robert Hamilton,
vol. i. R 257 Wl
rj; 's-l
The Scotsman in Canada \
Member of the Upper Canada Legislative Council,
was a leading member of this Canadian family,
and the present venerable Anglican Archbishop
of Ottawa is of the Quebec branch of this Scottish-
Canadian family.
Lord Dufferin had for his successor another distinguished Viceroy,  and the heir of one of  the
few   Scottish   princely   houses.    The   Marquis   of
Lome, now Duke of Argyll, is of royal extraction not only by. descent from1 Robert Bruce and
the royal house of Stuart through many female
ancestors, but it is not generally known that he
is the male representative of the old princely line
of  O'Duin,   Kings  of  Ulster   and  Argyll   in   an
ancient period of Scotland's history.    Even down
to the days of Mary Queen of Scots the Earls of
Argyll lived in regality within their own borders,
and   were   regarded   by   the   Scottish   monarchs
rather  as  powerful  allies  than  as  subjects.     In
the time of Queen Mary, the Earl of Argyll was
living as a prince in Argyll, with barons or lords
under him, of whom the three mentioned in history
were Lord Glenorchy,  ancestor of the Marquess
of Breadalbane ;   Lord Auchinbreck, head of that
noted house of soldiers and baronets ;   and Lord
Ardkinglas ;   the heads of the three great cadet
houses of the family, and all Baronets of Nova
The present writer has seen an original letter
written by King Charles the First to the great
Marquess   of   Argyll,   in   which   he   treated   him:
rather   as    an    important   ally   and    influential
258 I Mf\
Page 259. The Governors-General
Scottish leader than as a. subject ; and appealed to him to give his aid and influence
to the Royal cause in the trouble with the
Roundheads. Down to that period the chiefs
of Argyll had held the hereditary justiciary-
ship of all Scotland, which pjlaced them in an
almost regal position. This, the eight Earl
and Marquess resigned into the hands of the King,
retaining, however, to himself and his heirs the
jurisdiction of the Western Isles and Argyll, and
wherever else he had lands in Scotland, which was
ratified by an Act of Parliament in 1633. It was,
therefore, quite meet that the heir of such a great
historic house should marry a princess of the
reigning Royal House. But it was especially interesting to Canadians that they should be sent
to represent the monarch in the young Dominion.
The Marquis of Lome and the Princess Louise
did much in Canada to forward the intellectual
and material interests of the country. He had
much to do with the opening up of the Far West,
which he traversed to the shores of the Western
Ocean at a time when it was a most difficult undertaking ; and he has keenly appreciated the great
lifework, in this connection, of his close and distinguished friend and fellow Empire-builder,-Lord
The Duke of Argyll, like his distinguished father,
is a statesman and a scholar, and is one of the
ablest and greatest Imperialists in the British
Empire.    He has, ever since his viceregal term
in Canada, been deeply interested in the welfare
259 The Scotsman in Canada
of this country. In his many speeches, when here,
and since on Imperial occasions, he has ever expressed a firm belief in the great possibilities of this
country as a nation in the Empire. In addition to
his other notable qualities he possesses the poetical
gift in no small degree, a gift that seems hereditary in the blood of the great family of which
he is the head. Some of his finest verses were
written about Canada, and during his stay in this
country. Notable examples are his poem, the
finest ever written on the subject, " Quebec," and
his " Hymn for Confederation." He and the
Princess were the founders of the Royal Canadian
Academy of Arts and the Royal Society of Canada.
The Duke's ancestors and the cadet houses of
his family contain a long list of noted statesmen,
patriots, soldiers, scholars, and divines who have
been closely associated with the history of Scotland and the Empire. Many of his name, jand
some of his blood, have borne a prominent part
in the history of Canada ; and thousands of good
Canadian citizens bear his name and are worthy
members of the famous clan.
The Earl of Aberdeen, who was Governor-
General from 1893 to 1898, was also the head of
another distinguished Scottish house, and the male
representative of the great clan Gordon. This
name, like that of Campbell, has for centuries been
connected with the history of Scotland, as represented in the noble houses of the Dukes of Gordon,
the Earls of Huntly, Sutherland, Aberdeen, and
Kenmure. To merely mention those houses is to
260 The Governors-General
suggest to the reader of Scottish and British history
a whole host of associations with all that is noble,
chivalrous, tragic, and moving in the past centuries
of Britain.
A few personalities stand out prominently on
the frescoes of memory, such as George Gordon,
fourth Earl of Huntly, the famous " Cock of the
North," who virtually held Northern Scotland in
his grasp, and was, for all his sad end, considered
to have been the wealthiest, wisest, and most
powerful subject in Scotland in his day. His
famous ancestor, Sir Adam Gordon, who in 1305
sat at Westminster as one of the representatives
of Scotland ; Sir George Gordon, first Earl pf
Aberdeen, Lord High Chancellor of Scotland ; the
famous poet, Lord Byron, whose mother was a
Gordon of Gight ; the great Earl of Aberdeen,
grandfather of the present Earl, Premier of
England ; and last, but not least, the famous
General Gordon of KJiartoum, one of the greatest
saints and heroes in British history. Lord Aberdeen has had a distinguished career as a viceregal representative—twice in Ireland and once in
Canada. He is also Lord-Lieutenant of Aberdeenshire. He and his noted Countess were among
the most intimate friends and followers of the
famous Liberal leader, the late Right Hon.
William Ewart Gladstone, whose son has become
the first Governor of United South Africa. (It
might be not out of place here to mention that
Gladstone was of Scottish descent. His father's
family were Gledstanes, of Southern Scotland, and
1 i
The Scotsman in Canada
his mother was a Robertson of Stornoway, Isle of
Lewis. Her maternal grandfather was Colin
McKenzie, Bailie of Dingwall, of the Coul family
of McKenzie. There are members of this family
living in Canada.) Lady Aberdeen, who is known
throughout the world as an active leader in many
organisations to raise and alleviate humanity,
comes also of a noted Scottish stock. Her father
was Sir Dudley Coutts Majoribanks, first Lord
Tweedmouth, and representative of the old family
of Majoribanks of Holly and Leuchie and that
Ilk ; and through her mother she is of the Ulster-
Scottish branch of the Hoggs and Swintons of
Lord Aberdeen's military secretary in Canada
was another noted Scotsman and a scion of an
ancient Caithness family, Captain John Sinclair,
since then Member of Parliament for Forfarshire,
and now Secretary of State for Scotland, lately
raised to the peerage as Lord Pentland. He is
married to Lady Marjorie Gordon, only daughter
of Lord Aberdeen. Lord Pentland has had a
successful career as a statesman, and is a fine
scholar. He is of the Dunbeath branch of the
family of the Earls of Caithness. His father was
the late Capt. George Sinclair. Lord Pentland
was also Member of Parliament for Dunbarton
County and Assistant Private Secretary to the
Secretary of State for War and a Captain of the
5th Lancers, and also a member of the London
County Council.
It is very significant of Scotland's part in the
"•Ml The Governors-General
building and destiny of Canada to turn from the
historic families of Gordon and Sinclair to that
of Elliot.
The Earl of Minto, who succeeded the Earl of
Aberdeen as Governor-General, represents this
old historic Scottish house. Like Lord Aberdeen,
he is also a Baronet of Nova Scotia. His ancestor
was Gilbert Elliot, of Stobs, who was also ancestor
of the famous Lord Heathfield, the defender pf
Gibraltar. Lord Minto's ancestors were distinguished jurists, governors, naval and military
officers, and ambassadors. Prominent in his
family were Sir Gilbert Elliot, Lord Justice
Minto ; the Honourable Andrew Elliot ; Admiral
George Elliot ; the Right Honourable Hugh Elliot,,
Governor of Madras ; the first Earl of Minto,
successively Viceroy of Correa, Ambassador at
Vienna, Governor of Bengal, and President of the
Board of Control. The present Earl has been
one of the most successful Viceroys both in Canada
and India. His first connection with our country
was as military Secretary to the Marquess of Lands -
downe, from 1883 to 1886. Lord Minto is
Viscount Melgund of Melgund, County Forfar, and
Baron Minto of Minto, County Roxburgh, and Earl
of Minto. Lady Minto is a sister of Lord Grey,
the present Governor-General of Canada ; and is
through her mother of the old Scottish family of
Farquhar of that Ilk.
The present distinguished Governor-General of
Canada, Earl Grey, has accomplished a great deal
for    the    welfare    of    the    Empire    in    Africa,
&0SH ff-W
The Scotsman m Canada
England and Canada. He is, to-day, one of the
most noted personalities in the Empire. As
Governor of Canada, he has not only wisely and
firmly represented his Sovereign, but he has also
from the first held before the Canadian people
a high ideal of citizenship and responsibility to
the Empire and the Canadian comtounity. Lord
Grey, while, as is well known, the representative
of a great historical house of Northern England,
noted for its statesmen, soldiers, and sailors, is
also, on the maternal side, of Scottish extraction,
his mother being a daughter of Sir Thomas Harvie
Farquhar, Baronet, representative of the ancient
family of Gilmanscroft in North Britain. When
one visits the beautiful county of Northumberland, on the borders of Scotland, the ancient home
of Lord Grey's paternal ancestors, and his present
family seat, and sees the wonderful heather-clad
hills extending down over the border, well into
the middle of the northern county, it is hard to
realise that one is not in Scotland. And when we
remember that the name of " Grey " has been a
great one in Scotland from the earliest days, and
that original Scottish origin is claimed for tftiis
noted family, it is not difficult for our Scottish
historian to lay some claim to our distinguished
Governor as a representative of the great mother
of peoples scattered throughout tihe world. Lord
Grey has also added to his many adhievements
in a unique way by his memorable journey overland to and through the famous Hudson Bay and
Straits, being the first Governor-General of Canada
264 The Governors-General
to essay or accomplish this difficult journey. The
result of this trip has been, however, to show to
the outside world that Canada has a great ocean
gateway in the north that may some day rival the
St. Lawrence, and become a great shipping port
for the grains and other products of the evergrowing West. Lady Grey, who has so endeared
herself to the Canadian people, is also through
her mother of the blood of the great historic House
of Lindsay of Balcarres, one of Scotland's most
noted families.
Our next Governor is to be of the Royal Stuart
blood, in the person of his Royal Highness the
Duke of Connaught, uncle of the King. This will
add but a more illustrious example to the long
list of Viceroys of Scottish blood who have represented their Sovereign in this the Scotland of the
New World.
r ill i
Though guiding plough 'neath heather dune,
Or tiller of the herring sea,
Or jingling gold in Glesca' toon,
Or lad wi' herd or parson's crook
Or canty clerk in far countrie,
Or proudsome laird o5 Idnnisdeer ;—
By corry, loch, or ingle nuik,
The Scotsman's nose, where'er ye speir,
Is no' far frae his specs' and buke.
i i
ii      i
IT has been truly said that perhaps the strongest
instinct of the Scottish people is that well-known
intense craving which they have ever had for knowledge and learning. This instinct is not limited
to the scholarly class alone, but is widely shared
by the whole people to a greater extent than is
found in any other nation throughout the world.
It is especially strong in the natures of the great
financial adventurers in the Old World and jthe
Colonies. This accounts for the fact that so many
of them, like Andrew Carnegie, Lord Strathcona,
and Sir William Macdonald, have endowed learning and literature so largely. It was no uncommon
266 The Scotsman and Education
J if
thing to find among the necessarily limited personal
effects of an early pioneer Scottish merchant of
Quebec, Hudson Bay, or Virginia, of the eighteenth
century), a number of well-chosen and well-thumbed
volumes of the classics. Even such a writer as
Horace was not excluded. Many of these men led
lives of hard, exacting, material, counting-house
toil. They were men in whom, from all appearances,
literary inclinations were the last thing to be expected. They were plain, hard-faced, often sordid
or commonplace appearing dealers in the virgin
markets of the material world ; and yet underneath
that outer husk of exacting mercantile ambition
there lay hidden the kernel of the intellect and
imagination, that strangely associated characteristic which has so often rendered the successful
Scotsman such a mystery to his fellow-beings who
could not see below the surface of the everyday
man. It has been said that somewhere in every
real personality there lurks hidden the soul of a
poet. Certainly this is largely true of many Scotsmen famous in the successful outways of the
material world. This larger wisdom, this under-
dream, this deep sympathy with the finer things
of life, which so many of these men have carried
with them into the dreary northern wilds, or other
remote places of rude and almost savage pioneer
life, explains why so many of them have proved
to be Nature's true gentlemen, with such fine
instincts for culture, on their return to the purlieus
of civilisation. This subtly ingrained or hereditary love of scholarship and refinement will also
it 1111
Mm m
The Scotsman in Canada
explain why so many of our Canadian Universities
and other seats of learning have been founded
by Scottish merchants and financiers, from whom,
as a class, in no other nationality would such an
intellect-worshipping impulse be expected, or even
regarded as possible.
It is this remarkable use or trusteeship of his
wealth, here and in the Old World, that sets the
Scottish millionaire or merchant prince apart from
all others of his class. By reason of his innate
knowledge or desire, from the very first, how to use
his wealth when it has been acquired, he reveals
himself as a scion of the old Scottish aristocracy.
The desire to go back, to own the land, to be
a lord or laird, to found or aid a college or
university, is more than the mere material jam-
bition of success. It shows a deeper spirit. It
is often the spirit of a Highland mother acting
through her son of a Lowland name. It is often
the longing or harking back of a strain of gentle,
lordly, religious, military, or scholarly blood, still
working in and influencing the otherwise plain,
dour, practical business man of the present. This
may explain why the chief builder of the Canadian
Pacific Railway and a leading spirit in the
Hudson's Bay fur trade sent a regiment to help
his Queen and the Empire in South Africa. But
this spirit in the Scotsman goes back even farther
in the blood than we suspect. Can we wonder at
this refined impulse and instinct in the race when
we know that before the days of Charlemagne a
igreat wave of the intellect went out from the
268 The Scotsman and Education
ancient kingdom of Caledonia, whose capital was
at Inverlochy in the Scottish Highlands, and
influenced the civilisation of Europe. From
those Temote days down to the period of James
the Fifth and the great John Knox have Scotsmen
had high ideals of scholarship and the intellect.
Since then nowhere outside of Scotland have the
children of the ancient mother shown this remarkable characteristic more than in Canada. In all
grades of our educational development, from the
University to the common school, the personality
and influence of the Scotsman have been prominent. It is a significant fact in our intellectual
history, and one remarkable in the history of any
young country, that all of our leading Universities,
with scarcely one exception, and our other higher
institutions pf learning, have been from the first
established and controlled by Scotsmen. This fact,
more than any other, shows to how great an extent
Canada has been a New Scotland in character and
ideal, and c