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Western Canada. With illustrations and map Tucker, Louis Norman 1907

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Array     lEngltsf) (Mure!) lExpanaton
Edited by
T. H. DODSON, M.A.
Principal of S. Paul's Missionary College, Burgh; and Canon of
Lincoln Cathedral
AND
G. R. BULLOCK-WEBSTER, M.A.
Hon. Canon of Ely Cathedral
WITH  A  GENERAL  PREFACE  BY
THE   BISHOP   OF   S,   ALBANS iSngltsf) ffifjurcf) iExpartsuin
Edited by T. H. Dodson, M.A., Principal of
S. Paul's Missionary College, Burgh, and
Canon of  Lincoln  Cathedral;    and G. R.
Bullock-Webster,  M.A.,   Hon.  Canon of
Ely Cathedral.
i. JAPAN.   By Mrs. Edward Bicker-
STETH.
2. WESTERN   CANADA.     By the
Rev. L. Norman Tucker, M.A.,
D.C.L.; General Secretary of the
Missionary Society of the Church of
Canada, and Hon. Canon of Toronto
Cathedral.
3. CHINA.    By the Rev. F. L. Norris,
M. A., of the Church of England Mission, Peking ; Examining Chaplain
to the Bishop of North China.
7JV  PREPARATION
AUSTRALIA. By the Rev. A. E. David,
sometime Archdeacon of Brisbane.
SOUTH AFRICA. By the Right Rev.
Bishop Hamilton Baynes, D.D., sometime Bishop of Natal.
NORTH    INDIA.       By   the   Rev.   C.   F.
Andrews, M.A., Fellow of Pembroke
College, Cambridge, and Member of the
Cambridge Mission to Delhi.  Photo by]
Archbishop Machr/
[Rev, C. N, F, It f&antibopftg of iSngltsi) ©ijurct) ISrpanston
Wimtxn Canatia
Rev. L. NORMAN TUCKER, M.A., D.C.L.
Honorary Canon of S. Aldan's Cathedral, Toronto
General Secretary of the Missionary Society of the Church of England
in Canada
WITH ILLUSTRATIONS AND MAP
Toronto
THE MUSSON BOOK COMPANY
Limited
A. R. Mowbray & Co. Ltd. , London and Oxford M GENERAL PREFACE
IT was said, I believe by the late Bishop
Lightfoot, that the study of history was the
best cordial for a drooping courage. I can
imagine no study more bracing and exhilarating
than that of the modern expansion of the Church
of England beyond the seas during the past half
century, and especially since the institution of
the Day of Intercession for Foreign Missions.
It is only when these matters are studied
historically that this expansion comes out in its
true proportions, and invites comparison with the
progress of the Church in any similar period of
the world's history since our Lord's Ascension
into heaven.
But for this purpose there must be the accurate
marshalling of facts, the consideration of the
special circumstances of each country, race and
Mission, the facing of problems, the biographies
of great careers, even the bold forecast of
conquests yet to come. It is to answer some
of these questions, and to enable the general
reader to gauge the progress of Church of
England Missions, that Messrs. A. R. Mowbray
and   Co.  have designed  a  series of handbooks, VI
General Preface
of which each volume will be a monograph on
the work of the Church in some particular
country or region by a competent writer of
special local experience and knowledge. The
whole series will be edited by two men who
have given themselves in England to the work
and study of Foreign Missions—Canon Dodson,
Principal of S. Paul's Missionary College, Burgh,
and Canon Bullock-Webster, of Ely.
I commend the project with all my heart.
The first volume, which I have been able to
study in proof, appears to me an excellent introduction to the whole series. It is a welcome
feature of missionary work at home that we have
now passed into the stage of literature and study,
and that the comity of Missions allows us to
learn from each other, however widely methods
may vary. The series of handbooks appears
to me likely to interest a general public which
has not been accustomed to read missionary
magazines, and I desire to bespeak for it a
sympathetic interest, and to predict for it no
mean success in forming and quickening the
public mind.
EDGAR  ALBAN.
HlGHAMS,
Woodford Green, Essex,
November 10, 1907. EDITORS'   PREFACE
BEW facts in modern history are more arresting or instructive than the rapid extension
of the Church's responsibilities and labours in the
colonial and missionary fields ; yet, until recently,
few facts perhaps have been less familiar to those
who have not deliberately given themselves to a
study of the subject.
It has therefore been felt that the time has
come when a series of monographs, dealing with
the expansion of the Church of England beyond
the seas, may be of service towards fixing the
popular attention upon that great cause, the
growing interest in which constitutes so thankworthy a feature in the Church's outlook to-day.
The range of this series is confined to the work
in which the Church of England is engaged. That
story is too full to allow of any attempt to include
the splendid devotion, and the successful labours,
of other Missions of Christendom. But, for a fair
understanding either of the Christian advance
generally or of the relative position of our own m
viii Editors' Preface
work, a knowledge of those Missions is essential;
and it is in the hope of leading some of its
readers to such further comparative study tfcat
this series has been taken in hand.
The Editors have tried to keep in view the
fact that, while the wonderful achievements here
recorded have been accomplished in large part
through the agency of our Missionary Societies,
yet these Societies are, after all, only the hands
and arms of the Holy Church in the execution
of her divine mission to the world.
They have directed their work, as Editors,
simply to securing general uniformity of plan
for the series, and have left each writer a free
hand in the selection of material and the expression of opinion.
T.H.D.
G. R. B.-W. AUTHOR'S   PREFACE
J^^HIS little book has been written with the
^-^ practical purpose of helping to create in
the motherland an intelligent interest in the
great problems that are pressing for solution in
the Canadian mission-field. It has been sought
to do this by drawing as distinct a picture as
possible of their salient features in regard more
especially to needs and opportunities. The area
is unfortunately so vast, the work so varied, the
local needs so many and so urgent, and the
growth and progress so rapid and so substantial
that there has been but little room for details;
and yet details of facts and figures are the only
solid foundation on which intelligent interest and
practical sympathy should be made to rest.
The time for such a book is peculiarly opportune. The problem of world-wide Missions is
gradually assuming its proper place in the minds
of earnest Christian men as the supreme object,
to the attainment of which all the forces of
civilization and Christianity should be especially
directed. An earnest effort is being made, under
the most influential auspices, to bring the subject Author's Preface
before the whole Anglican communion, in connection with the Pan-Anglican Congress of 1908.
It will be seen at a glance that an important
factor in the solution of the world-wide problem
is that of Colonial Missions; and that, among
Colonial Missions, the Canadian field takes the
first rank from the manifold standpoint of need,
of promise, and of far-reaching importance. For
the building up of the forces of Christianity and
of the Church in the outlying portions of the
Empire must not only tend to consolidate the
Empire itself, but also to add materially to the
resources of the Church, in men and money, in
moral and spiritual power, in view of her worldwide mission.
Notwithstanding its many shortcomings, this
volume is sent forth with the earnest hope and
prayer that it may contribute its small quota
to the elucidation and the practical solution of
the important and difficult questions that lie
before the Church of England at the beginning
of the twentieth century.
While the contents of this book are chiefly
derived from personal knowledge, or from sources
too numerous to be mentioned, an acknowledgement of indebtedness is due to a little narrative
called The Rainbow in the North for many facts
regarding the work among the  Indians at Red
RiVen L. N. T. CONTENTS
PAGE
CHAP.
I.
Description of the Field
Its   Climate,   Physical   Features,   and
I
Products.
II.
History (Secular) -
The   Hudson's   Bay   Company—Early
Explorers—The Canadian Pacific Railway
—The Red River Settlement—Population
— Immigration — The   Mormons — The
Galicians.
6
III.
History (Religious)
Work among the Indians.
25
IV.
History (Religious)
Work among the Whites
44
V.
Dioceses      -
A brief description of each from the
standpoint of need and opportunity
57
VI.
Missions
The   Formation   of   a   Diocese—The
Columbia Coast Mission—A Lonely Mission—The Saskatchewan Plan.
104
VII.
Missionaries             ....
"Father Pat"—Bishop Sillitoe—Bishop
Bompas — Bishop   Sullivan — Archbishop
Machray.
129
VIII.
The Church             ....
In the Nation, the Empire, the World.
153
General Index        ....
161
xi ILLUSTRATIONS
Archbishop Machray
Rev. John Antle
A Boatload of Eskimos    -
Home of a Catechist on the Prairie
Church at Humboldt, Saskatchewan
" Lambeth   Palace,"   Lasburn,   Saskatchewan
" Father Pat" -        *  -
Bishop Bompas
Frontispiece
facing page 114
„   » 115
I   » 122
„ 124
» 125
„ 142 Handbooks of English Church Expansion
WESTERN CANADA
if- oar m
CHAPTER I
Description   of   the   Field
J^^HE Canadian mission-field extends, broadly
^-^ speaking, from the Georgian Bay on the
East to the Pacific Ocean on the West—a distance
of 2,500 miles; and from the International
boundary line in the South to the Arctic Ocean
in the North—a distance of 2,000 miles; thus
containing an area, in round numbers, of 5,000,000
square miles.
As might be expected, such a vast area contains
the greatest variety of climate, physical features,
and material resources. Eternal snow and ice
hold the far North in their frozen grip, and sometimes see the mercury grow sluggish and congeal;
White River on the north shore of Lake Superior Western Canada
is said to be the coldest spot on the continent:
on the prairies the heat of summer is almost like
that of the tropics, and the cold of winter almost
like that of the frigid zone: the breezes from
the Rocky Mountains temper the rigours of the
climate in Western Alberta: while a genial
climate, not unlike that of England, rainy in
the  winter, and glorious  in  the summer, reigns
> o Jo
for five hundred miles along the Pacific coast;
and over this whole area, owing to the dryness
of the air and the brightness of the sun, the
climate is extremely bracing, healthful, and
enjoyable.
Picturesque rocks, gloomy forests and beautiful
lakes and streams abound in the region north of
the great lakes. From Winnipeg to the Rockies
the prairie is devoid of trees and even of hills ;
for half the distance it is perfectly flat, .then it
begins to undulate until it merges into the foothills where the Rockies suddenly appear grim,
bare, and forbidding. The five hundred miles that
divide the prairies from the Pacific contain one
of the most glorious panoramas to be met with
in the world, of lofty peak, wooded mountainside, eternal snow and glaciers, placid lakes,
giddy canyons, and  swift-flowing  rivers;    while Description of the Field 3
the combination of sea and mountain, of deep
inlet and jagged coast line, that forms the Gulf
of Georgia, is well worthy to rank alongside
of it.
And this vast region, which for centuries was
thought to be barren and inhospitable—fit only
to be the home of the buffalo, the fur-bearing
animal, and the roving Indian—is gradually
unfolding its treasures, which promise to make
it one of the richest, as well as one of the
fairest, homes of mankind. The district lying
between the great lakes and Hudson Bay is
rich almost beyond comparison in minerals, in
timber, in water power, and in arable land.
There are to be found Cobalt and Copper Cliff,
the greatest silver and nickel mines in the world;
there is the great forest region and the great clay
belt; there will be found by and by the homes of
prosperous and contented myriads. Sault Ste
Marie is now one of the great industrial centres
of the continent; and the S. Mary River, which
conveys the waters of Lake Superior into Lake
Huron, carries more shipping than the Suez
Canal. The great lakes must ever remain in the
summer time great highways of commerce and
travel;   and  Hudson   Bay   bids   fair   to   become Western Canada
a great outlet for the trade of the West. The
prairies can produce grain to feed the hungry
millions of the earth ; sheep may be successfully
raised in the South ; the West is an ideal Region
for the raising of horses and cattle ; and irrigation
promises to make the tiller of the soil independent
of the seasons. The mountains of Kootenay
contain some of the richest mineral deposits
known. The Okanagan district is fast being
covered with fruit-trees. The salmon fisheries of
the Gulf of Georgia, and the big trees of British
Columbia, are among the wonders of the world.
Coal is mined in abundance in Southern Alberta,
on Vancouver Island, and in many other places ;
while the Pacific coast line, with its rising cities,
its safe harbours, and its thousand indentations,
places the immense trade of the Pacific within
reach of the Dominion. Even its position on the
map gives Canada a great advantage over all
competitors; its railways and waterways are the
shortest routes across the continent; the Pacific
coast has the ports nearest to Japan and China;
and the Atlantic seaboard those nearest to Great
Britain and Europe.
Such  is   the   mission-field   of   the   Canadian
Church—such its extent, its climate, its physical Description of the Field 5
features, its varied and inexhaustible resources—
a field surely destined to become the cradle and
nursery of a mighty nation, for on to its broad
and fertile acres is being poured the surplus
population of the world. Western Canada
CHAPTER    II
History   (Secular)
IN order to form a clear idea of the work of
the Church in the Canadian West, it will
be necessary to know something of the more
secular aspects of the country, and of the
agencies that have helped to bring it to its
present condition.
I.    The Hudson's Bay Company
First among these secular agencies, in point of
time, if not of importance, must be placed the
Hudson's Bay Company, whose history is a
remarkable illustration of the capacity of the
English race to play the important part in the
world's affairs to which it has been called. The
Company was the means of maintaining British
influence for a century and a half over a region
two thousand miles square ; and to it is mainly
due the fact that that region is British to-day.
%®mm History (Secular) 7
It was the activity of the French explorers, in
the interest of the fur trade and of missionary
enterprise, that led to the formation of the Hudson's Bay Company. Lake Superior was first
heard of by the French in 1615. It was visited
by two Jesuit missionaries in 1641. Twenty-
five years later two Frenchmen—Radisson and
de Groseillers—made their way to Hudson Bay
through Lake Winnipeg and the Nelson River,
and at a later date took their ships through
Hudson Straits under the auspices of the English
Crown. This led directly, in 1670, to the incorporation of the Company, of which the first
Governor was Prince Rupert, whose name, given
originally to the whole region, has survived, in
Church nomenclature, in the Diocese and Province
of Rupert's Land.
The original grant was of all lands whose
waters flowed into Hudson Bay, with power to
make and execute laws, to raise and employ
armed forces. Till the conquest of Canada in
1759) the Company had no competitors in the
vast territory under its sway ; but in 1773 a rival
arose in the North-West Company, whose opposition became so keen that it led to the widespread demoralization of the Indians through the Western Canada
use of alcohol, and eventually brought both
Companies to the brink of ruin. In 1821 they
were amalgamated under the name of the old
Company.
Early in the nineteenth century the Company
had secured the right of exclusive trading in the
country west of the Rocky Mountains. It
explored the Fraser River in 1805, and the
Thompson in 1808, and took possession of the
Columbia in 1821. It kept up one hundred and
sixty stations and employed three thousand
men. It was the only source from which
supplies could be secured, and the only
market where goods could be disposed of. The
beaver skin was the unit of exchange, till in
1825 a currency was introduced, known as Hudson's Bay blankets. Its treatment of the Indians
was uniformly just and humane, and was repaid
by universal confidence and loyalty. It made
Indian wars impossible, and even in the two
rebellions of 1869 and 1885 scarcely any of the
Indians could be induced to take up arms.
Though for more than a century it did nothing
for the spiritual welfare of the Indians, since the
establishment of Missions in 1820 it has been of
the greatest assistance  to  the missionaries.    Its History (Secular)
posts usually became the stations of the Church.
Its boats were the chief means of transportation
for the missionary and his goods; and it is
not too much to say that Missions in the far
North would have been impossible without the
Hudson's Bay Company. What Roman roads
and Roman law were to the Apostles, that the
Hudson's Bay Company was to the Indian
missionaries.
But by degrees it lost its hold on the country.
In 1845 it was compelled to give up the Oregon
region and the Columbia River by the treaty
between England and the United States. In
1858 it was forced to give up Vancouver Island
and British Columbia by the organization of those
regions into a Crown Colony. In 1869 it sold
its territorial rights to the Canadian Government
for ^300,000, retaining one-twentieth of the land
in the fertile belt; and since that time it has
been merely a trading company. But while its
trade has been a fruitful source of profit to its
shareholders, the Company has left an indelible
mark on the history of the country. In the words
of Lord Strathcona, who enjoyed a life-long
connection with the Company, and was for a time
its  governor—" It explored a vast territory and io Western Canada
prepared the way for its settlement and colonization ; it stimulated trade in the East; it
opened up the West; it consolidated the unity
of the Dominion ; it provided an outlet on the
Atlantic and the Pacific; and created a new
Imperial highway to Australasia, Japan, and
China."
II.   Early   Explorers
It would scarcely be just to omit all mention
of the daring explorers who were the first to bring
the remotest parts of the country to the knowledge
of the world ; the first to navigate its rivers, to
climb its mountains, to explore its unknown
wastes and to open it up first to trade, then to
missionary enterprise, and lastly to settlement.
Those brave pioneers attached their names to
many of its physical features ; their fame should
be cherished as a priceless possession ; in a very
real sense they were the forerunners of the
messengers of CHRIST.
First among them must be mentioned the
intrepid French travellers, who, through the inland
waters, found their way to Hudson Bay, and who
explored the country drained by the Red River,
the Assiniboine and the Saskatchewan, as far as History (Secular) i i
the Rocky Mountains. For nearly one hundred
years the Hudson's Bay Company confined its
energies to the regions contiguous to Hudson
Bay ; but the rivalry of the North-West Company
drove it further afield and compelled it to go in
search of the fur trade. In 1769, Samuel Hearne,
of the Hudson's Bay Company, called the Mungo
Park of Canada, after two unsuccessful attempts,
went overland from Hudson Bay to Great Slave
Lake, and thence by the Copper Mine River to
the Arctic Sea. In 1779 Alexander Mackenzie,
of the North-West Company, followed the river
that bears his name from Great Slave Lake to
its mouth in the Arctic Ocean; and in 1793 he
accomplished the overland journey from the
Peace River to the Pacific. In 1805 Simon
Fraser achieved the astonishing feat of tracing
the course of the Fraser River, in a canoe, from
its source in the Rockies to its mouth in the Gulf
of Georgia. In 1820 Sir John Franklin wintered
at Fort Enterprise, north of Great Slave Lake,
descended the Copper Mine River in the summer
of 1821, followed the Arctic coast eastward
600 miles, ascended the Hood River, and, amid
sufferings unspeakable, returned overland to Fort
Enterprise.    In 1825 the same intrepid explorer 12 Western Canada
descended the Mackenzie River, and followed the
Arctic coast westward 374 miles to Return Inlet.
From 1833 to 1835 Captain Back descended the
river that bears his name, after incredible hardships, while the thermometer at times registered
seventy degrees below zero. From 1837 to 1839
Dease and Simpson descended the Mackenzie
River, advanced 200 miles beyond Return Inlet
to Point Barrow, and returned to winter at Great
Bear Lake ; then, descending the Copper Mine
River, they followed the Arctic coast eastward to
Coronation Gulf, and through the Back River
made their way to Fort Confidence. In 1845,
Franklin determined to prove that the North-
West Passage was navigable all the way to
Behring Sea, sailed from England in the ships
" Erebus " and " Terror," with a picked crew of
138 men, and perished by hunger off the shores
of King William Island. Many times did
Sir George Simpson, Governor of the Hudson's
Bay Company, perform the three months' journey
from Lachine to the Pacific ; up the Ottawa and
the French Rivers; across Lake Huron and Lake
Superior ; up the Kaministiquia and down the
Winnipeg; across Lake Winnipeg and up the
Saskatchewan and the Peace Rivers;  across the History (Secular) 13
height of land and down the Columbia — a
distance of some six thousand miles. Equally
memorable, in the annals of the Church, is the
Journey of Bishop Mountain, in a canoe, from
Montreal to the Red River in 1844; while the
travels of Bishop Bompas, which are related
elsewhere, are probably unsurpassed in the history
of the world. When it is borne in mind that
these journeys were undertaken through unexplored and in many cases desolate regions, either
on foot or in canoes, without roads and without
commissariat, it may not unfairly be said that
for courage and endurance, for fatigue and
suffering, these expeditions through the great
lone land equal anything that may be chronicled
in the realm of adventure.
III.   The Canadian Pacific Railway
The Canadian Pacific Railway is the fulfilment
of a dream that for ages had haunted the slumbers of Europe. When the French explorers were
arrested in their westward course by the rapids
near Montreal, they called the place Lachine,
because they thought it was the gateway to the
Celestial Empire.    And the  long list  of daring H
Western Canad/
seamen whose names are so gloriously associated
with the search for the North-West Passage, from
Henry Hudson to Sir John Franklin, were one
and all actuated by the hope and ambition to
find the shortest route to the storied regions—
" Where the gorgeous East, with richest hand,
Showers on her kings barbaric pearl and gold."
When a railway was built across the continent,
and the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans were
joined together by bands of steel, the real North-
West Passage was discovered and the fabulous
wealth of Asia opened up, as never before, to the
enterprise of British merchants.
For years before confederation, British and
Canadian patriots and statesmen had dreamed of
a railway extending from sea to sea. In 1851,
Joseph Howe, of Nova Scotia, said : I I believe
that many in this room will live to hear the
whistle of the steam-engine in the passes of the
Rocky Mountains, and make the journey from
Halifax to the Pacific in five or six days." In
1857, Chief Justice Draper, before the British
House of Commons, said : | I hope to see, or at
least that my children will see, a railway wholly
in   British   territory,   from   the   Atlantic   to   the History (Secular)
15
Pacific Oceans." And in 1858, Sir Edward
Bulwer Lytton referred to the railway as " that
great viaduct by which we hope some day to
connect the harbours of Vancouver with the
Gulf of S. Lawrence." But by practical men
this was generally considered to be a mere
Utopian fancy. This dream of patriots and
statesmen, this Utopian fancy of practical men,
became a living reality, when, on November 27,
1885, Lord Strathcona, in the Rocky Mountains,
drove the last spike of the Canadian Pacific
Railway.
Obviously a transcontinental railway was one
of the essential conditions of the unification of the
Canadian Dominion. Accordingly, when British
Columbia entered the Confederation in 1871, it
did so on the express stipulation that such
a railway should be built. But the project was
so large, and the burdens it entailed so heavy,
that almost insuperable difficulties stood in the
way—Parliamentary, financial and physical. But
Canadian pluck and enterprise succeeded in overcoming them all. The contract for the building
of the road was given out in 1881. Mountains
were either climbed or tunnelled ; precipices were
either skirted  or bridged ;  and the first through train to the Pacific Ocean left Montreal on June
z8, 1886.
But the railway passed, most of the way,
through an uninhabited wilderness. It had to
create a population as well as a traffic. It
therefore opened branch lines in every direction,
connecting with the American systems or opening
new districts to the enterprise of the settler. It
placed a fleet of steamers on the great lakes, and
built hotels and elevators at the most important
points. And the results have been that it
attracted an ever-increasing number of tourists,
and made the hidden beauties of lake and
mountain known to the world ; it made possible
the development of the mining industry of
Kootenay and the fruit ranches of Okanagan;
it laid the foundation of the greatness of Vancouver and Winnipeg, and brought countless
smaller towns and villages into existence; it
opened the boundless prairies of the interior to
the immigration of the world, and, by bringing
in settlers at the rate of nearly a quarter of
a million per annum, is building up a nation in
the West. Some idea may be formed of the
vastness of its operations from the fact that it
employs 74,000 men with a monthly pay roll of History (Secular)
17
$3,700,000, and that it provides an income,
directly or indirectly, to one-fifteenth of the
people of the country. The prodigious developments that have followed in its wake have necessitated the building of two other transcontinental
railways. And its crowning achievement has
been the placing of a line of ocean steamers on
the Pacific and the Atlantic, by which it has
developed a large trade with other portions
of the Empire and of the world. It has thus
become not only one of the main pillars of the
Canadian national life, but also one of the great
Imperial highways, and one of the chief links in
the chain of Imperial unity.
1
IV.   The Red  River  Settlement
The first attempt at colonization in the North-
West was made in the face of almost insurmountable obstacles. The extreme remoteness
and isolation of the region, the difficulties of the
journey, and the dangers from inexperience, cold,
famine, the Indians, and, worst of all, the machinations of unfriendly and unscrupulous white men,
mark the settlement of the Red River district as
almost unique in the history of colonization.   To
c
J Western Canada
Lord Selkirk, who was an enlightened patriot
and philanthropist, it seemed, early in the nineteenth century, that emigration was the remedy
for the troubles of the poor of the British Islands.
Accordingly he purchased a large tract of land
on the Red River and undertook to convey
thither a number of emigrants from Scotland.
In 1811 he sent out the first contingent, about
seventy of whom reached their destination in the
summer of 1812, discontented, wearied and well-
nigh despairing; for they had been sixty-one
days at sea, they had spent the winter on the
inhospitable shores of Hudson Bay, and they had
travelled eight hundred miles inland by a wild
and dangerous route. Fifteen or twenty more
reached the Red River in the following year, to
find that three-quarters of the first settlers had
left the country. One hundred more were sent
out in 1814 from Kildonan, in Sutherlandshire.
The trials of the new country proved to be even
more severe than those of the journey. But the
patience and fortitude of the settlers gradually
overcame all difficulties; and the Red River
settlement became the first and most heroic
incident in the colonization of Manitoba and the
North-West. History (Secular) 19
V.    Population
It may not be without interest to note the
growth of population in the North-West. In
1820 there were about five hundred whites in
the Red River settlement. In 1844, including
the Indians along the Red River, there were
2,345 souls. In 1865 the settlement counted
1,200 inhabitants; but there was not among
them a baker, a butcher, a tailor or a shoemaker.
In 1870 there were in Winnipeg seventy houses
and 241 inhabitants, and in the whole colony
11,963 souls, of whom the whites numbered
1,565, the Indians 578, the French half-breeds
5,757, the English half-breeds 4,083 ; the
Romanists numbered 6,247, and the non-
Romanists 5,716. Of the 1,565 whites 747
were born in the North-West, 294 in Eastern
Canada, 69 in the United States, 125 in
England, 240 in Scotland, 47 in Ireland, 15 in
France, and in the other countries 28. The
present population is approximately as follows:—
Manitoba, 350,000; Saskatchewan, 250,000;
Alberta, 220,000. Total of the three provinces,
820,000. 20
Western Canada
VI.    Immigration
To Canada
1897 J898 i8gg 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906
"islands} IIs83 Il6oS Il66° I036° Il8l° I7259 4I79* 5°374 65359 867g6
Continent )
of Europe J
7g2i 10285 21938 18837 19352 23732 37891 34728 37255 49472
19304 21893 33598 29197 31162 40991 79683 85102 102614 136268
To Canada and the  United States
iqoi 1902 1903
Can. U.S. Bxcess. Can. U.S. Excess. Can. U.S. Excess.
English - 12176 57246 45070  20985 58382 37397 46760 69791 23031
Scotch - 2235 11414  9179  3811 12225  8414 10296 15318  5022
Irish  - 1346 35135 33789  1407 37891 36484 2596 39554 36958
15757 103795 88038  26203 108498 82295 59652 124663 65011
1904 1905 1906
Can. U.S. Excess. Can. U.S. Excess. Can. U.S. Excess.
English - 54051 76546 22495 64876 5822g -6647 6o746 4<>754 -19992
Scotch - 12715 17111  4396  14214 19785  5571 15456 13273 -2183
Irish  - 2915 52788 49873  3347 44356 41009 2876 25602 22726
69681 146445 76764 82437 122370 39933 79078 79629  551
VII.   The  Mormons
Mormonism is essentially a missionary organization. It is not content to be quiescent and to
follow the good old policy, " live and let live."
Like all vigorous organizations it seeks room for
expansion. Hence it is that the Mormon power
migrated from Utah into Canada, and hence it is History (Secular) 21
that in Canada it is seeking to strengthen its
position by all the means within its reach.
Some 6,000 of these " Latter-day Saints" are
now to be found in the southern part of Alberta,
an integral part of the army of 600,000 that constitutes the sect the world over. Some time ago
they began to invade this exclusive domain of
the rancher, and have demonstrated that Southern
Alberta is admirably adapted to the production
of grain as well as of cattle. And their successful
application of simple methods of irrigation has
paved the way for the scientific schemes of
irrigation on a gigantic scale that promise to
convert a large portion of Alberta into a huge
grain field.
For purposes of social intercourse they dwell
together in small communities. Around Leth-
bridge they have built up the towns of Cardston,
Raymond, Magrath, Stirling and Tabor, as
centres of large agricultural districts. They have
already begun to send out off-shoots as far as
the vicinity of Calgary, where they have built
the town of High River, and they have provided
room for further expansion by the purchase at
$6 per acre of the celebrated Cochrane ranch,
consisting of 65,000 acres of the choicest  land 22
Western Canada
in Southern Alberta. However much a material
civilization may have affected the neighbouring
people, it has had no perceptible influence on the
Mormons. The Church and the school constitute
an essential part of the organization of the sect.
They not only take an interest in the education
of the children, but they provide teachers of their
own faith for their schools, and take full advantage
of the legal provision that allows a half-hour of
religious instruction in the public schools. So,
with them Church and school are, as they should
be, close allies one of the other. Nor are they
adverse to the promotion of their interests by
political means. One of their number already is
a member of the  Legislature of Alberta.
How far their peculiar views on polygamy may
assert themselves in the future it is impossible to
say, but for the present the Government of the
country is keeping a close watch on the strict
observance of our rigid marriage laws. Their
industry, thrift and intelligence, their gregarious
habits and the esprit de corps that prevails among
them are sure to give them, in the present political
condition of the country, a power out of all
proportion to their numbers; and their rapid
natural increase is  likely to give   them,   in   the History (Secular) 23
future, a much larger relative power than they
possess to-day. Such an element in the midst
of a new country presents a serious problem to
the Church and to the  State.
VIII.   The  Galicians
About 100,000 of these settlers, who came from
Poland and Austria, are scattered widely through
the West; the largest colonies are to be found
in Northern Manitoba, Central Saskatchewan, and
near Edmonton in Alberta. They are eminently
industrious and thrifty, and, as a consequence,
are everywhere prosperous. Their past has been
one of enforced ignorance and hopeless serfdom.
When, twenty years ago, they heard of Canada,
they began to emigrate in large numbers, 6,926
having come out in 1905, and 5,626 in 1906.
The freedom which they here enjoy to do their
work without molestation, and to reap the fruit
of their labour, has predisposed them strongly to
desire to learn the English language and to
become citizens of Canada. Since their advent
to the country many have formed themselves into
an independent Greek Church, which may be
described, in general terms, as combining a Greek Western Canada
Church ritual with reformed doctrine. This movement, under the patronage of the Presbyterian
Church in Canada, has built thirty-two churches
and employs twenty-two ministers. There are
forty Galician schools in Manitoba, thirty-six in
Saskatchewan, and forty in Alberta. It seems
a pity that the Church of England, which has so
many points of contact with them, and which is
so eminently qualified to meet their special needs,
should either have lacked the will or the power
to undertake any work in such a hopeful field. History (Religious) 25
CHAPTER   III
History  (Religious)
WORK AMONG THE INDIANS
/\NE great division of the work in the Canadian
P*-^ mission-field is that among the Indians—
the first in point of time if not of importance.
These Indians were the original inhabitants of the
country, and though divided into various tribes
and speaking different dialects, are probably
nearly all, except the Eskimos, of the same stock.
In general terms it may be said that the Eskimos
are to be found on the northern shores of Hudson
Bay, and on the Arctic Ocean ; the Tukudh, in the
basin of the Yukon ; the Tinnes or Chipewyans,
in the region from the mouth of the Mackenzie to
the Churchill River; the Crees and Ojibways, south
of the Churchill River; the Blackfeet, Peigans,
Bloods, Sarcees, and Assiniboines, in the southern
plains; the Tsimsheans, Haidahs, and other tribes,
on the Pacific coast. 26
Western Canada
When the missionaries first came among them
they had neither town nor village, farm nor field.
They lived by hunting and fishing. Their deeply-
rooted habits of improvidence exposed them at all
times to the ravages of famine. They had no
other shelter than a miserable wigwam, in which
their only furniture was an iron pot, and their
only implements a knife and a gun, a war club
and bows and arrows. Some were clothed in dirty,
ragged blankets ; others in still dirtier dresses of
worn and tattered skins. Their life was spent in
struggles for its support, and they passed on from
infancy to death without comfort and without hope
for this life or the next.
The Hudson's Bay Company, in conjunction
with the Church Missionary Society, resolved to
send a missionary to them; and for this purpose
the Rev. John West was chosen. He arrived at
York Fort, by the Hudson Bay route, at the end
of August, 1820; paddled up the Nelson River;
in about a month he reached Norway House on
Lake Winnipeg; and on October 15th he arrived
at the Red River settlement, having travelled in six
weeks some eight hundred miles. There he found
about five hundred English and Scotch settlers,
and a number of half-breeds and native Indians, History (Religious) 27
in whose midst he immediately began to exercise
his ministry. He held services at Fort Garry, now
Winnipeg, where he found an attentive congregation. He established a school, and was much
encouraged by the progress of the children.
His activities embraced the regions beyond. In
January, 1821, he set out in a cariole drawn by
dogs over the snow, in a temperature sometimes
400 below zero; visited two of the Hudson's Bay
Company's posts, at Brandon and at Beaver Creek,
and returned early in February, having travelled
between five and six hundred miles.
The most hopeful plan that he was led to adopt
was a school for native boys, who might be taught,
in addition to the Way of Life, the rudiments of
general knowledge, methods of agriculture, and
the simpler usages of civilization. Thus early
did the industrial idea enter into the work of
Indian Missions. Two of the boys he had brought
with him from York Fort, Henry Budd and James
Settee, made remarkable progress and became in
time most successful missionaries among their own
people.
Early in 1823 a small wooden church was
opened for Divine service, on the site of the
present   Cathedral of  S.  John's,  in   the  city  of 28
Western Canada
Winnipeg; and in October of that year Mr. West
was joined by the Rev. David Jones, who, on his
arrival at Red River, found that marriage, till
recently unknown, had now become general ; that
parents were making use of the educational advantages provided for their children; and that the
Sunday was well observed, and the public ordinances of the Church were well attended. On the
arrival of Mr. Jones, Mr. West returned to England,
and, during a detention at York Fort, he made on
foot a journey of two hundred miles to Fort
Churchill, which then for the first time received a
visit from a minister of the Gospel.
During the following winter the little church
was so crowded that it became necessary to provide an additional place of worship ; a substantial
church was in consequence erected ten miles lower
down the river, at Image Plains, now known as
Middlechurch, which was opened in January, 1825.
The school contained twelve boys ; and one hundred and sixty-five boys and girls of all classes
were attending the Sunday School.
In 1825 Mr. Jones was joined by the Rev.
Mr. Cochran. The two worked together till 1829,
when Mr. Cochran settled at Grand Rapids, now
S. Andrews, taking up his abode in a log house he History (Religious) 29
had built about fifteen miles above the upper
church and two miles from Image Plains. Here
he took a considerable tract of land, partly to
support his own family, and partly to teach
agriculture to the Indians. He became minister,
clerk, schoolmaster, arbitrator, and agricultural
director. In 1831 his congregation had increased
to three hundred. Hitherto the services had
been held in the schoolroom, but it now
became necessary to erect a church, which he
was enabled to do with the assistance of his
people. In the school the boys were instructed
in husbandry and carpentry work, and the girls
were taught to spin. About sixty children
were attending the schools; the communicants
numbered seventy, and the congregation amounted
to six hundred.
As the experience of the missionaries increased
their horizon widened, and they gradually became
convinced that the only effective mode of permanently benefiting this people was by forming
an exclusively Indian settlement. For this purpose, in 1832, they fixed upon a spot much frequented by Indians, about fifteen miles below the
Rapids, called Netley Creek. There Mr. Cochran
began to teach them how to cultivate   the   soil. 3°
Western Canada
Only seven could be prevailed upon at the outset to make the attempt, but in the following
year the number was increased to fourteen. In
1833 he began a new settlement at a place two
miles distant, called Sugar Point. There he built
a house for the chief, whose name was Pegwys,
a name which has been given to the Indian
Reserve in that vicinity, where S. Peter's Mission
and the Dynevor Hospital now stand. Then he
built a schoolroom and prevailed on the parents
to send their children to school. Gradually small
but comfortable cottages were built; the walls
were of logs plastered with mud ; the roofs were
thatched with reeds and covered with earth, and
the windows were of skins of fish. In course of
time a mill was erected, which proved to be one of
the greatest means of improvement. Moral and
religious progress kept pace with material development, so that after about a year of patient and
prayerful work the foundations of a Church were
laid here by the baptism of ten adults and as
many children. In 1836 the regular attendance
at the services had increased to one hundred, and
in June Mr. Cochran began with his own hands to
dig for the foundations of a church building, which
was completed before the end  of the year, and History (Religious) 31
opened on January 4, 1837. At the time of the
opening of the Church there were forty-seven
Christian families, consisting of two hundred and
sixteen individuals. The congregation averaged
two hundred, and Indian chiefs, conjurers, and
medicine men were baptized. Look at this
picture: a poor Indian woman, in the depth of
winter, hauling her half-naked children on a
sledge over the frozen snow to some lonely
creek, there to cut a hole in the thick ice, let
down her hook, and, shivering, wait for hours
till some fish should come to serve for their
scanty meal. Then look at this picture: twenty-
three little whitewashed cottages shining through
the trees, each with its stacks of wheat and
barley ; around them various patches of cultivated
ground ; here and there pigs to be seen busily
seeking for their food, and cows lowing for their
calves; while in the centre is the schoolroom,
where sixty merry children are leaping, running,
wrestling, and all is life and cheerfulness, and two
hundred of these once naked savages joining with
seriousness in the responses, listening attentively
to the sermon, or, with sweet and well-tuned voices,
singing the praises of Him Who had done such
great thing's for them. 32
Western Canada
Mr. Jones left in 1838, and the Rev. W. Smithers
joined Mr. Cochran in 1839 and took charge of
the Indian village. There were then ninety-eight,
children in the day school; and at the Rapids
there were about seven or eight hundred attendants
at public worship, and one hundred and forty-five
communicants. In 1841 the Rev. A. Cowley
joined the Mission forces, and the report of the
Mission was " Our churches are crowded, and the
cry is, Send us more teachers, give us the Word of
God."
It was at this juncture, in 1844, that Bishop
Mountain paid his memorable visit to the North-
West, having accomplished a journey of nearly two
thousand miles, after six weeks' of fatigue and
exposure in an open canoe. The Bishop visited
each of the four churches, and confirmed 846
persons. In 1845 the new church was begun at
the Rapids, now S. Andrews, which ministered to
the spiritual needs of 1,800 people and 150 communicants. In 1847 the first public assembly
was held in Rupert's Land, and, as was fitting
in that missionary land, it was a missionary
meeting, the collection in all amounting to
£>2\. 7s. id.
The expansive force of Christianity, its essential History (Religious) 33
missionary character, is perfectly illustrated by the
next step in the development of the work. The
Indians of Red River, who had become Christians,
were naturally anxious for the spiritual welfare of
their friends who lived at a distance. They
prayed for them continually, and, at the earliest
opportunity, were ready to send to them the message of the Gospel. Red River, too, being a
centre to which Indians from far and near converged, the visitors could not but learn of the
marvellous work that had been done among their
friends, by the men from across the sea, they
carried home to their relatives and friends the
news of the wonderful things that had been
wrought by the Gospel on the banks of the Red
River; and the desire was naturally aroused in
them to share in the wonderful temporal as well
as the spiritual blessings that came in the train
of the Gospel. In this way the "good tidings"
were carried to the banks of the Saskatchewan,
to the Peace River and Lake Athabasca, and
even to the mountains of British Columbia and
to the Pacific coast. It was only a question
of time when the whole of this vast field should
be covered with the regenerating influences of
the Gospel.
D Western Canada
And together with this outward preparation of
the field there was the inward preparation of the
Church. The work done by the devoted missionaries in the churches and schools, had awakened
in many hearts the desire to go and tell the glad
tidings to those who were still in heathen darkness.
This marks a new stage in the condition of the
infant Church, when its message was about to be
carried to the remotest limits of the West.
On his first journey to Red River, as has been
stated, Mr. West had brought two boys with him
from York Fort. One of these, Henry Budd,
named after one of the devoted old-country friends
of the work in Red River, had become a sincere
Christian and had entered the service of the
Hudson's Bay Company. This he now resigned
to take charge of the school at the upper settlement, i.e. Winnipeg. He was chosen in 1840 to
carry the message of the Gospel to the Indians at
Cumberland Lake, some four or five hundred miles
north of Red River. Here he erected a small log
hut for his own family, another for a school, and a
third to serve as a storehouse for domestic supplies. Subsequently, however, he took up his permanent abode at the Pas or Devon, on the banks
of the Saskatchewan, where for many years he exer- History (Religious)
35
cised a ministry that was a blessing to the Indians
and a credit to the Church. In August, 1844, the
Rev. J. Hunter, better known as Archdeacon
Hunter, reached Fort York, and, after a tedious
journey of thirty days, arrived at the Pas, where
he began his ministrations by the baptism of
thirty-one adults and thirty-seven children. The
candidates came up to the font in families—father,
mother, and children. Soon these Indians also, as
at Red River, began to adopt the habits of civilized
life. They erected log houses, and their lands
became covered with wheat, barley, potatoes, turnips and peas. In 1848 nearly all the Indians of
the district had become Christians, and four
hundred and twenty had been baptized.
From the Pas the Word was soon carried to the
Indians at Lac La Ronge, four hundred miles to
the north-west of Cumberland ; in 1845 Mr. Hunter
sent James Beardy to instruct them in the Christian
Faith; in 1846 he also sent James Settee, who, like
Henry Budd, had been one of Mr. West's first
pupils in the Indian school at Red River; and in
1847 ne went in person, found thirty boys and
twenty-three girls attending the school, and baptized forty-eight adults and fifty-nine children.
Then James Settee took charge of Lac La Ronge ; 36
Western Canada
James Beardy pushed on to He a la Crosse,
another of the Hudson's Bay trading posts, four
hundred miles beyond Cumberland; and invitations from many places were sent to the missionaries, notably from Moose Lake and Fort Chipe-
wyan, one hundred miles farther afield. The time
had come when the Gospel message must be
proclaimed to all the Indian tribes roaming over
the whole vast region of the North-West.
It was fitting that at such a time the ministrations of the Church should be furnished to the
Indians in their completeness by the appointment
of a Bishop. To the Rev. D. Anderson fell the
honour of being chosen as the first Bishop of
Rupert's Land in 1849. In 1850 the Bishop confirmed four hundred persons at Grand Rapids, and
ordained the first native in the person of Henry
Budd, who preached his first sermon in the Indian
language on Christmas Day of that year.
In 1851 the Rev. R. James began a Mission at
Islington ; the Rev. W. Cochran opened a Mission
at Portage la Prairie and at Scanterbury; Mr.
Charles Pratt, a native catechist, was placed in
charge of Fort Pelly; and Mr. John Horden
arrived at Moose Fort to take up the Mission
which had been vacated by the Methodists. History (Religious) 37
At this point detailed statement must give
place to rapid enumeration of dates and stations.
Diocese of Rupert's Land—Red River established in 1820;
Fort Alexander, 1864; Rainy Lake, 1874.
Diocese of Moosonee—Moose Factory, 1851; York, 1854 >
Albany, 1855; East Main Coast, 1877; Churchill, 1886;
Blacklead Island, 1894.
Diocese of Saskatchewan—Cumberland and Devon, 1840 ;
Stanley, 1850 ; Sandy Lake, 1875 ; Battleford, 1876;
Prince Albert, 1879; Grand Rapids, 1881; Fort Pitt, 1888.
Diocese of Calgary—Fort McLeod, 1880; Blackfoot
Crossing, 1883 ; Sarcee Reserve, 1886.
Diocese of Athabasca—Fort Chipewyan, 1867 ; Vermilion,
1876; Lesser Slave Lake, 1887; Upper Peace River,
1888.
Diocese of Mackenzie River—Fort Simpson, 1858; Fort
Norman, 1871 ; Fort McPherson, 1874; Fort Resolution,
1875; Herschel Island, 1897.
Diocese of Selkirk—Rampart House, 1882 ; Buxton, 1887;
Selkirk, 1892 ; Moosehide, 1897 5 Carcross, 1900.
All the above Indian Missions are in the Province of Rupert's Land. There is, however,
another class of Indian Missions outside that
province which deserves a passing notice.
In 1858, at the instigation of Captain Prevost,
R.N., a Mission was opened by Mr. W. Duncan,
a young schoolmaster, among the Tsimshean
Indians, in the northern part of British Columbia. 38 Western Canada
The condition of these Indians was deplorable in
the extreme. They were illiterate, immoral, and
cruel. Even cannibalism was of frequent occurrence among them; and they were entirely
under the sway of degrading heathen practices
and of ignorant impostors called medicine men.
Mr. Duncan soon met with remarkable success.
Great blessing attended his ministrations, and in
a short time many of the Indians were brought
to Baptism. In 1862 was formed the Christian
settlement of Metlakatla, which, for many years,
stood before the world as one of the most notable
triumphs of the Gospel in the mission-field. And
apart from the spiritual results of the Mission, the
change it wrought in the temporal condition of the
Indians made them a living epistle known and
read of all men. They are intelligent, industrious,
and thrifty. They live in comfortable houses,
built with their own hands. Some are carpenters
and blacksmiths; some work in saw-mills and
canning factories; while some are captains of
steamers and occupy other positions of trust.
And this remarkable transformation, which has
taken place in less than half a century, may be
traced directly to the influence of the Gospel
and the Church, History (Religious)
39
In 1879 these Missions in the northern part 01
British Columbia were formed into a separate
diocese. Unfortunately, Mr. Duncan found himself unable to continue to work along the lines of
the Church of England. With some hundreds of
the Indians he moved into the United States
territory of Alaska in 1881 ; but the work has
continued to prosper, and is to-day perhaps the
most successful and hopeful Indian work in the
whole Canadian mission-field. Kincolith was
opened in 1866 ; Massett, 1876 ; Alert Bay, 1878 ;
Hazelton, 1880; Giatwangak, 1882; Aiyansh,
1883 ; Kitkatla, 1887 ; Tahl Tan, 1898.
About forty years ago a Mission was established
by the Rev. J. B. Good, along the Fraser River, in
the southern part of British Columbia. The
churches in the district and the hospital at Lytton,
under Archdeacon Small; the school for girls at
Yale, under the Sisters of Ditchingham, and the
school for boys at Lytton, under the New England
Company, are doing an excellent work among
some two thousand Indians scattered over a wide
area.
The Mission at Garden River, Sault Ste Marie,
Ontario, opened in 1830 by Archdeacon McMurray
and blessed for many years by the labours of the 40
Western Canada
Rev. Dr. O'Meara, was the means of bringing the
Gospel to very responsive tribes of Indians on
the shores of Lake Huron. Taken up in 1868 by
the Rev. E. F. Wilson, the work has developed
into the Algoma Indian Homes—the Shingwauk
Home for Boys and the Wawanosh Home for
Girls—which have been so widely and so favourably known for the last thirty years.
Nearly all the Missions mentioned above were
founded and nurtured through the Church Missionary Society. They have produced a band of
missionaries who, for self-denial and consecration
to the most arduous task in the whole mission-field,
deserve a place in the first rank of the missionary
heroes of the Church. They have furnished abundant evidence of the Divine power of the Gospel
to transform the hearts and lives even of the most
ignorant and degraded of the human race. And
they have occasioned an expenditure of money—
from $80,000 to $100,000 per annum for many
years past—that should be held in lasting and
grateful remembrance by the whole Canadian
people as well as by the Canadian Church.
This glorious work, however, has not been without its limitations. It has indeed brought the
knowledge of Christ, under unparalleled hardships History (Religious) 41
and privations, to many Indian tribes in the most
inaccessible regions of the earth, and its efforts
have been rewarded by the ingathering of many
sheaves into the spiritual garner of the Lord.
* But, in the main, it has not succeeded in training
the individual convert in self-reliance, and the
Christian congregation in self-support and self-
propagation. And now that the Church Missionary Society has decided on a policy of withdrawal from this whole field, the prospects of the
Indian Missions, are, to say the least, not
reassuring.
There is still another aspect of the Indian work
that deserves a passing notice. When the Canadian Government obtained possession of the West,
it extinguished the title of the Hudson's Bay
Company for an equivalent in land and in money.
In like manner it satisfied the claims of the
Indians by treaties which secured for them means
of education, besides a reservation of land for each
band, equal to a square mile for each family, and
an annuity of $5.00 for each member of the band.
The obligation in regard to education it has sought
to carry out through the religious bodies that are
working among the Indians. It has established
day schools on nearly all the reservations, and 42
Western Canada
provided a small stipend of $300 per annum for
the teachers ; and it has made a per capita grant,
varying from %6o to $150 annually, for the pupils
attending boarding and industrial schools.
The Church has all along acted on the principle
that the school was an integral part of the Mission ;
but, for a long time, its efforts were confined to
day schools. When, however, Government aid
became available, it began to introduce boarding
and industrial schools. These are now to be
found throughout the West; in the Diocese of
Algoma, at Sault Ste Marie; in Moosonee, at
Moose Fort; in Qu'Appelle, at Touchwood Hills ;
in Calgary, at Calgary and on the Blackfoot, the
Sarcee, the Peigan and the Blood Reservations;
in New Westminster, at Lytton and at Yale ; in
Columbia, at Alert Bay ; in Caledonia, at Metlakatla ; in Selkirk, at Carcross; in Mackenzie
River, at Hay River; in Athabasca, at Lesser
Slave Lake, at White Fish Lake, and at Wapuscow;
and in Saskatchewan, at Onion Lake, at Battleford,
at Prince Albert, and at Lac La Ronge.
These schools, carried on with a zeal and devotion that are beyond all praise, cannot fail to have
produced the most blessed moral and spiritual
results.    But they, too, have had their limitations. History (Religious) 43
They have not succeeded, as it was hoped they
would do, in equipping the rising generation of
Indians for the battle of life, with the moral
qualities of industry and self-reliance; and, for
their financial support, they have imposed on the
authorities of the Church a heavy burden of toil
and care. But it should not be beyond the power
of the Church, acting in concert with the Government, to place the whole question of Indian education on a basis that will result in training the
Indian eventually to take his proper place as
a free, independent, and self-reliant citizen of the
Dominion of Canada.
J CHAPTER    IV
H istory   (Religious)
WORK AMONG   THE   WHITES
'/ ■ "S we have seen in the last chapter, the first
<*/«-■-» work on behalf of the Church in the
Canadian mission-field was begun by the Rev. J.
West, among the Indians at Red River, in 1820,
and it was mainly for Indian work that the first
missionaries were sent out, and that the first
Bishop was consecrated in 1849. The first white
work on behalf of the Church was begun on the
Pacific coast, when, in 1856, the Rev. C. H. Cridge
was appointed chaplain to the Hudson's Bay
Company, and Bishop Hills, in 1859, was called
to preside over the Church in the newly-formed
colony of British Columbia. The discovery of
gold on the Fraser River brought a large number
of adventurers, in 1858 and the few following years,
to Victoria, Yale, and Cariboo. But little work of
a permanent character was undertaken anywhere History (Religious) 45
till the acquisition of the North-West by the
Canadian Government in 1869, the entrance of
British Columbia into the Confederation in 1871,
and the formation of the Diocese of Algoma in
1873. The work carried on after those dates will
be found in some detail in the following chapter.
It will suffice here to give a cursory view of
the development of the Church's organization
throughout the Dominion, in order to indicate,
so to speak, the mould in which the work is
being cast and the instrument by which it is
being done.
The first clergy in Eastern Canada were the
missionaries sent to Nova Scotia in 1749. Their
field of labour was extended to New Brunswick
in 1769 and towards the end of the eighteenth
century. Army chaplains ministered to the
troops and to the few English inhabitants of the
Province of Quebec after the conquest of 1759.
Missionaries followed the settlers into Ontario at
the close of the American War in 1783. The
Colonial Episcopate was founded in 1787, when
the Right Rev. Charles Inglis was appointed first
Bishop of Nova Scotia. This first Colonial See was
first divided when the Right Rev. Jacob Mountain
was appointed Bishop of Quebec in 1793.    Then, 46
Western Canada
what is now known as Eastern Canada was
gradually subdivided by the formation of the Sees
of Toronto in 1839; of Fredericton in 1845;
of Montreal in 1850; of Huron in 1857; °f
Ontario in 1862 ; of Algoma in 1873 ; of Niagara
in 1875, and of Ottawa in 1896.
At the outset the Bishop was the sole ruler
of his diocese; but in a democratic age and
country, and in an institution destined to become
self-supporting, the need was soon felt of calling
both the clergy and the laity into the councils
of the Church. This led to the formation of
Diocesan Synods, which were composed, so to
speak, of three Houses, deliberating in common—
but voting, if need be, separately—the Bishop,
the licensed clergy, and the lay delegates from
the parishes or missions. The first of these
Synods was called in Toronto in 1851, and all
the other dioceses soon followed that example.
The formation of Diocesan Synods soon
aroused into vigorous action the feeling that had
been long dormant, that the Church at large
must find some organ for the expression of her
corporate life. This led to the appointment, in
1860, of the Bishop of Montreal as Metropolitan,
by  letters  patent  from   the Crown, and  to the History (Religious) 47
formation, in 1861, of the Synod of the Ecclesiastical Province of Canada. This Synod was also
composed of three orders, each with a separate
vote, the House of Bishops deliberating and
voting separately, and the Lower House, composed of clerical and lay representatives of the
dioceses, deliberating and usually also voting in
common. On the resignation of Bishop Oxenden,
the second Metropolitan of Canada, in 1879, the
choice of the Metropolitan was placed in the
hands of the House of Bishops. Under the
auspices of this Synod the Missionary Diocese
of Algoma was instituted in 1873, the Domestic
and Foreign Missionary Society was established
in 1883, the Woman's Auxiliary was formed
in 1885, the Mission in the Shinshu-Echigo
Provinces of Japan was founded in 1890, the
Church, as a whole, began to awake to her
missionary obligations and to enter upon a course
of concerted action, and the foundations were laid
for the larger plans and operations that were to
mark a later period.
The spiritual supervision of the North-West
by the Bishops of Eastern Canada was a practical
impossibility, and was only attempted once, in
1844, when Bishop Mountain paid his memorable 48 Western Canada
visit to the Red River. The work of the Church
was carried on under the direction of the Church
Missionary Society from 1820 to 1849, when the
Diocese of Rupert's Land was formed. The
diocese extended from Lake Superior to the
Rocky Mountains, a distance of 1,500 miles, and
from the international boundary line to the
Arctic Ocean, some 2,000 miles ; it also included
the valley of the Yukon. It was soon discovered
that real episcopal supervision and control over
so wide an area was beyond the power of any one
man, and in 1872 the vast region was divided
by the formation of the new Diocese of Moosonee,
and of Saskatchewan and Athabasca in 1874.
Concurrently with the formation of these dioceses
was the establishment of the Ecclesiastical
Province of Rupert's Land. Then gradually was
formed the chain of dioceses that extend from
the coast of Labrador to the Rocky Mountains,
and to Alaska—Qu'Appelle and Mackenzie River
in 1884, Calgary in 1887, Selkirk in 1891, and
Keewatin in  1899.
Entirely distinct from the work in Rupert's
Land was that on the Pacific coast. The Hudson's
Bay Company transferred their headquarters on
the Pacific to Victoria in 1852.    A Crown Colony History (Religious) 49
was formed in 1858 under the name of British
Columbia, and the Diocese of British Columbia,
conterminous with the colony, was founded in
1859. The Crown Colony became a province
of the Canadian Dominion in 1871. The mainland was formed into two dioceses in 1879, that
of New Westminster in the south and that of
Caledonia in the north. And New Westminster
was further divided in 1900 by the formation of
the Diocese of Kootenay. But those dioceses
remain independent jurisdictions, never having
been formed into a province.
No sooner was the Dominion of Canada formed
in 1867, and the Confederation made a practical
reality by the inclusion of the North-West in
1869 and British Columbia in 1871, and by the
completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway in
1886, than a vigorous movement was set on foot
to consolidate the whole Church of England in
Canada. A conference was held in Winnipeg in
1890, when a basis of unification was agreed upon,
and the first General Synod was held in Toronto
in 1893. Nine years were required to adjust the
relations between the Diocesan and Provincial
Synods and the General Synod, and in 1902 the
Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society of the 50 Western Canada
Ecclesiastical Povince of Canada was enlarged
into the Missionary Society of the Church of
England in Canada, commonly known as the
M.S.C.C.
The name of Missionary Society in this case
is, properly speaking, a misnomer, because the
Society is simply the Church in missionary
action, not an organization in any respect separate from the Church itself. It is founded on
the principle that the Church is essentially a
missionary organization, and that, in consequence,
every member of the Church, whether Bishop,
priest, or layman, man, woman or child is, in
virtue of that membership, called to take an
interest in its missionary work. It was called into
being by the General Synod, which meets every
three years, and is composed of all the Bishops
and a graduated representation of clergymen and
laymen from all the dioceses ; and when deliberating on missionary subjects that Synod includes
the members of the Board of Management, and is
called the Board of Missions. Between the
Sessions of the General Synod its work is
entrusted to a Board of Management, which
meets every six months, and is composed of all
the Bishops and of two clerymen and two laymen, History (Religious) 51
elected annually by each of the Diocesan Synods;
and between the Sessions of the Board of
Management the work is carried on by the
Executive Committee, which meets monthly and
is composed of three Bishops, three clergymen,
and three laymen, elected annually by the Board,
and of the General Secretary and the General
Treasurer, ex-oflicio. The method of raising
funds adopted by the Society is that of the
apportionment, which is a logical outcome of the
fundamental principle that the Society is the
Church in missionary action, and which consists
in ascertaining the financial needs of the mission-
field and distributing those needs evenly between
the dioceses and the parishes according to their
ability. The income of the Society is about
£20,000 or $100,000 ; one-third of which is given
to the foreign field, and two-thirds to the
Canadian field. The amount given to the
Canadian field is voted in grants of varying
amounts to the different dioceses, to be expended
at the discretion of the Bishops and the diocesan
authorities.
Together with this work of outward consolidation a process of inward unification has also
taken place.    The Canadian   Church Missionary 52 Western Canada
Society/in its origin an independent organization,
and in course of time having gradually become
a Canadian department of the English Church
Missionary Society, has become an integral part
of the Missionary Society of the Canadian Church.
Though enjoying a handsome income and having
been the means of sending most of the Canadian
missionaries in the foreign field, it has agreed
to make no separate appeal and to raise no
separate fund, all the proceeds of its work
going to swell the revenues of the Missionary
Society, and to allow its agents to become the
missionaries of that Society. It continues to
exist for the threefold purpose of administering
its own trust funds, of creating an interest in
Foreign Missions, and of enabling the Canadian
Church to draft men into the Church Missionary
Society's fields. It is thus in the fullest sense an
auxiliary of the Missionary Society of the
Canadian Church.
The Woman's Auxiliary, formed in 1885, is
an organization of Church women who are
banded together to pray for Missions, to acquire
and diffuse missionary information, and to raise
funds for missionary purposes. Its income is
about £8,000 or  $40,000, besides the  proceeds
,. History (Religious) 53
of its Dorcas work, which are valued at $18,000.
It receives appeals directly from the field, chooses
the objects to which it desires to devote its funds,
and pays out those funds through its own
treasurer. It has done invaluable service by
making grants for the support of matrons and
teachers in Indian Homes, the building and
furnishing of churches, the education of the
children of the clergy, and such-like objects. It
has proved a powerful factor in arousing
missionary interest and spreading missionary
information. At the outset its operations were
carried on under the direction of the Domestic
and Foreign Missionary Society, through whom
its funds were dispensed. But gradually it has
acquired large powers of independent action,
and has developed, under a constitution sanctioned by the Church, a strongly centralized
organization that reaches out into almost every
diocese and very many parishes in the Church.
Ample provision has also been made for the
training of a native ministry. King's College,
Windsor, Nova Scotia, a Church University and
Theological School, established in 1788—the
oldest Colonial University—is meant to supply
the needs of the Dioceses of Nova Scotia and 54
Western Canada
Fredericton. Bishop's College, Lennoxville,
Province of Quebec, established as a Theological School in 1845 an<3 a Church University
in 1852, is officially connected with the two
Dioceses of Quebec and Montreal. The Montreal
Theological College, founded in 1874, and now
in affiliation with McGill University, was designed
to train men especially for the Diocese of
Montreal. Trinity College, Toronto, a Church
University and Theological School, founded in
1852, was meant to train men for the Province
of Ontario. Wycliffe College, Toronto, founded
in 1877, in affiliation with the Provincial University of Toronto, and unconnected officially
with any diocese, has sent its alumni into the
whole Canadian Church. Huron College, London,
Ontario, in affiliation with the Western University,
was founded in 1863, to train men especially for
the Diocese of Huron. S. John's College, Winnipeg, founded in 1866, and affiliated with the
University of Manitoba, is intended to meet the
needs of the Province of Rupert's Land. The
Bishop of Qu'Appelle has established a hostel at
Regina, to make special provision for his diocese;
the Bishop of Saskatchewan has established
a  similar  institution at Prince Albert;   and for History (Religious) $$
a like purpose the Bishop of Calgary has received
the gift of a valuable site in Calgary. And steps
have been taken to establish a Theological School
at Vancouver, in affiliation with the newly-formed
Provincial University of British Columbia, to
train men for the dioceses on the Pacific coast.
These institutions, when in good working order,
should afford ample facilities for the training of
candidates for the ministry for the whole Canadian
Church.
It is only the part of common justice, not to say
common gratitude, to add that the Canadian
Church, as above described, so complete in its
organization and equipment, is greatly indebted
to the Church in England through the Society for
Promoting Christian Knowledge, and the Society
for the Propagation of the Gospel. The former
Society has given grants for the erection of-
hundreds of churches throughout the land, and
has provided many scholarships for all our Theological Colleges; while the latter has played an
incalculable part in the endowment of bishoprics,
and the provision of stipends for missionary
clergy, for almost every diocese in the Canadian
Church. Some idea may be formed of the contribution through the latter   Society   towards  the 56
Western Canada
upbuilding of the Church in Canada from the
statement that from 1749 to 1907, and from Nova
Scotia to Vancouver Island, its grants aggregate
the stupendous sum of $10,000,000. Dioceses 57
chapter v
Dioceses
mHERE is a strong family likeness running
through all our Canadian missionary dioceses; everywhere we find the same urgent call of
need and of opportunity. And yet each diocese
has its own peculiar features, as it were, its own
marked idiosyncrasies. Some are in the East,
others in the West; some are in the mountains,
others on the plains; some produce wheat, others
cattle, others silver and gold ; some are almost
stationary, others are advancing by leaps and
bounds; in some the population is almost entirely
made up of Indians, in others the whites greatly
predominate ; some are more or less high, others
more or less low; some are strong and fully
organized, others are only in the first stages of
development. It will be our endeavour to point
out briefly the special features by which each is
marked, and the special duty to which it calls the
Church in Eastern Canada and in the motherland.
w# 58 Western Canada
It must, moreover, be constantly borne in mind
that these dioceses are of enormous extent; that,
in consequence, they are capable of indefinite
development; and that subdivision is one of the
exigencies for which provision must be made in
the near future.
Algoma
The Diocese of Algoma is an admirable illustration of the normal features of missionary work
in Canada; mutatis mutandis', what is said of
Algoma may be said of almost every other diocese,
though it enjoys this distinction, that it was the
creation of the Church in Eastern Canada, which,
for a period of thirty years, contributed largely to
its support, and nursed it through the critical
stages of diocesan infancy. When it was established in 1873 it had no roads, no railways, no see
house, no parsonage, no endowments, only nine
small frame churches, seven clergy, of whom only
four were in Priest's Orders, and a population of a
few hundred souls scattered over the vast region
that extends from Muskoka on the east to the
head-waters of Lake Superior.
The trials of ministering to such a population,
with altogether insufficient resources, cost the lives Dioceses 59
of its first two Bishops. But with the advent of
the railway, and the discovery of unsuspected
material resources, the population has rapidly
increased, and the diocese has become one of the
most promising missionary fields in the Dominion.
Railways and highways now cover the land as
with a network ; the diocese possesses a commodious see house, 39 parsonages, 95 churches, some
of which are beautiful and substantial structures;
40 ordained clergy, 21 paid lay-readers, 10 self-
supporting churches, 135 congregations, and
diocesan endowments amounting in the aggregate
to $150,000.
Thus the gradual discovery of the hidden
resources of the country has wrought a complete
transformation in the condition of the diocese.
Muskoka has become a favourite summer resort;
Sault Ste Marie, one of the great industrial centres
of the Dominion; Parry Sound and Depot Harbour on the Georgian Bay, and Port Arthur and
Fort William on Lake Superior, distributing
centres of the grain trade of the West; Copper
Cliff and Cobalt, centres of the mining industry;
and Temiscaming, at the portals of New Ontario,
a great agricultural area. The result of all this
has been that whereas, for a quarter of a century, 60 Western  Canada
the cry of Algoma was the cry of poverty and
helplessness, now its cry is one that arises from
abounding resources and varied and rapid development. It is the plain duty of the Church to press
into this field of great opportunity, on pain of
losing her hold upon one of the great centres of
our national life. If adequate support be given to
the devoted Bishop of Algoma during the next
ten years, he may have the satisfaction of seeing
his diocese one of the main pillars of the Church's
life and power in the Dominion.
Notes.
Diocese formed, 1873—Area, 70,000 square miles.
Bishops—F. D. Fauquier, 1873-1882: E. Sullivan,
1882-1896; G. Thorneloe, 1897.
Total population—White, 142,000 ; Indian, 8,000.
Church population—White, 16,355 ; Indian, 617.
Clergy, 40; paid lay workers, 21; parishes, 59, ten of
which are self-supporting; congregations, 135.
New Missions to be occupied, 12.
The Homes for Indian boys and girls at Sault Ste
Marie have for thirty years done a splendid work under
great financial difficulties.
Moosonee
The vast region around the shores of Hudson
Bay formed part of the Diocese of Rupert's Land Dioceses 6i
till 1872, when it was set apart as the Diocese
of Moosonee. In 1899 it was subdivided, and
the western part given to the new Diocese of
Keewatin.
It has been the scene of some of the noblest
triumphs of the Gospel; whole Indian tribes have
been brought to the knowledge of Christ by the
missionaries of the Church. But the gradual
withdrawal of the Church Missionary Society's
grants has raised a serious question here as to the
future of the Indian work, and has led Bishop
Holmes to formulate a plan that would solve the
difficulty, at very little expense, by the training of
a native ministry especially suited to the conditions
of Indian life. The wide experience and sound
judgment of the Bishop are a guarantee that the
scheme is practicable, and contains all the essential elements of success. But some financial help
would be required to enable him to put his plan
into operation.
One of the most remarkable transformations to .
be found in the Canadian field is about to change
the whole face of this district. It is proposed
to build the line of the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway across the diocese from East to West. This
will open up to settlement a vast and fertile stretch 62 Western Canada
of country extending from the watershed northward over one hundred miles, and from the
Ottawa River westward five hundred miles. The
names by which it is known—the Forest Region
or the Clay Belt—sufficiently describe its character and resources. Its solitudes will soon
resound with the whistle of saw-mills and locomotives ; its forest glades will soon be transformed
into rural homes and thriving towns and hamlets;
it will furnish for many years to come incalculable
quantities of timber, and possibly also of the
precious metals; and it will for all time be the
home of hundreds of thousands of happy and prosperous people. By natural transition this purely
Indian diocese will become a diocese whose chief
office will be to minister to white men. The call
to the Church is imperative to be early in the field
with her ministrations to those pioneers and
settlers who are destined, in the providence of
God, to be the fathers and founders of that new
land. Missionaries will be needed to carry to
them the message of God and of His Church 1
and money will be required, at the outset at least,
for the support of the missionaries and the
erection of church buildings. Thus Moosonee
takes   its   place  among  our  Canadian   dioceses Dioceses 63
with a special call of need and opportunity that
cannot be overlooked without serious loss to the
Church.
Notes.
Diocese formed, 1872—Area, 600,000 square miles.
Bishops—John Horden, 1872-1893 ; J. A. Newnham,
1893-1903; G. Holmes, 1903.
Total Indian population, 6,500 ; Eskimo, 1,500.
Church population—Indian, 3,700 ; Eskimo, 360.
Clergy, n: paid lay workers, 13; stations, 8; out-
stations, 13.
Keewatin
The Diocese of Keewatin is one of the
newest of the Canadian dioceses. The Right
Rev. Joseph Lofthouse was appointed its Bishop
after eighteen years of laborious and successful
work as a priest among the Indians and Eskimos
at Fort Churchill, and along the shores of Hudson
Bay. The region has been occupied by the
Church, while still a part of the Diocese of
Moosonee and Rupert's Land, since 1845, when
the Rev. William Mason took charge of York
Factory. The character of the Indians in
the southern part of the diocese has greatly
deteriorated through contact with the white man ; 64 Western Canada
but in the north, where they have been left free to
pursue their native occupation of hunting and
fishing, they have greatly benefited by the teaching of the Church. They are sober, industrious,
teachable and devout. The withdrawal of the
support sent out from England through the
Church Missionary Society, however, and the
difficulty of meeting the needs thus created, raise
a very serious problem, in which the whole future
of the Indian work is at stake.
But in recent years the centre ot gravity has
shifted from the work among the Indians to that
among the whites. The building of the Canadian
Northern Railway, through the Rainy River and
Lake of the Woods districts, has opened up
a splendid mining and agricultural region, into
which thousands of settlers have already gone.
Saw-mills have been built, thriving towns have
grown up, and many farms are being brought under
cultivation. The white population now numbers
fourteen thousand, four thousand of whom were
added in 1906. Additional importance has been
given to this feature of the work through the building of the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway, in connection with which thousands of navvies are being
employed.    But the most startling development Dioceses 6$
in this direction lies in the project to build a railway to Hudson Bay, with terminus at Fort
Churchill. This seemingly impossible design is
likely to become one of the accomplished facts of
the near future, so great are the advantages which
it presents. Hudson Bay is open to navigation
till late in the autumn. Churchill is an admirable
seaport. A railway would bring the grain of the
Saskatchewan valley a thousand miles nearer to
the sea. It would relieve the congestion which
now exists in the grain traffic in the West, and
provide for the still greater demands of the future.
And its advantages as an Imperial highway may
be seen from the fact that it would reduce the
distance between England and Japan by nearly
two thousand miles.
These remarkable developments will necessitate
an increase in the number of clergy, with a corresponding increase of expenditure on stipends,
church buildings, and general equipment. The
beauty of the scenery, the salubrity of the
climate, and the wealth of material resources in
the mine, the forest, the field, the waterfall and
the seaport, mark out this region as one of great
promise for the future of the country and of the
Church. 66
Western Canada
Notes.
Diocese formed, 1899—Area, 300,000 square miles.
Bishop—J. Lofthouse, 1902.
Total population, 23,000—White, 17,000; Indian,
5,000; Eskimo, 1,000.
Church population—White, 4,500 ; Indian, 3,000.
Seven new churches built during the last two years.
Clergy, 16 ; paid lay workers, 10; congregations, 33,
one of which is self-supporting.
Rupert's Land
This parent diocese of the great North-West,
this mother of eight dioceses, occupies a place
peculiar to itself in the history of the Canadian
Church. The first Church services in the West
were held within its bounds in 1820 ; the first
Bishop, west of Toronto, was the Right Rev. D.
Anderson, first Bishop of Rupert's Land ; at Red
River, in 1882, the first school on the prairies was
instituted, which, in course of time, became the
parent of the flourishing Boys' School and Theological College of S. John's, of the University of
Manitoba, and of the whole educational system of
the North-West. Out of it were carved in 1872 the
Diocese of Moosonee; in 1874 Saskatchewan and
Athabasca;  in 1884 Qu'Appelle and Mackenzie Dioceses 67
River; in 1887 Calgary; in 1891 Selkirk, and in
1899 Keewatin.
It was in this diocese that the crucial problems
of the West found a practical solution. Here the
colony, founded by Lord Selkirk in 1811, proved
the remarkable capacity of the Western soil for the
production of wheat and grain. Here the settlers
first came in considerable numbers, and met and
gradually overcame the plagues of grasshoppers,
of summer drought, and of early frost, that, at one
time, threatened the whole future of the West.
Here the first experiments in municipal and
political life were successfully tried. Here an
efficient public school and University system was
established. Here the Church's system was first
put into operation, and its initial problems successfully solved. Here the Provincial Synod was
brought into efficient working order. Here at the
Winnipeg Conference in 1890 were laid the foundations of the General Synod, the Missionary
Society, and the unification of the whole Canadian
Church. Here the edifice received its finishing
touch by the appointment of the Archbishop of
Rupert's Land as first Primate of all Canada.
Here a strong educational system in connection
with the Church has been  built  up—a  Church Western Canada
school for girls, a Church school for boys, and
a thoroughly efficient Theological College, clustering round the Provincial University. Here, too,
the cathedral system has been made efficient
through the use of a staff of dean and canons, who
perform the double function of professors in the
college and missionaries in the diocese. It is only
a question of time, and a short time at that, when
the Church in the diocese will be entirely self-
supporting, and, like many of the dioceses in
Eastern Canada, become a source of supply to the
younger and weaker dioceses by which it is surrounded. The need of the moment here seems to
be, apart from filling vacant Missions and opening
new ones, to remove S. John's College into closer
proximity with the Provincial University and to
strengthen its endowment, so as to make it a
thoroughly efficient training school for a ministry
recruited from the ranks of the people of the land,
and a vigorous centre of spiritual life and theological learning for the vast regions of the North-
West.
Notes.
Diocese formed, 1849—Area, 58,680 square miles.
Bishops—D. Anderson, 1849-1864; R. Machray, 1865-
1904; S. P. Matheson, Coadjutor 1903, Archbishop 1905. Dioceses 69
Total   population — White,   357,000;    Indian,   8,074
Chinese, 1,000.
Church population—White, 56,650 ; Indian, 3,350.
Clergy, 95; paid lay-readers, 42; self-supporting
parishes, 32; aided Missions, 82; congregations, 310;
15 clergy needed to fill vacancies; 12 new fields needing
to be occupied; 30 new churches opened during the last
eighteen months. Fifty churches opened during the last
three years.
Qu'Appelle
This diocese affords an admirable illustration of
the functions of railways in the work of colonization and of the Church. For fifteen years after
the formation of the diocese that work remained
practically at a standstill. Statesmanlike plans on
the part of the episcopate, and zeal and devotion
on the part of the clergy, were alike fruitless in
presence of a small,scattered, and almost stationary
population. Time, however, was allowed for the
gaining of valuable experience, for the perfecting
of organizations, for the building of churches at
central points, and for the establishment of an
Episcopal Endowment Fund.
Meanwhile, the neighbouring Diocese of Rupert's
Land was being covered with a network of railways, 70 Western Canada
and its fertile lands were being brought under
cultivation. The vital problems of the West were
there being solved ; and the whole country was
gradually becoming known to the world as a most
inviting field of immigration. Settlers began to
pour in in copious streams. The railways began
to extend their lines into Ou'Appelle, and the
work of settlement advanced by leaps and bounds.
And, under the experienced hand of Bishop Gris-
dale, the work of the Church has fully kept pace
with the progress of settlement. When the diocese
was formed in 1884 there was only one clergyman,
the Rev. J. R. Sargent, now Dean of Qu'Appelle,
ministering to navvies and settlers along the line
of the Canadian Pacific Railway. There was no
church, no parsonage, and, properly speaking, no
congregation. Everything had to be built up from
the foundations. During the last half-dozen years
the work of the Church has been like a triumphal
progress. The diocese now counts 2,000 Church
families, besides 1,327 adult members, 3,341
communicants, 150 places where services are
held, 67 churches, 31 parsonages, 48 ordained
clergymen, 24 lay-readers ; to the clergy nearly
$20,000 are paid by their congregations, and
the annual expenditure of the diocese has risen Dioceses
7i
to $60,000. The Episcopal Endowment Fund
amounts to about $50,000, and the Clergy
Endowment Fund to over $30,000.
Only the eastern and north-eastern parts of the
diocese have as yet been largely taken up ; but
settlement is flowing westward like a rising tide.
It is utterly impossible for the diocese unaided to
cope with the needs thus created. This, with
Saskatchewan and Calgary, may be called the
head centre of the Canadian Church's mission-field
at the present time. The land is productive.
The settlers are of the better class, and a large
proportion of them may be claimed by the Church.
To neglect the work now is to sacrifice one of the
most glorious opportunities in the mission-field.
To give it prompt and generous support now will
build up in Qu'Appelle one of the strongholds of
the Church's life and power in the Dominion of
Canada.
Notes.
Diocese formed, 1884—Area, 90,000 square miles.
Bishops — The Hon. A. J. R. Anson, 1884-1892;
W. J. Burn, 1893-1896; J. Grisdale, 1896.
Total population, 200,000; Church population, 27,000.
These figures are only approximate.
Clergy, 48; paid lay workers, 7. 72
Western Canada
Ten clergy were added to the list last year, and 12
churches built; 10 more clergy needed to occupy new
Missions. A hostel has been established at Regina for
the training of men for the ministry. Local resources are
being developed as rapidly as possible here, as throughout
the West.
Calgary
The Diocese of Calgary is a little world in itself,
containing nearly all the most striking features of
the other dioceses. It is a combination of plain
and mountain. It produces in abundance both
grain and cattle. It has wide timber limits and
inexhaustible coal-beds. It possesses, along its
whole western boundary, an incomparable view of
the Rocky Mountains. Its climate is tempered,
even in the far north, by the " Chinook" winds
from the Pacific Ocean. Its foot hills, with their
succulent grasses and their cool mountain streams,
are a paradise for the cattle rancher. Its abundant supply of water from the hills, by a scientific
system of irrigation, gives the parched prairie
fields unfailing fertility. It is intersected by three
transcontinental railways and innumerable branch
lines, and is assured of at least two great commercial centres in Calgary and Edmonton.    One need Dioceses 73
not be a prophet to foretell a great future for such
a region as that.
It is only natural that the Diocese of Calgary
should have become one of the most attractive
fields for immigration from the British Isles and
from the United States, thirty to fifty thousand
settlers coming in in one summer. Its population
has in consequence multiplied many times over in
the last ten years. Calgary has grown from a
local town to a provincial metropolis, and Edmonton from a fur-trading post to a provincial capital.
And the Church has abundantly shared in the
prosperity of the State. Where there was but one
self-supporting congregation a few years ago there
are now nine ; the clergy have grown from a dozen
to more than four dozen, and mission-stations from
a score to nearly a hundred and fifty. Calgary
can boast of a beautiful cathedral, and an efficient
Church School for girls, and Edmonton of a Provincial University. This gives us some measure
of the greatness of the opportunity. The greatness of the need may be seen in the recent appeal
of the Bishop for twenty-five clergymen to occupy
important growing centres in the diocese. To
stint such a region, in either men or money, for
some years to come, would surely be to sacrifice 74 Western Canada
the vital interests of the Church in one of its most
promising missionary fields.
Notes.
Diocese formed, 1887—Area, 100,000 square miles.
Bishop—W. C. Pinkham, 1887.
Clergy, 55; paid lay workers, 4; self-supporting
parishes, 9; congregations, 148. Twenty-five additional
clergy now needed ; also a large number of mission
churches and parsonages.
Total population — White, 214,400; Indian, 5,000;
Chinese, 600.
Church population — White, 18,000; Indian, 415;
Chinese, 6.
There are four Indian Missions—on the Blackfoot, the
Blood, the Peigan, and the Sarcee Reserves. In addition
to the boarding schools on each of those reserves, there
is an industrial school at Calgary, under the control of
the Church but supported by the Government.
Kootenay
The work in this diocese is conditioned mainly
by two things — the physical features and the
chief industry of the country. The region is
mountainous and mineral-bearing. In mining
camps people necessarily live in close proximity
to one another, and can readily combine to build
their church and support their clergyman :   all the Dioceses 75
more that their resources are easily available, being
always in the form of monthly wages. Mountainous regions abound in valleys, lakes, and rivers,
where travel is provided for by boat or by rail,
which gives the communities easy access to one
another. Compact communities, easily reached—
these are the distinguishing features of the work in
Kootenay, which explains the fact that, though
one of the newest of our mission-fields, it is one of
the most self-sufficing; out of eighteen clergy, no
less than nine are entirely supported by their
congregations.
This region contains some of the grandest
scenery in the world. The Arrow Lakes and
Okanagan Lake, Mount Sir Donald and Mount
Stephen, Rogers' Pass and Kicking Horse Pass,
the Albert Canyon and Glacier House, Revelstoke,
Nelson, Field—these are among the wonders of
the tourist world. And scenery has a missionary
bearing when it insures a large increase both in
transient and in permanent population.
The mineral resources of the region are as
varied as they are rich. The cattle ranches of
the Nicola Valley ; the fruit ranches of Vernon,
Summerland, and Peachland; the mills of Cran-
brook, and the coke ovens of Fernie ; the timber 76 Western Canada
limits of the Kootenay and the Columbia valleys ;
the gold mines of Rossland, and the coal mines of
Michel; the smelters of Trail and Grand Forks,
and the pastoral and agricultural resources of the
boundary country — this variety and wealth of
rnaterial resources must assure to this region at
no distant date a dense and opulent population,
capable of building up one of the strong centres
of Church life and power in the Dominion. The
region is thus marked out as one of great promise
for the future of the State and of the Church.
The attention of the world has, for the time
being, been diverted from Kootenay to the grain-
growing prairies of Saskatchewan and Alberta,
and for some years back the region has advanced
but slowly. Progress also has been retarded by
unwise legislation; by the enormous power of
trades-unions and their attendant strikes, in esse
or in posse; by the high rate of wages, of transportation and of living, which have made the
returns of the mining industry small and precarious. But all these adverse conditions are
bound to change in a few years, when there will
be a great increase in the inflow of capital and of
population into the country. New mines will
then   be 'profitably   worked.    New   towns    and Dioceses 77
villages will spring into being. New Missions
will be opened, and new churches built. This
will create a certain demand for outside help,
but, as in the past, that help need not be large
nor of long duration. The people in these regions
are open-handed and self-reliant. There is a
good deal of money in circulation in their midst.
The stronger centres will give a helping hand to
the weaker Missions ; and the whole diocese soon
rise to the dignity of self-support.
Notes.
Diocese formed, 1900—Area, 70,000 square miles.
Bishop—John Dart, 1900.
Total population — White, 40,000; Indian, 1,500;
Chinese, 1,000. Church population—White, 5,000. The
Indians are Roman Catholics.
Clergy, 18 ; paid lay workers, 2 ; Church buildings, 24;
Mission-stations, 53 ; self-supporting parishes, 9.
New Westminster
The determining factor in the work of this
diocese is the city of Vancouver. As the terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railway and the
chief Canadian seaport on the Pacific coast, with
a population of seventy thousand  souls, rapidly 78
Western Canada
increasing, that city is assured of a great future,
and, in course of time, will become, like Montreal
and Toronto, a strong centre of Church life and
influence, and a rich source of financial support for
all the needy objects in the diocese.
Apart from the city of Vancouver the diocese
is by no means strong. The rich mines and
ranches of the interior are outside its bounds. It
has no large agricultural areas, and such as exist
are covered with dense forests that can only be
cleared by degrees and at great expense. The
gold mines of Cariboo have long since been
exhausted. The only coal mines on the coast are
on Vancouver Island. These conditions imply
that for many years to come, outside a few centres,
the whole population will be sparse and struggling
and unable to provide for the ministrations of the
Church.
And the problem is greatly complicated by the
existence here and there of large foreign elements.
The presence of many thousands of Chinese
affords a precious opportunity, and at the same
time presents a serious obligation. For nearly
twenty years an encouraging Chinese work has
been carried on both in New Westminster and in
Vancouver.    If, however, the Canadian Govern- Dioceses 79
ment persists in imposing a tax $500 on every
Chinaman who enters the country, the Chinese
Mission will die a natural death from the lack of
material to work upon. The Japanese, who cannot
be so easily excluded owing to the Anglo-Japanese
Alliance, and who are likely to play a much more
important part in the industrial life of the country,
afford another splendid opportunity that is not
being neglected. For nearly half a century the
Indians at Lytton and neighbourhood have been
under the care of the Church, and two thousand
of them have been reclaimed from heathenism and
nourished in the principles of the Christian Faith.
In addition to evangelistic work, the Church has
also inaugurated an excellent educational work
among them. There is a large Boarding School
for Indian boys at Lytton, under the New England
Company, with a Church clergyman as principal.
There is a prosperous boarding school for Indian
girls at Yale, under the Sisters of Ditchingham.
Both these institutions are mainly supported by a
per capita grant from the Canadian Government.
The weak point in the Indian work of this, as of
nearly all our Canadian dioceses, is the lack of
practical training to fit the Indian to become a
self-reliant citizen, and  the failure to  call forth 8o
Western Canada
from the Indian congregations a larger measure
of self-support.
Though the development of the country-parts
of the diocese is likely to be slow, and the rural
population for many years to come to be sparse
and weak, yet the wonderful possibilities of a great
commercial centre like Vancouver, and the remarkable progress made in recent years, encourage the
most sanguine hopes for the future. Fifteen years
ago there were only eighteen clergy in the diocese,
which embraced Kootenay as well; now there are
eighteen clergy in Kootenay and thirty-three in
New Westminster. Then, there was not, properly
speaking, one self-supporting church; now there
are eighteen. Then, not more than $300 were
raised for Missions; now, not less than $3,000.
The Church population has trebled. The Diocese
of Kootenay has been set apart as a separate jurisdiction. A Church school for girls has been
successfully maintained at Yale, and a Church
school for boys at Vancouver. The Episcopal
Endowment Fund, which was almost non-existent,
has been completely restored. Thanks to the
generosity of the late Baroness Burdett-Coutts, a
handsome endowment enables an Archdeacon to
devote   all   his   time,   under the  Bishop,   to   the Dioceses
general work of the diocese. Thus all the wheels
of the diocesan machinery are in good working
order. The great desideratum here is the establishment of a thoroughly efficient Theological
College that would afford a means of training to
many aspirants for the ministry, and supply a
need that is deeply felt throughout the regions
bordering on the Pacific coast. A modicum of
outside help for a few years more will tide the
Church over a critical period, and launch it,
well-organized and strong, into a self-sustaining
condition.
Notes.
Diocese formed, 1879—Area, 160,000 square miles.
Bishops—A. W. Sillitoe, 1879-1894; John Dart, 1895.
Population—White, 100,000 ; Indian, 8,696 ; Chinese,
5,000: Japanese, 4,000.
Church population—White, 12,000; Indian, 1,679;
Chinese, 50 ; Japanese, 90.
Clergy, ^ ; paid lay-readers, 7 ; self-supporting
parishes, 9; congregations, 90.
Columbia
The Pacific coast of British Columbia enjoys
rich   historical   associations.     In   1779   Captain
G 82
Western Canada
Cook, the world-renowned explorer, wintered at
Nootka Sound, on the west coast of Vancouver
Island. In 1792 Captain Vancouver explored
the indented coast-line from Puget Sound to
Alaska. The steamer " Beaver," in the service of
the Hudson's Bay Company, rounded Cape Horn
in 1839, and for nearly half a century did yeoman
service on the Pacific coast. The regions at the
mouth and along the course of the Columbia, the
Fraser, the Thompson, the Skeena, the Stikine,
and the Naas were familiar scenes to the Hudson's
Bay traders. Alexander Mackenzie reached the
Pacific in 1792 in a memorable overland journey
from Fort Chipewyan on Lake Athabasca.
Simon Fraser, his trusted companion, performed
an equally remarkable feat when he descended
the Fraser River in a canoe from its source to its
mouth. The present site of Victoria, then known
as Camosum, was chosen by the Hudson's Bay
Company in 1852 as the site of their chief trading
post on the Pacific, and the Rev. C. H. Cridge
came out in 1856 as their chaplain. In 1859
Bishop Hills was consecrated first Bishop of
British Columbia.
In i860 Bishop Hills took his first journey to
the mainland, and  consecrated the church, now Dioceses 83
the cathedral, of Holy Trinity, New Westminster.
The same year he consecrated S. John's Church,
Victoria. The present house of the Bishop was
originally an iron mission-room, and was sent out
from England. In 1862 the number of the clergy
had risen to sixteen. The Cariboo gold craze of
1859 nad drawn thousands of people to Victoria
and the Fraser River. A church was accordingly
built at Hope Station, the centre of the gold
excitement, and was consecrated in 1862. In
1863 churches at Saanich and Nanaimo were
erected. In 1867 Holy Trinity, New Westminster, was burnt down, but was soon after rebuilt.
In 1866 was built the church at Esquimalt, which
has ministered to the sailors of the North Pacific
squadron of the British fleet stationed there.
When the squadron was withdrawn in 1906, the
last vestige of England's military and naval power
disappeared from Canada. The secession of the
Rev. C. H. Cridge from the Church, and his
appointment to the oversight of the Reformed
Episcopal movement, proved for years a great
cause of weakness to the Church in Victoria. In
1874 a Synod was established for the Diocese of
Columbia, and during the next four years churches
were built at Metchosin and Cowichan.    In 1879 84 Western Canada
the diocese was divided—Vancouver Island and
the islands of the Gulf of Georgia forming the
Diocese of Columbia, the southern part of the
mainland of British Columbia forming the Diocese
of New Westminster, and the northern part the
Diocese of Caledonia. The division left the
parent diocese with only eight clergy, in addition
to the Archdeacon and the Bishop. In 1 889 the
clergy of the diocese were ten in number, and new
churches were built at Cedar Hill and Comox ;
but from this time onward the increase in the
number of clergy was rapid, and when Bishop Hills
resigned in 1892 it had risen to twenty-two.
Bishop Perrin was consecrated to succeed Bishop
Hills in 1893. The number of clergy is now
twenty-six. New churches have been built at
Wellington, Saanich, Cedar District, Cumberland,
Alberni, Salt Spring Island, Lady smith, French
Creek, Duncans, Cowichan, Mayne Island, and in
Victoria, S. Mark's. All the churches in Victoria
and Nanaimo are self-supporting. The old church
in Nanaimo has been replaced by a larger and a
more beautiful structure. An excellent work is
being done among the Indians at Alert Bay through
the Church Missionary Society. A special effort
is  being made to reach the Chinese in Victoria. Dioceses 85
The site of the cathedral is one of the most conspicuous in the city; hopes are entertained that
by and by the Church people of Victoria will
erect on that commanding site a structure worthy
of the Church and worthy of their beautiful city.
The scenery in and around Victoria is of exceptional beauty. The mountains of the mainland,
seen at a distance of fifty miles, afford a panorama
which can hardly be surpassed elsewhere. The
beauty of the surroundings and the mildness of
the climate are attracting large numbers of
residents to Victoria. The writer remembers
crossing the continent and experiencing thirty-two
degrees below zero at North Bay, forty-four at
Chapleau, fifty-two at White River, forty at
Winnipeg, Regina, and Prince Albert, and then
seeing snowdrops and other delicate flowers in
bloom in the Bishop's garden in Victoria on
January 25 th. The day is probably not remote
when there will be very large additions to the
population of Vancouver Island, and when a great
impetus will be given to the work of the Church.
At present the progress, though substantial, is
slow; but it is very important that the centres of
population should be held by the Church, in order
that she may be ready to take advantage of the Western Canada
developments of the future, which are likely to be
neither small nor remote.
Notes.
Diocese formed, 1859—Area, 17,000 square miles.
Bishops—George Hills, 1859-1892 ; W. W. Perrin,
1893.
Total population — White, 47,000 ; Indian, 3,000 ;
Chinese, 4,000.
Church population—- White, 7,000; Indian, 570.
Clergy, 26: paid lay workers, 6. Self-supporting
parishes, 8; aided Missions, 17; congregations, 40.
Collegiate school for boys at Victoria. Schools for
Indian boys and girls at Alert Bay.
Columbian Coast Mission—Mission-ship " Columbia,''
the Rev. John Antle, captain and chaplain, plying among
logging camps in Gulf of Georgia; containing mission-
room, hospital cots and operating table, dispensary,
library, and doctor. Hospitals, with doctor and two
nurses, at Rock Bay and Van Anda, and another soon to
be erected at Alert Bay.
Caledonia
This diocese is largely a reproduction of that of
New Westminster. There are the same Chinese
and Japanese problems. There are the same
heavily-timbered valleys and hill-sides, the same
prospect of slow development, and the same need Dioceses 87
of outside assistance; and there is the same
outlook of a bright and rosy future. There is the
same indented coast, the same commodious
anchorage, and the same glorious scenery. The
Grand Trunk Pacific Railway will be a great
transcontinental line like the Canadian Pacific
Railway, and Prince Rupert a great commercial
centre like Vancouver. The mines and logging
camps of the interior, the outlet to the sea for
the products of Northern Alberta and Saskatchewan, and the unlimited trade with the Orient:
all this offers an inviting prospect for the surplus
capital and population of the British Islands,
affords a glorious opportunity to the Church of
England, and presents an irresistible appeal to
the loyalty and liberality of its members. The
Church at home should join hands with her
daughter in the Dominion and support Bishop
Du Vernet's hands in laying solid foundations for
the Church in what is one of the newest and most
promising districts in the Empire.
The Indian work in Caledonia is perhaps the
most successful work of the kind to be met with
anywhere, and has produced one of the richest
harvests in the whole missionary field. For
humble    and    consistent    Christian    lives,     for Western Canada
peaceful and triumphant death-beds, for intelligent, self-reliant, and progressive citizenship, these
converted savages and cannibals afford a complete
vindication of the cause of Missions. They set
a reproachful example to the whites in their
attendance on all the means of grace, in their
study of the Holy Scriptures, and in the performance of the duties of religion. They live in neat
and beautiful houses. They are skilful blacksmiths, carpenters and builders. Some are captains
of steamers, while many find remunerative employment in the mills and cannaries. They are a
perfect illustration of what the Indian is capable
of under favourable circumstances and wise treatment. Their offering of $1,000 to preach the
Gospel to their own people, to the heathen, and
even to the white settlers in Canada, is a
fact that is eloquent of the fruits of the Gospel.
It would be a thousand pities if anything were
allowed to mar a work which has already
produced such wonderful results.
Notes.
Diocese formed, 1879—Area, 200,000 square miles.
Bishops—W.  Ridley,  1879-1904 ;   F.   H.  Du  Vernet,
1904. Dioceses 89
Total population — White, 5,000 ; Indian, 8,000 ;
Chinese, 1,500; Japanese, 1,000.
Church population—White, 559; Indian, 2,308; Chinese,
5 ; Japanese, 10.
Clergy, n ; paid lay workers, 12; aided Missions, 17;
congregations, 20: native catechists, 8. Homes for
Indian boys, Indian girls, and half-breed children at
Metlakatla.
Yukon
The Diocese of Selkirk, whose name has
recenly been changed to that of Yukon, has
peculiar features all its own. The valley of the
Yukon was first visited by Archdeacon Kirkby
in 1862, when he crossed the Rocky Mountains
from Fort McPherson; and for nearly forty
years the work was restricted to the Indians,
who were the only inhabitants. When Selkirk
was formed into a separate diocese in 1891,
and Bishop Bompas became its first Bishop, his
intention was to bury himself from civilization in
the most remote and isolated mission-field in
the world.
Great was his surprise when in 1896 gold was
discovered in the Yukon Valley, and tens of
thousands of men began to flock into it from all Western Canada
parts of the world. They climbed impassable ,
mountains, and were overwhelmed by snowslides.
They braved the dangers of the river, and were
engulfed in its angry waters. They underwent
the hardships of fatigue and hunger, and left their
bones on many a lonely hill-side. And among
the number of these adventurers were many
splendid young men from the best homes of
EasteM Canada and of England. As a
natural consequence the work among the
Indians dwindled in importance, and their
character was in many cases ruined by the
vices and fire-water of the whites. If ever
Christian work should appeal to the deepest
sympathy of Christian people, it is surely that
among the gold-seekers of the valley of the
Yukon, for it contains every element of pathos
that can be imagined. Here is loneliness, hardship, fatigue, hunger, sickness, death—all braved,
even courted, literally, for the sake of gold.
Here are men, young men, cultivated, refined,
chivalrous, daring, the best material that can be
brought into the Kingdom of God. The last day
will reveal that a most fruitful work for the
spiritual Kingdom of Christ has been wrought
among the miners of the Klondyke.
L Dioceses 91
Notes.
Diocese formed, 1891—Area, 200,000 square miles.
Bishops—W. C. Bompas, ,1891-1905; I. O. Stringer,
1905.
Total population—White, 8,000 ; Indian, 1,000.
Church population—White, 600 ; Indian, 460.
Clergy, 7; paid lay workers, 2; aided Missions, 8.
Celebrated Klondyke in northern part of diocese. Four
Indian Missions—at Car cross (with boarding school), at
Selkirk, at Moosehide, and at Forty Mile.
Mackenzie River
This is perhaps the largest and most unpromising diocese in the whole Anglican communion.
Its remoteness and difficulty of access, and
its almost total absence of material resources,
make it only a fit home for the fur-
bearing animal, the roaming Indian, the
fur-trader, and the missionary. And yet, who
can say ? Steamers are now plying on the
Mackenzie River, and inexhaustible coal-beds
are found to exist on its banks. The unexplored
wastes of this diocese may contain rich deposits
of gold and silver; and the Church may soon be
called to minister to a white population in the
vicinity  of the Arctic Circle.    But this  is  only 92
Western Canada
speculation. The stern reality we have to face
is the simple Indian question, stripped of all
adventitious circumstances. In this region the
Indians have already shown their willingness to
receive the Word of God, and nowhere in the
mission-field have there been more remarkable
cases of conviction of sin, of conversion to GOD,
of holy lives and triumphant death-beds, than
under the ministries of Archdeacon Kirkby,
Archdeacon Macdonald, and Bishop Bompas,
among the Tudukh Indians of the far North. As
in the case of Egypt, the country is made
habitable by the river. The Indians cannot stray
beyond a certain distance from the water, and to
the water they must return to dispose of their
pelts to the Hudson's Bay Company. Although
the area of the diocese is half a million of square
miles, for all practical purposes it consists of
half a dozen trading-posts along the river bank—
Hay River, Resolution, Simpson, Norman, Good
Hope and McPherson. Hence the Indian tribes
in that vast region are few and widely scattered.
Their life is one of continual hardship and
privation, sometimes amounting to positive
famine, which makes them peculiarly exposed to
the ravages of disease.    If weakness and helpless- Dioceses 93
ness, misery and hopelessness, have a special place
in the Divine Compassion, then perhaps, amid the
many voices by which the Church in Canada is
wooed along the path of missionary enterprise and
endeavour, the most powerful call is that which
comes from the most helpless and most hopeless—
the poor, scattered, diminished remnant that inhabits the desolate regions of Mackenzie River.
Notes,
Diocese formed, 1884—Area, 500,000 square miles.
Bishops—W. C. Bompas, 1884-1891 ; W. D. Reeve,
1891-1907.
Population—White, 200; Indian, 4,616; Eskimo, 400.
Church population — White, 100 ; Indian, 1,000 ;
Eskimo, 400.
Stations at Hay River, with boarding school for Indian
boys and girls, Fort Simpson, Fort Norman, Fort
Wrigley, Fort McPherson, and Herschel Island.
Clergy, 7; paid lay workers, 13; stations, 5; out-
stations, 7.
Athabasca
Established originally as an Indian diocese,
Athabasca is likely to have, at no distant date,
a large white population. Indian work here has
never   possessed   that    thrilling    interest   which 94 Western Canada
marked its progress elsewhere. Rather has it
been prosaic and disappointing. The tribes have
never been either numerous or powerful. They
have been decimated by small-pox and measles.
They are less than five thousand to-day, of whom
less than five hundred are members of the Church.
In these sad facts, however, lies the strength of
their appeal to us—the appeal as from those who
are passing off the scene to those who can afford
to be generous because they are advancing, in all
the pride of conscious strength, to possess the land
and to found an Empire.
But the passing of the Indian means the
advent of the white man. The Peace River
valley is bound to become an important agricultural region. Its climate is healthy and not
too rigorous. Its land is abundant and fertile.
In the vicinity of the Cariboo and the Klondyke
it no doubt possesses an abundance of the
precious metals. It boasts of wide timber limits
and great stores of water-power. Through it
must pass great railways, leading over the mountains to the Pacific coast, or forming an all-
Canadian route to the Yukon. Its many resources
will be greatly enhanced in value when it has
direct communication with Hudson Bay, and is Dioceses 95
thus placed on the shortest route to the markets
of Europe and of Asia. Then will the words of
the old prophet receive one more fulfilment, " The
wilderness and the solitary place shall be glad
thereof; the desert shall rejoice and blossom as
the rose." Here is another token of the bountiful
goodness of God, and another appeal to the
devotion and liberality of the Church, that the
waters of the Peace River may become a highway
to the message of the Prince of Peace.
Notes.
Diocese formed, 1874—Area, 200,000 square miles.
Bishops—W. C. Bompas, 1874-1884 ; R. Young, 1884-
1903; W. D. Reeve, 1903—1907.
Total population—White, 500; Indian, 3,716; half-
breeds, 2,395.
Church population—White, 400; Indian, 400.
Clergy, 10; churches, 9 ; paid lay workers, 14.
Saskatchewan
For our present purpose the work in the
Diocese of Saskatchewan began only four years
ago, with the advent of the British, at first known
as the Barr Colony. The diocese had long been
celebrated for its successful work among the
Indians.      Missions    had    been    established    at wsmza
96 Western Canada
Cumberland Lake in 1840; at Lac La Ronge in
1845; at Nipoweewin and Stanley in 1852; and
subsequently at Prince Albert and Battleford;
but all these were Indian stations. Until 1903,
practically all the work of the diocese was Indian
work, carried on mainly by native clergy, teachers,
and catechists.
White settlers, indeed, had begun to move into
the Prince Albert district as far back as 1862.
The first church in the district, S. Mary's, still
standing near Emmanuel College, was erected
in 1874 by the settlers, cheered on by Bishop
McLean, who had just been consecrated to the
new See of Saskatchewan. Two or three small
churches, in course of time, were built, near Prince
Albert, in which the spiritual interests of both
the Indians and the whites were served by the
same ministrations; but the settlers were few,
progress was slow, and there was but little
prospect that a strong self-supporting Church
would ever be built up in those regions.
In course of time, however, it was demonstrated
and became widely known that the Saskatchewan
Valley was admirably suited for agricultural
purposes, that the land was fertile and the climate
enjoyable.    The Canadian Northern Railway was Dioceses 97
building its line northward and westward, with
all possible speed, from Port Arthur and Winnipeg ; and the Canadian Pacific Railway, not to
be outdone, was planning a branch line from
Wetaskiwin in Alberta, eastward to Saskatoon.
At that juncture, at what might be called the
psychological moment, the British colony came
on the scene. Two thousand five hundred people
set out from all parts of the British Isles to carve
homes for themselves in this new land of promise.
They left Liverpool in April, 1903, in the " Lake
Manitoba "; landed at S. John's, New Brunswick,
and were conveyed, during five days and five
nights, by the Canadian Pacific Railway, a
distance of three thousand miles, through New
Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario and Manitoba. At
Saskatoon, where they left the railway and
camped on the banks of the Saskatchewan, they
had still two hundred miles to travel; the men
drove their teams, laden with their goods and
chattels, and most of the women and children
trudged on foot. The weather at times was
most severe, and the trails, at intervals, almost
impassable. Along the way they saw no house
and hardly any sign of life, except at Battleford ;
and,  when   they had  reached   their   destination, they found themselves in the centre of a tract of
land, set apart for their use, some sixty miles
square, in the midst of a boundless prairie.
With the settlers the Colonial and Continental
Church Society had sent out a chaplain, George
Exton Lloyd by name, to keep the colonists in
touch with religion and the Church. The first
services were held in the open air, in what is now
called Lloydminster. The first church was an
old schoolhouse, 20 feet by 24, purchased from
the Mission at Fort Pitt, and carried forty miles
across the prairie. This was called the rectory-
church, because it served as a residence for
the chaplain as well as a place of worship
for the people. Then services were held by
the chaplain, and by as many lay workers as
could be pressed into the service, wherever a
dozen or half a dozen people could be gathered
together.
Meanwhile the Canadian Northern Railway
had completed its line westward to Edmonton ;
and the Canadian Pacific Railway had begun its
branch line eastward to Saskatoon ; and a new
competitor had appeared on the scene, in the
Grand Trunk Pacific Railway. Settlers who, in
the early days of travel by canoe and dog train,
L Dioceses 99
.had come in by families, now began to arrive by
thousands. Immigrants poured in from the
United States and from Continental Europe, as
well as from the British Isles. Farm houses,
villages, and towns, sprang up as if by magic,
and enormous elevators began to rear their lofty
forms against the horizon. As a result 100,000
people are now to be found within the bounds of
the Diocese of Saskatchewan, and these will
soon be reinforced by many hundreds of
thousands. They have spread like water over
the face of a country more than 100,000 miles
in extent, and have become, in that wilderness,
as sheep without a shepherd. It was to meet
this emergency that the Saskatchewan plan,
described at page 119, was devised. The British
colony, a large enterprise in its day, now seems
a small thing, with its paltry 2,500 souls, and its
3,600 square miles, as compared with a district
over 100,000 square miles in extent, and a population soon to be reckoned by millions. The
chaplain of the little colony has become Archdeacon Lloyd, the organizing agent, under the
Bishop, of the work of the Church in this vast
district, and in the midst of this teeming population. IOO
Western Canada
The main features of the work are of the most
cheering and hopeful character. The soil is rich,
the climate is healthful, the incoming population
is of the best. The settlers are, in large numbers,
of English parentage and members of the Church
of England. The leaders of the Church on the
spot are men of wisdom and experience ; and the
Church in the motherland is co-operating actively
with the Church in Canada. The very magnitude
of the task is likely to stimulate the sluggish
energies of the Church, for it implies the building up not of a province, but of a country; the
nurturing not of a small tribe, but of a great
nation; the creation not of a diocese, but of
a national Church.
Notes.
Diocese—Diocese formed, 1874—Area, 150,000 square
miles.
Bishops—John McLean, 1874-1886; W. C. Pinkham,
1887 -1903; J. A. Newnham, 1903 (translated from
Moosonee).
Total population—White, 100,000 ; Indian, 6,500.
Church population — White,   about   30,000;   Indian,
3>534-
Clergy, 33; paid lay workers, 79; self-supporting
parishes, 4; stations, 51; out-stations, 204; congregations, 87. Dioceses ioi
Summary
Thus it will be seen that each diocese possesses
special features of interest, but all merge into one
great whole of immense need and of glorious
opportunity. Thus sea and land, the farm, the
mine, the forest, combine to make Algoma a
region of boundless possibilities; the great forest
region, the great clay belt, providing a road-bed
for a national and imperial railway, assures Moosonee of a great future; three transcontinental
railways crossing a region rich in mineral and
agricultural resources, leave no doubt as to the
importance of Keewatin; an area of one thousand
miles from east to west, and five hundred miles
from north to south, containing the richest
grazing and grain-growing land in the world,
capable of nourishing a farming and ranching
population of many millions, would almost seem
to fix the centre of the life of the Dominion on
the Western Plains—in Rupert's Land, Qu'-
Appelle, Saskatchewan, Calgary, and Athabasca:
the richest mineral deposits, the widest timber
areas, the most abundant salmon fisheries, some
of the grandest scenery in the world ; no mean
capabilities for the production of cattle, fruit and 102
Western Canada
grain; a coast-line with great seaports commanding the enormous trade of the Orient and the
Pacific; this must ensure to the Dioceses of
Kootenay, New Westminster, Columbia, and
Caledonia, a future beyond the dreams of the
enthusiasts; while the lure of gold and the
attractions of the chase will, as the years roll on,
invest increasingly the Dioceses of Yukon and
of Mackenzie River with all the glories of the
midnight sun and of the aurora borealis. These
vast regions, with their varied resources and
attractions, will long continue to command the
attention of the world, and for twenty-five years
to come will tax the energy and the resources
of the whole Anglican communion. There are
75,000 Indians, and 8,000 Eskimos in the far
North; there are 15,000 Chinese, and 5,000
Japanese in the far West; there are 6,000 Mormons, 100,000 Galicians, 8,000 Dukhobors,
10,000 Mennonites on the central plains; and
the English-speaking settlers, who number a
million, are being increased annually by a
quarter of a million, from all parts of the
British Isles and of the British Empire—free
men all, under constitutional government, with
a high general  level of intelligence, with every D
IOCESES
IO*
needful educational institution at their command,
from the kindergarten to the University, and
with the highest positions in the State within their
reach. A moderate estimate would place the
need of this field, from outside sources, for many
years to come, at one hundred churches and fifty
clergy per annum, and, for the support and
equipment of the Church, at an annual expenditure of £50,000. It is doubtful whether, in any
part of the mission-field, at any period of Christian history, a more glorious opportunity has
been presented to the statesmanship and the
missionary enterprise of the Church.
, 104
Western Canada
CHAPTER   VI
Missions
*j#£^HE Canadian mission-field is one of the
^-^ most interesting fields in the world. It
combines, more perhaps than any other, elements
of the picturesque that appeal to the imagination
both of grown-up people and of little children.
It has Missions to different races of men—to the
Jews in Winnipeg, to the Chinese in Victoria,
to the Japanese in Vancouver, to the Eskimos on
the Arctic coast, to the various tribes of Indians
who inhabit the mountain and the plain, the sea
coast and the interior; not to speak of the
Mormons of Southern Alberta, the Galicians of
Northern Manitoba, and the Dukhobors of
Central Saskatchewan, for whom nothing has as
yet been done. It has Missions to widely
different classes of people—to the fishermen at
the mouth of the Fraser and the Skeena, to the
loggers of the Gulf of Georgia, to the placer-
miners of the Klondyke, and  the quartz-miners Missions
105
of Kootenay, to the fruit-growers of Okanagan,
to the ranchers of the foot hills of Alberta, to the
farmers on the plains of Saskatchewan, and to
navvies of all nationalities on plain and mountain alike.
And the conditions under which the work may
be done are as varied as the races and occupations of the people. You may travel in a palatial
Pullman on the Canadian Pacific Railway, over
boundless plains, at the foot of lofty mountains,
and over dizzy precipices, or in the saloon of
an elegant steamer on Lake Huron and Lake
Superior; in the birch-bark canoe of the Red
Indian, or in the seal-skin kyak of the fur-clad
Eskimo; in the dog-sleds of the Arctic circle, or
in the cariole, the buck-board, the ox-cart, and
the York boat of the temperate zone. You may
sail in a mission-boat on Lake Nepigon, or in
a mission-ship on the Gulf of Georgia. You may
even die in a hundred picturesque ways; you
may be engulfed by the hungry cataract, frozen
to death by Arctic cold, starved to death by
Arctic famine, overwhelmed by the fearful
avalanche of the Yukon, or suffocated by the
fierce blizzard of the prairie. You may hold
services  in a  great cathedral,  in a  tiny  frame - io6
Western Canada
church, in the kitchen of a settler's shack, in an
Indian tepee, in an Eskimo iglo, in a miner's
tent, on an iceberg, behind a snow-bank, under
the shelter of an ancient pine-tree, or under the
canopy of heaven. Your churches may be
destroyed by fire, struck by lightning, carried
off by the waters of a flood, or eaten by
dogs. You may live in a turf house, or you
may dwell in a " Lambeth Palace." There is
simply no limit to the variety of experiences
that may befall the lot of the man who will
make himself all things to all men in the
Canadian mission-field.
The Formation of a Diocese
We can see here the evolution of some of the
most interesting enterprises to be met with in the
Church. In this mission-field, for example, we
can see a diocese "in the making." In 1892
Kootenay and Okanagan were mere names on
the map. Services had only been held for a
short time in two places, at Donald on the
line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, and at
Vernon near Okanagan Lake.
In   1892, however, services were  opened  and Missions 107
a church built at Golden, where a parsonage was
erected in 1905. In 1892 services were also
begun at Kelowna, where a church was built in
1895, and a parsonage in 1897, and which became
a self-supporting parish in 1905. In 1893 regular
services were opened at Nelson, which has since
witnessed the erection of a beautiful church and
a commodious parish house, and has become
a self-supporting parish. In 1894 services were
opened in Kaslo, where a church was built in
1895, and a parsonage in 1899. In 1895 services
were opened at Trail, where a church was built in
1899; in 1895 regular services were opened, and
a beautiful brick church built at Revelstoke, where
a rectory was also built in 1898, and the parish
became self-supporting in 1902. In 1895 gold
was discovered in Rossland, and " Father Pat"
held the first Church of England service on
February 2, 1896; on May 8th two lots were
given for a church site; and at Christmas the
church was completed at a cost of $2,221, with
a seating capacity of two hundred and sixty ; and
the parish has been practically self-supporting
from the outset. In 1897 services were opened
at Greenwood, where a parish building was
erected  in   1901,   which  was   converted   into   a io8
Western Canada
church by the addition of a chancel in 1906. In
1898 services were opened and a church and
parsonage built at Fort Steele ; that ye^r also
Cranbrook saw the introduction of regular services and the building of a church, and became
a self-supporting parish. About that time also
services were opened at Grand Forks, where
a church was subsequently built, and a self-
supporting parish developed ; services were also
opened at Fernie, where there is now a handsome
church and self-supporting congregation. In
1900 services were opened and a church built
at New Denver; services were also opened in
Phoenix, where a church was built in 1901.
When Revelstoke became a divisional point
on the railway, Donald passed out of existence;
the church was taken down and re-erected at-
Windermere. At Trout Lake, 1903 saw the
introduction of regular services and the building
of a church and parsonage. The year 1904 saw
regular services opened at Salmon Arm, where
a church has recently been dedicated. In 1899
Kootenay and Okanagan were set apart as the
Diocese of Kootenay, under the Bishop of New
Westminster, who is also Bishop of Kootenay.
The  first Synod   was  held in   Nelson in   1900,
L Missions 109
when a constitution was adopted and a canon
for the election of a Bishop was passed. There
are now in the diocese fifty congregations,
eighteen clergy, and nine self-supporting parishes.
Only the endowment of the see is lacking to
enable the diocese to proceed to the election of
a Bishop. Thus the last fifteen years have seen
a perfect wilderness of forest, lake, and mountain,
become the seat of many towns and villages, the
nursery of Missions and parishes, and the nucleus
of a strong colonial diocese.
The Columbia Coast Mission
One of the sights on the Pacific coast are the
big trees of British Columbia, that grow to
a height of 250 feet, and furnish timber 2 feet
square and 80 to 100 feet long, called in common
parlance British Columbia " tooth-picks." One
of the chief industries of the province is that
which sends these giants of the forest to the
markets of the world. The trees are hewn down,
cut up into logs of various lengths, hauled by
steam-engines on skid roads to the water's edge,
lashed together into booms or rafts, and towed by
steam-tugs  to  the  saw  mills of Burrard   Inlet, where they are made into boards, planks, and
" tooth-picks," and shipped to the four corners
of the globe. For obvious reasons the many
islands that stud the northern part of the Gulf of
Georgia are the chief scenes of this important
industry ; and the men who are engaged in its
prosecution are called loggers.
. Some eight or ten years ago there appeared in
Vancouver a young missionary in search of
a Mission. He hailed from the Western States,
where he had acquired valuable experience as
a pioneer missionary ; but he was a native of
Newfoundland, where he had imbibed an intense
love of the sea, of which he could say, like Childe
Harold, " From a boy I wantoned with thy
breakers; they to me were a delight; and if the
freshening sea made them a terror, 'twas a pleasing
fear; for I was as it were a child of thee; and
trusted to thy billows far and near, and put my
hand upon thy mane." He was appointed to the
charge of Fairview, a new but rising suburb of
the Western metropolis, where, amid stumps and
rocks, he erected a beautiful frame church. But
the sea was constantly before his eyes, and the
lure of the ocean completely won his heart. His
first thought was to train a marine boys' brigade, Missions
hi
to man a boat, and to ply sail and oar on English
Bay; but his first real adventure was among the
islands of the Gulf of Georgia. To his own great
surprise, he discovered many logging camps, each
with a complement of men varying from twenty
to seventy-five; and he returned to the Bishops
of Columbia and New Westminster, with the
startling intelligence that here were three
thousand splendid fellows, engaged in one of
our national industries, who were daily exposed
to serious accidents, who were without the care
of doctor or nurse, and who were deprived of
all the means of grace.
Even to the most indifferent it was evident that
something must be done. But what ? that was
the question. Like a flash the whole scheme
took shape in the mind of the young missionary.
His marine experience taught him that the first
requisite was a boat, and a boat strong enough
to face the tides and storms of an angry sea ; and
with the command of sea-power he knew that all
other power could be made subservient to him.
The boat would convey the minister to his congregations ; it would itself be a movable church;
it would be made an ambulatory lending library;
it would be fitted out with a hospital cot, where Western Canada
the first care could be given to the sick and
wounded ; it could lodge a surgeon and give all
the logging camps the benefit of his skill; it
could be a marine ambulance to convey the
worst cases to the nearest hospital; and the
loggers' friends might even be induced to erect
a hospital in the midst of the logging camps.
Here was a beautiful, well-rounded scheme that
leapt complete out of the brain of the missionary
as Venus did from the head of Jupiter.
But if it was a beautiful scheme, it was also
a large and expensive one. $5,000 would be
needed for the purchase and equipment of the
ship, and $6,000 a year for its up-keep. The
young missionary set his face resolutely to the
solution of this financial problem. By dint of
sheer enthusiasm he obtained $2,000 from the
Missionary Society, and $1,000 from each of the
cities of Vancouver and Victoria, for the purchase
of the ship; and from the Woman's Auxiliary in
Canada, and the Society for Promoting Christian
Knowledge in England, all that was needed for its
outfit. The initial financial problem was thus
solved, but the practical details of the scheme
had still to be grappled with. After months of
earnest  thought, plans for the ship were drawn Missions
IX3
up—its size, its furnishings, its sails, its gasoline engine. Twelve months after the inception
of the scheme, " The Columbia" had been
launched in Vancouver; it had been solemnly
dedicated to its holy mission by a special service
in Victoria, and it was actively engaged in its
varied ministry among the. logging camps of the
Gulf of Georgia.
Who can estimate the results of its manifold
ministrations! Its lending library has enabled
three thousand men to spend pleasantly and
profitably many an hour that would otherwise
have been spent in idleness, if not in sin. Its
surgeon has been the means of saving many a
life and many a limb. Its nurses have proved
veritable angels of mercy to many a sick and
wounded man ; and its hospital, erected at Rock
Bay, by the Hastings Mill Company, has been
a haven of refuge to many, who without it would
probably have lost their lives.
And the outward success of the undertaking
has proved a stepping-stone to the highest
service. Its author has inspired respect and
confidence in all the dwellers on the Pacific
coast. The open-handed loggers, not from purely
unselfish motives,   have generously patronized it
i ii4
Western Canada
and furnished nearly all the means needed for
its support. The Tacoma Steel Company has
built another hospital on Texada Island. It is
now proposed to build a third at Alert Bay for
the benefit of the Indians as well as the whites.
Where at the outset there was only one doctor,
there are now four; and there are three hospitals
and six nurses. More powerful engines have been
installed in the ship. Hundreds of men have
received treatment on board ship and in the
hospitals, and the ministry of benevolence so
conspicuously held up before the eyes of the
world has opened many a heart to the message
of Divine love, and transformed many a vicious
and profane life into a living psalm to the praise
and glory of the Redeemer. And the Columbia
Coast Mission, under the able guidance of the
Rev. John Antle, has become one of the most
original contributions to the work of modern
Missions.
A Lonely Mission
What a scene of utter desolation and of noble
heroism is presented by the Mission to the
Eskimos of Blacklead Island, Cumberland Sound, "1
To face page 114.    Missions 115
as described in the life of the Rev. E. J. Peck ;
surely one of the most forbidding, but at the
same time one of the most romantic, missionary
adventures in the world.
It transports us to a scene so utterly different
from our ordinary experiences, that the Eskimos
might be inhabitants of Jupiter or of the moon.
Their dwellings, called " iglos," are about 10 feet
in diameter and 6 feet in height, with walls made
of layers of snow, and with low narrow openings
for doors, through which entrance can only be
obtained by crawling on hands and knees. Their
beds are snow-banks, their mattresses mats of
willow, and their sheets and counterpanes reindeer skins. Their lamps are concave stones with
wicks of moss and oil of blubber. Their vehicles
are sleds, and their motor-power dogs. Their
ships, called " kyaks," are skin-covered canoes.
Outside the family they have no government, and
apart from custom they have no laws. Their
religion finds expression in no system of worship,
but consists mainly of a vague dread of supernatural powers. Their priests are sorcerers or
medicine men; and their devil is feminine, not
masculine. " They join no building society ;
purchase no building site; know no landlord, no Western Canada
tax-gatherer; they know only one system of
dwelling upon the earth, namely, that of God's
freehold, and they build their snow-houses or
pitch their tents where they will, and when game
is fairly abundant they appear to lead a very
happy life." They used to rub noses, but have
adopted the more civilized mode of shaking
hands. Their only occupation is the chase, and
their chief article of diet seal flesh, varied by an
occasional taste of whale, reindeer, polar bear, or
wolf. They live in the coldest regions on earth,
and are in constant danger of famine. What
scene in the mission-field presents a greater
variety of interesting, amusing, and pathetic
features ?
Blacklead Island is a small, high, barren rock,
about four miles in circumference, producing only
here and there a little grass, moss, and lichen, but
no shrub six inches high. In winter it is a picture
of complete desolation—barren rocks swept by
fierce gales, snow many feet deep, ice piled along
the shore, without tree or plant to gladden either
the eye or the heart. The Eskimo dwellings look
like mounds of snow. Ravenous dogs are ever
prowling about in search of a morsel of food.
They  sometimes eat  their  seal-line  traces, and Missions
117
sometimes their master's whips. They have even
been known to eat a dish-cloth, and to make
a good meal of a woman's dress. The Eskimos
themselves are more like wild beasts than human
beings, in their filthy and bulky garments. On
all sides, as far as the eye can reach, nothing can
be seen save a boundless expanse of snow and
ice.    Can desolation be more complete ?
A glimpse of the missionary is equally striking.
He lives in a small wooden house, whose timber,
brought from England, was put together by his
own hands. Its walls have been thus described :
from inside to outside, first, wall-paper; second,
calico; third, boards; fourth, moss; fifth, tarred
felting; sixth, outside boards; seventh, painted
canvas; eighth, wall of snow. He heats himself
with fuel brought from England, no drift wood
even for kindling purposes being found in the
Arctic seas. In winter he needs the lamp nearly
the whole day, while in summer daylight lasts
nearly the whole night. In the depth of a trying
winter, with famine staring him in the face, he
finds himself in the midst of a starving people
without human sympathy or support. Finding
his bread frozen quite hard, he wraps it in a towel,
takes it with him into bed, and thaws it by the n8
Western Canada
heat generated in his fur bag. He finds a cup of
cocoa a most acceptable beverage in these cold
regions. Jugged hare and plum-pudding at
Christmas are to him a royal repast. Newspapers
and periodicals, which reach him once a year,
are read day by day, one year after date. He
finds a music-box and a magic-lantern a cause
of great wonder to his primitive people. He sees
two little flowers and exclaims, " What a reminder
of the Creator's handiwork, goodness, and love."
At Whale River he officiates in an iron church
sent out from England ; at Blacklead Island he
builds a church, whose framework is whalebone,
and whose covering is seal-skin, a church that
enjoys the unique distinction of having been eaten
up by hungry dogs ; while at Kikkerton he calls
his people to worship in a church consisting of
a large circular wall of snow, whose roof is the
blue vault of heaven. He teaches the people to
read, and provides reading matter for them by
translating the four Gospels into their native
tongue, and with the aid of the Bible Society
gives them the Word of God " in a language
understanded of the people." He crawls into
their unsanitary dwellings through a mass of
growling and snarling dogs, and, at the risk of
L Missions 119
being overcome by sickening odours, makes
known to them the Gospel of redemption. What
but the love of CHRIST and of souls can impel
men to undertake such a life, and support them
in its daily round of unpleasant duties ? He
rejoices with the reflected joy of heaven when
one sinner repents. He proves the Gospel to be
the power of God unto salvation for the Eskimo
as for the European. He helps to fulfil the Divine
promise or prophecy, " They shall come from the
North." And he gives us the key to his whole
life and work when he says in an ecstasy of
adoring devotion, " I was hallowed by an awful,
solemn, and tender sense of love to JESUS
Christ."
The Saskatchewan Plan
In the Diocese of Saskatchewan, the missionary
problem of the West is found in concentrated
form. In a new country the railway is the main
factor in the work of settlement, and the railway
has only made a serious appearance in Saskatchewan within the last three years. For twenty years
past, Rupert's Land, Qu'Appelle, and Calgary
have been more or less open to settlement, and 120
Western Canada
for almost as many years the Church in those
dioceses has been occupied with the needs of the
settler, providing services and building churches
for him. When, half a dozen years ago, the small
streams of immigration began to swell into large
floods, they naturally flowed along the railways
into those three dioceses which were, in some
measure at least, prepared to cope with them.
But, three years ago, when the tide of immigration
had assumed gigantic proportions, the activity of
three transcontinental railways in pushing their
lines into Saskatchewan, brought a perfect inundation of settlers into new and virgin fields, where
there were neither churches nor ministers, and
where services had never been held before.
Nowhere else in the West were there as many
new-comers; nowhere else was the population
as widely scattered; and nowhere else had so
little been done to meet the emergency. It was
estimated that there were two or three hundred
points where services should be established at once.
This constituted the Saskatchewan problem ; and
the Saskatchewan plan is a practical attempt
made to meet these extraordinary  conditions.
The master thought in the whole plan is—to be
first on the ground, to go in with the settler, to Missions 121
minister to his first needs, to win his first affections, and to derive all the advantages that accrue
from such a position. Too often, in the past, the
Church has waited till promising settlements had
become established and were in a position actively
to welcome and support her. Before that day
came, enterprising neighbours had gone in, built
their churches, brought all the people to their
services, and all the children to their Sunday
schools ; and when, at last, the Church of England
appeared on the scene she found the ground cut
from under her feet, her own members often only
half-willing to receive her. The Saskatchewan
plan aims at obviating those difficulties by placing
the Church first in the field.
Manifestly so vast a field—more than a hundred
thousand square miles—can only be worked by
subdivision. After a careful survey the diocese
has been mapped out into sixty to eighty districts,
soon to become twice that number; each district,
say thirty miles square, or twenty by forty, more
or less, large enough to tax the energies of the
most active man, and yet not too large, with the
present sparse population, to prevent his visiting
all the settlers, keeping in close touch with all
Church members, and holding services in all the principal centres. In its most elementary stage
the division is called an unorganized district; as
order is gradually evolved out of chaos it assumes.
the name of a mission ; when providing a fair proportion of the stipend it is called a parish; and
when self-supporting, a rectory.
To man these districts a large number of workers
were needed, and, in the present state of our
finances, too great expense must not be incurred.
It was thought that sixty earnest young laymen
might be found, with the love of Christ and of
souls in their hearts, who would be content to do
the work for its own sake, if only they received a
bare livelihood in doing it; and sixty stipends of
£70 or $350 each, for three years, might be
obtained from the bounty of the Mother Church.
For this purpose Archdeacon Lloyd crossed the
Atlantic in November, 1906, carried his appeal
through the British Islands, and found both the
men and the money. From earnest Christian
homes, from the Church Army, from active
parishes in the old country, sixty young catechists
came out in one ship and were placed in sixty
separate districts, as it were in one day, each man
having been provided by the diocese with a horse
and cart.    With the aid of the Society for the
L liiiiitswKiKK
■HHHi
■H
mi
o
WBMBMKm  1
Missions 123
Propagation of the Gospel and the Colonial and
Continental Church Society, they were carefully
selected from a much larger number of aspirants,
and now they are being subjected to a much
more searching test—that of practical work. The
field itself will suffice to eliminate any who may
be unsuited or incapable, before they are admitted
into the ministry by ordination.
To guide the catechists in their work and to
supply what is lacking in mere lay ministrations,
a new order has been instituted in the Church,
that of drivers. These are peripatetic clergymen,
men of experience and of ability, armed with a
good team and placed in charge of six or eight
districts. They are continually on the trail, visiting the centres, supervising the work of the
catechists, resolving their doubts, administering
the Sacraments, and making a tour round their
field every six or eight weeks. Eight of these
men are now at work; each driver being placed
in the centre of his field, some hundred miles
square, or fifty by two hundred, with arms, as it
were, extended to reach out to the circumference
in every direction.
As experience has amply proved, the desultory
work of the pioneer missionary can only be made 124
Western Canada
effective by means of suitable church buildings.
The Saskatchewan plan aims at establishing a
fold in every centre, where the scattered sheep of
the flock may be gathered in. As the result of
many experiments, architectural plans for these
buildings have been agreed upon that are calculated to meet all the requirements of the case.
The " Canterbury Cathedrals " are to be thoroughly
ecclesiastical in design, with tower, Gothic windows
and high-pitched roof, and to cost the enormous
sum of $250. They seat sixty people. Their
dimensions are 16 ft. by 20 ft; side walls, 10 ft.
high; rafters 14 ft., raising the roof to a height
of 20 ft.; tower, 26 ft. by 2 ft. 6 in.; 1 ft. raised,
the Holy Table is to be 3 ft. by 4 ft. The
tower, which costs about $15, serves as a storm-
porch in bad weather, conceals the chimney, and
serves as the hall-mark of the Church of England
throughout the Diocese of Saskatchewan. Fifty
of these churches have been erected, fifty sums of
£$0 having been provided for the purpose by the
Church in the motherland. The ^50 sufficed to
purchase the lumber, the hauling and erection of
the building having been left to voluntary local
effort. All the specifications have been so carefully worked out that any local carpenter or handy    TWWVHHPNMI Missions
125
man could become the architect of these buildings.
ThereVre, e.g., 5,000 shingles and 30 lbs. shingle
nails; 400 ft., 1 by 4, for flooring; 22 rafters,
2 by 4 by 14; 40 studding, 2 by 4 by 10, spiked to
sill, not floor, etc. When the community increases
so as to crowd the building, the west end is taken
down, the tower removed, and a nave 20 ft. by 30
or 40 ft. added, to accommodate 150 or 200 people,
the original church becoming the chancel of the
new building. On the other hand, when expectations are not realized in regard to the neighbourhood, part of the east end is taken down, for which
provision is made in the plans, and a small chancel
added, which not only increases the accommodation but materially improves the appearance of
the building.
In these new settlements in the West it is impossible for the missionary to rent a house or to
find board and lodging. It is, therefore, a matter
of necessity that some sort of abode should be provided for him. The Saskatchewan plan provides
what has been called a " Lambeth Palace." This
structure is 12 ft. by 18 ft., with sloping roof, the
wall at the back being 10 ft. high, that in front
12 ft. It contains two four-light windows of
12  by 20 inches glass; one door, 2  ft.   8  in. by Western Canada
6 ft. 8 in.; 13 joists, 2 by 6 by 12. Floor tar
papered, side and roof double papered, etc., etc.
The materials cost ^30, or $150, and the building,
like the " Canterbury Cathedral," is to be erected
by local effort. Sixty of them have been provided
by friends of Saskatchewan in England. The
specifications are so explicit that any local carpenter could put every piece of timber in its
proper place. When the community desires to
provide a more spacious residence for its minister,
it need only erect an ordinary house in front of
the " Lambeth Palace," which forthwith becomes a
lean-to or kitchen to the new parsonage or
rectory.
The catechists are engaged to work for a bare
living, not for a stipend, and no obligation has
been incurred by the Church as to their future.
To the more intelligent and aspiring among them,
however, the hope is held out of possible admission
into the ranks of the sacred ministry. For the
purpose of training these men in theology, and as
an opportunity to those who, by success in the
field, " purchase to themselves a good degree," a
theological school has been established at
Emmanuel College, Prince Albert. A thoroughly
competent   staff of teachers has been provided, Missions
including the Bishop, Archdeacon Lloyd, the
Rev. T. C. Davies, and one or two able English
scholars. The course extends over from one to
three years, according to need; and care is taken
not to deplete the mission-field while the students
are attending their classes. In their present state
the catechists compare favourably with any class
of students in our theological colleges ; and, under
the vigilant eye of the Bishop of Saskatchewan,
no fear need be entertained of any lowering
of standard in the ministry of the Canadian
Church.
Thus the Church in Canada has incurred another large debt to her ever-devoted Mother in
England. In addition to the judicious and
generous help transmitted through the Society
for the Propagation of the Gospel, the Society
for Promoting Christian Knowledge, the Church
Missionary Society, and the Colonial and Continental Church Society, in other fields, here are
to be reckoned, as the gift of the Mother Church,
$12,500 for churches; $9,000 for parsonages;
$21,000 for stipends, and, if reckoned for three
years, $63,000; and about $6,000 for horses and
carts. And who can compute in dollars and cents
the value of sixty select young men as pioneer
0 128 Western Canada
missionaries ? The Church in the motherland has
surely done her part nobly at this crisis in our
history. It remains for us, members of the
Church in Canadaf on whom greater obligations
rest and with whom more is at stake, to do our
part with equal zeal and self-denial. Missionaries 129
chapter   vii
Missionaries
J^HE following brief sketches are only meant
^^ to illustrate some of the types of character
that have been produced in the Canadian mission-
field. The list could be indefinitely extended ; for
there is no field that has been more fruitful in the
production of versatile, self-denying, and heroic
men.
" Father  Pat "
" He gave himself."—Titus ii.  14.
One of the most striking and romantic figures
ever seen on the Pacific coast, or even in the
Dominion of Canada, was the Rev. Henry Irwin,
familiarly and lovingly known in all the West as
* Father Pat." He was everywhere known as the
miner's friend. Utterly regardless of self, he certainly shortened his days, if he did not actually
lose his life, through reckless unselfishness. He
thought nothing of tramping forty miles to hold 130 Western Canada
a service, perform a marriage, or nurse a sick man.
If self-denial for the welfare of others be one of
the brands of the LORD JESUS, then Father Pat
deserves a high place among missionary heroes.
The most unconventional of men was Father
Pat, in his attire and deportment. His conduct
often shocked the sense of propriety of those good
people who think that the conventions of civilized
life are like a second edition of the Ten Commandments. But in the eyes of the miner and the
railway man he was a sacred personage, and woe
betide the man who uttered a word against him.
He laboured for years at Kamloops during the
construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway, and
soon became the idol of all the railwaymen on
the line. If, as often happened, a snow-slide
engulfed a party of workmen, Father Pat was
sure to be at the head of the rescue party and
to wield a shovel with the sturdiest, and he never
rested till the poor buried railwaymen were disinterred from their icy tomb.
When gold was discovered in Rossland in 1895,
and thousands of people rushed to that Eldorado,
the Church appealed for a missionary when it had
no stipend to offer him. That was just the call
which   Father  Pat   could   not   resist.     He   had Missionaries 131
returned to Ireland on account of his father's
death; but the very next steamer brought him
on his way to Rossland, where he did a work
that will live as long as men preserve the memory
of noble deeds. His boundless energy overflowed
into all the surrounding country, and round all
the camp fires no name was more frequently
spoken with respect and affection than that of
Father Pat.
To Father Pat was granted a brief taste of
domestic bliss, but the cup was broken or ever
it reached his lips. After less than a year of
wedded happiness, his wife and infant child were
taken from him. He erected a modest stone
cross, to mark the spot where his loved ones lay,
in the hope of a glorious reunion. Those who
knew him best say he never recovered fully from
that blow. But he found a solace for his sorrow
in greater devotion to the need of others, and he
literally poured out the affection of his bereaved
but warm and loving heart upon the lonely, the
sorrowful, and the sick.
After several years of unremitting toil he asked
for a well-earned holiday to return to his native
land. He had no sooner taken his departure
than  the  whole community was startled by the 132
Western Canada
intelligence that Father Pat was dead. He must
have left the train near Montreal on a bitterly
cold day, and was found by a French farmer,
sitting on a snow-bank, almost frozen to death.
The ways of GOD are sometimes mysterious.
That he, who for years had lived as a pioneer in
the frosts and the snows of the Rocky Mountains,
should perish of cold within sight of the city of
Montreal, is a dispensation that must be left
hidden in the deep counsels of GOD. And so this
friend of the stranger, by a mysterious fate, was
taken, as an unknown stranger, to the Hotel Dieu,
Montreal, where he succumbed to his injuries.
It was only with the greatest difficulty that he
could be identified.
No sooner did the news of his sad fate become
known in British Columbia than the wish spontaneously arose in the whole community that his
remains should be enshrined in the province to
which he had consecrated the best years of his
life. The casket in which his mortal remains
were encased lay in the cathedral in New Westminster, where he had officiated as chaplain to
Bishop Sillitoe. Crowds of people came to pay
the last sad office of respect to all that was
mortal of Father   Pat.     On   a   lovely afternoon, ; Father Pat
To face page 13:  Missionaries 133
amid a large concourse of sorrowing friends, he
was laid to rest by the side of the wife and child
he had loved so fondly. And though his bodily
presence is removed, it will be many a long day
before his name is forgotten, and his unselfish
devotion cease to live as an influence for good, in
the grateful memory of many a miner and railwayman in British Columbia.
Bishop Sillitoe
" Full of grace and truth."—S. John i. 14.
Many are the gifts which the eternal Spirit
bestows upon His servants when He wishes to use
them in difficult and important service for the
Church. In few men could as many of those gifts
be found, combined in harmonious union, as in
Arthur Windeyer Sillitoe, the first Bishop of New
Westminster.
Like many others who could be mentioned, he
possessed in a high degree the sterling qualities
that are the foundation of all true character. He
could efface himself or merge himself in the
great cause of which he was so distinguished
an exponent. He could accomplish toilsome
journeys, undergo trials and dangers, bear hard- 134
Western Canada
ships and discomforts, as though they were the
joyous things of life ; and he never flinched before
any ordeal when duty called. He had wisdom to
lay solid foundations for the Church in one of the
most difficult of modern mission-fields. He had a
faith to remove mountains, which enabled him to
bear for years the burden of a heart-breaking episcopate. His fine spiritual nature was endowed with
deep insight into the things of God, and a power
to draw from the treasures of the Divine Word
things new and old. An accomplished musician,
he made the services of his cathedral a real model
for the churches in his diocese. In all these
things he was supremely gifted for the work
of a Missionary Bishop. But most of these he
possessed in common with many other men who
have been called to fill a like position.
Where Bishop Sillitoe stood unrivalled was
in a certain charm of manner—the outcome of
a loving, winning personality—that might fairly be
called irresistible. His house in New Westminster
was facetiously called " Hotel Sillitoe," because
of its unbounded exercise of the episcopal gift of
hospitality. Here his charm as a host was
equally inimitable, whether he entertained the
Princess Louise, an Indian chief, or a rustic from the backwoods. The most charming host, he
was an equally delightful guest. " No one was
so popular up the Cariboo road or among the
Cariboo people," summed up the estimation in
which he was held throughout his diocese. And
he won all hearts wherever he went. This proved
an invaluable gift in a new country to win men
to the Church; but it was equally effective in
higher and wider spheres. When the General
Synod met in Toronto in 1893, an<^ its conflicting
elements produced a dead-lock, it was Bishop
Sillitoe who steered the Church safely over the
rocks. It was his strength of conviction, his
soundness of judgment, his force of character,
translated into an irresistible persuasiveness of
manner and of speech, that disarmed all opposition, and rendered this signal service to the
Church.
To be the spiritual guide of many anxious
souls, to live in the memory of many grateful
hearts, to found a new diocese, and to pilot
a growing Church through a crisis in its history,
that was service enough for one man to render.
And this was the service rendered by Bishop
Sillitoe to the Church in Canada, and to the
whole  Anglican communion. 136
Western Canada
Born in Sydney, New South Wales, in 1840, he
came to England with his parents in 1854, and
proceeded first to King's College School, London,
then to Pembroke College, Cambridge, where he
took his degree of B.A. in 1862, and of M.A.
in 1866. Ordained deacon in 1869, and priest
in 1870, he served several curacies in England
till 1876, when he became British chaplain at
Geneva, from which he removed in 1877 to the
chaplaincy of the British Legation at Darmstadt.
Consecrated in 1879, he began the active duties
of his episcopate in 1880, in connection with
which he opened up several missions, which have
become strong centres of the Church's life and
work in New Westminster.' The story of his
visits to Cariboo, Nicola, Okanagan and Kootenay,
read like ancient history, so great are the changes
that recent years have wrought in the country.
At imminent risk of life and limb, he travelled
on the Cariboo road, along which now run the
palatial Canadian Pacific Railway trains. In
1881 he dedicated the first church in what might
be called the logging camp of Granville, where
now the city of Vancouver counts 70,000 inhabitants, and seven churches, nearly all self-supporting.   Wearied with toil and undermined by illness, Missionaries 137
he sank to rest in 1894, and was buried in the
cemetery of S. Mary's, Sapperton, which has
a commanding view of the Fraser River, the Gulf
of Georgia, and the glorious mountains of British
Columbia.
Bishop   Bompas
" In journeyings often."—2 Cor. xi. 26.
For self-abnegation, total and complete, and
for lifelong, unchanging devotion to duty, no one,
since the days of S. Paul, has realized the Christian
ideal in a higher degree than did Bishop Bompas.
From the moment when, as a young Lincolnshire
curate, he offered himself for work in the far
North, to the day when his remains were laid to
rest on the banks of the Yukon, he never once
faltered in his course or looked back. Once only
in an episcopate of thirty years did he come out
to civilization, and that at the call of paramount
duty. Once only besides, in a missionary career
of forty years, did he leave the dreary home of his
adoption, and that was to receive his marching
orders with his consecration as Bishop of Athabasca. And twice when he had the opportunity
of choosing the  easier lot he  chose the   harder Western Canada
and more lonely one: when Mackenzie River was
carved out of Athabasca in 1884, and Selkirk out
of Mackenzie River in 1891.
His was a peripatetic episcopate. He sojourned
in many places, but never resided in any one—
Vermilion, Chipewyan, Simpson, Norman, Wrig-
ley, Peel River, Rampart House, Selkirk, Carcross
—moving continually from place to place. His
love for the Indians was all-absorbing. To serve
them and to save them, he not only lived with
them, but he lived like them ; and at the last he
so felt the burden of the Indian work pressing on
his soul, that he was wont to consider himself the
Bishop and missionary of the Indians, almost to
the exclusion of his own kith and kin. Never was
a mission more fully and more heartily embraced,
and never was a work more conscientiously and
more perseveringly done.
A life of loneliness and of entire self-sacrifice,
it was crowned and glorified as a life of toil. His
constant and toilsome travels are probably unique
in the history of Missions. His trip out was
one of one hundred and seventy-seven days
from Liverpool to New York, through Rochester,
Niagara, Detroit, Chicago, and S. Paul; thence
to   Red   River,   Portage   La   Loche,  Chipewyan, Missionaries 139
Resolution,   and   Fort  Simpson;    much   of   the
way in a canoe against drifting ice, amid cold
and   hunger, fatigue and  hardship.    His second
great journey was down the  Mackenzie, up the
Peel, over the Rockies to Fort Yukon, back again
to Peel River, then ten weeks spent in ascending
the Mackenzie River to Lake Athabasca, and six
weeks more to reach Vermilion.    Here were more
than five thousand miles travelled in a canoe.   His
trip to England for consecration was only a pendant to  a  wonderful expedition extending over
two  years.     Crossing  overland   from  the   Peace
River to Hay River, he descended the Mackenzie
to its mouth, and went through Fort McPherson,
and over the Rockies as far west as Fort Yukon;
returned to Fort McPherson, after having walked
more than a thousand  miles with the Indians;
went back in the early summer  to the Yukon,
which he ascended three hundred miles ; came back
to Fort McPherson over the summit of the Rockies,
and went up the Mackenzie River to Fort Simpson
before the winter;  then started immediately for
England.     This   meant   two   years   of   almost
constant travel on snow-shoes, in canoes, or with
sleigh and dogs.   The return journey from England
was   equally   wonderfuL      He   was   consecrated, 140 Western Canada
married, and he sailed, all in one week; reached
New York, Chicago, Niagara, S. Paul, and Red
River; thence two months in an open boat to Fort
Simpson, to find starvation staring the Mission
in the face. And a climax in these wonderful
journeys was reached in what has been called his
race with winter. Unexpectedly called in the
interest of the peace of the Church to visit the
Pacific coast, late in the autumn, he set out to
attempt the impossible, and to accomplish what
had never been done before, and what has not
been done since. Leaving Dunvegan on the
Peace River on October 8th, he battled for eight
days against moving ice, and reached Rocky
Mountain House, October 17th; poled for eleven
days against the stream of the Parsnip River ;
made a portage of eighty miles to Stuart Lake;
reached Fort Babine, November 14th; once again
overland amid a terrific snowstorm to the forks
of the Skeena River; reached Fort Essington
on November 23rd, and Metlakatla on November
24th.
The above astonishing record is symptomatic of
his whole life. He was ever on the move. His
sphere of labour was one of the largest ever committed to man, in  which every journey  meant hundreds if not thousands of miles. His only
means of conveyance were dog-sleds, canoes, or
snow-shoes. Rivers had to be ascended, mountains climbed, rapids and portages overcome.
There were no roads, no inns, no settlements. It
is safe to say that never in the history of the
world were such journeys accomplished by the
efforts and endurance of one man. Indeed what
served to immortalize such men as Mackenzie
and Franklin, were to him the incidents of
a season. It is little short of wonderful that
amid such travels he should have found time
for study. In those desolate regions of the far
North he kept in touch with the ever-changing
currents of religious thought, made a special
study of the Syriac language, and was induced to
publish learned articles and books, in which he
sought to prove that the habits and modes of
thought of the Indians, and the physical conditions that prevailed in the Arctic circle, shed
peculiar light on some of the obscure passages of
the Bible.
Having run well and finished his course after
forty years of unparalleled isolation, privation,
and hardship, during which he sought to place an
impassable distance between himself and civiliza- 142
Western Canada
tion—where for months he did not see the face of
a white man, and only once a year received news
from the outside world—by a singular irony of
fate, he found this remotest and most isolated of
all the regions of the globe, through the unexpected
discovery of gold, was brought well within the
range of the world's activities. He saw steam-
engines plying at Dawson ; he went up and down
the Yukon in a steamboat, and he spent his last
days in sight of a railway station. One of his
daily experiences at the close of his life was to go
and meet the incoming train and receive his daily
mails. He sleeps on the banks of the Yukon ;
and his modest grave will tell to all future
generations, " Here lies a man who for the sake of
CHRIST, and of the poor Indian of the far North,
left everything behind him, that he might live and
preach the Gospel of redeeming love."
" A prince
Bishop   Sullivan
with God and with men.'
-Gen. xxxii. 28.
Edward Sullivan rendered invaluable service to
the Canadian Church. A commanding presence,
a  deep,  strong,  melodious   voice,  an   unrivalled ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Photo by Parkin]
To face page 142.
Bishop Bompas.
[ Winnipeg. L Missionaries
H3
power of word-painting, a logical mind that
pursued its subject to its farthest ramifications,
this was the equipment that made him a finished
orator. Thoughtful men found in him an illuminating teacher. Men buffeted by the doubts
and temptations of life found in him a sympathetic adviser and friend. Little children loved
him because they saw their own innocence, faith,
and enthusiasm reflected in his generous nature.
University students gave him their confidence,
because he led them onward and upward through
the dark and perplexing problems of life and
destiny. He was a man who seemed to be
specially sent by GOD to satisfy the needs of
anxious souls in an age of doubt and questioning,
and in the great intellectual centres of the world.
It was not surprising that his career should
have been one of steady, uninterrupted advance
from the lowest to the highest positions. Born in
Ireland in 1832, he graduated at Trinity College,
Dublin, in 1857. He came to Canada in 1858,
when he was ordained to the diaconate, and he
was raised to the priesthood in 1859. In 1862
he was called by S. George's Church, Montreal, to
assist its rector, Mr. (afterwards Archbishop) Bond.
In   1868   he   accepted   the   rectorship of Trinity 144 Western Canada
Church, Chicago; but his love of Canada and his
loyalty to Britain never allowed him to feel quite
at home in the American Republic; and he was glad
of the opportunity of returning to Montreal, when,
on the consecration of Bishop Bond, he accepted
the rectorship of S. George's Church. Here his
ministry was greatly blessed ; but at the height
of his popularity and success the voice of the
Church called him to one of the most anxious
and arduous tasks that ever confronted a pioneer
Bishop. This call meant the sacrifice of his happy
home-life, and parting from a congregation that
was devoted to him, and from a community by
means of which his power was felt through the
length and breadth of the land. But the Church
had called. Without a moment's hesitation he
made the sacrifice and assumed the burden ; and
Dr. Sullivan became the second Bishop of
Algoma.
It was here that his most trying, and, at the
same time, his best work was done. To many'
it seemed a waste of precious ointment to take
this pre-eminently gifted man from the students
of McGill University, and the hard-headed
business men of Montreal, and send him to
minister to  the  scattered settlers, or, to preach Missionaries
H5
through an interpreter, to the roving Indians,
on the northern shores of Lake Huron and Lake
Superior. But a spirit of divine wisdom often
presides over the councils of the Church, and
overrules the folly and shortsightedness of men
for the glory of GOD and the spread of His
kingdom. It required the cares and trials of his
new and difficult position to bring out his
character and gifts at their best, and, as Bishop
of Algoma, Dr. Sullivan shone as a star of the
first magnitude. From his lips Algoma became
a household word throughout Eastern Canada.
He had the gift of investing his episcopal visitations with so much eloquence and poetry,
that people forgot the agonies of the Bishop
in the triumphs of the artist; and a visit from the
Missionary Bishop of Algoma, notwithstanding
its inevitable appeals, was looked forward to by
many congregations as one of the events of the
season. Even the motherland, so rich in eloquent
voices, and so inured to moving appeals from the
four quarters of the globe, acknowledged that
his words rang out with a force and pathos that
could not be surpassed. Then he returned, laden
with spoils, to provide ministrations for the newer
portions of his diocese.    The work advanced by
L 146 Western Canada
leaps and bounds. His clergy were doubled in
the course of his short episcopate. Churches
and parsonages sprang up on every side. And,
under the most unpromising circumstances, the
Missionary Diocese of Algoma was launched on
a career of progress that bids fair to make it one
of the most interesting, and, it may be, in due
time, one of the most important of our Canadian
dioceses.
There remained but one distinction that could
be added to such a life, such an episcopate, and
that was the halo that surrounds the death-bed
of a saint. The care of all the churches in
Algoma had proved too much even for his iron
frame. Enfeebled health drove him to seek much-
needed rest, and he spent the winter of 1895 as
chaplain at Christ Church, Mentone, in the South
of France. A return to Algoma seemed to be
like a return to certain death, but he bravely
faced the emergency. A solution of the difficulty
came from an unexpected quarter. The Rector
of S. James's Cathedral, Toronto, was elected to
the See of Niagara, and he was called to fill the
vacancy. Once again were overflowing congregations, and the warm affections of a devoted
people.    Once  again the power of his eloquence M
issionaries 147
extended beyond S. James's congregation and the
city of Toronto. But on December 29, 1897,
he was called to suffer the loss of a lovely
and accomplished daughter. It may, perhaps,
be said that his affectionate nature never fully
recovered from that blow. On December 15,
1899, he paid his last pastoral visit to a very poor
woman. On December 17th he finished preparing
his last sermon, which he was unable to preach.
It was during these last days that his simple trust
in God and his ardent love of Jesus Christ
shone forth in all their beauty. He seemed to
live in that other world to which he was hastening.
He died on January 6, 1900.
On June 29, 1882, the day of his consecration,
the congregation of S. George's, Montreal, presented him with two sets of robes, one of satin
lawn, the other of rougher material, more suited to
the work of his missionary diocese. These latter
were called the " Algoma robes." Many hundreds
of times, during the fourteen years of his episcopate,
had the settler's cabin, the fisherman's shanty,
the lumber camp, the miner's hut, the Indian
wigwam, the bush, the forest, the lake shore been
his robing-room. Once again the I Algoma
robes " were put on, but by other hands than his. 148
Western Canada
On January 9, 1900, his remains lay in quiet
state in the cathedral, while a continuous stream
of people, young and old, rich and poor, passed,
and paused to take a last lingering look at the
features of one so long and well known in pulpit,
on platform, on the streets of the city, in the
homes of the poor, wherever God's work needed
help and advocacy. Here an aged workman, or
an infirm old woman, there a hardy son of toil,
beside the citizen of wealth, yonder a child of the
Sunday School; all were found in that great
stream of humanity, which sadly and solemnly
defiled through the sacred building. The procession formed and reached S. James's Cemetery.
The final words were spoken, and all that was
mortal of the noble and good man, beloved of so
many, was laid to rest " in sure and certain hope
of the resurrection to eternal life."
Archbishop   Machray.
I A wise master builder."—1 Cor. hi. 10.
The life of Archbishop Machray would alone
fill a volume. Space forbids us to do more than
indicate the main lines of his life, his character,
and his work. Missionaries 149
Born in Aberdeen in 1832, he graduated with
the highest honours, in 1855, from Sidney Sussex
College, Cambridge, of which he was soon after
elected Fellow. Ordained deacon in 1855, priest in
1856, he became Dean of the College in i860, and
Ramsden University preacher in 1865. Appointed
Rector of Madingley in 1862, and consecrated
Bishop of Rupert's Land in 1865, he successively
became Metropolitan of the ecclesiastical Province
of Rupert's Land in 1874, Chancellor of the
University of Manitoba in 1877, and in 1893 ne
was elected Primate of all Canada, and appointed
Prelate of the Most Distinguished Order of S.
Michael and  S. George.
What wonder that such a man with such a
record should have become distinguished in many
lines of work, as an educationalist, as a statesman,
as an ecclesiastic, as a missionary. Though he
began his life-work in an obscure corner of the
world, his lot was cast in a most eventful period,
and he soon became recognized as one of the
great men of Canada and of the Empire. He
stood erect like a granite pillar carved with
deep lines of courage, perseverance, judgment,
energy, self-denial, and unflinching devotion to
duty. 150 Western Canada
His personal history reads like a list of honours,
rising gradually from college prizes to Imperial
distinctions ; and his work was as complete and
well-rounded as his life. He saw at a glance that
if the Church was to succeed it must become self-
supporting ; and even in the almost complete
dearth of population and material wealth he set
on foot a scheme of systematic giving. He saw,
as a necessary consequence of self-support, that
the Church must be self-governing; and he
accepted a Synod as a settled question, and
exerted all his energies to make it efficient. He
saw that the strength of self-government lay in
the intelligence of the people ; and he set to work
to establish a system of common schools. Anticipating the evils inherent in a purely secular
education, he made provision for religious instruction in the common schools, and in Sunday
Schools. Knowing that the pivot of the whole
educational system lay in the teachers, he established centres where an efficient teaching staff
could be trained. Applying the same principles
to the Church, he founded a Divinity School
which, to the end of his episcopate, he cherished
as the keystone of his policy. Coming from one
of the greatest seats of learning in Europe, he did not fail to realize that theological training needs
the broadening influence of classics and mathematics, science and art; and he sowed the seeds,
whose ripened harvest was seen a few years later
in the University of Manitoba. Never once
losing touch with fact and life and nature, his
vigilant eye saw that behind every system and
organization there must be a living man to give it
vigour and efficiency; and he instituted a staff
of dean and canons to conduct services in the
cathedral, to act as professors of theology in the
college, and to hold missionary services in the outlying portions of the diocese. Here was a system,
complete in all its parts, and bound together in
logical connection, that could only have been
devised by the brain and carried out by the
energy of a truly great man.
And he had the singular good fortune to see
the fruition of his plans and of his toils. He saw
Fort Garry, with a population of three hundred
souls, expand into the city of Winnipeg with
a population of eighty thousand. He saw the
advent of the telegraph and the railway ; he saw
the inauguration and successful working of the
Provincial University ; he saw twenty clergy grow
into two hundred, and non-existent offertories into 152 Western Canada
scores of thousands of dollars; he saw S. John's
College become a true seminary of the Church,
whose graduates went forth to the Peace River
and the Athabasca, the Saskatchewan and the
Mackenzie; he saw his vast diocese subdivided,
and himself surrounded by eight suffragans ; and,
as the crowning experience of his wonderful life,
he saw the unification of the whole Canadian
Church from ocean to ocean* the Missionary
Society become a living force in supplying the
sinews of war for his wide jurisdiction, and
himself installed as the first incumbent of the
elevated position of Primate of all Canada. It is
given to few men to lead so full a life, and to see
in old age so full a realization of the hopes and
plans that were formed in early manhood.
After a lingering illness he died in Winnipeg
in 1904, where Church and State combined to
do him honour. And he was laid to rest on the
banks of the Red River, in the beautiful graveyard
of S. John's Cathedral, which he had made
the centre of his missionary and educational
activities. CHAPTER   VIII
The Church—In the Nation, the
Empire, the World
'"J^V OW when all the foregoing facts are brought
«"^6 to  a  focus, the resultant  conclusion  is   a
call  to  one  of the  greatest   undertakings
committed to the Church of Christ.
And this call comes reinforced by every consideration that can appeal to the heart of serious
Christian men and Churchmen. It is the call of
CHRIST; it is the call of the Church ; it is the
call of the hungry, perishing souls of men ; as
those calls come indeed from every part of the
mission-field. But from this field we can hear,
as undertones, many varying needs, many
unrivalled opportunities. We hear the pathetic
appeal of the Indian, whose lands we have
inherited; whose means of livelihood we have
destroyed; whose character we have contaminated by our diseases and our vices; and whom we have threatened with complete extinction.
We hear the appeal of the foreigner from China
or Poland, who has escaped from age-long ignorance and thraldom, to find in our free institutions
a city of refuge, where he can develop the higher
attributes of manhood and citizenship. We hear
the cry of the refugee Jew from persecuting
Russia, on whose person has been inflicted the
tortures of the Middle Ages, with the refined
instruments of modern civilization. And above
all we hear the cry of our own kith and kin, men
of English blood and speech, members of British
Christianity, and of the Church of England, who
have left the fabrics, the endowments, and the
countless opportunities of the motherland to face
the loneliness and hardships of pioneer life,
without churches, without Sundays, without
Sunday Schools, without means of grace, to
become the fathers and founders of young communities, and to reproduce in those communities,
from a moral and a religious point of view, what
our care or our neglect has produced in them.
And in the new conditions in which they are
placed their hearts are peculiarly open to the
claims of CHRIST and of His Church. Separation
from home and friends, a hard lot in the present The Church
and an uncertain future, often lead them to Bethel,
like Jacob, where they see an open heaven and an
upturned ladder with the angels of God ascending
and descending upon it. There is perhaps no
mission-field in all the world where as many
precious souls may be won to the LORD JESUS
Christ. Men may be brought by thousands
into living spiritual union with Him. And, being
so won, the position in which they are placed gives
them incalculable power for the spread of His
spiritual kingdom. They can give a tone to the
young communities in which they dwell, and
leaven them with saving influences that will
endure through many generations. And they
are not mere units in the midst of small communities, but members of a large brotherhood,
citizens of a great kingdom, fathers and founders
of a great nation. They are Englishmen, in the
midst of an English people, forming an integral
part of the British Empire.
Now think for a moment what this implies !
Think what the Jewish nation has been to the
world! Its psalmists and prophets have been the
great social, moral, and religious teachers of the
ages. Think what the Greek nation has done for
the world!   Its sages and poets and artists still sit 156 Western Canada
in our seats of learning, and instruct our teachers
in the principles of philosophy and art and letters !
Think what Britain has been and still is to the
world ! The mother of nations ; the mother of
Parliaments; the mother of the institutions that
guarantee freedom and justice even to the poorest
and most helpless; the civilizer, the evangelizer
of the world. Then consider that our Canadian
mission-field carries in its bosom all the possibilities of a powerful national life. Its immeasurable areas, its inexhaustible resources, its
invigorating climate, its high level of general
intelligence, its flourishing institutions, and its
social conditions that appeal to all that is
best and noblest in man—can any one doubt
that these, under the blessing of God, will
produce a great nation in the northern part of
North America in the course of the twentieth
century ?
Now consider what an opportunity is offered, in
the bosom of this young nation, for the exercise of
the moral and religious influences that alone can
make a nation truly great. A large proportion of
the immigrants who come to our shores are by
birth, profession, and training, members of our
Church.   If we simply claim our own from among The Church
157
them, and minister to them, we must infallibly
exercise a far-reaching influence on the national
life.
And the Church of England in Canada is
peculiarly fitted to this special work. It is but
a repetition of what she has done in the motherland. She is the historic Church of the English
race. She has adapted herself to the conditions
of life in the new world. With all the steadying
influences of a hierarchy, a creed, a liturgy, and
the noble traditions inherited from the Mother
Church, she is nevertheless a purely democratic
institution. She trains her own clergy, taken from
her own sons, in her own Theological Colleges.
She calls them to her parishes by a system of
patronage of her own creation. She elects them
to her bishoprics under canons which she has
herself framed. She makes laws for the government of all her members, official and private
alike. In the love and loyalty of her children
she will find in due time ample support for all
her ministrations. And experience has shown
that there is no body of teaching, no form of
worship, no moral and spiritual influence that can
appeal with greater force to the sober thought
of the modern man than the ancient creeds, the 158 Western Canada
reverent congregational service, and the Gospel
of the Atonement and of sanctification that are
ever associated with the ministrations of the
Church of England.
Building up a great nation in the virgin fields
of the Dominion, we are surely called also to
build up a great national Church. For we are
not sending missionaries and holding services
in a desultory fashion, and, as it were, at random;
but we are moving along well-defined lines. We
are nursing missions into parishes, each with its
incumbent, its church, it parsonage, its schoolroom, and the full equipment of parish life. We
are banding parishes into dioceses, each with its
Bishop, its Synod, its executive, and the full
equipment of diocesan life. And the dioceses,
self-governing within well-defined limits, and in
course of time to become self-supporting, are all
welded together into one central organization that
enables East and West and North and South,
though thousands of miles apart, to realize the
unity of the one Church, to speak with one voice,
and to act like one man, on behalf of the trust
committed to her care, and of the vocation wherewith she is called.
To help build up a nation !    To help build up The Church
l59
a national Church! That is the mission with
which the Anglican communion is charged in the
Canadian mission-field to-day. Can we imagine
a more inviting, more inspiring, more responsible
call ?
We have not the space to pursue the inquiry
further. But manifestly we are only standing
here on the threshold of the great theme; for
beyond the Dominion lies the British Empire,
, of which it is an integral part. Who can set limits
to the influence of a great Canadian nation, and
a strong Canadian Church, entrenched in the
centre of a world-wide Empire ? And beyond the
British Empire lies the wide, wide world. Who
can fix bounds to the influence of such an Empire,
essentially moral, humanitarian, and Christian in
all the main features of its life, upon the destiny
of the whole race of man and of the universal
kingdom of JESUS Christ ? with the Anglican
communion as its heart, its intellect, its
conscience, its inspiration, its most vigorous
missionary influence, perhaps even the centre
and basis of the reunion of a divided and
enfeebled Christendom. This would usher in
the age of gold; for it would be the fulfilment
of the Lord's   most   earnest   prayer,  and   the i6o
Western Canada
accomplishment of His most cherished work,
" That they all may be one . . . that the world
may believe that Thou has sent Me." | And
there shall be one fold, and One Shepherd." GENERAL   INDEX
Alaska, 39, 48, 82.
Alberta, 2, 4, 19, 21, 22, 24,
76, 87, 97, 104, 105.
Alert Bay,  39, 42,  84, 86,
114.
Algoma, 40, 42, 45, 46, 47,
58-60, 101, 145, 146.
Algoma Indian homes, 40.
Anderson, Bishop, 36, 66,68.
Antle, Rev. John, 86, 114.
Athabasca Lake, 33, 152.
„ Diocese   of,   42,
48, 66, 93-95> IOI> I37-
Auxiliary, Woman's, 47, 52,
112.
Battleford, 37, 42, 96, 99.
Bishops, House of, 46.
Blacklead Island, 37, 114.
Bompas, Bishop, 13, 89, 91-
93, 95, iSj-141-
Bond, Archbishop, 143,144.
British Columbia, 4, 9, 15,
33, 37, 39, 44, 45> 49, 55,
81, 84, 108, 132, 133, 137.
Budd, Henry, 34, 35, 36.
Caledonia, Diocese of, 42,
84, 86-89, 102.
Calgary, City, 21, 42, 55, 72.
„       Diocese of, 84, 67,
71-74, 101.
Canadian   Northern    Railway, 64, 96, 98.
Canadian   Pacific  Railway,
13, 15, 49, 77, 86, 97, 98,
105, 106, 130, 136.
" Canterbury   Cathedrals,"
124, 126.
Carcross, 37, 42, 138.
Cariboo, 44, 78, 83, 94, 135,
136.
Catechists, 122-127.
Chipewyan, Fort, 36, 37, 82,
.   138.
Churchill Fort, 28, 37, 63,
65.
Church Missionary Society,
26, 40, 41, 48, 52, 61, 64,
84.
Church Schools, 34, 42, 67,
68, 73, 79, 80, 86, 93.
Cochran,  Archdeacon,   28,
29, 3°, 36.
Colonial   and    Continental
Church Society, 98, 123,
127.
Columbia Coast Mission, 86,
109-114.
„       River, 8, 12, 82,
,,       Diocese of, 42, 49,
76, 83, 84, 102, in.
Comox, 84.
Cowley, Archdeacon, 32.
161 i6i
General Index
Cranbrook, 75, 108.
Cridge, Rev. C. H., 44, 82,
83.
Cumberland Lake,  34, 36,
37, 84, 96.
Davies, Rev. T. C, 127.
Devon, 34, 37.
Ditchingham, Sisters of, 39,
79-
Donald, 106, 108.
Duncan, W., 37-39.
Du Vernet, Bishop, 87, 88.
Edmonton, 23, 72, 73, 98.
Education, 27,  28, 41,  42,
67,  103.
Effects of Missions, 30-33,
36, 38.
Emmanuel College, 96, 126.
" Father Pat," 107,129-133.
Fernie, 75, 108.
Field, 75.
Fraser, River, 8, n, 39, 44,
82, 8^, 104, 137.
Galicians, 23, 102, 104.
Golden, 107.
Good, Rev. J. B., 39.
Grand Forks, 76, 108.
„      Rapids,   28,  29,   32,
36, 37-
„     Trunk  Pacific   Railway, 61, 64, 86, 98.
Great Bear Lake, 12.
Greenwood, 107.
Hay River, 42, 92.
Herschel Island, 37, 93.
Hills, Bishop, 44, 82, 84, 86,
Holmes, Bishop, 61, 63.
Horden, Bishop, 35, 63.
Hudson, Bay, 3, 7, 10,  n,
18, 25, 26, 60, 63, 65, 94.
Hunter, Archdeacon, 35.
Image Plains, 28, 29,
Indian Homes, 40, 53, 60.
Inglis, Bishop, 45.
James, Rev. R., 36.
Japanese,   79,   81,   86,   89,
102, 104.
Jones, Rev. David, 28, 32.
Kamloops, 130.
Kaslo, 107.
Keewatin,   Diocese  of,  48,
61, 63-67, 101.
Kelowna, 107.
Kirkby, Archdeacon, 89, 92.
Klondyke, 90, 91, 94, 104.
Kootenay, 4, 16, 49, 74-77,
80,   102,   105,   106,   108,
136.
Lachine, 12, 13.
Lac La Ronge, 35, 42, 96.
Lake of the Woods, 64.
Lesser Slave Lake, 37, 42.
Lloyd, Archdeacon, 98, 99,
122, 127. General Index
163
Lofthouse, Bishop, 63, 66.
Lytton, 39, 42, 79.
Macdonald, Archdeacon, 92
Machray,   Archbishop,   68
148-152.
Mackenzie River, 12, 25, 91
102, 152.
„        River, Diocese of.
42, 48, 66, 91-93,102,138,
Mason, Rev. W., 63.
McLean, Bishop, 96, 100.
McMurray, Archdeacon, 39
McPherson, Fort, 37, 82, 92
Metlakatla, 38, 42, 89.
Michel, 76.
Missionary Society, D. and
F.M.S., 49, 53-
Missionary Society, Church
of England in Canada, 50,
51, 112, 152.
Moose Factory, 37.
„       Fort, 36, 42.
I       Lake, 36.
Moosonee, 42, 48, 60-63, 66.
Moosehide, 37, 91.
Mountain,  Bishop,   13,  32,
45, 47-
Muskoka, 58, 59.
Nanaimo, 83, 84.
Nelson, 75, 107, 108.
New Westminster, 42, 102,
132.
„ ,, Diocese of,
49, 77-84, 86, 108, in.
Norman, Fort, 37, 82,  93,
138.
Okanagan, 4, 16, 105, 106,
136.
O'Meara, Dr., 40.
Organization of Church, 45.
Oxenden, Bishop, 47.
Parry Sound, 59.
Pas, The, 34, 35.
Peace River, 11, 12, ^3, 37,
94» 95, 152.
Peck, Rev. E. J., 115.
Peel River, 138.
Pelly, Fort, 36.
Perrin, Bishop, 84, 86.
Phoenix, 108.
Port Arthur, 59, 95.
Prince Albert, 37, 42, 54, 85.
96.
Qu'Appelle, Diocese of, 42,
48, 66, 69-72, 101, 119.
Rainy Lake, 37.
„      River, 64.
Rampart House, 37, 138.
Red River,   10,   13,  17-19,
26, 28, 33-35, 37> 44, 48,
- 66, 152.
Regina,72, 85.
Resolution, Fort, 37, 92.
Revelstoke, 75, 107, 108.
Rock Bay, 86, 113.
Rossland, 76, 107, 130, 131.
. 164
General Index
Rupert's Land, 7, 32, 36, 37,
48, 54, 60, 63, 66-69, 101,
119, 149.
Saanich, 8^, 84.
Salmon Arm, 108.
Sapperton, 137.
Sargent, Dean, 70.
Saskatchewan,   19,   23,  24,
65, 71, 76, 87, 96,
101, 104, 105.
,,      Diocese of, 42, 48,
66, 95-100, 119, 120, 121,
124-126.
Sault Ste Marie, 3, 31, 41,
59, 60.
Scanterbury, 36.
Selkirk, Diocese of, 37, 42,
48, 67, 54, 89-91, 138.
Settee, James, 27, 35.
Sillitoe, Bishop, 81,132-137.
Simpson, Fort,  12,  37,  82,
'     93, !38.
Skeena, 82, 104.
Small, Archdeacon, 39.
Smithers, Rev. W., 32.
S.P.G.. 55, 123, 127.
S.P.C.K., 55, 112. 127.
Stanley, 37, 96.
Sullivan,  Bishop, 60,   142-
148.
Superior, Lake, 1, 3, 7, 12,
48, 58, 59, 105.
Texada Island, 114.
Trail, 76, 107,
Transcontinental Railways,
15,  101.
Trout Lake, 108.
Vancouver, City of, 15, 16,
55,56,77,78,
80, 87,    112,
113,  !36.
,, Island, 4, 9, 78,
82-85, no.
Vernon, 75.
Vermilion, 37, 138.
Victoria, 44, 48, 82, 84-86,
104, 112, 113.
Wellington, 84.
West, Rev. John, 26, 28, 34,
35, 44>.
Whale River, 118.
Wilson, Rev. E. F., 40.
Windermere, 108.
Wrigley, 93, 138.
Yale, 39, 42, 44, 79.
York,  Fort, 26-28, 34,  35,
37-
York Factory, 63.
Yukon, 25, 48, 89, 94,  105
137, 142.
„       Diocese  of,   37,  42,
89-91,  102.
PRINTED  BY  A.   R.   MOWBRAY  AND  CO. LTD.,   OXFORD ip^l-    

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