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3800 miles across Canada. Illustrated Haldane, J. W. C. (John Wilton Cuninghame) 1900

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         3800 Miles
Across Canada
BY
J. W. C. HALDANE
Civil and Mechanical Consulting Engineer
ILLUSTRATED
LONDON:
SIMPKIN, MABSHALL, HAMILTON, KENT & CO. LTD.
1900 LIVERPOOL:
D. MARPLES AND CO., PRINTERS,
LORD STREET. Go
THE   RIGHT   HON.   THE
EAEL OF ABEBDEEN, G.C.M.G., LLJD., D.C.L.,
ETC.,   ETC.,
LATE   GOVERNOR-GENERAL  OF   CANADA,
THIS   RECORD   OF   A   TOUR,
THE   INTEREST   OF   WHICH* WAS   MUCH   INCREASED
BY  HIS   KINDLY  RENDERED  ASSISTANCE,   IS
IRespectfullE 2)e&icatet>
BY
THE  AUTHOB.  PBEFACE.
The manner in which my works on Engineering,
referred to at the end of this volume, have been
received by all classes of readers at home and abroad,
has encouraged me to prepare another, entitled 3,800
miles across Canada, which is written in a popular
and attractive style throughout. To enable me to
attain this desirable object, I recently traversed that
country to Vancouver Island, remaining for various
periods at the numerous places of interest referred to
in the following pages.
During my visit to the Dominion, I gathered as
much special information as possible regarding its
immense field for the industrious and enterprising;
its boundless resources for trade and commerce; its
steamship connections with Japan, China, Australia,
the British Isles, and other parts of the world; its
people ; its scenery; its engineering features; incidents of travel, and, indeed, everything else from
every point of view which could help to make this
volume useful and interesting to readers.
As I had the honour of making the tour under the
kind auspices of the Governor-General—Lord Aberdeen—and other influential people in Canada, every
source of trustworthy knowledge was thrown open to
me, of which I fully availed myself.    From his late Vlll
Excellency I have also liad the honour of receiving
the following letter for publication :—
London, W., April 5th, 1899.
J. W, C. Haldane, Esq.,
My Dear Sir,
As you are good enough to purpose to
dedicate your book on Canada to myself, I beg to offer
my assent to your obliging proposition.
Having been officially resident in Canada, and
having had the opportunity of meeting you during your
tour in that country, I am personally aware of the
extent and comprehensiveness of your travels, which
will doubtless have given you ample opportunity for
collecting a large mass of information, which will, I
hope, be perused by many readers with interest and
advantage.
Believe me,
Very truly yours,
I ABEBDEEN.
Those just referred to, and many others as well,
who generously aided me in my enterprise, have been
mentioned in detail throughout this volume.
It may be added that I was for many years employed, firstly, as an apprentice in the works of the
North British Bailway Company, and Messrs. Denny
Brothers of Dumbarton, and, subsequently, on the
staff of Messrs. Neilson & Co., and Tod & McGregor
of Glasgow, and, lastly, of Messrs. Laird Brothers of
Birkenhead. In 1873, I commenced business as a
consulting engineer in general practice in Liverpool,
and, as I have not only written professional books
which have received the highest appreciation of the
press and of the public, but am also the author of IX
•several equally esteemed lectures which are described
at the end, I have reason to hope that this new
treatise will meet with a similarly kind reception.
The plates have been taken from the choicest
photographs, and the folding map is the latest and
most complete production I could obtain.
It may further be stated that I have written in
freehand, unconventional, and simple style, trusting
that much which might otherwise prove uninteresting
to many may thus be somewhat enlivened. Finally, I
have throughout the book adopted, when appropriate,
the terms " Happy Traveller," and " Chiel," with the
object of avoiding as much as possible the phrases
""I did this," and "we did that," for obvious reasons.
J. W. C. H.
30 North John Street,
Liverpool, December, 1899.  XI
CONTENTS.
CHAPTEE I.
PAGE
Quebec and its Neighbourhood.—How the Author's Infor
ms
mation was obtained—Various Classes of People interviewed—Their diversified Opinions—The Author as the
§ Happy Traveller"—His own treatment of People
and Things—Liverpool to Quebec—Felicities of the
Voyage — Sights and Scenes of Quebec — Wonderful
Saguenay Chasm—How caused—Quebec Province—A
curious Ship-launching Story of 1750—Quebec City,
the Originator of Atlantic Steam Navigation—Cunard
Brothers' Sbare in tbe Undertaking—Royal William
from Quebec to London, 1833—Her Career as a Spanish
War Steamer—Origin of Cunard Company, 1840—
Steam Navigation of to-day       1
CHAPTEB  II.
Montreal and its Surroundings.—Jacques Cartier, the
Columbus of Canada—Origin of the Name—Cham-
plain, its Benefactor—Maisonneuve, the Founder of
Montreal—Topography of the City—Some of its prominent People—A former Governor-General and his
mistaken Guest—Origin of McGill University—Its first
Principal—Subsequent Career—Dean Bovey—His New
Engineering and Physics Buildings—Wonderful success
of the University—How the "Happy Traveller" was
Interviewed — Montreal and its Public Buildings —
Electrical Tramcars and their Peculiarities—River St.
Lawrence—Its Leading Objects of Interest—A great
River Steamer     17
CHAPTEB  III.
Canada, and its   Travelling   Resources.—Dimensions of
the Country—Its Division into Provinces—Canada as it Xll
was—Two Methods of originating a Railway—Origin
of the Canadian Pacific Railway—Explorations and
Surveys of the Country—Wonderful Rapidity of Construction—Laying the last Rail—Immediate Results—
Course of the Line across the country—Other means
of Travel by Land and Water—Montreal, Ottawa, and
Georgian Bay Canal—Its object—General Plan—Enormous Lake Traffic—Commercial Advantages of the New
and Direct Route to the Sea—Subsidiary Advantages—
Engineering Features of the Canal—Opinions of eminent
Canadians regarding its value     36
CHAPTEB IV.
Westward Bound.—Montreal to Ottawa—History of the
City—Its Parliamentary and other Public Buildings—
Chaudiere Falls—A Railway and Steamboat Centre—Its
chief Industries — Unique Wood Pulp Paper, etc.,
Works — Their River Motive Power—Gigantic Saw
Mills — Their Peculiarities — Hints about Travelling
Trunks — Summer Costume—On the road to Fort
William—Aspect of the Country—A Sleeping Car—
Arrangement and Method of Working—Courtesies of
j the Car—Heading for Lake Superior—Lovely Surroundings— " Striking " the Lake—Charms of Mountain and
Sea and Sky—The Belles of Schreiber—" The Chiel"
amongst them—Shades of Night again—Arrival at Fort
William        50
CHAPTEB V.
Province op Ontario. — Its Immense Proportions—Geographical Position—Vast Water Transportation Resources—Peculiarities of the Province — The Great
Lakes—Early days in Northern Ontario—Its Physical
Features and Resources—Marvels of the Minor Lakes—
A Gold-Mine Story—A new Era for the District—Difficulties and Triumphs of the Early Colonists—Qualities
necessary to obtain Success—Opinions of Settlers—
Southern Ontario—Guelph Agricultural College—Its
Immense Advantages—Experimental Farms and their XUl
Uses—Farming an advanced Practical Science—Timber
Industry—The Trees of Canada—Bee-Hive Hamilton—
Fruit Growing on a Gigantic Scale—Bush Fires—
Their Causes—Government Protection of Forests     65
CHAPTEB VI.
Ontario Further Considered.—Fort William—Grain Elevators—C. P. R. Lake Route—" Central Time "—Twenty-
four hour System—Good Friends in the Train—Rat
Portage—Glacial effects on the Land—Wondrous Lake
of the Woods—Its innumerable Islands—Country honeycombed with Lakes and Waterways—Prosperity of the
District—Immense Water Power for general Purposes—
How obtained—Action of Turbines—Great Hydraulic
Installations at Lachine and Chamblis—Lake of the
Woods Flour Milling Works—Gold Reduction Works—
Gold Mining of the District—Its great Future—Boat
and Canoe Transportation—The Muskoka Region     79
CHAPTEB VII.
Province op Manitoba.—Rat Portage crowds for Winnipeg
Exhibition—Curious Difficulty—Entrance to the great
Prairie — " Western Canada " — Its Extent and Resources—Grain producing Powers—Climate—Systematic
Division of the Land—Manitoba and its Peculiarities—
Rapid increase of Population—The Prairie for 800
miles—An Ancient Lake, the cause of its great Fertility—Mistaken ideas concerning the Province—As it
is in Winter and Spring—Its great popularity—Winnipeg during the Exhibition—Another unexpected Difficulty—"Give you a Cot with 20 others, Sir?"—Did
better—Origin of Winnipeg—Rapid Extension—Great
Future—How some Cities have grown	
95-
CHAPTEB VIII.
A Trans-Continental C. P. R. Train Popularly Considered.—Railway Works at Winnipeg—RoUing Stock
Practice—Composition of a Mail Train—Peculiarities
of the Locomotive—The   Spark-Arrester—Cow-Catcher XIV
Incidents—The Tender—Baggage Car—Colonist Car—
Tourist Car—First-Class Car—Irish Amateur Signalman — European and Trans-Atlantic Systems compared—New System of Electric Train Lighting—Train
Officials—The Conductor—Brakesman—Dining Saloon
Staff—Sleeping Car Attendants—Engine Driver and
Fireman—"Hell-Fire Tom"—How two frightful Accidents were averted—The Safest Occupation      109
' CHAPTEB IX. if
Winnipeg op the Present and Future. Winnipeg as a
City—Its Public Buildings, &c.—A Government Centre—
The Chicago of Canada—Heavy Tramcar Trains—Exhibition and its Visitors—Enterprise of the People—
Prairie Children's First Visit to a City—The Australian
Bush-reared Author's similar experience—Cause of Winnipeg's Prosperity—How the C. P. R. enriched a
Desert — Eventful Career of Winnipeg—The famous
"Boom"—Crashes—Speculative Extortioners—Primitive
means of Transport—The Wilderness of the Past—
Flatness of the Country—Embellishment of Winnipeg—
I Main Street" of the Future—The Love of the Beautiful—Mosquitoes on the Red River—Their sting Scientifically considered—Prevention better than Cure  123
CHAPTEB X.
The Resources op Canada for the Industrious and Enterprising.—Reminiscences of the Archbishop of Rupert's
Land—"Canada should be better known at Home"—
Business Life in the Old Country—Manual Arts of
To-day—Value of Workshop Training—Lord Dashe as
a Smith — The Shipbuilding Marquis—Advantages of
Practical Knowledge in the Colonies—How "Practical
Hands" succeed as Farmers — A Successful Farmer's
Story—Valuable Lessons for all—Opinions of others we
met—Secrets of Success in Canada—How the Government helps Settlers—How the C. P. R. aids them—
Misunderstandings regarding the Climate — Hints for
the Enterprising—New Life on New Lines  137 XV
CHAPTEB XI.
Sights and Scenes of the Prairie.—The People of the
Dominion from a British point of view—Two Victorian
Ladies we met at Sea—"An Out of the World Locality ? " — Enlightenment — The Bush-bred Author at
Ten—"A Hottentot 1"—Canadian Ladies socially considered—Effect of the Jubilee Year—Peculiarities of
the Prairie—Farming on the Prairie—Prosperity of
Brandon and adjacent Towns—Great Prairie Steppes—
Prairie Fires—Lord Brassey's Farm at Indian Head—
Regina, the N. W. T. Seat of Government — Moose
Jaw—Mixed Farming on a gigantic Scale—One Hundred Miles without a Tree—Indian Tribes along the
Line — Medicine Hat — Branch Line to the Mining
Regions — Rockies in sight, 100 miles off—- Arrival in
Calgary  151
CHAPTEE XII.
Canadian Society.—Commencing a Farm on the Prairie—
How to Keep ever Young and Hearty and Happy—
Canadians we met — Old Country Misconceptions of
them—Prairie Society—Manitoban Lady's Letter to the
Author—" The Sons, Nephews, Nieces, and Cousins of
Earls almost innumerable around us"—"Aristocratic
Ladies at the Wash-tub "—Our Experiences of Prairie
Ladies—Highland Clans well to the Fore—Winter and
its Amusements—Bullock Car Party—" Honourables "
in the Laundry and Smithy, &c. — Old Country
Refinements—Prairie Residences—How constructed—
Furnished—Household Supplies—Work on the Farm—
Simple Methods of obtaining Water — Advantages of
Good Irrigation—Hard and Soft Water practically considered—Incidents from Anglo-Canadian Life  166
CHAPTEB XIII.
♦Calgary, Alberta—Off to the Mountains.—Curious Effect
of clear Air—Calgary a Trade Main Centre—Extent of
the Mountain Ranges—How Formed—Approach to the XVI
Rockies—Magnificent Transformation Scene — Effect
upon Visitors—Bow River—Lady Macdonald in the
Rockies—Banff and its Hotel—Chief Points of Interest—National Park and its Attractions—Society at
Banff — Westward Ho!—Lovely Morning Effects—A
Sea of Vast Mountains—On the Summit—A divided
Stream—Kicking Horse Pass—Rendings of the Rockies—Effects of Natural Forces—Entrance to British
Columbia—Breakfast at Field, at the Foot of the Pass.. 180
CHAPTEB XIV.
British Columbia.—Clever Masterstroke of Policy—How it
affected the C. P. R.—Peculiarities of the Province—Extraordinary Developments—Its Great Rivers—Lakes—
Cities—jOlimate—Scenery — Precipice Lines of the
C. P. R.—How Protected from Danger—Heading for
Columbia River Valley—Through the Valley to Donald—
Planning of a Railway through the Mountains—"Big
Bend" of the Columbia—Entrance to the Selkirks—
Devil's Bridge—Bear Creek—"Where are yer Grizzlies?"—A Giant Incline—Great Gorges—Sublimities
of the Selkirks—Wondrous Scenic Effects—The Summit—Extraordinary Snowfalls —Their Cause—Colossal
Avalanches—Snow Sheds—"Sir Donald" and other
Peaks—Dinner at Glacier House     197
CHAPTEB   XV.
End of the Selkirks—Kootenay Gold Region.—The Great
Glacier—Curious Convolutions of the Line—Albert
Canon — Vast Mountains and Gorges again—Revelstoke—Vice-regal Cars at Station—Luxury of Transatlantic Travel—Off to the Kootenay Region—The lost
18,000 Mile Season Ticket—Fine Fix!—What next?—
Arrowhead—Down the Lakes to Robson—Vice-regal
Party returning—Lovely Lake Scenery—Robson to
Rossland—The Mountain City—Its Gold Mines—Their
Prosperity—Reception of their Excellencies—Authoritative Opinions of the District—The Episcopal Church—
Nelson,   another   Mining   Centre—Slocan   River   and
^3&&S8l xvn
Lake—Stern Wheel Steamer—Skirting a Colossal Precipice—A Mountain Tragedy—Silver Mine City of Sandon—Return to Revelstoke—Recent Innovations 215
CHAPTEB XVI.
Mountain Features op Canadian Pacific Railway—More
Peculiarities of B.C.—Fascinations of the Line—Its
Construction—Unexpected Difficulties—Colossal Trestle,
&c, Bridges — Crossing an awful Chasm — Curious
aspects of Pile-driving—Mountain Railway Experiences—Crossing the Selkirks—Difficult Surveys—Snow
Shed Protection—Gigantic Avalanches—Their Cyclonic
Disturbances—Methods of Guarding the Line—Rivers
in Flood—Wonderful Engineering Performances—Eagle
Pass of the Gold Range—Last Spike of the C.P.R.—
Shuswap Lake—Sicamous—A London Solicitor's Enterprise—Off to Vernon—Lord Aberdeen's Fruit, Hop, &c,
Ranch — Their Excellencies at Home — Manager's
opinion of the Farm—Great Capabilities of B.C.—Its
Exquisite Beauties  230
CHAPTEB XVII.
Through the Canons, etc., to Vancouver.—Glorious Sunset
Views—Skirting Shuswap Lake—Thompson River and
Canon—Breakfast at North Bend—Fraser Canon—Appalling Scenes-The Turbulent River—"Hell Gate"—
Flood Rise of 70 Feet—B.C. of the Past—Sir James
Douglas—Cariboo Road—Yale—Gold Discoveries—How
the C.P.R. has affected the Province — The Canons
Past — Full Speed Ahead — Diverging Coast Range
Mountains—Rich and Lovely Plain—Striking Burrard
Inlet—Vancouver at Last—Forest, in 1885—City in
1886—C.P.R. Ocean Mail Steamers—By R.M.S. Empress
of India to Victoria — Her Description — Chinese
Stewards — Their Full Dress Costume — Matchless
Beauties of Straits of Georgia—Arrival at Victoria   .... 244
CHAPTEB  XVIII.
Vancouver Island and its People.—Victoiia, the capital of
b xvm
British Columbia — Its Origin and Development — Its
Trade on Land and Sea—Popular Resort—Esquimalt—
New Parliament Buildings of Victoria — Residential
Parts of the City—Its Publio Buildings—Social Aspects
of the Victorians — A Ladies' Lawn Tennis Tournament—Their Style of Dress—Jealous of Vancouver—
Why ? — Useful Hints — An Awful Fire — Curious
Results—Electric Speed Fire Engine System—Chinese
Residents—Board of Trade Notes—Prosperity of the
Province — A Delightful Visit — American Ladies —
Character Sketch of them—Through Puget Sound to
Seattle and Tacoma — Train Ferry Boat on the
Columbia—Similar Colossal Systems—Portland and its
Environs—Vancouver again 263
CHAPTEB  XIX.
"Prom West to East.—B.C. in Smoke—Burning of Vancouver
in 1886 — Awful Scenes—Swift Re-construction and
Extension—New Westminster and its Industries—Its
Destruction by Fire in 1898—Canadian Sea Connections
with the British Isles —C.P.R. "Around the World"
Tours — More than Himalayan Scenery of the Pacific
Bed — A Cyclopean Submarine Valley — Alternative
Trans-Continental Routes — Return Trip from Vancouver—Across the Mountains to Glacier House and
Golden—Fifty miles on a Cow Catcher through the
Rockies—Kicking Horse Canon under Evening Shades—
Glorious Experiences—Line Hands at Work—On the
Prairie Eastward bound—Victoria to Montreal Surprise
Party in the Train—Moose Jaw again—Heading for
Portal—Curious Incidents on the Line—An International Boundary Experience—Arrival in Minneapolis .. 283
CHAPTEB XX.
A Tour through the United States.—The Twin Cities of
Minneapolis and St. Paul—Origin of the Former—Its
Industries — General Appearance — Fine Buildings —
Tram lines—Mills, etc.—Beautiful Suburban Embellishments—Their Practical Results—Chicago, the Prairie XIX
City — Its Streets— Sky-scraping Edifices — Masonic
Temple—Strange Request of the United States Government—Pullman Car-building Works—Their Vast Extent
and Magnificence—City of Pullman—How the Car was
Sprung upon the World—Pullman Works, Interiors—
The "Noon Day Rest" in Chicago—A Palatial Avenue —
Lifting a City Bodily—Great Fire of Chicago—Vast
Hotels—Their Regal Splendour—Departure for Detroit—
The City of the Straits—A Retrospect of Mining Life in
British Columbia    297
CHAPTEB
XX
The Eastern Provinces Again.—Crossing into Canada at
Detroit — Toronto and its Surroundings — Niagara
Falls—Their Curious Origin—How the " Great Gorge "
was Formed—Opinions of Scientists—Varied Retrocession of the Falls—The New Railway Bridge—Peculiarities of the Falls and River—Means of Access—
Disasters Past and Present—Electrically-driven Works—
Lady who " Owned the Falls "—How their Attractions
were Developed—Hamilton—Its Prosperity—The Thousand Isles—How to See Them—Montreal Again—Mrs.
Birt's Distributing Home for Boys and Girls at
Knowlton, P.Q.—Its Great Success — The Maritime
Provinces — Nova Scotia — New Brunswick — Prince
Edward Island—Newfoundland  316
CHAPTEB XXII.
Concluding Remarks.—Hints for Ladies—The Employment
Problem of To-day—How a New Law affects it—Ladies
as they Were and as they Are—Women's Official Occupations and their Effects on the Men — A Curious
Incident and its Results — British and Canadian Employment Prospects of the Present compared — Mrs.
Birt's Authoritative Statements regarding the Latter—
New Lines of Thought for Everyone — The Author's
Professional Experiences—Commencing Private Practice — Apparently Overwhelming  Obstacles — Success E5ffi£&5>S®Ss!S3«Has Banff Hotel and Bow River Valley
Chateau Frontenac and Dufferin Terrace, Quebec
Lower Town of Quebec, and Point Levis from the Chateau
Capes " Eternity " and " Trinity," on River Saguenay
Surf Bathing at Little Metis, on the St. Lawrence
Montreal from the Mountain
Place d'Armes, Montreal
Victoria Square, Montreal
Shooting the Lachine Rapids of the St. Lawrence    ..
St. Lawrence River Bridge, Canadian Pacific Railway
Parliament Buildings, Ottawa   ..
Ohaudiere Falls, Ottawa, in Winter
Interior of a Drawing Room and Sleeping Car in a Canadian
Pacific Trans-continental Train
Main Buildings of Ontario Agricultural College, at Guelph..
Canadian Pacific Railway Company's Grain Elevators, at
Fort William
The "Thousand Isles " of the St. Lawrence
Steam Yacht, Captain Visgcr PAGE*
Express Locomotive and Car, &c, on Canadian Pacific Railway
Interior of a Dining Car on the Canadian Pacific Railway
Wind Wheel and its Application for Water Supply purposes
Calgary, with Rocky Mountains in the far distance ..
Lake Louise and the Great Glacier from the Chalet
Field, and Entrance to the Kicking Horse Canon
Victoria Glacier and Hazel Peak, in the Rocky Mountains .
Stoney Creek New Bridge and Vancouver-bound Train
Heart of the Selkirk Mountains
Glacier House Hotel and Railway Station
Lake Okanagan and C. P. R. Steamer Aberdeen
Snow Shed and Adjacent Scenery in the Selkirks
Lord Aberdeen's House at Vernon, British Columbia
Lord Aberdeen's Ranche at Vernon, British Columbia
Cantilever Bridge across the Fraser River at Cisco   ..
Fraser Canon, by Moonlight
Entrance to Fraser Canon at Yale, and Indian Village
Giant Hollow Cedar Tree in Stanley Park, Vancouver
Upper end of Vancouver Harbour, looking towards Hasting
Canadian Pacific R.M.S. Empress of India
Outskirts of Victoria, British Columbia, from Mount Tolmie
New Parliament Buildings, Victoria
" The Arm " above Point Ellice Bridge, Victoria
Forest Scene at Chemainus, Vancouver Island
Floating Timber, Saw Mill, and Shipping
111
121
161
181
193
201
203
209
211
213
225
235
241
243
247
249
251
255
259
261
265
267
269
277
279 XX111
Wooded Drive in Beacon Hill Park, Victoria
Canadian Pacific Train at Glacier House Station
The Great Gorge of the Niagara River
Folding Map of Canada    ..
PAGE.
.         281
.      291
321
. at end !Rffi&&&£&5!SSBH95&^HsKSffl&^ffl CHAPTEB   I.
Quebec and its Neighbourhood.—How the Author's Information was obtained—Various Classes of People interviewed—
Their diversified Opinions—The Author as the "Happy
Traveller"—His own treatment of People and Things—
Liverpool to Quebec—Felicities of the Voyage — Sights
and Scenes of Quebec — Wonderful Saguenay Chasm —
How caused—Quebec Province—A curious Ship-launching
Story of 1750 — Quebec City, the Originator of Atlantic
Steam Navigation—Cunard Brothers' Share in the Undertaking—Royal William from Quebec to London, 1833—Her
Career as a Spanish War Steamer—Origin of Cunard Company, 1840—Steam Navigation of to-day.
ITH   the   object  of   rendering   the
statements given in this book as
trustworthy as possible in every
respect, it may be well to show at
the  outset   how   the  information
contained in it has been gathered.
Those who have  tried  to obtain
correct knowledge upon any subject  must sometimes have found
much difficulty in doing so, owing
to   the   extremely   varied  standpoints from which it may be viewed, and
also to the idiosyncrasies of the people
who   are   thus   questioned,    and   who
include.the following:—the pessimist—the optimist—
the   biassed   person—the   prejudiced   individual—the
self-interested   character—the   glum   grum   man—the
B unhappily minded woman—the beam of light, masculine
or feminine — the clever professional — the ignorant
person, and so on.
Interview, for instance, Mr. Pessimist, by saying to
him inquiringly, "Canada a splendid country?' and his
reply will probably be—"Oh yes! splendid, sure enough,
but it will not long remain so."
To the same question, Mr. Optimist observes—
§ Quite right, sir, but nothing to what it will be."
Mr. Biassed Person says—| It is a truly magnificent
country in every respect .... its grain crops are
the best in the world."
Mr. Prejudiced Individual remarks—" I am afraid
you have been grievously misinformed, sir, what can you
expect from a country which is frozen up for eight
months of the year? "
Mr. Self Interest says that "the Canadians require
much more enlightenment than they at present possess,"
his secret reason being that they do not appreciate his
manufactures as he expected they would have done.
.Mr. Glum Grum replies in gruff-gruff style—"Canada
a fine country ! It seems to. me, sir, that you don't
know much about it, I found it such a beastly hole, and
the people so infernally rude, that I very soon came
home again." The real fact was that Mr. Grum so
richly possessed the art of saying unkind and even rude
things without knowing it, that he repelled those who
otherwise would have been his good and kind friends.
Miss Squirmie, now of " Sourgrapes Cottage, London," bitterly informs us that "she detests Canada from
end to end. That there is no chance whatever for
anyone to get along in it, and as for the people, they
are so badly dressed, so uncultured in manner, so commonplace in style, and so disagreeable in every way, that she left the country completely disgusted with
•everything and everyone in it." Why? for the same
reason as Mr. Grum.
Miss Helen Macgregor — the "Beam of Light,"
narrates her own experiences and those of brother
<i Rob," in the most charming manner. She tells with
joyous spring and animation and humour the story of
their life since they left the shores of Loch Lomond—
their difficulties and triumphs—the warm friendships
they had made—their delightful home—the simple and
friendly feelings of the people, and their elegance of
mind and manner, etc. In short, this excellent lady
gave me such a favourable report of the land that I
could only look upon it as a happy retreat for many, and
-especially for some in the old country.
After most cordially thanking Miss Macgregor for
her information, and solemnly saying to her—" You will
find yourself reported in my booh one of these fine days,"
she replied.
"A book?"H 1 ,
" Oh, yes. I am going to write what I hope will be
one of the liveliest, breeziest, most enthusiastic, and
most attractively instructive volumes on Canada ever
written, and all the more valuable because your story
will be in it! "
"I hope, Mr. Haldane," she appealingly said, "you
will speak kindly of us."
" Kindly, indeed !    I shall speak lovingly of you."
I wonder how many of the dear good ladies of
Canada I met on land and sea during my wanderings,
and conversed with as " The Happy Traveller," will
remember these last remarks, after I had riddled them
with all sorts of questions regarding themselves, their
people, and the story of their successes, and ending with a request to accept a copy of my book when out! The
light of heaven shine on them all.
The Clever Professional says, that " after] careful
investigation, he considers the towns and cities of
Canada are quite as overdone in his own line of practice
as at home, so he intends to stay at home and do the
best he can."    Quite right, too !
The Clerk and Shop-Assistant hold exactly the same
opinions. Mr. Ignorant Person, however, thinks on
totally different lines. This gentleman replies to my
remark as follows :—
"Canada, a fine country? My good sir! Do you
not know that it is a perfect wilderness, whose winters
last three-fourths of the year, and not only freeze up the
land and retard vegetation, but freeze up every one in it.
That its people are only Colonists, who cannot know
much on any subject. How then can you expect
rational individuals to take any interest in such a
place?"
Examples, such as the above, might easily be multiplied, but those given are quite sufficient to show the
difficulty of obtaining correct information. With this in
view, I had to.adopt the judicial system of ascertaining
the truth, by examining and cross-examining an endless-
number of witnesses of all classes, and then, aided by
personal observation, summarise the whole of the fact&
given to me, and thus be enabled to give a correct
judgment. This, then, is the system I myself most
happily adopted from first to last, during my trips from
point to point, out and home, across that vast continent,
with results which, it is hoped, will prove satisfactory
to all. It may be added, that not only did I treat the
people I met in the manner indicated, but I was
fortunate enough to obtain a mass of official papers, maps, documents, reports, bluebooks, etc., from the
various Governments, and from very many prominent
people in private life. To all of these I am therefore
greatly indebted for most useful information, which has
been open to me ever since, and which will be referred
to in detail as we proceed.
Having thus described the treatment of the people,
in reference to my outside sources of information, it may
here be well to state that, from the day I landed at
Quebec, on 13th June, onwards throughout the land,
■down to my sailing day for home on 17th September, I
carefully observed and noted everything relating to the
physical conditions of town and country, and plain and
mountain, as they were when I saw them. In the
manner just described, and in many other ways, I made
my tour not only one of great pleasure, but of profound
interest all through.
On 4th June, 1898, I left Liverpool in the 6,000
ton handsome twin-screw steamer Dominion, of the
Dominion Line, the cabin accommodation of which was
-excellent, and the speed, although very good, not too
.great to prevent one from obtaining as much benefit as
^possible from the voyage. She was, moreover, one of the
steadiest of ships, even under the influence of a strong
wind, the rolling motion having been reduced by means
•of an important constructional improvement.
All the staff, from the Captain downwards, were most
kind and attentive, and did everything in their power to
-enhance the pleasure of our voyage. We had a large
number of passengers, some of whom were Americans
a.nd Canadians who had been visiting England and the
Continent, and were returning to their more or less
•distant homes, together with numerous British tourists. 6
It would ill-become the Happy Traveller, whose pleasure
was greatly enhanced by the presence of the delightful
company on board, not to refer to them in glowing-
terms, and here express his regret at parting with them
afterwards.
Eor the benefit of those who reside in the centre of
Canada, or in the middle of England, and who may
never have had an ocean trip, it may be well here to
state that, by taking a voyage such as that referred to,.
they will have a delightful and health invigorating treat,
as the high-class passenger steamers of the present are
such marvels of comfort, elegance, luxury, and. speed,
when compared with those of the not distant past. This-
will be, to some extent, apparent to everyone who
inspects these vessels, where, not to mention the 1,001
modern improvements which have taken place in their
design, construction, and working at sea, the application
of improved modern sciences have produced wonderful
changes in those interior arrangements which directly
influence the comfort of all on board.
As many beautiful but dangerous icebergs were
floating about, Captain John James — who preferred
safety to speed—shaped, our course by Cape Eace
instead of by the Straits of Belleisle, which would have
shortened the run by 200 miles. On the return voyage,,
however, we came by these Straits, as the ice, by that
time, had almost disappeared.
During the first two days at sea considerable reserve
usually exists amongst passengers, but this soon wears
off, especially if one or two " brilliants" should be
amongst them, who kindly act as disturbers of what
may be a very flat and uninteresting state of things.
In this way the musical, literary, and other talents of
the company are discovered, and these, when employed,  8
either in individual or in combined form, produce the
happiest results. So, indeed, was it with us in the
Dominion, where the "brilliants" referred to so successfully found out the talent of the ship that, by the time
we entered the Gulf of St. Lawrence, a delightful
evening performance was given to a crowded and most
appreciative audience. After skirting for some time
the southern shore of Quebec Province, we arrived at
Point Levis, opposite Quebec, where we remained only
about an hour, and then, on one of the loveliest of days,
proceeded direct for Montreal City.
Eor reasons given in the preface, we are reluctantly
compelled to omit very much that might have been said
about the exquisitely beautiful and historical Quebec,
whose visitors are so continuously on the increase that
the new and splendid Chateau Erontenac Hotel had to
be built for them on one of the most picturesque sites
available throughout the land, as may be partially
gathered from the view on the previous page.
In front of the building is the magnificent panorama
surrounding Dufferin Terrace, at the extreme end of
which is the Citadel. Erom the lower town, a steeply
sloping hydraulic elevator conveys passengers to the
high level, otherwise they would have to ascend steep
and winding streets. Beyond the St. Lawrence are the
beautifully laid out heights of the Point Levis shore,
as may be seen in the view opposite; the scenery,
however, all round is so lovely that once seen it can
never be forgotten.
Amongst the neighbouring sights and scenes of
Quebec to which reference must be made is that weirdlike and fascinating region known as the " Saguenay,"
which to myself has long been an object of great
interest.    This is due to the fact tha,t it is not by any  10
means a river in the ordinary sense of the term, of say
80 or 90 feet in depth, but a vast submerged canon of
about 60 miles in length, and from one to two in
breadth, the depth of water being in many places 600
fathoms, it is said. Besides this, the banks are very bold
and precipitous, the two main headlands, "Eternity"
and "Trinity," as shown in the adjoining plate, having
heights of 1,900 and 1,800 feet respectively, the water
which washes them being of that extremely dark tint
usually indicative of profound depth.
The two peculiar names just given owe their origin
to the circumstance that, when the discoverers of the
Saguenay first saw the locality, they were so over-awed
by the scene that they were unable to think of any other
words which could express their feelings. Eor some
distance after leaving Lake St. John, the river has no
special attraction beyond that created by the beauty of
the surrounding scenery. Its character, however, soon
becomes so changed as to form the chief object of
interest to people from all parts of the globe who visit
the neighbourhood. Its marvellous formation seems to
be due to the fact that, at some distant period, an overwhelming convulsion of nature wrenched the Laurentian
range of mountains asunder, and created an immense
fissure in the adjacent surface of the earth, which in
time became widened by means of volcanic agency and
otherwise, and then filled with water. Should this be
true, as no doubt it is, we shall then have the key which
unlocks the secrets of other profound chasms, such as
the canons of the Kockies, etc., which will be referred to
later on.
A view of special interest in the lower parts of the
St. Lawrence, where the river is some miles wide, is
that shown on page 13, which represents surf bathing at
!^5!K355Bg5S^S8&3S3SS^&^K?S  12
Little Metis, in the Province of. Quebec, at a point
which is reached by the Intercolonial Eailway of Canada.
This Province is chiefly a hilly and agricultural one,
under Erench management. The people seem to do
well, and have their farms immediately adjoining their
homes. So much so, indeed, that for hundreds of miles
along the banks of the St. Lawrence, an almost continuous line of dwellings is to be found skirting the
water, just as if they had been spread out so as to look
as many as possible, but which, for practical reasons,
are very conveniently situated. The Canadians of this
district seem to flourish immensely in their domestic
life, their children, in many cases, ranging from twenty
to thirty in number; a physiological fact which was
kindly confirmed by a daughter of the English Bishop of
Quebec, who told me she knew two families whose
children unitedly reached the extraordinary number of
sixty.
Quebec seems to have been a shipbuilding port for
Erench war vessels and transports as far back as the
year 1731. From this date onwards, several vessels of
about 500 tons each were constructed from designs
supplied by the Home Government in Paris. On the
2nd September, 1750, the transport L'Orignal, of about
750 tons, was launched at Quebec, but from want of
experience on the part of the builders, she was not only
severely damaged in launching, but even when afloat
got beyond the control of the checking appliances, ran
into a reef of rocks, and sank. By means of patching
she was eventually floated, but, drifting away in a
foundering state with the strong current of the river,
again sank about 400 yards out from what is now
Messrs. Allan, Rae & Co.'s wharf, in 90 feet of water,
where she remained until 1879. O
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The hull having become a source of danger, ship's
anchors being frequently caught and lost by it, Messrs.
Nobel & Co. were requested to blow her up electrically,
a powerful lifting barge being used for removing the
fragments. The action of the St. Lawrence sand and
water at such a depth for 129 years, had so curiously
affected the oak timbers of the lost vessel as to give
them a new value when employed for the manufacture
of furniture, walking sticks, etc. It may be added that
the iron constructional details of the L'Orignal were
made at Eorge Works, which still exist at the city of
Three Eivers, near Quebec, which forms a striking
feature on the bank of the St. Lawrence, about midway
to Montreal.
As the story of the origin of Atlantic Steam Navigation has long been erroneously told and almost universally believed, we may here be allowed to rectify
the mistake, because it so closely affects the city to
which we have referred in this chapter. In common
with the rest of the world, I myself understood that to
the Sirius and Great Western' belonged the supreme
honour of having successfully opened out the Atlantic
passage by steam. I said so in my book, Steamships
and their Machinery, which, immediately after publication, led Mr. Wiirtele, Hon. Librarian of the Literary
and Historical Society of Quebec, to send me a Beport
of the Secretary of State of Canada, dated 1895, giving
full and most interesting information on all points connected with that great event, and containing a great
deal which authoritatively and exhaustively refuted the
claims made on behalf of these vessels.
Briefly told, the story is as follows:—In the year
1831, aided by a Government offer of 12,000 dollars, the
" Quebec and Halifax Steam Navigation Company" was 15
formed, having among its list of shareholders the names
of Samuel, Henry, and Joseph Cunard. The object
of this company was to build a vessel capable of
maintaining communication between these cities, encouragement having been given by the success of the
numerous steamboats which had been built at Quebec
for river and coasting purposes. So much prosperity
had attended these vessels that designs had been prepared for the "largest and swiftest vessel afloat," which
was at once begun, and eventually launched on 27th
April, 1831, under the name of the Boyal William, her
engines of 200 horse power having in the meantime
been constructed by Messrs. Bennett & Henderson, of
Montreal.
This momentous event—the launch of a steamer
176 feet in length, by 44 feet in breadth, and 17 feet
9 inches in depth—gave the editor of the Quebec Gazette
quite as large a field for animated and picturesque
description as the literary chief of any present-day paper
could have in honour" of the launch of a 20,000 ton
ocean racer. After successfully running locally for some
time, it was decided to send the Boyal William to
England, and she accordingly sailed from Quebec on
5th August, 1833, arriving at Pictou, N.S., on the 8th.
From this port she sailed on the 18th for London, where
she arrived after a passage of nineteen days, including
two days detention at sea owing to the disarrangement
of her machinery, which was only natural, considering
the primitive condition of marine engineering at that
period. Under the name of the Isabel Segunda she
subsequently became the property of the Spanish
Government, and was the first steam vessel of war in
the history of nations to fire a hostile shot.
When the Sirius and Great Western had, in 1838, 16
made their famous passages from Cork and Bristol to
New York in eighteen and fifteen days respectively,
Mr. Samuel Cunard—in view of all these great events—
thought, in his Canadian home, that " the hour had
come," and so, in 1839, he came to Glasgow, armed with
letters of introduction to various influential people.
These included Mr. Eobert Napier, the famous marine
engineer, and Messrs. Burns and Maclver, who at that
time were the owners of a very prosperous line of
coasting steamers.
This well-timed visit of Mr., afterwards Sir Samuel
Cunard, resulted in the formation, in 1840, of the
"British and North American Eoyal Mail Steam
Packet Company." As, however, this magnificent title
proved too ponderous for daily use, it was changed into
the " Cunard Line," in honour of the Quebec citizen,
who had given it the start in life, and thus set a-rolling
the ball of prosperity for ocean steam navigation all
over the world, and indeed for all time. Well may
Quebec, therefore, be anxious to retain the credit of
having been the originator of this great revolution in
ocean navigation, which I am pleased to have the
honour of truly recording in these pages.
WffwWTOBsS
S^^^^™5^K^BffS^S^§§S5SB^3^!sK CHAPTEE II.
Montreal and its Surroundings.—Jacques Cartier, the Columbus of Canada—Origin of the Name—Champlain, its Benefactor—Maisonneuve, the Founder of Montreal—Topography of the City — Some of its prominent People — A
former Governor-General and his Mistaken Guest—Origin
of McGill University — Its first Principal — Subsequent
Career — Dean Bovey — His New Engineering and Physios
Buildings—Wonderful success of the University—How the
Happy Traveller was Interviewed—Montreal and its Public
Buildings—Electrical Tramcars and their Peculiarities—
River St. Lawrence—Its Leading Objects of Interest—A
great River Steamer.
HATEVEE may be said
concerning the discovery
of Canada by those most
intimate with the subject,
the Spaniards claim the
honour of having been the
first in the land, and to
have originated its name. Their
early records inform us that when
the Castilians in their world-wide
search for silver and gold mines
entered the Bay of Chaleur, and did
not find any, they exclaimed Aca Nada —'' Nothing
here." This was subsequently reported to Cartier, who
at once adopted the phrase as the present name of the
country. Another, and, perhaps, more probable derivation of the title, is supplied by the Iroquois Indian word
c 18
Kannatha, pronounced " Kannada," signifying a village,
or assemblage of tents. In any case, the name is an
elegant one and easy to write, which is very important.
Upon landing at Montreal, which is the commercial
capital of the country, I was struck with its beautiful
appearance, particularly when seen from the " Mountain," as shown in the plate on the opposite page, which
gives a good idea of its western portion, and also the
St. Lawrence. Before going further, however, a few
remarks may be made respecting the history of the city,
which, briefly told, is as follows :—
When Jacques Cartier, the Columbus of Canada,
sailed up the great but unknown river, on St. Lawrence
Day, 1535, he found, to his great surprise, the walled
town of Hochelaga on the spot now occupied by the
present seaport. More than this, he discovered that its
1,500 inhabitants were delighted to receive himself and
his crew, somewhat, we suppose, in the " Glad to see
you "—" Charmed to meet you 1—" Hope you are well
and hearty " style of the old country, chiefly by gesticulation. He also discovered the adjacent eminence,
which he named "Mount Boyal," and from which
Montreal derived its name.
In the year 1611, Champlain visited the locality, no
doubt expecting to find Hochelaga still in existence, but
by that time it had mysteriously vanished. This famous
individual not only found out the Great Lakes, but in
many other ways so benefited the new country that, in
1898, a handsome monument was erected to his memory
by the citizens of Quebec, in front of the Chateau
Frontenac. In the year 1642, the foundation stone of
the future city of Montreal was laid by the famous
Maisonneuve, who, in the midst of somewhat romantic
ceremonies, performed the operation.
wW^WwWw^WwWwwoSKvWWW  20
To these three men alone, above all others in early
days, Canada is indebted for those master strokes of
genius and energy which raised her out of the depths of
obscurity and set her on her feet amongst the future
great nations of the world. So fully do the inhabitants
of the vast Province of Quebec—who are about three-
fourths Erench—recognise these facts that the names of
Jacques Cartier, Champlain, and Maisonneuve, have
been immortalised in very many ways, chiefly by being
bestowed upon the suburbs, streets, squares, banks,
monuments, etc., of Montreal, Quebec, and other towns.
The doings of the French, and the British, and in
some respects, the Indians, in developing the country,
have formed the bases of many books and stories which
have painted a moral and adorned a tale in the pages of
history, but to these we need not refer.
Geographically speaking, Montreal is built upon an
island of the same name, about thirty miles in length, by
about ten in width, which is washed by the St.
Lawrence, and by an arm of the river Ottawa. The
city is not Only remarkable for the charms of the
adjacent scenery, but for those also which belong to
itself, consisting chiefly of handsome, broad, richly tree-
bordered streets, public buildings, squares, churches,
colleges, and everything else, indeed, which constitutes
the general make up of any great centre of population.
A city, which in 1759, had a population of only 4,000,
but which, through the expansion of trade and commerce now numbers fully 300,000.
At the commencement of my special tour through
the country, I spent fully three weeks in Montreal,
diligently scanning it round and round, and through and
through, and delightfully making the acquaintance of
many of its prominent people, who proved of great value
JWOTOTSWSW
MR
?WSS^<5S&^^ES^^&iI^n!SSnSI^n^raSSBBBBBSffiSS&3 21
in aiding me in *my enterprise, and whose kindness will
never be forgotten. As I ranged over the town and
outlying districts, the lay of the land soon became
apparent, and from this I found very much to be learnt,
with which, however, I need not trouble the reader, as
Montreal is so well-known. With this in view, I shall
only endeavour to throw a few side lights upon people
and things connected with the city.
It is said of a former Governor General tha*t on one
occasion, whilst a "celebrated author' was staying at
the Windsor Hotel, he had the honour of receiving a
kind invitation to dinner from their Excellencies.
" I really cannot go," said Mr. Smith to the messenger who had brought the note, " my boots have not
yet arrived."
" Boots, or no boots, you will have to come," was the
reply, and so the " distinguished writer " went.
" How do you do Mr. Smith, I am delighted to see
you, let me introduce you to His Excellency," observed
the Countess, as he entered the drawing room.
After the usual stiffish remarks which people make
when thev meet for the first time, the Vicerov said:—-
" Allow me to congratulate you, Mr. Smith, upon your
fascinating book, with which Her Excellency and myself
are delighted."
" A book ! " replied Smith, " I never wrote a book in
my life, surely there must be a mistake somewhere."
Gradually, and very genteelly, the enthusiasm of
their Excellencies toned down to chilly reserve as they
saw their error. Next day the real luminary turned up,
and he, too, had a similar invitation sent to him, the
A. D. C. adding to his note—"Be sure you are the right
4 Smith' this time."
It was of the utmost consequence for m$ during my 22
visit to Canada to have as many avenues as possible to
information throughout the land, With this in view, I
was fortunate in meeting Dean Bovey just before he left
for his holidays—a circumstance which had a very
marked effect upon my movements. Before saying
anything about this gentleman, however, it may be well
to make a few remarks concerning the Institution with
which he has been so long intimately associated.
Amongst the splendid edifices which skirt the sides
of the long and handsome Sherbrooke Street, may be
mentioned the truly magnificent and immense range of
buildings of the McGill University, to the Engineering
portion of which we shall chiefly refer. For such purposes alone, this Institution is authoritatively said to
have no rival in the world. The origin of the University
was due to the liberality of the Honourable James
McGill, a wealthy citizen of Montreal, who, in the year
1813, presented a sum of £30,000, with the object of
founding a centre of education for Canada, the buildings
for which were not long afterwards proceeded with, and
eventually opened in 1829. Through the liberality of
other gentlemen in later years, including Mr. W. C.
McDonald, Mr. Thomas Workman, Mr. Peter Eedpath,
and many others, the University has been enlarged
step by step.
At an early period in its history, the attention of the
authorities was drawn to the importance of establishing
a department of Practical Science, and in the year
1856, Mr. T. C. Keefer, C.E., C.M.G., was appointed
Professor of hydraulic engineering. Others followed in
other branches, until, in 1876, Professor Henry T.
Bovey, M.Inst.C.E., LL.D., M.A., Fellow of Queen's
College, Cambridge, was elected to fill the chair of Civil
Engineering and  Applied   Mechanics.     In  1878,  this 23
department was separated from the Faculty of Arts, and
was constituted a Faculty of Applied Science, with
Professor Bovey as Dean, the teaching staff consisting of
himself, assisted by others. It may here be well to add
that to this gentleman's advice and management the
University owes the present magnificent development of
the latter Faculty.
On 25th October, 1890, a new career was opened out
for the University as the foundation stone of the Engineering portion of the premises was laid by His Excellency, Lord Stanley of Preston, Governor General of
Canada. From that time the work was rapidly pushed
forward, until eventually the Engineering and Physics
Buildings were finally opened by Lord Stanley, on 24th
February, 1893. The first named contains a very large
and valuable collection of every kind of machine, and
engine, and appliance necessary for the most advanced
research, as well as for carrying on the routine work of
the Institution, which now includes every department of
theoretical and practical engineering, for which, regardless of expense, ample accommodation has been provided
in the most exquisitely beautiful and complete forms.
The last-named edifice has been erected and similarly
equipped for the teaching and study of Physics, including Mechanics, etc., also for the prosecution of original
research in the Constructive Arts.
In December, 1898, the new Chemistry and Mining
Building was opened by His Excellency the Earl of
Minto, Governor General of Canada, successor to Lord
Aberdeen. This edifice, as well as the others just
described, is due to the generosity of Sir William
C. McDonald, K.C.M.G., who, on this occasion received
the honour of knighthood in recognition of his great
services.    As an indication of the extent and value of 24
the building, it may be mentioned that Sir William
expended a sum of 750,000 dollars in its erection,
equipment and endowment, in addition to his previous
gifts amounting to 2,000,000 dollars.
The locality in which the University is placed has
been well chosen, as a handsome avenue leading to
Sherbrooke Street on the one hand, to the mountain
and its lovely park in close proximity to it on the other,
with the beautifully wooded grounds in front, and with
broad carriage drives leading to the various departments, produce in combination a truly splendid effect.
The wonderful success of this grand enterprise has
been the result of a variety of causes. Primarily, the
financial aid so liberally bestowed upon it, not only by
those we have named, but by many other Montreal
citizens, who presented large sums for the endowment of
chairs, exhibitions, scholarships, medals and prizes. In
addition to these, they gave handsome subscriptions in
aid of the library, museum, apparatus, current expenses,
and indeed everything else that was needed, from time
to time, in furthering the work to the best advantage.
Secondly, from a professional point of view, it may
be said that no one could have laboured more constantly
and zealously than the original Principal, Sir Wm.
Dawson, LL.D., F.E.S., a native of Pictou, Nova Scotia,
who for thirty-eight years, aided by a distinguished staff
of professors, performed all that could be done to
advance the interests of the University, 4and make it
what it has now become. Advancing years rendered it
necessary for him to retire from active duty, and so he
was succeeded in 1896 by the present principal, Mr.
Peterson, LL.D., who has ably taken up the reins laid
down by his eminent predecessor.
Such  then,  in  brief,  is  an  outline  sketch  of   the
JWSmTTOS^^WvWPWSfflS 25
Applied Science Department of the University, presided
over by the gentleman with whom I delightfully spent
my second afternoon in Montreal. Not only did he then
show me as much of the establishment as he could in a
limited period, but invited me to come next forenoon to
see the rest of it, and of course I went. To my surprise,
an interviewer from the Witness office desired to overhaul me in the usual Transatlantic fashion, as follows:—
He wanted to know my place of birth—my residential career since I arrived in London as a young
Australian—my profession, and all about it—my age,
"somewhere about"—what were my impressions of
Montreal, and what improvements I thought it needed—
how long I was going to be in the country, and also
what was the object of my visit. What about my
Engineering books, etc.—how I was going to collect
material for a new one on Canada. So on, and so on,
to the end. Nothing, however, seemed to please Mr.
Dillon more than the fact that his paper was the first
Canadian one I had read on board the S. S. Dominion.
In the afternoon I was treated to a whole column in the
Witness, describing my appearance, etc., and also my
antecedents, intentions, and all the rest, which not only
made very pleasant and instructive reading, but gave me
a nice little set off at the beginning.
Whilst in Montreal, the Dean also very kindly gave
me a number of letters of introduction to the most
influential people he could think of in the city, as well as
ah1 over the country, from Quebec to Victoria, and from
these, as mentioned in detail in other pages, I subsequently obtained much information, which it is hoped
will increase the value of this treatise.
Montreal is rich in magnificent buildings of all kinds,
but for obvious reasons a brief description of some of them is all that is necessary. The first to claim
attention is the Bank of Montreal, which, as the
earliest Bank in Canada, was opened in 1817, and is a
very handsome building, as may be partially seen on the
right of the view on next page. To the manager and his
colleagues of this Institution I am much indebted for the
courtesy shown to me during my visits to them, a few
strokes of the pen in their territory enabling me to
draw upon their very numerous and beautiful branch
establishments throughout the country as I travelled
along.
Adjoining the bank is a partial view of the General
Post Office, which, although a splendid building, has
already proved too small for the requirements of a city
that has, during recent years, increased so rapidly in
size and importance.
In the foreground, or Place d'Armes, is shown the
handsome monument to Maisonneuve, previously referred to. The obelisk is of exquisite workmanship,
the main and highly expressive statue on the top, as
well as the minor figures at the corners, and the
picturesque panellings at the sides, all of which are in
bronze, being art studies in themselves.
Our last view of Montreal city, shown on page 29,
is taken from that lovely spot, Victoria Square, which,
in conjunction with the previous illustrations and
remarks will give a fair idea of the beauty of the city.
An admirable statue of the Queen adorns the foreground,
the sides of which are embellished with avenues of trees,
and with handsome ranges of public buildings, whilst
the back-ground of the picture is filled in with fine
churches, and a portion of the "mountain" to which
reference has already been made.
As  a temporary   home  on  a large  scale   for   the
ss&ssssssss PLACE B'ARMES,  MONTREAL. 28
innumerable visitors to Montreal, the Windsor Hotel
claims primary attention. This hotel is not only
situated at the side of the lovely Dominion Square
gardens, with handsome churches and public buildings
immediately adjoining, but it is the largest and finest in
Canada, and quite equal in extent and grandeur to many
of the best in the British Isles. Its spacious and magnificent dining hall seats fully 700, and this in itself
may give a good idea of its capacity in other ways, as I
happily experienced, for the comfort of its constant
succession of crowds of visitors of all nations, frequently
of the highest rank.
Throughout the whole of Canada, and also through
part of the United States, on the return trip, I found
that overhead wire electrical traction for tramcars
reigned almost supreme. Some idea of the rapidity
with which suburban traffic is conducted may be
gathered from the fact that on long and straight parts
of a line the speed frequently reaches thirty miles an
hour, that in town being regulated by city laws, and by
the nature of the streets and their traffic. Besides
this, the cars are admirably suited to the requirements
of summer and winter service, their bodies being
detachable from their under frames, and interchangeable
with others, according to the season. They are also
brilliantly lighted by electricity, and in cold weather
are heated in the same manner.
It is wonderful what these cars can accomplish in
the way of running up steep inclines, and also in hauling
heavy loads. Very frequently, during show periods, it
was a common occurrence for one densely crowded motor
car to pull after it five cars crowded to the utmost, the
streets in this case, however, being level.
Fares were very low, a payment of two-and-a-half
NWWCWNW  30
cents for a single trip, enabling one to travel any
distance in the great cities, and if one car was not
sufficient to carry a passenger to his destination, a free
" transfer " to one or more cars did so, which was a
great convenience. Euns into the country cost more,
but these might be from fifteen to twenty-five miles in
length. Further, it may be said that all the tramway
companies are more or less financially prosperous,
owing to the enormous traffic thus created.
The river St. Lawrence is nearly 2,200 miles in total
length, and after undergoing a great variety of changes
in formation and width, due to the lakes through which
it passes, and the islands around which it flows, arrives
at Montreal with a breadth of one-and-a-half to two
miles. From this point to Quebec it is irregularly
widened out by means of numerous islands, and by Lake
St. Peter, to a breadth at one spot of about nine miles.
From Quebec, however, to the gulf of St. Lawrence—a
distance of 420 miles—it gradually attains a final width
of thirty-five miles. Its features are remarkable for
diversified beauty, and are therefore a source of great
attraction to the immense multitudes of people who visit
its waters, shoot its rapids, or sail or row delightfully
over its placid surface.
The three leading objects of interest on the river,
in the neighbourhood of Montreal, are the Lachine
Eapids, the new railway bridges, and the Island Park of
St. Helen's Isle. The first named are so attractive that
few strangers enter that city without running the
torrent, which is so swift and tumultuous that no vessel
can pass up it. The village of Lachine is nine miles
above Montreal, and between these points a railway and
a ship canal have been constructed, the latter being used
by  steamers in  their upward passage to  Lachine, at
ra^raKHifflI^HnB^K&5K^^^5«^sis^SS^^5B^^^SHS!^^ral^^R9raSin
!M  32
which place they re-enter the river for the grand performance, as shown in the view on previous page.
This, to many, is a dangerous and exciting trip, as
the vessel gradually enters the rapids, and begins to roll
and toss about, heading at one moment straight for an
adjacent rock, and then by a skilful turn of the wheel by
the Indian pilot, just clearing it by a few feet, any
mistake on his part possibly involving the sudden
destruction of the ship. A good deal of high-toned and
even poetic language has been used in some descriptions
of this scene, but, simply told, it is one of deep interest
and great beauty.
The steamer on her voyage passes beneath two new
and handsome steel-built long-span bridges of admirable
design. The first of these, which is shown in the view
on page opposite, was built by the C. P. E. Company,
the second by the Grand Trunk Eailway Company, to
supersede the old single line Victoria tubular structure,
which was opened by the Prince of Wales in 1860.
This bridge was nearly two miles in length, and as
it had become totally insufficient for present traffic
purposes, a new structure of open lattice girder type was
erected to accommodate a double track railway, an
electric tramway, and roadways for carriage and foot
passengers. A feature of great engineering interest
connected with it is the fact that uhe new bridge was
erected upon the same piers, and around the old one,
without in any way interfering with the traffic. When
the former was completed in 1898, the iron work of
the latter was gradually removed, the trains running
through it all the time.
It may be mentioned that the Eichelieu and Ontario
Company's steamer, shown in the view, is heading direct
for the Lachine Eapids, which are close at hand, and.
£S
585
MlfflMMPPB  34
that the gigantic timber raft, with its working staff on
board, is gently gliding with the current to Quebec.
The water way for ocean, and coasting, and river
steamers down to Quebec is broad and deep, the
shallow parts being marked off for pilotage purposes.
Amongst the sights and scenes of river life the timber
rafts just referred to attract much attention, owing to
their strange appearance and immense size, and the
number of men who live upon them in roughly built
huts. Their Canadian boat songs, and sometimes extraordinary freaks providing considerable amusement.
On page 9 we give an illustration of the Quebec
and Montreal liner Quebec in harbour. This is one of
the large, handsome, and very numerous fleet owned by
the Eichelieu and Ontario Navigation Company, and
may be considered a standard type of the sometimes
very high speed ship for river and lake service all over
the continent, the great popularity of which is due to
admirable design and construction.
Briefly described, the main deck is used entirely for
second-class passengers and cargo purposes, the deck
above, with sleeping staterooms at the sides, having for
the whole length of the deck house a magnificent, lofty
arched roofed, and handsomely furnished drawing-room,
occupying the space between them. A broad staircase
leads to the promenade galleries above, which give
access to the upper tier staterooms, and provide a
splendid view of the saloon below. The covered and
open promenades at the ends and the sides are a great
source of enjoyment to passengers, who frequently
crowd them, an abundance of chairs being at hand for
their use. The pilot house in front, with its glass sides,
is the official home of those who have sometimes very
difficult navigation to pass through, and even this has 35
a roof which, for observation purposes, is unequalled.
By night, one of these steamers on its passage, a-blaze
from end to end with electric light, is a splendid spectacle. An illustration of a smaller vessel is given in the
plate of the Lachine Bapids on page 31.
For shallow rivers, where, by means of a signal from
anyone on shore," a steamer may be run into the sloping
and perhaps wooded bank at any point, one very broad
paddle wheel is placed at the stern instead of those
amidships, as shown in a later view of one of these
vessels on Okanagan Lake. By this means a steamer is
easily backed off the beach, and is also allowed to come
so close to a railway pier, and the train which stands
upon the edge of it, that a temporary plank gangway
placed between them allows passengers and goods to be
transhipped direct.
In every respect, high-class ships of this type,
although entirely different from those in European
services, are nevertheless magnificently adapted for the
long night and day trips they have so frequently to
perform, and for the very convenient opportunities they
provide at all points for those who desire to see to the
best advantage the beautiful scenery. 36
CHAPTEE III.
Canada, and its Travelling Resources.—Dimensions of the
Country—Its Division into Provinces—Canada as it was —
Two Methods of originating a Railway — Origin of the
Canadian Pacific Railway—Explorations and Surveys of
the Country — Wonderful Rapidity of Construction —
Laying the last Rail—Immediate Results—Course of the
Line across the country—Other means of Travel by Land
and Water—Montreal, Ottawa, and Georgian Bay Canal—
Its object — General Plan — Enormous Lake Traffic —
Commercial Advantages of the New and Direct Route
to the Sea—Subsidiary Advantages—Engineering Features
of the Canal—Opinions of eminent Canadians regarding
its Value.
M
.rt jh
ew
7&»
4£
*5s
mm
-.*>   ITHEETO, we have been standing only on the borders of the,
at one time, Great Unknown
territory of Canada, but before
swinging off into the realms of
Western space, it may be well
to explain a few things concerning the country in general.
Firstly, then, let  us  consider its size, and its subdivision into Provinces.   Secondly,
the  means employed to open
out these Provinces as places
for   the   successful    application   of
labour.    And, lastly, the  amount  of
success   which   has   attended   these
efforts, and their bearing upon the future, both of the
Dominion and also of Great Britain.
Canada is of immense size, as  may  be  discovered
!*&>
m 37
in two ways, as follows:—Make an outline tracing
of all the continental European countries, excluding
Eussia, but including the British Isles. Now make
another outline sketch of Canada to the same scale,
and, placing the former over the latter, it will be
seen that the area of the Dominion is fully double that
of Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Holland, Spain and
Portugal, France, Germany, Austria, Italy, &c, which,
perhaps, is not quite what some people would expect.
A more practical way of ascertaining this fact is to
traverse the country by the Canadian Pacific Eailway
from Montreal to Vancouver, either in frequent stopover fashion, or by going straight ahead from end to
end, which will enable people to learn very much of
which they at present have no conception.
Canada is divided from the United States by a
frontier line which extends from the Pacific coast along
the parallel of 49° N. Lat., as far as the 95th degree of
W. Long., to the great Lakes, and, passing through the
centres of Lakes Superior, Huron, Erie, and Ontario,
and their connecting lines, runs down the middle of the
St. Lawrence towards Montreal. After rounding the
borders of Quebec, and jutting northwards, where the
State of Maine protrudes into New Brunswick, it ends at
the mouth of the St. Croix river, which flows into the
Bay of Fundy. All territory, therefore, to the south of
this line belongs to our good cousins, whilst everything
to the Far, Far North, except Alaska, is Canadian
property.
It may here be remarked that the eastern portion of
this vast country was, up to the year 1867, divided into
independent Provinces, each having its own system of
government, as had British Columbia on .the western
coast.    The central portion, which includes the prairie 38
and plain regions, was under the sway of the Hudson's
Bay Company, whose rights were purchased for
£300,000 and one-twentieth of the land. Long before
this, however, it had become evident that a better
arrangement should be adopted, and so measures were
eventually taken by some of the leading men of the
country, amongst the most energetic of whom were the
late Sir John Macdonald, Sir Charles Tupper, the Hon.
George Brown, and the Hon. Peter Mitchell at that
time Minister of Marine and Fisheries. During the year
named, this movement resulted in the welding of the
whole of the Provinces into one vast combination, ever
since known by the name of " The Dominion of Canada,"
which, since that event, has flourished immensely.
The Provinces referred to include Prince Edward's
Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, Labrador,
Ontario, Manitoba, and British Columbia, also the districts of Keewatin, Assiniboia, Saskatchewan, Alberta,
Athabasca, and the territory beyond which embraces
the Yukon.
Having sketched in outline the Canada of to-day, the
next thing to do is fco show how the immense resources
of the country can be best utilised for the benefit of the
world at large, as well as for those more directly interested. For very many years the interior was a vast
wilderness of forest and prairie, and lake and mountain,
only slightly known to adventurers, discoverers, Indians,
and traders. Now, all this is happily changed, a new
series of events having been instituted during the last
few years, by means of which the whole country has
been wonderfully opened out to trade and commerce;
to the origin and development of towns and cities; and,
as a natural consequence, to the great increase of its
population. 39
There are usually two ways of originating a railway
commercially, one being to design it so as to relieve a
traffic-route already in existence which may be seriously
over-burdened for want of new outlets; the other being
to create by its presence a traffic which does not exist,
but which may abundantly do so if the proposed line is
skilfully planned throughout by those who know the
prospective resources of the district it has to pass
through. Not only so, but its details should be so
designed that, while insuring perfect safety on one hand,
the cost of construction should be reduced to the
utmost. Here it is, therefore, where the greatest all
round foresight and knowledge are required. So far as
Canada is concerned, these conditions have been most
ably fulfilled in the design and construction of the line
over which I so recently travelled. Here, however,
a few preliminary remarks may be appropriately made.
A railway from ocean to ocean across Canadian
territory had long existed in the imaginations of a few
in that country. In time, however, it became the hope
of many, but, soon after the confederation of the Provinces, its realisation became a political necessity. At
this point, the Government conceived the idea of constructing the Canadian Pacific Eailway—a work not
only of immense proportions, but one, too, which was
hedged about with difficulties of no ordinary nature.
Previous to the construction of the line, the country
through which it had to pass was unexplored, and
included a vast region where deep lakes and great rivers
in every direction opposed the progress of the engineer.
For nearly 1,000 miles beyond the. Eed Biver stretched
an immense plain, then came the mountains, range after
range in rapid succession, and through all this territory,
for a distance of about 2,000 miles, the surveys had to be 40
made at a great expenditure of time and money. People
became impatient, and found fault with the scheme.
There were serious differences of opinion on the subject,
so much so, indeed, that it was not until 1875 that the
work of construction was begun by the Canadian
Government.
The explorations and surveys for the railway had
exposed the character of the country it was to traverse.
In the wilderness bordering on Lake Superior, forests of
pine and other useful timber, mineral deposits of incalculable value, and millions of acres were found in the
vast prairie region between Winnipeg and the Eocky
Mountains, which proved to be wonderfully fertile.
Towards the mountains, great coal fields were discovered, and British Columbia, beyond them all, was
known to contain nearly every element of traffic and
wealth. The success of the early settlers on the prairies
of the North West was attracting others. The political
reasons for constructing the line were lost sight of, and
there was no difficulty in finding a party of capitalists
ready to relieve the Government of the undertaking,
and carry it on as a commercial enterprise.
In this way the Canadian Pacific Bailway Company
was formed in 1881, and immediately afterwards entered
into a contract with the Government to complete the
line within ten years. As the latter had granted
numerous privileges and immunities, and substantial
executive help, the work of construction was vigorously
commenced at Winnipeg, and pushed westward at great
speed.
Some idea will be formed of the rapidity with which
a prairie line may be laid when it is known that for
months in succession the average rate of advance by the
Company's staff was fully three miles a day, sometimes,
cSswKKwNrasKww 41
too, as much as five, or even six miles, was attained in
the same period. By the aid of armies of men having
all the best appliances, and thousands of tons of dynamite for blasting purposes, the end of the third year
found the railway at the summit of the Eocky Mountains, and the fourth in the Selkirks, nearly 1,050 miles
west of Winnipeg. During this period, the government
section of the line from the Pacific coast was carried on
with the utmost despatch, until November 7th, 1885,
when the last rail was laid no less than five years ahead
of contract time.
The energies of the Company had not been confined
to the mere fulfilment of its contract, much more having
been done to enable the railway to become a successful
enterprise. Independent connections with the Atlantic
coast were secured by the purchase of lines leading
eastward to Montreal and Quebec; branch lines to the
chief centres of trade in eastern Canada were made to
collect and distribute the traffic of the main line, and
other branch lines were laid in the North-West for the
development of the great prairies.
The end of 1885 found the Company in possession of
no less than 4,315 miles of railway, including the longest
continuous line in the world, extending from Quebec and
Montreal to the Pacific Ocean—a distance of 3,050
miles—and, by the middle of 1886, all this vast system
was in full working order. Villages, towns and cities,
followed close upon the heels of the constructors. The
forests were cleared away; the soil of the prairie was
turned over; mines were opened; and even before the
last rail was in its place, the completed sections were
carrying a large and profitable trade. The influence of
the Canadian Pacific Eailway upon the commerce of the
world was felt from  its very outset, and to such an 42
extent as to affect, in a marked degree, the trade of
China and Japan, by means of magnificent 6,000 ton
mail steamships, which were specially built to run to
these countries from Vancouver.
The three years, from 1886 to 1889, were marked by
an enormous development of traffic, and by the addition
of 800 miles of railway to the existing system. These
lines spread in various directions, with the object of
benefiting the numerous mining, agricultural, manufacturing, and other districts. And as the Company's
lines have so long been completely organised, the natural
question—"Do they pay?"—is answered by the fact
that the earnings over the whole system have been of a
very satisfactory nature, notwithstanding long sustained
periods of commercial depression. Canada's steel built
roads have given such an impulse to all her industries
that the modest colony of the past is now an energetic
nation, with great plans, and hopes, and benefits to
confer upon her ever increasing population. Later on,
we shall direct attention to the wonderful peculiarities
of the line in detail.
So greatly has the general traffic of this railway
increased during late years, that not only has the
Windsor Street terminus in Montreal been considerably
enlarged, but the new and handsome Place Viger
Station and hotel have been recently erected at the other
end of the city, the style of the latter running pretty
much upon the French Baronial lines of the Chateau
Frontenac at Quebec, shown on page 7.
In reference to the former, it may be said that it is
the main terminus of the whole line, and that, as it is
placed close to the Windsor Hotel, it shares with it all
the beautiful surroundings of Dominion Square, previously described,     Its architecture is of the massive
^L
SSS&S&S^^^SS^^S^S^ 43
Eomanesque type, which has a handsome appearance.
As people from a distance have frequently to wait a long
time for their trains, the greater portion of the ground-
floor area is occupied with waiting rooms, the upper
floors being set apart for the use of the principals and
their colleagues, the engineering and commercial staffs,
etc., who in the aggregate control the working of the
line throughout, aided by branch offices at important
towns.
The grand waiting room for all classes is very
spacious and magnificent, its lofty, groined, arched roof,
its polished granite columns, its mosaic floor, large plate
glass windows, and profusion of polished oak seats, its
beautiful paintings of some of the most attractive parts
of the line, and other works of art and general decoration producing a splendid effect.
The two large adjacent first-class waiting rooms are
handsomely furnished, and fitted with every comfort and
luxury. The walls of both rooms are richly embellished
with immense photos, of some of the most striking
scenes in the Eockies, etc., thus forming a delightful
retreat for prospective passengers. Full provision is
also made for the comfort and convenience of emigrants
bound for the Far West.
Eeferring to the map at the end of this volume, it
will be seen that the east coast lines of the C. P. E.
begin at St. John, N.B., and Quebec, and converge
until they meet in Montreal. From this point the main
line proceeds westward by Ottawa, and then onwards to
Sudbury Junction, where it branches off in one direction
northwards by the lovely shore of Lake Superior to
Fort William, arid also in a southerly direction to Sault
St. Marie, and to the United States cities of St. Paul
and Minneapolis, from which it is extended through the 44
States of Minnesota and North Dakota into Canadian
territory again, joining the main line of the C. P. E. at
Moose Jaw, in Assiniboia.
From Fort William the line proceeds to Winnipeg—
the half way city—and then onwards by Brandon and
Calgary to the verge of the Eocky Mountains, which,
with other ranges, have to be crossed on the road to
Vancouver. It may be added that, besides the main
line, there are many branches to various places which
are shown on the map, and which have, unitedly, a total
length of 9,000 miles, not to mention extensions still in
progress.
Scenically described, the country from Montreal to,
say, 50 miles eastward of Winnipeg, is very pretty,
richly wooded, moderately hilly, and frequently interspersed with beautiful lakelets and rivers. From the
50 mile point onwards to Calgary, a distance of about
900 miles, the line runs through prairie land, well brush-
wooded for the first few miles, and then, for the next
870, with only a few good sized trees to enliven the.
view. In fact, one is really on an ocean of grass, sometimes billowy, and at other times nearly a dead level,
with the clear lined horizon all round, but, nevertheless,
imperceptibly rising in vast steppes until an altitude of
3,388 feet above the sea level is reached.
From Calgary, the scene changes rapidly as the
Eockies, now very prominently in sight, are swiftly
approached, but when their portal is passed at "The
Gap," a completely new world is opened out. A world
of splendour, and beauty, and rugged grandeur, and
snowy peaks, and beautiful rivers, and awe-inspiring
canons, and, ultimately, lovely plains fringed with receding mountains, until Vancouver is reached, after a run
of nearly 650 miles.    As, however, all these scenes, as 45
well as the various methods of developing the resources
of the country will be described in other chapters, no
more need here be said about them.
In addition to the lines just referred to, there are
many other extensive and varied means of transportation
on land and water throughout the country. These
chiefly comprise the Grand Trunk Line with its fully
4,000 miles of track, the Canadian and Atlantic System,
and the Canadian Government Eailway system, which
includes the Prince Edward Island Eailway, and the
Inter-colonial Eailway which connects Montreal and
Quebec with Moncton, St. John, Halifax, and Sydney,
Cape Breton, otherwise termed the "Picturesque Boute
to the Maritime Provinces ' of New Brunswick, Nova
Scotia, Prince Edward Island, Cape Breton Island, the
Magdalen Islands, and Newfoundland, whilst sweeping,
at the same time, the seaside resorts of the lower St.
Lawrence.
The Grand Trunk includes, amongst its numerous
splendid works, the new bridge over the river just
named, and the new and handsome steel-built bridge
across the rapids of the Niagara. This bridge is in one
arch of 550 feet span, supplemented by two other spans
which, with the approaches, make its total length fully
1,100 feet. It has also two floors, one for carrying the
railway, which is 252 feet above the water, and the
other below it for general road traffic and tramcar
purposes; the whole structure being made to carry six
times the load which the historic suspension bridge it
has now displaced was calculated to bear.
Chief amongst the very numerous river and lake
steamers which traverse the country in every direction
are those of the Eichelieu and Ontario Navigation
Company, which owns a large fleet of handsome vessels, 46
chiefly employed in those lovely regions lying between
Niagara and the sea, which have thus become so
popular.
Amongst the projected schemes for improving the
internal communications of Canada are various railway
and steamboat extensions to which no reference need
here be made. The scheme, however, above all others,
which not only vitally affects Canada, but all the rest of
the world, is that magnificent enterprise of the near
future termed the "Montreal, Ottawa, and Georgian Bay
deep water Canal/' which may be briefly described as
follows:—
The object of its promoters is to form a direct waterway of at least nine feet in depth from Georgian Bay
on Lake Huron to the head of the ocean navigation on
the St. Lawrence at Montreal, which is fully 900 miles
from the Atlantic via the Straits of Belleisle, and incidentally the development of hydraulic, electric, and
other sources of power for works of various kinds along
the route. Besides this, the scheme involves the utilisation of many other sources of revenue. For these
purposes, it is proposed to utilise chiefly the Ottawa
Eiver, the Mattawa Eiver, Lake Nipissing, and French
Eiver, as shown on the folded map.
These navigable stretches of water will be so improved, aided by short earth works where required, -as to
form a system of river, canal, and lake navigation on a
scale suited to the voluhie of the traffic which is now
waiting for it, and which is already more than double
the amount -of tonnage passing through the Suez Canal.
This extraordinary circumstance is due to the fact
that the Great Lakes, with a coast line of 4,000 miles,
and an area of 95,000 square miles, afford the largest
system of deep water inland navigation in  the world.
3SaQ3a3aS5SS 47
Vast wealth is already centred in the territory surrounding them, the immensely rich resources of which have
been only partially worked. Already an enormous
traffic has been developed, which may be gathered from
the fact that from 28,000,000 to 30,000,000 tons of
freight pass Detroit annually, and at least 18,000,000
tons a year pass through the Sault Ste. Marie Canal
connecting Lake Superior with Lake Huron, which
contrasts favourably with the 9,238,603 tons of the
Suez Canal in 1898. Putting this part of the business
into nut shell form, it may be said that an enormous
traffic now exists ready to benefit and be benefited by
the proposed canal. A traffic so great and ever increasing that it has been authoritatively stated that, in about
ten years, the canal would be practically overtaxed, for
the following reasons.
The opening up of this new route would complete a
direct and unbroken navigation for 2,000 miles into the
heart of the country, and would thus form an important
link in the greatest of international waterways, and act
as a great stimulus to trade and manufacture in the
neighbouring provinces.
Secondly, owing to the directness of this route, when
compared with that now existing, from Chicago to
Montreal, via Lakes Michigan, Huron, Erie and Ontario,
and the St. Lawrence to Montreal, a great amount of
distance is saved, thus :—
From Chicago to Montreal, via the St. Lawrence,
the distance is 1,287 miles, whilst by the proposed canal
it is only 980 miles. On the other hand, from Chicago
to New York, via the Erie route, the distance is 1,415
miles, thus saving in the first instance 307, and in the
other 435 miles.
It
may
further  be noted   that the  distance from 48
Chicago to Liverpool, via the Erie Canal and New York
is 4,505 miles, and via the Ottawa Canal and Montreal
3,780 miles, thus saving no less than 725 mile's in
transit. In addition to this and all other advantages,
the Ottawa route is safer than any other, owing to the
sheltered and much better nature of the navigation, as
the dangerous shoals and currents in other parts are
thus avoided.
Constructively speaking, the proposed route possesses
the unique advantage of requiring throughout its whole
length of 430 miles, from Montreal to Georgian Bay,
only 29 miles of excavated canal, and even of this,
15 miles are already in existence, but requiring alteration.
So far as the river portion of the navigation is
concerned, the improvements chiefly include the beautifully simple process of raising the level of the water at
certain points by means of dams, thus obtaining greater
depth without dredging^ In this manner, the foundations of immense hydraulic and electric power installations will be incidentally laid, which will greatly
benefit the neighbouring country by making the valley
of the Ottawa one of the principal manufacturing
districts of the continent. And additionally so, since,
as a general rule, the cost of water transportation of
goods is about one third of that on railways.
Another advantage the waterway possesses, is the
fact that the C. P. E. and other railways run contiguous
to it for 380 miles of its length, which will be a source
of mutual benefit to all. And, further, owing to the
great improvements which have recently been made in
engineering processes and machinery, whatever dredging, or excavating, etc., is required, can now be performed at much less cost than formerly. 49
I am indebted to Mr. McLeod Stewart, ex-Mayor of
Ottawa, who is the head and front of this grand enterprise, for the fullest information, maps, plans, etc., of
the scheme, which in these papers has been elaborately
considered from every point of view by the Special
Committee of the Senate of Canada, and by many
others. Amongst the facts thus given concerning the
undertaking as a whole, I gather that it has been
most favourably contemplated by many eminent people
for a long time past. These include Field Marshal
Sir John Michel, formerly the Commander-in-Chief of
Her Majesty's Forces in Canada; the Honourable
Alexander Mackenzie, for some time Premier of Canada;
Sir John Macdonald, G.C.B., late Premier of the
Dominion, and the most eminent of Canada's statesmen;
Sir William Van Home, President of the Canadian
Pacific Eailway Company, and also numerous celebrated
engineers, who have so reported upon the scheme as to
leave no doubt whatever regarding the great benefit to
be derived from the canal when in operation.
«£.«#
>^9>
♦1
E 50
CHAPTEE IV.
Westward Bound.—Montreal to Ottawa—History of the City—
Its Parliamentary and other Public Buildings—Chaudiere
Falls—A Railway and Steamboat Centre—Its chief industries—Unique Wood Pulp Paper, etc., Works—Their River
Motive Power—Gigantic Saw Mills—Their Peculiarities—
Hints about Travelling Trunks—Summer Costume—On the
■ road to Fort William—Aspect of the Country—A Sleeping
Car—Arrangement and Method of Working—Courtesies of
the Car—Heading for Lake Superior—Lovely Surroundings—f Striking" the Lake—Charms of Mountain and Sea
and Sky—The Belles of Schreiber—"The Chid'" amongst
them—Shades of Night again—Arrival at Fort William.
XflT
&
f
Q
&
V
s^
M?
FTEE having remained long enough
in Montreal to become sufficiently
acquainted with the city and its
people, I thought I could not do
better than begin to follow the
track of the sun, as well as of the
railway, until I had, step by step,
reached the shores of the Pacific.
On a lovely July day, I therefore left at 9.30 by the C.P.E. for Ottawa, where,
after a delightful run of 120 miles through a beautiful
and well watered country, I arrived at one o'clock, just
in time to see their Excellencies before they left on their
farewell round of visits to the West. After this, I
pursued my own course of investigation, carefully taking
a preliminary survey of the city before treating in detail
the objects of interest I thus discovered.
The original name of the village, out of which the
city sprang, when founded in 1826, by Colonel By, E.E., 51
was " Bytown." In 1834, its name was changed to the
Indian one of Ottawa. In 1854, the population being
10,000, it had the title of "City' bestowed upon it by
Parliament. In 1857, it was selected by the Queen as
the Political Capital of Canada, Montreal retaining its
position as the Commercial Metropolis. In 1859 the
Parliament Buildings were commenced. In 1865 they
were completed; and in 1866, Parliament met there for
the first time, thus further adding to the population
and importance of the place. The city itself is located
at the junction of the Eideau and Gatineau rivers with
the magnificent Ottawa, the lovely Chaudiere Falls,
which here interrupt the navigation of the latter, providing a valuable supply of water power for numerous
saw mills and adjoining manufacturing establishments,
which find ample scope for employment.
Like Quebec, Ottawa is divided into an upper and a
lower town, the former of which stands on high ground,
overlooking a wide expanse of country, distant mountains, flowing rivers, and undulating plains forming
a beautifully diversified scene, which, from the top
of the Houses of Parliament, produces a splendid
panoramic effect. The city has broad, handsome, well
paved and asphalted streets, the buildings which line
them being frequently of a highly architectural and
sometimes richly embellished nature. Many of the
public edifices are high art productions, the head and
front of them all being the Parliament Buildings, whose
great beauty, but only partial extent, may be seen in the
plate on page 53.
These Buildings, which, with their departmental
offices, cost about 5,000,000 dollars, occupy three sides
of a square on an elevated spot over-looking the river,
and are very handsomely finished internally throughout. 52
The extensive grounds around them are beautifully laid
out with flowers and trees which have a charming effect.
Besides this, the views from any point are extremely
picturesque, as the illustration to some extent clearly
indicates. In addition to the buildings just referred to,
there are others of great size and handsome appearance
in the same locality, which are used for public purposes.
Amongst the chief natural attractions of Ottawa are
the Chaudiere Falls, the width of the greater of which is
200 feet, and its depth 40 feet, the wild, boiling, foaming
nature of the water having originated the name. These
falls possess some curious features which help to produce
their extraordinary appearance in winter, as shown in
the view on page 55, wmich also includes a small part of
the lower town.
One of the most important characteristics in connection with the commercial life of Ottawa, and one,
too, which makes it very easy of access from ali parts of
the country, is the fact that it is the centre of no less
than seven railways, and also of steamboat facilities of a
very useful order. Amongst ot&er sources of revenue for
the former, is the transportation of the enormous
quantities of timber which are sawn out of the rough
logs that float in rafts down the river and its tributaries
from more or less distant forests.
A Canadian industry of ever increasing value is
that of making excellent paper from wood pulp, the
manufacture of which I had the pleasure of seeing at the
immense establishment of Messrs. E. B. Eddy & Co.,
which is situated at a point where, upon crossing a
bridge over the river immediately adjoining the Chaudiere Falls, I passed from Ottawa, Ontario, into the city
of Hull, Quebec. Upon calling at the Company's
offices, I introduced myself to the pleasant and accom- o
o
Q
a*
UJ
a. 54
\t\
plished Mr. Eowley, who said "he was very pleased to
see me," which must have been quite true, as he, two
• months afterwards, said exactly the same thing when I
met him in Montreal. After obtaining permission to
inspect the Works, I was handed over to one of his
assistants, who most instructively showed me all over
them, and explained the system of driving them by
water power taken directly from the Ottawa, a method
of producing cheap motive power in which the Canadians have naturally great experience, as their country
possesses so many valuable rivers.
The skill displayed in the design and construction of
Messrs. Eddy's works is clearly shown by the admirably
arranged machinery of their interior, and also by the
localisation of the establishment where power and
materials can be most easily obtained.
In saw-mills generally, especially those of gigantic
size, for which the Ottawa district is famous, there is an
enormous amount of refuse cuttings of timber which are
used instead of coal for firing boilers. Besides this,
large quantities are sometimes otherwise burnt on the
premises to prevent them from injuring the navigation
of a river and making it unsightly. The quantity of
timber required by Messrs. Eddy & Co. is prodigious, as
it is employed not only in the manufacture of paper, but
of many other things, including matches in inconceivable numbers, as will be clearly seen when it is stated
that the average daily output of their works is as
follows:—Paper, 45 to 50 tons; sulphite fibre and wood,
50 tons; paper bags, 500,000; indurated fibre ware, 800
articles; wooden ware, 3,000 pails and tubs; matches,
35,000,000, etc.    || I      f| 1
Here, however, we touch upon the borders of a
system which, in countless ways, affects the cheapness
i^S&SM^  56
and excellence of every thing we can eat, drink, wear, or
use in any possible form, both as regards its economy in
manufacture and in transport. That system is known
by the term Mechanical Engineering, which in infinite
forms throughout the realms of science ministers to the
wants of the human race. The leading features of this
system chiefly consist of very admirable design and
construction of the machinery itself, and also its skilful
arrangement, so that in the manufacture of anything,
the various processes and movements are so progressive,
that, while the raw material enters one end of a workshop, it passes steadily onward until it reaches the other
end in a finished state, without allowing a moment to be
wasted in manipulation. In this manner the talent of
the engineer is now-a-days wonderfully developed, in a
way, too, which has repeatedly won the greatest admiration of those who have witnessed it.
The rapid increase during the last few years in the
consumption of spruce and poplar for pulp cellulose
used in the manufacture of paper, textile fabrics, and a
thousand other articles, has built up a business not only
on the banks of the Ottawa, but throughout the vast
province of Ontario, and also in other regions of Canada,
which seems likely to attain gigantic proportions before
long. Three things, however, are necessary to accomplish this, namely, suitable wood, extensive water power,
and suitable labour, all of which advantages richly exist
in Ontario. Moreover, Canadian timber pulp is of a
superior quality and greatly sought after by the manufacturers of the United States, in which country there is
an increasing demand. Besides this, it is more popular
in England than that of Norway and Sweden, and therefore commands a higher price.
Amongst  Dean  Boveyds  valued  introductions were 57
those to Mr. Collingwood Schreiber, the Deputy Minister
for railways and canals, and to Dr. G. M. Dawson,
C.M.G., etc., Director of the Geological Survey of Canada, and Mr. T. C. Keefer, C.E. The first named was so
fully occupied at the time of my visit that I naturally felt
inclined to retire at once; before being allowed to do so,
however, he very kindly supplied me with the most
authoritative information concerning his own departments.
I alighted upon Dr. Dawson at a happier time. Not
only did he carefully show me round his beautiful
museum, but most generously supplied me with much
useful information. And all the more so, as the learned
geologist is the foremost in his science in the Dominion.
Dr. Dawson is not only the son of the late Principal
of McGill University, but is one of the simplest and
most genial of men. All highly talented scientists are,
or ought to be so, as they are so continually brought
into contact with the sometimes unfathomable marvels
of the physical world that they may well feel like
children playing with pebbles on the shore of a vast
ocean of whose bounds they are ignorant.
With Mr. Keefer I came in for my usual good for-
tune, as he only came home from a long run to go away
again, my visit fitting in between his trips for half an
hour only. I thus saw very little of him. He, however,
would not let me away before handing over to me as
much engineering information as possible regarding the
C.P.E., with which he was long professionally connected. To the three gentlemen named, I now express
my cordial thanks for the valuable knowledge so kindly
given to me, which at the proper places in this volume
will be found worked in with the text.
Having,  in  the  manner indicated,  rapidly utilised 58
the official, topographical, and scientific resources of
Ottawa, I thought it time to be off again on my travels,
in the midst of glorious weather. My first two days in
Montreal had been days of heat. This was immediately
followed by thunder-storms and tropical rain, which
cleared the air and made it delightfully cool and exquisitely transparent. After this, for weeks at a stretch,
we had brilliant sunshine, which was quite a treat to one
so long accustomed to the, too often, drizzle-fine-drizzle,
drizzle-drizzle, tolerably fair, etc., British climate.
Now, how about the costume to suit Canadian
weather, say from beginning of June to the end of
September, as I found it, and also the box to carry it in?
Well, as I was on a special mission to that country, and
naturally wished to look as smart as possible, I purchased a new, admirably designed, and handsome
"Saratoga" trunk of the regulation depth for going
underneath ship's berths. Its weight, when loaded, was
not too heavy for one man to carry, and here lies a
secret many people do not seem to know. One man for
a box of any size seems to be the rule at railway stations
everywhere, and if a trunk is too large or too heavy for a
porter to manage, he may drop it very roughly, and
perhaps upside down, on the ground, to the imminent
danger of the presentation home-made pots of jam,
or bottles of pickles, surrounded perhaps by evening
dresses, lovely hats, Indian shawls, etc., as some have
had painful cause to know. Better, therefore, to have
two handy trunks to carry your gear, than one unhandy,
bad-language-producing, miniature warehouse, which is
sure to get knocked about some time or other. In proof
of these remarks, it may be added that my Saratoga
was passed all over the Continent and home
practically uninjured.
again 59
My costumes were quite new, and chiefly consisted
of a useful navy blue suit. A similarly made black coat
and vest of rough woolly cloth for cold weather at sea.
A long, grey waterproof coat. One pair of light grey,
and one pair of darkish grey breeks, a black surtout,
and evening dress. A plain braided blue cloth P. and O.
style of cap for the sea, etc., a black felter, and a
handsome, stylish, black and white straw hat, which I
found absolutely invaluable* " Shineys," for any purpose, are worse than useless.
Thus attired, the "Happy Traveller" felt at ease,
and at least fancied that he made favourable impressions
wherever he went. The little things of life just mentioned frequently add quite as much to our felicity as
those of apparently greater importance, and, as a careful
student of details, as well as of generalities, I may be
excused for referring to subjects which many people
would have omitted.
On 9th July, at 6 p.m., I left Ottawa for Fort
William, with a run of 878 miles before me. The
evening was exquisitely beautiful, and as we rolled
onwards to the West, leaving behind us the spires and
towers and charming surroundings of the capital, the
scene was truly one to be remembered.
The country, too, as it rose to view, was lovely, as
we had the Ottawa river keeping us company for some
time, with its long and broad stretches, in which
could be seen immense quantities of logs, held in place
by means of booms. In addition to this, smaller
streams came into sight, also beautiful lakelets, and
hills, and forests, and rugged rocks, etc., until 9.38,
when we reached the important town of Pembroke.
This is not only the centre of various substantial
industries,  but   one,  also,  which   commands   a   large 60
portion of the trade of the lumbering districts towards
the north, the Ottawa being navigable for steamers some
distance both above and below this point. Not only so,
but by the presence of ample water power, and the
saw-mills, etc., which are driven by it, little towns had
sprung up here and there which in the near future will
become greatly extended.
The shades of night had fallen upon us, and so, after
standing outside the car as long as possible, and passing
the time inside with much pleasure for the rest of the
evening, I went to bed in the sleeping car, which here
needs explanation in connection with the view shown on
next page.
As will be clearly seen, the illustration expresses
much in little space. In the foreground we have the
seats luxuriously fitted and adorned as in a drawing-
room, which, indeed, the car is by day, the slanting and
tastefully ornamented upper portion of the sides forming
the sleeping space by night.
When the retiring hour arrives, the car porter pulls
down the slanting upper parts, and after putting everything in order, the beds are ready for use. The seats
below are provided with fore and aft sliding extensions,
which are kept underneath them during the day. These,
at bed time, are pulled out and mattressed, &c, as
above. Between the ends of each pair of berths is now
placed a movable wooden partition which isolates them
from each other, and besides this, handsome curtains are
suspended from the brass rods overhead in such a way
as to finally change the car into a series of most comfortable private bedrooms by night—the change being of
a very striking nature.
In this department alone, the most advanced principles of beautiful design and construction are promi-  62
nently observable, as there is not a pin, a screw, a
rod, or anything else indeed, that has not to take its
share in rapidly and effectively bringing about the
desired results.
It may be asked what all the ladies and gentlemen
who occupy this palatial hall by day, are doing while it
is being thus transformed. Well, they have just to sit
where they can until the operations are finished, and
then taking off their boots, and taking out their nightdresses from their bags, or coming from their dressing-
room in dressing-gowns, retire at once into privacy
behind the curtains, and there unrobe. It may be added
that the end door shown in the view, at which the conductor is trying to look picturesque, is only one out of
many which allow free passage from end to end of the
train, to which further reference is made in Chapter
VIII. I
The following sleeping-car stories come to me from
Transatlantic sources. One one occasion a husband and
wife had had a tiff, but after going to bed the former,
not wishing to let the moon arise on their wrath, said to
his wife three times, but unavailingly, " Mary, give me
a kiss." At last one of the neighbouring gentlemen
shouted in stentorian voice, "Mary, for goodness sake,
give him a kiss, and let us have peace! "
At another time the occupants of a similar car had
been informed, before going to bed, that at an early hour
in the morning a famous bridge would be passed which
they ought to note. When the time arrived they all
trimmed themselves and went outside to see it, but on
returning to rest one of the ladies missed her bearings,
and got into a gentleman's bed instead of her own,
When he discovered this the fact was gently announced
to the fair invader, who at once replied, "I am very 63
sorry, but as I do not intend to get up again, you can go
into mine I"
The rising sun of next morning found us racing away
from him at full speed. Another car transformation
scene was soon afterwards enacted. Breakfast time
arrived for hungry people. Lunch and dinner came on
as usual, all very excellent meals, at 75 cents each.
Lovely scenery and charming weather followed us all
the way. We passed station after station with Indian
names, such, for instance, as Onaping, Metagama, Bico-
tasing, Nemegosenda, Missanabie — where we met the
east bound train—and so on. We passed admiring
Indians with their tents, or " Teepees," in position, and
also a few miners.
Onwards we whirled hour by hour until we "struck"
Lake Superior at Heron Bay station, where we entered
upon a scene of splendour which Sir William Van Home
well advised me to note. From this point forward, over
many curves and bridges, the views of mountain, and
lake, and sky, also the frequently picturesque and grand
engineering features of the line, appeared in the most
exquisite and never-to-be-forgotten beauty under the
rays of the declining sun.
At 9.15 we reached Schreiber, an important divisional point of the C. P. E., where we remained ten
minutes, and gave the inhabitants a treat. Out they
came in numbers to see us at this far away point from
city civilization. Ladies and gentlemen of all ranks.
Mining folk in their every day costumes and complexions. Boys and girls and very young ladies, too,
came out to look at and admire us while we were at the
station.
The ladies of Schreiber were stylishly dressed in
white,  and seemed to   be   great   objects   of   interest. 64
There were two amongst them, however, who especially
attracted the amiable attention of the Chiel. They were
fine handsome young women, but their hats were of
such a curiously castellated flower-garden description
that they almost took his breath away, and thus gave
him a very good hint regarding the true reason why the
United States Government passed an edict enjoining
ladies to take off their head gear in public halls, etc.
Dear young women, our eyes met from time to time on
that memorable occasion, please, therefore, accept advice
from one who greatly admires elegant taste in dress.
Get simple hats suited to your own pretty costumes,
and your charming persons will become a source of true
admiration to those whose attentions are worth having.
Please also remember that this advice, so kindly given to
you is, at the same time, intended for very many whose
homes are some thousands of miles distant from yours,
and who in such things ought to know better.
Darkness fell upon us again, but, as in these splendid
cars, where society of every kind may be had from end
to end of a train, if desired, the time passed pleasantly
away until, at 2.20 a.m., we rolled smoothly into Fort
William, and I at once went to the excellent Kaminis-
tiquia hotel of good and still pleasantly remembered
Mrs. Smith, and slept soundly until breakfast time.
As we are now not far from the western borders of
Ontario, it may be well, for at least the sake of variety,
to give in the next chapter a few remarks upon this vast
province, full information concerning which has been
most kindly supplied to me by the Hon. John Dryden,
the Hon. Sydney Fisher, and other Government officials. CHAPTEE V.
Province op Ontario.—Its Immense Proportions—Geographical
Position — Vast Water Transportation "Resources — Peculiarities of the Province—The Great Lakes—Early days in
Northern Ontario—Its Physical Features and Resources—
Marvels of the Minor Lakes—A Gold-Mine Story—A new
Era for the District—Difficulties and Triumphs of the Early
Colonists—Qualities necessary to obtain Success—Opinions
of Settlers — Southern Ontario—Guelph Agricultural College—Its Immense Advantages—Experimental Farms and
their Uses — Farming an advanced Practical Science —
Timber Industry—The Trees of Canada—Bee-Hive Hamilton—Fruit Growing on a Gigantic Scale—Bush Fires—
Their Causes—Government Protection of Forests.
M' ' !:*. r
m
wigm
i
7
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'uti
*
»#"■.
Jjrotf
HE Province of Ontario
constitutes, from the
length of time it has
been practically known,
one of the oldest in
Canada, and forming,
as it does, the very
heart of the Dominion,
its progress, wealth, and population entitle it to be recognised as the
most important of them all. ' Its area
is 220,000 square miles, or 78,000 more
than the whole of Great Britain and Ireland, and only
4,000 less than that of France, its greatest length and
breadth being respectively 1,000 and 750 miles. 66
Ontario has other advantages besides vast extent
of territory, since its geographical position brings its
southern limits into close connection with the excellent
water transportation of the Great Lakes, which form in
themselves the finest system of inland navigation in the
world. Some idea. of the extent of this traffic may be
formed from what has already been said concerning it
in Chapter III.
With these facts in view, it will be clearly seen that
the position of Ontario gives her many of the advantages
of a maritime country, including remarkable natural
facilities for the cheap distribution of her products to
the markets of the world.
Primarily, it will be advisable to divide this province
into two parts—Northern, and Southern Ontario—firstly,
because the latter half constitutes the settled or agricultural portion; and secondly, on account of the distinct
difference which exists between their physical characteristics. Generally speaking, the latter territory is more
or less undulating, its soil possessing a natural fertility
unexcelled for richness. On one hand the visitor sees
well cultivated 150 to 200 acre farms, comfortable and
sometimes handsomely designed timber-built residences,
and spacious farm buildings, which indicate that their
owners have had at least a fair share of prosperity.
Cities and towns and villages lie all around, some of
them being named London, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Ayr,
Dumfries, Both well, &c.
There is an air of peacefulness and productiveness
about the land, brilliant and steady day by day sunshine
and clearness of sky, and a luxuriance of vegetation,
which means very much in reality to the farmer.
As the great lakes form such a prominently striking
feature of Southern Ontario, it may be well to give the 67
following table, which will show at a glance their leading proportions.
The Great Lakes.
Length
miles.
Breadth
miles.
Depth
feet.
Elevation
feet.
Area in
sq. miles.
Superior
Michigan
Huron [,
i •          • •
420
320
280
240
180
170
70
105
57
55
1,000
700
1,000
200
600
600
576
574
565
235
31,500
22,400
21,000
9,000
5,400
Erie
Ontario
Northern Ontario differs very materially from the
district just referred to, but then, when one has to deal
with such a large province, what else can be expected ?
Here, it may be said, that the ruling industries are those
chiefly connected with the mine and the forest.
In early days the pioneers began by felling trees and
preparing the land for the plough, but they soon discovered that the country underwent a complete change
in its character. Instead of the continuous stretch of
agricultural land they were accustomed to see in the
south, they found an almost impenetrable forest with
lakes and rivers, and hills and rocks in profusion, and
so disappointed were these prospective settlers with
what they thus encountered that they soon abandoned
the territory.
In course of time the lumberman came upon the
scene, and as he foresaw a large amount of profitable
employment, he immediately settled down and commenced operations.. So rapidly and so prosperously
were these conducted that towns and villages sprung
up which were largely devoted to the timber trade,
including sawmilling and other kindred occupations.
A certain amount of population naturally followed, but
as the timber industry did not seem capable of sufficient 68
expansion, many preferred the fertile plains of Manitoba
as a place of residence. Thus it happens that to-day a
large portion of Northern Ontario is only sparingly
populated, and its towns far apart. While on the one
hand, therefore, the C. P. B. has greatly opened out and
improved the country adjoining it, it may be said, on
the other hand, that between the prosperous belt thus
created and Hudson's Bay, this part of Canada was,
until recently, little better known than it was 60 or 70
years ago, the unexplored portion referred to being equal
in extent to one half of the entire province. So valuable, however, are its resources now proving in other
directions than those originally contemplated, that the
question of its development in relation to the future
prosperity of the province as a whole, is becoming one
of ever-increasing importance.
There is something about the appearance of Northern
Ontario, even to passengers by rail, which indicates
severe volcanic action in the ages of the past. The
country, although only moderately hilly, is frequently
broken up by ridges of rock which often rise abruptly
out of lake basins. In many places it is still covered
with dense forests, but one of its most remarkable
features is the endless number and variety of its minor
lakes, which exist in many thousands, and range in size
from those of fully 100 miles in length to rock basin
lakelets of small area. They generally show a tendency
to run in groups, having, as geologists inform us, been
excavated by the action of glaciers. More than this, so
obliging had Nature been to the coming race of settlers,
that most of these sheets of water have boat navigable
channels between them, which to those traversing the
district are a very great convenience.
A peculiar feature of many of these lakes, when of 69
large size, is the most extraordinary manner in which
they are embellished with islands of every conceivable
shape and dimension, sometimes, too, of great beauty,
and richly wooded. As no atlas, however oostly, could
even fairly show these in detail, reference has had to be
made to the "large scale and elaborate district maps of
the government offices.
For a long time Northern Ontario was considered a
worthless region of water and rock. It was deeply
regretted by many that it was not a farming country like
that of the south, but, unknown to all, there was a good
time coming which is now beginning to show itself.
There is a story told of a New York manufacturer
who, for the sake of economy, built a new establishment
on the bank of a western river. Soon afterwards, a
terrible flood swept the works completely away, to the
great distress of the owner, whose grief was, however,
soon changed into joy when he discovered that his
premises had been standing upon what was a now
revealed gold mine! So is it now with Northern
Ontario, at least regarding the once neglected and
apparently unworkable portions just noted. A new era
seems to have arisen, light is beginning to dawn in
regions yet untouched, but the manner in which that
light is to be further revealed remains to be told.
By intercourse with various people throughout the
land, I came to know very much concerning the early
troubles, difliculties, and successes of those who either
were native Canadians, or had been importations from
the Old Country. Regarding the latter, there was but
one opinion, namely, that, quite apart from their frequent physical disqualifications for the work of farming,
there was generally such a want of even rudimentary
knowledge of the conditions under which  agriculture ■BH
70
could alone be profitably carried out, that disappointment and failure were too often the result. Beturn to
the homes of their youth followed, and, instead of
blaming themselves, as in all fairness they should have
done, Canada herself received the discredit.
The cry of the disgusted ones was—" too much hard
work"—"things would not grow"—"frozen up all the
winter"—" no money to be made "—" wished they had
not gone," and so on. Instead of taking home a
goodly report of the land—like the bearers of the Bunch
of Grapes—their statements took the form of mourning,,
lamentation, and woe to such an extent, that people-
here became afraid to venture into such a supposed
wilderness of ice, and snow, and desert land, preferring
rather to bear the ills they knew of than fly to those
that might in more aggravated form be waiting for them.
The people I met repeatedly told me of all this.
They told me how their fathers, and uncles, and sons,
and brothers, and sisters, cousins, and aunts, and they
themselves too, had got along so nicely, after, of course,,
their preliminary hardships and difliculties had been
overcome. They told me about their comfortable
homes—their good neighbours—their winter amusements—their summer occupations, one of which, for a
short period only in certain places, was in battling with
the mosquitoes, and finally they told me how they had
successfully repelled those insects.
They further said they were always glad to see
people from the Old Country settling down amongst-
them who were willing to work, and had at least some
idea of how that work should be done, instead of
spending their money and time uselessly and grumb-
lingly, and giving the country a bad name which it did
not deserve.    In this way, my dear good friends and I
s&ssss^&ra
«™^ 71
chatted merrily and profitably as we smoothly rolled
along the C. P. B., the " Chiel," all the time, mentally
noting their remarks for reproduction in these pages,
which he hopes will remind many of his much valued
interviews with them on the main line and elsewhere.
For all these favours let me here most heartily thank
those who in this manner so much contributed to my
happiness and instruction in things Canadian.
So widespread had been the want of the knowledge
referred to, that in the year 1874, an Agricultural College
and Experimental Farm were established at Guelph by
the Provincial Government^ under the administrative
control of the Minister of Agriculture. This College, a
view of one of the main buildings of which is given on
p. 73, is near Toronto, in the midst of an excellent
farming district,, and is intended for the special purpose
of giving a practical and scientific education to the sons
of farmers and others. The farm consists of about 550
acres of land, and is fitted with various buildings, and
^every kind of appliance for successfully carrying out its
purposes, namely, that of giving to the youths who
attend it, a thorough and practical knowledge of every
branch of agriculture, especially those which are best
adapted for profitable application in the province,
according to its conditions of climate and soil. It is
conducted by an able staff of professors, and instructors,
and the fees are exceedingly moderate.
Some idea may be formed of the scope of the
Institution from the fact that, besides the ordinary
routine of commercial education, the classes include
instruction in the Natural Sciences, such as Physics,
Chemistry, Geology, Botany, Zoology, Entomology,
Bacteriology, etc. ; in agriculture and farming, everything that  relates to live  stock,  poultry,   agriculture, 72
dairying, horticulture, veterinary science, and economics.
In the Experimental department everything is taught
that relates to field experiments, soil physics, feeding of
animals, experiments with poultry, etc., and the application of the natural sciences already mentioned to
practical farm work. Indeed, everything which can in
any way turn the science of agriculture into one of the
most advanced of the age, and a source of pleasure
and profit to those who wish to adopt it as a profession,
as well as to farmers who desire to know experimentally
the capabilities of their estates.
In the various Provinces these Experimental farms
have not only been extensively introduced on similar
lines, but most usefully employed for the benefit of all,
thus enabling settlers to obtain the highest results from
their land with some degree of certainty.
So far as field work at Guelph is concerned, it may
be mentioned that about 50 acres of land divided systematically into fully 2,000 plots of specified area, are used
for agricultural experiments upon various kinds of
grain, root, tuber, hay, fodder, and miscellaneous crops,
under the influence of artificial and other manures.
Methods, too, of cultivation, selection of seed, dates of
seeding, &c, are all treated with the greatest care, and
for -several years in succession, in order to secure strictly
accurate and trustworthy results. Besults, too, which
not only indicate the seeds most suitable for the soil of a
province, but also the best manner of treating them in
accordance with their surroundings.
The Guelph experiments deal with the crops grown
upon fully nine-tenths of the cultivated land of Ontario,
or over 8,000,000 acres, and on their agency alone much
of the prosperity of the province may be said to depend.
Taking all these facts into consideration, it will be
«»
Ws^aviViLVMMNvwOTSvvw  74
seen that without the valuable aid of science and advanced practice combined to help one, the farming of
to-day in Canada—which differs very much from that of
the British Isles—would be shorn of a great deal of its
prosperity to those who engage in it, when otherwise
success might easily have been assured. Inexpensive as.
Guelph training certainly is, it is necessary for a student
to have at least a small amount of capital to help him
when there. For those, however, who have no means,
there is a very practical system in use which has led
many farmers to well-merited success; to this, however,
we shall refer in another chapter.
As the felling, squaring, and sawing into planks, &c,
of timber, is one of the great industries of Ontario, a
few remarks on the subject may here be appropriately
introduced. Before a tree can be manipulated in a sawmill, or even floated down a river, it must necessarily be
cut down in the forest, and here, strange to say, the
manual practice of very early days maintains its position
in spite of the improved mechanical processes which
have been introduced from time to time. Can it be
imagined that, with these machines in view, the barbarous method of cutting down trees with the axe or
cross-cut saw is still in use, as it was in Australia fifty
years ago ?    Yet so it is.
During a conversation I had with the manager of the
Hastings sawmills at Vancouver as I went over his
splendid Works, he informed me that owing to the trees
growing so close to each other, the men had no space to
work the machines I mentioned, and so his firm, as well
as others, had to employ manual labour instead, the
trees being notched on one side with the axe and then
sawn through from the other side, or sawn or chopped
altogether from both sides in such a way as to make 75
them fall in any required direction. He also told me
that it was astonishing the amount of work which, even
with these primitive tools, good hands could perform.
Originally, Ontario was so entirely covered with trees
that the pioneers had to cut them down, pull out, or
blast out the roots, and burn the refuse, in order to prepare a farm for themselves, just as it is to-day in many
places, unless people can afford to purchase cleared land.
Owing to the immense farming operations which have
for a long time been going on in Southern Ontario, the
original forests have now very largely disappeared. The
Northern part of the province, however, is still a vast
tree-covered wilderness, as one may discover when
passing through it.
The trees chiefly to be found in this region are of the
white pine and spruce orders, the latter of which is now
used in enormous quantities in the manufacture of wood
pulp and paper, as previously mentioned. Besides these,
there are various kinds of hard wood trees, which not
only supply the domestic consumption, but contribute
largely to the exports of the province. Forests on the
Crown lands are leased to lumbermen by the Government, the area covered by lease being now about 22,000
square miles, hence it will be seen that the revenue
derived from this source alone is very great.
For logging or tree-felling, etc., operations, winter is
the best period, as advantage is thus taken of the snow
and ice, which form splendid means of sometimes sliding
the timber by mere gravity from a forest to the adjacent
stream. As, however, all the northern rivers of Ontario
flow towards Hudson's Bay, cheaply constructed logging
railways are used which greatly facilitate the transport
of trees from point to point. These lines, we may add,
of a narrow gauge and  very portable  description, are 76
now very extensively employed in various parts of the
world for all purposes.
Amongst the numerous industrial centres of the
Province of Ontario no place perhaps is so much of a
Bee Hive as the city of Hamilton, which is situated at
the western end of Lake Ontario. Quite apart from its
lovely water and other surroundings, it owes its attractiveness to many causes, chief amongst which are its
handsome tree-bordered streets, its numerous fine public
buildings and private residences, and, commercially
speaking, to the fact that it is the centre of a multitude
of manufacturing establishments which have steadily
increased its population to fully 50,000, and enhanced
its wealth in an extraordinary degree. The spires of
Hamilton may be discerned forty miles off, and as the
city stands on a plain, covered in all directions with
prosperous fruit, etc., farms and pretty villages, some
idea may be formed of the scene when viewed from the
neighbouring "mountain."
To many it may appear strange that in a climate
supposed to be so cold in winter as the adjacent Niagara
district, fruit growing on a gigantic scale could be carried
on, and yet so it is. Not only are grapes, peaches,
apples, plums, etc., produced in inconceivable quantities,
but so excellent are they that at the World's Columbian
Exhibition in Chicago, the fruit of this locality secured
the greatest number of awards, and succeeded in
obtaining a position fully 30 per cent, higher in appearance and quality than that of any other country or state.
This, however, is due to the fact that the soil is excellent, and that proximity to the Great Lakes helps to
render the climate very temperate, and consequently
well-suited to the growth even of tender fruits such as
peaches and grapes, which here grow in the open field.
^B^^^&$m^ 77
During the journey from Montreal to the Pacific
coast we passed over about 1,500 miles of line where,
on either one or both sides of it, were to be seen the
blackened remains of splendid forests which at one time
had not only beautified the land, but which should have
proved a valuable source of revenue to the country.
Their stumps and bodies still stand in gaunt, dreary,
blackened unsightliness for scores of miles together,
generally as bare poles without a single branch left upon
them, extending for some distance back from the line,
and even far up a mountain side, until there were no
more left to burn. Very frequently we had for variety
the trunks of great cedars, whose rotten cores had
smouldered for weeks, until reduced to mere shells
which were riddled with holes in the most fantastic
manner—picturesque, sure enough, but in grim Gustave
Dore style.
The beautiful trees of Canada are always a source of
admiration as there are so many fine specimens of them,
the silver birch and the lordly pine, amongst others,
making an admirable contrast. I, therefore, could not
refrain from painfully comparing the loveliness of those
which were left untouched by fire with the ghostly
remains of millions of others which so continuously
rose to view.
A bush fire, especially when fanned by a strong wind,
is an appalling spectacle. The frantic rush of multitudes
of terrified animals is prodigious, many of them being
overtaken by the flames and burnt alive. The heat is so
intense over a large area, and the speed and volume of
the flames so great, that everything falls before them,
the usual fire guard space frequently not being sufficient
to prevent them from leaping over it and destroying
homesteads and everything that lies in the way.   On the 78
American continent these fires have often been of such
a dreadful and wide sweeping nature, that the utmost
•care is usually taken to prevent the possibility of their
recurrence, but even this may often be of no avail.
You ask what are the causes of this wide-spread and
national evil ? Well, with the light of Australian bush
life around me, combined with what I learnt in the Far
West, I should say—chiefly carelessness. In the dry
months people set fire to the withered grass so that a
fresh green crop may spring up soon afterwards, and
then, sometimes, the flames getting beyond their control,
devastate a large portion of a province, and destroy much
valuable house property, as it was with the original
Vancouver.
Another cause is produced by wandering camping
parties leaving their fires unextinguished — the wind
doing the rest. The Dominion Government, however,
has recently been endeavouring to rectify this state of
things, which we hope will stop the evil.
Fortunately, I saw the whole country on the outward
trip under a charmingly clear sky, and in all its loveliness, down to Vancouver and Victoria. Before leaving
the latter, however, bush fires set in on the mainland,
and also on Vancouver Island, making their vicious
effects felt all round. The heavens were . . . the
scenery was . . . but here, in the German style, I
say, | Ach !! ve vill tell you more ven ve come there—
laiter on!" 79
CHAPTER VI.
Ontario Further Considered.—Fort William—Grain Elevators—0. P. R. Lake Route—«*Central Time"—Twenty-four
hour System—Good Friends in the Train—Rat Portage—
Glacial effects on the Land—Wondrous Lake of the Woods—
-Its innumerable Islands—Country honey-combed with Lakes
and Waterways—Prosperity of the District—Immense Water
Power for general Purposes—How obtained—Action of
Turbines—Great Hydraulic Installations at Lachine and
Chamblis—Lake of the Woods Flour Milling Works—Gold
Reduction Works—Gold Mining of the District—Its great
Future—Boat and Canoe Transportation—The Muskoka
Region.
T
T
$&?'
. .-LlL.''.'i.i'm\_
MMEDIATELY after arrival at Fort William, as
previously mentioned, I
enjoyed a good sleep at
the Kaministiquia Hotel.
When breakfast was over,
I visited the C. P. R.
people of the town to see
what they had to say
about it, and then went
into Port Arthur, three
miles off. Subsequently,
L roamed about Fort William, and after scrutinising the
town, and also its very ambitious looking public
buildings, went to see a splendid set of new grain
elevators of the most improved design, just approaching
completion, the construction of which was kindly explained by the engineer of the works.
The view  on page 81  clearly illustrates externally 80
three of the elevators which, on Transatlantic territory,
are very extensively employed, firstly, as colossal storehouses for the grain of the district, and then as rapid
distributors of the same, either for home use, or for
transport to distant climes.   The process is as follows:—
The grain-laden cars, upon coming alongside of the
elevator, have their contents rapidly transferred by
means of endless chains of buckets, or in other ways, to
the adjacent floor of the building, where, by means of
broad leather belts driven by machinery, the grain is
conveyed at once to any part of the premises to await
distribution. This is finally accomplished by allowing
it to pass down outside shoots directly into the wagons
beneath, or into the hold of a vessel lying alongside.
After carefully studying this very promising town
and its surroundings, I eventually concluded that before
long, when the trade of the locality expanded sufficiently, Fort William and Port Arthur would become
one great and beautiful inland seaport, which the prosperity of the district seemed fully to foreshadow.
The most striking features were of course the ocean
lake, with its fine coast scenery, excellent harbour, and
also the navigable Kaministiquia river, which is a most
useful adjunct to the town.
The Lake route by the C. P. R. to Fort William,
is by means of a fleet of handsome steamers which
make Owen Sound on Georgian Bay their eastern point
of arrival and departure. This, to many, is a very
pleasant change during a long run by rail, if not sometimes a matter of necessity.
During Atlantic voyages we have to alter our watches
so many minutes every day at noon to suit the longitude,
but on crossing the Transatlantic Continent we found
that there were convenient points on the route, between a which the time remained steady until the next change
was made. For instance, between Montreal and Fort
William —a distance of 998 miles—" Eastern time" is
maintained throughout, but ' between the latter and
Brandon, or 559 miles, | Central time" reigns supreme.
From Brandon to Laggan, or 823 miles, "Mountain
time" holds good, and finally, from Laggan to Vancouver,
526 miles, "Pacific time" is the only recognised standard. Owing to these regulations, we had, of course, on
the westward run to alter our watches one hour at each
of the places named so as to be astronomically back to
date. Similarly, however, we were enabled to regain
our lost time on the return trip. Another notable
horological feature of the line is the adoption of the 24
hour system between Fort William and Vancouver, so
as to avoid the inconvenient and sometimes misleading
I a. m." and "p. m." The 12 hours system, however, is
preferred by those accustomed to it.
After very pleasantly surveying the Fort William
district, I left in the afternoon for Rat Portage, with the
object of studying the peculiarities of that extraordinary
locality. The west bound lake steamer train arrived at
3.30 o'clock, and after stopping ten minutes, left at 2.40,
which would have seemed impossible but for the reasons
just given. Soon after we started, I became acquainted
with Mrs. Alexander, of Calgary, and her four daughters
who had come from Toronto, and were homeward bound.
Life is too short and uncertain for men and women
to coil themselves up like cats, and thus prevent their
own light and happiness from shining upon others,
especially upon people they meet when travelling, who,
as a rule, are so accessible, without formal introductions,
to those who have honest expressions, and at least
pleasant manners.    As has been well said:
^Sj^SBSSHi^HISSSSXmSSQKSSSBH 83
A little word in kindness spoken,
A motion, or a tear,
Has often healed a heart that's broken.
And made a friend sincere.
A word, a look, has crushed to earth
Full many a budding flower,
Which, had a smile but owned its birth,
Would bless life's darkest hour.
Then deem it not an idle thing
A pleasant word to speak;
The face you wear, the thoughts you bring
A heart may heal or break.
Facts which the Glum Grums and Squirmies of society
either do not know, or do not care to know, and
therefore miss much that would brighten their miserable
existences.
After studying the social possibilities of the ladies
just named, I made a casual remark to one of them
which produced the happiest effects. 'Pon my wor-r-d !
they tuere nice people, even when exposed to my usual
riddling treatment when in search of information. I
revealed to them my antecedents, and also the object of
my visit to their land, and so delightful was our conversation, that I have had the honour of retaining their
friendship ever since. They told me their names too,
and these were Effie, Elma, Irene, and Ottilia, which
may give a useful hint to some of my readers. They
told me everything I liked to ask them, in joyous style,
and so we rapidly became like old friends as we followed
the sun in our house on wheels.
I have referred somewhat fully to this family because
our charming association, even for such a short period,
provides a key to much that many reserved and sometimes frigid people unconsciously deprive themselves of 84
when on a tour. What a pleasure it is, from an all
round point of view, to be thus amiably associated
with those who, although total strangers to us at first,
may, when treated courteously, become our best friends.
To do this successfully, however, it is advisable to culti-
vate those graces which win at sight, and also the study
of character, which is a valuable accomplishment, and
prevents mistakes from being made.
Into the future city of Rat Portage our train
smoothly rolled very early in the morning, after passing
through 293 miles of pretty, well-wooded, and beautifully watered country. Soon after I went to bed
the rain came down in deluges, accompanied by an
awful thunderstorm, which freshened and greatly improved the appearance of the country.
I was well advised to call here, because the locality
is the centre of an important and prosperous region in
which are so developed numerous thriving sawmill in gy
mining, wood pulp milling, and fishing, etc., industries,
that this once primitive looking town was now rapidly
extending and improving in many ways on the most
modern lines. Formerly, it was a trading post of the
Hudson's Bay Company. In early C. P. R. times it was
merely a railway constructor's camp; now, however,,
the population is fully 5,000.
Rat Portage is not only a most interesting place in
itself, but immediately adjoins one of the most wonderful lakes in the world, both in size and on account of its
extraordinary formation. Some idea of this may be
gathered from the fact that the Lake of the Woods has.
an area of 3,000 square miles, and contains about 12,000
islets, as Mr. Deacon, my accomplished local C.E.
informant, told me. To have doubted this gentleman's
word might have caused him to ask me to count them 85
for myself, which would have been an impossibility.
And why should I not have believed him when the
geologists inform us that by means of the playful freaks
and frolics of the Forces of Nature in days of yore, not
only do the " Thousand Isles" of the St. Lawrence
really number 1,700, but the vast Huronic Arm named
Georgian Bay contains no less than about 30,000 islands,
which is a Government statement.
Many of these are of rock formation, and nearly all
of them are more or less richly wooded. To those only
accustomed to the outlines of ordinary lakes, this Lake
of the Woods must provide much food for reflection,
since not only are the islands contained in it of the most
fantastic shapes, but its own outline is of such a wildly
irregular nature that one is lost in astonishment whilst
contemplating the causes which led to such extraordinary results. And not only so, but a vast area of
the adjacent territory is simply honey-combed with
chains of lakes and lakelets more or less connected with
each other. Regarding these, the Rev. R. F. Winter,
of Liverpool, has told me much of a most interesting
nature concerning the manner in which he and parties
of emigrants placed under his care had, in pre-C. P. R.
and also in later times, frequently traversed the country,
and found them most useful.
There are no maps in ordinary use which can give
anything but a very faint idea of this wonderful region,
and had it not been for the kindness of the Dominion
Government officials, in providing me with copies of
their own very large scale plans in sections, I should
not have known what I know now of the district.
So attractive is this most picturesque lake that it has
become quite a fashionable resort for large numbers of
people who make its islands and shores a place of resi- 86
dence during the summer months, an excellent service
of steamers proving most useful.
Rat Portage owes its prosperity to various causes
which are by no means difficult to discover, as its-
industrial operations, previously mentioned, are so
economically worked by means of water-power which
the lake abundantly supplies. Its outlet into the adjacent Winnipeg river enables this to be so conveniently
accomplished as to produce, if required, a water-power
installation of stupendous magnitude. This exquisitely
beautiful and cheap system of developing energy requires
a little explanation, as it is such a popular method of
utilising one of the ivaste forces of Nature.
In olden times, water-wheels of various kinds were
extensively used wherever running water could be conveniently obtained. In modern days, however, these
wheels have been largely superseded by the Turbine,
which has been so improved that it has now become one
of the most valuable means of generating power for
machinery driving of every description. Not only is it
a highly efficient source of energy for application to
immediately adjoining works, but, what is of infinitely
more importance, it can be widely employed in driving
dynamos, and thus creating electrical motive power for
transmission, as at Niagara, to places hundreds of miles
distant from the power-house, if required. These facts;
alone will indicate the scope of this wondrous engine in
modernised practice.
Now, how about its scientific principles? Briefly,
it may be said that its operation is invisible, the action
of the wind, however, on the sails of a wind-wheel, or
On the vanes of some chimney-top ventilators, will help
to explain the method of applying fluid force to it. The
weight of a column of fresh water 12 inches high and 87
one square inch area is *434 pound, say half a-pound
approximately, hence, with a column of fluid 100 feet in
height resting upon the whole of the exposed angular
vane surface of a turbine, and producing a pressure of
43*4 pounds per square inch, it is easy to see that considerable power can thus be given out, especially when
aided by the application of high science in design.
Another vital point in this engine is its extreme compactness and simplicity, and economy in maintenance.
Where only low heads of water are obtainable, the turbine wheels have, of course, to be of comparatively large
size, as the fluid pressure is very small, but where, as in
mountain regions, a head of from 100 to upwards of
1,000 feet may be had, it is astonishing the amount of
energy which can be given out by a wheel of the most
insignificant proportions, either of the vertical or of the
horizontal type, and resting, too, upon the simplest
foundations and with surroundings of a very inexpensive
nature. Thus presenting a very striking contrast to a
steam engine of the same power, wTith its complicated
and costly array of cylinders, valves, shafts, rods, levers,
boilers, etc., and all connections, not to mention coal
consumption and other sources of expenditure.
One of the most interesting applications of the turbine on a colossal scale is to be found at the Niagara
Falls electrical power-house, which I had the honour
of being very carefully shown over by that prince of
American engineers — Dr. Coleman Sellers — who is
engineer-in-chief of the works, and to whose various
improvements and vigilant care so much of their
financial success is due.
This Power House was originally intended to contain
ten 5,000 horse-power dynamos, each of which is driven
by a vertical duplex turbine only five feet in diameter, placed at the bottom of a well supplied with water
from the adjacent river, which gives a head of 178
feet. Recently, however, the installation has been more
than doubled, to enable it to meet the requirements of
the surrounding country. As I gazed around at the
enormous and swiftly running dynamos, and peered into
the depths of one of the pits containing a turbine, and
heard its massive rythmical impulses, it seemed to me
that, in marvellously small area, the 5,000 water horses
below were doing something the outer world might like
to know about. Dr. Sellers was quite as pleased to give
me all the information possible as I was to receive it, and
took care to let me know that some small machinery of
his special design at one end of the vast building had
done more good work than the whole of a very costly
installation at the similar establishment of another
American city which had been otherwise designed.
At Lachine and Chamblis, near Montreal, I took two
trips with the American Institution of Electrical
Engineers, which was visiting that city. On one
occasion we paid a visit to the new Lachine Power
House, of 1,000 feet in length, which was fitted with
splendid turbine driven electrical machinery, the head,
in this case being only 12 feet, owing to the peculiar
formation of the bed of the neighbouring river Ottawa at
that point. Here, however, my good friend Mr. W.
McLea Walbank, the Engineer-in-Chief, had shown
great skill in dealing successfully with a difficult
problem, and all the more so on account of the ice
obstacles which were likely to arise in winter owing to
the shallowness of the water.
During our visit to Chamblis, on the river Richelieu,
we came in again for some splendid turbine and dynamo
machinery which had been only recently constructed.
fwmTOBJrarainSrawTi^^ 89
What interested me most, however, by way of variety,
was the clever way in which the engineers of the works
had turned a broad though shallow and rapid but high-
banked river, utterly useless as it stood, into a splendid
source of motive power on a large scale. This was
effected by means of a dam which had been built across
the river in such a way as to raise its level 28 feet. Thus
forming an extensive deep water area which could be
very usefully employed in. connection with a large electrical installation for supplying motive power for the
surrounding country.
With all these facts in view, it will not be difficult to
see how the rapid advancement of Rat Portage can be
easily accomplished, when it has beside it a lake so
immense, and with a water fall which can be used with
great effect in the manner described. It may be added,
that I have occupied so much space with the description
of this system of machinery because, in its present
perfected state, it can be used so economically, comprehensively, and. effectively in any locality where the
magnificent and formerly Waste Force of Nature produced by rivers and lakes can be suitably obtained,
which every reader ought to know about.
Two of the most instructive adjacent objects of
interest were the Lake of the Woods Flour Milling
Works, and also the Reduction Works for gold ores at
Keewatin. These establishments were both new, and
not only built in handsome style, but fitted internally
with the best machinery and the most economical
systems of manufacture, the former being considered the
largest of its kind in Canada. The other works indicated
the presence of valuable gold mines to which we shall
now direct attention.
Although 1291 miles from Montreal, it may be well 90
to state here that we are still within the bounds of
Northern Ontario, and therefore it will be advisable to
say a few words about its mining resources before leaving
this wonderful province. For many years I paid no
attention whatever to the mining industry, as its schemes
were, in many cases, too "wild catty." People said one
thing about it and meant another, or led you to imagine
something which was never clearly expressed. When,
however, I went to the mining regions of Canada, and
saw things for myself, and heard much about them from
the most trustworthy people who were practically
engaged in them, I then considered the science well
worth attention, as one of the most important of the age,
and so I have now the pleasure of referring to another of
the leading features of the province around which so
many of my happiest memories tenaciously cling.
It is to the development of her mineral wealth more
than to anything else that Ontario is looking at the
present time, not by any means, however, that her
greatest expansion, agriculturally, has in any sense been
reached. The value of some of the northern sections as
a field for farming are now attracting more attention
than ever, while in the southern portions still brighter
prospects are in store for the settlers. Nevertheless,
future advancement is likely to depend on mining quite
as much as, if not more, than on agriculture.
The mineral resources of Ontario are widely spread,
varied in character, and cover almost the entire list of
Useful minerals. Examination even now shows that
they are of almost unlimited extent and value, and that
the prospector has a boundless field of operation before
him. Experts acquainted with the mining camps of the
world have expressed their opinion that the gold regions
of Ontario far surpass those of the Transvaal in richness u
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and extent, and may be worked more profitably, for
nowhere throughout the globe can such operations be
carried on at less expense than in the Ontario gold fields.
It is chiefly to gold mining, therefore, that the attention
of this portion of the province is now directed, and
already enough has been done to place the successful
development of that industry beyond a doubt.
During my stay at Rat Portage I had various opportunities of learning this, and also, that notwithstanding
the unfavourable reports of one of the surveyors who had
carefully explored this region, several mines had actually
been so passed through the experimental stages as to be
now in a prosperous condition. Of course, it must be
borne in mind that the cost of working is very small
owing to the abundance of water power previously mentioned, and also to the vast network of lakes and water
ways which stretch so far in every direction as to render
the presence of roads and railways not nearly so imperative as they would otherwise have been. Many of the
mines and mining properties are right on the water's
edge, and hence can easily be reached by boat, etc., but
where assistance in other respects has been found necessary, the Government has proved a most able helper.
The Province of Ontario is not only rich commercially, but very beautiful from a scenic point of view,
owing to the sometimes extraordinarily diversified nature
of the country. To a remarkable extent is this the case
at The Thousand Isles of the St. Lawrence, and in the
Muskoka regions adjoining Georgian Bay. The latter
have an altitude of several hundred feet above Lake
Huron, and contain about 800 lakes of all shapes and
sizes, most of which are curiously connected with each
other by rivers and water passages, and filled more or
less with islands, and lined with bold promontories, as
WsWi™«MTO^W^w«m~  94
may be gathered from the view on p. 91 of the Thousand
Isles, which some parts of this region much resemble.
The principal of these lakes are named Muskoka,
Bousseau, and Joseph, whose marvellously indented
•coast-lines cover a distance of several hundreds of miles,
and embrace fully 4,000 islands, frequently of a tortuous,
rugged, wooded, and otherwise most attractive nature.
So .popular is the locality that hotels are very numerous,
their rates ranging from one to two dollars a day. Every
opportunity is also given to visitors for seeing the
oountry, by means of carefully selected railway and
steamboat routes, or by vessels which may bo hired for
general exploration purposes. Abundant fishing and
shooting can also be had. The view of the steam yacht,
Captain Visger, on page 93 will give a good idea of
the charming manner in which these lakes and waterways, and indeed, all others, may be traversed by
pleasure parties during the summer months.
When the time came for my departure from Rat
Portage, I again prepared to move westward another
stage of 133 miles to Winnipeg, and soon afterwards was
out again on the main line, as before, with the intention
of entering another province of world-wide reputation,
though not by any means so large as the one I was
leaving, but to this, reference will be made in the next
chapter.
wSK
as 95
CHAPTER VII.
Province of Manitoba.—Rat Portage crowds for Winnipeg Exh
bition—Curious Difficulty—Entrance to the great Prairie—
| Western Canada " — Its Extent and Resources — Grain
producing Powers—Climate—Systematic Division of the
Land—Manitoba and its Peculiarities—Rapid increase of
Population—The Prairie for 800 miles—An Ancient Lake,
the cause of its great Fertility—Mistaken ideas concerning
the Province—As it is in Winter and Spring—Its great
popularity — Winnipeg during the Exhibition — Another
unexpected Difficulty — " Give you a Cot with 20 others,
Sir?"—Did better—Origin of Winnipeg—Rapid Extension—
Great Future—How some Cities have grown.
i Yes sir."
S previously mentioned, I went
to Rat Portage Station with
the intention of starting at
13 o'clock for Winnipeg, and
as the Exhibition then being
held for a week was in full
swing, I gave myself plenty
of time for getting my trunk
checked for that city.
The expected excursionists
came with a rush, and the
station people were so overwhelmed, that all requests
for checking were met with
"All-right sir," and so on, but as nothing 96
was done, I had to ask the baggage-car official to take it
as it was, but this he declined to do, as it was § against
the rules," and thus I ran the risk of losing my passage.
In some way or other the trunk was at last taken in,
just in time, and off we went.
As this little incident touches the border of a system
which permeates the whole of Transatlantic travelling, it
may be, well to explain its nature. In the British Isles
people have their trunks labelled with their names and
addresses, written more or less clearly, or less or more
indistinctly, according to their rank. They have next to
see them safely into the luggage van at the beginning,
and as safely out of it at the end of the journey, thus
giving much unnecessary trouble to their owners.
In Canada, the case is quite different, since all you
have to do is to tell the hotel porter that you wish
your trunk checked for the place you name—several
days in advance if required. The trunk, which you need
not now trouble yourself about, is labelled at the station
by means of a card having a certain number in large
red figures, which is securely attached to the box, the
duplicate of the card being handed to you. This card is
not only a receipt by which alone the trunk will be given
up, but a means of claiming damages if necessary.
When you arrive at your destination the box will be
there waiting for you, and may be removed by any
person to whom the check duplicate is given.
In addition to the great inconvenience caused to the
British public by their own system, there is also the
annoyance given to the railway "hands," and consequent bad treatment of the box, simply because the
address is illegible, and they have no time to translate it.
Transatlantically speaking, all this is avoided, as the
railway officials  recognise passengers'  trunks  only by 97
their number, which can be read alike by the Heathen
Chinee, or by anyone else of any nationality, which is a
.great advantage everywhere.
To return to our train, which we left running its
•course upon the line, we soon found that the woods and
hills and lakes commenced to vanish. More saw mills
began to appear, with their numerous products in the
shape of firewood, fence-posts, and beams, and blocks,
etc., for all purposes. Settlers clearing the land rose to
view, and so on, until even the undulating face of the
•country fell away to brush wooded, then to naked prairie,
•and eventually we entered, on a hot day, the city of
Winnipeg, the midway emporium of the continent, and
the capital of the province of Manitoba, to which, as
well as its surrounding territory, we must devote a few
remarks.
"Western Canada" is the phrase generally applied
to the great prairies which begin in Manitoba, run westward to the Rocky Mountains for a thousand miles, and
.northwards for hundreds of miles, from the international
boundary line. In this vast plain there are, as yet,
•comparatively few of the millions who will in time make
their homes there, but with a great railway conveniently
running through it, with greater enlightenment on the
part of people regarding its resources, and with a
Vscientifically advanced and more profitable system of
agriculture at command, there seems to be a great and
.immediate future for that territory.
Taking Western Canada as a whole, of which Manitoba only forms a small portion, it may be said- that the
superior quality of the wheat and other cereals grown
upon these lands, and the greater yield per acre, when
•compared with many other districts of the continent, are
now universally acknowledged.    While, also, the crops
H 98
obtained are greater, the amount of labour required to
produce them, owing to the nature of the soil, is less than
in any other country. The climate and natural pasturage
are both highly favourable to stock raising, and, as a
result, no finer cattle are to-day shipped across the
Atlantic to the English market, than those which have
been reared upon the plains of Manitoba and the Northwest Territories.
The division of the land is carried out very systematically in every particular. It is laid out in blocks of six
miles square, called "Townships." These are sub-divided
into 36 square parts which are termed "Sections," one
mile square each, the mile being again sub-divided into
quarters containing 160 acres. The townships in turn
are all numbered from the principal meridian two milea
west of Winnipeg, and also in a northerly direction from
the southern or International boundary of the province,,
on the parallel of 49° N. Lat. While, again, the adjacent
province of Ontario is exceedingly irregular in outline,,
that of Manitoba is practically in the form of a square,,
hence, it will be seen that the settler has no difficulty
at any time in finding his location. There is a road
allowance around every section, so that any property is
easily accessible by team, each quarter section having a.
road space on two sides, thus, in well organised fashion,,
each proprietor has the most complete working control
of his estate. Besides, possessing a fair share of rivers,
this province also contains within its borders Lake
Winnipegosis, Lake Dauphin, Lake Manitoba, and the
greater portion of that vast sheet of water, Lake
Winnipeg.
Previous to 1870, Manitoba was known only as a fur
bearing country inhabited by Indians and half-breeds.
At that time the population numbered 10,000, not more 99
than 1,000 of whom were whites, who were chiefly in
the employ of the Hudson's Bay Company. In 1881
the population had increased to 65,000. Owing, however, to the tremendous impetus given to the colonisation of the whole country by the opening of the Canadian Pacific Railway, the population has risen by
leaps and bounds, until it is now about 270,000. Further
than this, it may be said that when the wonderful
capabilities of the province are better known to the
millions of people in the crowded portions of old
countries, and in the non-productive parts of others,
the increase will be much more rapid.
From a topographical point of view the whole area
of the plains of Western Canada is of a most interesting
nature. In this respect alone, Dr. P. H. Bryce, M.A.,
M.D., secretary of the Provincial Board of Health of
Ontario, supplies us with much useful information.
The lowest area of the plains is that of Manitoba, the
height of Winnipeg above sea level being only 700 feet.
From this point westward, however, for 840 miles, the
country rises gradually by means of long steppes until,
at Calgary, it reaches a height of 3,388 feet.
From Calgary to the foot hills of the Rockies, a
distance of about 40 miles, the land rises until it reaches
an altitude of 4,000 feet, quite apart, however, from the
mountain ranges of very much higher elevations. Here
Dr. Bryce's special knowledge of the locality will prove
interesting. According to his opinion, the whole of the
area of the Manitoban plains bears evidence of having
once been an immense inland sea, with its several
beaches marking the successive levels of the waters of
what geologists have been pleased to term the great
post-glacial Lake Agassiz, which left, on drying up, a
black alluvium of the richest quality, covering practically the whole of this part of the country, and making the
great wheat fields of the north-west yield their choicest
grain.
The whole of the higher region is notably marked by
a greater dryness, and is essentially a grazing or ranching
country. While cold in temperature, owing to the altitude and exposure of its plains to the winds from the
mountains, its dry plains are nevertheless covered with
the peculiar bunch grass of the country which has
served to make the foot hill region of the Rockies the
greatest stock-raising area of the Continent.
Much of a prejudicial nature regarding the climate
of Canada as a whole, and of Manitoba in particular,
has been said by those who have had little or no experience of its peculiarities, which greatly vary, according
to the district, as, in such a vast country, one might
reasonably expect. Even yet, with the Americans,
many misconceptions have arisen, as they themselves
have said, and hence, anything that comes from a really
authoritative source on this point ought to be valued.
For this purpose we give the following remarks of Mr.
R. F. Stupart, superintendent of the Geological Survey
of Canada.
| The salient features of the climate of the North-
West Territories are a clear bracing atmosphere during
the greater part of the year, cold winters and warm
summers, and a small rainfall and snowfall. The mean
temperature for July at Winnipeg, is 66°, and at Prince
Albert 62°, whilst the average daily maximum temperature at the former is 78°, with a minimum of 53°, and at
the latter 76° and 48° respectively. Owing to these high
day temperatures, with much sunshine, the crops come
to maturity quickly.
H The bright clear cold of the ordinary winter day of 101
Manitoba is most enjoyable. With little or no thawing,
and nothing to create dampness, the air is crisp and dry,
and, where, in England, or on the sea coast, with a few
degrees of frost, the air is chill and raw, many more
degrees of cold in the Canadian North-West are only
stimulating.
" The winter goes as it comes, almost in a day. The
sun pours its powerful rays through the transparent
atmosphere, and when the thaw has begun, the great
atmospheric disturbances created by the heated centres,
cause the north-west wind to lick up with great rapidity
the water which covers the plains. Seeding proceeds
when the frost is not more than four inches out of the
ground, and in a few days the prairie is dotted with the
spring flowers. With such a soil, marvellous in the
amount of its plant foods, and with the long, bright, and
even occasionally hot summer day, the metabolism of the
plant cells is so rapid as only to be likened to the growth
of plants under a glass. To the plodding, labouring,
waiting husbandmen of England or Scotland, it seems
so unreal as to be incredible that four, or at the most
Hve months, should yield for an area of 1,500,000 acres,
some 30,000,000 bushels of wheat, and as much more of
other grains, to feed the toiling millions of continental
cities."
In view of these, and many other similar facts which
could be given, it seems strange that the Government
authorities have actually had to show conclusively to
people who had gone far astray on these points, what
the climate of Canada, and especially that of Manitoba
and the North-West Territories, really is, and how it
affects in a surprisingly beneficial manner both the
health and the agricultural prospects of those who
became settlers. The complaints against the climate have been quite
as amusing and unfounded as those which animated the
minds of the enemies of the Liverpool and Manchester
Railway when it was first proposed. Complaints, too,
which, although they have done much mischief in the
past, will be more than compensated for when the truth
becomes known.
Amongst other erroneous ideas concerning the
country in general were, that fruit could never grow to
any extent in it; that it would be impossible to raise
cattle satisfactorily; that the cold was too great, and
the winter season too long, and the summer season too
short, to enable agricultural operations to be carried on
successfully and profitably; and further, that the climate
could not possibly be a healthy one.
The head and front of Canada's offending, however,
seems to have been the " great cold " of winter, and its
supposed very long and destructive continuance. No
doubt the cold is thermometrically great, but at the
same time so dry and invigorating that people accustomed to it do not really feel it so much as the
damp, penetrating cold of much higher temperature in
England. The length of the winter, too, has been
greatly exaggerated, many supposing that it was very
protracted, the truth being that its average length is
only about four-and-a-half months, immediately followed
by the rapid change and rapid growth already noted.
A most important feature connected with farming in
the Province of Manitoba, is the fact that in Ontario and
many other districts the land to be farmed has in many
cases to be either partially or wholly cleared of the trees,
&c, which grow upon it, thus involving a great deal of
unavoidable labour on the part of the settlers. In
Manitoban   territory,    however,   there   are,   generally 103
speaking, no trees to root out, hence the rush that
has recently been made to that locality. The extent
of this may be gathered from the fact that at the census
of 1891 it was found that while the population of the
Dominion as a whole had increased by eleven per cent.,
that of the province of Manitoba alone had increased by
no less than 148 per cent. Of course, one great cause
of this has been the opening out of the province by the
C. P. R., and the accessibility thus given to farmers for
the easy transport of their produce to market, or to a
shipping port.
As part payment for the construction of the line from
the Atlantic to the Pacific, the Company received from
the Government about 25,000,000 acres of land in
alternate and odd numbered sections, which are thus
found not only extremely useful to the farmers, but very
beneficial to the railway, as is usually the case when
towns, villages, and residences are similarly situated.
It may be mentioned that the sections which belong to
the government are evenly numbered.
As may be naturally expected, these favoured spots
are being so rapidly appropriated that before long we
shall find a greatly increased number of farms and farm
houses, and also new villages and towns which have
sprung out of them. At Winnipeg the Company has a
large land office in connection with its railway station,
and to some it may appear difficult to know which
department is most fully occupied. Besides this, there
are various government land registration offices in the
same city, and in many other towns. Amongst multitudes of others from the British Isles, &c, it may be
stated that Lord Brassey has two large farms at Indian
Head, and also that before Lord Aberdeen became
Governor General of Canada he entered into business 104
as a fruit cultivator on an immense scale at Vernon^
B.C., as described in Chapter XVI.
Having very briefly referred to the province of
Manitoba, let me now continue my personal narrative
from the point of digression. As previously observed,
I arrived at Winnipeg station on a hot day in the midst-
of a crowd bound for the exhibition. With the Rat
Portage experience of my Saratoga freshly in mind, I
took good care to be on the safe side this time, and.
therefore had it checked immediately for Calgary, 840
miles off, under the impression that it would remain at
the station until I gave the order for its removal. In
that trunk I had nearly all my cash in hand, and also-
very important letters of introduction. Fancy, therefore,
my astonishment when, upon going to the station next,
morning to get these letters, and also some money, I
found that it had been sent off the night before, thus-
leaving me with only ten cents, my letter of credit
having also gone on ahead!    Fine position to be in !
With my knowledge of the art of making the best of
a bad business, I went to Mr. William Whyte, the
Manager of the C. P. R. lines west of Fort William, and
reported my unhappy condition, my antecedents, my
projected enterprise, my lost letter to himself, and tried
to look as trustworthy as I could under the circumstances. He electrically summoned an attendant, to«
whom he said, after gazing at the number on my now
invaluable duplicate check, "James, go down stairs and
ask what they have done with trunk number 999,999."
James went down as desired, and came back with
the news that it "had been sent to Calgary by the
evening mail train."
After such a confirmation of my statement, Mr.
Whyte kindly offered to lend me five dollars, which of 105
course, I at once accepted.   "The best thing we can now
do," he added, " is to get your trunk back."
"Will it come in time?" I said, "because I shall
leave here the day after to-morrow."
" I think you may rely upon that," was the answer.
My Saratoga was immediately telegraphed for, and
at the time specified, it was returned, just in time to
enable me to repay the lent money, and clear out for the
West. Truly, the check system is most admirable,
especially when one knows how to work it properly, the
accuracy of its backward as well as forward movements,
being due to the fact that the very distinct number of a
trunk enables its position on a line, even of 3,000 miles
in length, to be ascertained at any time, and returned if
desired—unerringly.
When I left the station on my arrival day, I headed
straight for the well known Manitoba Hotel, but was-
informed that there was "not a bed to be had—jam full
sir," as I could see for myself by the crowds around me.
I tried other places with the same results, as people
were not only sleeping in bed rooms, but in drawing,,
dining, and other rooms, etc., all over the buildings.
At last, a friend in need took me to a boarding house
where he thought I might succeed.
I We have nothing but a cot to offer you sir," said
the manager.
IA cot! " I said, "could I see it please."
Down we went to a dismal, uncomfortable looking
basement floor, where, sure enough, beds of some kind
had been laid out in rows on the bare floor for twenty
people, mine being the twenty-first if I took it.
" Could you not give me a sofa-bed? " I asked.
"Oh yes, we can do that for you," and so, eventually/
I was treated to a sofa in one of the handsome bedroom 106
corridors, an American gentleman kindly offering me
next morning the use of his adjacent room for dressing in.
During the day I roamed about in " Happy Traveller | style, and was abundantly rewarded. As, however,
my readers may wish to know at this point, something
concerning the wonderful city of Winnipeg—the central
metropolis of Canada—let me here describe its creation,
and development to the present.
Palmyra was originated in the midst of the great
Syrian desert by means of a well of water, which made
it a halting place for caravans on their journey. This
formed the nucleus of a small community, which in time
expanded until it reached what it eventually became.
Now, how did Winnipeg come to grow out of an almost
treeless, and apparently endless plain? This may be best
answered by the Hudson's Bay Company, which was
not only founded as far back as the year 1670, but ever
since, amidst the rise and fall of nations, amidst the
vacillations of trade and commerce, and amidst, too, the
rise, progress, decay, and final extinction of many
famous firms, has gone on gaining strength, and now
occupies some of the finest buildings in the various
towns and cities of Canada.
These same people had in early days to protect
themselves from the frequent attacks of the neighbouring
Indians by building numerous forts which were stocked
with provisions, etc., to last for some time. Two of
these forts were named "William," and "Garry," the
former title having been recently given to the port of
Lake Superior, previously mentioned; and the latter,
although in ruins, remaining one of the historical
features of Winnipeg.
Some idea of the rapidity with which this city has
advanced may be  gathered from the fact that,  when 107
Lord Wolseley arrived at what was merely known as
I Fort Garry," in 1870, to crush the Riel-O'Donoghue
Rebellion, the population was only 100. By 1880, this
had become 6,500, but in 1886, the C. P. R. opened out
the country to Vancouver, which caused the population
to increase so much that by 1895 it had risen to 30,000.
To-day, it is nearly 50,000, and from all that can be
gathered concerning things to come, we have reason to
believe that this will be immensely exceeded before long.
With the object of showing what has already been
done in this respect, let us take, for example, the prairie
city of Chicago. In 1825, the village from which this
city sprung consisted of 14 cabins, but when incorporated as a town in 1833, the population had increased
to about 150. In 1840, this number had advanced to
4,479; in 1850, to 29,963; in 1860, to 109,206; in 1870,
to 306,605; and, in 1880, to fully 500,000. Between the
latter year and 1890, Chicago went ahead of all the cities
in the world with its unparalleled increase of 596,665,
and to-day its population is fully 2,000,000, thus clearly
indicating the marvellous rapidity with which a combination of favourable circumstances may enable modern
communities to extend.
As a seaport, San Francisco has advanced by leaps
and bounds from a population of 34,000 in 1850, to at
least 400,000 in 1890, and about 500,000 to-day. These
and many other instances might be adduced to show
how the growth and prosperity of towns and cities is
due partly to local and geographical causes, and partly
to their systems of intercommunication with each other
and with the sea. Hence, we may reasonably assume
that what has thus been so successfully performed in the
past, will be similarly accomplished, to some extent at
least, in Winnipeg. 108
Amongst its fine buildings are the City Hall, where
I had the honour of meeting a few of the leading
officials, from whom I received much kind attention,
especially from Mr. H. N. Ruttan, the city engineer, who
supplied me with the fullest information regarding some
of the characteristics of his prairie metropolis. This-
fine building is occupied by the municipal authorities,
and is not only handsomely built and beautifully situated, but has all its interior arrangements admirably
carried out. The numerous other buildings, &c, are
also a great embellishment to the town, and although
wooden footwalks prevail in many places, broad and
magnificent asphalte pavements, and all the improvements which modern science can suggest, are being
rapidly introduced.
JL 109
CHAPTER VIII.
A Teans-Continental C. P. R. Teain, Populaely Consideeed.-
Railway Works at Winnipeg — Rolling Stock Practice —
Composition of a Mail Train—Peculiarities of the Locomotive—The Spark-Arrester—Cow-Catcher Incidents—The
Fender—Baggage Car—Colonist Car—Tourist Car—First-
Class Car — Irish Amateur Signalman — European and
Trans-Atlantic Systems compared—New System of Electric
Train Lighting—Train Officials—The Conductor— Brakesman — Dining Saloon Staff — Sleeping Car Attendants —
Engine Driver and Fireman—" Hell-Fire Tom "—How two
frightful Accidents were averted—The Safest Occupation.
^Kr
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i
S Winnipeg is not only the
great and ever-growing central city of Canada, but one
of the main rolling stock
stations of the C. P. R., it
may be well, as a pleasant digression, to note some of the peculiarities of the Trans-continental
trains which here find such a splendid
harbour of refuge when repairs or
alterations are needed, or breakdowns
speedily rectified. This will be clearly
understood when it is stated that the
above railway has its chief inland workshops at this
point, and that its train yard alone contains about 30
miles of sidings. In addition to this, there is a very
ffne station containing the offices of those who control
the system westward to Vancouver.
The C. P. R. Company design and construct most
of their own engines and cars in their large Montreal Iff
110
works, the engineer-in-chief of which is Mr. Atkinson—
an old London and North-Western hand from Crewe—
whose acquaintance I had the pleasure of making, and
by whom I was shown round his most interesting and
instructive establishment. All the more so, too, as
Canadian railway practice differs much from that of the
British Isles owing to the peculiarities of the country,
the climate, the permanent way, and the continuously
long distances travelled over.
A Montreal to Vancouver train is one of the finest
and best equipped in existence, and usually consists of
one powerful locomotive on flat and comparatively easy
country, whilst in the mountains, two are required,
according to circumstances, which greatly vary, and in
which the length and steepness of an incline are very
influential considerations.    The cars are as follows :—
In the train, for instance, which brought me to
Winnipeg, we had one engine, one baggage car, five
colonist cars, five tourist cars, several first class cars,
and also drawing-room and sleeping cars combined, as
previously described, one dining car, and one private
car. After having discharged its crowds of Exhibition
passengers, some of the cars were taken off, when,
however, the Rockies were reached, an observation car
was added, and the dining car left behind, as roadside
station hotels provided all that was necessary for meals.
The view on next page illustrates one of the latest
and most powerful C. P. R. engines, and also clearly
shows some of the leading features which distinguish a
Transatlantic locomotive from those on British lines.
As will be noted, the engine is a ten wheeler, having
a swivelling small-wheeled bogie underneath the front
end to enable it to traverse sharp curves otherwise
impassable.    The steam cylinders are of the extremely  112
popular "outside' class, the pistons of which transmit
their power direct to the wheels without the intervention
of the crank axle still so prevalent in many of the best
English locomotives. As the piston rod crosshead works
on a single guide instead of those of the usual double bar
description, greater simplicity, and also freer accessibility
to the internal machinery is obtained, and as all the
large wheels are coupled together, the tractive power is
greater than if only one pair of extra large driving wheels
had been used instead.
The driver and fireman are located in a comfortable
house which presents a marked contrast to the open air
exposures to cold, and wet,'and snow, and wind, which
used at one time to exist, to the severe discomfort of the
working hands, and danger to the train. The small
door at the front end of this house gives access at any
time to every part of the engine for examination while
running. A very striking feature of all these locomotives
is the bell, which, although accompanied by a whistle, is
universally rung during arrivals and departures, and is
much more agreeable than the latter.
The steam-domes on the top of the boiler are for the
purpose of supplying dry instead of water-saturated
steam, which might cause a smash in one of the cylinders if allowed to enter them and deposit fluid. In case
the crescent shaped appendages to the main wheels
might perplex some readers, it may be well to state that
these are only weights which are used to balance the
working parts when in motion, and thus create their
necessarily smooth and steady action. The locomotive
referred to is one of the most powerful on the American
continent, since not only are its steam cylinders and
boiler larger than those of any engines in the British
Isles, but the steam pressure is also greater—210 lbs. 113
per square inch. The enormous power therefore at
command, to draw a heavy train across a continent,
and over the steep inclines of the mountains in safety,
will at once be seen.
An invaluable feature of this, as well as of all other
engines, is the Spark-arrester, which, in the form of a
wire netting, is now placed inside the necessarily
elongated smoke box, as shown in the view. Without
this appendage, the country in many places, during
dry weather, would be in danger of terrible conflagrations, and, indeed, in early days, from this cause
alone, was frequently set on fire. The smoke box, thus
constructed, forms also almost convenient seat for the
truly immense and brilliant head light, which in many
parts of the country is required to show the driver as
much of the line in front as possible.
Throughout Transatlantic territory, and especially on
the prairies, animals of ali kinds seem to know that, in
hot weather, the line makes a more pleasant bed than
dry grass, and also sometimes a more convenient pathway. Hence, will be seen,' the great danger to which an
unprotected passenger train would be thus exposed in
the dark.
The Cow-catcher is simply an angular frame of timber
or of steel placed in front of the engine, as shown in the
plate, and so arranged that if any obstacle should be
upon the line this instrument pushes it off at once: To
show the mischief which might otherwise occur, it
may be mentioned that in a case I well remember
on the North British Railway, a cow happened to
stray upon the line whilst an express train was coming
along. In a moment the locomotive had cut the animal
to pieces, the whole of the machinery being splashed
with its blood, and interlaced with its flesh, bones, hide,
i 114
and horns in the most ghastly manner. This will clearly
indicate the value of the detail just named, and also
of the enormous head light referred to.
On one occasion, when travelling by a very slow
American train, Artemus Ward asked the conductor
" what that thing was in front of the engine ? "
I That's a cowketcher, sir, to keep the engine from
running into the cows."
"Indeed! don't you think you have got it in the
wrong place? "
" No sir, we always puts it there."
" Wa'al," said Mr. Ward, " if you will take my
advice you'll put it at the back of the train to keep the
cows from walkin' in and bitin' folks! "
It may be added, that a portion of the illustration
just described represents the Happy Traveller as he
appeared during a long run through the Rockies, which
is referred to in Chapter XIX.
The Tender, for sharp curve rounding'facilities has
two swivelling bogies, on the same principle as that of
the engine, but suited to the minor duties it has. to
perform. Of course, the tender is so arranged internally
as to carry not only sufficient coal for a run of so many
miles, but the requisite supply of water as well. On
some of the English lines, where the Flying Mail train
has to save every minute on a long run, this water is
automatically scooped up by the tender from troughs on
the line at certain points without stopping, thus allowing continuous travelling for great distances.
The other details of the engine and tender are capable of very interesting description, but as it will not do
to pile technicalities on general readers, I shall have to
forego the pleasure of touching upon them. It may be
said, however, that, by the aid of two men only, the 115
engine shown in the view is in the act of being turned
round on a turn-table which rests on conical rollers.
This is constantly done at termini and elsewhere when
Tequired. We need only further add that this engine,
simple as it may appear, has, nevertheless, a marvellously skilful internal arrangement of machinery which
has required no less than 60 years of breakdowns,
smashes, and frightful disasters, and mechanical progress to bring it to the high state of perfection it now
possesses, both for safe and for economical working.
To return to the train itself, the Baggage Car may be
taken first in order, as it immediately follows the tender.
'This car is quite a little warehouse for the storage of
luggage, and here, as in all other departments, such a
perfect system prevails that to put a checked trunk into
one of these cars is much the same as putting a letter
into the post office, so unerringly is every movement
executed. Further even than this, a trunk thus located
is accessible at anv time to its owner while the train is
running, which, on a long journey, is a great convenience.
The Colonist Car, which comes next in order, is
•chiefly used by the class whose name it bears, which
includes miners, agricultural labourers, working-men of
every kind, emigrants, Chinese, Japanese, etc., in short,
people of every description. Their well-balanced sleeping shelves are constantly at hand to pull down or push
up as required. When down by day,, they form excellent
•places for carrying parcels, and everything else, the
owners themselves included, who frequently lie full
length on them when not more actively employed.
Next in order to the above, and higher in rank, is the
Tourist Car, the occupants of which live, sleep, have
their meals, and enjoy themselves in every possible way. It
116
These passengers bring their own provisions with them,
a splendid cooking range, and all accessories being
provided for their use near one end of the car. By this
means, every lady and gentleman has a chance of
cooking in turn their beefsteaks, mutton-chops, eggs and
bacon, etc., to perfection or otherwise, according to their
knowledge of the art; scullery appendages being supplied
for washing-up purposes. Portable dining tables are
also provided, which may be afterwards used for any
other purpose, or stowed away when not wanted. By
night all the beds are brought into position ready for use,
as already described on page 60.
The First-Class Cars are not only splendid works of
art, but are also extremely comfortable, everything being
handsomely fitted up, and as useful in application as
possible. All the seats are reversible at will, and all the
windows are double as elsewhere throughout the train.
The ventilating openings in the roof are so well guarded
by fine wire gauze that hardly any dust or grit can get
inside, and in addition to this, a hooked pole, always, at
hand, enables the passengers to regulate the amount of
air opening as required. In this, as in all the other"
cars, entrance can only be had at each end from the line
direct by means of steps. The special value of this
arrangement will be clearly seen from the fact that
passengers can be easily let out or in at any point on the
prairies, or in the mountain regions, where possibly there
may not be a station for miles. The conductor, too, can
not only stop the train in full career when required by
anyone, but intending passengers in the Far West can do
the same by simply waving a flag, which otherwise
would mean a danger signal.
This brings to mind a story of early days.    An Irishman had been so studying the art of railway signalling, 117
that4ie thirsted for an opportunity to put his knowledge
into practice. One day, whilst walking along the Great
Western Railway, the chance unexpectedly came, the
express actually flying to meet him.
" Now thin, Pat, be quick! " thought he.
Tying his handkerchief to a stick, be waved it frantically. The driver seeing the " danger' signal, brought
bis train up with a tremendous jerk. Running up to the
guard, Pat exclaimed—" If ye plaze sorr, will ye give me
a ride?" |
j' Come in this very minute; I am delighted to see
you," replied that official, and in he went, only, however, to be handed over to the police at the next station,
to get a lesson or two from them on railway etiquette.
It may here be observed that the English system
of dividing a carriage into separate isolated compartments would never be tolerated in Canada. Fancy
yourself on a run of say 600 to 800 miles shut up in a
small room with disagreeable people, or perhaps with
desirable companions who leave you at last in solitude.
Fancy the dreariness of people thus placed, with little
space to move about in, and no one to cheer them for
many hours together it may be.
Then think of the outrages, and even attempted murders which this system renders possible, not to mention
the damage to which one's internal machinery may be
exposed in times of sudden disarrangement. These facts
will show the great difference which exists between the
British and the Transatlantic systems of travelling.
By means of the latter, one has a very handsome,
lofty, electrically lighted, and systematically heated and
ventilated hall to move about in, and to admire the
sometimes splendid assemblages of elegantly dressed and
stylish looking ladies and gentlemen who, taken with 118
their surroundings, produce a beautiful effect. Besides*
this, all the cars are so arranged internally as to allow
of a very useful vestibule at each end containing lavatories. Lock-up closets, smoking rooms, private rooms,,
etc., are also supplied. This vestibule is fitted with
self-closing doors inside, as well as an ordinary door
outside to allow free passage to the steps, or through
the train from end to end as desired. It may be noted
that the open spaces between the ends of the cars can
be nearly closed up by means of glass doors, which
convert them into weather-proof observation rooms on a-
small scale.
The lighting of these trains has undergone great-
changes, from the oil lamp to the gas light, and from the
latter to the electric light, which is only now coming into
general use, as the details of the system have been so-
much improved by means of innumerable experiments.
The plan lately introduced by Messrs. Stone & Co.,
of Deptford, has won the highest approval of various-
railway companies throughout the globe, many of which,
including the C. P. R., are using it most advantageously
and increasingly. This is owing to the fact that not
only does it produce a much more brilliant and more
convenient light in every way than gas, but, above all,
each car carries its own generating machinery, and is*
so complete in itself as to be quite independent of the
others in the train. So^ beautiful and otherwise desirable for cooking and heating, as well as for lighting
purposes, is this system, that the travelling public may
be very glad that the skill of the engineer has at last-
triumphed over one of his most difficult problems.
And now we come to the staff of officials who work
the train, of whom the Conductor stands first. Here,
my own happy experiences lead me to believe that the- 119
Company selects its train commanders quite as much on
account of their genial disposition as for their professional attainments, the wisdom of which is self evident.
The Brakesman is the commander's lieutenant, and
has also to bear his share of passenger comfort and
safety responsibility. His special duty is to attend to
the controlling appliances of a train, which, used skilfully, guide it in safety. By night and by day, he and
the conductor have the full sweep of the train from end
to end, paying every attention to the passengers, examining tickets, giving advice and information to all who
desire it, announcing the name of the next station sufficiently in advance of arrival, wakening up people who
may be asleep, and so on. As these two officers thus
patrol the train, they soon become not only objects of
special interest, but well known and very useful individuals.
The Dining Saloon Staff are all that could be desired,
and dispense in first class hotel style the meals which
the cooks and their assistants have prepared, the charge
for each meal being 75 cents. This saloon may be seen
in the view on page 121, its large windows enabling
people to see the country effectively as the train rolls
along.
The Sleeping Car Attendants are generally " coloured
brethren," who are so clever in their art, and so diligent
in their business, and so inclined for a gracefully attudi-
nised sleep in a corner of their department, when all is
over, that they seldom seem to have time for a laugh, or
even a smile, which is a pity, as those who work best
should laugh merriest when the strain is off them.
Physically speaking, this exercise clears the brain when
sluggish, or when too seriously occupied, just as a good
sneeze wakens  up  one's   bodily   faculties when  they 120
become torpid, as the "Happy Traveller' knows full
well. This fact seems to be quite unknown to the Glum
Grum fraternity, and the Squirmie sisterhood, who thus
insensibly get into impaired health, which otherwise
might be avoided.
The Engine-driver and Fireman come last, but by no
means least, as the safety of the train so greatly depends
upon the skilful manipulation of their locomotive, and
their unerring attention to signals, and also—from a fuel
economising point of view—to the firing of the furnace.
A driver has to pass through a long and arduous career
on shunting and goods engines before he will be trusted
with a passenger train. He must be ever ready for any
emergency that may arise, and think wisely and well
with electrical rapidity in the face of danger even of the
most appalling nature, or a frightful catastrophe may be
the result.    Two instances of this here come to mind.
Some years ago, there used to be on the North
British Railway, a driver facetiously nick-named "Hell
Fire Tom." This man derived his title from the fact
that on one occasion, while running along the line on his
locomotive alone, he discovered, when too late, that a
small bridge ahead of him had broken down. As he
could not stop in time, he instantly put on full steam and
sent his engine flying at a speed of 60 or 70 miles an
hour right across the chasm, when, marvellous to relate,
it took to the rails on the other side in safety.
The other incident happened in the Alleghany Mountains, on a steep declivity. Here, the driver of a passenger train spied, just in time, a runaway engine coming
down the same line in ever increasing velocity. He at
once uncoupled his own engine from the j train and went
on it a short distance ahead, then he and the fireman
jumped, off and let the two monsters meet.    This they  122
did with a crash which shook the earth, and left in
atomic form the remains of what had been, only a
moment before, two splendid and powerful combinations
of high class machinery. The train and all in it were
thus saved from destruction, and the driver had a post of
honour for life from the Company, whose property and
passengers he had so skilfully protected.
These two incidents are of a romantic and most
unusual nature; in daily practice, however, the driver
has many points of danger to guard against unknown to
the public. These include fractured machinery, damaged
permanent way, and all the obstacles to line working,,
especially in winter, due to snow storms, snow slides,.
earth slides, boulders from mountain sides, wash outsr
damaged bridges, and so on, which in some cases can
neither be foreseen nor prevented. Into such a splendid
state of perfection in construction, maintenance, and
management has the railway system now been brought
throughout the world that, to use the appropriate words
of a late chairman of the London and North Western
Railway Company, " It is, when compared with every
other occupation, the safest of all," and this, too, he
proved.
Having been brougth so much into contact with the
members of the train staffs on the C. P. R. and other
lines throughout Canada, and having also very carefully
studied their idiosyncrasies, I can only express my
admiration for the manner in which they all performed
their parts whilst I was so happily travelling with them
on runs of every kind and of extremely varied length. 123
CHAPTER IX.
"Winnipeg of the Present and Future.—Winnipeg as a City—
Its Public Buildings, &c.— A Government Centre — The
Chicago of Canada—Heavy Tramcar Trains—Exhibition and
its Visitors—Enterprise of the People—Prairie Children's
First Visit to a City—The Australian Bush-reared Author's
similar experience—Cause of Winnipeg's Prosperity—How
the C. P. R. Enriched a Desert — Eventful Career of
Winnipeg — The famous "Boom"—Crashes — Speculative
Extortioners—Primitive means of Transport—The Wilderness of the Past—Flatness of the Country—Embellishment
of Winnipeg—"Main Street" of the Future—The Love of
the Beautiful—Mosquitoes on the Red River—Their Sting
Scientifically considered—Prevention better than Cure.
ETURNING now to where we left
off in the city of Winnipeg, after
a good sleep and a good breakfast, I sallied out on a tour of
observation, and found the city
handsomely built in the main parts,
many of its public and other buildings being of stone, or brick, or
both combined. Amongst these
may be mentioned the various colleges, churches, hotels, numerous banks, ranges
of beautiful public and private offices, Government
offices, land offices, emigration offices, flour mills, grain
elevators, various manufactories, and so on. The city
had also a splendid tram-car system which was tested
to the utmost by the Exhibition crowds.
By night,  the  streets were  lighted  by  electricity,
indeed, it may here be said,  that throughout  Canada 124
it-i
this method of lighting reigns supreme, so far-advanced
are the people on points which in cities and towns of
old countries are still so much neglected.
From the investigations then made, and from the
information since received from authoritative sources, I
am happily compelled to admit that Winnipeg is going
to be the Chicago of Canada, as everything already
indicates this. The great annual Exhibition, which was
the cause of the immense stir in the town, was a grand
success, indeed people said that nothing like it had ever
happened. Their Excellencies, too, on their way to the
Far West, just arrived in time to visit it and speak handsomely of it. Never, perhaps, were tram-cars more
severely tried from day to day during a whole week. In
the great cities people usually consider one motor-car
and one trailer quite sufficient for any purpose, here,
however, one of the former densely crowded had to pull
after it at good speed no less than five trailers . similarly
packed I
The Exhibition. Well, that ivas a business, and no
mistake. The Chiel was there, and, unsuspected by all,
was busy, busy in his traditional character. The Happy
Traveller was also there, moving about as gingerly as the
dense crowds would allow him; the dresses, the style
and manners, the general appearance and all round
conduct of the nobility and gentry, the citizens, the
farmers, the old, the middle aged, the young and the
very young, with the husbands and wives, the brothers
and sisters, the cousins and aunts, and prospective
relations, too, of the above, from all parts of the country,
coming in for his closely scrutinising but most amiable
attentions, the object being to collect a few choice little
notes for publication in this book.
'Pon  my  wor-r-d!   or   rather,   Oh my!   it  was  a 125
business, indeed, to do what I wished to do, but at
last it was accomplished. It was quite a treat—quite
a unique study of Canadian character in all its phases—
for one fresh from the Old Country, to meet under such
favourable auspices his brethren and sisters of the New
World in the midst of a scene before which the subsequent similar glories of Toronto and Quebec were only
of secondary importance. It was a regular Farmer's
Festival in every respect, and hence people of all ranks,
and ages, and occupations, went to it in such numbers as
to ensure its record success.
A distinctive feature of the Institution, and one
which no doubt helped it, was the manner in which
the week was planned out. For instance, Monday was
the "Opening" day; Tuesday, the "Children's" day;
Wednesday, the "Farmers'" day; Thursday, the
" Citizens' " day, when everyone had a holiday; Friday,
the "Americans'" day; and Saturday, the "Ladies'"
day, when the whole of the floating and resident population of the district was expected to come and give a
splendid finish to a really most attractive event, and all
the more so because it took place in the heart of Canada,
far away from all other similar entertainments.
The enthusiasm of the people was remarkable. The
streets were crowded. Everybody was on the move,
and even the hotel waitresses, dressed all in white, were
perspiringly working away like steam engines trying to
please everyone, and possibly to get off at night to see
the fair, so at least one of them told me—a little word
of kindness evidently cheering her.
When at the Exhibition, it could be easily seen that
the crowds around me represented people from all the
cities and towns, villages, hamlets, and solitary residences, not only near at hand, but hundreds of miles 126
away, as when a subsequent traveller with them on the
line I fully discovered. The delight of all was pleasant
to see, and their most admirable conduct gratifying to
behold. When I saw the children of the prairie and
of the distant mountains, who had for the first time
come to town, how it awakened my own recollections
of the past when I, too, an eight year old bush-bred
Colonial who had only seen the country, entered for the
first time the city of Sydney.
How clearly those visions of early days now rose to
view! Our journey by covered cart from " Lainshaw,"
our 100 mile inland farm, to the "Blackheath' Inn
during the first day, then another similar journey next
day to the "Weatherboard," then through wild fastnesses and over bad roads to the Emu Plains which, as
well as the Nepean river, we had to cross on our track
to Penrith. Here we caught the gorgeous mail coach
which, starting at two in the morning, ran us in dashing
style some hours afterwards through Parramatta, and
then, under the rays of a brilliant sun, landed us
in the afternoon in that, to me, City of Palaces, that
-city of wonder and glory and magnificence, with its
ships and steamers and lovely harbour, and bunshops,
and fruitshops, and all the rest of them—the city of
Sydney—the capital of New South Wales! The scenes
•connected with that famous journey, and others of the
period, seem, even yet, to be photographed unfadingly
in my mind. Only one event happened to mar the
•delight I then abundantly experienced, and that was
when, on being taken to the Theatre Royal, I saw the
-cruel clown of the play run a red hot poker into the
side of the pantaloon, and send the poor old gentleman
howling in agony all over the stage'!
Sweet visions of Australian life passed before my 1-27
mind as I gazed on and mixed with the crowds of
people who embellished the grounds and helped to successfully finance the Great Exhibition I had the pleasure
of being so charmingly associated with. No doubt, too,
in distant years, when the boys and girls of these vast-
assemblages have passed middle age, and even become
elderly men and women, the glories of Winnipeg, as
they then saw them for the first time, will remain
amongst the most exquisite recollections of the past.
And now, let us try to explain the causes of the great
prosperity of this city. Firstly, it may be said that its
splendid geographical position in the heart of Canada
is one of the main secrets of its very rapid extension.
Placed so far away on the prairie in comparative solitude, with Ottawa 1,300 miles off on the east, and
Toronto and Hamilton not much less; with Vancouver
nearly 1,500 miles westward ; with thousands of miles
of river and lake navigation around, and with numerous
railways radiating from it in every direction, what
else can be expected than that Winnipeg will continue
to be, in a rapidly expanding manner, not only the commercial focus of the vast adjacent territories, but the
main centre of manufacturing industries still to be
immensely developed, and of university and high-class
jcmblic school education.
Situated at the junction of the Assiniboia with the
Red River, the advantages of the site for trading purposes were long ago fully recognised by the Hudson's
Bay Company when they built Fort Garry, and to this
-day these rivers have proved extremely useful. It
was not, however, until the C. P. R. was opened that
Winnipeg began to move upwards by leaps and bounds.
This event infused life into a desert. The rich agricultural lands of Manitoba caused farming and ranching 128
operations to go ahead in grand style. Villages and
townlets sprang into existence where none had been
before. Small but rapidly growing populations were
continuously added. Trade and commerce flourished
throughout the province. Winnipeg was made the
receiving depot and distributing centre of Manitoba,
Assiniboia, and the whole of the vast N. W. territory,
and hence, in a very short time, the Fort of the past
became merely a relic in the city of the present.
As the rise, progress, and development of Winnipeg
fairly indicate the similar advancement of other colonial
cities and towns whpse surrounding circumstances are
more or less favourable, we may here sketch its history
in outline from the beginning.
Although the Hudson's Bay Company had a post at
Fort Garry since the year 1812, the history of Winnipeg
only dates back to 1870. In the early part of that year
the total number of buildings outside the Fort was 28,
the manufacturing institutions being represented by a
tannery and a harness shop.
From this year onwards it became a fixed belief in
the minds of the people that their small community had
great things in store for it, and that Manitoba was
destined to be a rich, populous, and prosperous province,
and hence the confidence freely expressed soon spread
to the east.
In 1872 a branch of the Merchants' Bank was
established, and from this onwards, eastern capital
began to be freely invested in the town and province.
In 1874—the year in which the city was incorporated—
so many extensions were made in every direction that
the population rose to 3,700. Notwithstanding the
terrible convulsions that shook the monetary system of
America and Europe during 1873 and 1874, the year of 129
1875 opened with bright prospects not only for Winni-*
peg but for the whole of Manitoba, the most valuable
addition to the machinery of business being the establishment of the Ontario Branch Bank. The Red River had
now no less than five passenger and three cargo steamers
placed on it, one vessel which made only occasional trips
having, in the previous year, been found sufficient. A
new City Hall was then built, and city improvements
went on extensively, various manufactories were added,
and the population went on increasing until it reached
5,000. I        % I",
In 1877 the first sustained efforts for railway communication throughout the province and with the
eastern world were made, and in the early part of that
year the citizens offered a bonus of 200,000 dollars to
any Company which would construct a railway from the
city to the western boundary of the province. It was
not, however, until near the close of 1878 that the St.
Vincent branch of the C. P. R. connecting with the St.
Paul, Minneapolis, and Manitoba railway at that city
was completed, and through communication to the
eastern portion of the continent secured, the population
by this time having reached a total of 6,500.
The importance of the aid rendered by the railway
may be gathered from the fact that during 1879 and
1880 the progress of the city was unusually rapid, the
population having by the middle of the latter reached
12,000, which was still further increased by the close of
the year, railway communication to Portage-la-Prairie
on the west having been completed.
With the year 1881 the-famous Winnipeg "boom"
set in, and the state of inflation reached before its
close can be better remembered by the residents of the
period than it can now be described.    The fact never-
K 130
theless remains that during that year the city and surrounding country made unprecedented progress of a
lasting description, and the influx of settlers, who had
come to remain in the North-West and grow up with it,
was immensely greater than that of any preceding year.
The boom, therefore, although carried to the wildest
excess, was not a mere bubble. The energetic manner
in which the C. P. R. syndicate commenced and continued the work of railway extensions gave such an
impetus to the general excitement that in a few months
the boom was at its height, and so penetrated every
branch of business that money purchased very little of
anything owing to the - enormously high prices existing
for all kinds of commodities. Before the close of 1881
the population of the city had reached nearly 20,000,
about 5,000 of whom were idlers who had been attracted
by the speculative mania.
The rapid construction both eastward and westward
of the C. P. R. brought such a large floating population
that 1882 was by no means a dull year in mercantile
circles. Nevertheless, the cost of living was so high
that it was evident a revolution was necessary before a
better state of affairs could be reached. Hundreds of
emigrants were weekly passing through the city to seek
homes farther west, but its reputation for most extravagant charges for everything had been told to them, and
hence they stopped in it as short a time as possible.
A year of what may be termed ' I crash' came to
Winnipeg during 1883, and men who, early in 1882,
were considered rich, entered upon the new year with
bankruptcy in front of them. A large number of failures
took place during the first quarter, and during the
second quarter things became much worse. The month
of July was entered upon with a dread of panic hanging 131
over the country. Banks and other financial institutions
which bad fostered and encouraged the reckless trading
of boom days were now mercilessly exacting in their
demands, and many, who in a more confident state of
trade, would have weathered the storm, were forced into
insolvency.
A tremor ran through the fabric of North-Western
trade when the total failures for the third quarter of
the year were published. Winnipeg came in for its full
proportion of these, and, although the last quarter of
1883 was one of great severity, it was felt that the storm
was passing aw7ay, and, indeed, soon afterwards it disappeared.
During the time that this tempest was raging a great
revolution of another kind had been going on in the city,
Speculative extortioners had been nearly all ruined, and
rents of buildings of every description gradually sank
until they became less than half of their former rates.
if
Speculators who had been unduly increasing the cost of
the necessaries of life, found themselves at last in deep
trouble as these food supplies declined rapidly in value.
Indeed, so beneficial had these movements become,
that 1884 was entered upon with general business in a
healthy, if not a prosperous condition, and as a natural
consequence, solid progress was made during the year.
The history of the city from this point onwards has
been a chequered one, but not sufficiently so to require
comment. In 1885 it had a serious rebellion in the
North-West to contend with, which greatly disturbed the
minds of the citizens, and in 1886 the greatest event of
all happened, namely, the opening of the C. P. R. from
Montreal to Vancouver, which not only sprung a greatly
extended trade upon the whole country, but brought it,
•by means of its splendid steamships, into direct touch 132
with Japan, China, and the rest of the world. Step by
step, therefore, the metropolis of Central Canada became
what it is to-day.
In view of the brilliant future of Winnipeg a few
hints from an old engineer may perhaps prove acceptable, as they are given with the hope of helping forward
the interests of a city of which he has many delightful
reminiscences.
Lying as it does on such level, sea-horizoned ground,
Winnipeg cannot well be picturesque, but if nature has
denied it those features of scenic interest so liberally
bestowed upon many other places, why cannot this be
made up for artificially ? Was not Babylon in the same
position when the Median Princess came from her land
of mountain and flood to reside in it? Did she not
complain to her loving husband that she could not
admire such dreary, monotonous surroundings ? Did
she not say to him in winning tones, " Cannot you do
something to oblige me in this respect, and I shall love
you more than ever? "
The great King thought a while. He pensively pondered over the peculiarities of his most perplexing
position, and eventually conceived a grand idea, in
chaotic form, no doubt, but one which the Royal
Engineer of the period worked out in detail to perfection. Thus were originated the "Hanging Gardens'
of wondrous build. In New York and Chicago there
are ranges of offices up to at least 350 feet from the
ground to the promenade floor on the top of the flat
roof, not to mention the extra height of pinnacle, &c,
adornments.
Now why could not some architect combine the
leading features of these ancient and modern buildings
in the  design of a  colossal  edifice, which would be, 133
either far away or near at hand, picturesquely attractive
and at the same time commercially profitable ? Why
should it not take the form of a long range of offices and
shops so arranged that while, on the one hand, they
themselves become objects of unique interest and usefulness from a business point of view; they become, on the
other hand, a hilly eminence laid out with tree-planted
terraces and gardens as a fashionable promenade resort ?
Give the structure the name of "Mountain Gardens,"
and then see how rapidly this title will interest the
public. The question will then be, not—"Have you
shot the Lachine Rapids?" or " Seen Niagara?" but—
"Have you seen the wonderful Mountain Gardens of
Winnipeg? "
Then, again, look at Main Street as I saw it, with its
immense breadth of 132 feet unembellished by a single
tree, and with nearly all the grand buildings up town,
whilst the part within view from the C. P. R. station
wanted beautifying at the very place where the multitudes who pass along the line could see it to a perfection
seldom attainable. These blemishes, however, can easily
be rectified, as handsome buildings will no doubt be
shortly erected there, and rapidly growing trees occupy
the spaces where they should be now. Thus, and in
other ways, the city will acquire an amount of fame and
prosperity at present little dreamt of.
It may be asked why we lay so much stress upon
•city improvements. Well, as the love of the beautiful
in some form or other pervades the minds of most
people, it is evident that this should be gratified,
especially when it can be turned to profitable account.
Indeed, the peculiarities of human nature should be
studied quite as much as the other practical branches
of business.     The railway companies know this well, 134
and therefore make their carriages homes of beauty and
luxury and magnificence, simply to catch the public and
increase their revenue. For the same reason the leading
ocean and river steamship companies lavish enormous
sums of money for the purpose of having, one might say,
regal splendour and comfort in their ships, because it
attracts crowds of high-class and rich passengers, who
enable them to repay themselves for what appears to
be extravagant expenditure.
The agriculturist and his engine builders study
human nature in their own way by giving the farm
labourer machines painted in the gaudiest style, with
•brilliant greens, and blues, and yellows, and scarlets
arranged to suit his taste and make him proud of
his implements, and thus, with greater pleasure, do
more work. So on, and so on, in other ways too
numerous to mention. Should not then city adornments, judiciously carried out, produce similarly satisfactory results ?   We think so—to some extent at least.
Winnipeg is not going to be merely a commercial
and manufacturing focus for Canada. It is in addition
to be the home of art and science as well as of trade,
and also the delightful winter resort of people for many
hundreds of miles all round, and even from the West
Coast. These people need to have their refined tastes
gratified, and their presence magnetised to the spot,
and how can this be more suitably done than by
carrying out in some form or other the improvements
which it is hoped we have not un acceptably proposed,
and which are adaptable to other places similarly
destitute of natural beauty.
One evening I went by tramcar a long country drive
across the Red River by a magnificent steel-built bridge,
which had only recently superseded a primitive timber 135
structure. The car, crowded with passengers, stopped
for five minutes near a wooded part of its bank, and
here the mosquitoes came out in swarms delighted to see
us, and humming so sweetly as they alighted upon our
exposed parts. Oh, my! hadn't we just a lively time of
it! The ladies actively used their fans and handkerchiefs, and tucked their dresses closely around their
ankles. The gentlemen using their handkerchiefs
whisked and smacked their own faces, fluffed the points
of their noses, felt down their necks, and so on, until we
again started and gladly left our friends behind us as we
entered the town.
As insect life is more or less the plague of foreign
countries, various preventives and remedies have been
discovered, which, although they suit some people, do
not adapt themselves to all. In practice, a mosquito
injects an irritant fluid into the blood of the person he
stings with the object of making it more savoury. Now,
if you allow him quietly to have his feed, he takes back
this fluid, and will thus save you from the usual unhappy
effects. "Suppose," you say, "if I have a number of
them on me at once, what then?' Do the best you
can, as circumstances alter cases. One part of cedar oil,
however, to eight or ten parts of almond oil is with some
a good preventive when rubbed on the skin, as the
mosquitoes do not like the scent of the compound.
Practically, a house is kept free of them by having
wire gauze self closing doors inside the entrance doors,
and screens of the same material outside the windows.
If the mosquitoes, however, or the black flies should
catch you in a boat, or camping on the bank of an
infested part of a river, you will have a rare time of it,
as my good friend Mr. Bittinger, the United States
Consul-General   for   Canada,  told   me   from   his   own 136
I
1
holiday experience. At the worst, these insects are
only to be found in certain places and at certain times;
personally speaking, however, I traversed half the Continent before I met them.
And now, having perhaps done Winnipeg fair, though
brief justice in description, it only remains to add that
when the last day and the last moment came for me to
remain within her borders, I rolled away on the C. P. R.
in the midst of a densely packed Exhibition homeward-
bound crowd, on the track of the sun, as before.
If the roofs of the cars had been made flat, as they
were at one time on British lines, many of the people
might have gone on the top, as they used to do in early
days. The arching of the roofs, however, while adding
strength to a car, and increasing its beauty, and also
giving abundant space overhead, has now rendered such
performances impossible. We had, therefore, to do
what we could until our numbers were thinned by
stoppages at stations on the road to Brandon, which was
to be my next place of call. 137
CHAPTER  X.
The Resources of Canada fob the Industrious and Enterprising.—Reminiscences of the Archbishop of Rupert's
Land—"Canada should be better known at Home"—
Business Life in the Old Country—Manual Arts of To-day—
Value of Workshop Training—Lord Dashe as & Smith—The
Shipbuilding Marquis—Advantages of Practical Knowledge
in the Colonies—How " Practical Hands" succeed as
Farmers—A Successful Farmer's Story—Valuable Lessons
for all—Opinions of others we met—Secrets of Success in
Canada—How the Government helps Settlers—How the
C. P. R. aids them—Misunderstandings regarding the
Climate—Hints for the Enterprising—New Life on New
Lines.
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OON after leaving
Winnipeg, I had
the honour of
meeting in the
train His Grace
the Archbishop
of Rupert's Land,
and as he had
been many years
in Canada I found
that he could give
me authoritative
information concerning it from
his own point of
view, which was
very gratifying.
We had a  most 138
interesting and lively chat for some time, during which
he said many things which quite confirmed what I
had frequently been told by others regarding the good
prospects for the industrious and enterprising from the
Old Country. Besides this, he complained to me
that the people at home did not know or understand
Canada as they should do, or take sufficient interest
in it, as he had frequently discovered.
" Well," I replied, "those at home are so compelled
nowadays to give their whole attention to things immediately concerning them, that they have little time to
spend upon others with which they have no connection.
I hope, however, I may be able to enlighten many on
the points you have named, when I return to England."
As previously mentioned, our train was densely
crowded, not only with Exhibition visitors returning
home, but with representatives of all classes of society
and of various nationalities from the eastern cities and
from Europe, some of whom were going to Japan and
China on arrival at Vancouver. What could one wish
for more in the way of variety, or for the practice
of that useful art, the study of character ?
After a fine run of 133 miles from Winnipeg, we
reached Brandon at 24.10 o'clock, the train leaving
again at 23.20, as our watches had to be put back one
hour to suit "Mountain time," which here begins. And
now that we have arrived in the very midst of a district
in the far-famed province of Manitoba, where "mixed
farming" and all that pertains to it flourish, it may be
advisable to make what, it is hoped, will prove a useful
as well as an interesting digression,
So far as professional and business life generally in
the Old Country are concerned, it may be said that these
have, in recent years, become so financially deteriorated,. 139
and the prospects of employment sometimes so remote
after a certain age, that unless one has private means,
or influential friends, or some good practice to succeed
to, it is not advisable to waste time in preparation for
any of the professions and other occupations, the chief
reasons being as follows :—
(1). The rapidity with which technical and commercial education is now imparted to students by means
of Universities, Colleges, Schools of Science, etc.
(2). Crushing competition in business, which greatly
reduces the profits, even sometimes of the most famous
and formerly prosperous companies, firms, and private
individuals, thus compelling them to adopt the cheapest
systems of management, which include the employment,
when possible, of young hands, boys, and young women
instead of men.
(3). The fact that multitudes of those who, twenty-
five years ago, would have become carpenters, joiners,
masons, etc., now rush at office and similar employments. Hence, with such forces arrayed against the
middle-aged men of to-day, it cannot be wondered at
that they should too often find their occupation gone, as
the Age Question now attracts so much attention.
In other words, few out of employment at the age of
thirty-five are considered eligible for any appointment,
although at the same time full of experience, energy,
and talent. This means that many who ought to have
good prospects for the years to come, are practically
stranded, and that highly intelligent and honourable
gentlemen, who have spent the best years of their lives
in acquiring valuable experience of a perhaps most
intricate profession, and who delight in active service,
are compelled to lead a miserable existence in idleness.
For the reasons given, it seems that a really good 140
trade or business is more suitable than a profession out
of which little or nothing can be made by, say, 75 per
cent, of its members. Manual labour in ancient times
held a high position, and no one who lived by it seems
to have been thought the worse of by the upper ten.
Adam, was a gardener; Moses and David, shepherds;
Paul, a tent maker ; and above all, "The Master," was
a carpenter. Strange to say, this art is the one which*
to-day, is mainly employed.
The mason and bricklayer can only find occupation
in places where stone or brick is the chief constructive
material for buildings, a remark which applies more or
less to all other trades. The carpenter and joiner, however, is appreciated everywhere, and particularly so in
the Colonies, where timber is so much used.
The immortal Duke used to say, * j If you want a
thing well done, do it yourself" and no gentleman
should fancy himself above being able to do workman's
work on his own account when needed, as is frequently
the case in out of the way places. Of course, we should
never expect people of the refined classes to use a
manual trade as a life occupation or they would lose
caste, and never hope to win the love of a general's, an
admiral's, or a judge's daughter, however much they
tried for it, although aristocrats themselves. What I
mean is, that they should learn one or more of the
practical sciences which may some time or other prove
useful to them.
I myself can testify to the value of workshop
practice, having had, through being an apprentice in
two different engineering establishments, as much as
six years of it, at a time, too, when the most exquisitely
beautiful workmanship was chiefly produced by hand
tools   alone,   as   machines   were   not   so   much   used 141
as they are now. Indeed, a fair knowledge of the
practical arts, even from an amateur's point of view,
was at one time found to be a most convenient accomplishment. The following story comes to us from early
days:—
A stage coach was conveying a party of ladies,
and gentlemen to a country house for the Christmas
festivities. During the journey one of the axles broke,
fortunately, near a road-side smithy, where one of the
passengers helped to weld the fractured parts together,
and thus quickly allowed the coach to proceed. In the
evening, the amateur smith appeared in dinner costume,
to the intense surprise of one of the ladies, who, fancying
him to be a " common person," exclaimed to a friend—
"Good gracious! who is that man entering the room?
He helped to mend our axle ! "
"Oh, that is Lord Dash-Blanque, let me introduce
you to him ! " was the reply.
Well do I remember the Marquis of Ailsa, whose
Culzean Castle, in the county of Ayr, I had some years
ago the honour of professionally visiting. I not only
found him a simple minded gentleman in every sense of
the word, but a lover of practical engineering and shipbuilding. He showed me over his fine estate, and also
his handsome private workshop, well stocked with
machines and tools of all kinds, inside the castle, and
then took me round his closely adjoining Works, where
some steam yachts were in course of construction.
Everything was in splendid order, and over the door of
each department was some appropriate quotation in
large letters, such as | i Procrastination is the thief of
time," "Waste not, want not," and so on. The Drawin
office was a model of beauty in itself, and on its black
painted floor the Marquis began at six in the mornin 142
to draw full size, in chalk lines, everything pertaining
to the working plans of his ships, which afterwards
became famous.
For real practical use and pleasure combined, especially in foreign parts, there is nothing to be compared
with a fair knowledge of the art of using iron and woodworking tools. To be able to chip and file straight. . To
know how to drill holes properly with hand braces,
and screw them if required. To make bolts and nuts
out of scrap iron. To know how to plane, and chip, and
chisel, and mortise, and tenon, and do all sorts of things
in timber, either for house or for farm requirements, etc.
To do a little bit of forging—in iron, I mean—and so on,
especially at a time when every shilling saved, or every
payment from others for work thus performed, is of
importance. Even when the initial log cabin has been
exchanged for a handsome villa built by yourself from
your own plans, and financial prosperity has been
attained, a knowledge of how to pass a £10 wind wheel,
or water wheel, or electric or foot-driven lathe through
all its varied performances will be found most useful.
Private practitioners have, during recent years, been
so much injured by the development of public Companies which now perform, so much of the work that
formerly belonged to their own special province, that
it is now high time to look out for something else
in another land. Something, at least, which will bring
a fair share of permanent prosperity, and offer good
hopes for the future.
It might be hard for some of our almost stranded
walking cyclopaedias in any of the sciences, or even
perhaps in law, to begin again in a new line, in a new
country. It will be easy enough, however, for young
people who  are  thinking  about  entering  business, to 143
direct their attention to Canada, where ultimate results
are more likely to be satisfactory. To them alone, what
follows is especially directed.
During my travels in that country, I learned much
of a useful character from many varied sources, and
also from a great variety of people, including Ministers
of Agriculture, Mining, etc., down through the ranks of
all classes associated with farming, whom I met. They
all agreed that those who intend to be or are already
scribes, or professionals, or shop assistants, or anything,
in fact, of this nature, need not try the cities and
towns of the Dominion, as they are quite as overstocked in these respects as any of ours can be. The
really strong feature of Canadian life lies in its Agricul^
ture, which has now become quite a practical science of
the highest order, and of course holds a much better
position than it formerly did, the old rough and ready
come-day-go-day system having become almost obsolete.
I also found that the Canadians are always glad to
welcome amongst them those who know something
about what they are going to do, and how best to do it.
On the other hand, however, they naturally dislike the
idle class who come from the Old Country only to
amuse themselves as long as they can, and then return
with such a dismal report of what they had experienced
in the farming line, that much injury is done to Canada
which might easily have been avoided.
Just fancy the effect that Mr. Glum, or Mr. Grum,
or Mr. Black, or Mr. Blue would make upon those who
listen to their tales of woe and disappointment; of
"insufferable cold," of a "frozen up country," and of a
land where "nothing will grow," because, if the truth
were known, they neither knew how, nor even tried to
make them grow.    How they "lost all their money" in 144
vain efforts to succeed, because their attention had
really been given to fishing and shooting and hunting,
instead of to ploughing and sowing and reaping.
"Hard work' was, amongst these gentlemen, another
source of grumbling, apparently not knowing that while
in the Old Country a similar amount of energy bestowed
in other directions, too often brings a "success' so
contemptibly small as not to deserve the name, well
directed efforts in the new country will generally produce much better and more lasting results. In this
respect, the following history of Mr. H. H. Winearls, of
Port Arthur, will point a moral and adorn a tale.
Whilst travelling along the C. P. R. line, I had the
pleasure of meeting this gentleman, who proved to be
not only a very genial but a very instructive companion,
and so, when I approached him in " Chiel' fashion
concerning his antecedents, he most kindly responded by
allowing me to note them for the benefit of my readers.
He told me he left Norfolk, England, in 1883, as a
prospective farmer in Canada, but having had more
capital than experience, he paid more attention to the
dispersion of the former amongst pleasure seeking friends
than to the acquisition of the latter, hence his first three
years in business were of a very unhappy nature.
His next movement was to gain the necessary experience without capital, which, although a very arduous
undertaking, was nevertheless an encouraging one. Mr.
Winearls also informed me that the majority of successful settlers in Western Canada to-day are those who,
beginning with very little money, richly possessed those
qualities which make up for the want of it. After
passing through additional vicissitudes of fortune, he at
last attained sufficient success to convince him that
Canada of the present is  an excellent   field  for the 145
industrious and enterprising, especially when, after
carefully ascertaining what they have to do, they diligently try to discover the best means of accomplishing
their end, and also make up their minds not to be easily
disheartened because they do not obtain speedy returns
for their labours.
Many other people of both sexes whom I met along
the line and similarly interviewed, told me much the
same story. They told me how their fathers, and
brothers, and uncles, and no doubt 'prospective relations
had come from the Old Country, and after steady application had got along by degrees, and were now to a
great extent prosperous. Having had access, too, to the
written statements of hundreds of settlers whose experiences have run more or less upon the same lines,
what other conclusion can I come to than that all these
good people's opinions boiled down really indicate the
true state of affairs.
Amongst those whose statements were of most value,
was my good and highly accomplished friend, Mr. W.
T. Jennings, C. E. of Toronto, who, as an almost lifelong resident in Canada, was entitled to speak with
great authority on this point. He informed me that,
in addition to the want of energy and application with
which so many intending farmers have unfortunately
been afflicted, may be mentioned their ignorance of even
the rudiments of Canadian Agriculture, which differs
materially from that of England, and which has to be
learnt before prosperity can be obtained. Here, however, we enter upon a subject to which the Dominion
and Provincial Governments have for some time past
been directing their attention, the result being the
establishment of schools and colleges, such as that at
Guelph,   previously   mentioned,   where   scientific   and
L 146
practical training of the highest order can be easily and
cheaply obtained.
Besides this great Institution, there are various
experimental farms throughout Canada, including those
at Brandon, Indian Head, and Agassiz, B.C. Taking
Brandon as an example of what can thus be accomplished, it may be mentioned that the record of the
yields per acre for 1898 were as follows :—Wheat, from
18 to 45.bushels; Oats, 60 to 114; Barley, 35 to 68; Peas,
23 to 59; Swede Turnips, 500 to 1,500 bushels; Mangels, 600 to 2,100 bushels; Potatoes, 200 to 600 bushels,
and so on for numerous other products.
In addition to these farms, the Government of the
North West Territories is now working several experimental agricultural stations in the various districts of
the Territories of uniform climatic and soil conditions,
in order to determine the most profitable varieties of
plants, trees, fruits, etc., for each district, and also to
ascertain the breeds of live stock which may be brought
to the highest state of perfection in every locality. These
stations are intended to furnish valuable information to
settlers in the country, and to enable others to judge for
themselves the possibilities of any particular district
before finally deciding what to do.
For those who have no capital, the primitive system
of learning practical agriculture from the field alone is
still adopted. Here, however, the candidate for future
promotion must enter the service of a suitable farmer
merely as one of his paid hands, and work his way on,
say for a year. By this means he can save a little
money, which, judiciously expended, will give him a step
forward in the manner indicated by Mr. Winearls.
As an encouragement to settlers, the Canadian
Government gives free farms of 160 acres to every man 147
above the age of eighteen, and to every woman who is
the head of a family, on condition that they live on it
and work it satisfactorily, thus [offering independencies
for life to any one with little means, but with necessary
•capabilities for enabling them to do what is required.
Full particulars on these points can be had on application to the Lord High Commissioner of Canada, 17
Victoria Street, London; the Secretary of the Department of the Interior, Ottawa; the Commissioner of
Emigration, Winnipeg, Manitoba; or to the Dominion
Lands Agent, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
It may be added, that the immense fertile plains of
Manitoba, and the adjacent Western and North Western
provinces, including the now highly valued Edmonton
region, are not only rich in grain producing and in
grazing lands, but possess great mineral stores in the
form of gold, silver, iron, copper, petroleum, coal, etc.,
which only require working, the means of transport of
material being either near at hand or in progress of rapid
-development.
Contiguity to a railway, too, is not only very advantageous from a mere transport consideration, but
•entitles the holder of adjacent land to certain desirable
privileges, so that, all things considered, there is much
that reasonable people may be satisfied with. Indeed,
it may be said that, so fully has their value become appreciated during the last few years, that there has been
a large influx of people from distant parts of the world,
and also from the United States, where formerly a great
•deal of prejudice existed against Canadian territory.
Not only so, but large financial institutions in Great
Britain have recently acquired considerable possessions
in land which they are now working in various ways.
Of course, this  improved state of affairs is almost 148
entirely due to the opening out of the country by means
of railways, and by the development of the prodigious
water transport system which permeates the land so
extensively. Taking the C. P. R. alone, it is no exaggeration to say that since its opening in 1886, the prairie
has been largely turned into a garden; that a through
connection having been established between the Pacific
and the Atlantic, the whole country has been so
benefited that hamlets, and villages, and towns, and
cities have since sprung up and flourished, where previously a wilderness existed, and where, consequently,
the early pioneers of farming had many hardships to
endure; and that it has come to pass that large and
small communities are now brought into close connection with each other for the benefit of all.
One of the great sources of misunderstanding regarding Canada has been in connection with the temperature
of her climate in winter, of which many in England hold
most erroneous opinions. Those who have lived long in
the Dominion, even amongst scientific authorities, speak
highly of its climate, whereas others base their ideas
merely upon the readings of the thermometer, which
frequently register a degree of cold that would prove
very injurious to the British Islanders, who reside in a
damp climate. The immense difference between the
heat conducting powers of damp and dry atmospheres
cannot be realised by those who have not been exposed
to the influence of the latter. Dry air is the most
efficient non-conductor of heat, those who live in such
an atmosphere being well protected against the extremes-
of heat and cold by a law of nature which throughout all
time has proved so beneficial, and also from pulmonary
diseases, which, in Canada, are almost unknown.
A very curious example of the effeot of this air i& 149
that, under its influence, combined with friction, the
application of the finger point to a jet of escaping gas
will light it. The success of this strange and well-
known performance is simply due to the fact that in
such an atmosphere one may, by simply shuffling the
feet along the carpet of a room, generate sufficient
electricity in the body to produce the result named.
As a finish to this chapter, it may be said that as
Canada, under immensely improved conditions of life,
offers great advantages to those who will take the
trouble to ascertain the best means of utilising them,
they should be appropriated when possible. In this way,
many of the enterprising residents* of our cities will be
enabled to direct their minds permanently into new7
channels, have new aspirations, new hopes, and new
sources of happiness and prosperity, not only for present
needs, but in the time to come. Of course, one does not
for a moment wish it to be understood that people are
expected to act upon such advice simply because, aided
by many of the highest authorities in the Dominion, I
have thus been enabled to recommend it. My object is
merely to throw out ideas for others to develop by
means of their own investigations, which alone can produce the most satisfactory results.
It may be added, that, knowing what I do know
from long experience of the British Isles, and also of life
in the bush of Australia, and, to some extent, from what
I have learnt of the prairies, etc., of Canada, it may
truly be said, that for all round comfort, for everything
which tends to advance one's education and social
interests at every point, and for absolute freedom from
venomous reptiles and insect pests, there is really no
place like home. When, however, that Home land has
become so deteriorated in everything which affects one's 150
prospects in life; when being out of employment at an
early age may mean premature retirement before thi&
luxury is wanted ; and, above all, when those whose
greatest desire is to become loved and loving heads of
their own households are compelled to remain single, it
is high time to look out for something better in a new
and more encouraging sphere of usefulness such as I
have tried to indicate.
Ignorance of recent changes in the business world
has been a great drawback in many ways to a better
state of things. Much of it, however, has been due to
the fact that, as a general rule, people, however skilfully
directed their efforts may have been, are very reticent
upon everything concerning their want of prosperity, as-
they are judged too harshly in such matters by others.
Nothing succeeds like success, even if only apparent, as-
the famous doctor in Pickwick well knew, and although
people do not like to talk about their misfortunes, this
principle may be overdone, and consequently, a national
evil perpetuated which might otherwise have been
averted.
Facts such as these have been before me for some
time past, but, for reasons previously given, it will not
now be advisable to withhold truths which, if better
known, may eventually produce the happiest results. 151
CHAPTER XL
Sights and Scenes of the Prairie.—The People of the Dominion
from a British point of view—Two Victorian Ladies we
met at Sea—"An Out of the World Locality?"—Enlightenment—The Bush-bred Author at Ten—"A Hottentot!"—
Canadian Ladies socially considered—Effect of the Jubilee
Year—Peculiarities of the Prairie—Farming on the Prairie,
Prosperity of Brandon and adjacent Towns—Great Prairie
Steppes—Prairie Fires—Lord Brassey's Farm at Indian
Head—Regina, the N. W. T. Seat of Government—Moose
Jaw—Mixed Farming on a gigantic Scale—One Hundred
Miles without a Tree—Indian Tribes along the Line—
Medicine Hat — Branch Line to the Mining Regions —
Rockies in sight, 100 miles off—Arrival in Calgary.
HfcJ
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] NE of the most delightful
occupations I have ever
entered upon, has been
the building up of this
book, in which I am endeavouring to treat everything Canadian in as free
hand and felicitous a manner as possible, so that
many may be instructed,
■^Vw      others  at least benefited,
JP
and not a few interested
in Dominion affairs as they at present exist.
Everyone knows that the inhabitants of Montreal,
Ottawa, Toronto, and the other cities are quite like
ourselves, but when it comes to the prairies and the
mountains, and the very Far, Far West regions, it may
still seem to many that those located in such places
must be rough in every sense, the ladies being house-
7FM. 152
maidy in style, slovenly in language, impolite in manner,
dowdily dressed, and so on. From what the good
Archbishop of Rupert's Land told me, and from what
others have since said on this subject, it appears that
there are many in the British Isles who, although
Continental tourists of the most advanced order, thus
reason upon people Canadian, whom I hope to still
further describe as I actually found them.
Just before our steamer Dominion left Liverpool for
Montreal, two young ladies on board especially attracted
my attention. They were of good stature, elegant in
appearance and dress, and altogether looked as if they
were people of quality from West end London, or West
end Edinburgh. After studying their social capabilities
for a time at sea, I at last ventured to approach them in
the Happy Traveller style, without an introduction, and
was abundantly rewarded for doing so.
I soon discovered that they were,- with their mother,
returning from a long tour in England and other places.
Their conversation was charming. Their language was
most refined, and free from the accentual blemishes
which characterise the speech of so many good people in
the Old Country. They were also light-hearted, happy
beings.. When, however, they informed me that they
were natives of Victoria, Vancouver Island, for which
place they were homeward bound, I was quite surprised,
but of course talked, to them just as if I had the honour
of meeting charming Victorians every day.
Now, why was I so surprised at the information thus
imparted to me? Simply this; I looked upon the capital
of British Columbia as a place practically out of the
world. Yokohama was 4,300 miles west of it, the great
Pacific cutting its inhabitants off from that centre of
life and fashion.    Montreal was  3,000 miles eastward, 153
the various ranges of mountains previously referred to
barring all attempts to reach it at any reasonable cost.
San Francisco was nearly 1,000 miles south of it, and a
wilderness country extended for other thousands of
miles to the Far, Far North.
It may therefore well be asked, how could one expect
European elegance and refinement from the inhabitants
of such an isolated, desolate, and practically savage
region, which, sure enough, it was at one time! I was
so stunned by what these ladies had just informed me,
that I quite forgot that since the year 1886, the C. P. R.
had directly linked Victoria the lovely, as I afterwards
found it, with the great eastern cities of Canada,
America, and Europe, arid by its steamers with China
and Japan; thus enabling the Victorians to keep themselves in touch with advanced civilisation.
I do hope my good and highly esteemed friends will
forgive my allusion to their supposed semi-barbaric condition in early days, which I am afraid, was on my part,
only too natural. I must also request them to kindly
accept the statement that my association with them was
of the happiest nature, and that, from every point of
view, they might well set an example to many here.
What, may I ask, was thought of myself when I
arrived in Edinburgh, from Australia, at the age of ten ?
Amongst others, Uncle Robert said he expected to find
me a "Hottentot," but perhaps he never made a mistake
in his life till then. On the other hand, Aunt Jane,
either said or thought, or thought and said that I was
both a "Hottentot" and "Heathen Chinee" combined.
One who neither knew the Bible, nor, indeed, anything
else, compared with her home bred, walking cyclopaedic
nieces, Maria and Georgina, of about my own age.
Well, she, too, had a startling discovery to make.    I 154
was passed through an examination just to see how
much, or rather how little I knew about anything, when,
to her intense astonishment, I fairly "took the cake," as
the saying is, from these young ladies—and this, too, for
a bush-bred Colonist! Well may we say, Advance
Australia!—Tasmania for ever! Poor dear Aunt Jane
had no idea of the power of my very excellent father and
her own invaluable sister to educate their children better
even than any Edinburgh School, in the heart of a
wilderness practically as isolated from civilisation as
Victoria was not so long ago.
Up to her 85th, and final year, my mother considered
my educational success referred to as her own, and well,
indeed, might she have claimed the honour. The
cousins named are still to the fore, well and hearty, and
I hope will not think less lovingly of me for thus publishing my early triumph over them to the world.
One of the city bred ladies of Eastern Canada I met
on board the Dominion was a Miss D , of Toronto—|
one of those people who unconsciously win admiration at
a glance from those who know how to value an attractive
exterior and pleasing manner to begin with. As she was
unattached, and I was unappropriated, we soon became
great friends. She was a splendid talker, and possessed
a merry disposition, and, more than that, I never in my
life met anyone who more thoroughly enjoyed what I
had to say than she did. While sitting together on deck
one afternoon, I rehearsed to her my narrative of a
" Thrilling Experience in the West Indies," which I intended to give at our grand evening entertainment when
we reached the Gulf of St. Lawrence. During the
recital, I held her attention spell-bound until the end
of the story, when, mentally relieved, she burst out
into an almost uncontrollable fit of laughter. 155
The honour and glory of that memorable evening
were divided amongst several talented performers-
nearly all Canadians—amongst the principal of whom
were Miss Douglas, of Montreal, our prima donna—and
Miss Pemberton, of Victoria, who proved a brilliant
pianist. Much of the success of the entertainment was,
however, primarily due to the very genial manner and
painstaking care of Mr. Edwin T. Garner, of C. P. R.
official association, from London, who, with rare skill
and judgment, selected the best performers, appointed
himself as our chairman, and was truly a centre of life.
In this, and in many other ways, I made a delightful
study of Canadian character on board a Canadian ship,
which, as I afterwards discovered, proved only a foreshadowing of coming events. It may be added that our
entertainment was the means of raising a handsome
amount in aid of the Liverpool Seamen's Orphanage.
To people Britannic who may wish to know about
the Dominion from a social point of view, it may be
well to say that I found its inhabitants charmingly
simple in style and manner, and intellectually attractive.
They were also most loyal to the Queen, and as much
interested in all that pertained to the Old Country as if
they lived in it. This, however, was partly due to the
fact that the Jubilee of 1897 had been the means of
drawing the two countries more closely together, and of
showing Canada that Great Britain recognised her as
the youngest of her children, and therefore, requiring
more of her attention than she had hitherto received,
through not being better acquainted with her, a want of
knowledge which in various wavs has greatly retarded
the progress of the Dominion, and put the brake on
much that, by this time, would have been successfully
accomplished. 156
And now, I suppose my readers would like to know
something about Prairie life as it is to-day. Firstly,
however, let us see what a prairie really is. Those
accustomed to our Fen district scenery will be best able
to understand the nature of those flat regions in the Far
West. Others, associated only with mountain and flood
parts of the country, cannot do so until they actually see
for themselves a great Transatlantic plain.
Well, then, a prairie, say, for instance, that from
fifty miles east of Winnipeg to about 750 miles west of
it, is a vast plain of more or less diversified appearance,
and usually with a very marked absence of trees. The
surface of the prairie may be termed " diversified" only
within narrow limits, the range of which is from dead
level to undulating, or rolling, and sometimes to bluffy,
according to circumstances. It is also varied by means
of long gentle slopes, which insensibly lead from one
level or steppe to another, a formation which seems to
be frequently found in other large countries.
So far as the C. P. R. route is concerned, it may
be said that immediately after leaving Winnipeg, as
previously mentioned, we entered upon a broad, green,
and level plain, extending to the north and west, and
bordered towards the south by a line of trees which
indicated the course of the Assiniboine river. Skirting
this is a continuous row of excellent farms with, sometimes, handsome houses and immense herds of cattle
showing themselves at intervals. Without curve or
deflection, as far as the eye can reach, the railway runs
straight ahead to the west, the motion of the train being
remarkably smooth all the time. Proceeding on our
course, we imperceptibly reached higher ground, and
found the country well chequered with fields of grain,
and embellished with all the accessories of a farm. 157
After a pleasant run of fifty-six miles from Winnipeg,,
we reached Portage-la-Prairie, another city of marvellously rapid growth, and the centre of an extensive
and prosperous farming region, which, like the others
named, helps to sustain the prestige of the province for
successful agriculture. Here great elevators, and flour
mills, and busy streets, and excellent houses, and public
buildings silently proclaim much of a very encouraging
nature to those who witness them. From this point the
Manitoba and North-Western railway extends for many
miles to the North and North-west for the purpose of
rendering more good territory available, and for bringing
down grain and cattle, and in the near future salt and
petroleum, etc., as well. In this it is aided by the
Canadian Northern line, which branches off it, and
passes through the Dauphin country. Crossing a long
range of sandhills, marking the shore of the ancient lake
Agassiz, we passed through a pretty and undulating
portion of Manitoba, which is now the centre of very
busy and prosperous towns and villages, of which
numerous lofty elevators form distinct landmarks.
Proceeding onwards, we soon crossed the Assiniboine
river and reached Brandon, the first house of which was
erected in 1881, but in seven years afterwards the population numbered fully 4,000. Now, it is a handsome and
beautifully located city on high ground facing the river
just named. It also has numerous handsome churches,
manufacturing establishments of various kinds, banks,
hotels, schools, elevators in abundance, and with
electricity well to the fore in everything. The inhabitants, therefore, may well be proud of their city, which
has now become one of the largest markets for grain
producers in the Dominion.
One thing that struck me forcibly as I traversed the HI
158
land was the fact that when the Canadians have by
means of the most primitive and inexpensive systems of
construction paved their way to financial prosperity,
they seem to aim at going ahead of the Old Country as
far as possible, and do it well, too. The reason being
that when extensions and improvements are required,
only the latest and best ideas In everything are adopted.
Hence, we find that while in some parts of their cities
timber-built houses and foot walks still exist, we also
find in many places " coming events casting their
shadows before," in the shape of broad granito-asphalte
pavements which cannot be excelled by the best streets
of London. This, too, in addition to the handsome
stone-built public edifices frequently to be seen. Personally speaking, I was delighted with Brandon, which is
•certainly one of the most picturesque of the prairie
cities, and seems to have a great future.
It may be well here to state that, according to the
final Government crop bulletin for the year 1898, the
total yield of wheat in Manitoba for that season was
23,315,745 bushels, as compared with 18,261,950 bushels
for the previous year. The area sown showed an
increase of 167,350 acres, whilst the average yield rose
from 14*14 to 17*01 bushels per acre. The amount of
oats raised on the other hand, was 17,308,252 bushels,
or 6,676,739 bushels in excess of the previous year, the
average yield per acre being 33*6 bushels, that of the
previous year having been 22*7 only. Still greater
results are expected for 1899, but these have not yet
been published.
Shortly after leaving Brandon, we reached the first of
the great prairie steppes which rise in succession at
long intervals until the Rooky Mountains are closely
approached.    Now we were on  the real prairie, as I 159
could see hour by hour, as we rolled along on one of the
loveliest days ever made. Here we were passing over
not an uninteresting plain which many people expect to
see, but a great billowy ocean of grass and flowers, at
one time swelling into low hills, and at other times
dropping into broad basins studded with lakelets and
lagoons of various sizes, and broken here and there by
valleys and irregular lines of trees marking the water
•courses. The horizon only limits the view, and as far
as the eye can reach, the prairie is dotted with newly
made as well as with old established farms, and with
herds of cattle. The sweet grass, adorned with lovely
flowers, covers the land as with a carpet, ever changing
in colour according to the season.
It is in such places as this, during the dry and hot
season, that the value of the spark arrester in the
•chimney of a locomotive is most conspicuously visible,
as a prairie fire once begun may rage for days in appallingly picturesque fashion, and do immense mischief.
When in the Australian Bush, we sometimes experienced
the effects of these fires, and on one occasion which I
well remember, only saved our paddocks full of ripe
.grain from destruction, by instantly burning a belt of
grass partially round them, which of course arrested the
main body of the fire when it arrived as it had nothing
to lay hold of. In cases of sudden danger this is a very
effective method, the usual custom, however, is to have a
permanent "fire guard" belt of ploughed land around
one's farm and thus be ready for any emergency.
• After a run of some hours we reached a district where
the rich black earth of the valley had been superseded
by soil of a lighter colour, but of great value, as it extensively produces one of the best kinds of wheat, not to
mention barley, oats, rye, and  several other products. 160
The stations along the line seemed to be built pretty
much on the same plan throughout, but varying in size,
of course, to suit the requirements of the town or village
to which they belonged. The most prominent features of
many of these stations are the large circular and elevated
timber built water tanks, which prove very useful for
supplying the engines with water. These tanks are
strongly hooped, and kept abundantly supplied with
fluid by means of Wind Wheels, which, in the simplest
and cheapest manner possible, pump water into them
from wells or from any convenient natural source.
One of these steel built wheels, 35 feet in diameter,
for heavy work, is shown on next page with the pump
rods in the well broken off for convenience. For railway
tank and other similar purposes, a very simple and
inexpensive timber built structure is sufficient, a vertical
rod, such as that shown in the plate, reciprocatingly
worked by an eccentric on the overhead shaft directly
driving the pump beneath it.
When a wind wheel is not needed for pumping
purposes, its motive power may be advantageously employed on a farm or elsewhere, suitable gear being supplied by the makers for any required purpose, including
that of driving smaller machines, and also for driving a
dynamo for the production and storage of electricity.
This last named power has now become so easily and
sometimes so cheaply accessible, that it may be very
conveniently used for even the simplest operations of
a farm or a workshop, especially when within reasonable distance of suitable water power.
The driving wheels of these engines are made from
seven to forty feet in diameter, and their efficiencv may
be gathered from the fact that, with three throw pumps,
the delivery of water per hour to a height of 100 feet  with only a ten mile wind per hour, is 400 gallons for a
16 feet wheel, the similar delivery for a 40 feet wheel
being 6,000 gallons.
From this it will be seen how the waste and fluctuating energy of the wind may be transmuted, stored up,
and applied to useful purposes.
The beauty of the system may be still further
understood when it is stated that the wind wheel not
only works unceasingly by day and by night without
needing attention, but is automatically able to keep a
true position and to feather its vanes in the face of a
rising storm, its normal energy being based upon a wind
velocity of only fourteen miles an hour. Hence, may be
seen the unique capacity of this engine, which does its'
work for nothing.
Rolling still further into the west we reached Indian
Head, celebrated for its Government Experimental
Farms, and for the immediate presence of two splendid
and very extensive farms owned by Lord Brassey.
At a point 357 miles from Winnipeg, the flourishing
city of Regina, the capital of the Province of Assiniboia,
rose to view, situated in the midst of an apparently
boundless but very fertile plain. Here, new branch
lines of railway are either in contemplation or in course
of construction ; at present, however, a line branches
off at this point by way of Saskatoon to Prince Albert,
on the North Saskatchewan river. At Regina are to
be found the Government Buildings, the Lieut.-Governor's residence, and the head-quarters of the N.W.
Mounted Police—a splendid body of men who are
thoroughly drilled, and governed by the strictest military
discipline. So beneficial to the country has been the
presence of these red coated guardians of the prairie,
that even long before the advent of the C. P. R. the 163
lawlessness and violence of the Indians which once
existed practically disappeared.
Forty-one miles beyond Regina we reached Moose
Jaw, where the main line to Vancouver is joined by
another from Minneapolis and St. Paul, which provides
the shortest route between the Mississippi valley and the
Pacific.
After leaving Moose Jaw, we insensibly commenced
the ascent of another steppe, and, leaving the populated
portion of the prairies behind us, entered upon what
is essentially a district where pioneer farmers are to be
found in occasional groups, as well as the numerous
establishments of English Companies, where wheat
growing and cattle raising are unitedly carried on on a
truly gigantic scale, aided by the best machinery and
most perfect systems of management.
From this point onwards we did not see a tree for
one hundred miles, the country, however, was by no
means barren, as its wonderful growth of cereals and
vegetables abundantly testified. Hour by hour we rolled
along the line, but with little variety of scenery. Crossing the high and broken Coteau country, the Cypress
Hills appeared as a blue line in the far distance, the
gradual development of which some of the passengers
watched with great interest. Skirting their bases for
many miles, and crossing several little rivers, we reached
Maple Creek, a small town having extensive yards for
the shipment of cattle, where Indians could be seen in
all their war paint at the station. These consisted of
more or less dignified chiefs, attended in servile fashion
by their wives or squaws. We also saw their conically
shaped tents or "teepees," with gaily painted canvas
coverings, making, in combination with the adjacent
hills, a novel picture. 164
Soon afterwards we arrived at Medicine Hat, which
was named after a famous Indian conjuror, and near
which a branch line extends by way of the Lethbridge
coal mines to the Crow's Nest Pass in the Rockies, and
from thence to the mining districts of the Kootenay, and
the Southern British Columbia regions. The broad and
beautiful Saskatchewan river affords steamboat navigation for a long distance above this point, and for a
thousand miles below it, thus, not only providing a
valuable water supply, but an equally valuable means of
transport to places far distant from the main line.
As our train proceeded, we rose gradually to the high
prairie, now a rich pasture land, with lakelets here and
there, and everything to indicate that we were in the
ranch country. Here, beneath the surface, is a large
supply of natural gas which, at some of the stations,
provides engine power for pumping water, and for lighting and heating the station houses; it is now also
utilised for reducing the silver ore from the mines.
As we ran along the line towards Crowfoot Station,
and reached a point fully 100 miles from the Rocky
Mountains, their exquisitely beautiful snowy peaks became clearly visible along the whole length of the western horizon; on a very clear day, however, some of
these can be seen 150 miles off. Travelling onwards,
peaks behind peaks rose to view through the clear air,
with dark bands of forest extending in some cases up to
the snow line. The snow fields and glaciers glistened
in the sunshine, and mountain passes began to show
themselves  as  we  traversed  the countrv of  the once
t/
dreaded but now peaceful Blackfoot Indians.
The Bow river, with its tree-lined borders, was our
companion for a time, and now, crossing it by a fine
bridge, we entered a charming hill-surrounded plateau
S'H 165
containing the very prosperous and beautiful city of
Calgary, a view of which is given on page 181, and near
which is located one of the 10,000 acre farms of the
Canadian Land and Cattle Ranch Company, and which,
46 miles distant, was to be our next point of call. The
illustration referred to not only shows one end of Calgary and specimens of the little islands so frequently to
be found in some Canadian rivers, but also an extremely
popular type of Transatlantic railway and road bridge.
It further shows what may well represent a small
portion of the undulating prairie, which, in most diversified forms, gives pleasing variety to many parts of the
eountry we have just travelled over.
4v3|?/ Canadian Society.—Commencing a Farm on the Prairie—How
to Keep ever Young and Hearty and Happy — Canadians
we met — Old Country Misconceptions of them — Prairie
Society—Manitoban Lady's Letter to the Author—"The
Sons, Nephews, Nieces, and Cousins of Earls almost innumerable around us"—"Aristocratic Ladies at the Wash-
tub''—Our Experiences of Prairie Ladies—Highland Clans
wellto the Fore—Winter and its amusements—Bullock Car
Party—" Honourables " in the Laundry and Smithy, &c—
Old Country Refinements — Prairie Residences—How constructed—Furnished — Household Supplies—Work on the
Farm — Simple Methods of obtaining Water — Advantages,
of Good Irrigation—Hard and Soft Water practically considered—Incidents from Anglo-Canadian Life.
NOW come to a very delicate
and difficult part of my subject, all the more so, too,
because it affects so closely
the manners and customs of
the good people of Canada,
especially the ladies, whose
lives on the prairie may have
proved a mystery to many.
Whatever    has    already
been    said,    and   will    still
further    be    said,    in    this
volume,  my intention  is  to
make this chapter the most diversified of them all, if
possible.    A hint or  two, therefore, from  my own experience to begin with may here prove useful. 167
If you wish to keep yourselves young and fresh and
hearty, when others of your own age are getting "old '
in appearance, be always fully and pleasantly but profitably employed. Have plenty of variety in your occupations, and be versatile enough to be able to spring
from point to point like squirrels when required. Remember that the labour we delight in physics fatigue.
Banish all unnecessary worry, and every evil and unkind
thought concerning your friends, even when tempted to
misconstrue their actions, and unamiably criticise their
deeds. Do not be ashamed to fancy yourselves boys
and girls at times. Be able to converse well with the
wisest, and laugh merrily with the merriest. In theological matters run with joyous and imperial spring
upon the lines of F. R. Havergal and General Gordon,
and, similarly, keep well in touch with the Infinite, and
you will thus, in all-round fashion, be able to keep your
minds from becoming fossilised, and your bodies from
being petrified. Your features, too, instead of being
careworn, lined, and saddened, will wear a genial and
winning expression, even when things are against you.
Personally speaking, I was never more charmingly
occupied than when in the company of my dear, good
and kind lady friends of railway and steamship travel,
because I then had time to study their characteristics,
and enjoy their society. The social features of the Canadians will therefore prove, I hope, in at least a portion
of the following remarks, an attractive theme. All the
more so, too, because, while amongst them, especially
in the Far West, I read their country, and everything
about them, with my own powerful reminiscences of
Australia continually before me.
Judging by my own first opinions of the Victorians,
previously noted, and the diversified opinions of those at WKm^^mSs^SSBSBBtS^^^- ^H
■■^■■■■■IH   Wm3m&   *^*^H
168
home on things Colonial, one cannot help thinking that
there are numbers in the British Isles who have no idea
whatever of the social life and rank of some of the
.prairie inhabitants.
" Commonplace people, I suppose," remarks one
person in fashionable London society—" Uneducated
and uncouth," observes another of similar position in
Edinburgh. Whilst a third may fancy them modern
representatives of the half naked savages of pre-historic
■times, and quite beyond the pale of civilisation. Replying to these little speeches, the Happy Traveller would
say, go and see them and talk to them in their log
cabins, and dug-outs, and shacks to start with, and
handsome farm villas in course of time, and you will
soon find out your grievous mistake.
After these remarks, the reader may perhaps not be
surprised to hear that there is now most excellent
society to be found in abundance on these plains, where
people of all ranks work diligently and happily for the
success they deserve. Let me here give a few extracts
from the letter of a lady who, with her husband, has
had some years' experience of things Manitoban, and
who, in other ways, has given me most interesting
information concerning that Province, and also the
names of some of the people referred to for verification,
if necessary, but not for publication.
" We had," she says in her letter, " in our part of
the country, the sons of three earls. The nephews,
nieces, and cousins of earls were almost innumerable.
I have heard the niece of a farmer, whose father was a
general, and whose brother is an admiral, declare with
great pride that in summer and in winter, her week's
washing was folded, ironed, and mended all on a
Monday,   and   also   that   she  and   her   husband   had 169
together washed twenty-two blankets in one day ! This
was Mrs. now of .
"Another lady, who was accustomed to this work,
was  Mrs. , whose husband was an earl's nephew.
She and her husband's sisters had all, I believe, been
presented at court.    Our close neighbours were the	
of Northumberland, and I remember Miss coming
to my house with a copy of The Queen to show me the
description of her sister's presentation dress at the
Drawing Room. Amongst our other friends were two
families who had large legacies left them by English
relations. I mav add that some vears ago the heir to
an Irish earldom had to be hunted for on the plains of
Manitoba before he could be found."
Bravo ! we say to these good people, you are a credit
to your race, and not above honest labour of any kind,
for which, in the Colonies, no one, even of aristocratic
lineage, is thought of one pin the less. My own most
excellent mother, who was a daughter of an Ayrshire
county family, whose father was educated as an advocate or barrister, and a relative of many other similar
families, put her shoulders to the wheel in the Australian
bush, just as people of to-day do in Canada, and often,
even to the end of her long life, told me that some of
her happiest years were thus spent. Her cares, however, were much lightened by the aid of a ticket-of-leave
domestic servant, who was good at everything. The
same class of men helped my father on the farm, and
did well, I have reason to believe.
During the time I stopped at the Banff Hotel, I
came to know some charming people, amongst whom
was a lady from Moosomin, on the Assiniboian prairie,
who was not only most elegantly attired, but the happy
possessor of a very attractive manner—to all appearance
l one of our own Beautiful Islanders out for a ramble
in the mountains. One evening I asked her to come
outside after dinner and have a chat with me in the
belvidere, facing the lovely Bow River Valley. She
came delightedly, not knowing the overhaul to which
she was going to be exposed.
"How do you get along, Miss Wetmore, in winter?—
drearily, drearily, and nothing cheerily?' I said, for a
beginning.
"Oh no ! " she replied, "we get along much better
than you suppose. We have the good company of our
neighbours. We have sleighing, skating, curling, and
little festivities, and so on. We are quite happy thank
you." To which I remarked that "I was greatly pleased
to hear it."
Another beautiful phase of social life on the prairies,
is to be found in the representatives of at least all the
Highland Clans, who are there in great force, as well as
those of other races from other places. Would you not
feel pleased, kind reader, to have around you in these
localities the Macalisters of Boissevain, the McDonalds
of Oak River, the McKenzies of High Bluff, the McPher-
sons of Strathclair, not to mention lots of other " Macs,"
besides the Gordons, the Campbells, the Camerons, and
others of historic fame, and all of them, too, getting on
first rate in one way or other ?
So far as evening entertainments are concerned,
winter is the time when these are in full swing, just as
they are in the cities, and as many who attend such
meetings have to traverse distances frequently of
twenty miles, the phases of the moon are often carefully
studied for very practical reasons. Although the ther-
mometei may be down to 20° or 30° below zero, the
usually  calm,   crisp,   and   dry  atmosphere   exhilarates 171
those who are exposed to it, and renders them almost
proof against pulmonary complaints, which, we may add,
are hardly known. On this account people when travelling get along very nicely over the dry snow in sleighs
or on snow shoes, or by skating on lakes and rivers, or,
if a large party, in a very comfortable vehicle drawn by
horses or sometimes by a team of cattle.
Fancy one of these bullock cars drawn up at the
door of Lord Sintaluta's mansion in London on the
night of a fancy dress ball, from which a party of ladies
and gentlemen are now descending! What a stir!
What a commotion there would be all around! How
the Jeameses, and the Susans, and the Marys, and the
'Lizas, and all the rest of them in* the neighbouring
houses, not to mention the miscellaneous street crowd
which is ever present, would stare and rub their eyes in
blank amazement, wonder and surprise. The Canadians-
and the Australians, however, are so accustomed to
such scenes that, as may be readily supposed, they
hardly take any notice of them.
Most of those who live in England can hardly be
expected to know much of any of the phases of social
life on the prairie. They may even fancy that because
the Honourable Valeria Farquharson has had a very
busy and happy morning at the wash tub, and the
equally Honourable Marcus Aurelius Bellingham has
been fully and delightfully occupied with forging operations—in iron, of course—not to mention others of
lesser degree, that they must have become greatly
deteriorated in social tone.
My dear sir, or lady, what a mistake you make if
you think so ! These good and most worthy people may
be daily engaged in what at home would be termed
"menial'   pursuits, but they are nevertheless at least 172
quite as high toned in mind and manner as ever they
were, or ever will be, and ready also to occupy their
former positions among the" best in the land of their
birth whenever they choose to pay a visit to the old
folks at home.
The people just named, although strict upholders of
home etiquette in everything, are at the same time as
friendly and as kind-hearted as possible to those around
them, mere rank not counting for much in the Far West.
People are there valued for their own good qualities,
and of these none are so gracefully pleasing or so powerfully attractive as "politeness" and " amiability," which
not only win the friendship of those around one at any
time, but act as splendid passports amongst the innumerable strangers one meets when travelling. {Everybody is supposed to know this, but, as there are still a
few in the world who do not quite seem to recognise
the value of these qualifications, and who are thus
capable of unconsciously creating misunderstandings
and even estrangements which might easily be avoided,
I have taken the liberty to express my opinions concerning them.
So much for the social aspects of prairie life, now
how about the homes of its inhabitants ? Well, it may
here be said that after arrival at the selected piece of
land, without perhaps a single habitation of any kind on
it, your first move will be to commence to build one,
while in the meantime your home is a tent, excellent
weather, as a rule, aiding you considerably in your
operations. According to the nature of the locality
will be the construction of your first house, which on
treeless undulating ground will likely be a "dug-out"
or sod building, which makes a warm residence in
winter and a cool one in summer. 173
If the region is wooded, a log-built house will do
nicely, or the edifice may be built of lumber or sawn
timber in the usual finished style, that is, of house of
cards design, with weather-boarded' sides and shingled
roof, the interior being made as comfortable as possible.
If the wood is not properly seasoned, windows and
doors will shrink, planking will crack and let in the
rain, and chinks in the floors may swallow up some of
your spare 25 cent and 50 cent coins, and so, as the
barristers say when examining a witness, "be careful"*
in these matters, and all will be well.
The wall embellishments will consist of choice works
of art taken from the illustrated papers. The table will
be a box turned bottom upwards, or a trunk levelled up
to suit. Chairs ? Well, these will come in time; at
present, howrever, a piece of log or a box will have to do.
A stove, a frying pan, a kettle, and a pot will do all the
required cooking. The meals thus produced will differ
somewhat from those given at the " Windsor" of Montreal, or " Chateau Frontinac' of Quebec, but, never
mind, there is a good time coming. Groceries of all
kinds will probably come from Winnipeg in large quantities at a time, soap included, for the use of which
ablutive water may be found conveniently, or otherwise — possibly the latter, but probably the former,
according to circumstances. Lamps will have to be
used at night, which will induce that most salutary
habit of going to bed early and rising early.
The farm will want looking after as soon as possible,
fencing, ploughing, sowing, etc., being absolutely necessary to produce in due time, if proper care is taken, what
should be a successful harvest. Your kind neighbours
will be glad to help and advise you in every way, and so,
as time rolls on, you will get settled.    By thus roughing 174
it at first you will be enabled to lay the foundation of an
improved and perhaps a beautiful home, and at least a
fair share of the prosperity which, for reasons already
given, had been denied to you in the Old Country.
This, we may add, is not only the opinion of many
practical farmers and stock raisers whom I have met,
but of very many more whose reports I have read, the
secret of their success having been more or less owing to
their knowledge of what had to be done, and also of
how it could best be performed so as to enable them
to weather successfully whatever adverse circumstances
may have arisen at the outset.
It may here be well to state that although in a few
places in Manitoba water may sometimes be scarce, as
a rule a good supply is found in wells from 10 feet to 40
feet in depth. This leads one to think that if the
Government authorities would in special cases sink
wells, or otherwise help the farmers with their water
supply, for which they would willingly pay a reasonable
rent, much land might be brought under cultivation
which is now neglected.
Money thus spent in suitable localities will no doubt
prove a good investment on account of the general
benefits thus conferred. Apart, however, from the more
or less expensive mechanical methods now employed,
there are various simple means of either partially or
wholly storing up water for general use. One is by
digging basins, and by so training the snowdrifts in
winter as to create a supply of soft water when they
melt,, aided of course by the rainfall.
Another, is to dam back the water of a creek or
small stream or even a river, and thus form what may
be a spacious reservoir, which, under skilful guidance,
may be very economically used for various purposes, in- 175
eluding that of pumping into elevated tanks. Still
another, is to utilise as far as possible the intensified
depressions of small area throughout the country, which,
if dammed up at one or at both ends, as some of them
have been, would make fine lakelets which would not
evaporate so soon in a long dry season as shallow
lagoons. Here, however, there is ample scope for the
application of even a rudimentary knowledge of civil
engineering which every farmer ought to have, as a
means of increasing the value of his estate.
With the object of showing the immense advantage
of having a good water supply for irrigation purposes
alone, the following example may be given :—
A few years ago, an arid tract of country in South
California was valued at only 5 cents an acre, When
brought under irrigation, however, the price rose with a
bound to 100 dollars an acre. Still further improved,
the selling price of the land went up to 500, and then by
steps to 2,000 dollars an acre, and even at this rate
produced a 50 per cent, dividend. This was probably an
extremely favourable and most unusual case. It, however, serves to illustrate the great benefits to be derived
from the scientific application of water as a land
fertilizer, multitudes of instances of which on a grand
scale are to be found in India, Egypt, and other
countries exposed to long periods of dry weather.
In the southern portion of Alberta and the western
part of Assiniboia it is now generally recognised that
irrigation is necessary to ensure the production of grain
or fodder crops, the rainfall during the growing season
being too small to suit the ordinary methods of farming.
The aridity of these districts, while necessitating irrigation, has really helped to secure the great success which
has attended stock raising and dairying therein, the dry 176
summer seasons being almost totally devoid of flies.
This so affects the prairie grass that its nutritive qualities are retained, and stock grazing outside during the
winter are thus kept in good condition.
With excellent irrigation at hand to produce good
fodder and various other crops, ranching or dairy farming in these portions of the Territories offer many
attractions to the incoming settler who does not intend
to be a mere agriculturist. Very satisfactory developments on both of these lines have taken place during the
past few years, as the irrigation works have become so
extensive in their ramifications.
A most important point to be observed in connection
with the water supply for domestic and general purposes
is its quality, which may range from very soft to
extremely hard. The hardness of water is caused by
the presence in it, in solution, of bi-carbonates or sulphates of lime or magnesia, or both of them together,
which is at once apparent by the curdling instead of the
lathering of soap when used in washing. This is but a
small matter when compared with the extravagant
expenditure it causes on a more or less extended scale
throughout towns and communities for manufacturing
and domestic purposes. One out of many prominent
examples of this is to be found in the formation of hard
scale in the interior of steam and other boilers, which, if
not carefully removed, greatly impairs their heat conducting surfaces, and requires much more fuel to
perform a given amount of work. Besides this, the
plates exposed to a furnace are sometimes so destroyed
by overheating as to cause an explosion. Amongst the
other evils of hard water may be mentioned its sometimes very injurious clogging of the pipes through which
it flows, especially when of small diameter. 177
The advantages of soft water as a contrast to the
above may be thus stated. Hot water is obtained more
quickly and cheaply. A great saving of soap and soda
in a household is obtained. The wear and tear of
clothing is diminished. Flannels last longer, and do
not become harsh and felted. Cooking is facilitated.
From the evidence given before the Royal Commissioner,
we learn that the same quantity of tea which will make
three cups with hard water will make five with soft
water. In short, the all round advantages produced by
the use of the latter are so great that every effort—
natural or artificial—should be used to obtain them.
As a very intelligible way of showing the value of
soft water for washing purposes alone, it may here be
mentioned that by the -use of Loch Katrine water,
Glasgow saves at least £36,000 a year. The Londoners,
on the other hand, through the hardening effect of chalk
on their water, had until recently, to pay the soap
makers about £250,000 a year unnecessarily, this,
however, was a fault which is now being artificially
remedied. Indeed, so efficient has the system of water
softening from 50 up to, say, 5,000,000 gallons a day
now become, that, at a cost of one penny, sufficient hard
water may be softened to save a considerable outlay in
soap alone, entirely exclusive of the other advantages
mentioned.
On the other hand, an insufficiency of lime in water
may seriously affect the bone-producing powers of children, and amongst the poorer classes induce deformities
which might otherwise have been avoided. As an
example of this it may be stated nothing could have
have been better for domestic purposes than the Loch
Katrine water when first supplied to Glasgow about the
year 1859, which, as a then resident of that city, I had
N 178
ample means of-knowing. It was, however, the cause of
much bow-leggedness in the street children, hence we
now find that, for physiological reasons, hard and soft
water are frequently mixed. There are various simple
ways of removing the hardness from water when too
great, but to these we need not refer as they are too
drily technical to inflict upon the reader.
Amongst my most valued friends in Liverpool is the
Rev. R. F. Winter, formerly harbour chaplain in Bombay, who has not only been several times across the
Atlantic to Canada and the United States in charge of
parties of emigrants, but has gone with them by road,
and rail, and boat, and canoe, and trail into various parts
of the Far West. This gentleman, therefore, knows the
country well, and has been the means of greatly benefiting those placed under his care. He is also full of
stories of the most interesting, amusing, and useful
character concerning people with whom he has thus-
been associated.
Some years ago, when in Winnipeg, Mr. Winter met
a man who proved to be a graduate M.A. of Oxford, and
who said to him: "I came from England fancying I
could obtain some good scholastic appointment, but
without success, so I had to take the first work I could
get, as hod-carrier to a bricklayer, which is enabling me
to save a little money." Within a year this gentleman
had made his modest "pile," and bought some land,
which subsequently enabled him to do well as a market
gardener.
On another occasion Mr. Winter met, on a Canadian
railway, a friend whom he had known when in India as
an officer in a British regiment, but who had migrated
to the West on account of his children, and had become
the possessor of a large and very prosperous ranch. 179
Another of Mr. Winter's stories is that of an impoverished English clergyman's widow whose son could
not obtain employment at home, but eventually did so
in Montreal.     The whole family, therefore, removed to
that city, and actually, for want of means, Mrs.	
and her two daughters entered domestic service for a
time until they weathered the storm of adversity.
In some form or other this system of working for
one's self is constantly being practised in the Colonies
by aristocracy and gentry, college professors, university,
professional, and commercial men of all ranks, without
the slightest fear of losing caste. But then, it must be
remembered, that their manual arts, which in the Homeland would not be socially recognised, are ennobled in
the bush, or in the valley, on the prairie, or on the
mountain, by the fact that they are only used as a
means of eventually obtaining the prosperity which has
perhaps been long denied them.
In Chapter X we endeavoured to show the necessity
for people in these days learning the rudiments of
practical work as a valuable standby in the Colonies
in time of need, and as a useful accomplishment at all
times. In this chapter and elsewhere, I have shown,
to some extent, the application of a few of the practical
arts on the farm, and the benefits to be derived from
them, in the hope that useful hints may in this way
have been given to many. Calgaby, Albeeta—Off to the Mountains.—Curious Effect
of clear Air—Calgary a Trade Main Centre—Extent of
the Mountain Ranges—How Formed—Approach to the
Rockies—Magnificent Transformation Scene—Effect upon
Visitors—Bow River—Lady Macdonald in the Rockies—
Banff and its Hotel—Chief Points of Interest—National
Park and its Attractions—Society at Banff—Westward
Ho!—Lovely Morning Effects—A Sea of Vast Mountains—
On the Summit—A divided Stream—Kicking Horse Pass—
Rendings of the Rockies — Effects of Natural Forces —
Entrance to British Columbia—Breakfast at Field, at the
Foot of the Pass.
HEN I arrived at Calgary,
as mentioned on page 165,
I immediately went to the
Alberta  Hotel, which very
conveniently    adjoins    the
station.     This city is charmingly    situated    on    the
banks  of   the  ever  winding   Bow
River, which has its origin near the
summit of the Rockies.    It is also
located on a hill-girt plateau,   most  im-
pressively bordered by their snow-capped
peaks, as may be seen in the view on the next page.  182
These appear so close at hand, owing to the wonderfully clear air, although at least sixty-two miles off, that
they completely misled a visitor to the city who conceived the happy idea of having a walk to them before
lunch. Proceeding onwards, mile after mile, he never
seemed to get any nearer to them. Lunch passed over.
His friends went in search of him, and at last found him
taking off his clothes on the bank of a small stream, the
mountain distance having proved so deceptive that he
now thought he had a river to swim across.
From the nature of the country travelled over since
leaving Winnipeg, one would not suppose that Calgary
was 3,388 feet above sea level, yet so it is. It is the
centre of the trade of the Northern part of the great
ranching territory, and is one of the chief sources of beef
supply for the mining districts in the mountains beyond.
Excellent building materials abound in the vicinity, and
lumber is extensively made here from logs floated down
Bow River. From this city a branch line runs north to
the now flourishing district of Edmonton, on the Saskatchewan River. Another branch line runs south to
Macleod, thus throwing open a new and vast country,
which is annually attracting large numbers of settlers.
And besides these railways, a new C. P. R. line has
recently been opened to Vancouver, via the Crow's Nest
Pass, and the Kootenay Lakes and mining districts,
which proves a most attractive and alternative means of
going to or coming from the Pacific coast, all of which
are clearly shown on the map. Calgary is also an
important station of the mounted police, and a Government Reserve for the neighbouring Indians, besides
being the seat of various manufacturing and mercantile
operations.
It will thus be seen that Calgary is bound to be the 183
great and increasingly flourishing mountain border city
of the Far West. Here, too, as in other places, the
Hudson's Bay Company's Stores, the Bank of Montreal,
and other well-known Institutions are handsomely to the
front. Here, also, I came in for the only wet day since
leaving Montreal. Many Indians were to be seen on
horseback and on foot, who picturesquely adorned the
streets, their attire, although more or less in European
•style, chiefly consisting of brilliantly patterned blankets,
ornamented with beads, etc.
The streets of the city, which was only founded in
1884, are broad, and in the main parts adorned with
various fine buildings, but owing to the heavy rain,
those in the suburbs were more or less flooded,
especially in the deep ditches which sometimes lined
ihe wooden foot walks. I had thus a distinct object
lesson regarding the origin in old London of the ancient
and still popular custom of giving a lady the inside of
a pavement.
And now we are in for a mighty and magnificent
change of scene. Leaving behind us the prairie regions,
we head away for a short time only in the track of
ihe sun, as our course will soon become very erratic.
This will be at once apparent as the vast sea of mountains extending from the Far North for a distance of
2,000 miles to the south, and from 500 to 600 miles in
width, closes around us.
Does any one really know how these and multitudes
of others were formed ? We think not. It is believed,
however, by those who have travelled much over the
Rockies and other ranges, that when the earth was in
a plastic state, volcanic agency had longitudinally and
transversely pressed it into the corrugated form before
us, just as one might do, for instance, with the hands 184
on a tablecloth. It has, too, throughout all time, had.
much to do in moulding the surface of our planet.
This great subterranean force of nature is simply
caused by cataclysms of water rushing through internal
fissures upon the red hot interior of the globe, and
creating steam in such inconceivable quantities, and of
equally inconceivable pressure, that if no volcanoes are
near to let the mighty force escape, as with the safety
valves of steam boilers, the most stupendous and far-
reaching dislocations of the surface of the earth will be
sure to follow, of which there are many examples. In
extremely mild form, however, the working of the
volcanic machinery just described may be seen almost
at any time by those who wish to look down the crater
of Stromboli.
Soon after leaving Calgary we reached Cochrane,,
which is well within the gradually rising foot hills of the
Rockies. Here extensive ranches were passed in rapid
succession, great herds of horses and cattle, and flocks
of sheep rising to view as we rolled along. Sawmills
and coal mines also appeared, and the wide valleys
changed into broken ravines. As we approached Kan-
anaskis station, the mountains, now very close at hand,
apparently presented an impenetrable barrier. Their
bases were beautifully tinted, and their sides were
flecked with white and gold as the morning sun rose
upon them, whilst high above all, somewhat obscured by
the early morning mists in their lower parts, were
distant snowy peaks which seemed to pierce the sky.
The Kananaskis River was crossed by a fine steel
bridge from which the roar of the great Falls could easily
be heard. The Rockies now rose in great masses,
streaked and capped with snow and ice, and just
beyond the   station   a  bend in the  line  brought  the 185
train between two lofty walls of rock which form "The
Gap," or gateway to a transformation scene as sudden
and as exquisitely beautiful as the mind can conceive
or the eye rest upon. Most of the peaks we shall have
around us for a few hundreds of miles range from 8,000*
to 12,000 feet in height, some of those in the Far North,,
however, have a much greater altitude. More than that,
there is so much of a fascinating nature about them,
that one of Mr. Cook's travelling agents has declared
that, although he had seen the grandest mountains that
Norway, Switzerland, and many other parts of the
world could produce, he had never, for charming variety
and lovely atmospheric changes, witnessed anything
that could surpass in beauty the peaks and ranges we
are now endeavouring to describe.
It may be interesting for the reader to know that the
term " Rocky Mountains' is only a general expression,
as no less than four distinct titles have been given to
those we had either to cross or to pass on the road to
Vancouver. From the Gap to Golden, in the first
Columbia river valley, we rah through the Bockies by
way of Banff, the Lakes in the Clouds, the Kicking
Horse Canon, and Mount Stephen, &c. From Golden
to Donald, and on to Beaver Mouth, we passed through
the same valley on a low level. From the latter, the
Columbia flows northward with a prodigious bend, enclosing between its arms the Selkirk Bange. Soon after
crossing the Columbia at Donald, we at once entered
this range through the gate of the Beaver River, which
is a tributary of the former.
Proceeding on our way we climbed the mountains
to the summit, then, descending the other side by way
of the Great Glacier, we eventually reached Revelstoke.
Here  we  again  crossed   the   Columbia,  and   at   once 186
entered the Gold or Cascade Bange, where we traversed
a lovely part of the country, and also the shores of
the large, most irregularly-shaped and mountain-
bordered Shuswap Lake. After this, passing through
the Thompson River Canon, &c, we entered at last the
Fraser Canon, leaving it below Yale. Running now
through a rich agricultural district bordered by the
Coast Bange, Vancouver, the western terminus of the
C. P. R., was eventually reached, the whole of the course
being clearly shown on the map.'
Treating the subject more in detail, it may be said
that on passing the Gap we entered a valley of which
the Bow River was the beautiful tree-verged centre. The
first stoppage was at Canmore, near which, at Anthracite, are large coal mines which extensively supply the
country from the coast as far east as Winnipeg. Here
an observation car, which proved most useful, was
linked to the train. Passing the lovely glacier-embellished "Three Sister" peaks, we headed straight for
what appeared to be the end of our run, as the Cascade
Mountain of 9,875 feet, and the sharp cone of Peechee,
fully 10,000 feet in height, seemed to block our path.
Grandly sweeping, however, to the left, we soon found
ourselves at Banff station, after passing through a
portion of what is termed "The Mountain Park"—a
Government reservation of great beauty—26 miles in
length by ten in breadth.
We are now in the midst of scenes which, to do
them justice, would require some one accustomed to
word painting of the highest order, such, indeed, as
Lady Macdonald, who has written very beautifully and
expressively concerning them, but her remarks are so
well known that it will be needless to repeat them.
So extremely varied are the scenes which continually 187
rise to view in these regions, so clear the air, and so cut
up, distorted, hacked, haggled, wriggled, and precipiced
in every conceivable way are the mountains, and so
fascinatingly beautiful at every turn are their surroundings as well as themselves, that for hours together I
have stood on the platform of the cars drinking in those
scenes of loveliness in such a manner as to enable me
now, as they rise before me, to write about them as I
found them. More than this, with the object of accomplishing my ends as fully as possible, I obtained the
kind permission of the Company to ride on their locomotives over any part of the country I pleased.
Returning to Banff, I, immediately on arrival at the
•station, drove up with good company to the hotel, which
is about a mile distant, and here I found myself in the
midst of landscapes of rare beauty and sublimity of
which I cannot say too much.
The frontispiece shows this hotel, with the Bow
and Spray Rivers, the Bow Valley, and an amphitheatre of mountains in front, of which a portion of
Mount Bundle, of about 10,000 feet in altitude, is on
the right hand of the foreground, whilst a small part of
Tunnel Mountain is similarly placed on the left hand of
the picture. The latter has a magnificent spiral drive
seven miles long formed on its sides, leading to a height
of 5,000 feet. From this point, however, by means of a
good trail, the summit may be reached either on foot or
on horseback. So popular with travellers is this locality
that it has become a favourite resort for people from all
parts of the globe, from May 15th to October 1st, when
the hotel is closed for the season.
The principal points of interest include the Sulphur
"Springs Cave and Pool, and also the open-air Basin, both
of which possess health-invigorating properties which 188
bathers greatly enjoy; the Bow Falls; the Devil's Lake
of Minnewanka; Sun Dance Canon; the mountain side
Hot Sulphur Springs, where people variously afflicted
are cured; the Sanitarium Hospital for invalids; and
the National Park Museum, &c. Besides all these
objects of interest, science has been lavishly employed
in adding to the attractions of the district. Streams
have been bridged, and trails penetrating for miles into
solitudes have been cut, so that in various directions-
visitors may drive, ride, wheel, or walk, or fish, or shoot-
as they feel inclined. Steam launches, boats and canoes
have also been placed on the Bow River for the use of
visitors, and Swiss guides provided for mountaineering
parties. Indeed nothing has been overlooked which
could help to make this locality one of the most charming in Canada.
If I were asked which hotel I liked best in the
Dominion, I should certainly say that of Banff, and for
very good reasons. Firstly, I am a lover of simplicity
and pleasant society—ladies especially. To my mind,,
however, all the great hotels of the cities and towns,,
with their halls of columns, and stateliness, and stiffness-
are frequently so filled with people pre-occupied with
their own affairs that they are practically inaccessible.
They have their "gentlemen's' reading and writing-
rooms and halls of splendour, and if the fair ones are
thus excluded from these places they then have little-
attraction for me.
Now, at Banff there is nothing of this, since its
visitors are shut out from the world with all its cares,,
and shut in with nature in all its loveliness, and with
each other. Hence, the feast of reason and the flow
of soul have full swing, as I myself delightfully experienced.    The ladies and gentlemen entered the hoteL 189
by the same door. They sat at the same tables. The
former actually favoured those in the writing and reading
rooms with their presence. They wrote and read with
and talked to them with the greatest ease, and seemed
delighted to do it too. They unitedly formed walking,
and driving, and boating parties, etc. Instead of
wandering through a city at night, say as at Montreal,
at Banff we used to sit so cheerily, so merrily, in the
beautiful hall of polished pine, 4,500 feet in the air,
before a large log fire, and tell our stories, and spin
yarns, and laugh, and smile, and look sweetly attractive,
and then have music in the drawing-room until, regretfully, we had to retire for the evening.
Oh, my! how these dear good people mixed with and
talked with each other in the happiest manner possible,
and yet in most cases they had never met before.
People from China, and Japan, and the United States,
etc., meeting those from all other pai*ts of the world,
including the prairies, in such friendly fashion, and
leaving impressions, as they did on me, which will be
treasured amongst the happiest reminiscences of that
unique spot.
One thing which here struck me most forcibly was
the charming sympathy which existed between the
Americans and the British. At one time, genteel
Britannic people used to say of their Transatlantic
cousins—" loud, coarse, showy, vulgar in mind and
manner," etc. The return compliments being—"pompous, proud, haughty, conceited donkeys," and so on,
just because they either did not know each other
sufficiently, or did not care to do so. I met many
United States ladies and gentlemen in Canada during
my tour, and must say that those I became acquainted
with, especially at Banff, Vancouver, and Victoria, were 190
really delightful people. Three of their names are very
pleasantly remembered at this moment—Mrs. Ellis, of
Chicago, and Mrs. Macdonnell, and Miss West, of San
Francisco. Heaven's light be your guide, dear friends,,
wherever you are.
During my stay at Banff, I came in for an exquisitely
beautiful morning performance by two squirrels, who
were having some amusement on their own account.
Oh, my! it was a treat—in private view style, too. How
those lovely, bushy-tailed animals playfully raced and
chased each other with lightning speed, and in spiral
fashion, up and down a tall pine tree, and sprang from
branch to branch, instinctively knowing its strength to
bear their weight and momentum. For some time I was
fascinated by their faultless skill as acrobats of the
highest order, and brilliant, tireless energy, without-
missing a single step. Long life to their honours! One
of these squirrels, eating a melon, is shown in the initial
letter on page 137.
And now, " Westward Ho ! " must be our cry. After
the usual early morning tea and coffee service, some of
us started in the hotel omnibuses for the station, from
which, after a few minutes waiting for the train, we
departed at 6.40, this arrangement being best suited for
enabling passengers to have a daylight run through
many of the grandest parts of the mountain regions.
For a long way ahead, winding in extremely serpentine
fashion, and forming at the same time a number of
islets, was our old and welcome friend the Bow River,
until eventually lost to view.
Although the morning was hazy at first, the atmospheric effects were beautiful, but when the mists had.
rolled away before the rising sun, what scenes of
splendour sprang into view on all sides, as peak after 191
peak, sometimes of the most extraordinary formation,
and heaven piercing altitude, rose immediately as well as
distantly around us in awe-inspiring magnificence!
Everyone was on the alert in the observation and other
cars, intently watching the ever changing aspects of
what may well be termed for stony ruggedness—" The
Bocky Mountains."
During this trip, we passed the Vermillion Lakes,
and various mountain streams, broken more or less by
cascades. We left in the rear a sea of mountains, and
had another sea in front of us, including the wonderfully beautiful Castle Mountain; Mount Lefroy of
11,535 feet in height; Mount Ball of 10,900 feet; and
other similarly lofty peaks and glaciers were passed in
succession, and shortly afterwards we arrived at Laggan,
the stopping place for that delightful spot where the
Lakes in the Clouds, and also the first of the great
glaciers are seen in all their exquisite beauty.
Here I remained for a day of the most glorious
sunshine and splendour ever made, honoured by the
company of two charming English ladies. As we drove
up from the station to the Chalet, part of which is
shown in the view on page 193, we passed for two and a
half miles over a road which skirted on one side a lovely
clear green, rock-bound, and sometimes tree-bridged
stream, which formed the outlet of Lake Louise, and on
the other side a richly pine-clad mountain. Opposite the
Chalet is the precipice over which Mr. Abbott lost his-
life some years ago; the magnificent ice-covered mountains, and snow-fed lake of emerald beauty and great
depth forming, with its surroundings, a fascinating
source of attraction to travellers. After a good breakfast
we started on a walking tour, by forest trail to Mirror
Lake, and finally Lake Agnes, other emeralds of rarest- 192
beauty set in the most picturesque fashion, the heights
of all of these above sea level being respectively, 5,645,
6,550, and 6,820 feet.      Jf
As the early dinner hour was approaching we had
reluctantly to return, as we aimed at climbing another
mountain on horseback to view Paradise Valley, and
.finish off with a row on Lake Louise. In these performances we were so successful that I am sure Miss
Hitchcock and Miss Law will forgive me for here
publishing their names, when I add, that without their
delightful presence my happiness on that ever memorable occasion would have been greatly diminished.
Pursuing our course, we reached the railway summit
of the Rockies, or " Great Divide," as it is termed, at an
elevation of 5,296 feet above sea level. Here a clear
rivulet descends the ridge, and, visible from the train,
separates into two streams, one of which flows in
increasing volume towards the Atlantic, and the other
similarly towards the Pacific Ocean.
Passing onwards, the line rapidly descends for many
miles, and skirting the shore of the beautiful Wapta
Lake, enters the sublime and awe-inspiring gorge of the
"Kicking Horse Pass," where, 1,000 feet immediately
below us, is seen, as a gleaming thread, the Kicking
Horse River. Not only is the incline we are now
descending very steep and very long, but the railway
itself, as in many other places, runs on a mere shelf cut
out of a mountain side. The danger, however, is more
apparent than real, as the C. P. R. Company most carefully guards all these and similar spots in various ways,
as will be described in another chapter.
Coming down one of the grandest of canons, and
looking ahead, we discern the spires of Cathedral
Mountain,   and   above  all   Mount   Stephen,  rising   in hi
<hi
m
o
o
It,
o
►J
^4
o 194
sublimity to a height of fully 12,000 feet above sea level,'
and 8,000 feet over our heads. Up to the present we
have been in the Province of Alberta, but in a few
minutes we shall cross the frontier into that, in every
way, unique province of Canada—British Columbia—a
land of riches and enterprise of the highest order,
now being rapidly and successfully developed. Hail
Columbia! we say. Three cheers for the land of the
mountain and the flood.
What an immense field for study and reflection is
opened out for us by the presence of the mountains
we have just passed, as well as multitudes of others on
our path to the West! How the mind tries to revel
amongst the inconceivably grand displays of natural
energy which, at the creation, and, indeed, for ages
afterwards, produced such stupendous results! What
a rare good time they must have had amongst themselves in those days of yore, so much so, indeed, as to
make one almost regret not having been able to witness
them. When the dry land appeared above the surface
of the water which at first enveloped the globe, it was
no doubt forced up by volcanic agency, the plastic rock
beneath it being thus pressed into mountains of primary
shape, and similarly corrugated in some places by means
of lateral pressure.
When these had solidified, the internal forces of the
earth must have disrupted them in every possible way,
as the testimony of the rocks clearly enough indicates.
The Rockies tell us that they have been tremendous
uplifts of stratified rock, ranging from the oldest Paleozoic strata to those of the latest Cretaceous, some of
their sections, of several miles in length and thousands
of feet in thickness, having been pushed straight forward, whilst in other places they have been tilted more 195
or less on edge, and lie in a steeply slanting position*
Many sections have been bent and crumpled under
prodigious side pressure, whilst all of them have since
•been broken down and worn away until they have
become only colossal fragments of the original upheavals, as may be gathered from an inspection of
■the escarpments and cliffs. One of the best examples
•of this is to be found in the Giant Cathedral Mountain,
with its sheer precipices of several thousand feet in
height.
Besides the volcanic forces named there are others
which have had their share in moulding our scenery
into forms of beauty. These not only belong to the
:glacial period, but have existed ever since in a minor
degree, and have had a hand in embellishing the surface
of our globe. Sometimes, in breaking up coast lines;
at other times in planing down hills into prairies for
;greater usefulness, or smoothly rounding sharp-cornered
rocks, or in punching, digging, and excavating in the
most inconceivably irregular fashion, the beds of what
were to become great or little rivers, or vast or small
lakes, according to circumstances.
Good examples of these are to be found in " The
Thousand Isles' of the St. Lawrence, the 12,000
Islands of the Lake of the Woods, and that marvellous
■chain of lakes and lakelets, and their connecting
•channels, which form the unique peculiarities of Northern Ontario and Northern Manitoba, &c, as described
in Chapter VI.
When, however, we come to the mountains, we have,
from the same glacial cause, aggravated of course by
severely intensified dynamic action profound gullies, and
■creeks, and crevices, and the most rugged ruggednesses
on their sides, and  also  on the borders of mountain 196
lakes and mountain rivers, the two latter being chiefly
fed by the snow beds above and around them.
The numerous spires, and peaks, and castellated, and
cathedralled, and otherwise fantastic formations, chiefly
to be found in the Rockies, also the boulders on their
sides, have been mainly caused by the expansive action
of ice in their crevices. Thus disrupted, the mountain
tops and sides assumed in time their picturesquely
rugged, and cragged, and jagged appearance as we have
tried to explain. These remarks, it may be added,
although specially applied to the Rocky Mountain
ranges, may be extended to many other parts of the
globe, where the action of the forces involved is not
always so clearly apparent as in the scarped mountain
sides of Western Canada.
As we entered British Columbia by Mount Stephen,.
a few minutes more found us at Field Station, where a
good breakfast was awaiting us. According to the
usual Transatlantic custom, we began with choice fruit
as a foundation for what followed. This custom, we
may add, is, gastronomically speaking, a delightful one.
Physiologically, it is a useful one, as it helps to keep our
internal machinery in good order, and is therefore well
worthy of adoption everywhere, even in the British
Isles, we should think, although the system does not
seem to be appreciated. 197
CHAPTER XIV.
"Bbitish Columbia.— Clever Masterstroke of Policy — How it
affected the C. P. R. — Peculiarities of the Province —
Extraordinary Developments—Its Great Rivers—Lakes —
Cities—Climate—Scenery—Precipice Lines of the C. P. R.—
How Protected from Danger—Heading for Columbia River
Valley — Through the Valley to Donald — Planning of a
Railway through the Mountains —"Big Bend" of the
Columbia — Entrance to the Selkirks — Devil's Bridge —
Bear Creek —"Where are yer Grizzlies?"— A Giant
Incline — Great Gorges — Sublimities of the Selkirks —
Wondrous Scenic Effects — The Summit — Extraordinary
Snowfalls — Their Cause — Colossal Avalanches — Snow
Sheds—$ Sir Donald " and other Peaks—Dinner at Glacier
House.
AVING now entered
the precincts of British Columbia, or "B.
C," as it is usually
termed, let us consider its general plan
before proceeding with details. This province is not
only the largest but one of the richest in Canada, both
in the extent and variety of its resources. Resources,
too, which might have been still unknown but for a very
dever movement of its governing powers, which practically originated the C. P. R. as a Trans-continental line.
When Sir John Macdonald was striving to consolidate
m 198
the Provinces under the title of " The Dominion," B. C
kindly informed him that unless she was connected by
a railway with the civilised eastern world she would not
join the Confederation. At any rate, unless a promise
was given that the line would be commenced within two*
years from the date of joining it.
Sir John, clearly foreseeing the great benefit to the
country which would thus arise, persuaded the first
Parliament to agree to these terms. This, however, was-
strenuously opposed by many, who declared that the
projected line had not been properly surveyed, and that
its cost would be overwhelming. No doubt, too, these
good people fancied that it would be built in the massive
style of the Old Country, not for a moment imagining-
that a railway which had to cut its way through a.
wilderness, and originate a traffic for itself where none
previously existed, could be made in a comparatively
inexpensive but efficient manner to suit present requirements. Not only so, but built with such rapidity as to
make a living for itself at an early period, and thus-
quickly pave the way for future success. Sir John
eventually carried his Bill for the construction of the
line, and then, dissolving the House, appealed to the
country for ratification of his policy, which the provinces-
accordingly sanctioned, and by thus giving the Government all the aid they could, immensely strengthened
the hands of the Young Dominion.
In this manner the C. P. R. was enabled to spring-
into existence, and not only immediately benefit the
whole of Canada, but the whole world as well, owing to
its immense and ever-increasing proportions and wide
sweeping influence at home and abroad.
British Columbia has an area of about 383,000?
square  miles,   and  an  ocean  frontage  of  1,000 miles,. 199
which makes it larger than any European country,
Russia alone excepted, Vancouver Island, Queen Charlotte Islands, and a large part of the Archipelago of the
Pacific coast being included within its bounds. Its
trade is increasing so rapidly year by year that it has
now assumed prodigious dimensions, and reaches to all
parts of the civilised globe, with which, by means of
excellent steamship lines, it has established direct communication. It is the western outlet for the whole of
Canada to Japan, China, and the Far East; to Australia,
New Zealand, the Islands of the Pacific; and also to the
gold regions of the Far North.
B. C. is a very mountainous country, with intervening valleys of rich prairie, magnificent stretches of forest
lands, and splendid waterways. Its natural resources in
mines, forests, streams, and soil are numerous, diversified, and practically boundless. Its timber is unequalled
in quality and quantity, some of the most wonderful
trees in the world for size being found in this region,
notably the cedar and the Douglas spruce and Douglas
pine, for which there is a great demand.
The wooded area of the province is estimated at
285,000 square miles, and includes no less than forty
kinds of timber. Its numerous mines, now undergoing
rapid development, and its wide extent of country in
process of exploration, still further indicate vast areas
of mineral wealth. Its wide and fertile valleys exhibit
wonderful agricultural possibilities, and its waters, containing prodigious quantities of fish, combine in the
aggregate to give British Columbia a value which is now
only beginning to be thoroughly understood, and which
would have been so long ago if railway connection with
the outer world had been available.
The whole province is now rapidly wakening up by 200
means of the ever extending development of its various
resources. It offers splendid inducements to the home-
seeker whether in search of a farm or of a mine. It is
a country possessing great attractions for the persevering and industrious, and one, too, which offers many
opportunities for all classes for the investment of money.
British Columbia is rich in Bivers, as well as in
mountains and lakes. The first-named are chiefly represented by the Fraser, the Columbia, the Peace, the
Thompson, and the Stikine. The Fraser is the great
water-course of the province, and rises in the Rocky
Mountains. After running for about 200 miles in two
branches in a westerly direction, and then in one stream
due south for nearly 400 miles, it heads for the great
gorges of the western mountains. Then, passing through
the stupendous canon which bears its name, and also
New Westminster, it flows onwards, and finally enters
the Straits of Georgia after a total run of 740 miles. It
is navigable for ships drawing twenty feet of water to
New Westminster, and for river steamers to Yale, 110
miles from its mouth, and for still smaller vessels for
about 60 miles further into the interior.
The Columbia, the third largest river in magnitude
and importance amongst those of the North American
Continent, has its source near the Rockies, in the southwestern part of the province. From this point it runs
north, and after circuitously winding around the Selkirks sweeps past Revelstoke in its southern @ourse to
the lovely Arrow Lakes, through both of which it flows
to their outlet, where it is joined by the Kootenay and
other smaller rivers. Thus, and otherwise increased in
volume, it crosses the International boundary line, and
running southwards for some hundreds of miles eventually enters the Pacific.     Some idea of its immensity  202
may be gathered from the fact that, with its numerous
tributaries in Canada and the United States, it drains a
territory of 500,000 square miles in area, and for a long
distance inland is navigable by the largest ships.
The Lakes of B. C. are numerous, and sometimes as
remarkable for irregularity of shape as for beauty and
great depth. Its Cities are of the rapidly growing order,
and will no doubt soon accomplish what they intend to
perform. Its Climate is difficult to describe, as it varies
considerably according to the locality. It may be said,
however, that its seashore climate, chiefly in the Vancouver and Victoria districts, is milder than in many
parts of England, and with less seasonal variations.
And now, returning to Field, one cannot help again
referring to the fascinating Kicking Horse Canon, which
strikes west-bound travellers so forcibly because it is the
first on the programme. The illustration on page 201
gives only a partial view of the town, so that the
entrance to the pass and its adjacent peaks may be
clearly seen, the gorge and river having at this point
spread out into shallow flats. Fully fifty years ago,
when Captain Palliser, Dr. Hector, and others were
exploring these mountains, the horse of the latter fell
into the river, and whilst the Doctor was trying to save
the life of his noble animal, he was nearly killed by a
severe kick in the breast, hence the extraordinary name.
As the line from the summit falls as much as 1,246
feet in ten miles, it may be interesting to know how a
train coming down such a steep declivity on a mere
shelf cut of the sides of vast mountains, and with several
sharp curves in it, is protected from danger.
Firstly, then, all places such as this are watched day
and night by "section men," who carefully inspect every
yard of the locality, both on foot and by means of little  204
trolley velocipedes which rapidly traverse the line, and
"thus keep the path clear for every approaching train, not
one of which is allowed to proceed until the signal is
given.
Secondly, on entering a steep decline such as that of
the Kicking Horse, an extra engine is coupled to the
rear of the train, which, as well as the leader, has its
machinery reversed, the carriage brakes being severely
applied by the brakesman who is diligently on the
watch. The driver, too, never takes his hand off the
steam-valve lever, so that instant action is always available. All this time the train, at slow speed, is stiffly
rolling and partly sliding down the line until it reaches
the foot of the declivity, thus giving passengers ample
opportunities for seeing and noting this wonderful, region.
Field, in contination of our previous remarks, is
situated in the midst of lovely scenery. Looking down
the valley from the hotel, the Ottertail Mountains rise
to view on the left, whilst the Van Home Range, with
its canons, and peaks, and snow-capped heights, and
glaciers glistening in the sunshine, appear before us on
the right. In the neighbourhood may be seen, in all
their beauty, the Victoria Glacier and Hazel Peak, as
shown in the view on page 203.
Upon leaving these scenes in the rear, the glacier-
bearing heights of the Leanchoil Mountains, embellished
in their foreground with pine trees and young silver
birches, come before us in their loveliness; also the
Kicking Horse River, now peacefully meandering onwards to the Columbia, which we shall soon " strike."
Keeping in touch with the former for some distance,
sometimes crossing deep chasms, at other times piercings
rocky spurs in the mountains, we again proceeded westward.   . Quietly gliding through level park-like expanses, 205
studded with beautiful trees, and lakelets, and snow fed
streams, and with saw mills, and other industrial establishments, we soon enter a tremendous ravine whose
walls, thousands of feet in height and miles in length,
partially shut out the light. Upon reaching the mining
town of Golden, nearly 2,800 feet below the railway
summit of the Rockies, the gorge suddenly widens out,
and we see before us a jagged series of snow-capped
peaks which form a portion of the Selkirk range.
A wide and picturesque and well wooded valley
intervenes, and through this flows, in peaceful fashion,
and close to the line, the famous Columbia, with which
we have now made our first acquaintance. Truly, thia
subsequently splendid river begins well, and practically
foreshadows its future life, when the nature of the
country and the distance it has to travel is considered.
I have now before me the finest large scale Government map obtainable of that part of B. C, which extends-
from its Rocky Mountain boundary on one hand, to
beyond the Gold Range on the other, and from Ques-
nelle on the north, to the International Boundary on the
south. As this map shows very clearly and fully every
river and creek, and wagon road and railway, and lake,
and town, and district enclosed by these boundaries,
I am enabled to proceed with geographical accuracy
wherever needed.
By this map we learn that the Columbia has not
a mere creek origin like many of the others, but is-
the overflow of the closely united lakes Windermere and
Upper Columbia; one of its principal tributaries—the
Kootenay—being created by mountain fed streams in
the same locality. Through this lovely valley, with the
Rockies on one side and the Selkirks on the other,
and with the river between them all the way, we travel 206
nor'-westerly for 17 miles, until we reach Donald, from
which we proceed in a westerly direction for 11 miles to
Beaver Mouth, where we at once enter upon new scenes
of magnificence, and leave the river to pursue its long
journey alone. Here, however we must make a digression which this fact renders necessary.
The usual custom amongst engineers, in planning a
railway for a mountain region, is to take it along as
many of the valleys and river courses as possible,
because the beauty of the scenery attracts passengers,
and because it is constructively less expensive than if it
had long tunnels, and cuttings, and embankments to
traverse. Had the mountain part of the C. P. R., therefore, not been designed as it is, it might have been in
many places like the " Glenmutchkin Railway" of early
days, which, although twelve miles long, had only six
miles of tunnels. Now, however, in one sense at least,
we enter upon a change of principle.
How is it, some may ask, that this line does not, at
Beaver Mouth, continue to follow the Columbia, and
actually, by means of the most expensive works, cross
the country by a series of mountains of stupendous
altitude and overwhelming snow storms ?
The reason is easily given. It would no doubt have
been cheaper in one way to have followed the "Big
Bend' to Revelstoke, and thus open out perhaps new
sources of revenue along its banks, but, as the course by
the river is about 150 miles, and by the overland route
only 68 miles, the reader will see that, leaving primary
expenditure out of sight, the cost of maintaining the
line in good order was diminished in proportion to its
length, and—what was absolutely necessary to obtain at
all hazards for the sake of direct connection with
Vancouver—the length was greatly diminished. 207
With these facts in view, the reader will have a few
valuable hints in railroad design which may in some
way or other prove useful. Also, he or she, it is hoped,
will be all the better for having a few side lights thrown
upon the practice of accomplished engineers, which in
itself is a curious study. Practice which educates them
to look at everything from a rail spike to a mountain
pass in the keen, cutting, incisive, and comprehensive
manner by which alone any professional undertaking
can be made financially successful, and the safety and
welfare of the public ensured at every point.
Continuing our journey, we'enter the Selkirks by the
gate of the Beaver River at a point where its torrent,
surging through a deep and narrow gorge on its way to
join the Columbia, is crossed by the " Devil's Bridge "—!
a tree so thrown across the stream at a dangerous place,
that only a squirrel would dare to cross it.
Leaving behind us Six-Mile Creek, Cedar Creek, and
others as we pass up the valley, we reach Bear Creek,
which derives its name from the numerous bears which
used to be, and, indeed, are still to be found in its gully.
Here we are reminded of a story of Mr. G. A. Sala,
when travelling across the middle of the great American
prairie. On this occasion he met in one of the cars a
very dissatisfied gentleman, who wished to impress most
forcibly upon him the great difference between things as
described in guide books and as they really are.
"There ain't," he said, "no bottlin' up about me.
This overland journey's a fraud, and you ought to know
about it. Don't tell me. It's a fraud. The ring must
be busted up. Where are yer buffalers? Perhaps you'll
tell me them cows is buffalers ? They ain't. Where are
yer prairie dogs ? They ain't dogs to begin with, they're
squirrels.    Ain't ye  ashamed  to  call  the   mean  little 208
cusses dogs? But where are they? There ain't none.
Where are yer grizzlies ? You might have imported a
few to keep up the name of your railroad. Where are
yer herds of antelopes scudding before the advancing
train ? Nary an antelope have you got to scud. Rocky
Mountains, sir? Where are they? Where are yer
savage gorges? Where are yer wild Injuns? I can't
see none.    All a, fraud sir."
The Selkirks have had a prodigiously rough time of
it in days of yore, as their savagely torn, glacier scarred,
and cascade gullied sides clearly indicate. We cross
many of these handsomely steel bridged chasms on the
road to the Summit, to which the line not only ascends
from Beaver Mouth by an incline of 22 miles in length
and 1800 feet rise in that length, but is actually notched
into the precipitous mountain side for a great part of
that distance, the Beaver river being left 1000 feet
below us. Here nature has worked upon such a gigantic
scale that even the wonderfully tall Douglas fir and
cedar trees, which richly abound, seem to be dwarfed
in size.
Soon after crossing the Surprise and other gorges we
reached the Stoney Creek Chasm, which is the grandest
of them all. The bottom of this, 296 feet below the rails,
is seen to great advantage as we roll over the new steel
built bridge of one span, shown in the view on next page,
the train in transit being aided by an engine behind. So
well known to Canadians is the original magnificent
view showing the entire chasm with its river full of
cataracts steeply coming down the middle of it, also
the old trestle bridge, backed by mountain scenery,
that I have given the latest, though least comprehensive
illustration instead, for variety, and to show the line
as it  is now at this exquisitely beautiful spot.    Here  210
nature again becomes fascinatingly sublime, as we pass
through a vast and narrow ravine apparently split out
for us between the Hermit Mountain on the right and
Mount Macdonald on the left, the latter towering overhead a mile and a quarter in almost vertical height.
Proceeding onwards, we reach that once impenetrable
elevation mamed "Roger's Pass," which lies between
two lines of gigantic snow-clad peaks. That on the
north forming a prodigious amphitheatre, under whose
parapet, 7,000 or 8,000 feet above the valley, several
glaciers may be seen at once, and so near, that their
crystalline fissures are clearly visible. Under certain
atmospheric conditions, the changing effects of light and
shade upon this cyclopean picture gallery of mountains
can never be forgotten by the fortunate traveller who has
witnessed the sunset or sunrise magnificently tinting
their snow clad heights, or seen them exposed to the
influences of storm and cloud. Some idea of this grand
range may be obtained from the view of the Heart of
the Selkirks on page 211.
A run of three miles from this point lands us on the
railway crest or "summit," at a height of 4,300 feet
above the sea, after passing over, for the last 16 miles,
one of the most impressive tracts of line to be found in
the world, owing, not only to the extraordinary conditions of the country, but to the climatic and other
obstacles which have been so successfully overcome. So
heavy was the incline in some places that we required to
have two engines in front and one behind to help us
slowly up to the top, through show-sheds at intervals,
men being stationed night and day at quarter mile
distances from each other to keep the line clear from
snow and stone avalanches which might unexpectedly
come down.  212
It may here be asked why are these sheds not found
in the Rockies, which seem to need them quite as much
as the Selkirks ? The reason is simply this. Physical
as well as atmospherical influences existing in the latter
have helped to produce an extraordinarily heavy fall of
snow during the winter season, the heaviest recorded
being one of 35 feet in height on their summit in the
years 1886 and 1887. Eight and a half feet fell in six
days, and for about three weeks snow was Jailing continually, consequently slides were very numerous. The
warm Chinook winds from the Pacific, and the winter
rains, followed at times by frost occasionally 30° below
zero, made the snow extremely heavy. Avalanches of
this nature, almost as hard as ice, irresistibly came
down the mountain sides, charged with trees and rocks,
thus greatly imperilling any railway which might be
exposed to their destructive effects.
Cutting a series of tunnels would not only have been
a very extensive and expensive, but a very slow and
unnecessary operation. The C. P. R. Company, moreover, wished to make these mountains one of the show
places of the world, and also to " boss " that show with
all the enterprise, and economy, and safety they possibly
could. The skill of their engineers was specially called
into play, and in this manner the snow-sheds were
originated, but how they were so cleverly planned and
carried out will be shown in Chapter XVI.
On our journey down from the Summit we pass the
great pyramid-capped Cheops, and the immense snow
and ice covered Ross Peak. Close to us is the deep valley
of the Ulicillewaet River, " Sir Donald," the monarch of
all in height, as well as the Great Glacier Mountain, and
many others rising in front, and shortly our train will
stop at Glacier House Hotel for half an hour.  214
The hotel, station, and other buildings, backgrounded
by a dense forest, as shown in the view on last page, are
typical of the numerous prairie and mountain edifices
of similar nature throughout the land. Not only are
these of cheap, rapid, and efficient construction originally, on account of the abundant facilities for obtaining"
suitable timber, but when much larger and finer buildings are required through the great expansion of traffic,
they can be very easily removed. This locality is a-
favourite visiting one for tourists from all parts of the
globe on account of the extraordinary beauty of its-
surroundings, which have only to be seen to be fully
appreciated; 3ome of the finest mountains we have
passed, besides others to follow, ^being visible, and in
some cases accessible from it.
With a very excellent and welcome 14*30 dinner
in view, after the long sustained occupation of trying
to learn the geographical and physical features of the
country just travelled over, we end this chapter, the
dehghtful records to which it refers being continued on
next page. 215
CHAPTER   XV.
End of the Selkirks—Kootenay Gold Eegion.—The Great
Glacier—Curious Convolutions of the Line—Albert Canon—
Vast Mountains and Gorges again—Revelstoke—Vice-regal
Cars at Station—Luxury of Transatlantic Travel—Off to the
Kootenay Region—The lost 18,000 Mile Season Ticket-
Fine Fix!—What next?—Arrowhead—Down the Lakes
to Robson — Vice-regal Party returning—Lovely Lake
Scenery—Robson to Rossland—The Mountain City—Its
Gold Mines—Their Prosperity—Reception of their Excellencies—Authoritative Opinions of the District—The Episcopal Church—Nelson, another Mining Centre—Slocan
River and Lake—Stern Wheel Steamer—Skirting a Colossal
Precipice—A Mountain Tragedy—Silver Mine City of
Sandon—Return to Revelstoke—Recent Innovations.
HE sublime region of the Selkirks,
to which we have just referred,
contains one of the wonders of
Canada—the great Glacier—which,
with its attendant heaven-piercing
" Sir Donald," at once absorbs our
close attention, the distance to the
foot of the former being only about two miles from the
station. This Glacier, measured over the summit, has a
length of nine miles, only about four of which are visible
from the line. Its depth in the middle, as estimated by
eminent Alpine travellers, is from 3,000 to 4,000 feet,
the fall of snow from year to year being from 40 to 45
feet. Hence, it will be seen that, were it not for the
rugged and slide resisting bed upon which it lies, there
might, long ago, have been an absolutely overwhelming 11
catastrophe, if there had been any town at its base to
be destroyed.
Continuing our journey, we at once enter upon a
very curious performance, which can only be seen to
perfection in lofty mountain regions. " When I was a
lad," in Edinburgh city, I frequently sailed sloops and
schooners in a lake at the foot of the neighbouring
cyclopean quarry of Craigleith. So precipitous were its
sides, and so profound its depth, that its bottom could
only be reached by means of a series of zig-zag wagon
roads, which alone enabled carts, etc., to pass up and
down. We have now entered upon a somewhat similar
system of transit at the famous " Loops," so-called
because, owing to the line dropping suddenly 600 feet in
two miles of direct distance, a six mile length of the
most extraordinary curves and bends became necessary.
By this method, the natural slope of the line was
reduced from 1 in 17J to 1 in 52}, thus forming a highly
successful piece of apparently impossible engineering.
These 'picturesque novelties we delightfully passed
over, and at last reached the bottom of the valley of the
Illicillewaet River, the source of which lies in the Great
Glacier. As we wound about this valley, the colossal
peaks already named gradually disappeared, others in
the meantime looming in front. We next ran through
several profound fissures in solid rock, the walls of
which rose some hundreds of feet above us on both
sides. Then came the Albert Canon, where the river
just named is seen nearly 300 feet immediately below
the railway, now compressed into a raging torrent of
only twenty feet in width. So much interest is attached
to this spot, that trains stop here for a few minutes to
enable passengers to view the locality.
Heading again in serpentine fashion for Vancouver, 217
gigantic mountains are passed. The western base of the
Selkirks is approached. The narrow valley becomes
another very precipitous gorge through which the railway and the river just find room. Beyond this, the
line emerges into a comparatively level, and forest-
eovered space, and then, giving one grand swing to the
right, lo! Bevelstoke, the western gateway to the now
rich, and prosperous, and magnificently picturesque
Kootenay gold, silver, &c, mining region rises to view.
So also does our old friend the Columbia River, looking
all the better for his long tributary-aided travel from
Beaver Mouth, where we last saw him. "Hail Columbia ! " we again say.
Here the Happy Traveller landed for the night, with
the object of doing, for the next few days, a little of the
■"Chiel" business in one of the most exquisitely attractive mining districts of British Columbia, to which great
attention is now being paid.
At Revelstoke I had the pleasure of meeting Mr.
Duchesnay, the Commander-in-Chief of the C. P. R. in
that district, to whom I am much indebted for kind
assistance. I also had the honour of overtaking the
Governor General's car, which, all the way from Ottawa,
I found at various points of landing, had left from one
to two days in advance of me, and which clearly showed
that I had made a good selection of stopping places.
On the morning after arrival, whilst viewing the
exterior of this car, the officer in charge kindly invited
me to inspect the interior, which I found fitted up in
splendid style throughout. In short, the whole car was
a miniature Government House on wheels, as far as very
limited space would allow. On the drawing room table
was a large collection of letters and papers awaiting
their Excellencies'  return from the  Kootenay region, 218
which they were then visiting. These packets seemed to
indicate that, although a Viceroy may be absent on what
is supposed to be a holiday tour, his friends, far and
near, conclude that his chief delight is to be fully
occupied.
A beautiful feature of Transatlantic travel is the extremely handy manner in which one or more cars may
be provided by a railway company to suit a varying
number of people for a tour of any desired length, either
for days or weeks together, and over, it may be, the
whole continent of America and Canada. In this respect there is practically no limit either in time, distance, or magnificence. A millionaire, or indeed any
person rich enough, for example, may possess a private
car fitted up in regal splendour for his own use at any
time. Independently of this, however, any party of
people may engage one, the name of which may be
Seringapatam, or Massilia, or Heliogabolus, &c, and
with their own servants and provisions, and sources of
pleasant occupation, musical, artistic, and otherwise,
traverse the whole of the New World by stages of any
length, temporarily lying, as desired, in railway sidings
for local exploration purposes. Indeed, a great Railway
Company may thus complimentarily treat its friends, as
the New York Central and Hudson River Railroad proprietors did for a large party of ladies and gentlemen I
met in the Rockies. A more delightful way of travelling
it is impossible to conceive.
After leaving my card on the Governor General's
table, I retired in time to catch the morning branch
line train to Arrowhead, on my way to Rossland and
other cities in the Kootenay region. . Here, however,
a very unpleasant incident happened which damped my
happiness considerably for a time. 219
Before departure from Montreal, I obtained a first-
class season ticket, which gave me the unrestricted
oommand of the whole of the C.P.R. travelling resources
of Canada, or, going and coming, of 18,000 miles. This
ticket was not only commercially valuable, but it saved
me all trouble at booking offices, and enabled me to stop
anywhere I pleased, and for any length of time I liked,
or to be on wheels straight ahead by night and by day
for three months if desired, ^k
When about three miles out from Revelstoke, the
conductor came to me when standing on the outside
platform, and asked me to show my ticket, as usual.
Whilst, however, returning it very carefully to my
pocket, a sudden jerk of the carriage and blast of wind
combined whisked the card on to the line below as we
rolled along at forty miles an hour. Fine fix to be in,,
with my Saratoga lying at the station I had just left!
Mr. Ogilvie sympathetically said—"Very sorry
sir; can't be helped; the best thing you can now do
is to pay your way until you reach Mr. Beasley, our
representative at Nelson. Keep all receipts for payments, and Mr. Coyle, at Vancouver, will refund your
fares. In the meantime I shall get the ticket cancelled,
and keep a look-out oh the way back, and if the wind
has not blown it away, I shall find it, and get Mr..
Duchesnay to send it to you."
Probably, at Montreal, 2,550 miles distant, this
incident was known in an hour afterwards, as the Head
Office people there know everything that goes on all
over their lines with wonderful rapidity.
Soon after arrival at Arrowhead, at 9.30, I left by the
stern wheeler of the same name for Robson, about 160
miles down the Arrowhead lakes. The day was magnificent.     The  scenery  exquisite.    Pleasant people, too,. 220
were around me, but the event of the morning aggravate gly haunted me, as it was a silly performance on my
part to show such a ticket outside, when I ought to have
been inside the car. Near Nakusp, the vice-regal party
approached in the steamer Bossland, and passed us so
closely that I could easily discern the handsome figure
of Her Excellency on the upper deck, and of course
waved my hat as gracefully as I could under the circumstances. At the same time, I wished that the party had
returned to Revelstoke the day before, as I was afraid
the wind of the Viceroy's train, in full career, might blow
my ticket into permanent obscurity, if not there already.
Canada, as previously remarked, is a land of rivers,
and lakes, and mountains, in the highest sense. Nothing, however, can exceed for beauty the twin lakes we
are now sketchily describing. They partially fill up
a tremendous chasm, with lofty, snow-capped mountains
on both sides, the scenery all the time changing as we
wound about over sometimes very deep water. The
Columbia followed us from Revelstoke to Arrowhead,
and was now smoothly flowing through these lakes to its
outlet at Robson, where, stoppages included, we arrived
after an eleven hours' sail, and found a train waiting for
us close alongside the steamer.
In a few minutes we were off to Trail—23 miles distant—the course being a very gentle decline, since all
the way we had the company of our old friend, now wider,
and deeper, and clearer than ever, and just a few miles
from the International boundary line which it eventually crosses. Here, too, its volume was greatly in-
ereased by the waters of that large and beautiful river
the Kootenay, which had now made a long tour through
the country. From Trail to Rossland, a distance of
only seven miles, we had to climb a vertical height of 221
about 1000 feet, by means of a series of steep slopes and
zigzags, and curves of extraordinary nature. At Trail
the zigzags were really what their name implies, without'
any end curves, for want of space, the engine merely
pulling and pushing the train as required for each
incline, until we reach the high level. It may be added
that the whole of this region can now be more directly
reached than formerly, by the Crow's Nest line, which
has since been opened.
Upon arrival at Rossland I went direct to the Hotel
Allan, and after breakfast had a general survey of the
locality. From this I discovered that the Mining capital
of Kootenay was picturesquely built on the side of a
mountain which showed it to great advantage, its primitive looking streets already heading fast for modern
improvements of the latest and best description. The
Rosslanders were evidently quite as go-ahead in their
ideas as in most of the western cities of Canada, which
was clearly indicated by the fact that in 1894 the future
City of the Mountains was a mere camp, and that in
January, 1898, its population had not only become 8,000,
but was rapidly increasing.
Since, from the hotel, I could easily see two of the
most famous gold mines in the district—the "Le Roi,"
and the "War Eagle"—and as my main object in
visiting Kootenay was to. learn as much as possible concerning its mining operations for the benefit of my
readers, I went up and interviewed their people. From
the managers and others I learnt that their works were
in a flourishing condition, and that, having long passed
the experimental and vacillating stages, had now settled
down to steady, profitable, and increasing outputs, notwithstanding the fact that all the ore had to be quarried
in a pit and hauled to the surface, as with coal mining. 222
"This made working expenses much ^heavier ] than at
places like Klondike, &c, where the gold was obtained
hy merely Washing and examining the gravel.
The Nelson people told me, when I went to see
them, that Rossland was doing well, but that their silver
and copper mines were also very successful. Whilst
the Sandon authorities spoke out clearly upon the silver
-question, and said that they did better than Rossland,
because they obtained much more metal with considerably less trouble, and so on.
Besides the above named mines, Rossland possesses
many others close to the town and also to its railways.
'These include the "Centre Star," the "Columbia," the
:"Kootenay," the "Monte Christo," the "Virginia," &c,
all of which were said to be more or less prosperous.
Their Excellencies had, I found, been invited to a public
luncheon at "The Allan" only two days before, and
otherwise enthusiastically received. They had also been
shown round the town and its various mines, down one
of which—the "Centre Star"—His Excellency was
taken on a visit of inspection. In the course of the
afternoon, Lady Aberdeen delivered one of her charming
lectures in the Opera House, which greatly delighted her
audience, and gave a splendid opportunity for the ladies
•of Rossland to appear to the best advantage.
The various festivities were also largely attended by
the most prominent people of the district, and many
excellent speeches were given, and much authoritative
information supplied upon local subjects. Lord Aberdeen, too, made some very felicitous remarks, amongst
' which, he referred to the magnificent scenery of the
Kootenay, which he had not seen equalled anywhere in
his travels throughout the world. He finally remarked,
ithat both Her Excellency and himself would carry with 223
iihem to England the fondest recollection of the people of
Canada, and of the manner in which they had been
received everywhere.
The newspapers gave full accounts of the various
speeches, and as I also obtained the most authoritative
and favourable information from Mr. W. A. Carlyle, the
-Government Surveyor of mines, as well as from many
others, I could only come to the conclusion that what
•every one said must be true.
On the Sunday morning I went to the little wooden
Episcopal church, which has since been superseded by a
stone-built edifice. The church itself was a model of
simplicity, and its service not only equally so, but
hearty and inspiring as wTell. So much so, indeed,
that I infinitely preferred it to the too often gorgeously
.arrayed ones at home, to which I need not refer. On
the whole, I was much pleased with the Canadian
churches generally, so far as I could see of them in
a limited time, and have, therefore, much pleasure in
wishing them all prosperity.
Some of my Britannic readers may ask—" How
about the ladies in that out of the way City of the
Clouds?' Well, they are just like yourselves, quite as
nice looking, quite as elegant in style of dress, and, to
my mind, quite as attractive as many I have seen in
the great cities.
On the day after my arrival at Rossland, I received a
telegram from Mr. Duchesnay, at Revelstoke, saying
that my "ticket had been found—where was it to be
sent?" .  . ■ 1 |     ||§.     I    ■
"Mr. Beazley, Nelson," I replied, and so with this
fact in view, I afterwards left for that city, simply by
rolling down hill in the train to Robson, from which
jpoint  another   line   carried us up  the  banks  of   the 224
Kootenay River, to the beautifully situated city of
Nelson, which immediately adjoined a portion of the
Kootenay Lake. This town is the seat of the Government of the district, and is capable of considerable
extension. The city engineer, however, will have to
exercise his skill pretty freely in street building and road
carrying—as at gullied Rossland—and keep the ladies*
portion of the pavement from becoming the most
dangerous. Here I met Mr. Beazley, who not only
handed me my lost ticket, but kindly put me in the
way of meeting all the more influential people of the
locality.
Upon leaving Nelson we passed along the banks of
the lovely Slocan River to Slocan City, at the foot of
Slocan Lake, and, after a brief interval, started by the
swift stern wheeler Slocan for Rosebery, a considerable
distance up the lake. The scenery was again exquisite,
and, passing close to a bold shore line, I learnt that we
had 800 feet of water below our keel.
Some idea of the lake scenery in this district may be
gathered from the view on next page of the neighbouring
Okanagan Lake, with the stern wheel steamer Aberdeen
in the foreground. This is an extremely useful type of
small-sized vessel, as she can run head foremost into
any kind of lake or river bank, and take in passengers
by means of a plank, or with ease cross stern foremost a
shallow water sand bar, as the surging water from the
wheel lifts her over it, and, amongst her other qualifications, can tow alongside at good speed, barges, boats, or
anything else, indeed, that comes handy.
After a few stoppages we reached Rosebery, where a
train was waiting to carry us up to Sandon, 3,000 feet,
above sea level. " Pon my wor-r-d! " or " Oh my /" I
thought, with another Bear Creek gully in front of us  H
226
as we proceeded, this is a land of mountain railway
climbing, and no mistake! Some idea of the wildly
precipitous nature of the district may be gathered from
the fact that a portion of the adjacent Kaslo and Sandon
railway skirts for some distance the edge of a precipice
whose depth is 1,050 feet, which, one would think,
is enough to satisfy even the most exacting travellers.
Shortly after leaving Rosebery we reached the place
where the conductor of the preceding train had stopped
it, so that he might shoot a bear which appeared close at
hand, the dead animal being immediately taken on
board. This little incident suggested the following
" lines," which are intended to express the feelings of
the rifleman the moment before the fatal shot.
"I know full well"—he said,
" The bears are dying out,
And passengers too often
Do worse than sneer and flout.
So now, I'll fire my gun,
And cause 'em all to shout,
Since thus, the world will know
These beasts are still about."
He smartly raised his gun,
The bear turned quickly round,
Winked at him—sneezed—Yel-l-ld,
And fell upon the ground 1
w
After passing many points of absorbing interest along
the line, which, in some places, was richly bordered by
splendid cedar trees, we arrived at Sandon, where I
spent the night at the Hotel Reco, which was a much
better one than might have been expected, considering the isolated nature of the district. Here, also, we
found silver mining in a highly prosperous condition, and
promising well for the future. 227
The position of Sandon is peculiar, as it lies in a
gully between two mountain sides, where the mining
operations are chiefly conducted, its picturesque beauty
being considerably enhanced by the presence of a river
in its midst which also proves useful. Some idea of the
position of the residential parts may be gathered from
the fact that, in order to avoid a long and rugged trail,
they have in many cases to be climbed to by means of not
less than one hundred steps before they can be reached.
Shortly before the time of my visit, the future city
had been founded by means of a few miners' huts, and
yet so rapidly had it advanced that its population had
already become about 1,500. Here, however, only the
best systems of work were employed.
On the return trip we again headed for Rosebery,
continuing our journey by rail to Nakusp, on the Upper
Arrow Lake, where we joined the steamer Bossland on
her wav to Arrowhead, at which in due time we arrived.
The felicities of this voyage were greatly enhanced by
the company of Mrs. Milloy, the wife of Dr. Milloy, of
Sandon, and Mrs. Charman, of Nanaimo, Vancouver
Island, both of whom had plenty to say, and said it well,
too.
When on the line to Revelstoke I discovered that
Mr. Ogilvie, the conductor of the return train from
Arrowhead on the day I lost my ticket, had actually
found it between the rails where it fell. Truly, these
C. P. R. officers are very clever, no matter what they
take in hand. It may be added, that nothing could have
exceeded the kind courtesy and attention I received from
all classes of them throughout the country, which, apart
from all other considerations, have, no doubt, greatly
enhanced the attractions of the line, and made it what it
well deserves to be—a health resort for all, and especi- 228
ally a source of cheerfulness for the "Glum Grums" and
" Squirmies" of society, if they will only allow themselves to be thus influenced.
Soon afterwards, I started for the still further west,
and, crossing the Columbia, passed at once from the
Selkirk Range into the Gold Range of mountains, which
were to be amongst our next objects of interest. As
engineers are trained to make their statements in mild,
true and faithful, and diplomatic language, I am afraid
that some may think my descriptions of the Rockies and
the Selkirks much too tame, let me here, therefore, give
a quotation from an American source regarding the
Columbia River Valley to only a small portion of which
reference has been made.
1 The Rocky Mountains wall it on the east, and the
mightiest ocean of earth laves its western shores for
nearly 1,000 miles. It has snow-capped peaks, whose
summits pierce the clouds to bathe in everlasting sunshine. Plains, whose limitless expanse suggests Infinity
laid flat. Lakes, blue as the sapphirean skies that smile
to see themselves so beautifully mirrored in their
crystalline depths. Rivers like rolling oceans in magnitude and majesty. Far stretching forests, whose lofty
tree-tops sweep the cobwebs from the heavens. Canons
that rank among the world's abysmal wonders," and so
on, in more or less poetic language.
The very recent opinion, however, of my good friend,
the Rev. Dr. Watson, of Bonnie Brier Bush fame, is
perhaps as near the truth as possible when he says—
"As we passed through the Selkirks and Rockies, so
marvellous are the works of nature in this region for
grandeur and beauty, that my wife and I have both
agreed that nothing we had seen in Switzerland could be
for one moment compared with what awaits the traveller 229
between   Vancouver   and   Calgary   on   the   Canadian
Pacific line."
It may here be added, that so attractive have these
regions now become, that the C. P. R. Company have
lately introduced two novelties. One of these is the
employment of Swiss Bernese guides to take charge of
mountaineering parties, in which they have already
distinguished themselves. The other being the inauguration of the "Imperial Limited," or Flying Mail Train,
by means of which the time on the journey from
Montreal to Vancouver has been reduced from five days
six hours to 100 hours. A Sunday train has also been
compulsorily employed during the summer to relieve the
traffic which on Monday would otherwise be overcrowded with passengers from Europe.
<^Jy M ft
CHAPTER XVI.
Mountain Featuees op Canadian Pacific Railway—More
Peculiarities of B.C.—Fascinations of the Line—Its Construction—Unexpected Difficulties—Colossal Trestle, &c,
Bridges—Crossing an awful Chasm—Curious aspects of
Pile-driving—Mountain Railway Experiences—Crossing the
Selkirks—Difficult Surveys—Snow Shed Protection—Gigantic Avalanches—Their Cyclonic Disturbances—Methods
of Guarding the Line—Rivers in Flood—Wonderful Engineering Performances—Eagle Pass of the Gold Range—
Last Spike of the C.P.R.—Shuswap Lake—Sicamous—A
London Solicitor's Enterprise—Off to Vernon—Lord Aberdeen's Fruit, Hop, &c, Ranch—Their Excellencies at
Home—Manager's opinion of the Farm—Great Capabilities
of B.C.—Its Exquisite Beauties.
S the Canadian Pacific
Railway bristles
with engineerin g
peculiarities, sometimes of the most
fascinating nature,
it may be well, in
this chapter, to refer
to a few of them.
Especially when it
is considered that,
but for the highly
skilful manner in
which the various difficulties were overcome, the line
would not only have been greatly delayed in construction, but hampered with enormous cost. 231
To many, the subject may appear dry-as-dustily
deterrent, because it is so often treated in such a technical and learned style that few, indeed, can understand
it, or even care to study it. I must, therefore, be very
simple in my remarks, and try to infuse into them a
little interest for general readers.
The leading feature of C.P.R. engineering is the fact
that it differs very much from ours, the design and construction of the former having been of the simplest and
least expensive nature, whereas the latter has been
improved, step by step, as its traffic overwhelmingly
increased, until it has now practically reached "last for
ever," solidity and strength. When it is considered that
previous to the year 1886, the whole of Canada, west of
Ottawa, was an almost untrodden wilderness, out of
which cities had to be sprung, and trade and commerce
originated, then will be seen the wisdom of designing a
line which would be cheap enough, and good enough,
and quick enough of application under existing circumstances, leaving improvements and extensions to be
introduced in due time as required.
To an " old hand," like myself, the study of this
railway, from a professional point of view, as we rolled
along, proved most attractive, as the movements which
individually and collectively produced the results which
were clearly visible on all sides could be so easily
interpreted. The general inspection of the line showed
that, with the exception of the Lake Superior district,
there was hardly anything special to note in its construction, except the absence of the tunnels and embankments with which we are in this country so familiar.
When, however, we entered the Rockies, and began to
climb the mountains, we at once came in for peculiarities of line formation which are unknown in the British 232
Isles. Peculiarities, too, of such a marked nature that
at one time no less than 35,000 men were necessarily
employed in the two districts just named. It may be
added that the pictorial initial of this chapter may well
be allowed to represent a natural and most extraordinary rock bridge over a stream in the Rockies.
Whatever may happen to a railway during construction, its bed must be made so rigid in its foundation
from the beginning that no sinking at any point or at
any time must take place, for obvious reasons. In spite,
however, of all that can be done to avert mischief of
this nature, it will occasionally happen from unforeseen
causes. Indeed, we may say, that between sudden
depressions in a road bed which could not be avoided,
and earth slides which were not desired, and quicksands
which aggravated every one, and the presence of rock or
water where it was not expected, and slushy, mushy,
disintegrated strata which were most objectionable, and
so on, the contractors and engineers have often had an
exceedingly rough time of it.
Owing to the presence of enormous quantities of
suitable timber in Canada, this material is used most
extensively in the construction of railway foundations,
and in every other possible way, including the formation
of timber trestle viaducts instead of earth embankments.
Its great value on a world-wide scale may be shown by
the fact that the city of Venice is built chiefly on
piles, not to mention other cities whose foundations are,
to some extent at least, similarly constructed when
located on bad ground. In the formation of docks,
timber is invaluable, sheet piling being largely used for
the purpose of enclosing water areas which have to be
pumped dry, or tidally allowed to run dry, so that the
works can be proceeded with. 233
Square piling is used most extensively in all sorts of
wooden piers, wharves, etc., and in trestle, etc., bridges
spanning sometimes awful gorges, some of which have
been named, and which had thus to be primarily treated
for the sake of cheap and rapid construction. Owing,
however, to the recent great increase in the traffic on
the line, these timber bridges are being rapidly superseded by those of steel, as the latter are not only of
greater relative strength, but fire-proof, which is most
desirable.
The scientific aspect of pile driving is a complicated
one, experimental data being alone trustworthy, the
theoretical reasoning on this subject, as given in
technical literature, having occasionally been so complex
as to puzzle and even mislead some of the best engineers. In these, as in other respects, responsible
professionals are extremely careful, always bearing in
mind that whatever wonderfully clever though sometimes abstruse formulae may prompt them to do, Theory
only holds the light—sometimes a very dim one—so that
Practice may do the work.
Some idea of the obstacles which sometimes beset
the construction of the C.P.R. may be understood from
the fact that, in many places, the trestle bridge piles
were not only sunk into lakes of various depths, but also
through a soft, peaty bed, often from fifty to seventy
feet in depth, and of such a treacherous nature as to
give to all concerned an immense amount of trouble, and
even occasionally cause unavoidable deviations from the
true course of the line. Other difficult and most useful
examples of timber construction are to be found in the
snow sheds of the Selkirks, by means of which the most
costly tunnelling was avoided. The manner in which
the work was performed will be partially seen in the 234
view on next page of one of the sheds on the side of a
lofty mountain, the winter track being inside, whilst the
outer one is kept for summer use. These are admirably
designed, and strongly built in every respect to suit the
end in view. A special feature of their construction is
the sloping of the roofs of the various sheds to line fairly
with the mountain side, so that when an avalanche
comes down upon it, it merely glides off, and,- with the
noise of thunder, falls into the valley below, if there is
one at hand. In this case, we have a valuable application of a well-known law of nature.
During the time that the Union Pacific railway of the
United States was being pioneered over the Rockies to
San Francisco, it was discovered that the snowfall was so
great in some places as very frequently to block the line
altogether, and hence, engineers had to be stationed in
dug-outs in the mountains for three winters with the
object of discovering the points least exposed. When
this was satisfactorily accomplished, the line was
partially deviated.
In the Selkirks, where the snowfall is sometimes
overwhelming, there is much to be considered in this
respect, and, therefore, the engineers had not only to
take extremely careful and laborious surveys of the
locality, during which they were sometimes either half-
starved or half-frozen, but, in addition, to study for
years the various peculiarities of these snow-bound
regions before anything could be done. In this manner,
the best positions for the snow sheds were fixed.
Further spots requiring these erections were found out'
from time to time, so that fifty-six sheds have now been
built, the total length of which is seven and a half miles,
exclusive of frequent breaks in their length which spread
them out considerably.    These open spaces isolate each  236
shed in such a way as to act as most efficient fire-guards,
and at the same time give variety to the passengers.
It may be asked how these unprotected spaces are
kept free from snow in winter? Here, again, the skill of
the engineers comes well to the front, as they designed
massive "glance works" of timber on the immediately
adjoining side of the mountain. By means of these an
avalanche on its descent was so diverted from its course
as to pass harmlessly over the sheds, instead of perhaps
filling up the open space between them. In addition to
this, the walls of these sheds have been made partially
open on the valley side of the line, which not only
admits considerable light to their interiors, but allows
glimpses of the country as the train rolls onwards.
Some idea of the extent and nature of these snow
slides may be gathered from the fact that they vary
from those of small size and slow speed on a gentle
slope, to the swiftly rushing and overwhelming avalanches which sometimes have been known to contain
as much as about 190,000 tons of ice, snow, rocks, and
trees mingled together in the most extraordinary
fashion. When, too, it is considered that the first
movement of these slides may arise on the top of a
mountain from 4,000 to 5,000 feet above the line, which,
on steep declivities will rapidly cause them to gather
volume and momentum, and create at the same time, by
their swift passage through the air, severe local cyclones,
the unique grandeur of the scene may well prove fascinating to those who Witness it in safety.
So well guarded, however, is the line at every point
of danger that stoppages in\ these regions, which used to
delay passengers for days together, have now been
reduced to only a few hours even at the worst.
Amongst the serious perils to which mountain rail- 237
way passengers were until recently exposed, may be
mentioned those due to rivers which had been greatly
swelled by heavy rains and melted snow. Modern steel
bridges, however, have abolished all these dangers, as
they are frequently made to cross a river in one span,
which is an immense improvement.
In concluding these brief remarks upon the Canadian
Pacific Railway, I cannot help alluding to the exceedingly varied nature of the work, and the admirable
manner in which it has been executed, even in its
primitive stages, and still more so in recent times,
when amendments all along the line, and especially in
the mountain regions, have become general. To the
engineers who conducted those works, the study of
their frequently most perplexing requirements must have
proved fascinating, as they involved so much of an
unusually difficult nature, and also on account of the
valuable experience thus obtained. To myself, they
were highly instructive, and at all times a source of
more than pleasure, as we rolled over bridges of every
size and of every kind, either through or over lakes and
rivers, or along notched out ledges on the sides of giant
mountains, or over prairies, or, indeed, over or through
anything else that came in our way.
And now, having thus described some of the physical
features of this railway, let us proceed on our journey.
The end of last chapter found us at Revelstoke, amongst
snow-capped peaks of bold and lofty magnificence, looking so near, and yet so far away; now, however, -we are
off again on the main line.
As we cross the Columbia we enter at once upon the
Gold Range, which is another series of glacier-studded
mountains, so directly broken across, however, by
cyclopean disruptive forces, as to give the train a com- liStfih Mflfffl I   I ■■
■ -11
238
paratively easy run through a portion of them. The
narrow Eagle Pass, which we now occupy, takes us for
nearly forty miles between parallel lines of almost
vertical and very lofty cliffs, into the faces of which the
line is frequently forced by the Eagle River and by
several lovely lakes, the bottom of the valley being
thickly studded with trees of many varieties and of
.gigantic size. The name of the pass and river just given,
is due to the fact that, when the engineers were surveying this part of the country, and did not know which
of two streams to select for the route of the line, an
eagle, by his flight, actually led them on the best track 1
At a point twenty-eight miles from Revelstoke, we
reached Craigellachie station, where, on 7th November,
1885, the last rail was laid, and the last spike was
driven into the C.P.R. by Sir Donald A. Smith, the
eastern and western ends of the line meeting here,
which was the great event of the period. Proceeding
onwards, we eventually clear the canon, and are enabled
to see before us the great and wonderfully shaped Shuswap Lake. The crystal waters of this are hemmed in
by steeply rising mountains, which are clearly seen from
Sicamous Junction, at which, on a narrow arm of the
lake, we have now arrived. Here I landed with the
intention of staying at the Lake View Hotel for the
night, so that I could start very early next morning by a
branch line for the rapidly rising and important town
of Vernon, near which is the 13,000 acre ranch of Lord
Aberdeen.
This beautifully situated hotel is under the management of Mr. and Mrs. Hooper, the former having been
a London solicitor who thought he could do better in
British Columbia, aided by his excellent wife.
He was a handsome man, and every inch a home 239
bred lawyer in appearance. Mrs. Hooper, too, although
her hands were somewhat roughened by her occupations
was a woman of elegant taste, pleasing manners, and
refined discernment.
At 5.30, soon after sunrise, I left by the train on the
Shuswap and Okanagan railway for Vernon, forty-six
miles distant, and the chief city of a very charming
eountry, where in due time I arrived, after a lovely
run, on an equally lovely day. When I saw their
Excellencies at Ottawa, Lady Aberdeen most kindly
invited me to their "Coldstream" ranch, which is about
iour miles from the town just named. She also added,—
" If you should be there before we return from Vancouver, Mr. Ricardo, our manager, will look after you."
All along the main line I tried to find out what was
generally thought about this ranch from those I met.
Firstly, on account of its great size, and secondly,
because anything I had to say about it authoritatively
might be useful to many. In answer to my enquiries
people said,—" Oh yes, Lord Aberdeen's ranch is getting,
on nicely, but it has cost so much that we do not think
that it will pay very well."
Upon arrival at Vernon, I found that the Governor
General and party had only arrived the day before from
the West, so, after breakfast, I started for " Coldstream
House." As their Excellencies had not reached home
fill three in the morning, having been at a reception in
town the previous evening, Lord Aberdeen sent me a
kind note mentioning this fact, and saying that they
hoped to see me in a little, but that in the mean time
Mr. Ricardo would show me the place. The view on
page 241 gives a clear idea of the house, with a few
young fruit trees in front, and with a richly wooded
background of pine trees,  cedars,  silver birches, etc., 240
the prospect from the front being as shown to some
extent in the next plate. Coldstream House may be
considered a fair example of similar country residences
of moderate size in Canada, the verandah being an indispensable appendage.
On meeting Mr. Ricardo, I found him a tall, handsome, gentlemanly man, without coat and vest, and with
tucked-up sleeves. I also discovered that he was a
representative of a good Devonshire county family, who
was trying to open out a new career for himself in
British Columbia. Keeping in mind what people had
told me about the estate, I said to him in tentative
style—"Ranch prospering ? "
"Oh yes," he replied, "we are now getting on fairly
well. We have spent a great deal of money on this
business, but, as our fruit trees are only four years old,
of course, not much can be expected from them yet.
They are, however, beginning to pay, and will do better
as they get older. Our hops are profitable, and so
excellent in quality that, even in England, we get the
best prices for them."
As we drove over a portion of this immense farm,
I could clearly discern the elements of success, everything appearing to be so systematically arranged, and so
practically carried out on scientific lines. The Governor
General, it may be added, deserved great praise for, in
this manner, endeavouring to encourage similar enterprises in the country, by showing the great capabilities
of B. C. for at least fruit and hop growing, for which it
is so well adapted, not to mention cattle and horse
breeding, and sheep raising, which also form part of
the work of the ranch just described.
As shown in the view of a very small portion of this
on page  243,  the  arrangement of  a few  only of the  242
12,000 fruit trees can be seen, all of which can be
admirably irrigated when required. After a most interesting ramble, during which Mr. Ricardo was kindly
attentive, their Excellencies appeared on the scene, and
with them I had a very pleasant conversation until I left
for Vernon to catch the train for Sicamous, which would
enable me to join the main line to Vancouver.
The skies of Canada are remarkable for beauty, being
chiefly of an unclouded blue, or mottled and freckled
with lovely white, fleecy clouds, as shown in the view of
the ranch, and others throughout this volume.
All the beauties of nature, celestial as well as terrestrial, are in these regions so strongly marked, and so
exquisitely blended into one harmonious whole, that
people who live in the great cities would do well to visit
them for health-inspiring reasons, if for no others. So
far, however, as mere scenic enjoyment is concerned,
one is led to believe that there are few parts of Canada
where more variety of a grand and easily accessible
nature is to be found than those to which reference has
been made in the last few pages.  244
CHAPTER XVII.
Through the Canons, etc, to Vancouver.—Glorious Sunset
Views—Skirting Shuswap Lake — Thompson River and
Canon—Breakfast at North Bend—Fraser Canon—Appalling
Scenes -The Turbulent River—"Hell Gate"—Flood Rise of
70 Feet—B.C. of the Past—Sir James Douglas—Cariboo
Road—Yale—Gold Discoveries—How the C.P.R. has affected
the Province — The Canons Past — Full Speed Ahead —
Diverging Coast Range Mountains—Rich and Lovely Plain—
Striking Burrard Inlet — Vancouver at Last — Forest in
1885—City in 1886 —C.P.R. Ocean Mail Steamers —By
R.M.S. Empress of India to Victoria—Her Description—
Chinese Stewards—Their Full Dress Costume—Matchless
Beauties of Straits of Georgia—Arrival at Victoria.
un
N my return to Sicamous, as mentioned in the last chapter, I left
at 19.20 o'clock by the main line
train for Vancouver direct. The
scenery we now passed
through was, for the present at least, free from those
awful chasms, and steep inclines, and cascaded rivers,
and profound valleys, and
ragged and jagged heaven-piercing peaks which we had
so abundantly in the Selkirks and Rockies. Now, however, it was, although of a milder and more natural
aspect, equally attractive in its own way, and still more
so as the sinking sun exquisitely tinted the mountains 245
with lights and shades of gold and purple, and the glassy
lake with reflections ever changing as he gradually
disappeared.
For at least fiftv miles we skirted the shore of
Shuswap Lake, with its octopus-like arms embracing
the mountains for long distances in every direction.
After all I had previously seen of a truly sublime nature,
I was nevertheless so fascinated by the ever-changing
and lovely scenery around me that for hours together I
gazed on it with delight until the evening shades prevailed, and eventually compelled me to retire for the
night. Formerly the earth had been speaking to me,
but now the heavens were shining in splendour, as they
had so often done in other climes.
Devious as our course from The Gap had necessarily
been, it had always something of west in it, that is
N*W.—S.W.—W.N.W., and so on, but now the position
of the pole star showed me that we were going.due north,
Klondike way in fact. I had more faith in the engine
driver than to suppose for a moment that he had mistaken his course, and I was right. We had been
swinging to many points of the compass since leaving
Sicamous, but, as the map indicated, we had rounded
the "Salmon Arm' of the great lake, and were only
heading in the Dawson City direction until the valleys
enabled us to turn round towards the west again.
From 4.30 in the morning, until near midnight, the
29th day of July had been one of continuously delightful
incidents. Physically tired, I lay down on one of the
seats to sleep sweetly, ready, however, after daylight to
get up and scan the country we were rolling through.
In course of time we struck both the south and north
Thompson rivers, and, after skirting them unitedly for
some distance,  closely bordered   Kamloops lake,  and 46
then, calling at, amongst other stations, Savonas, Ashcroft, Spatsum, Spence's Bridge, and Lytton, where the
Thompson joined the Fraser river, we arrived at North
Bend Hotel, where we had an excellent and welcome
breakfast. In half an hour, however, the usual warning
of " all aboard" rang out in the clear air, the engine bell
gave us ten seconds grace, and off we again started.
For many miles the main Thompson Canon is extremely beautiful, with its steeply sloping mountain
sides, varied in many places with scenes of weird-like
magnificence, but not quite of the awe-inspiring nature
we had previously seen and were soon to witness again.
At Lytton, we entered the world-renowned canon of
the Fraser River, which was greatly enlarged by the
Thompson, and at Cisco, seven miles below this point,
we crossed the Fraser by a steel cantilever bridge, a
view of which is shown on next page. This gives a good
.dea of the now popular but very ancient system of construction, the hand worked trolley shown on the rails
being used by the line hands for inspection and maintenance purposes.
For the next 45 miles we rolled through a part of the
country which, for grandeur, so far as railway travelling
is concerned, is considered to have no equal in the
world. So fascinating was the locality that I at once
found myself, along with many others similarly influenced, on a long spell of unwearied observation of
marvellous scenery which became more and more
"startling," "matchless," "terrible," "enthralling,"
" awful," and so on, as people delight to call it, according to the manner in which it impresses them. The
illustration of the Fraser Canon by moonlight, shown on
page 249, will give a fair idea of one of the scenes of this
cyclopean gorge.  248
Here the river is compressed into a very narrow
channel between mountains which rise, sometimes like
solid walls, thousands* of feet above it on both sides.
Consequently, at this point it is very deep, and capable
of rising 60 or 70 feet in time of flood, when, with
furious impetuosity and race-horse speed, it carries
everything before it. Hence will be seen the necessity
of having a bridge such as described, the piers of which
are, in form and strength and carefully considered
position, able to withstand anything.
The engineers of the line had another rare good time
of it here between rock-drilling and blasting short
tunnels through hard rocky mountain spurs on the
one hand, and building stone embankments on the
other hand, as shown in the view. At other times they
had the pleasing variety of cutting and quarrying ledges
to carry the railway on the face of prodigious precipices
bordering the river, so that a practicable route could be
made for the Montreal-bound train of the illustration, or
for the Vancouver-bound cars by which I had the happiness of travelling at the time of which I am writing.
Just fancy yourself in a similar train, rolling along at
a height of say 100 to 200 feet above such a river, with
gully bridges, sharp turns, spur tunnellings, &c, in profusion. All the time, too, skirting the edges of eddies,
narrows, surging rapids, whirlpools, and so on. After
many miles of similar and, consequently, slow and very
cautious travelling, we reached Hell Gate, where, owing
to some large rocks barring the river, the passage of
the water was something wonderful. During a time
of flood, in 1894, the river rose no less than 70 feet,
which greatly endangered the safety of the Cariboo road
suspension bridge thrown across the stream a little
lower down.  Long before C. P. R. times the whole of the interior
of British Columbia was a wilderness, unapproachable
from any direction, except by scientific explorers who
were willing to undergo great hardships for the sake of
discovering the resources of the Province. These well
directed efforts were the means of showing that the
country was rich in minerals and other products, but
had no means of approach to render them of any use.
Fortunately, B. C. had then as Governor Sir James
Douglas, the "King of Roads" as he was termed, a
man of extraordinary energy, foresight, and ability, and
formerly the distinguished commander-in-chief of the
Hudson's Bay Company. After due consideration of the
position of the Province from a mining, marketing and
food supply, and every other point of view, Sir James
conceived the happy idea of having trails and roads
cut through the mountains wherever it was desirable,
or even practicable. Thus was originated the wonderful
Cariboo road, which, with its extensions in various
directions, now reaches some hundreds of miles into the
interior.
As we came down one side of the Fraser, we frequently obtained glimpses of this road, either pinned on
the face of a giant precipice, or trestle-supported only
at some of the most dangerous spots of the river.
Occasionally, the track became much more natural in
appearance, but in other places it had to wind about
through cuttings in solid rock, and to severely rise and
fall at points where, for many miles, hardly any level
space could be found.
During the run from North Bend, I had the great
advantage of having the company of my good friend, Mr.
J. T. Moore, of Toronto, who, knowing well this part of
Canada, was kind enough to tell me what he knew of its  252
leading features, and laid great stress upon the previous
value of the Cariboo road, which, for a long time, had
been so beneficial to the country. After crossing the
suspension bridge at Spuzzum, it ran alongside of our
line for eleven miles, until it ended its career at Yale.
Our approach to this little town was of a rather marked
description, since only a short time before the great
gorge had assumed a milder character by gradually
opening out. Here, too, was the head of the navigation
to the sea by steamers, as the river had now become
placid and otherwise safe enough and broad enough
to allow of their use.
The plate on previous page gives a good idea of the
scene referred to, which to east-bound travellers, is the
gate of the canon from which we have just emerged. It
also shews an Indian village in the foreground.
To enable people to comprehend the vast importance
of the work carried out by Sir James Douglas and his
successors, in road making, it may be Well for them to
imagine the position of the Province previous to 1864.
Adventurers had discovered that the interior of this rich
gold region was inaccessible, as it had not even a trail
of the simplest nature, the whole Province being at that
time a wi derness, and its people yet to come. In these
early days, therefore, prospective miners had no other
way of reaching the scene of their operations than by
the most toilsome climbing of mountains such as those
we have just passed through; by the crossing of rivers,
and struggling through dense primeval forests; by
paddling their own canoes across lakes, etc., and all the
time carrying on their backs large supplies of food.
This, then, was the state of affairs previous to the
year mentioned, when the Cariboo road was opened, and
thus set a-rolling the ball of prosperity for B. C., until, 253
in 1886, the C. P. R. arose in gigantic power, and by
gradually opening out the province, raised it to the high
position it occupies to-day.
And, now, as we lie for a few moments at Yale
station, it may be well to mention that all the savage
gorges and Bear Creek Gullies which, at one time, were
hardly traversable; the precipice skirting ; the mountain
climbing and chasm spanning; the giant inclines and
declines; and wonderful loops, and curves, and other
marvels of the line are all past. We cross several fine
tributaries of the Fraser, and after a run of fourteen
miles reach Hope, an important mining and trading
town, with its Indian and Chinese, &c, population, and
beautiful mountain peaks, and bottomless " Devil's
Lake." The canon has now greatly widened out, and
we enter a rich, undulating, and beautiful plain, with
the glistening snow-capped cone of Mount Baker, sixty
miles distant, rising majestically to a height of about
14,000 feet, and with the Coast Range mountains
receding on both sides of the railway. The engine
driver opens his steam valve to the full, and now we are
flying along the line with the end of our journey only
eighty-five miles off.
Agassiz is reached, with its Experimental farm. So
also is Harrison, with its prettily situated Hot Sulphur
Springs Hotel, which is visited by invalids from all parts
of the West coast.
At Mission Junction we found a branch line which
runs to the International Boundary, and connects with
railways to San Francisco and many intermediate
places, and soon afterwards the line to New Westminster was reached. As the day was hot, everyone
longed for the sea breeze, which, indeed, we were
rapidly   approaching.     Station   after   station   whizzed 254
past, and at last Burrard Inlet was struck. The delightful breezes of the Great Pacific were on us. The lovely
mountains of Vancouver Island were in front of us. At
Hastings we stopped amidst scenes of rare beauty on
land and water^ and at 13 o'clock—or 1 p.m.—our train
smoothly rolled into Vancouver terminus to the minute,
dead upon time, after traversing a distance of about
3,000 miles. As we arrived, the east-bound train similarly departed on its equally well-timed journey to
Montreal.
After lunch at the Hotel Vancouver, which was to be
my intermittent home for the next three weeks, I went
out on a tour of general observation, and with this as a
basis, combined with what I subsequently learnt, a little
description of Vancouver may here be given.
Firstly, it may be said that previous to the year
1885, the place now occupied by this city was a wilderness of gigantic trees, some of them being fully twelve
feet diameter a few feet above the ground, and from 300
to 350 feet in height, all of which had to be cut down
and rooted out before a house could be built. An illustration of one of the giant cedars of Stanley Park is
shown in the next plate, giving a good idea of their
prodigious size and also of their interior, which, in this
case, has been made hollow, although primarily filled
with the usual rotten core which, when set fire to, may
smoulder for some time unknown to anyone, and at last
burst irregularly through the trunk. This tree measures
53 feet in girth a little above the roots.
The position of Vancouver was not only admirably
selected as the best and most convenient spot for a seaport, but, owing to the configuration of the adjacent
land, ample room was provided for future extensions on
a great scale.    Owing, too, to the large, deep, and land-.  256
locked nature of the harbour, plenty of space was
allowed for shipping. Lastly, the situation is one of
extreme beauty from every point of view, as the town is
built on the side of sloping ground, with the lovely
harbour and lofty mountain-covered Vancouver Island
in front; the "False Creek' arm of the sea, and the
city extensions beyond it in the rear; and, finally, the
exquisitely beautiful Stanley Park, English Bay, and
many.other most attractive spots close at hand.
In view of the opening of the C.P.R., in May, 1886,
the town had already made a good twelve months' start
in timber-built houses, etc., all of which, except one,
were destroyed by the great conflagration in June of the
same year, but before the smouldering fire was extinguished, busy minds and active hands were again laying
the foundation of the future great and splendid metropolis of the Far West. The people went so energetically
ahead that by the next year the population had become
fully 5,000, every train and every steamer that arrived
increasing the number.
Electric light and power installations, tramways,
waterworks, sawmills, factories, banks, and all sorts of
public buildings, in timber at first, were rapidly proceeded with. Streets were carried through new parts of
the forest, and inhabited as soon as their houses were
ready, and so on incessantly, until, in 1889, the population had risen to 14,000.    To-day it is about 30,000.
A splendid new and stone-built C.P.R. station has
recently been constructed to meet the requirements of
the greatly increased trade, not only from the east, but
from the whole Pacific region by water on the west..
This was primarily created in 1887 by the opening out
of the traffic to Japan and China, by means of the
three magnificent twin-screw R.M.S. Empress of India,, 257
Empress of China, and Empress of Japan, each of 6,000
tons, 10,000 horse power, and 19 knot speed. In addition
to these, numerous other ships belonging to the same
and other Companies have been put on the Pacific station
to Australia, Hawaii, New Zealand, Alaska, etc., as well
as to all important points up and down the coast, and
also on some of the lakes and rivers of the interior.
I myself was charmed with Vancouver from the first,
as I went up the broad and very handsome asphalte-
paved Granville Street to the hotel. On the morning
after my arrival, I called upon Mr. E. J. Coyle, the
Traffic Superintendent of the C.P.R. That beam of light
was so pleased to see me that he most kindly offered to
assist me in any way. After that, he began a conversation in such a cheery, lively way, as to cause one to
think that the C.P.R. was the finest line in the world,
and its officers the happiest of all, and that the Head
Office people in Montreal were amongst the most profound students of human nature in existence, as, indeed,
I had long before discovered.
The view on page 259 represents Vancouver Harbour, looking towards Hastings, and with the low-lying
shore-line of Vancouver Island on the left of the picture.
The Empress of India, of which my good friend Mr.
E. O. Murphy was the steam power commander, was to
sail at 6.30 p.m. for Japan and China, and as Mr. Coyle
had found out somehow that I wished to go in her to
Victoria, eighty-five miles down the Straits of Georgia,
he at once most kindly gave me a complimentary pass,
which enabled me to treat the ship throughout in
amiable " Chiel " fashion for a voyage of five hours.
Upon going on board, I found not only all the officers
and crew elegantly dressed in white duck, but also
the  cooks and   stewards,  the  last two  named  being
s 258
Chinese. Before dinner the stewards were clad in loose
blouses and breeks, or trousers, their full dress, however,
was what anyone would have termed a "night gown,"
but without collar as usual. Their pig tails hung gracefully down their backs, and were finished at the ends
with stylish extensions of silk ribbon tied in bows. As
they all spoke "pigeon English' I had no occasion to
air the little I knew of the Chinese language, and so
we got along first rate. .
The interior of the Empress of India is truly magnificent, not only in design and embellishment, but in
the manner in which the luxurious comfort of passengers
has been attended to. The grand saloon is mainly in
white and gold, with a beautifully decorated, arched and
flower-gardened skylight, and additionally lighted and
ventilated, as in other parts of the ship, by means of
large square windows, as in the Peninsular and Oriental
liners. The saloons and state-rooms are fitted with
electrically driven fans and other appliances, so that
they may be kept cool in hot weather. Indeed, so
tropically is everything conducted that when you leave
Vancouver Oriental customs reign supreme.
The promenade deck was spacious and well covered
by the deck above, and by awning extensions fore and
aft when required. Side and end awnings were also
provided by means of which, in roller blind style, the
whole of the deck could be transformed at any time into
a very handsome entertainment or social hall, or Cave of
Harmony, or any other scene of beauty. As the embellishments on such occasions consist of numerous flags,
exquisite drapery, and an abundance of lovely and sometimes extraordinary flowers and plants, not to mention
the charming company in evening dress, the scene may
be better imagined than minutely described.  260
This vessel, as well as the sister Empresses of China
and Japan, are of 6,000 tons each. They are all fitted
as armed cruisers, and, with their twin screw engines of
10,000 horse power, attain a speed of 19 knots an hour.
The view on next page shows the Empress of India
going full speed, and illustrates very clearly her exterior
arrangements. Her sides are painted white, because
this colour is best suited to the tropics, and her extremely limited sail power results from the safety
provided by having two sets of engines, three quarter
speed being obtainable by means of one set alone in
case of disarrangement of the other.
It may be asked why these vessels have figure-head
stems, when those of the P. and O., Orient, Cunard,
White Star, &c, have vertical ones? The reasons may
be thus stated:—The ports on the Canadian Pacific
Station have either open roadsteads or extensive wharf
spaces, instead of crowded docks, hence the C. P. R.
liners do not need to be rigidly shortened. Secondly, a
figure-head stem gives an elegant finish to their bows.
And thirdly, and perhaps most importantly, the Company
probably wished to pay a graceful compliment to the
Eastern nations with whom they traded, and who would
no doubt be delighted to see handsome representations
of their reigning monarchs adorning these ships in such
a conspicuous and attractive manner.
Under the salutes of very many friends on shore we
steamed away in grand style towards the Land of the
Rising Sun, and also the Flowery Land, or, to use
another and more modern phrase, Westward to the Far
East, because, upon reaching longitude 180° by going
westward, in a moment, and without one turn of the
wheel, the course becomes an easterly one.
The passage down the Straits of Georgia to Victoria  262
was one of matchless beauty. After clearing the Narrows off Stanley Park, we headed straight into a glassy
sea of gold, and blue, and purple, and cats' paws, with
a deep blue and fleece-clouded sky overhead, as the
Straits gradually spread out to 25 miles in width. The
Vancouver Island coast line, which we hugged, was
charmingly broken up into numerous islands and islets
amongst which we sailed. The background on the near
side consisted of ranges of mountains from 6,000 to
8,000 feet in height, and on the other side were the
receding coast range mountains of the mainland, with
snow-covered, heaven-piercing Mount Baker—an object
of great beauty—in the far distance. Amidst all these
fascinations we sped on our way until the sun sank like
a red hot plate into the ocean, and then the moon,
raising her lamp above, silvered it to perfection until,
at 11.30, we entered the harbour of Victoria to take in
the latest mails and passengers, this being not only the
last point of departure but the first of arrival for the
ocean steamers sailing from or towards Vancouver.
Here, however, I left the ship.
After this, she backed out for nearly two miles, and
then swung round to the westward for a 50 mile run
through the Straits of San Juan de Fuca, passing Cape
Flattery in her course, and, entering at once upon the
great Pacific, steered direct for Yokohama, her first
calling station. And so, wishing them all a pleasant
voyage, I retired to rest at the Hotel Dallas, with the
lovely mainland 30 miles off in front, and part of
Victoria harbour and Esquimalt in the near distance. 263
CHAPTER  XVIII.
Vancouver Island and its People.—Victoria, the capital of
British Columbia—Its Origin and Development—Its Trade
on Land and Sea—Popular Resort—Esquimalt—New Parliament Buildings of Victoria—Residential Parts of the
City—Its Public Buildings—Social Aspects of the Victorians—A Ladies' Lawn Tennis Tournament—Their Style
of Dress—Jealous of Vancouver—Why ?—Useful Hints—An
Awful Fire—Curious Results—Electric Speed Fire Engine
System—Chinese Residents—Board of Trade Notes—Prosperity of the Province—A Delightful Visit—American
Ladies—Character Sketch of them—Through Puget Sound
to Seattle and Tacoma—Train Ferry Boat on the Columbia—
Similar Colossal Systems—Portland and its Environs—Vancouver again.
L
/
i&JS&i Vo
lis
m
HE Island of Vancouver has a
very interesting history which
dates back fully 100 years,
Captain Vancouver having
primarily discovered it — a
band of sturdy, zealous, and subsequently distinguished pioneers
having greatly developed its resources as well as those of B. C.
generally. Since then it has grown in importance and in value. It is the largest island
on the West Coast, being 300 miles in length by 50 in
average width. Its shores, as well as those of the mainland for many hundreds of miles, have been cut and torn
m 264
up into numerous islets and inlets, as in Norway, which
this coast much resembles.
The chief city of the Island, and indeed, of all
British Columbia, is Victoria, which was originally
known as Fort Victoria of the Hudson's Bay Company.
This small settlement suddenly expanded when the
excitement caused by the discovery of gold on the Fraser
River brought multitudes of adventurers to the spot.
These flowing and ebbing currents of people gave so
much life to the district, that in the year 1858 no less
than about 30,000 inhabitants were encamped around
the fort. The gold excitement passed away, hut it left
a permanent population on the banks of the lovely
harbour as a solid foundation for the future city of the
West, to which we are now directing attention.
Up to 1886, substantial and handsome buildings
gradually took the place of those of the primitive type.
The opening of the C. P. R., however, accelerated these
movements, until at last Victoria became what it is
to-day—the capital of B. C, the seat of Government,
and a city as remarkable for beauty in itself and in its
surroundings as in the qualities of its people, all of
which have made it a centre of intelligence and refinement of the most attractive nature.
The constantly growing importance of this city is
due, moreover, to its close connection by means of
various lines of steamers, with Seattle, Tacoma, Portland, and San Francisco, etc., to the south, with the
mining districts of the Far North, and also with the
countries and islands whose shores are washed by the
great Pacific. It may be added that to the energy and
talent displayed by the late Sir James Douglas, who was
Governor of the Province from 1851 to 1864, much of its
prosperity in various ways is due.    Still more may it be  266
said that, through the same and other influences, the
riches of the island in gold and useful minerals, including coal, were discovered and worked upon, the
value of the latter being gathered from the fact that at
Nanaimo, seventy miles distant, the annual output now
amounts to fully 1,000,000 tons, which finds a ready
market far and near.
With these facts in view, it is only natural that not
only does Victoria enjoy a very large wholesale trade,
but is a favourite resort for tourists and others from
all parts of the world. The Esquimalt and Nanaimo
Railway Company's head-quarters are in the city, as well
as those of various coasting steamship lines, and within
three miles of its centre is the first-named Naval Station,
which has recently been greatly enlarged. The main districts of Victoria are naturally within the city, the view
on previous page, however, taken from Mount Tolmie,
gives a good idea of its outskirts, of the mainland mountains in the distance, and also of the lower part of the
Straits of Georgia, from which the Straits of San Juan
de Fuca branch off on the right to the Pacific. Esquimalt harbour may also be seen across the bay on the
right of the picture. The view of the recently built
Parliament Buildings, shown on page 267, clearly
indicate the importance of the capital from a Government standpoint.
In these magnificent and costly edifices I met with
a most kind reception, especially by Mr. W. S. Gore
the Deputy Commissioner of Lands and Works, and
by Mr. R. E. Gosnell, the Secretary of the Bureau of
Statistics, etc. The latter showed me round the whole
of the splendid and newly finished interiors, and gave me
at the same time the fullest particulars concerning the
province,  which  I  have   here   been  enabled  to  draw  268
extensively upon, not to mention other sources of official
and general information which were then and have
since been placed at my disposal.
As the buildings referred to are of stone, and the
grounds picturesquely laid out facing one of the prettiest
spots of the city and harbour, it will be seen that these
alone are a great source of attraction to visitors. As,
too, the various inlets of the harbour add so much to
the beauty of Victoria, we give on page 269 a view of
one of these at Point Ellice, close to the residence of my
good friends the Hon. Judge P. O'Reilly and family.
The former has been a resident of British Columbia since
he came from England in 1859, and perhaps there is
now hardly anyone in the Province who knows it better
than he does, having been one of its early pioneers.
In the most genial and happy manner Mr. O'Reilly
on one occasion told me in a general way about his
territory, adding, at the same time, that there was not
much of it he had not seen. His excellent lady and
their son and daughter, as well as himself, were as
admirable specimens of elegant Victorian society as one
could possibly meet. To me, they were most kind, and
for their highly valued attentions I now thank them very
heartily.
On the day after my arrival I called upon my good
friends Mrs. and the Misses Pemberton, who were very
pleased to see me again, and who, in course of the afternoon, kindly drove me through some of the most
beautiful suburbs of their city, which I greatly admired.
Taken all round, Victoria put me greatly in mind of
Sydney harbour on a small scale, as its beauties rose
to view from time to time as we rolled along, and
as in other ways I afterwards discovered. The residential  districts were well stocked with lovely and well-  270
gardened villas, of which Mrs. Pemberton's " Gonzales '
was one of the prettiest. The commercial parts, of
which Government Street was the head and front, were
rapidly advancing in splendour, as handsome stone
edifices were being added, or had only recently been
erected, such, for instance, as the splendid and most
admirably situated General Post Office. An excellent
electric tramcar system makes the city and its surroundings very accessible to all.
And now I come to a most delicate part of my
subject, namely, the social aspects of the Victorians, in
which I took the greatest possible interest for the geographical reasons previously given. I am grieved to
think, but painfully constrained to believe that, for the
same reasons alone, there are some perhaps in Britannic
fashionable and merely novel reading society who fancy
that the ladies I am now referring to are only beginning
to emerge from a state of semi-barbarism. That they,
until recently, were dowdies of the most pronounced
type, whose ragged, tagged, and scragged hair fell in
most disorderly style upon "dresses" which did not
deserve the name. Dresses, too, which were stitched
together by means of fish bone needles and grass made
twine to keep them from falling to pieces. Boots—if
any—fit for the dust heap, and hats and bonnets which
were yet to come.
Now, what a highly distinguished honour it is for the
Happy Traveller to stand as it were between those of
the New and Old Worlds, and declare to the latter the
true position of Victorian society as it is to-day, and as
he himself delightfully found it!
Amongst other good things the Misses Pemberton
said to me was—"You should go and see the Lawn
Tennis Tournament which is now in progress, as all the 271
ladies of Victoria are attending it." I went accordingly,
and after paying a half-dollar admission fee, was allowed
to enter the enclosure, which was hedged about externally with carriages and bicycles. I walked in amongst
the brilliant assemblage, and took a seat in the midst of
them as an apparently innocent visitor without any particular intentions. Ah! little did they imagine that on
that fourth day of August, 1898, the tall and handsome
stranger in navy blue serge suit, and splendid black and
white straw hat trimmed with black silk ribbon, was
there to keenly criticise them in "Chiel" fashion for the
purpose of reporting them to the world.
The game went on in splendid style. Bravo ! Miss
Revelstoke—well played. Oh, my ! Miss Cariboo, you
are a genius, and no mistake. Hooray! Three cheers
for Miss Elmira Victoria—splendid !—splendid! !—but
who is this I see before me ? Nearly all the ladies were
most appropriately dressed in pure white, and with
white kid gloves, too, which in my young days in Edinburgh city would have been considered " vulgar !! like
Glasgow, you know." Fashions change, however. Well,
amidst all these exquisitely attired ladies was one who
crossed my field of vision wearing a fiery scarlet hat on
a day hot enough, one would think, for comfort.
How different must have been our thoughts as our
eyes met! What mine were she will know if she ever
reads these lines, which contain nothing but lurking
amiability and humorous but truthful criticism. My
dear young friend, you and I may never meet again, but,
as a lover of elegant taste at every point, may I be
permitted to ask if you do not think that your otherwise
beautiful costume would have been improved by the
wearing of a lovely white straw hat, trimmed with the
richest white silk ribbon?    I fancy so. 272
I shall never forget t