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Report of the British Agent to the Russian Seal Islands under the Provisional Agreement entered into… Venning, Robert Norris 1894

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       REPORT
OP  THE-
BRITISH   AGENT
TO  THE
RUSSIAN SEAL ISLANDS UNDER THE PROVISIONAL AGREEMENT
ENTERED INTO BETWEEN HER MAJESTY'S GOVERNMENT
AND THAT OF RUSSIA FOR THE
PROTECTION   OF THE SEAL FISHERIES
DTJHIKG   1893.
WITH   AJPPEISnDICES
OTTAWA
GOVERNMENT   PRINTING   BUREAU"
1894
1972  TABLE OF CONTENTS.
113-143
144-153
154-162
163-187
188-206
207-227
228-243
244-250
278-290
291-322
323-337
452-455
456-£69
..Narrative	
..Observations on the Islands.
..Operations on the Islands	
..Evn
:nce..
(a) Whether suckling females wander far from rookeries for food	
(6) Mortality of pups on the Islands	
(c) Length of time pups necessarily suckle and earliest date mothers resort
sea for food	
(d) As to the existence of " Banks " or sealing grounds around Komandors
Islands	
(e) As to females which drop their young at sea or lose them on the Islands]
and found still in milk	
(/) Actual migration routes of fur-seals in the Asiatic Pacific and their winter|
habitat on the Japan coast	
(g) Average dates of landing and departure of seals to and from the Islands.
Whether females land from the time they leave as pups, until they
return to give birth to their first pup	
(h) The state of Komandorsky Islands in years of scarcity and abundance ofl
seals at Pribylov Islands, and the effect of operations on either group
upon the other	
(i) As to" length of time female seals will bear young, or males will
efficient rookery service	
(j) The existence and habits of barren females and effete males	
(k) The condition of the rookeries compared with previous years	
(I)   The presence of fish in the vicinity of the Islands	
(m) The efficiency or otherwise of the protective zone	
 Points incidentally of interest in connection with
 Distribution of seals at sea	
 Numbers, condition and kinds of seals on the American coast
 Contents of the stomachs of seals	
 Seals from the Eookeries can be determined	
 Pups will swim by instinct	
 Sexes can be distinguished at sea	
lation in the water	
..Fisni
\ Banks..
r EVIDENCE AND  CONCLUSIONS.
(a & c) Wandering of suckling females, length of time pups necess
J  -id if they
a for food, t
larily suckl
are killed by
r sealing grounds around Komandorsky
earliest date
Remarks	
(I) Mortality of pups in the Islands.
(d) As to the existence of "banks "
Islands	
(e) As to females which drop their young at sea or lose them on the Islands and|
found still in milk	
(f) Actual migration routes of fur-seals in the Asiatic Pacific and their winter|
habitat on the Japan coast	
(g) Average date of landing and departure of seals to and from the Islands, &c.
(ft) The state of Komandorsky Islands in years of scarcity or abundance on
Pribylov Islands, and the effect of operations on either group upon the
(i) As to length of time female seals will bear young or males render efficientj
rookery service	
(j) The existence and habits of barren females and effete males...
(k) The condition of the rookeries compared with previous years.
(to) The efficiency or otherwise of the protective zone i
Tabulated statement op operations and positions of pelagic sealers..
Seizure of British vessels under the provisional agreement	
Conclusion	 APPENDICES.
Nos. 1 to 5   | Statements of Russian Officials and Employees of the Seal Skin Company.
Nos. 6 to 21 | Declarations of Pelagic Sealers	
Nos. 22 to 34| Extracts from the Private Logs of Pelagic Sealers showing the dates and positions at sea when and where fur-seals where taken in 1893	
No. 35     | List of sealing schooners entered at Hakodate during the season of 1893....
Report of the British Columbia Sealing Fleet of 1893	
Summary of the sealing catch for the season of 1893	 REPORT OF THE BRITISH AGENT
TO THE RUSSIAN SEAL ISLANDS UNDER THE PROVISIONAL AGREEMENT, ENTERED INTO BETWEEN HER MAJESTY'S GOVERNMENT
AND THAT OF RUSSIA FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE
SEAL FISHERIES DURING 1893.
Ottawa, 31st December, 1893.
My Lord,—I have the honour to submit the report of my visit to the Russian
Seal Islands, as British Agent, under the Provisional Agreement entered into between
Her Majesty's Government and that of Russia, for the protection of the Seal Fisheries
during 1893.
REPORT.
PROVISIONAL AGREEMENT.
St. Petersburg^, May 10 (22), 1893.
M. le Charge d'Affaires,
In reply to your communication of the 30th April (12th May), I have the honour
to inform you that the Imperial Government, while accepting the draft arrangement
annexed to that communication, prefer to give it the character of an exchange of
notes, for the following reasons :—
Because the too concise wording of the above-mentioned draft would leave room
for certain misunderstandings, and perhaps even for complications, which it would
be desirable to avoid;
Because the Imperial Government could not agree to the draft in question
without some reservations designed to safeguard their freedom of judgment in the
future.
It is understood that the agreement to be arrived at between our two Governments will leave intact all the rights of Russia in her territorial waters.
As to our reservations, they refer to the points mentioned below :
1. In consenting to hand over to the British authorities the English ships
engaged in sealing within the prohibited zones, we do not wish to prejudice, generally, the question of the rights of a riverain Power to extend her territorial jurisdiction in certain special cases beyond waters properly called territorial.
2. The Imperial Government desire to preserve complete liberty of action as to
choosing in the future between the two systems of protecting seals, either by the
method of a prohibited zone, or by the method of entirely prohibiting pelagic sealing,
or regulating it in the open sea.
3. The present arrangement cannot in any manner be considered as a precedent,
and will be looked upon by us as of an essentially provisional nature, intended to
meet present circumstances.
With these reservations, we accept the British proposal in the following terms:—
1. During the year ending the 31st December, 1893, the English Government
will prohibit their subjects from hunting seals within a zone of 10 marine miles on
all the Russian coasts of Behring Sea and the North Pacific Ocean; as well as within
a zone of 30 miles round the Komandorsky Islands and Tulenew (Robben Island). 2. English vessels engaged in hunting seals within the aforesaid zones beyond
Russian territorial waters may be seized by Russian cruisers, to be handed over to
English cruisers or to the nearest British authorities. In case of impediment or
difficulty, the Commander of the Russian cruiser may confine himself to seizing the
papers of the afore-mentioned vessels, in order to deliver them to a British cruiser, or
to transmit them to the nearest English authorities, on the first opportunity.
3. Her majesty's Government engage to bring to trial before the ordinary
Tribunals, offering all necessary guarantees, the English vessels which may be seized
as having been engaged in sealing within the prohibited zones beyond Russian territorial waters.
4. The Imperial Government will limit to 30,000 the number of seals which
may be killed during the year 1893 on the coasts of the Islands of Komandorsky and
Tulenew (Robben Island).
5. An agent of the British Government may visit the afore-mentioned islands
(Komandorsky and Tulenew) in order to obtain from the local authorities all necessary information on the working and results of the agreement arrived at, but care
should be taken to give previous information to these authorities of the place and
time of his visit, which should not be prolonged beyond a few weeks.
6. The present arrangement has no retroactive force as regards the British
vessels captured previously by the cruisers of the Imperial Marine.
These terms being based upon the notes previously exchanged between our two
Governments, as well as upon the text of the latest English proposals, we hope, M.
le Charge d'Affaires, that Her Britannic Majesty's Government will consider the
understanding between us to be entirely established from this time forward as
regards the regulation of seal fisheries during the present year.
Accept, &c,
(Signed) CHICHKINE.
The Earl of Rosebery to Mr. Howard.
(Telegraphic.) Foreign Office, May 29, 1893.
I have received your despatch of the 23rd instant, inclosing a note from M.
Chichkine, defining the terms of the arrangement for the protection of the Russian
seal fisheries during the present year, to which the Russian Government are prepared
to agree.
I have to instruct you to address a note to the Russian Government in reply,
stating that this arrangement is accepted by Her Majesty's Government as a temporary agreement for the current year, and that they will take immediate steps to
procure the legislation necessary for carrying it into execution.
With regard to the reservations made in M. Chichkine's note, you will state that
Her Majesty's Government have taken note of them, but do not at present propose
to discuss them; that, on the other hand, they must adhere to the reservation
previously made by them, and contained in your note of the 12th of this month, and
that it is understood that the rights and position of either Power are in no way
affected by the conclusion of this provisional arrangement.
You should inform the Russian Government, at the same time, that we propose
to lay the correspondence at once before Parliament. Sir R. Morier to the Earl of Rosebery.—(Received May 30, 945 p.m.)
(Telegraphic.) St. Petersburgh, May 30, 1893, 6-12 P.M.
In pursuance of your Lordship's instructions, as conveyed in your telegram of
yesterday, I have this day addressed a note to the Russian Government in the
following terms:—
"Your Excellency's note of the 10th (22nd) instant, on the subject of the seal
fisheries in the North Pacific, was forwarded without delay to Her Majesty's Principal
Secretary of State, and I am now instructed by Her Majesty's Government to state
that they accept, as a provisional agreement applying to the present year only, the
arrangement for the protection of the Russian sealing interests as defined in that
note. They will forthwith invite Parliament to enact the legislation which is
necessary to carry the Agreement, so far as it binds Great Britain, into effect.
" With reference to the general reservations contained in your Excellency's note,
Her Majesty's Government, while taking note of them, have instructed me to abstain
from discussing them at present, but to inform the Imperial Government that they,
on their side, maintain to the full the reservations made by them as formulated in
Mr. Howard's note to your Excellency of 30th April (12th May). It is understood,
therefore, that the rights and position of neither Power are in any way prejudiced
by this provisional arrangement."
INSTRUCTIONS.
Foreign Office, 10th July, 1893.
Sir,—I have to inform you that you have been selected by Her Majesty's
Government to visit, during the present sealing season the Komandorsky Islands and
the Island of Tulenew (Robben Island) in order to obtain from the local authorities
information on the practical methods of affording protection to the Seal Fisheries,
and particularly on the working and results of a provisional Agreement entered
into between Her Majesty's Government and that of Russia for that purpose during
the present year.
I transmit for your guidance a memorandum of instructions as to the points to
which your enquiries should be specially directed.
Copies of the correspondence on the subject which has taken place with the
Russian Government and which has been laid before Parliament, are inclosed herewith for your information, together with the report and supplementary report of the
Behring Sea Commissioners and the report of Mr. J. M. Macoun, on his investigations
in 1892.
Her Majesty's Charge d'Affaires at St. Petersburg has been instructed to apply
to the Russian Government for the necessary facilities to enable you to carry out
the object of your mission.
You will receive from the Governor General of Canada instructions as to your
movements, the payment of your expenses while employed on this duty, and the
transmission of your reports to him.
Arrangements will be made for your conveyance to the islands on board one
of Her Majesty's ships, but on this point you will receive the necessary directions
from the Governor General.
I am Sir,
Your most obedient humble servant,
Robert Norris Venning, Esq. (Sd.) ROSEBERY. 4
CANADA.
Citadel, Quebec, 14th July, 1893.
Sir,—I have the honour to inform you that you have been appointed as British
Agent to visit the Komandorsky and Tulenew Islands for the purpose of investigating certain questions connected with seal life.
Your instructions will be handed to you by  Major St. Aubyn,  Governor
General's Secretary, Ottawa.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
(Sd.). DERBY,
Governor General.
To Robert Norris Venning, Esq.
Ottawa.
Memorandum of Instructions for the Agent of the British Government appointed to visit
the Komandorsky and Tulenew Islands.
Under the temporary agreement entered into between Great Britain and Russia
for the protection of the seal fisheries during the present yeaT, clause 5 states that:
" An agent of the British Government may visit the aforementioned islands (Komandorsky and Tulenew), in order to obtain from the local authorities all necessary
information on the working and results of the agreement arrived at, but care should
be taken to give previous information to those authorities of the place and time of
this visit, which should not be prolonged beyond a few weeks."
The headquarters of the Russian Administration of the Komandorsky Islands is
at Nikolski, Behring Island, which place should be first visited. Conferences with
the gentlemen in control there for the Russian Government, and with those in charge
for the company holding the lease under the Government, will enable you to ascertain their views and experience.
If convenient, one or both of the rookeries of Behring Island might be visited,
for the purpose of obtaining facts remarked by the local observers of these rookeries.
Arrangements might then be made to consult with the authorities in charge of Copper Island, and one or more of the rookeries on that island might also be visited if
found practicable.
It is not suggested that all the rookeries and hauling grounds of the islands
should be inspected. This would consume much time, and you would not be in a
position to compare their appearance this year with that of former years. It will be
necessary to trust for such information to those residing on the islands, but you will
be careful to secure, as far as possible, separate information from the several gentlemen, and, where opinions are advanced, to obtain or ask for the evidence or observations in detail upon which they may be based.
Tulenew Island, or Robben Reef, in Okhotsk Sea, it will probably be inconvenient
to visit, but such information as possible concerning it may be gathered from the
officials on the Komandorsky Islands, or elsewhere.
A careful examination of the report and supplementary report of the British
Behring Sea Commissioners, and of the report of Mr. J. M. Macoun respecting his
investigations in 1892, will enable you to ascertain what is already known respecting
the main problems of seal life, and concerning which of these the facts are still in
doubt. While you will not neglect the opportunity of obtaining trustworthy information on any subject, the most important points upon which additional facts are at
present desirable, are those bearing on the efficiency, or otherwise, of the protective
zone about the islands, provided for by the current agreement, and a comparison of
the circumstances existing under it, with those obtaining in 1891 and 1892.
It has, for instance, been stated that the female seals, while suckling, regularly
go to great distances from the breeding islands, are those killed at sea by pelagic
sealers, and that their young on the islands perish in consequence.
Mr. Macoun was informed on the Komandorsky Islands, in 1892, that no excessive mortality of " pups " was observed there in that year, though pelagic sealing
was more actively carried on in the vicinity than ever before. Contrary statements
have been made from other sources, and the facts in this respect for 1892 should be
investigated and compared with those in 1893.
Evidence relating to the length of time during which the pup is necessarily
suckled by the mother before weaning, the earliest date at which the female may
resort to the sea after giving birth, whether she then seeks the sea for the purpose
of feeding, and, if so, to what distance from the shores she usually goes, will be
particularly important in this connection.
Conjectures of those permanently residing upon the islands, as to the date of
beginning and length of feeding excursions of feeding cows, can possess but little
value, unless supported by other evidence or observations at sea. It will, therefore,
be well to obtain the experience of as many pelagic sealers as possible on this point,
with facts as to the number of cows in milk, if any, obtained by them at different
distances and in various bearings from the islands.
In collecting this evidence, care should be taken to distinguish between
exceptional and normal instances, and between milking cows regularly engaged in
suckling and with a full supply of milk, and those in which the milk is proved to
be I drying up " after the weaning of the young.
In the enclosure of His Excellency M. Chichkine to Sir R. Morier, dated the
12th (24th) February 1893, it is stated :—
" "With regard to the thirty-mile zone around the islands, this measure is taken
with, a view to protect the banks, known by the sealers as " sealing grounds," which
extend round the islands, and are not shown with sufficient accuracy on maps.
The banks are frequented during certain seasons by the female seals, the killing of
which is particularly destructive to the seal species at the time of year when the
females are suckling their young, or go to seek food on the banks known as sealing
grounds."^
Any evidence as to the existence or otherwise or such feeding banks, and as to
their position, will be of value.
Some evidence already obtained tends to show that females occasionally drop
their young at sea, or lose them on the islands and are thereafcer found still in milk
at very great distances from the breeding islands. Careful attention should be given
to any such instances, and you should endeavour to ascertain by observation and
inquiry, whether females who have lost their young in such circumstances remain
on the islands.
Much yet remains to be ascertained respecting actual migration routes of the
fur-seals of the Asiatic side of the Pacific in going to and returning from the
Komandorsky Islands, with their winter habitat in the vicinity of the Japanese
Coasts. Facts observed by the British and Russian cruisers engaged on duty in these
waters will doubtless assist in determining these routes, and information should also,
when possible, be obtained from the pelagic sealers. The actual logs of these
vessels, with notes as to the dates, places, and condition of seals captured, will
possess special value.
Transcripts of the sealing logs of as many vessels as possible should be obtained
after your return to Victoria. The most important facts under this head are those
showing where and at what times any great killing of females, heavy with young'
or of females in milk engaged in suckling their young, occurs, in order that any
regulations hereafter framed may be such as to safeguard the animals in this
condition from slaughter.
The average dates of landing and departure from the islands of seals of different
sexes and ages, particularly if those can be obtained for a series of years, will be of
value. It has been maintained that female seals do not land on the islands from the
time they leave them as pups until they return to give birth to their first pup, and
any facts confirming this statement, or otherwise, should be carefully noted.
Inquiries should also be made as to the state of the Komandorsky Islands in
years of scarcity or of abundance of seals on the Pribyloff Islands, for the purpose of
ascertaining whether these two groups of islands are similarly affected in the same
years, or otherwise, and generally upon any effects upon the Komandorsky Islands
believed to be due to practices upon the Pribyloff-Islands or Robben Reef.
Any available information also as to the number of years during which a female
seal continues to bear young should be collected ; and similarly, any information as
to the number of years a male seal renders efficient service on the rookeries ; and
in this connection any facts as to the existence and habits of barren females and
effete males should be noted.
NARRATIVE.
In obedience to the directions contained in the telegraphic despatch of the Marquis of Ripon to the Earl of Derby, dated 11th, communicated to me on the 13th
July, I proceeded on the 15th to San Francisco.
2. From that port I sailed for Yokohama on the 22nd July, on board the Pacific
mail steamship " Peru," arriving there at 4.30 p.m., on the 8th August.
3. On the arrival of the steamer, the British Consul communicated to me a
letter from H.M. Charge d'Affaires at Tokio, announcing that he had been instructed
to notify me that the Russian authorities would afford me all necessary facilities on
the Seal Islands.
4. Commander Rogers of H.M.S. "Archer" met me on board the "Peru" and
immediately transferred me to his ship
5. That evening at the Consulate, I had the benefit of a conversation with Consul Troup on the subject of sealing generally.
6. Prior to sailing, the following morning, 9th August, Commander Rogers and
myself called upon Captain Fawkes of H.M.S. " Mercury," who had just returned
from the Okhotsk Sea, and consulted him as to the condition of things at Robben
Island regarding the sealing agreement.
7. Returning on board the "Archer" we sailed at 9.30 a.m., for the Komandorsky
Islands.
8. We reached the port of Hakodate on the evening of the 11th, where we coaled
ship.
9. I called upon the British Consul, Mr. Hall, who informed me the Canadian  and United States  pelagic sealers  that  had called at that port had been unusually successful.    He procured for me a list of these vessels, giving their catches
and dates of entry.   This will be found among the appendices, numbered 35.
10. Having completed coaling, we left Hakodate on the afternoon of the 12th
August.
11. On the 18th day of August we reached the town of Petropaulovski, after
having experienced constant fogs and disagreeable weather. The Russian man-of-
war I Yakout" and the Russian Seal-skin Company's schooner " Leon," were then
in the harbour.
The latter vessel recently arrived from Robben Island, carrying for shipment to
San Francisco, the quota of seal skins taken from that island.
12. The I Yakout" was coaling, preparatory to relieving the " Zabiaka," which
vessel was then cruising around Komandorsky Islands.
13. I availed myself of the presence of the master of the company's schooner
"Leon," and consulted him touching the condition of Robben Island, and the agreement for a protective zone of 30 miles. I procured from him a statement, which
will be found among the appendices, numbered 5.
14. We left Petropaulovski at 7.30 a.m. on the following morning (19th). The
weather continued foggy and disagreeable.
15. That evening, just before dark, we met H.M.S. "Porpoise" on her way
down.   I had a conference with commander Burr, who came on board the " Archer."
16. Parting company with the " Porpoise," we proceeded on our way, and reached
Nikolski, Behring Island, on the evening of Sunday the 20th August. The Russian
cruiser " Zabiaka " and the Russian Seal-skin Company's steamer " Kotik," were
anchored in the bay.
17. With captain Rogers I visited the " Zabiaka." had a short conversation with
captain Domojiroff, and then visited the shore.
18. I was met by Mr. Grebnitzky, the Governor of the island, Mr. Pafsky, a
Russian official, who was to act for Mr. Grebnitzky who was about leaving the
islands on a lengthy leave of absence; Mr. Grunwaldt, of the Russian Seal-skin
Company, Mr. John Malowansky, the company's agent on board the " Kotik " and
Mr. Waldimar Paetz, the company's local agent at Nikolski.
19. I was informed by Mr. Grebnitzky that I had been expected for some time
and that all facilities would be afforded me. The season he said was over, and they
intended starting the next morning for a final tour of the rookeries and a settling up
of the season's business. Accommodation on board the " Kotik " was offered me, to
show me all that was to be seen in that connection. Next morning I transferred
from " Archer " to the " Kotik."
Captain Rogers had arranged with me that he would call at Nikolski one
week from the day I transferred to the " Kotik," the intention being to go to Copper
Island.
20. The " Kotik " reached North Rookery, Behring Island, that afternoon. I
visited the salt-house and rookery.
21. The following morning 22nd, while the work of the officials proceeded, I
visited the three points of North Rookery with the Chief of the natives.
22. That afternoon we left for Copper Island, anchoring off Preobajenski at daylight on Wednesday the 23rd. Supplies were landed, when we sailed for Korabelny
and dropped anchor off that village at 10.15 a.m.
23. We left Korabelny, arriving at Glinka at 3.40 p.m. Here I procured a guide
and crossed the island to the rookeries, which on this island are distributed along
the shore for some distance. 24. Leaving Glinka we returned to Preobajenski on the 24th. I conferred with
Mr. Emile Kluge, the company's local agent there.
25. We left Preobajenski on the 25th, for Nikolski, reaching that place on the
morning of the 26th August.    The " Archer " had called and left the night before.
26. The steamer "Kotik" with Mr. Grebnitzky, Mr. Grunwaldt and Mr.
Malowansky, sailed on the evening of the 26th for Petropaulovski en route to San
Francisco.
27. I went ashore to the Company's house which is in charge of Mr. Waldemar
Paetz. Dr. Nicolas Slunin, surgeon of the " Yakout" and of the Academy of
Sciences at St. Petersburg, was on the island. He was making some natural history
enquiries in connection with seal life, for the Russian Government, having also
been similarly engaged there last fall.
28. The following day, 27th August, in company with Dr. Slunin, I secured a
dog train and started for North Rookery, having previous to the departure of Mr.
Grebnitzky, got permission to go upon the rookeries where proper observations
could be made.
29. En route we remained over night at a village, called Sarannoie, where large
numbers of salmon were taken by the natives.
Detailed observations made here will be found under another heading.
30. We reached North Rookery at 10 a.m. on the following morning (28th Aug.),
where I had an opportunity of making a close inspection of the different sections of
the rookery.
31. In the afternoon I made another visit to the rookery. This was the day on
which according to arrangement I should have met the " Archer " at Nikolski, and
I had expected to return that night, but as it was Dr. Slunin's intention to kill
some female seals for scientific researches, I regarded the opportunity as the only
one which could possibly present itself and consequently remained.
32. Early in the morning of the 29th a small " drive " was made from which
five females were selected for killing. These females were killed and dissected in my
presence.    The details of observations will be found under another heading.
33. I arrived at Nikolski in the afternoon shortly after the " Archer" had sailed,
she having called the day before as agreed.
34. Captain Rogers left a letter for me stating that he would return to Nikolski
on the 5th September, weather permitting, en route to Petropaulovski to coal.
35. On the 31st August the "Yakout" called at Nikolski for provisions and
to take Dr. Slunin on board.    I had a long conference with Captain Chmeilevsky.
36. During my stay on the islands, in conversation and otherwise, I collected s
considerable information from the natives.    '
37. Early in the morning of the 4th September, the " Archer " steamed into
Nikolski Bay, although I had not expected her until the 6th. The weather was
very fine and had been for the past few days. It was arranged that I should board
the " Archer" the following morning and go to Copper Island.
38. During the night, however, the wind sprung up and the sea ran so high that
the " Archer " had to put to sea for safety. During the 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th the
storm raged rendering it impossible either to land on the island or to leave it.
Between the night of the 8th and morning of the 9th the gale moderated and
towards the afternoon both the " Zabiaka " and the " Archer " steamed into the bay.
The sea was still running very high but a landing was effected about a mile and a
half from the village. 39. At 4.50 p.m., I rejoined the ship, which had not came to anchor. We
proceeded to Petropaulovski for coal, arriving there at 6.30 on the morning of the
12th September.
The " Yakout " was then in port, but sailed at 5.25 p.m. for Komandorsky Islands.
40. At 2.25 p.m., Friday 15th, the " Zabiaka" arrived from the Komandorsky
Islands.
41. On Sunday L7th, at 2.45 a.m., the steam sealing schooner " Warlock " Captain
Adolph Ridderbjikle, of Victoria, B.C., arrived at Petropaulovski. The captain said
he had cleared from Victoria on the 10th June on a seal hunting voyage to the North
Pacific Ocean ; that his vessel was a poor sailer; that her engines were constantly
getting out of order ; that he had encountered very bad weather, and at Sand Point
had taken out a new clearance for Petropaulovski.    He had taken no seals.
42. On the 18th September, we started for Komandorsky Islands reaching
Nikolski at 7.45 a.m. on the 21st. Here Captain Rogers got the papers of ihe seized
Canadian sealing schooner "Maud S. " which had been left there for him.
43. It had been intended to make another visit to Copper Island and thence to
Hakodate en route to Yokohama It was however getting late in the season, the bad
quality of the coal procured at Petropaulovski combined with adverse winds and
weather induced Captain Rogers to abandon the trip to Copper Island and sail direct
for Hakodate.    Therefore, our course was thus shaped at noon 21st September.
44. On the way down we encountered continuous head winds and heavy seas,
reducing speed to a minimum. This, added to the rate of consumption of coal,
decided the captain, when within about 70 miles of Petropaulovski to run into that
port for more coal to enable us to increase speed to Hakodate. We consequently
reached Petropaulovski at 8 o'clock a.m., Sunday, 24th September, and coaled that
day.
45 The sealer " Warlock" was still in port. The master came on board and
informed us that without having seized his vessel, the captain of the " Zabiaka "
had taken his papers and sealing equipment. This, the Russian commander had stated,
was done as a protective measure. He left with the Governor of Petropaulovski
papers sufficient to enable him to go to Yokohama—which port, he said, he desired to
reach. The Russian Commander told him he would receive from the British Consul
there his original papers and equipment, which would be sent there by him.
46. At noon Monday, 25th September, having completed coaling, the " Archer "
left Petropaulovski for Hakodate. It was understood that the " Warlock " would
leave on the 27th.
47. The agreement provided that my stay should not be prolonged beyond a
few weeks, and as I had remained in the vicinity five weeks, and as the season was
getting late, it was not thought advisable to visit Robben Islands.
48. We reached Hakodate on the morning of 30th September at 8.30 o'clock.
As we steamed toward the entrance of the Harbour we passed the seized schooner
"Arctic," presumably on her way to Yokohama.
49. On arrival at Hakodate we received our mail from H.M. gunboat
" Firebrand," then in. port. This was the first and only mail I received while on
this duty. It contained the Supplementary Report of the Behring Sea Commissioners and Mr. Macoun's report of his recent investigation; together with my formal
appointment from the Foreign Office, none of which had reached Canada prior to
my departure. I went ashore and called upon- the British Consul, who gave
me all the information he could touching the sealing fleet that had called at
Hakodate. 10
50. At 5 o'clock, a.m., on the 2nd October, the "Archer" left Hakodate for
Yokohama having in the meantime coaled ship, reaching the latter port about noon
on Wednesday the 4th.
51. During my stay in Japan, awaiting the sailing of the Canadian Pacific Railway steamer " Empress of Japan," I called upon Admiral Sir E. Fremantle, H.B M.
Charge d'Affaires at Tokio, and H.B.M. Consul at Yokohama, touching the question of
the seal fisheries, *and exchanged information on the subject.
52. I also met the Captains of the seized schooners "Arctic" and "Maud S.",
and others interested in the sealing business.
53. On Friday, 13th October, I embarked on board the steamer " Empress of
Japan " and at 1.30, p.m., sailed for Victoria, British Columbia, reaching that port at
2.30 p.m., on the 24th October.
54. Mr. A. R. Milne, Collector of Customs, kindly provided me with office
accommodation and I proceeded immediately with my inquiry in the line of my
instructions.
55. The nature of the information I was seeking rendered my progress comparatively slow. On the 10th November, finding that which I had collected was
quite representative of the fleet which operated in Japanese and Russian waters
this year, and any which followed must of necessity be very similar, I decided to
return to Ottawa as soon as possible. **^^
56. Reaching Vancouver on the 11th, I remained over one day consulting several
gentlemen interested in the sealing business, and getting positions of the Vancouver
schooner " Beatrice," which vessel had been on the Japan coast and in waters around
Komandorsky Islands this year.
57. I left Vancouver at 2 p.m., Sunday 12th, arriving in Ottawa on the 18th
November.
OBSERVATIONS ON THE ISLANDS.
58. The operations of the company, under their franchise from the Russian Government, had ceased on the 13th and 14th of August, on Behring and Copper Islands,
respectively, prior to my arrival.
59. The positions of the seal rookeries on Komandorsky Islands are as follows :—
C 1. Na Rifoo.
North Rookery, Behring Island. < 2. Moroscechnik.
( 3. Tejiakovo.
Lies 11 miles west J north from Cape Vaksel and 10 miles north-east f east from
deep water off North-west Cape (magnetic.)
South Rookery, Behring Island.—Lies 8 miles north-westward off Cape Peres-
chicka and three-quarters of a mile south-east of Polojorno (Midday) Cape (magnetic).'
Stolkovoi Kamen, opposite Korabelny, Copper Island. Lat 54° 43' N. Long. 167°
50' E.
Babi Padiom, Copper Island.—About Lat. 54° 34' N.   Long. 167° 57' E.
From this place the seals extend at intervals north-westward.    Seals are also to
be found from South East Cape towards Babi Padiom.
60. I reached North Rookery on the 21st August, and took a casual preliminary
observation of the main portion of the rookery and its surroundings. The young
seals were playing around the boat on its passage to the shore, and close to the vessel
as she lay at anchor; the water being literally alive with them. In the immediate
vicinity of the rookery and beaches, almost as far as the eye could reach, countless
numbers of seals were swimming in the water. Straggling ones could also be seen
at varying distances from the shore, never apparently exceeding two to three miles- had just o
rookery, 1
oeally known  as Na  Rifo
complete i
rookery, without driving th
place for t
hem to go.    I made a thoro
ras not ne
lassed in
nd which
rer, that t
junted 285 dead pups, 150 of which had certainly died this year. The re-
esented the appearance of having been dead for a long time, and I should
their deaths had occurred prior to the present year, in some instances
jug left but the hardened skin, with even the hair and far partially worn
e other hand, those which had unquestionably died this year, although
ses being in an advanced state of decomposition, were in a comparatively
f preservation. From the appearance of some six or eight of these pups, it is
>nable whether they had ever lived. It was also noticeable that although
f of the dead were undoubtedly young suckling pups, yet the death rate
^essarily confined to that class, as I observed several larger pups which
appearance with those which were pointed out to me as this year's,
were then quite large and taking care of themselves. I may add, how-
kis latter class was found further from the rookery.
i majority of the dead pups were principally on the fringe of the rookeries,
iber being found also on the sand spit or hauling ground,
addition to occupying ground which had just been vacated by seals, I snc-
jrettiug in among the seals, and although I made a careful examination both at close quarters, among and behind the rocks, and with the aid of glasses, yet
I found fewer dead pups among the seals, than on the fringes of the rookeries.
71. On my previous visits, when I could not approach sufficiently close to make
other than a casual observation, the presence of large numbers of crows and gulls
mixing with the seals aroused my curiosity and led me to more closely examine
deeper into the centres of the rookery when the opportunity was afforded. As a
result, I may say that while there were, so far as I could see, fewer dead pups in the
thicker parts of the rookery, those to be seen there were in a better state of preservation. My attention was attracted by two crows, one picking at the head of a pup
and the other at its hind flippers. The pup would snap at them, but although
within two or three feet of adult seals, probably the mother and others, they paid
no attention whatever to the operations of the crows.
72. Mr. R. Karlson, a carpenter, who had been all year at North Rookery, told me
that the crows picked the eyes out of the pups and that they then became an easy prey.
He seemed to be alone in this opinion, and as there are enough dead carcases to afford
any food they may be seeking, I would not be inclined to give much weight to this
theory.
73. On this visit there were fewer seals in the water than on any previous one,
yet there were enormous numbers disporting in the immediate vicinity of the
rocks.
74. I observed one pup about 300 yards shorewards from the body of the seals.
This pup was quite young, as could be seen by the rough, dark hair, and its size
and appearance. It was quite emaciated and having evidently wandered away from
the rookeries, and did not appear to be able to make its way back.
75 I found another pup about 100 yards from the main body of the seals, but more
in their track than was the previous one ; this pup was asleep; it was also older
than the previous one. I touched it twice with a stick, but only awakened it with
a sharp slap of the hand. It appeared very frightened, bleating like a lamb. For
some moments it showed its teeth and appeared to be in readiness to defend itself,
but seeing that it was not further molested, it quickly made its way towards the
main body of the seals.
76. The sleeping seals slept so heavily that I could approach them without any
care whatever, and touch them before they would notice my presence.
77. On the afternoon of the 28th August I visited the other sections of the rookery,
going on the places vacated by the seals, as I had done on the first section.
78. At Moroscechnik I counted 205 dead pups. About one-third of this number
might correctly be stated as being of this year's mortality, the remaining two-thirds
exhibited the same conditions as previously explained. I could not form any reasonable opinion as to the length of time they had been dead.
79. As before, and although I had better opportunities of observing the thickly
occupied portion of the rookeries, the general conformation being more favorable,
comparatively few dead pups were to be noticed thereon, the majority being found
on the outer edges of the rookery.
80. During each of my visits I made a most thorough search for anything which
had the appearance of excrement, and each time failed to discover the slightest
trace of such. This fact appeared to me the more remarkable from the further
fact that I passed over, and minutely examined, ground which a few moments
previously had been occupied by thousands of seals, and which did not present any
difficulties in the way of observing any ejected matter. There is a peculiar odour
attaching to the rookeries which probably arises from the bodies of such a mass of
-animal life. 81. On the morning of the 29th August, acting unde* authority, Dr. Slunin, had
Officials make a drive of about 50 or 60 seals. When about half the distance te the
salt-house had been covered, one seal refused to be driven any further, taking a stand
and fighting the drivers. For seme time, they endeavoured to force this animal into
obedience but Without success. It received several prods and blows from their
clubs, but stubbornly refused to move and at the same time keeping the men at a safe
distance. By this time the other seals were slightly scattering, and this one was left
to make its way back to the rookeries, which it did. I observed, however, that it
Went by a different route from that which it had been driven and was lost to sight
on a remote part of the rookery, nearer the sea front. The seals were eventually
driven close to the salt-house.
82. In this small " drive/' when females alone were wanted, there was one pup
and two holluschickie. While they were being viewed by the party preparatory
to the selection of a few for killing, some of them charged the drivers quite
ferociously, the latter nimbly avoiding their teeth and poking them with their
clubs. So persistent was one, that a native struck it a sharp blow on the nose. It
rolled over apparently dead. This was the only one clubbed, the other four being
rendered inanimate by strangulation, by means of a slip knot dexterously placed
around their hecks as they raised their heads when a club was pointed at them. They
were then seized by the front flipper and a knife driven into their hearts.
83. As each of these seals was despatched, Dr. Slunin made a minute examination
by dissection, in my presence, with the following results :—
1. Stomach entirely empty, With the exception of a few parasitic worms.   Intestines
containing a deep yellow liquid, With some excrement in a pasty state. A very
slight show of milk, which the Doctor stated was drying up. The reproductive
organs were removed and preserved.
2. Stomach entirely empty, with the exception of 2 parasitic Worms.    Intestines
containing very little yellow liquid, and a very slight show of excrement. No
show of milk.    Reproductive organs wTere removed.
3. Stomach empty, with the exception of a small amount of yellowish jtticy substance
resembling bile, and a few parasitic worms. Intestines contained considerable
yellow liquid, also considerable excrement, some exuding during process of
dissection.   Slight show of milk similar to No. 1.   Reproductive organs removed.
4. Stomach empty with the exception a few parasitic worms.    Intestines contained
some yellOW liquid and some parasitic worms, and a Vefy slight show of excrement. A slight show of milk similar to No. 1. Reproductive organs were
rerhOved.
5. Stomach empty with the exception o'f some parasitic worms.    Intestines con
tained some yellowish liquid and a slight show of excrement, in a pasty state.
Slight show of milk similar to No. 1.    Reproductive organs were removed.
84. After an examination of the reproductive organs, Dr. Slunin stated that in
none of the five seals, could he detect the slightest sign of impregnation. He further
stated that he had performed similar operations on five female seals last fall, 2nd
(14th) October, at which late date, similar conditions obtained, even to a slight
show of milk.    Neither in those nor in any of them, did he find a trace of embryo-
85. He expressed the opinion that of two of the five seals examined in my presence, one had pupped five times and the other ten. He judged this from the
appearance of the reproductive organs on which, he said, a whitish spot appeared for
each birth.
86. While watching the natives binding the skins for transportation, I suggested
that a few, just as they lay, might be weighed.    Seven skins without selection were weighed with the following result:—9J, 8, 13, 8, 9f, 7£ and 10 English pounds
respectively. It may be stated that the skins shipped from the Komandorsky Islands
are flayed as closely as possible, having due regard to their proper preservation, and
very little " meat " is left. It was stated to me by Mr.'Malowansky, that the skins
taken on Copper Island averaged larger than those on Behring Island.
87. The first time I saw the rookeries it rained, and there were very many seals
in the water. The second time the sun was hot, with like results. The third and
fourth times were on a pleasant day, with the sun overcast, and comparatively few
seals were in the water, the rookeries and hauling grounds being well filled up. This
accords with the statement of the natives and others, while it shows that the seals
will leave the-rookeries for other purposes than to obtain food.
88. It was also noticeable that the seals on the rookeries remained in touch with
the dead ones, without apparently paying any attention whatever to them.
89. The condition of the rookeries and surroundings, bore unmistakeable proof of
the fact that the officials do not regard it of importance to clean them of the dead
and rotting carcasses, in the fall after the seals have left.
90. Whatever may be said for or against terrestrial or pelagic sealing, as at present
conducted, or the relative destructiveness of these methods to seal life, there can be
no question that the possibilities of the one far outweigh those of the other.
Standing in the vicinity of a seal rookery, and viewing the animals thereon, it cannot but be strikingly apparent that they are, while on land, wholly at the mercy of
man. Only the most favourable circumstances and conditions could enable them to
escape an attempt at extermination. If attacked from the sea, it would be but a question of the number of men to do the work. If attacked from the shore, many could
escape into the sea.
91 In the water, however, the conditions are reversed, and the animals are comparatively safe. That their natural instinct leads them to an appreciation of this fact
is shown by the rapidity with which they will seek the water, in panic, at the
approach of threatened danger. Once having gained the element in which they can
bring into full play their powers of locomotion, their safety is almost assured, and
they will surround a boat or vessel at quite close quarters, raising their heads out of
water in the most inquisitive manner.
92. No concerted action on the part of pelagic sealers, no matter how persistent,
could, it is submitted, compass the extermination of the seals. " Travelling " seals
are seldom followed by the sealers, and when they are, with very little or no success.
Besides, at no time could the main body of the seals be found at any particular part of
the ocean ; the herds of the two groups of Seal Islands, going to and coming from
those islands, being distributed from shore to shore of the North Pacific Ocean, in
many cases following the sinuosities of the coast, a distance of many thousand miles.
While during certain periods, the majority of the seals—and according to the United ;
States and Russian authorities the whole of them—are to be found congregated on
very circumscribed rocks and beaches, at the small islands of St. Paul, St. George,
Behring, Copper, and Robben.
i'3. That the operators on the islands can select for slaughter, certain classes of
seals not immediately required for rookery service, is not necessarily a complete vindication of the method. It has been stated, that on the American islands, the annual
draught upon this class impoverished the rookeries ; so much so that a total cessation
of killing for a term of years was recommended. This class is as necessary from
which to draw breeding seals, as are the females themselves, and its undue dimu-
nition must necessarily have the same effect upon seal life as would that of the
females. Besides, it is not shown that these so-called " bachelors " are not useful as
breeders, although they may not go on the rookeries occupied by the "bulls." 15
OPERATIONS ON THE ISLANDS.
94. The Russian Seal-skin Company's agent explained the following synopsis of
regulations of the Russian Government, which have to be complied with by the
company's officials, in the exercise of their franchise on the islands.
A report of each " drive," on forms provided, is necessary.   This report to show :
The number of holluschickie killed at each " drive."    If any females, " bulls "
or pups are killed. If any damaged skins are taken.   The number of men employed
in the killing gang.    Absentees must be reported and the reasons for their absence
given.
The men are held responsible for the quality of the skins delivered
If the flayer injures the skin, his name must be reported.
A fine is imposed for spoiling skins; for killing females, or for taking bad skins.
The " drives " to the killing grounds should begin at 6 o'clock in the morning
and continue until 10 o'clock.    Killing to begin at noon and end at 7 o'clock, p.m.,
whenever possible.    The clerk gives a receipt for the number of skins delivered at
the salt-houses.
95   "Drives" on Komandorsky Islands by the Russian Seal-skin Company, during
the year 1893, supplied by Mr. Grebnitzky, Governor of the Islands,
NORTH  ROOKERY,  BEHRING  ISLAND.
English Skins
dates. '    taken.
May  28 (for food)  3
June 24  826
July    2  568
"     13  472
"     18  1,370
1     23  1,670
|     27  1,516
I     31  1,159
Aug.   5  1,392
7  852
"     10  400
"     13  1,932
12,160
In all 14 females killed.
South Rookery, Behring Island (no details)      327
Total, Behring Island 12,487
GLINKA, copper island.
May   22  58
June    5  100
"     21  714
"     26  250
"     26  570
July    1  782
««         4                  1,215
9  524
14  300
"       14  624
1*1      .               890
"   mmS   242
«      22        537
24	
26..
876
       420
Aug. t::::::::::::::.::::::::::::::::::  ™
« 4       116 16
English Skins
Aug."' m    *i«
«      11       566
12        304
»«     18     452
"       14       V42
 10,900
Korabelny, Gosper Island.
June 11  623
"     15  872
I     go   •     -398
July     $..?.T?..Jt* - ™
*\  265
"      10...,  Ttl
"      18  1,024
B      26 n  146
27            116
I      27  HO
"      31  236
5,345
Added i        26
Total Copper Island  16,271
Total Komandorsky Islands 28,758
Add skins taken from Eobben Island    1,532
Total Russian Seal Islands 1893 30,290
Note.—In the summary of the sealing catch, compiled by the Collector of Customs at Victoria, appendix No. 37, the
number of skins landed at San Francisco by the company's steamer " Kotik, from Petropaulovski, is given at 33,193. I
am unable to say from what source the 2,903 skins, in excess of the number killed on the islands, were drawn.
96. Drives on Russian Seal Islands for 1892 and 1891, from information supplied
by Mr. Pafsky, acting during absence of Mr. Grebnitzky.
1892.
BEHRING  ISLAND.
No dates shown on books.
1 drive  1,380
6 drives  4,192
8     "       7,5o4
1     "       988
1 "             510
2 "          1,482
1?     "            499
36 drives  16,565
COPPER   ISLAND.
7 drives     2,151
6     "          3,735
3 "           1,165
2     |             728
1 "            514
2 '           1,851
0     '          2,379
501
35 drives  15-024
■p Zutu r i    T°tal      31>6«9
Robben Island  /None) 1891.
behring Island.
Se
3 drives     fp
     I/,
10
1
3
17
84
5,654
774
4.741
670
COPPER ISLAND.
10 drives     3,492
1°     I      1     5,196
5 "          1,902
2 "       1,017
1 |       933
3 "       556
6 "       2,622
12 "       1,176
49     "      [  16,894
ROBBEN  ISLAND.
Number of skins taken  540
Total 1891      33,003
97. Details of the drives at North Rookery, Behring Island, during 1892 and 1891
taken from a memorandum by Alexander Selivanoff. South Rookery drives not given.
* 1892.
June   1..
"    22..
"    27..
July   2...
9
766
568
313
6	
296
903
.    1,325
911
. 1,072
. 1,543
1,288
. 1,127
.    1,487
846
980
.    1,132
. 14,566
Seals.
51
300
606
445
456
774
1,233
796
figures  give the
oer larger.
ctual
1    14	
"    18	
"    22	
"    24	
"    29	
"      7
"    11 	
"    12                       	
"    16	
"    20          	
Total North Rookery 1892.
* 1891.
"19               ;                             	
"   27                                      	
JUly   9                       	
"    23 .              	
«    9K                                               	
* The
number of
5
number of " drives " cannot agree with the figures given above,
" drives," from different points of the rookery on the same date, thus
because those
making the num Aug.   2.
19..
25..
Sept.
31..
678
1,642
1,842
1,060
1,550
1,218
469
32
Total North Rookery 1891  18,152
Recapitulation.
1893     30,290 skins, including 1532 from Robben Island.
1892     31,589     "    none taken from Robben Island.
1891     38,003     "    including 540 from Robben Island.
98. The above figures represent the take of the present lessees of the Russian
Seal Islands, and show an average killing of 31,627 seals per annum.
99. During the previous ten years, covering the last half of the term these Islands
were leased to the Alaska Commercial Company, 458,701 seals were taken therefrom
by that company, averaging annually 45,870 ; and during the three yea,xs immediately
preceding the operations of the present company, 156,220 seals were taken, an
average of 52,073 per annum.
100. Mr. Grebnitzky, the Russian Administrator on the Islands, states that the
| drives " finished earlier in 1893, because of the agreement between Great Britain
and Russia limiting the number to be killed, as well as from the fact that the seals
were not so shy as they formerly were, by reason of the absence of pelagic sealers
close in shore.
101. Mr. Julius Lindguist, at present resident at Petropaulovski, was on Behring
Island during 1890, and up to August, 1891, in the employ of the Alaska Commercial Company.    He lived at North Rookery as overseer of the operations- there,
102. He stated that on occasions, the authorities allowed bulls to be slaughtered,
for the purpose of making skin boats, &c For this purpose, during 1891, twenty
bulls were killed. It was his opinion that this practice was injurious, because there
were not too many of this class of seals, and he thought that the bulls had too many
females to serve. "What he terms " half bulls" have, he says, sometimes been
killed for making boats, &c. He deprecates this practice, because they are then
nearly ready for rookery service.
103. Mr. John Malowansky, agent for the Russian Seal-skin Company, advanced
the theory, that during the " drives," by the company's employees, thousands of seals -
are disturbed and forced to great distances over a rough and tortuous route, under "
most distressing conditions. A large percentage of these animals are not killed at
the time, for various reasons ; some escaping, some being turned back, others, not
coming up to the standard after reaching the killing grounds. Nevertheless, the
seals which have thus survived the " drives," have undergone all the harassing
conditions thereof. This goes on day after day, the same seals in many instances
being subjected to the ordeal time and again.
104. The reason he gives for forming this opinion is, that the pelagic sealers off
Pribylov Islands have often told him that the seals would appear on certain days,
and then as suddenly disappear.
105. It would not be surprising, if following a natural instinct of preservation,
these seals, both male and female, instead of immediately returning to the rookeries and hauling grounds respectively, should be frightened out to sea, until the immediate dread had sufficiently worn off to induce them to return to land.
106. In the light of all the circumstances connected with the sealing industry,
and in view of the diversity of opinion, as to the feeding excursions of the seals from
the islands, this theory may not be without force, and would seem to supply a better
reason for migration than the theory of search of food or exercise, either of which can
be had in any sufficient degree in the immediate vicinity of the islands.
107. Another reason is thus afforded for the presence of seals at sea, and one
immediately due to the methods of killing practised by the lessees of the islands. If
the seals cannot be proven either to go, or to be compelled to go, from the islands for
food; then some other cause must be looked for, and if they leave the islands, once
having established themselves there, some valid reason must be found.
108. If in the interest of the protection of seals, the dates of the " drives " on the
respective islands were procured, on the one hand, and the dates of the killing by
the pelagic sealers, in the vicinity of the islands fixed on the other, it might be established, that the catches of the pelagic sealers had some bearing upon the " drives "
on the islands.
109. It was noticeable that in Japan, there was quite a deep-rooted prejudice
against pelagic sealing, because the difference between the legitimate operations of
the Canadian fleet, and the vicious habits of the poacher or raider, forming the only
kinds of seal hunting hitherto understood there, could not be appreciated. Hence
they were all classed together.
110. The presence, however, of a number of the Canadian sealers at Hakodate
this year, brought them in contact with the officials there, and their methods have
become better understood. H.B.M. Consul Hall, spoke quite highly of the Canadian
sealers as a class.
EVIDENCE.
111. Briefly, the points for enquiry, embraced in my instructions may be put as
follows :—
1. A careful examination of the supplementary Report of the British Behring
Sea Commissioners, and of the report of
Mr. Macoun's investigations of 1892 as
indicating the particular facts concerning
seal life which remained still in doubt.
112. I. Owing to my necessarily hurried departure from Ottawa, and the fact that
neither of these documents had, up to that
time, been communicated to the Canadian
Government, it is a matter of regret that I
was unable to avail myself of the assistance
these papers would have rendered me, in
my researches on the islands.
Only on my return to Hakodate en
route to Yokohama, did they, together with
my formal appointment from the Right
Honourable the Earl of Rosebery, reach me.
113. 2. An examination of the facts
bearing on the efficiency, or otherwise, of
the protective zone around the islands, provided by the agreement; and a comparison
of the circumstances existing under it,
with those obtaining in 1891 and 1892.
(a.) (See also c). Whether females,
whilst suckling regularly go to great distances from the breeding islands, and are
killed by pelagic sealers; their young on
the islands perishing in consequence. M. Grebnitzky, Governor Komandorsky Islands.
Alexander Selivanoff, Russian official
at North Rookery, during killing season.
Appendix No. 3.
20
114 (a.) To the question:—" Do female
seals whilst suckling their young, regularly go to great distances from the breeding
islands; " this official replied, that he did
not think they went to great distances in
July (the suckling month), as they then
suckled three or four times per day. Later
on, however, they suckled only once a day.
He stated that young were found with
milk in their stomachs, as late as November, and he added he could not account
for this because he did not know how long
the seals suckled their young.
115. Again, in answer to a question as
to the earliest date at which females resort
to sea after giving birth to their young ;
this official stated that he knew the females
did go to sea to feed, but only within sight
of the rookeries, while they were nursing their
young.
116. And still further when asked if
they then sought the sea for the purpose of
feeding, he answered "yes; but not out of
sight of the rookeries."
117. Asked as to his opportunities for
observation, he replied: he had seen
females go out for feeding, and he had seen
in the stomachs of seals examined, food
which could not be obtained in the immediate vicinity of the islands.
118. During the time the female seals
are suckling their young, they do not go to
great distances to feed, but if the weather
is fine and no storms are prevailing, they
will go 8 or 9 miles from shore, but no
further, while nursing. "When the weather
is stormy, and the sea is running high, the
nursing females will go only a very short
distance from the rookeries. This official
states that he has seen a female seal nurse
her pup early in the morning, leave the
rookery for a few hours, return and again
nurse the pup. During the month of June,
when the pups are young, the mothers do
not leave them for a longer time than about
four hours. But later on, in July, when
the pups are older, they will remain away
for nine or ten hours at a time.
119. He states that he judges the distances from personal observations, with
field glasses. It was his duty to supply the
officials with all the information he could
gather, during his daily observations of
the rookeries and seals, and he watched
the animals leave and return. He would
not mistake females.
Alexey Badaeff.   Seal "
ag Island.
Appendix No. 4.
120. The statement of this native is,
that while the females are suckling their
young, they do not wander far from the
rookeries ; in his opinion not further than
five miles. They go this distance for food, of ,
which they can find sufficient there. In
warm weather, the females will also go
into the water, though not in search of
food, and at such times will remain quite
close to the shore. 21
Waldemar Paetz, Agent Russian Sealskin Company, Behring Island.
Appendix No. 2.
Emile Kluge, agent Russian Seal
skin Company, Copper Island.
Mr. Julius Lindguist, agent for
Messrs. Welsh, Hall & Co., at Petro-
paulosvki.
Capt. D. A. Grunberg, of the Russian'
Seal-skin Company's schooner  " Leon,"
which called at Robben Island for the
season's catch of seal-skins.
Appendix No. 5.
121. This witness says :
If females whilst suckling their young,
do go off the rookeries for food, they do
not go any considerable distance from the
shore. They would go early in the morning and soon return to the rookeries. He
also states, that he does not believe a
breeding female will go far to sea for food,
until the first week in September, because
she can get food near the islands. He
further expressed the opinion, that he did
not believe any of the seals went far from
the rookeries, from the time they landed
until they departed in the fall; not further
than the protective zone. Being able to
get all the food they require close in shore,
he could not see any reason for their making
lengthy excursions.
122. Expressed the opinion, that females feed while suckling their young,
because they go into the water for food,
he thinks 50 or 60 miles off. He observed
this while on Robben Island more particularly, because there is a better chance
to see there, as the rock is small. He also
expresses the opinion that " bachelors "
probably go as far to sea as the females;
" but," he said, " who can answer." Pups
do not go far off shore ; neither does he
think the big bulls go off the rookeries,
except in hot weather or when it is raining.
123. Mr. Lindguist was on Behring
Island, in the employ of the Alaska Commercial Company, during 1890, and up to
August, 1891. He lived at North Rookery,
as overseer of operations there, in the
interests of the company.
He expressed the opinion that the
nursing females do not go far from the
rookeries until August, but after that, he
has seen herds of seals going off, including
females, especially during stormy weather.
They would not, he thought, go far from
shore.
124. Being asked: " Do female seals,
while suckling, regularly go to great distances from the breeding islands.? " replied,
11 do not think they do, while suckling."
To the query: " Then the female seals killed
at sea, are not mothers suckling their
young?" he answered, " No, they are not.
This might occur within a mile or two
from shore, while in that condition, because at this time the mothers never go
any further to sea."
125. He further stated that after the
pups were weaned, the females go to greater
distances off shore, and that, generally
speaking, irrespective of sex,he has noticed
that the seals go further off shore during
the month of August than during the two
previous months. That some of these
seals are females is proven by the fact that
the breeding places are thinned off at this
time. He further believes that they can
get all the food they need near the island,
because they do not go beyond one or two
miles therefrom. Charles Leblanc, master of the sealing schooner " Sadie Turpel,"
Appendix No. 6.
William Sheilds, master and hunte:
of the sealing schooner " Vera."
Appendix No. 7.
"Wentworth E. Baker, master of the
aling schooner " Oscar and Hattie."
Appendix No. 8.
22
126. Again, he says: After the 15th
August he has noticed seals S. W. of
Behring Island, as far as 80 miles off, he
presumes looking for food. He could not
say whether they were males or females ;
but if females, the young would at this
time have been weaned, and able to take
care of themselves.
127. States that of the catch around
Komandorsky Islands, very few of the
females taken had a full flow of milk.
After the 8th August, he went north of
the islands, and the females taken there
were drying up in different stages.
128. Says the seals taken off Copper
Island were mixed, male and female;
perhaps more females than males. About
half of the females had a pretty free flow
of milk, the other half appeared to be
drying up.
129. Early in July, the seals taken
south of the islands were mostly males,
with very few cows. The cows had a
considerable flow of milk at that time.
islands, the females taken
up, and later on in August,
ily any sign of milk notice-
| one day 110 miles to the
ed the farther from
shore he got the slighter the show of milk,
while the females appeared to remain off
the islands.
North of the
were drying i
there was har<
able. He was
north; and  he
Melville Cutler, master of the sealing schooner "Agnes Macdonald."
Appendix No. 9.
W.H. Whitely, master of the sealing
schooner " Mermaid."
Appendix No. 10.
John B. Brown, master of the sealing
schooner " Walter P. Hall."
Appendix No 11.
130. Says that of the seals taken on the
Russian side, two-thirds were females having some show of milk, but in no instance
did he observe a full flow; all having the
appearance of various stages of drying up;
while those last killed had a very slight
show of milk.
131. The declarant states that he paid
particular attention to this, as he remained
in the vicinity for five days before getting
any seals, and when they began to arrive,
he mentioned to some of his men that they
had prospects of a good catch, as the
females were drying up, indicating that
the pups must have been weaned, and that
the seals might be expected to come off the
islands.
132. Says that on the whole, his catch
off the Komandorsky Islands, comprised a
small percentage more of females than
males. The females taken in July were
in fuller milk than at any other time.
Those taken during the first part of August,
were beginning to dry up, while towards
the end of August, they showed clearly
that they were drying, or had dried up.
133. States that his catch around the
Komandorsky Islands was about half male
and half female. He could not say as to
the stages of the milk, but he did not notice
any particularly free flow. William Cox, master of the s
schooner " Sapphire."
Appendix No. 12.
ialing 134. Says he took some females in
milk off Copper Island, but was unable to
say as to the actual stage of the milk.
3 Heater, master of the sealing
schooner " Ainoko."
Appendix No. 13.
Alfred Bissett, master of the i
schooner "Annie E. Paint."
Appendix No. 14.
135. States that of forty-six seals taken
off Komandorsky Islands, there were but
four females. They all had a show of
milk but were drying up, the milk being
clotted and in small quantity. He adds,
that the flow of milk from a suckling
female is so great that it cannot but be
noticed.
130. States that the seals taken off the
islands in July, were principally small
males, a few straggling cows, some barren
and some in milk. In August he got about
an equal number of males and females.
The females had a very slight show of
milk, which had begun to turn yellow,
thicken and dry up. After the 10th August,
his positions ranged between 90 and 120
miles offshore, and the seals taken were
principally males. The nearer the islands,
the more females.
William O'Leary, master of the sealing schooner " Geneva."
Appendix No. 15.
137. Says he took probably more
females than males off the Komandorsky
Islands; and that none of the females
were in full milk, though all had a slight
show of milk, which was evidently drying
up. He took care to observe the condition as to milk whenever it was possible
for him to do so.
Thomas H. Brown, hunter on board
the sealing schooner" Agnes Macdonald.'
Appendix No. 16.
138. Says he killed this year 76 seals
in the vicinity of Komandorsky Islands,
between the 25th July and 5th September.
Two-thirds of these were females, but not
one of them had a full flow of milk. They
all had signs of milk, but it was pretty well
dried up, and towards the end of the
season there was only a slight trace of
milk left. He adds that he has been four
years sealing in these waters, and the
above has been about his experience, except that the first year he was nearer land
and saw more bulls.
R. N. Crowell, master of the sealing
schooner " Brenda," in 1892.
Appendix No. 17.
Wm. Byers, master of the
schooner " Carlotta G. Cox."
Appendix No. 18.
139. States that in 1892, he was master of the schooner "Brenda," on a seal
hunting voyage in the vicinity of Komandorsky Islands. The seals he took there
during August, and up to 7th September,
were mixed males and females, the latter
being in different stages of drying up, as
regards milk; none showing a full flow.
140. Took fewer females in the neighbourhood of Komandorsky Islands than
ever before, there was more of a mixture of
males, being nearly half of that class. Up
to the 20th July, most of the. females
taken were in full milk, but after that
it was quite apparent that the milk was
drying up and intermixing with the fat.
In these waters, prior to and including the
20th July, he took 29 seals all told. Abel Douglas, master of the sealing
schooner " Arietas."
Appendix No. 19.
Mr. Chichkine in his letter to H. M.
Ambassador at St. Petersburg, 29th May
(10th June) 1893.
Correspondence, Russia, No. 3 (1893),
page 5.
Report of the Russian Commission,
appointed to enquire into the seizures
of 1892.
Correspondence, Russia, No. 3,1893.
page 12.
144 (b.) The mortality of "pups"
on the islands. More particularly during
the year 1892, as compared with 1893.
Mr. Grebnitzky, Governor of Komandorsky Islands.
Alexander Selivanoff, Russian official at North Rookery during killing
season.
Appendix No. 3.
141. The seals secured around Komandorsky Islands were mixed cows and
males, a few more females than males, and
a large number of non-breeding seals,
young males and females. Of the females,
comparatively few had a full flow of milk,
they being the first taken. In most of the
females the milk was drying up, and he is
of opinion the pups must havebeen weaned.
Towards the end of the season, only the
slightest trace of milk was observable.
142. Writing of the case of the British
sealing schooners "Willie MacGowan"
and " Ariel," seized by the Russian authorities in 1892, says : * * * " as well
"as of 76 skins, of which 69 had been
" taken from female animals, who must have
" therefore been killed close to the shore; 90
" per cent of the skins found on board the
" Ariel " had probably also been taken from
" nursing females, and belonged to seals
" caught in Russian territorial waters.*   * "
143. In the case of the schooner
" Marie," it is said : " Next morning search
" was made, both on the schooner and in
" the boats, which had rejoined her during
" the night, and 622 seal-skins were found,
" of which 585 were those of females, and
" consequently had been, taken close to the
" The skins taken from pregnant females,
" bear witness to the fact that the seals had
" been killed close to the shore.* In fact,
" during the period of suckling, in July and
"August, the females cannot go from the
" shore."
145. About four years ago, in very
stormy weather, he noticed many more
dead pups (grey) than usual. With regard
to dead pups on the rookeries very little
can be told, because the officials do not
go on the rookeries. In the fall, after the
seals have left, the number of dead pups
might be observed, but even then the
crows, foxes and gulls remove them. The
dead pups are not counted after the season
is over. No record of them had been
taken, but during the past two years he has
not observed many dead pups. Asked
how the present year compared with 1892
in this respect, Mr. Grebnitzky said
that the same answer applied. To the
question as to the different causes attributable for the death of " pups," Mr. Grebnitzky replied that he had never noticed
any disease ; sometimes they were killed
by the surf and sometimes the bulls
crushed'them.
146. States that he believes there were
more dead pups in 1892 than in 1891 or
1893. He did not count them, but there
appeared to be more. He attributed the
death of these pups to storms, and surf,
while many are crushed by the bulls. In
the autumn, during stormy weather, many
pups are killed by the waves. Alexey Badaeff, seal "driver," Behring Island
Appendix No. 4.
Waldemar   Paetz,   agent   Russia]
,1-skin Company, Behring Island.
Appendix No. 2.
Emile Kluge, agent Russian Sealskin Company, Copper Island.
Julius Lindguist, agent for Messrs.
Welsh, Hall & Co., at Petropaulovski.
Capt. D. A. Grunberg, of the Russian Seals-kin Company's schr. " Leon."
Appendix No. 5.
Thomas H. Brown, hunter on board
the sealing schooner" Agnes Macdonald."
Appendix No. 16.
147. Says that during the year 1892,
there were more dead pups on the rookeries
than in 1891 or 1893.
148. He places the figures in 1892 at
300 on North Rookery, and he expresses
the opinion, that these pups were killed by
the bulls crushing them, and by the surf,
during storms; stating that he knows of
no other cause of death except that a few
may be born dead.
149. Has neither observed nor heard of
any more dead pups one year than another
during his stay there. What few dead
pups there are, from year to year, are
mostly killed by the surf during storms.
150. Says there were not many dead
pups on the rookeries at Copper Island this
year. There were fewer than last year,
because there were not so many pups born.
There are always a few dead pups. He
attributed their death to the bulls crushing
them and to the surf during storms ; also
a few drowning while learning to swim.
He was unaware of any natural enemies in
the sea, or epidemic.
151. Expresses the opinion that there
are several hundred young pups crushed by
the bulls yearly, and the larger pups are
sometimes killed by the surf in the fall of
the year. He would place the mortality
at 300 or 400 on each island annually. He
is not aware of any epidemic, and the above
is the only cause of death he knows of.
152. Says a considerable number of
pups perish on the islands; some are
drowned in the surf while yet young and
learning to swim, a small number are
smothered by the breeding animals, others
are crushed by the bulls.
153. States that, in the year 1888, he
went as a boat steerer on board the sealing
schooner " Maggie Mac." His boat got
quite near the shore of Copper Island, and
they were fired upon, several bullets
piercing the boat. He noticed about one
hundred dead pups floating in the water,
from a few hundred yards to half a mile
off shore. He does not think there were
more than two or three vessels sealing
around the islands that year. He could
give no opinion as to the cause of the
death of these seals.
154. (c.) See also (a). The length of
time during which a pup is necessarily
suckled by its mother, before weaning,
and the earliest date the mother may
resort to sea after giving birth, whether
for food, and to what distance.
Mr. Grebnitzky, Governor of Komandorsky Islands.
155. States that from actual observation, he can say that a pup is necessarily
suckled by its mother from one and a-half
to two months. He cannot say how soon
they will resort to the sea, after giving
birth to their young. Alexander Selivanoff Russian official
at North Rookery during killing season.
Appendix No. 3.
26
156. From observations made, he is of
opinion, that a female seal will suckle her
young three or four weeks before weaning,
but he would not like to express an
opinion as to how long after giving birth
to her pup she would take to the water
for food.
Alexander Badaeff,
Behring Island.
Appendix No. 4.
eal   "driver'
157. Says that
observed pups suckl
that the seals were <
he believes that the
young; four months,
has
, personally
the whole time
ae rookeries, and
 ales nurse their
This  witness  also
states that he has seen females nursing
their pups in the water. He could not
say how soon after giving birth to their
pups, the females sought the water for
food.
Waldemar Paetz, agent for Russian
Seal-skin Company, Behring Island.
Appendix No. 2.
158. From his own observations, and
from what he has been able to gather from
the natives, Mr. Paetz believes he can
safely say that a female will suckle her
young three or four weeks before weaning
Emile Kluge agent for Russian Sealskin Company, Copper Island.
Julius Lindquist, agent for Messrs.
Welsh, Hall & Co. at Petropaulovski.
Capt. D. A. Grunberg, of the Russian
,1-skin Company's schooner " Leon."
Appendix No. 5.
159. Cannot say how lon§
:essarily suckled before wear
16
not suckle her young more than a month
and a half, but observations on the islands
are handicapped, because they are not
allowed to go on the rookeries.
161. Cannot say how long pups are
necessarily suckled by the mothers before
weaning, and would not like to give an
opinion as to the earliest date the mothers
take to the water, after weaning their
young.
Wm. O'Leary, master of the sealing
schooner " Geneva."
Appendix No. 15.
162. States that in previous years he
observed, in Behring Sea, odd females in
full milk, 80 miles offshore, and afterwards
would get females in which the milk was
drying up. He judged from this that the
females do not suckle their young longer
than from four to six weeks.
163. (d) As to the existence of "Banks"
or sealing grounds around the Komandorsky Islands, which banks His Excellency
M. Chichkine, 12th (24) February, states,
are frequented during certain seasons by
the female seals, the killing of which is
particularly destructive to the seal species,
at the time of the year when the females
are suckling their young, or go to seek food
on the banks known as the sealing grounds,
which the 30-mile zone is designed to
protect.
Capt. A. M. Domojiroff, Commander
of the Russian cruiser " Zabiaka."
164. Stated that he had sounded for
these "banks" as far as forty miles off the
islands, but had been unable to locate any
such " banks." 27
Capt. Chmeilevski, Commander of
the Russian cruiser " Yakout."
Mr. Grebnitzky, Governo:
andorsky Islands.
Emile Kluge, agent for the Russia:
Seal-skin Company at Copper Island.
Captain Grunberg, of the Russian
Seal-skin Company's schooner " Leon."
Appendix No. 5.
Charles Leblanc, master of the s
ing schooner | Sadie Turpel."
Appendix No. 6.
Wm. Sheilds, master and hunter of
the sealing schooner " Vera."
Appendix No. 7.
Wentworth E. Baker master of the
ealing schooner " Oscar and Hattie."
Appendix No. 8.
165. Said, with regard to the existence
fo " sealing " or " fishing banks," he cruised
forty miles from the islands, endeavouring
to find them, and although within this distance he sounded for them, he found no
evidence whatever of their existence. He-
did not search for them beyond forty miles
from land.
166. Stated that he had no personal
knowledge of feeding " banks," for seals at
sea, or of their location, but he had heard of
such from those on board the men-of-war
and the sealing schooners. In his report
to the Russian Government he says he
thinks the seals migrate further from Komandorsky Islands than from the Priby-
lovs, for feeding purposes, as there are a
number of shallow banks which afford
food. These banks, he says, are situated
to the southward of Copper Island, and to
the northward of Behring Island, about
150 miles. He bases this opinion on the
charts of confiscated schooners, showing
where seals are taken.
167. When asked with regard to the
presence of feeding grounds or banks
around the islands, he replied that he had
no personal knowledge of such, but that the
schooners reported feeding grounds E.S.E.
and E. of Copper Island, about 60 or 70
miles distant; that is to say they caught
the seals there.
168. Asked if he had any knowledge
of "feeding banks," in the vicinity of the
Russian Seal Islands, answered that he
had no personal knowledge of the existence of such banks, but he had heard
that they did exist to the south-west of
Behring Island, about 80 or 85 miles off,
and to the south of Copper Island, but he
had not heard how far off the latter island.
169. Knows of no " banks" to the
southward of Komandorsky Islands, but
there are plenty of surface fish, as far out
as 200 miles—squid and small fish of
different kinds.
170. Sounded around Copper Island
with200 fathoms of line, but was unable to
get any soundings. He never heard of anyone who had succeeded, and he knows of
no " banks " there. He has noticed a good
many squid around the island about 30
miles off, cut to pieces, probably by feeding
seals. He has seen seals eating squid. In
Behring Sea he has seen them eating cod.
171. Does not know of any " banks "
around Komandorsky Islands, where
soundings can be obtained. He has tried
for soundings three seasons, but has never
been able to get any, although he has used
120 and 200 fathoms of line. In certain
places, a discolouration of the water occurs
which has the appearance of soundings,
but none can be obtained. In his opinion
this probably accounts for the reported
" banks." Otto Bucholz, master of the sealing
schooner " Casco."
Appendix No. 20.
Melville Cutler, master of the sealing schooner " Agnes Macdonald."
Appendix No. 9.
W. H. Whitely, master of the sea
ing schooner "Mermaid."
Appendix No. 10.
John B. Brown, master of the sealing schooner " Walter P. Hall."
Appendix No. 11.
William Cox, master of the sealing
schooner " Sapphire."
Appendix No. 12.
George Heater, master of the sealing schooner " Ainoko."
Appendix No. 13.
Alfred Bissett, master of the sealing
schooner "Annie E. Paint."
Appendix No. 14.
172. Has no knowledge of any "banks"
to the southward of Komandorsky Islands.
Last year, when there was no protected
area, he was as close as 15, and as far off as
100 miles. This year, he kept off an average distance of 45 miles, and never found
any " banks," although he tried for bottom
fish, but could never get soundings with
120 fathoms of line. All the sealers he
has spoken to on the subject, have had the
same experience. On so long a voyage,
fresh fish is a luxury and they all try for
them. The above, he says, applies also to
the Japan coast, where the seals are taken
entirely out of soundings.
173. Knows of no " banks" to the
southward of Komandorsky Islands, where
soundings can be got: but there are plenty
of surface fish to be found. 50 or 60 miles to
the southward. He has seen quantities of
dead squid, which had been mutilated
by seals, and he also observed many
salmon jumping out of the water, during
his stay in the vicinity of the Russian
Islands, between 25th July and 5th September. In fact he was among fish all the
time.
174. Does not know of any " banks " to
the southward of Komandorsky Islands.
Last year he tried for bottom fish, about 30
miles off with 100 fathoms of line. He has
never heard of anyone else finding soundings.
175. There is a small "bank" in Lat.
53° N. Long. 170° E., 75 miles south west
of Attou Island. It is a very small "bank" ;
the shoalest part is 70 fathoms deep, but it
is so small it is almost impossible to keep
on it. This is off the most easterly American Island.
176. There are large quantities of
squid around Komandorsky Islands, everywhere, as far off as 100 miles
177. Is not aware of any "banks"
around Komandorsky Islands, neither does
he know of any sealers who have ever got
soundings there. There is an abundance
of squid and salmon, as far off as 150 miles.
178. There are no " banks" to the southward of Copper Island, where sealers have
ever been able to get soundings, though
some sealers have reported a small " bank "
S. W. of Attou Island, 75 miles off, but he
thinks they have never found bottom,
judging only from the colour of the water.
179. Does not know of any "bank"
around Copper Island. The most of the
seals he got there were taken about 50
miles offshore.
180. Has seen discoloured water,
which certainly had the appearance of
soundings, but he has never heard of any
having been got, although he has tried with
150 fathoms of line. Wm. O'Leary, master of the sealing
schooner " Geneva."
Appendix No. 15.
181. Squid, salmon and other fish, in
quantities, can be found from 60 to 120
miles off.
182. Knows  of no "banks" around
i Copper Island.    He has never been able to
get any soundings, nor has he heard that
anyone else has ever succeeded. He has
seen salmon and squid from 50-to 90 miles
off shore.
Thomas H.  Brown,  seal hunter
board schooner " Agnes Macdonald."
Appendix No. 16.
R. N. Crowell, master of the s
schooner '* Brenda," in 1892.
Appendix No. 17.
Wm. D. Byers, master of the sealing
schooner "Carlotta G. Cox."
Appendix No. 18.
n 183. Has never known of any " banks "
around the Komandorsky Islands. Hunters
do not know much about the position of
the ship, but he has seen salmon jumping
around the boat, outside the 30-mile limit,
and there were plenty of squid in the same
locality.
184. Says that during the year 1892, he
went on a seal hunting voyage around the
Komandorsky Islands, as master of the
schooner " Brenda." The only bank he
knows of in the vicinity is north of Behring Island, off Cape Olgontorsky. The
centre of this " bank" is about in latitude
58° N, longitude 170° E. Soundings can be
had from 40 fathoms up.
185. Knows of no "banks" to the
southward of Copper Island. He has
sounded with 100 fathoms of line, looking
for fish about 50 miles off, but could get
no soundings.
186. Squid, salmon and other fish are
plentiful 100 miles off.
Abel Douglas, master of the sealing
schooner " Arietas."
Appendix No. 19.
187. Has tried for fish to the southward
of Komandorsky 1 slands, but could get no
soundings. There are no banks" there.
In some places, the water has the appearance in colour as though soundings existed,
and this doubtless accounts for reported
" banks." Plenty of squid and salmon off
the Island in July and August.
188. (e.) Whether, in the event of
females occasionally dropping their young
at sea, or losing them on the islands, and
being thereafter found still in milk, at
great distances from the rookeries, they
would resort to and remain on the islands.
Mr. Grebnitzky, Governor of Kom-
ndorsky Islands.
189. On this point, expresses the
opinion that the females, under such circumstances, would remain on shore, but
that they would not copulate. In his
report to the Russian Government, a
synopsis of which is appended hereto
(Appendix No. 1) he says : " Some females,
" which are disturbed in their migrations
" to the breeding rookeries, lose their pups
" in the water. They are then liable to
" illness, and some die, before reaching the
" rookeries. Those of them which succeed
" in reaching the shore, lose the instinct
" which calls for service of the bulls." 190. Again he says: " If a female loses
" her pup in the water, she can be readily
" distinguished by the condition of the fur,
" which is rough and thin under such cir-
" cumstances."
191. Expresses the opinion that if a
female lost her pup at sea, she would come
to the rookeries; because he has seen
barren females on the rookeries, having no
pup to look after. If she lost her pup on
the rookery, she would remain there for
service by the bull
Alexey   Badaeff   seal     1 driver " 192. Cannot say what a female would
ehring Island. do in case of losing her young,  either at
Appendix No. 4. sea or on the rookery.
Alexander Selivanoff Russian official
at North Rookery during killing season.
Appendix No. 3.
Waldimar Paetz, agent for Russian
Seal-skin Company, Behring Island.
Appendix No. 2.
193. Expressed the opinion that if
female seals should drop their young at sea,
or lose them on the islands, they would
remain on the islands, just the same as the
other breeding females, as to give birth to
their young is not the only reason for their
migrations to the islands. Their natural
instinct also brings them there to receive
service of the bulls. He considers this
proven by the fact that there aTe some
barren' females, which remain on the
islands although having no young.
194. Says he believes that if females
lost their pups at sea they would go to the
islands ; if they lost them on the islands,
they would remain there for service according to natural instinct, but this, like other
matters, he says is difficult to state.
Mr.   Julius  Lindguist,   agent   for 195. Was not in a position to express
Messrs.   Welsh   Hall  &   Company  at   an opinion as to what females would do in
Petropaulovski. the event of losing their pups, either at sea
or on land.
Emile   Kluge,  agent   for Russia:
Seal-skin Company, Copper Island.
Captain D. A. Grunberg, of the
Russian Seal-skin Company's schooner
I Leon."
Appendix No. 5.
197. Although perhaps not bearing
directly upon the main point of the
question, incidentally, the observations
of some of the, pelagic sealers may be
noted here.
Charles   Leblanc,   master   of
sealing schooner " Sadie Turpel."
Appendix No. 6.
the
Wm. Sheilds, master and hunter of
the sealing schooner " Vera."
Appendix No. 7.
196. Expressed the opinion that there
maybe premature births, with seals as with
other animals, and that if a female lost her
pup at sea, he thinks she would resort to
the islands, and if she lost her pup on the
islands, he believes her natural instinct
would keep her there.
198. Says: During the latter part of
June between Yesso and Sikotan Islands,
on the Japan coast, he got between 20 and
30 females in milk from 30 to 40 miles off
shore.
Note.—It is quite evident that these
seals had either pupped on the Japan Islands or lost their pups at sea.
199. Says that during the last week
in June, and the first 12 days in July,
off Staten Island, one of the Kuriles, he
took a few cows in full milk, although
very few. W.   H.   Whitely,   master
ling schooner " Mermaid."
Appendix No. 10.
John B. Brown, master of the sealing
schooner " Walter P. Hall."
Appendix No. 11.
Wm.  Cox, master  of  the
schooner " Sapphire."
Appendix No. 12.
George Heater, master of the sealing
schooner "Ainoko."
Appendix No. 13.
Alfred Bissett, master of the
schooner " Annie E. Paint."
Appendix No. 14.
31
I 200. Off the Japan coast, on the 19th
day of June, got two or three females in full
milk. As the day was foggy he could not
get exact positions, but he was about 50
miles off. He remarks that these seals
must have come from some rookery, or have
dropped their pups in the sea. On the
same day he also got his last seals in pup.
201. About the end of June, on the
Japan coast, off Yesso, he got a few female
seals in full flow of milk. These seals had
either pupped on the shore or dropped their
young at sea.
202. On the 8th and 9th July, between
Rat Islands and Agattu, (American side),
80 miles oceanward, he saw plenty seals
and got one female in milk.
Note.—This is very far from any of
the known rookeries.
203. During the month of May this
year on the " Fairweather Grounds,"
American coast, about 60 miles off shore,
he saw three females with pups swimming
alongside, about three or four weeks old.
These seals had never reached the Pribylov
Islands.
204. The only female seal he took this
year, which he could positively state was '
nursing, was one got off Shumagin Island
—off Sand Point—on the 13th day of
June. When she was opened, the milk
flowed freely over the deck. He states
that this seal must have dropped her pup
at sea, or pupped on Shumagin Island.
205. Says: On the way to Copper
Island about 100 miles S. I E. (true) off
Amchitka Island, he took eight seals while
crossing the 180 meridian on the 4th day
of July. Four of these eight seals were
females heavy with pup. He does not know
whether they were going to the Russian
or American side; but he is certain that
they could not have reached either of the
known seal rookeries in time, as they were
too far advanced.
R. N. Crowell, master of the sealing
schooner "Brenda" in 1892.
Appendix No. 17.
207. (/.) Respecting the actual
migration routes of-jthe fur seals, of the
Asiatic Side of the Pacific, in going to
and returning from the Komandorsky
Islands, with their winter habitat, in
the vicinity of the Japanese Coast.
Capt. Domojiroff, of the Russian
cruiser " Zabiaka."
206. Expresses the opinion, that somewhere on the North American coast, between Queen Charlotte Islands and Unimak
Pass, there must be a seal rookery. He bases
this opinion on the fact that female seals
are taken there, so heavy with pup that it
would be impossible for them to reach any
of the known rookeries, before dropping
their young on the way.
208. Had not been sufficiently long in
the vicinity to observe very closely the
migration  routes  of  the   seals,  but   he Capt. Chmeilevsy, of the Russian
cruiser, " Yakout."
gathered that they worked along the
Japan coast in the spring, and returned in
very much the same direction, in the fall.
He was unaware of their winter habitat.
209. Touching the question of migrations, considered it a very difficult subject
upon which to express any decided opinion.
The master of the seized schooner " Maud
S." informed him, that in April and the
beginning of May, in passage from Yokohama to Hakodate, he caught about 400
seals on the eastern side of Nipon Island.
This and similar evidence, was all he had
to depend upon for his opinion of their
migrations to the islands. He had no
personal knowledge, and it was difficult to
tell, the seals coming in all directions. He
has been generally informed, that the seals
go to the S. E. in the winter, but of their
winter habitat he knows nothing.
Commander Burr, of H.M. cruiser 210.   Had not observed much with
' Porpoise." regard to the migration routes of the seals,
and   was   unable   to  give   any  positive
information on this branch of the subject.
Mr.   Grebnitzky,
Komandorsky Islands.
Governor   of
Alexander Selivanoff, Russian official at North Rookery during killing
season.
Appendix No. 3.
Capt. D. A. Grunberg, of the Russian Seal-skin Company's schooner
" Leon."
Appendix No. 5.
Mr. John Malowansky, agent of the
Russian Seal-skin Company, on board the
•Company's steamer " Kotik."
211. Preferred not to make any statement on this point, as it was his intention
shortly to publish a work on the subject.
In his report to the Russian Government,
a synopsis of which is appended, he states
that the seals migrate from the Komandorsky Islands about the middle of
November, moving south to the Japan
sea. Herein he also states, that the Robben
Island herd move down the Japanese coast
in the same direction, and seals are found
landed on islands inside theKuriles. Some
instead of going to Robben Island, distribute themselves on other islands in the
Okhotsk Sea.
212. Could not say much about the
migration routes of the seals, or of their
winter habitat, but they come from S. E.
and return in the same direction
213. States that in going to the islands,
everything indicates that the seals approach
from the southward and south west ward.
In going from the islands, he cannot say
as to what route they may take. His
reason for stating that they come from the
south and south-west is, that they first land
on the south-west part of Copper Island,
following along that island, landing as
they go, on the several rookeries. Thence
keeping the same direction, along shore, to
Behring. Island, landing on the rookeries
there. As to their winter habitat he
knows nothing.
214. Gave me an extract from a letter
from Mr. John G. Welsh, of the fiim of
Welsh, Hall Company, of Yokohama.
This letter was dated 17th April, 1893, and
as it touches the question of migrations
the extract may be given as follows : Charles Leblanc, master of the seal-
schooner " Sadie Turpel."
Appendix No. 6.
Wm. Sheilds, master and hunter of
the sealing schooner " Vera."
Appendix No. 7.
Otto Bucholz, master of the sealing
schooner " Casco."
Appendix No. 20.
Melville Cutler, master of the
I schooner " Agnes Macdonald."
Appendix No. 9.
" It may interest you and your friends
" of the Seal Company, to know that the
" schooners which lately left here (about
" 20 to 25 in all, with 15 or 20 more going
" direct from your side), are reported to be
" having good success. One of them re-
" turned here yesterday for repairs, and
" brought 350 sealskins, which were taken
" in two days. Some are said to have taken
"1,000 skins, also in a very short time.
" The Captain of the returned schooner, the
" ' Arietas,' told me that all the seals are
1 captured in the sea about 150 miles east
I and 250 miles north of this harbour."
This letter was addressed to Mr. Malo-
wansky, at San Francisco.
215. So far as the migration route of
the seals to the Islands is concerned, he
can only say he met them on the Japan
coast on the 19th day of April in latitude
39° 22' N., longitude 143° 12' E, and followed them along the coast until the 4th
of July in latitude 44' 58' N, longitude
149° 25' E-, his average distance from shore
being about 30 miles. He lost the herd
about 50 miles east of Sikotan, at the
beginning of the Kuriles.
216. Says that he met the seals on the
29th day of March, off the Japan coast,
northward of Yokohama, in latitude 34°
46' N, longitude 140° 03' E-, and found
. them all along the coast to Staten Island,
one of the Kuriles, ranging say between 35
and 45 miles off shore. He lost the herd
off the northern part of Staten Island.
217. For two or three days during the
first week in June, he noticed a lot of cows,
travelling along the coast to the northward.
The positions being between 39° and 41°
north latitude and 144° and 146° east
longitude.
218. Gives as his experience as to the
migration routes of seals to the Komandorsky Islands, that he first encountered
them off the Island of Nipon, in April and
May, at a distance of between 20 and 70
miles from shore ; his first position being
latitude 40° 31' north, longitude 143° 42'
east. He followed them along the coast to
latitude 43° 25' north, longitude 146° 28'
east. The herd disappeared in the latter
end of June, off Sikotan Island.
219. First saw the seals this year
about 200 miles north of Yokohama, from
180 to 200 miles off shore, during the first
week in April. He found them all along
the coast of Nipon, and some along the
coast of Yesso. Off the northern part of
Yesso, he lost the herd, and did not see
them again until off Komandorsky Islands.
On the Japan coast he began sealing the
2nd day of April and continued until 23rd
June, his positions ranging between latitude 38° and 43° north, longitude 142° and
147° east. W. H. Whitely, master of the sealing
schooner "Mermaid.."
Appendix No. 10.
John B. Brown, master of the sealing schooner "Walter P. Hall."
Appendix No. 11.
George Heater, master of the sealing
schooner "Ainoko."
Appendix No. 13.
Wm. O'Leary, master of the sealing
schooner " Geneva."
Appendix No. 15.
Abel Douglas, master of the sealing
schooner " Arietas."
Appendix No. 19.
August G. Bjerre, master of the sealing schooner " Beatrice."
Abel Douglas, master of the sealing
schooner " Arietas."
Appendix No. 19.
34
220. With respect to the migration
routes of seals to Komandorsky Islands,
this year he met them on the 25th day of
March, in latitude 36° 10' north, longitude
145° east, 200 miles off Cape Inaboye,
about 60 miles north of Yokohama. He
followed them up the coast to Sikotan
Island. There he lost them about the latter
end of June and met them again off
Komandorsky Islands.
221. First met the seals 7th April in
latitude 36° 38' north, longitude 144° 07'
east, off the Japan coast, and followed them
up until the 29th day of June, in latitude
42° 53' north, longitude 145° 18' east. Off
Akishi, the seals began to travel north,
and from that out all he took on the
Japan coast were travellers.
222. Never having sealed on the Japan
coast, cannot express any personal opinion
as to the migration route of seals to. the
Russian Islands, but the sealers tell him
they work up the Japan coast at various
distances along Nipon Island.
223. Says he cannot say where the seals
strike the coast of Japan, but they were
there when he first lowered his boats for
them off Nipon Island, on the 1st day of
April, latitude 38° 15' N., longitude 143°
12' E. He followed them up to the 7th of
July, in latitude 43° N., longitude 155° 58'
E., along the Islands of Nipon and Yesso,
and found them all the way from 60 to
300 miles off shore. Between 1st April
and 7th July, during his stay on the Japan
coast, his positions ranged between north
latitude 38° 15' and 43°, and east longitude
142° and 155° 58'. He cannot say as to
the movements of the seals after leaving
the islands in the fall, but he believes they
are to be found all winter where he found
them in the spring, and until they go back
to the breeding islands.
224. Shows that he took his first seals
on the Japan coast, on the 7th day of
April, in latitude 37° 35' N, longitude 144°
33' E., and the last on the 24th day of June
in latitude 44° 7' N, longitude 147° 30' E.
Between these dates, and along that coast,
his positions ranged from 37° 28' to 44° 7 1
N. latitude, and from 143° to 147° 30' east
longitude.
225. The positions given by this sealing
captain show : That he first met the seals
on the Japan coast, 21st March, in latitude
37° 11' N, longitude 142° 34' E. He followed them until the 21st June, in latitude
41° 41'N., longitude 142° 18' E. The range
of his position on the Japan coast, was
from 37° 11' to 43° 9' north latitude, and
142° to 146° east longitude.
226. Took his first seals on the Japan
coast on the 7th dav of April, in latitude
37° 35' N, longitude 144° 33' E., and the last seals there on the 24th June in latitude
44° Y north, longitude 147° 80' east, his
Wm. Byers, master of the sealing
a   , ranging as above.
schooner " Carlotte G. Cox."
on the 28th March, in latitude 39° 22'north
Appendix No. 18.
longitude 145° E.   He sealed along the
coast until the 80th June, on which day
up,  he says  the  route of the  seals lies
parallel with the coast of Japan, and the
Kurile Islands, at distances ranging from
from 28th March to 30th May, he took
them between   these  positions   continu
ously.
228. (g.) The average dates of land
ing and departure from the islands, of
seals  of different sexes and ages, par
ticularly if those can be obtained for a
series of years.
229. Whether females land on the
islands, from the time they leave them
as pups until they return to give birth
to first pup.
Mr.   Pafski, administrator Koman
230. On leaving Nikolski Mr. Greb
dorsky Islands.
nitzky referred me to Mr. Pafski (who was
to replace him during his absence) for in
formation on this point. An examination of
the records by Mr. Pafski, however, re
vealed the fact that no positive date6 could
be given from year to year, rof the arrival
and departure of the different classes of
seals.    For instance,  in  1893,  on North
Rookery, the first bull arrived on the 4th
May ; on the 6th 2 more arrived ; on the
(All Russian dates.)
9th 4 arrived; on the 10th 5 bulls and 1
holluschickie.   On the evening of the 10th,
6 bulls.    On the 12th, 23 bulls, 2 females
and 1 holluschickie.    In the water close
to the rookery, this day, there  were 12
seals.    On the  14th, 28 bulls arrived, 9
holluschickie and 3 females; on the 18th
May, 40 bulls, and close to the rookery 5
females. In the evening of that day 1 bull.
On the 20th, 12 bulls; 24th May, 90 bulls
and 50 holluschickie; on 31st May, 100
bulls and 70 holluschickie, also, 80 females,
and another herd of 25 females.   On the
1st June, 130 holluschickie, 28 females and
28 bulls; on 2nd June, 100 females and
160 holluschickie.   On the 3rd June, the
bulls chose their females,  and the hol
luschickie took other places    No further
information is given, except that the bulls
started to leave about the middle of August,
but the other seals were still (4th Sept.)
on the rookeries.
231. This accounts for very few seals
on the rookeries, and it is quite evident
that any attempt to establish their arrival
ticable. Alexander Selivanoff, Russian official
at North Rookery during killing season.
Appendix No. 3.
(Russian dates.)
Alexey   Badaeff,
Behring Island.
Appendix No. 4.
Seal   " driver '
36
232. It was gathered, however, from
the officials on the island, that generally
speaking the seals commence to arrive in
May and remain until the middle of November. They arrive in about the following
order: First bulls, then females; then
females and holluschickie mixed, principally holluschickie. The bulls begin to
leave about August, and the females and
holluschickie leave in October and November. When they begin to come in large
numbers, in the latter part of June and
July, it is difficult to distinguish them.
It is also most difficult to keep track of the
number of bulls arriving from day to day.
They have no reliable records.
233. To the query as to whether
females land from.the time they leave as
pups, until they return to give birth to
their first pup—Mr. Pafski replied that a
large number of young females were on
the islands this year: females'that were
not breeding.
234. In 1892, the seals arrived on the
island as follows :—
First, the Bulls, the first arriving on
the first day of May, and from that forward
coming gradually until 1st July; this
is the reason that a few bulls will be found
later in the fall on the rookeries.
Second, Females. The first females
arrived on the 20th May, and from that
forward they kept arriving until the 15th
July, by which time all the females were
on the rookeries.
Third, the holluschickie arrived about
the same time as the females, but continued
arriving the whole time, until about the
15th August.
235. They departed as follows, in 1892:
The bulls first, he cannot say the actual
time of leaving. As the seals come they
leave—gradually; they began to leave
about the 1st October, and had all left the
islands by the 12th November. The bulls
had nearly all gone, by the time the others
started to leave.
236. This official left the rookery in
1893, and did not observe the landing and
departure of the seals. The first bull
arrived on the 28th April, alone.
237. He has seen young females, (yearlings) every year on the rookeries. Last year,
he made a " drive," thinking to take about
2,600 skins, but he discovered there were
over 1,000 young females, mixed with the
holluschickie.
238. Generally speaking, from year to
year according to the weather, the seals
arrive at the rookeries as follows :—The
bulls come first, arriving about the 20th
April; nextthe females, during the first part
of May. The holluschickie come about the
same time as the females. The bulls begin
to leave the rookeries first. The bulk of
the seals leave the islands, between the
1st October  and 20th November;  none 37
being on the rookeries after the latter date.
He judges that young non-breeding females land on the islands, from the fact
that he has seen young females mixed in a
drive of bachelors.
Waldemar Paetz, agent for the
Russian Seal-skin Company at Behring
Island.
Appendix No. 2.
Emile Kluge, agent for the Russian
Seal-skin Company at Copper Island.
Russian dates.
Mr. Julius Lindguist, agent for
Messrs. Welsh, Hall & Company at
Petropaulovski.
Russian dates.
Captain  D.   A.   Grunberg
Company's schooner " Leon."
Appendix No. 5.
244. (h.) The State of Komandorsky
Islands, in years of scarcity or of abundance of seals on the Pribylov Islands.
As to whether these two groups of
islands are similarly affected, in the same
years, and generally, any effect upon the
Komandorsky Islands, believed to be
due to practices upon Pribylov Islands
or Robben Reef.
Mr. Grebnitzky, .Governor of Komandorsky Islands.
239. Says there is no doubt female seals
land on the islands, before they visit the
rookeries to give birth to their first pup ;
because young females are often observed :
mixed with the holluschickie and otherwise.
240. Seals first arrive every year about
the end of April. The bulls reach the
islands at that time. In the latter part of
May, a few holluschickie arrive. The breeding females arrive about the beginning
of June. They pup almost immediately.
Holluschickie arrive gradually, from their
first coming until the middle of July.
The yearlings arrive about the commencement of August. The big bulls do not
leave the rookeries until the latter part of
July, at which time they are very thin
and go to the feeding grounds.
241. The large bulls arrive on the
islands during the latter part of May. They
are followed by a few of the larger " bachelors," or " half bulls," and some females
about the 1st June. The females arrive
slowly and the bachelors arrive with them.
By the first part of July, all the females
are on the rookeries. The bulk of the
" killables " arrive after 1st July, the
largest run being during the end of July
and 1st August. By the middle of August,
all the seals are on the rookeries.
242. Young females do resort to the
rookeries before they return to give birth
to their first pups, because they are found
there, mixed with the bachelors.
243. Female seals do land on the
islands before they return to give birth to
their first pups. The reason he is positive
of this is, that young immature females
are often found mixed up in a " drive."
245. States that the seal herds of the
Komandorsky and Pribylov Islands, are
absolutely distinct, consequently no operations on either could affect the other. The
seals which summer on Robben Island,
do not visit Komandorsky Islands. Seals
also haul out on the Japan Islands, and
they all winter in the same place as those
which visit Komandorsky Islands. Alexander Selivanoff, Russian official at North Rookery during killing
season.
Appendix No. 3.
246. Could give no opinion on this
subject; but he noticed on the North
Rookery, last year, three bulls which were
very different in appearance from the bulls
resorting to Komandorsky Islands. They
had long manes on the back of their necks.
These bulls caused considerable discussion
among the natives. One man who had
come from St. Paul, Pribylov Islands,
named Efim Snergiroff, stated that they
had come from that island, as they were
the same as he had seen there. There
were also two holluschickie, which were
very different from those of Komandorsky
Island, the hair being quite black.
Waldemar Paetz, agent for the Russian   Seal-skin   Company   at  Behring
Appendix No. S
247. Operations on Pribylov Islands,
could in no way affect the Komandorsky
Islands. He is decidedly of opinion that
the seal herds which frequent these two
groups, are separate and distinct. Last
year he handled the skins taken from the
seized schooner " Rosie Olsen," among
which, were some taken on the American
side, and he observed such a marked difference in the appearance of these skins,
as compared with those taken on the Russian side, that it convinced him of the
distinctness of the herds. He also believes
that although, practically of the same herd,
the seals which visit Robben Island never
get so far up as the Komandorsky couplet,
and he concludes that no operations on
Robben Island could affect those islands
in the least degree.
Emile Kluge, agent for the Russian
1-skin Company at Copper Island.
248. Operations on Robben Island
might possibly affect seal life on Komandorsky Islands, because the seals come from
precisely the same direction ; but he cannot
think, that operations on the Pribylov
Islands could at all affect the Russian
Islands, and vice versa, because, he believes
the seals to be of entirely distinct herds;
those on the Asiatic side coming from the
Japan coast, and those on the American
side following along the North American
coast.
Captain D. A. Grunberg, of the
Russian Seal-skin Company's schooner
I Leon."
Appendix No. 5.
Alfred Bissett, master of the sealing
schooner " Annie E. Paint."
Appendix No. 14.
249. Was unable to express any
opinion, as to whether the two groups I
were similarly affected in seasons of scarcity or otherwise ; but he believed that if
any effect could be produced upon Komandorsky Islands, it would be from practices
on Robben Island. Those on Pribylov
could not affect the Komandorsky couplet.
250. States that there is no difference
in the herds of seals which frequent the two
groups of islands. The majority taken off
Copper Island are darker in colour than
those on the American side, but there are
very many which show no difference whatever in appearance. The stomachs contain
about the same kind of food, principally
squid. 251. (if.) The number of years during
which a female seal continues to bear
young, and the number of years a male
seal renders efficient service on the rookeries.
Mr. Grebnitzky, Governor of
Komandorsky Islands.
Alexander Selivanoff, Russian officer at North Rookery.
Appendix No. 3.
Alexey Badaeff, seal " driver," Behring Island.
Appendix No. 4.
Waldemar Paetz, agent for the Russian Seal-skin Company at Behring
Island.
Appendix No. 2.
Emile Kluge agent for the Seal-skin
Company at Copper Island.
252. Expresses the opinion that female
seals will average 10 births, thus bearing
young for 10 years. He cannot say how
many years a male seal will render efficient
service. From his observations on the
islands, he thinks they begin at five years
of age, and continue about 15 years. He,
however, could give no particular reason
for this opinion.
253. Cannot say how long a female
will bear, or a male render rookery service.
254. Could not answer either ques
tion, but he has seen a very old bull serving
a female.
255. Could not answer either  ques-
Mr. Julius
Messrs. Welsh,
Petropaulovski.
Lindguist,   agent for
Hall  &   Company, at
Capt.   Grunbcrg,   of  the Russian
Seal-skin Company's schooner " Leon."      ti
259. (j.) The existence and habits of
barren females and effete males :—
256. Expresses the opinion that a female
seal will bear young in the third year of
her age, but he can form no idea of how
long she may continue to bear, nor how
long a bull may serve on the rookery. In
fact, he says, he does not see how any one
can tell this.
257. Judging from size and appearance, is of opinion a female will pup at three
years of age. The natives told him that good
sized skins are taken from seals six or
seven years old, and as these are not large
enough for rookery service, he judges they
do not breed until at least eight years old.
He is of opinion that, so long as the bulls
are on the rookeries, they are of service to
the females, and he has seen some old ones,
probably fifteen or twenty years old.
258. Could not  answer either ques-
Mr.     Grebnitzky.
Komandorsky Islands.
Governor     of 260. States that in 1892, he  noticed
more barren cows on Copper Island than
during the present year. He noticed no
barren cows on either island this year.
261. In his report to the Russian Government, Mr. Grebnitzky says :—Generally
■•speaking, there is a considerable number
ef barren females (old) which do not go
on the rookeries for service by the bulls,
but lay outside near the holluschickie.
These barren females are easily frightened.
262. Mr. Grebnitzky further stated that
this year between 200 and 300 old bulls
came to the islands with the females, and
then left without serving them. Alexander Selivanoff, Russian official at North Rookery.
Appendix No. 3.
Alexey   Badaeff,   sealer    " driver,'
Behring Island.
Appendix No. 4.
Waldemar Paetz, agent for the Russian Seal-skin Company at Behring
Island.
Appendix No. 2.
Mr. Julius Lindguist, agent for
Messrs. Welsh, Hall & Co., at Petropaulovski.
40
263. States that he has never noticed
any adult females which were barren, nor
any old bulls, which were not able for
rookery service.
264. Does not know of the existence of
barren females on the rookeries. There
may or may not be. There are no bulls on
the rookeries which do not serve the females.
265. Knows that every year there are
upon the rookeries a few old bulls, which
are no longer able for rookery service. The
number of this class is small, but they do
occur each year.
266. Knows of no barren cows or effete
bulls. Never saw adult females with
bachelors in any numbers. When odd
ones have thus been seen by him, they
have been in milk.
Chas. Leblanc, master of the sealing
schooner " Sadie Turpel."
Appendix No. 6.
Captain Wm. Sheilds, master and
hunter of the sealing schooner "Vera."
Appendix No. 7.
Wentworth E. Baker, master of the
sealing schooner "Oscar & Hattie."
Appendix No. 8.
Otto Bucholz, master of the sealing
schooner " Casco."
Appendix No. 20.
Melville Cutler, master of the sealing schooner " Agnes Macdonald."
Appendix No. 9.
W. H. Whitely, master of the sealing schooner " Mermaid."
Appendix No. 10.
William Cox, master of the sealing
schooner "Sapphire."
Appendix No. 12.
Alfred Bissett, master of the sealing
schooner " Annie E. Paint."
Appendix No. 14.
Thomas H. Brown, hunter, schooner
" Agnes Macdonald."
Appendix No. 16.
Abel Douglas, master of the sealing
schooner "Arietas."
Appendix No. 19.
Wm. D. Byers, master of the sealing
schooner " Carlotta 0. Cox."
Appendix No. 18.
267. Got on the Japan coast 12 or  15
barren cows.
268^ Took quite a number of barren
females along the Japan coast, mixed in
with the male seals, during the last week
in June and first twelve days in July.
269. On the American coast, got a few
barren cows, particularly off the Fair-
weather Grounds.
270. Off Yesso Island, on the Japan
coast, took several barren females. They
were full grown, and there was no doubt
that they were barren.
271. Got along the
barren cows.
Japan coast two
272. Noticed on the Japan coast a large
number of barren cows, many more than
on the American coast. They were adults,
with neither signs of pups nor milk, in any
stage whatever.
273. In Behring Sea, he has got numbers of dry cows in July and August. These
were barren cows.
274. During July, off Copper Island,
took some barren cows.
275. Off the Japan coast, got quite a
number of barren cows. He cannot just
recall the number, but he observed several.
276. States that on the Japan coast he
took quite a number of barren cows. This
was in June, off Yesso Island.
277. States that among his catch on the
Japan coast were some barren cows. As
the season advanced, the crew looked for unborn pups,
obtain them, s
observed.
278 (k.) The conditions of the rookeries,
as to numbers of seals, during the year
1893, compared with previous years :—
Mr. Grebnitzky,  Governor of Komandorsky Islands
279. Says that there is a decrease of
three-tenths compared with last year, and
three-fifths compared with the year before:
He arrives at these figures from records kept
at the rookeries, and from his own observations, when he visits the rookeries. This
year there were more pups and more females on Behring Island than last year.
280. There were more bulls on Copper
Island than last year, but fewer on Behring
Island. He states that on the latter island,
only four yearlings were observed, but on
Copper Island, there was an increased number of yearlings. In 1892, he noticed more
barren cows on Copper Island than this
year.    None on either island this year.
281. In his report to the Russian Government, this functionary says, that pelagic
sealing caused a decrease of seals on the
breeding rookeries, especially of females,
only about one-half of the females being
noticed on the rookeries since 1888, as
compared with the number for some years
prior to that date. And in his telegram
to the Minister of Domains, he states that
there are plenty of seals in the sea and on
the coast of Kamtschatka, but fewer seals
this year on the rookeries. He reports a
slight decrease of females on Copper Island
this year, but there are plenty of bulls, and
he adds, the skins taken are large.
j> Commander Burr, of H.M.S. '
poise."
Por- 282. Expressed the opinion that there
were fewer seals on the rookeries than there
were two years ago, and that they were
smaller, both male and female.
Alexander Selivanoff, Russian official 283. Says  from personal  experience
at North Rookery. there is an increase compared with last
Appendix No. 3. year.   This increase was noticeable in all
classes of seals, but. particularly in the
number of females and pups ; while there
was also an increased number of bulls.
There were over 1,000 bulls on the rookery
this year.
284. During the year 1892, the rookeries were in better condition than in 1891,
there being more seals generally, though
he could not say of what particular class.
On the whole, he believes, the rookeries to
be in a better condition, than for the past
three years.
Alexey Badaeff, seal "driver," Behr-
p Island.
Appendix No. 4.
285. There were more seals on North
Rookery this year than last. The increase
is general, including all classes of seals.
In 1891 there were not so many seals as
in 1892, and this year, 1893, there were
more seals than in 1892. Waldemar Paetz, agent of the Russian
Seal-skin Company, at Behring Island.
Appendix No. 2.
Mr. Emile Kluge, agent of the Russian
Seal-skin Company at Copper Island.
Captain D. A. Grunberg, of the
Russian Seal-skin Company's schooner
" Leon."
Appendix No. 5.
^The figures were 540.
Mr. Julius Lindguist, agent, Messrs.
Welsh, Hall & Co., at Petropaulovski.
286. States that there were last year,
and this year more seals on North Rookery
than there were during 1891, the first year
he spent on the island.
287. There is a considerable increase in
the number of female seals, and also in the
number of pups this year. The first year
he was on the island, there were very few
bulls on the rookeries ; but last year the
number of bulls increased, and this year it
increased again over the number of last
year. There was very little difference
between the number of bachelors this year
and last, but there was a considerable
increase in the number of females. He
considers the rookery to be in better condition this year, as regards numbers of
seals, than during 1*91 and 1892.
288. Believes that there are fewer
female seals on the rookeries of Copper
Island than last year, but he could not
say to what extent they had decreased.
He also considered that, on the whole,
there were fewer seals on the rookeries
than during 1891 and 1892.
289. Considers there is an appreciable
decrease in the number of seals on Robben
Island, as compared with 1885 and 1886.
There were no skins taken on the island
last year by the company, because it was
not considered profitable to send sealers
there. This year, however, they took 1,532
skins. In 1891 the take was less, but he
could not say the exact number.^
290. Thinks there were more seals on
the island in 1890 than in 1891 ; but he
heard from the employees of the Russian
Seal-skin Company, that there were more
seals on the islands this year than last.
j    291. (I) The presence of Fish in the
vicinity of the Russian Seal Islands.
Captain Fawkes, R.N.
Commander Burr, R.N.
Alexey Badaeff.
Appendix No. 4.
Waldemar Paetz.
Appendix No. 2.
Capt. Grunberg.
Appendix No. 5.
292. Capt. Fawkes, of H.M.S. " Mercury," says, of the vicinity of Robben
Island, that while he caught very few fish
on the cruising grounds, they were plentiful within a few miles of the shore.
293. Commander   Burr,   of  H.M.S.
" Porpoise," testified to the great numbers .
of fish to be caught close to the shore.
294 Alexey Badaeff, a native of Behring Island, testifies that the seals can find
all the food they want within five miles
from the islands.
295. Waldemar Paetz, Company's
agent at Nikolski, says: The seals can get
food near the islands.
296. Capt. D. A. Grunberg of the
Russian Seal-skin Company's schooner,
"Leon" believes the seals can get food
without going far from shore, as while
nursing they do not go beyond one or two
miles off. Capt. Chmeilevsky, Imperial Russian Navy.
Personal observations of R. N. Ven-
e surface
i others,
the
297. Capt. Chmeilevsky reporl
of cod near all the villages.
298. My own experience on b|
" Kotik " was, that wherever we a
off Copper Island, never further thi
a mile from shore, the quantity
to be taken was only limited by 1
devoted to it. 1 caught these fish,
ing from 20 inches to 3 feet in
actual measurement, until it bees
some. Fishing with 40 or 50 feel
the line was never allowed to sti
before the bait was taken, and the
fish was invariably followed to the
of the water by from six to a dozei
299. A careful examination
external condition of these fish, enables
to say that I could not observe any striking
difference between them and the ordinary
Atlantic cod. They were, in size, very
much the same as the shore cod of the
eastern coast of the United States and
Canada, though in colour they bore a
greater resemblance to the deeper water
or "bank cod," bearing much the same
marks, and possessing no highly coloured
appearance, such as I had noticed in the
shore cod of Massachusetts and Maine this
summer. However, more than half of them
were afflicted with skin sores or fungi,
and appeared to be infested with parasites. I was told by the crew of the
" Kotik " that this is nearly always the
case with the fish taken close to shore, but
a few ship's lengths further out, much
finer and better conditioned fish were to
be found.
300. With regard to the annual migrations of salmon to the islands, I collected
the following information:—
Mr. Grebnitzky, Governor of Komandorsky Islands.
Appendiz No. 1.
301. Mr. Grebnitzky, in his report to
the Russian Government, states that the
salmon arrive in the vicinity of Behring
Island about the end of June, and are
observed arriving until the end of August.
The seals, he says, go out 60 miles to meet
them, and being fond of salmon, there have
been times when they went up the rivers
for them.
Mr. Lindguist, mate   of the Company's steamer "Kotik."
302. Mr. Lindguist, mate of steamer
" Kotik," described the arrival of the salmon as follows:—
1. The King salmon (a very large
fish), the end of May and beginning of
June, running about four weeks.
2. The Hooked-mouth fish, the middle
of June.
3. The Humpbacked salmon, beginning 1st July.
4. The Red salmon, come gradually
and run until 1st August.
5. The Silver salmon, last of July and
1st August.
They all go up the rivers, with the
exception of the King salmon. Gavril Podprugin, Russia]
man, near Petropaulovski.
Chief native at Sarannoie.
Personal observations of R. N. Venning,
44
Silver salmon can be found in most
creeks on the Kamtschatka coast up to
December, and he has heard of stragglers
until February.
303. The King salmon appear about
the 1st June. Some of them will reach
40 lbs. weight.
304. The second run is composed of
red, humpbacked and hook-nosed salmon.
The red come slightly earlier, but generally they are mixed. These appear about
the 12th June.
305. The Silver salmon are the last to
arrive, coming about the 12th July, but
are then scarce. By the 15th September
they are more plentiful, and in best condition.
306. All classes of salmon are taken
until about the 15th October, and then the
stormy weather prevents fishing. On the
large Kamtschatkan rivers, salmon are
caught until Christmas.
307. The opinion expressed by Mr.
Podprugin was that the fish died, and
never went to sea again after spawning.
308. He says : The King salmon
spawn in July, the Red salmon about the
first week in September, and the Silver
salmon about 1st November.
309. The Chief of the native fishing
village of Sarannoie, Behring Island, which
village is composed of a few huts situated
at the mouth of a stream of that name,
flowing from a lake of considerable size,
said: The hook-mouth and red salmon,
arrive in the month of May, and leave
the lake in January. The silver salmon
arrive in July and leave in November.
310. With Dr. Slunin, I visited their
fishery, which consisted of two rudely constructed dams entirely across the stream,
one about 50 or 60 feet above the other,
within a short distance of the mouth of
the stream. These dams were loosely built,
by driving large stakes slanting down
stream, and backing them up with large
and small boulders. Although not sufficient to dam the flow of the water, they
seemed to be quite effective in impound- _
ing the fish, and immense quantities of red, |
hump-backed and silver salmon, were congregated below the first dam, and between
the two. The mode of capture then
adopted, was a gaff and dip net, with the
former of which the natives dexterously
secured some specimens of each kind.
The red salmon varied in colour externally from a deep red to a dull slaty
colour with a reddish tinge; the highly
coloured ones predominating. The humpbacked salmon, were of a dull slaty colour,
with whitish bellies, and a small golden
eyes.
311. The silver salmon, were beautifully formed fish, of a bright silvery colour,
and represent a particularly symmetrical 45
specimen of the Atlantic salmon, though
they are a thicker fish for their length, and
much brighter in colour than the ordinary
Atlantic salmon of from 8 to 12 lbs. weight.
312. The red male salmon, had abnormally hooked noses, in this respect surpassing the hump-backed salmon, in which
this peculiarity was also particularly
marked. The silver salmon, also showed a.
slight tendency that way, but not nearly
so marked as in the other specimens.
313. Dr. Slunin, in my presence, examined the stomachs of six of these
salmon: three females,—one red,one humpbacked and one silver salmon, three males;
one of each kind. All of these fish contained ova and milt, in a well developed
and advanced stage. This was on the
morning of the 28th August. With the
exception of one male, the stomachs of
these fish contained no trace whatever of
food, but all contained a few parasites. In
the stomach of this one male, was found
a small fish, about three inches in length.
314. Up to that date, there had been
taken at this village 22,000 salmon. The
choice portions were selected for food and
hung up to dry, but the bulk of these fish
are dried and used during the winter as
food for dogs.
315. When returning from North
Rookery to Nikolski, I passed a small
shallow pool, not greater in extent than
30 x 15 feet, apparently the termination
of a small blind creek. In this pool were
hundreds of salmon, principally red, some
were dead, the others in a dying condition.
316 Evidently these fish could get no
further, and their instinct to ascend, preventing them from returning, they died in
shallow water, which in same places was
scarcely sufficient to cover them.
317. While at Petropaulovski, during
the month of September, I observed some
local fishermen catching salmon. Directly
from the shore of the inner harbour, into
which no river or fresh water of any kind
flowed, with nets of but a few fathoms in
length, they made good catches of the
" silver " salmon, taking as many as 12 and
15 at a haul averaging probably 12 or
15 pounds in weight. Their method was
to set the net—certainly not more than 30
to 50 feet long-then standing on high
ground, depend upon the clearness of the
water, to see the fish coming within the
scope of the net. They would then haul
it quietly and carefully on the beach,
similar to a seine, with the above results.
318. The crew of the " Archer," on
several occasions, seined for fish in the harbour of Petropaulovski, taking large quantities at each haul. The fish thus taken
were principally small pollack, or a small
fish of that family, very much resembling
young pollack; a large number of very
large smelt, some small herring, and a few
very handsome trout, the spots being of a
silvery hue on a slightly darker ground. Testimony of Pelagic sealers.
See Appendices.
46
319. There were also large numbers
of a small fish of the sculpin kind, which
they called toadfish.
" 320. Gavril Podprugin, the fisherman
previously quoted in connection with the
salmon, told me that the spring herring
strike in about the 12th May, spawn and
leave in about a month. The fall run is
composed of a smaller run offish. They
arrive about the 1st September, and stay
until the ice makes, in November.
321. When leaving Petropaulovski, on
the 25 tb September, on our return to Yokohama, in Avatcha Bay, the "Archer"
passed close alongside of myriads of gulls
and immense numbers of hair-seals, evidently moving along with a school offish.
The pelagic sealers:—
322. Capt. Charles Leblanc, of the
schooner " Sadie Turpel" ; Capt. Wm.
Shields, of the "Vera"; Capt. Melville
Cutler, of the "Agnes Macdonald" ; Capt.
W. H. Whitely, of the "Mermaid" ; Capt.
J. B. Brown, of the " Walter P. Hall " ;
Capt. Alfred Bissett, of the "Annie E.
Paint".; Capt. Wm. O'Leary, of the
" Geneva" ; Capt. Abel Douglas, of the
" Arietas " ; Capt. Wm. Byers, of the " Car-
lotta E. Cox " ; and Thomas H. Brown, a
hunter on the " Agnes Macdonald," all
testify to the abundance of surface fish—
squid, salmon and other fish—around
the islands, the distances given varying
from 30 to 200 miles off shore.
323. (m.) The efficiency or otherwise
of the protective zones provided for by
the agreement between Great Britain
and Russia for the year 1893.
Captain Domojiroff, Imperial Russian cruiser " Zabiaka."
324. Could not say whether or not the
arrangement had afforded protection to the
seals. There were very few vessels within
the limit this year. Seals were taken far
out beyond the protective zone, and, of
course, the larger the zone the better. Captain Domojiroff, saw very few seals from
20 to 30 miles from shore, but as he approached the shore the number of seals
greatly increased.
Captain Chmeilevsky, Imperial Russian cruiser " Yakout."
325. Stated that very few schooners
were seen within the protective zone this
year. Last year, when no limit had been
agreed to, the number was very large During June, and in the beginning of July, he
saw plenty seals about the 30-mile limit,
but since that date very few were seen,
perhaps only 5 or 6 each day, 30 miles from
shore. The nearer the shore he approached,
the more seals were to be found. He believes the 30 and 10-mile zones around the
islands and coasts, respectively,to be a good
arrangement. It protects the seals after
they have reached the rookeries. He would
prefer a larger limit, which would prevent
the interception of the seals, on their migrations to the islands, but at the same time 47
th<
Sub Lieutenant Michailow Raslow-
ler. Imperial Russian cruiser " Yakout."
30-mile limit was good, for the breeding seals. He also said that the larger the
limit was, the greater would be the difficulty besetting its proper patrol, involving
the presence of many vessels and great
expense. In his opinion, it would be better
for the seals if pelagic sealing were entirely
prohibited, but on the whole, the agreement was good, as it had had the effect of
very much reducing the number of schooners in the vicinity of the Islands.
326. Expressed the opinion that the 30
mile zone around the Island was not
large enough ; because the schooners took
seals outside of that limit. He could not
say that these seals were females ; and he
does not think that^ all the seals at sea are
females. He sees most of the sealers they
speak, because he is more conversant with
the English language than the other officers, and his opinions of pelagic sealing
are all based upon what he sees and hears
on board the schooners.
327. If the Russian Government had
the same authority within the 30 mile zone,
that they have in their territorial limit
then, he is of opinion, the 30 mile zone
would prove ample protection to the seals,
and the effect would be perfect, for the
schooners then would never dare to venture within the zone, if the weather was
clear.
Lieutenant Girther, Imperial Russian cruiser " Yakout."
Captain   Wilmot   H.  Fawkes,    of
H.M.S. " Mercury."
Commander Burr, of H.M.S. " Por-
Mr. Grebnitzky, Governor of Komandorsky Islands.
Appendix No. 1.
Alexander Selivanoff, Russian Official at North Rookery.
Appendix No. 3.
328. Considered that if the Russian
Government were vested with territorial
jurisdiction within the 3<J mile limit, a
solution of the difficulty would result.
329. Had been cruising around Robben Island,Okhotsk Sea, in connection with
the agreement with the Russian Government.
330. Captain Fawkes had seen very
few seals in the vicinity of that Island.
Those he did see were well within the 30
mile radius, being within a few miles of the
shore. He states that during his stay in
the vicinity of Robben Island, he had seen
neither sealing vessels, nor Russian gunboats.
331. Saw very few seals while cruising
around the Komandorsky Islands, near the
protective limit, but the nearer shore he
approached the greater number of seals
were to be observed.
332. Did not consider the 30 mile limit
large enough, because, as he reports to the
Minister of Domains, the sealing schooners
keep in the track of the seals from 40 to
90 miles off the south end of Copper
Island, and prevent them from going
further out or coming in.
333. States that the 30 mile zone around
the Islands is a sufficient protection to the
breeding seals, after they have got to the
rookeries, but early in the year, during Alexey Badaeff, Seal
ring Island.
Appendix No. 4.
driver," Beh-
Waldemar Paetz, Agent for Russia]
Seal-skin Company, Behring Island.
Appendix No. 2.
Emile  Kluge,   Agent for   Russian
Seal-skin Company, Copper Island.
Capt. D. A. Grunberg, of Russian
Seal-skin Company's schooner " Leon."
Appendix No. 5.
their migration to the islands, the presence
of the sealing schooners interferes with
their passage thereto.
334. Is of opinion that the limit is not
sufficient, because the holluschickie go
more than 30 miles from land, though not
necessarily for food, as they could get that
inside.
335. Is of opinion that the agreement
providing a 30-mile zone around the
Islands, has afforded ample protection to
the breeding females especially, which do
not go far from shore, while nursing their
young. He also expresses the opinion that
none of the seals go beyond the 30-mile
zone, if indeed that far.
336. Is of opinion that the protective
zone has had but little effect. He bases this
opinion entirely upon observation made
when sealers are seized, and the fact that
they catch seals 60 miles from land.
337. Believes thatthearrangement has
afforded.a moral protection to the seals.
He neither heard of, nor saw, any pelagic
sealers in the vicinity of Robben Island,
within the prohibitive area, while he was
there; but they generally get-there about
the latter part of August and during the
month of September.
POINTS   INCIDENTALLY   OF   INTEREST   IN CONNECTION   WITH THE
SEALING INDUSTRY.
338. As my instructions directed that I should neglect no opportunity of obtaining trustworthy information on any subject, I have under this heading collated some
observations, touching the sealing industry generally. These matters have mor.e or
less bearing upon the subject, although not immediately specified.
They are :
1. Distribution of seals at sea.
2. Numbers, conditions and kinds of seals on the American coast.
3. Contents of the stomachs of seals.
4. Seals that have come from the rookeries can be determined.
5. Pups will swim by instinct.
6. Sexes can be distinguished at sea.
7. Copulation in the water.
339. To a certain extent the subdivisions "distribution of seals
" number, conditions and kinds of seals on the American coast," ca:
dissociated.
at sea," and
scarcely be
340. It is a remarkable fact, that at times when the seals should, according to
their known habits, be congregated upon either or both of the breeding grounds, on
the American and Asiatic sides of the North Pacific Ocean, they are found in large
numbers, at such great distances therefrom, and distributed over such vast areas. And
this, according to the testimony, at the time the authorities have stated is the shedding period, during which they remain upon the islands instead of migrating to sea.
341. To the evidence collected on this point I must add my own experience,
during my passage from San Francisco to Yokohama. < )n the afternoon of the
28th July, the ship's position at noon being latitude 47° 56' N. longitude 158° 07' W
I saw one seal within 200 or 300 yards of the ship. The third officer of the steamer
informed me that during the morning watch, on the 29th, 30th, and 31st July and
2nd August (between which latter dates we crossed the 180° meridian), he had seen
large bodies of fur seals ahead of the ship. The vessel's positions at noon on these
■dates respectively were : Latitude 48° 06' N; longitude 165° 21' W.; latitude 48° 06' N, longitude 172° 06' W.; latitude
47° 11' N, longitude 176° 46' E.
3 49' N.; longitude 17
342. The distances run were 291, 271,211 and 242 knots respect:
the remark, that he did not see why the sealers wanted to go into Be^
they could get all the seals they desired outside.
343. The evidence is practically unanimous, that a large increase
male seals is noticeable during the past two years on the Americai
attributed to the cessation of killing operations on the Pribylov Is!
modus vivendi, and it is said that the female herd has not been met a
this coast; the opinion being ventured that the increasing males ha
the pregnant females, driven them to off shore routes.
344 It may be added that while in Victoria I was informed
Borns, a dealer in furs, that a class of seal skins are obtained from th<
are taken in the channels along the coast infinitely superior to the or
said that he could immediately detect the difference and value Th<
choicer in every respect. He was entirely at a loss to account for the
absence of a better reason, he was inclined to the belief that perhaps
quality of the food found in these channels might afford some expla
DISTRIBUTION  OF SEALS  AT  SEA.
the numb*
soast.   Thi
Chas. Leblanc, master of the sealing
schooner " Sadie Turpel."
Appendix No. 6.
W. H. Whitely, master of the sealing schooner " Mermaid."
Appendix No. 10.
J. B. Brown, master of the
schooner " Walter P. Hall."
Appendix No. 11.
William Cox, master of the sealing
schooner " Sapphire."
Appendix No. 12.
345. Reports that on his way from
Komandorsky Islands to Victoria, during
the month of September, he got two male
seals about 200 miles south of the Aleutian
Islands.
346. About the 25th June noticed hundreds of seals entering the first pass into
Okhotsk sea. The schooner " Beatrice," of
Vancouver, and the "Rattler," of San Francisco, went into the sea, but could not find
the seals.
347. This year in the open ocean, on the
8th day of March, he caught one female
seal, with pup. His position was latitude
35° 00' N, longitude 170° 00' E., about 3,000
miles from the Japan coast and 1,200 miles
south of the Komandorsky Islands. The
second mate of the steamer " City of
Pekin" told him that on the winter route
of that vessel, in the vicinity of the above
position, they encountered large numbers
of seals.
348. On the 20th September, in latitude 51° 10' N, longitude 17-5° 53' E., due
south of Attou Island 100 miles, took one
female seal.
349. Capt. Larrabee, of a sailing ship
(cannot recall name), told him that on a
voyage from Hakodate to New York, on
14th September, 1892, in latitude 43° 30'
N, longitude 162° 30' E., he passed a large
number of seals 720 miles off shore. The
year before, 1891, about 70 or 80 miles
northward of the above positions, between
the 12th and 15th August, he sailed
through large bodies of seals.
350. Annually, for the last four years,
vessels have reported that during July
and August, large bodies of seals have been
seen 600 miles south of Copper Island.
Capt. Townsend, of the barque " George,"
and Capt. Fullmore, of the sailing ship
"Fingal," as well as Capt. Howard Mc-
Kenzie, of the " Ernscliffe," reported this, the former four years ago, and the latter
two a year ago. This year he heard similar reports.
351. Capt. Turner, of the " Albatross,"
who had previously been captain of a mail
steamer, told him he had seen numbers of
seajs in the same positions. The captains
of the sailing ships above named said they
had been three days sailing through the
seals under a light breeze.
352. Passing along to the southward
of the Aleutian chain this year, about
the 1st July, he saw seals about 120
miles south of Ounimak Pass, and ranging
along the chain, from that distance to 80
miles south of Agattu Island. On the
8th and 9th July, between Rat Island and
Agattu, 80 miles seaward, the seals were
quite as plentiful as he ever saw them in
Behring sea. One day at this place, he got
two with young unborn, and one with
milk. He got in all 20 seals, the wind
was high and the water rough.
353. He believes there are many seals
which never go on the breeding islands,
because they can be seen off the west end
of Vancouver Island all the year round.
He got one seal about 400 miles W.S.W.
of Cape Flattery in September, on his way
home this year.
354. About' 100 miles off Middleton
Island he saw quite a large number of
cows.
355. The Indians got cow seals off
Hesquiat, on the coast of Vancouver
Island, during the last week in May of the
present year.
g 356. Says: On his way to Copper
Island, about 100 miles S. i E. (true) off
Amchitka Island, took eight seals on 4th
July, while crossing the 180 meridian.
Four were females heavy with pup.
357. He was told by the mate of the
schr. " Annie E. Paint " that an occasional
south sea seal was shot off Copper Island.
The fur is better and more golden in colour.
Wm.^O'Leary master of the sealing       358. Is of the opinion that there is a
schooner " Geneva." large body of seals, which never go upon .
Appendix No. 15. the islands, chiefly young males,  which j
are not allowed upon the rookeries by the
bulls, with a sprinkling of young females,
which have not begun to breed.
John McLeod master of the sealing       359. In July, 1892, between 70 and 80
schooner j Pioneer." miles to the southward of Copper Island,
Appendix No. 21. took three or four big bulls.
R. N. Crowell master  of the sealing       360. On the 28th August, 1892, went
schooner " Brenda " 1892. to the northern part of the Gulf of Kamts-
Appendix No. 17. chatka for^ water,  where  he  saw  large
1 sleeping
Geo. Heater, master of the sealing
schooner "Ainoko."
Appendix No. 13.
Alfred Bissett master of the sealii
schooner " Annie E. Paint."
Appendix No. 14.
numbers of fur seals,
Lcludins
361. On the 22nd February, 1892, latitude 38° 00' N., longitude 141° 00' W., he Wm. D. Byers master of the
schooner " Carlotta G. Cox."
Appendix No. 18.
51
passed through
the southern C
miles off. He
Sydney, C.B., to
that
andc
Numbers, Condition and Kinds of Seals on
Wentworth E. Baker master of the       363. Went
schooner " Oscar & Hattie." the American i
Appendix No. 8. and Kodiak to
she
Jn
The
12
Ma
id
ely
composed of males. He does not believe
he got 300 female seals: He missed the
herd of females. Of the females taken,
very few were in pup, the rest being
virgin cows, mixed with males. He also
got a few barren cows, off Fairweather
grounds.
W. H. Whitely master of the s<
schooner " Mermaid."
Appendix No. 10.
Wm. Cox master of the sealing £
ner " Sapphire."
Appendix No. 12.
jaling        364. Saw  plenty of  sea
Flattery on the 29th January
Is off Cap
moo- 365. Believes that the cessation of the
killing operations by the lessees on the
Pribylov Islands, under the modus vivendi
has greatly increased the number of bachelors, and that these bachelors have, by
worrying the females with pup, driven
them to some off-shore route. In no other
bsence of
way can he account for the a
females on the coast this year, 9C
of his catch there being males,
percentage of males has been gett
since 1891.
366. Captain Tanner   also  i
this opinion to him.
367. During the month of
saw on the Fairweather Grounds
ing from Cape Fairweather to
Island—about 60 miles off s]
females with pups swimming
the pups being apparently ab
three weeks old.
368. He believes there are
which never go on the breedii
because they can be seen off th
of Vancouver Island all the ye*
369. The seals seem to be g|
plentiful on the American coas
There were more this year thai
first began sealing.
370. The last year he was
Sea (1891), the seals were moi
than he ever heard of them bei
r cent
d the
Mic
Geo. Heater   master of the
schooner " Ainoko."
Appendix No. 13.
s than
aid he believes if he had not gone to the waters
around Komandorsky Island he would
have secured a larger number of skins.
372. Fully two-thirds of his total catch
were males. The females appear to be
changing their route and keeping further
off shore.
373. Last year (1892) he also noticed
more males than usual on the American
side of the line of demarcation.
Alfred Bissett master of the sealing       374. Off Cape Foulweather,  bearing
schooner " Annie E. Paint." east about 25 miles, took about 100 seals
Appendix No. 14. during February.    Arrived off Sitka 4th
April; took about 30 or 40 seals on the
way up. During April and May, sealed
off Cross Sound and Mount St. Elias, taking
about 600 seals Arrived at Sand Point
16th June, where he refitted and sailed for
the Russian side. His whole catch of 740
seals along the coast was almost entirely
of males, including 30 old bulls. The
female herd passed them on the outside.
So far as he has heard, the other sealers
have had the same experience along the
coast.
John McLeod master of the  sealing       375. Took this year  1,050 seal-skins,
schooner " Pioneer." between Queen Charlotte Island and  the
Appendix No. 21. Fairweather Grounds.    One hundred and
twenty (120) miles off Cape Fairweather,
during latter end of April this year,
latitude 57° 58' N, longitude 139° 46' W,
he took 10 or 12 very large bulls. He
saw more bulls and males, on the Fair-
weather Grounds this year than he ever
saw before. The females were much
scarcer than usual. He believes they
were driven off their usual routes, by
being worried by the increasing number
of young males. Ninety per cent of his
catch were males. Off Agattu Island, at
the extreme end of the Aleutian Chain,
between 13th and 29th July, he saw seals
75 miles south-west.
R. N. Crowell master of the sealing       376  Says that off Cape St. Elias, and
schooner " Brenda 1892." between that Cape and Middleton Island,
Appendix No. 17. about 30 miles off shore, young cows and
young male seals are found every year as .
late as the end of August.
377. He is of opinion that somewhere
on the coast, between Queen Charlotte
Island and Unimak Pass, there must be a
seal rookery, because of the fact that
female seals are taken there so heavy with
pup, that it would be impossible for them
to reach any known rookery, without dropping their pups on the way.
378. This year on the British Columbian and Alaskan coasts, as far up as
Kodiak, got in all 241 seals. There were
not over 12 females in pup, the others
being young females and males. He got
one big breeding bull off Cape St. Elias,
about 60 miles off shore. CONTENTS  OP THE  STOMACHS  OF  SEALS.
Chs. Leblanc, master of the sealing
schooner " Sadie Turpel."
Appendix No. 6.
379. Found that' the stomachs of the
seals killed both along the Japan coast,
and in the vicinity of Komandorsky
Islands, contained considerable squid and
small fish..
380. Of the early catch along the Japan
coast, both males and females, the stomachs"
were comparatively empty, but later on
they contained considerable fish food.
The stomachs of the seals taken in the
vicinity of Komandorsky Islands,contained
very little food,
Wentworth E. Baker, master of the 381. The seals taken north of Koman-
sealmg schooner " Oscar & Hattie." dorsky Islands, appeared to feed more upon
Appendix No. 8. salmon and small fish than upon squid.
Wm. Sheilds, master of the sealing
schooner "Vera."
Appendix No. 7.
Melville Cutler, master of the seals' schooner " Agnes Macdonald."
Appendix No. 9.
W. H. Whitely, master of the i
ing schooner " Mermaid."
Appendix No. 10.
382. Off Copper Island this year,
between 25th July and 5th September,
examined the stomachs of several seals,
both male and female, to observe what
they fed upon. He found in the stomachs
of both, the remains of squid and small fish
resembling smelt or capelin. In previous
years he observed the same thing on the
American side.
383. From the middle to the end of
August, in the vicinity of Komandorsky
Islands, male and female seals are to be met
in very poor and lean condition, having the
appearance of being starved. When opened
the stomachs are entirely empty, although
squid and salmon are abundant. Others
are fat and full of food.
J. B. Brown, master of the sealing
schooner "Walter P. Hall."
Appendix No. 11.
Wm.   Cox,  master   of the  sealing
schooner " Sapphire."
Appendix No. 12.
Alfred Bissett, master of the sealing
schooner " Annie E. Paint."
Appendix No. 14.
Abel Douglas, master of the sealing
schooner "Arietas."
Appendix No. 19.
384. The seals taken along the Japan
coast were rather lank, the stomachs showing very little traces of food, but what there
was was principally small fish and squid.
Very few of the seals taken off the Komandorsky Islands were fat; most of them
being poor and thin.
385. This year the seals he took on the
Russian side, were nearly all full of squid;
but on the American side, the stomachs of
those opened were empty, except a few
pebbles in one and sealing shot in another.
386. Says that the stomachs of the
peals around Komandorsky and Pribylov
Islands contain about the same kind of
food, principally squid.
387. Says that in the stomachs of both
male and female seals, he has frequently
found a variety of food-squid, small fish
similar to herring, and salmon.
SEALS THAT HAVE COME EROM THE ROOKERIES  CAN BE DETERMINED.
Wm. Sheilds, master of the sealing 388. Can tell from the discolouration
schooner "Vera." of the   bellies   and the condition of the
Appendix No. 7. flippers, whether seals have been tor an-
length of time on land.
14 Otto Bucholz, master of the sealing
schooner " Casco."
Appendix No. 20.
Melville Cutler, master of the seal
ing schooner " Agnes Macdonald."
Appendix No. 9.
W. H. Whitley, master of the sealing schooner " Mermaid."
Appendix No. 10.
Wm. Cox,  master   of the   sealing
schooner " Sapphire."
Appendix No 12.
George Heater, master of the i
ing schooner " Ainoko."
Appendix No. 13.
Wm. O'Leary, master of the sealing
schooner " Geneva."
Appendix No. 15.
Wm. D. Byers, master of the sealing
schooner " Carlotta G. Cox."
Appendix No. 18.
389. Seals that have been on the
Islands are discoloured in the bellies, and
contact with the rocks and beaches renders
their flippers rough and worn.
390. Can determine if seals have been
on the rookeries or hauling grounds. Their
flippers are worn and their bellies discoloured. Got young males off Copper
Island this year, which had no appearance
of having been on the island.
391. The flippers of seals which have
come from the islands are worn, and the
seals can thus be distinguished.
392. Has once in a while noticed by the
worn flippers, that certain seals had been
on land, but he would not consider this a
certain proof that they had or had not been
on the rookeries.
393. Can easily tell whether seals have
come from the breeding or hauling grounds.
The long hair on the bellies is worn and
discoloured, and the flippers are worn and
ragged.
394. If seals have been on the hauling
grounds or rookeries, their bellies are discoloured and their flippers worn.
395. Can tell from the appearance of a
seal whether it has come from the rookeries
or hauling grounds. The bellies are discoloured.
Wm. Cox,  master
ichooner " Sapphire."
Appendix No. 12.
PUPS WILL  SWIM  BY INSTINCT.
of the   sealini
George Heater, master of the seal-
ng schooner "Ainoko."
Appendix No. 13.
John McLeod, master of the sealing
schooner " Pioneer."
Appendix No. 21.
396. Has seen pups cut from the
mothers, swim long distances when put in
the water, and they can be kept alive on
the schooner for weeks.
397. Has seen pups cut from the
mothers follow the schooner for an hour.
398. An unborn pup taken from the
mother will live.
SEXES CAN  BE DISTINGUISHED  AT SEA.
Charles Leblanc, master of the seal- 399. Says he can tell a female from a
ing schooner    Sadie Turpel." male seal  in the water, they being finer
in the head and neck.
Appendix No. 6.
Otto Buchol
schooner " Casco.
Appendix No. 20
;er of the sealing
George Heater, master of the sealing schooner " Ainoko."
Appendix No. 13.
400. The sexes can be distinguished in
the water. The head of a female is finer, the
throat lighter in colour, and the neck and
throat more delicate and graceful. A hunter meeting a male and female together,
will kill the female first, as the male is
more apt to remain with it.
401. Says he can distinguish a cow
from a male in the water quite readily;
the head is finer and the neck is more
graceful. Wm. D. Byers, master of the seal-
£ schooner " Carlotta G. Cox."
Appendix No. 18.
402. Can distinguish cows from males
in the water. They are not so heavy in the
head, and their throats are thinner and
lighter in colour. They are also more alert
and more difficult of approach, even if
asleep.
COPULATION  IN THE  WATER.
Wm.   Cox,  master   of the  sealing
schooner " Sapphire."
Appendix No. 12.
Geo. Heater, master of the sealing
schooner 1 Ainoko."
Appendix No. 13.
Wm. O'Leary, master of the sealing
schooner " Geneva."
Appendix No. 15.
John McLeod, master of the sealing
schooner " Pioneer."
Appendix No. 21.
Commander R. W. Scott Rogers, of
H.M.S. "Archer."
403. States that he has seen several instances of copulation at sea, and that there
can be no doubt that it occurs.
404. Has never seen fur seals copulate
in the water, but he has observed hair seals
do so.
405. Has seen seals mating in the
water in Behring Sea.
406. Says his attention was called this
season to seals copulating at sea. He has
no doubt as to the fact.
407. Informed me that while cruising
in the vicinity of Komandorsky Islands he
saw on two occasions, 28th August and 1st
September, seals evidently in the act of
copulation. He carefully observed them,
and could account for their actions in no
other manner
FISHING  BANKS.
R N. Crowell, master of the sealing
schooner " Brenda," 1892.
Appendix No. 17.
408. Reports that on the 18th day of
September, 1892, when on his way to Victoria from the Russian side, his position at
noon being 49° 45' north latitude and 144°
30' west longitude, he got on a bank at 5
o'clock in the morning. He ran off it between 7 and 8 o'clock in the evening. His
position at noon, brought him about in the
middle of the bank, east and west. His
vessel was making 10 miles per hour, and
he is of opinion that, running east and
west, this bank must be quite as large as
the grand bank of Newfoundland. It was
getting late in the season, and he was on a
good course, therefore, he did not stop to
try the bank "When his observation was
taken at noon, Middleton Island bore N.J
E. true, distant 600 miles.
REVIEW OF EVIDENCE AND CONCLUSIONS.
409. Under heading 2, sections (a) and (c) naturally come together for consf
deration.    The points involved are :
1. Whether female seals go far from the islands when suckling their young.
2. How long pups are necessarily suckled before weaning.
3. The earliest date at which mothers may resort to sea after giving birth t(
their young.
4. Whether they go for food or for what purpose.
5. Whether they are killed by the pelagic sealers. 56
410. 1. Notwithstanding the fact that Mr. Grebnitzky, in his report to the Russian
Government, states that migrations of 200 or 300 miles for purposes of exercise or
seeking food, are mere promenades for seals of all kinds except " Bulls," his answers
to all my questions tending to this point, were unequivocally that at that particular
period, female seals do not go far from the breeding islands.
411. With the exception of Mr. Emile Kluge, the Company's agent at Copper
Island, all witnesses agreed, that the nursing females do not go to any considerable
distance to sea. Some stating that they suckled their young three or four times a
day, during the early stages, and that they would have to return to them every
few hours.
412. Mr. Kluge expressed the opinion that they go 50 or 60 miles off shore, and he
thinks the " bachelors " probably go as far to sea as the females, but he remarked
" who can answer " ? His statement, which cannot be supported by any observation
of his own at sea, must, therefore, be regarded as purely conjectural.
413. It would not, however, appear that any question existed on this point, at least
in the minds of the Russian authorities, for in their report on the seizures of 1892, the
Russian Commission, * stated it to be a fact that " during the period of suckling in
" July and August, the females cannot go to any distance from the shore; " and
Mr. Chichkine, in his letter to Her Majesty's Ambassador 29th May (10th June)
1893, stated that the skins taken by the seized vessels were those of females, " who
" must therefore have been killed close to the shore ; " also that the skins on board
the schooner " Ariel " had probably been taken from nursing females, " and belonged
I to seals caught in Russian Territorial waters." (Correspondence, Russia. No. 3
1893, page 5).
414. The conclusion that female seals do not go far from the islands whilst
-suckling their young, is therefore the only one justifiable.
415. 2. On this point the statements are conflicting, and are referred to at length
in the remarks below. The evidence, however, points to the conclusion that females
.suckle their young about six weeks.
416. 3. On this point it was impossible to procure any information, nor would
any one venture an opinion on the subject; although, in my opinion, it ought not be
•any more difficult to establish, than any of the other points upon which ready answers
were given.
417. 4. The conclusions to be drawn from the evidence upon this point are :
that the seals while nursing, leave the rookeries for food, to avoid the heat when the
sun is strong, and to avoid the rain during wet weather. In none of these cases
however, do they wander far from the rookeries. In the two latter instances, their
object is attained immediately they enter the water, and in the former instance, they
can obtain abundance of food in the immediate vicinity of the islands. Hence, the
seals are not compelled to make long excursions for food, at times when their
presence at the islands is necessary.
418. 5. The only evidence that the nursing females are killed by pelagic sealers,
is that advanced by the Russian authorities, and the conjectural statements of some
of the officials on the island, who are not in a position to know, and who base their
opinions upon an examination of skins, in most cases salted, found upon the schooners j
which have been seized in the vicinity of the Komandorsky Islands. In their
endeavour to show that these vessels had been nearer Russian Territorial waters,
than was admitted by the masters thereof, the Russian authorities have recently
stated, that the presence of skins taken from suckling females proved their proximity,
because they could not have been taken except close in shore. This is, therefore, an
admission that the 30-mile zone is an effective protection to the breeding females,
the only class of seals the killing of which could be objected to, when the sealers are
off Komandorsky Islands.
419. On the other hand, the testimony of the pelagic sealers, which forms appendices to this report, reveals that the percentage of females taken in that locality, was
not nearly so large as was represented, being little over half of the catch, and that with
few exceptions, the females taken were drying up, thus showing that their pups had
.been weaned and able to provide for themselves.    It is also interesting to note here the state
the fema
he said \
time the
421   In connection witl
not be out of place.
. the foregoii
422. It is variously st
according to English dates t
ated that fe
Latter part of May.
May, June and Jul
1st June.
15th June, bulls ch
Middle of June.
Middle of July (all
27th July (all fema
oose females
423. The month of May
last, at which latter dates, it
for the late straggling arrive
majority of the breeding fe
generally admitted that the}
r pup almost
424. The evidence as to
the period d
Mr. Grebnitzky, 1J
Mr. Selivanoff, 3 or
Mr. Paetz, 3 or 4 w
Mr. Lindguist, 1J i
Mr. Badaeff, all the
4 weeks,
eeks.
Qonth, say 6
time they ai
i July, the
allowing
L that the
me.   It is
epted;
t takii
425. Puttin
June to Noveml
and might fairl]
it would establish that on the 10th August
would have weaned their pups, while m
that date. If, however, as is justified 1
average period given—six weeks—be tak
July, the vast majority of the females ha
entirely irrespective of the large number
June.
426. Add to this the fact, that the a]
show that while one of the vessels- reach*
on the 3rd, the majority took their first s
and it certainly would not appear that tl
killing at sea of nursing mothers, can
it could be shown that these females die
suckling their vounff.
Mr.
fall,
from
Dr. Slunin sti
ilar conditions 429. It would thus appear that females are found showing traces of milk, almost
up to the time of their departure from the islands.
430. This is no indication, however, that a female necessarily suckles her young
for any lengthy period, and is quite easily accounted for in the accompanying
evidence.
481. The mothers begin arriving in May, and stragglers continue to arrive until
the end of July. Here then is a period of two months between the earliest and latest
arrivals, and consequently births. The majority pup between these dates, but there
are some which pup earlier, and undoubtedly some which pup at this late date.
Assuming the period of suckling is six weeks, and taking the date given as the last
arrival of breeding females—27 th July—nursing mothers can be accounted for up to
the 7th September, after which date traces of milk must still be observable, during
the process of drying up.
432. How long after a female has weaned her pup she will show traces of
milk, is an interesting question which might be enquired into in the future.
433. During my stay on the islands, in the latter part of August, it was very apparent and required no technical knowledge to observe, that while the mass of the pups
were quite large and taking care of themselves, there were a number of young ones,
of different sizes and ages, which still required the fostering care of the mothers,
which must necessarily be in milk.
434. These instances, however, are exceptional, and apparently altogether abnormal, so far as the general habits of the animals are concerned.
435. In view of the otherwise well regulated natural conditions of seal life, it
appears singular that these exceptions should obtain, and it would be interesting to
discover how far they are due to the possible mating of the holluschickie with the
females, either in the water or on the land.
436. Another point which suggests itself here is that these admittedly late
arrivals, both of females and holluschickie, are not unlikely to be seals erroneously
said to be returning to the islands, after excursions therefrom for food or for other
purposes.
(b.)  THE MOBTALITY OF PUPS ON THE ISLANDS.
437. The evidence as to the extent of mortality among pups, cannot be regarded
as at all conclusive, nor in fact can any reliance be placed upon it. The lack of
knowledge displayed by those permanently residing upon the islands, on this point,
is remarkable, because of all the questions affecting seal life, this is perhaps the
easiest to solve, involving as it does the mere counting of carcasses.
438. It is simply established that there are some dead pups on the islands, and
some of those consulted, expressed the opinion that there were a greater number in
1892 than in 1891 and 1893. These statements, however, are so evidently conjectural,
that no weight could attach thereto.
439. Mr. Grebnitzky, the Russian Administrator, acknowledged that little could-'
be said about the relative number of dead pups on the rookeries, because the officials
do not go there. He had not noticed many dead pups during the past two years,
and he attempted no comparison between 1892 and 1893. He also stated that no
record of dead pups was kept. The same reason renders the statements of the other
officials valueless.
440. Mr. Kluge, the Company's agent on Copper Island, ventured the statement
that there were fewer dead pups this year than last, because there were fewer pups
horn. He is singular in this statement, however, as the preponderance of the evidence
is in favour of an increased number of pups.
441. Without exception, the death of pups was attributed to what mav be termed
natural causes ;  they are :—
. Bnornn SsfcJKj still-born, crushed by the bulls, smothered by the breeding
animals, killed by the surf during storms, drowned while learning to swim, wandered from mothers.    No epidemic was known ; no natural enemies were blamed 442. It is worthy of notice, and may be accepted as very significant, that in no
one instance was the mortality attributed, either directly or indirectly, to pelagic
443. In this connection, attention is directed to a statement by Thomas H
Brown (see appendix No. 16), a seal hunter, to the effect that in 1888, while engaged
as one of the boat steerers on board the sealing schooner "Maggie Mac," he ^-ot
quite near the shore of Copper Island. He noticed about 100 dead pups floating on
the water, from a few hundred yards to half a mile off shore. His boat was fired
upon from the shore and pierced by several bullets. He could express no opinion
whatever as to the cause of the death of these pups. That year, he says, there were
not more than two or three vessels sealing in the vicinity of the islands.
444. Apart entirely from any destructive agencies which might be particularized,
there must, where so many thousands of animals are born, be a large number of
deaths for which no explanation need be sought, as would be the case where any
large body of mammals congregate to reproduce their species.
445. My own observations in this regard, described in detail elsewhere, lead me
to the conclusion that the percentage of dead pups upon the rookeries, is much larger
than those residing upon the islands seem to have any appreciation of. They admit
that no measures have been taken to establish the facts of the case, either during the
time the seals are on the islands, or after they have left.
446. In view of all the facts, I must record my opinion that not only would it
be possible, but comparatively easy, after the herd had migrated from the islands,
for those in charge of the rookeries to make a most thorough examination of every
inch of the ground which had been covered by the seals. This would enable them
to count each dead pup, and state the number with absolute correctness. During
this process the carcasses could be removed, and the following years, by a repetition
of the work, the number of seals which had actually died each and every year, could
be established with the utmost exactness.
(d.)  AS TO THE  EXISTENCE OF " BANKS " OR SEALING  GROUNDS  AROUND  THE  ISLANDS.
447. With regard to division (d) as to the existence of " banks " or sealing
grounds around the islands, the incidental question of the presence of fish in the
vicinity of the islands may be considered in conjunction with H. E. Mr. Chichkine's
letter of 12th (24th) February, 1893, in which he explains that the 30-mile zone was
asked, " with a view to protect the banks, known by sealers as sealing grounds."
448. It is submitted that the existence of such " banks" has been disproven,
neither Russian men-of-war nor sealers ever having been able to find them, although
systematically sounding therefor. There is the single exception of a bank north of
Behring Island, reported by Captain R. N. Crowell, of the sealing schooner
I Brenda " in an entirely different direction from the so-called " sealing grounds "
hitherto resorted to bv the sealers, the position of its centre being latitude 58° N,
longitude 170° E., and therefore about 200 miles off, instead of 30.
449. All the evidence that could be collected, and my personal observations show,
that enormous quantities of fish food of various kinds, can be found at all times between the migration of seals to the islands and the date they leave in the fall, not
only close in shore, but at great distances therefrom.
450. If it might be held that the language used by H. E. Mr. Chichkine did not
necessarily apply to actual fishing " banks," where soundings could be obtained,
but in a general sense to localities, where fish food of different kinds can be found,
it does not appear that the reference is any more to the point. If the presence of
fish, 30 miles from shore, is alone sufficient reason for the prohibition of pelagic sealing within that zone, it would appear difficult to decide how far beyond that distance, their proven presence as far as 150 miles and 200 miles off, would justify an
extension of the zone, especially when seals are taken at greater distances from the
shore. Indeed, it may be said, that between 60 and 80 miles off, fish are quite as
abundant as at 30 miles, as also are they from that point shorewards. Admitting
the principle as sound, the zone could just as consistently be fixed at 200 as at 30
miles.
451. It may also he noted that this zone was asked primarily for the protection
of the suckling females, as against the pelagic sealers killing them at the time they
are performing those functions.   Apart entirely from the fact that the preponderance of the evidence collected, tends to show that the great body of suckling females do
not wander far from the rookeries, at the time their presence is absolutely necessary
for the nourishment of the pups, it is a most interesting fact, that the majority of the
sealers took their first seals in that vicinity, between the 21st and 25th July, and they
all bear witness that the females they took were drying up, as regards milk.
(e.)  WHETHER, IF  FEMALES  DROPPED  THEIR YOUNG  AT SEA  OR  LOST  THEM  ON  THE
ISLANDS, THEY  WOULD  RESORT  TO THE  ISLANDS.
452. The views expressed on the subject under this heading, must of necessity
possess but little value, as no one could, be in a position to give conclusive answers.
453. The opinion of Mr. Grebnitzky, that while remaining on shore, under either
of these conditions, the females would not copulate, and his statement to the Russian
Government, that they would be liable to illness and some would die, before reaching
the rookeries, do not appear to be based upon any actual observations, which could
lead to such conclusions, any more than does his statement that such females could
readily be distinguished by the roughness of their fur.
454. The general opinion is that they would resort to the rookeries under these
circumstances, and the reasons given are as follows.
Cows have been seen there which had no pups to look after.;
Their natural instinct would lead them to seek service of the bulls ;
Premature births may occur as with other animals, but they still have
other functions to perform.
455. Pelagic sealers state that they took seals in milk which must have pupped
elsewhere than on the known rookeries, or lost their pups at sea.
(/.)   THE  MIGRATION  ROUTES  OF  SEALS  IN  ASIATIC  WATERS'.
456. The detailed evidence shows that the commanding officers of both Her
Majesty's ships, and those of the Russian Navy, cruising in the vicinity of the Komandorsky Islands, could express no opinion from personal observations, on the subject
of the migration routes of the seals. The Russian Commanders depended for their
views, entirely upon what they had observed from the logs of the seized sealing
vessels, and conversations had with the masters thereof. Nor were other parties,
consulted on the islands and in the vicinity thereof, any better informed on this
particular phase of the question, apart from deductions drawn from what they had
heard.
457. The trend of opinion was that the seals come and go, following along the
Kurile Islands, and the Islands of Yesso and Nipon, but of their winter habitat they
could form no opinion.
458. On the other hand, the letter of Mr. Welsh to Mr. Malowansky, written
last April, stated that large catches of seals had been, and were being made by
pelagic sealers, about 150 miles east and 250 miles north of the harbour of Yokohama.
The preponderance of the evidence obtained from the pelagic sealers was to the
effect that while they followed the seals up the Japan coast, along the Islands of
Nipon and Yesso, they lost the herd off the island of Sikotan, at the southernmost
point of the Kurile Islands. Some were taken however off Staten Island, still
further to the northward.
459. W. H. Whitely, master of the schooner "Mermaid" noticed (about 25th 1
June) hundreds of seals entering the first pass into Okhotsk Sea.    The schooners
" Beatrice " of Vancouver and " Rattler " of San Francisco, followed the seals into
the sea without results.
460. Captain O'Leary of the schooner " Geneva" and Captain Byers of the
schooner " Carlotta G. Cox " were of the opinion that the seals wintered where they
were first met by the sealers, in the months of March and April.
461. An examination of the positions where the pelagic sealers caught their seals,
which are given in detail in the appendices to this report, Nos. 22 to 34, will be of
interest in this connection, as the data must establish the route of the seals along the
Japan coast, from the month of March until they reach the islands.
462 The statements reveal that, by the sealers from whom this information was
obtained, the first seal taken on the Japan coast was secured by the schooner
n?ooaor,"e'' ff Vancouver °a the 21st March in latitude 37° 11" north, longitude
142   34   east, a distance of about 75 miles off the Japan coast. 61
The first catches made by the other vessels on this coast were as follows :—
"Mermaid "  March 25
" Casco "  ci    07
" Carlotta G. Cox" ""." «    28
"Vera"  <•    29
''<fene™" V.V.V.V.V.V.V.'V.V.V."""!!!.'".".'!."!.'.'.'". April   1
Agnes Macdonald "      «•        2
"Arietas"  .< h
"w. p. Haii" L^!!]1!!!!!""!!."!!!;!;Z7'.""   «     7
" Sadie Turpel "       «      19
463. The greatest area covered by the vessels, in their first catch, was between
latitude 33° 15' N, longitude 140° 3'E., and latitude 39° 22' N, longitude 145° E.
Approximately this embraces a water area extending from 100 miles to the southward of Yokohama Harbour, to within 100 miles of the northern point of Nipon
Island.
The dates upon which the last seals were taken on the Japan coast were :
" Mermaid "  june 19
" Casco "       "    21
"Agnes Macdonald"       "    23
"Arietas"  "    24
"W. P. Hall"       "    29
"Carlotta G. Cox "       "    30
I Sadie Turpel"  July    4
"Geneva"      |      7
"Vera"      "     14
" Beatrice "       "    18
464. These vessels covered an area comprised between latitude 43° 59' N., and
longitude 148° 14' E , and latitude 44° 58' N. and longitude 155° 58' E., extending
from Tsugar Strait, to about 300 miles of the east point of Staten Island, one of the
southernmost of the Kuriles.
465. It is therefore established, that by this portion of the pelagic sealing fleet,
the seals were met about 75 miles off the Japan coast as early as the month of March,
and were followed along the Islands of Nipon and Yesso continuously, until between
the 19th June and middle of July. This accounts for their movements for the space
of nearly five months, and as they do not leave the islands until November, a further
period of four months may be added.
466. Therefore, there remains only three months of the year during which their
location and movements are in doubt.
467. As some portion of this time must necessarily be taken up in migrations
from the islands, it is fair to assume that these migrations do not differ materially
from those to the islands, and if but half the time taken to perform the spring journey, is expended for the fall one, there can be no alternative but to conclude that the
winter habitat of the Komandorsky Island herd of seals, is along the Japan coast,
where they were met by the sealers this spring, or very close to that position.
468. If it be contended that they wintered at great distances out to sea, it must
be remembered that they have but three months in which to make the journey from
the islands to their objective point, fulfill their functions there, and from that point
to return to the coast of Japan.
469. When it is considered that between four and five months are occupied by
them to cover the distance between Yokohama and the Seal Islands, this hypothesis
loses weight.
(g.)   THE   AVERAGE   DATES  OF LANDING  AND   DEPARTURE  OF SEALS,   AND   WHETHER
FEMALES  LAND  UNTIL THEY RETURN TO  GIVE  BIRTH  TO  THEIR FIRST PUP.
470. The remarks under the headings (a) and (c) deal with the first question
involved in this connection, although an examination of the detailed evidence, as to
the dates of the arrival and departure of seals would be of interest
471. Touching the point as to whether females land on the islands, from the time
they leave as pups until they return to give birth to their first pup, it will be observed
that the evidence of the residents of the islands is unanimous They all state that
young females are found in the " drives " mixed with the bachelors.
16 472. Particular attention is directed to the statement of Alexander Selivanoff
that in 1892 he made a " drive," calculating to take about 2,600 skins, but he discovered that there were over 1,000 young females mixed with the bachelors.*
(h.)  EFFECT UPON ASIATIC AND AMERICAN ISLANDS OF OPERATIONS ON EITHER, AND THEIR
RELATIVE CONDITIONS.
473. The evidence touching the effect upon the Komandorsky and Pribylov
Islands, of practices upon either, or upon Robben Reef, and their relative condition
in years of scarcity or abundance of seals, may be summarized as follows:—
474. The opinions of the parties consulted were unanimous that no operations
on either group, could in the slightest degree have any bearing upon the other.
475. If any effect were possible it could only be from practices on Robben Reef,
as although the seals frequenting the Okhotsk Sea do not go as far north as Komandorsky Islands, yet they are practically of the same herd.
476. They were also quite pronounced in the view that the herds of seals resorting to the American and Russian Islands, are separate and distinct, and they go so
far as to say that they have observed a difference in the appearance of the skins, when
they have had the opportunity of examining the catch of seized pelagic sealers.
477. Attention is directed to the statement of Alexander Selivanoff that in 1892,
at North Rookery, he noticed three bulls so different in appearance from those
usually resorting thereto, as to cause discussion among the natives ; one of whom,
who had formerly been at St. Paul Island (Pribylov), stated them to be the same as
he had seen there. That year he also observed two holluschickie, quite different in
appearance from the Komandorsky Island herd. .
(t.) LENGTH OF TIME A FEMALE SEAL WILL BEAR YOUNG AND A MALE  RENDER ROOKERY  SERVICE.
478. No evidence of value was obtainable regarding the length of time during
which a female seal will continue to bear young, or how long a male may render
efficient service on the rookeries.
479. Few people would venture to express an opinion on the subject, and those
who did, did so on mere assumption.
480. Mr. Grebnitzky thought females would average 10 births, and " bulls "
would serve the females 15 years.
481. Dr. Slunin, after examining the reproductive organs of five female seals,
which operations are described in this report, stated that the appearance of white
spots on the uterus of two of them, led him to suppose that they had probably given
birth to five and ten pups respectively, these figures representing the number of
spots observable.
482. If this theory be correct, there is easy and simple means provided for the
establishment of the number of pups to which a female will give birth, and consequently the number of years she will reproduce her species.
(/.)   THE EXISTENCE AND HABITS OP BARREN FEMALES AND EFFETE MALES.
483. Regarding the existence and habits of barren females and effete males,
it may be said that while the evidence is somewhat contradictory it points to the
existence of both.
484. Mr. Grebnitzky says the barren females are old seals which do not go
on the rookeries for service by the bulls but lay outside near the bachelors.
485. Attention is also called to his statement that 200 or 300 old bulls this Year
arrived at the islands, with the females, and then left without serving them.
486. Mr. Paetz stated that every year a few old bulls, no longer able forrookerv
service, are to be seen.
487. The evidence of the pelagic sealers establishes that a considerable number
of barren females were taken along the Japan coast, mixed with the male seals. Also
that this class of seals was taken off the Komandorsky Islands.
488 The logical conclusion is, that no reasonable doubt can exist as to barren
females forming a very appreciable feature in the seal herd. The killing of this class
of seals is much less destructive to seal life than is the killing of young males (k.)   CONDITION  OF  ROOKERIES  COMPARED  WITH  PREVIOUS  YEARS.
489. Respecting the condition of the rookeries as to numbers, compared with
previous years, 1 may say that so far as my own personal observations were concerned,
1 Had no method of comparison, never having seen the rookeries before. My first
impression however, was that adding the seals which were disporting in the water
to those which were on the land, it would be difficult to provide room for many more
without an expansion of the rookeries shorewards. Each time I saw them they
appeared to me to be so densely occupied that it looked as if there would scarcely be
room for the enormous numbers playing along the water fringes.
490. Mr. Grebnitzky, Commander Burr and Mr. Kluge, are the only ones who
said that there were fewer seals on the rookeries than in previous years.
491. Commander Burr expressed the opinion that there were fewer seals on the
rookeries this year than there were two years ago, and that the seals were smaller.
Mr. Grebnitzky, however, reports to the Russian Government that the skins taken
were large, and Mr. Malowansky, of the company's vessel " Kotik," assured me that
the skins were fine large ones, those on Copper Island averaging larger than those
on Behring Island.
492. Mr. Kluge could not say to what extent they had decreased, but he believed
there were fewer seals on the rookeries than in 1892.
493. Mr. Grebnitzky stated that there was a decrease of three-tenths as compared
with last year, and three-fifths compared with the year before. He then proceeded
to state that there were more pups and more females on Behring Island than last
year, and there were more bulls on Copper Island than last year, and that on that
island there was an increase in the number of yearlings, though a decrease in the
number of that class on Behring Island was noticeable. It is not clear how Mr.
Grebnitzky reaches his conclusion as to the decreases of three-tenths and three-fifths.
Besides, according to his own showing, if there was any decrease it occurred in the
class of holluschickie, whereas all Russian authorities appear to agree in the statement
that 90 per cent of the catch of the pelagic sealers is of females.
494. The beginning of the alleged decrease in the number of the seals is fixed as
following the year 1888, and is associated with pelagic sealing.
495. This was the third year from the time of the expiry of the lease of the
Alaska Commercial Company, and the lessees took 45,000 skins.
In 1890 they took 55,727.
In 1889 do 55,493.
In 1888        do       45,000
496. Although said to be failing since 1888, it will be observed that during 1889
and 1890 the lessees of the islands killed, each year, a number of seals largely in
excess of that taken on any year during their twenty years' franchise.
The three years prior to this the catches were:—
1885   41,737
1886  44,500
1887  46,754
497. The figures are suggestive that towards the end of their lease, the Company
taxed the rookeries to their utmost extent, and no other result than a failing supply
could be looked for, entirely irrespective of the operations of the pelagic sealers, who,
until quite recently, did not resort to those waters in any numbers.
498. Passing to the evidence on the other hand, it will be observed Alexander
Selivanoff, Alexey Badaeff and Mr. Paetz, the resident agent at Behring Island, all of
whom are well acquainted with the rookeries, testify to an increased number of seals
upon the rookeries. It is stated most positively that there were more seals on the
rookeries in 1892 than in 1891, and more in 1893 than in 1892. The increase is said
to be general, embracing all classes of seals, and their testimony is unanimous, that
the rookeries are in better condition than for the past three years. I may add, that
when standing overlooking the rookeries with Dr. Slunin, who had also been there
last year, I asked him how they compared in point of numbers of seals. He unhesitatingly answered that the numbers had increased.
499. In the light of all the evidenced feel justified in concluding that generally
speaking, there is nothing to show a decrease an the number of seals on the Kom-
andorskv Islands, in 1893, as compared with previous years. On the contrary, the
testimony favours the statement that there has been an appreciable increase m the number during the past two years. This is reasonable to expect, m view of the fact
that during the past three years the average take of the lessees has been about 30,000,
as against an average of over 50,000 taken by the former lessees m the previous three
years.
500. A reduction of 20,000 in the number annually killed, affords at least a partial rest to the rookeries. If it be held that the take was limited only because of the
absence of holluschickie, then any abnormal diminution in this class must be accounted
for otherwise than by pelagic sealing.
501. The evidence regarding Robben Island is very meagre, and is to the effect
that there has been a decrease in the number of seals there for some years past. As
to its condition this year, however, the fact remains that the Company took therefrom 1,532 sealskins, whereas, in 1892, it was not considered sufficiently profitable to
kill any there. In 1891, 540 only were taken, and in 1890 the outgoing Company
took 1,453, probably a maximum number.
502. Thus the present year's take was larger than that of 1890, although no seals
had been taken there by the Company between 1885 and that year.*
(m.) THE EFFICIENCY- OR INEFFICIENCY OF THE PROTECTIVE ZONE.
503. With regard to the efficiency or inefficiency of the protective zone around .
the islands, it may be said that the information obtained, largely points to its
effectiveness in affording a general protection to the breeding seals, after they have
reached the islands.
504. It is fair to assume from the detailed evidence set out, under the different
headings that, during the period a female is necessarily suckling her young, that is
to say before she has begun to wean her pup, she does not go to any great distances
from the shore, or remain away for any length of time. Later oh it appears they
do so, and this is in accord with the statements of the pelagic sealers, that the large
majority of the seals showing milk were drying up. Some seals with a free flow
of milk were taken, but the number is stated, to be small and some of them were
taken along the Japan coast and elsewhere, under circumstances which point to the
conclusion that they had dropped their pups at sea, or on the shores where no regular
rookeries exist. According to the statements of the sealers, this class did not form
any considerable portion of their catch. Such seals were exceptional, and taken
comparatively early.
505. One fact which I observed, and which is universally admitted by those
consulted, who had the opportunity of observing the seals at sea, was that the nearer
the shore was approached the more seals were to be seen. In the cruising tracks of
the vessels on the 30-mile belt, very few seals were to be seen at all; while on
approaching the shore, the numbers increased with the diminishing distance therefrom. While this appears to be an indisputable fact, there is the further fact to be
considered, that to distances as far out as 60, 80, and 100 miles, they are taken by the
sealers principally in August and September, although according to Mr. Grebnitsky,
late in August and during September, the seals made no migration to sea, that being
the shedding period.
506. It does not seem that the fact that seals are intercepted, in their migrations
to the islands, is a sufficient ground upon which to base a claim to a protective zone.
If it were the fixing of such zone must be purely arbitrary, as such interception
may be said to begin on the Japan coast.
507. It will be noticed, that some of the Russian officers expressed the opinion
that if the Russian Government had the same authority within the 30-mile zone,
as they had within their territorial limit, such a zone would afford ample protection.
508. It would certainly seem that the arrangement between Her Majesty's
Government and that of Russia, providing a 30-mile protective zone around the
Russian Seal Islands during the year 1893, has been successful in protecting the
breeding animals, particularly at the time they necessarily nurse their young.
TABULATED  STATEMENT  OF  OPERATIONS AND  POSITIONS  OF  PELAGIC  SEALERS.
509. For convenience of ready reference, I have prepared the following tabulation
of the operations of such of the pelagic sealers from whom I procured data. The
further positions from day to day, where seals were taken on the Japan coast, and
in the vicinity of Komandorsky Islands, will be found in the appendices numbered
22 to 34, inclusive. Range of Positions
around
Komandorsky Islands.
8   a
. |g    fe  f
%  8      Z   g
*   ?      ?   |
■s   %     *   ^
g      §3   fc
fe  S  | 1          ij^         £;                                                                    J
?§. o°  o°  ^  ?I  |  ^Jg  f     T                                                                 *   5
g      §   g   3   S      52.  S^      g      g                                                                           S3   ?s
Position
where taken.
H"    ,-K             OS       'g                                         i                   OOOOTXTXTX
§|      o   |                   :         slllsl
| °g      S   |                   :         g      8   g   g   g      g
o      g     :             -   • j                                : ;               fe   §
. Last Seal
around
sky Isl'ds.
■ £    3 J*             ■      -3    1 -§ -§ |    | j
*'   S   -                      •                                              *'»*
Position
where taken.
»-S      8   8                   i         g      S   g   3   g      g
g   og       g    g                                   fe       fe    g    g    g       g
^ °g      g   g                   :         g      g   g   g   §      g
g    §   :           lla.sl'llslil^a ;          g g
First Seal
in waters
around
Komandorsky
Islands.
«'         S3     ^                             '             §         8     Si     §     ji         S     r
1    I S                                                s a
Range
of positions on
^   §      §                         :         <e   38    o   1     I
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o^      f     :                  :                                                           fe
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1°l
- a:     ;             !      ss    ss   ;
^    a $                                                s s
Position
H ~3   §                           g         §   SS      g   fe     :
a     ^    ;                                             :            8  s§
1    1
:     :        :   ££.S §v3 :    tog :     :        :     :     :
1  1 1 ij||j|                 \      i J
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CO     ►>          6     t
^     -1  w  ~g     |  1       =j   |i! §  sg                                       aa  1||  6  %
j 1 * N                !   f f  ;   1 1     £ I I i 1                           1        2:|
fe
1 * «   «
O            «>       t-       =C             OS
3
s a a    s                                a          a a  6Y
Kinds of Seals
Condition
of such seals.
Kinds of Seals
&$
No.
taken on the
Condition
Migration
A8o°ank1din*
Japan Coast.
around   Koman
dorsky Islands.
£-1
First few catches
mostly all young
males, after that
mixed.    On the
whole half male
and half female.
Got 12 or 15 bar
E&W8
June.     Latter
half of June between Yesso and
Sikotan   Islands
got  between  20
and 30 females in
Two-thirds females
Very few had a full
Shown  by forego
and     one-third
males.
flow  of  milk.
After 8th August
went north of islands.    Females
drying up.    Towards end of Au
ing positions. On
20th August ran
as far as 170 miles
N.N.E. of Behring Island. Saw
quite a number o1
big cows. Got six,
stomachs   contained fish fooc
and squid.
southward of Ko-'
mandorsky   I s -
lands; but plenty
surface fish as far
ren cows.    Bulk
of catch full sized
seals; very few
milk,   30, to  40
miles off.   Stomachs of seals on
gust   had   completely dried up.
Stomachs   con
grey pups.
Japan coast contained squid and
tained considera-
ble squid   and
small nsh.
small fish.
mp*-'
During March and
April   mixed.
During May, a
The females in pup. Mixed  males and
About half of the
Shown by foregoing
positions.   Lost
Knows of no banks
Quite a number    females, perhaps
females   had   a
who does.    Had
the herd off the
bunch all males
Heaviest in pup    than males.
of   milk.     The
northern part oi
tried   200   fath
and then a bunch
other half in dif
Staten Island.
oms of line but
ferent  stages oi
got no soundings.
Plenty  of  squid
30 miles off, cut
drying up.    The
to end of June.
stomachs of the
dSSjVtat
seals    contained
very little show
up apparently by
few cows in full
milk.   Stomachs
m
of    early   catch
comparatively
empty; later on
contained consid
erable fish food.
3
South  of   islands,
South   of   the   islands,    the   few
Knows of no banks
can be obtained.
1   seals.
cows taken had a
Seals taken to north
Tried for sound
of theislandswere
show   of    milk.
ings three years,
mixed males and
This was early in
with 200 and 120
females,  about
July.
fathoms,   discol-
one-third males.
North of the island
the females were
drying up. Later
ly  any   sign  of
milk.    One day,
went 110 miles to
the north.   Here
females   showed
least sign of milk,
ed banks.  North
of the islands the
waters were alive
with salmon.
and appeared to
be staying off the
;       '   ,
islands.
R'
Majority  males-
Females   in   pup
heaviest towards
Fully    one-half
males.
Poor and  starved
condition.    D i d
Met seals in April
and   May   off
Knows of no banks
as far as 100 miles
many males.—
Females in pup
all along.
the end of June.
not observe close
Nipon,   between
20 and 70 miles
Off Yesso Island
ly as to stages of
although had
several barren
females.
milk.
off. Lost the herd
sounded for bot
in June off Siko
tom fish with 120
tan.
fathoms of line.
5
Young male seals,
cows in pup and
a few  barren
Two-thirds re
Females had some
First   met   seals
Knows of no banks
show of milk, but
about 200 miles
southward of the
mainder    young
bulls.
north of  Yoko
islands where any
full flow, drying
hama from 180 to
soundings can be
up with very lit
200miles off shore
had, but lots of
tle show towards
surface  fish  are
the end.   Stom-
April, got them
found 50  or  00
achsofbothniales
all along Nipon
miles  to  the
and females con
southward. Was
tained squid and
lost them off
among fish all the
small    fish   like
north   part   of
time.    Lots  of
smelt or capelin.
Yesso, end of
salmon.
18
\    '. Kinds of
i. |Seals taken on th
Japan Coast.
Kinds of
Seals taken arounc
Komandorsky
Islands.
and
"19th   ,
r thre
June about half
the catch was of
males. A large
number of bar-
end of May t
big "bulls."
males in full milk
about 50 miles off
land. Foggy. No
position. On the
same day got the
Mixed. Some
all cows, other]
days all males.
On the whole a
small percentage]
of which had
pups in them.
DuringJuly]
' |Two-thirds w
large nSr'of |
small male seal!
mixed in with|
large males and
I Off  Yesso, end of A
few   females in full flow
of   :
ilk.    Lasl
 puptaken
about 23rd June.
Seals  on  Japan
lank,  the  i
achs   shoY _
very slight traces
of food.
42° 53' 145° 18'. I
The seals began
to travel north off |
. |Did n.
ales
; observe fe
elyl
enough t
to stages of milk.l
On the Russian
side    the    seals
taken werenearly
all full of squid,
but on the Amer-.
_ican  side  the|
stomachs   w e
empty  excepl
few pebbles i
in one a sealing!
Copp
pastKnc
,. ___iles south of
Ounimak Pass
and from that tc
80 miles south of
Agattu, and be-
and Rat Island,!
80   miles
wards the  seals |
iplen
tiful a	
saw them in Behring Sea. One day
at this place got
two with young
unborn and c
with milk.
i of Koman-
lehadl^mall
: reported 75
s southwest
.ttou Island. Kinds of
i. [Seals taken on the
Japan Coast. such seals.
Out of 46 sea
taken here, f<
were females.
I Mixed males and
females. On 7th
July, 300 n
Kurile Islands
took 40 seals all
3-year old, male
and fema? '
mostly ma
Nothing to:
cate they hadj
been on land.
f |Mixed cows
males, but :
cows than males.
|Most of the cows
were with pup,
but there was
quite a number|
of barren
Got seals h
up   to  the 23rd
The majority females ; about one-
third males.
with pup, about
J cows with pup,
some young ffi
Principally young
seals, about half
male and half
female. In April
the females wer<
virgins. Later oi
more females ii
pup. Quite i
number of barren females in
June, off Yesso
Island, also non-
breeding males
and females.
to 120 miles off
shore.     Seals
thicken and dry
known^ke*h
there principally
males.   Nearer
shore   more   fe-
Mixed   males and|None of the females
Seals wereonJap
females, probably    were in full milk,
more females    evidently drying
than males.
up.    In previous
odd   females  80
miles   off,   with
milk,   and   then
believe they a
would get females
to be found
drying up.
first met them.
Shown by positio
taken    on    this
previously give
'ewer females in
this neighbourhood than ever
before. About
half males and
half females.
than males. A
large number of
youngnon-breed-
ing seals,  males
Not one had a full ..
flow of milk the
milk had pretty
well dried up.
Towards end of
season only a
slight trace of
milk left.
flow of milk, be- seals in northern!
ing  in different part  of  Gulf of [
stages of drying Kamtschatka, in-
up.     ■ eluding sleeping
side the 30-m
28th.
quite appare
that the milk w
and Comparatively fewi
—    females had a full
flow of milk, only! SEIZURE OF BRITISH VESSELS UNDER THE PROVISIONAL AGREEMENT.
510. The following vessels were seized and otherwise interfered with by the
Russian cruisers this season.
Schooner " Minnie " of Victoria, B.C.:
Seized by the Russian transport  " Yakout," on the 17th July, in latitude 54° 21' N., longitude 168° 38' E., 21 miles south-east of Copper Island.
Schooner " Ainoko," of Victoria, B.C.:
Seized by the Russian transport  " Yakout," on the 22nd July, 1893, in
latitude 54° 23' 5" N., longitude 168° 32' E., 16 miles south-east of Copper
Island.
Schooner " Maud S." of Victoria, B.C.:
Seized by the Russian transport  " Yakout," on 29th August, 1893, 22
miles south-west of Copper Island.
Schooner " Arctic " of Shanghai:
Seized by the Russian cruiser "Zabiaka," 3rd August, 1893, in latitude
54° 15' N., longitude 167° 31' E., 28 miles off Komandorsky Islands.
511. These vessels were ordered to Yokohama for adjudication. The " Anioko" and
" Minnie " proceeded to Victoria, where their cases are now pending. The " Maud
S." sailed for Yokohama, where she was formally proceeded against and acquitted
of any breach of the Act under the agreement, or Order in Council thereunder. The
"Arctic" also reported at Yokohama.
512. The only other interference with British vessels, so far as could be learned,
was in the case of the steam schooner " "Warlock," of Victoria, B.C., which vessel put
into the port of Petropaulovski, on the Kamtschatka coast, for fuel and water, after a
rough voyage along the Aleutian Islands, during which no seal skins had been procured. Her papers and sealing equipment were removed from her by the Russian
cruiser " Zabiaka " and she was given papers to Yokohama, where her captain wa,i
informed he would receive his original papers and equipment, on application to H.
M. Consul. This vessel was not seized, the action of the Russian authorities being
explained as a safeguard against a possible breach of the agreement; the master of
the " Warlock " having evinced the desire of reaching Yokohama as soon as possible.
CONCLUSION.
513. In concluding my report, I desire to acknowledge my indebtedness to
those from whom, I have received assistance, hospitality and courtesy, while pursuing the enquiries incidental to my mission, of which I must express a high appreciation.
514. To the Commanders of the Imperial Russian ships, " Zabiaka" and
" Yakout," the officials of the Russian G-overnment, and the Russian Seal-skin
Company's Agents on the Komandorsky Islands.
515. To Mr. Malowansky, the Company's Agent on board the ss. " Kotik," and
to Mr. Paetz, the Company's Agent on Behring Island, I am especially indebted for
courtesies, while on board the " Kotik " and on the Island.
516. To Admiral the Hon. Sir Edmund Fremantle, K.C.B., C.M.G-.; the Commanders of H. M. ships "Mercury" and "Porpoise" and most especially to the
Commander, officers and men of H.M.S. " Archer " for uniform courtesy and attention
shown and ready assistance rendered.
517. To H. B. M. Charge d'Affaires at Tokio.
518. To H. B. M. Consuls at Yokohama and Hakodate.
519. To Mr. A. R. Milne, Collector of Customs at Victoria, British Columbia.
I have the honour to be, My Lord,
Your Lordship's most obedient humble servant,
™   T3- i^-rj- I ROBERT N. VENNING.
The Right Honourable
The Earl of Rosebery, K.G.,
&c, &c, &c. A.PPEISTDICES.
Statements by Russian Officials and Employees of the Russian Sealskin Company on the Russian Seal Islands.
APPENDIX No. 1.
Synopsis of the Report for 1893, of Mr. Grebnitzky, Russian Administrator, at
Komandorsky Islands, as translated by Messrs. Grunwaldt and Malowanskv, in his
AffaiS0— ft by Mr' Grebnitzky> t0 the ^ssian Minister of Foreign
Migrations from the shore of from 200 to 300 miles,'for the purpose of exercise
or seeking food, are mere promenades for seals of all kinds, except " bulls." Pups
come into the world weak, and require considerable nourishment from their mothers.
The females pup principally in May and June, and suckle their young for one and
a half months or two months. The following year, ten months old pups come to
the islands in company with the mothers, while in the second year they arrive
separately, later than the mothers.
Some females which are disturbed in their migrations to the breeding rookeries
lose their pups in the water. They are then liable to illness, and some die before
reaching the rookeries. Those of them which succeed in reaching the shore lose the
instinct which calls for service of the " bulls." If the mothers die in July or August,
the pups must necessarily perish for want of nourishment, but in the event of the
mother dying in October or November, the pups are quite capable of taking care of
themselves if they can find young squid and small fish near shore; but such pups
are always slow in growth and yield poor skins.
If a female loses her pup in the water, she can be readily distinguished by the
condition of the fur, which is rough and thin under such circumstances.
During the shedding period, late in August, and during the month of September, the seals remain close on shore, making no migrations to sea.
The " bulls " and breeding females, must necessarily come on shore to perform their procreative functions, the females to pup and be served by the "bulls."
The former cannot pup in the water, as the pups would drown ; neither can they be
served in the water.
Mr. Grebnitzky then expresses his opinion of pelagic sealing as follows :—
Causing a general decrease of seals on the breeding rookeries, especially of
females, only about one-half the females being noticed on the rookeries since 1888,
as compared with the number for some years prior to that date. Considerable increase
in the number of dead pups since 1888.
Generally speaking, there is a considerable number of barren females (old)
which do not go on the rookeries for service by the " bulls," but lay outside near the
holluschickie.    These barren females are easily frightened.
He thinks that the seals migrate further from the Komandorsky Islands than
from the Pribylovs for feeding purposes, as there are a number of shallow banks
which afford food.
These banks, he says, are situated to the southward of Copper Island, and to
the northward from Behring Island about 150 miles.*
The report proceeds: The salmon arrive in the vicinity of Behring Island
in the end of June, and are observed arriving till the end of August, and the seals
go out sixty miles to-meet them. He states the seals are fond of salmon, and there
have been times when they went up the rivers for them.
It is a very simple matter to tell the skin of a female seal from that oi a
male even if it has been salted ; and if it had not been very long salted he could tell
whether or not the mother had been suckling the young. W&&    111
The Komandorsky and Pribylov Island herds are separate and distinct, those
of the Komandorsky.Islands are distinguishable by their being greyer m colour,
while the head of the animal is narrower and finer.
The seals migrate from the | Komandorsky Islands about the middle ot
November, moving south to the Japan Sea. . ,.
The Robben Island herd move down the Japanese Coast m same direction,
and seals are found landed on islands inside the Kuriles. Some, instead of going to
Robben Island, distribute themselves on other islands m the Okhotsh bea.
*~Tnis opinio *» ^111 „r.nn the charts of confiscated schooners, from which he has observed that seals are captured
by them from 1(
19 12
Synopsis of a telegram prepared by Mr. Grebnitzy, to be sent to the Minister of
Domains, at St. Petersburg, affecting the operations of 1893, on Komandorsky
Islands:— _,,
Nine-tenths of the sealing schooners were on the Japan Coast about February,
because they did not find enough seals on the American coast. All sealing schooners
keep in the track of the seals from forty to ninety miles off the south end of Copper
Island, and prevent them from going further out and coming in. Plenty of seals
are in the sea, and on the coast of Kamtschatka. Fewer seals this year on rookeries.
Slight decrease of females on Copper Island this year. Plenty bulls. The skins
taken were large.    International action alone can efficiently protect sealing industry.
APPENDIX No. 2.
Statement by "Waldemar Paetz, 21st August (4th September), 1893, at
Nikolski, Behring Island.
I have-been on Behring Island three years in the capacity of agent for the Russian Seal-skin Company. I visited the rookeries four or five times each year during
1891 and 1892, and have had good opportunities of observing their condition. This
year I only made one visit to the North Rookery.
There were last year, and are this year, more seals on the North Rookery than
there were during 1891, the first year I spent on the island. Not only are there more
seals generally speaking, but there is a considerable increase in number of female
seals. There are also more pups this year. The first year I came here, there were
very few bulls on the rookeries, but last year the number of bulls increased, and this
year it increased again over last year. As regards " bachelors " there is very little
difference between this year and last, but there is a considerable increase in the
number of females. I consider the rookery to be in better condition this year as
regards number of seals, than during 189 L and 1892.
When I first came to the island, I was quite interested in the question of the
habits of seals, and got all the information I could in conversation with the natives.
If females while suckling their young do go off the rookeries for food, they do not
go any distance from the shore. They would go early in the morning and soon
return to the rookeries.
I have not observed or heard of any more dead pups one year than another,
during my stay here. "What few dead pups there are, from year to year, are mostly
killed by the surf during storms.
From my own observation and what I have been able to gather from the
natives, I believe I can safely say that a young pup will be suckled by its mother
for about three or four weeks before being weaned.
I do not believe that a female seal will go any considerable distance to sea
for food until the first week in September, if she is a breeding female—that is if she
has pupped.   They can get food nearer the islands.
If females should drop their young at sea or lose them on the islands, they
would remain on the islands, just the same as the other breeding females ; as giving
birth to their young is not the only reason for their migrations to the islands. Their
natural instinct also brings them there to receive service from the bulls. This I consider is proven by the fact that there are some barren females which remain on the
islands, although having no young.
With regard to the question as to whether female seals ever land on the
islands from the time they leave them as pups, until they return to the rookeries to
give birth to their first pup, I may state that there is no doubt that they do, as young
females are often observed mixed with the holluschickie, and otherwise on the island.
I am decidedly of opinion that the seal herd which frequents the Pribyloff
Islands is a distinct one from that which visits the Komandorsky Islands, and therefore any operations on those islands could in no way affect the Komandorsky Islands
and vice versd. Last year I handled the skins taken from the seized schooner " Rosie
Olsen," among which were some taken on the American side, and I observed such a
marked difference in the appearance of these skins as compared with those taken on
the Russian side, that it convinced me of the distinctness of the herds. Also, I believe
that the seals which visit Robben Island never get this far, and although of the
same herd practically, any operations there would not affect the Komandorsky
Islands in any degree.
I cannot say as to how long a female will continue to bear young, nor how
long a male seal will render efficient service on the rookeries ; but I know that every
year there are upon the rookeries, a few old bulls which are no longer able for rookery
service.   The number of this class is small, but they do occur each year. menl^f BiJriL^wVp   th+e P.rotecti^ zone agreed to between the Govern-
whST hafe tath^edt ?eneTally peaking from what I have observed, and from
Tr^J^TLSrZ conversation with the natives here, I do not believe that
the7sor n" un ilgtLavifreat ^Tff ^ the r0okeries' from the time they land in
UlS^* gi \ J 7 ? the falL I do not believe they go at any time during
their stay here, to a greater distance than the protective zone if indeed that far I
TseiLw117 reaS°n fOT theird^-,asthey can get all the food^ they require
I do not know anything about the Copper Island rookeries.
On South Rookery Behring Island, which is a small rookery, there are also
more seals this year than last year. In 1891, there were very few seals on this
rookery more in 1892, and still more this year. I was not on the rookery this year
myself, but I was informed by the natives that the seals were more numerous there.
, ++So fa^s Belmng Island is concerned, I consider the rookeries in much
better condition this year than last, in point of numbers of seals
, I The bulls begin to leave the rookeries early in August, but the females and
killables remain until the latter part of October, and during the earlv part of November there are very few to be seen on the rookeries, some females," some pups and
some killables.
WALDEMAR PAETZ.
APPENDIX  No.  3.
Statement by Alexander Selivanoee, at Nikolski, 23ed august (4th September), 1893.
I have resided on Komandorsky Islands for twelve years, six years on Copper
Island and six years on Behring. I came here from Petropaulovski, as a Russian
official under the Administration, and I have had good opportunities of observing
the condition of the rookeries, as during the whole of the killing seasons I have been
at the rookeries, except this year, when I left there in the month of June.
As regards the number of seals on the rookeries this year, from personal experience I can say that there is an increase as compared with last year. This increase is
noticeable in all classes of seals, but there is an increase particularly in the number
of females and pups, while there is also an increase in the number of bulls. There
were over 1,000 bulls on the rookeries this year, but this class of seals begin to leave
towards the end of July and first part of August.
During the year 1892, the rookeries were in better condition than in 1891, there
being more seals, generally speaking. I noticed there were more seals on the rookeries, but did not observe of what particular class.
During the time the female seals are suckling their young they do not go to
great distances from the shore to feed, but if the weather is fine and no storms are
prevailing, they will go eight or nine miles from shore, but no further, while they
are nursing. When the sea is high, and the weather stormy, the nursing females
will only go a very short distance from the rookeries. With regard to the question
as to whether a female seal feeds while suckling, I have seen a female nurse her pup
early in the morning, leave the rookery for a few hours and return and again nurse
the pup. This is from personal observation. During the month of June, when the
pups are young, the females do not leave them for a longer time than about four
hours, but later on, in July, when the pups are older, they will stay away for nine
or ten hours.
I judge the distance the females go from their rookeries while nursing, by personal observations made by me watching them, with a pair of field glasses, every
day during my stay at the rookeries. It was my duty to give to the officials all the
information I could gather in connection with the rookeries and the seals, and it
was during my daily observations that I watched the seals leave the rookeries and
return.    There was no danger of my mistaking females. .
During the year 1892, I think, there were more dead pups than in.1891 or
1893 I did not count the dead pups, but there appeared to be more. I attribute the
death of these pups to storms and surf, and many of them were crushed by the
bulls     In the autumn, during stormy weather, many of the pups are killed by the From the observations I have made, my opinion is that a female seal will
suckle her young three or four weeks before weaning. I cannot say how soon after
the birth of her pup a female will resort to the water for food, and would not like to
give an opinion on this point.
In the event of a female losing her pup at sea, she would come to the
rookery, because I have seen barren females on the rookery which had not pups to
look after. If she lost her pup on the rookery, she would remain there for service
by the bull.
At all times, during their stay upon the rookeries, females can be found
with a show of milk. I have seen females killed in October, for scientific purposes,
and there has been in them a decided show of milk.
I cannot say much about the migration routes of the seals or their winter
habitat, but they come from the south-east and return in that direction.
The seals arrive at the islands in the following order :—
^In 1892.—First. The bulls, the first arriving on the 1st May, and from
that forward coming gradually until 1st July, and that
is the reason that a few bulls will be found later in the
fall on the rookeries,
do       Second. The first females arrived on the 20th May, and from
that forward they kept coming until 15th July, by which
time all the females were on the rookeries,
do       Third. The holluschickie arrived about the same time as the
females, but continued coming the whole time until
about 15th of August.
Departure, 1892.—The bulls left first, but cannot say actual time of
leaving.    As  the   seals   come,  they leave; gradually.
Except the bulls, which had nearly all gone by that time,
they began to leave about 1st October, and had all left
the islands on the 12th November.
As to the question whether female seals ever land on the islands from the
time they leave them as pups, until they return to the rookeries to give birth to their
first pup, I have seen young females (yearlings) every year on the rookeries.    Last
year, 1892, I made a " drive," thinking to take about 2,600 skins, but I discovered
there were over 1,000 young females mixed with the holluschickie.
Last year, 1892, I observed three bulls on North Rookery which were very
different in appearance from the bulls usually resorting to these islands. They had
long manes on the back of their necks, which do not occur on the bulls of Komandorsky
Islands. These bulls caused considerable discussion among the natives, one of whom
had come to the Komandorsky Islands from St. Paul, Pribylov : his name was Efim
Snegiroff. He informed the natives that these bulls were from St. Paul Island, as
they were the same as he had seen there. Last year I noticed two holluschickie
which were very different from the ones here, the hair being quite black.
I cannot say how many years a female will continue to bear young, nor
how long a male will render efficient service on the rookeries.
I have never noticed any adult females which were barren, nor any old bulls
which were not able for rookery service.
In 18911 found in a drive a seal which was a hermaphrodite.
On the whole, I believe the rookeries to be in a better condition than for the
last three years.
The agreement between the Russian and British Governments providing a
30-mile zone is a sufficient protection to the breeding seals, after they have got to the
rookeries, but early in the spring, during the migration of the seals to the islands,
the presence of the sealing schooners interferes with their passage to the islands.
I have not been on Copper Island since 1888, and cannot give any information as to that island.
ALEXANDER SELIVANOFF.
APPENDIX No. 4.
Statement oe Alexey Badaeee, Seal "Driver," Behring Island.
I was born on Behring Island, tand am now 45 years of age and am engaged
in " driving " seals during the sealing season.
| There are more seals on North Rookery this year than last. The increase is
noticeable generally speaking, including all classes of seals. In 1891, there were not
so many seals as in 1892, and in 1893 (this year) there are more seals than in 1892 At the time they are suckling their young, the female seals do not go far from the
rookeries, not further than five miles from shore. They go this distance to feed.
They can find food enough that distance from shore. There were more dead pups
on the rookery m 1892 than this year or than in 1891. I should say that in 1892
there were about 300 dead pups ; this year not so many. In 1892 the pups, in mv
opinion, were killed by the bulls crushing them, and by the surf, during storms
I know of no other cause of death, except that a few may be born dead. From personal observation I have seen pups suckling the whole time that the seals are on the
rookeries, and I believe that the females nurse their young four months. I have seen
females nursing their pups in the water. I have never seen a bull serve a female
in the water. I cannot say how soon after giving birth to her pup a female will go
into the water. The females do feed while nursing, but if the weather is warm,
they will go into the water without feeding, but remain close to the shore.
I cannot say what a female would do in case of losing her young, either at
sea or on the rookery.
The seals arrive at the rookeries as follows, generally speaking from year to
year, according to weather. The bulls come first, arriving about 20th April; the
females in the first part of May, say first May. Holluschickie come about the same
time as the females. The bulls begin to leave first, but I cannot say exactly the
time. The bulk of the seals leave between 1st October and 20th November, none
being on the rookeries after the latter date.
To the question as to whether females land on the islands, from the time
they leave them as pups, until they return to the rookeries to give birth to their first
pup, I may say that I have seen some young females mixed in a drive of
holluschickie.
I cannot say how many years a female will.bear young.
I cannot say how long a bull will render efficient service on the rookeries, but I
have seen a very old bull serving a female.
I do not know of the existence of barren females on the rookeries. There may
be or there may not be.
There are no bulls on the rookeries which do not serve the females.
I have seen on the rookeries in 1891 and 1892 a considerable number of
seals which had shot wounds. But this year there are very few as compared with
1891 and 1892. I have never noticed them wounded in any other way except those
which had bitten each other.
With regard to the agreement between Russia and Great Britain this year,
I am of opinion that the limit is not sufficient, as the holluschickie go more than
30 miles from land. They take these excursions not necessarily for food as they
could get this within 30 miles from land, but for exercise or for a change.
ALEXEY BADAEFF.
APPENDIX No. 5.
Statement by Capt. D. A. Grunberg, of the Russian Seal-skin Company's schooner
"Leon," at Petropaulovski, 18th August, 1893.
Q. How many years have you been engaged in sealing ?—Since 18*7*7, in the
employ of Hutchinson, Kohl, Philippens & Company, from 1877 up to termination
of lease in 1891; since that date I have been employed by the Russian Seal-skm
Company, continuously. .       ,.
Q. Under the Alaska Commercial Company, at what islands were you employed^
—At Komandorsky Islands and Robben Island, under both companies.
Q. How were you employed?—In carrying supplies to the islands and sealers,
and collecting skins taken. j   .       . ,
Q. Have you always been on the " Leon " ?—No, this is only.my second year m
that vessel, previously I was in charge of the steamer " Alexander."
Q. How is the I Alexander " now engaged?—She is, I understand, now lying
off Copper Island, receiving skins from the sealing schooners. I cannot say in whose
employ she is, but iris generally thought that she is in the employ of Mr Liebes, of
San Francisco. She was fitted out by Lawrentzcen, of San Francisco. She left San
Francisco under the Hawaiian flag.
Q. When did you leave Robben Island?—6th August.
Q. Had the operations of the Lessees ceased when you left ?-Ye, the killing
operations ceased there on the 2nd of August, because there was no profit m staying
any longer. „    1 -„0
Q. How many skins were taken there this year ?—1,56Z. 1
Q. How does this compare with the catch of last year ?—There were none taken
last year because it was considered unprofitable to send sealers there.
Q. How was this judged ?—By the catch of the year before (1891).
Q. What was the catch that year ?—I do not know exactly, but it was less than
this year. .       '    ,'   a
Q. How do you account for the decrease in seals there?—I think it is due to
the operations principally of pelagic sealers, as I have picked from the carcasses,
buckshot and slugs when handling the seals killed by the natives on the island.
Q, Is there, generally speaking, an appreciable decrease in the number of seals
on Robben Island, as compared with previous years ?—Yes.
Q. How long since you have observed this decrease ?—About 1885 and 1886.
Q. Previous to those years what was the average take ?—About 4,000 skins.
Q. In your opinion what has been the effect of the protective area established
this year between Russia and Great Britain, on the rookeries there ?—I believe it
has afforded a moral protection to the seals. I neither heard of nor saw any pelagic
sealers in the vicinity of the island, within the prohibited area, while I was there,
but my experience has been that this class of sealers generally reach there about the
latter part of August and month of September.
Q. Do female seals while suckling regularly go to great distances from the breeding islands ?—I do not think they do while suckling.
Q. Then the female seals killed at sea are not mothers suckling their young ?—
No, they are not. This might occur within a mile or two from shore while in that
condition, because at this time the mothers never go any further to sea.
Q. Do young pups perish on the islands ?—Yes, a considerable number.
Q. To what do you attribute this mortality?—Some are drowned in the surf
while yet young and learning to swim, a small portion are smothered by the breeding animals, others are crushed by bulls.
Q. When do the females go to greater distances from the island, and for what
purpose ?—The females go to greater distances off shore, after the pups are weaned.
I have also noticed seals generally, irrespective of sex, further off shore during the
month of August than during the two months previous. I know that some of these
must be females because the breeding places are thinned off.
Q. Can the females get food, while nursing, without going far from shore ?—I
believe they can, for they do not go beyond one or two miles from the islands at that
time.
Q. Does this answer apply equally to the Komandorsky Islands ?—Yes.
Q. How long are the pups necessarily suckled by the mother before weaning ?
—I cannot answer that.
Q. What is the earliest date at which the female may resort to sea after giving
birth ?—I cannot say, and would not care to give an opinion.
Q. Have you any knowledge of the existence of " feeding banks " in the vicinity
of the Komandorsky Islands and Robben Island ?—I have no personal knowledge
of any such banks, but I have heard that such exist to the S. W. of Behring
Island, about 80 or 85 miles off, and to the south of Copper Island, but I have not
heard how far off that island.
Q. Do the seals visit these banks for food ?—After the 15th August I have noticed
seals south-west of Behring Island, as far as 80 miles off the island, I presume looking for food. I could not say whether they were males or females ; but if females,
at this time the young would have been weaned, and able to take care of themselves.
Q. Have you ever known of females losing their young at sea or on the islands,
and found in milk at great distances from the breeding islands ?—Miscarriages may
happen with seals as with other animals, but I am unable to answer the question.
Q. If a female lost her pup on the island would she remain there ?—Her natural
instinct would keep her there.
Q. Would this be so if she lost her pup at sea ?—I think so.
Q. What do you know of the actual migration routes of the fur seals of the
Asiatic side of the Pacific, in going to and returning from the Komandorsky Islands?
—In coming to the islands everything indicates that they come from the southward
and south-westward. In going from the islands, I cannot answer. The reason for
stating that they come from the south or south-west is, that they first land on the
south-west part of Copper Island, following up that island, landing as they go, on
the several rookeries, thence keeping the same direction along (he shore to Behring
Island, landing on the rookeries there.
Q. What is their winter habitat in the vicinity of the Japanese coasts ?—I do
not know.
„ Q- After leaving the islands as pups, do the female seals ever land on the islands
before they return to give birth to their first pup ?—They do : why I am positive of
this, is that young immature females are often mixed up in a drive of killable males. 77
Q. In years of scarcity or abundance of seals on the Pribvloff ffrouu pre thp
Komandorsky Islands similarly affected or otherwise ?-I am unable to answer fht
% D° y°u b^lle™ Aat practices on the Pribyloff Islands or Robben Reef have
any effect upon Komandorsky Islands ?—If any effect on Komandorskv Islands Is
produced, it would be from the practices on Robben Island    I do not believe that
practices on the Pribyloff Islands could affect Komandorsky Islands
answer Sal  """^ ^ ^ * **"**  S6al COnti™e ^ bear young ?-I cannot
Q. How many years will a male seal render efficient service on the rookeries*
—I cannot say. C1CB ■
This statement has been read over by me and is a correct transcript of the questions asked and answers given at Petropaulovski, 18th August, 1893.
D. A. GRUNBERG.
Witness: James Maxwell, i
Paymaster, H. B. M. S. "Archer." j
DECLARATIONS
Of some of the British Pelagic Sealers who participated in the sealing
industry on the Japan coast and in the waters surrounding
the Komandorsky Islands, 1893.*
APPENDIX No. 6.
Declaration oe Charles Leblanc, master oe the sealing schooner " Sadie Turpel," 1893.
Port of Victoria.    \
British Columbia.  ]
I, Charles Leblanc, of the City of Victoria, in the Province of British Columbia
and Dominion of Canada, do solemnly declare that:—
I have been five years in the sealing business, during which time I have sealed
along the coast, in Behring Sea, when it was open, and around Komandorsky Islands.
The first year I went as a boat steerer ; after that up to 1892.1 was mate and. hunter;
this year, 1893, I went to the Japan coast and around Komandorsky Islands as
master of the schooner " Sadie Turpel."
I sailed from Victoria on the 25th day of January, and went direct to Yokohama, arriving there on the 14th day of April, and left there on the 15th for the
sealing grounds.
The first seals I took on the Japan coast, I got on the 19th day of April, in latitude 39° 22' N., longitude 143° 12' E., and the last seal on that coast, on the 4th day
. of July, in latitude 44° 58' N., longitude 149° 25' E., and my positions during this
time ranged between 39° and 45° north latitude and 141° and 149° east longitude.
The first few catches were mostly all composed of young males, but after that
they were pretty well mixed. Taken on the whole, my catch on the Japan coast
was about half male and half female seals. About the first week in June the females
were the heaviest in pup. I got on that coast twelve or fifteen barren cows. These
cows were old enough to bear young, but there was no sign whatever of either pup
or milk.    The bulk of my catch was of full sized seals ; I got but few grey pups.
During the latter half of June, between Yesso and Sikotan Islands, I got between
twenty and thirty females in milk, from thirty to forty miles off shore.
The stomachs of seals killed along the Japan coast, contained considerable squid
and small fish.
I first began sealing off the Komandorsky Islands on the 21st day of July, in
latitude 53° 40' N., longitude 166° 40' E., and I continued sealing both north and
south of the islands, until the first day of September, my position on that day being
53° 10' north latitude, 168° 24' east longitude. I sealed both north and south of the
islands, my positions ranging between 53° and 56° 37' north latitude, and 164 and
168° 30'east longitude. .t-j-*      i        a
The catch off the Komandorsky Islands was composed of two-thirds temales and
one-third males. Of the females taken very few had a full flow of milk. After the
8th of August, I went north of the islands, and the females taken there were drying
up, in different stages. Towards the end of August the milk had completely dried up. The stomachs of the seals contained considerable squid and small fish.
About the 20th August, I ran up as far as about 170 miles N.N.E. of Behring
Island ; saw quite a number of big cows ; I got six (6). The stomachs contained
fish-food and squid. When we see a bunch of big cows like those, we always regard
it as an indication that plenty of seals are in the vicinity.
I left on the second day of September for Victoria, and arrived m this port on
the 24th day of that month. On my way over, I got two male seals about two hundred miles south of the Aleutian Islands.
I know of no " banks " to the southward of Komandorsky Islands ; but there
are plenty of surface fish all the way as far out as two hundred miles : squid and
small fish of different kinds. ■'•;''.
So far as the migration route of the seals to the islands is concerned, I can only
say that I first met them on the Japan coast the 19th of April m latitude 39 22 JN.,
longitude 143° 12' E., and I followed them along the coast until 4th July, m latitude
44° 58' N., longitude 149° 25' E., my average distance from shore being about (30)
thirty miles.    I lost the herd about fifty miles east of Sikotan.
I can tell a female from a male seal in the water. The females are finer m the
head and neck. . ,
And I make this solemn declaration conscientiously believing the same to be
true, and by virtue of the Act respecting extra-judicial oaths.
Declared before me, at Victoria, in the] CHAS. LEBLANC,
Province of British Columbia, this I Master of schooner " Sadie Turpel."
ninth day of November, 1893.       j
A. R. Milne.       J
[Seal.] Collector of Customs.
APPENDIX No. 7.
Declaration oe William Sheilds, master oe the sealing schooner " Vera " 1893.
Port of Victoria,     )
British Columbia.   }
I, William Sheilds, of the City of Victoria, in the Province of British Columbia,
Dominion of Canada, do solemnly declare, that:
I have been eight years in the sealing business, seven years a seal hunter, and
this year as master of the schooner " Vera." I also acted as a hunter this year, killing four hundred and seventy seals, all of which I skinned myself, and, therefore,
had good opportunities of observing their condition.
1 have sealed along the coast and in Behring Sea. Last year (1892; was my first
year to the waters around Komandorsky Islands ; and this year (1893) was my first
year on the Japan Coast. From there I worked up to the waters around Komandorsky
Islands.
I cleared from Victoria on the 25th day of January, and sailed direct for Yokohama, arriving at that port on the 19th day of March. I left Yokohama on the 27th
day of March, and first took seals on the 29th of that month, in latitude 34° 46' N.,
longitude 140° 3' E. The last seals I took on the Japan Coast were got on the 14th
day of July, twenty miles off Staten Island.
Between these dates, my positions ranged from 34° 46' north latitude to 44° 53'
north latitude, and from 140° to 143° 18' east longitude. Some days the fog was so
thick that I could get no observations.
The seals taken along the Japan Coast, in March and April, were of all classes,
mixed.
During May, I would find a bunch all males, and a little further on a bunch all
females. The females were in pup. Along the coast, mixed up among the male
seals, I took quite a number of barren cows. Barren cows and young males generally go together, and when you get into a bunch of these, all the females taken are
barren. They are adult females, but without pup or any show of milk whatever.
There is no particular time of the year that this class of seal is taken in greatest
numbers.
For two or three days during the first week in June, I noticed a lot of cows
travelling along the coast to the northward. This was between 39° and 41° north
latitude, and 144° and 146° east longitude. They were hard to get, as they did not
stop for anything, but kept right on their course. II
t Tte ^t? *? the females heavy with pup were taken during the first week in
June but 1 took a few females in pup up to the end of June. The majority of the
■seals taken during the last week in June and the first twelve days in July were
young males with some barren cows, and a few cows in full milk, but very few of
the latter. This was off Staten Island—one of the Kuriles. Of the early catch
along the Japan Coast, both males and females, the stomachs were comparatively
empty, but later on they contained considerable fish food.
. 9n tbe 14th day of July, I sailed direct for the waters around Copper Island,
arriving there on the 21st. I saw several seals on the way up. The first seals taken
in this vicinity were secured on the 23rd day of July, in latitude 53° 37' N., longitude 167° 20' east, and the last seals got there on the 5th day of August in latitude"
52 57' N., longitude 168° 9' E., these positions being about my range off Copper
Island.
The seals taken off Copper Island were mixed, male and female, perhaps more
females than males. About half the females had a pretty free flow of milk. The
other half appeared to be in different stages of drying up.
I noticed that the stomachs of the seals taken in this vicinity contained very
little show of food.
At noon on the fifth day of August, I sailed for Victoria, arriving at this port
on the 24th of the same month.
Last year, I sounded around Copper Island with two hundred fathoms of line,
but was unable to get soundings. I have never heard of anyone who has succeeded,
and I know of no banks there. I noticed a good many squid around the island,
about thirty miles off, cut up probably by feeding seals. I have seen seals eating
squid ; and in the Behring Sea, I have seen them eating cod.
All I can say about the migration routes of seals to the Komandorsky Islands is,
that I met them on the 29th March, off the coast northward of Yokohama in latitude
34° 4b' N., longitude 140° 3'E., and I found them all along the coast to Staten Island,
one of the Kuriles, ranging, say, between (35) thirty-five and (45) forty-five miles off
shore.    I lost the herd off the northern part of Staten Island.
I can tell from the discolouration of the bellies and the condition of the flippers,
if seals have been for any length of time on the land.
Last year, 1892, I was off Copper Island as a hunter, on board the schooner " E.
B. Marvin," my boat was seized off the shore by the Governor of the Islands. That
morning we left the schooner at 4 a.m , to hunt seals. There was a thick fog prevailing. I stood in towards the direction of the island until 10 o'clock, a.m., shooting
seals on the way. Boats, when seal hunting, go about three and a half miles an
hour. I had twelve skins and one seal in the boat, and was standing up shooting
at a *" bull" when I sighted two boats, one on each bow. They proved to be from
Copper Island in charge of the Governor. At this time I had no idea that I was
anywhere near shore, as the fog was thick, and I did not know the position of the
ship when 1 left her, being only a hunter. When 1 asked the Governor if 1 was near
to the island he informed me that it was right there. I never went on the shore
until taken there by the capturing boats, and all the skins I had were taken from
seals shot in the water, when I had no idea that I was within the limit. The club
in the boat was only such as is carried by all sealing boats, no matter how far from
shore, to despatch wounded seals which may come to, and often take charge of the
boat. It was not intended for use on the land, nor had it been used there. All
seals that are shot and not instantly killed, are clubbed in the boat to ensure the
safety of the crew. This accounts for the heads of the seals bearing marks, which
marks are no indication whatever of the seals having been clubbed on land.
And I make this solemn declaration, conscientiously believing the same to be
true, and by virtue of the Act respecting extra-judicial oaths.
Declared before me, at Victoria, in the ) W. SHEILDS.
Province of British Columbia, this >
tenth day of November, 1893. )
[Seal.] A. R. Milne,
Collector of Customs. 80
APPENDIX No- 8.
Declaration oe Wentworth E. Baker, master oe the sealing schooner "Oscar
and Hattie," 1893.
Port of Victoria,     )
British Columbia.    )
I, Wentworth E. Baker, of the City of Victoria, in the Province of British
Columbia, and Dominion of Canada, do solemnly declare that:
I have been in the sealing business for the past six years. During 1888, 1889,
and 1890, I sealed along the coast and in the waters of Behring sea, as master of the
schooner "Viva." In 1891, I sealed along the coast, but did not enter Behring sea
being warned out. That year I was also master of the schooner " Viva." In 1892
as master of the schooner " C. H. Tupper," I sealed along the coast and around
Copper and Behring Islands. This year, 1893, as master of the schooner " Oscar and
Hattie," I sealed in the same waters.
In 1893, I sailed on the twelfth day of March, and followed the coast from Cape
Flattery up' to Kodiak, reaching there about the 5th day of June. Altogether
between these points, I took eleven hundred and sixty-two seals, between twenty
and one hundred miles off shore. Of this catch, I do not believe we had three
hundred female seals, the catch being mostly males. I seemed to miss the herd of
females ; and of the few females we took very few were in pup, the others being
young virgin cows mixed with the young males. We also got a few barren cows.
These cows were about four year olds and full grown, with no sign of pup or milk.
I noticed these particularly off Fairweather Grounds.
With regard to the females in pup, this year I took particular notice. We were
all looking for them to secure the skins of the unborn pups; some of us having
promised them to friends at home, and we only succeeded in getting three. Early
in the season we got a few females in pup, but the pups were not sufficiently far
advanced to have hair.
Off Mount Fairweather we got a few old. bulls. This was about the latter part
of April.
I left vicinity of Kodiak Island on the 13th June, for waters around the
Komandorsky Islands, reaching there 28th June, Copper Island bearing N. W.
65 miles distant.
I first lowered for seals 2nd or 3rd July, and got a few skins, in about
53° N. latitude and 169° E. longitude. From this position, I sealed sometimes to the
southward and working west until in longitude 165° up to about the middle of
July, taking about four hundred seals. Then I sailed to the northward of Behring
Island and sealed from sixty to eighty miles off the island. I remained there until
the 1st day of September, and took north of the islands about six hundred seals.
The seals taken south of the islands were mostly male seals. I took here very
few cows, but those cows had a considerable flow of milk.   This was early in July.
The seals taken to the north of the islands were mixed males and females, about
a third males.
The females in that vicinity were drying up, the milk was getting hard and
distributing among the fat. Later on in August there was hardly any sign of milk
noticeable. I was one day one hundred and ten miles to the north, and the further
off shore I got the females I took showed least sign of milk and appeared to remain
off the islands.
The seals taken north of the islands appeared to feed more upon salmon and
small fish, than upon squid, and during my stay in this vicinity the waters were
alive with salmon.
I do not know of any " banks " around the Komandorsky Islands, where soundings
can be obtained. I have tried for soundings three seasons, but have never been able
to obtain any with two hundred fathoms of fishing line, and one hundred and
twenty fathoms of sounding line. There is in certain places a discolouration of the
water which has the appearance of soundings, but no soundings can be obtained.
This probably accounts for the reported " banks."
And I make this solemn declaration conscientiously believing the same to be
true, and by virtue of the Act respecting extra-judicial oaths.
Declared before me, at the City of Victoria,) W. E. BAKER,
in the Province of British Columbia, [
this ninth day of November, 1893. )
[Seal.] A. R. Milne,
Collector of Customs. APPENDIX No. 9.
Declaration   oe   Melville   Cutler,   master   oe   the   sealing   schooner
"Agnes MacDonald," 1893.
Port of Victoria,    J
British Columbia.  \
WSKSS^ CuJler'of t^ °ity of Victoria, in the Province of British Columbia,
Dominion of Canada, do solemnly declare that : —
^a^t^V1^1 season that I have been in the sealing business. The first
year, 1891, I sailed as master of the " Carmolite " to the North Pacific Ocean and"
Behring Sea; but was warned out of the latter place.    I got 2,380 skins.
In 1892, 1 sailed as master of the " Agnes Macdonald " bringing her around
Cape Horn That year I sealed along the northwest coast, and around Copper
island, on the Russian side of the line.
During the present year I was master of the schooner " Agnes Macdonald."
I cleared from Victoria on the 24th January, and sailed direct to Yokohama. I
arrived in Yokohama on the 18th March, and left that port on the 28th March, sealing north. I first took seals on the 2nd day of April off Kinganson, Island of Nipon.
I sealed along the Japan coast from that date up to the 23rd June, when I took my
last seal on that coast. My positions ranging between latitude 38° and 43° N. longitude : 142° and 147° E.
I reached Hakodate on the 27th June.
I left Hakodate on the 8th July, and anchored a few days off the Heads. I
arrived m the vicinity of Copper Island on the 20th July, and took my first seal in
these waters on the 25th July and the last on the 5th September, my positions ranging between 52° and 54° north latitude and 166° and 168° east longitude.
My catch along the Japan coast was made up of young male seals, cows in
pup, and a few barren cows, and the majority of the seals I got were taken at distances ranging from 180 to 250 miles off Nipon Island. I took some off Yesso Island.
I personally superintend the salting of the skins and the skinning of the
seals that are brought on board the vessel—some are skinned in the boats. This
year I observed two barren cows on the Japan coast; that is to say cows, that had
not bred, not being in pup and having no sign whatever of milk. They were adults.
Of the seals taken on the Russian side about two-thirds were females, the
remainder being young bulls.
The females taken between 25th July and 5th September, had some show
of milk, but in no instance did I observe a full flow; all having the appearance of
various stages of drying up. Very little show of milk in those last killed. I paid
particular attention to this, as we remained in the -vicinity for five days before
getting any seals, and when they began to arrive, I mentioned to some of my men
that we had prospects of a good catch, as the females were drying up, and that as
their pups must have been weaned, we might expect them to come off the islands.
I know of no " banks" to the southward of Komandorsky Islands, where
any soundings can be got, but there are lots of surface fish to be found 50 or 60 miles
to the southward. I have seen lots of dead squid which had been bitten and killed
by seals. I also observed many salmon jumping out of the water, during my stay in
the Russian vicinity this year from 25th July to 5th September. In fact I was
among fish all the time.
When off Copper Island this year I examined the stomachs of several seals,
both male and female, to observe what they fed upon. I found in the stomachs of
both, the remains of squid and small fish, which I took to be smelt or capelin.
This was between 25th July and 5th September. In previous years, I have observed
the same thing on the American side.
Regarding the migration route of the seals to the islands, the first I saw of
them this year was about 200 miles north of Yokohama from 180 to 200 miles off shore.
This was the first week in April. I got them all along the Nipon coast, and a few
along the Yesso coast about the same distance off. Off the north part of Yesso I lost
the Japan herd, and did not again see seals until off the Komandorsky Islands.
I can tell if a seal has been on the rookeries or hauling grounds, as their
flippers are worn and their bellies are discoloured. I got young males off Copper
Island this year, which had no appearance of having been on the islands.
And I make  this solemn declaration conscientiously  believing the same to
be true, and by virtue of the Act respecting extra-judicial oaths.
Declared before me at Victoria, in the province of British j M. F. CUTLER.
Columbia, this ninth day of November, 1893. J
[Seal.] A. R. Milne,
Collector of Customs. APPENDIX No. 10.
Declaration oe W. II. Whitely, master oe the sealing schooner "Mermaid," 1893.
Port of Victoria,      )
British Columbia.     \
I, W. H. Whitely, of the City of Victoria, in the Province of British Columbia,
Dominion of Canada, do solemnly declare that:—
I have been three years in the fur seal business. In 1891, as master of the
schooner " Labrador," I sealed along the coast and in Behring Sea, but was warned
out of the latter place. In 1892, I sealed along the coast and off Copper Island, as
master of the schooner "Mermaid," and in 1893, as master of the same vessel, I went
to the Japan coast and to the waters around Komandorsky Islands.
I cleared from the port of Victoria on the 28th January, and shaped my course
direct for Yokohama. I saw plenty of seals off Cape Flattery on the 29th January,
but the weather was very heavy and I did not lower my boats.
On the 25th day of March, I arrived off Yokohama, latitude 36° 10' N., longitude
145° 00' E. Saw thousands of seals (200) two hundred miles off As the day wore
on the wind moderated, and I lowered my boats for sealing, taking my first seals
(55) in the above position. On the first day of April, I went in to Yokohama, and
left there again on the 5th. I next lowered my boats for sealing on the tenth day of
April, in latitude 38° N., longitude 145° E. On the following day the vessel ran into
a whale, receiving very severe damage, and on the 12th, the next day, I went into
Yokohama for repairs, remaining there until the fourth day of May. I consider that
I lost about one thousand seal-skins by this accident.
After repairing damages, I left Yokohama on the 4th day of May, and on the
8th again lowered my boats for seals. From this date up to the 19th day of June, I
sealed along the Japan coast, with success, between 38° and 42° north latitude,
and 143° and 146° east longitude.
My first catches (before I had to put in to Yokohama for repairs), between 25th
March and 12th April, were principally of young males, with some cows in pup.
Later on in May, I got a good many cows heavy in pup ; then in June, half the catch
was of males. On this coast I noticed a large number of barren cows, many more
than on the American coast. They were adults with neither signs of pups nor of
milk in any stage whatever.
I also got two big bulls about the end of May.
The last day upon which I sealed on the Japan coast was the 19th June. The
weather was foggy and I got no positions,, but this was before I reached Hakodate.
On this day I got two or three females in full milk, they must have come from some
rookery, or dropped their pups in the sea. We were about 50 miles off land. These
were all of this class, I observed on that coast. On this day, I also got the last seals
in pup.
I arrived at Hakodate on the 26th June and left there direct for the vicinity of
Komandorsky Islands on the 4th day of July. From latitude 45° 10' N., longitude
152° E., and latitude 49° 41' N., longitude 158° E., one hundred miles off the Kuriles,
I saw scattered seals. On the 20th July, I arrived in the vicinity of Behring Island,
(60) sixty miles off.
The first seals I took in this vicinity were got on the 23rd day of July, in latitude 53° 50' N., longitude 166° E ; the last seal was taken on the 4th day of September, in latitude 53° 06' N., longitude 109° 10' E. Between these dates my latitude
ranged from 53° 00' to 54° 03' N., and my longitude from 166° 00' to 169°"l0' E.
The seals taken within these bearings wp.re mixed. Some days my hunters
would get all cows, and on other days all males. On the whole, a small percentage
more of females. The females taken in the month of July were in fuller milk than
at any other time. Those taken during the first part of August were beginning to
dry up, while those taken towards the end of August, although showing they had
been in milk, showed clearly that they were drying and had dried up.
On the 5th day of September, I started for Victoria, arriving here on the 21st
day of that month.
This year, about the 25th June, I noticed hundreds of seals entering the first
pass into Okhotsk Sea. The schooners "Beatrice," of Vancouver, and the "Rattler,"
of San Francisco, went into that sea, but could not find the seals.
With respect to the migration routes to and from the Komandorsky Islands, this
year I met them on the 25th March, in latitude 36Q 10' N., longitude 145° 00' E.,
(200) two hundred miles off Cape Inaboye, about 60 miles north of Yokohama, and
followed them to Sikotan Island, one of the first of the Kuriles ; there I lost them
about the latter end of June and met them again off Komandorsky Islands. This year, m the open ocean, on the 8th March, 1 caught one female seal with
a pup inside My position was latitude 35° OU' N., longitude 170" 00'E, about 3,000
miles from the Japan coast, and 1,200 miles south of the Komandorsky Islands. The
second mate of the " City of Pekin " told me that on their winter route, in the vicinity
of the above positions, they encounter large numbers of seals.
Last year, when there was no limit around Copper Island, beyond the three-mile
limit, I got twenty female seals about twenty-five miles off shore, on the 9th day of
July, nearly all of which had pups in them. "
This year, Captain Baker, of the schooner " ()scar and Hattie," is reported to have
taken about one thousand seals, one hundred miles north-east of Komandorsky
Islands, on the Asiatic side of Behring Sea.
I think > the herds which visit the Pribylov Islands and the Komandorsky
Islands are different, but from the manner in which they distribute themselves, it is
most difficult to say whether they mix or not.
I do not know of any banks to the southward of Komandorsky Islands. Last
year I tried for fish about thirty (30) miles off, but could find no bottom with one
hundred (100) fathoms of line. I have never heard of anyone else finding any
soundings.
There is a small " bank " in latitude 53° N., longitude 170° E., seventy-five (75)
miles south-west of the Attou Island. It is a very small bank. On the shoalest
part there is seventy (70) fathoms of water. I saw plenty of seals there last year,
but it is so small it is most difficult to keep on it. There are red cod on this bank.
There are large quantities of squid around the Komandorsky Islands —everywhere—
as far from shore as (100) one hundred miles. I have often found them torn to pieces
by seals, and on opening the seals, both male and female during July and August, I
have found the stomachs containing squid.
Off Komandorsky Islands, male and female seals are to be met with, from the
middle to the end of August, in very poor and lean condition, having the appearance
of being starved. When opened, the stomachs are entirely empty, although squid
and salmon are abundant in the waters they were taken from. Others are fat and
full of food. In 1892, when twenty or thirty miles off shore, I observed herds of
seals coming from and going to the islands, early in the morning and late in the
evening. On the other hand, I have seen them, both male and female, sixty miles
off at all hours of the day, and asleep in the early dawn. These seals did not come
off in the morning and return at night.
I can distinguish seals which have come from the islands or rookeries, by the
flippers being worn.
And I make this solemn declaration, conscientiously believing the same to be
true and by virtue of the Act respecting extra-judicial oaths.
Declared before me, at Victoria, in the ) W. H. WHITELY,
Province of British Columbia, this [ Master of schooner " Mermaid.'
sixth day of November, 1893. )
[Seal] A. R. Milne,
Collector of Customs.
APPENDIX No.  11.
Declaration J. B. Brown, master oe the sealing schooner " Walter P. Hall," 1893-
Port of Victoria,    )
British Columbia.   )
I John B. Brown, of the city of Victoria, in the Province of British
Columbia and Dominion of Canada, do solemnly declare that:—
I have been sealing two seasons, 1892 and 1893. Both years I went to the
Russian Se Last ye at- I went right up along the Aleutian Islands, and sealed
both north and south of the Komandorsky Islands. ; VnT-ni,
This vear I sailed from Victoria on the 13th day of January, direct to Yokohama,
arriving at that port-'on the 25th March, and left there on the 5th April for the sealing
longitude. Of the catch on the Japan coast two-thirds were cows, but I might get a
run of cows and some other schooner might get a run of males, that is the way they
generally go. Towards the end of the season, I got on the Japan coast a large number of small male seals, mixed in with large males and cows. About the end of
June I noticed a few females in full flow of milk. This was off Yesso, and these
seals had either pupped on the shore or dropped their young at sea. The last cows
in pup were taken about the 23rd of June.
The seals taken along the Japan coast were rather lank, the stomachs
showing very little traces of food, but what there was, was principally small fish
and squid.
On the 1st day of July, I sailed for the waters around Komandorsky Islands,
and reached there on the 17th. The first seals I took in this vicinity were got on
the 23rd day of July, in latitude 53° 15' N, longitude 168° 41' E., and the last seals
on the 16th day of September, in latitude 53° 31' N., and longitude 168° 44' E.
During my stay around the islands my positions ranged between 52° 28' and 53° 39'
north latitude, and 167° 15' 170° 13' east longitude.
Taken all through, the seals I got off the Komandorsky Islands were about
half male and half female. I could not say as to the stage of milk, but I did not
notice any particularly free flow of milk. Very few of the seals were fat, most of
them beingpoor and thin.
On the 20th day of September, in latitude 51° 10' N., 175° 53' E., due south
of Attou Island one hundred (100) miles, I took one female seal,
I am not aware of any banks around the Komandorsky Islands, neither do
I know of any sealers who have sounded there and got bottom. There is an abundance of squid and salmon as far off as 150 miles.
Regarding the migration routes of seals, I met them the first week in April
in 36° 38' north latitude, 144° 07' east longitude, and followed them along the Japan
coast until the 29th day of June, in 42° 53' north latitude, 145° 18' east longitude.
Then I got off Akiski the seals began to travel north and from that date on
the Japan coast all I took were " travellers."
Captain Larrabee, of the sailing ship (could not recall name), told me that
when sailing from Hakodate to New York, on the 14th day of September, 1892, in
latitude 43° 30' N., longitude 162° 30' E., he passed a large number of seals, seven
hundred and twenty (720) miles off'shore, and the year before, 1891, about seventy
(70) or eighty (80) miles northward of the above positions, between the 12th and
15th of August, he sailed through large bodies of seals.
And I make this solemn declaration, conscientiously believing the same to
be true, and by virtue of the Act respecting extra-judicial oaths.
J. B. BROWN.
Declared before me, at Victoria, in the )
Province of British Columbia, this >
eighth day of November, 1893. \
[Seal.] A. R. Milne,
Collector of Customs.
APPENDIX No. 12.
Declaration  oe William  Cox, master oe the sealing schooner " Sapphire," 1893.
Port of Victoria,    \
British Columbia, j
I, William Cox, of the City of Victoria, in the Province of British Columbia
Dominion of Canada, do solemnly declare that:—
I have been engaged in sealing since 1889, as master of the schooner " Sapphire "
sailing from the Port of Victoria, British Columbia. This year (1893) I cleared from
Victoria on the 28th day of January, and I worked along the American coast passing
around the Island of Attou and sealed from 65 to 100 miles off shore around Copper
island to the south. The nearest I went to the island this year was 65 miles and
then only on two occasions, my usual position being from 80 miles to 100 miles
from land The greatest number of seals were taken about 80 miles south of the
island. Never having sealed on the Japan coast, I cannot speak as to the migration
routes of the seals to and from the islands, nor can I form any opinion as to their
winter habitat. J    * Every year for the last four years vessels, have reported that during July and
August large bodies of seals were seen 600 miles south of Copper Island Captain
i°-W*fl- i „ e fading barque " George " and Captain Fullmore, of the iron sailing
™P' ^ingal, as well as Captain Howard McKenzie of the " Ernscliffe," reported this.
Ihe Captain of the " George " saw them four years ago, both the others a year ago;
and this year I have also heard the same reports.
Captain Tanner of the " Albatross," who had previously been Captain of one of
the mail steamers, told me that he had seen numbers of seals in this same position.
The Captains of the sailing ships above named, told me that they had been
three days sailing through the seals under a light breeze.
There are no " banks " where sealers have ever been able to find bottom, any
place to the southward of Copper Island ; but some sealers have reported a small
" bank " S. W. of Attou Island 75 miles, although they have never found bottom,
only judging from the colour of the water.
Of the cows that are taken with a show of milk, some are scratched and marked.
This may be caused by the young bulls serving the females at sea. These young
males are not allowed on the rookeries. I have myself seen several instances of
copulation in the water.    There can be no doubt that it occurs.
I took some females in milk off Copper Island but am unable to say whether
they were in the actual stage of nursing or whether the milk had begun to dry up.
The seals taken by my vessel on the Russian side this year were nearly all full
of squid ; but on the American side, I found the stomachs of those I opened to be
empty, except a few pebbles in one, and one sealing shot in another.
Passing along to the southward of the Aleutian Chain this year, about the 1st
July, I saw seals 120 miles south of Unimak Pass, and ranging along the chain from
that distance to 80 miles south of Agattu Island (Agattu lies south of the western
point of Attou Island on the eastern extremity of the Aleutian Islands). On the 8th
and 9th of July, between the Rat Islands and Agattu, 80 miles ocean ward, the seals
were just as plentiful as I ever saw them in Behring Sea. One day at this place,
I got 2 with young unborn, and 1 with milk. I got in all 20 seals, but the wind
was high and the water rough, which prevented me from taking advantage of their
presence.
I am of opinion that the cessation of the killing operations by the lessees on the
Pribylov Islands, under the modus vivendi, has greatly increased the number of
bachelors, and that these bachelors have, by worrying the females with pup driven
them (on the American side) to some off-shore route. In no other way can I account
for the absence of females on the coast this year ; ninety per cent (90 per cent) of our
catch being males, and the percentage of males on the coast, has been getting larger
since 1891.    Captain Tanner also expressed this opinion to me.
During the month of may, this year, I saw, on the Fairweather Grounds—
extending from Cape Fairweather to Middleton Island—about 60 miles off shore,
three females with pups swimming alongside; the pups apparently being about 2
or 3 weeks old.    These seals had never reached the Pribylov Islands.
In Behring Sea, I have got lots of dry cows in July and August. These were
barren cows.
There are many seals which never go on the breeding islands, because they can
be seen off the west end of Vancouver Island, all the year round. I got one seal
about 400 miles W.S.W. of Cape Flattery in September, on my way home this year.
I have seen pups taken from the mothers, swim long distances when put in the
water, and they can be kept alive on the schooners for weeks.
I have once in a while noticed by the worn flippers, that certain seals had been
on the land, but I would not consider this a certain proof that they had or had not
been on the rookeries.    ■, s -   -        . - -.•
There are more seals on the coast than there were when 1 first began sealing,
and they seem to be getting more plentiful each year.
The last year I was in Behring Sea (1891) the seals were more plentiful than 1
ever heard tel'l of them being. And I make this solemn declaration, conscientiously
believing the same to be true, and by virtue of the Act respecting extra-judicial oaths.
WILLIAM COX.
Declared before me, at Victoria, Province ~|
of British Columbia, this second day V
of November, 1893. j
[Seal.] A. R. Milne,
Collector of Customs. APPENDIX No. 13.
Declaration oe George Heater, master oe the sealing schooner "Ainoko," 1893.
Port of Victoria,    I
British Columbia.  )
I, George Heater, of the City of Victoria, in the Province of British Columbia,
Dominion of of Canada, do solemnly declare that:—
I began fur sealing on the Pacific Coast four years ago. Previously, for ten
years, 1 had hunted hair seals in Newfoundland waters. My first yoyage after fur
seals was in the schooner " Sapphire," as boat steerer. This was in 1890. In 1891,
I went as master of the " Rosie Olsen" ; in 1892 as master of the schooner
"Ainoko"; and this year (1893) I also sailed as master of the same vessel. This
was my first year on the Asiatic side. Hitherto, I had confined my operations to the
North American side of Behring Sea, and to the north-west coast. This year I saw
more seals than any year since I began sealing on this continent, and if I had not
gone to the vicinity of Copper Island, I believe I should have got a much larger
catch.    I took about 1,390 skins.
Fully two-thirds of my total catch this year were males. The females appear
to be changing their route, keeping further off shore. Because the first week in
May off Middleton Island, I experienced rough weather and went off shore
further than usual—about 100 miles off—I saw quite a large number of cows. One
or two were shot from the vessel I can tell a cow from a male in the water quite
readily ; the head is finer and the neck is more graceful. Last year I also noticed
more males than usual on the North American side of the line of demarcation. I
observe the skinning operations on board the ship, and the only female seal we took
this year that I could positively state was nursing, was one got off Shumagin Island
—off Sand Point—on the 13th June. When she was opened the milk flowed freely
over the deck, and there could be no doubt that she was in full milk. This seal
must have dropped her pup at sea, or on Shumagin Island.
Out of (46) forty-six seals taken off Copper Island, there were but four (4)
females; they all had a show of milk, but were drying up, the milk being clotted
and in small quantity.    This was between the 12th and 16th July.
The flow of milk from a suckling female is so great, that it cannot but be noticed
by all present during the skinning of the seal. I have observed this as well in the
case of hair seals, on the Atlantic coast in Newfoundland waters.
I did not take many females in pup this yeaT—fewer than last year—and those
I got. in that condition were taken in the neighbourhood of Middleton Island.
I do not know of any " banks " around Copper Island, but the most of the seals
I got in that vicinity were taken about fifty (50) miles off shore.
I have never sealed on the Japan coast, and could not express an opinion, based
on personal knowledge, of the migration routes of seals to and from the Komandorsky
Islands, or of their winter habitat, but the sealers tell me they work up the Japan
coast at various distances off shore along Nipon Island.
I can easily tell whether seals have come from the breeding or hauling
grounds:—
1. The long hair on the bellies is worn, and is also discoloured by the kelp and
the slime of the rocks ;
2. The edges of the flippers are worn and ragged, from contact with the stones
and sand.
I have never seen fur seals copulate in the water, but I have seen hair seals do
so, and I believe the fur seals can do the same as their habits are somewhat similar.
A pup cut from the mother will swim, and I have seen them follow the schooner
for an hour.
The Indians got cow seals off Hesquiat on the coast of Vancouver Island, during the last week in May of the present year, but I cannot now state as to their
condition.
And I make this solemn declaration, conscientiously believing the same to be
true, and by virtue of the Act respecting extra-judicial oaths.
GEORGE HEATER, Master.
Declared before me at Victoria, Province
of British Columbia, this eighth day j
of November, 1893.
[Seal.] A. R. Milne,
Collector of Custo; APPENDIX No. 14,
Declaration oe Alfred Bissett, master of the schooner « Annie E. Paint," 1893.
Port of Victoria,    )
British Columbia.  \
I, Alfred Bissett, of the City of Victoria, in the Province of British Columbia
Dominion of Canada, do solemnly declare that :—
I have been in the sealing business for the past four years I first went as
hunter m the schooner " Mary Ellen," along the coast, in 1889. That year I also
sealed on the schooner " Teresa," as mate and hunter, along the coast and in the
Behring Sea. In 1891, 1892, and 1893, I was master of the schooner " Annie E.
Paint.' In 1891,1 went up the coast and was warned against entering Behring Sea
In 1892, I sealed along the coast and crossed over to the Russian side.
This year, 1893, I sealed up the coast, and in the waters around Komandorsky
Islands. J
I cleared from Victoria on the 15th day of February and went down the coast
of Oregon to the Columbia River, where I took about one hundred (100) seals, Cape
Foulweather bearing East 25 miles. About the 1st of March I came north, off
Vancouver Island, but the weather was too bad for sealing.
On the 24th day of March, I sailed northward, and arrived off Sitka on the
4th of April. I took about 30 or 40 seals on the way up. During April and May,
I sealed off Cross Sound and Mount St. Elias, taking about six hundred (600) seals.
I then sailed to Sand Point, arriving on the 16th of June, where I refitted and sailed
for the vicinity of Copper Island on the 28th of June.
The catch I made off the Columbia was composed principally of males. That
off Sitka was the same. In fact my whole catch of (740) seven hundred and forty
skins, along the coast was almost entirely of male seals. Of these there were (30)
thirty old bulls. There were hardly any females at all. Somehow or -other this
year we missed the female herd; they passed us on the outside. So far as I have
heard, the other sealers have had the same experience in this respect, along the coast
this year.
In order to show how few females in pup we took, I may say that all my men
were most anxious to get the skins of unborn pups, and they only succeeded in
securing about fifteen or twenty.
On the way to Copper Island, about one hundred miles S. + E. (true) off
Amchitka Island, I took eight seals, while crossing the 180th meridian, on the
4th day of July. Four of these eight seals were females heavy with pup. I do not
know whether they were going to the Russian or the American side, but I am certain
that they could not have reached either of the known seal Islands, in time to pup as
they were too far gone
I arrived in the vicinity of Copper Island on the 11th day of July, and on the
12th July took my first seals in that neighborhood. The last seal taken here by my
vessel was got on the 5th day of September. During my stay around these Islands
I sealed between 54° 00 and 51° 50' north latitude, and 164° 45' and 170° east
longitude.
The seals taken in July were principally small males, a few straggling cows
some barren cows, and some cows in milk.
In August, I got about an equal number of males and females. The cows had a
very slight flow of milk, which had begun to turn yellow, thicken, and dry up.
After the 10th of August,vmy position ranged between ninety (y0) and one hundred
and twenty (120) miles off shore, and the seals I took were principally males. I
noticed that the nearer we approached the islands, the greater percentage of females
we took.
With regard to " banks " around the Islands, I have seen discoloured water
which certainly had the appearance of soundings, but I have never heard of any
soundings having been got, though I have tried with one hundred and fifty fathoms
of line. „     „       , r ■  .
Squid, salmon and other fish in quantities can be found any where from sixty
(60) to one hundred and twenty (120) miles off. In my opinion there is no difference
in the appearance of the Pribilov Island and Komandorsky Islands herds of seal. The
majority taken off Copper Island are darker in colour than those on the American
side, but there are very many that show no difference whatever from the Pribylov
seals either in colour, fur or shape. The stomachs contain about the same kind of
food, principally squid. I was told by the mate of the " Annie E. Paint that there
is an occasional south sea seal shot off Copper Island, the fur is better and more
golden in colour. And I make this solemn declaration, conscientiously believing the same to be
true and by virtue of the Act respecting extra-judicial oaths.
Declared before me, at Victoria, in the ) ALFRED BISSETT.
Province of British Columbia, this >
seventh day of November, 1893.     )
[Seal.] A. R. Milne.
Collector of Customs.
APPENDIX No. 15.
Declaration of William O'Leary, master of the sealing schooner " Geneva," 1893.
Port of Victoria,   )
British Columbia. )
I, William O'Leary, of the City of Victoria, Province of British Columbia,
Dominion of Canada, do solemnly declare that:—
I first began sealing in 1886 In that year I brought the " Pathfinder," the
first vessel which left Halifax for sealing around the Horn. Went into the Behring
Sea and North Pacific Ocean. In 1887, I again took the " Pathfinder " to the North
Pacific Ocean and Behring Sea. In 1888, I took the " Teresa " along the coast, but
did not enter Behring Sea. In 1889, I took the " Pathfinder " to the North Pacific
Ocean and Behring Sea, but the vessel was seized in the latter place by the United
States authorities. In the fall of 1889, I brought the " Ocean Belle " around the
Horn, and in 1890, I took that vessel along the.coast, sealing until the last of June,
at which date, off Shumagin Islands, I took charge of the " Walter L. Rich " and
went into Behring Sea. In 1891, I took the "Ocean Belle" to the North Pacific
Ocean and in the vicinity of Copper Island. In 1892, I took the " Geneva " to the
same localities, and this year (1893), I took the "Geneva" to the Japan coast and
off Copper Island.
I cleared from Victoria on the 21st January, and sailed direct for the Japan
coast, reaching Bonin Islands, off Japan, on the 9th day of March. I left there on
the 2-ith March and first lowered my boats for seal hunting on April 1st, in latitude
38° 15' N., longitude 143° 12' E. From that time until the 7th July, I continued
sealing along Nipon and Yesso Islands, my positions varying between north latitude
38° 15', east longitude 143° 12' and north latitude 43°, and east longitude 155° 58',
which brought me up to the 7th July, upon which date I took my last catch upon
the Japan coast.    The seals taken upon this coast were mixed males and females.
On the 7th July, in latitude 43° 00' N., longitude 155° 58' E., I took 40 seals.
Every one of these seals were young, about three years old—mixed male and female,
but mostly males. This was 300 miles off the Kurile Islands, and there was
nothing to indicate that these seals had been on land.
I am of opinion that there is a large body of seals which never go upon the
rookeries. I believe they are chiefly young males which are not allowed upon the
rookeries by the bulls, with a sprinkling of young females that have not begun to
breed.
I reached the vicinity of Copper Island on the 20th July, and on the 23rd,
in latitude 53° 17' N., longitude 167° 27' E., first lowered my boats there for sealing.
I continued sealing there until the 27th August, between latitude 53° and 54° north,
longitude 165° and 167° east, when I started direct for home.
The seals taken off Copper Island were mixed males and females, probably
more females than males. None of the females were in full milk, but all had a slight
show of milk, which was evidently drying up. I took care to observe about the
condition as to milk whenever it was possible for me to do so. In previous years, in
Behring Sea, I have observed old females in full milk 80 miles off shore, and shortly
afterwards we would get females, in which it was quite apparent that the milk was
drying up. From this I judge that they do not suckle their young longer than from
four to six weeks.
I am not aware of any " banks " around Copper Island, I have never been
able to get soundings, nor have I heard that any has ever been got. I have seen
salmon and squid from 50 to 90 miles off shore, to the southward of Copper Island.
This being my first year on the Japan coast, I cannot say where the seals
strike the coast of Japan, but they were there when I reached the vicinity of Nipon
Island this year on the 1st April, all the way from 60 to 300 miles off shore, and
they work about this distance from shore, along Nipon and Yesso. I cannot say as
to their movements after leaving the islands in the fall, but I believe they are to be islands"11 Wintei" Where I Wd th6m this Sprin^' until th*y So back to the breeding
I have seen seals mating in the water in Behring Sea.
wmlCail,i-     i     S6Jals \ar,e been on ae hauling grounds  or   rookeries;   their
bellies are discoloured and their flippers are worn.
hP wlJi ^ffthi%S+lleT declaration, conscientiously believing the same to
be true, and by virtue of the Act respecting extra-judicial oaths.
Declared before me at Victoria, in the) "Wm O'LEARY
Province of British Columbia, this f
eighth day of November, 1893. )
A. R. Milne,
Collector of Customs.
APPENDIX No. 16.
Declaration of Thomas H. Brown, a hunter on board the sealing schooner
"Agnes Macdonald," 1893.
Port of Victoria,      \
British Columbia,    j
I, Thomas H. Brown, of the City of Victoria, in the Province of British Columbia,
Dominion of Canada, do solemnly declare that :—
This year, 1893, I went on a sealing voyage on board the schooner " Agnes Macdonald," to the Japan coast, and to the waters around the Commander Islands.
My first experience in the sealing business was in 1888, when I went as a boat
steerer on board the " Maggie Mac," to the coast, and off Copper Island, and from
Copper Island waters into the Behring Sea. From this out I have acted as a hunter.
In 1889, along the coast and in Behring Sea, on board the schooner " Mary Ellen " ;
in 1890, along the coast and into Behring Sea. on board the schooner " Maggie Mac."
In 1891, along the coast and off Copper Island in the schooner " Maud S."; and in
1892, in the same localities, with the same vessel. This year, as before stated on
the Japan coast and off Komandorsky Islands, in the schooner " Agnes McDonald."
We cleared from Victoria on the 24th January, and sailed direct to Yokohama.
I started seal hunting on the second day of April, off the Island of Nipon, and
continued along the coast until the 23rd day of June. On that coast, I killed (354)
three hundred and fifty-four seals. These seals were mixed—cows and males—but
more cows than males. Most of the cows were with pup, but there was quite a
number of barren cows. I cannot just recall the number, but I noticed several.
They were adult seals, with no pups and no sign of milk. As a rule, I see every seal
I kill skinned, and, therefore, have a good opportunity for observation.
The average seal on this coast is larger than on the American coast. I got seals
in pup up to the last day I sealed on the Japan coast, 23rd day of June.
We went into Hakodate on the 27th June, and left there on the 8th July for the
waters around Copper Island.
The first seals I killed in these latter waters, I took on the 25th day of July, and
the last on the 5th day of September.    I killed in this vicinity seventy-six (76) seals.
The majority of these seals were females, about one-third being young males.
Not one of these females had a full flow of milk, but they all had signs of milk,
although it was pretty well dried up. Towards the end of the season there was
only a slight trace of the milk left.
I have been four years sealing in the waters off Copper island; one year as a
boat steerer and three years as a hunter, and the above has been about my experience
in that vicinity, except that the first year I was nearer land and saw some " bulls,"
but I never saw them any other year.
I hunt with both shot gun and rifle, but principally with a shot gun. If I get
within range at which sleeping seals are usually shot, I can very easily tell a female
from a male seal in the water. The male has black whiskers, the females white, and
the head and neck of the female are finer than those of the male.
I have never known of any banks around the Islands. Hunters never know-
much about the position of the ship, but I have seen salmon jumping around the
boat outside the thirty-mile limit.   There are plenty of squid m the same locality.
In the year 1888, when I went as boat steerer on board the " Maggie Mac, we
got very near the islands and were shot at from the shore, a number of bullets
piercing our boat. I noticed about one hundred dead pups, floating m the water,
from a few hundred yards to half a mile off shore.   That year I do not think there 90
were more than two or three vessels sealing around the Islands.    I can give no
opinion as to the cause of the death of these pups.
And I make this solemn declaration, conscientiously believing the same to be
true, and by virtue of the Act respecting extra-judicial oaths.
Declared before me, at Victoria, in the "J THOMAS H. BROWN.
Province of British Columbia, this V
eighth day of November, 1893.       J
[Seal.] A. R. Milne,
Collector of Customs.
APPENDIX No.   17-
Declaration of R. N. Crowell, master of the sealing schooner " Brenda," 1892.*=
Port of Victoria,   \
British Columbia. \
I, R. N. Crowell, of the city of Victoria, in the Province of British Columbia and
Dominion of-Canada, do solemnly declare that:—
During the year 1892 I went on a seal hunting voyage, as master of the
schooner "Brenda," to the waters in the vicinity of Komandorsky Islands. I went
into the northern part of the gulf of Kamtschatka for water, and while there I saw
plenty of fur seals, including sleeping cows. This was during the month of August
(28th). The residents there showed me a printed proclamation against the hunting
of seals in Russian waters, and of course, as I was within the limit, I made no attempt
to secure any of these seals.
The only "bank" I know of in the vicinity of Komandorsky Islands is
north of Behring Island, off Cape Olgontorsky, the centre of the " bank " being in
about latitude 58° N., longitude 170 E. Soundings can be had from forty fathoms
up. There were plenty of seals around, but the weather was rough and I only took
eight seals in three days.
On the 18th day of September, 1892, when on my road home, my position
at noon being 49° 45' north latitude, and 144° 30' west longitude, I got on a " bank "
at 5 o'clock in the morning, and ran off it again between 7 and 8 o'clock in the
evening, my position at noon bringing me in about the middle of the " bank," east
and west. I was sailing at the rate of ten miles an hour, and I should say that,
running east and west, this " bank " must be quite as large as the Grand Bank off
Newfoundland. As it was getting late in the season, and as I was making a good
course, I did not stop to try the " bank." At noon, when my observations were
taken, Middleton Island bore N. J E., true, distant 600 miles.
Off Cape St. Elias, and between that Cape and Middleton Island, principally
about 30 miles off the shore, young cows and young male seals are found every year
as late as the latter end of August.
I am decidedly of the opinion that somewhere on the coast, between Queen
Charlotte Island and TJnimak Pass, there must be a seal " rookery," and I base this
opinion on the fact that female seals in pup are taken there so heavy with pup,
that it would be simply impossible for them to reach any of the known "rookeries "
without dropping their pups on the way.
On the 22nd day of February, 1892, in latitude 38° N., longitude 141° W., I
passed through a large body of seals off the southern California coast, about 950
miles off land. On this occasion I was not on a sealing voyage, being bound from
North Sydney, C.B., to Victoria, British Columbia, on board the schooner " Brenda."
The seals I took last year around Copper and Behring Islands, during the
month of August and up to the 7th day of September, were mixed males and females,
the females being in different stages of drying up, none showing a full flow of milk.
This year I sealed only along the British Columbia and Alaskan coasts, as
far up as Kodiak Islands. Got, all told, 241 seals. Of these there were not over twelve
females in pup, the rest being young females and males. I also got one big breeding
bull about off Cape St. Elias, about sixty (60) miles offshore.
And I make this  solemn  declaration, conscientiously believing the same to
be true, and by virtue of an Act respecting extra-judicial oaths.
Declared before me, at the City of Victoria, ) ROBERT CROWELL.
and Province of British Columbia, this >
ninth day of November, 1893. )
[Seal.] A. R. Milne,
Collector of Customs 91
APPENDIX No. 18.
Declaration of William D. Byers, master of the sealing schooner « Carlotta
G. Cox," 1893.
Port of Victoria,   )
British Columbia. ]
I, William D. Byers, of the City of Victoria, Province of British Columbia
Dominion of Canada, do solemnly declare that:—
I have been sealing in different capacities for eight years. My first experience
was as a boat puller m the schooner " Pathfinder," in 1885. We went along the
north-west coast and into the Behring Sea. In 1886 I went on a sealing voyage to
the North Pacific Ocean and Behring Sea, as mate of the schooner " Pathfinder." In
1887, I was engaged as a hunter in the schooner "Penelope," in the North Pacific
Ocean and around Copper Island. In 1888, I was hunter on the schooner
" Triumph," on the coast and in Behring Sea. In 1889 I went to the same waters,
as hunter on the " Pathfinder." In 1890 and 1891, I visited the same waters as
master of the schooner " Carlotta G. Cox." In 1892, as master of the " Carlotta G.
Cox," I sealed along the coast and around Copper Island, and this year, 1893,1 took
the same vessel to the Japan coast and off Komandorsky Islands.
I cleared from the Port of Victoria, British Columbia, on the 22nd day of
January, and sailed direct for the Japan coast, reaching Yokohama on the 16th day
of March. I left that port on the 22nd, and began sealing on the 28th day of March,
in Lat. 29° 22' N., Long. 145° 00' E., taking my first seals. I sealed along the Japan
coast until the 30th day of June, upon which day I took mv last seal on that coast.
During this'period my positions ranged from say 39° to 43° of north latitude, and
from 142° to 146° of east longitude.
The catch along the Japan coast was composed of young bulls, barren cows and
cows with pup. Of this latter class about one-third of the total catch. I also got
some young virgin cows. Regarding barren cows, I may say that as the season gets
late the crew look for the pups and cut the cows open to obtain them. In this way
I noticed several barren cows, but I did not pay sufficient attention to remember the
exact number.
On the 3rd day of July, I sailed for the waters around the Komandorsky Islands,
reaching there loth July, during which time I did not lower my boats for seal
hunting. The first seal I got in this vicinity was on the 15th July, and my position
was latitude 53° 45' N., longitude 166° 43' E. The last seal I took there was on
the 26th day of August, my position being 53° 17' N. latitude 168° 37' E. longitude.
During my stay in this vicinity, I hovered between.53° and 54° north latitude and
158° and 169° east longitude. I took fewer females in this neighbourhood than ever
before; there was more of a mixture of males. I should say this year they were
nearly half males. Up to the 20th July most of the females taken were in full
milk, but after that it was quite apparent that the milk was drying up and intermixing with the fat. Prior to and including the 20th July, I took in these waters
29 seals all told.
On my way home, on the 29th August, in latitude 50° 31' N. longitude 177°
35' E. I got one seal about 150 miles south of Amchitka Island, Aleutian Chain.
It was a male seal.
I have no knowledge of any " banks " to the southward of Copper Island. I
have sounded with 100 fathoms of line, looking for fish about (50) fifty miles off, but
could get no soundings. Surface fish are plentiful—squid, salmon and other fish-
one hundred miles off.
This was my first year on the Japan coast, and I cannot say as to the migration
route of seals from the breeding islands, but from Yokohama up, their route lies
parallel with the coast of Japan and the Kurile Islands, at distances ranging from
(20) twenty to (200) two hundred miles off. I believe they winter between latitude
38° and 41b north. Between the 28th March and the 30th May, I took seals between
these positions continuously.
I can easily tell a .seal that has been on the rookeries or hauling grounds, irom
the discoloration of the hair on the bellies. Some of the young bulls I took this year
had not been on the rookeries or hauling grounds, as I could observe no external
indication. lj§        ,     . .,   ,,     . -,     ,.
I believe the yearling males remain in the ocean and do not visit the islands ,
because we find them south of the Aleutians and south of Komandorsky Islands.
I can distinguish cows from males in the water; they are not so heavy in head
and they are thinner and lighter in colour in the throat. Besides they are always
more on the alert, and are more difficult of approach evenii asleep. And I make this solemn declaration, conscientiously believing the same to be
true, and bv virtue of the Act respecting extra-judicial oaths.
WILLIAM D. BYERS.
Declared before me at Victoria, British )
Columbia, this 18th day of Novem- >
ber, 1893. )
[Seal.] A. R. Milne,
Collector of Customs.
APPENDIX No. 19.
Declaration  of Abel Douglas, master of the sealing  schooner "Arietas," 1893.
Port of Victoria,   J
British Columbia. (
I, Abel Douglas, of the City of Victoria, in the Province of British Columbia,
Dominion of Canada, do solemnly declare that:—
My first experience in the sealing business was as master of the schooner
" Triumph ;" in which vessel I went sealing along the coast in 1881, 1882 and 1883.
In 1886, I went as a hunter in the schooner " Challenge," sealing along the coast.
In 1887,1 went as hunter in the same vessel along the coast and to the North Pacific
Ocean. In 1888 and 1889, I went to the North Pacific Ocean and Behring Sea, as
hunter on board the " Annie C. Moore." In 1890, I went to the same waters as a
hunter in the schooner "Triumph." In 1891, I was master of the schooner "May
Bell," and went to the .North Pacific Ocean and Behring Sea, being warned out of
Behring Sea under the modus vivendi. In 1892, I went to the North Pacific Ocean
and to the waters around Copper Island, as master of the schooner " Arietas ; " and
this year, 1893, as master of the same vessel, I went to the Japan coast and to the
waters around Komandorsky Islands.
I cleared from the Port of Victoria on the 6th day of February and sailed direct
to the Japan coast, reaching Yokohama on the 26th day of March. I left Yokohama
on the 1st day of April, and took my first seals on the Japan coast on the 7th day of
that month, in latitude 37° 85' N., longitude 144° 33' E. The last seals I got on that
coast were taken on the 24th day of June, in latitude 44° 07' N., longitude 147° 80'E.
Between these dates, and along that coast, my positions ranged from 37° 28'N., latitude to 44° 07' N., latitude and from 143° 00' to 147° 30' east longitude.
The seals taken on the Japan coast were principally young seals—about half
male and half female—early in the season. The females were virgin seals which
had not yet bred. This was in April. Later on I got more females, a large number
of them being in pup. There were also quite a number of barren females, adults,
having no young or no show whatever of milk. This was in June off Yesso Island.
I also got young males and females non-breeders in this vicinity. There are more of
this latter class of seals taken on the Japan coast than on the American side.
I left Sikotan on the 24th day of June for the waters around Komandorsky
Islands, arriving off Copper Island on the 10th July.
The first seals I took in this vicinity were got on the 13th day of July, in
latitude 53° 20' N., longitude 168° E. The last seals taken in these waters were got
on the 5th day of September in latitude 52° 41' N., longitude 169° 26' E ; my positions between these dates ranging from latitude 53° to 54° N., longitude 166° 51' to
169° 26' E.
The seals secured around Copper Island were mixed cows and males. I cannot
say what percentage there was of females but there were a few more than males,
and a large number of non-breeding seals—young males and females.
I noticed particularly that of the females taken, comparatively few had a full
flow of milk, these being the first caught. Most of the females which had a show
of milk were drying up, and I am of opinion that their pups must have been weaned.
Towards the end of the season the milk had almost entirely dried up, the
slightest traces only being observable.
I know of no " banks " to the southward of Copper Island. I have tried for fish
but could get no soundings. In some places, the water sometimes has the appearance
in colour as though soundings existed, and this doubtless accounts for any reports
as to " banks." There are plenty squid and salmon off the island in July and
August.    Most of the seals are taken from 45 to 60 miles off.
In the stomachs of both male and female seals, I have frequently found a variety
of fish—squid, small fish similar to herring, and salmon. And I make this solemn declaration  conscientionslv believino- ih
true, and by virtue of the Act respecting extra-judicial oaths. Same   '
Declared before me at Victoria, in the ) ABET  TlDTTfi-T a«W
Province of British Columbia, this ( DOUGLASb.
16th day of November, 1893. )
[Seal.] a. R. Milne.
Collector of Customs.
APPENDIX No. 20.
Declaration of Otto Bucholz, master of the sealing schooner "Casco" 1893
Port of Victoria,  )
British Columbia.\
I, Otto Bucholz, of the City of Victoria, in the Province of British Columbia,
Dominion of Canada, do solemnly, declare that :—
My first experience in the sealing business was in 1890. That year I went
along the coast and into Behring Sea, as sailing master of the schooner " Minnie "
In 1890, I went sealing in the same localities as master of the schooner " Sea
Lion " I was warned out of Behring Sea.
In 1892, I went to same places in the " Sea Lion," as master.
This year, 1893, as master of the schooner " Casco," I visited the Japan coast and
the waters around Komandorsky Islands on a seal hunting voyage.
I cleared from Victoria on the 18th January, leaving the vicinity of Vancouver
Island on the 3rd of February, and shaped my course direct for the Japan coast,
arriving off that coast on the 27th March, my position being :<3° 15' north latitude,'
142° 50' east longitude, off the Island of Nipon. I cruised up the coast in search of
seals until the 18th day of April, when I put into Akishi, Yesso Island, having
picked up a few seals on the road. I left Akishi on the 21st day of April, and on
the 24th I began sealing in latitude 40° 31' north, and longitude 143° 42' east. I
continued sealing on the Japan coast with success up to the 21st day of June, upon
which date I took my last seals on the Japan coast. On that day my position was :
latitude 43° 25' north, longitude 146° 28' east. During my stay on the Japan coast,
after I began sealing (24th April) my positions ranged between 39° and 43° north
latitude and 142° and 146° east longitude. The seals taken along this coast were
got at distances from 40 to 45 miles off' shore. The majority of my catch were males.
I have never seen so many male seals as this year. Females in pup were taken all
along, but of course they were heaviest towards the end.
Off Yesso Island, we took several adult barren females. These females were
not with pup nor had they pupped, as they did not show the least sign of milk.
There is no doubt but that they were barren cows. If it had occurred to me to
notice this point particularly, I believe I could have observed quite a percentage of
this class of seal all along.
On the 19th day of July, I sighted Copper Island about 40 miles distant. On
the 23rd day of July, I got my first seals off the KomandoTsky Islands, my position
being latitude 53° 36' north, longitude 167° 01' east. The last seal I took in this
neighbourhood was on the 21st day of August, in latitude 53° 59' north, longitude
168° 28' east, and between these dates my positions varied from 53° to 55° north
latitude and 163° to 169° east longitude.
Of the seals taken off the Komandorsky Islands, fully one half were males and
in a very poor and starved condition.
I cannot say as to the different stages of condition of females in milk, as it never
struck me to observe this at the time. IlKt^-il
I have no knowledge of any " banks " to the southward of the Komandorsky
Islands. Last year when there was no limit around the islands, I was as close as
fifteen miles, and as far as one hundred miles from the islands. This year I kept off
an average distance of (45) forty-five miles, and I never found any banks; although
I have sounded trying for bottom fish, I have never been able to get soundings with
120 fathoms of line. All the sealers I have spoken to on the subject have had the
same experience. Fresh fish is a luxury on board a sealer on so long a voyage, and.
we all try for fish. This applies also to the Japan coast, where the seals are taken
entirely out of soundings. F ,     ,
My experience this year as to the migration route of the seals to the HomandorsKy
Islands, is that I met them in April and May, along the coast off .Nipon, at a distance
of between (20) twenty and (70) seventy miles. I lost the herd m the latter end of
June off Sikotan, about the beginning of the Kuriles.
I can tell a seal that has come off the islands by the discoloration of the hair on
the belly, and by the condition of the flippers.    The flippers of a seal long at sea are very soft and silky, but contact with the rocks and beaches, makes them rough and
worn. ,
I can distinguish a male from a female in the water by the head and throat.
The head of a female is finer and the throat lighter in colour, and the neck and throat
more delicate and graceful. A hunter meeting a male and female together will kill
the female first, as the male is more apt to stay by it.
And I make this solemn declaration, conscientiously believing the same to be
true, and by virtue of the Act respecting extra-judicial oaths.
OTTO BUCHOLZ.
Declared before me, at Victoria, in the ~)
Province of British Columbia, this >
tenth day of November, 1893. J
[Seal.] A. R. Milne,
Collector of Customs.
APPENDIX No. 21.
Declaration of John McLeod, master of the sealing schooner " Pioneer,"  1893.
Port of Victoria,     )
British Columbia.   )
I, John McLeod, of the City of Victoria, in the Province of British Columbia,
Dominion of Canada, do solemnly declare that:—
I began sealing on the coast in the year 1890. I have never been in Behring
Sea, having been excluded under the modus vivendi.
During 1892, I was master of the schooner "Ariel," which was seized by the
Russian authorities off Copper Island. I was off Copper Island during the month of
July that year, and the most of the skins I secured were taken from 60 to 80 miles
south of the island. In this vicinity, I got no females with young, and cannot now
say whether or not there were any in milk. I have hot observed this closely as the
thing had never been suggested to me. In this locality, during July, my vessel took
three or four big bulls between 70 and 80 miles off the island, to the southward. I
can positively state that I was over seventy miles from land when these bulls were
taken.
This year I went out-as master of the " Pioneer " ; I did not go on the Russian
side, confining myself to the American coast. I took in all 1,050 skins, nearly all
between Queen Charlotte Islands and the Fairweather Grounds. I got as far as
Agattu Island, at the extreme end of the Aleutian chain. I did not seal there, but
took skins from other sealers and returned home.
Off Agattu, between the 13th and 29th July, I saw seals 75 miles south-west,
but as the weather was rough, I did not attempt to get any.
Off the Cape Fairweather, this year, I got ten or twelve very large bulls, distant
120 miles from land. My position at the time was : latitude 57° 58' N., longitude
139° 46' W.    This was at the latter end of April and first of May.    '
I saw more bulls on the Fairweather Grounds this year, than I ever saw before.
While there were more big " bulls " and males this year, the females were much
scarcer than usual. I think they must have been driven off their usual routes, by
being worried by the increased number of young males, which are not allowed on
the rookeries by the " bulls."    Ninety per cent of my catch were males.
I took some cows in milk this year, but I did not observe them with sufficient
closeness to be able to form any opinion as to whether they were nursing females, or
whether the milk was drying up.
My attention was called this season to seals copulating at sea. There is no
doubt in my mind as to the nature of the operation I observed. The sea was quite
rough at the time.
An unborn pup taken from the mother will live.
And I make this solemn declaration, conscientiously believing the same to be
true, and by virtue of the Act respecting extra-judicial oaths.
Declared before me, at Victoria, in the ) JOHN McLEOD,
Province of British Columbia, this [ Master schooner " Pioneer "
tenth day of November, 1893. )
[Seal.] A. R. Milne,
Collector of Customs. EXTRACTS
FROM THE PRIVATE SEALING LOGS OF PELAGIC SEALERS, SHOWING
DATES AND POSITIONS AT SEA, ON THE JAPAN COAST, AND IN
THE VICINITY OF THE RUSSIAN SEAL ISLANDS, WHEN AND
WHERE FUR SEALS WERE TAKEN.
1893.'
Note.—The object of the information being to establish the relative positions from day to day,
throughout the season, where seals were taken, and not to show the actual.number of skins secured;
any slight discrepancy in the number shown to have been taken, as compared with the figures given
in the return of the catch at appendix No. 36, can have no significance. Some days, on which
single skins were secured in the same positions as the day previous, are not recorded. In other
instances where no positions could be taken, skins are omitted.
* John McLeod, master schooner "Pioneer" American side (App. No. 34.)
J APPENDIX No. 22.
Schooner " Sadie Turpel," Charles Leblanc, Master, 1893.
Date.
Lat.  N.
m
No.
of Seals.
Remarks.
Apr.  19...
39   22
143   12
18
First seals on the Japan coast.
do    20...
39   35
143   44
80
do    21...
39   45
143   49
12
do    23...
39   49
144   12
11
do    24...
40   05
144   07
47
"do    27...
39   40
144   10
do    30 ..
39   52
142   40
2
May    I...
39   50
142   50
do      2...
45   00
142   50
54
do      3...
40   00
142   55
3
do      6...
39   28
142   33
41
do      7...
39   25
142   33
do      8...
39   30
142   55
m 58
18
do      9...
40   00
6
do    12...
40   47
142   45
36
do    13...
40   26
142   51
7
do    14...
40   02
143   00
41
do    17...
40   14
143   15
45
do    18...
40   30
143   16
46
do    19...
40   08
143   08
50
do    20...
1       40   07
143   19
25
do    23...
40   55
142   33
do    24...
40   51
142   30
do    25...
40   58
142   46
37
do    29...
40   27
143   26
27
June    2...
42   30
146   00
2
do      3...
42   55
146   05
13
do      4...
42   52
145   44
2
do      6...
42   01
145   11
6
do      7...
41   14
142   35
25
do      9...
41   13
142   36
34
do    17...
42   15
141   40
9
do    18...
42   03
142   00
15
do    19...
41   37
143   08
16
do    22...
42   35
144   50
23
do    23...
42   40
145   02
22
do    27....
44   52
148   30
24
do    28...
44   50
148   50
12
do    29...
44   56
149   15
54
July    2...
44   56
149   15
3
do      4...
44   58
149   25
1
Last seals taken on the Japan coast.
do    16...
48   22
158   15
fiffip;?
do    21...
do    25....
53   40
53   23
166 40
167 29
SsiSi^
11
First lowered boats in waters around Komandorsky Islands.
do    27...
53   54
167   40
4
do    28...
53   40
167   35
5
Aug.    1	
53   27
168   04
23
do      5....
53   24
167   55
9
do      8....
56   07
168   30
3
do      9...
56   32
168   15
49
do    10...
56   40
168   20
21
do    11....
56   24
168   30
13
do    12....
56   19
167   12
do    16...
56   22
167   10
do    17...
56   30
167   36
19
do    18 ...
56   20
167   40
17
do    19....
56   30
167   05
31
do    20....
56   37
167   00
57
do    21....
56   22
167   10
33
do    22....
56   30
167   30
do    23....
56   20
166   20
1
do    24....
55   05
164   10
18
do    25....
54   35
164   20
1
do    26....
53   50
164   40
2
do    27	
53   05
165   30
6
do    29....
53   20
167   31
9
do    31....
53   12
168   19
22
Sept.   l....
53   10
168   24
Last seals taken in the vicinity of Komandorsky Islands.   Left 2nd
beptember for home and got two seals, males, about 200 miles south
ot the Aleutians.   Arrived Victoria, 24th September, 1892. APPENDIX No.  23.
Schooner "Vera," William Sheilds, Master, 1893.
Date.
Lat. N.
Long. E.
No. of
Skins.
Remarks.
Mar. 29....
do    31....
do''    2"!!
do      4...
34   46
38   46
38   26
38   14
Foggy.  .  .
38   04
38   35
140   03
144   23
143   26
142   35
4
9
45
19
41
33
22
2
50
10
59
17
87
101
11
19
12
20
34
28
15
47
20
51
48
22
61
59
16
60
26
83
20
24
25
42
49
62
25
46'
106
16
40
12
2
18
7
16
43
12
First one taken on Japan coast.
Went into Hakodate 16th June for water and p
on the 18th.
Last seals on Japan coast, off Staten Island, 20 mile
sailed direct for waters around Copper Island,
saw several seals on the road.
First lowered for seals off Copper Island.
Last seals off Komandorsky Islands. Sailed direct f
5th August, arriving 24th.
do      5....
do      6....
do      7....
142 52
143 15
do    10....
do    12....
do    13....
do    18....
do    20...
do    21....
38   18
41   16
41   30
41   09
40   21
143   13
143   23
143 54
144 22
143   38
do    24 ...
do    28....
40   29
143   30
do    29...
May    1....
do      2....
do      3....
do      6....
40   40
40   27
40   21
143   59
143   54
143   59
do      7....
V<$F -'.'.'.'.'.'
do      8....
do      9....
40   23
40   17
144   57
144   20
do    14....
41   08
144   29
do   	
do   	
do    24....
do    25....
do   	
41   22
'i.44   09 "
ovisions, and left
do    28....
44   17
148   09
do      2....
44   03
147   55
do      6....
44   53
148   18
do      9....
44   47
148   17
s.  This day (14th),
do    23...
do    25....
53   37
53   41
167   20
167   19
irriving 21st July;
do    29....
Aug.    1	
53   23
63   17
52   57
167 54
168 08
168   09
r Victoria at noon,
and 41° north latitude, and 144° and 146° east longitude, about an average of 45 m APPENDIX No. 24.
Schooner "Agnes Macdonald," Melville Cutler, Master,
Date.
g
Long. E.
No. of
Skins.
Remarks.
April   2...
38   52
142   42
41
First seals taken on Japan coast.
do    6...
40   40
143   30
do    7...
40   54
143   23
do    8...
41   47
143   40
do    9...
39   55
143   26
"" io3"
do  10...
39   55
143   20
30
do  11...
39   50
143   30
27
do  12...
39   17
143   37
135
do  13...
39   16
143   50
18
do   14...
39   13
144   02
144
do  15...
39   31
144   05
do  16...
144   00
do  18...
39   18
144   10
81
do  19...
144   10
12
do  20...
40   05
144   56
36
do  28...
39   54
145   00
104
do  29...
39   54
144   40
60
do  30...
39   54
144   50
4
39   54
144   06
6
do      2...
39   54
144   00
13
do      6...
40   25
143   23
do      7...
40   53
144   01
2
do      8...
40   55
144   25
27
do      9...
40   46
144   54
14
do    10...
41   20
145   00
16
do     13...
40   02
144   40
7
do    14...
40   07
144   22
93
do    15...
40   08
144   42
■'^■T'&ai
do    16...
40   08
144   42
do    17...
40   06
144   42
102
do    18...
40   14
144   50
do    19...
40   35
144   56
35
do    20...
40   41
144   49
76
do    23...
40   13
144   49
do    24...
40 .13
144   29
36
do    25...
40   52
145   06
28
do    26...
40   52
145   C6
12
June    2...
41   29
145   25
11
do     3...
42   12
145   45
7
do      5...
42   22
146   20
41
do      6...
41   21
145   30
104
do      7...
41   30
145   30
39
do      8...
41   13
145   48
40
do      9...
41   00
145   38
97
do    10...
40   45
144   40
3
do    11...
40   02
144   18
16
do    12...
41   28
145   18
8
do    15...
43   08
147   03
59
do    16...
43   15
147   00
95
do    17...
43   20
146   50
6
do    18...
43   24
146   50
12
do    19...
43   21
146   50
19
do    21...
43   14
146   30
39
do    22...
43   04
146   30
35
do    23...
43   04
146   30
Last seals taken on Japan coast.
Left Hakodate (anchored off Head few days.)
do    20...
Arrived off Copper Island.
do    25...
! " "53'io"
'"i67"54"
 7"
First seals taken in the vicinity of Komandorsky Islands.
do    28...
167   05
13
Aug.    1...
53 20
167   10
62
do      5...
53   15
167   40
24
do      8...
53   10
168   28
11
do    13...
167   30
19
do    15...
do    16...
53   23
167   42
27
do    17...
53   00
168   00
do    18...
53   17
167   45
11
do    21...
53   02
167   10
31
do    22...
53   23
166   30
25
do    24...
53   14
166   25
8
do    25...
53   11
166   55
3
do    26...
53   21
166   27
do    28...
52   45
167   40
do    29...
63   05
167   24
24
do    30...
53   17
167   00
do    31..
53   20
166   45
Sept.   1...
53   20
167   13
10
do      4...
53   05
166   20
20
do      5...
52   40
168   00
6
Last seal caught on Russian side and last taken this season.   Left
8th September, made Cape Flattery 27th September. APPENDIX No. 25.
Schooner "Mermaid," W. H. Whitely, Master, 1893.
Date.
Lat. N.
P|i
No. of
Skins.
Remarks.
Mar.  25....
36   10
145   00
First seals taken on Japan Coast.
Apr.    1.!.!
do      5....
Went into Yokohama.
Left Yokohama.
do    10....
""38"66"
""i.45' 66"
do    11 ...
Ran into a whale, vessel receiving severe damage.
Went to Yokohama for repairs, and remained there till May 4.
do    12....
"36 "46"
i45' 43'
 3i"
38   30
144   47
do    10....
Foggy	
do    11....
26
17
58
do     12....
do    13....
do    14....
"i46"66"
do    15....
145   00
gffpfes
do    16....
do    17....
39   50
144   00
18
do    18....
Thick fog...
57
18
do    20....
40   10
"i45"06''
do     22....
11
43
do     23....
Foggy	
do    24....
do    25....
39 "57"
"i44"i6'
82
do    26 ...
9
do    29....
"46 "08"
"'i44"20'
40   40
144   00
54
do      3!!.;
40   30
143   00
49
do      4....
41   00
143   27
70
do      6....
41   11
143   50
20
do      7...
40   45
143   49
51
do      8....
40   26
143   49
21
do      9....
40   22
144   00
do    11....
41   50
143   20
26
do     15	
23
17
do    16	
Last day of sealing on Japan Coast.
Left Hakodate direct for vicinity of Komandorsky Islands.
do    20"!
Arrived off Behring Island—60 miles.
do     23...
"  "53' 50"
"i66"66"
First seals taken in vicinity of Komandorsky Islands.
do    25...
53   00
167   00
11
do    27...
53   00
168   00
53   10
169   00
do'    S'.'.'.
53   20
167   00
15
do    10...
Foggy	
10
do    11...
"w'so"
3
24
do    U'.V.
gl 'so'
"167 "66"
13
do    17...
53   20
166   00
20
do    19...
53   30
166   00
46
do    21...
Foggy	
18
do    22...
54   03
"166 66"
37
do    24...
53   30
167   23
14
do    25,..
53   38
166   00
17
do    26...
53   30
165   00
10
do    28...
53   36
166   00
11
do    30...
Sept.   4...
do
53   15
169   00
169   10
16
Last seal taken in vicinity of Komandorsky Islands.
Started for home, arriving in Victoria on the 21st September. APPENDIX No. 26.
I W. P. Hall," J. B. Brown, Master, 1893.
Date.
Lat.  N.
II
No.
of Seals.
Remarks.
Apr.    7...
36   38
144   07
5
First seals taken on Japan coast.
do    12.  .
36   42
143   34
9
36   47
143   01
do    2l!"
39   14
145   38
do    24...
39   19
146   17
do    28...
39   09
147   03
do    29 ..
39   20
145   53
30
do    30...
39   25
145   39
May    9...
39.   18
145   41
12
do    10...
39   48
146   12
19
do    11...
39   11
145   36
10
do    12...
39   38
145   49
16
do    13...
39   31
146   11
7
do    14...
39   28
146   05
41
do    17...
39   58
146   09
48
do    18 ..
39   40
145   48
65
do    20...
39   32
144   57
20
do    23...
40   17
146   20
6
do    24...
39   57
146   05
29
do    25...
39   46
145   00
do    26..
39   50
145   27
11
do    29...
39   16
144   58
1
do    30...
38   49
146   36
19
39   38
146   40
4
do      2...
39   54
146   57
27
do      3...
39   47
146   52
32
do      4...
39   39
146   33
do      5...
39   38
146   01
15
do      7...
40   45
146   10
11
do      8...
41   22
145   21
12
do      9...
41   30
145   53
27
do    10...
42   23
147   05
do    11...
43   05
145   45
7
do    15...
42   30
145   20
12
do    16...
42   25
146   05
do    18...
42   33
145   05
12
do    19...
42   30
144   45
12
do    23...
42   24
145   35
5
do    25...
Went into Akishi Bay for water.
Left Akishi.
do    27...
do    28...
""42"53"
"WisT
 is"
do    29...
42   53
145   18
8
Last seals taken on Japan coast.
July    1...
Sailed for waters around Komandorsky Islands.
Arrived Komandorsky Island waters.
First seals in vicinity of Komandorsky Islands.
do    17...
do    23...
do    25...
53~'l5''
53   27
"'i68' 4i"
168   19
 7"
7
do    28...
53   26
169   44
3
Aug.    1...
53   18
170   13
6
do      5...
53   21
169   02
6
do      6...
53   01
169   22
9
do      8...
52   57
169   53
do    10...
52   53
167   44
3
do    12...
53   32
168   27
22
do    13...
53   31
168   00
2
do    14...
53   39
167   51
do    17 ..
53   03
168   00
29
do    18...
53   08
167   57
6
do    19...
53   12
167   44
do    21...
52   53
167   15
20
do    23...
52   28
167   29
6
do    24...
52   28
167   27
do    26...
53   05
167   16
6
do    27...
52   56
168   02
no    29...
52   47
170   03
10
Sept.    1...
52   57
169   31
do    11...
52   53
170   11
do    12...
52   40
169   53
do    16...
53   31
168   44
2
Last seals in Russian waters.
do    20...
51   10
175   53
South of Attou Island 100 miles, one seal, female. APPENDIX No.  27.
Schooner "Sapphire," William Cox, Master, 1893.
Date.
Lat. N.
Long. W.
No.
of
Skins.
5
Remark,
Mar. 22...
Apr.    6...
do    11...
4°8   33
56   58
126   29
Cleared from Victoria 28th January,  and sealed along
reached Sand Point 17th June; left for Russian side.
136 53
137 05
137   32
8
36
3
do    12...
57   10
do    13...
57   35
137   32
11
do    17...
68   13
143   00
8
do    18...
58   19
143   07
24
do    20...
59   15
142   23
43
do    21 ..
59   10
142   12
16
do    22...
59   12
142   39
28
do    23...
59   00
143   41
93
do    26...
59   31
143   39
24
do    27...
59   22
143   05
55
do    28...
59   13
143   05
66
do    29...
59   27
143   36
11
do    30...
59   01
143   54
36
May    1...
59   10
142   38
43
do      2...
59   17
142   28
68
do      3...
59   09
142   52
61
do      4....
59   06
142   39
82
do      5 ..
59   00
142   31
31
do      7...
- 59   01
142   40
13
do      8...
59   00
142   44
31
do    11....
59   08
142   29
10
do    12...
59   17
142   50
23
do    13....
59   17
143   44
22
do    14....
58   58
144   34
58   57
144   47
53
do    18....'
58   33
146   23
56
do    19....
58   33
146   23
82
do    20 ...
58   38
146   18
21
June   5....
58   34
147   01
20
do      7....
59   05
146   03
1
Last of coast catch.
do    25....
52   27
163   31
178g' 38
7
Left Sand Point 25th June; off Ounimak Pass.
July    5....
49   45
1
Saw plenty of seals; wind and fog.
do      7....
49   55
175   09
do    14....
52   42
165   08
5
First seals taken off Komandorsky Islands.
do    16....
52   47
165   29
3
do    18....
53   28
164   57
do    21....
53   19
166   44
11
do    27....
63   00
167   22
14
do    31....
53   13
167   52
36
Aug.    4	
53   22
167   46
32
do      7....
53   15
168   55
9
do      8....
53   06
167   55
15
do    11....
53   11
166   24
66
do    14....
53   00
166   06
19
63   08
166   16
do    16....
53   07
166   13
24
do    17....
53   11
165   58
do    19....
53   00
165   29
28
do    21....
52   59
165   28
28
do    23....
53   12
167   24
3
Last seals taken off Komandorsky Islands. APPENDIX No. 28.
Schooner "Ainoko," George Heater, Master, 1893.
Date.
Lat. N.
Long. W.
No. of
Remarks.
Cleared from Victoria. 26th January, sailed down the West Coast
as far as Hesquiat for Indians.    Low
ered boats for sealing first
time 19th April.
April 19....
56   53
136   33
30
Off Sitka.
do  20....
56   53
136   33
do  22....
56   00
136   33
 io"
do   23....
58   07
138   15
48
do   24....
58   07
138 .15
6
do   26....
41
Cape Spencer bearing N. 40 miles.
do  28....
58''66"'
"W-So"
37
do  29....
58   31
139   00
13
58   57
140   20
do      2....
58   56
140   28
59   10
141   19
10
do      4...!
59   02
141   19
35
do      5....
58   39
141   19
31
do      7....
59   00
143   00
-  10
do      8....
59   06
143   05
52
do    11....
55   10
145   33
94
do    12....
59   00
145   21
123
do    13....
58   45
145   15
17
do    15....
58   42
146   30
67
do    15....
58   44
144   22
do    16....
58   46
144   25
Off Cape St. Elias.
do    17....
146   57
do    18....
58   30
147   14
121
do    19....
58   57
147   28
50
do    20....
13
13
do    22 ...
"5909'
"i46   55"
do    25	
Cape Clear
bearing W.
byS. 15 m.
5
do    27....
59   02
149   08
10
do    30....
Marmot Id.
bearing S W
•20 miles.
87
June    1....
do
do
do      2....
58   38
151   W
60
do      6....
Seal-Rocks
bearing S.E.
fey E. 22 m.1
47
do      7....
do
do
53
do      8....
Marmot Id.
bearing SW.
13
do    10....
57   36
151   17
do    11....
57   17
151   13
do    12	
166   66"
166   00
12
Between Sand Point Mid Copper Island.
First seal taken off Komandorsky Island.
July   12....
do    13....
""53"  '43"
53   43
10
do    14....
53   43
165   45
5
do    16....
do    22	
53   43
165   44
30
Last seals taken off Komandorsky Mamds.
and schooner ordered to
Yokohama. APPENDIX No. 29.
Schooner " Geneva," William O'Leary, Master, 1893.
Date.
Lat.  N.
w.,
No. of
Skins.
Remarks.
do'    2""
39   07
143   12
143   32
49
First seals taken on Japan coast.
do      7....
39   31
143   50
51
do      9 ...
39   40
144   08
94
do    10....
144   07
do    13....
40   39
143   50
12
do    14 ...
40   38
143   46
71
do    15....
40   25
143   12
6
do    16....
40   42
144   06
5
do    19....
41   01
144   12
15
do    21...
41   37
15
do    24....
41   53
145   00
15
do    28....
41   39
145   02
16
do    29 ..
41   24
144   49
37
May    1	
40   13
142   52
91
do      2....
39   54
142   48
69
39   35
143   02
25
do      7....
39   42
142   50
do      8....
39   49
142   27
42
do      9....
39   51
142   54
16
do    11....
40   07
143   25
10
do    14...
41   43
142   03
14
41   36
142   01
62
do    16..!!
22
do    17....
41   27
142   15
do    18...
142   38
49
do    19....
41   24
142   35
20
do    20....
41   50
143   17
do    23....
41   24
142   32
33
do    24....
41   31
142   19
19
do    26....
41   23
143   25
46
June   6	
42   57
145   56
Bad weather, no Bealing.
do      7....
42   57
145   43
47
do      8....
42   58
146   10
do      9....
42   56
144   37
58
do    10....
43   12
145   55
50
do     11....
43   19
146   52
35
do    15....
42   54
146   12
37
do    16....
42   30
146   01
do    19....
42   25
145   49
23
do    22to28
At Akishi for water.
do    29....
43' 19"
" i46 6i '
do    30....
43   21
146   47
19
43   11
do      4...!
42   13
153   36
do      7....
43   00
jast catch on Japan coast.
do    17 ..
Started for Copper Island grounds ; saw one or two seals o
Reached Copper Island grounds.
Tirst seals taken in vicinity of Komandorsky.
do    20....
do    23....
53"i7"'
'"i67"27"
do    25....
53   30
166   21
Aug.    1	
53   18
167   04
53
do      5....
53   28
166   10
do      8...
63   24
167   12
do    10....
53   27
166   03
12
do    11...
53   31
165   58
37
do    12....
53   25
165   47
43
do    13....
53   29
165   36
do    14....
63   56
165   33
20
do     10....
53   35
166   34
20
do    17....
53   38
166   41
28
do    18 ...
53   47
165   01
2
do    19....
53   49
165   49
62
do    21....
54   06
165   46
34
do    22....
64   08
165   40
51
do    24....
165   31
do    26....
53   29
166   01
13
jast seals taken in vicinity of Komandorsky Islands.
Started direct for home, arriving on the 13th September
1893. do 31..
Apr. 1..
do      2..
104
APPENDIX  No.  30.
Schooner "Carlotta G. Cox," William Byers, Master, 1893.
39 45
39 45
39 50
40 03
40 13
40 10
40 09
40' 30
39 23
40 34
40 r
40 07
First seals taken on Japai
do 19..
do 20..
do 23..
do 24..
do 25..
do 29..
do 30..
June "7!!
39 43
39 26
39 23
39 36
39 32
40 22
40 15
40 18
40 36
40 05
40 11
40 37
40 11
40 39
40 46
40 53
40 52
40 53
40 54
40 11
40 02
39 44
145
146 26
145 06
145 32
145 32
146 10
145
145 12
145 10
145 13
145 20
145 32
145 27
145 21
146 04
145 49
145 59
145 46
144 59
145 01
145 01
"i45"l2"
43 15
43 22
42 55
43 10
146 00
145 37
146 28
146 30
43 j
42 50
42 55
43 09
43 11
43 20
53
53 46
54 25
53 49
53 17
53 09
53 21
53 12
53 21
53 10
52 57
53 24
53 26
19
146 32
146 42
146 30
167 51
168 13
168 04
166 35
166 38
166 31
166 38
166 "
169 06
IAt this time abreast of Akishi Bay, Yesso Island,
Last seals caught on Japan coast.
- Sailed for waters around Komandorsky Islands, reached there 16th
July ; did not lower for sealing.
|First seals in vicinity of Komandorsky Islands.
Last seals on Asiatic side.
. On the way home caught 1 seal aboat 150 u
'       Island, Aleutian Islands, a small bull.
juth of Amchitka APPENDIX No- 31.
Schooner " Arietas," Abel Douglas, Master, 18
Date.
Lat. N.
pi.
No. of
Skins.
Remarks.
do    9!!!
37   35
37   28
144   33
143   50
26
First seals taken on Japan coast.
do   10...
36   35
144   10
do  12...
37   35
144   55
May  25...
39   48
143   23
June   2...
41   29
143   02
92
do      3...
41   17
143   13
do      4...
41   30
143   18
12
do      6...
41   04
143   56
do      7...
41   17
144   04
do      8...
42   02
144   08
65
do      9...
42   56
144   09
30
do     10...
42   53
144   27
18
do    11...
43   00
145   27
do    15...
43   35
147   10
11
do    16...
43   45
147   20
41
do     19...
43   25
147   10
do    20...
43   20
147   10
11
do    21...
43   26
147   00
do    22...
43   28
147   00
5
do    23...
43   33
146   59
4
do    24 ..
do    28...
do    29...
44 07
45 40
46 30
147   30
151 00
152 20
33
2
5
Last seals on Japan coast.   Left Sikotan this day for wa
Copper Island.
;ers around
July    1...
do    13...
do    14...
47   32
53   20
53   04
153   05
168   00
168   55
2
On the road to Copper Island.
First seals taken in vicinity of Komandorsky Islands.
do     16...
53   17
168   20
do    17...
53   55
197   25
67
do    18....
54   00
167   40
2
do    19...
53   48
167   23
2
do    23....
53   52
167   09
16
do    25....
53   33
167   04
21
do    28....
53   48
167   04
26
do    29....
53   28
167   10
1
Aug.    1....
53   43
167   46
40
do      5....
53   26
166   51
13
do      8....
53   12
169   16
do    10....
53   13
166   30
11
do    12....
54   00
166   49
do    14....
53   43
166   18
19
do    16....
54   11
165   35
2
do    17....
53   35
167   28
31
do    19....
53   28
167   33
do    21....
52   51
167   55
do    22....
53   20
167   46
25
do    26....
168   40
8
do    31....
53   20
167   00
39
Sept.   1....
53   40
167   52
do      4....
52   42
168   56
do      5....
52   41
169   26
2
Last seal.   Arrived at Victoria 30th September. APPENDIX No. 32.
Schooner " Casco," Otto Bucholz, Master, 1893.
Date.
Lat.  N.
ig
No.
Remarks.
Apr.   24,.
40   31
143   42
17
First seals on Japan coast.    Heavy gale.
do    27..
40   18
144   21
do    28..
40   38
143   31
27
do    29..
.        40   35
143   19
20
do    30..
40   17
142   33
37
May    1...
40   02
142   42
70
do      2..
.-      40   02
142   34
38
do      3..
40   26
142   38
12
do      5..
40  27
142   58 .
'■■gmSB
do      6...
40   09
142   48
62
do      7..
40   06
142   43
92
do      8...
40   09
142   42
34
do      9...
40   44
143   04
46
do    10...
40   47
142   27
do    11...
40   35
142   39
do    12...
40   28
142   22
do    13...
39   59
142   51
59
do    14...
39   45
143   03
do    15...
39   50
143   02
15
do    16...
39   40
143   00
60
do    17...
39   35
143   35
47
do    18...
39   39
143   16
13
do    19...
.        39   51
143   40
14
do    23...
40   40
142   45
41
do    24...
40   55
142   47
142
do    25...
40   48
142   33
61
do    26...
.        41   21
142   45
25
do    29...
41   26
142   52
18
do    31...
Went into Hakodate.
Left Hakodate.
do      4!!!
! ""4i"33"
'"i-42"39"
 58'
do      5...
41   52
142   39
do      6...
41   30
142   59
4
do      7...
41   36
143   34
56
do      8...
41   37
143   54
36
do      9..
41   31
143   55
do    11..
42   47
144   48
25
do    14..
43   06
146   50
do    15..
42   49
146   20
63
do    16..
42   48
146   10
29
do    20..
43   25
146   28
'.%£'&■.■':,
do    21..
43   25
146   23
20
Last seals on Japan coast.
Sighted Copper Island about 40 miles distant.
July  19..
53   48
167   36
do    23..
do    27..
53   36
53   50
167   01
167   17
 ih"
12
First seals in vicinity of Komandorsky Islands.
do    28..
53   59
167   25
6
55   26
168   15
8
North of islands.
do      9..
55   25
163   57
26
do    10..
55   03
164   37
11
do    11..
54   15
165   44
do    12..
63   53
166   21
26
do    13..
53   40
166   42
do    14..
53   42
167   02
9
do    17..
53   56
169   02
do    19..
53   21
168   20
5
do    21..
53   59
168   28
19
Last seals in vicinity Komandorsky Islands.
Left for Victoria, arriving 13th September, 1893. APPENDIX No. 33.
Schooner "Beatrice," August G. Bjerre, Master, 1S93.
Date.
Lat. N.
Long.E.
No. of
Remarks.
Mar. 21...
37   11
142   34
ilS
Sailed from Vancouver, 9th July, 1893, direct for Japan coast a
ing off Nipon Island 21st March.    On the road over, got 2 s
seals. Lat. 42° 54'N., long. 127°57'W. First seals on Japan c
do    22...
37   27
142   33
nail
do    23...
37   23
142   29
46
do    29...
38   18
142   30
15
do    31..
38   34
143   23
27
Apr.    1...
do      2...
38   44
38   43
143   33
143   08
73
8
do      5...
39   18
143   51
1
do      6...
39   18
143   50
60
do      7...
39   07
143   33
do      9...
39   40
143   23
do    10....
39   43
144   23
24
do    12....
39   45
144   00
do    13....
39   39
144   23
23
do    14....
39   30
144   20
13
do    15....
40   20
143   53
18
do    16....
40   16
143   44
1
do    17....
40   16
143   39
1
do    18....
40   37
143   10
13
do    19....
40   40
143   43
54
do    21....
40   54
143   53
13
do    24....
41   42
145   27
40   03
144   25
43
do    29....
39   37
143   34
51
May    1....
39   48
143   57
75
do      2 ...
39   41
143   46
21
do      3....
40   28
142   56
do      6....
40   28
142   56
16
do    12....
40   27
143   11
12
do    14....
41   16
142   47
61
40   50
143   40
68
do    16....
41   25
142   24
25
do    17....
41   24
142   54
47
do    18....
41   32
142   43
25
do    19....
41   46
143   43
14
do    23....
41   34
143   06
do    24....
41   30
143   00
58
do    25....
41   40
143   30
10
do    26....
41   30
143   16
do    30....
1
Cape Yermio, bearing N.E. by E.,'distant 16miles.'
""4i"3i"
"i44"i4"
1
do      6"!!
43   05
146   42
13
do      7....
42   50
145   55
68
do      8....
42   39
145   30
14
do      9 ...
145   35
do    10....
42   42
144   53
6
do    11....
43   09
146   57
9
do    13....
42   53
146   24
1
do    15....
42   :2
145   30
28
do    16....
42   32
145   14
do    17....
42   33
145   33
3
do    18....
42   02
144   36
do    21....
41   41
142   18
18
Arrived at Hakodate 24th June, and left 8th July, for vicinity
Komandorsky Islands.
of
July  11....
41   27
do    18....
43   59
1
jast seal on Japan coast.
do    22....
53   36
168   15
First seal in vicinity of Komandorsky Islands.
do    23....
53   38
168   30
6
do    24....
53   31
168   25
5
do    25....
53   40
168   11
do    27 ...
53   42
168   08
2
do    28....
53   30
168   12
8
Aug.    1	
53   46
169   22
1
do      4....
54   05
167   20
1
do      5....
53   36
167   49
do      8....
53   05
168   45
do     10....
53   22
do     11....
53   18
167   53
1    1
_,eft for Vancouver this day, arriving on the 5th September. APPENDIX No. 34,
Schooner " Pioneer," John McLeod, Master, 1893.*
No.
Date.
Lat. N.
Long. W.
of
Skins.
Remarks.
Mar. 21...
47   50
125   10
26
Cleared from Victoria, January, 1893.   Weafc
down west coast of
do    22...
47   32
125   09
Vancouver Island for Indians, as far asKyu
quot. First day sealed
do    24...
48   40
125   22
3
was. 21st March.
Apr.  12 ..
51   38
130   13
do    19...
57   35
136   50
do    20...
58   20
137   34
15
do    21...
138   33
do    22...
58   00
138   50
55
do    23...
58   10
139   00
49
do    24...
58   44
139   12
17
do    25...
2
Thick fog.
do    26...
""58"38"
"i46"io"
24
do    27...
1
do
do    28...
'  "58 "i5"
i39' 52''
73
do    29...
58   11
140   53
5
do    30 ...
58   57
142   11
2
58   47
140   30
11
do      2....
139   40
56
do      3....
140   18
26
do      4..  .
58   31
140   24
53
do      5....
58   27
140   20
15
do      6...
58   25
139   53
10
do      8...
58   36
140   42
24
do    11...
57   54
140   31
do    12....
58   10
140   36
91
do    14....
57   58
139   46
73
do    15...
Thick fog.
do    16...
 48"
27
do    17...
""58"i2"
do    18...
23
10
1    do
do    19...
do    20...
do    27...
do    30...
"  '59"63"
'  'i47"46'
16
59   13
149   11
7
do    11...
54   50
157   44
do    16...
1
1
I     do
do    20...
"53"&8"
""i6i"26"
do    25!!!
53   42
53   48
162   00
162   34
5
[-Most females taken, during these dates, whea
abreast ol Ounimak
do    26...
53   46
162   30
48
1       Pass.
do    27...
18
J APPENDIX No. 36.
List of Sealing Schooners entered at Hakodate durirJ
Season of 1893.
I.—British.
Name of Vessel.                                                       Tonnage.
Number
Date
of
" City of San Diego "                                         45
2,344
13,867
" Carlotta (j!!'Cox'"".".'.".'.'.'           .                                                                                    7*
"MaudS."             qo
" Sadie Turpel"                                                                                               56
"Enterprise "    .' ".......      .....!!..           69
"Beatrice" ............!!!             48
" Mermaid "   .                                                                           73
"    94
"Agnes Macdonald"           107
"Umbrina " !! [[ _       \          og
" Annie C. Moore " ,  1         X13
Total 15 vessels,
"    26
"    29
"    SO
II.—American (U.S.A.)
" Mary Brow
" "San Diego
" Ratler "....!
" *AUie J. Algar
" Mary H. Thorns
III.—Other Nationalities.
Hawaiian
s   " Alexander ". 294 tons,   3,213 skins.
      1 vessel, 3,212    "
Recapitulation.
Vessels. Skins.
•Entered twice. APPENDIX No. 36.
Report of British Columbia Sealing Fleet, Season  1893.
Cre
Catch.
Vessels.
Tons.
Masters.
|
~~7
fl
Total.
-■§
'-i
i
I
go
P
'1||
|
i
«
6
°	
W    °
((Triumh„                 1
	
~T
28
1
14
C. N. Cox	
1,713
623
2,336
" E. B. Marvin ".	
108
8
26
12
3
Wm. Cox	
l'262
341
1,603
117
27
8
J. Gduld	
1,014
517
1,531
7
'i4'
2
H. F. Siewerd 	
327
1,184
" Dora Siewerd "	
94
24
7
R. D. Lavender	
1,426
434
1,860
" Labrador "	
25
11
T. J. Whiteley	
.263
263
" Minnie "	
46
5
"'26'
2
"'io'
J. Mohrhouse	
A. Bissett	
489
.   740.
20
401
1,141
50
19
6
A. Nelson	
707
294
1,001
"Venture"'.'.'.'.'.'.!.!!..
"'i.6'
2
G. McDougald	
W. H. Whiteley	
82
"Mermaid "	
73
23
""940
3i5
1,255
"Fawn"	
59
3
"zL
2
"'io'
L. Magneson	
"'806'
77
883
"Walter A. Earle"....
23
6
	
T. Magneson	
1,622
1,622
66
"'24'
2
12
D. Macauley	
" Ocean Belle "	
25
T. O'Leary	
1,316
"547
1,863
" Mountain Chief "	
23
1
"'i9'
""9
J. Nawassum	
128
128
" Arietis"	
86
A. Douglass	
""920
"464
1,384
" Cape Beale "	
13
'io'
1. E. Quap	
""'86'
86
"Kate"	
58
16
""2
I. Foster	
293
293
"Favourite"	
80
26
13
L. McLean	
949
949
" Borealis"	
37
6
20
10
G.Meyer	
1,307
1,307
75
14
1
G. Heater	
1,344
 46
1,390
" W. P. Sayward "	
64
5
16
1
8
G. Ferey	
596
596
" Katharine "	
82
6
19
2
9
W. D. McDougall	
352
'"'363'
715 .
"San Jose"	
31
16
2
8
R. E. Crowell	
242
242
"Enterprise"	
24
7
J. W. Todd	
1,027"
""274
1,301
" Agnes Macdonald " .
107
25
7
M. F. Cutkr	
2,333
433
2,766
63
6
"26
2
"io
H. V. Hughes	
'"'426'
420
"Rosie Olsen"	
.   39
24
2
12
A. B.Whidden	
658
658
"Wanderer"	
25
4
16
"■-^t's
H. Paxton	
206
206
92
23
6
J. W. Anderson 	
i,44i
 36'
1,471
"May Belle".'.'.'.'.!!!!
58
20
5
C.J. Harris	
1,852
1,852
"Umbrina"	
98
24
7
0. Campbell 	
1,827
"'625'
2,452
"Penelope" '	
20
2,291
2,291
60
19
5
W. Shields	
1,910
2,009
"Pioneer"	
66
6
"23
1
" ii
J. McLeod	
' '1,050
1,050
"Otto"   ....
86
24
2
12
M. Keefe	
630
'" 397'
1,027
"Mary Taylor"	
42
18
6
E. Shields	
8-15
240
1,085
"Brenda"	
100
26
C.'E.Locke	
845
408
1,253
"Libbie"	
93
F. Hackett 	
1,242'
1,631
" City of San Diego "...
46
92
14
26
5
M. Pike ;	
Wm. O'Leary	
942
.1,612
101
454
1,043
2,066
"Casco"..!!!!'.!!!!!!!'
63
19
6
0. Buckholz	
1,473
199
1,672
" Carlotta G-. Cox ".	
24
7
W. D. Byers	
2,396
376
" Oscar and Hattie "	
81
24
7
W. E. Baker	
1,178
1,020
2,198
63
6
E. Lorenz ,.
677
147
824
"Sadie Turpel"..   .!..
56
24
7
C. LeBlane d
927
475
1,402
"MaudS"	
97
24
R.E.McKeil	
989
58
1,047
"Mary Ellen"	
63
23
nn
W. 0. Hughes	
1,573
406
1,979
" Walter L. Rich "	
76
24
7
S. Balcom 	
i',32i'
517
1,838
" Annie C. Moore "	
113
26
J. Daley	
822'
333
1,155
"Walter P.Hall."....
98
7
J. B. Brown	
263
1,031
Indian catch, canoes...
3,643
806
432
256
204
2,035'
26,603
66
12,013
2,101
Totals	
29,206
67,822
Vancouver Vessels.
"Beatrice"	
1,411
39
1,450
"CD. Rand"	
i',066'
1,060
Total Canadian catch..
American.
27,663
30,617
12,052
70,332
" Mary Brown "	
80
116
' 27,859
80
" South Bend "	
 64
Grand total'.'.	
30,681
12,052 APPENDIX No. 37.
Summary of Sealing Catch for Season 1893.
Catch.
Catch of the Victoria, British Columbia, fleet, consisting of 53 vessels, tonnage, 3,643.   Crew
Crews, Indian 432.   Number of boats, 256.   Number of canoes, 204.   ....	
Oatch of Vancouver, British Columbia, vessels, consisting of two vessels, tonnage, 100.    Crew
, white 806.
s, white 41.
67,822
2,510
260
Catch of American vessels that landed their ridns at Victoria,' British Columbia,' consisting of tw
.vessels....
Total British Columbia catch	
70,592
Catch of American vessels that landed their skins at Puget Sound ports, U.S. A	
6,855
Catch from Pribvloff Islands landed at San FranciRnn USA
Catch from Petropaulovski by Russian Sealskin Company landed at San Francisco, U.S. A	
33,193
50,221
Victoria, British Columbia, this 4th day of November, 1893.     University of British Columbia Library
&3HI£ DATE .1011111111
3 9424 00695 4280
010016
Report  of th
Russian Seal Islands.
British agent to the 

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