BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

Some reminiscences of old Victoria Fawcett, Edgar, 1847-1904 1912

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William Briggs
«& Copyright, Canada, 1912, by
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To My Eeadess :—
A preface is, as I understand it, an explanation, and
maybe an apology, for what follows. If such is the
case, I must explain several things contained in these
" Eeminiscences of Old Victoria | and its pioneers.
Had I not been laid aside with the typhoid some eight
years ago, it is likely I should not have thought of
writing down these early memories, but many know
what convalescing after a sickness is—how one longs
for something new, something to do. I was at this
time at the seaside, and all at once decided to pass my
time in writing. Seated comfortalbly on the beach with
my writing pad, I commenced | A British Boy's
Experiences in San Francisco in the Early Fifties,"
and so have continued on from time to time during
the last eight years.
I have been much encouraged, by pioneers and friends,
to gather the result of these pleasant labors together,
and I feel I have succeeded in a very imperfect manner;
but, dear reader, consider how little I should be expected
to know of book-making; therefore take faults and
omissions in the product of my labors cum bona venia,
for there are sure to be many imperfection®. There are
repetitions of which I am aware, and have decided to
let them stand, as I think they fit in in each case. Had
I been a man of more leisure I should not have had to
apologize for so many of these imperfections. PEEFACE
I have to thank Mrs. Macdonald, of Armadale,
the venerable Bishop Cridge, and Alexander Wilson,
for valuable information, and also Mr. Albert Maynard
and Eeverend A. E. Alston for many photographs to
illustrate the book. We all know that a book in these
days is nothing without pictures. There are others who
have helped me in other ways who will accept my
With these explanatory remarks, and in fear and
trembling, I submit the book to your favorable consideration.
Dingley Dell,
All the Fawcetts I ever heard of from my father and
mother came from Kidderminster. My father's father
was a maltster, and the sons, with the exception of my
father, the youngest, were carpet weavers. The family
were strict Nonconformists, and produced one or two
noted divines of George the Third's day, one of whom
preached before that king. There was also a kinship
with the Baxters of 1 Saint's Eest" fame.
My mother was Jane Wignall, whose father was a
Birmingham smallarms manufacturer in rather a large
way of business, but-who through the dishonesty of his
partner was nearly ruined and brought to comparative
poverty. The daughters, who were all well educated,
had to take positions as governesses and ladies' companions. My mother, in this capacity, lived and travelled in France and Spain, and spoke the languages of
both countries. In a voyage to her home from Barcelona she was wrecked in the Gulf of Lyons, but
through the timely assistance of a Spanish gentleman
and his Newfoundland dog, who bore her up, she was
brought to shore in little more than her nightdress. I
have to-day a letter from the British consul at Marseilles
which he gave to my mother, recommending her to the
care of other British consuls on her way to England.
The Spanish gentleman who saved her life made an
offer of marriage, which my mother declined, I think, A SHOET AUTOBIOGEAPHY
on account of his being a Eoman Catholic. He would
not take no for an answer, but later on followed her to
England and offered himself a second time without
effect. Shortly after this she and my father were married, and on the advice of Eowland Hill, his cousin (Sir
Eowland Hill), he took his young bride to Australia.
Eowland Hill, being his father's trustee under his will,
paid my father his share, with which he took a stock of
goods and started business in Sydney.
In 1849 we left Sydney, where I was born, for San
Francisco—father, mother, my brother Eowland and
myself, in the ship Victoria. This vessel my father
afterwards purchased and sent to Alberni, or Sooke, for
a load of lumber for England, when we all were going
with her. The vessel never came back, having been
wrecked somewhere near where all the wrecks have
since taken place, on the west coast of this island. My
father was ruined, for there was no insurance, so he had
to start life anew. He came north to Victoria in 1858,
where he entered into business until appointed Government Agent at Nanaimo, where he served some years,
dying at the advanced age of seventy-six. My mother
died in 1863, and at the present writing, in addition to
myself, there is one brother in "Victoria—Eowland—
and another brother, Arthur, in London, England.
The author has completed his fifty-three years in this
fair city.
Dingley Dell,
December 20th, 1911. || CONTENTS
I. The Experiences of a British Boy in San
Francisco in  the  Early  Fifties 11
II. Theatrical   Memories  20
III. My Boyhood Days in Victoria                    - 26
IV. Victoria's First Directory  38
V. Some Recolections of Victoria by One who
Was There in the Sixties 57
VI. A Little More  Street History .-       -       - 68
VII. The Victoria Gazette, 1858 -     73
VIII. Victoria  in  1859-1860  84
IX. Fires    and    Firemen  92
X. A Siberian Mammoth  100
XI. Mrs. Edwin Donald, Hon. Wymond Hamley,
h JT    Hon. G. A. Walkem -       -       -       -       - 109
XII. The  Consecration   of  the   Iron  Church   - 115
XIII. The   Iron   Church   Again                             - 121
XIV. Its Departed Glories, or Esquimau, Then
and Now  124
XV. Old   Quadra   Street   Cemetery   -       -       - 129
XVI. Pioneer Society's Banquet   - 144
XVII. Victoria   District   Church                             - 149
XVIII. Christmas in Pioneer Days - 153
XIX. The Queen's Birthday Forty Years Ago   - 159
XX. Evolution of the Victoria Post Office -       - 166
XXI. Fifty  Years  Ago - 170
XXII. Forty Years Ago  174
XXIII. The Late Governor Johnson -       -       -       - 178
XXIV. A Trip to a Coral Island   I -       -       -       - 181
XXV. A Victorian's Visit to Southern California 183 8
XXVI. An  Historic  Steamer  199
XXVII. Colonel Wolfenden—In Memoriam     -       - 203
XXVIII. The Closing of View Street in 1858   -       - 206
XXIX. Mr. Fawcett Retires from the Customs      - 212
XXX. Some Colored Pioneers  215
XXXI. John  Chapman   Davie,   M.D.        -       -       - 220
XXXII. The Beginning of the Royal Hospital and
Protestant Orphan's Home     -       -       - 226
XXXIII. Victoria's  First  Y. M. C. A.   -       -       -       - 229
XXXIV. The Late Mr. T. Geiger                                  - 234
XXXV. Roster of the Fifty-Eighters       -       -       - 237
XXXVI. More Light on Closing of View Street     - 240
XXXVII. Bishop Cridge's Christmas Story -       -       - 244
XXXVIII. Christmas Reminiscences     - 258
XXXIX, My  First   Christmas   Dinner   in  Victoria,
1860  263
XL. Evolution of the Songhees   -       -       -       - 283
XLI. Victoria the New and the Old     -       -       - 288
Fort Victoria, 1859, Showing Fort St. Gate -   Frontispiece
Government Street, Looking North 24
Government Street in 1860  24
S. E. corner Government and Yates Streets, 1858 24
Lady  Douglas  26
Sir James Douglas  26
Edgar   Fawcett  M
Hon. Wymond Hamley  26
George Richardson  38
George Hills, D.D.   -  38
Henry Wootton - 38
Capt. John Irving, Sr.  38
Quadra Street Cemetery  48
A Group of Early Legislators  48
Fort Street, Looking East  58
Yates Street, Looking East  68
Fort Street, Extending Through the Fort     -       -       - 58
Old View of Government Street  64
Government Street Before the Removal of the " Old
Bastion"      -                                  64
Wharf Street, From Corner Fort Street Northward   - 64
Craigflower, Showing School, 1858  84
First Bridge Over James Bay, 1859 84
Government Buildings, 1859-60  92
May Day Parade, Hook and Ladder Company, May
ffi  1st,  1862  92
Hon. Sir Richard McBride, K.C.M.G.     -       -       -       - 96
Old  View  of Douglas  Street,   Iron  Church  in  the
Distance  122 10 ILLUSTEATIONS
Showing Inside of Fort from Wharf Street, 1859       - 122
Hon. Amor De Cosmos   - - 144
William P. Sayward  144
Thomas Harris  144
Bishop Garrett -       -       - 144
First Methodist Church  150
First Bridge Over the Gorge, Victoria Arm - 160
Forty Years Ago, Queen's Birthday, Beacon Hill -       - 160
Colonial Hotel -       - jf -  200
H. B. Co.'s Steamer Beaver  200
Part of View Street, 1859  200
Victoria District Church, 1859  200
Hon. Senator Macdonald  204
Lt.-Col. Wolfenden, I.S.O., V.D.  204
Wm. Leigh        -       -   |:  204
John Chapman Davie, M.D.  204
Edgar Fawcett l-       -       - 212
Captain |Willie" Mitchell  216
Hon. Dr. Helmcken  216
Gov. John H. Johnson, of Minnesota    - 216
Samuel Booth  216
Rev. Edward Cridge, 1859  244
Venerable   Bishop   Cridge  244
Bishop and Mrs. Cridge at their Golden Jubilee   -       - 244
A Park in San Bernardino     ------ 28fc
Songhees Indian Reserve         -  288
Bastion—S. W. Corner of Fort  288 SOME   REMINISCENCES   OF
I shall commence by saying that I, with my father,
mother, brother and sister, arrived in San Francisco
in 1850, in the ship Victoria, from Australia, where I
was born. From stress of weather we put into Honolulu
to refit, and spent, I think, three weeks there, and as my
mother was not in good health the change and rest on
shore did her a deal of good. During our stay we
became acquainted with a wealthy American sugar
planter, who was married to a pretty native lady. They
had no family, and she fell in love with your humble
servant, who was of the mature age of two and a half
years. My mother, of course, told me of this years
later, how that after consulting with her husband, the
planter, she seriously proposed to my mother that she
give me to her for adoption as her son; that I should be
well provided for in the case of her husband's death,
and in fact she made the most liberal offers if she might
have me for her own. It might have been a very important epoch in my life, for if my mother had accepted,
who knows but what I might have been f King of the
Hawaiian Islands," as the planter's wife was | well con-
nected." But, to proceed, my mother did not accept
this flattering offer, as naturally she would not, and so
we continued on our way to San Francisco with many
remembrances of my admirer's kindness. But this is
not telling of my experiences in San Francisco eight
years after.
My first recollections are complimentary to the citizens of San Francisco—that is, for their universal
courtesy to women and children; but this is a characteristic of the people, and I will illustrate it in a small
way. It was the custom in those days for ladies to go
shopping prepared to carry all they bought home with
them, and I used to accompany my mother on her shopping expeditions. The streets and crossings were in a
dreadfully muddy condition, and women and children
were carried over the crossings, and never was there
wanting a gallant gentleman ready to fulfil this duty,
for a duty it was considered then by all men to be attentive to women.
What induced me to write these maybe uninteresting
incidents, was the last very interesting sketch of early
life in San Francisco by my friend, Mr. D. W. Higgins,
giving an account of the doings of the "Vigilance
Committee," and the shooting of " James King of
William," as I remembered him named, and the subsequent execution of Casey for that cold-blooded deed.
Cold-blooded it was, for I was an eye-witness, strange to
say, of the affair, as I will now relate.
I might premise by saying that my father was an
enthusiastic Britisher. But he was a firm believer in
the American axiom, though—"My country, may she
ever be right; my country right or wrong," and I, his
son, echo the same sentiments. It is this sentiment that
makes me have no love for a pro-Boer.    It was this SAN FEANCISCO IN THE FIFTIES
pride of country that caused hiin to go to the expense
of subscribing for the Illustrated London News at fifty
or seventy-five cents a number, weekly, and I was on my
way to Payot's bookstore to get the last number, with
the latest account of the Crimean War, then waging between England and France against Eussia. I was
within a stone's throw of Washington and Montgomery
Streets, I think; when I was startled by the sharp report
of a pistol, and looking around I saw at once where it
proceeded from, for there were about half a dozen
people surrounding a man who had been shot. I, of
course, made for that point, being ever ready for adventure. The victim of the shooting was James King
of William, editor of the Evening Bulletin newspaper,
and the assassin was a notorious politician named
James Casey, proprietor of the Sunday Times, but a
very illiterate man for all that.
The cause of the shooting was that James King of
William had in his paper stated that Casey had served
a term in Sing Sing prison in New York for burglary.
This was true, and was afterwards admitted by Casey,
but that it should have been made known by an opponent's newspaper was too much for him, and he
swore that King's days were numbered. He kept his
word, as the event showed.
The victim of the shooting was able to stagger forward towards the Pacific Express building on the corner
of Washington and Montgomery Streets, and entered
the office, only to drop to the floor. Several doctors
were soon in attendance, and his wound bandaged, and
he was eventually moved to Montgomery Block, where
he remained until he died, six days later. It was contended by Doctor Toland that King's death was caused
by the leaving in the wound of the sponge that was in- 14     EEMINISCENCES OF  OLD VICTOEIA
serted immediately after the shooting to stop hemorrhage. There were about twenty doctors in all who
attended King, so is it any wonder he died?
The assassin was taken in charge by his friends, some
of whom were at the time close at hand, and he was
taken to the station, which was a block away, and locked
up. This was the safest thing for Casey, as his friends
were in office, and he expected to get off, even if tried
for the offence, as many a like rogue had done.
It was not long after the shooting ere the bell of the
Monumental Engine House rang out an alarm. Ten
thousand people assembled, as louder pealed the bell.
The crowd now surged in the direction of the jail, calling out, "Lynch him! lynch him!" All this time I
was swept along in the living stream of people, and well
it was for me that I was able to keep upright, for had
I fallen it is doubtful if I should have been able to rise
again. The jail was doubly guarded to prevent the citizens from getting possession of Casey, who would have
been summarily dealt with. I was now able to get out
of the crowd and go home to tell of my wonderful
I was always in trouble through my continual search
for adventure. A gentleman friend of ours, bookkeeper
in the San Francisco sugar refinery, was one of the
Vigilance Committee, which was composed of all grades
of society, from merchants to workingmen. There were
five thousand of them enrolled to work a reformation
in city government, which was then in the hands of
gamblers, thieves and escaped convicts. At home I
heard the trial and execution of Casey discussed, and
decided at all hazards to go to the important event, but
I knew it would have to be done on the sly, as my mother
would never have consented.   81 let the cat out of the SAN FEANCISCO IN THE FIFTIES
bag" somehow, as my mother gave me a solemn warning that if I went I should get the worst whipping I
ever had in my life.
I brooded on this for some days, and finally decided
to go and take my chances of being found out. So o:n
the day I of course played hookey, and got to the place*
early. I climbed up an awning post nearly opposite-
the gallows, and sat on the top with some other adventurous spirits, who, like myself, were hungry for adventure. I shall not describe what I saw, for my friend,
Mr. Higgins, has already done that. When I got home
I paid dearly for my disobedience. My elder brother
happened to have been opposite me, on the other side of
the street. I got my promised whipping, well laid on,
and was sent supperless to bed, feeling very sore. But
I was not fated to go without supper, for, as I lay unrepentant, Amy, my little sister, crept into the room and
brought me part of hers, and, what I more appreciated
then, her sympathy and tears. God bless her! She was
taken from us soon after to a better life.
One afternoon later (I won't be sure of dates), as
father and I were going home, we were arrested by the
sweet strains of music, which proceeded from a band a
block away. Father hesitated for an instant, then
started off at a run, calling to me to come on. We were
soon there, and to explain father's strange action in
running, after a band of music, I have only to say that
the tune was one dear to the hearts of all Britons, "God
Save the Queen," so, could you wonder at his excitement, as we stood in front of the British Consulate?
The reason of it all was the news received that day of
the fall of Sebastopol. After a few words from the consul we all moved off to the French Consulate, and here
all was repeated, but to the strains of the Marseillaise 16     EEMINISCENCES  OF  OLD VICTOEIA
hymn. Of course this good news was fully discussed at
home, and some days after it was decided to have the
event celebrated by the British and French residents by
a procession and banquet in a pavilion, with an ox and
several sheep roasted whole. The day arrived, and I, of
course, had to go with father in the procession, carrying
a British flag. In the midst of the festivities a lot of
roughs broke into the pavilion, tore down the British
and French flags, and then worked havoc with the
pavilion itself. It was a most disgraceful affair, and
would not have occurred, I am confident, in any British
possession; but then ours may not be such a free country. Father was most indignant, and wrote to Marryat's
newspaper calling on the British Consul to take official
notice of the affair, but I don't remember the result.
Marryat was, I believe, an Englishman.
The next little incident I shall name the " Battle of
the Standard," because it was all about a little flag. It
was the celebration of the laying of the Atlantic cable,
and all the public school children took part in a
monster parade. Each child carried a small flag, such
as we have for the Queen's birthday celebration in
As may be supposed American flags swamped the British in numbers, still there was a good sprinkling of the
latter. I happened to be one British boy among many
American boys, and they bantered me considerably about
my flag being " alone," and at last exasperated me, and
on my flag being snatched away by a boy I snatched it
back again, and in the scuffle it was torn from the stick
and I cried with vexation. One of the teachers, however,
supplied me with another, which you may suppose I took
good care of. Will the Americans never get over their
silly jealousy with respect to the flying of foreign SAN FEANCISCO IN THE FIFTIES
flags in their country ? We Canadians are always pleased
to see the Star Spangled Banner waving alongside the
"Union Jack, and hope it may long wave.
The Mexican coin valued at two reals, or two bits, as
we called it then, represented the value of two small
apples in those days, and everything was dear in proportion. These coins were more in circulation than American, I think, the place being full of Mexicans. They were
very picturesque, riding about dressed in buckskin
trousers with fringe down the leg, wearing wide-brimmed
felt hats and on their heels immense spurs, which made
a great noise as they walked. They were a great attraction to me as they galloped like mad after cattle, throwing with great skill a rawhide lariat or lasso, which
rarely missed its victim. My thirst for adventures led
me with several other kindred spirits to play hookey
from school, and go into the country to see these Mexicans drive wild cattle about, and then to the slaughterhouse to see them killed. When I was found out I was
well whipped, of course, but I often escaped.
San Francisco in those days was mostly built of
wood, and when a fire started, with a fair wind, the
damage done was something enormous. My spirit of
adventure took me to many of these fires, in fact it was
hard to keep me in when a large one was burning.
From our house I have seen the greater part of the city
swept away twice, and a grander sight cannot be
imagined, seen from an eminence, and maybe at night,
too. I was off like a shot, and, running all the way,
was soon on the scene. Anyone and everyone volunteered to help carry goods to a place of safety, and hot
work it was, I can tell you, for being mostly of wood,
and maybe redwood, they (the houses) burnt like
tinder.    From running to so many fires and falling L ~"-——~—
down in my haste I got my shins bruised and bleeding,
and my trousers, of course, torn. I was showing my
children these scars only lately, they being still much
in evidence after fifty-four years.
As I have before stated, the stores were built of redwood, and with cellars. The floors of many had trapdoors, and when the fire got near them the storekeeper
opened the trapdoor, and all the goods were swept off
the shelves into the cellar, and covered up. After this
the owner of the building took a bee-line for the lumber yard to get in his order for lumber for a new building ahead of his neighbor. They were the exciting
days and no. mistake! A week after one of these devastating fires all was built up and looked the same as
usual. I might state that the firebells rang on all occasions to bring the citizens together in those times of
tumult, and all prominent men were firemen.
I can well remember the election of President
Buchanan, and if I remember right, the voting was in
the open air in each ward of the city, the ballots being
placed in large glass globes. At one of these polling-
places I saw a fight, the result of a dispute between a
Democrat and a Eepublican over an accusation by one
that the other had put in a double ticket (I think this
was the cause).
To close this history, I might say that my father and
his partner put all they had, some ten thousand dollars,
into a venture which eventually brought us to "Vancouver Island to live. They bought a vessel, and sent
her in ballast to Alberni or Sooke for a load of lumber, and it was arranged that on her return to San
Francisco she was to take the lumber to England, and
we all were to go home again in her. But "L'homme
propose et Dieu dispose " was here exemplified, for the ■m
ship never came back. After weeks of anxiety when
the ship was overdue, one day either the captain or the
mate came to my father with the news that the ship
was wrecked in Barclay Sound, and as there was not a
dollar of insurance we were ruined, and had to commence all over again.
The result of all this was that later we embarked with
about six hundred others on the steamer Northerner
for Victoria, to try and retrieve something of what we
lost. I will not vouch for the accuracy of the dates or
the rotation in which the incidents are related, but I
have done my best after cudgeling my brain for weeks
for the general result as here presented. CHAPTER II.
In looking through a trunk of old letters and other
odds and ends the other day, I came across what might
be considered of some interest to some of our pioneers
in the sixties. The find consisted of six playbills, or,
as they could very well be considered, theatrical posters,
from the size; but they were such as were then given
to people as they passed the doorkeeper into the old
Victoria Theatre on Government Street. They measure
two feet long by ten inches wide, and are like posters
alongside those now used. These plays were produced
in the times of Governors Douglas and Seymour, and
were under their distinguished patronage.
In those days very few theatrical companies visited
Victoria, except at irregular intervals, so that theatregoers had to rely, to a great extent, on the productions
of the Victoria Amateur Dramatic Club to fill up the
intervals. At this date there were many well-educated
and professional men here who had come from the Old
Country to get rich in a short time; and, thinking the
mines were close to this city, many of these joined the
club. Charles Clarke was a prominent member, also
W. M. Anderson, C. B. Tenniel, together with many of
our young business men,' viz., Arthur Keast, the
brewer; Lumley Franklin, the auctioneer; S. Farwell,
the civil engineer; H. C. Courtney, the barrister; H.
Eushton and Joseph Barnett, of one of the banks; Ben
Griffin, mine host of the Boomerang; Godfrey Brown,
of Janion, Green & Ehodes; W. J. Callinghaim of Mc-
Cutcheon & Callingham, drapers (the latter, by the
bye, was a most clever low comedian); Plummer, the
auctioneer; and last, though not least, Alex. Phillips,
of soda water fame. These names will all be familiar
to old pioneers. As female talent was scarce, or they
were loth to take part in theatricals, the other sex had
to be enlisted, and I shall not forget the meeting at the
Boomerang (our meeting-place) when this difficulty
was met by the suggestion that your humble servant should take the part of " Emily Trevor" in
I Boots at the Swan." I protested my inability, but
was overruled. Not yet having occasion to use a razor,
and being youthful, it was decided that I should try
my hand at female impersonation, under the " stage
name " of " Helen Fawcet." The result of the experiment was that I subsequently took the parts of " Julia
Jenkins " in "Who Stole the Pocket-book ?" and "Mary
Madden" in "Henry Dunbar." This last character
was a rather more difficult one than the others, and
although I was perfect in my part, I was reported in
the next morning's Colonist by " Leigh Harnett" as
looking very sweet, etc., but " as not speaking up,"
which, of course, was a serious defect. This criticism
was a damper on my theatrical aspirations in female
parts, for I returned to the commonplace parts of a
poacher, a brigand and a footman. The performances
were generally given for some charity, such as the
Orphans of St. Ann, the fire department, and so forth,
and were " under " the distinguished patronage of Admiral Hastings and officers of H.M.S. Reindeer, and 22     EEMINISCENCES  OF  OLD VICTOEIA
officers of the fleet often helped us out. I see by the
bills that the admission was $1.50 reserved seats, $1.00
unreserved, and 50 cents "pit," with $10 for a box.
" Performance to commence promptly at 7.30." The
orchestra was composed, with others, of Digby Palmer,
F. S. Bushell, Gunther and Eoberts, with, I think,
Bandmaster Haynes. All our performances were given
under the direction of E. G. Marsh, a standard theatrical manager, who, with his wife, adopted daughter,
I Jenny Arnot," his son and Miss Yeoman, was a great
help to us. In fact without their assistance we could
not have produced plays with female characters. Not
to make this too long, I will wind up by giving what
I can remember of a piece called "The Merchant of
Venice Preserved," by a local poet. It was full of local
hits, which only those who were acquainted with politics
and the questions of the day at that time will understand :
I This shall inform Bassanio that I'm done Brown,
My chance is up, my ship, alas! gone down.
The vessel on her homeward way, sir,
Laden with the rich products of the Fraser (river)
The famed sal-lals for making jams,
Monster sturgeon, cranberries and clams—
Bumped on the sands and so a wreck became;
Captain, as usual, I not at all to blame.'
The people here say just as they like,
And lay the blame on ? Titcombe' or on ' Pike.'
For me, no sympathy I get;- to them 'tis fun;
Alas for me, I'm 'Capitally* done;
Then those brick stores, which I fondly thought
For uonded warehouses would soon be sought;
Bring 'Nary red,' no revenue they raise;
No ships arriving, no one duty pays; THEATEICAL MEMOEIES
From Sorrow's page I've learned all man can know,
For 'Cochrane's' just sold off my grand pi-an-o;
So if with means to aid me you're invested,
Haste, for the Jews won't rest till I'm arrested.
"Your loving friend,
1 Antonio.*1
The evening of my first appearance in female character, I was dressed at home, and escorted down town
with a lady on each side of me, and I can remember
how hard it was for them to keep their countenance,
for several times I thought I was discovered ere we
reached the theatre. We all walked to and from the
theatre in those days—there were not half a dozen
hacks in Victoria.
The photo shows old "Theatre Eoyal" at the time
of which I write, viz., 1866 to 1868, and in which all
the theatricals were produced in these early days;
although there was a sort of theatre used for nigger
minstrel performances and concert hall business. This
was situated under Goodacre's butcher shop. The
principal actor and negro delineator was "Tom
Lafont," whose equal I have not seen since as an imitator of negro comicalities and as a bird whistler. He
will be well remembered by old-timers. The Theatre
Eoyal was situated on Government Street, one door
from the corner of Bastion, as will be seen in the picture. This corner was first occupied by Doctor Davie,
sr., then by a Doctor Dickson, When first I remember
it. He died about a year ago in Portland, Oregon,
just after a visit to this city. The theatre was, I think,
composed of two of the big barns in the fort, which
being connected together, made one long building,
reaching to Langley Street.    There was a saloon or 24     EEMINISCENCES  OF  OLD YICTOEIA
restaurant kept by Sam Militich on the one side of the
front entrance, and Newbury's saddlery shop on the
other. The upper front of the theatre was used as a
photograph gallery, and was occupied, among others,
by a Mr. Gentile and J. Craig. A showcase of photos, in
a small annex, which was connected with the gallery
above, may be seen with a magnifying glass.
Charles Keen and Mrs. Keen produced several of
Shakespeare's plays here in 1864, and I went with my
father to see " Macbeth." We had seats in the pit, or
orchestra chairs, as now known. Eeserved tickets were
three dollars, and although this was thought to be a
famine price, the opportunity of hearing such celebrated
people as the Keens was not to be resisted, so the house
was packed at each performance.
Charles Wheatley, considered a fine comedian, produced the " Colleen Bawn," or the " Brides of Garry
Owen." The play made a lasting impression on me, as
the finest comedy I had ever seen. It may be that Mr.
Wheatley's fine personation of Danny Mann, the leading part, made me think so, but it was a fact nevertheless.
Madame Anna Bishop, whom Mr. Higgins has told
us about in one of his interesting stories, delighted
many audiences in " Old Theatre Eoyal."
I can also remember the Eeverend Morley Puncheon,
who was a celebrated Methodist preacher, and chairman
of the home church in England. He gave readings
from celebrated authors. During one of these readings,
and while he was reciting from Macaulay's "Lays of
Ancient Eome," the fire bell rang, and in less time
than five minutes there was hardly a man Jeft of his
audience. He was at first struck dumb with surprise,
then offended.   That such  an  ordinary thing,  as  it
» as nm~1ttBME
X Shows Theatre Royal.
seemed to him, should have stopped his lecture! But
it was explained to him how that fires were put out by
the citizens generally; that it was a matter of much
moment to them; that it may have been the home of
any of them; also that many of the audience were members of a fire company, and were liable to be fined for
non-attendance, although their services were given free.
This satisfied him, and he went on with the reading.
Theatre Eoyal served Victoria until the building of
Theatre Victoria. NiBI
How dear to this heart are the scenes of my childhood,
When fond recollection presents them to view!
The orchard, the meadow, the deep-tangled wildwood,
And every loved spot which my boyhood then knew.
Oh!  give me back my boyhood days,
The sportive days of childhood.
The merry games with bat and ball,
The rambles through the wildwood.
As I stated in my experiences in San Francisco in
the early fifties, and in consequence of the loss of my
father's vessel near Alberni, we came north to Victoria
after gold was discovered in British Columbia. We
took passage in the steamer Northerner, which was
filled with passengers and freight, and came via Portland, arriving in Esquimalt on the 11th day of February, 1859. I might state that all the ocean steamers
docked at Esquimalt then, and the passengers were
freighted round in a smaller steamer to the Hudson's Bay wharf in our harbor. The first thing that
attracted our attention on coming into the harbor was
the high palisade of the fort, which ran along Wharf
Street from the corner of Bastion to Broughton Street,
up thence to Government Street, along Government to
Bastion Street, to the cigar store with the brass plate
In her widowhood.
As a Sergeant in the Old Victoria
Rifle Volunteers.
Collector of Customs, 1859 to 1899.  MY BOYHOOD DAYS IN VTCTOEIA      27
on, now occupied by North and Eichardson. Opposite
Fort Street there was an entrance, and another on
Wharf Street.
In the centre of the large gates there were smaller
ones. These small gates were opened every morning at
'seven o'clock on the ringing of the fort bell, which was
suspended from a kind of belfry in the centre of the
yard. To the north were the stores and warehouses, and
to the south large barns; the residences were situated on
the east side of the fort.
The stores were patronized by all the colonists, not
then being confined to the Company's servants, as in
former times. Fort Street looked very different to what
it does now. The roadbed was composed of boulders,
which, being round, made rough riding, and so muddy,
too! Try and imagine it. The sidewalk was of two-
inch boards, laid lengthwise, three boards wide, I think,
and commenced at the Brown Jug corner, running up
for three or four blocks.
Where the Brown Jug now stands was a large orchard
and garden, surrounded by a whitewashed fence, which
ran along Government Street to Broughton, taking in
the whole block eastward. Many an apple have I had
from this orchard, and apples were apples in those days,
whatever they may be now.
The Company's bakery, where we got our bread, was
across Fort Street, on the site of the Five Sisters block,
and was a log-built house, whitewashed. I think part of
the bakehouse was to be seen in late years in the rear of
a carpenter's shop on Broad Street, also I think the
baker himself is still alive, and named James Stock-
ham. He made excellent bread and charged twenty-
five cents a loaf, but such loaves they were, being at
least three times as large as modern loaves. 28     EEMINISCENCES OF  OLD VICTOEIA
. •
There was a good story told of the Hudson's Bay
Company, and the price of flour and bread during the
gold excitement, which reflected great" credit on the
Chief Factor of the company. It was said that a scheme
was concocted to corner all the flour in the country (a
(a trust) by some enterprising citizens across the border ; and the Company was approached by these gentlemen, who proposed to them to buy their whole stock of
flour for that purpose. To the credit of the Company's
officials, they refused to do so, and sold at the usual
price, against the combination, and so broke it up.
After we had got settled in our new home the question of sending me to school was discussed, and easily
settled, for it was Hobson's choice. The Colonial School,
as it was called, was on the site of the present Central
School. It was the only one I can think of except
Angela College, and maybe a private school. There
was a fee of five dollars a year charged, payable quarterly in advance.
After you left Blanchard Street, the way to the school
was by a pathway through the woods. The country
around View and Fort Streets, up to Cook, was very
swampy, and covered mostly by willow and alder trees.
In fact there was a small swamp or lake on View Street,
where there was good duck shooting in winter. When I
went to the Colonial School in 1859, it was taught by a
young man named Kennedy, whose father was Dr. Kennedy, of the Hudson's Bay Company, and whose brother
was in the same service. Some months later be
resigned, and his successor was an Irishman named W.
H. Burr, whose temper was quick, like my own, and
although he tried to make me a good scholar, I am
afraid I did not do him or his teaching justice, and MY BOYHOOD DAYS IN VICTOEIA      29
I remember two good beatings he gave me faT better than
the useful knowledge he tried to inculcate.
It was thus: Our school might aptly be termed a
mixed one, for it consisted of boys and girls who sat
together. This arrangement just suited me, for I was
fond of the girls. There were white boys and black
boys, Hebrews and Gentiles, rich and poor, and we all
sat close together to economize room. One day a dispute arose between a white boy and a black boy, and
ended in a fistic encounter. I was mainly-instrumental
in bringing it about, and backed my man until the
sponge was thrown up by the white boys' friend. Mr.
Burr heard of the occurrence through the boys not
reporting at the school the next morning, and an investigation by the master revealed my part in the affair.
I was sentenced to be flogged for aiding and abetting.
This was announced in the morning, and to be carried
out in the afternoon. My friends collected around me
after school closed and various advice was given me
as to how I should act under the trying circumstances.
After the consultation was over it was decided that I
should put on a pair of old gloves inside out, as it was
supposed the cane would not hurt as much that way,
and it being dusk at four o'clock, when we broke up in
winter, the master might not see the difference in the
color of my hands. I was on hand at flogging time,
against the advice of some of my friends, who counselled me not to show up. Mr. Burr laid on the cane
on my hands, and at first I did not feel it much, but
after about half the whipping was given it got unbearable, and I could not hold out any longer, so bolted,
was stopped, knocked down, and eventually I got under
the seats and desks, and was followed by the irate master
and hit on any part that was  exposed  to  view.    Mr. 30     EEMINISCENCES  OF OLD VICTOEIA
Burr did not give up until he was tired out, and I was
glad to take advantage of this fact and get out, and off
home, a much wiser if not a better boy. I got little
sympathy at home when I told them that I had been
whipped for causing a fight between a white boy and a
black boy named White.
My next whipping was interrupted by the master's
wife, who frequently interfered, and by her pleadings
for the culprit and offering to go bail for his future
good behavior, got him off with lighter punishment.
I shall always think kindly of Mrs. Burr, for if ever
there was a good, kind-hearted woman it was she. Mr.
Burr often went to auctions, and before going, he appointed a monitor, who had charge during his absence.
One day during his absence all hands vacated our desks
and proceeded to the vegetable garden, which contained
a good assortment of all kinds, and as boys are known
to be over-fond of raw carrots and turnips, especially
if stolen, we were soon at work digging up our favorite vegetables. After peeling them with our jackknives
we might have been seen sitting on the fence and school
porch eating as only boys can eat. In the midst of our
vegetarian feast the lookout announced the distant
approach of the master, and then there was a scattering
of the boys, as half-eaten carrots and turnips were
thrown away, and we regained our seats in school looking as innocent as lambs. Then Mr. Burr appeared on
the scene. Mrs. Burr must have seen us, but was too
good-hearted to tell her husband alLshe knew.
I have said the school was reached by a trail through
the woods, and very pretty the woods looked in summer.
The school and grounds were surrounded by spreading
oaks, which covered that part of the city, or country as
it was then called, and it was under these trees we sat MY BOYHOOD DAYS IN VICTOEIA      31
with the girls and ate our lunch, or rested in the shade
after our innings at ball. Wild flowers, that now are
only found miles away, were found there in profusion.
We children always took oar lunches, it being considered too far to1 go home for the midday meal.
Many will remember the old schoolhouse which was
pulled down to make way for the present Central
School. It was built of square logs and whitewashed,
and was occupied by the master and his family. The
school proper occupied only about a third of the building, and was a large room extending from the front to
the back of the building. Of the old boys and girls who
survive those early school days I can think of these:
Judge Harrison; John Elford, of Elford & Smith;
Theophilus Elford, of Shawnigan Lake Lumber Company; Mr. Anderson, of Saanich; the Tolmie and Fin-
layson boys; Edward Wall (late Erskine & Wall);
Ernest Leigh, son of the late city clerk, now of San
Francisco, and John and Fred Mecredy, also of San
Francisco. Of the girls there are Sarah Allatt, now
Mrs. Jos. Wriglesworth; Sylvestra Layzell, now Mrs.
0. C. Hastings, and her sister Lucy, now also married;
and Sarah Pointer, now Mrs. Carter. I had nearly forgotten Ned Buckley, who left here for the States and
became an actor of some note.
Of those dead I can best remember David Work, of
Hillside Farm, and my chum, the late James Douglas,
son of Sir James, then Governor. If I remember right,
he was unintentionally the cause of my second whipping. He seemed much attached to me, and many were
the rides we had together in his trap, which brought
him to school every morning. He was a kindred spirit,
wilful like myself, and had a habit of suddenly getting
up in school and announcing to the master that he was 32     EEMINISCENCES  OF  OLD VICTOEIA
going home, or it might be for some long drive, usually
to Cadboro Bay. Mr. Burr would remonstrate with
him, but generally gave way, and off he went. As he
and I got intimate he wanted me to go with him on
these expeditions, and often at the unseemly hours of
two or three o'clock, during school.
One day he got up suddenly in his seat and said:
" Mr. Burr, I am going home and I want Fawcett to go
with me; that will be all right, won't it?"
" Now, Master James," said Mr. Burr, " I cannot allow this; I must protest against this going away during
school hours. If His Excellency only knew, what would
he say?"
" Oh, that will be all right, Mr. Burr."
" No, no, James, it is not all right, and as for
Fawcett going with you I cannot allow it, Master James;
heed me or I must have a word with Sir James about
All this time James was standing up at his desk with
his riding-whip in his hand, and making signs for me
to follow, which I proceeded to do, the master protesting all the time. I got my reward next day, but not as
bad as I would have got had not good Mrs. Burr come to
my rescue. We drove to Upland Farm, then the home
of City Clerk Leigh and his family, at Cadboro Bay.
Mrs. Leigh was always good to James and I on these
visits to the farm, getting us the best to eat and plenty
of fresh milk to drink. By some understanding between
Sir James and Mr. Burr we continued these afternoon
drives, and it may be imagined how we boys enjoyed
them. We continued friends to the last, and years after
I worked like a beaver when he was elected a member of
the Legislature for Victoria City. He was godfather to
my eldest son, who was named after him.   I have still MY BOYHOOD DAYS IN VICTOEIA      33
a handsome book given me by Sir James at the last
break-up of school before I left.
We now and then hear complaints by prudish people
of the boys bathing on Victoria Arm, on Deadman's
Island and elsewhere without a full bathing suit. What
would they say to the boys of my time bathing in
Nature's suit only, and that on the waterfront from
James Bay bridge all around to the Hudson's Bay
Company's wharf? We bathed there at all times, and
to our heart's content, and never was exception taken to
it by the authorities, or in fact by anyone. Use is second
nature, and I suppose that accounted for it.
Have any of my readers ever seen Deadman's Island
(the island which is opposite Leigh's mill) when it was
covered with trees and shrubs? Well, up these trees
were corpses of Indians fastened up in trunks and
cracker boxes, but mostly trunks, the bodies being
doubled up to make them fit in the trunk, and then suspended like Mahomet's coffin between heaven and earth.
There were also some Indians buried in the shallow
soil and surrounded by fences, and again boxes of
corpses were piled one on top of the other. This island
was a favorite place of the school boys as a rendezvous
for swimming, and many a summer's afternoon and
Saturday have I spent there in the good old days gone
I shall now relate an incident of one of these expeditions to the island by myself and three others. I can
recollect the names of only two members of the expedition of that Saturday, and I might say that they were
my schoolfellows of the Collegiate School, which occupied the site of Mr. Ellis's residence on Church Hill,
and was afterwards burnt down. I left the Colonial
School in 1860, and transferred to the Collegiate School, 34     EEMINISCENCES  OF  OLD VICTOEIA
which was conducted as a church institution. Eev. C. T.
Woods was principal, with Eev. Mr. Eeese, " Cantab."
Williams, and Messrs. Vincent and Palmer, French and
drawing and music, as the full staff. Well, about the
Deadman's Island affair. One Saturday afternoon in
midsummer four of us—Eobert Branks, a brother of
Mrs. Doctor Powell, William Galley, James Estall and
a fourth whose name I cannot now remember hired a
boat at Lachapelle's, near James Bay Bridge, and made
for Deadman's Island. We enjoyed the luxury of running about the island like the savages on Eobinson
Crusoe's island, then dived into deep water, swam
around for a time and landed to dry and warm ourselves at a fire we had made for that purposes All boys
know that a fire is indispensable to swimming and bath-
ing'   . . Ill-
While squatting on the ground around the fire the
idea struck me that by the way the wind was blowing
it would not need much encouragement for the fire to
take hold of some of the boxes of bones, which may have
represented an Indian chief, his wife or child.   I then
proposed that we accidentally on purpose " set fire to
the whole lot."   After a council of war it was finally
decided to carry out my suggestion, as a grand wind-up
of our day's outing.   Time after time we dived off, and
swam around till tired, and then came ashore to dry
ourselves at the fire.   This is the exact routine of boys'
swimming expeditions of these present days, and will
be to the end of all time.   We got tired of it at last and
dressed, preparing to go home, when the subject of the
firing of the Indian corpses was again discussed.  Should
we do it or not ?   Eobert Branks was with me all right,
but one boy was fearful   of  the  consequences.    "The
chief and all the Indians on the Songhees reserve would MY BOYHOOD DAYS IN VICTOEIA      35
soon see the fire and would be after us." There was
something in this, for there were hundreds then, where
there are now dozens, and it was risky.
After each had said his say, we put it to the vote, and
it was carried three to one that the fire take place. We
set fire to a lot of pieces of broken coffins at two separate places alongside a pile of boxes or trunks of bones.
Then we made all haste to get aboard our craft, up sail
and- away. We had hardly reached the bridge and
crossed the harbor from the bottom of Johnson Street
to the Indian reserve, when the fire could be seen
plainly as having been a success from our point of
view—so much so that we made greater haste to get to
the boathouse. We lost no time in settling up for the
boat hire, and making the best of our legs in getting
home. The paper next morning was early sought for,
and with fear and trembling, too. There was good reason for fear, for the paper gave an account of the affair.
The Indians had made complaint to the police, and they
were searching for the culprits. I was afraid to go out
at all, much less to go to school, and every knock at the
door made me start. I at last confessed to my parents
my share in the business, and it was decided that I must
"lay low" for a few days, and lucky it was for me I
did not get what I deserved, a good whipping, as my
mother said. The quartette of boys kept their counsel,
and we escaped a visit from the police.
Some time later we visited the island to see the result
of the fire, and found that all traces of the burying-
ground had vanished, the surface of the island being
swept clean, with not a trace of boxes, bones or trees,
and it has remained so till this day.
In the absence of Chinese market gardens, and the
kitchen garden now attached to most homesteads, we 36     EEMINISCENCES  OF  OLD VICTOEIA
had to go to a distance for our vegetables. It took us
the best part of a day to go to Hillside Farm for a sack
of assorted vegetables. Several boys would start together for this trip into the country. It is astonishing
how the absence of streets or roads lengthens this distance, and so it was then. We started after breakfast
and took our lunch, going across country by trail, each
with a sack, which was filled by old Willie Pottinger,
the gardener, for a shilling. Very good and fresh they
were, and very cheap this was considered. With our
loads we started for home, and the further we got from
Hillside the heavier the vegetables got, and therefore
the more stoppages we made to rest. At last Fort and
Blanchard Streets were in sight, and we were home
again, tired out and hungry as hunters.
The last I remember of the Hudson's Bay fort was
during the contest brought on by the burning question
of the day, namely Union and Tariff vs. Free Port. The
mainland represented Tariff and the island Free Port.
Should we join with the mainland with a tariff or remain Free Port ? The hustings was erected in the fort,
and the pros and cons were discussed by the rival candidates. I took part, although too young to vote, and
worked day and night for my friend Amor De Cosmos,
who was in favor of union and tariff, and we won the
day, too.
Before I conclude I would again speak of the large
stores in the fort, which supplied the colonists with all
they required except meats. It was said at the time
that you might get anything at the stores, from a needle
to an anchor. This might well have been true, for it
was the repository of all the Company's goods for supplying their servants with all their necessaries.
One of the first visits I paid was with my mother, as
in San Francisco, and amongst various articles I carried away was a pair of Old Country boots. These boots
I am not likely to forget, as I wore them so long. The
soles were twice the usual thickness of even boys' boots,
and, like a horseshoe, had a row of nails with projecting
square heads a quarter inch thick. These boots left
their mark wherever they went, and, as may be supposed, as I was a strong, healthy boy with a roving disposition, they travelled considerably. Wear them out
I could not, kicking rocks and stubbing my toes against
everything I came against, for I found them awkward
and heavy to carry, and in fact everything gave way before them. My poor mother often called out at the
marlfs of the square-headed nails on her clean floors,
which in those days were not covered with carpets or
linoleum, as now. These boots were a feature of the
store, and were, I think, $3.75 or $4 a pair—but enough
of hobnailed boots. CHAPTEE IV.
In 1860 was issued the first directory of Victoria,
Vancouver Island, by Edward Mallandaine, an architect, who continued to issue a Victoria directory at intervals for years afterwards. Through the kindness of
Mr. Mallandaine, who is a pioneer of 1858, I am enabled to review this relic of early and interesting times,
for those of us who remember them as " the good old
times." I shall here give some of the author's " Prefatory remarks":
" It has been thought by the author of the following
work that the present being an age of advancement, the
period has fully arrived when our fair town of Victoria
is of sufficient importance to deserve that index of commercial progress, a Directory. We have been reliably
informed that about 35,000 immigrants from California and elsewhere have arrived, and have produced
a most marvellous state of transition in the two countries [Vancouver Island and British Columbia.] A
number of wharves have been constructed this past season, a new timber bridge across James Bay has been
built, giving access to the newly-erected Government offices for public lands and to Government
House, which are of an ornamental character. Streets
leading to the bridge have been graded and metalled
over and are passable at all times.   A temporary want GEORGE RICHARDSON,
Who built the first brick building* May,
1858, cor. Government and Courtenay
Sts., and known as Victoria Hotel.
Second Postmaster.
'irst Bishop of Columbia, 1859.
Pioneer Master Mariner of the Hudson
Bay Co., 1858, and father of Captain
John Irving (Commodore).  VICTOEIA'S FIEST DIEECTOEY. 39
of funds alone prevents more being done in this way, as
also the completion of two embankments (in lieu of
bridges) in a ravine [Johnston Street, I think, E. F.].
Wooden buildings have ceased to be the order of the day.
We have been fortunate in hitherto escaping with but
one single disaster in the shape of fire. Some public-
spirited citizens taking the lead, a Hook and Ladder
Company has been organized, and subscriptions raised
to defray the necessary outlay of a building and a Hook
and Ladder Apparatus and an Engine. We have a
large bookstore [Hibben & Carswell's]; two hotels of
considerable dimensions, Eoyal and Victoria, and several houses, all erected in brickwork. The Hudson's
Bay Company are erecting a warehouse of pretentious
dimension of stone, which they import from a distance
of not less than forty miles, and a new bank, j Bank of
British North America.' Great demands are made for
a Public Hall forxmeetings, and the want of a Theatre
is felt. The last few months have seen an increase in
our legal defenders, and the arrival of an attorney-
general for British Columbia.
"We have seen by an effort in the right direction a
large tract of land, 20,000 acres in the neighborhood of
Victoria, put up for sale by auction at the upset price
of $1.00 per acre.
"We have of churches one Episcopalian, one Eoman
Catholic, one Methodist mission, one Congregational
mission, one nunnery school, Sisters of St. Ann's, one
private educational institute (by the author) for both
sexes, and one Young Ladies' Seminary.
" We have an hospital (Eoyal) started originally by
Eev. Edward Cridge, of Christ Church, and now sadly
overburdened with debt.
IA Masonic lodge is in course of formation; an Odd 40     EEMINISCENCES  OF  OLD VICTOEIA
Fellows' Association has been in existence for a year; a
Ladies' Benevolent Society, under the presidency of
Mrs. Col. Moody; a Hebrew Victoria Benevolent Society has been in existence some six months; a Philharmonic Society, under the conduct of John Bailey, is
among one of its oldest institutions, and to conclude we
have in Victoria a free port. This is an immense advantage, coupled with its commanding situation for an
eastern and Asiatic trade and its position, opposite the
North American and Pacific railway (which will shortly
be an undoubted fact). In conclusion, we have to place
our work in its present state in the hands of an indulgent public," E. M., etc.
I now propose to review the names of the 1860
pioneer merchants, as illustrated on the covers and
through the directory, bringing their names before the
pioneers of those days again. This directory is nothing
more than a history of the city at that time, and to me
is most interesting reading. It is not to be supposed
that newcomers of twenty years' residence will give it
more than passing notice, but they will excuse us old
hands for being interested.
On the front cover is a picture of the Eoyal Hotel on
Wharf Street, corner of Johnson, Jas Wilcox, proprietor, who also owned property on Fort Street opposite
Philharmonic Hall, Wilcox Alley running through the
property. The Eoyal Hotel with the Victoria were the
first brick hotels built here in 1858. It was on a vacant
lot alongside the Eoyal Hotel that the Eev. Alexander
C. Garrett, about 1861 or 1862, used to preach on Sunday afternoons to large crowds, mostly sailors and
miners, although all sorts and conditions of sinners
were there. He was a most eloquent Irishman, was a
missionary to the Indians, and lived on the Songhees
reserve.   The choir of Christ Church attended to lead VIOTOEIA'S FIEST DIEECTOEY. 41
the music, and as I was a choir boy, I was there, as also,
1 think, Dr. Davie. The minister stood on a packing-
box, and the whole scene is vivid in my memory. The
motley crowd, as may be supposed, the music in the
open air, and the eloquent speaker, all combined to
make the scene one to be remembered. Mr. Garrett left
here for the States, afterwards being made bishop of the
Protestant Episcopal Church of America.
On the inside of the cover is a picture of Stationers'
Hall, Hibben & Carswell, on the corner of Yates and
Langley Streets. During fifty-four years the business
has gone on prospering. Although the three principals
of that day are gone to their rest, the business is still
carried on as Hibben & Co., under the able management
of William S. Bone, one of its partners. I might state
that Mr. Bone entered the business as a boy at the age
of eighteen years, and subsequently a partnership was
formed, consisting of T. N. Hibben, C. W. Kammerer
and William H. Bone. E. T. Williams, in charge of
the Provincial Government Bindery, was also on the
staff of this pioneer firm in the early sixties.
On the next page are two views, one of William
Zelnor's drug store, on Government Street, between
Yates and Johnson, east side. He afterwards moved
to the corner of Yates and Government, where the B. C.
Market now does business. The second is the store of
Webster and Co., Yates Street, the building now occupied by Bissinger and Co., hide dealers. Mr. Jesse
Cowper, who was a resident of Menzies Street, James
Bay, was a partner in the firm, and a cousin of the
Websters, and after many years' connection with
the concern retired to enjoy the results of his success
in this business.    He has since died.
Janion & Green, commission merchants, foot of
Johnson Street, near the bridge, come next.   The firm 42     EEMINISCENCES  OF  OLD VICTOEIA
was afterwards Janion, Green & Ehodes; the latter was
the respected father of Mr. Ehodes, of the firm of Brack-
man & Ker Milling Co., and was Hawaiian consul, having previously been in business in Honolulu. The business house of A. Hoffman, dry goods, north-west corner of Yates and Government, is a frame building.
Next are two well-known firms, viz., A. Gilmore, merchant tailor, Yates Street, fourth door from Wadding-
ton Alley, and K. Gambitz, Yates Street, next to Bank
of British North America. He was an American
Hebrew, and sold out to Thomas and William Wilson,
who for many years conducted the business on Government Street as the " City House."
James Bell, general hardware, Johnson Street; Eob-
ertson, Stewart & Co., commission merchants, Yates
Street; and Bayley's Hotel, which was on the site of
the Pritchard House, now turned into a bank; Spor-
burg & Co., importers of provisions and dry goods,
Wharf Street, foot of Yates; Thos. Patrick & Co., corner Johnson and Government Streets, wholesale liquors;
Pierce & Seymour, corner Yates and Douglas Streets,
furniture dealers. Mr. Seymour was one of the charter members of the Pioneer Society, which society he
took a great interest in. He was a firm believer in the
cold water cure, and took cold water baths for all ailments. One morning, his furniture store (which
then occupied the site of the Colonist Building) not
opening up at the usual hour, the door was broken open,
and Mr. Seymour was found dead in his cold bath. He
was a good-hearted man, and a good friend to many.
Lester & Gibbs, the colored grocers, Yates Street,
between Wharf and Government Streets; Adolph Sutro
& Co., wholesale cigars and tobacco, corner Wharf and
Yates Streets; A. Blackman, stoves and tinware, Yates
Street, near Wharf; N. Munroe & Co., Yates Street,
opposite Stationers' Hall, dry goods and clothing;
Pioneer Mineral Water Works, Humboldt Street, south
side; Phillips & Co.; E. Mallandaine, architect, Broad
Street, near Yates; Macdonald & Co., bankers, Yates
Street. Of this bank I have a lively recollection, as its
career came to an end suddenly by the discovery being
made one morning that the bank had been robbed, and
exit made through the roof. I have $36 of their notes
to remember it by. W. F. Herre, News Depot, Yates
Street, between Wharf and Government Streets; W. H.
Oliver, Johnson Street, opposite Wharf Street, wholesale dealer in liquors (situated over the ravine); C. J.
Pidwell & Co., furniture dealers, Yates Street; Wells,
Fargo & Co., Express and Exchange Co.; C. C. Pender -
gast, accountant, Yates Street^ between Wharf and Government Streets; G. Huston, gunsmith, Yates Street,
below Wells, Fargo & Co.; Langley Bros., wholesale and
retail druggists, Yates Street; J. D. Carroll, wines and
liquors, wholesale, Yates Street; Eeid & Macdonald,
commission merchants, Wharf Street; Wm. Burlington
Smith, groceries, Government Street, near Yates;
Selim, Franklin & Co., auctioneers and land agents,
Yates Street. I think all these names will be familiar
to some of the early pioneers, as they are to me.
Public Departments or Vancouver Island for 1860.
Governor—James Douglas, C.B.
Legislative Council—His Excellency the Governor,
Hon. John Work, Hon. Eoderick Finlayson, Hon. David
Cameron, judge; Hon. Donald Fraser, clerk; Eev.
Edward Cridge.
House of Assembly—Members for Esquimalt—J. S.
Helmcken, M.D., Speaker; Capt. Cooper, harbor mas-
ter, and Capt. J. Gordon. Members for Victoria District—W. F. Tolmie, M.D.; A. D. Waddington, H. P.
P. Crease, barrister; G. H. Carey, Attorney-General,
B.C., and Selim Franklin. Saanich—C. Coles. Nanai-
mo—A. E. Green. Lake District—Major Foster. Salt
Spring—J. J. Southgate.    Metchosin—J. McDonald.
Ecclesiastical—Eight Eev. George Hills, Bishop of
British Columbia; Eev. Edward Cridge, Victoria; Eev.
E. Dundas, Esquimalt; Eev. E. Dawson, Craigflower.
Judicial—Hon. David Cameron, Judge Supreme
Court; Attorney-General, Geo. H. Carey; Sheriff, G. W.
Colonial Secretary's Office—W. A. G. Young, E. N.,
colonial secretary; clerks, Philip Nind, Joseph Porter.
Treasury—Capt. W. D. Gossett, E.E., treasurer.
Lands and Works—J. D.   Pemberton,   colonial   surveyor; surveyors and draughtsmen, B. W. Pearse, H. 0.
Police—A. F. Pemberton, J. P., commissioner police;
superintendent, Jno. Bayley, four sergeants and twelve
Postmaster, Victoria, J. D. Ewes; clerk, J. Morrison.
Harbor Master—J. Nagle, J.P.
Postage—To Australia, via England, 48c.; to France,
50c.    To Great Britain, 34c; Germany, 40c.
It will Be seen that the postage was high and letters
a great luxury, and I have only mentioned the four
principal countries we have an interest in; also I would
call attention to the number of police constables required in those early days, there being a total of seventeen.
I have thought it might be interesting to the few remaining pioneers of 1862 to revive an interest in events
of fifty years ago.    I often wonder whether our old
pioneers think of the days that are gone like I do, recall events and persons, take notice of the removal of
old landmarks, such as the James Bay bridge and Scee-
ley's " Australian House," at the north end of it, not
forgetting the old pioneers who have passed away recently, among whom were Simeon Duck, Jacob Sehl,
Thomas Storey, Wm- P- Sayward, Capt. Lewis, Isadore
Braverman, Edward Mallandaine and Jeremiah Griffiths. There is a certain amount of pleasure in these
reminiscences, melancholy though it may be to those
concerned. I shall now quote from the editor's preface
of the directory of 1863 on the progress of the city:
"At no time since the excitement attending its first
settlement in 1858 has Victoria made greater strides,
or her prosperity so materially increased, as during the
past year. Since the commencement of last year her
population has at least doubled, and the increase of
buildings and improvements has been almost in proportion. During the winter season the town is thronged
with strangers from British Columbia and elsewhere,
who migrate in the spring. Apart from that the number of the inhabitants may be set down at 6,000. Victoria contains about 1,500 buildings, some of them very
creditable to the size of the city, among them the Government offices and the jail. There are several commodious brick hotels, the principal being the St. Nicholas,
the St. George and the Eoyal. The city is adorned with
five churches, two belonging to the Church of England,
one Eoman Catholic, one Wesleyan and one Congregational. A Jewish synagogue and a Presbyterian church
(Pandora Street) are in course of construction. There
are also a theatre (Theatre Eoyal, Government Street)
and a hospital, the latter being supported by voluntary
contributions. 46     EEMINISCENCES  OF  OLD VICTOEIA
"The sittings of the Legislature and law courts of
Vancouver Island are held in the city. There are two
joint stock banks (British North America and British
Columbia), and three private banking houses. Until
lately Victoria was without a corporation; during the
past year (1862) an act to incorporate the town was
passed by the Legislature. The authorities consisted of
a mayor and six councillors. Effective and speedy
measures will now be adopted to complete the grading
of the streets and laying down sidewalks. The water
frontage of the town has since the removal of the old
bridge (from foot of Johnson Street to Indian reserve)
been greatly extended, and several wharves are now
available for shipping above the point where that
obstacle to navigation existed. A company has been
formed to build a railway connecting Victoria with the
capacious harbor of Esquimalt. Among other institutions the town may now boast of its gas works. A company has also been organized to supply the town with
water from Elk Lake, eight miles distant. The value
of real estate in the city has increased in many places
over 75 per cent, during the last nine months. The city
is a f free port,' and therefore not troubled with custom
duties. Vessels drawing fifteen feet of water may cross
the bar of the harbor at high water, and a sum of
£10,000 has been voted by the Legislature to the improvement of the harbor. Steam communication is carried on three, times a month between Victoria and San
Francisco, every alternate trip being made via Portland. A surprising impetus has been given to agriculture by the number of newly-arrived immigrants, who
have settled in the most fertile districts around Victoria.
" With land at four shillings an acre, and time
allowed for payments, together with the improved state VIOTOEIA'S FIEST DIEECTOEY.
of communication between Victoria and the back settlements, we may hope that the inhabitants of the town
will not in future be so dependent on neighboring countries for their supplies of produce."
Official List for Vancouver Island.
James Douglas, C.B., Governor.
W. A. G. Young, Colonial Secretary.
Joseph Porter, Chief Clerk.
George H. Carey, Attorney-General.
A Hensley, Clerk.
Alex. Watson, Treasurer.
Jos. Despard Pemberton, Surveyor-General.
W. B. Pearse, Assistant.
Eobert Ker, Auditor (father of D. E. Ker).
Thos. E. Holmes, Clerk.
Edward G. Alston, Eegistrar-General of Deeds.
Charles G. Wylly, Assessor (still with us).
Henry Wootton, Postmaster (father of Stephen and
E. E. Wootton).
J. M. Sparrow, Clerk (still with us).
The Legislature.
Hon. Eodk. Finlayson, Hon. Donald Fraser, Hon.
David Cameron, Hon. Alfred J. Langley, Edw. G.
Alston and Hon. Alex Watson, nominative.
J. S. Helmcken, G. H. Carey and Selim Franklin,
Victoria City.
Wm. Cocker, Esquimalt.
W. F. Tolmie, M.D., J. W. Trutch, and Jas. Trimble,
M.D., Victoria District.
Geo. F. Foster and W. J. Macdonald, Lake District.
J, J. Southgate, Salt Spring Island. m
D. B. Eing, Nanaimo.
John Coles, Saanich.
Eobert Burnaby, Esquimalt.
Victoria Fire Department.
John Dickson, Chief Engineer.
John Malovanski, Assistant Engineer.
Chas. Gowen, President Board Delegates.
Jas. S. Drummond, Secretary Board Delegates.
organization of companies.
Union Hook and Ladder, November 22nd, 1859, D.
A. Edgar, Foreman.
Deluge Engine, No. 1, March 5th, 1860. Jas. S.
Drummond, Foreman.
Tiger Engine No. 2, March 23rd, 1860. Samuel L.
Kelly, Foreman.
Note.—Of these pioneer firemen of Victoria of this
date, Sam Kelly is (1910) the only surviving member
of the executive.
H. M. S. Ships of the Pacific Station.
Eear-Admiral, Sir. Thomas Maitland.
Bacchante, 51 guns; Chameleon, 17 guns; Charybdis,
17 guns; Clio, 22 guns; Devastation, 6 guns; Forward,
3 guns; Grappler, 3 guns; Hecate, 6 guns; Mutine, 16
guns; Naiad, 6 guns; Nereus, 6 guns; Tartar, 20 guns;
Termagant, 25 guns; Topaz, 51 guns; Tribune, 23
guns; Sutlej, 51 guns.
Note.—One-third of these were on southern station.
VvWWNJKmSNB quadra street cemetery.
Consuls at Victoria.
France, P. Mene, Esq.
United States, Allen Frances, Esq.
Sandwich Islands, Henry Ehodes,  Esq.
Chas. Ehodes).
(father of
Thomas Harris, first mayor of Victoria.
John Copeland, James M. Eeid, Eichard Lewis,
William M. Searby, Michael Stronach and Nathaniel
M. Hicks, first councillors of Victoria.
Algernon Austen, Town Clerk.
J. C. Colquhoun, City Inspector.
Henry Claypole, Master at Craigflower.
William H. Burr (my old master), Master at Victoria.
Cornelius Bryant, Master at Nanaimo. Salary £150
and fees.
Police Department.
A. F. Pemberton, Commissioner.
Horace Smith, Superintendent.
Preston Bennett, Storekeeper and Clerk.
George   Blake,   Sergeant   Police,   with   eleven   constables, including Francis Page.
Steph. Eedgrave, Cook and Steward.
George Newcombe, Jailer.
D. B. Eeid, Assistant Jailer.
Edward Truran, Superintendent of Convicts.
It was customary for the "chain gang" to emerge
every morning from a side gate of the jail yard
on Bastion Street and march to Government Street to
the music of their chains, with two guards in the rear
with loaded shotguns. The gang often contained seamen from the ships at Esquimalt who were serving sentences, usually for desertion. This in course of time
caused such indignation that the practice of putting
men-of-warsmen in the chain gang was discontinued.
The gang worked on the streets, on the Government
ground and at other Government work. The uniform
consisted of moleskin trousers with V.P., a checked cotton shirt and a blue cloth cap. It was thought a wrong
to put a Jack Tar with malefactors of all grades, such
as Indian murderers, thieves and whiskey sellers to
Indians. It was the custom when a fire of any dimensions took place to telephone or send word to Esquimalt,
and squads of Jacks were soon on the way to town,
running all the way. After working maybe all night
in saving property they would walk back to their ship,
tired out and wet through, and all for nothing in the
way of recompense. All the time they were at work
they sang and joked as they do now. Is it any wonder
that we have a soft place in our hearts for Jack? I
know I shall not forget them and the days that have
gone by, and I think we all shall regret the late change
that takes him away, and his merry laugh and joke are
things of the past.
To return to the directory. Of those remaining
whose names are recorded, there are, alas! only sixty-
two to-day with us. I have been carefully over the list
from A to Z and sixty-two is the number. Of course
there may be others that I did not know, and doubtless
there are some; there are omissions also, I am sure, and VIOTOEIA'S FIEST DIEECTOEY.
several I have added to make up the sixty-two. There
is one thing sure, that as a rule only the head of a
family was recorded, male or female, as there are many
residents to-day who were young men or youths, or
young women or girls, when this directory was compiled. I shall give here the names of these sixty-two
who are still privileged to be residents of this beautiful
city that we old residents are so proud of, as well as
those of two living abroad and one in Kamloops.
The list alphabetically is:
Adams, Daniel F., contractor.
Anderson, E. H., variety store.
Alport, Charles (in South Africa).
Anderson, J. E., agricultural department. ^
Barnett, Josiah, in United States.
Barnswell, James, carpenter.
Bauman, Frederick, confectioner.
Beaven, Hon. Eobert.
Botterell, Mat., butcher.
Blaguiere, Edward.
Bullen, Jonathan, bricklayer.
Boscowitz, Joseph, fur dealer.
Borde, August, Chatham Street.
Burnes, Thomas, saloonkeeper.
Carey, Joseph W.
Cridge, Edward, rector Christ Church.
Crowther, John C, painter.
Davie, Doctor John C.
Dougall, John, iron moulder.
Drake, M. W. T., solicitor. #   ^
Elliott, W. A., engineer Labouchere.
Fawcett, E. W., house decorator.
Gerow, G. C, carriagemaker.
Helmcken, Honorable John S., M.P.P. 52     EEMINISCENCES  OF  OLD VICTOEIA
Geiger, Thomas, barber.
Gilmore, Alexander, clothier.
Glide, Harry, with Plaskett & Co.
Harvey, Bout., commission merchant.
Higgins, David W., publisher Chronicle.
Kelly, Samuel, tinsmith.
Kent, Charles, hardware, K. & F.
King, J. H., Mousquetaire saloon.
Kinsman, John, contractor.
Levy, H. E., special officer.
Levy, Joseph, fruit store.
Lissett, James, painter.
Macdonald, W. J., Eeid & Macdonald.
Maynard, Eichard, bootmaker.
Marvin, Edward B., sailmaker.
McMillan, J. E., publisher Chronicle.
Monro, Alexander, accountant Hudson's Bay Company.
Nuttall, Thomas C, book-keeper.
Pearson, Edward, tinsmith.
Porter, Arthur, brickmaker.
Powell, Doctor I. W.
Eichardson, George, proprietor of first brick hotel.
Eoper, S., Kamloops.
Styles, S. T., plasterer.
Shotbolt, Thomas, druggist.
Stockham, F., baker.
Sparrow, J. M., post office.
Stewart, John, plumber.
Sylvester, Frank.
Turner, John H. (Todd & Turner), Victoria Produce Market.
Vowell, Arthur, Indian superintendent.
White, Edward (late Brown & White).
Wilson, Alexander, messenger, Bank British North
Wilson, William, draper.
Wilson, Thomas Sidney, cabinetmaker.
Wriglesworth, Joseph, London Hotel.
Wylly, C. G., accountant.
Welch, George, Esquimalt Waterworks.
Many of these since died.
List of those deceased, but whose descendants are
residents here now, or living elsewhere:
Barron, David F., cabinetmaker, widow, son and two
Belasco, Abraham, tobacconist, two sons.
Broderick, E., coal dealer, widow and two sons.
Cameron, Thomas, blacksmith, two daughters and
Chadwick, Thomas, hotelkeeper, two sons and
Courtney, H. E., solicitor, sons.
Cotsford, Thomas, sons.
Davies, J. P., auctioneer, several sons.
Doan, J. H., captain, daughter.
Duck, Simeon, carriagemaker, sons.
Ella, Captain H. B., Hudson's Bay Company, all
family, two sons and two daughters living in Victoria.
Flett, John, Hudson's Bay Company^ several sons.
Gowen, Charles, brewer, widow, several sons and
daughters.       \
Hall, Eichard, agent, two sons—Eichard and John.
Hall, Philip, several sons.
Harris, Thomas, mayor, two daughters.
Heal, John, boarding-house, two sons.
Heathorn, William, bootmaker, three sons and three
Heisterman, H., Exchange reading room, sons and
Heywood, Joseph, butcher, wife and daughter.
Hibben, Thomas Napier, widow, two sons and two
Huston, Guy, gunsmith, two daughters.
Irving, William, captain steamer Reliance, son and
Jackson, Doctor William, three sons and daughters.
Jungerman,   J.   L.,   watchmaker,   daughter    (Mrs.
Jewell, Henry, sons.
Leigh, William, second Town Clerk of Victoria, who
held the position from about 1863, to the time of his
death. He was in charge of Uplands Farm (1859)
for the Hudson's Bay Company, and under the supervision of Mr. J. D. Pemberton, built Victoria District
Church, and as an amateur musician helped at charitable entertainments. Son in San Francisco, granddaughter in Victoria (Mrs. Simpson).
Leneven, David, merchant, son and daughters.
Lewis, Lewis, clothier, son and daughter.
Lindsay, Daniel, son and daughter.
Loat, Christopher, sons and daughter.
Lowen, Joseph, brewer, widow, sons and daughters.
Lowenberg, L., estate agent, a nephew.
McDonell, E. J., captain, a widow.
Mason, George, brickmaker, a widow.
McKeon, William, hotel, wife, son and daughter.
McLean, Alexander, son.   }
McQuade, Peter, ship chandler, son and two
Meldram, John H., two. sons.
Moore, M. (Curtis & Moore), widow and two sons.
Mouat,   William,    captain   Enterprise,    sons    and
Nesbitt, Samuel, biscuit-baker, two sons.
Nicholles, Doctor John, one son.
Pitts, John H., son and daughters.
Ehodes, Henry, merchant, sons and daughters.
Sayward, William, sons.
Sehl, Jacob, sons and daughters.
Short, Henry, sons and daughters.
Smith,   John,   carpenter,   Mears   Street,   sons   and
Smith, M. E., baker, sons and daughters.
Stahlsehmidt, Thomas L., son.
Stemmler, Louis, upholsterer, son (spice mills).
Thain, Captain John, son and daughter.
Todd, J. H., sons and daughters.
Tolmie, Doctor W. F., sons and daughters.
Waitt, M. W., stationer, widow and two daughters.
Williams,   John   W.,   livery   stable,   widow   and
Woods, Eichard, Government clerk, sons and daughters.
Wootton, Henry, postmaster, sons and daughters.
Workman, Aaron, daughters.
Yates, James Stewart, two sons.
Many deaths since this list was made.
I must again repeat that this list of sixty-two may be
augmented by others who were heads of families even
at that time. I might take our own family for an example, although it does not prove the rule. It consisted of my father, mother and three brothers, and is
represented in the directory by my father, Thomas L.
Fawcett, and my eldest brother, Eowland W.    Then. 56     EEMINISCENCES  OF  OLD VICTOEIA
again, there is the Elford family, of father, mother,
three sons and two daughters. This family is not recorded, and to-day there are two sons, John and
Theophilus, and two married sisters.
Among the names in the list of those living now, but
not recorded, is a son of Abraham Belasco, tobacconist
of Yates Street in 1862, by name David. Those interested in theatricals (and who is not?) will recognize
the name as the prominent theatrical manager of New
York. I little thought when going to school with him
at the Collegiate School, under Eev. C. T. Woods, that
he would be so well known a character as he is to-day.
In closing this reminiscence I would ask to be pardoned
for any errors or omissions, for my memory will bear
refreshing. I also must thank my old friend Dick
Hall, and others, for names of early pioneers who have
been left out of the directory.
Before closing this imperfect sketch allow me to offer
a suggestion to the mayor and aldermen. It is that a
portrait of Thomas Harris, the first mayor of the city,
should be procured and hung in a prominent place in
the council chamber, and this at the public expense. I
think this would at least meet with the approval of the
pioneers of 1862, when Mr. Harris was elected first
On Wharf Street, from the corner of Fort, looking
north to the corner of Yates, the buildings looked pretty
much the same as now, being all built of brick, with
the exception of the wooden one to the south of Sutro's
wholesale tobacco warehouse on the corner of Yates and
Wharf. This wooden building was a saloon, kept by
one who formerly had been a prominent man politically,
that is prior to 1859. I think this building can be
identified with the Ship Inn. The two-story brick
block to the south, erected and owned by Senator Macdonald, was occupied by John Wilkie, one of the earliest
of our wholesale merchants. The next corner was
Edgar Marvin's hardware store. Mr. Marvin and his
son Eddie, who came from the States in 1864., will be
well and favorably remembered by old-timers. He resided on Marvin's Hill, at the back of St. Ann's Convent. Next comes the building occupied by Henry
Nathan, who was afterwards one of the early members
in the Commons to represent Victoria City. He was
an English Hebrew, and he and his father were prominent men and large property-holders in the city, and
I have no doubt are so still. He is standing in the
front of his office in the photo. I can well remember
the day that Henry Nathan and the balance of the
Victoria contingent left for Ottawa for the first time.
They left on the steamer Prince Alfred from Brod-
erick's Wharf, in the inner harbor, and there was
hardly a square foot of room on the wharf to spare,
the crowd was so great. In fact, half of the town went
to see them off, many locking up their business places
to do so. In the front of the next store may be seen
Thomas Lett Stahlschmidt, who represented the English wholesale firm of Henderson & Burnaby. Next to
Mr. Stahlschmidt is James D. Eobinson, who was bookkeeper for J. Eobertson Stewart & Co., and who is a
resident of this city to-day, just died. Skipping the next
two buildings, we come to the auction rooms of a well-remembered business man, P. M. Backus, one of the two
prominent auctioneers of that time; the other being
James A. McCrea, spoken of by my friend, Mr. Higgins, in one of his intensely interesting stories of early
days in Victoria. Both he and Mr. Backus were Americans, as were so many of our business men of that day.
Next Mr. Backus is Mr. J. E. Stewart, just mentioned,
and on the corner is Mr. Joseph Boscowitz. They stand
in front of the building occupied by Thomas C. Nuttall
& Co. Mr. Nuttall I remember as the agent of the
Phoenix Fire Insurance Company, and he did a large
business in the city. Mr. Nuttall is still a resident,
although confined to the house through illness. His
was a familiar face on the street in those days, being a
very energetic business man.    (Since died).
Upstairs in the building was the Oddfellows' Hall,
where I was initiated into the mysteries of Oddfellow-
ship in 1868. Among the prominent brothers present
that evening were John Weiler, James S. Drummond,
James D. Eobinson, Hinton Guild, James Gillon (manager Bank of British North America), Joshua Davies,
Judah P. Davies, Eichard Eoberts, Joseph York, and FORT  STREET,  LOOKING EAST.
Thomas Golden. All these prominent Oddfellows, with
the exception of James D. Eobinson and Joseph York,
have gone to their rest. The waterfront side of Wharf
Street, from the Hudson's Bay Company's store south,
is a blank until you reach the old cooperage, next to the
late custom house. There is an historic oak tree alongside the cooperage, which is said to have been used to
tie up the Hudson's Bay Company's vessels in the
earliest times when wharves were few and far between.
Beyond the old customs house was Sayward's wharf
and lumber yard, the lumber being brought by schooner
and scow from the mill to Victoria. The business had
not then attained the proportions that it has to-day
under Joseph Sayward, son of the founder of the business, who now lives in San Francisco.
The next view represents Government Street, east
side, from the Brown Jug north to the St. Nicholas
Building. The first building south from there of any
prominence was that now occupied by the British
Columbia Market, and then known as the Alhambra
Building. The upper floor was used as a public hall,
and many grand balls were given here, as well as other
social events. The lower floor was used as Zelner's
pharmacy, and next door by Gilmore, the clothier.
Alongside and using the upper portion of Gilmore's
Building also, is the Colonial5 Hotel, one of the swell
places of that day. I next recognize the store of the
well-known firm of W. & J. Wilson, clothiers and outfitters, which was then conducted by the father and
uncle of the present proprietor, Mr. Joseph Wilson.
With the exception of the Hudson's Bay Company,
Hibben & Co. (then Hibben & Carswell) and Thomas
Wilson, the draper, the firm of W. & J. Wilson is, so
far as I can remember, the longest established in Vic- 60     REMINISCENCES OF OLD VICTOEIA
toria. I can remember being fitted out there on occasions as a school-boy. Their advertisement in the
Colonist, with their autograph underneath, occupied
part of the front page of the paper continuously for
The two-story wooden building in the middle of the
block, between Trounce Alley and Fort Street, is the
Hotel de France, kept by P. Manciet, and one of the
two principal hotels of that day. Next was McNiff's
grotto, Mon's Laundry, The Star and Garter, Thomas
Wilson & Co., drapers, and farther on the two-story
brick building, now Hibben & Co., and farther on south
J. H. Turner & Co. Of course all will recognize the
name as that of the Hon. J. H. Turner. The firm occupied the whole of the building up and downstairs, as
drapers and carpet warehousemen, and I might state
that the late Henry Brown, Walter Shears, late custom
appraiser, and Edward White were on the staff. Next
is one of the two meat markets, owned by Thomas
Harris, the first mayor of Victoria. His prominent
figure may be seen on the sidewalk looking across the
street. With my mind's eye I can see him at the
Queen's Birthday celebration on Beacon Hill. The
chief event of the year was the racing on that day, and
the mayor was an enthusiastic horse fancier, and a
steward of the Jockey Club. These celebrations were nothing without Mr. Harris. The bell rings (John Butts was
bellman) and the portly figure of Mr. Harris on horseback appears. "Now, gentlemen, clear the course," and
then there is a general scattering of people outside the
rails; the horses with their gaily dressed jockeys canter
past the grandstand, make several false starts, and off
they go for the mile heat around the hill and back to
the grandstand.    Oh, what exciting things those races VICTOEIA IN THE SIXTIES
were! Another prominent figure at these race meetings
was John Howard, of Esquimalt. The race meetings
without Messrs. Harris and Howard would not have
been the genuine thing, and, I must not forget to mention Millington, who always rode Mr. Harris' horses at
these meetings. I believe he is still in the land of the
living. I would we had such Queen's weather as we
had then. May was equal to July now for warmth, and
with beautiful clear skies, they were days worth remembering. Everyone went out for the day and the hill was
covered with picnickers. The navy was represented by
bluejackets and marines by the hundreds, bands of
music, Aunt Sally and the usual other side shows. And
lastly, I must not forget the music. The flagships of
those days were large three-deckers, line-of-battleships,
such as the Ganges or Sutlej, which would make an
ordinary flagship look small. It was understood that
the officers, being wealthy men, subscribed liberally towards a fine band. It was a great treat to hear the
Ganges' full band, as I have heard it in the streets of
Victoria preceding a naval funeral to Quadra Street
Cemetery, and very few I missed. But I have digressed
and will proceed to finish Government Street. The corner building, now torn down to make way for the Five
Sisters' Block, was occupied by William Searby,
chemist, who was my Sunday School teacher. He left
Victoria for San Francisco, and I had the pleasure of
renewing his acquaintance years later, and, I think, he
is still in business in Market Street. In the front of
Searcy's stands John Weiler, father of the Weiler
brothers of our day. The upper portion of this building was called the Literary Institute, and the first I remember of Mr. Eedfern was at an entertainment given
here for some charity, when he sang that beautiful 62     EEMINISCENCES OF  OLD VICTOEIA
tenor song from "The Bohemian Girl," "Then You'll
Eemember Me," and it has been a favorite with me ever
since. W. K. Bull, who presided over so many municipal elections, and was a very well-read man, also took
part, giving a reading on Australia, and ending up with
a recitation.
Crossing the street, we come to the Brown Jug, the
same to-day as then, but kept by Tommy Golden, a well-
known character then. In the front is a hydrant with
a water-cart getting its load for distribution through
the city. The water was conveyed in wooden pipes
from Spring Eidge and sold by the bucket, which may
be seen on the shafts of the cart. Forty of these buckets
represented one dollar. Opposite the Brown Jug and
across the street is a vacant lot, now occupied by the
Bank of Commerce. The opposite corner to this is also
vacant, but soon after was built the present brick building by J. J. Southgate and Captain Lascelles, E.N., of
the gunboat Boxer.
This view represents the south side of Fort Street,
from the Brown Jug corner east. The wooden building
next is a photograph gallery owned by Fred. Dally. He
with E. Maynard were the only ones in the business at
that time, I think. Next is Dr. Powell's residence and
surgery; the house is not visible, being set back from
the street. Alexander McLean's " Scotch House " clothing store is plainly seen. Amongst those standing in
front are Mr. McLean, the proprietor; James Fell, who
later on was mayor; William McNiffe, of the "Grotto,"
and Thomas Harris, already mentioned, who is on
horseback. Above McLean's is Murray's Scotch bakery,
where I have gone often for bread and shortcake. Four
doors above is A. & W. Wilson's, plumbers and gas
fitters, and Tom Wilson may be seen standing on the VICTOEIA IN THE SIXTIES
sidewalk—he is the only one of the brothers not here
to-day. Next is Birmingham House, Kent & Evans,
Charles Kent, the city treasurer, being senior partner.
Across Broad Street is John Weiler's upholstery store.
Then comes James Fell & Co., grocers; then M. E.
Smith & Co., bakers. Above Douglas Street there were
few or no stores. On the upper corner was D. Babbing-
ton Eing, an English barrister, who always walked
about with a dog-whip in hand and several dogs after
Above the corner lived Dr. Baillie, a cousin of Sir
M. B. Begbie, who was afterwards drowned in South
America. We come next to the Congregational Church,
which lived a short life as a church, for Dr. Ash bought
it and turned it into a residence, taking down the
steeple, which may now be seen in the photo. It passed
into the hands of Dr. Meredith Jones after Dr. Ash's
death. Above this I remember little as to individual
houses, but know that they were very scattered.
This view represents Yates Street, from .the corner
of Wharf, south side. I have briefly mentioned Sutro's
tobacco warehouse, and this is the Yates Street side of
it. There was a large figure of a Turk with a turban
and large pipe as a business sign on the corner of the
street. Next to Sutro's is Joseph Boscowitz's, the
pioneer dealer in furs, and as may be seen he is not
now far from his former place of business. Next door
is the firm of Wolf & Morris, that I cannot now remember. The saloon next door was kept by Burns &
Dwyer—the latter, I think, still lives on Pandora
Street. Next door but one is William Dalby's saddlery
shop, and he is with us to-day. Guy Huston, the gunsmith, occupied the next store. He was the principal
gunsmith in the city, and his two daughters, both mar- 64     EEMINISCENCES  OF  OLD VICTOEIA
ried to prominent men of business, are still residents
of the city. Alfred Fellows, iron and hardware merchant, who comes next, was the founder of the business
of E. G. Prior & Company. The Fashion Hotel was
kept by John C. Keenan, an American, and was a first-
class gambling house and dancing hall. High play
was the order, and many a Cariboo miner in the winter
months threw away his easily-got gold by the hundreds
here. Keenan was a prominent fire chief in those days
of volunteer firemen. Wells Fargo's Express comes
next, presided over by Colonel Pendergast and Major
Gillingham. On the arrival of a San Francisco
steamer there was a rush to Wells Fargo's for letters,
and soon after the receipt of the express bags at the
office the place would be full to the doors. I might
state that it was the custom then for all mail steamers
to fire a gun on arrival, either at the mouth of the harbor or inside the harbor itself, so that we gathered at
the post-office and express office soon after. Either
Colonel Pendergast or Major Gillingham then mounted
a chair and called off the addresses, and the letters were
either flipped or passed on to their owners by those
nearest the caller, for it seemed as if everybody knew
each other. Twenty-five cents was the postage paid in
advance. Next door is the telegraph office and Barnard's express. Our old friend, Eobert McMicking, had
charge of the telegraph, and maybe the express also, but
I have forgotten. Langley & Co., the well-known druggists, I can remember ever since I can remember Victoria. The building is pretty much now as it was then,
only larger. Those connected with its early history
have passed away, excepting it may be Mr. Pimbury;
Mr. A. J. Langley, who died in late years; Mr. Jones,
who went into business in Cariboo and died there, and OLD  VIEW  OF GOVERNMENT  STREET
X Showing* Theatre Royal.
"?^H5!5:5w«~e"5w,v:e' ■-■^■i'
X Post Office.   In the distance the Victoria Hotel, the first brick building-
erected in Victoria.
mos .:.,* *?* -' f mo^sorr:
. eg
Mr. Pimbury, who went to Nanaimo and into business
for himself. Between Langley's and the corner of
Langley Street, was Jay & Bales' seed store. Both
these early pioneers have gone to their rest, although
the business is still carried on on Broad Street by Mr.
On the corner is the Fardon building, which in 1859
was occupied by Hibben & Carswell, the beginning of
the firm of T. N. Hibben & Co. Mr. Hibben, Mr. Cars-
well and Mr. Kammerer, the principals, have all gone
to their rest, but the firm still lives and flourishes. An
incident connected with the junior partner might here
be recalled. One summer day Mr. Carswell, if I remember right, was one of a picnic party, who got lost
in the woods near Muir's farm 30 miles from town, and
the balance of the party returning to town without
him, a search party was organized and a reward offered
by Mr. Hibben for his partner's return. They left next
morning, and after a long and strict search, as the
party was returning to town to report their want of
success, whom should they see ahead of them but the
lost James Carswell, trudging along on the highroad
to town. He was told that they were a search party
sent out to look for him, and that they were glad they
found him. " Found me!" said Mr. Carswell; " why,
I am on my way home!" and they then proceeded to
town together. When the party reached home Mr.
Carswell was told that Mr. Hibben had sent the
searchers, and had offered a reward for his finding.
This Mr. Carswell objected to pay, protesting that they
had not found him, but that he had found himself, and
was on his way home when they met him. It caused a
great deal of merriment, and was a standing joke for
some time.   An incident like this Would be the talk of 66     EEMINISCENCES OF OLD VICTOEIA
the town in those good old days, and many visits would
be paid to Campbell's corner, kept by John Molowanski,
a Eussian, to hear if any news had been received of the
lost Mr. Carswell.
The first time I remember going to Hibben & Cars-
well's was in 1860, when I went to exchange a prize
botfk I had won at school, and which was imperfectly
bound, having several pages out of place. It wag then
I first saw Mr. Kammerer, and* he informed me afterwards that he had just then been promoted from porter
to assist in the office, and from this dated his rise in the
firm to a partnership. Upstairs in this building was
the Masonic hall and Fardon's photographic studio.
Across the street are Moore & Co., druggists, an old
established business of 1859 or '60, the present proprietor's father being the founder of the business. The
Bank of British North America next door is, so far as
I can remember, the pioneer bank in Victoria. I assisted in the assaying department for a short time in
1867. The next building is the famed Campbell's corner (the Adelphi). Who among our pioneers does not
remember the genial face of Frank Campbell, his corner and all the associations connected with it? When
was Frank not at the corner? I should say only when
he was eating and sleeping.   Morning, noon and until
II o'clock at night he was on duty. All the births,
deaths and marriages were recorded on his intelligence
board. All the news of the day, events from abroad
and at home—all were recorded by Frank. There
never lived a better-tempered or so good-hearted a fellow. Before going home after a lodge or a political
meeting the last thing was to call at the 1 corner " for
the latest bit of news. It was the meeting-place of
many who made it their headquarters.   Evening after
evening for years Frank had his audience. Everyone
knew him and to know him was to like him—
" requiescat in pace." Across Government Street and
next to Zelner's drug store I see the sign of J. S.
Drummond, stoves and tinware. He was a grand
master of Oddfellows, a prominent Mason, a fire chief,
an officer of militia, and served a term in the city council. Beyond Drummond's I cannot make out any more
signs or buildings, even with the magnifying glass, and
I have looked long and hard until my eyes ache. A
deal might be written of many more of the old streets
and their inhabitants, but it might be undertaken by
someone else with a better memory, and who was older
and took a prominent part in affairs of that day. CHAPTEE VI.
I have before me an old photo, showing the corner
of Government and Yates Streets, as also Yates Street
to Wharf Street. It is so faded it is difficult to make
out anything very distinctly. All the buildings look
as if built of wood. We know there were three brick
buildings then, which have been written of in my last
article on "The First Victoria Directory." So I will
here only mention the corner building, afterwards
known as the Adelphi. Up to 1860 the treasury and
other public offices did business in and about this corner; the whole block, Mr. Higgins states, was government buildings to the corner on which stands Moore &
Co.'s drug store. It is of the treasury in 1859 I am
going to speak now. The official staff at that time consisted of Captain Gossett, treasurer; John Cooper,
chief clerk; John Graham, bookkeeper, and E. Evans,
clerk. John Graham, of Simcoe Street, after many
years' good work for the government and people, has
retired. Young Evans, who was the only son of Eev.
Doctor Evans, one of the two pioneer clergymen of the
Methodist Church at that time, came to a tragic end
while a young man. One day in the depth of winter,
the ground.covered with snow, young Evans went out
shooting, and while walking along the beach near
Clover Point, shot at a drove of ducks. Finding that
he had shot one, and not being able to get it any other
way, he stripped off his clothes and swam off for it.
This in the month of December was a hazardous undertaking, and so it proved, for the young fellow took the
cramp and was drowned. It was a very sad sight, so
I am told by those who saw it, the old father walking
up and down the beach all night calling for his son
by name. In the morning the son was seen through
the clear cold water lying on the bottom, and the
body recovered. I remember his funeral, and to-day
may be seen the granite shaft that marks his resting-
place in the south-west corner of the Quadra Street
Cemetery. In 1860 the staff of the treasury was sent
to New Westminster, where they remained until 1868,
when the union of the island and mainland took place.
Some time subsequent to this removal a lot of vouchers
an-d valuable papers disappeared from the treasury, having been put temporarily on top of the big safe. Search
was made all over the premises, and the loss caused
Captain Gossett much anxiety up to the time of their
departure. Mr. Graham stayed behind to finish up
some business and see to the removal of the big safe,
and during the removal the mystery of the lost documents was solved by their being found behind the safe.
Some time after removing to New Westminster, a Mr.
Franks, who may be remembered by some as a very insignificant-looking little man, succeeded Captain Gossett as treasurer, and through his unpopularity with the
staff, John Cooper, the chief clerk, resigned and went
to Australia. Mr. Graham became chief clerk, and subsequently was appointed " officer in charge of the treasury." After Confederation he was appointed by the
Dominion Government Assistant Eeceiver-General. I
cannot do better here than give verbatim Mr. Graham's
remarks on the subject: 70     EEMINISCENCES  OF  OLD VICTOEIA
"88 Simcoe St., April 20, 1904.
I Dear Mr. Fawcett:—I send you these few lines to complete my rather disrupted memory re the Victoria Treasury
office. Mr. Alexander Calder, an ex-R. E. sergeant and a
British Government pensioner, joined in 1860. Robert Ker
was also employed for a certain time as clerk, but was
removed to the audit office, and afterwards became auditor-
general. Gordon was appointed treasurer of Vancouver
Island on the exodus of the B. C. officials going to New
Westminster; he did not continue long in the office—the
truth is, there was something the matter with the 'chest/
and he took French leave. Mr. Watson succeeded him; he
was clever but not very popular. In 1867 the island and
mainland were united in one province; the officials at New
Westminster were all sent down to Victoria. At that time
I was ' officer in charge of the treasury.' A Savings Bank
Act was passed by the Legislature. I received from the
executive council a mandate to establish the bank, with
the head office in Victoria, and four branches, one each at
Nanaimo, New Westminster, Yale and Cariboo. The bank
was under commissioners, Mr. Roscoe and Mr. Langley being nominated to that office; their services were purely
i gratuitous. The head office of the bank was in the
Treasury, but to accommodate working men, an office was
opened at Government Street, not very far from Sehl's
furniture store, for, I think, two hours two days in the
II do not know if I mentioned the fact that the Dominion
virtually bought out all the depositors in the British
Columbia bank. A small temporary office was opened at
the foot of Fort Street, next to what was Mitchell & Johnston's feed store, which was in use until the new Post Office
building was built; the savings bank, as you are aware, is
now located in the grand new building at the foot of
Government Street. If it would not be considered farfetched I would like to send you a word or two on the A LITTLE MOEE STEEET HISTOBY       71
origin of savings banks. The first ideas of thrift were
promulgated by Daniel Defoe in 1697; it was a happy
Socialistic discovery. In 1797 Jeremy Bentham taught the
principles of thrift. In 1799 the first savings bank was
started at Windover in Buckinghamshire, by the Rev.
Joseph Smith. The Rev. Dr. Henry Duncan opened in
Ruth well, Dumfrieshire, the first savings bank in Scotland
in 1810. Thrift is the keystone that supports the arch of
the savings bank. The stormy petrel riding in safety on
the crest of the wave in instinctive security, symbolizes
the security of a depositor in a government savings bank.
I do not know that I can say any more at present.
John Geaham.
This little photo shows the west side of Government
Street, from Fort to Yates Street, as it appeared in
1863. The corner store was A. Eickman's grocery, then
Jones' Bazaar (toys and fancy goods), then McNiff's
saloon, next Payne's barber shop. Before going on I
might, with Mr. Payne's permission, give a little joke
on that gentleman at the time. The Mechanics' Institute gave an entertainment for, I think, the benefit of
the library, and prizes were offered for the two best
conundrums. The best was at the expense of Mr.
Payne's name, and was " Easy Shaving by Pain"
(Payne). I don't think Mr. Payne took the money.
Then Norris & Wylly, notaries public and estate agents,
—Mr Wylly is still a resident of the city; Messrs. Lush
and Zinkie, milliners; Shakespeare, photographer; Gentile, photographer (over the theatre), then Theatre
The north-west corner of Government and Bastion
Streets was the brick building built by Mayor Harris
as a residence, and afterwards turned into the Bank of n     EEMINISCENCES  OF  OLD VICTOEIA
British Columbia. Next the bank was the Daily Standard building, built and owned by Mr. De Cosmos;
then T. L. Fawcett & Co., upholsterers; then T. C. Nuttall, Phoenix insurance; William Heathorn, bootmaker;
next comes the post-office, a single story frame structure
with a wooden awning in front, as were all stores in
those times. Mr. Wootton was postmaster. One of the
few brick buildings on Government Street comes next,
built for and occupied by William Burlington Smith,
and containing a public hall upstairs. It was in this
hall that the British Columbia Pioneer Society was organized on the evening of April 28th, 1871, the writer
being secretary of the meeting. Since died. William
P. Sayward, who resides in San Francisco, and myself
are the only two remaining of those pioneers who met
in Smith's Hall that night and formed the first society
of British Columbia Pioneers. Next we have the
Adelphi saloon, on the site of the Government offices
of 1860. This is as far as the photo shows, and so I
must close. CHAPTEE VII.
Theough the kindness of a " fifty-eighter" I am
enabled to give my readers, especially the old-timers,
some extracts from this, the pioneer newspaper of Victoria, if not of British Columbia. To me, although
only a " fifty-niner," and at the time a juvenile, these
extracts are very interesting, for I remember nearly all
the personages mentioned, and it is the incidents that
these names are connected with that I mention. The
editors announce in this, the first number, that they at
first intended to name their paper The Anglo-American, but on second thought changed it to the Victoria
Gazette, as more appropriate. The editors and proprietors were Williston & Bartlett, and the paper was
a semi-weekly. To show the primitive and makeshift
nature of things in early Victoria I will quote the first
local item: " It is cheering to note the increase in frame
and canvas buildings that are springing up."
Mr. Thomas Harris, of the Queen's market, is the
first to open a butcher shop in the Island.
The arrival of the first batch of Chinese by the
steamer Oregon. The sign of the first to go into business appears as " Chang Tsoo," washing and ironing.
The beautiful view of the Olympic range covered
with snow, as seen from Government Street, is commented on as a sight worth seeing.
Another item informs its readers that twenty vessels were advertised in San Francisco as on the berth
for Victoria.
A most important announcement is that up to the
present time there were no taxes levied in Victoria, except as liquor licenses. To sell retail the privilege cost
$600 per annum, and for a wholesale license £100 or
$485. jf
In nearly every number there is a cry of "No water;
who will dig the first artesian well? In case there
should be a fire how was it to be put out ?" Then a suggestion of a public meeting to consider the important
question, and a petition to Governor Douglas to have
large tanks erected at the foot of Johnson Street, near
the bridge, and to have salt water pumped up. Then
a fire engine is asked for. In fact Governor Douglas
seems to have been appealed to for everything they
wanted, and in this instance he seems to have been the
right man to appeal to, as will be seen later.
In a later edition is the announcement of the arrival
of the steamer Oregon from San Francisco with mail,
express and 1,900 passengers.
Alex. C. Anderson is appointed collector of customs
by Governor Douglas.
The Governor has ordered two fire engines from San
Francisco, and still the cry is 1 Water! water!" " Dig
wells, citizens, we must have a supply." The editor
seems to have water on the brain. It is suggested that
there be an ordinance compelling people to have so
many buckets of water alongside each tent.
The council have ordered the removal of all bodies
from the cemetery on Johnson and Douglas Streets to
the new cemetery on Quadra Street.
July 7th.—Complaints  are made that a fence ob- THE VICTOEIA GAZETTE, 1858
structs View Street, so that pedestrians have to go
along Broad to Yates or Fort, and down these streets
to reach Government. This obstruction does not seem
to have been removed permanently, for Hibben & Co.'s
store occupies this lot, and before the brick one was
erected there was a large wooden building then owned
by J. J. Southgate. That it was not intended that
View Street should end at Broad is evident, as Bastion
Street was then known as View Street, being so-called
in Mallandaine's first directory in 1860.
Another petition to Governor Douglas. This one by
the local clergy to have a branch of the Y. M. C. A.
instituted in Victoria.
The steamers Orizaba and Cortez have arrived with
the large number of 2,800 passengers.
Proceedings of the House of Assembly.—Present:
J. D. Pemberton, James Yates, J. Kennedy, J. W. McKay, T. J. Skinner and Speaker Helmcken. The
latter gentleman asked to be relieved of the Speakership for reasons he has already stated. After a discussion on the subject it was decided that the Speaker
be not allowed to retire, and the honorable gentleman
continued to act.
The paper complains that the P. M. S. Co.'s steamers
have lately dumped Victoria passengers at Esquimalt
and carried the freight to Bellingham Bay, and after
unloading Bellingham Bay freight have come back to
Esquimalt with the Victoria freight. In consequence
of this arrangements were to be made so that the
steamers land the Victoria freight in our harbor.
The Freemasons are invited to meet at Southgate's
new store on Monday evening, July 12th, at 7 o'clock,
to consider important matters connected with the organization of the order. 76     EEMINISCENCES  OF  OLD VICTOEIA
Three thousand fixe hundred mining licenses have so
far been granted.
In a cutting from a European paper there is an item
to the effect that it was generally understood that the
Queen's family name was Guelph, but that such was not
the case, as that was the name of a religious faction of
which the Elector of Hanover was the head, but that
the real name of the family was " D'este."
Wells, Fargo & Co. will soon open a bank.
Collector Anderson notifies the public that all necessary provisions for miners for personal use may be taken
up the Fraser Eiver free.
It is announced that Eev. E. Cridge holds service
every Sunday afternoon on Wharf Street, opposite the
Fort gate.
In consequence of the reduction in the price of lumber to $50 per 1,000 feet, houses are springing up
Governor Douglas has appointed Mr. Augustus Pemberton commissioner of police.
Theatricals are held in a mammoth tent, as there is
so far no theatre.
One of the fire engines, named " Telegraph," bought
by the Governor, has arrived from San Francisco, the
cost of which is $1,600.
There has not been a death from natural causes in
the city during the last thirty days.
The Gazette having received an Adams power press,
the paper will be issued daily in future, and the proprietors look for a recognition of their enterprise. The rates
are $20 per annum or 12^c. per copy.
The First Brick Building.—This matter may now be
considered settled by this item, which reads:    "Our THE VICTOEIA GAZETTE, 1858
first brick building is about completed, and is to be
opened as a hotel" (referring to the Victoria.)
The first steamer to reach Fort Yalo is the Umatilla,
21st July, 1858. § §"
The streets of Victoria have not yet been sprinkled,
and there are many complaints from shopkeepers as to
the damage their goods receive from dust. Why not
use salt water, if fresh cannot be had?
Eoussett is building a wharf at the foot of View Street,
and Chas. B. Young one at the foot of Johnson. The
former of these items would be hard to understand by
people of the present day, " at the foot of View Street."
This is, I think, the explanation. As originally laid out
View Street extended from above Cook Street to Wharf
Street, and would to-day were it not that Hibben & Co.'s
building or stores stand in the way. On July 7th, as
already mentioned in this article, the Gazette stated
that there was great dissatisfaction at the fencing of
the vacant lot on Broadway (Broad Street), opposite
View, which they stated was used as a " cabbage patch,"
and there was talk of pulling the fence down. All the
agitation seems to have amounted to nothing, for not
only was the fence not pulled down, but J. J. South-
gate, one of the earliest merchant emigrants, erected a
large wooden building on the street. By referring to
the engraving this building may be seen; later on J.
J. Southgate erected the present brick building. The
paper stated later that the Governor had sold the lot to
Southgate, and that settled the matter.
Sheriff Muir announces by advertisement that anyone
found with firearms on their person would be arrested
and punished.
A salute was fired from the fort bastions on the arri- 78     EEMINISCENCES  OF  OLD VICTOEIA
val of Governor F. McMullen, of Washington Territory,
accompanied by Governor Douglas, who had met the
American Governor at Esquimalt, this being a friendly
visit to our Governor.
In future Sheriff Muir will arrest all gamblers.
An Indian, convicted of stealing, was tied up in the
fort grounds and received twelve lashes by Sheriff Muir.
Captain William Brotchie has been appointed harbor
master for Victoria by Governor Douglas.
An exclusive grant was made by the Legislature to a
company to supply Victoria with water for ten years.
The fare by steamer from San Francisco to Victoria
is $30. I;       I
A fire occurred in the ravine on Johnson Street, which
destroyed a canvas house tent and contents.
Two fire engines have arrived, and a petition is being
signed to the Governor, praying him to organize a
volunteer fire department under an officer appointed by
A regular stage now plies between Victoria and the
naval station, leaving Bayley's Hotel, corner Yates and
Government Streets (Pritchard House corner), hourly,
the fare being one dollar each way.
The following gentlemen call a public meeting by advertisement to organize a volunteer fire department:
M. F. Truett, J. J. Southgate, A Kaindler, A. H. Guild,
Charles Potter, Samuel Knight and J. N. Thain. This
was the initial movement to form the volunteer fire department which did such good service for thirty years
H I July 28th, 1858.—The steamer Wilson G. Hunt
left San Francisco to ply in these waters." Where is
she now? and how old is she?
At the public meeting called to organize a volunteer THE VICTOEIA GAZETTE, 1858
fire department M. F. Truett was called to the chair,
E. E. Eyres was elected secretary, and the following
working committee was appointed: Jas. Yates, Chas.
A. Bayley, J. H. Doan, Leopold Lowenberg, Eousett,
Truett and Myers. The Hunneman engine to be known
as No. 1 and the Telegraph as No. 2. The committee
were to select one hundred men to each engine to form
the companies. The first meeting of No. 2 company
called, and the notice is signed by H. J. Labatt, W. F.
Bartlett, J. W. Turnbull and David Green.
Albert H. Guild calls a meeting of all Oddfellows
in good standing to meet on July 5th, at which it was
decided that a register of all Oddfellows should be
kept; a weekly meeting was to be held each Wednesday
evening at eight o'clock over Guild & Webb's store, corner Wharf and Fort Streets; C. Bartlett, secretary.
From this meeting of a few members of this most
beneficent order has sprung into existence forty-two
lodges scattered all over the province, with a total membership of 3,527, and I am afraid that to-day not one
of those faithful few brothers of the mystic three links
August 4th, 1558.—The first arrival of the steamer
Pacific in Victoria harbor is announced.
The Public Examination of Craigflower Colonial
School (Midsummer).—In the absence of the Governor,
Eev. Edward Cridge examined the pupils, and prizes
were presented to Jessie McKenzie, Wm. Lidgate,
Christine Veitch and Dorothea McKenzie. The prizes
were donated by the Governor. Old-timers will remember these names well.
Married by Eev. E. Cridge, Wm. Eeid to Margaret
First trip of the steamer Leviathan to Puget Sound, 80     EEMINISCENCES  OF  OLD VICTOEIA
Captain Titcombe. This leviathan of the deep was so
small that she was hoisted 'on the deck of a steamer
from San Francisco, and so arrived from that place.
The paper announces that over one hundred vessels
from all parts were then on the berth for Victoria, and
what was to be done to find wharfage room for so many
in Victoria harbor?
Fire Engine Company No. 1 held its first meeting at
the American Saloon, August 6th, 1858. J. H. Kent
was elected president and Charles E. Nichols secretary.
The American Saloon was on Yates Street, and I think
was kept by Thos. Burnes, who for years was a most
enthusiastic fireman.
An editorial calls for the establishment of a public
hospital, a jail and a deadhouse (the latter seems a
strange want, at least an urgent one). The present jail
is too small, and coroner's inquests have to be held in
the open air in front of the jail; the jury stand around
the corpse, some leaning against it, spread on some
boards, and the coroner sits on the top of an empty
barrel (very primitive).
The public examination of Victoria Colonial school
(on the site of Central School). Eev. E. Cridge and
the master, Jno. Kennedy, examined the pupils. Prizes
were given to David Work, Wm. Leigh and James Pot-
tinger. Six months later the writer was a pupil of this
Birth.—August 12th, 1858, the wife of Wm. A.
Mouatt, of a daughter.
Married.—Same date, Edward Parsons, H. M. S.
Satellite, to Emma, eldest daughter of James Thorn.
Improvements.—Since 12th June there have been
two hundred and fifty brick and wooden houses erected
in the city. THE VICTOEIA GAZETTE, 1858
A writer thinks it time that Victoria's streets were
named and an official map made.
A. Pemberton, commissioner of police, notifies the
public that no more canvas or wood and canvas houses
will be allowed, as they are a public nuisance.
August 24th, 1858.—The stern wheeler Enterprise
has arrived from Astoria, Capt. Thomas Wright, master.
She is to run on the Fraser Eiver to Langley.
An open letter to Eev. E. Cridge appears in the
Gazette from an indignant American, who, with his
family, had attended Eev. Mr. Cridge's preachings, and
who now feels insulted at the treatment he received
lately by the sexton showing a negro into the same pew
occupied by himself and family, also treating other
respectable Americans in the same way. He further
stated that, the day being warm, the peculiar odor was
very objectionable, so that several Americans left before
the service was over.
A day or two later this is answered by a letter signed
M. G. W., who was a colored grocer of Yates Street
(Lester & Gibbs). He was a clever writer, and handled
the gentleman, Mr. Sharpstone, without'gloves, saying
some very pertinent as well as impertinent things, taking especial exception to the reference of Mr. Sharp-
stone to the peculiar odor and perspiration.
Mr. Cridge appears with a letter, throwing oil on the
troubled waters, and the editor thinks enough has been
The arrival of the steamer Otter with news of *s
massacre of forty-five miners at Fort Hope by Indians;
the news is considered of doubtful truth.
There is a project to build a bridge across French
Eavine, where Store Street passes over it. Was this
ever done, or was it filled in instead? Who can answer?
House of Assembly, Aug. 26th, 1858.—Petition from
Nelson & Sons for exclusive privilege to supply city
with water from a spring two miles to northeast of
city, at the rate of 1*4 cents per gallon, and a free supply to the Hudson's Bay Company; also a petition from
Hy. Toomy & Co., to light the town with gas. Mr.
Pemberton gave notice of a resolution to provide for the
erection of a bridge at Point Ellice; also a petition
from Edward Stamp to grant him the privilege of
bringing water into Victoria by means of pipes along
the streets.
A Chinaman (one of the first batch to arrive) was
found shot dead with five bullets in his body. He was
on his way to a spring to fetch a bucket of water, and
had to pass a camp of miners. Further comment unnecessary.
A change of ownership of the Gazette is announced,
and Abel Whitton becomes proprietor.
A notice appears that all persons requiring seats in
Victoria District Church should apply to J. Farquhar,
in the Fort.
Bayley's Hotel, corner Yates and Government Streets,
J. C. Keenan, proprietor.   Board $15 a week.
A cricket match between H. M. S. Satellite's and Victoria elevens at Beacon Hill.
" Tipperary Bill" shoots a man at this cricket match
and kills him.   He is still at large.
September 14th, 1858.—News just arrived of the
laying of the Atlantic cable, and a salute of twenty-one
guns to be fired from the Fort.
There have been 344 houses erected in Victoria in
three months.
New Map of City Issued.—The first three streets
named after the three Governors—Quadra, Blancbard THE VICTOEIA GAZETTE, 1858
and Douglas. Secondly, after distinguished navigators
on the coast—Vancouver and Cook. Thirdly, after the
first ships to visit these waters—Discovery, Herald and
Cormorant. Fourthly, after Arctic adventurers—
Franklin, Kane, Bellot and Eae; and fifthly, after
Canadian cities, lakes and rivers—Montreal, Quebec,
Toronto, St. Lawrence, Ottawa, Superior and Ontario. CHAPTEE VIII.
VICTORIA IN 1859-1860.
I have before me an old picture of Victoria as it
appeared in 1860. It is a watercolor sketch, drawn and
colored by H. 0. Tedieman, C.E., and artist. For me
this picture has a great fascination, because it reminds
me of those days gone by—" those good old days," as an
old friend of those pioneer days remarked to me recently. A prettier place could not be imagined, with
its undulating ground covered with grass relieved by
spreading oaks and towering pines.
By the aid of this picture and information furnished
me by Colonel Wolfenden and Mr. Harry Glide, I am
enabled to give a pen-picture of the Queen City of the
West forty-four years ago. Colonel Wolfenden says that
when he first remembers James Bay he saw a gang of
Indians—it may be one hundred'—under 1 Grizzly "
Morris, a contractor, and superintended by H. 0. Tedieman, with pick, shovel and wheelbarrow making Belleville Street along the water and in front of the Government building. The sea beach then came up in front
of the large trees on the Government grounds, about
eighty or one hundred feet further inland. All this
space was fillepl or reclaimed from the sea by the
Indians. I might say that Chinese were almost as rare
in those days in Victoria as Turks. Indians performed
all manual labor—in fact were to that day what John
Chinaman is to this,    James Bay bridge, which was
just built, looks a very frail structure in this picture,
and must have been, as Colonel Wolfenden says, intended for passenger and light vehicular traffic, there
being nothing to cause heavy traffic over the bay, the
only houses of any moment being the pagoda-like buildings erected in 1859 for the Government, and replaced
by the present palatial buildings, of which there were
five. In addition to these I see the residence of Governor Douglas and Dr. Helmcken, Captain Mouat and
City Clerk Leigh. There was also a good-sized house on
Beckley Farm, corner of Menzies Street, in charge.of
John Dutnall and wife. Across Menzies Street there
is the cottage now owned and occupied by Mr. Jesse
Cowper, since dead, which was then occupied by John
Tait of the Hudson's Bay Company's service, and who
was an enthusiastic volunteer of the white blanket uniforms of 1861.
I see what I think was the residence of W. A. Young,
on Superior Street, who was Colonial Secretary, and
whose wife was a daughter of Chief Justice Cameron.
If this is the place I see, it is still standing, and for
years was the residence of the late Andrew J. Smith.
To the right of the Government buildings is an isolated cottage which I believe is still in the land of the
living, being built of corrugated iron, brought out from
England by Captain Gossett, who in 1859 was colonial
treasurer, mention of whom will be made later on.
From Mr. Leigh's residence, which with Captain
Mouat's was on the site of Belleville Street, until you
come to St. John Street, there is a blank. On the corner
is the house built and occupied by Captain Nagle, now
occupied by Mr. Eedfern, and across the street another
built by James N. Thain and now occupied by Mr.
George Simpson of the customs.    From this on to the 86     EEMIN1SCENCES  OF  OLD VICTOEIA
outer dock I see three isolated houses, that still remain.
The large one was built and occupied by Mr. Laing of
" Laing's Ways," the pioneer shipbuilder; another by
Captain H. McKay, the sealer captain; the third was
built out of the upper works of the wrecked steamer
Major Tomhins, the first steamer to run from Olympia
to Victoria. She was wrecked off Maeaulay Point in
1856. Mr. Laing bought the upper works and built this
house. Lumber in those days had mostly to be imported
from San Francisco—that is, the wood for fine work.
Mr. Muir, of Sooke, bought the boilers and engines,
which he put into a sawmill he built there, and good
service they gave for years. Before the road opposite
the Government grounds, which is now Belleville Street,
was reclaimed from the sea, there was an Indian trail
which ran through the woods, from Laing's Ways, in
the direction of town along the water-front, around the
head of the bay to Humboldt Street. I might say that
the plat of ground on which the Government buildings
were built in 1859 was bought from a French-Canadian
who came overland from Montreal, and although in the
service of the Hudson's Bay Company for years, either
could not or would not speak a word of English other
than " yes" or " no." He built his house here and
lived here until he sold out to the Government, the
house being afterwards used as a Government tool house.
Mr. Harry Glide, from whom I got these particulars,
is a pioneer of 1856/and lived near the outer wharf.
He married a daughter of Mr. Laing. He says all
James Bay from the bridge to the mouth of the harbor
was covered with pine trees, and all this land, together
with that facing Dallas Eoad up to Beacon Hill, was
called Beckley Farm. The greater part of all these
trees were cut down for Kavaunah, a man whom many VICTOEIA IN 1859-1860
will remember as having a woodyard about where the
James Bay Athletic Association now stands.
Mr. Glide says that there were quite a lot of Cherokee Indians here who came from their native land to
the coast of British Columbia for work, and a fine body
of men he says they were, most of them over six feet
and strongly built. It does seem strange that they
should have travelled so far from their homes and
country. There were also many Kanakas here, who
came on vessels from Honolulu at odd times. They
formed a small colony and located on Kanaka Eoad, or
Humboldt Street, as it is now called. I can remember
them in 1860, one family attending service at Christ
Church regularly.
The most prominent building in sight is Victoria
District Church, as it stands out in relief on Church
Hill. When I first went there as a boy, it was a most
primitive-looking building, with its low steeple or dovecote (as it looked like). There were two bells in this
steeple, one larger than the other, which sounded ding
dong, ding dong, many a year, until early one morning
James Kennedy, an old friend of mine, as he was going
home saw flames issuing from the roof.
He gave the alarm, and shortly after the whole town
was there, and the engines with volunteer firemen.
Nothing could save it though, as it was summer-time
and very dry, and it was not more than an hour or two
before it had disappeared. The other day I had the
pleasure of meeting one of my schoolfellows of 1859,
Ernest A. Leigh, of San Francisco, a son of the second
city clerk of Victoria, and who was here on a visit to
his niece, Mrs. George Simpson (customs). We of
course had a long talk over old times, the days of yore,
the days of '59.    In looking over this old picture he 88     EEMINISCENCES  OF OLD VICTOEIA
exclaimed, " There is the old church we went to! My
father built it," and then I remembered the fact. Well
can I remember the old church, with its old-fashioned
windows, seats and gallery, and its organ that stood in
the gallery, facing the congregation. When I first
remembered it, Mrs. Atwood, now Mrs. Sidney Wilson,
was organist, and I was organ-blower. Originally it
was played as a barrel organ, as it contained three
barrels which contained ten tunes each, but Mr. Seeley,
the owner and proprietor of the Australian House, at
the north end of James Bay bridge, made and adapted
a keyboard to it, and Mrs. Wilson played it in the
morning and in the afternoon. In the evening the key-
board was removed, and your humble servant ground
out the hymn tunes as on a barrel organ.
It was in this gallery that I first met John Butts we
have heard so much of through Mr. Higgins. I remember Butts as a sleek, respectable-looking young fellow
with a nice tenor voice, which he was not afraid to use,
and he was quite an addition to the choir, of
which I was a juvenile member. In after years
John fell from grace and gave up the choir, and might
have been heard singing as he walked along the street,
and not above taking fifty cents from someone well able
to give it. He was always cheerful and goodnatured,
and if a child were lost John would ring his bell and
walk up and down calling out the fact.
This view of the old city is taken from the rocks on
the Indian reserve, and in the foreground is a large
building which occupied the site of the present marine
hospital. When first I remember this building it was
used as a lunatic asylum. It is the only prominent
building shown on the reserve, with the exception of
the Indian lodges, which by the extent might accommo- VICTOEIA IN 1859-1860
date easily two thousand Indians. The harbor is full
of shipping, taking up the whole frontage from the
Hudson's Bay Company's wharf north, which is the
only one distinctly to be seen in the view. The vessels
reach to the bridge across the harbor.
At anchor is the historic Beaver, and steaming out
of the harbor is the British steamer Forward. On the
Hudson's Bay Company's wharf is a large shed or house.
• I do not see the present brick building, which was not
built then (1859), but Mr. Glide says in a large shed
on this wharf the British Colonist first saw the light,
the advance sheets being printed here in 1858. When
the shed was torn down a little over a year ago there
were brought to right a number of old letters, which was
a good find for the man who had the job of taking the
shed down, for there were lots of old Vancouver Island
stamps on these letters.
The Colonist was moved from here to Wharf Street,
about where the Macdonald block now stands. Also
Wells, Fargo's express first did business in this shed,
then moved to Yates Street, where it was located in a
building, the lumber for which was imported from San
Francisco', being redwood. This building was afterwards moved to Langley, between Bastion and Fort,
and used as a feed store by Turner & Todd, whom we
all know.
An incident by my schoolfellow Ernest Leigh, of Upland Farm in 1859, finishes this reminiscence.
Killing or Capt. Jack.
Eeferring to Mr. Higgins' most interesting account of
the killing of the noted Indian chieftain, " Captain
Jack," at the Victoria jail in the year 1860— the result 90     EEMINISCENCES  OF  OLD VICTOEIA
of this shooting was to set the Indians over on the
reserve wild with excitement, which condition was aided
by a plentiful supply of infernal firewater obtained
from the notorious wholesale joint at the end of the
Johnson Street bridge. They immediately decided to
start in their canoes up along the straits toward Saanich,
calling at the many farms and wreaking their vengeance
upon the settlers. A man was sent out from the fort
on horseback to warn the farmers. At the Uplands
Farm at Cadboro Bay, where the late William Leigh
and family were residing, there were some seventeen
people—men, women and children. When the warning
came a hasty consultation was had, Mr. Leigh being
away on business, as to whether it would be best to load
up the wagons and all move in to the fort, or to barricade the house and run chances of being burned out, or
to hide away in the forest behind the farm. The latter
course was finally decided upon, and with a supply of
blankets, mats and wraps, for protection against the
cold, a movement was made down into a heavily wooded
ravine about half a mile back of the farm, where, hidden under the spreading branches of a large pine, the
party made themselves as comfortable as they could,
the women and children huddled close under the tree
and the men and elder boys mounting guard on the
outer edge. Some of them were perched in the lower
branches with whatever arms they had been able to
secure, principally old Hudson Bay flintlock muskets.
It was very dark and gloomy in the ravine, which
was heavily timbered with a pine forest, and the concealed partly expected that at any time the Indians
might arrive and fire the farm buildings, and perhaps
search for them.
Just before dawn several dark forms were seen by VICTOEIA IN 1859-1860
the best-sighted of the men on watch, creeping cautiously up the ravine towards the hiding-place. The
cracking of twigs and an occasional grunt were heard,
and we knew the Indians were approaching. Word was
passed not to fire until our leader gave the signal, which
was finally given. Two of the old flintlocks went off,
the others missed fire. One of the bullets struck one of
a drove of pigs which were quietly feeding up the ravine
and which in our terror wo took for the foe. The
squeals of the wounded pig frightened the others, and
the whole drove came charging and squealing up the
ravine right through our camp, tumbling over men,
women and children, whose screams, added to the noise
of the pigs, made matters a trifle lively until the enemy
went by. The morning growing bright, and no Indians
appearing, a cautious approach was made to the farm,
and shortly after a runner came from the fort with
word that the Indians had taken to their canoes the
night before and had started out, but had been turned
back by the gunboat which was on watch, and they were
not allowed to leave the outer harbor, so our terror was
without cause.
(Note.—I saw the arrest of the Indian chief " Captain Jack," and heard the shot fired by Constable
Taylor that killed him, as I stood outside the outer
entrance to the gaol.—E. F.) CHAPTEE IX.
I had intended telling what I knew of the fires of
early Victoria, but when I sat down to put to paper
what I know of any noted fires, I first realized how
little there was to tell of that dread element's ravages
in early Victoria. But although there is not so much
to tell of great fires, there is a good deal to be said of
the men who prevented those fires becoming great, so
I decided to go on with my subject.
For a city of its size and age, there could not be one
more immune from fires. Was it the fir of which we
built most of our principal buildings? Some contend
it was. The Douglas fir was hard to burn, and the
honesty of those fir-built houseowners no doubt was also
a reason. In the Victoria Gazette of 1858 there are
many references to the subject of fires that might occur,
and also to the fact that there is no water to put out
a fire should one occur. Then the editor suggests a
public meeting to consider the important subject and
also as to the building of large tanks to hold salt water
at the bottom of Johnson Street. Subsequently Governor Douglas is petitioned to procure a fire engine, with
the result that he ordered two. Later one of these
engines, named the "Telegraph," arrived from San
Francisco, and I believe was second-hand, as the price
paid was $1,600. Another petition was sent to the
Governor to organize a fire department under an officer
0—J-~, f JL. tl
■Q C4s+vi   - ft CXAJ J '      J 6 * £■
Hook and Ladder Company,  May 1st, 1862.  FIEES AND FIEEMEN
appointed by himself. Soon after a public meeting was
called by advertisement by the following gentlemen to
organize: M. F. Truett, J. J. Southgate, A. Kaindler,
A. H. Guild, Chas. Potter, Samuel Knight and J. N.
Thain. This was the initial movement to form a volunteer fire department.
At a subsequent meeting, E. E. Eyres was appointed
secretary, and the following a working committee:
Tames Yates (father of Alderman Yates); Chas. A.
Bayley, hotel-keeper, corner Yates and Government
Streets; Capt. J. H. Doan, since died (his daughter is
still a resident); Leopold Lowenberg, a real estate agent,
and uncle of Carl Lowenberg, German consul; and Eous-
sett, Truett and Myers. This committee was to select one
hundred men to each engine to form the companies.
The first meeting of No. 2 engine was called and the
notice is signed by David Green (clothier, whose widow
is still a resident), H. J. Labatt, W. F. Bartlett and J.
W. Turnbull. The first meeting of Engine No. 1 was
called to meet at the business place of Thomas J.
Burnes, August 6th, 1858 (customs staff.) His photo,
taken in 1860 by Eobinson (over Theatre Eoyal), is
here reproduced, showing he has been elected foreman
of his company. Mr. Burnes was a most enthusiastic
fireman for many years after this. The photo of Jno.
C. Keenan of same date is also given. He was another
good fireman. (Note.—Both these photos have been
lost.—E. F.)
A picture is here reproduced of a May Day parade of
Victoria's volunteer firemen of forty years ago. I am
sorry I am not able to give the names of more of those
in line, but the photo is so old it is hard to make them
out. Would you believe it, May Day was a general holiday, and set apart as " Fireman's " day, and celebrated 94     EEMINISCENCES OF OLD VICTOEIA
with a parade and picnic, either at Medana's Grove or
Cook and North Park Streets. The weather was usually fine with the warm sunshine of spring. I hear the
gong of the engines as the procession moves along—the
hook and ladder company, the Tigers and the Deluge
company, all decorated with flowers, flags and evergreens. Under a canopy of flowers sits a beautiful little
girl as the " May Queen." On each side and following
behind march those who have constituted themselves
the salvors of their fellow-citizens' property and life.
Among these men were some of our prominent business
men, merchants, tradesmen and professional men, as
well as workingmen. Would the citizens of the present
day believe that these men had banded themselves together, put their hands in their pockets to build engine-
houses and equip engines, had given their time, either
by night or day, attending fires, and had paid monthly
dues to keep the concern going, and all without fee or
reward? It is even so, and no night was too cold or
wet to keep these men from their duty. The picture
I produce of the " Hook and Ladders " in a May Day
parade of 1862 was taken from the original, and is here
produced by the kindness of Mr. Fred Morison (customs) . He was then a torch boy and continued a volunteer fireman for nearly thirty years. On account of the
age of the photo the faces are rather indistinct, so that
some of those present cannot be recognized. I should
like to have known who the six or seven boys are, and
whether they are with us to-day, but I make out of those
present: Eobt. Homfray, C.E.; J. D. Edgar, of Edgar
& Aime; Eichard Lewis, undertaker; Murray Thain,
now of Moodyville; Henry and Eobert Thain; Louis
Vigelius, barber; Philip J. Hall, the banner-bearer; W.
T. Liveock, Chief Factor of Hudson's Bay Company;
Fred. Morison, customs, torch boy; Wolff, merchant,
of Yates Street; E. Grancini, merchant, Wharf Street;
Wm. Harrison, now of Saanich, and J. E. Anderson,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture, secretary.
On reading Mr. Levy's interesting sketch appended,
I see that the Hotel de France was also destroyed by fire,
and, being built of California redwood, was entirely
The first mention of a fire that is recorded in public
print is taken from the Victoria Gazette in 1858. It
is that of one of those primitive erections, a house-tent,
with the contents thereof. At that time Victoria was
covered in all directions, I am told, with canvas houses.
In February, 1859, there were a great many, I know.
As a member of the Victoria fire department, hook and
ladder company, I attended many fires, but they were
small comparatively. The destruction of the Colonial
Hotel on Government Street, as here produced, is one
of them. The Colonial was situated on Government
Street, between the Alhambra building on the corner of
Yates and the San Francisco baths (then kept by an
old fireman, Thos. Geiger), occupying also the upper
portion of the building now used as a music store by
Fletcher Bros. The old photos of the Colonial show
the hotel before and after the fire. Sosthenes Driard,
who was subsequently proprietor of the Driard House,
was the proprietor, and Mons. Hartangle, who was
afterwards co-partner with Driard in the Driard House,
was chief cook. He may be seen standing in front of
Alex. Gilmore's clothing store (now Fletcher's); also
a man with crutches, nicknamed " Pegleg Smith," who
was an M.P.P. of that day, and behind him is, I think, 96     EEMINISCENCES OF OLD VICTOEIA
your humble servant.   Further south, and on the same
side as the Colonial, was the Hotel de France, Manciet
and Bigne, proprietors.    Of this hotel I have a vivid
recollection, as I paid several visits there with my mother
when I was a boy.    She had heard of a sick miner
(maybe from Cariboo)   who   lay   there   dying.    His
physician, Dr. Powell, had done all he could for him,
and he knew his end was not far off.    He had, like
hundreds of others, risked his precious health for gold,
had been successful, and now was to leave this beautiful world and the gold with it.   My mother thought it
her duty to go and see him, read to him, and tell him
of the better world beyond.    So one Sunday afternoon
she went, and I with her, to carry some little delicacy
which he might not be able to get in the usual way.
She got sufficient encouragement to go again and again,
until the end came, and my mother was satisfied that
she had done him some good spiritually.   To come back
to fires.    There was the fire in Theatre Eoyal, after
the play of the " Octoroon."   Although the theatre was
gutted, it was not consumed, the reason being partly,
no doubt, that it was built of Douglas fir logs.    The
surroundings being of a most inflammable nature, this
was very surprising.   I might also instance the first and
second fires at Christ Church, the second of which only
was successful in consuming the building.    It was the
custom for every citizen present to lend a helping hand
when a fire was of any dimensions.   It was only doing
for another what you might want yourself next week.
If the fire was in the business portion of the city the
stores on the opposite side of the street were thrown
open to receive goods from the burning building, which
were carried by many willing helpers,    Oh, the good   FIEES AND FIEEMEN
old days! As I have stated in a former article, the
bluejackets from the war vessels at Esquimalt were
telephoned for, and ran all the way up and worked like
the bluejackets always do—with all their heart and soul.
I might go on discoursing on these incidents of bygone
days, but as Mr. H. E. Levy, one of the pioneer firemen,
has promised to add to this imperfect account, I shall
leave the fires and say something of the firemen. I
would draw the attention of my readers to the picture
of a May Day parade in 1862. It is the Union Hook
and Ladder Company, drawn up on Bastion Square
with their truck.
The Pioneer Engines.
(By H. E. Levy.)
"First in order comes the Union Hook and Ladder
Company, a very swell affair, composed of the leading
merchants of the city, sixty-five strong. They were
first located on the present site of the Board of Trade
building, then removing to Government Street to the
spot on which now stands the new Promis building.
Next came the Deluge Engine Company, No. 1, who
ran a very cumbrous Hunneman tub, made in Boston,
afterwards securing a Merryweather steam engine from
England. This company also consisted of sixty-five
men, and were first located about where the Poodle Dog
now stands, moving thence to that point on Yates
Street now occupied by the Maynard shoe store, again
moving to their own building on the north side of Yates
Street east of Broad. Next comes the Tiger Engine
Company, No. 21, first located on Johnson Street, next
to where the Jubilee saloon now stands, and afterwards
moving to the north side of Johnson, just above Government. This company commenced business with an
old double-decker that was brought up from San Francisco by the Hudson's Bay Company, and was there
known as Telegraph No. 1. This machine was very
similar to the one brought here last summer by the San
Francisco veterans; it was succeeded later by an up-to-
date cButton and Blake' hand engine, and still later
by a fine steamer from the same firm. These three
companies were very effective and presented a fine appearance in their semi-military uniforms, as they
turned out in full force on their gala day, the first of
May. J|
I On the arrival of the steam fire engines, six of the
younger members of each company were taught to manage the same, and soon became proficient as engineers.
Each company sent three members to the board of delegates, who made laws for the entire department.
Whether owing to good luck or good management, we
had very few large fires in those days, the most notable
being the Eosedale store, owned by Eeid and McDonald,
on the north-east corner of Bastion and Wharf Streets;
the Sam Price warehouse, then used as a lodging-house,
opposite the Occidental Hotel—this fire brought out for
the first time the Tiger steam engine, with Mr. H. E.
Levy (one of the engineer class) at the throttle. Another large fire not to be overlooked was the Hotel de
France on Government Street, nearly opposite Bastion.
It is a notable fact that a great number of the most
efficient heads of the department were nearly all Americans, viz., John Dickson, S. L. Kelly, John C. Keenan,
Charles Brooks, J. A. McCrea, James Drummond, and
many others, who no doubt are still remembered by the
old-timers,    There was a strong spirit of emulation FIEES AND FIEEMEN
between the companies, which added greatly to their
efficiency, each striving to be first at the fire, as it was
considered an honor to have first water on the same.
At the tap of the fire alarm men could be seen running
from all quarters to the engine-houses, as the first man
at the engine-house had the honor of carrying the pipe
into the fire, which was a position of some danger/ CHAPTEE X.
Some four or five years ago I came across an American illustrated newspaper containing an account of the
discovery of a perfect mammoth in Siberia, where it
had been imbedded in a glacier for thousands of years.
It was stated that an expedition had been sent from St.
Petersburg by the Imperial Academy of Sciences, headed
by Dr. Herz; also that later a telegram had been received stating the expedition had been successful in securing the animal complete, and that all the principal
parts, including even part of the contents of the stomach,
had been secured and were being brought on sledges
overland for thousands of miles. I was intensely interested in the alleged discovery, and made many enquiries of various people to find out if there was anything in it more than sensation such as is often got from
some of the American papers. The result of my enquiries was very disappointing; most of those I interviewed considered it a yarn. I let the matter rest for
some time and then decided to write a friend in St.
Petersburg for particulars. Mrs. Calthorpe (nee Duns-
muir), wife of Captain Gough-Calthorpe, who was naval
attache* to the British Legation at the time, responded
in due course of time, sending me a photo (Since lost.—
E. F.), reproduced herewith, of the animal as it appeared
stuffed in the Imperial Museum, and the promise of a
description, which Mr. Norman, secretary of the legation,
had kindly promised to translate from the Eussianfor me.
This has lately come to hand, and as Mr. Norman states,
is rather disappointing—that is, as regards the size of
the mammoth, it being a young one. The wonderful
part of the story is that the stomach of the mammoth
contained food as fresh as the day it was eaten thousands of years ago. The food seems to have been young
shoots of a species of pine tree, with vegetable matter.
The hair on its back was about 13 inches long, with a
thick fur at the roots of the hair. I submit the translated account by Mr. Norman, with his letter to me,
which I think will be interesting to the many friends of
the two British Columbia ladies mentioned therein. I
also give an account of the expedition as contained in
the newspapers at the time of discovery, as follows:
Story of the Scientific Expedition. |
1 The discovery of the mammoth to which the cable
despatch on this page refers, was reported during the
summer, and has excited the widest interest in scientific circles.
"A very interesting account of the discovery by Dr.
von Adelung, curator of the museum of the Imperial
Academy of Sciences at St. Petersburg, has just appeared in the Globus, a leading German scientific paper,
of Brunswick.
" From this account it appears that the mammoth
was first reported by a Cossack named Jawlowsky. He
found it in a glacier near the Beresowka Eiver, a tributary of the Kolyma Eiver, in far Northeastern Siberia.
The nearest settlement is Sredne Kolymsk, three hundred versts (a verst is 3,500 yards) away.
"The situation of the body is a very extraordinary 102   EEMINISCENCES OF OLD VICTOEIA
one. It lies in an enormous pocket of ice, between the
mountains, near the river bank. The ice is evidentlv
the relic of the great glacier that existed here in former
ages. The upper ice in time flowed away, leaving only
the lower part shut up in this pocket. The Eiver Bere-
sowka only thaws for a short time in summer. The
surface of the earth in this region also thaws only at
this season, and then only to a depth of two or three
feet.   Beneath that the soil is eternally frozen.
"A slight melting of the surface of the ice left a
bright, smooth space, peering through which the Cossack
Jawlowsky saw the ancient mammoth preserved, as we
sometimes see a lobster in a cake of ice. The Cossack
knew how interesting such relics were to civilized men
and promptly reported this one.
" Through the agency of Mr. Horn, the Chief of
Police of Kolymsk, the Cossack's report was conveyed
to the Governor of Yakutsk. He being interested in
scientific matters, promptly communicated the report
to the Imperial Academy of Sciences at St. Petersburg.
"The greatest scientific undertaking of this kind
ever made was then determined upon. This was
nothing less than an expedition to bring back the complete body of the mammoth. It was promptly organized by the Imperial Academy, with the fullest assistance of the government and the Ministry of Finance.
Dr. Otto Herz, curator of the Imperial Museum, was
appointed leader of the expedition, with Dr. Pfitzen-
mayer as assistant.
1 The expedition proceeded along the Trans-Siberian
railroad as far as Irkutsk. From there to the place of
the discovery is a journey by land and water of fully
3,000 miles. The scientists made part of this journey
in boats down the Lena Eiver to Jakutsk.   They then A SIBEEIAN MAMMOTH
started on an overland journey to Sredne Kolymsk.
They took fifty horses for transport. A large part of
the way lay through virgin forest. Then came the
formation called the Taiga, a sort of Arctic moorland,
which becomes swampy and dangerous in summer.
" The scientists had to live on salt fish, mare's milk
and stewed tree bark. Several lives were lost on the
journey, but it is now known that the chief scientists
reached their destination. They proceeded without
delay to excavate the mammoth.
" The flesh is treated with arsenic and then sewn up
in new cowhide, which shrinks, becomes air-tight and
preserves the contents.
"Nothing more will probably be heard from the
scientists during the present winter. Dr. Herz, according to the last report, was in doubt as to which of two
ways he will take in returning. He may, during the
coming summer, endeavor to take the mammoth's remains overland to Markova, a little settlement on the
Anadyr Eiver, which runs into Behring Sea. There he
would winter and go down the river at the opening of
next summer, and catch the steamship that calls there
once a year.
"If this proves impracticable, he will have to wait
until the winter of 1902-1903, and take the remains
overland by sledges to Irkutsk. It would be impossible
to make this tremendous journey in summer, through a
roadless country, where there are thousands of square
miles of swamps.
"Numerous relics of mammoths have been discovered in Siberia, including pieces of skin, and all the
bones. On more than one occasion a complete animal
has been found preserved in the ice, but a complete
animal has  never been  secured in  its entirety  and 104   EEMINISCENCES OF OLD VICTOEIA
brought back to civilization. That is exactly what the
Imperial Academy of Sciences now proposes to do.
According to the last report from Irkutsk, it is in a
fair way to accomplish this.
" It is, perhaps, one of the most marvellous facts in
the whole realm of nature that the body of a mammoth
should be preserved exactly as it existed in life thousands and thousands of years ago, but there is every
reason to believe that this happened in countless cases.
"The mammoth was a gigantic species of extinct
elephant. It flourished in past geological ages, and
also survived into the days of early man. When the
Palaeolithic or Old Stone man flourished on earth two
hundred thousand years ago, the mammoth was as common as the horse to-day. In no part of the world were
mammoths more abundant than in Northern Siberia.
They must have roamed about there as freely as the
buffalo did in North America fifty years ago.
" Though similar in structure to the modern elephant, the mammoth was very different in habits. He
was a northern animal, and with this in view was provided with a very long, thick hair, reddish in color, like
that of the camel. He had extraordinary teeth and
stomach, so that he was able to masticate and digest,
not only plants, leaves and so forth, but wood and the
trunks of trees. His stomach has been found full of
young fir trees. His teeth were built in layers and renewed themselves ceaselessly through life.
" Sometimes the mammoth would become mired in
a soft spot of earth, and there sink in, die, become frozen and preserved forever. Another mammoth,
while walking across a glacier, would fall into a crevasse, and there become frozen in a gigantic block of
ice.   That is what happened in the case of the animal A SIBEEIAN MAMMOTH
recently discovered in Siberia. The soil is generally
frozen to a depth of four hundred feet in Northern
"There were many species of mammoths, some of
them existing in earlier ages than others. One species
was provided with four tusks, the upper ones turning
up as in the present elephant, and the lower turning
down, as in the walrus. These horns were of gigantic
size, in some cases measuring twelve feet long. They
were adapted principally to digging up and pulling
down trees. The mastodon was a giant elephant of a
still earlier period than the mammoth.
I In spite of their gigantic size and weapons, the
mammoths were frequently killed by prehistoric men.
These men must have been very brave and determined
to kill these huge and terribly armed beasts, with stone
and rude wood and bone spears.
" The very word ' mammoth' is of Siberian Tartar
origin, being derived from the word | mammoth,' the
earth, on account of the beast being found frozen in
the earth. Chinese records show that they, too, frequently discovered the frozen mammoths. The beast is
probably the same as the ! Behemoth' of the Bible.
" The bones of the mammoth when first discovered in
Europe were variously regarded as the remains of giant
men and of elephants that had been brought to Europe
by the ancient Eomans. Even the majority of scientists held to this opinion until Sir Eichard Owen, the
great palaeontologist, first proved that they were the remains of an extinct animal allied to, but of different
species from, the elephant.
" One of the first mammoths described by modern
scientists was found on the peninsula of Tamut, near
the Lena Eiver, in 1799.    It was fully enclosed in a 106   EEMINISCENCES OF OLD VICTOEIA
mass of clear ice.    It was uncovered and rotted away
in 1804."
Mr. Norman's Letter.
The following is a copy of Mr. Norman's letter:
" British Embassy, St. Petersburg,
|~ *a]Dec- 24, 1904.
Dear Sir,—Before leaving St. Petersburg, Mrs.
Gough-Calthorpe, wife of our late naval attache, asked
me to send you some information about the stuffed
mammoth which is in the Zoological Museum here, as
you were interested in such things, and I promised to
translate the passage in the catalogue which refers to
the animal.
The revolution which has been raging here for the
last few months has given me so much to do I really
have not had time to keep my promise sooner. However, I now send you the translation, which, I fear, tells
disappointingly little about the mammoth, giving no
measurements nor any description of his appearance.
The earlier part, too, about the distribution of the elephant family, is doubtless also stale news to you.
" You have, I believe, already received a photograph
of him from Mrs. Calthorpe, so you know what he looks
like, but as I have seen him very often, I may add a
few details as to his personal appearance from my own
observation. He is smaller than I expected—a good
deal smaller than an elephant, but then, it is true, he
was young when he died, not full grown, I suppose.
His tusks are magnificent. His hair is very thick,
abundant and long and of a fashionable dark reddish-
brown tint.    Otherwise he is very like an elephant in A SIBEEIAN MAMMOTH
general build, and I should say, so far as I can judge
without being a specialist, in details also.
"I hope these few details may be of use to you.
Should you want more about the mammoth, or require
information about anything else in the museum here, I
shall be very glad to do my best to satisfy you.
I The Calthorpes are much regretted by all of us here,
as they were greatly beloved by us. Curiously enough,
the wife of Calthorpe's successor, Captain Victor
Stanley, also comes from British Columbia.
" Yours very truly,
"H. Norman.
Secretary to His Majesty's Embassy.
II send this by King's messenger as far as London,
which will still further delay it, but the posts are now
very irregular and unsafe in Eussia owing to the revolutionary strikes. H. N."
Translation from Catalogue.
" During the tertiary period elephants were very
numerous and were distributed over Europe, Asia as
far as the Arctic Ocean, North America and Africa.
By the remains excavated, many species of extinct elephants are now distinguished, among which one, known
under the name of Mammoth (Elephas Priniigenius),
existed in immense numbers in Europe and in Siberia
as far as its most northern limits. In Siberia the
'frozen bodies of these animals have frequently been
found well preserved, with the skin and flesh. On
account of the remoteness of the places where these
bodies have been found, not all the expeditions sent to 108   BEMINISCENCES OF OLD VICTOEIA
exhume them have had a successful issue. In this connection the most successful of all was that organized by
the Academy of Sciences in 1901 to the Eiver Bere-
zovka, in the Yakutsk district, which consisted of
Messrs. 0. F. Herz and E. W. Pfizenmeyer. Thanks to
this expedition an excellent specimen of the mammoth
was received by the Academy of Sciences,—Tather
young, with skin, parts of the internal organs, some
food and almost the whole skeleton. Unfortunately
some of the soft parts of the body, such as the trunk,
were not found. The remains of this mammoth made
it possible not only to set up the skeleton, but to stuff
the animal, which is placed in the position in which it
died, suddenly, in all probability, and in which it was
found in a frozen condition."
This story can hardly be called a " reminiscence " of
Victoria, but I thought that it might be interesting to
many who, like myself, have a liking for old and
ancient things, as this mammoth most assuredly was.
Also there may be an interest taken in the letter from
Mr. Norman, the secretary to H.M. Embassy, speaking
as it does of one who formerly was a resident and
native-born of British Columbia.—E. F. CHAPTEE XL
LEY, HON. G. A. WALEEM. ||    1
Mrs. Edwin Donald.
"I have fought a good fight, I have finished my
course, I have kept the faith."—Timothy 4: 7, 8. Never
was there one to whom these words could be applied
with greater truth than to the subject of this sketch.
A faithful servant of her Lord, she was always ready
to say a good word for Him, and took advantage of any
and all opportunities to bring back to Him some friend
whom she thought had become careless, thoughtless, or
indifferent in His service.
I am sure my old friend admonished me many a time
during our forty-six years of close friendship, but
always,in the most kindly manner, that could not help
impressing me, knowing it was well meant, and knowing also that she considered it her duty to say what she
did. §
It was in February, 1859, as a boy of twelve, just
arrived from San Francisco, that I first met her. She
and her husband had lately arrived from Wisconsin,
U.S., where they had been living some years, and, having a sister here already, she had been induced to come
to her. Her sister, herself and their husbands had all
come from Cornwall. The elder sister and her husband (Trounce) had emigrated to Van Diemen's Land,
as Tasmania was then called; the Trounces later on
went to San Francisco, and from there came to Victoria, in the same steamer as my father, in 1858.
The Trounces and Donalds lived in tents on Douglas
Street in 1858, and when our family arrived in 1859
they had just moved into what was then considered a
very handsome house. It now stands on Kane Street,
between Douglas and Blanchard.
Like Dorcas of Joppa, "she was full of good works
and alms deeds." The two sisters, with their husbands,
were Wesleyan Methodists, and Mrs. Donald, although
eighty-eight years of age, attended church twice on
Sunday, and always walked both ways, to the Metropolitan Church on Pandora Street. This she did to the
end, having gone twice the last Sunday. She did not believe in Sunday cars, and would not use them, although
they would have been such a help to her; but no, she
thought it wrong, so took the course she thought was
right. My wife and I called on her about ten days before her death, and on asking her how she was she replied, "I am as well as can be expected, for I am an
old woman, you know." She was as cheerful as usual.
She never complained; everything was for the best, she
And so it was in her case, for she was near her end,
" having fought a good fight and finished her course."
She died literally in harness, for an hour or so before
she breathed her last, she was working for the church,
propped up in bed sewing. Towards the end, being
conscious, she said, " I think my Lord wants me," and
so passed away to a better life. She was attended at her
death by an affectionate niece, Miss Carrie Thomas;
her other relatives being Mrs. Thomas and Mrs. Morall. HON". WYMOND HAMLEY
Hon. Wymond Hamley.
The late collector of customs, under whom I was
privileged to serve from 1882 to 1900, was appointed by
Sir Edward B. Lytton as collector of customs of New
Westminster, and arrived by sailing vessel in 1859.
After the union of the mainland and island in 1867,
the collector, with his staff, came down to Victoria and
established the customs house on Government Street in
a wooden structure near the post-office of that day, and
it was a very unpretentious affair.
His staff of that time, and who were with him at New
Westminster, was composed of Mr. Macrae, who in
1872 was pensioned on account of defective eyesight,
and is now living in Ireland, chief clerk; Charles S.
Finlaison (afterwards chief clerk), George Frye, C. S.
Wylde and Eichard Hunter. All of these, except Mr.
Macrae, are dead. Mr. Hamley was the last of three
brothers, and all of us have heard of the youngest, Sir
Edward, the hero of Tel el Kebir, who, with his eldest
brother, were generals in the British army. Sir Edward
was a noted tactician, and it was through this he became the hero of Tel el Kebir. He was prominent in
the Imperial Parliament also as a speaker. The elder
brother I heard little of from him, but I know he was
very proud of his younger brother.
The late collector was in early life in the British
civil service, and subsequently joined the navy, and
served on the China station. I shall always have a
kindly feeling for my late chief, as he was a good friend
to me, and felt kindly disposed to me, by the many conversations we had together. He was a just man in all
his dealings with the public, and treated all alike without fear or favor, and his decisions were, as a rule, al- 112   EEMINISCENCES OF OLD VICTOEIA
ways upheld at Ottawa.   There also could not have been
a more popular man with his staff.
So one by one the good old stock of the early pioneers
passes away, and their places will be hard to fill, so I
say " Requiescat in pace!
Hon. G. A. Walkem.
As a friend of over forty years, I should like to add
a few lines to what has been said of the late Mr.
Walkem. Some forty-two years ago I was going up
Yates Street, past Wells Fargo's bank and express,
which then occupied the brick building on the south
side just above the American Hotel and next Pierson's
tinware store. It was steamer day, and Yates Street
was full of life, as it always was when the San Francisco steamer had just arrived with passengers, freight,
mails and express.
The latter was the more important in those days.
The chief business was done with San Francisco, and
the most of the letters came by express, costing twenty-
five cents each, from San Francisco. As I said before,
I was passing Wells Fargo's. The large front office
was open to the street and was full of business men and
others. The -staff of the express consisted of Colonel
Pendergast, Major Gillingham (who introduced quail
from California), and a colored man named Miller, as
What attracted my attention was " George Anthony
Walkem," called in a loud voice. I stopped and
squeezed inside, where there was a scene that never will
be enacted again in this city, I think, in the way of
business. Major Gillingham was unlocking express
bags and cutting open bundles of letters, which he HON. G. A. WALKEM
handed to Colonel Pendergast, who was mounted on a
chair and calling out the addresses on the letters. If
the addressee was there he called out " Here," and the
letter was handed across the room to where he stood, or
if not there, was taken by a friend. After all the letters had been called, the audience trooped out and went
to their offices to peruse their correspondence.
I George Anthony Walkem" on this occasion was
not there and did not answer to his name, but the letter
was put in the letter-rack to be delivered by Miller, the
messenger. This occasion is vivid in my memory, as if
of yesterday, and is the first time I remember Mr.
It was a couple of years after that I met him at a
dance, and we became friends, and met at many home
dances and parties. He was a young lawyer and fond
of the society of young people, although older than they
were. In those days dancing was one of our chief
amusements, classes being formed under the direction of some lady. They were very enjoyable, being
kept select. The ladies having the two principal classes
were Mrs. Digby Palmer and Mrs. J. H. Carmichael.
I belonged to each, and met Mr. Walkem often. The
principal thing I wished to speak of with respect to my
friend was his gift of animal drawing, he being no
mean follower of Sir Edwin Landseer.
This I found out as a great surprise one day while
visiting him at his rooms over Hibben & Co.'s store.
The walls were plastered, and white, and all over were
covered with animals and portraits of noted characters
of the day done with a crayon pencil. These portraits
were of such men as Judge Begbie, the Governor, an
admiral of the station, or some noted politician.
But what took my fancy most of all were his lions,
male and female and cubs, and in all positions. It was
a sight well worth seeing, and would so be considered
Long after Mr. Walkem left these rooms these walls
were left intact, and many schemes were devised to remove the pictures with the walls. A prominent man, I
think Admiral Farquhar, asked my brother if it were
possible to cut the plaster off the studding in blocks
and so preserve these beautiful pictures. I am sorry to
say it proved to be impossible.
To-day there are reproductions of these pictures in
the judge's residence. They were framed in gilt by us,
and it is only a year or so since I saw them in Som-
mer's being reframed.   I recognized them immediately.
He was pleased to compliment me some time ago on
one of my sketches of early Victoria, a subject we compared notes on frequently, when I suggested that he
give to his friends some of his early experiences in Cariboo, which he recited to me, telling of those days when
he started off from Victoria a young man, with a good
profession, lots of energy, a fund of good humor, and
not a very heavy purse. He had his experiences, and
valuable experiences they were, and in Cariboo he
entered into politics, and for years represented that constituency in the Local House. He was a good friend,
and I shall miss his visits to my office, when he came in
to chat for a few minutes, always to wind up with a
"reminiscence." Well, as I said before, I shall miss
him and shall remember him with the most kindly
feelings. CHAPTEE XII.
Old-timers will be interested in the following clipping giving particulars of the consecration of St.
John's Church. The year is not given, but it was in
1860 (April 13th). It was when first built a very ugly
building, having no semblance of a tower, which was
added many years after. The first rector was Eev. E. J.
Dundas, M.A. Of the clergy who took part fifty years
ago, there are, I think, only three living, viz., Eev.
Edward Cridge, now Bishop Cridge; Eev. J. Sheepshanks, now Bishop of Norwich, and the Eev. Alexander Garrett, now Bishop of Dallas, Texas. Of the
bishops then present, both are dead. Bishop Morris, of
Oregon, who preached the consecration sermon, died a
few years ago, aged eighty-seven, the oldest bishop in
the United States; and Bishop Hills died in England
soon after he left this country, having resigned the bishopric of British Columbia, a very disappointed man.
Strange to say, he took a rectorship under one of his
former clergy, Eev. J. Sheepshanks, Bishop of Norwich.
It will be noted that the hymn-books used at the
service were to be obtained at Hibben & Carswell's
(T. N. Hibben & Co.). To close the consecration services there was to be a social gathering or tea-meeting,
which was a popular form of entertainment in those
good old days. The admission was one dollar, and the
proceedings commenced at half-past six o'clock.    Just
think of it, ye late birds of the later days, when half-
past eight is not too late! As the choir of Christ
Church assisted at these services, and as I was a choirboy, I must have been there.
The printed programme reads: " The consecration
of the Church of St. John the Evangelist is fixed for
Thursday next, 13th inst. The solemn occasion will be
marked by a series of services, at which a voluntary
choir will contribute their assistance, aided by the fine
organ just erected. It is also intended to hold meetings, one of which meetings will organize the Diocesan
Church Society, and the other draw together in a social
way the friends of religion, and the well-wishers of the
Church of England. It is earnestly hoped that these
various occasions may tend to strengthen the best influences amongst us, and advance substantially the
work of the Lord.
" The following is the order of services:
" Thursday, September 13th, in the morning, consecration service at 11 a.m. Sermon by the Bishop of
" The Holy Communion will be administered.
" In the evening service at 7 p.m. Sermon by the
Bishop of Columbia.
" Friday, September 21st, service at 11 a.m. Sermon by the Eev. E. Willis (rector of St. John's,
" Evening service at 7 p.m. Sermon by the Eev.
W. D. Crickmer, M.A., minister of Fort Yale.
" Sunday, September 16th, morning service at 11
a.m.    Sermon by the Bishop of Columbia.
"Afternoon service at 3 p.m. Sermon by the Eev.
E. Cridge, B.A., minister of Christ Church.
" Evening service at 6.30. Sermon by the Bishop of
Tuesday, September 18th, evening service at 7
p.m. Sermon by the Eev. J. Sheepshanks, M.A., minister of New Westminster.
" Friday, September 21st, evening service at 7 p.m.
Sermon by Eev. Alex. C. Garrett, B.A.
" Sunday, September 23rd, morning service at 11
a.m.    Sermon by the Bishop of Columbia.
" Afternoon service at 3 p.m. Sermon by Eev.
Charles T. Woods, M.A., principal of Collegiate School.
" Evening service at 6.30 p.m. Sermon by Eev.
E. J. Dundas, M.A., minister of St. John's.
" Collections will be made after all services towards
the debt still On the church.
" On Monday evening, September 17th, a meeting
will be held in Collegiate School-room at 7 o'clock, to
arrange and constitute the Columbia and Vancouver
Diocesan Society, according to the plan adopted in the
colonies of Great Britain.
" Addresses will be delivered. All friends of the
Church of England are invited to attend.
The chair will be taken by the Bishop of Columbia.
On Thursday, September 20th, there will be held a
social reunion of friends, when subjects of interest connected with social organization will be discussed. Admission by ticket, one dollar each. Tea will be provided.   Proceedings to commence at 6.30 p.m."
The following communication from a gentleman
who did his part in church work in this island in early
days will interest many readers. Extract from the
Union, London, December 7th, 1860:
c A correspondent in Vancouver Island sends an interesting account of the first consecration of a church
in that far-off colony by the Bishop of Columbia. It
is situated at Victoria and is dedicated to St. John the
Evangelist. It is of wood, encased with corrugated iron
plates, lined and panelled inside with redwood. It was
sent from England by the bishop, and placed by him
at the disposal of the people of Victoria, where a second
church was needed. The interior, which is stained dark
with the fittings, is extremely tasteful. There is a
beautiful carved stone font, given by a late parishioner
of the bishop's; a fine organ, also a gift; a bell, altar
cloth, and east light of stained glass. The consecration
took place on September 13th. There was a numerous
congregation, including clerical and lay representatives
of the Anglo-American Church, who came from Washington Territory. The bishop and clergy robed in the
vestry, and a procession being formed they proceeded
round the church to the west entrance, where the bishop
was received by the Eev. Edward Cridge, B.A., the incumbent of Christ Church, his church wardens and a
committee of laymen, the chief promoters of the work.
The petition, praying to consecrate the church, having
been presented, the bishop signified his assent and proceeded up the centre aisle, followed by the clergy, the
church wardens and committee following. The 24th
Psalm was recited by the bishop and clergy as they proceeded up the church. The bishop took his seat within
the altar rails attended by his clergy in the north choir
seats, the service being full choral, and the effect very
marked. It was, indeed, a privilege to join in such a
service ten thousand miles from home. The communion
service was said by the bishop, the epistle was read by
the Eev. D. E. Willis, the Gospel by Eev. J. Sheepshanks. The bishop preached from Matt. 26: 8, 9, subject, " Works of Faith and Love." The offering
amounted to $358." CONSECEATION OF THE IEON CHUECH    119
The Jubilee of St. John's.
Certain misleading remarks having been made at the
jubilee of St. John's with respect to Christ Church
not having been consecrated for long after being built,
and that it was a log building, etc., I, after getting
facts from Bishop Cridge and an early resident who
attended its opening, replied:
I To the Editor of the Colonist:
I In reviewing the rather interesting article in Sunday's Colonist on the jubilee of St. John's Church,
which contained a deal I had already given some years
ago, I noted particularly the reference to the first
Christ Church, and thought I could throw a little light
on the matter, especially after a conversation with an
early resident who attended the first service in the
church in 1856. The original building that was destroyed by fire was named j Christ Church' by Bishop
Cridge, after Christ Church in London, of which he
was incumbent up to the time of his leaving for Vancouver Island in 1855.
" After Mr. Cridge had been established here as resident minister and chaplain to Hudson's Bay Company,
Governor Douglas had Christ Church built for him,
and when the congregation had increased, Mr. Cridge
wrote to the Bishop of London, telling him that there
were twenty candidates for confirmation, and asking
him what he (Mr. Cridge) should do under the circumstances. In reply Mr. Cridge was advised to write to
Bishop Scott of Oregon, asking him to come to Victoria and confirm them. This was done, and Bishop
"Thus took place the first confirmation on Vancouver Island, and in this 6 unconsecrated church.'
The church is spoken of as being built of logs. This
is not so, as it was a frame structure, weather-boarded
on the outside, and lathed and plastered on the inside,
with a stone foundation.
"The church had a low tower like a dove-cot with two
bells. Altogether it was a pretty church. The building was put up by William Leigh, an official of the company, under the superintendency of Hon. J. D. Pemberton, who drew the plans and was architect. It was
opened first for public worship in August, 1856, prior
to which services were held in the fort. Later on, as the
gold rush from California took place, and thousands
came to Victoria, Mr. Cridge, being overworked, he
(Mr. Cridge) wrote to England to the Church and
School Society, asking for help. As a result of this appeal, St. John's Church was sent out by Miss Burdett-
11 might further state that the Catholic Church was
established here prior to the arrival of Mr. Cridge, and
for some time services under Bishop Demers were held
in the bishop's residence until a church was erected.
This pioneer of Catholic churches is still in existence,
having been moved from Humboldt Street south and
east of St. Joseph's Hospital to the rear of St. Ann's
Convent, being there encased in brick. As before
stated, I was at the laying of the corner-stone of St.
John's Church in 1860, as also was Mr. Alexander Wilson, of Broad Street, and we both remember the occasion, especially the music by the fine band of H.M.S.
Sutlej. I might here state that what I have said nas
been to throw a little more light on an interesting
subject." CHAPTEE XIII.
Miss Woods, daughter of the late Sheriff Woods,
and niece of the late Archdeacon, has handed me the
original notice in the handwriting of the late Eev. E. J.
Dundas, first rector of St. John's, of the laying of the
corner-stone of the St. John's Church, reading: " The
corner-stone of St. John's Church will be laid by His
Excellency the Governor (James Douglas), on Friday,
the 13th April, at 3 o'clock p.m., 1860." This makes
it over forty-six years old. The ceremony was performed on a beautiful spring afternoon. A procession
was formed at the residence of Captain Dodds (which,
by the by, is still standing), and marched to the site.
of the church. The magnificent band of H.M.S. Sutlej
(a line-of-battleship), furnished the music for the
occasion. No flagship in later days has had such a
band, for size or excellence. My memory in this particular has been refreshed by a fellow-pioneer in Mr.
Alexander Wilson, who also attended the ceremony. I
might state that the oldest church building at the
present time is the Eoman Catholic, which used to
stand on Humboldt street, and was later removed to
the rear of St. Ann's Convent and built around with
brick. This church antedates even St. John's, as I can
remember it in 1859. In connection with this old
church I have heard some fine singing, when Father
Brabant, of the West Coast, was connected with the
church, who was a fine baritone; also Madame Becking-
ham, then a Miss Tissett, Mrs. Fellows and Charles
Lombard. It was a musical treat indeed. There were
other good singers there, but these were notable, and
they are all alive to-day.
Bishop Garrett.
In connection with the above I have received from
Bishop Garrett, who was present on the occasion as
Eev. A. C. Garrett, a very nice letter with his photo,
which I think may be of interest to those who remember this eloquent divine of the pioneer days of Victoria,,
and who is to-day Bishop of Dallas, Texas:
Dallas, Texas, August 9th, 1906.
I Dear Mr. Fawcett:
I Your letter is here and has my most willing attention. I remember your father very well, and yourself,
too. I also remember the iron church and the old
cathedral on the hill very well. I also remember an incident which was amusing, in the iron church. Once
the great archdeacon preached a flowery sermon in St.
John's in the morning. The evening sermon was
preached by the Eev. C. T. Woods, who was out in the
morning at a mission station. The archdeacon occupied a pew at the evening service. When the text was
given out he pricked up his ears and sat up very
straight. The opening sentence was the same as that
of the morning; and so was the next and the next, even
to the last! Some of those who had been present in
the morning and had complimented the Ven. Archdeacon upon his eloquence, began to smile and nudged
each other.    At last the end came.    The Ven. Arch-   THE IEON CHUECH AGAIN
deacon went into the vestry, where some of the morning flatterers were repeating their forenoon praises!
At length they left, bursting with laughter. Then the
archdeacon said: c I see that we two donkeys have been
eating the same cabbage!'
" I remember also preaching in that church when the
wind howled and rattled through the roof in such a
way that nothing could be heard.
"Well, you are all greatly changed now—and so am
I. Mrs. Garrett is still vigorous, and I am doing a full
day's work every day in the year.
Affectionately yours,
Alex. C. Garrett,
I Bishop of Dallas." CHAPTEE XIV.
The other day I had occasion to go through the town
of Esquimalt, to the end of the principal street, which
runs north and south. It was to the north end I went
to take a boat to board the cable-ship Restorer to see my
son off for Honolulu.
I had not been on this spot, that I can remember,
for thirty years, and I could not but stop and stare and
wonder. Could this be the Esquimalt I used to know
years ago?
I could not but conjure up memories of the past, of
Esquimalt's departed greatness, bustle and busy life.
In 1858, and before my time, this was the British Columbia headquarters of the San Francisco steamers, as
well as the headquarters of the navy. Of the latter
there were always three or four vessels with nearly
always a flagship, and such a ship! It seemed like
climbing up a hillside as you passed tier after tier of
guns, and finally reached the upper deck.
The steamers running from San Francisco in those
days were large also, so large that they could not come
into Victoria harbor, and the Panama, I see by the
Colonist of that date, brought 1,200 passengers on one
Well, to proceed.     As I walked down the street I
turned from side to side, trying to remember who lived
in that house, and who in that one, in the days that
have gone by. Oh! what desolation! What ruin and
decay! Only about every fourth house was occupied—
the others given over to the dull echoes of the past. I
looked in several windows and saw nothing but
emptiness, dust and decay.
Of the notable houses and notable people who formed
the population of this once important town, there were
the residences of Fred. Williams, a prominent Mason
and Speaker of the Legislature; William Arthur,
William Sellick and John Howard, hotel and saloonkeepers; William Wilby, the mail carrier, with his
numerous family; the Millingtons and the Dodds. Of
John Howard I have already written in my description
of an early-time Queen's birthday celebration on Beacon Hill. John was a great horse fancier, and owned
some winners, which were generally ridden by the Mil-
lington boys. John, with his friend, Thomas Harris
(first mayor of Victoria), and Captain the Hon.
Lascelles, E.N., were then kindred spirits, and many a
day's sport they afforded to the public of Victoria.
After reaching the end of the street and the landing,
what did I see of the bustle, business and life of forty-
nine years ago—a small forest of worm-eaten piles
sticking up in the water in front of me. They were
the remains of a large dock which had been covered
with warehouses and offices connected with the shipping
of the port. The late Thomas Trounce, of this city,
owned the property and managed it. Imagine what
the arrival of a large San Francisco steamer with 1,000
or 1,500 passengers and 1,000 tons of freight on this
dock meant?   All these passengers and all this freight 126   EEMINISCENCES OF OLD VICTOEIA
were for Victoria. The freight was transferred to small
steamers for this city, and also carted up by road.
We ourselves landed here from the steamer
Northerner with six hundred others in February, 1859,
and came around to Victoria in a small steamer and
landed at the Hudson's Bay Company's wharf. There
were several stages plying also, the fare being "only
one dollar." The "'Squim'alt" road of that day was
not that of to-day. It branched off the present Esquimalt Eoad at Admiral's Eoad and ran eastward parallel
with the present road, climbing up a very steep grade
before reaching Lampson Street, and then keeping on
straight till reaching Craigflower Eoad. Then it
branched into the present road again at Everett's Exchange. This great change in 'Squimalt has not taken
place in late years. The loss of the naval station lately
does not seem to have made a deal of difference to its
appearance. It dates back to the I wooden walls " of
old England, and the appearance on the scene of the
ironclad of later years. Whatever was the cause, the
effect is there, and I suppose good reason could be found
for the great change. Melancholy it was to me, who
had seen the place full of life, jollity and laughter as
bluejackets and scarlet-coated marines by scores landed
with plenty of money in their pockets, and maybe
three days to spend it in. They were soon on the road
to Victoria, stopping at the wayside houses as they
jogged along, singing and laughing like a lot of schoolboys let loose from school.
On one of these occasions a laughable incident occurred, as scores of these bluejackets and marines passed
up Esquimalt Eoad. A squad or more might have been
seen walking along, headed by a bluejacket playing a ESQUIMALT, THEN AND NOW
lively tune on a fife or tin whistle. One or two were
dancing to the tune, when all at once the music stopped,
as a halt was made, the command being " 'Alt all 'ands!"
They had come opposite a wayside house and.the sign
over the porch—saloon—had attracted their attention.
One of the sailors had commenced to spell out the
sign. "Whafs this blooming sign say? A hess, and
a hay and a hell and a double ho, and a hen—saloon!
Why blast my blooming h'eyes, mates, it's a blooming
pub! All 'ands come in and take a drink," and you
may be sure " all 'ands " forthwith filed into the saloon
and " smiled," to use a Western phrase.
"For Jack's the boy for work,
And Jack's the boy for play;
And Jack's the lad,
When girls are sad,
To kiss their tears away."
These good ol,d days of 'Squimalt, I am afraid, are
gone for ever with her prestige as a naval station taken
from her. Shall we see her rise again as a commercial
port, as a headquarters of the C. P. E. ? Shall the
echoes of commerce take the place of the echoes of Jack's
laughter and song ? Let us hope so, and so end my little
reminiscences of 'Squimalt's early times.
Since writing this I have come across a cutting in my
scrap book from the Colonist of May 17th, 1870, which
gives the account of the arrival of the first and only
flying squadron (under Admiral Hornby), which ever
arrived here. By the by, we were promised flying
squadrons in lieu of stationary squadrons on this station. When is the first to arrive ? As there was a flagship here with two other vessels, at this time, my readers 128   EEMINISCENCES OF OLD VICTOEIA
may imagine the number of men in Esquimalt harbor
at that date; not less than three thousand five hundred,
I am sure, and how lively this must have made Esquimalt and Victoria. The whole population, figuratively
speaking, turned out to welcome these six vessels as they
came in from Eace Eocks under full sail. It was a
beautiful sight. The Zealous (armor-plated), Admiral
Farquhar, welcomed Admiral Hornby of the Liverpool,
flagship of the flying squadron. CHAPTEE XV.
I Yet even these bones from insult to protect,
Some frail memorial still erected nigh."
| Each in his narrow cell forever laid,
The rude forefathers of the hamlet sleep."
—Thomas Gray.
I must first apologize for altering two words in this
quotation from this most beautiful poem that caused
the celebrated General Wolfe to say that he would rather
be the author of it than have taken Quebec.
I am moved to write these lines by the fact that these
bones require protecting from the vandalism of certain
persons unknown, also I have been approached by
pioneers several times to write about this desecration of
the last resting-place of our pioneers.
It was in 1859 or early '60 that the Quadra Street
Cemetery was opened, all the bones from the cemetery
on Johnson and Douglas Streets being exhumed and
carried to Quadra Street in carts. I have stood several
times and watched the operation of digging up and
carting away of the remains from the first cemetery.
It was situated on the corner of Johnson and Douglas
Streets, the brick building on the south-west corner
being built on the site, and it must have extended into
the streets also, as some years later skeletons were found
by workmen digging trenches for water pipes. There
were many naval men buried there, and the dates
on some of the headboards and stones in Quadra Street
Cemetery show an earlier date than the opening of it,
there being two burials from war vessels, one in 1846,
H. M. S. Cormorant, and one in 1852. These early
dates show that Her*- Majesty's vessels were in Esquimalt at that time. Naval men and Hudson's Bay
Company's employees were the large majority of those
buried in the first cemetery. As a boy, I had a great
weakness for funerals, and living only a block from
Quadra Street, I attended scores in my day. I naturally
liked the naval funerals best, for there were soldiers and
sailors, and bands of music, with three volleys over the
grave, so I missed few. The funerals came from Esquimalt, generally by water, in large boats propelled by
oars, and landed at the Hudson's Bay Company's wharf.
By the inscriptions, a large majority were young men
and sailors, and many were the result of accidents in
Esquimalt harbor by drowning.
I well remember the funeral of Captain Bull, of H.
M. surveying ship Plumper, who died at the age of
twenty-seven years, the coffin being fastened to a gun
carriage and pulled by bluejackets. The state of Victoria's streets at that time was such that it required a
deal of power to propel any vehicle, and especially was
this the case with Quadra Street. I have often seen a
funeral come to a dead standstill and the hearse dug
out of the mud, as also teams loaded with stones for
monuments in the cemetery.
We will suppose the hearse has been dug out, and in
the cemetery near the grave, in many cases men might
be seen bailing out the grave, one below and one on
top; especially was this the case with the Eoman Catholic
ground. And I have known when it was necessary to hold OLD QUADEA STEEET CEMETEEY     131
the coffin down in the water with shovels or have a man
get down and stand on the coffin until enough soil was
thrown on it to keep it down. What must the friends
have thought at this time, as the dirty water was forcing
its way into the coffin ? In the majority of burials there^
was no grave-case, which helped to make matters worse.
I have always paid periodical visits to this cemetery,
the chief reason being that my mother was buried there
when I was fifteen years old. She expressed a wish to
be carried to her grave instead of being taken in a
hearse, and it was the first instance I can remember in
Victoria, although it may have been done earlier.
Both Bishops Cridge and Garrett, the clergymen who
conducted the burial services over her, are alive to-dav.
Some four years ago, I had a marble headstone put
on her grave, which was enclosed with a fence, and last
fall I saw it there although buried in weeds. A few
weeks ago a lady friend asked me if my mother's name
was Jane; for that she had, in walking through the
cemetery, come across a stone which must have been
hers. I went up to investigate, and after some hours'
search found the stone, but the enclosure was gone, and
I had a time locating the grave, to replace the stone.
In compiling the information given in this article, I
made many Tisits lately, and I can say that it is a disgrace to a civilized community to have the last resting-
place of Victoria's pioneers in such a condition—
marble and sandstone monuments lying in all directions,
broken either by falling over naturally, or with rocks
by some vandal.
It is a mistake to suppose that there are few remaining relations of these long-buried dead. At least there
are fifty per cent, of them represented by relations today, as I shall show later on, and I hope the state of 132   EEMINISCENCES OF OLD VICTOEIA
affairs as here related, may cause them to move at once
I might say that the individual plots were owned outright by the relations, and others, for they have certain
title to them. Individual comments are made on all
those that I know or knew of, and several large, heavy
stones I could not lift to get inscriptions, as they lay
on their face. In several cases wood headboards have
outlived stone, the inscription on the former being
more legible than the stone. The action of the elements
in many cases has entirely erased some, especially from
sandstone, although newer than the wood boards.
One of the inscriptions I have read many a time as
being quaint, was so far as I can remember, thus:
.    Physicians were in vain;
Till Christ did please to give her ease, release from all
her pain."
John S. Titcombe, pilot; monument erected by I.
0. 0. F.; died 1869, aged 41 years.
Matthew Hollow, died Feb. 28, 1871, aged 39 years;
erected by Victoria Lodge, I. 0. 0. F.
Thos. Pritchard, died Oct. 31, 1883, aged 79; also
Margaret his wife, died Dec. 3, 1871, 64 years. Note—
This is the most pretentious monument in the cemetery.
They leave grandchildren.
James Orr, died 1871, aged 32 years; buried by St.
Andrew's Masons and I. 0. 0. F.
Alice Heathcote, wife of J. W. Hutchinson, jailer;
died March 30, 1868, aged 27 years. |
Margaret Langley, wife of Edward Langley; died
1866; leaves relatives.
James   McCulloch,   engineer   steamer   Sir   James OLD QUADEA STEEET CEMETEEY     133
Douglas; died April 2, 1870, aged 46; also Margaret,
wife of above, died Dec. 3, 1871, aged 64 years; also
Wm. M. Doran, mate of same ship, who was accidentally
drowned in Victoria harbor, July 7, 1868, aged 45
years; erected by officers and men of steamer.
Jessie Eussell, wife of Eobt. J. Eussell (Eussell's
Station); died Aug. 29, 1860, aged 42.
John Wilkie, Wharf Street merchant; died April 28,
1871, aged 38 years.
James Murray Eeid (Eeid & Macdonald), partner of
Senator Macdonald, and father of Mrs. W. J. Mac-*
James Hepburn, died April 16, 1869; 58 years.
Nathaniel Milby Hicks, clerk C. M. C, died Oct. 31,
1870, age 52. (Member of first municipal council Victoria city.)
Capt. John W. Waitt, father of late M. W. Waitt;
died 1870, aged 67.
Frederick and Arthur—children of Mrs. J. W.
Thos. Carter, of Hillside Farm, died 1869, aged 52
years; was husband of Mrs. C. Booth (and father of
William Carter, provincial assessor's office). Note—
Mr. Carter contracted a bad cold in the cemetery at the
funeral of a brother Mason, and was heard to remark
in an undertone to a friend as he was looking down into
the grave, "And who will be the next?" Strange to
say, he himself was the next, for within ten days his
brother Masons met there to bury him.
Mrs. Harriet Jameson; died 1868, aged 18 years.
John Work, Chief Factor of H. B. Co., died Dec. 22,
1861, aged 70; and his son, Henry, died June 19, 1856,
aged 12 years. (John Work was well known to all old-
Cecilia, wife of J. S. Helmcken, M.D., died Feb. 4,
1865, aged 30 years; also Douglas Claude, died Jan. 17,
1854, aged 3 months; Margaret Jane, died March —,
18 months; also Ogilvy Eoderick, died March 5, 1
month—children of the above. (The wife of Dr. J. S.
and mother of Dr. J. D. and H. D. Helmcken, and Mrs.
McTavish and Mrs. Higgins.
Martha Coles; died March 13, 1865, aged 30 years.
Geo. Hooper; died March 15, 1865, aged 53 years.
Jane Neely; died April 1, 1865, aged 28.
Wm. Brooke Naylor; died Oct. 2, 1866, aged 42;
sheriff of Vancouver Island. (Has a son here, Brooke
Cecilia Cameron, wife of David Cameron, C. J. of
colony; died Nov. 26, 1859; also David Cameron, C. J.,
died May 14, 1872, aged 68 years.    "M
Jno. Walton; died June 17, 1867, aged 55 years.
Abner H. Francis; died — 25, 1872, aged 59 years.
Chas W. Wallace, died March 13, 1865, aged 65;
Jane Adison, died Feb. 5, 1854, aged 25 years; Kate,
died July 11, 1869; Abby, died April 2, 1866; Edward,
died Jan. 22, 1864; Charlie, died July 19, 1867—wife,
children, father and sister of Charles W. Wallace
(father of Mrs. E. E. Blackwood).|
Mary Kamopiopio, wife of Wm. E. Kaule Lelehe;
died Dec. 20, 1865, age 16. (Native of Hawaii.)
Henry Courtenay; born Oct 27, 1869, died Sept. 14,
1871; 2 years.    (Drowned at Burrard Inlet.)
Helen Amelia Dallas; born Feb. 20, 1859, died Jan.
24, 1860.    (Granddaughter of Sir James Douglas.)
Barbara, wife of Thomas Mann; age 25 years.
Mary F. Semple; died Oct. 4,1866; 1 year 10 months.
Wm. Honey; died Dec. 3, 1866, age 54 years.
Caroline Harrey Ewing; died June 3, 1864, aged 45
Lucinda Mary, wife of Eobert Grienslade; died Dec.
6, 1868, age 18 years.
Harriet, wife of Thomas James; died Oct. 19, 1868,
aged 18 years.
James Wilson Trahey; died Dec. 2, 1868; 38 years.
Isaac Cameron; died Feb. 6, 1870; 29 years.
John B. McClearn; died Jan. 29, 1870, age 42.
Andrew Phillips; died Jan. 24, 1870, age 10 years.
Bridget, wife of Timothy Eoberts; died Nov. 7, 1872,
age 40 years.
John Bowes Thompson; died Aug. 6, 1870, age 49.*
Hy. Francis Lee; died June 22, 1872, age 36 years.
Charlotte Dandridge; died March 7, 1863, age 70
B. A. Wolsey.    (Erected by her father.)
Hugh Cavin Walker; died May 16, 1868, age 26 years.
Freddy, child of J. W. and M. A. Williams; died
March 31, 1870, age 4 years.
Wm. Emery; died May 2, 1871, age 33 years.
C. A. Schmid; died Nov. 29, 1871, age 48 years.
Charlotte, wife of John Holden; died March, 1863,
age 28 years.
Naval Corner.
Monument erected to officers and men of H. M. S.
Satellite—Daniel Evans, John Stanton, James Butland,
John Willmore, Eichard Stone, all drowned June 6,
1860; Wm. Brewer, died 1856; John Blackler, died
1859; Wm. Kett, died 1859; Eichard Brown, died
1857; William Stout, died 1858; William Bell, died
1858; George Kembery, died 1860.
Monument to men of H. M. S. Sutlej—George Lush,
John Guff, Edward Tiller, Joseph Neckless, died 1863
Monument to Benjamin Topp, H. M. S. Cormorant;
died Oct. 22, 1846, age 40.
John Miller, H. M. S. Thetis, drowned in Esquimalt
harbor June 3, 1852, age 22; W. E. Plummer, H. M. S.
Thetis, age 23; James Smith, H. M. S. Thetis, age 31;
Charles Parsons, H. M. S. Thetis, age 35—all drowned
between Esquimalt and Victoria harbors, Aug. 22, 1852.
Note—This headboard is wood, and although nearly 50
years old, is in splendid preservation, painted white
with black letters, which stand out as plain as the day
they were put on.
Monument to men of H. M. S. Plumper—James D.
Trewin, died June 12, 1858, age 32 years; George Williams, Feb. 4, 1858, age 37 years.
Monument to William Johnson, H. M. S. Hecate;
died Jan. 3, 1862.
Monument to men of H. M. S. Sutlej; died 1864 and
1866—Thomas Depnall, John Eeese, George Crate,
William Douglas, Albert Gilbert, Alexander Borthwick.
Monument to men of H. M. S. Tribune, 1865.
Chief Engineer of H. M. S. Sparrowhawh; died 1866.
Paymaster of H. M. S. Devastation; died 1864.
Engineer of H. M. S. Topaz; died 1861.
Commander Eobson, of H. M. Gunboat Forward;
died 1861, from effects of fall from his horse.
Engineer Charlton; died 1861. (Accidentally shot
Captain John A. Bull, master of H. M. surveying
vessel Plumper; died —, 1860, age 27 years.
Granite monument to Edwin Evans, only son of Eev.
E. Evans, D.D., age 20 years.
I have already given an account of this young man's
death and burial in one of my former reminiscences;
how he was drowned off Beacon Hill one December day. OLD QUADEA STEEET CEMETEEY     137
He undressed and swam out after a duck he.had shot,
got caught in the kelp and was drowned, his poor
father walking up and down the beach all that night,
calling " Edwin! Edwin! My son!" He was buried in
a snowstorm, and great sympathy was shown by the
public, by the crowds which filled the cemetery that day.
Dr. Evans was Methodist minister when the church was
built that is now being demolished.
Monument to Frederick Pemberton, Edward Scott,
Eber and Grace, the four children of Bishop Cridge,
who all died within two months, from diphtheria, in
1864-5; also his sister, Miss Cridge.
Jane, aged 47, wife of Thomas Lea Fawcett, and
mother of Eowland, Edgar and Arthur Fawcett, the
latter of London, Eng.; died January, 1864.
Thomas H. Botterell;  died 1866, age 27 years.
Eliza A., daughter of George and Isabella Simpson;
died 1872, aged 16 years 8 months (sister of George
Simpson, H. M. customs.)
James Murray Yale, chief trader, H. B. Co.; died
May 7, 1871, age 71 years.
Charlotte B., wife of Joseph Corin; died July 12,
1863, age 24 years. (She was the wife of partner of
Charles Hayward.)
Elizabeth Caroline, wife of Edward G. Alston; died
January, 1865, age 27 years. (Mr. Alston was registrar-general.)
Charlotte, wife of John Dutnall (John Dutnall was
sexton of Christ Church, and formerly in charge of
one of the H. B. Co.'s farms. Has a brother at Albert
Head, farming.
Antonia Hernandez; died March 22, 1862, age 32
Henry Proctor Seelie, of London, England; died July
23, 1864, age 24 years.
Cecil, fourth son of G. T. Gordon; died April 20,
1861, age 5 years 4 months.
Anna Maria, widow of the late William Yardly; died
March 5, 1864, age 59 years. (Mother of Mrs. Hy.
Samuel Hocking; died Sept. 15, 1862, age 37 years
8 months.
Louis Eichards, native of Cornwall; died Oct. 21,
1872, age 21 years.
James Brown, of Kingston, Canada; died Feb.  9,
1873, age 37 years.
Alexander Deans; died October, 1858, age 17 months.
Mary Jane Deans; died July 8, 1868, age 5 years.
John Spence; died Sept. 29, 1865, age 67 years.
Mrs. Johnson, wife of J. H. Johnson, engineer H. B.
Co. steamer Beaver; died Dec. 22, 1858. (Johnson
Street named after him.)
George Leggatt—headstone is illegible.
Barbara, wife of Thomas Mann; age 25 years.
John Miles; died January, 1861; age 35 years.
William Wallis; died Jan. 3, 1862.
Ann Sayward; died August 17, 1870, age 46 years.
(Mother of Walter Chambers and Joseph Sayward.)
James Chambers; died Dec. 7, 1859 (father of Walter'
Chambers), age 38 years.
Joseph Austen; died July 2, 1871, age 89 years. A
pioneer of 1858, and also of San Francisco, where he
was a prominent member of the "vigilance committee."
When he was made a judge, sentenced men to death
during the stirring times of the early fifties in that
John Parks; died June 6, 1862, age 27 years. OLD QUADEA STEEET CEMETEEY     139
Millicent Page, wife of William Page; died Feb. 19,
1864, age 55 years.
Kenneth Nicholson; died Nov. 10, 1863, aged 35.
John Sparks, killed by explosion on steamer Cariboo,
Aug. 2, 1861, age 28 years.
John Murray; died May 6, 1872, age 44 years.
William Henry Downes; died June 17, 1872, age 47
Thomas, son of W. H. and A. J. Huxtable; died Feb.
8, 1869, age 4 years 9 months.
Anne, wife of Joseph H. Brown; died Aug. 16, 1871,
age 31 years.
Jos. H. Brown; died July, 1869, age 39 years.
William and Edith, two children of William B. and
Eliza Townsend; died in 1868 and 1871. (William B.
Townsend was mayor of Westminster.)
Hannah, second daughter of John and Christiana
Kinsman; died Feb. 26, 1865, age 7 years. (Daughter
of the late Alderman Kinsman.)
Agnes Laumeisler; died Sept. 4, 1861, age 36 years.
Cecil Montague, second son of W. A. G. Young; died
June 22, 1865, age 5 years. (Mr. Young was colonial
secretary in 1865.)
Eoman Catholic Section.
There are very few of the monuments left standing
here. Besides those naturally destroyed by time, many
have been broken by stones into many pieces.
Carroll monument.—This, the second largest and
costliest in the cemetery, has been very badly used, but
it is also one of the oldest. Erected by Ellen Carroll, in
memory of her beloved husband, John D. Carroll, died
July 11, 1862, age 38; also in memory of her beloved 140   EEMINISCENCES OF OLD VICTOEIA
babes, George Washington, born Feb. 22, 1860, died
same day; John Thomas, born July 26, died same day;
Mary Margaret, born Sept. 29, 1862, and died same
day. (Who could blame this bereaved wife and mother
if she didn't long remain a widow?)
Sosthenes Driard, a native of France, born 1819, died
Feb. 15, 1873. (This marble stone was in several
pieces, and difficult to read, but I persevered, as he was
so well-known a man in early days, as mine host of the
Colonial Hotel and afterwards of the Driard House.)
Marie Manciet; died Oct. —, 1868, age 21 years.
Mary Hall; died May 31, 1860, age 40 years. (This
headboard is one of the best preserved in the cemetery;
the black letters stand out as clear and bright as if just
executed, but the white paint has nearly disappeared.)
W. L. Williams; died Dec. 17, 1862, age 20 years.
Jane Forbes; died July 22, 1859, age 26 years.
John Clarke; died Dec. 27, 1860, age 31 years.
James Farrelly; died Jan. —j 1866, age 28 years.
Maria Eagazzoni; died , 1864.
Marie Newburger, died 1 1861, age 12 years.
Dr. N. M. Clerjon; died Feb. 25, 1861; age 53 years.
To the memory of my darling little Eva, who died
July 14, 1863, age 7 years and 5 months; also her
infant brother, age 3 days. J. S. Drummond (on a
large flat stone.)
Charles H. Blenkinsop, H. B. Co.; died "March 22,
1864. |
Sacred to the memory of John Wood, from his wife
—1864. Note—This is one of the best preserved headstones and enclosures in the cemetery, the latter being
of iron, and 43 years old. My friend, Mr. Higgins, in
his book I The Mystic Spring," gives the story of this OLD QUADEA STEEET CEMETEEY     141
clever actor, and his wife also, so I will not enlarge on
John Sparks, age 28 years; killed by the explosion
of steamer Cariboo, Aug. 2, 1861.
Smith Baird Jamieson, killed by the explosion of
steamer Yale—April, 1861; Archibald Jamieson, and
James Baird Jamieson, killed by the explosion of
steamer Cariboo in Victoria harbor, Aug. 2, 1861, three
brothers, sons of Eobert Jamieson, Brodick, Isle of
Arran, Scotland.—I refer my readers to Mr. Higgins'
book for the story of these brothers also. I remember
the morning of the explosion of the Cariboo. It woke
up the whole town. I think her bones lie in the mud
alongside Turpel's ways in Songhees reserve.
William Alexander Mouat, chief trader H. B. Co.;
died April 11, 1871, aged 50 years; also Clarissa Elizabeth, daughter of the above, age 8 years. (Father of
Mrs. Eichard Jones.)
Eleanor M. Johnston; died Feb. 27, 1872.
Elizabeth A. Kennedy; born at Fort Simpson, Nov.
1835, died at Fort Victoria, February, 1850; also Dr.
John Kennedy, chief trader, H. B. Co., died 1859, age
52 years; also Fanny Kennedy, age 25 years; James B.
Ogilvy, died Dec. 23, 1860, aged 5 years; John D. B.
Ogilvy, Victoria Lodge, No. 783, F. & A. M., age 30
years; died May 12, 1865. (Father, mother, daughter
and nephew, and Dr. Kennedy had two sons, one master
of the Colonial school in 1859, and one clerk in H. B.
Co.'s store.
William Wright; died July —, 1870, age 53 years.
John Hender Wood, master of ship Ellen; died May
12, 1868, age 41 years.
George H. Booth; died Sept. 1, 1867, age 1 year 8 142   EEMINISCENCES OF OLD VICTOEIA
months. (Wood headboard is in good state of preservation.)
Henry Francis Lee; died June 22, 1872, age 36 years.
Mary Ann Dougherty; died Sept. 5, 1863.
Paul Medana; died Nov. 14, 1868.
James Webster; died Sept. 15, 1862, age 37 years *8
Millicent Page, wife of Wm. Page; died Feb. 19,
1864, age 55 years.
Kenneth Nicholson; died Nov. 10, 1863, age 35 years.
Charles Dodd (Chief factor H. B. Co.); died June
2, 1860, age 52 years.
Eleanor M. Johnston; died June 2, 1860.
Victoria's First Cemetery.
The finding of the skeletons in the excavation of
Johnson Street this week, recalls the last find nearby, a few years ago, in laying waterpipes on Douglas
Street, and I find, in referring to an article I wrote
five years ago on clippings from the Victoria Gazette,
Victoria's first newspaper, that "the Council have
ordered the removal of the bodies from the cemetery on
Johnson Street to the new cemetery on Quadra." I
can well remember seeing this removal; the bones where
the bodies were not entire being thrown into carts, and
taken to the Quadra Street Cemetery. I might state
that with the exception of a few Hudson's Bay Company's employees, those buried there were men from
Her Majesty's fleet at Esquimalt. This may seem a
long time ago for vessels of war to be at Esquimalt, but
by the tombstones in Quadra Street Cemetery, I find
there were some of the seamen from H. M. S. Cormo- OLD QUADEA STEEET CEMETEEY     143
rant buried in 1846. One of these was Benjamin Topp,
and also John Miller, of H. M. S. Thetis, who were
drowned in Esquimalt harbor; also W. E. Plummer,
James Smith, and Charles Parsons, all drowned between
Esquimalt and Victoria, August 22, 1852; also James
D. Trewin and George Williams, February 4th, 1858.
These were all removed to Quadra Street the following
Some Eeminiscenoes.
On the 28th April, 1871, or forty-one years ago, a
meeting was held in Smith's Hall, which was situated
in the building now occupied by Hall and Gospel on
Government Street. The meeting was called to organize a society of the pioneers of British Columbia, and
especially of Victoria. Among those present, and one
who took a prominent part in its work, was William P.
Sayward. By the death of this pioneer I am the sole
remaining member of those who founded the society.
By Mr. Sayward's death this city and province loses a
man whom any city would be proud of. Knowing him
as I had from boyhood, I can speak feelingly. He was
one of the kindest-hearted men, a man who had no
enemies that I ever heard of, but hosts of friends.
Who ever went to him for charity and was refused?
Who ever asked forgiveness of a debt and was repulsed ? Although he was victimized many times, in his
case virtue was its own reward. From small beginnings,
when the lumber business was first started on Humboldt Street, on the shores of James Bay, to the present
time, the Sayward business has gone on prospering,
having been built on a firm foundation by a kindly and
honest man, who in February, 1905, passed from our
sight to a better life.   The society elected as its first
officers the following: President, John Dickson; vice-
president, Jules Eueff; treasurer, E. Grancini; secretary, Edgar Fawcett; directors, W. P. Sayward, H. E.
Wilby, Alexander Young, and Sosthenes Driard. Long
may the society continue. Mr. Sayward's son, Joseph,
has since his father's death disposed _of the business, of which he became the owner, to a large corporation, and has retired from business, one of our wealthy
Nothing better illustrates what I feel to-day, as the
last of the charter members who met together at Smith's
Hall, on Government Street, over Hall & Gospel's office,
on the 28th April, 1871, than the following lines from
my favorite poet, Thomas Moore:
I Oft in the stilly night,
Ere slumber's chain has bound me,
Fond memory brings the light
Of other days around me.
"When I remember all
The friends so linked together
I've seen around me fall,
Like leaves in wintry weather.
" I feel like one who treads alone
Some banquet hall deserted;
Whose lights are fled, whose garlands dead-
And all but he departed."
I have applied this to my visit to Smith's Hall, of
which I shall tell vou. Since the death of my old friend,
William P. Sayward, some months ago, I have reflected
often on the fact that I was the last of that little band.
The other night I woke up, and remained awake for
some time; and my thoughts wandered to pioneer days,
and from that to the gathering of pioneers this year,
which, I understood, was to be a more extended gathering than usual. I thought I should like to be there for
the sake of old times, but could- not make up my mind
to brave the disagreeable weather at this time of year.
After considering the matter, I decided to write, if
I did not go; and, further, I decided to pay a visit to
Smith's Hall first. So next morning I called on Mr.
Kinsman, who kindly showed me upstairs, and over the
old place. I might well say, "the old place," for it
looked old and deserted, like the banquet hall spoken of
by Moore.
With my mind's eye I pictured the scene of thirty-five
years ago—I was at the hall early, being enthusiastic on
the subject, and noted each well-known face as the
guests came up the stairs and took their seats, until
about forty had collected.
There was Thomas Harris, who had been the first
mayor of the city. He was very stout, and complained
of the exertion in climbing up the stairs, which was
passed off as a joke, of course.
There was Major McDonell, a retired army officer;
Eobert H. Austen, a pioneer of San Francisco, whose
uncle, Judge Austen (an early resident), had been a
prominent member of the "vigilance committee" of
San Francisco in the early fifties, when men were tried
by that committee, condemned to death, and hanged,
as I myself was a witness to on two occasions.
There was William P. Sayward, the father of Joseph
Sayward, and one of the best men Victoria ever produced ; Patrick McTiernan, a well-known business man;
Captain Gardner, one of Victoria's pilots; Henry E.
Wilby, father of the Messrs. Wilby of Douglas Street, PIONEEE SOCIETY'S BANQUET        147
who was Portuguese Consul, and a resident of Esquimalt; Jules Eueff and E. Grancini, both Wharf Street
merchants; Andrew C. Elliott, a barrister, and afterwards premier of the province; Honore Passerard, a
Frenchman and property holder of Johnson Street;
Eobert Eidley, who claimed he was the original " Old
Bob Eidley" who crossed the plains to San Francisco
in '49; Felix Leslonis, the Hudson's Bay Company's
cooper, who was a Frenchman, and used to sing a song
called " Beau Nicolas " at charity concerts, and usually
brought down the house.
There was S. Driard, another Frenchman, and proprietor of the Driard House, and who being, like Mayor
Harris, very corpulent and asthmatic, complained, like
him, of the "upper room"; James Wilcox, the proprietor of Eoyal Hotel, now proved to have been the
" second " brick hotel built in Victoria; William Spence,
a contractor, and after whom Spence's Eock was
named; John Dickson, the tinsmith and hardware man
of Yates Street—a quiet, goodhearted man, an American; James Lowe, a Wharf Street merchant, of Lowe
Bros.; Frank Campbell, of " Campbell's Corner"—
genial, goodhearted Frank, a man without an enemy;
Thomas L. Stahlschmidt, of Henderson & Burnaby,
Wharf Street merchants, and father of Mr. Stahlschmidt, of E. Ward & Co.
There were Eobert Burnaby, already mentioned; J.
B. Timmerman, accountant and real estate agent, a
Frenchman; Benjamin P. Griffin, mine host of the
Boomerang, who had been a friend of my father's in
Sydney, Australia, and was accountant in a bank there;
and lastly, your humble servant, who was secretary of
the meeting. There were others present, but they did
not see fit to become members, among them being Ben
As I said before, they passed in review before me as
I stood there thinking; and to-day I think no one lives
to tell the tale of that gathering.
I am fully in accord with the suggestion that there
be a reunion of all pioneers of early Victoria; but I
think it should be in the summer, when as many as
possible could be there, and it might be made very interesting by a recital of the personal recollections of
those present. I should like to hear Mr. Higgins, for I
am sure he has not yet told all he knows of the early
history of Victoria. CHAPTEE XVII.
I read with a great deal of pleasure the article on
Christ Church by Canon Beanlands. These reminiscences of former days in Victoria have a charm for me
that is not easy to describe. More particularly is this
the case in the present instance, as my very earliest
recollections of this fair city are connected with Victoria
District Church. My mother was a devout church
woman, and I attended her in her frequent and regular attendance. She encouraged me to join the choir as
a boy in 1861 and taught me music, and my first position in the church in connection with its musical services was as organ blower. I afterwards took my seat
with the adults, singing treble, then alto and tenor, and
I have now the treble score" of several anthems copied
by myself at that time.
I shall now describe the church as I remember it in
1859 and 1862. The inside was an oblong square.
The entrance was at the south-west corner, and there
was a gallery across the west end, where the old organ
and the choir were then situated. Under this gallery
were pews, one of which was occupied by our family.
The vestry was at the south-west corner, and had entrance
from under the gallery as well as from outside. The
inside of the building was lathed and plastered. There
was a low tower at the south-west corner, dovecote
shaped, where the pigeons made their nests and brought
forth their young.   There were two bells in the tower, 150   EEMINISCENCES OF OLD VICTOEIA
one larger than the other, which when rung sounded
ding-dong, ding-dong three times a day, morning, afternoon and evening of Sunday, and also Wednesday evenings. A plan shows a square contrivance opposite
the entrance. This was Governor Douglas' pew, and
was occupied by the Governor and his family regularly
each Sunday morning. He walked down the aisle in
his uniform in the most dignified manner, and led
the congregation in the responses in an audible
voice. By the plan an organ and choir are shown
in the gallery as well as one in the chancel, but
the dates 1859 and 1862 explain that in 1862 there was
a new organ, and the old one removed, and the gallery
done away with. It was in this gallery my services commenced as organ blower, and the only one I can now
remember as singing in the choir at that early date was
John Butts, a young man lately from Australia. He
had a nice tenor voice, and was very regular in attendance for some time, until he fell from grace. He was
the town crier afterwards and a noted character. Mr.
Higgins speaks of him in the " Mystic Spring."
One Sunday morning in 1862 or 1863, while Bishop
Hills was preaching, a man walked into the church
and cried out, " My Lord, the church is on fire!"
Judge Pemberton, one of the officers of the church,
with others got on to the ceiling through a manhole
above the gallery, and walked on the rafters to where
the fire was located. He missed his footing and came
through the lath and plaster, but luckily did not *fall
to the floor below, but, like Mahomef s coffin, hung suspended by his arms until rescued from above. The congregation were soon outside, and with willing help the
fire was soon extinguished. The church was built and
opened in August, 1856, under the supervision of Mr.
William Leigh, who was in charge of Uplands Farm,   VICTOEIA DISTEICT CHURCH 151
Cadboro Bay, and was in the service of the Hudson's
Bay Company. Mr. Leigh was a man of very good
attainments, being a good musician and contributing
to the various entertainments of those days, when regular entertainments by professionals were few and far between. He subsequently was City Clerk, being the second
to hold that position, after Mr. Nathaniel M. Hicks,
who was appointed clerk on the city being incorporated.
Mr. Hicks is buried in Quadra Street Cemetery, and his
headstone is in evidence to-day as a mute appeal to our
city fathers to put the place in order. I might say that
Mr. Leigh was the father of a numerous family, but I
believe, with the exception of a son, Ernest, who resides
in San Francisco, and a granddaughter, Mrs. George
Simpson, who resides here, all have passed away.
Victoria District church was destroyed by fire in
1869, one evening about 10 o'clock, the alarm being
given by a Catholic priest on his way home, who with
Mr. James Kennedy (who lived with me), was passing
over the hill. Of the early pioneer clergy connected
with the church, Mr. Cridge, the incumbent, was first;
then Bishop Hills; the Eev. E. J. Dundas, afterward
rector of St. John's; Eev. Alexander C. Garrett, now
Bishop of Dallas, Texas, and Eev. George Crickmer,
who subsequently was sent to Langley or Yale.
The organ used up to 1861 or 1862 was situated in
the gallery, and had three barrels, each of ten tunes, so
that thirty tunes was the limit. Mr. Seeley, who owned
the Australian House, which stood until lately at the
north end of the Causeway, was an attendant at the
church, and being an organ-builder undertook to improvise a keyboard attachment for this barrel organ.
This keyboard was used on Sunday mornings and on
special occasions by Mrs. Atwood (Mrs. T. Sidney Wilson of St. Charles Street.)    At evening services the 152   EEMINISCENCES OF OLD VICTOEIA
music was produced by the barrels, worked by a handle,
and the writer on these occasions was the " organist.
An amusing incident occurred one Sunday
when I, forgetting the number of verses of a hymn to
be sung, stopped playing, and the congregation commenced another verse. Seeing that I had made an error
I began again two notes behind. This made confusion
worse confounded, as may be supposed, but having commenced I continued to the end of the verse. This being
the closing hymn, | Lord, Dismiss Us with Thy Blessing," I was not long in making my exit from the
church, as I did not wish to meet Mr. Cridge or any of
the church officers, being only a youth and anticipating
censure, but I forget if I got it. About this time a
committee of ladies of the church, among whom were
Mrs. A. T. Bushby, mother of Mrs. W. F. Bullen, and
Mrs. Good, her sister, both daughters of the Governor,
Mrs. Senator Macdonald, and Mrs. Cridge collected a
large sum of money and sent to England for a fine pipe
organ which I suppose is the one in use to-day. The
first organist of this organ was a Mr. Whittaker, and of
the choir, as near as I can remember them, were the
Misses Harriet and Annie Thorne, Mrs. T. Sidney
Wilson, Mrs. Macdonald and her two sisters the Misses
Eeid, Dr. J. C. Davie, Alex. Davie, his brother, Mr.
Willoughby, Eobert Jenkinson, Albert F. Hicks, John
B agnail, my brother Eowland and myself. Mr. Walter
Chambers, as a youth, was organ blower also about this
time. The first sexton and verger was William Eaby,
and the next John Spelde, who had charge of the
Quadra Street Cemetery, digging the graves and collecting the fees for the same.
I have spun this article out beyond what I intended,
but I must be excused as I don't know when I have
said enough on pioneer days. CHAPTEE XVIII.
 When   I   remember  all  the   friends  so
linked together
 Fond  memory  brings the light of other
days around me."
I have been requested to give my recollection of a
Victoria Christmas in the good old days, as to how it
was spent and conditions generally. In the first place,
in speaking of " the good old days" of the sixties, I
would not convey the impression that they'were literally
so good, for they were, so far as I can remember, some
of the hardest that Victoria has seen.
There is a something in recollections of the past that
have been pleasant that is indescribable. It is easier
felt than described, and I have no doubt is felt by many
old-timers in this city to-day. Ask them to describe
these feelings and they would be nonplussed. " Mark
Twain" was written to by the pioneers of California
inviting him to come and speak of the early days of San
Francisco, when he was himself a pioneer of the Pacific.
What his reply was I now forget, but it was something
to this effect: " Do you wish to see an old man overcome and weep as he recalls those pioneer days?"
These were a few words of what he said in reply to that
invitation. "The good old days" may not have been
the most prosperous, nor the happiest that " Mark
Twain" may have spent, but there was a something, a
charm indescribable that he felt, but could not express.
I feel this way myself. ;§|
It is Christmas and its surroundings in any age that
help to make these pleasing regrets. The incidents and
the persons connected with them are gone and can never
be recalled. The friends we knew then, whom we may
have met at one of those Christmas gatherings, we see
them as they pass before our mental vision. Where are
they all to-day? The Quadra Street Cemetery might
be able to tell, for each is | in his narrow cell forever
laid."" |r '    |
I have rambled far enough, and it is time I got to
my story.
I would remark in passing that Christmas, to bo
genuine, should be bright and frosty, with a flurry of
snow, and this with walking exercise makes the blood
to flow freely, and makes one feel better able to enjoy the
festive occasion.
Well, we had just such weather in those days, and
such weather is sadly lacking in these. Our climate has
changed very much since then. Less snow and cold
and more rain now. Tinkle, tinkle, tinkle! The merry
sleigh bell! After the advent of the first snow, and
when deep enough, there might be heard the sleigh-bell,
either on a grocer's or butcher's sleigh, or on an improvised sleigh made from a dry-goods case with a pair
of runners attached, to which would be fastened a pair
of shafts from a. buggy or wagon not now usable.
Everyone who owned a horse had a sleigh at little cost,
and good use was made of it while the snow lasted.
Long drives in the country or to church, or to a
Christmas party or dance. I can see such a merry sleigh
party of young people, the girls well wrapped up peeping
over their furs, laughing and dodging the snowballs CHEISTMAS IN PIONEEE DAYS
thrown by a party of boys around the corner, who are
always waiting for the next one to come along.
| Where is now the merry party I remember long ago,
Laughing round the Christmas fire,  brightened by its
ruddy glow;
Or in summer's balmy evenings, in the field upon the hay?
They have  all dispersed and wandered,  far away,  far
We nearly all went to church—the Anglicans, and
many Nonconformists with them—on Christmas morning, and the Catholics on Christmas Eve. But first of
all there was the preparation for the event. About a
week before wagon-loads of young fir trees were brought
in from the outskirts, and every storekeeper and many
householders procured enough to decorate the front of
the house or shop, a tree being tied to each verandah
post. In those days no shop was complete without its
wooden awning, as may be seen in many of the old
photos of that period. Imagine Government Street,
both sides, from end to end, one continuous line of
green, relieved with, it might be, white; just enough
snow to cover the ground, " bright and crisp and even."
I have often longed for such a Christmas in these
degenerate times, when rain is nearly always the order
of the day. All the Christmas shopping was done during Christmas week. The fancy goods stores of those
days were few—" Hibben & Carswell," | The London
Bazaar," and David Spencer. The former was then on
Yates Street, corner of Langley, and the other two in
Government Street; and I must not forget Thomas
Gorrie on Fort Street. There was not the choice in toys
and fancy articles then. Children were satisfied with
less, and were just as happy.    The beautiful and ex- 156   EEMINISCENCES OF OLD VICTOEIA
pensive dolls then were of wax, and being susceptible
to frost, were taken great care of. The butchers' and
grocers' shops were then as now a great attraction at
Christmas, and we had all to pay one visit at least to
Johnny Stafford's (afterwards Stafford & Goodacre),
Thomas Harris' two shops, and Fred. Eeynolds', on the
corner of Yates and Douglas, and I doubt if a better
show (for quality) is made to-day.
At Christmas there was the usual influx of miners
from far-off Cariboo down to spend the winter in Victoria, with pockets well-lined with nuggets. It was
" easy come, easy go " with them, and liberal were the
purchases they made for their relations and friends.
Christmas Eve, after dinner, mother or father or both
with the children were off to buy the last of the presents,
visit the shops or buy their Christmas dinner, for many
left it till then. Turkey might not have been within
their reach, but geese, wild or tame, took their place.
Sucking pig was my favorite dish. Wild duck and
grouse (fifty cents per pair), with fine roasts of beef.
Of course plum pudding was in evidence with poor as
well as rich, although eggs at Christmas were one dollar
per dozen.
A great feature of Christmas time was shooting for
turkeys and geese at several outlying places, and raffles
for turkeys at several of the principal saloons and
hotels. The place I best remember was the Brown Jug,
kept by Tommy Golden.
A special feature of the saloons on Christmas Eve was
" egg-nog," and all we young fellows dropped in for a
glass on our way to midnight mass at the Catholic
Church on Humboldt Street. It was one of the attractions of Christmas Eve, and the church was filled to oversowing, and later on there was standing room only. CHEISTMAS IN PIONEEE DAYS       157
We went to hear the singing, which was best obtainable,
Mademoiselle La Charme, Mrs. A. Fellows (daughter of
Sir Eowland Hill), Charles Lombard, Mr. Wolff, and
Mr. Schmidt. These were assisted by the sisters, many
of whom had nice voices. Amongst the well-dressed
city people were many Cariboo miners—trousers tucked
in their boots, said trousers held in position with a belt,
and maybe no coat or vest on. When the time came for
the collection, all hands dug down in their pockets and
a generous collection was the result. My old friend,
Tom Burnes, was one of the collectors on one occasion.
There were not sufficient collecting plates, and Mr.
Burnes took his hat and went amongst the crowd who
were standing up in the rear of the church. As he
passed through a group of miners, friend Tom was
heard to say, " Now, boys, be liberal," and the response
was all that could be desired; for, as I said before, it
was I easy come, easy go." " Twelve-thirty," service is
over, we are off to bed, for we must be up betimes in the
morning for service at 11 o'clock.
" When I remember all the friends so linked together/' who met on those Christmas mornings long
ago, I think, how many are there left? Those of the
choir who led in the anthem, " And There Were Shepherds Keeping Watch," and the hymns, 1 Christians,
Awake," and " Hark, the Herald Angels Sing." Of
those who met at the church door afterwards to shake
hands all round, " A Merry Christmas," " The Compliments of the Season," and many other good wishes—
of all these a few are left, amongst them Bishop Cridge,
Senator and Mrs. Macdonald, Dr. Helmcken, David W.
Higgins, Judges Walkem and Drake, Mrs. Wootton,
Charles Hayward, Edward Dickinson, Mrs. Ella, Mr.
and  Mrs.   George  Eichardson,   Mrs.   Pemberton,   and 158   EEMINISCENCES OF OLD VICTOEIA
Mrs. Jesse, and maybe a few others I cannot now remember. Well, all things must come to an end, and so
must this reminiscence of an " Early Christmas in Victoria," and in closing I wish all those mentioned here a
" Happy Christmas and many of them."
(Note.—Several of those mentioned are since dead.—
The  reproduction  of  an item in the   Colonist  of
Forty Years Ago," giving • a list of the committee
formed to prepare a programme for the celebration of
the Queen's Birthday, called my attention to the names
of that committee.   They are nearly all familiar.   His
Worship the Mayor, I think, was Mr. Harris, who was
our first mayor; next follows Doctor Tolmie, chief factor of the Hudson's Bay Company; Wm. J. Macdonald,
now senator; Lumley Franklin, was a prominent citizen, an English Jew.     There were two brothers, the
elder being named Selim.   They were real estate broker?
and auctioneers.    Lumley was a clever amateur actor
and as a member of the Victoria Amateur Dramati
Association he took a prominent part in all the entertainments for charity in those days.   John Wilkie was
a Wharf Street merchant.    Mr. W. T. Drake was the
late Judge Drake; D. B. Eing was a prominent barrister, who, when not in court, might have been seen
walking about with a couple of dogs and a hunting crop
under his arm.    He was one of the old school.   Allan
Francis, the first American Consul to Victoria, a man
liked by everyone; James A.  McCrae,  an American
auctioneer, and very fond of sport; Mr. T. Johnston
was manager for Findlay, Durham & Brodie; James
Lowe,  of Lowe  Brothers,  Wharf   Street,  merchants;
William Charles, chief factor of Hudson's Bay Com-
pany; Captain Delacombe, in charge of the garrison on
San Juan Island; E. Grancini, hardware merchant,
with whom Charles Lombard was chief salesman; T. L.
Stahlschmidt, of Findlay, Durham & Brodie; Captain
Stamp, a millman, representing an English company
who owned a large mill at Alberni; Godfrey Brown, late
of Honolulu, a clever member of the Victoria Amateur
Dramatic Association. I might mention this association
had many very clever men as members, who would have
graced any stage. Mr. Higgins, with myself, have written of the theatrical performances by this club in early
days. Next is A. E. Green, of Janion, Green & Ehodes,
of Store Street; J. D. Pemberton, colonial surveyor;
J. C. Nicholson, who married pretty Mary Dorman;
George J. Findlay, of Findlay, Durham & Brodie;
Francis Garesche, of Garesche-Green's Bank; C. W. E.
Thomson, manager of the Victoria Gas Works; George
Pearkes, barrister; Lieutenants Brooks and Hastings, of
H.M.S. Zealous, the first ironclad to come into the
Pacific around Cape Horn, and Sheriff Elliott.
This was a strong committee, for those days. All
prominent men and good workers.
Beacon Hill was the head centre of sport, and far
enough from town, as nearly all of us walked. But all
kinds of conveyances were brought into requisition to
take people out, especially from Esquimalt and the
country. We had to rely on the navy then as always.
The two livery stables of J. W. Williams, on the corner
now occupied by Prior & Co., and William G. Bowman,
on Yates Street, where the Poodle Dog stands, furnished busses and buggies, and large express wagons
were also improvised, seats being put in for the occasion. With my mind's eye I can see Thomas Harris,
first mayor.   QUEEN'S BIETHDAY FOETY YEAES AGO    161
The chief event of the day was the horse races, and
the mayor was an enthusiastic horse-fancier and steward of the Jockey Club. These attractions were nothing
without Mr. Harris, coupled with Commander Lascelles,
of the gunboat Forward, a son of the Earl of Harewood,
and John Howard, of Esquimalt. The time for the
first race is near, the bell rings (John Butts was bellman), and the portly figure of Mr. Harris on horseback
appears. " Now, gentlemen, clear the course," and
there is a general scattering of people outside the rails,
and the horses with their gaily dressed jockeys canter
past the grandstand, make several false starts, then off
they go. It is a mile heat round the hill, best two out
of three to win. Oh! what exciting things these races
were to us old-timers, who were satisfied with a little.
The grandstand stood due south of the flagpole, and
stood there for years after the races were held elsewhere. I must not forget to mention the Millingtons,
of Esquimalt, who always rode John Howard's horses
at these meetings; they were born jockeys. I think one
of them still lives near Esquimalt. I would we had
such Queen's weather now as we had then. May was
then more like what July is now for warmth, with
beautiful clear skies; they were days worth remembering. Everyone went out for the day, and whole families
might have been seen either riding in express wagons,
busses, or trudging along on foot, carrying baskets of
provisions. Soon the hill was covered with picnickers, as
well as the surrounding woods. There was plenty of
good cheer and good-natured folk to dispense that cheer,
not only to their own, but to those who had not come
provided. "Why, how do you do, Mrs. Smith? Mr.
Smith, how are you? You are just in time. Make
room for Mrs. Smith, John, alongside you; Annie and
Mary can sit by Ellen. Oh, of course, you'll lunch with
us! There, we are all ready now, so fall to!" This is
a sample of the good4ieartedness of the old-timers.
Everyone knew everybody, and all were as one family.
The navy was represented by bluejackets and marines
by the hundreds. Bands of music, Aunt Sally, and the
usual.side shows were there. Aunt Sally was usually
run by a lot of sailors, or soldiers, with faces painted
like circus clowns, and dressed in motley garments.
" Now, ladies and gents, walk up and 'ave a shy at Aunt
Sally; the dear old girl don't mind being 'it a bit; she
is so good-natured; that's a right h'excellent shot that,
'ave another try." The same scene was likely being
enacted some distance off with " Punch and Judy," and
you may be sure that " Jack " was principal in this show
as well, for where there is fun there Jack is. I must
not forget the music. Outside the local band there was
always a naval band, of a flagship usually, such as the
Ganges or Sutlej, which were I three-deckers," line-
o'-battleships which would have put an ordinary battleship to blush. It was supposed that the officers
subscribed to the band fund, and as there were
many officers on a large ship, and well-to-do at that '
they had good music. The Ganges band was something worth hearing, about twenty-four strong. It
was often heard in Victoria, either at a naval
funeral or at some public function. The navy was
the mainspring of Victoria in more ways than
one. They took part in all public functions, furnishing music, help and flags, and by their presence
in uniform brightened up and lent grace to the affair.
Do we realize how great a loss their absence to the city
is? We ought to have found out the difference by now.
The races are over, the day's celebration is near its end. QUEEN'S BIETHDAY FOETY YEAES AGO    163
Some of those who came early with children are tired
out and have gone home, others will soon follow, as a
general packing up of baskets is going on. " Jack " no
longer calls on the passerby to have a shy at Old Aunt
Sally, Punch has killed his wife and baby for the last
time. Parties of bluejackets are moving off with one
playing a tin whistle, to which some are singing. The
day draws to a close, and in the words of the immortal
Gray, " Now fades the glimmering landscape on the
sight," and I close this recital of echoes of a past—
Queen's Birthday forty odd years ago.
Through the kindness of Mr. Albert H. Maynard I
am enabled to produce an old picture of Beacon Hill
during a celebration.
The following account of the regatta during the celebration of the Queen's Birthday appears in the British
Colonist of May 25th, 1868: | f|
" The first of the festivities forming a part of the
celebration of the forty-ninth celebration of Queen
Victoria's Birthday took place on Saturday, and was
in every respect a great success. The day, although
warmer than usual, was well suited for the picnic parties which occupied the banks of our beautiful Arm, all
the way from the bridge to the Gorge. It is estimated
that there were one thousand persons assembled altogether. Early in the morning the town bore a most
lively appearance, flags were flying from all the principal buildings and the shipping, and by half-past ten
the streets were full of well-dressed persons wending
their way to the Hudson's Bay Company's wharf, where
the steam launch and barges of the Zealous were placed
at the disposal of the Committee by the Admiral to
convey them up the Arm. The managing committee
were here represented by Messrs. Stuart and Franklin, 164   EEMINISCENCES OF OLD VICTOEIA
whose arrangements were admirable. From the wharf
to the Gorge the Arm wore a most animated appearance.
From Her Majesty's gunboat Forward, all decked in
colors, which took up her position near the bridge, down
to the meanest craft, the water was covered with boats
laden with people full of merriment and joy. From
Curtis' Point, where the barges delivered their living
freight, the scene was really enchanting. An arch of
flags spanning the water, the high banks covered with
tents, the bridge and every spot on both sides of the
Arm crowded with people, and the roads lined with
equestrians, amongst whom were many ladies, gave the
happiest effect to the whole scene. We cannot recall a
single celebration which was more appreciated or enjoyable than our regatta of Saturday. Much of this
success, it must not be forgotten, must be attributed to
the gracious manner in which Admiral Hastings cooperated with the committee to secure the comfort and
convenience of the public, and without which kindness
and attention the day would have been shorn of most
of its enjoyment. Owing to the severe illness of His
Excellency the (Governor he was prevented from being
present. We observed Mrs. Seymour, Mrs. Hills, the
Admiral, Sir James Douglas and family, the Chief
Justice, Colonial Secretary, officers of the fleet and several of the principal officials and families. A more universal assemblage was never known; clergymen of every
*m *e* ft
denomination, men of all politics, people of all nations,
rich and poor, in fact, mingled together freely, forgetting the sectional and social differences which divide
them, acted as became the occasion, that of honoring the
monarch whose virtues are an example to the world.
The racing was not so successful as last year, but, never- QUEEN'S BIETHDAY FOETY YEAES AGO   165
theless, was good, and under the management of Mr.
Hastings and Mr. Kelly gave perfect satisfaction.
The amusements concluded by a duck hunt, but the
men were not seen by more than a dozen people; it may
be considered the only failure of the day. We must not
omit to mention that two new racing gigs were built for
the occasion, respectively by Mr. Trahey and Mr.
Lachapelle, boat builders, who take the greatest interest
in the regattas, and spare nothing to make them successful. These boats were both defeated in their maiden
races, but the design and workmanship of the Zealous
and Amateur, it is said, would reflect credit on any
country CHAPTEE XX.
I have before me at the present moment the envelope of an old letter. It was received from England in 1863 by my father. The three stamps on it
show a value of 34 cents—one shilling, one fourpence
i,nd one penny. It is only a single letter, and a small
one at that. In fact, if it were any larger it would have
had more postage on it. Just think of the difference between now and then. The first postmaster I remember
in Victoria was J. D'ewes. Something went wrong with
the finances during his incumbency and he suddenly
disappeared with a large sum for a more congenial clime
(Australia, I think). D'ewes had one clerk to assist
him in the work of the post-office, by name J. M. Morrison. He was succeeded by Mr. Henry Wootton, father
of Stephen Wootton, registrar-general, and Edward
Wootton, the barrister^ Mrs. Wootton, senior, is still
with us, hale and hearty, I am glad to say. The late
J. M. Sparrow was also connected with the early Victoria post-office with Mr. Wootton. I well remember
when the post-office was on Government Street, opposite
the C. P. E. telegraph office, in a small wooden structure
with a verandah in front, as was the fashion in those
days for all business places. I also remember it when
it was on Wharf Street, north  of the  Hudson's  Bay
y %/
Company's store, occupying the lower floor, while Ed-
ward B. Marvin's sail-loft occupied the upper. The
staff then consisted of Mr. Wootton and J. M. Sparrow,
as before stated, with occasional extra assistants, say on
the arrival of an English mail, which came then via the
Isthmus of Panama and San Francisco. The "whole
staff " had to work hard then, and long hours, even into
the morning. I have seen a line of letter hunters reaching from the post-office up Wharf Street nearly to
Yates, waiting for the mail to be sorted and the wicket
to open. I especially remember one evening in 1865.
The San Francisco steamer had arrived in the afternoon
at Esquimalt, and at eight o'clock there had not been a
letter delivered, although the staff had worked like
beavers to get the mails sorted. The mails from Europe
arrived about twice a month, and not regularly at that.
The Colonist would state that "there was no mail
again," but that it might be expected to-morrow. It
was a day of importance when it did arrive, and people
naturally were anxious to get their letters, even if it
necessitated their standing in the street in line, maybe
at ten o'clock at night. Many a time a dollar has been
paid for a favorable place in line near the wicket by
someone whose time was considered too valuable to
spend in waiting for his turn.
A good deal of banter was indulged in by those in
line. The anticipation of their hearing from friends at
home made them good-natured, and brought out the
best that was in them. And, oh! when the wicket was
at last opened, distribution commenced and the line
moved on and up, there was a shout of joy and satisfaction. Those were memorable days in Victoria's history,
the good old days of long ago.
I remember again when the post-office was on Government Street again, this time where Weiler Brothers' 168   EEMINISCENCES OF OLD VICTOEIA
building now stands, still in wood, and in no more pretentious a building than jthe former ones. From there
it was moved again up Government Street to the old
site, opposite the C. P. E. telegraph office, until that
place got too small, and a final move was made to its
present location, and a large addition is soon to be made
to keep pace with the rapid growth of the city. Letters
were an expensive luxury in the early days, as this table
of rates will show: To send a half ounce letter to Great
Britain cost 34c, British North American provinces 20c,
France 50c., Germany 40c, Holland 57c, Norway 56c,
Portugal 68c, Sweden 52c, and San Francisco 15c
Most of the letters from the latter place were received
by Wells Fargo's express, and cost, I think, 3c, and
special charge of 25c on each letter. I have already
described the receipt of Wells Fargo's express from
Esquimalt in the early times, and how John Parker, now
of Metchosin, used to meet the steamer at Esquimalt.
When she was expected their messenger, whose name
was Miller, and a colored man, used to watch from
Church Hill, and on her being sighted at Eace Eocks
the express flag was hoisted in front of their office on
Yates Street to let the citizens know the fact. Before
the steamer made a landing the letter-bags were thrown
ashore to John Parker, and fastened on his horse, then
off he galloped to Victoria, the horse being covered with
sweat on arrival at the express office, where the letters
were called off by Colonel Pendergast, or Major Gillingham, to a crowded audience.
On the death of Mr. Wootton, I believe Mr. Eobert
Wallace was the next to fill the position, which he did
for some years. When he retired he went to his former
home in Scotland. On his retirement the position* was
offered to the present incumbent,   Mr.   Noah   Shake- VICTOEIA POST OFFICE
speare, who so ably fills it. I might say, to show the
growth of the post-office in this city since Mr. Wootton's
time, when he with two assistants carried on the work,
that to-day the staff, including letter-carriers, numbers
The registered parcels and letters for last year were
just twice the year before, with a large increase in money
orders, and to show the large increase in letters in one
evening at Christmas, twelve thousand were received
and cancelled in the post-office.
In conclusion I would ask, were not letters which
cost 34c postage in those days more appreciated than a
lot of letters now at 2c each? It is the old story over
again, that a thing easy to get is thought little of.
I might say this article was written in May, 1908,
and at the present writing, December, 1911, the volume
of business of the Victoria post-office has increased
nearly fifty per cent.-—that is, in three years. It might
be interesting to note that of the present staff Mr.
Thomas Chadwick, in charge of the money order office,
is senior in years of service, having joined the staff in
1880. Next comes Mr. Charles Finlaison, 1882, and
Mr. James Smith, 1887. The deputy postmaster, Mr.
T. A. Cairns, joined the staff in Winnipeg in 1880, and
the Victoria staff in 1882. Mr. Shakespeare, postmaster, has been head of the department here since
It is said, and I think truthfully, that youthful impressions are more lasting than any others. This is my
own experience, for my mind is stored with early
reminiscences. It is verified by no less a person than
my dear old friend, Bishop Cridge, who told me quite
recently that he well remembered an incident that
occurred to him when he was between three and four
years old—that of a regiment of soldiers passing* through
his native village, and of his following them quite a
distance from his home, and of the distress of his family on discovering his absence. In a long life of ninety-
one years this is, I think, remarkable. Well, this is not
the subject of my present writing. It is to give my impressions of this fair city fifty years ago, as I remember
it as a child.
To-day fifty years ago I landed with my parents and
brothers on the Hudson's Bay Company's wharf, having
arrived from San Francisco on the steamer Northerner,
which docked at Esquimalt, as all large ocean steamers
then did. We came from Esquimalt on a small steamer,
the Emma, or Emily Harris. The latter steamer was
built, I think, by Thomas Harris, and named after his
daughter, Mrs. William Wilson, whom I am pleased to
know is still a resident with her family. The scene will
ever be impressed on my mind as I saw my future home
on that 12th day of February, 1859.   Outside Johnson
Street on the north, Blanchard Street on the east, and
the north end of James Bay bridge on the south, everything else was country—oak and pine trees, with paths
only, otherwise trails made by Indians and cattle.
Within this wood under the oaks were wildflowers of all
kinds in profusion. Through these woods and by these
paths I went day by day to the old Colonial School on
the site of the present Central. With the exception of
private schools kept by the late Edward Mallandaine,
and another kept by the late John Jessop, our school
supplied the wants of the time. It was built of squared
logs, whitewashed, and was the residence of the master
as well. It was situated in the middle of a large tract
of land which is to-day used for school purposes. The
school was built in the middle of a grove of oaks, and
there could not have been a more beautiful spot. Under
these oaks we boys and girls (alas, how few are left),
sat at noon and ate our lunch, or rested after a game
of ball, or " hunt the hounds." Those were happy days
in their rustic simplicity, and so will those say who remain to-day, fifty years later. There are several living
here in the still fair city of Victoria, but how many
have gone to that bourne whence no traveller yet returned ?
We made what would now be considered a pretty long
trip from San Francisco, eleven days. Just think of it,
long enough to have gone to Europe. We passed on and
out of the east gate on to Fort Street. How strange it
all looked to me after the large city of San Francisco.
As I have before stated, nearly the whole block from the
Brown Jug corner to Broad Street was an orchard. I
"borrowed" apples from this orchard later on, and
good they tasted, and like stolen sweets were sweetest.
Fort Street from Government up was a quagmire of 172   EEMINISCENCES OF OLD VICTOEIA
mud, this street not having been paved, as it was later,
with boulders from the beach and with a top layer of
gravel or pebbles, also from the beach. The sidewalk
on the Five Sisters' side of the street was made of slabs,
round side up, and was very slippery in wet weather.
This I have from my brother. I can remember the
other side of the street was made of two boards laid
Douglas Street had many tents on it, as well as did
Johnson. Where the Five Sisters' block stands was a
log house, set back from the street. This was the company's bakery, where I used to go for bread at 25c a
loaf (about four pounds). There was not a brick building on the west side of Government Street save the residence of Thomas Harris on the corner of Bastion. His
daughter, Mrs. Wilson, with a large family, is with us
to-day. This building was afterward converted into the
Bank of British Columbia.
The only brick building on the east side was the Victoria Hotel, now the Windsor, the first brick building in
Victoria, constructed by George Eichardson, still a resident. Where the B. C. Market is now was a neat cottage built of squared logs whitewashed, with green door
and window casings. It was the residence of Dr. Johnson of the company's service. The corner now occupied
by the Bank of Commerce and the C. P. E. offices was
vacant lots, and there were many other vacant lots on
that side of Government Street, both north and south.
There was a lake on View Street above Quadra, with
good duck shooting in winter. Fort Street from the
corner of Douglas Street east was blank, with the exception of a lot of Hudson's Bay Company's barns, set
back in the block. This was, I believe, the site of a
farm before 1858, for there were so many evidences of FIFTY YEAES AGO
it when I played in these barns as a child, often helping, as I thought, to unload hay for the cattle which
were kept here in the winter.
A deep ravine ran east and west between Johnson and
Pandora Streets into Victoria harbor. This ravine was
bridged at Store, Government and Douglas Streets, behind Porter's building. There were only two wharves
in the harbor south of the bridge to the Indian reserve.
Over this bridge all traffic passed to Esquimalt and surrounding country until Point Ellice bridge was built.
The Songhees reserve was covered with Indian lodges,
and the Indians were numbered by hundreds. At times
of feasts, when they had a potlatch, or at the making
of a I medicine-man," the reserve was a lively place and
the noise deafening with their yells, both day and
night. It was unsafe to go there at night when these
celebrations were held. Many outrages were committed
on passers-by by Indians when in a state of drunkenness.
Over James Bay to what is now the outer dock, was
a forest of pines and oak trees, with veTy few residences.
With all this rustic simplicity we lived and enjoyed the
passing hour. We have many things now we did not
dream of then; not knowing of them we did not
miss them, and were just as happy without them. I
might conclude thus with:
Victoria, the sweetest village of the west,
Scene of my youth, I love thee best." CHAPTEE XXII.
April, 1908.
Sir,—I am always interested in " Forty Years Ago."
It brings back to me food for thought, especially of late,
when so many old-timers have passed away. Before
commenting on the Colonist's " Forty Years Ago " in
Saturday's issue, I would remark that I expected mention to have been made in the article on the late E. S.
Byrn, that he was a newspaper man for some years. I
remember Mr. Byrn as bookkeeper for the Standard,
under Amor De Cosmos, forty-two years ago, seeing
him every day, as the Standard office was next door to
my father's store on Government Street, opposite
Trounce Avenue. The Standard, like the Colonist, was
started by Amor De Cosmos. The first item of interest
on Saturday is the sailing of the steamer Enterprise for
New Westminster (she made only two trips a week);
among her passengers were Chief Justice Needham,
Eev. E. White (the pioneer minister of the Wesleyan
Church in Victoria), and E. Holloway. The latter is
connected with the government Gazette to-day.
The next item announces the first cricket match of
the season at Beacon Hill. The Victoria eleven are
Charles Clark, a clever amateur actor who helped to
make a success of the various entertainments our club
gave for charity in these days; E. Dewdney, afterwards
Governor; —. Walker, a prominent barrister of those
days; Joseph Wilson, of the firm of W. &. J. Wilson;
Josiah Barnett, cashier of the McDonald Bank; C.
Guerra, a remittance man; C. Green, of Janion, Green
& Ehodes; Thomas Tye, of Mathews, Eichard & Tye;
John Howard, of Esquimalt; Gold Commissioner Ball,
and last though not least, Judge Drake. A cricket
match in those days was always able to draw a crowd,
being the ball game of the day. In this match the name
does not appear of a Mr. Eichardson, who was a professional player and at least an extra fine player, who came
here about that time with a visiting team. He is still
in Victoria, as I saw him quite lately.
Among the passengers by the steamer California for
San Francisco, I note Eev. Dr. Evans, of the Methodist
Church, and family; C. C. Pendergast, in charge of
Wells Fargo's bank and express, an important institution then; J. H. Turner, (Hon.) William Lawson, of the
Bank of British North America, and brother of James
H. Lawson; E. P. Eithet & Co., Mr. and Mrs. Pidwell,
whose daughter Mr. Higgins married; John Glassey, an
uncle of Mr. T. P. McConnell; J. S. Drummond, father
of Mrs. Magill; Eichard Broderick, the coal dealer, and
wife, and Mrs. Zelner, whose husband kept a drug store
where the B. C. Market now is. It will be noted that a
number of people assembled on the wharf to see their
friends off. I might say that this was the usual thing
in those days. Even some business places would be
closed while the proprietor went to the wharf to say
good-bye to a relative or friend. 176   EEMINISCENCES OF OLD VICTOEIA
An Incident of the Mystic Spring.
Sir,—In Thursday's paper in the " Forty Years
Ago" column I note the account given of the suicide
of a young girl at Cadboro Bay. An interesting account
is given in the " Mystic Spring" by my friend, Mr.
Higgins. Poor girl! It was another case of unrequited affection. I knew Miss Booth well, being of my
own age. We had met on many occasions at picnics
and dances and at other festivities. On the memorable
afternoon cited I saw her walking on the Cadboro Bay
Eoad from town just ahead of me, and I hurried and
caught up and accosted her, asking where she was off
to. She was then more than three miles from home,
which was on the Esquimalt Eoad. She replied in the
most cheerful manner, with a smile: " Oh, I'm going
for a walk to Gadboro Bay." I remarked on the long
distance she was from home, to which she replied, and
passed on. Little did I think then that she was on her
way to her death, and in so cool and collected a manner.
My memory has been freshened lately by my brother, as
to the circumstances attending the sad affair. Miss
Booth was one of three sisters who lived with their
father and mother, as before stated, on Esquimalt Eoad.
She had become acquainted with a young gentleman
who afterward became an M.P. at Ottawa, and this
acquaintance ripened into something stronger, so much
so that she.fell in love with him, and showed it so pointedly that he, as well as others, could not well help
noticing it. He did not reciprocate her affection, and
I believe told her so, and like an honest man avoided
her. This in time was too much for her and she took the
fatal course which ended in her drowning herself near
the "Mystic Spring." FOETY YEAES AGO
Being the last to see her in life, and knowing her so
well, I tendered my evidence at the coroner's inquest.
I might say that the family shortly afterwards moved
to Ladner's Landing, and the two sisters married there,
and part of the family still reside in that vicinity. This
ends another little episode of forty years ago. This is
for those who may remember the sad occurrence and the
interest taken in the poor girl's sad fate at the time. CHAPTEE XXIII.
To the Editor,—As I sit writing, my eyes rest on the
picture of the subject of these few remarks. This picture was sent to me with an autograph letter by Governor John Johnson, of Minnesota, four years ago,
under these circumstances. In a magazine I was reading, as I lay in bed with typhoid fever, I came across
an article written by a life-long friend of this good and
great man. Of his early boyhood to the time when he
was elected Governor of Minnesota, what an example he
was to the youth of that day as well as this. The short
sketch ran thus: John Johnson was the eldest, I think,
of four children. His father was a blacksmith and a
good mechanic. Both father and mother were Swedes.
Although a good mechanic, he developed into a lazy,
bad man, who neglected his wife and children, and
eventually landed in the poorhouse. Being left to themselves, the mother took in washing, and after school,
John, the eldest, tool? home the clothes and took out
parcels for a tradesman. John was thus able to help to
keep the family. He was ambitious, wanted to learn,
attended night school for that purpose, engaged with a
chemist, gave it up, went into a lawyers office, then into
politics, and after filling several important positions
got elected Governor of his native state. What I admired in John Johnson was his devotion to his mother,
brother and sisters; also his self-denial.    What would
you think of an alpaca coat to resist the rigors of a
Minnesota winter ? Well, John, by working at night in
various ways saved up enough to buy an overcoat, he
having none, and having to be out late at night delivering the clothes his mother had washed during the day.
Through unforeseen demands on his mother's earnings
the poor boy was forced to give up the overcoat and
hand over the hard-earned money for something he
thought was wanted more, and went through the winter
with nothing warmer than an alpaca jacket. I cannot
but believe that these hardships laid the foundation for
a delicate constitution, and every time I looked at his
picture hanging in my dinirig-room I thought, " How
delicate he looks; will he live to be an old man ?" I was
so taken with the story of his early life, his trials
bravely endured, and his final triumph, that I wrote to
him and congratulated him on his election. This election was a great victory for him, as his opponents used
the fact against him that his father had been an inmate
of the poorhouse and had died there a pauper, to defeat him. These disgraceful tactics were repudiated by
many of his opponents, who showed they did so by voting against their own candidate and for John Johnson.
This gain of votes from his opponents elected him by a
good majority. Well, I told him in my letter that I was
a British subject living in Victoria, Canada, and as
such I congratulated him on his victory, that I was glad
his old mother was alive to see his triumph, and that she
should be proud, and no doubt was proud, of such a son.
In due course he replied, and also sent me his photo,
which, as I said before, I had framed and hung up in
my dining-room as an object-lesson for all of how a
good and noble son made a good and noble man. There
is room for many more such in this world. 180    EEMINISCENCES OF OLD VICTOEIA
To show the respect and love of the people for this
good and great man, I have added the account of his
burial. The late Governor Johnson paid a visit to Victoria about a year before his death, and I am sorry I
was not aware of the fact until it was too late, as I
j| should have esteemed it an honor to have shaken hands
with him:
St. Paul, Minn., Sept. 23.—While the body of Governor John A. Johnson, of Minnesota, was being lowered into its grave this afternoon all industrial activity
in the state was stopped for iive minutes as a tribute to
the memory of the dead Governor.
The body, which had been lying in state in the
rotunda of the capitol since yesterday, where it was
guarded by officers and privates of the state militia, was
taken to the railroad station at 9.15 this morning,
escorted by ten companies of militia, preceded by a band
of one hundred pieces.
" At the station the body was placed abroad a special
train which left for St. Peter, Minn., where interment
took place this afternoon at three o'clock. The funeral
services were held in the St. Peter Presbyterian Church,
where Johnson sang in the choir when a boy. While
the services were in progress at St. Peter's, memorial
services were held in all the churches in Minneapolis
and St. Paul. The public schools are closed to-day, and
the whole state is in mourning." CHAPTEE XXIV.
The Ladrone Islands, which from time immemorial
have belonged to Spain, now, as is well known, belong
to the United States. There is a cable station on the
chief island, Guam. The Ladrone Islands lie off the
coast of the Philippines, and are about three thousand
miles from the Hawaiian Islands in a west-southwest
direction. The Island of Guam has about five thousand
inhabitants, mostly Philipinos, natives, Chinese and
Europeans. Guam, with its sandy beach, its cocoanut
trees and coral strand, puts one much in mind of the
coral islands of story books, where an open boat with
boys of various ages have landed from some wrecked
vessel, and lived on fish, berries and cocoanuts, not forgetting wild pigs and goats. Altogether it is typical of
what all boys read and would like to read again.
The coins used in trade are all Spanish, mostly of
copper, but silver is also used. The natives make mats,
just such as our natives used to make years ago in British Columbia, so finely woven as to hold water. Water
is carried in the Ladrone Islands in bamboos, the
divisions being cut out, and the whole bamboo filled
with water and carried on the shoulder. The usual
vehicle is a two-wheeled cart, drawn by a bull with long
horns, the reins being fastened to the horns; certain
pulls on each horn turn him to left or right. They trot
along like ponies.   The ruins exist of a Spanish church
at Agana, over a hundred years old, the bells belonging
to it being hung in a low tower near by.
Since the American occupation the natives have taken
to baseball as a recreation.
It is an interesting sight to see the native women
wash clothes. They stand in a stream up to their
waists, and after soaping the clothes, they pound them
with a stone, or else take one end of the garment in
both hands and dash the other end up against a rock or
board. The natives have adopted a great many of the
old Spanish customs among themselves, including cock-
fighting, which sport is carried on every Sunday and
holiday. Every man has his trained fighting-cock, and
they take great interest in the sport, staking large sums
on their birds. They lash sharp, razor-like knives on
the birds* spurs, and the fight seldom lasts more than a
few minutes, and generally ends in one of them being
ripped up.
The native huts have always the roof and sometimes
the walls covered with palm leaves, which are impervious to rain, and will last about fi.Ye years, when
they have to be renewed. The floor is generally covered with rough boards, far enough off the ground to
make a chicken-house underneath, or else room to tie
up a bull or cariboo, or to put the bull-cart under.
One of the chief exports of the island is copra, which
is the meat of the cocoanut, picked and dried at a cer-
taiq. stage of its growth. In front of nearly every
native hut can be seen copra drying on mats, and it is
always taken in at night away from the dew. It is used
to make shredded cocoanut, cocoanut oil, soap and other
things, and the natives get about two and a half cents
a pound for it. CHAPTEE XXV.
We left Victoria March 2nd via Seattle for San Francisco and Los Angeles by the good steamer Governor.
We arrived at San Francisco Sunday, March 6th, after
a rather rough trip, on which I did not miss a meal.
After breakfast Mrs. F. and I, with three fellow-passengers, went to Sutro Heights and then to Golden Gate
Park. The seals were still sleeping on the rocks or
bobbing about in the water as of old. Sutro's gardens
were a disappointment, as they seemed to have been
allowed to go to decay. Of all the beautiful statuary
representing the gods and goddesses of ancient Greece
and Eome, all were in a state of dilapidation—arms,
legs and heads broken off and covered with moss and
dirt. Many of the glass houses in the gardens were in
a like state. We did not stay long there, but took cars
for Golden Gate Park, which is kept up by the Government and everything is kept in a perfect state of repair.
Beautiful avenues of tropical trees, flowers in profusion,
statues of public men of the past, and then the museum.
This had the most attractions for me, as there were
many interesting things to inspect, of which more anon.
On the down trip we took on board at San Francisco a
party of seven gentlemen who were going to Los
Angeles for a holiday, consisting of a judge, a lawyer, a
doctor, a manager of an electric light company, two
merchants, and last but not least, a blacksmith, all
members of a singing society. These gentlemen gave us
several most enjoyable little concerts. We arrived at
Eedondo on March 8th and took cars for Los Angeles
soon after arrival, and were in Los Angeles about two
o'clock. I must confess I was not impressed with San
Francisco, for while there were some very handsome,
ornate and very high buildings, especially in the burned
area and on Market Street, there were alongside the
new buildings the cellars of former fine buildings filled
with debris of the buildings destroyed by quake or fire,
also whole blocks boarded up and covered with advertisements, behind which were piles of broken masonry
and twisted steel. I went along Montgomery to Kearney
Street, up Clay to Powell and found very little change
from what I left in 1859. The Plaza did not seem the
least altered.
In 1855 my brother one day remarked that the street
above Powell had had no name long enough, and, as we
lived in it, he took the liberty of naming it. There was
a box with " Taylor's" soap or candles printed on the
cover lying on the ground, and taking a saw he cut the
Taylor in two, nailing " Tay " up on the corner house.
Strange to say, it is " Tay" Street to-day, after fifty-
five years, but instead of being on the house it is
painted on a lamp-post. Clay Street had the honor of
having the first cable street cars, but I did not see any
on my late visit.
It seemed to me as if it would be a long time ere San
Francisco would be like it was before the earthquake.
A party of us went out to Golden Gate Park, but days
might have been profitably spent in the gardens and
museum, and on account of lack of time we could only
partly inspect the many interesting things to be seen at A VISIT TO SOUTHEEN CALIFOENIA    185
the latter place, so I reserved a further inspection till
my return home, which account will be given later on.
If I was disappointed with San Francisco I was more
than pleased with Los Angeles, for several reasons—the
most important being that it is the starting-point for so
many trips into the most beautiful places, of which a
deal might be said, more than I have time to say just
now. Los Angeles is said to contain 320,000, and
likely it does, for the traffic is more congested in the
principal streets than in San Francisco. I was told it
would be so hot in Los Angeles that I took a light suit
and straw hat to wear there, but I found it just such
weather as we get in June, and I did not change my
winter clothes or wear the straw hat at all, and when
going out after dinner I wore my overcoat, being
warned that I ran the risk of taking cold if I did not.
The theatres of Los Angeles are many and good. The
restaurants and cafeterias are both good and reasonable in price. It took us some time to get used to the
cafeterias' way of doing business. Imagine a line fifty
feet long—men, women and children—waiting their
turn to get their knife and fork, dessert and teaspoons,
napkin and tray; then just such food and drinks as you
may fancy, from bread lc, to meats, 10c to 25c When
your tray is loaded, you pass on to the woman who
checks up what you have and gives you the price on a
celluloid check, which, on going out, you hand to the
cashier and pay. It is said that you can get used to
anything in time, and we soon got used to this and
found it popular with all, for these cafeterias are always
full, the food being excellent.
We patronized a vegetarian cafe often, where every
thing was made from vegetables, no tea or coffee
allowed, these drinks being considered unwholesome. 186   EEMINISCENCES OF OLD VICTOEIA
The abomination of Los Angeles is its automobiles
and motor cycles, which I blessed many times a day.
They say there are hundreds—I should say thousands—
of them and they are always in evidence, day and night,
and what with the number of cars, it was impossible to
cross the streets at times, and it was surprising the narrow escapes I had. My attention was drawn to the
height of the sidewalks, they often being twelve and
fifteen inches above the road. It was soon explained,
for a few days later, on going to the theatre, it rained,
and three hours later, going home, the streets were running rivers of water, and we had to walk up and down
to find a narrow place to get over to the sidewalk. The
streets having high crowns, the water, of course, runs
to the gutters, and often boards have to be laid from the
sidewalk across the gutters to get over these torrents.
The next morning, the rain storm being over, the streets
were clear of water. It is the custom here to wash the
streets down at night, so that they are always clean.
They are made of asphalt, and in Pasadena of a composition of asphalt and fine stone or gravel, and are also
treated with crude oil. As part of our time was spent in
Pasadena, I have something to say of that most beautiful of all southern cities. It is about a half hour's run
from Los Angeles, and you pass scores of pretty bungalows on the way, as well as stretches of country covered
with very low green hills with cattle feeding. Pasadena
is termed the " home of millionaires." Well, if handsome houses, grounds, trees and flowers make a millionaire's home, it is rightly named. Fine roads run in
every direction past these lovely plains, and you are
overpowered at times with the smell of orange blossoms as you pass through miles of orange orchards or
Among the beautiful homes is that of Judge Spinks,
surrounded by beautiful trees of all kinds, as well as an
orange garden, where after a long auto ride we received
the hospitality of Mrs. Spinks and Mrs. and Miss Clap-
ham, and carried off a supply of oranges enough for a
week. The many friends of Judge and Mrs. Spinks
will be glad to know that his health has greatly improved since residing there.
Passing the orange trees one day in the cars I noticed
in the distance that the ground instead of being black or
green was golden for quite a distance ahead and on drawing near found it to be caused by oranges, which completely covered up the surface of the soil, and was in
fact the product of that grove picked and lying on the
What might be considered the finest place in Pasadena is the Busch estate; the grounds are a wonder in
artistic taste and extent, and are to be added to, a large
piece of ground having been recently bought by Mr.
Busch for that purpose. The grounds are open to the
public at all times, and his residence also at stated times.
He is the head of the Anheuser-Busch beer concern. I
might state what is a well-known fact, that they don't
believe in fences down there. I have not seen one yet.
All these lovely places are open to the road. You walk
off the sidewalk to the house everywhere. Flowers grow
even in the street, alongside the walk, and are culti-
y O y
vated by those whose property faces them. Speaking of
trees, I must mention that they have the greatest variety
of shade trees to be seen anywhere. The tall eucalyptus,
imported from Australia, is seen by thousands, and the
beautiful pepper tree of Chili or Peru. This tree was
my favorite, looking something between a weeping willow and an acacia, but growing much taller, with its red 188   EEMINISCENCES OF OLD VICTOEIA
berries in bunches showing clearly on the green. Then
the palms with their spreading branches or stems! Of
these latter, we saw a pair that the gentleman informed
me he had brought home in a coal oil tin sixteen years
ago, and to-day the trunks were twenty inches thick and
the trees spread over a surface of twenty-five feet, leaving
a passage between to walk up to the front of the house.
There are avenues of these beautiful trees in the various parks in Los Angeles, Pasadena and Eiverside,
Further, in the matter of trees I would draw a comparison between the authorities of these southern towns and
our own municipal authorities. When making new
roads or drives, they find a fine tree growing on the
road; instead of cutting it down as our vandals do, they
leave it there and protect it, and I saw a notable
example of this, when three men were treating or doctoring a veteran growing on the road which showed
signs of dying, and they were doing all that could be
done to save its life and keep it there. As we wandered
about admiring all this beauty in nature we came to an
extra pretty place, and the impulse took hold of me to
have a nearer view; to if possible get permission to pick
an orange and some blossoms to send home; so I stopped
in my walk and made for where I saw two ladies sitting
in the sunshine in front of the cottage. My wife restrained me and I hesitated, but on casting my eyes
towards the ladies I perceived one of them smile, so I
proceeded on, and raising my hat, apologized for our
interview, saying that we were from the north and were
captivated by the beauty of the place. " Oh, not at all,
you are perfectly welcome. Would you like to look
around?" We gladly accepted, and were shown around
the premises, and at my request to pick an orange myself to send home, I was given permission, and told I A VISIT TO  SOUTHEEN CALIFOENIA    189
might pick a lemon also, and would I like a bunch of
orange blossoms ?
We finally had two card boxes given us, and packed
the fruit in one and the orange blossoms in the other.
We were then invited in to rest and found the ladies
were representative of those we met afterwards—the
most kindly and courteous—and here I must say that I
never met more obliging people than these same good
people of California. I never met with a rebuff from
anyone, and I am sure I bothered them enough during
our stay with enquiries of every kind and another.
The police are instructed to supply everyone with
necessary information and are provided with books containing such information as people may require. There
are many excursions out of Los Angeles in various directions, of which we availed ourselves. One of these took
us to Causton's ostrich farm, San Gabriel Mission, and
Long Beach. The ostrich farm is well worth a visit, to
see these monster birds running about with wings outstretched. We were informed that at the age of six
months they were full grown, and considering their size
and weight it is a wonder. They eat as much as a cow,
and, to show how high they can reach, the keeper stood
on something and raised his hand up to eight feet and
the ostrich easily took an orange from his hand and
swallowed it whole. We were warned not to come too
close to .them, for the ostrich is attracted by bright hatpins in the ladies' hats or by jewelry, or by anything
bright—all are swallowed whole. One was sitting On a
batch of eggs, which had just been vacated by the male,
who does the most of the sitting. The visit to the San
Gabriel Mission was of great interest to me, for it was
of ancient origin, having been one of those founded by
Padre Junipero Serra in 1771.   The church we visited, 190   EEMINISCENCES OF OLD VICTOEIA
and were conducted through by a lay priest who, in a
monotonous tone of voice, recited all he knew of the mission. As before stated, the mission was about one hundred and forty years old, and one cannot but admire the
zeal and devotion of the men who endured the hardships
of the life they must have led so long ago. The church
windows were very high from the ground, as the natives
were not to be trusted, and the fathers might be surprised at any moment during the service and shot at.
They had often to take refuge there from further attacks
in early times. We were told that the building, which
was built, as all were at that time, of sun-dried bricks
and mud, was renewed since only in roof and seats.   The
y */
original doors were preserved and shown us in a room.
They were made very substantially, with iron bolts and
bands and big locks, but now crumbling with age. The
pictures of saints on the walls were painted in oil, and
very poor specimens of art, I should say. They were old,
and were sent from Spain. Although twenty-five cents
was asked for admission we were asked to contribute
to a fund for the restoration of the building, and many
small coins were given by our party, and, when it is
remembered that these excursions are daily, the year
around, it must be an expensive job keeping the* old
building in repair. It looked as if twenty dollars would
have covered the cost of any repairs made in a year,
and it looked to me a case of graft on someone's part.
There is another church, founded at the same time,
in Los Angeles, and I produce all I could decipher of an
ancient inscription I copied from the front:   " Los	
—de Esta Parroquia A La Eeina   de   Los   Angelus"
(built 1814). These missions are planted at stated distances from San Diego to San Francisco, and all by that
pioneer of Eoman Catholicism, Junipera Serra.    There A VISIT TO SOUTHEEN CALIFOENIA    191
is a statue to him in Golden Gate Park in San Francisco
in the attitude of exhortation, leaning forward with
arms extended upward. I visited three of the missions,
and they are all about the same. There is great food
for contemplation in visiting these relics of the past.
To think of the conditions as existing then and now.
We were photographed in front of the mission,
after which we left for Long Beach and spent the
balance of the afternoon. The beach was covered
with bathers—men, women and children—and although
the surf rolled high on the sands the bathers
ran in and met the rollers, which completely buried
them. They then emerged laughing, and waited for the
next wave. There was quite a small town on the sands
where there were shows of all kinds and booths for
getting money by many ways in profusion.
At the handsome and commodious Hotel Virginia we
visited Mr. Eoper of " Cherry Creek" who has been
down here all the winter, and we found him getting
better, but slowly.
Although there are many Victorians go south to spend
the winter each year, the great majority are for many
reasons unable to do so, and I thought it might be of
some interest to these latter to give them " items by the
way" in going and coming on this most enjoyable
sojourn to the land of fruit, flowers and beautiful homes.
At all these winter resorts for people from the East
and North are flowers, trees and fruit, with handsome
hotels, fruits, beautiful shade trees, and last but not
least, beautiful homes. There are public parks in all
of them where in January people may sit out of doors
among their flowers, with the mocking-birds singing on
all sides. Eesidences are nearly all in the bungalow
style, with projecting roofs.    The more imposing resi- 192   EEMINISCENCES OF OLD VICTOEIA
dences may be of Spanish architecture with red tiled
roofs which look .very handsome.
I wondered at the large and handsome hotels in Pasadena, although Eiverside, San Bernardino and San Diego
all have good hotels. In Pasadena there was the Maryland with its pergola, a Spanish appendage covered with
climbing flower vines which was very attractive; also the
Green and the Eaymond. There is little to be seen of
the original inhabitants of this country, that is to say,
of their descendants. It put me in mind of our own
Indians, of the remnant of the Songhees tribe. They
are all seemingly half or quarter breeds, and work as
laborers for the railway company. I have already given
in my boyhood experiences in San Francisco an account
of a flag incident, and strange to say, I nearly had another in Los Angeles. One day I saw what might be
an English flag flying from a high building, and the
sight stirred me. So to make sure I threaded my way
through the crowd for some distance and when opposite
the building I walked off the sidewalk and craned my
neck to look up six stories to make sure if it were really
a Union Jack. Well, well! I thought, is it up so high to
protect it from molestation, or is it that they are more
liberal-minded here? I felt pleased, but when I espied
what turned out to be the British coat-of-arms below the
flag I saw the reason why. Just then along came a
motor cycle and a motor car, and in the opposite direction a street car, and I recovered myself and got out of
the way in quick time. It was the office of the British
Consul, and that is why it waved. I consoled myself
with the thought that it was after all only a certain
class of American who would not tolerate any other flag
in this country but his own, and I shall try and always
We left Los Angeles and Eedlands March 24th for
San Francisco, where we arrived March 25th. In San
Francisco I met an old Victorian, Tom Burnes, brother
of William Burnes, H. M. customs. I had not seen him
for years, and we started to explore the Plaza on
Kearney and Washington Streets. This was the most
familiar part of San Francisco to me, as I have passed
through this part often as a boy. It is now known as
Portman Square. I looked for the " Monumental"
engine house from which I had run to fires in the early
fifties. A blank space was pointed out where it had been,
but the fire had destroyed this ancient landmark. In
the Plaza Mr. Burnes showed me a monument to Eobert
Louis Stevenson, the English writer of such interesting
sea stories. On the top was a ship of the time of Elizabeth, with the high poop deck, which must have represented something in one of his stories, and an inscription:
"To Eemember Eobert L. Stevenson.
"To be honest, to be kind, to earn a little, to
spend a little less. To make upon the whole a
family happier for his presence. To renounce
when that be necessary. Not to be embittered.
To keep a few friends, but those without capitulation. Above all, on the same grim condition, to keep friends with himself. Here is
a task for all that man has of fortitude and
This was erected by some admirers of the very interesting English writer who died, was* it not in Samoa, so
beloved by the natives.
Piloted by Mr. Burnes, we next viewed St. Mary's
Cathedral. It had been fifty odd years since I had last
been inside, and as a boy I had often been attracted by
the music. The cathedral was completely gutted by the
fire, which entered at the front doors and passed up the
tower and to the roof, in fact making a complete ruin
of the building. So that the original landmark should
be preserved intact, they built a complete church inside
of concrete and bolted the two walls together so that the
building is as good as ever. New stained glass windows,
altars and a new $25,000 organ have been donated by
wealthy members of the congregation, so that we looked
upon a new church inside and the original outside.
We spent the afternoon at Golden Gate Park, which
was the great sight of San Francisco, four miles long,
laid out as an immense garden or succession of gardens,
with conservatories and aviaries, tropical trees, winding
roads and paths in all directions. The first thing to
attract my attention before entering the museum was a
statue of Padre Junipero Serra, the intrepid founder
of so many missions along the coast of California.
There were also monuments to Abraham Lincoln, General Grant, and that stirring preacher of the south,
Starr King. Time was valuable, so I had to give up
a further inspection of the park to give all remaining
time to the museum, which closed at four o'clock. All
the time we were in the museum I noticed two policemen patrolling about and I thought it unusual, and on
inquiry found that lately a most valuable picture had
been taken by being cut out of the frame. After some
trouble the thief had been captured and the picture recovered. The thief gave as a reason for stealing it that
he thought it might inspire him to paint just such a
picture, he being ambitious to be a painter.    I hardly A VISIT TO SOUTHEEN CALIFOENIA    195
think this excuse will weigh with the authorities. In
the room of pioneer relics I found many interesting
things. First a large bell which recorded on the outside the founding of the volunteer fire department,
organized 1850, George Hosseproso, chief engineer.
Firemen of those days were men of account, in fact,
many men of prominence were officers or members of
the fire department. Second, four mission bells from an
old mission church at Carmelo, Monterey County, built
by Padre Junipero Serra, 1770; San Francisco's first
printing press, used in publishing the first newspaper
in California, in 1846, at Monterey; a picture of Jno.
Truebody, a pioneer business man of San Francisco,
whom 1 remember well; two glass cases of relics presented by John Bardwell, of the vigilante days, containing firearms, batons, certificates of membership in the
vigilante committee, pieces of rope, being cut off the
original ropes with which they hanged Cora, Casey,
Hetherington and Brace, for the assassination of James
King of William, and General Eichardson. James King
of William was the editor of the Chronicle, and in an
election campaign James King, who was opposed to
Casey in politics, mentioned the fact that Casey had
been a jail-bird in his youth. This was taken up by
Casey's friends and three of them agreed that the first
one of the three who should meet James King should
shoot him. Casey being the first to meet him performed the deed. For this he was hanged by -the vigilance committee, who demanded him from the authorities. This committee was formed immediately after the
Cora was hanged for the murder of General Eichardson because of a slight cast on Cora's wife by the for- 196   EEMINISCENCES OF OLD VICTOEIA
mer. Pistols seemed to have been carried by all as a necessity. Cora and Casey were taken out of the jail by the
vigilance committee and hanged May 18th, 1856. There
were also pieces of the rope used in hanging Hethering-
ton and Brace for the murder of Baldwin, Eandall, West
and Marion, July 29th, 1856. There were pictures also
of Judge Terry, A. B. Paul, Wm. T. Coleman, Charles
Doane, James King of William, and a picture of the
scene of his assassination. I recognized this locality
immediately I saw it. It was the offices of the Pacific
Express Co., on the corner of Washington and Montgomery. There were also pictures of Fort Gunnybags,
the headquarters of the vigilance committee, showing
the alarm bell and the sentries on the roof; also Lola
Montez, Countess of Bavaria, a most notable woman of
those exciting times, and of William C. Ealston. There
was a picture of the pavilion of the first Mechanics'
Exhibition, held in San Francisco in 1857. I remember this exhibition well, as on a certain day all the school
children were given free admission, and it was as a
school boy I went.
There was an extensive collection of relics of the past
in the Egyptian rooms, many being facsimiles of the-
originals in the British Museum. Where this was the
case it was so stated, but there were many genuine
things, amongst which I noted a wooden statue dating
back about 1,000 years before Christ, being the wife,
and also sister of Osiris, and mother of Horus, chief
deity of Egypt. Strictly on the stroke of four o'clock
a policeman went through the building and called out
that the buildings must be closed. I made a request to
one of these policemen to see the curator, and he took
me to his office; he was, unfortunately, not in, but I
saw his assistant and offered her some relics of early A VISIT TO  SOUTHEEN CALIFOENIA    197
San Francisco, which were accepted. I was watching
the people filing out, prior to closing, when out came
three bluejackets, whose caps showed they belonged to
H. M. S. Shearwater. I introduced myself, and remarked, "What are you boys doing here? I should
hardly have expected to have seen sailors so far from
their ship." " Oh, sir, we are at anchor in the harbor
yonder, and will be leaving Monday for Esquimalt." I
saw her that evening at anchor, with the Union Jack
flapping in the breeze, and suppose the Jacks were aboard
all right.
We were advised that the mint was open to visitors
between the hours of 9.30 and 11.30, and as I had not
been there for about twenty years we joined a party one
morning. On presenting ourselves we were ushered into
a waiting-room with others. Later on a man in uniform
came for us. We were counted and told to follow. We
were first taken down to a room in the cellar where we
were instructed as to what we should see, and given a
lot of information about the mint. This was done where
it was quiet, as where the work was done it is very noisy.
The first process was melting the silver in crucibles,
which were emptied of their contents when in a liquid
state into molds, which were in turn emptied out,
were grasped by a man who passed them on with thick
leather-gloved hands to powerful rollers which rolled the
ingots out to long strips like hoop-iron, after being
passed through many times. These strips, which were
then as thick as a dollar, were passed under a stamp,
which punched out the coins about 120 a minute. They
were continually being examined by various men who
now and then threw out imperfect ones. They were
then passed on to another room where there was a perfect din of machinery.   They were now passed under an 198   EEMINISCENCES OF OLD VICTOEIA
immense stamp and the image was punched on under a
pressure of one hundred and twenty-eight tons. They
were then coins, and after several other examinations
were cooled and passed, one being handed around for
our inspection. In addition to the dollar we saw the
same routine gone through in making a copper cent
piece. I tried to get one, but he said every one was
counted and must be produced. There were several who
wanted souvenirs and wished to pay for them. We
were counted again, signed our names and left. CHAPTEE XXVI.
The following interesting account of the historic
steamer Beaver, the first to round the Horn into the
Pacific, will be read by native sons as well as pioneers
with renewed interest, as it is many years since this
account was published.
The Beaver lay off the old Customs House for a long
time, until taken by the Admiralty for hydrographic
work. When done with for that purpose she was sold
for mercantile purposes again.
For some years she was in charge of my old friend,
Captain ^Wully Mutchell," as he was called by his
friends, and he had many, for he was as jolly as a sandboy and always joking, in fact more like a man of fifty
instead of eighty, as he really was.
1 More than thirty-nine years have passed and a
generation of men have come and gone since the Hudson's Bay Company's steamer Beaver, whose sale was
chronicled yesterday, floated with the tide down the
Eiver Thames, through the British Channel, and went
out into the open, trackless sea, rounded Cape Horn,
clove the placid waters of the Pacific Ocean, and
anchored at length, after a passage that lasted one hundred and sixty-three days, at Astoria on the Columbia
Eiver, then the chief 'town' on the Pacific Coast.
Built and equipped at a period when the problem of
steam marine navigation was yet to be solved, is it any
wonder that the little steamer which was destined to
traverse two oceans—one of them scarcely known outside of books of travel—was an object of deep and engrossing interest from the day that her keel was first
laid until the morning when she passed out of sight
amidst the encouraging cheers of thousands gathered on
either shore, and the answering salvoes of her own guns,
on a long voyage to an unknown sea ?
"Titled men and women watched the progress of construction.   King William and 160,000 of his loyal subjects witnessed the launch.   A Duchess broke the traditional bottle of champagne over the bow and bestowed
the name she has ever since proudly worn.   The engines
and boilers, built by Bolton and Watt (Watt was a son
of the great Watt) were placed in their proper positions
on board, but it was not considered safe to work them on
the passage; so she was rigged as a brig and came out under sail. A bark accompanied her as convoy to assist in
case of accident; but the Beaver set all canvas, ran out
of sight of her c protector,' and reached the Columbia
twenty-two days ahead.    Captain Home was the name
of the first commander of the Beaver; he brought her
out, and we can well imagine the feeling of pride with
which he bestrode the deck of his brave little ship, which
carried six guns—nine-pounders.    The   Beaver,   soon
after   reaching   Astoria,   got   up   steam,   and   after
having    ' astonished    the    natives'    with-   her    performances, sailed up to Nisqually, then the Hudson's
Bay Company's chief station on the Pacific   Here Captain McNeil (now commander of the Enterprise), took
coihmand of the Beaver, and Captain Home, retiring to
one of the Company's forts on Columbia Eiver, perished
in 1837 in Death's Eapids by the upsetting of a boat.
From  that  period   until    the    steamer    passed   into ^ m
CO    £
CO   2:
O     CO
the hands of the Imperial hydrographers, the
history of the Beaver was that of most of the
Company's trading vessels. She ran north and
south, east and west, collecting furs and carrying
goods to and from the stations for many years.
Amongst the best known of her officers during that
period were Capt. Dodds, Capt. Brotchie, Capts. Scarborough, Sangster, Mouat and others, all of whom passed
away long since, but have left their names behind them.
We believe we are correct in saying that not a single
person who came out in the Beaver in 1835 is now alive;
and nearly all the Company's officers, with a few exceptions, who received her on her arrival at Columbia Eiver,
are gone, too.
"Yesterday, through the courtesy of Capt. Eudlin (one
of her new owners and future commander) we visited
the old ship.    On board we met the venerable Captain
William Mitchell, who has had charge of the vessel for
some years.    He was busily   engaged   in  packing   his
clothes into chests preparatory to going ashore.   He remembers well the Beaver in her early days.   Every room,
every  plank  possesses  historic  interest  to  him.     He
pointed out the Captain's room.   'Just the same,' said
he, 'as when I first saw it in '36.   There's the chest of
drawers, there's the bunk, and there's the hook where
the Captain's pipe hung, and many's the smoke I've
had in these cabins nearly forty years ago.    Nothing
below has been changed,' continued Captain Mitchell,
\ except—except the  faces that  used to people these
rooms in the days long ago, and'—pointing to his thin,
gray locks—? I was a deal younger then!'    He led the
way into the engine-room, chatting   pleasantly   as   he
went and relating incidents connected with the Beaver
and her dead people of an interesting character which 202   EEMINISCENCES OF OLD VICTOEIA
we may some day give to the world. There are two
engines, of seventy-five horse-power, as bright and apparently as little worn as when they first came from the
shop of Bolton and Watt. From some cuddy hole the
Captain drew forth the ship's bell, on which was inscribed 'Beaver, 1835;' then he showed us into the
little forecastle with the hammock-hooks still attached
to the timbers, from which had swung two generations
of sailors. Then the main deck was regained and we
took leave of the gallant old gentleman and Captain
Eudlin, who informed us that the Beaver will be taken
alongside of Dickson, Campbell & Co.'s wharf to-day to
undergo the important changes necessary to the new
trade in which she will henceforth be employed.'
When I look back over my soldiering days the figure
that I first remember is Colonel Wolfenden, then a sergeant in the volunteers, and I a full private. It was not,
I think, until I was twenty years old and a member for
two years, that I remember him, when he was elected
captain from sergeant. I might say that the volunteers
were a different organization from the militia. You
enlisted for a term, the same as in the latter organization, and officers were elected from the company.
Uniforms were paid for by each member, the cost being
$26 for everything complete. Dues had to be paid also,
fifty cents a month, and ammunition for target practice
had also to be paid for. It was a good deal like the
volunteer firemen of that day, who had to pay dues and
buy their uniform.
If ever there was an enthusiastic volunteer it was
Captain Wolfenden, and under the most trying circumstances. In those days (forty-four years ago) soldiering was not as popular as it was when it was merged
into the Canadian militia, when uniform was free, ammunition was free and there were no fees to pay. It
was therefore hard work to get a company together and
keep them together under the circumstances. Captain
Wolfenden having the matter at heart did his best, and
more than his best, if that were possible, to make a good
showing, and he encouraged me to  get  members   and
raised me to corporal, and later to sergeant and finally
on our merging into the Canadian militia he made me
senior sergeant.    I must honestly confess   I   did   not
think I deserved this at the time, for I was a nervous
subject and got rattled at times, but for his sake, who
showed a partiality for me, I   did  my  best   and  was
always at drill as he was, no matter what the weather
was.   It was as captain of volunteers that he joined the
Canadian militia, and soon after was appointed colonel
in charge, which high position he worked for and earned
by faithful service.    I think what made us such good
friends was our early comradeship in the volunteers.
We used to have march-outs to Esquimalt, to Cadboro
Bay or to Beacon Hill and back, and to enliven the
march would sing songs; those with a good chorus which
were joined in by the rest.   These days of the past were
often talked over by us in later years, while I, to please
the Collector of Customs, Mr. Hamly, in 1884, resigned
membership in the militia, after eighteen years as a volunteer soldier.    Colonel Wolfenden continued on  for
many years.    In conclusion I might add that when I
joined the volunteers Captain Laing, then manager of
the Bank of British Columbia, was captain.    I cannot
remember whether Colonel Wolfenden was   a  member
then or not, but it was not long after.    Other officers
of that time were Adjutant Vinter, Captain Fletcher
(P. 0. Inspector), Captain Dorman (deputy Inspector),
Major Eoscoe   (hardware merchant),   Captain   T.   L.
Wood  (Solicitor-General),  Captain Drummond  (company No. 2), and Chaplain Eev. Thomas Sommerville.
Occasionally we went into camp for a month, and generally at Beacon Hill, or at Henley's, at Clover Point.
These camps were made very interesting by entertainments being frequently given, and to which our friends   COLONEL WOLFENDEN
were invited. Oh, those were days worth remembering!
During the time of the Fenian Eaid we were encamped
in the trees just about where the bear pits were, and the
night sentries were told to keep a strict lookout, and
challenge all intruders. This was taken advantage of
by some young fellows to play a lark on us. So one
night when the camp was asleep, we were all awakened
by the sentry's outcry. He happened to be the late
Eobert Homfray, a rather nervous man. I got up with
the rest, and there was the sentry with what he declared
was an infernal machine, which had been thrown into
the camp by someone who had made off in the darkness.
The infernal machine consisted of a bottle filled with
what was supposed to be giant powder, and bits of
iron or steel, with a fuse sticking out of the neck of
the bottle. It was, after careful inspection without
much handling, put away till the morning, and then, a
more strict examination revealed the contents to be
simply small bits of coal to represent giant powder, and
genuine steel filings. This was a standing joke against
us, and especially Private Homfray, for many a day
afterwards. To conclude, finally, I am sure I have the
most kindly recollections of my friend of so many years,
as have many more to-day, who will bear full testimony
to his sterling worth as a soldier, government official
and gentleman. CHAPTEE XXVIII.
It is known to few only that View Street at one time
reached from Cook to Wharf Street.
In the Victoria Gazette of 1858 appear several items
regarding this street. A public meeting was called for
by certain citizens who considered themselves more
aggrieved than the general public, in that they, being
residents of the upper part of View Street, had on coming to business, to walk on to Fort or Yates Street to
get to Government or Wharf. Without any notice the
street was fenced across on Broad and also on Government. The Gazette states that there was great dissatisfaction at the fencing of the vacant space on | Broadway" and Government Streets, which the paper stated
was used as a cabbage patch, and there was talk of pulling the fence down.
All the agitation seems to have amounted to nothing,
for not only was the fence not pulled down, but J. J.
Southgate, one of the earliest merchants of Victoria,
erected a large wooden building on the street. By referring to the engraving this building may be seen indicated by a cross. Later on Southgate erected the present
brick building which Hibben & Co. have just vacated
after an occupancy of forty odd years.. The Gazette
stated later on that the Governor had sold the lots to
Mr. Southgate, and that settled the matter.
That it was not intended that View Street should end
206 m
at Broad is evident, as Bastion Street was then known
as View Street, being so called in Mallandaine's first
directory (1859.)
Mr. Trounce, who owned the land through which
Trounce Avenue passes, after the closing of View Street,
decided to make an alleyway through his property so as
to more easily let his stores. This alley has been open
ever since, but used to be closed for a day each year for
many years after.
I might state that J. J. Southgate, who was a prominent Mason, called a meeting of " all Free Masons at
his new store on Monday evening, July 12th, 1858, at
7 o'clock, to consider important matters connected with
the organization of the order."
T. N. Hibben & Co., who have just vacated this site
after so many years, have moved only once before since
going into business on the corner of Yates and Langley
Streets, in 1858, by the firm name of " Hibben & Cars-
well." The building is that brick one lately sold. Both
founders of this well-known and long-established business, together with their bookkeeper who later became
a partner (Mr. Kammerer) have passed away, and the
firm now consists of Mr. Hibben's widow and William
H. Bone, who has been connected with the firm since
"Did the Thoroughfare Once Eun Through to the
Harbor ?   A Question of Eecords.
uThe question of whether or not View Street, which is
now blocked by stores and office buildings at Broad
Street, was ever open to traffic as a thoroughfare clear
through, which theory D. W. Higgins, in an interview
published in the Colonist last week denied, is causing 208    EEMINISCENCES OF OLD VICTOEIA
considerable discussion among old-time residents. Yesterday Edgar Fawcett, who first broached the subject,
gave the Colonist the following further argument on the
"As my friend Mr. Higgins joins issue with me on my
account of the closing of View Street in 1858, I am going to give him some further evidence. I would not for
a moment match my memory or knowledge of events
of the early history of Victoria with Mr. Higgins, who
arrived months before I did, and from his position as a
newspaper man had far better opportunities of getting
knowledge of passing events. But Mr. Higgins did not
arrive early enough, if the evidence in the Victoria
Gazette is worth anything. I had the opportunity of reviewing the first year's numbers, and jotted down all
items I thought of interest. This I gave to the Colonist
readers some years ago, and the items regarding View
Street were some of them. I think Mr. Higgins will
forgive me if I say that the Gazette's evidence is likely
to be more correct than mere memory. I am glad of
the opportunity to correct an error I made in copying
from my former article; that of substituting the name
of Southgate for Stamp. Southgate's name occurred
several times in items, and I find by referring to my
former article, that I have Captain Stamp's name all
right. Now for the further evidence. I would ask if
it is likely that any one would build a wharf on Broad
Street, say at the office of the Daily Times, Ltd., which
is now at the foot of View Street ? I ask this because
in the Gazette it is announced that Eousette is building a wharf at the foot of View Street, which'meant
next to the Hudson's Bay Company's warehouse on
Wharf Street.   Further, I produce from Mallandaine's THE CLOSING OF VIEW STEEET        209
First Directory, compiled in 1859, two advertisements
which will show that View Street ended on Wharf
Street opposite the Hudson's Bay Company's store:
F. J. St. Ours
Wharf Street, near View
Kaindler's wharf—Victoria, V. I.
Commission Merchant
Etc., Etc., Etc.
Eeid & Macdonald
Commission and General Merchants
Wharf Street,
Corner of View Street
Victoria, V. I.
Neither Bastion Nor View.
"To the Editor:—Having read with great interest Mr.
Edgar Fawcetf s letter re the query as to the permanent
term for the street now named as View and Bastion,
may I make a suggestion that in the event of a re-naming that the thoroughfare be known as Fawcett Street?
Many old residents are perpetuated in street names, and
I feel sure, after the indefatigable efforts put forward by
Mr. Fawcett in all issues connected with archaic research
in Victoria and its immediate environs, that it would
be a fitting tribute on the part of the cdty fathers to
perpetuate the name of such a zealous citizen.
"Well Wisher.
"Victoria, B.C., Nov. 8th, 1910."   [
View or Bastion or Both?
fTo the Editor:—In case the project for extending
View Street through the burnt block is carried out,
what name would be given the street when it connects
with Bastion at the corner of Government? Although
View Street as originally planned commenced at the
waterfront where the Hudson's Bay Company's store
stands, I think ' Bastion' a better name for the street,
as it was the northern boundary for the fort, and, as is
well known, Eichardson's cigar store stands on ground
formerly occupied by the N. E. bastion, and is therefore a historic spot or landmark.
"Since the correspondence with respect to View Street
and where it commenced and ended, I have met two
gentlemen who were residents in 1855 and who both
state positively that View Street was always open for
traffic from Wharf Street eastward until 1858, when
the land now proposed to be expropriated was fenced in
on Government and Broadway, as Broad Street was
then known, by Captain Stamp, with the consent of
Governor Douglas, on behalf of the Hudson's Bay Company."
The Bridge to the Eeserve.
"Sir:—There cannot be two opinions as to the utility
of a bridge over the harbor from the bottom of Johnson
Street. The first bridge crossing to the Songhees reserve
at this point was built by Governor Douglas prior to
1860, it being an ordinary pile bridge such as graced,
or disgraced, James Bay until the Causeway was built.
The first bridge Over to the reserve was part of the highway to Esquimalt, Craigflower, Metchosin and Sooke,
and was very much in use in the olden days. THE CLOSING OF VIEW STEEET
iA continuous stream of people, many Indians amongst
them, passed to and fro, and in times of potlatches,
when there were hundreds of Indians living there, and
as many visitors from other reservations on the island,
and even mainland, it was a busy place. The ceremony
of making a medicine man I have seen on two occasions,
when a candidate was locked up for days, being kept
without food, and then at the appointed time let loose,
when he ran about like a madman and was supposed to
catch a dog, of which there were scores on the reserve,
and in his hunger bite pieces out of the dog. It was very
unsafe at times for persons to go over to the reserve at
night, on account of the drunken Indians.
"But,this is beside the question I started to write about,
which was the bridge and its approach on Johnson Street
end. I repeat what I said in reviewing four old pictures
of 1866 which appeared in the Colonist of a few weeks
ago. In speaking of the old buildings to be seen on the
water-front next to the sand and gravel concern, ' there
are two which, I remarked, should not have been allowed
to remain so long.' One was known in the earliest
times as the 'salmon house,' where the Hudson's Bay
Company salted, packed and stored their salmon. It
may have been considered an ornament in those days,
but in these days of progress it is an eyesore and very
much in the way. Opposite this building, and across
the street, was manufactured most of the ' tangle leg'
whiskey sold to the Indians in those days, and which
drove them crazy, rather than made them drunk.
Edgar Fawcett.
"Pioneer Pensioned by the Department—One of
the Oldest Eesidents of the City.
"After twenty-nine years' service in His Majesty's
customs as assistant appraiser in charge of the Postal
Package and Express Office, Mr. Edgar Fawcett has
just received word that he has been retired with a substantial pension. While glad to retire, Mr. Fawcett said
he feels that he will miss the favor he has met with at
the Customs House weekvby week for so many years.
"Mr. Fawcett was presented with an address by the
customs staff yesterday and a presentation was made of
a leather chair and stool. The presentation address was
signed by every member of the customs staff.
"Mr. Edgar Fawcett is a pioneer. He came to Victoria in 1859 and is one of the best informed men in
the city concerning the history and material development of this portion of the province, and he himself
has taken no insignificant part in affairs of a general
public nature. He has written many reminiscences of
early days in Victoria and is a recognized authority
along these lines.
"Mr. Fawcett is a native of Australia, having been
born of English ancestry at Sydney, N.S.W., on February 1st, 1847. His father, who was a carpet manufacturer  at  the  noted  British manufactory  of  carpets,
Kiddermaster, was a cousin of Sir Eowland Hill, the
British Postmaster-General, whose work for the penny
post is known. The family emigrated to Australia in
1838, and remained there until 1849, when they were
among the 'forty-niners' to become pioneers of California. Mr. Fawcett, Sr., invested at San Francisco in
a vessel which he engaged in freighting lumber between
British Columbia and San Francisco, and this craft
was lost in the Straits of Juan de Fuca in 1857, causing him some financial embarrassment. In 1858 the
father came to Victoria to recoup his fortunes, the family
following a year later. Mr. Fawcett, Sr., was an honored
citizen of Victoria for thirty years, and for three years
filled the post of Government agent at Nanaimo. In 1889
he returned to England and died at the age of seventy-
six years. Of his sons, Edgar Fawcett and Eowland W.
Fawcett remained in British Columbia.
"Mr. Fawcett came to Victoria as a boy of twelve
years of age, and in the early period of the city's history, when there was little more than a village on the
site of the old fort, he used his facilities of observation
to good advantage, and carries in his memory exact impressions and scenes as he then saw them. He received
his early education in Victoria at the Collegiate School
and the Colonial School, and began his business career
with his brother as an upholsterer until 1882, when he
entered the Dominion Civil Service, first as a clerk in
the custom house, and he has been promoted from time
to time.
"Mr. Fawcett served as a sergeant in the old Victoria
Eifle Volunteers, afterward merged into the Canadian
militia under Colonel Wolfenden. He was among the
first to join the volunteer fixe department of Victoria,
He  is  the  only  remaining   charter   member   of  the 214   EEMINISCENCES OF OLD VICTOEIA
Pioneers' Society, and was secretary at the first meeting when organized in Smith's Hall, Victoria, in 1871.
He is a veteran member of the Oddfellows, having
joined the order in 1868. He is a veteran member of
the church committee of the Eeformed Episcopal
Church, and was active in the organization of this
church about thirty-five years ago. CHAPTEE XXX.
Here is an interesting little story to early residents
of over fifty years ago that may be recalled for their
edification. It would be interesting to present residents
to know that in 1858 Victoria had a larger colored
population than she has to-day, although with now three
times the population. This is how it happened, and
thereon hangs the tale:
Before the rush to the Fraser Eiver gold diggings and
in California there was an act passed through the
Legislature of that state making it' compulsory for all
colored men to wear a distinctive badge. This called
forth Indignation from all the colored residents of California, and resulted in a meeting being held in San
Francisco, delegates from all parts coming. At this
meeting, after the matter had been fully discussed, it
was decided to send a delegation of three, representing
the colored residents of California, to Victoria to interview Governor Douglas, to know how they would be
received in this colony. The delegation, consisting of
Mifflin W. Gibbs,—Moses, a barber, and another,
met Governor Douglas and received such encouragement that they returned and reported favorably. The
result of this was that eight hundred colored persons—
men, women and children—emigrated to Victoria during 1858 and 1859. 1'
I %Jr  2^1 What induced me to write this matter up was the
for*' iO resurrecting of a newspaper cutting, evidently from the
f **> ^        Victoria Gazette, for which I am indebted to Mr. Newbury,   collector   of. customs,   and   which   is   given
"Application for Citizenship.
"We have copied the names and occupations of the
persons who have made application to be admitted to
the rights of British subjects within the past few days,
and give them below. They foot up fifty-four in number—fifty-three are colored and one white.
Victoria Town.
"George Henry Anderson, farmer.
William Isaacs, farmer.
Fielding Spotts, cooper.
James Samson, teamster.
Eichard Stokes, carrier.
John Thomas Dunlop, carman.
Nathan Pointer, merchant.
Augustus Christopher, porter.
Isaac Gohiggin, teamster.
William Alex. Scott, barber.
Mifflin Wister Gibbs, merchant.
William Miller, saloon-keeper.
George H. Matthews, merchant.
Eobert Abernethy, baker.
Henry Perpero, gardener.
Thomas Palmer Freeman, storekeeper.
Stephen Anderson, miner.
Edward A. Booth, water earrier.
William Grant, teamster.   SOME COLOEED PIONEEES
Henry Holly Brenen, cook.
Samuel John Booth, caulker.
Joshua B. Handy, restaurant-keeper.
William Brown, merchant.
Timothy Eoberts, teamster.
*William Copperman, Indian trader.
Matthew Fred. Monet, fruiterer.
John Baldwin, greengrocer.
Stephen Whitley, laundryman.
Charles H. Thorp, ship carpenter.
George Washington Hobbs, teamster.
Willis Carroll Bond, contractor.
Elison Dowdy, painter.
Archer Fox, barber.
Eobert H. Williamson, blacksmith.
Eandel Caesar, barber.
Fortune Eichard, ship carpenter.
T. Devine Mathews, carrier.
Eobert Tilghman, barber.
Charles Humphrey Scott, grocer.
Thomas H. Jackson, drayman.
Ashbury Buhler, tailor.
Archer Lee, porter.
John Lewis, porter.
Thorenton Washington, carpenter.
Lewis Scott, carpenter.
William Glasco, teamster.
John Dandridge, no occupation.
Adolphus C. Eichards, plasterer.
Fielding Smithers, messenger.
John E. Edwards, hair dresser.
Paris Carter, grocer.
Augustus Travers, porter. 218   EEMINISCENCES OF OLD VICTOEIA
Victoria District.
Bidhard Jackson, gardener.
Patrick Jerome Addison, farmer.
The names will be familiar to many of our old-
"timers, but, strange to say, of this list only seven families are represented to-day:    That of F. Spotts, far-
i mer; Nathan Pointer, M. W.  Gibbs, William Grant,
\ Samuel J. Booth, Paris Carter and Gus Travers.
As they were promised equal rights with the whites
by Governor Douglas, they proceeded to claim these
frights in various ways, which was resisted by the American residents, who formed a large majority of the residents of Victoria then. It has been told by Mr.
Higgins of the colored people who had reserved seats
in the dress circle of the theatre, and of the indignation
of the Americans who had seats next to them; several
/ colored.men went into Joe Lovett's saloon and called
for drink. Joe Lovett refused to serve them. The
colored men brought the matter before Judge Pemberton, who decided that Lovett was in the wrong, and
must serve them; but that he might charge them $2.50
a drink if he wished. An American and his family
occupied a pew in Victoria District Church, and one
hot Sunday the sexton showed a colored man into the
A   pew.   The American left the church and wrote a very
y  indignant letter to the Gazette on the insult offered to
the American people by such a proceeding.   This called
( for a reply from the Eev. Mr. Cridge in defence of his
sexton. Also Mr. Gibbs wrote a very caustic letter, in'
which he handled the gentleman without gloves. This
Mr. Gibbs, after leaving Victoria, rose to a high position in the United States, having been appointed minister to Hayti.   He kept a grocery here on lower Yates SOME COLOEED PIONEEES
Street in connection with Peter Lester. Many of these
colored people returned to the United States after the
Civil War was ended. The fire department was
modelled after the San Francisco department, and was
composed principally of Americans. On the formation
of the hook and ladder company several colored men
sent in their names for membership. All were blackballed. As they saw by this that there was a dead-set
made against them, they then decided to form a volunteer military company. In this they were encouraged
by the Hudson's Bay Company, who lent them muskets.
This move on the part of the Hudson's Bay Company
was supposed to have been made on the promise of the
support of the colored military in case they were required to maintain order.
On the installation of Governor Kennedy, later on,
this volunteer company stated they were going as a
guard of honor. This, I believe, was discouraged by the
press, but they put in an appearance with a band of
music. In reply to an address, Governor Kennedy advised them to disband, as they were illegally organized,
there being no authority for their organization. This
was a great disappointment to them, as they had been
to the expense of uniforms and band and drill hall;
in addition to which they had been drilling for months,
and now all for nothing. But there was nothing for
it under these circumstances but to comply, and so the
colored military were disbanded. They were succeeded
by a company of white volunteers, who wore white
blanket uniforms trimmed with blue. They used to
drill on Church Hill in the evenings, and were a great
attraction. This was the beginning of the volunteer
rifle movement, which was eventually merged into the
Canadian militia.   I was one of the riflemen so merged. CHAPTEE XXXI.
Sincere will be the regret at the announcement of
the death of the subject of this sketch. As I have
known him since he arrived in the colony with his
father (who was also John Chapman Davie), and his
three brothers, William, Horace and Alexander, in
1862, it may not be inappropriate that I, one of his
oldest friends, should tell what I know of him. Dr.
Davie was born in Wells, Somersetshire, on the 22nd
March, 1845, and was therefore sixty-six years of age.
He, with his brother Horace (residing in Somenos),
were educated at Silcoats College, England, and studied
for the profession which afterwards made him known
from north to south of the Pacific Coast, at the University of San Francisco. He also studied under a clever
English physician, Dr. Lane, and under Dr. Toland,
both eminent men who founded colleges in California.
After Dr. Davie had finished his medical course in
California he came to Victoria and entered into practice with his father.
When I was about fifteen years old I was troubled a
deal with my throat and was under his father's treatment. I was obliged to give up singing in consequence,
being a choir boy in Christ Church. In my frequent
visits to the doctor's surgery I became acquainted with
Dr. Davie, Jr., who undertook the treatment of my
throat until I was able to resume my choir duties. Both
Dr. Davie and his brother Alexander were members of
the choir at this time, and regular in attendance at service and choir practice. I can see with my mind's eye
at a choir practice both brothers. Mr. Cridge, the
rector, always conducted these practices, and he asked
each brother in turn to sing his individual part over in
the anthem, as they were to take solos, he (Mr. Cridge)
beating time as they sang. I might say that we had
some fine singers in the choir in those days, and more
anthems were sung than even now. His brother Horace
and I were school-fellows at the Church Collegiate
School, which was situated on Church Hill, just about
where Mr. Keith Wilson's residence now stands. It
was built as a Congregational Church, and was destroyed by fire about 1870.
At the time I first became acquainted with Dr. Davie:
his father's office was situated where Challoner & Mitchell's store now stands, and was a very unpretentious
affair—as most business places were in Victoria at that
time—a wooden one-story frame cottage of three rooms.
The doctor's first office was on the corner of Government and Bastion, where Eichardson's cigar store
stands. At the former office my friend studied and
worked with his father until the latter's death, when
the son continued the practice in his own behalf.
From Mr. Alexander Wilson, who was a director of
the Eoyal Hospital at the time, I am told a deal about
Dr. Davie's early medical career. He says the young
doctor was ambitious to become medical officer to the
Eoyal Hospital, then situated on the rock at the top
of Pandora Street, and asked Mr.K Wilson to try and
get the position for him, even without salary, and Mr.
Wilson, having great faith in the young man, promised
to do his best, and at a meeting of the board, consisting 222   EEMINISCENCES OF OLD VICTOEIA
of Alexander McLean, J. D. Eobinson, Henry Short
and Alexander Wilson, Dr. Davie was duly elected, and
at a salary of £100 per annum, and held the position
for over twenty years. He entered on his duties with
great zeal, his first surgical case being that of an Indian
girl who was accidentally shot on Salt Spring Isjand.
The poor girl's arm was badly shattered, and she was
brought down from the island in a canoe. It was a bad
case, but the doctor pulled her through and, saving her
arm, sent her home again as good as ever.
Dr. Davie was fond of music, and in early days was
proficient on the flute, contributing to the programme
of many a concert for charity in those days when
amateurs did so much to entertain the public.
That the subject of this sketch was a clever man goes
without saying.    Many there are, and have been, who
have been snatched   from   grim   death by this skilful
surgeon.    By some he was thought to be bearish and
unsympathetic, but they who thought so did not know
him as I did,  or they would not have thought so.
Where there was real suffering and danger there could
not have been a more gentle, kinder-hearted or careful
man.   Because he did not always respond to a friend's
salutation in passing it was taken as bearishness or indifference.     It   was   really   pre-occupation.     He   was
thinking out a difficult case for the next morning at
the hospital.   As he once said to a lady friend, " They
little know the hours I pass walking up and down at
night thinking out a case I have to operate on—how I
shall do it to make it a success."   I went into his office
one day and found him with a surgical instrument on
his knee which he seemed very intent on, and I asked
him what it was for.   He hesitated for a moment, then
said, " You would not understand."   But still he ex- JOHN CHAPMAN DAVIE, M.D.
plained it all to me. It was for an operation in the
morning on the stomach of a patient at one of the hospitals, and I have no doubt it was successful. About
seven years ago he attended me for typhoid fever, and
even then he had his bad spells of sickness, but still he
came regularly, and on reaching the top of the stairs
to my room he would hold on till his coughing fit was
over. " Well, old man, how are you to-day ?" After
I had taken a turn for the better and was very susceptible to the smell of good things cooking downstairs, I
asked him when I should be allowed to have something
solid, and added, " Oh, I am so tired of milk and egg-
nog; when may I have a bit of chicken or mutton?"
" Well, how many days is it since your temperature
was normal ? Well, in so many days you may have
jelly and junket."
Is that all?" I replied, disappointed.
Look here, old man, I want to get you well, and
you must be patient."
" That reminds me of a little story," said the doctor.
" Some years ago two men were digging a deep ditch
on Johnson Street to repair a sewer. Some time after
both the men were taken sick, which turned out to be
typhoid fever, and, being single men, they were taken
to the hospital. I saw them every day in my regular
round of visits, and they progressed towards recovery
until they got to the stage that you have, and complained of my bill of fare. They asked for ' something
solid,' and I put them off with the same answer you got.
A day or two after in making my regular rounds I
noticed that one of my patients was not in evidence and
I asked his friend where he was. Then the story was
told me of his friend having had some visitors, one of
whom brought a cooked chicken, part   of   which  was
a ■7
eaten on the sly and the balance hidden under the mattress. The result was that he was then out in the
morgue, having died that day, and in due time, to conclude my little story, his friend, who had no chicken,
left the hospital cured."
"Now," said Dr. Davie, "I'll go; you are in good
hands (my wife's); be patient and ponder on my little
It is pretty well known that Dr. Davie had had only
one lung for years past, but that did not prevent him
attending to his numerous patients. The many who
to-day are indebted to his skill and kindness of heart
will feel a great sorrow at his passing. Many of his
former patients have told me of his refusal of pay for
valuable services rendered them. At the conclusion of
a sickness a patient would likely say: "Well, doctor,
I am grateful for your pulling me through. I shall
have to pay by instalments. Here is something on
If the doctor did not know his circumstances he
Would say: " How much is your salary ?" On his replying he (the doctor) would say: " If that is all you
get you cannot afford to pay anything," and that was
the last the patient would hear of it.
On a certain occasion I heard the experience of three
in a small party who had this or something to this
effect to relate. With his extensive practice he ought
to have been a very wealthy man, but not with such
patients as these, of course, but if all the patients he
has had in years past had been charged for his valuable
services he would have been worth half a million instead of dying a comparatively poor man. This last
year I have visited him regularly, and many events of
early Victoria life have been recalled on these visits. JOHN CHAPMAN DAVIE, M.D.
He repined at first when he knew that his days were
numbered, saying, " Fawcett, old man, don't I wish I
could go back to the days when we were young and took
those trips to Cowichan. It is pretty hard to go!" I
fully agreed with him then, but when later he got so
bad and suffered so much, he prayed to go, and I again
agreed with him, poor fellow. This latter time was
when to speak made him cough and suffocate. " Old
man, I cannot talk to you," and he would lie back in an
exhausted state, and I would go, sorry that I was unable to do anything to relieve him, to slightly repay all
his kindness to me in the past.
Tuesday last I with my wife paid my last call on
him, he having expressed a desire to see me. I little
thought it was the last time I should see him alive, for
he said he would not go till October, he thought, and I
believed him.
Well, maybe I have said enough, but I could say a
deal more if necessary. What I have said will be echoed
by many, I'm sure.
So, in the words of Montgomery, the poet:
I Friend after friend departs, who has not lost a friend?
There is no union here of hearts, that finds not here an
Were this frail world our only rest, living or dying none
were blest."
In Mallandaine's " first directory" of Victoria, I
note the following: "We have an hospital started by
Eev. Edward Cridge, and now sadly overburdened with
In course of conversation with Bishop Cridge one
day I learned the history of this—the first public hospital of Victoria—which, in due course, became the
Eoyal Jubilee Hospital.
It was in 1858 that one day a sick man was found
lying on a mattress in Mr. Cridge's garden. The man
admitted he had been brought there by certain parties,
their names being known to Mr. Cridge. I asked Mr.
Cridge why they had brought the man to him, and
clandestinely, too ? " Oh, they thought I was the
proper man, and I suppose I was under the circumstances." He continued: "We set to work at once to
meet the case, and temporarily rented a cottage owned
by Mr. Blinkhorn, on the corner of Yates and Broad
Streets, now occupied by the B. C. Hardware Company
(the first patient's name was Braithwaite), and placed
W. S. Seeley, afterwards of the Australian House, at
the north end of James Bay bridge, in charge as steward, and Dr. Trimble being appointed as medical
officer in charge."     This was the beginning.     After-
wards there was a wooden building erected on the
Songhees Eeserve, on the site of the Marine Hospital.
Later on the hospital was again moved to Pandora Hill,
and by the exertions of Mrs. (Senator) Macdonald,
Mrs. Harris (wife of Mayor Harris) and Mrs. Cridge,
a female infirmary was built there, but afterwards
merged into a general hospital. It will be seen from
this that my dear old friend, Bishop Cridge, as also
Mrs. Cridge, were first in this most important work for
the relief of the suffering humanity of Victoria. Nor
was this all.
I might state that Mrs. (Senator) Macdonald, with
Mrs. Cridge, were the founders of the Protestant
Orphans' Home, through Mrs. Macdonald having a
family of orphan children brought to her notice by
some friend. She first of all found homes for the individual children; then as other cases were brought to
her notice she, with Mrs. Cridge, took the matter up
and rented a cottage, putting a Miss Todd in charge of
the children. In course of time, the children increased,
so that a larger building was rented on the corner of
Blanchard and Eae Streets. Even these premises in
time became too small, and another and final move was
made through the munificence of the late John George
Taylor, a member of Bishop Cridge's congregation,
who left all his property, some thirty thousand dollars,
to the founding of the present home.
Mr. Taylor, whom I had known for many years, told
me of the great interest he took in these orphans. He
paid daily visits to the home, and assisted in many ways
to help it along. Bishop Cridge and Mrs. Macdonald
have seen these institutions grow from the smallest beginnings to their present state of usefulness, which
must be a source of congratulation to both.
Craigflower School House.
With respect to what has appeared in the paper lately
re " Craigflower School House," the following may be
In early days (1856) Eev. Edward Cridge held services at stated times in the school house, and later on
services were held regularly by the chaplains of H.M.
ships stationed in Esquimalt harbor, and later on by
Eev. (now Bishop) Garrett and Eev. C. T. Woods.
I quote from Mr. Cridge's diary, which is mentioned
in his Christmas story of "Early Christmas in Victoria," that on August 24th, 1856, he held a religious
service in the school house with Mr. Cook, the gunner,
and Mr. Price, midshipman of H. M. S. Trincomalee.
In the Victoria Gazette of August, 1858, Eev.
Edward Cridge, acting for the Governor, examined
the pupils and presented the prizes to the following:
Jessie McKenzie, William Lidgate, Christine Veitch
and Dorothea McKenzie.
The first master of the school was J. Grant; the
second Claypole, and afterwards Pottinger, Newbury
and Pope.
With respect to the building itself, I might say that
it was built under the direction of Mr. McKenzie, of
Craigflower. The lumber used in its construction
was manufactured from fir trees on the ground in a
mill Duilt by mechanics sent out from England.
The residence of the late Mr. McKenzie, which
stands to the west of the Craigflower bridge, was also
built of lumber Sawn in this mill, and not of redwood
imported from California, as stated lately. There are
several men and women living to-day who attended this
school in the early sixties. CHAPTEE XXXIII.
The Colonist has been handed the following self-
explanatory matter, bearing upon the founding in this
city of a branch of the Y.M.C.A., which is of especial
Dingley Dell, September 29th, 1911.
" R. B. McMicking, Esq., President Y.M.C.A.
" Dear Sir,—In searching through the files of the
Colonist of 1859 for items of forgotten lore that might
be of interest to our early pioneers, I came across the
enclosed interesting account of the forming of a branch
of the Young Men's Christian Association in Victoria
fifty-two years ago (September 5th, 1859), and am
sorry I did not remember it sooner, so that it could
v y
have been read at the opening exercises, but ' better late
than never.' I shall accompany it with some comment.
" In the first place, it is likely that all those present
on that auspicious occasion are gone to their everlasting rest, with the notable exception of our dear friend,
the Venerable Bishop Cridge, who is within a few weeks
of entering on his ninety-fifth year. His has been indeed a life of doing good, for he, in early days, was at
the head of all good work for the betterment of mankind. The chairman on that occasion was Colonel
Moody, E.E., who had lately arrived in the colony with
the sappers and miners.
"The three Protestant denominations then established in Victoria were represented by the Eev. Edward
Cridge, as already stated; Eev. Dr. Evans, of the Wes-
leyan Methodists, and the Eev. W. F. Clarke, of the
Congregational Church. Of the laymen mentioned,
there was Judge Pemberton, father of Mr. Chartres
Pemberton; J. T. Pidwell, father of the late Mrs. D. W.
Higgins; Judge Cameron, C.J.; Captain Prevost,
father of Charles J. Prevost, of Duncans, who was a
very prominent naval officer, and later an admiral, who
was an indefatigable Christian worker. Mr. Sparrow,
of the post-office, whose son is a respected resident today, and also William H. Burr, master of the Colonial
School, of which I was then a pupil. Mr. John F.
Damon, on second thoughts, may be in the land of the
living, and a resident of Washington. The society must
have fallen into disuse in later years, for I understand
the present institution is about twenty-six years old.
I do not know that I can say anything more on this
interesting subject but to wish it every prosperity.
" And believe me ever, yours truly,
" Edgar Fawcett."
From  Victoria   Colonist  of   September   5th,   1859:
" Pursuant to public notice the Supreme Court room
was filled on Saturday evening by a large and respectable audience for the purpose of organizing a Young
Men's Christian Association.
" Colonel Moody, E.E., on taking the chair, requested
the Eev. E. Evans, D.D., Superintendent of the Wes-
leyan Mission, to open the meeting by prayer; after
which the chairman explained the object of the Association, and urged with great cogency the importance VICTOEIA'S FIEST Y. M. C. A.
of scientific and historical knowledge to young men,
and the immense advantages which they would derive
from Divine assistance in pursuing those various
branches of study which were essential to the good citizen and Christian.
"The Eev. E. Cridge, pastor of the Victoria Established Church, then moved the following resolution:
"' That this meeting, recognizing the usefulness and
importance of Young Men's Christian Associations, is
gratified to find that steps have been taken to establish
one in this town.'
" He supported it at some length with many pertinent illustrations, and expressed himself warmly in
favor of the institution.
" T. J. Pidwell, Esq., seconded the motion. He
adverted to the good results from similar institutions
elsewhere; passed some strictures upon the alarming increase of saloons, and concluded that the organization
of a Christian Association with its  Library,   and  the
*/ y
opportunity which it would afford for the discussion of
general theological and political questions would have a
powerful tendency to guard the young men of this
colony from falling into habits destructive of good
"The Eev. Dr. Evans, with an eloquent and forcible
speech then moved:
"' That this meeting pledge itself to encourage and
support by every means in its power this the first
Young Men's Christian Association established in Vancouver's Island.'
' His remarks exhibited the greatest degree of tolerance. All narrow views in the organization and working of the Association were undesirable. To cherish the
great essentials of religion as laid down by the founder 232   EEMINISCENCES  OF OLD VICTOEIA
of Christianity was the principal object of the institution. The moral and spiritual advantages to the young
men of the colony arising from the Association he was
satisfied would be very great. It deserved every encouragement, and he heartily concurred in promoting the
object of its founders, and hoped it would not only
secure moral but financial support.
" The Eev. W. F. Clarke, Congregational Missionary,
with great pleasure seconded the motion, and supported
it with a speech of considerable length, replete with argument and illustration, portraying the advantages of the
Association in a community like this, where there was so
little public opinion to influence and direct young men;
whilst there were so many things incident to the love of
money in a gold country to induce youth to contract
habits adverse to the progress of morals and religion.
"A. F. Pemberton, Esq., then movedi 'That the
following gentlemen be requested to act as office-bearers
for the ensuing year. Patron, His Excellency, the Governor; President, Col. Moody, E.E.; Vice-Presidents,
Judge Cameron and Captain Prevost, E.N.; Committee,
Messrs. A. F. Pemberton, Pidwell, Sparrow, Burr, Holt,
Damon, Evans and Cunningham, with power to add to
their numbers; Secretary, Mr. Cooper.'
"He concurred in the object of the Association; and
briefly adverted to the fact that the Eev. Mr. Cridge
and himself had, a year ago, contemplated a similar
"John Wright, Esq., seconded the motion.
" Col. Moody having retired from the chair, it was
filled by J. T. Pidwell, Esq., when the Eev. Dr. Evans
moved 'That the thanks of the meeting be presented
to Col. Moody for the very able manner in which he
had occupied the Chair/ VICTOEIA'S FIEST Y. M. C. A.
" Seconded by the Eev. Mr. Clarke, and passed with
" Col Moody then briefly replied that he came here
from England with the sole object of promoting the
best interests of the country, and in aiding in the promotion of the objects of this Association he was but
performing his duty.
fAll the speakers were repeatedly applauded; and all
the resolutions passed by acclamation.
The Doxology having been sung, the Eev. E. Cridge
pronounced a benediction, when the meeting dispersed,
highly gratified with the organization of the First
Young Men's Christian Association of Victoria, Vancouver Island.' CHAPTEE XXXIV.
About thirty-five years ago, maybe a little more, it
was a fine bright summer afternoon and rather warm.
The sun beat down on the awnings on the east side of
Government Street. It was the custom then for all
stores to have wooden awnings with a kind of drop
curtain awning which rolled up and down, and on the
summer afternoons it was sure to be down. But to proceed; when all these drop curtains were down the sidewalk was enclosed from one end of the street to the
other. Before I proceed to say anything more about
these awnings and sidewalks, I will have to admit that
our city was not the Victoria of to-day, and I am sure
I shall hardly be credited if I assert that a cannon
might have been fired down the centre of Government
Street, and chances taken of not striking anyone.
I mean that a time could have been chosen when it could
have been done with perfect safety. On any of these
quiet afternoons, a sudden uproar might have been
heard of a flock of geese alighting from a distance on
Government Street to feed on the sides of the streets
on the grass that grew there. As they passed up the
street they chattered away, likely discussing the quiet
times which permitted them to make a feeding ground
of the chief business street of the city. During the
time the geese are chatting with one another, several
little groups of Victoria's respected citizens are having
their afternoon chat on the several topics of the day. I
see them now, as I saw them then, a row of chairs',
some of them tipped back and the occupier perhaps
smoking. There was, likely, Alexander Gilmore, merchant tailor. Then half a dozen guests in the front of
the Colonial Hotel, which was next door to Fletcher's
music store; then Joe Lovett of Lovett's Exchange, and
then the subject of my little sketch, Tommy Geiger. He
was well known and well liked by all, and fond of a
joke was Tommy. No one ever thought of calling him
other than " Tommy " in those good old days. Very
few fortunes were made in those days on Government
Street, or those summer afternoon chats, sitting on
tipped-up chairs would not have been held.
It must have been a slack time of the day to be able
to enjoy themselves in this free and easy manner. A
customer goes into one of these stores, the proprietor
gets up, goes in to serve him, and then returns to his
seat to resume the conversation. They did not worry,
they lived quietly, were able to bring.up their families
as they should, and to-day these families represent
some of our best business men. So I say " requiescat
in pace." He was an enthusiastic fireman in those
days when volunteer firemen did so much for nothing
and that efficiently, too. V
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Being those remaining in 1908 of the 20,000 people who
came to Victoria from California in the year 1858.
Total, 45.-—E. F.
Before the year 1858, Victoria was a trading station
or fort of the Hudson's Bay Company. In that year
the news that gold had been discovered on Fraser River
had reached San Francisco. It was not long ere the
news travelled all over California and craft of all kinds
were soon on the berth for Victoria. The list of steamers alone is a long one, and they were mostly taken off
the Panama route, and are all to-day a thing of the
past. There was the Pacific, the loss of which caused
the greatest loss of life of them all put together, the
Cortez, John L. Stephens, Oregon, America, afterwards
the Brother Jonathan, Orizaba, Commodore, Republic,
Sierra Nevada, and several smaller ones.
Of those on the framed list there is Frank Adams,
who has spent the best part of his life here, and is a
partner in the firm of E. B. Marvin & Co.; James R.
Anderson, late deputy minister of Agriculture, whose
father was the first Collector of Customs for Vancouver
Island in 1858; Frederick Allatt, who has also been
here from childhood, and whose father was an early
time contractor; Charles Alexander, of Saanich; August
Borde and his mother, the former wateT rates collector
for the city; Samuel Booth, who was in business in the
city market building; Ralph Borthwick, and Thomas
J. Burnes, formerly hotel men, and the latter a
chief of the early Volunteer Fire Department. Walter
Chambers, who came an infant, and who is so well
known in connection with the lumber industry of this
city; Mrs. George Cogan and Mrs. Henry Collins, two
daughters of the late Mr. Rabson, of Esquimalt and
Comox; Alexander Gilmore, one of the pioneer clothiers
of this city; Henry Gribble, who for years kept a fancy
goods store, and who is to-day blind; Mr. Judge Harrison and his mother, whom I have known since 1859;
Mrs. 0. C. Hastings, nee Miss Layzell, with whom I
went to school in 1859; David W. Higgins, of whom I
need say little, as he is so well known as an editor and
writer of such interesting stories of early pioneer life;
William Humphreys, late alderman and Cariboo miner;
Samuel Kelly, who was another prominent volunteer
fireman, chief of the early fire department; Charles
Lombard, who was an amateur singer, assisted to make
life pass pleasantly at the various concerts of early
times; Mrs. Edward Marvin, mother of Mr. Frank
Adams; Mrs. McPhaden, of Vancouver, and sister of
Judge Harrison; Captain William Moore, the veteran
steamboat captain, one of the best known men of British
Columbia; Mrs. Moore, John Moore, the veteran purser,
and his brother William; James Moore, one of the discoverers of gold on the Fraser River; Mrs. Alex.
Phillips, her son, whose husband and father was a
pioneer soda water maker of the early days; Mrs. W.
Scott, whose husband was steward on so many of the
early steamers of these waters; Louis G. McQuade, of
P. McQuade & Sons; Thomas W. Seward, a veteran
miner of Cariboo, and who is a familiar figure on our ROSTEE OF THE FIFTY-EIGHTEES     239
streets to-day as he strolls about; John B. Sere, of the
Eichmond, a former proprietor- of the Hotel de
France, on Government Street; Chas. McK. Smith,
brother of Amor de Cosmos, founder of the Colonist;
Stephen A. Spencer, a pioneer photographer; George
Stelly, owner of the Clarence Block, and a pioneer
teamster of long ago; Frank Sylvester, who died a
month ago; Mrs. Julia Travis; Joseph W. Carey, formerly mayor; E. Cody Johnson, caretaker of the city
market; Mrs. E. Wolfenden, wife of the King's Printer.
This list will be framed and hung in the Parliament
Buildings for the inspection of the sons and daughters
of the above in the years to come. CHAPTEE XXXVI.
I had intended to let " View Street" and its closing
up in 1858 alone, being content that I had proved that
it was understood in 1858 that it reached to Wharf
Street, but I have since come upon some interesting
evidence bearing upon it and so give it to those old
timers whom I am sure will be interested. Firstly,
there is to be seen plainly painted on a verandah on a
building facing on what was then known as View
Street, opposite the Hudson Bay Company's store
"View Street," and I also produce an editorial in the
Colonist, written by my old friend Amor de Cosmos,
November 14, 1859, which proves that it was a burning question at that time and here it is verbatim.
The British Colonist, Printed and Published by Amor
De Cosmos, Wharf Street, East side, between
Yates and View Streets, Victoria, V. I.
Friday, September 9, 1859.
This was cut out of the file that contained the editorial, as further proof. E. Fawcett.
" We have long been aware that the Hudson's Bay
Company claim the ownership of the streets of Victoria.
In fact, in 1858 their title was so far asserted as to
sell a portion of the street where Johnson and Wharf
Streets unite at Victoria bridge.
" They also shut up one street at the south end of
the Fort and opened another a little beyond. Besides
this they promised in 1858 to the purchasers of lots on
View Street that that street should be opened from
Broad to Wharf. Instead of fulfilling their promise
like an honest company, that street was actually closed,
instead of opened, by blocking up the west end by a
large brick police building. It is true that since May
last—when the Government reserve between Yates and
the block house was seized by the Company, with the
consent of His Excellency—a small alley has been
opened where View Street ought to be, but even that
by some unknown authority, assumed by the Police
Commissioners, has been closed to vehicles. That
authority will, however, soon be tested, if the obstacle
is not speedily removed, as purchasers of lots in the
reserve are entitled to its use. Had it not been for our
timely exposure of the intentions of the Company, the
line of Wharf Street would have been deflected like an
elbow, from Reid's corner southerly. The last act, however, of the honorable Hudson's Bay Company, is not
only contemptible, but 'unjust and oppressive,' although His Excellency Governor Douglas, in his despatch of October 25, 1858, said that the often asserted
charge in England that the Company ' had made an unjust and oppressive use of their power in this country,'
is altogether unfounded.
" It appears that the agent of the Company sold last
week all the trees on our streets to a party for firewood.
Mr. Pemberton, Police Commissioner, at the request of
some property holders, cut down the two oaks at the
corner of Government and Yates Street, but it was no
sooner done than Dr. Tuzo presented a bill to him for
twenty dollars, ten dollars each. Opposite Mr. Adams/
property on Douglas and View Streets, Mr. Adams forbid the parties, but in his absence they were felled.   He
then claimed the trees, as they were intersected every
way by his property.    But Dr. Tuzo   threatened   him
with   five hundred dollars damages, assuring him that
the trees belonged to the Company.   "Up Fort Street a
number of oaks have been felled.   Aside from the vandalism which would sell and cut down a single tree for
a few paltry dollars, where it was   no   obstruction  to
travel, but an ornament to the street—the act of itself
is a foul wrong—unwarrantable and without a particle
of right to support it, either in law or equity.   We cannot well conceive how that the agents of the Company
could do such a scurvy trick—such an act of vandalism—except that they have been influenced to do so by
a resident San Francisco landshark.    Selling the trees
therefore may be to maintain color of title to the streets.
But that will prove useless.    Viewing the townsite as
their private property, when they sold they forever conveyed away their claim to the streets.    But the town-
site is not private property, although it has unjustifiably
been so claimed from the first settlement of the Colony.
As private property the Company have no claim to it
which will stand the test of law or equity.   It is to all
intents and purposes in the same condition as the lands
of Cowichan, Nootka or Cape Scott; and the funds derived from the sale as justly belong to the Territorial
revenues of the Colony.   Taking then the townsite to be
like other lands, subject to the conditions of the grant,
(which we will hereafter prove) we find that one of the
conditions says:    'That the said Company shall  (for
the purposes of colonization) dispose of all lands hereby granted to them, at a reasonable price, except as
much thereof as may be required for public purposes.'   MORE LIGHT ON CLOSING OF VIEW ST.   243
The streets are used for public purposes—and for that
reason the Company have no more right to them, nor
the trees, than anyone else. Their act of felling trees
on the public streets, and their intimation, deserves the
strongest mark of public censure—and merits the attention of the proper authorities.
" Besides if our connection with the Hudson's Bay
Company is not speedily ended we may expect many
more such trumped-up claims as their claim to the
streets, which they will want us to pay for/
I think my pioneer friends will now agree with me
that enough evidence has been furnished to prove my
contention that View Street was originally intended to
reach from Wharf Street to Cook Street, and farther if
necessary. CHAPTER XXXVII.
Some years ago the Colonist requested several " old
timers" to write for the Christmas number a description
of Christmas as it was observed in the early days in this
The following were those who wrote: The Venerable
Bishop Cridge, Hon. Dr. Helmcken, Hon. D. W. Higgins,
and the author of these reminiscences. I was so much
interested myself in these stories (as I am in all Christmas
stories), I decided, with the consent of the writers, to
reproduce them in my book; not only as1 interesting, but
as very instructive, describing, as they do, life in the
pioneer -days of the colony.
In essaying to write an account of my first Christmas
at Victoria, I am met at the beginning with the inconvenient fact that I kept no journal, my only written
records relating simply to my ministry or to things
purely personal or domestic. What I write, therefore,
is not a history, seeking materials from any and all
sources of information, nor a biography, dealing with
the writer's proper business in life, but a narrative of
incidents occurring to memory, interesting to the reader
only because they refer to the early history of our beloved city.
Another thing has to be considered, namely, that as,
after fifty years and more, the remembered incidents of
a particular day or season would occupy but a few lines to
relate, such a season may properly be regarded in relation to things going before and things following after.
In this view, my memory carries me back to a very
happy day, April 1, 1855, when the good sailing ship
Margius of Bute, chartered by the Hudson's Bay Company to bring its freight and passengers, including myself as chaplain and district minister of Victoria, my
wife and servants, to this far-off island, calling at
Honolulu by the way, cast anchor off Clover Point, so
terminating a voyage of about six months' duration
from London. The next day, having moved to the
inner harbor, we made our first acquaintance with several Victorians, who came on board to give us and our
compagnons de voyage a cordial welcome. That same
morning we received an invitation from His Excellency
Governor Douglas to luncheon, who also sent a boat to
take us ashore; the boatman was good John Spelde,
concerning whom I curiously remember my wife telling
me that her domestic, Mary Ann Herbert, referred to
him later in the day as the " man with the fingers," he
having lost three of those members in the firing of a
salute on some ceremonial occasion.
After the luncheon, never to be forgotten for the
cordial welcome of His Excellency and Mrs. Douglas
and their interesting family, not to say the delicious
salmon and other delicacies after shipboard fare, we
were conducted to the Fort, which was to be our temporary abode till the Parsonage, which then began to
be built, should be finished. I have no recollection of
the impression produced on my mind as we entered by
the south gate the large square fenced in by tall palisades and frowning bastions, only I am certain I had no
fear of being imprisoned in this stronghold of the great
Adventurers; on the contrary, I distinctly remember
that as, proceeding past the central bell-tower to our
rooms, on the north side, east of the main entrance, we 246   REMINISCENCES  OF OLD VICTORIA
entered the spacious, though empty, apartments destined for our reception, my wife fairly danced for joy
at our release from the long and tedious confinement
on shipboard. The very emptiness of the rooms was a
charm. It was the new home to which from her
mother's house in London only a few days before sailing together to the other end of the world, I had brought
her, and what bride does not joy to see her work awaiting her, though the house be empty and bare! With
the help of our two servants, and local carpenters, supplies from the Company's stores, and our ample outfit,
she soon effected a transformation.
I remember also, something of the evening and night
of that first day; the tea and fresh milk and bread and
butter; and how, when settling ourselves to sleep for
the night, we saw a large white rat crossing the stovepipe which ran through our bedroom from the great
Canadian stove in the sitting-room. It is curious how
trifling things cleave to the memory, while the monotonous things of everyday life, which are our proper business, give no signal.
The next morning I was introduced to several officers
and cadets of the company messing at the Fort: W. J.
Macdonald, now our well-known representative in the
Senate; B. W. Sangster, Farquhar, Mackay, Newton,
Sangster (Sangster's Plains Postmaster), also to Chief
Factor Finlaison, who lived in a house in the southwest corner of the Fort; and Dr. Helmcken, now, for
reasons of state, the Hon. J. S. Helmcken, residing with
his wife in the house which he still occupies; later J. D.
Pemberton, whcf returned from England, bringing his
sister, Miss Pemberton.
Looking back now to my first Sunday service, I have
no recollection of it as distinguished from other similar BISHOP CRIDGE'S CHRISTMAS STORY   247
services to follow. From my written records only I find
that the text of my sermon on the occasion was, " Go
ye into all the world and preach the gospel to
every creature," and that I referred in the conclusion
to the Crimean War just ended; but there is pictured
in my memory the figure of a man coming past the bell-
tower with a prayer book under his arm, " going to
church." Him I was afterwards to know as good John
Dutnall, a dear and faithful friend to me as long as he
The church services were held in the messroom.
There was no instrument and no organized choir. Of
those whose voices contributed to this part of divine
worship I think only Mrs. W. J. Macdonald survives.
As to my first Christmas Day, which this year (?55)
fell on a Tuesday, I can remember nothing of it as
distinguished from other Christmas Days to follow
(more than fifty in number); but my records say that
my text was, " Glory to God in the highest, and on earth
peace, goodwill towards men." But where we dined,
what we had for dinner, or how we spent the day, my
wife might have told, but I cannot. I know that we
spent many Christmas evenings at the Governor's very
pleasantly, and this may have been, and probably was,
one of them. I remember that one New Year's Eve
there was a violent snowstorm, which hindered me from
holding a service at Craigflower, as I had intended, but
my records show what I do not in the least remember,
that I preached at Craigflower on New Year's Day. I
also remember that by Christmas Day we had moved
into the Parsonage, and that my two sisters, who had
arrived at Esquimalt from England, a week before,
were with us on that day. I remember a good deal
about the Parsonage in those early days.   It was almost 248   EEMINISCENCES OF OLD VICTOEIA
in the country. As it was at first unfenced, my wife
was often afraid at noises. One night we heard a
scraping, and she was sure that someone was breaking
into the house. I tried to persuade her that burglars
did not announce their presence in that open fashion.
However, to reassure her, I reconnoitred, and found it
was only an old sow rubbing her back against an old
shed nearby.
The Parsonage ground was all wild, but the soil good,
and as it was my future home, the task of trying t(5
make it a worthy appendage of the district church was
a pleasant one. My servant, James Ravey, was a good
gardener, but rather more inclined to the useful than
the ornamental. When my wife wanted to enlist his
interest in flower gardening, he remarked that the
flowers he had liked best were cauliflowers. However,
she had her way, he nothing loath. Dr. Helmcken liberally supplied us with a variety of flowers from his
well-kept garden, among which I remember daisies—
not the wee, modest, crimson-tipped flowers, but variegated beauties, gorgeous through ages of culture. There
was not a wild daisy in the country; but now they
are spreading everywhere, as if when left alone they
preferred their natural state. The Governor also took
a kindly interest in the work, offering valuable hints as
to the planting of fruit trees, etc. Mr. Work, of Hillside, also sent me a fine lot of young ornamental trees,
which flourished well. A good gardening book was
loaned me of the company—a long loan, I think, as I
have possession of it still.
So the garden, though nothing to boast  of  in  the
artistic point of view, yielded abundance of fruit.
But if it were pleasant to get into the Parsonage, it
by no means follows that life in the Fort was dreary; BISHOP CRIDGE'S CHRISTMAS STORY   249
on the contrary, some of our happiest hours were spent
there. Besides my satisfaction with the present and
hopes for the future, coupled with the companionship
of one who had full possession of my heart and life, we
were forming and cementing friendships which were to
endure for many a long year. Not only this—there
were pleasant musical and social evenings. There were
voices and instruments; Mrs. Mouat, with the piano
brought out with her from England; Mr. Augustus Pemberton, lately arrived from Ireland with his flute; Mr.
B. W. Pearse, with his violin; I did what I could with
my 'cello, the instrument my father had and played
when a boy.
It was also during those early days that we, my wife
and I, had our first experience of the Governor's delightful riding parties on Saturday afternoons, when
the officers of the Company and friends, their wives and
daughters, rode merrily across the country unimpeded
by gates or bars. I remember the first, when my wife,
who did not ride, had her first, drive in the Governor's
carriage—a homemade vehicle, without springs, as befitted the times and the place; our destination was Cadboro Bay, which we reached by a trail which, beginning
near the Fort, lay all through open country without a
house or field till we arrived at the Company's farm
at that beautiful spot; and though I cannot remember
what we did there on that day, I remember well that
on many another day I had to send man and horse there
for meat for my family.
On another occasion our ride lying along the Saanich
trail, when near the North Dairy farm the Governor
called a halt; a man stepped out and fired up into a
tree and a grouse fell dead; he reloaded and fired up
into the same tree again and another grouse fell dead. 250   REMINISCENCES  OF OLD  VICTORIA
I, if no one else in the party, was astonished at conduct
so different from that of birds in civilized countries.
Whether it was the proper time for grouse-shooting I
know not, for I have no record of the date, nor, indeed,
of the occurrence. Perhaps the Natural History Society
might be able to explain why the second bird behaved
as it did. I think it was in the same ride that another
halt was called, it being reported that a bear was in a
thicket near the trail. All listened and looked, and
when I remarked to the Governor that I thought I
heard the creature roar, His Excellency said, " Bears
do not roar!" I believe he was right, for though we
read in both versions of the Bible, " We all roar like
bears," I have reason to believe that the translation is
incorrect, besides believing also that the man whose life
is largely spent in the wilds is more likely to be right on
such a point than the scholar in his study. Perhaps
the Natural History Society may throw some light on
this question also:   "Do bears roar?"
In those early days there were frequently several
men-of-war in Esquimalt harbor at once. Being the
only Protestant clergyman then in the Island, I often
visited them and had much pleasant intercourse with
the officers. But my memory serves me little as to particulars.    I find the following entries:
"Aug. 28, '55.—Attended a prayer meeting on board
H. M. S. Trincomalee."
" Sept. 9, '55.—Trincomalee sailed and President
" Oct. 28, '55.—The Reverend Holme, Chaplain of
H. M. S. President, preached for me in the afternoon
at the Fort." J
"Aug. 11, '55.—H. M. S. Monarch arrived."
" Sept. 14, '56.—Mr. Green, Chaplain of the Monarch, preached for me in the afternoon;" also " on Sept. BISHOP CRIDGE'S CHRISTMAS STOEY   251
21." These last two sermons were preached in the district church (called " Christ Church," after my church
in London), it having been opened and divine service
held therein the month before.
"Aug. 30, '56.—The Governor went in the Trincomalee to Cowichan to demand the Indian who had lately
shot a white man." The wounded man was brought
to the Fort, where I visited him. He recovered and
was sent away to be safe from the Indians' vengeance.
The Indian who shot him was delivered up by his tribe,
was tried and executed in their presence.
"Aug. 21, '56.—Held a prayer meeting at the Parsonage, with Mr. Cook, the gunner, and Mr. Price,
midshipman, both of the Trincomalee.
"Aug. 24, '56.—Held a prayer meeting with Mr.
Cook, of the Trincomalee, in the Craigflower schoolroom."
From the above records it would appear that the
Trincomalee was in these waters over a year at this
period. I think her presence had to do with the Eus-
sian war. It was after Admiral Price shot himself on
account of some error he had committed in the war.
I remember the Governor saying to me one day, that he
had received instructions from the Home Government
to build a hospital at Esquimalt for some wounded
sailors expected down from Petrapolowski, but had not
been told where the money was to come from. The
hospital was built, however, but I do not remember that
any wounded were brought; but I remember visiting
afterwards a sick Victorian, who died there. The present naval hospital is, I believe, the one I refer to.
About this time I remember an American ship-of-war
coming with a United States Commissioner on board to
settle with Governor Douglas the boundary between the 252    EEMINISCENCES OF OLD VICTOEIA
British and American territories on the mainland, and
his attending divine service in the district church, and
my including the United States President in the church
I remember also my wife's inviting Lieutenant Parry,
of one of H. M. ships, to stay a few days with us at
our rooms in the Fort, he being in delicate health and
having just heard of the death of his father, Sir Edward
Parry, the celebrated Arctic navigator   and   explorer.
As the latter died in July, 1855, the visit referred to
would be shortly after this. I have still the gold pencil
case he gave me as a memento of his visit. He died not
long afterwards, and I had some correspondence in
reference to the sorrowful event with Bishop Parry
(his brother, I think).
I remember also, though the names escape me, the
captain of one of the ships telling me a thrilling story
of his recently finding the remains of a Captain Gardiner and his party, who had been starved to death on
some shore in the neighborhood of Cape Horn, a
tragedy which caused widespread interest and pity at
the time.
At this time there were no local newspapers. Mails
were received from England once a fortnight, fetched
by canoe from the American side; ships from England
once a year. The opening of the annual box from
friends there was an exciting event to my wife. The
Otter (Capt. Mouat) was occasionally sent to San Francisco for requisites. In the same vessel I remember our
going with Governor Douglas to San Juan Island, then
in possession of the British, and Mr. Griffin, the Company's officer in charge there, presenting my wife with
a beautiful fawn, which we brought back with us.
I know not what the population of Victoria might be BISHOP CEIDGE'S CHEISTMAS STORY   253
at that time, though I think two hundred would be the
outside; the population on the whole island being about
six hundred. You could, I think, count the houses on
each of the four principal streets—Government, Fort,
Yates, Johnson—on the fingers on one hand. I only
remember three on James Bay side, to reach which,
there being no bridge to connect with Government
Street, you had to go round by where the Church of Our
Lord now stands.
For reasons which will presently appear, I regard the
Christmas season of 1855 as the ending of a first chapter of the very remarkable history of this province of
British Columbia, to be followed by another in the ensuing year destined to include events which the most
far-seeing at the time could not possibly have imagined.
I write simply as an observer, included, indeed, in the
great movement, but not, strictly speaking, a working
part of it. A time was coming, as we now know, when
a flood of people was suddenly to overflow our city,
sweeping onward to and over the mainland like a tidal
wave from the great ocean of life; but whether it was
by some fortunate chance decree of an overruling Providence, it did not come till the city was better than of
old and prepared to deal with it.
The time had now come when the dual government—
the imperium in imperio—was to cease, and the people
to stand in direct relation to the sovereign. Influenced,,
as we have reason to believe, by complaints of the settlers, it was decided by the Home authorities to grant
them a free constitution after the English model, so
far as popular representation was concerned. And so
it came to pass that within eight months after
Christmas, 1855, the newly-elected representatives of
the people were, in the name of Her Majesty the Queen, 254   EEMINISCENCES  OF OLD VICTORIA
called together by the Governor in a room within the
Fort, and by him, with counsel and prayer, commended
to the long-coveted duties of legislation. Thus was a
small shoot of an Empire unsurpassed for the freedom
of its subjects well and truly planted in the western
shore of the vast possessions of Great Britain, this side
of the provinces in the East, and now did the people,
rejoicing in their freedom, begin to look for expansion
and progress. But with what hope? What was the
prospect of their reaching the conditions which we see
to-day ?
Looking at the more than twenty years it had taken
to reach their present population of six hundred souls;
looking at the inaccessibility of the Island to all but a
few adventurous or wealthy immigrants; allowing also
full force to the new attraction of a land whose people
enjoyed the privilege of self-government; I think the
most sanguine in that day could not have expected such
a result as we see to-day in a less period than centuries
to come. To us who know what brought it to pass; to
us who know that the real efficient cause of the marvelous effect was the strongest passion and incentive to
adventure that ever actuated the mind of man, it all
seems natural and easy; but to the six hundred in 1856
it would have seemed a dream. At the same time it
must, I think, be admitted that such a sudden inrush
must have endangered, if not the independence, at least
the peace and order of the community on which it fell.
For what, we may ask, might have been the consequence if the cry of gold for the picking up had been
raised earlier, in the time, say, of the dual government,
when, as is well known, the people were discontented
with a government which, excellent as it confessedly
was for the times, had its own profit first of all to be BISHOP CRIDGE'S CHRISTMAS STORY   255
considered, instead of coming, as it did, to a people
which, rejoicing in its newly-found freedom, was not
to be reckoned on for favoring any schemes of wildness
or riot? I do not suggest any danger of invasion or
overthrow of the government when hundreds of thousands of gold-seekers from the neighboring country
filled the streets of our little city; England's far-reaching arm sufficed to cope with that; but I do suggest
danger to law and order afterwards. For this the
presence of warships in Esquimalt harbor could afford
but slight remedy. The remedy must be in the people
themselves and in the administration of law. A little
leaven leavens a great lump, but in this case the leaven
of discontent being removed, the lump remained uncon-
taminated. That this was how order was restored will
appear from what followed after the suppression of the
disorder which broke out among the miners at the beginning.
Mr. Augustus F. Pemberton, commissioner of police,
was staying at my house when, after he had gone to bed,
a message came from the Chief of Police that the town
was in an uproar, and that the miners were threatening
to take the city. Mr. Pemberton immediately repaired
to the Governor's and reported. His Excellency's first
impulse was to fix on his sword; but he changed his
mind and sent a messenger express to order a gunboat
from Esquimalt. Meanwhile Mr. Pemberton went into
the city and conferred with the miners till the gunboat
arrived, and thus ended the matter.
As I went with Mr. Pemberton to the Governor's
house and to the city on this occasion, I write as an
%j y
eye-witness. I may say that my impression is that there
was no serious intention on the part of the miners as a
body to take the city by force.   I knew too many of 256   REMINISCENCES  OF OLD VICTORIA
them afterwards, of good and peacable conduct, to
think it. But it was well that the disorderly among
them should begin their education in English law by
this prompt display of force.
I now note a singular condition of things, as conducive to the continuance and perpetuation of the order
thus restored. The miners at this time to the number,
it was computed, of some ten thousand, were encamped
in the open spaces of the city, waiting for the most
suitable time for proceeding to the mainland in their
search for gold. I do not remember how long the time
was that they waited, but it was certainly some weeks.
And what I wish emphatically to say is, that this interval afforded them a unique opportunity of learning
what British law and order meant. Mr. Pemberton
was their teacher. Fearless, untiring and vigilant, he
suppressed every disorder as it arose.   There was need.
A man was killed in a duel on Church Hill. Thenceforth it was at a man's peril to.be found with a revolver
on his person, and so the odious practice fell into disuse.
The effect of this practical education in obedience to
law on the thousands thus gathered together in one
place can easily be imagined. Not only did they become
peaceable and orderly, and even friendly, while here,
even meeting in a body to hear the Governor's advice as
to their movements, but wherever they were scattered
abroad on the mainland, lawlessness was a thing unknown among them as a body, and they wrought as if
they remembered the Governor's parting words which
still seem to sound in my ears: " There is gold in the
country, and you are the men to find it!"
Thus I think it is plain that Mr. Pemberton was
practically the real exponent of British law and order BISHOP CRIDGE'S CHRISTMAS STORY   257
in that arduous time. We do not forget what is due
on the mainland to Matthew Baillie Begbie, Chief Justice, who dealt rigidly with offenders committed for
trial before him. His inflexible administration of the
law struck terror into the hearts of evildoers. Still less
must we forget the man at the helm and master of the
ship, His Excellency Governor Douglas, who, by his
sagacity, penetration, and godly fear, coupled with his
long experience of personal rule over men, ever knew
what to do and when to do it.
Thus from Victoria went forth an influence for law
and order throughout the land, which will not soon
pass away. Our little city has ever been noted as being
English in character and law-abiding in conduct. May
she remain so.M She does well to rejoice and be thankful
for the natural beauties which so richly adorn her site.
Let her also so continue to follow the right, the good,
the loving and the true, that she may for this also be as
a city set on a hill whose light cannot be hid.
Eegarding, as I do, the six hundred islanders with
the patriotic Governor at their head as the real foundation of the things to come in the second chapter of their
history, I have written from memory such names as my
position enabled me to become acquainted with at that
early period, intending to add them to this paper, but
space forbids.
And now I should earnestly desire to send my Christmas greetings to the people of Victoria; first to the few
dear old friends that remain of the old Fort days, and
next to those who have come later, from all of whom I
have received kindnesses which God alone can repay.
May His blessing rest on all and each one not only of
our beloved city, but on the whole of this our Province
of British Columbia, for we are all one, as the name imports.
Hudson Bay Days.
You ask me to give some information as to the observance of Christmas Day in the early days of the
Colony, say fifty-five years ago. I may say at once that
there were no set forms of celebration in those days,
save that the chaplain, Eev. Mr. Staines, held divine
service in the mess-room, a hall that served for baptisms, deaths and marriages, also balls and other
recreation. At the same time Rev. Father Lamfpet, a
missionary Catholic priest, assembled his flock in a
shanty, built chiefly by himself and plastered with clay,
which had wide cracks in it. This edifice stood on
Courtney Street, between Douglas and Government.
Of course Christmas Day was a holiday.
In the early days changes came quickly. In 1852
Captain Langford, wife and family arrived. They were
in some way connected with the then Governor Blan-
chard. T. Skinner, Esq., wife and family arrived at
the same time. These were British and cultured people.
Langford and Skinner were agents of the Puget Sound
Company, so with them came a large number of Britishers, to open up and cultivate farms at Colwood, the
latter near the now Naval Hospital at Esquimalt.
Captain Grant and Captain Cooper were here, and soon
came the noble, steadfast laird, Mr. Kenneth McKenzie, wife and family. These brought their customs
with them, so of course Christmas observances.
It will thus be seen that Christmas and other
customs came with the immigrants, and from
the planting of that seed, the present Christmas
observances have grown. In Scotland and America the
day is much more observed than formerly; all did as
they pleased—shooting, hunting, fishing and visiting
being the chief recreations, and getting as good a dinner as possible, perhaps practise at the Beacon, a barrel
riddled with bullets, and standing on a long pole.
This beacon was a mark for ships. Another stood near
the water to the north. Captain Sangster used to perambulate here, a telescope in hand, watching for the
annual Hudson's Bay Company's ship, the signal being
two guns.
No waits at night, no chimes, no bells, no Christmas
carols, no pianos, in fact no musical instruments of
any kind, save the bell of the Fort. On one occasion a
dance and supper were determined on, but where was
the band? Nothing but Mr. Tod and his fiddle existed. Mr. Tod, a good soul, peace be with him, ever
ready to assist, assisted. Mr. Tod had. a peculiarity;
when playing he would cast off a shoe, and kept time
by stamping the resounding floor with his stockinged
foot. However, an employee came forth, " I can help
you, sirs; give me a sheet of tin." He got it, and in
a short time came back with a tin whistle, on which
he played admirably. This was the band, and everyone
enjoyed the dance and everything else. The band, too,
was the orchestra at a night of private theatricals, in
which J. D. Pemberton and Joseph McKay were the
star actors, whilst the others handed round port, ale,
cider, ginger beer, oranges, lemons and nuts—that is
to say they would if they had them.
There were no public-houses nor public amusements
at this time, turkeys unknown and beef scarce. In fact
a rudimentary Christmas festival of a holiday, not holy-
day, type.
It may be here remarked that sixty years ago Christmas Day was but little observed in Scotland, and the
same may be said of America. In England, however,
where it was and is a statute holiday, Christmas was
universally celebrated. Essentially it was a children's
day and one of family reunions, and in those days
when travelling was expensive and tedious, this meant
more than it does to-day. The visitors received a joyous welcome, not a sort of empty every-day one. Plum
pudding, roast beef, and mince pies and nuts were the
order of the day, for beverage various kinds of drinks.
Holly and mistletoe and evergreens obtained in nearly
every house; in fact it was a joyous day from morn till
night. Games of various kinds were played. Toys for
children, rudimentary toys and picture books, cheap,
and such as the too knowing children of to-day would
turn up their little noses at, and my goodness! the fun
of the mistletoe and mulberry tree! Spreading of
course from British Columbia, but in sober earnest to
the immortal Charles Dickens' works, particularly the
Pickwick Club and the annual " Christmas Stories."
The holly now, as in England, generally used, is not
indigenous, but grown from introduced seed chiefly.
The berried holly is now in great demand all along the
Pacific shores, and American purchasers are eager to
buy it.   Curiously, it grows well in Victoria and neigh- CHEISTMAS EEMINISCENCES
borhood, but fails as it grows south. Mistletoe, a parasite, used of old in the mystic rites of the Druids, does
not grow here, but a species thereof comes from the
States, which serves its usual purpose, in spite of all
moral reformers and the scientific maxims of the dangers of bacteria (bacteria of love) incurred in and by
osculation. Who cares about this kind of danger when
under the mistletoe at Christmas—the fun and pleasure
of obtaining it or at "blindman's buff," and the pretended wish and effort not to be caught. None of this
in Victoria in 1850.   How soon after?
Oh, the merry days when we were young! Turkeys
were rare, but Dr. Trimble had a turkey which he kept
on his premises on Broad Street. Daily he and Mrs.
Trimble would visit his treasure, who with his fantail
erect and feathers vibrating and with a gobble-gobble
and proud step would show his pleasure at the meeting, but the doctor and wife, although admiring and
loving the proud and handsome bird, had murderous
thoughts in their " innards," and declared he would be a
splendid bird by Christmas for dinner, so in due course
they invited some half dozen friends to eat the turkey on
Christmas Day. A few days before Christmas, the
doctor and wife, on their daily visit, found the turkey
had vanished. Inquiries were made for it, and the invited friends were assiduous in helping to unravel the
mystery, and concluded in the end that it had been
stolen. They condoled and sympathized with the
bereaved, and tried to assuage the grief by telling
Trimble and wife that they would give him a dinner on
Christmas Day instead! The grief-stricken parties
accepted the invitation, as the best thing to be done
under the unfortunate circumstances.   So on Christmas 262   REMINISCENCES  OF OLD VICTORIA
Day they assembled very jollily. The earlier courses
were eaten with fizz, etc. Now comes up the principal
dish, which being uncovered displayed a fine cooked
turkey. Trimble was a good-natured fellow, so you
may easily foretell what followed. Who stole the turkey? The echoes of their laughing, intertwining shadows reply "Who-o-o ?" CHAPTER XXXIX.
if" VICTORIA, 1860.
By D. W. H.
Ask and it shall be given you; seek and ye shall
find; knock and it shall be opened unto you. For every
one that asketh receiveth; and he that seeketh findeth,
and to him that knocketh it shall be opened."—Matt.
7:7, 8. WS §     III
On the 22nd day of December, 1860, nearly fifty-
three years ago, I sat in the editorial room of the
Colonist office on Wharf Street, concocting a leading
article. Mr. Amor De Cosmos, the able editor and
owner, had contracted a severe cold and was confined
to his room at Wilcox's Royal Hotel, so the entire work
of writing up the paper for that issue devolved upon
me. The office was a rude, one-story affair of wood. It
had been erected for a merchant early in 1858, and
when he failed or went away the building fell into Mr.
De Cosmos' hands. On the 11th December, 1858, Mr.
De Cosmos established the Colonist, which has ever
since filled a prominent and honorable position in
colonial journalism. Our office, as I have remarked,
was a rude affair. The accompanying picture will convey a better idea of its appearance than anything I
might write. The editorial room was a small space
partitioned off from the composing room, which con-
tained also the little hand-press on which the paper
was printed. A person who might wish to see the
editor was forced to pick his way through a line of
stands and cases at which stood the coatless printers
who set the type and prepared the forms for the press.
The day was chill and raw. A heavy wind from the
south-west stirred the waters of the harbor and hurling
itself with fury against the front of the building made
the timbers crack and groan as if in paroxysms of pain.
A driving rain fell in sheets on the roof and drops of
water which leaked through the shingles fell on the
editorial table, swelled into little rivulets, and, leaping
to the floor, chased each other over the room, making
existence therein uncomfortably damp. As I wrote
away in spite of these obstacles I was made aware by a
shadow that fell across my table of the presence of
someone in the* doorway. I raised my eyes and there
stood a female—a rare object in those days, when
Women and children were as scarce as hen's teeth, and
were hardly ever met upon the streets, much less in an
editorial sanctum. I rose to my feet at once, and removing my hat awaited results. In the brief space of
time that elapsed before the lady spoke I took her all in.
She was a woman of scarcely forty, I thought; of medium height, a brunette, with large coal-black eyes, a
pretty mouth—a perfect Cupid's bow—and olive-hued
cheeks. She was richly dressed in bright colors with
heavy broad stripes and space-encircling hoops after the
fashion of the day. When she spoke it was in a rich,
well-rounded tone—not with the nasal drawl which we
hear so much when across the line, and which some
Victoria school-girls and boys seem to delight in imitating in spite of the efforts of their teachers. Taken all
in all I sized the lady up as a very presentable person. CHRISTMAS DINNER IN VICTORIA     265
Having explained to her, in response to an inquiry, that
the editor was ill, she said that she would call again
and went away after leaving her card. Two days later,
on the 24th of December, the lady came again.
" Is the editor still ill ?" she asked.
" Yes; but he will be here in the course of a day or
" Ah! well, that is too bad," she said. " My business is of importance and cannot bear delay. But I
am told that you will do as well."
I assured the lady that I should be glad to assist her
in any way.   Thanking me, she began:
" My name is Madame Fabre; my husband, who was
French, is dead—died in California. I am a Russian.
In Russia I am a princess. (She paused as if to watch
the impression her announcement had made.) Here I
am a mere nobody—only Madame Fabre. I married
my husband in France. We came to California. We
had much money and my husband went into quartz
mining at Grass Valley. He did not understand the
business at all. We lost everything. Then he died
(and she drew a lace handkerchief from her reticule,
and pressing it to her eyes sighed deeply). Alas! Yes,
Emil passed from me and is now, I trust, in heaven.
He left me a mountain of debts and one son, Bertrand,
a good child, as good as gold, very thoughtful and
obedient. May I call him in? He awaits your permission without."
I replied, " Certainly," and stepping to the door she
called, "Bertrand! Bertrand! my child, come here,
and speak to the gentleman."
I expected to see a boy of five or six years, wearing
curls, in short trousers, a beaded jacket and fancy cap,
whom I would take on my knee, toy with his curls, ask 266   REMINISCENCES  OF OLD VICTORIA
his name and age and give him a " bit" with which
to stuff his youthful stomach with indigestible sweetmeats. Judge my surprise when, preceded by the noise
of a heavy tread, a huge youth of about seventeen,
bigger and taller than myself, and smoking a cigar,
appeared at the opening, and in a deep, gruff voice that
a sea captain or a militia commander would have
envied, asked:
" Did you call, mamma ?"
| Yes, my dear child," she sweetly responded; " I
wish to introduce you to this gentleman."
The " child " removed his hat, and I noticed that his
hair was cut close to the scalp. Having been duly introduced at my request he sat down in my chair while
I took a seat on the edge of the editorial table, which
was very rickety and would scarcely bear my weight at
the present day.
The parent gazed at her son fondly for a moment
and then proceeded:
" Bertrand's fortune was swallowed up in the quartz
wreck; but he is very .sweet and very patient, and never
complains. Poor lad! It was hard upon him, but he
forgives all—do you not, dear?"
" Yes," rumbled the " child" from the pit of his
stomach; but the expression that flitted across his
visage made me think that he would rather have said
" No," had he dared.
"That being the case I will now explain the object
of my visit. As I have said, we have lost everything—
that is to say, our income is so greatly reduced that it
is now a matter of not more than $1,000 a month.
Upon that meagre sum my dear boy and I contrive to
get along by practising the strictest economy consistent
with our position in life.   Naturally we wish to do CHRISTMAS DINNER IN VICTORIA    267
better, and then go back to Russia and live with the
nobility.   De we not, Bertrand?"
" Yes," rumbled the " child" from his stomach
again, as he lighted a fresh cigar.
" Well, now, Mr. H.," the lady went on, " I want an
adviser. I ask Pierre Manciot at the French Hotel,
and he tells me to see his partner, John Sere; and Mr.
Sere tells me to go to the editor of the Colonist. I
come here. The editor is ill. I go back to Mr. Sere
and he says, see D. W. H.; he will set you all right.
So I come to you to tell you what I want."
She paused for a moment to take a newspaper from
her reticule and then continued:
" After my husband died and left the debts and this
precious child (the " child" gazed abstractedly at the
ceiling while he blew rings of smoke from his mouth)
we made a grand discovery. Our foreman, working in
the mine, strikes rich quartz, covers it up again, and
tells no one but me. All the shareholders have gone—
what you call 'busted,' I believe? We get hold of
many shares cheap, and now I come here to get the
rest. An Englishman owns enough shares to give him
control—I mean that out of two hundred thousand
shares I have got ninety-five thousand, and the rest this
Englishman holds. . We have traced him through
Oregon to this place, and we lose all sign of him here."
(Up to this moment I had not been particularly interested in the narration.) She paused, and laying a
neatly-gloved hand on my arm proceeded:
"You are a man of affairs."
I modestly intimated that I was nothing of the kind,
only a reporter.
" Ah! yes. You cannot deceive me. I see it in your
eye, your face, your movements.    You are a man of 268   REMINISCENCES  OF OLD VICTORIA
large experience and keen judgment. Your conversation is charming."
As she had spoken for ten minutes without giving
me an opportunity to say a word, I could not quite
understand how she arrived at an estimate of my conversational powers. However, I felt flattered, but said
Pressing my arm with her hand, which gave me a
warm feeling in the neighborhood of my heart, she
went on:
" I come to you as a man of the world. (I made a
gesture of dissent, but it was very feeble, for I was
already caught in the web.) I rely upon you. I ask
you to help me. Bertrand—poor, dear Bertie—has no
head for business—he is too young, too confiding—too
—too—what you English people call simple—no, too
good—too noble—he takes after my family—to know
anything about such affairs—so I come to you."
Was it possible that because I was considered unre-
deemably bad I was selected for this woman's purpose?
As I mused, half disposed to get angry, I raised my
head and my eyes encountered the burning orbs of the
Madame, gazing full into mine. They seemed to bore
like gimlets into my very soul. A thrill ran through
me like the shock from an electric battery, and in an
instant I seemed bound hand and foot to the fortunes
of this strange woman. I felt myself being dragged
along as the Roman Emperors were wont to draw their
captives through the streets of their capital. I fluttered
for a few seconds like a bird in the fowler's net and
then I gave up. The contest was too unequal. God
help me! The eyes had conquered and I lay panting
at the feet, as it were, of the conqueror. I have only
a hazy recollection of what passed   between  us   after CHRISTMAS DINNER IN VICTORIA     269
that; but I call to mind that she asked me to insert
as an advertisement a paragraph from a Grass Valley
newspaper to the effect that the mine (the name of
which I forget) was a failure and that shares could be
bought for two cents. When she took her leave I
promised to call upon her at the hotel. When the
" child" extended a cold, clammy hand in farewell I
felt like giving him a kick—he looked so grim and ugly
and patronizing. I gazed into his eyes sternly and
read there deceit, hypocrisy and moral degeneration.
How I hated him!
The pair had been gone several minutes before I recovered my mental balance and awoke to a realization
of the fact that I was a young fool who had sold him-
self (perhaps to the devil) for a few empty compliments
and a peep into the deep well of an artful woman's
blazing eyes. I was inwardly cursing my stupidity
while pacing up and down the floor of the " denv" when
I heard a timid knock at the door. In response to my
invitation to " come in" a young lady entered. She
was pretty and about twenty years of age, fair, with
dark blue eyes and light brown hair. A blush suffused
her face as she asked for the editor. I returned the
usual answer.
" Perhaps you will do for my purpose," she said
timidly.   " I have here a piece of poetry."
I gasped as I thought, " It's an ode on winter. Oh,
"A piece of poetry," she continued, " on Britain's
Queen. If you will read it and find it worthy a place
in your paper I shall be glad to write more. If it is
worth paying for I shall be glad to get anything."
Her hand trembled as she produced the paper. 270   REMINISCENCES  OF OLD VICTORIA
I thanked her and telling her that I would look it
over she withdrew. I could not help contrasting the
first with the last visitor. The one had attracted me
by her artful and flattering tongue, the skilful use of
her beautiful eyes and the pressure of her hand on my
coat sleeve; the other by the modesty of her demeanor.
The timid shyness with which she presented her poem
had caught my fancy. I looked at the piece. It was
poor, not but what the sentiment was there and the
ideas were good, but they were not well put. As prose
it would have been acceptable, but as verse it was impossible and was not worth anything.
The next was Christmas Day. It was my first
Christmas in Victoria. Business was suspended. All
the stores were closed. At that time in front of every
business house there were wooden verandahs or sheds
that extended from the fronts of the buildings to the
outer edges of the sidewalks. One might walk along
any of the down-town streets and be under cover all
the way. They were ugly, unsightly constructions and
I waged constant warfare against them until I joined
the aldermanic board and secured the passage of an
ordinance that compelled their removal. Along these
verandahs on. this particular Christmas morning evergreen boughs were placed and the little town really
presented a very pretty and sylvan appearance. After
church I went to the office and from the office to the
Hotel de France for luncheon. The only other guest
in the room was a tall, florid-faced young man somewhat older than myself. He occupied a table on the
opposite side of the room. When I gave my order M.
Sere remarked, "All the regular boarders but you have
gone to luncheon and dinner with their friends. Why
Why," I replied, with a quaver in my voice, " the
only families that I know are dining with friends of
their own, whom I do not know. I feel more homesick
to-day than ever before^ in my life and the idea of eating my Christmas dinner alone fills me with melancholy
The man on the other side of the room must have
overheard what I said, for he ejaculated:
" There's two of a kind. I'm in a similar fix. I have
no friends here—at least with whom I can dine. Suppose we double up?"
" What's that ?" I asked.
I Why, let us eat our Christmas dinner together and
have a good time. Here's my card and here's a letter of
credit on Mr. Pendergast, Wells Fargo's agent, to show
that I am not without visible means of support."
The card read, " Mr. George Barclay, Grass Valley."
"Why," I said, "you are from Grass Valley. How
strange. I saw two people yesterday—a lady and her
' child'—who claimed to have come from Grass Valley."
" Indeed," he asked; " what are they like ?"
" The mother says she is a Russian princess. She
calls herself Mme. Fabre and says she is a widow. She
is very handsome and intelligent and "—I added with
a shudder—" has the loveliest eyes—they bored me
through and through."
My new friend faintly smiled and said, " I know
them. By and bye, when we get better acquainted, I
shall tell you all about them. Meantime, be on your
After luncheon we walked along Government to Yates
Street and then to the Colonist shack. And as I placed
the key in the lock I saw the young lady who had submitted the poetry walking   rapidly   towards   us.    My 272   REMINISCENCES  OF OLD VICTORIA
companion flushed slightly and raising his hat, extended
his hand, which the lady accepted with hesitation. They
exchanged some words and then the lady addressing me
asked, j Was my poem acceptable ?"
" To tell you the truth, Miss—Miss—"
" Forbes," she interjected.
" I have not had time to read it carefully." (As a
matter of fact I had not bestowed a second thought
upon the poem, but was ashamed to ackowledge it.)
" When—oh! when can you decide ?" she asked with
much earnestness.
"To-morrow, I think"—for I fully intended to decline it.
She seemed deeply disappointed. Her lip quivered
as she held down her head and her form trembled with
agitation. I could not understand her emotion, but, of
course, said nothing to show that I observed it.
" Could you not give me an answer to-day—this
afternoon?" the girl urged.
" Yes," I said, " as you seem so very anxious, if you
will give me your address I shall take or send an answer
before four o'clock.   Where do you reside?"
" Do you know Forshay's cottages ? They are a long
way up Yates Street.   We occupy No. 4."
Forshay's cottages were a collection of little cabins
that had been erected on a lot at the corner of Cook
and Yates Streets. They have long since disappeared.
They were of one story and each cottage contained
three rooms—a kitchen and two other rooms. I could
scarcely imagine a refined person such as the lady before me occupying those miserable quarters; but then,
you know, necessity knows no law.
The girl thanked me and Barclay accompanied her
to the corner of Yates Street.   He seemed to be trying CHRISTMAS DINNER IN VICTOEIA     273
to induce her to do something she did not approve of,
for she shook her head with an air of determination
and resolve and hurried away.
Barclay came back to the office and said: " I am
English myself, but the silliest creature in the world is
an Englishman who, having once been well off, finds
himself stranded. His pride will not allow him to
accept favors. I knew that girl's father and mother in
Grass Valley. The old gentleman lost a fortune at
quartz mining. His partner, a Mr. Maloney, a Dublin
man and graduate of Trinity College, having sunk his
own and his wife's money in the mine, poisoned his
wife, three children and himself with strychnine three
years ago. By the way, I met a Grass Valley man this
morning. His name is Eobert Homfray, a civil engineer. He tells me he is located here permanently. He
and his brother lost a great deal of money in the Grass
Valley mines, and we talked over the Maloney tragedy,
with the circumstances of which he was familiar, but
the strangest part of the story is that three months ago
the property was reopened and the very first shot that
was fired in the tunnel laid bare a rich vein. Had
Maloney fired one more charge he would have been rich.
As it was he died a murderer and a suicide. Poor fellow ! In a day or two I will tell you more. But let us
return to the poetry.   What will you do with it?"
I fear I shall have to reject it."
No, no," he cried. "Accept it! This morning I
went to'the home of the family, which consists of Mr.
Forbes, who is crippled with rheumatism, his excellent
wife, the young lady from whom we have just parted
and a little boy of seven. They are in actual want. I
offered to lend them money to buy common necessaries
and Forbes rejected the offer in language that was insulting. Go immediately to the cottage. Tell the girl
that you have accepted the poem and give her this
(handing me a twenty-dollar gold piece) as the appraised value of her production. Then return to the
Hotel de France and await developments."
I repaired to the cottages. The road was long and
muddy. There were neither sidewalks nor streets and
it was a difficult matter to navigate the sea of mud that
lay between Wharf and Cook Streets. The young lady
answered my knock. She almost fainted when I told
her the poem had been accepted and that the fee was
twenty dollars.   I placed the coin in her hand.
" Mamma! Papa!" she cried, and running inside the
house I heard her say, " My poem has been accepted
and the gentleman from the Colonist office has brought
me twenty dollars."
" Thank God!" I heard a woman's voice exclaim.
" I never lost faith, for what does Christ say, Ellen,
' Ask and it shall be given you, seek and ye shall find;
knock, and it shall be opened.' On this holy day—our
Saviour's birthday—we have sought and we have
This was followed by a sound as of someone crying,
and then the girl flew back to the door.
" Oh! sir," she said, " I thank you from the bottom
of my heart for your goodness."
" Not at all," I lied. " You have earned it and you
owe me no thanks. I shall be glad to receive and pay
for any other contributions you may send." I did not
add, though, that they would not be published, although
they would be paid for. CHEISTMAS DINNEE IN VICTOEIA     275
A little boy with a troubled face and a pinched look
now approached the front door. He was neatly but
poorly dressed.
I Oh! Nellie, what is the matter ?" he asked anxiously.
" Johnnie," answered Nellie. " I have earned twenty
dollars, and we shall have a Christmas dinner, and you
shall "have a drum, too." As she said this she caught
the little fellow in her arms and kissed him and pressed
his wan cheek against her own.
" Shall we have a turkey, Nellie ?" he asked.
" Yes, dear," she said.
"And a plum pudding, too, with nice sauce that
burns when you put a match to it, and shall I have two
hejpings?" he asked.
" Yes, and you shall set fire to the sauce and have
two helpings, Johnnie."
" Won't that be nice," he exclaimed gleefully. " But,
Nellie, will papa get medicine to make him well again ?"
"Yes, Johnnie."
" And mamma—will she get back all the pretty things
she sent away to pay the rent with?"
" Hush, Johnnie," said the girl with an apologetic
look at me.
"And you, Nellie, will you get back your warm cloak
that the man with a long nose took away?"
"Hush, dear," she said. "Go inside now; I wish to
speak to this gentleman." She closed the front door
and asked me, all the stores being closed, how she would
be able to get the materials for the dinner and to
redeem her promise to Johnnie.
" Easily enough," said I. " Order it at the Hotel de
France.   Shall I take down the order?"
"If you will be so kind," she said. "Please order
what you think is necessary." 276   EEMINISCENCES  OF OLD VICTOEIA
"And I—I have a favor to ask of you."
" What is it ?" she inquired eagerly.
" That you will permit me to eat my Christmas dinner with you and the family. I am a waif and stray,
alone in the world. I am almost a stranger here. The
few acquaintances I have made are dining out and I
am at the hotel with Mr. Barclay, whom you know and,
I hope, esteem."
" Well," she said, " come by all means."
"And may I bring Mr. Barclay with me ? He is very
lonely and very miserable. Just think, that on a day
like this he has nowhere to go but to an hotel."
She considered a moment before replying; then she
said, " No, do not bring him—let him come in wjiile
we are at dinner, as if by accident."
I hastened to the Hotel de France and Sere and
Manciot soon had a big hamper packed with an abundance of Christmas cheer and on its way upon the back
of an Indian to the Forbes house.
I followed and received a warm welcome from the
father and mother, who were superior people and gave
every evidence of having seen better days. The interior
was scrupulously clean, but there was only one chair.
A small kitchen stove at which the sick man sat was the
only means of warmth. There were no carpets and^ if
I was not mistaken, the bed coverings were scant. The
evidence of extreme poverty was everywhere manifest.
I never felt meaner in my life, as I accepted the blessings that belonged to the other man. Mr. Forbes, who
was too ill to sit at the table, reclined on a rude lounge
near the kitchen stove. Just as dinner was being
served there came a knock at the door. It was opened
and there stood Barclay.
" I have come," he said, " to ask you to take me in. CHEISTMAS DINNEE IN VICTOEIA     277
I cannot eat my dinner alone at the hotel. You have
taken my only acquaintance (pointing to me) from
me, and if Mr. Forbes will forgive my indiscretion of
this morning I shall be thankful."
" That I will," cried the old gentleman from the
kitchen. " Come in and let us shake hands and forget
our differences."
So Barclay entered and we ate our Christmas dinner
in one of the bedrooms. It was laid on the kitchen
table, upon which a tablecloth, sent by the thoughtful
hosts at the hotel, was spread. There were napkins, a
big turkey and claret and champagne, and a real, live,
polite little Frenchman to carve and wait. Barclay and
I sat on the bed. Mrs. Forbes had the only chair.
Johnnie and his sister occupied the hamper. Before
eating Mrs. Forbes said grace, in which she again quoted
the passage from Scripture with which I began this narration. Oh! for a catchup meal it was the jolliest I
ever sat down to, and I enjoyed it, as did all the rest.
Little Johnnie got two helpings of turkey and two
helpings of pudding and then he was allowed to sip a
little champagne when the toasts to the Queen and the
father and mother and the young and rising poetess of
the family were offered. Then Johnnie was toasted
and put to bed in Nellie's room. Next it came my turn
to say a few words in response to a sentiment which the
old gentleman spoke through the open door from his
position in the kitchen, and my response abounded in
falsehoods about the budding genius of the daughter
of the household. Then I called Barclay to his feet,
and he praised me until I felt like getting up and relieving my soul of its weight of guilt, but I didn't, for
had I done so the whole affair would have been spoiled. 278   EEMINISCENCES  OF OLD VICTOEIA
Barclay and I reached our quarters at the Hotel de
France about midnight. We were a pair of thoroughly
happy mortals, for had we not, after all, " dined out,"
and had we not had a royal good time on Christmas
Day, 1860?        | .$
The morrow was Boxing Day and none of the offices
were opened. I saw nothing of the Princess; but I observed Bertie, the sweet " child," as he paid frequent
visits to the bar and filled himself to the throttle with
brandy and water and rum and gin and bought and
paid for and smoked the best cigars at two bits each.
As I gazed upon him the desire to give him a kicking
grew stronger.
By appointment Barclay and I met in a private room
at the hotel, where he unfolded his plans.
" You must have seen," he began, " that Miss Forbes
and I are warm friends. Our friendship began six
months ago. I proposed to her and was accepted subject to the approval of the father. He refused to give
his consent because, having lost his money, he could
not give his daughter a dowry. It was in vain I urged
that I had sufficient for both. He would listen to
nothing that involved an acceptance of assistance from
me, and he left for Vancouver Island to try his fortunes
here. He fell ill and they have sold or pawned everything of value. The girl was not permitted to bid me
good-bye when they left Grass Valley. After their departure the discovery of which I have informed you
was made in the Maloney tunnel and as Mr. Forbes
has held on to a control of the stock in spite of his
adversities, he is now a rich man. I want to marry the
girl. As I told you, I proposed when I believed them
to be ruined. It is now my duty to acquaint the
family with their good fortune and renew my suit.   I CHEISTMAS DINNEE IN VICTORIA     279
think I ought to do it to-day. Surely he will not repel
me now when I take that news to him, as he did on
Christmas morning when I tendered him a loan."
I told him I thought he should impart the good news
at once and stand the consequences. He left me for
that purpose. As I walked into the dining-room, I saw
the dear " child " Bertrand leaning over the bar quaffing a glass of absinthe. When he saw me he gulped
down the drink and said:
"Mamma would like to speak to you—she thought
you would have called."
I recalled the adventure with the eyes and hesitated.
Then I decided to go to room 12 on the second flat and
see the thing out. A knock on the door was responded
to by a sweet " Come in." Mme. Fabre was seated in
an easy chair before a cheerful coal fire.
She arose at once and extended a plump and white
hand. .As we seated ourselves she flashed those burning eyes upon me and said:
" I am so glad you have come! I do want your advice
about my mining venture. In the first place I may tell
you that I have found the man who owns the shares.
He is here in Victoria with his family. He is desperately poor. A hundred dollars if offered would be a
great temptation. I would give more—five hundred if
necessary." I
" The property you told me of the other day is valuable, is it not?" I asked.
1 Yes—that is to say, we think it is. You know that
mining is the most uncertain of all ventures. You may
imagine you are rich one day and the next you find
yourself broke. It was so with my husband. He came
home one day and said, ' We are rich'; and the next he
said, | We are poor.'   This Maloney mine looks well, but 280    REMINISCENCES  OF OLD VICTORIA
who can be sure? When I came here I thought that if
I found the man with the shares I could get them for a
song. I may yet, but my dear child tells me that he
has seen here a man from Grass Valley named Barclay
who is a friend of that shareholder, and," she added,
bitterly, " perhaps he has got ahead of me. I must see
the man at once and make him an offer. What do you
think?" f§
"I think you might as well save yourself further
trouble. By this time the shareholder has been apprised
of his good fortune."
"What!" she exclaimed, springing to her feet and
transfixing me With her eyes.   "Am I, then, too late?"
" Yes," I said, " you are too late. Forbes—that is
the man's name—knows of his good fortune and I do
not believe he would sell now at any price."
The woman gazed at me with the concentrated hate
of a thousand furies. Her great eyes no longer bore an
expression of pleading tenderness—they seemed to glint
and expand and to shoot fierce flames from their depths.
They no longer charmed, they terrified me! How I
wished I had left the door open.
"Ah!" she screamed. " I see it all. I have been
betrayed—sold out.   You have broken my confidence."
" I have done nothing of the kind. I have never repeated to a soul what you told me."
I Then who could have done it ?" she exclaimed,
bursting into a fit of hysterical tears. " I have come all
this way to secure the property and now find that I am
too late.   Shame! shame!"
"I will tell you. Barclay is really here. He knew
of the strike as soon as you did. He is in love with Miss
Forbes and followed the family here to tell them the
good news.   He is with the man at this moment.
1 Curse him!" she cried through her set teeth.
I left the woman plunged in a state of deep despair.
I told her son that he should go upstairs and attend to
his mother, and proceeded to the Forbes cottage. There
I found the family in a state of great excitement, for
Barclay had told them all and already they were arranging plans for returning to California and taking steps
to reopen the property.
Miss Forbes received me with great cordiality and
the mother announced that the girl and Barclay were
engaged to be married, the father having given his consent at once. The fond mother added that she regretted
very much that her daughter would have to abandon
her literary career which had begun so auspiciously
through my discovery of her latent talent.
I looked at Barclay before I replied. His face was
as blank as a piece of white paper. His eyes, however,
danced in his head as if he enjoyed my predicament.
I Yes," I finally said, " Mr. Barclay has much to
be answerable for. I shall lose a valued contributor.
Perhaps," I ventured, " she will still continue to write
from California, for she possesses poetical talent of a
high order."
"I shall gladly do so," cried the young lady, "and
without pay, too.   I shall never forget your goodness."
I heard a low chuckling sound behind me. It was
Barclay swallowing a laugh.
They went away in the course of a few days and we
corresponded for a long time; but Mrs. Barclay never
fulfilled her promise to cultivate the muse; nor in her
several letters did she refer to her poetical gift. Perhaps her husband told her of the pious fraud we practised upon her on Christmas Day, 1860.   But whether 282   REMINISCENCES  OF OLD VICTORIA
he did so or not, I have taken the liberty, fifty-three
years after the event, of exposing the part I took in the
deception and craving forgiveness for my manifold sins
and wickednesses on that occasion.
What became of the Russian princess with the pretty
manners, the white hands and the enchanting eyes and
the sweet " child " Bertie ? They were back at Grass
Valley almost as soon as Forbes and Barclay got there,
and from my correspondence I learned that they shared
in the prosperity of the Maloney claim, and that Mme.
Fabre and her son returned to Russia to live among
her noble kin. CHAPTER XL.
I often pass through the Songhees Reserve, and the
recent controversy respecting the reserve, and the dilapidated state of the former homes of the Indians, induce
me to recall the reserve as I knew it first, when it was
swarming with "fiatheads," men, women and children.
The term " flathead " was applied to the Songhees on account of the shape of his head, which was pressed flat
with a piece of board strapped to his forehead while he
was in a state of infancy.
In this state of bondage, if I may so term it, the
| tenass man § (infant) passed his infancy. He was
fed, took his sleep, and carried on his mother's back
by a strap passing around his mother's forehead; thus
he got his fresh air and exercise.
The mother, in fact all the females, chewed gum. I
have always credited our American cousins with having
originated this beastly practice, but now I suppose the
credit for the discovery belongs to the Songhees, "who
must have taught our friends, and then gave it up
themselves. Groups of men may have been seen carving
miniature canoes with carved Indians paddling in them,
also totem poles and bows and arrows, while three or
four Indians would be at work shaping a full-grown
canoe which might possibly hold half a dozen Indians.
It was very interesting watching them at work and
many an hour I have spent watching them when a boy.
The women, while their *" papooses" were playing
about, worked also. Many made fancy articles out of
tanned deer hide, embroidered with pearl buttons and
beads, moccasins mostly, and for which there was a
good sale. They were worn for slippers. I have bought
many pairs at fifty cents a pair. The blankets they
wore were decorated with rows of pearl beads down the
front, red blankets being the favorite color, as they
showed off the pearl beads to advantage.
All these articles, as well as many others, such as
game, fish and potatoes and fruits, wild, were brought
to our doors, and at prices much below what such things
could be bought now—grouse, 35c. to 50c. a pair; wild
ducks, the same; venison, from 5c. to 8c. a pound by the
quarter; potatoes, about l^c. pound; salmon, 10c.
each; wild strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, and
bilberries, at about 5c. pound. Even "gumstick" for
lighting fires was brought to the door at 10c. a bundle.
Their cries as they passed the doors might be heard at
all hours. "Ah! Culla Culla" (grouse and ducks),
"Mowieh" (venison), "Oolally" (berries), " Sooke
Oysters," " Salmon " and " Cowichan potatoes." These
oysters were small but very nice, and for twenty-five
cents you would get a bucketful; also the same quantity
of clams. " Ick quarter " or " King George " quarter
(twenty-five cents), bought almost anything.
All these cheap foods were a godsend to early residents, and at the same time were fresh and wholesome.
The men and the young women went out washing by
the day, from seven to six o'clock, at fifty cents.
The one drawback to them was their dishonesty.
Small articles of clothing, towels and handkerchiefs
were easily hidden under their clothing, so that a close
watch had to be kept,   and  if   suspected,  they  were EVOLUTION OF THE SONGHEES
searched. The chief of the Songhees tribe was " King
Freezey." He might have been seen parading about
town in a cast-off naval officer's uniform with cap to
match, and he was very proud, as befitted such an
august personage. When asked his name, ("ict micaa
name") he would reply " Nica name, King Freezey,
nica hyas tyee." ("My name is King Freezey; I am a
great man.") This king of Songhees, after imbibing
too freely of the ardent, was drowned by the capsizing
of a canoe in the harbor, and so ended the life of a
well-known personage.
That he left decendants is evident, as I see their
names amongst those who got $10,000 each from the
sale of the reserve. Compare these descendants with
their grandparents. The former's native ignorance
and simplicity, when their wants were simple and few,
with their grandchildren of to-day, who must have
everything their brother whites have, to modern houses
and furniture, buggies, sewing machines, musical
instruments, etc., and not forgetting a bank account,
and last, but not least, post office boxes, and one may
well wonder at the " evolution of the Songhees." More
might be said, but for the present this must suffice.
Indian Burying Grounds.
Islands were favorite burying grounds among the
Indians, probably from the protection the surrounding
water furnished against the incursions of animals, and
coffin islands may be found at different points around
the coast. In Victoria harbor and the Arm both Coffin
Island and Deadman's Island were used for this purpose within the memory of such old-time residents as
Mr. R. T. Williams and Mr. Edgar Fawcett,   Mr. Wil- 286   REMINISCENCES  OF OLD VICTORIA
Hams, whose memory goes back to the fifties, when he
went to school from a shack on Yates Street opposite
the site of the present King Edward Hotel, believes
Colville Island may also have been used for this purpose as well, but distinctly remembers the trees and
scrub on Deadman's Island and the fire on it described
in the following account, which is kindly furnished by
Mr. Fawcett.   Mr. Fawcett writes:
"Like the Egyptians of old, the Indians of this
country had professional mourners, that is, they acted
as they did in Bible days. The mourners, usually
friends or members of the same tribe, assembled as soon
as the death was announced, and either inside or outside the house they (mostly women, and old women at
that) kept up a monotonous howl for hours, others
taking their places when they got tired. In the early
sixties an execution of four young Indians took place
on Bastion Square for a murder committed on the
West Coast. All day and night before the execution
took place the women of the tribe squatted on the
ground in front of the jail, keeping up the monotonous
howl or chant, even up to the time the hangman completed his task. After hanging the prescribed time, the
murderers were cut down and handed to their friends,
who took them away in their canoes for burial. In the
earliest days, I don't think they used the regular coffin;
the common practice was to use boxes, and especially
trunks. Of course for a man or woman a trunk would
be a problem to an undertaker, but the Indian solved
the problem easily, as they doubled the body up and
made it fit the trunk. For larger bodies a box was
made of plank, but I do not remember seeing one made
the regulation length of six feet, even for an adult, as
they  always  doubled  the  knees  under.    A  popular EVOLUTION OF THE SONGHEES
coffin for small people was one of Sam Nesbitt's cracker
boxes. He was a well-known manufacturer of soda
crackers and pilot bread, whose place of business will
be remembered by many old-timers at the corner of
Yates and Broad Streets.
" The Indians rarely dug graves for their dead, but
hoisted them up in trees, tying them to the branches,
or merely laid them on the ground, and piled them up
on top of one another. In time they fell into the customs of their white brothers, and got coffins made by
the undertaker, and many a time I have seen Indians
carrying coffins along Government Street, down to the
foot of Johnson, for their reserve."—E. F.
In 1861 Mr. Fawcett with four companions, all
school-boys at the time, were bathing on Deadman's
Island, and had lit a fire to warm themselves. Broken
coffins were lying about, and piles of box coffins and
trunks; these were set fire to, and the boys promptly
made off to escape the wrath of tha Indians, who, in
those days, were numbered by hundreds. They made
good their escape, and the whole island was swept by
the flames—trees, scrub and coffins being- burnt up.
Since that time the island has remained in its present
The Indians on the Songhees Reserve, also, Mr.
Fawcett says, buried at two points on the reserve, but
when the smallpox worked such havoc among them, the
authorities insisted on the bodies being buried in soil,
and when the removal of the Indians was accomplished
a special amount was allotted to provide for the removal of the bodies elsewhere.—Editor. CHAPTER XLI.
I have been asked to tell of some of the changes that
have taken place since Victoria, the fairest city of Hie
West, commenced her career, viz., in 1858. I have produced several photos that explain a good deal without
my help, but they may require explanation. As my
endeavor shall be to give our visiting friends of the
Methodist Church an insight into some of the changes
in fifty years, I shall in the small space of time allowed
me confine myself to events connected with the early
history of the Methodist Church in Victoria, as I know
them. Although not a member of their body I have
claimed many of the founders of the church as my most
intimate friends. There were Thomas Trounce and Mrs.
Trounce, Edwin Donald and Mrs. Donald, Sheriff McMillan and Mrs. McMillan, Jonathan Bullen and Mrs.
Bullen and Father McKay (as he was called by his
friends in the church), <and Mrs. J. W. Williams and
Mrs. Lawranoe Goodacre.
Of the pioneer clergy I well remember Dr. Robson,
Dr. Ephraim Evans, Rev. Mr. Pollard and Rev. Mr. Derrick. Of these I best remember Dr. Evans, as having
been here so many years with his wife, daughter and son.-
It will be remembered by old timers the sad story of his
son's death by drowning which I will in a few words
relate.    He was very fond of gunning, and one after-
noon in December he went off with his gun to shoot
duck from the beach off Beacon Hill, which was the
common practice in those days. Having shot one or
two and not being able to get them any other way, he
stripped off his clothes and swam out after them. This
was a very bold thing to do, as the water is so cold
there, and especially in December. It is supposed he
got the cramps or got caught in the seaweeds where the
ducks were shot from, and so was drowned. Not coming home at his usual time, search was made, and having been seen going to Beacon Hill, it was there the
searchers found his clothes and gun on the beach that
evening. The poor father seemed heart-broken, for he
would not leave the spot, but walked up and down all
night calling " Edwin! Edwin, my son!" In the
morning they recovered the body under the seaweed.
Great sympathy was felt for the parents, and I well
remember the funeral on a snowy day, and the unusual
number of friends who attended the funeral in the old
Quadra Street Cemetery. The granite monument is
still to be seen "there.
In the view of Government Street in the early sixties
here produced, may be seen marked with a X Theatre
Eoyal. In this building, which then was used for theatrical productions, concerts and lectures, I heard the
Eev. Morley Punshon, then president of the Wesleyan
Conference, I think. He lectured on Macaulay, and
was reciting from "Lays of Ancient Borne" when the fire
bells rang, and in less than fiye minutes there were only
a score or so left of his audience. He stopped an instant, proceeded, but finally stopped for good, saying
that it was the first time he had ever had to stop one
of his lectures for a fire. But when he was told that it
might have been the home of any one of his audience
and that it was the custom for citizens generally to
assist the firemen (who themselves were volunteers), he
continued 'his lecture to the end, and very interesting
it was.
The first Methodist services were held in Judge Pem-
berton's police court room on Bastion Square until the
church on lower Pandora Street was finished. This
church was built on the corner of Broad and Pandora
on land given by Governor Douglas, and was considered
just outside the city (1859), the tall pine trees being
much in evidence a couple of blocks away. In order
to get to the church you had to pass over a gully with
water at the bottom; a sort of trestle sidewalk on stilts
was afterward constructed until the gully was filled in.
At this date the Methodists had the most pretentious
church in the city. The basement was used for Sunday
School, prayer meetings and lectures. I must not forget the tea meetings which were given in those days.
They were presided over by prominent ladies of the congregation—Mrs. Trounce, Mrs. Donald, Mrs. Bullen,
Mrs. McMillan, Mrs. -Spencer and Mrs. N. Shakespeare—
and the admission to these "tea fights," as they were
termed generally, was $1.50, and well patronized they
were at that price. I attended many, and I think I can
see now the tables spread with good things, and those sitting at them, nearly all of whom have passed away. We
were early birds in those days. Entertainments commenced at six o'clock and all over at ten. By the large
view of Government Street in 1858 it will be seen how
it has progressed. It was not metalled until 1859, and
nearly all the buildings were frame.   The first brick is VICTORIA THE NEW AND THE OLD    291
now to be seen on the corner of Courtenay 'Street, the
"Windsor Hotel." Where the Empress Hotel now
stands, and all the land to the south and east, was the
upper part of James Bay, and mudflats, and at times
not very savory. It was not until late in 1858, or 1859,
that a bridge connected the north and south sides of
James Bay, people having to walk around the bay eastwards. The population of James Bay District was very
sparse. Trails instead of streets ran in all directions.
Belleville Street, that is now so thronged with passengers to and from the C.P.R. steamers every day,
was not then in existence, for the beach reached to the
trees in the front of the Parliament Buildings. Where
the new Pemberton block now stands, down to the
corner of Government Street, was an orchard and
vegetable garden. Across the street where the Five
Sisters Block stands was a vacant lot with a log hut in
the rear where the Hudson's Bay Company baked bread
for the citizens, four-pound loaves being twenty-five
cents, and very good it was. From Mr. Harry Glide,
who arrived in Victoria in 1856, and has lived near the
Outer Wharf for fifty-four years, I have learned much of
the condition of things previous to the inrush from
California in 1858-1859. He says all James Bay District was covered with fir trees and all the land from
the mouth of the harbor along Dallas Road to Beacon
Hill was "Beckly Farm." He says there were quite a
number of Cherokee Indians here, who came from their
native place to the coast of British Columbia for work;
most of them were over six feet and strongly built. It
seems strange that they should have travelled so far
from their homes for work.    There were also many (292   EEMINISCENCES OF OLD VICTORIA
Kanakas here who came on vessels from Honolulu at
odd times. They formed a small colony and located on
Humboldt Street, then called Kanaka Row. I can
remember them in 1859, one family attending Christ
Church regularly. There are many buried in Old Quadra Street Cemetery, The first sheets of the Colotkist
were printed on the Hudson's Bay Company's wharf in
a large shed or warehouse, and later on the paper moved
to Wharf Street to about Where the Macdonald Block
now stands. This was fifty4wo years ago, and our visiting friends can draw a comparison with what it then was,
a small double sheet, to its Sunday issue of to-day, with
its many illustrations. For the information of our visiting friends I might say that the Hudson's Bay Fort
shown in the view of "Government Street in 1858,"
enclosed the two blocks running south from the corner
of Bastion (the brass plate on the corner will show
this) to the corner of Courtenay and westwards to Wharf
Street. In this fort all hands took shelter at night at
the date of its erection. In 1858 and for yeaTS later,
the fort bell rang at six o'clock in the morning, when
the gates at the east and west ends were opened, and at
six o'clock in the evening they were closed. There were
two large general stores, and many storehouses and
barns inside, and at the stores you could buy anything
from a needle to an anchor, from a gallon of molasses
to the silk for a dress. I might say a deal more, but
it might not interest those for whom this sketch is
written. As it is, there are many repetitions of what
I have already written in the Colonist and Times during the last six years. VICTOEIA THE NEW AND THE OLD   293
The Metropolitan Methodist Churqh.
To-day, February 13th, the Metropolitan Methodist
Church celebrates the fifty-third anniversary of its
foundation as a congregation. It was exactly fifty-
three years ago yesterday that the first Methodist missionaries, sent out by the Wesleyan Methodist Church
of Canada, then part of the English Wesleyan conference, landed in Victoria. They were Rev. Dr. Ephraim
Evans, his wife and family; Rev. Arthur Browning,
Rev. Ebenezer Robson and Rev. Edward White, who
also brought his family, one of his little sons being
Eev. Dr. White, to-day Superintendent of Methodist
Missions in this province. Eev. Dr. Eobson was married shortly after his arrival. Of the gallant little party
who faced the hardships of the then comparatively little
known West with such tranquility and courage, all have
now passed to their rest, Dr. Eobson, the last survivor,
dying less than a year ago in Vancouver.
The missionaries were received by Mr. John T. Pidwell, father-in-law of Mr. D. W. Higgins, and entertained in his home until they could secure permanent
quarters. The following Sunday, February 13, service
was held for the first time in the courthouse, and Eev.
Dr. Eobson subsequently went on to Nanaimo, where he
found Cornelius Bryant, a young schoolmaster, who enjoyed the distinction of being the first member of the
Methodist Church to set foot in British Columbia. He
afterwards entered the Methodist ministry and died a
few years ago. Eev. Edward White was quartered in
New Westminster, where he established Methodism, and
Eev. Mr. Browning, after acting as evangelist at different coast points, became the pioneer Methodist missionary in the Cariboo country. 294   REMINISCENCES OF OLD VICTORIA
Laying Corner-Stone..
During the following August the corner-stone of the
first Methodist church in Victoria was laid. The building was situated at the corner of Broad and Pandora
Streets, and was afterwards known as the Pandora
Street Methodist Church. The stone was laid by Governor Douglas, and the building was dedicated the following May. Its usefulness was considerably lessened,
however, by the building of the Metropolitan Methodist
Church in 1890, which claims the honor of being the
mother church of Methodism in the province, as, though
the Pandora Street edifice- was built first, it was not
used for church purposes alone. The first pastor of the
Metropolitan Church congregation was Dr. Evans, who
was assisted by Rev. Dr. Robson, Rev. Arthur Browning
and Rev. D. V. Lucas and Rev. Coverdale Watson
(whose widow is now living in Vancouver), who acted
as pastor for two separate terms.
Of the pioneers of Methodism, the following families
were prominent and whom I counted among my friends:
The Trounces and Donalds we had known in California;
Sheriff McMillan and family, Captain McCulloch, Mr.
and Mrs. T. S. Bone, Mr. and Mrs. Humber, Mr. and
Mrs. Norris, Alderman Kinsman, and Father McKay,
as he was affectionately termed by his intimate friends.
All these have gone to their rest. Of those who are still
with us, hale and hearty, are Mrs. Bullen, Mrs. Capt.
McCulloch, Mr. and Mrs. David Spencer, Mr. and Mrs.
N. Shakespeare, Mrs. Carne, Mrs. Branch, Mr. and Mrs.
Pendray, Mrs. John Kinsman, Isaac Walsh, and others
I cannot remember. I have attended many tea meetings
held in the basement of the old church, presided over
by these pioneer ladies.      EKSSrasS&Sss


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