Open Collections

BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

A history of Canadian journalism in the several portions of the Dominion : with a sketch of the Canadian… Canadian Press Association 1908

Item Metadata


JSON: bcbooks-1.0348685.json
JSON-LD: bcbooks-1.0348685-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): bcbooks-1.0348685-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: bcbooks-1.0348685-rdf.json
Turtle: bcbooks-1.0348685-turtle.txt
N-Triples: bcbooks-1.0348685-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: bcbooks-1.0348685-source.json
Full Text

Full Text

nadian Journalism
Canadian Journalism
WHEN it was resolved to celebrate the fiftieth
anniversary of the Canadian Press Association
in 1908, the wish was expressed that a literary memorial
of a permanent character should be prepared. The duty
was entrusted to a small committee, and the result is
this volume, which, it is hoped, will prove of some
interest and value to a community wider than that
formed by members of the Press. That the original
idea was to include purely literary as well as historical
material, may be inferred from the contributions of Mr.
Goldwin Smith and Mr. J. W. Bengough. But this
proved too ambitious an undertaking with the resources
at command. The volume, therefore, is chiefly historical
in its scope, and aims to present not merely a narrative
of the proceedings of the Association, but a general
survey of the establishment and growth of the Press in
all parts of Canada.
In compiling the records of the Canadian Press
Association, it was considered advisable to dwell in some
detail upon the earlier history of the organization,
summarizing briefly the later period, which is already set
forth in the elaborate annual reports now in print. For
this reason the proceedings of the meeting for 1908 must
be sought in the report which was issued after the
celebration. The preparation of a history of the Association was much facilitated by Mr. Wm. Bucking-
ham, Mr. Richard White, the late Mr. John Cameron,
Mr. David Creighton, Mr. R. Sellar, Miss Gillespy of
Hamilton; Mr. H. B. Donly, Mr. W. M. O'Beirne,
Mr. A. T. Wilgress, Mr. M. A. James, Mr. E. J. B.
Pense, Mr. H. F. Gardiner, Mr. T. H. Preston, Mr. J.
A. Cooper, Mr. C. D. Barr, Mr. C. J. Bowell and others,
who either by the production of records and documents
hitherto inaccessible, or by drawing upon personal recol-'
lection, made it possible to reconstruct the story of the
past. For this valuable assistance, so cheerfully rendered, the Committee is especially grateful.
The articles dealing with the Press by Provinces
furnish a comprehensive survey of the development of
journalism in Canada. Of the birth of the first Canadian paper in 1752, and of subsequent journalistic
events in the Maritime Provinces, Mr. J. E. B.
McCready, Charlottetown, writes; Mr. John Reade,
F.R.S.C., Montreal, contributes a scholarly article
on the trend of journalism as- iUustrated in Quebec;
Mr. Arthur Wallis, Toronto, writes of Ontario;
Messrs. J. P. Robertson, Winnipeg; J. K. Mclnnis,
Regina, and R. E. GosneU, Vancouver, of the West,
where journalism has more history, particularly in British Columbia, than might be supposed, and to these is
added a short reminiscent article by Mr. Robert Sellar,
Huntingdon, Que. To these gentlemen the Committee
wishes to express its indebtedness, an indebtedness
which, it is felt, will be shared by every Canadian
connected with the Press. Their work supplies a record
of journalism which, it is believed, will take rank with
the best Canadian history and biography.
I i
The Committee wishes, too, to express its thanks to
Mr. H. C. Bell for exceedingly valuable assistance in
correcting and revising the proofs.
The promise of the late Hon. J. I. Tarte to contribute an article on the French Press was frustrated by
the hand of death, and to this extent the book is incomplete. One other phase of Canadian journalism
which is left for a future historian is a sketch of the
Parliamentary Press Galleries. The Committee also
had prepared a Chronology of the Canadian Press,
covering the entire period from 1752 to 1908, but
this grew to such voluminous proportions that it was
found impossible to include it in the present book.
John R. Bone,
Joseph T. Clark.
A. H. U. Colquhoun.
John F. Mackay.
Toronto, 1908.
I.   A Period op Turmoil 1
BE.   Founding op the Association 6
DX   The First List op Officers 11
IV.   Methods and \Men of Early Days 18
V.   Some Pioneers op the Association ....   23
VI.   A Famous Hamilton Convention 30
Vn.   A Tribute to the- Founder  35
Vm.   Dawn op the Excursion Period 40
IX.   A Presidential,Verse-Maker 45
X.   Annual Meetings in the Sixties .       .       .       .51
XI.   The Excursion to the Northern Lakes        .       .       .55
XH.   Blandishments from Over the Border .       .       .60
Xin.   An Address from the Hon. George Brown   .       .       .66
XIV.   An Interregnum op Depression     .       .       .       .       .73
XV.   The Association and Mr. Goldwin Smith       .       .       .76
XVI.   Trip to the Maritime Provinces 83
XVII.   Newspapers and Party Ties 89
XVIII.   History op the Anti-Postage Movement       .       .       .95
XIX.   The Famous Excursion to the Far West      .       .       . 101
XX.   The Movement to Reform the Libel Laws    .       .       .110
XXI.   A JNbw Era in Association Records       .       .       .       .115
XXn.   Presidential Addresses in Recent Years     .       .       . 120
XXllI.  The Great Combat with the Paper Combine .       . 127
THE PRESS OF ONTARIO, BY ARTHUR WALLIS        .       .       .160
REMLNISCENCES OF 1856, BY ROBERT SELLAR .       .       .176
IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, BY R. E. GOSNELL        .       .       .       .196
APPENDIX   I  .224
1859—1908.       :£
In honor of our golden year,
In honor of the tie that binds
In unity our hearts and minds,
Accept this grateful souvenir.
Herein is told once more the tale
Of Fellowship's enduring might
To aid the cause of Peace and Right
Where honor and good faith prevail.
For half-a-century we've stood—
Whate'er the strain of party ties,
Or diverse creeds and sympathies,
A firm and genial Brotherhood;
Progressing ever more and more
In material service each to each,
And ever finding kindlier speech
To shame the ranc'rous days of yore.
Here truce is called; the venom'd pen
Is dropped, and Party put away;
Here, hand in hand, we proudly say—
"We're first Canadians and men."
J. W. Bengottgh.
m iSiaBiiag' *}' ii*|i|*|ii3#*^wwl''ti!ilia8i*Clf'i'''iiTKWl>n"*iBiBI^^ ft
A LONDON editor told me that he had lost his
leader-writer. I said that I supposed he would
easily get another. "I shall have to get three," was
his reply; "and I shall be lucky if at the end of a
year one of them writes well." He meant, of course,
not that leader-writing was a work of uncommon
genius, but that the knack was rare.
There seem to be three requisites: a large amount
of information, miscellaneous rather than profound; a
great readiness in making use of it; and the power of
putting it in a striking form, and one which will catch
the eye and mind of the cursory reader. As to the
first, it was once proposed to create a college for journalists, treating journalism as a regular profession,
and teaching all the subjects likely to be required.
But I always doubted the feasibility of such a scheme.
The matter is too indefinite, and journalism is too
little of a regular profession.
The second requisite is evidently a gift of nature.
A man must be blest with great natural quickness if,
when he is sitting at a dinner party, and a note from
his editor with a subject is suddenly put into his hand,
he can jump up and have a good article ready for
press. Form perhaps comes to few writers by nature,
but may be acquired by study of good models. John
Douglas Cook, the editor of the Saturday Review,
an excellent judge of writing, though he could not
write himself, told me that the only writers within his
experience, which was large, who wrote well from the
first, had been trained at school in the composition
of Latin verse. This may have been not wholly
accidental. Cook's experience must have had reference to papers other than the Saturday Review, the
articles in which, the paper being social rather than
political, and non-partisan, were essays rather than
Good leader-writing is certainly rarer than one
would suppose, and when I was in London fetched a
high price. The greatest sensation that I remember
ever being produced by a leader was one written by
Bailey in the Times when Peel came over from Protection to Free Trade. But then the subject was
most momentous, and the Times had early intelligence.
The position of a leader-writer in England must
have changed with the character of the press. In
former days the proprietor and editor of a great paper,
such as the Times or the Leeds Mercury, was a sort
of literary statesman guiding his paper according to
his own opinions, though in concert with his political
party. Now journalism seems to have become more
entirely commercial, aiming above everything at circulation, largely by sensational means. This can
hardly be congenial to a serious writer.
At a time when, after the fall of Peel's Government, LEADER-WRITING
parties in England were very much broken up and
connexions loosened, it was proposed to bring out a
paper of news without editorials, but with an open
forum for free debate. Gladstone smiled on the idea,
but he thought the existing custom of combining comment with news too inveterate to be changed.
It is hardly necessary to mention that the leader
belongs, and the responsibility attaches, exclusively
to the paper. A friend of mine wanted to reproduce
some leaders which he had written in the Times, but
the Times at once vetoed.
Goldwin Smith.
■  I
■■!■  N PRESS ASSOC!!!
KIR, ims orifssjaii-.-.' .1 iH
fft&ffi  W€t€   #«4I
>*e£»-, ypl
Vvh.i.iam Gillespy
Founder and First President of the Canadian
THE Canadian Press Association, which holds its
fiftieth annual meeting in 1908, was organized at
Kingston in the month of September, 1859. It came
into existence, after many efforts, in a modest way.
There were, at that period, exceptional obstacles to
overcome before even a semblance of union and harmony could be established among the newspapers of
Canada. The founders of the Association were well
aware of the adverse conditions to be encountered,
and only the virtues of patience, courage, and enthusiasm could have carried the movement to success.
At the outset it is proper to make clear the difficulties
which stood in the way of a general press organization.
The Canada of 1859, nominally one Province with a
united Parliament and all the outward aspect of solidarity, really consisted of two separate communities,
each having its own history, language, and ideas.
There was political and social disunion. The influences
tending towards strife and estrangement were all-
powerful.    The ties that commonly bind communities
11 %
together were weak, and party dissensions invaded the
domain of the press, with consequences disastrous to
personal friendship and to the tone of discussion. To
aggravate the situation still further some of our chief
public men were themselves journalists. As Principal
Grant said of the rise of Joseph Howe in Nova Scotia,
" at that time in the history of the world it was almost
impossible to be an editor without being a politician
also." * This had long been an embarrassing factor
in the connection between politics and the press. The
rebellion in Upper Canada was promoted and led by
an editor. The Quebec journalists were equally
prominent in the movement there. As time wore on
the issues of the day involved principles of prime importance to the State, and it was natural that writers
for the press should be leading figures in the fray.
These issues touched the very core of national life. A
conflict that questioned the loyalty of the citizen to
the State easily glided into attacks on personal character. The ten years that preceded the formation
of the Press Association are pre-eminent for the bitterness that prevailed between parties, or sections of
parties, and between individuals. In this atmosphere
editors vied with politicians in vehemence of tone and
wealth of expletive. Francis Hincks, who founded
the Toronto Examiner in 1838, and the Montreal Pilot
in 1844, never to the end of his long and varied career
quite abandoned journalistic pursuits. His course in
1854, when he, the Prime Minister and nominal leader
of the Reform party, passed over the Government of
the country to a Conservative Coalition—a modified
* Joseph Howe ; by Rev. G. M. Grant; Halifax, 1906. A PERIOD OF TURMOIL
form of " dishing the Whigs "—intensified the bitterness of feeling. The resentment of George Brown and
The Globe at the fate of the Short Administration and
the aspect of deep duplicity given to it by the Double
Shuffle was at its height in 1859. D'Arcy McGee in
the Montreal New Era displayed Celtic effervescence
in all its purity. William McDougall, never famous
for conciliatory methods in press or Parliament, was
writing his telling articles in the North American.
Each party was split into warring factions. Neither
was a happy family. The progressive wing of the
Tory party, led by John A. Macdonald, was in open
revolt against the remnant of the FamilyCompact under
Sir Allan McNab and HillyardCameron. TheReform-
ers, weakened by the defection of the Hincksites, were
at oggerheads with le parti Rouge from Lower Canada.
George Brown, as we read in Mr. Mackenzie's biography of him, decided to retire from public life. John
A. Macdonald, early in 1859, made the same resolution.
A signed requisition from his Parliamentary following
alone kept him in the field. The honest zeal of men
for their own opinions had gone too far. The spirit
of moderate compromise necessary to support any
political fabric seemed to be vanishing altogether.
It was at this critical juncture that the founders of
the Press Association made their appeal to the sober
counsels and kindly feelings that were in danger of
being extinguished. Their task was no easy one. The
press, unlike the medical and legal professions, does
not readily lend itself to organization. The community
of interest in the journalistic fraternity is of delicate
texture.    The tie between the editor and his readers THE CANADIAN PRESS
is closer than the bond between editors as a class.
Those were not the days of great publishing concerns
with important financial concerns in common. A
Press Association could hold out no tempting material
advantages to its members. The Association, never
an insurance society, offered little to individual selfishness. The appeal was chiefly to the highest form of
professional pride—to promote the influence of the
press as a factor in the welfare of the State, to draw
closer together as a body when the tendencies of the
time were pointing to national disintegration. The
leading spirit in the movement for union was William
Gillespy of the Hamilton Spectator. Previous to the
Kingston meeting, there must have been an interchange of views by correspondence between a number
of newspaper editors upon the propriety of organization, because the Spectator of September 24th refers in
a cheerful strain to 1859 as a kind of annus mirabilis,
when Blondin was able to walk over the Niagara
chasm on a tight-rope; a balloon had just made a
journey one thousand miles long; and fifty or sixty
Canadian journalists had expressed their willingness
"to throw aside their political differences for the nonce
in order that they may commune together for the purpose of mutually benefitting each other in matters
pertaining to the general welfare of the Fourth Estate." n
In that year the Provincial Exhibition was being held
in Kingston. This was considered to be a suitable
time for the gathering, because the event would draw
together a number of newspaper representatives, not
specially   concerned   at   the   moment   to   determine
whether or not Hincks was a traitor, George Brown
a bigot, or John A. Macdonald a thoroughly used-
up character. The more peaceful occupation of inspecting cattle, grain, fruit, and flowers would, it was
thought, give at least a temporary impetus to those
humane instincts which, on too many other occasions,
were allowed to remain dormant.
jjli	 II.
As everyone who has tried to hold meetings of newspaper men is aware, the labours of Hercules were trifles
in comparison. The journalistic mind is so constituted
that it recoils instinctively from long speeches, aimless
resolutions, and conventional proceedings. Nearly
every newspaper writer has, at some period in his career,
been a reporter. This means that he has often suffered
from the public bore, and is unwilling to revive, even
for the benefit of his own fraternity, the wearisome
paraphernalia that cluster about the formation of new
societies. The Kingston gathering challenged this
prejudice. Of the fifty or sixty persons who had written
their approval of the projected Association, few were
found ready to leave their work, travel long distances,
and formally participate in the act of organization.
The earnestness of those who made the necessary
sacrifices, however, was irresistible. Having conquered the deep-seated opposition inherent in the
political conditions of the time, they were not to be
daunted by that degree of apathy expressed in mere
bodily absence. The first meeting, called for the afternoon of September 27th, was adjourned in order to
secure a larger attendance.    The following evening a FOUNDING OF THE ASSOCIATION
sufficient number of newspaper men came together
and the project took shape. The list of those present
is interesting:
WiUiam Gillespy, Hamilton Spectator.
Dr. Barker, Kingston Whig.
Mackenzie Bowell, Belleville Intelligencer.
David Wylie, Brockville Recorder.
J. E. P. Doyle, Cornwall Freeholder.
Thomas Sellar, Montreal Echo.
John Jacques, Milton Journal.
R. J. Oliver, Barrie Advance.
John Lowe, Montreal Gazette.
Dr. Gillespie, Picton Times.
Dunbar Browne, Montreal Gazette.
W. A. Sheppard, Belleville Independent.
W. Armstrong, Kingston Herald.
J. Beach, Whitby Watchman.
Mr. Campbell, Napanee Standard.
W. G. Culloden, Milton New Era.
James Somerville, Dundas Banner.
H. C. Grant, Kingston News.
Mr. Gillespy was called to the chair. It is asserted
by all who know the early history of the Association
that Mr. Gillespy was the life and soul of the movement. His must have been a frank and generous
nature to secure the co-operation of confreres who
differed from him in politics at a time when all men
seemed to take their politics very seriously. Of English birth—his native city being Carlisle—he emigrated
to Canada in 1842, at the age of 18, and soon after is
known as a writer for the Conservative press. To that
party he always adhered, nor is it charged that he held
Bl 8
his opinions lightly. Decided in his views, he possessed
a genial and kindly temperament which well fitted
the part he was to play. Displaying some literary
talent in a volume of verse and some short tales, he
ultimately found his vocation as a political writer
about the time Lord Metcalfe was disputing with his
Ministers over the question of responsible government.
Connected for short periods with the Brantford Courier
and London (U.C.) Times, he entered, in 1850, the
office of the Hamilton Spectator as bookkeeper. It is
noteworthy that the division between the counting
room and the editorial office was not then so clearly
defined as it is now commonly, although often erroneously, held to be. In due course he became the sole
proprietor and editor of the paper, and was, therefore,
an influential figure at the Kingston gathering. To
David Wylie fell the honour of moving a resolution in
favor of organizing an Association, and the motion
was carried unanimously. A committee to draft a
constitution was named, consisting of Messrs Gillespy,
Barker, Wylie, and Oliver, and the members adjourned
to meet later in Toronto and elect officers.
The new Association commanded the support of a
considerable number of journalists in Upper Canada.*
* In the Canadian Newspaper Directory for 1858, published in Toronto by
W. Meikle, the names of all the journals issued in Canada at that date are
given. There were 20 dailies, 18 tri-weeklies, 15 semi-weeklies, and 156
weeklies. In classifying them politically, Mr. Meikle unconsciously reveals
the state of public opinion, for he divides them into Protestants and Roman
Catholics. Of 43 Conservative papers, three, he says, "may more
appropriately be termed Tory." There were 47 Reform journals, all stoutly
Protestant, while of the 57 Liberal or independent a large proportion (sad to
relate) supported " a sort of demi-Roman Catholic principle." Two journals
successfully dodged Mr. Meikle's creed test and he mournfully puts them
down as neutral in politics and religion. FOUNDING OF THE ASSOCIATION       9
Its early years were years of struggle and difficulty
from causes already mentioned. The first meetings
were not well attended. In Toronto some of the chief
men held aloof. In Lower Canada it took no hold even
among the writers for the English press. This, perhaps, was natural, because in those days long distances
could not be overcome in a few hours by a rapid and
comfortable railway journey. If the political connection between Montreal and Toronto was closer, by
reason of Parliament meeting in Quebec, than it is
now, the intercourse of the members of the newspaper
fraternity was not constant. But the founders and
first members of the Association were a loyal band.
They were attached to the Association and to the
friendships formed there. Some of them rose to great
prominence in the life of the country. Forty years
afterwards one of them, Sir Mackenzie Bowell, who had
advanced to the post of Prime Minister of Canada,
said in addressing the Ottawa meeting of the Association:
"When I look back at the number of years that
have passed since I assisted Mr. Gillespy, then editor
of the Hamilton Spectator, in forming this Association, I am beginning to think I am a tolerably old
man. However that may be, I can assure you that
my heart is still with you—just as strongly as it
was before I entered that political world, outside of
that which pertains to newspaper writers. It has
always been a matter of congratulation to me to see
the unanimity which exists among the newspaper
men of the country. And I always remember with
pleasure that I was of some assistance in forming,
'-^g 10
R' ■ ■
in the earlier period of my life, an Association in
which I have formed friendships—with many with
whom I am not in political accord—which have
never ceased to exist to the present day."
That the principal aim of the new body was to promote friendly feelings and social intercourse amongst
its members is undoubted. In the records which have
fortunately survived from the past there is a brief
sketch of the Association from the pen of its first
President. "The design of forming themselves into an
Association," he declares, ' had long engaged the attention of, and been discussed by, the editorial fraternity of Canada. But not so much with the object of
self-protection, as a means of bringing together at stated
times the members of the Fourth Estate, and thus
affording them opportunities of becoming better acquainted with one another. It was thought, and rightly
so too, as experience has proved, that annual re-unions
would tend to smooth down the asperities which are
apt to spring up, and check, if not entirely remove in
a short time, the bitterness of tone the press had unfortunately assumed; and it was finally decided to
attempt an organization of some kind." III.
Early in February, I860, the adjourned meeting was
held in the Mechanics' Institute, Toronto, and officers
were elected as follows:
President:   Wm. Gillespy, Hamilton Spectator.
First Vice-President: Gordon Brown, Toronto Globe.
Second Vice-President: Josiah Blackburn, London
Free Press.
Hon. Sec: D. McDougall, Berlin Telegraph.
Sec.-Treas.:  Thomas Sellar, Montreal Echo.
Executive Committee: George Sheppard, Toronto
James Seymour, St. Catharines Constitutional;
James Somerville, Dundas Banner;
Thomas Mcintosh, Brantford Expositor;
John Jacques, Milton Journal.
Of these the only survivors, so far as the writer knows,
are Mr. Somerville and Mr. Sheppard. Mr. Somerville, who represented the riding of North Brant in the
Canadian Parliament for many years, is a good type
of the men who founded the Association and became
a strong influence in promoting the welfare and standing of the press. He had established the Dundas
Banner in 1858, and was a young man of 25 when he 12
joined Gillespy and the others in organizing the Association. He lived to fill every municipal office, being
mayor of Dundas, his native town, and warden of the
County of Wentworth, finally going to the House of
Commons as the crowning stage in a career of usefulness and honour. Mr. Sheppard, during his connection
with the Canadian press, displayed remarkable gifts.
He was born in England, and being in early life apprenticed to a bookseller and printer, cultivated literary
talents of no mean order. The reading of Godwin's
"Political Justice" created a marked impression on
his mind, and led to his forming strong views on political
questions. He became a contributor to Radical papers,
chiefly in the North of England, and addressed meetings on educational and labour topics. Coming to
Canada, after more than one visit to the United States,
he was at first an actuary for the Canada Life Assurance Company in Hamilton. But his tastes naturally
drew him back to journalism. It was he who penned
the famous article in the Colonist, "Whither are we
Drifting?" and caused a sensation of the first magnitude. Having thus broken with the Conservatives,
he joined The Globe and was a prominent figure in the
great Reform Convention at Toronto in 1859. He
afterwards served on the Quebec press and retired to
live in the United States. He now resides near Boston.
Not long ago he visited Toronto, and among the few
surviving friends whom he found to call upon was
Mr. H. P. Dwight of the Great North-Western Telegraph Company, a vigorous veteran of the Fifties like
himself. Mr. Somerville was an active member of the
Association during many years and was its President
\ tytj
in 1871. Mr. Sheppard, however, was not long
enough in Canada to attend the meetings. Nor did
Mr. Gordon Brown connect himself with the work of
the Association, although he was always held in high
esteem by its members, and even after leaving journalism for a post in the Ontario Civil Service, he continued
to take a keen interest in all that pertained to the press.
That his pen, rather than that of his famous brother,
gave to The Globe its character for vigorous writing
and profound grasp of political issues is generally
believed. Mr. Dent in "The Last Forty Years" pays
this tribute to the qualities of Gordon Brown:
"Mr. John Gordon Brown, though he has never
entered Parliamentary life, is almost as widely known
in the Dominion as his elder brother. His very exceptional journalistic ability has been displayed upon
The Globe for more than thirty years, and has materially contributed to maintain that journal in the high
rank which it achieved at an early period of its career."
Another of the first office-bearers was Mr. Sellar, who
so loyally assisted Mr. Gillespy in tiding the Association over the initial period of apathy. Mr. Sellar came
to Canada in 1852 from Scotland, where he was born
at Elgin in 1828. Entering the counting room of The
Globe, he was for a long time, it is recorded, the only
clerk needed in the office. Mr. George Brown advised
him to try a country paper. Thus in 1857 he acquired
the Brampton Times, which he sold to Mr. Tye shortly
after, returning to Toronto as publisher of the Echo,
a Church of England organ. Subsequently removing
the paper to Montreal, he continued to publish it until
his death in 1867.    Mr. Sellar was elected President of
- ~ 14
the Association at its Montreal meeting in 1866, and
journeyed to distant Goderich in August, 1867, when
the dawn of the new Dominion was referred to in patriotic terms in the presidential address His lamented
death occurred shortly after. His successor in oflice,
Mr. J. A Campbell, at the Collingwood meeting in the
following year, made a feeling reference to the services
rendered by Mr. Sellar:
"The extra and untiring exertion used to establish
the Association by our late President is well known
to many of you, and while we mourn his loss and the
absence of his lively encouragement to press forward
in our good undertaking, we cannot but rejoice at
the result of his energy and zeal, when we see the
present large and respectable union of editors holding different political views and met for a common
The Association, having elected officers and adopted
a constitution, was now fairly launched. The constitution, like the short and simple annals of the poor,
might raise a disdainful smile amongst pretentious
persons. But it was practical and adequate for all
purposes and forms the basis of the present constitution.
There is a faded little book among the surviving records
which must have been the Association's first ledger.
The initial entry bears date February 8th, 1860, and
the treasurer closed his year triumphantly with a surplus of $21.79. The annual subscription was one
dollar, and the money raised paid the expenses of
the meetings. The society was not rich, but many
of the charges were doubtless defrayed out of the
members' own pockets, and the cost of the handsome THE FIRST LIST OF OFFICERS
silver service presented to Mr. Gillespy on his retirement from the presidency was paid by special subscription.
Mr. Gillespy was President for three years, when he
insisted on vacating the office, which was filled by Mr.
McDougall. Twice the annual meeting was held in
Hamilton, where the founder gave proofs of his hospitable and genial disposition. Writing some of his
recollections for the Kingston Whig years afterwards,
Mr. Gillespy said:
"It is well nigh a quarter of a century since the
efforts to place the newspaper press of this country
upon a higher level were crowned with success—a
movement which few can deny has done much to
elevate its tone, while it united and harmonized, by
social intercourse, many who had long been estranged. I rejoice that I had an active part in the work,
and that I have lived to see the good effected through
the instrumentality of such a happy combination of
the brethren of the press. It makes me sad when I
think of the career in which I found so much enjoyment, and in the company of a noble band of men, so
many of whom have gone to their account. What a
noble galaxy there were! George Brown, Hugh Scobie,
Robert R. Smiley, Thomas McQueen, John Sheridan
Hogan, Daniel Morrison, James Moir Ferres, Marcus
Talbot, Thomas Sellar, Samuel Amsden, W. J. Cox,
H. C. Grant, J. S. Gurnett, John Jacques, Thomas
Messenger, and many more whom I cannot name.
Then, happily, there are still in the land of the living
Dr. Barker, David Wylie, Mackenzie Bowell, Caldwell, Young, Somerville, Siddons,  Jackson, Bucking-
i jm
us 16
ham, Cameron, Blackburn, McDougall, and a host of
others, all of whom were active in the work of bringing the press to its present enviable position."
This was in 1883, and now, another quarter of a
century later, we have fortunately still with us Mr.
Buckingham, Sir Mackenzie Bowell, Mr. Cameron,
Mr. Young, and Mr. Somerville.
The Hamilton meeting of 1860, held in September,
was simultaneous with the visit of the Prince of Wales
(the present King) to that city, and the functions connected with Royalty naturally overshadowed the quiet
celebration of the young Association. A public breakfast was given at the Anglo-American Hotel, and Mr.
C. J. Brydges, the well-known railway manager, was
the guest of the members.
In 1861 the meeting was held in London, when, at
the public dinner, the guests of the Association included
Thomas D'Arcy McGee, Hon. M. H. Foley, the Postmaster-General, and Mayor Bowes, of Toronto. Mr.
Foley's connection with the press had ceased some years
before, but he retained his friendly relations with the
fraternity and lent a sympathetic ear to the representations made to him in his official capacity respecting
the iniquities of the postal law. This law, as we shall
presently see, was always the bete noir of the Association. Mr. Foley came to Canada with his parents
from Ireland. Having taught school for a time, he
began to study law, and for nearly ten years edited
several Reform journals, including the Simcoe Messenger.
Mr. McGee, whose remarkable talents had not as
yet landed him in office, but whose ardent disposition I
Hon. Sir Bowei.Iv, K.C.M.G.
President 1885 and a Charter Member
lilr K
_   _
,—. •*-*■"-*»
feM llplse'ron, Blackfeiy^ilcDo^#, and a host of
•t>ihes«:! all, of whom
Log the press to it&j
This was in S lii.
century later, mm hM
Mr. Yc
■   -
&e work of brittg-
|r quarter of a
1 with us Mr.
llr.  Cameron,
I 'i E IS
was Si
**-  ■-/OH"'
(the pimSt King) to that eitf, mA m fe]
nected with Royalty naturally overshadow
celebration of the young Association. A
fast was given at the Anglo-American Hotel, -Mi --U.
C. J. Rrydges, the well-known., railway manager, was
the guest of the members glSh-*^1'
In 1861 the meeting ^m   ■ ,: ..-■-. ;--(-a, when, at
^    "   pe^fe :;   ■ :^    ' •   •' .'     ..-••■   ■ u included
\$i€^ vv m   ML M   'Mm   • fit     mi-
■,"T r!
from Ireland,
began to stud?
• m&k Reform
* «
:    r-w':, a$_we shall
sr of the Associa-
with his parents
for a time, be
nearly tenlii^ifcfe    tted
\mrim\s-% deluding the  Slr.jv>??'
**1 r
ise remarkable tak
t but whose
& not as
sposition I
Hon. Sir Mackenzie Bowei<i„ K.C.M.G.
President 1865 and a Charter Member * THE FIRST LIST OF OFFICERS
readily adapted itself to the journalistic controversies
of the day, seems to have been impressed favourably
by the purposes and aims of the Press Association.
Years afterwards, when addressing a Montreal audience
in the Confederation year, his memory reverted to the
occasion at London, and he spoke eloquently of the
functions which the press could discharge in the development of the new Dominion. "I may observe,"
he said, "that there is a Press Association—hitherto
flourishing chiefly in Ontario—which it may be hoped
will be extended to the whole Dominion. In this
Association the public are more interested than they
are aware of. It is a first attempt, long required, to
extend the laws of personal courtesy and good faith
to this all-powerful fraternity. If it succeeds it will
be no longer possible for a man to utter behind a printing press what he dare not take the personal responsibility of stating in a private room, or anywhere else.
If it succeeds it abridges the privileges of scoundrelism;
but it elevates the reputation of the whole class. It
will go far in placing the editor on the same professional
plane with the Faculty and the Bar, and, by enforcing on their profession their own laws, will obviate
the intervention of the civil power, always to be regretted, even when rendered unavoidable in relation
to the Press."
Attendance at the annual meetings in the early
Sixties was a far severer test of attachment to the
Association than any that is set the members to-day.
Not only were railways fewer, and the custom of going
to conventions less firmly established, but the editor
was a busier person. The newspaper office, at that
period, demanded the services of that important personage the "all-round man." There was thorough
training of a practical sort for both hand and brain.
Perhaps in no single respect has the past been more
completely revolutionized than in the management
and production of newspapers. "Down to the time of
the founders of the Canadian Press Association," says
Mr. William Buckingham, " no change had been made
in the system of Gutenberg, the inventor of movable
types. The letters, as cast in the foundry, continued
to be picked up by hand singly from their several
boxes in the case and were formed into lines in the
composing stick—so different from the process that
has developed under our own eyes, of setting together
the matrices by highly complex machines and casting
from them solid metallic lines. But although the old
manner of preparing matter for the press was centuries ri
behind present-day methods in the mechanical art
of type-setting, it trained in the humaner sort of literary composition a progressive class of men. The printing office was a school, enabling many a boy without
early advantages to rise to good positions in the newspaper profession and in the service of the State. As he
set type he educated himself, acquired literary tastes,
became in turn local and parliamentary reporter,
writer of descriptive and leading articles, editor and
proprietor of a newspaper of his own. Looking over
the lists of the men who were members of this Association in the early days of its history, one is struck by the
number who made for themselves careers from these
humble beginnings. Some of these men are withius
yet, but they are becoming fewer all the time, for the
newspaper field is no longer the recruiting ground of
former days. Graduation, the chance to rise step by
step, has gone. The blend of printer, news-gatherer,
reporter, editor, has disappeared, and each man begins,
continues, and ends in his own particular niche." This
accurately depicts the older school of journalism.
'At first," says Mr. John Cameron, "a large majority of -the Association were proprietors, editors, and
all-round men. On the whole, the reporting on the
best country papers forty years ago was better than
most of present-day reporting. It was all-round reporting: in the case of a meeting, for example, giving
more of colour and atmosphere than is often noticed
in modern reporting. Then, the papers depended
more, relatively, on subscriptions, and less, relatively,
on advertisements. The advertising end of a newspaper did not then dominate to the injurious extent
ILi 20
'j |1
Jl     V
that it does to-day. To-day, in news, 'sporting' is
the principal feature, the space given up to 'sport'
being proportionately ten-fold greater than even a
quarter of a century ago. This excessive catering to
'sport' cannot be considered an advantage or improvement."
The work then, on the whole, was more attractive
than ours. It produced men of strong personal
quality, because it gave free vent to the individual.
Mr. Gillespy left on record a graphic sketch of the
pioneers and their work. "There was William Lyon
Mackenzie, misguided man that he was," wrote the
genial old Conservative editor, "yet probably the most
industrious who ever wielded a pen. I have seen him
sitting at his Parliamentary desk, in his stocking feet,
the busiest man in the House, with paste pot and
scissors before him, poring over ' exchanges,' or transferring cuttings from them ready to be commented
upon in his paper, the Message, as soon as he found
leisure. There were other newspaper writers who did
work for their journals in Parliament, but none of
them worked like Mr. Mackenzie.
" When George Brown and his father guided the
destinies of The Globe, Dr. Ryerson was writing his
'defence' of Sir Charles Metcalfe for the British Colonist while the Patriot was thundering against the Cabinet Ministers with whom Sir Charles had quarreled.
Party spirit ran high and the Press and Parliament
vied in bitterness and the determination to win in the
battle of party strife. Toronto had not, however, a
monopoly of newspaper warfare very long; a like spirit
had imbued others who soon found themselves in the METHODS AND MEN OF EARLY DAYS 21
midst of the fray. Outside the Provincial Capital
there were journals just as able as they were willing to
go into the fight; and they did so. The Long Point
Advocate was one of the foremost, the editor being Mr.
Foley. Many a flaying he administered to luckless
wights, and many another he received, his principal
antagonist being Mr. Smiley. He abandoned journalism and became a legislator; and as a disappointed man,
at a Ministerial banquet, dubbed the Cabinet he supported as 'Scotch and all Scotch.' This disclosed his
want of fealty to his party, and he afterwards joined
the opposite side. Mr. Foley's true element was in a
newspaper office.
' Robert Spence, who became Postmaster-General by
a sudden turn of the political wheel, was a newspaper
man, and wrote valiantly as a Reformer, but gave up
his journal, the Dundas Warder, on becoming a Cabinet
Minister. John Sheridan Hogan was a sort of free
lance on the press. He won the prize for the best
essay on Canada at the great French Exhibition, was a
contributor to Blackwood, Parliamentary correspondent,
and lastly publisher and editor of the United Empire.
He was unhappy, ill-starred, peevish, and inclined
always to take the gloomiest view of everything. A
long and intimate acquaintance with him gave me
an insight into his real character, and to use one
of his own favourite expressions, T do say,' that in
spite of himself Hogan was a good fellow at heart.
Like Marcus Talbot, he came to an untimely end.
This brings me to speak of the last named; he also was
a journalist. Freeman Talbot, in order to lash the
Government for dismissing him from office, started
the Prototype in London, but soon got tired of it and
sold out to Marcus, who, after winning his way into
Parliament, was lost in the steamship. Hungarian on
returning from his wedding trip to Europe.
"Canadian newspaperdom gradually extended its
area, as the facuities for starting new journals increased.
In a short time nearly every town of the least importance
had its newspaper, and now many of them have more
than one. The press has grown into a mighty power
in this fair Dominion, and will compare favorably
with that of the country alongside of us. Men of
letters, means, and spirit embarked in the enterprise,
and now, after some of the older heads have been laid
low, and others are yet calmly surveying the wonderful
change that has ' come over the spirit of their dreams,'
the work goes deftly on at an accelerated pace.
Young men of ability found it to their advantage to
join a profession that had hitherto been regarded as
the sole field for the exercise of the talents of a few, and
to-day it is the proud boast of our country that most
of its journals are in able and worthy hands." V.
In the views just quoted, which Mr. Gillespy wrote for
the Kingston Whig in 1884, are reflected the sentiments
of*the men who founded the Association. They were
proud of their profession. Not blind to its defects,
they admired the talents of all who contributed to make
the press influential. In them there was the true
spirit of camaraderie. The first President proclaimed
his belief without hesitation. He had able coadjutors.
There was David Wylie of Brockvule, who filled the
editorial chair of the Recorder for many years, and who
rarely missed a meeting of the Association.* One
finds him at Hamilton, at Toronto, at Goderich, at
Kingston, until, attaining a green old age, he was hailed
as the "father of the press." The active membership
in early days included those who were termed "ex-
publishers," so that the younger fry were stimulated by
the presence of the veterans. It is well, therefore, to
recall their services and to leave on record the kind
of men they were. Mr. Wylie, by birth a Scotchman,
was trained to the printing business. He was a reporter
at one time for the Liverpool Mail and came to Canada
* The compiler of this record is indebted for much biographical material to
three valuable works by Dr. Henry J. Morgan of Ottawa, namely, Celebrated
Canadians, 1862; Bibliotheca Canadensis, 1867; Canadian Men and Women
of the Time, 1898.
I 2*
I; ;• s
in 1845. He acted as Parliamentary reporter for the
Montreal Herald, and then bought, in 1849, the Brock-
ville Recorder, in the columns of which he upheld for
many years the policy of the Liberal party. Mr.
Wylie wrote well both in prose and verse and was never
more at home than in a group of newspaper men.
Thomas White was from the first another staunch
member. In after time when he had become a public
man, in the front rank of his party, he was still with affectionate familiarity hailed as " Tom." He and his brother
Richard White—still the honoured chief of the Montreal
Gazette—had established in 1853 the Peterborough
Review, a weekly journal expressing at first the views
of the Baldwin Reformers, but soon afterwards casting
in its lot with the party of Sir John Macdonald. One
brother devoted himself to the business management,
while the other controlled the editorial policy. In
1865 the Hamilton Spectator was purchased by the
White brothers from Mr. Gillespy, and in July, 1870,
they bought the Montreal Gazette. Political life soon
cast its spell over Thomas White. He was an unsuccessful candidate in South Wentworth for the Ontario
Legislature in 1867, but turned his attention later to
Parliament and was elected for Cardwell in 1878. As
a Parliamentarian his gifts were universally recognized,
and, in 1885, he was appointed -Minister of the Interior in
the Macdonald Government, at that time a most arduous post owing to the Riel Rebellion. To his public
duties he gave his best energies, and his unexpected
death in 1888, after a short illness, deprived Canada of
an able and valiant son. He retained a warm regard
for the press years after he had handed over the manag-
b-A-jtonrnw titutULMttnynaa ac ynro Kasgytaeiaa
ing editorship of the Gazette to his son, Robert S. White.
On his appointment to the Privy Council, he was given
a banquet by the Montreal press, irrespective of party.
In 1883 Mr. White delivered in Montreal a valuable
lecture on Canadian newspapers. It contained much
interesting historical data which he had industriously
collected from various sources not then as accessible
to the student as they are now. Mr. White reminded
his hearers of the strides made by the Canadian newspapers in providing promptly the news of the day by
telegraph. "On one occasion," he said, "a budget
night in Parliament, one Montreal morning paper
contained nineteen columns of matter, every line of
which was written in Ottawa after five o'clock of the
previous afternoon, telegraphed to Montreal, re-written
in the telegraph office here, set up in type, the proofs
read and corrected, the paper printed, the early mails
served, and the delivery to subscribers in the city accomplished so that the matter could be read at the early
breakfast table." Thus had the journalist of the older
school responded effectively to the exacting demands
of the modern daily press. Mr. White was President
of the Association at the Brockville meeting in 1865.
Another pioneer of note is Honourable James Young,
of Gait, still happily in the land of the living. Purchasing the Dumfries Reformer in 1853, Mr. Young
gave ten years of efficient writing and vigorous thinking
to the Liberal cause. Entering Parliament in 1867,
he continued to display the intelligent and independent
qualities which made him a man of mark on the press.
He wrote treatises on the Reciprocity Treaty and the
Agricultural Resources of Canada, both of which won
m 26
prizes in public competition, and were the fruits of a
well-stored mind. Severing active connection with
the press in 1863, Mr. Young is not so prominent in
the later proceedings of the Association as some others,
but he gives in his book "Public Men and Public Life
in Canada," a pleasant chronicle of the meeting in 1862.
In the pages of the quaint little ledger of the Association, beginning with the entries of 1860, one sees the
names of others who became famous in journalistic
or Parliamentary history. One of these is Rufus
Stephenson, editor and publisher of the Chatham
Planet, and for a long period member of the House of
Commons for the County of Kent. Mr. Stephenson
passed his youth at St. Catharines, where his family
had settled. Well versed in all branches of the printing art, he began writing for the Chatham Advertiser,
and in 1850 joined the staff of the Planet as associate
editor. In a few years he became proprietor and editor
of the paper, and before Confederation was a prominent advocate of the Conservative policy, exhibiting, as
is recorded in a biographical sketch of that date, "very
considerable talent and power as a political writer."
In the educational and municipal interests of Chatham
he was long a leading figure, being Mayor of the town
for several years. A strong supporter of the Union,
he was returned to Parliament in 1867. He represented Kent during four Parliaments, survived the Conservative Waterloo in 1874, and was one of Sir John Mac-
donald's "Old Guard." He was appointed Collector
of Customs for Chatham, and died in that official
position in 1901.
Yet another familiar name is that of Mr. William SOME PIONEERS OF THE ASSOCIATION 27
Buckingham, now of Stratford, whose newspaper career
is full of interest and variety. Born in England, where
for four years he was on the staff of the Halifax Guardian,
Mr. Buckingham emigrated to this country, and was
connected until 1859 with the Toronto Globe. The
story of how he and his friend William Coldwell, a
reporter on the Toronto Leader staff, began the publication of the Nor9 Wester at Fort Garry in that year
is one of romantic adventure. It has been graphically
related by Mr. E. B. Biggar. The two friends journeyed
to the far distant Red River settlement by way of
Minnesota. They bought a hand press in Toronto
and their printing supplies in St. Paul. Then they
started across the prairie by ox-cart. The oxen were
wild as March hares, and the cart with the type galloped
wildly along the way until it upset and the pioneers
had a lively experience with pi. The journey was
long and laborious. They passed through swamps and
over stumps of trees and up and down hills. "Red
Lake River," wrote Mr. Coldwell to a friend in Toronto,
'the wildest, deepest, crookedest, and swiftest, took
some of us up to our necks and nearly took me out of
this vale of tears altogether." Mr. Coldwell had taken
his silk hat with him, and as the easiest way of carrying
it, had worn it on his head. To see him up to his neck
in Red River with a silk hat bobbing above the surface
must have been a funny sight. After sleeping in tents
and dodging Indians and wolves, the party reached
their destination, and the first number of the fortnightly
Nor'Wester was issued at Fort Garry on December
28th, 1859. Soon after, William Lyon Mackenzie
wrote in his Message:  "I was once the most western 28
1 til
1 rl
I     |||
B             1-
I   lit
editor, bookseller, and printer in British America, but
the Nor9 Wester is a thousand miles beyond me." This
explains why the name of William Buckingham of the
Stratford Beacon does not appear in the Association's
ledger until September 6th, 1865. Having sold his
interests in the West, he returned to Canada, edited
the Simcoe Reformer for a time, and in 1863 acquired
the Beacon. His career since is what might be expected from talent and force of character. He was
official reporter of the London conference on the Confederation Bill in 1866, private secretary to the Honourable Alexander Mackenzie during the latter's Premiership, and was appointed Deputy Minister of the
Interior in 1878. By an act of partizanship, not defensible in any Government, he was deprived of that
office by the Conservatives. In municipal, commercial,
and benevolent work, he has been a foremost citizen of
Stratford. To him, associated with Honourable G. W.
Ross, we owe the biography of the great Liberal Premier.
One is tempted to linger over the names of these
pioneer members. There is John Maclean, the father
of several newspaper editors (W. F. Maclean, M.P.,
being one), who expounded the protectionist doctrine
so ably when others hung back, and whose Illustrated
News, published at Hamilton in the Sixties, is the
first of our pictorial weeklies; John Cameron, who, as
the valiant champion of Liberalism in the Advertiser,
was called to the management of the Toronto Globe
and is now postmaster of London; W. R. Climie, who
joined in 1863 and served for fourteen years as secretary; J. W. Carman, of the old Kingston British
American,   a  stalwart  in  the  Liberal journalism  of SOME PIONEERS OF THE ASSOCIATION 29
Eastern Ontario; Erastus Jackson, of the Newmarket
Era, who was secretary for three years, President in
1870, and is yet in the ranks of hardy veterans; James
Innes, esteemed by all, who sat in Parliament for
South Wellington, and made the Guelph Mercury a
power; J. S. Larke, of the Oshawa Vindicator, now
Canada's representative in Australia; and Alexander
McLean, of the Cornwall Freeholder, acting in a similar
capacity in Japan; James Shannon of the Kingston
News, afterwards postmaster of Kingston; Josiah
Blackburn, an accomplished writer, and a chief ornament of Western Ontario journalism; James Seymour,of
the St. Catharines Constitutional, a writer and publisher
of renown for twenty years, and for nearly another
twenty a useful official in the Inland Revenue service.
All these, and many more, were on the Association's
rolls before Confederation. It is impossible to name
them all. But it is due to history before leaving this
goodly list to relate the story of a certain witty telegram to Sir John Macdonald, which will survive when
all of us have passed to where beyond these voices there
is peace. It has been erroneously attributed to Mr.
Blackburn, but really emanated from Mr. Robert
Smiley, of Hamilton. The Spectator in 1854 was attacking Hon. Robert Spence, who sat for North Went-
worth as a Reformer. When the Coalition was formed,
Spence became a colleague of John A. Macdonald, who
promptly pleaded with Smiley to cease firing at a man
who would next day be his associate, and Mr. Smiley
wired back: "It's a damned sharp curve, but I think
we can take it." And he took it, thereby contributing
vastly to the gaiety of nations.
Toronto was selected as the meeting place for 1862.
There were not many present on the date fixed—September 23rd—but those who put in an appearance
decided to utilize the occasion to make an appeal to
the Government on the postage question. The deputation met the Postmaster-General in the Rossin House.
Mr. Foley received the members of his old profession
with cordiality. He declared himself in favour of
abolishing postage on newspapers and would recommend his colleagues to repeal the law. The revenue
was only the richer for the tax by a few thousand dollars, and to cover the loss he would reduce the cost of
newspapers purchased for the use of the Department
by the amount received from postage. This was the
period of short-lived Ministries. Mr. Foley was unable to carry out his policy But his reply at the time
was received, as we are told, 'with the liveliest satisfaction by all," and the deputation retired in great good
humour. The meeting was not large enough to proceed
with further business, so a special session was agreed
upon to be held in Hamilton, November 28th. Emboldened by the success of the Toronto deputation,
Mr. Gillespy's paper a few days later administered ' I
a gentle castigation to the members of the press who
had thus far been sceptical of the usefulness of the organization. The Spectator, with the vision of free
postage before its eyes, remarked:
"We trust that those members of the press who
have stood aloof from the Association on the ground
that it had accomplished nothing, will now see that
they have done injustice to the Association.    The
value of such an institution is only beginning to be
appreciated, it has had the cold shoulder long enough, and the members of the press generally should
give its efforts encouragement."
Of the adjourned meeting in Hamilton we have the
Hon. James Young's account:*    "The first meeting
of the Press Association which I attended was held
in Hamilton on November 27th of  this year.    The
Association had been formed in Kingston only three
years before,  and  was   not  then  the large and influential body, with an annual banquet, which it is
to-day.    The following are the names of the principal
journalists  present  on   the   occasion:     Mr. William
Gillespy,  Hamilton Spectator;   Mr.  Thomas  Sellar,
of the Montreal  Echo;  Mr.  D. McDougall, of the
Berlin  Telegraph;   Mr. David Wylie, Brockville Recorder;   Mr.   Thomas White,   Jun.,   Peterboro'   Review;  Mr. Mackenzie Bowell, Belleville Intelligencer;
Mr. R.  E.  O'Connor,  Ottawa Union;   Mr. W.  G.
Culloden, Milton New Era; Mr. W. H. Floyd, Cobourg
Star;   Mr. James Young, Gait Reformer;   Mr. John
Jacques,  Hamilton   Times;   Mr. George McMullen,
♦Public Men and Public Life in Canada: Being Recollections of Parliament
and the Press.    Toronto, 1902.
, 32
Newburg North American; Mr. W. T. Cox, Goderich
Huron Signal; Mr. James A. Campbell, Milton
Champion; Mr. R. Boyle, Picton Times; Mr. John
McLean, Sarnia British Canadian; Mr. John Siddons,
London Prototype; Mr. William Mowat, Stratford
Beacon; Mr. G. W. Verral, Strathroy Home Guard;
Mr. James Seymour, St. Catharines Constitutional;
and Mr. W. S. Johnston, Port Hope Guide.
'Among the more active members at this meeting
of the Press Association were Tom White, as he was
then familiarly called, afterwards an honoured member
of the Dominion Government; Senator Bowell, still
hale and hearty, who has been Premier of Canada and
leader of the Conservative party; Mr. D. McDougall,
afterwards registrar of the County of Waterloo, and
warm-hearted old 'Father Wylie,' as the younger
members of the press-gang called him, to his evident
pleasure. Those present were a fine body of men,
devoted to one of the noblest of professions. But it is
also true that in no respect has there been more progress
made in Canada since that period than in the growth,
the ability, the usefulness and success of our newspaper press. It has been said, ' Those whom the gods
love die young.' I know not whether this applies
specially to writers for the press, but of those who
attended this Hamilton meeting, alas, most of them have
already passed over the infinite boundary."
In truth, there is quite a modern air about the Hamilton gathering except that the President positively
declined re-election—an archaic sentiment not known
in our time. Unlike Julius Caesar and Oliver Cromwell  when   offered   the   crown,   Mr.   Gillespy  really If
Asr;f McNEE
President J905
J. T. Clark
President 1907-08, and Chairman
of the Semi-Centennial Celebration
J. S.  Will is ox.
President 1900
Ne^bitrg North Amerw
10mm  Sigmil;    M4|f|
&kmf$m;  Mr. R*'-JN
McLean, Saraia'/■---•
London   Proto^gm   vtj|
Beacon;   Mr, G   W,
T. Cox, Goderich
bpbell,   Milton
fSkif, ¥mn0if<  Mr. John
|| John Siddons,
i *....■ \s-at,   Stratford
1; ome Guard;
- -^0i£onal;
■1 o*
of !^;;^p(^,^ssociation: We^; Eow^Jmm\^ ne was
then laMBlJarlv called, afterwards an -U:-■-•--.,.,>. gggtaber
of the Dominion Government; Senator P •.-..-■.- ■ ail
hale and hearty, who has been Premier of Canada and
leader of the CoBserveeP-e p^tvf Mr. DjfMcDougall,
a^^waMs-registap if the  - '     as   of Waterloo^ jmd
ijfgi '" *■ r%      as   the  younger
'■     rtYt-
esae       |Ng>' • ■ -  s^grr    tel; it is
#lpril                *%;   pogress
u);v./\        .lataftl
Mtf£# -             >'   hi j '  ■ tk
tfe ,<  »?, tea- &&&
&)0&i:                   ^;ij(&ir news-
^£a£&       :           .:■-.-: a...; gods
1 Itttoritoti        *•"#•«' *V         "         v    -  _ _
nw  \*Mfp       11ler this applies
specially Ic   - - I - -
aut of those who
-urendedtka* Ps    ;-
;   fe    --.-almost of them have
already passe- • ■;  - - tls&
mW s-;;u.iidary;9'
In truth, there i|«}iii£$
■'->■ air about the Hamil-
l«  gathering   ten -•;   *
f   tlit-   President   pe :a lively
-"" 'aKd re-election- -an
taaie sentiment k-oi known
e ;*:.;.s" time,    uniiivi: «lu
Ilea- Caesar and Gfltfer Crom-
«rii   when  "oi!^-.P   ils^>wn,   Mie  Gillespy really
11 11
John A. Cooper
President 1904
J. T. Clark
President 1907-08, and Chairman
of the Semi-Centennial Celebration
Arch McNee
President 1905
J.  S.  Willison
President 1900
meant what he said and was succeeded by Mr. Mc-
Dougall of Berlin. The Association took action respecting postage, of which more anon. The members
also waxed eloquent on the rates charged for quack
medicines. A motion was passed that the foreign rate
should be equal to the local rate, a contention that has
a familiar sound. A committee was appointed to urge
upon the weekly press the wisdom of maintaining a
two dollar subscription rate. This committee is a
remote ancestor of the campaign to force the dailies
above the dollar mark. In the evening there was a
supper, at which Mr. Sellar read a paper on the press
full of curious information about newspapers in ancient
times; Mr. White sang the "Bould Sojer Boy"; and
Mr. Bowell, in a war-like mood, eulogized the volunteers, who would prove an efficient army in case of
invasion. To understand the allusion one should
remember that the Civil War in the States was then
raging, and that the Fenian Raid was casting its baleful shadow ahead with Colonel Bowell on active
service along the banks of the St. Lawrence. In
replying to a toast from the chair: "Success to the
Canadian Press Association," the President-elect
began with the words of an old song:
Here's to every canty chiel,
And he that doesna' wish us weel,
The de'il may rock him in a creel.
Mr. McDougall remarked that it had sometimes been
said that the Association had not accomplished much.
But the objects they aimed at were few. The abolition
of postage they were in a fair way to attain.    The other
t i
11 ft'l
! ijjii
1              '  t»IJ
object was to bring the members of the press together
in order to do away with those harsh feelings which
sometimes characterized their discussions, and the
present meeting would have an important bearing on
that. The press of Toronto, he said, had endeavored
to crush the Association, but the present successful
meeting was evidence that it would fail in its endeavors. vn.
By way of speaking with the enemies in the gate,
the next convention was fixed for Toronto in November, 1863.    The members who attended were:
D. McDougall, Berlin Telegraph; W. Gillespy,
Hamilton Spectator; Geo. McMullen, Newburg North
American; G. A. Verral, Strathroy Home Guard; G.
Miles, Belleville Chronicle; H. C. Kennedy, Morris-
burg Courier; R. Thoroughgood, Simcoe Reformer;
D. Wylie, Brockville Recorder; A. McLachlin, St.
Thomas Journal; Jas. Seymour, St. Catharines Constitutional; Mackenzie Bowell, Belleville Intelligencer;
Wm. Wallace, Simcoe British Canadian; A. G. Belch,
St. Mary's Argus; J. H. Wood, Kincardine Review;
Thomas White, Peterborough Review; J. A. Campbell,
Milton Champion; W. T. Cox, Goderich Signal; W.
R. Climie, Bowmanville Statesman; W. H. Floyd, Co-
bourg Star; E. R. Dewhurst, Welland Telegraph; W.
M. Topping, Gait Reformer; H. Cameron, Port Hope
British Canadian; W. Grant, St. Catharines Journal;
Thomas Sellar, Montreal Echo; W. S. Johnston, Port
Hope Guide; J. W. Carman, Kingston British American; S. L. Roberts, Stratford Examiner; John Maclean, Hamilton Illustrated News.
No member of the Toronto press was present, and
the Association, deeming itself a militant body, complained of the references to the private affairs of editors
by two Toronto papers. Adopting the deadly weapon
of the Speaker in Parliament, it was decided to "name'1
the offenders. They were The Globe and The Leader,
and a motion in these terms was passed:
"That in the opinion of this meeting the discussions carried on by journals in Canada, in
reference to the personal matters of the proprietors
of those journals, are injurious to the character
of the press of Canada and are deserving of the
censure of this Association."
This bold stroke effected a double purpose. It
rebuked the worst sinners and laid down a rule of
conduct for the members of the Association themselves. It must not be inferred that Toronto boasted
a monopoly of vituperation. In this respect, as in
some others, it has lagged behind. The President
in his address sorrowfully admitted that "we are all
exceedingly prone to violate those acknowledged rules
which should govern and regulate our numerous discussions." In fact, as a human being with that liability
to error which is characteristic of mere man, Mr.
McDougall candidly avowed that there were times of
stress when yea, yea, and nay, nay, proved inadequate
for the expression of opinions. 'It is of course impossible," he said, "in the heat of controversy, which
is the natural result of sharp political conflict and keen
party warfare, to avoid occasionally stepping beyond
the allotted bounds of propriety." However, the
protest was needed and produced good effects, even if A TRIBUTE TO THE FOUNDER
the two Toronto malefactors continued for some time
longer to have strained relations with their reptile
The event of this meeting was the presentation to
Mr. Gillespy of a handsome silver tea service and an
address which left no doubt of the obligations felt
by the members for his staunch effort in the common
cause.    Mr. Wylie of Brockville, read the address:
Toronto, November 12th, 1863.
To William Gillespy, Esq., Editor and Proprietor of the
Hamilton Spectator:
Dear Sir,—On behalf of the members of the Canadian Press Association, we beg to convey to you the
expression of their high appreciation of your services
as its leading founder and promoter; and to solicit
your acceptance of a tea service as a memento of their
It is well known that to you, more than to any other
individual amongst us, the Association is indebted
for its origin and progress. You were for the first
three years of its existence its chief officer, called to
that position by the voice of all the members speaking
as one. It has appeared to the members of our Association that we could not part on this occasion of the
closing scene of our annual meeting without giving
appropriate expression to what we feel, in a manner
that will, we trust, make efficient record of the same.
That yourself and your esteemed partner in life
may live long and happily, and that we may have the
pleasure of meeting you at many more of our annual
gatherings, is the heartfelt desire of every member of THE CANADIAN PRESS
our Association, on behalf of which we beg to subscribe ourselves,
Sir, your sincere well wishers,
David Wylie,
M. Bowell,
Thomas Sellar,
Thomas White.
To which Mr. Gillespy made the following reply:
Gentlemen,—You may well imagine how little I
am prepared for this agreeable surprise, for I had no
anticipation of such an episode in the proceedings of
our fourth anniversary. I accept with pleasure your
expression of good will towards me; but permit me to
say that you have greatly overvalued my services to the
Association when you consider them worthy such a
token as you now present me with. That I have
always taken a deep interest in the Press Association
is best shown by the fact that I was its founder, as you
state. I know not, however, that I have done more
than was required of me, and the progress of the
Association is due to more than myself.
Your beautiful present, I assure you, is more than I
deserve, for, having no particular claims upon your
Association, it was not necessary that you should have
singled me out to become the recipient of such a gift.
I accept it, however, as an evidence of your friendship
and esteem, and believe me, it shall be preserved as
a memorial of our institution, for a permanent institution of the country I now regard the Canadian Press
In behalf of my partner in life, I beg to thank you
for your very kind wishes, and at the same time to
assure you that she, equally with myself, will appreciate
your noble gift. That we may all long be spared to
renew our annual gatherings, is the heartfelt prayer
of your obliged and humble servant,
Wm. Gillespy. km
i ?i
The Association now entered upon the peripatetic
stage of its existence. There was much to be said in
behalf of such a policy. The editors personally inspected the attractions of their own country. It enabled
them also to become intimate with each other, since
there is a proverb that you never really know a man
until you have been his fellow-traveller. It ushered
in the era of excursions which for a lengthy period were
a source of great enjoyment to the members. During
the ten years succeeding 1863 one finds the Association
at Belleville, Brockville, Montreal, Goderich, Colling-
wood, Cobourg, Brantford, Toronto, Bracebridge, and
London. These were almost entirely summer meetings
and an excursion was usually a feature of each of them.
Mr. John King, K.C., in former days connected with
the Berlin Telegraph, and continued in membership
later under the rule admitting ex-publishers (and now
an honorary member), wrote, in 1876, an agreeable
article upon the objects of the Association.* Mr. King
thus referred to the advantages conferred by the annual
"During the first few years of the Association's
existence, these holiday trips were of brief duration,
* The Canadian Monthly, June, 1876, p. 532. DAWN OF THE EXCURSION PERIOD   41
and much less pretentious than they have since become.
A day and a-half or two days completed the annual
meeting and subsequent trip. The whole affair partook more of the character of a large private pleasure
party than anything else. But as the Association increased in members, strength, and importance—which
it very soon did—the business meeting became more
like a miniature congress, and a prolonged holiday more
of a felt necessity. The annual excursion has now
assumed proportions which make it an event of uncommon public importance. Civic entertainments and
fetes, and boundless private hospitalities, attend the
Association wherever it goes. The popular notion
as to the power and influence of newspapers, as organs
of public opinion, has found expression on these
occasions in a manner at once complimentary and gratifying. Few cities or towns of any importance where
the Association has held its annual gatherings, or
which it has visited for any length of time, have not
sought to pay it some tribute of public respect, or,
in its person, to honour the great and important mission
which the Press as a whole is constantly discharging.
The hospitality of our American neighbours is proverbial, and whenever it has been the good fortune of the
Association to pass through their territory, it has been
the recipient of kindnesses innumerable. Few who
accompanied the party will forget their short sojourn
in New York State a few years ago, the ovations at
Syracuse and elsewhere, and the magnificent banquet
at which the Canadians were entertained at Oswego
by the corporation of that prosperous city."
Mr. John Cameron, like Mr. King, has vivid mem- THE CANADIAN PRESS
ories of the pleasantest kind when the Association,
instead of as at present having a fixed meeting-place,
was perambulatory in its habits. "There were," he
says, 'only five or six annual meetings held before I
joined. I think my first meeting was at Brockville
in 1865. M. Bowell, now Sir Mackenzie, was President that year. In 1867, when the annual meeting was
at Goderich, I emerged from the obscurity of a full
private as a member of the Executive Committee, and
graduated through vice-presidencies to President in
1872 with the annual meeting at Bracebridge—a
delightful trip, which really discovered the beauties
of the Muskoka Lakes. I was also President in 1875,
when we went to Philadelphia Exhibition, returning
via New York. At New York we met Postmaster-
General James, who was very kind. At Madison
Square Gardens one evening the band played 'God
Save the Queen" in our honour. At the splendid New
York post-office, the Postmaster-General made some
of us speechify, the great dignitary adroitly assuring
the massed staff that the principal officers of the Association were good Republicans, and ought to get a
good reception—which we did get. In those years of
the Association, the annual meetings were always held
in midsummer, and were part of an annual excursion
somewhere. The result was that the members acquired a great deal of valuable first-hand information
respecting the geography and resources of the country.
This information was disseminated. It was the custom
to write extended letters to our own papers, giving full
accounts of the trips with much interesting personal
gossip and comment. DAWN OF THE EXCURSION PERIOD    43
" One of the most delightful features of the meetings
was the cultivation of the spirit of comradeship. In
the earlier existence of the Association, political controversy was very strenuous, the lines were sharply
drawn; there were few mugwumps: and there was in
newspaper debate little beating about the bush. In
Upper Canada there were two great personalities in
public life—George Brown and John A. Macdonald.
All good Reformers regarded 'John Ad as the incarnation of political evil; all good Conservatives paid
analogous tribute to George Brown. Under these circumstances, it was what at first looked like a dubious
experiment to form an Association comprising such
antagonistic elements. But it worked out all right;
delightful friendships were formed, and the foundation
laid for those personal cordialities and intimacies among
fellow-journalists which prevail in the Association
'The programmes of the annual meetings used to
include an essay and a poem. Thus in 1867, at
Goderich, John King (now K.C. of Toronto) was
essayist, and David Wylie of the Brockville Recorder
was poet; and a good, fervid Scotch-Canadian poet
he was. I remember that at Cobourg in 1869 I was
guilty of an essay, but I do not think it can be charged
that I ever dropped into poetry. There were many delightful annual meetings and excursions, but I think
that by common consent the most memorable and outstanding was that from Collingwood in 1868, to Fort
William, via Georgian Bay, Lake Huron, and Lake
Superior. William Buckingham, then of the Stratford
Beacon, was President that year.   The Executive took
"' a  ■ ij^t i i     II   1
on board a hand-press and a quota of cases, sticks,
and other printing necessities (type-setting at that
period was all hand-setting); a small paper was published on board daily, very brightly edited by an
editorial committee. In this little daily all sorts of
pleasantries and ship gossip were set forth. The days
were made enjoyable by stopping at various ports,
while the nights were filled with music and recreations
—a printed programme being furnished for each evening's performance. Steamships did not go so tire-
somely fast in those days, and I think it took a glorious
ten days or two weeks before we again touched Colling-
wood. The bright memories of that trip haunt us
still." IX.
But this anticipates a little the story of the Association subsequent to the Toronto meeting of 1863. it
was decided to hold the next gathering at Belleville,
and there the members assembled in November, 1864.
This meeting is unique in that the President, Mr.
David Wylie, delivered the annual address in verse.
Familiar as the members probably were by this time
with Mr. Wylie's facility in verse-making, one can
picture their amazement when the jolly chairman unfolded his manuscript and delivered the following compound of humour and practical sense:
Brethren of the Press, I greet you,
Happy thus once more to meet you,
To renew our kind fraternals,
Free from all our young infernals!
Whose capacious "copy" maw
Never fills the "Devil's" jaw.
Now, while off from impial bawlings,
And all other sanctum callings—
Let us con the year's proceedings,
And the sum of our succeedings.
Adding, too, our annual fruitings,
By our pen and ink recruitings.
- -.    iimm^M 46
Men of might, mission press-men,
Vigorous as college fresh-men;
Reading, aye, with pens and presses—
Despite frowns or vice-caresses,
Like old Britain's hardy seamen,
Guarding all that's dear to freemen;
Trouncing tyrants, lashing traitors,
And all ranks of England haters;
But to brother—those we love,
Gentle as the turtle dove.
Thus o'er heart-fonts scratched or battered,
Oil of love our band has scatter'd—
By the evil we help smother,
Ne'er retorting "you're another;"
But with —"Brother, oh, for shame,
Slur no brother's honest name."
Think you, craftsmen, in our banding,
We've not raised our social standing?
Curbed no devil in our steel-pin,
In our raids on brother Pressman,
When, with angry eyes a-glancing,
We have seen foe-sheets advancing;
Filled with ire, and hate, and passion,
A la mode Beelzebub-fashion.
Filled beside with lies and slander,
Say—has this not roused our dander?
And called up revengeful feeling,
Heart against all good thought steeling—
Till our Press Association,
Beamed out in its sublimation,
And withheld the taunting sneerer, w
Or the back-cut lash server;
Pointing to the good old story
That the greatest act of glory
Is not found in blood-bought battles,
Storing up of lands or chattels,
Ships or houses, power or pelf,
But man ruling well himself.
So the greatest in our ken,
He who ruleth well his pen.
Startled thus from anger conning,
Heart a softer feeling donning,
Down the fire-pen would be dashed,
From the mind the hard word flashed,
To the goal of good-will floated—
There the bitter word be bloated,
And the lesson taught that never
Should we spurn "good Lord deliver.3
Ne'er forget the glorious sentence,
Thus placed at our altar's entrance.
Brethren, print it for a warning,
Wear it for our heart's adorning.
Thus when evil tempting hover,
And good sense would play the rover,
Bring the truant to the traces,
Bind him in these golden braces—
Brother unto brother do—
All that you'd wish done to you.
Craftsmen, here in metre-hummings,
I confess my great short-comings,
That when Simcoe's Lake you paddl'd
. Ill
Down to where are deep-sea soundings,
Where old ocean has its boundings;
Where the fog and mist discloses
Sturdy Britons in Blue Noses,
Where Nova Scotia and New Brunswick,
Gaze out on the wide Atlantic;
Where Prince Edward and Newfoundland,
Look to this our river boundland—
Dreaming we could be a nation,
By a great confederation,
That, united, none could scare us,
Sneer at, curse at, nor yet dare us;
That if backed by British Lion
To molest us none would try-on.
Since then all has been commotion,
Back has rolled the tide from ocean;
Delegates from tidal Sowings
With Confederation glowings,
Have made inroads on our border,
Not with shot or shell disorder,
But with calm and peaceful feelings,
Waiting Canada's revealings;
Urging that a five-fold mingle
Stouter far is than a single;
That one foot on the Pacific,
Should excite no thought terrific,
And the other on th' Atlantic,
Ought to drive no neighbor frantic,
But be rather the inception
Of a jubilee conception
Hovering o'er, in animation,  THE CAN AD J All PRESS
Down to w
Where old oci
Where Ike I
Sturdy B
Where I
sea soundings,
Sneer at,
That if badeedB^
To molesii^ifcp
Since then all im
ifes ■   IP*
-% %*$-t -Pel minsd*
But be rsfii
Of a jubilee
jg m neighbor frai
%m inception
j aeeptioa
ll animation, Geo. Sheppard
A Member of First Kxecutive
Committee, 1858
Hon. Thomas White, P.C
President 1864
Thos. Sellar
President 1866
Wm. Buckingham
President 1868  A PRESIDENTIAL VERSE-MAKER       49
Birth-day of a free-born nation.
Politicians, patriots, placemen,
And all the other "fat-take" racemen,
Though not free from rank pollution,
Mingle in the revolution—
Evil for a time may prop-up—
Good men yet will reach the top-up.
Then the masses will be happy,
O'er their tea, o'er their nappy;
Then will come an age of wonder,
Then will slave chains burst asunder;
Then each man may be a caliph,
Fearing neither beak nor bailiff.
Money plenty, land for asking,
All be masters—none be tasking,
None dishonest, no wine-bibbers,
Printers  have  paid-up  subscribers,
Sun aye shining, no rain drizzle—
If all ends not in a fizzle.
Brethren, herein much I've blended,
Now my yearly task is ended,
Scanning over every letter,
Some may think they could do better,
But, I pray, use charity,
Gift the greatest of the three.
^*What happened at the close of this noteworthy performance we are not told, but it imparts to the Belleville meeting an atmosphere of hilarity well fitted to
maintain the joyous character of these renewals of
Hi  X.
In Victoria Hall, Brockville, on September 5th, 1865,
the members assembled. The prospect of an excursion
had stimulated the attendance, and on the register
the following names appear:
Thomas White, Jr., Hamilton Spectator; J. A.
Campbell, Whitby Gazette; M. Bowell, Belleville Intelligencer; W. Gillespy, Hamilton, ex-President; Alex.
Graham, Peterborough Examiner; W. H. Lawson,
Peterborough; George Verrall, Strathroy Dispatch; E.
Jackson, Newmarket Era; John Siddons, London
Prototype; J. H. Wood, Sarnia British Canadian; A.
McLachlan, Home Journal, St. Thomas; Thos. Willis,
Belleville Independent; D. McDougall, Berlin, ex-
President; G. W. McMullen, Picton North American;
J. H. Gibson, Brantford Expositor; C. H. Hull, Hamilton Times; John Cameron, London Advertiser; Mr.
Tiner, Toronto; W. T. Cox, Huron Signal; W. M.
Nicholson, Barrie Examiner; J. S. Gurnett, Ingersoll
Chronicle; A. J. Belch, St. Mary's Argus; W. R.
Climie and Rev. J. R. Climie, Bowmanville Statesman;
J. B. Abbott, St. Mary's Standard; O. V. VanDusen,
Owen Sound Comet; Thomas Evans, London Free
Press; R. McWhinnie, Woodstock Sentinel; D. Wylie, It ii
1 < ■' if H
n V}!£
Brockville Recorder; J. Somerville, Dundas TVwe Banner; Robert Romaine, Peterborough Review; C. B.
Robinson, Canadian Post, Lindsay; W. P. Kelly, British
Canadian, Simcoe; W. Buckingham, Stratford Beacon;
R. Boyle, Picton Times; G. L. Walker, Perth Courier;
M. MacNamara, Perth Courier; J. Parnell, Kingston
Churchman; J. King, Berlin Telegraph; W. J. Floyd,
Cobourg Star; C. J. Hynes, Prescott Messenger; H. C.
Kennedy, Morrisburg Courier; T. Sellar, Montreal
Echo; T. S. Henry, J. R. Mason, Belleville Chronicle;
Joseph Laing, Kincardine Commonwealth; R. Mathew-
son, Milton; William Kennedy, Napanee Standard;
George Tye, Brampton Times; P. Burns, Prescott
Telegraph; David Mathewson, Quebec Gazette; J.
Larke, Oshawa Vindicator; James Lindsay, St. Thomas
Home Journal; J. Louden, Berlin Telegraph.
President White's address was what might be expected from one of his force of character and sobriety
of judgment. He referred to the closing of the Civil
War in the United States as calling for renewed vigilance
on the part of the newspaper men in the attitude they
took on public questions. There was a danger of
underestimating their power in influencing public
opinion. He noted the improvement in the newspapers,
not only for enterprise but for their gentlemanly forbearance.
But a few years ago," he said, "topics of discussion
between newspapers almost invariably before the third
article degenerated into a mere personal quarrel between the editors, who were dragged by name into the
arena, to the intense amusement of the worst class of
the community and to the fostering of a wretched and ANNUAL MEETINGS IN THE SIXTIES   53
unhealthy tone of public sentiment. To-day, let us
be thankful for it, such discussions, like angel visits,
are few and far between. And I think it is not too
much to arrogate to the Press Association a large share
of the merit of this improved tone. He who forgets
what is due to the respectability of his profession and
to the gentlemen who are engaged in it should be treated
as an outlaw with whom no communion of any kind
should be held."
Dealing with public men, he said that irrespective
of politics altogether the press, if it would consult the
public interests, should fairly and honorably recognize
the claims which the public men of the country have
upon its considerate and fair treatment. The press
should cultivate a spirit of personal confidence between
the people and the leaders of the people of whatever
party. The Association, he continued, had done much
good. It had made it a discreditable act for any newspaper writer to drag from behind the incognito of the
press a brother journalist for the mere sake of gratifying prurient taste for mere personal vituperation.
On the day following the meeting, the Association
left on a trip to Ottawa, going to Arnprior by the
Brockville and Ottawa Railway and from there across
Chats Lake by steamer. Then a delightful ride over
the ' horse': railway brought the company to Ottawa
River, and after another boat trip, the pressmen were
landed at Aylmer. At the latter place, the excursionists were met by Aldermen Cunningham, Mosgrove,
and other gentlemen from Ottawa, with a goodly array
of carriages to carry them over an excellent macadamized road of nine miles in length to Ottawa City.   A
322S Hi
stay of one day was made at the new capital, when the
party left by train for Prescott, and from there made the
trip by steamer through the rapids to Montreal. This
was the first of a long series of delightful trips to various
points of interest in Canada and the United States.
The assembling point in 1866 was Montreal. This
was the first of three meetings held there. Mr. Bowell
of the Belleville Intelligencer was President, and the
attendance was the largest on record. The Western
members went to Kingston by rail and then divided
into two parties, one continuing by train to Montreal,
the other descending the St. Lawrence rapids by the
steamer "Grecian." In those days nearly all the islands in the river were finely wooded and the sportsman found the St. Lawrence both for fishing and duck
shooting a veritable paradise, so that the modern
traveller by the same route can scarcely realize the
varied beauty of the scene forty years ago. The
visitors nearly all stayed at the St. Lawrence Hall,
which was then the chief hotel of Montreal, and although summer travel was at its height—for it was the
month of August—the famous Mr. Hogan made his
guests comfortable. Three Montreal journalists were
elected members—Messrs. John Dougall, Chas. Heavy-
sege, C. H. Kirby. On motion it was decided to drop
the word "Upper," which had occasionally been used
in the title of the Association.* The meeting lasted
two hours, the members leaving for Quebec and
vicinity, a picnic being given at Montmorency Falls.
* The society, as far as the writer can discover, was always styled by the
name it now bears. It is so designated in the original cash book or ledger
dated 1860. This motion adopted at Montreal is the only reference found
to another title having been used.
v Pal XI.
The Confederation year found the Association at
Goderich, and to that distant point over fifty members
travelled. President Sellar of Montreal was in the
chair. The time was the month of August. The
very date was a bold defiance of the party politicians,
because the elections (it was before the day of simultaneous voting) for the first Parliament of Canada
were still in progress. Mr. Sellar spoke patriotically
of the birth of the new Dominion, an event which a few
weeks before had been marked by the booming of cannon from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to Lake Superior.
A new era, he pointed out, should dawn with the new
nation, when broader sympathies and views would
prevail, and men would call themselves Canadians
rather than Nova Scotians and Ontarians. "I hope,"
he said, 'to see in another year representatives from
all parts of the Dominion present at our annual meeting."
This was not the first expression of the wish. There
are resolutions of years previous to 1867 urging members of the press in Quebec and the Maritime Provinces
to join. Mr. Gillespy and others had often spoken of
the desirability of having one Association for British
North America.    Doubtless actual steps had been taken
ml fj
although there is no accessible record of them. At
this meeting Mr. Wylie moved to change the name to
the British North America Press Association, but, we
are told, after a discussion this was withdrawn and Mr.
Gillespy's resolution to invite the editors of the Lower
Provinces to join was carried. The press party were
hospitably entertained by the municipal authorities
of Goderich and an enjoyable excursion to East Saginaw, Saginaw City, and Bay City took place.
Having fixed upon a trip to Fort William, at the head
of Lake Superior, as the great event of 1868, the town
of Collingwood was chosen as the meeting place.
There was a large attendance. In the list of those
present are found the names of J. A. Campbell, Whitby Gazette, who was President for the year; W. Buckingham, James Young, M.P., David Wylie, Wm.
Gillespy, W. R. Climie, E. Jackson, John Cameron,
R. Boyle, James Somerville, P. E. W. Moyer, H.
Hough, C. Blackett Robinson, John King, J. S. Larke,
W. F. Luxton (then editor of the Strathroy Age), A. H.
St. Germain, Alex. McLean, W. Bristow (of Montreal),
J. W. Conger, W. Mcintosh, D. McDougall, R. Ro-
maine, M. Provencher (of La Minerve), W. J. Higgins,
E. R. Dewhurst, Geo. Tye, R. Matheson, Thomas
Messenger. Mr. Campbell's address was full of patriotism and his references to the new Canada and its
great opportunities were enthusiastically applauded.
The members adopted this resolution:
"This Association begs to express its deep
sorrow at the untimely death of the late Thomas
D'Arcy McGee, a talented member of our frater
5> 'II
W. F. Clarke
resident 1873
H. Hough
.President 1874
although there is no
this meeting Mr. Wylie
the British North Am
are told, after a discus^
Gillespy's resolution 3$j
Provinces to jo*fe|||jH
hospitably «»tertaiw^ % | _
of Godrtfrfc s*vi   a; e&bfgte
J record of them.    At
i change the name to
Association, but, we
withdrawn and Mr.
of the Lower
party were
* 1 irt-Sag-
Having |taed upon a trip i
of Lake Saperior, as the gr
of   Coilingwood   was
There was a large
present are found the name
by Gazette, who was
mi OI   IS-rS   sia   a. real
the /aeeaiag  ||i©efj
In the list of those
'A, Campbell, Whit-
lhe#ear;  W. Buck-
.- v-:a   Wylie,  Wm.
j Jdbn jaameron,
iHr» H.
:- ■. fcite^ i     % H.
$m.?:,  fi. jtio-
■ J..' Higgins,
on, Thomas
re^tljiras full of pat-
new Canada and its
Plastically  applauded,
esolution: F.Jackson
President 1870
R. Mathison
Sec'y-Treas. 1871
■    1      r
Rev. W. F. Clarke
President 1873
H. Hough
President 1874 u
Not long before, as we have seen, Mr. McGee had
referred in appreciative terms to the Association and
its power to expound and dignify the mission of the
press. He had attended the London meeting and was
on friendly terms with many of the members. He fell,
by the hand of an assassin, at Ottawa, April 6th, 1868.
Mr. Wylie was the poet at Collingwood, and made
some happy hits as usual:
"God bless the new Dominion, pray we all;
God bless our people, be they great or small;
Bless her broad lakes, her forests and her fields,
Bless all the produce the Dominion yields.
Grant her long peace, and distant be the day
When swords are drawn and scabbards thrown away:
Live and let live, our motto, as we go,
Never intruding—never fearing foe.
And bless our rulers, for they want it much,
Especially the Irish, French, and Dutch;
For Britons  in their lofty pride and ease
Think themselves bless'd—' Britannia rules the waves,*
Therefore no blessing want; but this is fudge,
For no men need it more—if I'm to judge."
Business having been disposed of, and it was not
burdensome, preparations were made for the voyage
up the lakes. The members had already travelled
over the Northern Railway to Collingwood and had been
overwhelmed with civilities and attentions by Hon.
John Beverley Robinson, the President, and Colonel
Cumberland, the Manager of the line. A special
train was theirs and the directors' car contained several 58
distinguished guests, including Hon. John Sandfield
Macdonald, Prime Minister of Ontario. There was a
reception at Barrie, when addresses were delivered by
Judge Gowan (now Sir James Gowan) and Wm. Lount,
M.P.P. (in later times M.P. for Centre Toronto and a
judge of the High Court). At Collingwood the Mayor
and Corporation gave the Association a banquet. Next
day, Saturday, July 11th, 1868, the party embarked
on the " Algoma," and the memorable excursion began.
A printing press and type were taken on board with
the intention of printing a daily newspaper during the
voyage. A file of this great organ of steamboat opinion has been preserved. The chief editor was W. M.
Nicholson and the general manager W. R. Climie.
The first issue of "The Canadian Press" gave the place
of honour to the following stanzas:
u o
Go forth precursor of a better time,
Go like the dove from Noah's Ark of old;
Stay not, rest not, till o'er this rugged clime
Thou leav'st a power more precious far than gold.
Tell of this land of rocky isles and plains—
Keen messengers are now upon its track,
Lo! scan its mines, its varied fruits and grains,
And take the winnow'd jewels with them back.
The paper promptly claimed to have 'the largest
circulation of any journal published on a steamboat
in America," and advertisers were requested to note
the fact. In consequence there was a rush of advertising.    Telegrams for publication were received by EXCURSION TO NORTHERN LAKES     59
"Lake Superior Submarine Line,! and included such
interesting news as the following:—
Toronto, July 15, 1868.
The Globe9s correspondent makes the startling announcement that he saw a man who heard another
man say there was great indignation at Ottawa because
three Ministers had gone outside the city limits for a
drive.    Great sensation in Toronto.
A painful tragedy of a Toronto citizen (moving in
the highest circles) who cut his throat with a bar of
soap turned out to be grossly exaggerated, as later
accounts showed that he had purchased the soap for
domestic  purposes.
Cable news of vast import was published. The
Paris correspondent said:—
The Emperor Napoleon has decided to invite the
Canadian Press Association to Paris. They will be
entertained at dinner at St. Cloud, if they do not arrive
on Wednesday, which is washing day.
The chronicles of each day's proceedings reflect
much jollity and enjoyment, until, a week later, the
"Algoma" steamed into Collingwood again and the
party separated. The Canadian Press, which thus
"suspended publication" after six issues, declared
the trip to be the most pleasurable ever undertaken by
the members. It might be remarked, as one explanation of this, that the lakes were smooth and the weather
^^^i.^^___ M
I ill
The era of summer excursions was now at its height;
the idea of a business convention for discussions of a
trade and a professional character being relegated to a
secondary and minor place in the annual programme.
The President's address, the annual essay, and the annual poem provided the literary part of each entertainment. The quality of these contributions was of
a high order. In years to come the Association was
to lay less stress upon the purely literary side of the
press as an avocation, until in 1907, Mr. Preston,
M.P.P., temperately and sagaciously reminded the
members that there is a moral as well as a commercial
basis to the profession. During the period under
review no such warning was needed. The presidential
addresses were admirable. Neither given over to
platitude and rhapsody, nor full of the vivacious
maxims of the counting room, they proclaimed the high
principles which should govern a healthy and influential journalism. In 1869 the Association met at
Cobourg, and President Buckingham's address once
more struck the key-note of the Association's purpose.
He pointed out that the day was past when men bred
to the other professions could hold journalism in light BLANDISHMENTS OVER THE BORDER   61
esteem. In such men as Joseph HoWe and Thomas
D'Arcy McGee great natural gifts and high literary
culture were displayed. There was at home and
abroad a conviction of the potency of the press as a
moral agent and popular educator. "It is," he continued, "fitting that in no spirit of vainglorious boasting, but with earnestness of mind, as men feeling the
weight of the responsibility cast upon them, we should
at times recall considerations such as these with the
endeavour to make ourselves worthy of our vocation.
Journalistic effort has already attained a high degree
of excellence in Canada, but the readiness of the people
to acknowledge and encourage the enterprise of newspaper conductors should stimulate us to fresh exertions."
The proceedings of 1869 partook of an international
character. After meeting on July 20th, selecting Mr.
Wylie as President for the coming year, and being hospitably entertained by the town council, the party
were taken to Rice Lake, and in the evening gave a
conversazione at Cobourg. Next day the steamer
"Norseman" carried the members across Lake Ontario to Rochester. This was a time when the good
feeling between Canada and the United States was
disturbed. The termination of the Reciprocity Treaty
by Congress, the threatened recurrence of the Fenian
Raids, the bad relations between Great Britain and the
Republic over the Alabama depredations, combined to
create high tension. No trace of this was observable
in the splendid reception given the Canadians at
Rochester. An entertaining narrative of the trip has
survived.    When the visitors reached the Central depot,
; I1
J I -A M$ I
the Zouaves' band struck up "God Save the Queen,"
and "Yankee Doodle' followed in due course. Carriages took the party to see all the principal sights
during the afternoon and evening. They were everywhere greeted with cordiality and their pathway bestrewn with flowers. Speeches of welcome and fraternal greetings were made by Mayor Smith for the corporation and citizens of Rochester; by Mr. James of
the Democrat, for the Rochester press; and by Mr.
Buckingham and Mr. Wylie for the Canadians. Complaint is made in the Canadian newspapers of that time
that the late hours with His Worship of Rochester and
his friends gave the visitors too little time for sleep, in
view of the engagements made for them at Syracuse
and Oswego. They managed, however, to reach the
former city in time next day for a hospitable entertainment at the hands of their brethren of the Syracuse
press, who had provided a luncheon graced by the
Mayor and Mayoress and other prominent people.
A special train from Oswego was too soon in waiting
at Syracuse to take the Canadians to that city, in charge
of a large deputation. In Oswego, carriages were ready
to convey them to various places and to bring them
back at five o'clock to the rink, where there was a big
dinner, followed by a grand ball. The London Advertiser thus spoke of the event:
"A grand banquet was laid in the rink, which was
decorated in magnificent style with evergreens and
flowers, devices in gas jets, streamers, English and
American flags, mottoes, etc. The spread was superb.
Nothing that the tropics or temperate zones could produce to grace the tables seemed lacking.    The speeches BLANDISHMENTS OVER THE BORDER 63
were eloquent and fraternal. The ball, to a late hour
in the evening, was dazzlingly brilliant. About a
thousand persons were present."
The Canadians left about midnight by steamer for
ICingston, where an address was read by the Mayor,
and suitably responded to. There was plenty to engage attention in the invitations of this place until the
hour came for embarkation for Belleville by way of
the Bay of Quinte. At Picton, it is said, the inhabitants
turned out en masse. At 11 p.m., when they got to
Belleville, the excursionists found that the local journalists had provided a fine repast at the Dafoe House.
The chair was ably filled by Mr. Diamond, police
magistrate, and the vice-chairs by Mr. Mason, of the
Chronicle, and Mr. Shepherd, of the Intelligencer.
Though the hour was late some excellent speeches
were made. Mr. Shepherd said Mr. Mackenzie Bowell, who took a deep interest in the Association, wished
him to state that imperative business had taken him
to England, thus depriving him of the pleasure he had
anticipated of entertaining his newspaper friends at
his own residence.
The Stratford Beacon of July 20, 1869, draws a
moral from the profuseness of the attentions bestowed
upon the Canadians during their visit to the American
cities. It says that when it was determined to include
Rochester, Syracuse, and Oswego in the excursion programme for the year, it was not for a moment thought
that such demonstrations would await them. They
expected to be allowed to move quickly along, with the
time allotted to their stay at their own disposal. But
the  contrary was  the  case.    At the  Convention  in
rL 64
I    11
■ i||
Ut \
Detroit on the Reciprocity Treaty a coercive policy
was recommended to be tried against Cstnada with a
view to bringing her into the Union. That had failed.
And now a persuasive course was followed. The purpose was avowed at the Oswego dinner of making the
Canadians willing "captives." Their right hand, the
American speakers said in effect, was a maimed member, and Canada was the finger wanting to make it
perfect. "It was hard for guests thus feted and flattered to resist such blandishments. But they had the
courage to say 'No.' They told their American
hosts that there could be a reciprocity of trade as well
as of good feeling without a political union, that the
Canadian love of British institutions was more than
one of mere sentiment—and that if a free interchange
of commodities could not be had except at the cost of
annexation, Canada must content herself by living
without it. They were reminded, too, that we had
enjoyed a high degree of prosperity since the repeal
of the treaty, and that Canada would never humble
herself by going on her knees before the people at
Washington to beg for its renewal. Whatever designs
the Americans may have had upon us in the splendid
reception accorded the representatives of our newspapers, we cannot but think that the meetings which
have taken place will have a beneficial effect in more
ways than one. And not the least of the many advantages resulting from our free intercourse with our
neighbors will be the removal of many misconceptions
which had hitherto obscured their minds and the imparting to them of a right understanding of the true
feelings of Canadians in regard to the kind of inter- BLANDISHMENTS OVER THE BORDER 65
course which they believed ought to exist between the
two countries." Reverting again to the subject, Miss
Maple Leaf is made to say to Brother Jonathan:
You need not come wooing to me,
For my heart, my heart, is over the sea. Iffl K
i •->
K Ml !
Flushed with triumph, and resolving to keep up the
pace or perish in the attempt, each succeeding Executive vied with its predecessor in providing an excursion
programme that would attract a large attendance.
There was a certain amount of peril in this policy,
as we shall presently see, but for the moment all went
well. Brantford was the rendezvous for 1870, and the
date selected, July 19th. There was an address from
the Mayor and Corporation and a drive about the city
and out to Bow Park Farm, the estate of Hon. George
Brown. The poetical President, Mr. Wylie, recited
some verses in lieu of the annual message from the
chair, and Mr. John Maclean, of the People9s Journal,
Hamilton, read an essay which exhibited a clear comprehension of the newspaper situation in Canada.
Mr. Maclean was emphatic in proclaiming the responsibilities of the press in Canadain keeping the peace,
—a warning rendered the more piquant by the strong
indignation then felt at the second invasion of Canada
by the Fenian raiders.
At the banquet in the evening, Hon. George Brown
delivered a distinctly political address. But there is
no  evidence   that  the   Conservative  editors   present ADDRESS FROM HON. GEORGE BROWN 67
either fainted in their chairs or foamed at the mouth.
But the speech is undoubtedly more partizan than a
public man would deliver now before the Association.
But Mr. Brown was a Reformer or nothing. If he had
had to re-cast the Westminster Confession, he would
have added a clause endorsing the Reform party.
Coming from so eminent a man, however, the speech
is noteworthy, and this is the Expositors summary of
it:— j|
'The Hon. George Brown, replying to the toast to
the Dominion of Canada, said: There was no toast
to which he would so gladly reply as that of the Dominion of Canada. As he had not appeared on any public
occasion for three years, he thought it was so much the
more necessary that his words should be few and well
chosen. After twenty years' struggling for the interests
of the people of Western Canada—after battling for
so long that justice might be done for us—that we
might have the constitutional right of self-government
—he claimed that he had a perfectly legitimate right
to reply on this occasion. What was the reason that
our Customs duties were now 25 per cent, less than before Confederation? That we have now $3,000,000
of surplus in our treasury ? John Sandfield Macdonald
takes credit to himself for his great surplus, but it was
the measure of Confederation that accomplished it, a
measure which John Sandfield opposed with all his
might, both tooth and nail. We have a Government
of Ontario to thank for collecting and taking care of
this money, but not for the surplus itself.
'This scheme has obtained all that could be desired
for the people—it is not responsible for the legislation THE CANADIAN PRESS
in the North-West or for the winding route of the
Intercolonial; but the Cabinet of the Dominion are
accountable to the people for this. The framers of
the Act of Confederation have obtained for the people of
Canada the full power of governing themselves, if they
like to exercise it; if the people want bad government
they can have it; if they want good government, it
lies with them, and them alone, to procure it. The
resources and wealth of the Province have materially
increased since the union of the Provinces; there are
now millions of money in the country seeking investment. The honorable gentleman deprecated strongly
this discussion of the question of the independence of
the Dominion, which was beginning to rise. It is
perfect nonsense for any man of sense to talk about the
benefits which would accrue by separation from the
Mother Country. Have we not now a perfect right of
self-government, while England carries out our diplomatic relations for us, and is ready at any moment to
defend us by the whole power of the army and navy ?
—thus relieving us of the necessity of keeping up a
standing army. Britain has spent a large amount
of money upon us, then let us not take umbrage at a
few cross words from Downing Street; whatever may
be the opinions of Granville or Gladstone, there is no
doubt that the great broad mind of the people of England is in favour of keeping up colonial connection. We
have got a better system of government than can be
found on the face of the earth; better than England,
for kings and queens must die, and others may rise
in their stead who may endeavor to overturn the liberties of the people;   better than the republic;   for al- ADDRESS FROM HON. GEORGE BROWN 69
though a President only holds office for four years he
appoints his own Cabinet and rules with the power
of the dictator. In our present circumstances we want
more than an economic administration; we want
statesmanship and a commercial policy to develop the
mighty resources of this great Dominion. It is our
pride that we have no noble class who live on and
above the people. From Gaspe' to Sandwich every
man is expected to earn his bread and his reputation
by the labour of his hands, and the abilities which God
has given him. Mr. Brown closed a very able speech
by referring to the proposed union of British Columbia
with the Dominion, and hoped that it would not be
completed with too much haste or we would likely
have a repetition of the troubles in Nova Scotia and the
North-West." §,. \ §
Mr. Erastus Jackson was elected President at Brant-
ford, and it is interesting to note the names which now
begin to figure at the meetings. Old stagers like
Mr. Gillespy and Mr. McDougall still continue to put
in an appearance and one finds among the new men:
N. King, Barrie; E. J. B. Pense, Kingston; Alex.
McLean, Cornwall; James Shannon, Kingston; G. R.
Pattullo, Woodstock; J. G. Buchanan, Hamilton;
David Creighton, Owen Sound; J. McMullen, Brockville; W. R. Climie, Bowmanville; J. H. Hacking, Listo-
wel; E. C. Campbell, Cayuga; A. H. Dymond, Toronto;
C. J. Beeman, Newburg. From Brantford, the members went to Buffalo, where the editorial fraternity of
the city, headed by Messrs. Chester, Courier, Warren,
Commercial, Larned & Ferris, Express, and Bryan,
Post, were cordial and attentive.   The party went by
I a
m :\
U i
boat to Cleveland, where they were given a dinner, and
then to Windsor, taking the Great Western to London.
At London a local committee gave the visitors an enjoyable time.
Assembling in Toronto July 18th, 1871, the Association heard Mr. Jackson's practical address, which contained a suggestion that has since been so potent a
factor in determining the programmes of the annual
meetings.    He said:
'It is thought by many members of our Association
that more time should be allowed for our annual meetings—thus affording opportunity for full and free discussion of such subjects of a practical character as may
have a direct bearing upon the profession. With this
view I very largely concur, and confidently express the
hope that in making arrangements for future gatherings
this object will be kept in view."
Whether or not the pale spectre of brisk discussions
upon machine composition, foreign advertising rates,
and country correspondents flitted before the eyes of
the members it is impossible to say. All we know
from the record is that excursion plans for the following
year were at once taken up and the party embarked on
the 'Banshee," that ancient steamer familiar to St.
Lawrence River travellers, and began the journey to
Montreal. From Montreal the route was by Ottawa
River to the Capital, where the various points of interest
were inspected.
The serene indifference of the Association for such
trifles as general elections has already been noted.
This was well exemplified in 1872. Parliament was
dissolved on July 8th of that year, and on the 10th, the Is
members were at Bracebridge for their annual convention. While Sir John Macdonald waged a desperate
fight vainly trying to prevent the Province of Ontario
from slipping away from him (" Had I not taken regularly to the stump," he wrote to a friend, "we should
have been completely routed") the members of the
Association were sailing through the Muskoka Lakes
enjoying the ideal scenery of that region. The address
of President Somerville was a model of practical sense.
An extract will illustrate the sturdy independence of
tone that characterized his utterances.
'During the past few years a very marked improvement has been observed in the advertising columns of
our local newspapers—many having altogether shut
out the quack ads. which were inserted at half price,
and were at the same time a disgrace and pestilence to
the community in which they were circulated. Publishers should have but one rule in dealing with advertisers. All should be treated alike, whether local or
foreign. One price alone should be charged—as it is
decidedly unfair to give an outsider advertising, an
advantage over the one who is a steady customer and
resides in the locality where the paper is published.
And further, the system of indiscriminate 'puffing'
which some journalists indulge in is a disgrace to the
profession. Advertisers should be allowed to do their
own 'puffing' and be made to pay for it if they must
have it. The local columns of a newspaper should not
be prostituted for the purpose of declaring week in and
week out that this or that man sells very fine Young
Hyson, very rich old cheese, or very rare old rum.
Some newspaper men appear to live with the sole idea
_^i I if-,
in view that they must never cease puffing those who
advertise in their columns, and in time their puffs
become nauseous in the extreme to their readers—
who very justly refuse to be influenced thereby, and
finally lose all respect for the editor and his newspaper.
This evil exists to a very great extent also with regard
to notices of public entertainments, and other passing
events. Editors should be honest in their criticisms.
They should be candid and truthful in all things.
And no one who appears in public should receive
favourable mention unless he or she is justly entitled
to it. A newspaper conducted on these principles
cannot fail to be appreciated and respected by a discerning public, and will secure an influence thereby
which could be attained in no other way."
Judging by the descriptive letters sent by the editors
to their papers, the Muskoka excursion was a great
success. It "discovered" to many Canadians the
beautiful scenery and health-giving breezes of that famous region. Mr. John Cameron was elected President,
and among the new members " sworn in " were: W. M.
Hale, Orillia; F. Britton, Gananoque; R. Herring,
Petrolea; H. Watt, Meaford; C. D. Barr, Toronto;
N. Burns, Georgetown;  F. J. Gissing, Woodstock.
Htt?" M
nt 1876
W. R. Climie
Sec.-Treas., 1876-1889
James Innes
President 1877
j puffing those who
n time their puffs
to th^ir readers—
meed thereby, and
his newspaper.
mt also with regard
i      ■ aiid other passing.
'"'Mi   fa  S| things.
public  shottM receive
>r she is j^^ entitled
H  these  principles
respected by a dis-
■"  an influence thereby
ier way,
Ippft sent by the editors
p" was a great
es^i^s   the
i,    oi that iam-
fgj President
I orei    W. M.
ft. Herring,
CI  IX B&rr, Toronto;
I- Gissin&r, Woodstock. John Cameron
President 1872 and 1875
C D. Barr
President 1876
W. R. Climie
Sec.-Treas., 1876-1889
James Innes
President 1877  XIV.
There was no excursion in 1873.    It is not easv to
discover the cause, except that the railways were not
as ready as usual to make suitable rates, and there are
signs that the companies were disposed to raise the
question of the newspaper status of those who took
part in the excursions. The Executive decided to
assemble in London on September 24th during the
meeting of the Association's old friend the Provincial
Exhibition. President Cameron's address contained
a pointed allusion to the employment of personalities
by newspapers, showing that the press was being dragged into the virulent party discussions which raged
throughout Canada during this year and the next,
over the Pacific Scandal. Politics were once more very
bitter. The great Conservative party were out of
office. During two decades they had only held power
for 18 years and naturally felt exclusion to be unjust
and tyrannical. Mr. Bengough drew an unfeeling
cartoon in Grip depicting these persecuted men with
mourning bands and long streamers to their hats.
Altogether it was a melancholy time. Probably there
were other influences at work to sap the vitality of the
Association. For several years the members had carried
out a series of excursions that must have imposed a
heavy burden of work upon the committee in charge.
The places of interest most easily available had all been
visited and to discover others was a difficult task. The
country was entering upon the severe commercial depression which held the chief countries of the world
in thrall for some time. A slight, but undeniable reaction had set in, affecting both the work and the membership of the Association. So much so that when
Rev. W. F. Clarke, the President for 1874, called the
members together in the York County Council Chambers, Toronto, in July, there were just twenty-five
persons in attendance. The chairman's theme was
"the present state of our organization." It brings to
mind Pitt moving the British House of Commons into
committee to consider the state of the nation. Mr.
Clarke probed the wound with merciless severity in
order to vitalize and nourish the Association for the
future. He recommended that the address be considered a confidential statement to the members for the
purpose of prescribing a remedy, and not to proclaim
to a sneering world the ills that afflicted the society.
The address was referred to a committee consisting of
Messrs. Somerville, Innes, Climie, Hough, and King,
and it is to their lasting renown that the Association
took a new lease of life and has never since suffered
from even temporary paralysis. After the meeting was
over, a small party left for Collingwood and took a trip
to Duluth and back by the steamer "Cumberland."
To Hamilton, rich with memories of Gillespy and
the hearty hospitalities of the early days, the Association hied in 1875. There, in the City Council Chamber,
President Hough delivered the opening address.    It was AN INTERREGNUM OF DEPRESSION   75
optimistic in tone. 'While many other branches of
industry are suffering from the present financial depression," he said, "I believe the members of the
fourth estate experience little or no perplexity in their
business concerns." The importance of the Association to the press fraternity generally was dwelt upon.
Party politics flourished in the Dominion even more
keenly than in the United States, and this had led to
much rancorous discussion. This was to be deprecated, and the Association existed to bring about an
improved state of feeling. The President's sensible
and kindly address was duly appreciated. So, too,
were the excellent arrangements of the local committee
for the enjoyment and comfort of the visitors. The
party were entertained at the residence of Mr. John
Eastwood, of the Times. They also went to the home
of Mr. George Tuckett, where Mr. Somerville made a
happy speech. They visited Hon. Isaac Buchanan
at "Auchmar," and Mr. James Turner at "Highfield,"
and after making some other calls, left by steamer
for the Niagara River and spent the night at the
Queen's Royal, as the guests of Mr. Winnett. The
Falls, Buffalo, Navy Island, Chippewa, and the various places in that historic region were all visited.
Hon. Edward Goff Penny, of the Montreal Herald,
having joined the party for an hour or two, was appropriately made an honorary member. Among the new
members at this meeting in 1875 was Mr. Gold win
Smith, who subsequently became a vice-president of
the Association and who lent the powerful aid of his
literary fame and sociable qualities to the organization
for many a year.
it! 7
In its treatment of Mr. Goldwin Smith, the Association proved staunch to the principle laid down from
the first: that political controversy was never to interfere with personal friendship or the respect due from
one member to another. The presence of this distinguished man of letters in Canada was a fortunate
circumstance. How he came to fix his residence here
has been thus explained by himself:
"I held the Professorship of Modern History at
Oxford—the chair held before by Arnold, and since
by Freeman and Stubbs—which was the summit of
my limited ambition. I resigned it because family
reasons obliged me to leave Oxford, requiring my
presence at home. On my father's death, having independent means and no profession, I was rather at a
loss for an object in life. I was offered a nomination
to Parliament, and for a sure seat; but I knew I had
neither strength for the work nor any gifts that way.
I had visited America and had formed an interest in
American history and politics which has since led
to my writing a little history of the United States. My
thoughts were turned that way when I fell in with
Andrew D. White, then President of the Cornell Uni- J T\
versity, which was being founded under his own and
other very noble auspices for the special benefit of poor
students. White invited me to take part as a historical
lecturer in the enterprise. Two very happy, and I
hope not unfruitful, years I spent at Cornell, with which
I maintain a more than friendly connection. Then I
took up my abode with members of my family who had
settled before me here, and presently I married and
became permanently resident in Canada."*
There was nothing of condescension or patronage
in his manner of connecting himself with the Association. For more than thirty years, either as active or
honorary member, Mr. Goldwin Smith has identified
himself with every effort made by the organization to
promote the higher interests of the press. He has
spoken many a word of wise counsel at the annual
meetings. Never obtrusive, but always fearless in
impressing upon journalists their responsibilities and
obligations, his has been a good influence. It is unnecessary to recall his participation in such literary
or journalistic work as brought him into close contact
with the Canadian press. In the Canadian Monthly
and the Week, in the publication of The Bystander, and
latterly in the Weekly Sun, Mr. Goldwin Smith has contributed much to the formation of public opinion.
Having set and kept a high standard, his example has
naturally been a powerful factor—how powerful we
are too near his time to determine. But his attainments and rank in the literary world justify the pride
of the Canadian Press Association in claiming him
as a conspicuous illustration of the triumph of its aim
♦Toronto Mail and  Empire, Feb. 2, 1899.
%' i 78
and purpose. He joined in 1875, and attended the
Hamilton meeting in that year. His health was proposed and his speech in reply—so the faithful minute
book records—was "in his happiest vein." He consented to read an essay at the convention of 1876. This
duty he duly performed. In the course of this remarkable essay he expressed the following opinion:
" One other point must be mentioned, as it has special
reference to the Association at the kind bidding of
which this paper has been written. It would be a great
thing if by such Associations as this, or in any other
way, we could give to journalism the character and tone
of a regular profession. It would be a great thing
for journalists themselves. For the public, because
professional opinion is always a strong support of
individual probity, and has saved many a lawyer from
tripping, when left to his own moral strength he would
have fallen. For the journalists themselves, because
membership of a body which affords such guarantees
could not fail to be, like membership of other honorable
professions, an additional title to social respect. The
legal, medical, and military professions are thoroughly
organized; they can make their rules, enforce them
against offenders, and in the last resort purge their
order of anyone who has flagrantly disgraced it. In
the case of journalism it would be very difficult to bring
into existence an organization of this kind, especially
while we are divided by party, which would too surely
prevent the journalists of one party from concurring
in the repression of outrage committed against a journalist of the other party. Still, meetings like the present
may  produce   something   of   a  professional  feeling; MR. GOLDWIN SMITH
enough to make journalists conscious of the fact that
they have a corporate interest in the position, rights,
and privileges of their order; enough to make them,
when these rights and privileges are violated, lay party
feeling in some measure aside and sympathize with the
aggrieved, not with the aggressor; enough, if not to
put down tyrannical ruffianism, at least to subject it
to some measure of control."
It was natural that Mr. Goldwin Smith should be
embroiled, at one period or another, with the party
politicians. He was independent of both sides and he
sought no favours. At different times, therefore, he
was attacked by Reformers and by Conservatives. In
1881, the Association decided to offer him, on the eve
of a visit to England, the compliment of a public banquet. This was, if for no other reason, an appropriate
recognition of his friendship for the Association. He
had, during the previous year, given the press the
splendid example of journalistic vigour and literary
excellence embodied in The Bystander. He had been
an offieer of the Association and was on terms of kindly
intimacy with its members. The proposal was cordially received on all sides. The dinner was given
at the Queen's Hotel, Toronto, on June 3rd, 1881,
and Mr. J. B. Trayes, of Port Hope, the President for
the year, occupied the chair. Some of the leading newspaper writers and literary men of Toronto joined with
the members of the Association in arranging the affair,
which was most successful. Mr. Goldwin Smith's
reply* to the toast to his health was, like his essay in
1876,   a   brilliant   disquisition   upon   the   functions,
♦Published in full in the Canadian Monthly for July, 1881. 1
f< «
status, and duties of the press. He began with a reference to the society which entertained him on that occasion :
'The Press Association, which does me the honour
to entertain me to-night, is a non-political organization. Around this table are gentlemen of all opinions,
with some of whom I have the honour to disagree on
almost all important subjects. Here is the Tory lion
lying down—I was going to say with the Grit lamb—
with the Grit tiger (laughter)—while the lamb of independent journalism (cheers and laughter) remains
unhurt between them. Gentlemen, I hope this evening's
meeting is something much better than a tribute to any
particular individual. I hope it is a manifestation of
the fraternity of the press. I hope its meaning is that
amidst all our political differences, and all the conflicts into which daily, weekly and monthly we are
hurried, we are still members of a brotherhood, we are
still an honourable and powerful profession, which has
its own rules, its own courtesies, privileges, and duties
—a profession which will uphold and protect its members in the fair and conscientious exercise of their
calling, which will honour those who bring it credit, and
withhold honour from those who bring it discredit."
This address was crowded with apt and telling
allusions to the various phases of newspaper life. It
exhibited a perfect comprehension of the dinicultiea
of a journalist's lot, and the practical conditions under
which he does his work. Referring to the difference
between journalism and literature as an art, Mr.
Goldwin Smith delivered this interesting opinion upon MR. GOLDWIN SMITH
the product of a newspaper writer, as compared with
the more pretentious achievement of an author of
'There are people who say that to be a journalist
and to be nothing are things not incompatible. I have
candid friends who say, 'Why do you go into journalism? You ought to write a book; the only way to
make yourself immortal and to become a benefactor
to society is to write a book.' Well, considering the
ponderous contents of our bookstores, and the voluminous catalogues which bookworms, such as I am, receive,
perhaps the title of a benefactor of society might be
claimed, in a modest way, by the man who does not
write a book. I suppose it may be true that, as a
student, I did set out in life to write a book, I suppose
that was my manifest destiny, but, like other manifest
destinies, it was not fulfilled. I was taken away from
my college early in life, became mixed up with public
men, and was at length drawn into the press. So I
became a journalist, and a journalist I have remained;
though I came to Canada not with the slightest intention of going on the press, least of all on the political
press, which for some time, in fact, I steadfastly eschewed. I thought only of making a home for myself
among my relatives; but I was drawn in by the current
of national life which began to flow after Confederation
in the intellectual as well as in the political sphere.
I did not complain of my lot. It is perfectly true
that the works of a journalist are ephemeral; they go
into the nether world of old files and are forgotten.
But does not the same fate befall a good many books ?
Look at the back shelves of any great library.    What THE CANADIAN PRESS
a necropolis of the immortals is there. There, amidst
inviolate dust and cobwebs which are never disturbed,
sleep great masters of the civil law who were once as
gods for their wisdom. There sleep the authors of
many a system of philosophy which now has no disciples. There sleep the authors of many a system of
science which has been superseded a hundred times by
the advance of modern thought. The fact is, that to be
immortal you must not only have an undying genius,
but an undying subject. Shakespeare, Homer, Cervantes, had undecaying subjects, but some doubt
whether even they are now what they were to their contemporaries. We all wish to survive our ashes in a
certain sense, but not to one in millions is it given to
be really immortalized by literature."
In the history of the Association there is no better
evidence of the sincerity and vitality of its earliest
professions than its attitude toward this great English,
man of letters who had, to use his own expression,
"brought to Canadian journalism the fruits of a life
spent, to a great extent, in political and historical
study and among statesmen." CHAPTER XVI.
When the time came for the 1876 meeting the prosperity of the Association once more stood out in bold
relief. It had weathered the storm, and was about to
open a fresh period of activity and success. When
President Cameron opened the annual meeting at noon
on June 30th, 1876, in the York County Council Chambers, Toronto, he gazed upon a numerous and influential
company. Among the old members were Wm. Gillespy, Goldwin Smith, Erastus Jackson, A. Matheson,
John Maclean, W. Watt, Jr., H. Hough, James Shannon, W. R. Climie, C. D. Barr, C. Blackett Robinson,
James Somerville, John King, J. G. Buchanan, J. W.
Walker, and a host of others. The new members
ballotted in included: J. B. Trayes, Port Hope; Wm.
Houston, Toronto; W. Weld, London; J. W. Ben-
gough, Toronto; L. K. Cameron, London; A. J.
Matheson, Perth; George Eyvell, Toronto; W. T.
Sawle, Caledonia; S. P. Panton, Milton, and others
equally well known. Mr. Cameron took for his subject "The Liberty of the Press; its Uses and Abuses,"
and analyzed with skill the functions of the newspapers;
their political leadership, their position as purveyors
of information, their power to educate, the responsi- THE CANADIAN PRESS
bility conferred by impersonal journalism.    He contended stoutly for liberty, and argued that the evils
of   "occasional   licence''   were   more   than   counterbalanced by the benefits of untrammeled debate.   The
address was refreshingly fearless.    Its sentiments are
as apposite to conditions to-day as to those of thirty
years ago.    Mr. Groldwin Smith followed with an essay
in his own brilliant style.    A quotation from this paper
has already been given.    It may suffice to remark here
that none of Mr. Goldwin Smith's numerous allusions
to the journalistic calling equals in skilful analysis the
essay of 1876.    The Association transacted one or two
satisfactory items of business before leaving for Philadelphia to visit the  Centennial Exposition.    Arrangements were made to receive into full membership the
Dominion Editors and Reporters' Association, a body
which had evinced a wish to join the parent organization.    A letter was read from Hon. Alexander Mackenzie, Prime Minister of Canada, inviting the members
to  take their next excursion  over the Intercolonial
Railway.    The "Southern Belle" conveyed the party
to Niagara and they went to Philadelphia by the Lehigh Valley Railroad.    Of the enjoyments of this trip,
which included a visit to New York, Mr. Cameron has
briefly spoken.    While in Philadelphia, staying at the
Merchant's Hotel, the members gave much attention
to the interests of the Association.    Like the spouse
of   John Gilpin, though on pleasure bent, they had a
frugal mind.    A new system of electing members was
drafted to meet the requirements of the railways, which
desired to confer privileges only upon active members
of the press.    The plan adopted is that substantially TRIP TO THE MARITIME PROVINCES 85
in force to-day. The annual fee was made payable
in advance; each new name proposed was to be nominated and vouched for by two members. Only those
engaged as editors, publishers, or printers were eligible
for  membership.
The people of the Maritime Provinces have long
been famous for the sterling quality of their hospitality
and friendship. When the Canadian Press Association accepted Premier Mackenzie's invitation to visit
that portion of the Dominion by travelling over the
Intercolonial the members must have had some idea
of the kindness with which they would be received.
But realization surpassed expectation. Mr. C. D.
Barr, of the Lindsay Post, was President, and the place
at which the members assembled for the 1877 meeting
was Montreal. There on August 1st the annual
address was delivered. Mr. Barr developed the idea
that had at previous meetings found favor with many
members—the utilization of the Association for purposes of business as well as pleasure. He reminded
the gathering that this view bad been held by the founders of the Society, and that much benefit could be derived by a business convention to discuss sound methods in publishing. So highly did his listeners approve
of the President's suggestions, which were not of a
theoretical kind, but abounded in carefully thought
out details, that on the way down to the Atlantic shores
brisk discussions were carried on. Although no record
of the debates is available, it does not appear that the
conferences differed greatly from those which are nowadays taken down by expert stenography and embalmed
in the annual report.   A number of resolutions endors-
! If
ing Mr. Barr's views were adopted. One or two features of the meeting may be noted. The new constitution was adopted. Mr. Wylie, of Brockville,
having retired from active journalism, was transferred
to the honorary list.
The excursionists went first to Prince Edward
Island, where a delegation of the local press acted as
hosts. They next moved on to Nova Scotia. The
President recalls an interesting detail of the trip. " Mr.
C. J. Brydges," he says, "was manager of the Intercolonial Railway at the time, and was courteous and
painstaking in all arrangements for the success of the
excursion and the comfort of the party. Are not all
the doings and sayings, the speeches and hospitalities
duly recorded in the chronicles—daily or weekly—
reposing in bound volumes in each newspaper printing
office awaiting the eager eye and willing hand of the
modern historiographer of the Press Association?
Our reception was most hospitable. About a hundred
miles or so from Halifax, as our train was speeding to the
eastern capital, we were met by a bright and engaging
young man who was then city editor of the Halifax
Chronicle. He came on to give us a true Nova Sco-
tian welcome and to see that everything was just right.
He became immediately popular with the men as well
as with the ladies—he was clever enough to be just
as nice to the old ladies as to the young ones. He was
particularly eloquent about the attractions of Halifax,
the beauties of the "North-West Arm"—that lovely
bay that is one of the chief attractions of the Nova
Scotian capital, and, if my memory does not play me
false at this long distance of time, I think he had some TRIP TO THE MARITIME PROVINCES.  87
views as to the superiority of Halifax over St. John as
an ocean port, but I am not sure about this. This
attractive young man, not many years afterwards,
became Premier of Nova Scotia, and then Finance
Minister of Canada. This is mentioned for the encouragement of other bright young reporters who may
go out to welcome the Press Association excursionists
in the twentieth century."
There was a noble reception in Halifax, quite in
harmony with Mr. Fielding's advance greeting. The
Chamber of Commerce took the visitors in hand for
a sail on the harbour; Hon. Albert Gayton, Minister
of Works and Mines in the Provincial Government,
entertained them to lunch, and the Lieut.-Governor,
Sir Adams Archibald, received them at Government
House. At the luncheon the toasts were coupled with
some names which awaken sleeping memories. A toast
to the Local Government was proposed, we are told,
'in a very humorous speech," by Rev. Mr. Grant,
who in the following October was to accept the Principal-
ship of Queen's University and assume in Ontario a
notable task brilliantly carried out as educationist and
publicist. The "Halifax Press" drew a response from
George Johnson, so well known in after time as Parliamentary reporter and Census Commissioner. Mr.
Fielding likewise spoke, and the toast to "The Ladies"
was fittingly Mr. J. W. Longley, then chief
editorial writer for the Recorder, and in later years the
author of a book on "Love." In New Brunswick, the
Lieut.-Governor, Sir Leonard Tilley, was as courteous
as his Haligonian neighbor, and gave the Association
a luncheon and garden party.    Among those foremost llfill
11 p '
in entertaining the Ontario visitors the eye catches the
names of Mayor Fenety, of Fredericton, the veteran
journalist, C. H. Lugrin, who was to terminate his
newspaper services in distant British Columbia, and
William Elder, the great man of the St. John Telegraph. The Association, in expressing a number of
opinions on various subjects, adopted unanimously the
following resolution, which will not be found in the
official books of a Registrar of Deeds other than his
" This Association desires to acknowledge the
efficient services of the President, Mr. CD. Barr,
during his term of office, and to express their warm
appreciation of his kindly courtesies and gentllmanly
demeanor to the members of the Association during
the present annual excursion, as well as to all others
with whom he has been brought in contact as our
At Guelph, on July 9th, 1878, the Association met
with Mr. Innes in the chair. The President dealt
courageously with the relations that ought to exist
between the press and the politicians.    He said:
'In another important respect the press of Canada
has made remarkable progress. It has, we may say,
nearly altogether got from under the control of the
politician. We mean by this, that a paper now-a-days
very rarely, and to a very small appreciable extent,
depends for its existence or support on any individual
or party. Parties there will always be, and it is right
that they should be upheld by their own papers. But
they are not now the slaves of the party as we have
seen. The question of 'pap' is now never taken into
account. For the newspaper publisher in Canada it
has happily become an obsolete word. Government
advertising has come to be largely a business arrangement—and it is right that it should be so. It is no
longer looked upon as the means of bolstering up a
weakly sheet, and is scarcely thought of by the publisher in his estimated revenue. The days when
papers looked for their main support to men or Governments have gone by, and instead we have a healthy
business tone among newspaper men, who depend on
— 90
I Iff 11
.    si! si'
-i ii If
the character and excellence of their journals—on
enterprise, perseverance, and fair business competition.
Scarcely one can now be found who is mean enough
to go round hat in hand begging for support, or who
will so debase the profession as to play the sycophant
to some political magnate for a few dollars. The man
who makes his paper worthy of public patronage will
in nine cases out of ten not be disappointed in receiving
his due share of public support.
"All this infuses a spirit of independence among our
newspaper men that is fraught with the best results.
Editors are for the most part not afraid now-a-days
to talk straight out even at the risk of offending some
interested politician. When will the day come when
they will do the same even at the risk of impairing
party loyalty? The more independent the press becomes, so much the better will it be for parties and the
body politic. And the day may yet come—we hope
to see it—when all newspapers will be thoroughly
and to the fullest extent independent of parties, and
when the words and actions of public men will be
criticized and judged on their merits alone."
There is nothing in all this inconsistent with the subsequent attitude of the member for South Wellington,
who remained to the end of his days one of the kindliest of men and most enlightened of party politicians.
A programme of subjects dealing with professional
interests had been prepared for this convention. Mr.
Barr's advice had borne fruit. The committee had
arranged a list of topics calculated to make the most
frivolous excursionist quail. Mr. Cameron was to
dwell upon the evils of paid matter in the reading col-
m M
umns. Mr. Barr would discuss an advertising rate
card. Mr. Creighton was expected to advocate more
care in publishing anonymous correspondence. Mr.
Trayes was to expound the wisdom of district associations. But lo! What happened ? At the last moment
the excursionists rallied their cohorts, moved that the
promising debates "be allowed to remain over for next
year," and the party at once left for Detroit, Chicago,
and Milwaukee.
Having been born in Kingston, the Association
happily thought of celebrating its twenty-first birthday in its native place with Mr. James Shannon, of the
News, in the presidential chair. Mr. Shannon referred
to the formation of the society in 1859, and to the fact
that Dr. Barker, the former publisher of the British
Whig, still resided in Kingston. The annual address,
a clever and scholarly effort, concluded with the announcement that arrangements had been made with
the railways for a two cent rate for all bona fide members
engaged in newspaper work. It appears, therefore,
that the railways have successfully maintained this
rate for nearly thirty-two years. The excursion was
through the Thousand Islands.
In 1880 the annual convention was held in Toronto,
and was followed by the third excursion to Lake
Superior. In his address President A. Matheson made
a fitting allusion to the lamentable death of Hon.
George Brown, of The Globe.
' During the past year the press of Canada has sustained a severe, perhaps I ought to say an irreparable,
loss in the sad and untimely death of lion. George
Brown.   Though not a member of this Association, Mr.
Brown was the leading journalist of the Dominion, and
it is therefore proper that fitting allusion should here
be made to the loss which the press has sustained in
his death. Mr. Brown was a statesman, an orator, a
leading agriculturist, and an influential and useful
citizen, but it was as a journalist that he first made
his mark in Canada, and it is the death of the journalist
that more deeply affects us. He was undoubtedly a
man of great ability, of indomitable courage, of untiring industry and great intellectual power, but it may
be safely said that but for the newspaper he conducted,
Mr. Brown would never have attained the prominent
position he occupied. Like all good journalists, he
loved his profession, and he believed in the newspaper
as a public educator and as a power to defend the
rights and privileges of the people. By his death the
press of Canada has lost one of its ablest conductors
and most fearless defenders of its freedom."
By passing a formal resolution, the Association had
decided to mark in a tangible way the unremitting
labours of its secretary, Mr. W. R. Climie, of the Bow-
manville Statesman. In pursuance of these instructions,
the Executive met at the Rossin House, Toronto, November 30th, 1880, and presented Mr. Climie with a
handsome silver tea service and an address which contained flattering reference to his zeal and sagacity:
To you, sir, the Canadian Press Association is
mainly indebted for its present prosperity, embracing
as it does, in its membership, the leading journalists
of the Province of Ontario, who highly value and
freely avail themselves of the advantages and privileges which by your untiring labors it has secured to I1
them. Chiefly to you it owes its present exclusively
professional character, which at one time it did not
possess, and to attain which much weeding out was
necessary, a delicate task which could not have been
entrusted to more judicious hands than yours. It is
also to you that the Association owes the satisfactory
condition of its finances. We are aware, further, of
the thorough manner in which you have conducted the
burdensome correspondence and other business of the
office you have held for so many years."
Mr. Climie replied in the modest strain characteristic
of all secretaries, and disclaimed having done more
than his share of the work, He had been appointed
secretary in 1876, succeeding Mr. Buchanan, and continued to act until his retirement in 1890. This is a
fitting place to mention these potent functionaries. To
the secretary, as is well known, has always fallen the
chief burden of administering the affairs of the society,
attending to the finances, carrying on the correspondence,
and performing the executive duties. As the Association has expanded in membership and activity during
the past fifteen years, it has been found convenient to
confer this onerous post upon a resident of Toronto,
that city being a central point for the transaction of
business and for the periodical meetings of the Executive Committee. Mr. J. E. Atkinson was secretary
in 1892 and 1893. To him succeeded Mr. J. B. Mac-
Lean, whose enterprise in establishing Canadian Printer
and Publisher as the organ of the Association fulfilled
a long-cherished project first mooted by Mr. Josiah
Blackburn in 1861. Mr. John A. Cooper was appointed in 1895 and served for seven years with unflagging
1! H
3'm             'r*j*
Ii j B Hit
ill If
iiIS Ip
zeal and intelligence. Mr. J. T. Clark held office for
two years and received a valuable token of appreciation for his efforts in carrying out the excursion to the
St. Louis Exposition in 1903. In that year Mr. John
R. Bone was made assistant secretary, and in 1905
accepted the office to which he has since so loyally
devoted himself, discharging at the same time the engrossing tasks of a managing editorship.
President Trayes worthily represented the press as
chairman of the banquet to Mr. Goldwin Smith,
and his annual address at the Port Hope convention
in 1881 showed a thorough grasp of all departments of
a newspaper office. Mr. Trayes had served his apprenticeship in the office of the Montreal Pilot and,
after a short experience in Boston, returned to Canada.
In 1864 he founded the Port Hope Times. He was
chief promoter of the agitation that resulted in the
removal of the postage on newspapers, and was one of
the deputation which succeeded in having the amendments made in the Ontario libel law, by which newspapers are so much better protected than formerly.
He also took a leading part in the work accomplished
by the Association in regulating the payment of postage
on newspapers. A well-known Mason, he was for many
years editor and publisher of the Canadian Craftsman.
The Port Hope meeting was followed by an excursion to Peterborough through the lakes of that beautiful district, and then by way of Georgian Bay to Parry
Sound, returning to Penetanguishene. During the
trip a discussion took place upon the vexed question of
postage, which on several occasions since 1859 had been
a cause of anguish to Canadian publishers.
. .'    '      i
It is now in place to give some account of this longstanding controversy. From the hour of its birth the
Association had complaints to make of the postal law.
At the organization meeting at Kingston in 1859, an
agitation was begun to remove the postage charges on
newspapers. The grievance is, therefore, as old as the
Association itself. There have always been some
members of the press who deem the impost a proper
one, and who resented the movements for free postage.
It is, of course, not necessary to argue the question
here. But it is well to look into the history of Canadian newspaper postage in order to show that the
postal authorities themselves have not been uniformly
in favour of the charges. The Imperial Post Office
transferred the Canadian service to the Government of
Canada in April, 1851. Up to that date newspaper
postage was a perquisite of the chief officer, and the
record does not indicate what the rates were.* In
1855 the authorities abolished postage on newspapers
mailed from the office of publication. Two years later
this privilege was extended to newspapers mailed from
* The former Deputy-Postmaster-General for Canada, Lieut.-Colonel
William White, C.M.G., has been good enough to furnish the historical data
given here. HI
a r
Great Britain and France to regular subscribers in
Canada. In 1859, however, when Hon. Sydney Smith
was Postmaster-General, the authorities reverted to
the tax. The charge was one cent a copy on all newspapers sent through the mails, except exchange copies
—a perfectly illogical arrangement, since it imposed a
tax on the public, but exempted the editors. However, it realized the substantial sum of $50,000. This
rate, despite the complaints of the Press Association,
remained in force until Confederation, when the other
Provinces came in. A new system was then introduced. In 1867 each weekly was charged five cents per
three months; each semi-weekly, ten cents; each triweekly, fifteen, cents; each daily, thirty cents. Exchanges
were free as before. This anomalous policy lasted until
1875, when a pound rate of one cent to regular subscribers
was established. Under the old system the amount of
postage was known to each subscriber and he remitted
accordingly to the publisher. Under the law of 1875,
however, the publishers found it impracticable to collect
from the subscriber and thenceforward paid the tax
themselves. In 1886, when Sir Alexander Campbell
was Postmaster-General, newspaper postage was once
more abolished, to be revived by Sir William Mulock
in 1898. H ~ f
The Kingston meeting in 1859 appointed a committee
to prepare petitions to Parliament and have publishers
generally sign them. The Government showed no
disposition to yield until Mr. Foley, the Postmaster-
General, assured the deputation from the Association
in 1862 that he was personally opposed to the tax, and
would urge his colleagues to remove it.    In this effort James S h a
President 1878
J. B. Trayes
President 1880
J   B. PensE
President 1881
—- if IE
Great Britain and France to regular subscribers in
Canada..,; In 1859, ho-■- vpo. A§| Son. Sydney Smith
was  Postmaster-G ferities §-everted
the tax.    The
papers sent th
—a perfectly
tax on the p
ever, |p
rate, de
three months;  each
weekly, fifteen, eentsfj
were free as befor]
| was o^s ce*il a copy on all news-
th<! rj)pmilii. tWi j t exchange copies
IJfBBee it imposed a
|fe editors. How-
tantial sum of &H) OQO. This
ints of the Press Association^
Confederation, when the other,
n. |% new system was then intro-
acii weekly Was charged five cents per
weekly, ten cents; each tre
:y,4Mrty cents. Exchanges
nomalous policy lasted until
I one cent to regular subscriber^
&r the old system the amount of
jjpber and he remittee!
far the law of 1875,
pl^'iiieable to collect,
ibe? "aSFi=esaeaerssaxd paid the ,ta~
tiSih when Sit Alexander Campbelt
was Postmaster-Generiil, newspaper postage was onc#
more abolished, to be revived by Sir William -Miiloel:|
in 1898. 'j§ J|~ $..'.-.'■
The Kingston meeting in 1859 appointed a, commit!
to prepare petitions to Parliament and have publishers
generally sign them. The Government showeci no
sition to yield until Mr. Foley, the Postmaster
al, assured the deputation from the Association
j|that he was personally opposed to the tax, and
iitge his colleagues to remove it.    In this effort James Shannon
President 1878
E. J. B. Pense
President 1881
George Tye
he failed, and President McDougall in his annual address in 1863 was not slow to express his discontent.
'I am free to admit," he said, "that as a supporter of
the late Macdonald-Sicotte Government" (this was
Sandfield Macdonald, a statesman more addicted to
economy and surpluses than his illustrious namesake),
'I did feel not a little chagrined when informed that
they did not intend to deal with this question of the
postage, on the ground that the exhausted state of the
exchequer would not admit of their dispensing with the
source of revenue it afforded. I may here state, without being considered egotistical, that notwithstanding
my strong party leanings—for you will admit that I
am sufficiently Grittish for all practical purposes—I
did speak out my mind very freely on this subject."
The President went on to defend free postage because
the people paid the tax, not the publishers, and the
readers of newspapers had urged the abolition of the
charge. There was also, he added, the fact that the
press, like the public school, was a potent means of
educating and elevating the masses and was of special
value in training men in the duties of citizenship and
knowledge of public affairs. These views met with
approval, and, on motion of Mr. Mackenzie Bowell, it
was resolved to prepare petitions to the "three branches
of the Legislature."
At Goderich in August, 1867, President Sellar dealt
with postage, and hoped that the new Parliament would
carry out for the whole Dominion the policy which had
up to that time prevailed in the Maritime Provinces,
that of free carriage of newspapers. He quoted from
the St. John, N.B. Telegraph a strong argument in
favour of this course. He pointed out the inconsistency
of carrying agricultural and temperance publications
free while taxing the rest. A discussion followed. A
motion to petition for abolition was adopted. The
following year, at Collingwood, President Campbell
"The postage question came up for legislation at
our first Dominion Parliament when the Postmaster-
General (Sir Alexander Campbell) thought proper to
impose a high and unreasonable rate upon newspapers.
This unjust attempt to impose a tax upon knowledge^
was warmly and unitedly assailed by the Canadian;
press without distinction. I felt it my duty to address
a circular to the press generally, asking to have that:
powerful engine use its influence with the members of
the different ridings to assail the impost bill. With
wonderful promptness and unanimity this appeal was
complied with and one obnoxious clause in the Postal
Bill was accordingly struck out. It is but justice here
to refer to the able and united assistance rendered our
efforts in this matter by the editors who have the honour
of seats in Parliament. They were prompt and untiring in their opposition to the bill until it was modified to suit their just demands."
When the Association met at Cobourg in 1869,
President Buckingham said: "The re-imposition of
the petty and vexatious charges on newspapers passing
through the Post Office is a notable exception to the
general legislation of the time, but it is hoped that as
we have been successful during the past year in getting
justice done in the matter of postage rates on newspaper
correspondence, we will succeed before long in effect-
ing the removal of the post office tax on newspapers
themselves." In 1871 President Jackson expressed
regret that despite the representations made by the
Association during the previous two years, postage was
still levied. For several years efforts to change the
law ceased. But when the pound rate was imposed
in 1875, with prepayment by publishers, President
Hough, by general consent, sent a petition to Parliament against the charge. Addressing the Association
at the Hamilton meeting in July of that year, he expressed the hope that the new rate might be judiciously
employed to enforce subscriptions payable in advance.
The Association does not appear to have taken any
action on the question for a number of years until in
1881, at the Port Hope meeting, President Trayes
suggested that measures be adopted to secure a modification of the law. Petitions were prepared and joint
action with the Quebec Association was taken, with the
result that President Pense was able to announce in
August, 1882, that the requirement of prepayment by
publishers had been abolished. Finally free postage
was formally proclaimed in 1886.
How the tax came to be revived forms an interesting
story. When the Laurier Government was formed
in 1896, Mr. Mulock was made Postmaster-General.
Wishing to introduce business-like methods into
the finances of the Post Office and to make, if
possible, revenue meet expenditure, he bethought him
of newspaper postage. There had grown up an abuse
of the mails by advertising mediums calling themselves
newspapers. This had been openly referred to at
meetings of the Association.   The germ of the move- wmm
If Biro
ment may be traced to a resolution adopted in 1893,
protesting against publications serving as a cloak for
guessing and other questionable competitions. In 1895
it was reported that the Government was considering
the revival of the postage rate, and several members
expressed themselves in favour of such a policy. One
or two members, however, advised caution. A report
of this interesting discussion will be found in the proceedings of 1895. Then, in 1896, a committee was
selected to consider the matter and recommend a change
in the regulations so as to rule out illegitimate publications. Next year the division of opinion in the
Association on this subject was still more manifest, and
in 1897 Mr. Mulock appeared at the annual meeting,
and, with frankness and courage, concluded his statement in these words:
"The present condition of affairs cannot be tolerated.
I want to proceed, if possible, with the approbation of
the Association, but if I cannot get the approbation of
the Association, I am going to do my duty." After
thorough discussion, the Association, on motion of Mr.
P. D. Ross, decided to take no action upon Mr. Mulock's
proposals, but favoured a re-arrangement of the tariff
on printers' supplies as a condition indispensable to
the re-imposition of postage. The revival of the charge
came, however, in due course, bearing most heavily
on the dailies with large circulations, and though the
rates were subsequently reduced, the charges remain
to this day.
From this digression into the fruitful field of postage
reform, let us return to 1882, when President Pense
took the chair at the annual convention at Toronto in
August. Mr. Pense dealt effectively with the newspaper
topics of the day, and in this respect, to anyone who
dips into the records of the past, his address is especially valuable for historical purposes. He pointed
to the success of the efforts to have prepayment
of postal charges abolished, and to the amendment of
the libel law in Ontario, whereby fair reports of public
meetings were declared privileged and not ground of
action. The return of Messrs. Innes and Somerville
to the House of Commons was a matter for congratulation, both gentlemen being past-Presidents of the
Association, and noted for their loyalty to its interests.
The recent formation of a new press agency in New
York for the distribution of news led Mr. Pense to
suggest a union of Canadian dailies to utilize the service to the best advantage for the Canadian public.
During the year the number of publications in Canada
had increased from 565 to 593, of which number 376
were issued in Ontario, and the excursion about to be
taken to the new  Canadian West would carry the
■-e.:.--: ^-r^rs=rtr:—~y£T THE CANADIAN PRESS
members to a young country already served by a full
score of well-printed and well-conducted journals
rivalling their Eastern contemporaries in enterprise
and progress. The encouraging words of Prince Leopold were quoted as an incentive to higher efforts, this
talented son of Queen Victoria having lately declared
that "editors are not the representatives of mere
private aims and private ambitions, but constitute a
body of public functionaries not less important than
any of the established departments of the State, being,
as it were, the uncovenanted servants of the whole
progress and civilization of mankind."
At the conclusion of the meeting, a large party left
for Winnipeg and the West by way of Chicago and St.
Paul. "The excursion of 1882," says Mr. David
Creighton, " is remembered by old-timers as one of the
most interesting ever enjoyed by the Association. It
was in the days when the contractors for 'Section B'
were still wrestling with the rock and muskegs which
lie between Lake Superior and the prairie, and the only
way of reaching our Province of Manitoba was through
the States. The Association, therefore, took the route
by way of Chicago, St. Paul, and Minneapolis, from
the latter point making delightful side trips to Lake
Minnetonka and the Falls of Minnehaha, immortalized
by Longfellow. The principal object of the trip was
that the editors of the older Provinces might see for
themselves the new land of promise which was then
attracting attention, and through which rails were being
laid over the prairie at a rate which set a pace in railroad building for the world. To that end, from the
time they touched Canadian territory they were taken THE FAMOUS EXCURSION
in charge by the Canadian Pacific Railway, which did
the honours right royally, attaching a supply car to the
train. Striking Winnipeg in the boom, they were fast
catching the fever, and might have owned the town had
not the proverbial impecuniosity of the profession prevented. Hearty demonstrations in their honour nearly
painted the towns red at Portage and Brandon, but
to those who know Manitoba of the present day it may
be a surprise to learn that from a short distance west
of the latter town hardly a building was visible from
the train, the only sign of life being the occasional white
tent which showed where an enterprising pioneer was
going to make his home on the prairie. At that time
where now stands Regina, the capital city of Saskatchewan, was marked by half a dozen tents and not a single
building at Pile-o'-Bones Creek. The party went on
to the end of the track, and named the station to be
located there Pense, after the President of the year.
Here they all got out and took a hand in railroad building, to the gratification of the navvies, who rested from
their labours while they bossed the job, each member
of the Association driving a spike. It is to the credit
of the newspaper men that they put the spikes in good
and tight, and though over a quarter of a century has
passed there has never been any trouble from loose rails
at that point. Here an Indian and squaw with a little
papoose were found on the prairie, and an impromptu
ceremony was got up to name the baby Climie-Pense,
after the Secretary and President, Major Walsh undertaking to see that he would be registered under that
name in the books of the Indian Department. To
give the ceremony a kind of religious flavour, a collection
ij d
was taken up, to the great delight of the Indian and
squaw, who understood that part of the proceedings.
The Association has long since lost sight of its ward,
but no doubt he is still drawing annuities regularly
from a grateful country.*
"On the return trip at Broadview, although the little
station was the only building there, the Canadian
Pacific Railway had liberally spread a table in the
wilderness, and under a mammoth tent, brought for the
occasion, gave a banquet which still lives in the memories of those who participated in it. Back at Winnipeg a trip was made down the Red River into Lake
Winnipeg, and then the party went eastward beyond
Rat Portage, where an excursion was taken amongst
the beautiful islands of the Lake of the Woods, and
then on to the end of the track on Section B, where they
saw the marvellous trestlework with which the difficulties of the muskegs were overcome. Here the contractors, Macdonald and Shields, showed what energy
can do by spreading another banquet in the wilderness
almost rivalling that of the Canadian Pacific Railway
at Broadview.
A little personal incident which will be well remembered furnished great merriment to the party. A
young man of Waterloo County, who shall be nameless, wired ahead to Winnipeg to the young lady to
whom he was engaged to join the party there and take
the trip out West. She duly reported at the train,
but the young man, going back into the station for
* Mr. S. Stewart, Chief Clerk of the Department of Indian Affairs, has
kindly looked up the record of Mr. Climie Pense; but has been unable to
locate this warrior either in the books of the Department or in any newspaper
office out West.
.     3 %
something at the last minute, got left. Being amongst
strangers, they acted scripturally and took her in, the
gallant young gentlemen of the press leaving her no
lack of comforting, so that she thoroughly enjoyed the
episode, while her disconsolate lover was chasing her
over the prairie and did not join her till the second day
out. After that, all went merry as a marriage bell,
which rung in reality for the pair a short time afterwards. The party returned through the States, as it
had gone, and in the after discussions about our marvellous West, many an Ontario and Quebec editor was
able to take a more intelligent part for having gone on
that trip."
Having gone to one end of the Canadian Pacific
Railway track, it was decided to go to the other, so the
1883 convention was taken to Montreal. This was the
third meeting in the old city. It marked the quarter
century of the Association's existence. President Tye
of Brampton was in the chair, and he mentioned briefly
some of the principal events in the society's history.
He declared that whatever might be said of the organization's influence upon the press of Canada, it had
certainly realized all the expectations of its projectors.
The state of the Quebec libel law also formed the theme
of some remarks in view of the setting aside of a recent
plea by the Montreal Star that what it had published
was true and in the public interest. "No question
more concerns the members of this Association," said
Mr. Tye, "than the extent of the liability to legal proceedings, for no Canadian judge would venture to charge
the jury that 'the greater the truth the greater the
libel.'    Still, the press should in no case be subject to
jammm,.-..-      ■  — 106
fine or imprisonment when facts are faithfully stated
and free from malicious or injurious comment. It can
scarcely be questioned that the public is equally interested in sustaining the liberty of the press in all cases
where the interests of the public are manifestly concerned, and also in punishing unwarrantable attacks."
In conclusion he referred to the serious loss Canadian
journalism had sustained in the death of the late Hon.
Wm. Elder, Provincial Secretary of New Brunswick, and
proprietor of the St. John Telegraph. Although Mr.
Elder was connected exclusively with the journalism
and public life of New Brunswick, he deserves to be
remembered throughout Canada as a strong advocate
of Confederation and national unity. He was a man
of culture and scholarship, having been educated in
Glasgow and Edinburgh. Intending to become a
minister of the Presbyterian Church, he emigrated to
St. John and founded the Colonial Presbyterian. He
finally entered the field of the secular press, and as proprietor and editor of the St. John Telegraph, wielded
a great influence. He was respected by friend and
opponent alike as a man of irreproachable character
and a good citizen. He was one of the New Brunswick
committee which gave the Association so Warm a welcome during its visit to the Maritime Provinces in 1877.
As another twenty-five years have elapsed since the
Montreal meeting, it is interesting to read the names
of those who attended and were at that date foremost
in the work of the press. Amongst the members
present in 1883 were:
E. J. B. Pense, Whig, Kingston; J. B. Trayes, Times,
Port Hope; H. Hough, World, Cobourg; C. D. Barr,
Post, Lindsay; G. W. Maclean, World, Toronto;
H. J. Gardiner, Times, Hamilton; J. Somerville, M.P.,
True Banner, Dundas; A. J. Matheson, Expositor,
Perth; W. T. R. Preston, News, Port Hope; P.
Murray, Expositor, Orillia; J. A. Davidson, Mercury,
Guelph; W. Murray, Expositor, Brantford; H. E.
Smallpiece, correspondent, Montreal Journal of Commerce; M. A. James, Statesman, Bowmanville; P. E.
W. Moyer, Daily News, Berlin; J. Shannon, Daily
News, Kingston; J. Massie, Observer, Cowansville;
J. Johnston, Citizen, Ottawa; Dr. Clark, hon. member, Toronto; W. E. H. Floyd, Sentinel-Star, Newburg;
A. Horton, World, Toronto; D. Wylie, Recorder, Brockville; W. W. 'Cliff, Central Canadian, Carleton Place;
T. Hilliard, Waterloo; J. Motz, Berliner, Berlin;
L. and A. Pacaud, Progres, Windsor; J. G. Jackson,
Era, Newmarket; J. Fullerton, Review, Strathroy;
J. S. Carman, Daily Ontario, Belleville; Rev. E. H.
Dewart, D.D., Christian Guardian, Toronto; J. E.
Davis, Advocate, Mitchell; J. J. Grabbe, Argus, St.
Mary's; J. W. Bengough, Grip, Toronto; W. Weld,
Farmers9 Advocate, London; W. Bech, Peel Banner,
Brampton; W. Butcher, Telegraph-Herald, London;
T. P. Gorman, Ottawa correspondent, Toronto Globe;
J. C. Dent, Monetary Times, Toronto; J. J. Cave,
Advocate, Woodville; J. R. Grant, Post, Brussels; A.
F. Stevenson, Aurora Borealis, Aurora; R. Howard,
Star, Hastings; J. Fullerton, Canadian Poultry Review,
There were one hundred in the party, including the
ladies, and the Ontario contingent being joined by the
members  of the   Quebec  Press  Association, visited THE CANADIAN PRESS
Quebec, the Saguenay, Riviere du Loup (where they were
addressed by Sir John Macdonald), and had a very
pleasant and remarkable excursion. "No one was disappointed," says one member of the party, "and its
attractions and enjoyments have been described by
many a pen. One incident is recalled during the trip
to Lake St. John, north of Quebec, when, on a decidedly
hot day, the party took 'buckboards' and their
lunches and set out to view the scenery. They became
thirsty, and stopping a group of children near a small
village, asked for some water. But the youngsters did
not seem to understand. Finally, it was discovered
that one of the party spoke French fluently. To him
all turned with joy. He stepped forward with dignity,
made a remark which sounded like this: ' Vooley voo
noo dunnay oon vare dough, see voo play?' But a
Parisian accent was clearly not understood in that locality. He tried again. At last one of the boys said:
'Oh, fetch it to him in a dipper.' The thirsty ones
then drank and enjoyed the joke.
Sometimes a little romance occurred on these holiday trips. On this occasion a member of the party
was a pretty and charming young lady from a small
town west of Toronto; also, a handsome and talented
young bachelor editor from a prosperous country
town further west. It was soon quite apparent that
an affaire du coeur was in progress. It came to a happy
ending when the lamented Andrew Pattullo was
engaged to the charming woman who soon after
became his wife.    Both have passed away.
To the same excursion party came a somewhat
reserved  and  nice-looking young  man  from  Perth.
. m
He was rather bashful, but he became very popular
with the ladies. He was a bachelor. In those days
he was better dressed even than he is now, but this
is subject to correction. This quiet young editor-
lawyer blossomed out into the financial critic of the
Opposition in the Ontario Legislature, and in due course
into the Treasurer of the Province, and, though he is
rolling in wealth from succession duties and surpluses,
he is still a bachelor." THE MOVEMENT TO REFORM THE LIBEL LAWS.
When President C. Blackett Robinson took the chair
at the Toronto convention in 1884, there was present
a delegation of Quebec members connected with the
French-Canadian journals. This was the natural sequence of the previous year's excursion to Quebec
and the cordial hospitality shown to the On--
tario visitors by their Quebec friends. The following
members of the Quebec Province Press Association are,
therefore, given in the list of those registered at the
meeting: N. Levasseur, UEvenement, President; Hon.
M. de la Bruere, Le Courrier de St. Hyaeinthe; Thos.
Brossoit, Le Pr ogres de Valley field; L. S. Pinault,
L9Electeur; Jules Tessier, St. John's Franco-Canadien;
M. and Madame F. E. Roy, Le Courrier du Canada;
Joseph Tasse', La Minerve. Mr. Robinson extended
to them a special welcome, and said, "It gives me
great pleasure to greet you on this occasion, because
such meetings afford an agreeable respite from the
ceaseless exacting labours in which we are all engaged."
This was the year of the great excursion to the Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, over the Northern
Pacific Railway from Duluth. The journey to Duluth
was by rail to Sarnia and through the lakes by the
steamer "United Empire."
In 1885 the Association went to New York and
Boston, Mr. Erastus Wiman, later on so famous as a
pioneer in the cause of Commercial Union, making
arrangements for the entertainment of the party with
the whole-souled cordiality for which he was noted.
Mr. Wiman subsequently plunged into the distracting discussions which shook Canada for several years
on the question of our trade policy and secured his full
share of the criticism that flew about so generously.
But he kept up his friendly interest in the press and
philosophically accepted the penalty of his political
incursions. He retained to the end of his somewhat
unsatisfactory and melancholy career the regard of
many Canadian journalists who thought his policy
a mistaken one. Before leaving Toronto on this excursion, President George R. Pattullo delivered the
annual address. In this he recorded the steady increase in membership and the healthy and permanent
vitality that had characterized the Association during
the year. The fixed aim of every journalist, he said,
was to make his calling better than he found it; to elevate it and to obtain for it full recognition as a permanent and regular profession. The law of libel was still
in an imperfect condition and amendments to at least
three important points were necessary. Uniformity of
the law of libel, as regards prosecutions in civil actions,
in all the Provinces of Confederation, was desirable
so as to compel a responsible prosecution. The third
amendment desirable was in reference to the hardship
and injustice imposed upon a journalist in this Province
by compelling him to defend an action for criminal libel
in  another  Province.   In  concluding,   Mr.   Pattullo m
made an allusion to the services rendered by the newspaper correspondents with the volunteers in the North
West, and expressed the hope that the recent uprising
there would, in the end, benefit the country.
The reference to the libel law in the President's
address excited some discussion on the subject and the
outcome of it was the adoption of the following
Moved by Mr. J. B. Trayes, seconded by Mr. George
Tye: j .1
" That   a   sub-committee  be  appointed for the
purpose of asking the Ontario and Dominion Governments to make the necessary changes in the libel
laws so far as they refer to newspapers; that said
committee be  empowered  to  employ counsel and
take  such further action  as may be necessary to
secure desirable changes in the law."
The state of the libel law continued for some time
to be a subject of agitation.    It formed the chief topic
of President Davidson's address in 1886.    The members were in earnest.    Mr. Barr, seconded by Mr.
Hough, carried the following resolution:
"That the question of securing desired amendments to the law of libel be remitted to the Executive
Committee with a request to hold a special meeting
in October, or some convenient date before the
next Session of the Ontario Assembly, to invite
the attendance thereat of publishers of daily newspapers in Ontario, and such others as they may
deem advisable, with the view of fully considering
the matter and deciding upon a definite plan of
amendment;  and that said meeting be requested to
S'< /
/       .a      -■ --
Fohn A. Davidson
President 1885
I I by the news-
rs in the North
recent uprising
W0k law  I:   the President*?
on Ite si#|f€i and, tie
:e^oa   of   tk?   folloivibe
seconded by Me. Georys-
i be  appointed  for tbi
Ii and Dominion Gov
changes in the ill- .
mg' o4er to^-newspapers; that~|j
eMweted   to  e
be hecessan
*- some t
chief loo!
-3tfW»~   The mem
seconded by M
of securing desired  ami?
lo'tS   law of libel be remitted to the Exec -
aimittee with: a request to hold a special me-
October,  or some  convenient date befor^J]
(pSession  of the  Ontario . Assembly,  tojlpp
attendance thereat of publishers of daily Bjfs^
Ontario,  and  such others as they
ble, with the view of fully coi
r ppi   deciding upon a definite
meeting be j| C Bi^ackett Robinson
President 1883
G. R. Pattuixo
President  1884
John A. Davidson
President 1885
Wm. Watt
President 1886  II
interview the Attorney-General of Ontario, with
the object of securing needed legislation in the
premises. The committee was also authorized to
secure such legal advice or assistance as they may
consider necessary."
The result was an improvement in one or two particulars in the Ontario law, because Sir Oliver Mowat
took a somewhat more liberal view of the matter than
lawyer-legislators usually do. But the procedure remains cumbrous and expensive to this day, causing
enormous cost and needless litigation. The excursion
in 1886 was to Chicago by the Lakes.
When the President, Wm. Watt, addressed the
annual convention in 1887, the libel law was once more
the chief theme of discussion. He congratulated the
press of Ontario upon the new law passed by the Legislature. This important measure provided for notice
to the publishers specifying the statements complained
of, and when a retraction was made, actual damages
only could be recovered.. Reports of public meetings
were privileged. So were accurate reports of court
proceedings printed without comment. The publisher could apply for security for costs. Actions must
be tried in the county where the chief office of the newspaper was situated or in the county where the plaintiff
resided when bringing the action. In view of projected reforms in the federal laws relating to actions
for criminal libel, the committee on libel was re-appointed. A vote of thanks was passed to Mr. W. D. Balfour,
M.P.P., of the Amherstburg Echo, for his exertions in
behalf of the Ontario measure. In this vote were included the other editors in the Legislature who had
i 'i
¥1  XXI.
With 1888 the Association entered upon a new stage
of its existence. A journal of proceedings was now
established. The annual report, accessible to all
members, contains the official record of the work done.
The history of the Association since then, therefore,
is, comparatively speaking, familiar to most of those
now in active service. In order to know what has been
accomplished, one has only to consult the reports. It
is no longer necessary to delve into fragmentary minute-
books; to turn over files of old newspapers; to draw
upon the memories of individuals for facts that have
become obscured by the cobwebs of time. The past
twenty years is the era of business conventions, held
during the winter, and primarily based upon the principle of improving the prosperity of the newspaper
industry. The competition begotten of many journals
issued in a hmited field brought on a condition which
may fairly be termed acute. The growth of advertising
agencies in Canada involved the payment of commissions on advertising. The lowering of subscription
rates, in many cases below the profit point, added to
the distress. There ensued a time of national commercial depression, never very disastrous, but unrelieved fj
by intervals of trade buoyancy. Under-bidding for
printing contracts also sent down prices for printing.
The outlook was not encouraging. There were always
notable exceptions, both in the daily and weekly fields,
to the passion for reducing profits, but, in general, the
situation was bad, and the members of the Association,
as practical men, realized that something must be
done. They knew that a newspaper, to be a power
for good, must make money. The price paid for a
free, untrammelled press, capable of vigilant public
service, is financial independence, and financial independence is born of a certain devotion to the sordid side
of things. The sociable element in the Association
was admirable, and, as we shall see, it was not neglected. The maintenance of a lofty tone of diseussion,
and the practice of honourable methods in every branch
of the business, which used to form the staple in the
addresses to the Association in olden days, continued
to be held in the same regard. But not so much was
said about them. The lean years seemed to drag along
interminably, and the fat years were long in coming.
The duty which now devolved upon the Association
was onerous. To keep alive the old social interest;
to appeal to the higher motives which inspire the press;
and to introduce practical -discussions as an impetus
to success in business, meant much labour for the executive. From 1888 onward, we find the problem
attacked with vigour and courage. The questions
then and now of prime importance in the counting
room were taken up and concerted action encouraged.
If the organization had been conducted as a bank or
other  corporation conducts  its   affairs—by  sustained
effort and a continuous system—some of the issues
with which the Association still struggles would have
been settled. As a society of voluntary workers with
an executive changing from year to year, the progress
made was slow, and when a step in advance was recorded, it was not always retained. It is necessary
to summarize. From 1888 to 1900 the annual conventions, with the place of meeting and the chairmen,
were as follows:
Year.    Place. President. Date.
1888. .Toronto .. Rev. Dr. Dewart... July 31 and
m 1 II    Feb. 22, '89.
1889. .Toronto . . Roy V. Somerville .. July 18 and
1890-1 Toronto .. Andrew Pattullo ... Aug. 5 and
Pf:^     Feb. 13, '91
1892. .Ottawa ... H. P. Moore March 3-4.
1893. .Toronto .. A. F. Pirie Feb. 9-10
1894. .Toronto . .T. H. Preston Feb. 9.    -§.'
1895. .Toronto .. L. W. Shannon . .. Jan. 31
1896. .Toronto .. J. S. Brierley Feb. 6-7.
1897. .Toronto .. J. B. MacLean . . .Feb. 4-5
1898. .Toronto . .Robert Holmes . . .March 10-11
1899. .Toronto . . W. S. Dingman . . .Feb. 2-3
1900. .Toronto . . J. S. Willison Feb. 1-2
At first, as will be observed by the dates, there was a
brief summer meeting, a presidential address, and an
excursion. All papers and discussions were reserved
for a business convention held six months later. This
proved too great a strain, and the winter sessions became so popular that, as Aaron's rod swallowed the
[   Hi 118
f | 1
others, so the winter sessions absorbed all executive
efforts, and are now a fixed feature, lasting three days.
The programme of subjects during this period of
twelve years exhibits great variety. Mr. Roy Somerville, who was to show in the larger fields of Great
Britain and the United States a complete grasp of advertising problems, expounded correct methods in
weekly publishing. Mr. Pense contributed valuable
advice upon the proper equipment for a printing office.
The type-casting machine, when first introduced into
Canadian offices, was fully described and its economic
aspect considered by Mr. P. D. Ross. Mr. Brierley,
then in St. Thomas, laid down the sound principles of
publishing dailies in small cities. Mr. Erastus Jackson's paper on pioneer journalism in Upper Canada
is a fine historical treatise. Mr. Wm. Houston showed
how the training of a journalist should be conducted.
Mr. John King, more than once, advised the Association in respect to the libel law, and his services were
recognized by the presentation of an oil painting of
himself from the brush of Mr. Dickson Paterson, R.C.A.
Mr. W. S. Dingman dealt with office methods in a thorough manner. Mr. J. F. Mackay, then of Chatham,
outlined the work of the subscription canvasser. Machine work, estimating on job printing, advertising,
country correspondence, etc., in short, every factor
which is essential to the success of daily and weekly
newspaper offices, was discussed from year to year with
candour, insight, and vigour. The elementary principles
of good management were carefully explained by men
who knew well what they were talking about. The
annual meetings became an actual school of journal- NEW ERA IN ASSOCIATION RECORDS 119
ism for all those who attended. No theoretical course
in a university could have been so thoroughly equipped
or could have imparted to its students so effective a
system of laboratory training. None of the speakers
posed as a superior person gifted with special abilities
to lecture others. All were learners, each gave his
experience, and received fresh knowledge from contact
with his colleagues. Short debates sprang up upon
the topics dealt with, and this has led to the illuminating conferences of recent years, when the Association,
after holding general meetings, divides itself into sections for the consideration of matters affecting specially
one class or another. To employ a favorite expression, the Association found itself during this period,
developed a community of interest among the members
hitherto not thought of, established friendships on a
firmer basis, and made possible co-operation on all
the larger questions that affected the profession. When
commercial prosperity once more returned, and Canada
was swept along the road of national expansion, the
newspapers were among the first to profit, and many
of the publishers and editors who had contributed so
much time and energy to the work of the Association
received back in tangible form the fruits of their efforts.
The presidential addresses of the period under review must not be passed over. Dr. Dewart, of the
Christian Guardian, an outstanding figure in the relig-
ous press of the country, fittingly referred to the catholic
spirit which reigned supreme in the proceedings of
the society, where creed and politics were relegated
to their proper places. It is interesting, also, to note
that he who had never hesitated to avow his political
views, strongly recommended to his younger brethren
the value of independence in the support given. by
newspapers to political parties. Only by an exhaustive
comparison (made by few) does one realize the gain in
this respect during the past twenty years. Mr. Crabbe,
who spoke by the book, pleaded for the revival of the
printer's art, which had suffered so much from the
inroads of machinery and the absence of trained apprentices. Mr. Pattullo, who could with equal facility
deliver a brilliant oration upon public affairs or a practical address upon newspaper conditions, contented
himself with an effort that appealed to plain men. He
warned his hearers against the delusion that the changes
in the methods of producing newspapers were all
made.    "There are many more coining upon us and PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESSES
no one can predict what the future will bring forth."
Mr. Pattullo was a man of exceptional gifts, and his
devotion to the interests of the press never faltered.
He was elected to the Legislature in 1896, for North
Oxford, and soon attained distinction in that body.
His death in England, during a visit undertaken in
response to an invitation to deliver addresses on questions of Imperial interest, was deeply lamented by his
old friends and colleagues in the Association.
Mr. Moore, who was President in 1893, and worthily
represented the weekly press, aptly defined the status
and purpose of the organization. It had by no means
exhausted its possibilities for usefulness. Although
the aim was distinctly educational, "we can," he said,
'influence legitimate legislation in our interest." The
time was soon to come when Mr. Moore's prediction
would be borne out to the letter. Mr. Pirie, who
occupied the chair in 1894, was one of the wittiest of
speakers and most genial of companions. His talents
won him a high reputation as a writer for metropolitan
journals like the Toronto Telegram and the Montreal
Star, and when he purchased the Dundas Banner and
settled down to journalism in a country town he gave
a splendid example of what the editorial page in a
weekly paper may be made. His sallies at the annual
banquets and other social gatherings of newspaper
writers were the delight of all who heard them. It
was he who spoke of the danger an editor incurred of
losing "one, if not both, of his subscribers." Looking
blandly about him at a dinner, he expressed the pleasure it gave him to see so many of his confreres " wearing
the white shirt of a blameless life."    Perhaps his speech THE CANADIAN PRESS
at the banquet in 1895 best illustrates his sparkling
humor. He was replying to a toast to "the Press and
the Patriots," and defined a patriot as a country editor
who prints a paper for $1 a year in cash, or $1.50 in
I desire to admit frankly that the members of the
country press are not beautiful. But if we are not
beautiful, we are good, or, as I told Mr. Willison, of
The Globe, this afternoon, if we were not good, God
would burn down our offices too. (This allusion to the
Globe fire was received with uproarious laughter.)
What is the country press? It is an instrument for
keeping people from forming their own opinions. The
members of the country press are not suppliants.
They are necessary to statesmen. When we get tired
of making other people Premiers of this country, we
make our own men Premiers. (Sir Mackenzie Bowell
was then Prime Minister.) The earth is wobbling on
its axis and all this at one dollar a year. Let me do
the job printing of this country, and I don't care who
makes the laws. Why, only yesterday afternoon, as
one of my subscribers was piling up his subscription
in my back yard, he said: ' Mr. Pirie, public opinion
is at your back.'" The death of this bright and engaging man, in the prime of life, was a great loss to
journalism and to the country.
Mr. T. H. Preston's address might have been
termed a speech from the throne, so accurately did it
reflect the proposals of the time and the outlook before
the press of the country. He spoke of the changes involved in the adoption of machine composition; the
less rigid adherence of newspapers to party everywhere PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESSES
apparent; the object lesson in fraternal relations presented by The Globe staff, after the fire, being hospitably received by Mr. Creighton in the office of their
chief political opponent; the appointment of Sir Mackenzie Bowell to the Premiership of Canada, vacant
by the lamented death of Sir John Thompson, who had
begun as a Parliamentary reporter. Mr. Preston,
who was afterwards as a Liberal member of the Legislature to maintain, by his urbanity and dignity in debate,
the best traditions of Parliamentary life, made this
reference to the new Conservative Premier:
'Sir Mackenzie Bowell, through all his gradations
in the public service, has kept in touch with the fourth
estate, and I feel satisfied that we, on our part, regardless of political predilections, will congratulate him
most heartily, not only on the high office to which long
service to the people of Canada entitles him, but on the
very deserved honour of knighthood that has been conferred upon him by Her Majesty, the Queen."
Mr. Shannon, who was President in 1896, called
attention to the subject of copyright in books, a movement to which, although it conferred no direct advantage upon them, the newspapers, with characteristic
generosity, had given a cordial support. Reference
was also made to the standing agreement with Mr.
John King, K.C., by which editors threatened with
law suits could get the benefit of his advice as an authority on the libel law. This arrangement subsequently
lapsed, although recent events have proved it to have
been a wise provision against unnecessary litigation
and threatened blackmail. Mr. J. S. Brierley, the following year, was able to assure the Association that
the newspaper situation was placid, and his address
is remarkable for its correct analysis of two matters
which still await satisfactory settlement: the inequalities of the present postal law, then on the eve of enactment, and the formation of a Dominion Press Association to bring the newspaper interests of all the Provinces
into closer touch. When Mr. J. B. MacLean presided
at the Ottawa convention of 1898, he outlined the basis
for a new cable service which has since developed into
the Canadian Associated Cables. Mr. MacLean also
drew attention to an evil much felt at the time, but
remedied in later years: the accrediting of unsuitable
persons to act in England, at special functions like the
Queen's Jubilee, as correspondents of Canadian papers.
Few complaints of this kind were heard in connection
with the King's Coronation. Another of Mr. Mac-
Lean's suggestions which awaits fulfilment—the appointment of an adequately paid permanent secretary—is as
practical a proposal to-day as it was then. When
Mr. W. S. Dingman took the chair at the forty-first
annual meeting in 1899, he had the satisfaction of
announcing that the paid up membership list had
reached 204, the highest on record, and if anything
were needed to stimulate effort in the work, it would
be found in the eminently fair and encouraging
address of the President, who surveyed the newspaper situation at that date in an intelligent and
thorough manner. He spoke of the great excursion
to the Pacific Coast in 1899, when the members had
had the great opportunity of inspecting the ^Vestem
domain with its fertile lands and wonderful scenery.
In 1900, Mr. J. S. Willison  omitted the presidential
address, an example first set, it would seem, by
Mr. Bowell, in 1866, for none of the records consulted in that year yields any trace of such a
contribution to the proceedings. But Mr. Willison
repaired this omission by a vigorous speech at the banquet in the evening, when the subject of racial unity
arose out of some remarks by M. Marc Sauvalle, of
La Presse. This brilliant French-Canadian declared
(what no one will accept) that he spoke English badly,
and perhaps some of his hearers, he said, spoke French
imperfectly. 'But," he went on, "there is a language
which everybody can understand, that is the language
of goodwill and loyalty—all for all and each for the
other. The more the two races meet, the more interest
there will be between us." With characteristic alertness, Mr. Willison seized the opportunity to urge the
making of loyalty to Canada as the first and best test
of Canadian citizenship. He was not going to assess
the measure of responsibility (Mr. Willison is reported
as saying) for the use of the wholly mischievous and
unnecessary race and creed cries. He hoped that
before many years there would be an end to them. It
was impossible for us as a people to give proper attention to the great financial and economical problems
which claimed solution until we got rid of these mischievous, these infernal topics. He put the responsibility for these unhappy discussions upon the press
and the politicians, not upon the public. Appeals of
that nature never came up from the people; they came
down from the politicians. He was bound to say, too,
that too often the corruption they all deplored came
from the top rather than from the bottom.    It was not
1  1 I
11 If
always the Canadian elector who wished to sell his vote.
It was too often the politician who wished to buy it.
The Canadian press should do a great deal more than
it ever had to put down these practices, and give more
decency and dignity to public life.
The ring of manly courage and independence in
these utterances is worthy of the high reputation of
the speaker, and it is due to the Association to say that
its official spokesmen, from 1859 down to the annual
address of President McNee in 1905, have never shown
the crouching spirit, but have vindicated freedom of
opinion and liberty of speech as the foundation stone
of journalism. xxni.
During the past seven years the record of the organization may be briefly summarized. The Presidency
of Mr. A. G. F. Macdonald was signalized by a successful excursion to the Maritime Provinces, rivalling that
of 1877.1 The Presidential terms of Mr. McGillicuddy,
Mr. Pettypiece, and Mr. Cooper saw the culmination
and results of the famous fight with the Papermakers'
Association, while Mr. McNee in 1905 had the satisfaction of welcoming the members of the Eastern
Townships Press Association, that body having affiliated with the parent society under its President, Mr.
L. S. Channell, of Sherbrooke. But all the events
of this period are dwarfed in importance by the combat
with the paper combine. Scarcely any incident in the
past fifty years exhibits in so remarkable a manner
the value of a mutual understanding and co-operation.
The Association had been in effect, although not in
name, an Ontario organization. But on this occasion
all the principal publishers in Canada, from Halifax
to Victoria, joined in the common effort to resist
what was honestly felt to be an illegal exaction striking at the root of newspaper prosperity. The Canadian Press Association, being the largest and  oldest Ill
II 1
iiUiJ ill;
body of its kind, managed the plan of campaign from
first to last, being supported by expressions of confidence from the other associations and from publishers
all over Canada. Where so many rendered valuable
advice and assistance, it is difficult to single out individuals, but the prime movers in the fight were
Messrs. J. A. Cooper, J. E. Atkinson, P. D. Ross,
T. H. Preston, M.P.P., D. McGillicuddy, and H. J.
Pettypiece, M.P.P. When the delegation from the
Association appeared before the Dominion Government at Ottawa, asking for a Royal Commission, as
provided for in such cases by the Tariff Act, they
were supported by Senator Templeman, Hon. J. I.
Tarte and other journalistic members of Parliament.
The cause of this spirited contest, needless to say,
was an alarming rise in the cost of paper, and in this
connection it is instructive to review the course of prices.
In 1899 the larger dailies were buying paper all the
way from $1.70 to $2.10 per hundred; the cash discount was four to five per cent., and the credit period
was four months. Early in February, 1900, the Ottawa
Journal was offered a new contract at $2.23. Immediately after the adoption of the papermakers' agreement on February 21st, 1900, the price of rolls advanced to $2.50, and reams to $2.75. The Chatham
Planet had been paying $2.10 for reams and were
asked $2.75 on the renewal of a contract which existed
about this time. When the Eddy mills were burned
in April, 1900, the publishers tried to get paper from
the International Paper Company, of New York, but
were referred to Canadian makers, thus showing that
there was a compact between the two associations not  lii
■i -
i I
■I '■/>
>e e |   ?f its kind, managed the msn of campaign fro ••
fifn| to last, being supported bf expressions of core
. -e from the other assoclEltei and from' publish*---.
p|l  over Canada, valual
advice and a
' Mm?* '-
to single out kulsj
t'' the   fight  wef*
I Atkinson, P. D. Horn
McGUlicuclcha and-.H, *Jj
tfhen  the   delegation  from' tie
Km>re. the  Dominion  Govern
askrog for a Royal Commission, |j
provided for in such iptses by the Tariff Act, thej
were supported by Senator Templeman,  Hon.  J.
Tarte and other journaliste? members of Parliament,
The cause of this spirited tiptest, needless to. S&-; j
^Jmrnprna^mXc hrihe cost of paper, and in t§|
ve to review the course of pric
tti were buying paper all tig
iJQ* '•'   .a ooml;the-cash •■ : • - j
fm     -m sea the credit pen as
| felli    .rye 1900, the Ottaw i
jw# offer-a ,i • ■ w at $2.23.'   Imr* -1
ii .aely after the adoption of the papermakers' agr$§|
Fenced to $2.50, and reams to $2.75.    The Chattel
imei had been fffppff $2,1$ for reams  and  A
$2.75 on the    r-esewal of a contract which exi'
Si this time,    Wfei the Eddv mills were b-
; ail, 1900, the publishers tried to get paper   =
•■.eeaiatioiiai Paper Company, of New Yorl:
• erred to Canadian makers, thus showirf
eaa compact, between the two assocsm'    e    . J. J. Crabbe
President 1887
E. H. Dewart. D.D.
President 1888
Roy V. Somervii,i,e
President 1889
Andrew Pattuixo
President 1890  COMBAT WITH PAPER COMBINE     129
to enter each other's territory. This was the situation
which forced the Press Association to take action. In
May, 1900, the Executive, by a resolution, condemned
the increase in the price of paper which resulted from
the formation of the Papermakers' Association a few
months previously. At the annual meeting in March,
1901, the Association went farther and demanded an
investigation at the hands of the Dominion Government. On April 10th, a deputation of publishers
visited Ottawa and laid their case before Mr. Fielding
and Mr. Paterson, asking them to act at once upon
the anti-combine clause of the Tariff Act (Sec. 18:
Chap. 16, 60 and 61 V). This demand was embodied
in a formal document couched in the following terms:—
The Canadian Press Association,
Toronto, April 10th, 1901.
Honourable W. S. Fielding, Minister of Finance,
Honourable Sir:—On May 18,1900, the Canadian
Press Association, at a meeting in Toronto, discussed
for the first time the Papermakers' Association and
the effects of that Association upon the public interests
At that time the following resolution was passed:—
"That the Executive of the C.P.A. believe that
a combine now exists among Canadian Paper
Manufacturers, the effect of which is to unduly
increase the price of news and printing paper,
contrary to Section 18 of the Customs Tariff Act of
1897. That this Executive is prepared to submit
witnesses and evidence in support of this statement, and we, therefore, respectfully ask that the
Si 7
ii   I
Government order an investigation under Section
18 and sub-sections of the Customs Tariff Act of
1897, with a view of ameliorating the existing condition."
At the annual meeting of the Press Association, this
resolution was reaffirmed, and is now submitted to
you for the consideration of yourself and the Government.
We have, etc.
A. G. F. McDonald,
John A. Cooper,
Secretary- Treasurer.
As no previous action had ever been taken under
this clause, the application of the press excited much
attention in Parliamentary circles. Further, if the
request of the Association was met, what would be the
method of procedure and who would pay the bills ?
The latter point was the one which caused most trouble.
At first Mr. Fielding declined to pay more than the
fees of the judge and a stenographer. As for counsel
and witness fees, these were to be left to the parties
themselves. The Press Association objected to being
saddled with the expense of prosecution, claiming that
it was a matter of public policy. It was only after a
blank refusal to appear before the Commission at all,
that Mr. Fielding yielded the point in regard to witness
fees. The Association in the end was compelled to
pay all other expenses, which amounted to about
$1,700. I
The Order-in-Council authorizing the investigation
was dated April 25th.   It commissioned Mr. Justice
Taschereau, of the Superior Court of Quebec, to investigate the case. He held sessions in Montreal, Toronto,
and New York, where publishers and papermakers
appeared before him and stated the two sides of the
case. The first sitting was held July 30th and 31st,
when Mr. Aylesworth summed up the case for the
newspapers, and Mr. W. J. White made the paper-
makers' defence. On November 27th, the judge sent
in his report,* and the finding was in favour of the Press
Association. The judge decided that there was a
combine, and that it had unduly advanced prices.
Twelve papermakers had paid in $500 to this combine
and had signed a most uncompromising agreement.
That the prices were high and that the Press Association was right in its contention was further proved by
the action of the Papermakers' Association on May
10th, just fifteen days after the appointment of the
Royal Commission. The price of paper was then
voluntarily reduced from $2.50 to $2.37\ for rolls, and
from $2.75 to $2.62^ for sheets. The period of credit,
which had been reduced from four to three months,
remained the same, however, though the new regulations as to freight rates were considerably modified.
These changes were important, and amply justified the
publishers for the trouble and money which were required to plan and carry on the notable struggle
against a formidable group of manufacturers. If the
action taken by the Government was not as drastic as
some expected, it constituted on the whole a signal
vindication of the movement. The duty on news print
was reduced from twenty-five per cent, to fifteen per
*See Can. Sess. Papers, No. 53, 1902. 132
cent, when imported in large quantities, and this
action taught a lesson to the paper manufacturers
which has not been without permanent effect.
In the foregoing sketch of the Canadian Press Association there are defects and omissions of which the writer
is only too conscious. No adequate attempt has been
made to connect the record of the society with the
general history of the press of Canada. So ambitious
an undertaking is left to a worthier pen. Yet with
that history the Association is closely interwoven. In
no other portion of the English-speaking world has the
rise of the press to authority and influence in the State
been more conspicuous than in Canada. It has served
the country well; it has contributed greatly to the consolidation of the Dominion; it has been foremost in
moulding public opinion and in disseminating information. The Association founded in 1859 has been no
inconsiderable factor in this work. It contributed men
of light and leading to public life. Its members at
no time made large claims of superiority, nor did they
assert an exclusive right to speak for the press. But
they kept alive the spirit of amity, toleration, and
national optimism through many a trying ordeal, and
no active journalist can examine the half century of
achievement without a glow of pride that the best
traditions of his profession have been so staunchly
maintained by the body which now celebrates its
jubilee under the auspices of President J. T. Clark.
A. H. U. Colquhoun.
IN the Dominion the fight of the morning sun and of
the evening stars first falls upon the Atlantic coast.
It was thus also with the light that radiates from the
printing office and the newspaper press. To the
fair city of Halifax belongs the honor of these first
things in the intellectual life of Canada. It was there
the pioneer press was set up and there the first newspaper of our common country was given to the reading
Mr. E. B. Biggar in his interesting and valuable
'Sketch of Canadian Journalism," contributed to the
Canadian Newspaper Directory of 1902, has given
particulars of this first newspaper together with a fac
simile of its pages. It is a modest sheet of two pages,
about nine by fifteen inches in size, and was called the
Halifax Gazette, and issued in 1752. The imprint
tells that it was "Printed by John Bushell at the Printing Office, Grafton Street, where advertisements are
taken in."
Two other Gazettes marked the beginning of newspaper life in New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island respectively, but at a much later date. The first
of these was the Royal St. John9s Gazette and Nova
Scotia Intelligencer, issued in St. John, December, 1783,
and the other was the Royal Gazette, first published in THE CANADIAN PRESS
Charlottetown in 1791. All these early Gazettes were
official organs and contained the governmental notices
and announcements of the time along wi|h a modicum
of the news of the world, most of it painfully old at the
time of its appearance.
Behind the Halifax Gazette was a bit of history which
carries us back to the first printing press and the first
newspaper in America. For John Bushell printed the
Halifax paper on a press brought thither by Bartholomew Green the younger, who was a son of Bartholomew Green who printed the first numbers of the
Boston News Letter, the first American newspaper,
and he in turn was son of Samuel Green, the recognized
pioneer of printing on the American continent. The
younger Green died a month after his arrival in Halifax,
and thereupon John Bushell, a former partner of his
in the printing business in Boston, came on and, with
some financial assistance from Hon. Otis Little, the
Attorney-General, began the publication of the Gazette the following spring. The first issue bears date
March 23, 1752. .|p
This was the year after the adoption of "New Style"
in the calendar throughout the British dominions, and
the Gazette recorded the fact under date of London,
September 18, 1751.
John Bushell retained control of the Gazette till 1760,
and in that year took Anthony Henry into partnership,
and soon afterward died. Henry succeeded to the
business, but soon got into trouble with his official
patrons, who in 1776 brought another printer, one
Robert Fletcher, from London with his plant, and he
on August 14 of that year sent out the Nova Scotia IN THE MARITIME PROVINCES      135
Gazette. This was a full sheet of crown folio and was
issued weekly at a subscription price of twelve shillings.
'Advertisements of moderate length" were inserted
at "three shillings each."
In the meantime Henry was not idle; he continued
his job printing, and in January, 1769, brought out a
small eight-page paper called the Nova Scotia Chronicle and Weekly Gazette at a subscription price of eight
shillings. The new paper was the first to give attention
to local news, and succeeded in awakening public interest. As Henry prospered he bought back the Halifax
Gazette in 1770 and incorporated it with his own under
the name of the Nova Scotia Gazette and Weekly
Chronicle, and held the post of King's Printer for
forty years until his death. His godson, Anthony
Henry Holland, became, in 1813, the founder of the
Acadian Recorder, which still lives and prospers, the
oldest newspaper in the Maritime Provinces.
But we must go back to the Boston News Letter
again for a bit of history of more than passing interest.
It had been maintained by Mrs. Draper, after the death
of her husband, as a staunch British journal down to
the time when Boston was evacuated, upon which
event she gathered up her presses and type and came
to Halifax, bringing with her John Howe, the father
of Joseph Howe, who was long after to fill so large a
place in the journalism, statesmanship, and history
of the Maritime Provinces and of Canada.
On the way to Halifax John Howe married Miss
Minus, a girl of seventeen years, and in January, 1781,
he founded the Halifax Journal, which was destined
to a continuous existence of ninety years.    He himself
i \
MOB. 7
lived to the good old age of eighty. In the meantime
William Minus, brother of Mrs. Howe, who also came
to Halifax a mere boy with the Loyalists, graduated
from his brother-in-law's office and established the
Weekly Chronicle.
In what is now New Brunswick, but was still a part
of Nova Scotia and then known as the County of Sun-
bury, the St. John's Gazette and Nova Scotia Intelligencer was established in St. John in December, 1783,
and was published by Lewis and Ryan, which name
was changed in the following year to the New Brunswick Gazette and General Advertiser. In 1785, The
Royal Gazette and Weekly Advertiser succeeded the aforementioned journals and was published by Christopher
Sower, the first King's Printer of the new province.
Sower was born in Pennsylvania and brought up to the
printing business. He adhered to the British side in
the revolutionary troubles, and in consequence his
large property was confiscated. After the close of the
war he went to London and was rewarded for his
loyalty by being made King's Printer and given a
colonel's commission. He built for himself a large
two-storey house of logs at Hammond River, some
fifteen miles from St. John, to serve both as an office
and a dwelling, and there the official Gazette and the
journals of the Legislature were printed and all the
official printing was done. Caleb McCready, a great-
grand-uncle of the writer of this article, married a
daughter of Sower. The latter died in Philadelphia,
whither he had gone on a business trip.
The beginning of newspapers in Prince Edward
Island, as already stated, was the publication of the
Royal Gazette, first issued in 1791, at Charlottetown.
The Island was then a separate province, and for
eighteen years previous had enjoyed the distinction of
having a Government and Legislature of its own. The
community was small and the conditions primitive.
The population of the province did not exceed four
thousand souls.
The first regular newspaper, apart from the merely
official organ, came more than thirty years later, and
was established by James D. Haszard in 1823. He
was the son of a Loyalist, whose father had proved
his devotion to his sovereign by refusing to receive back
his confiscated property at the price of becoming a
citizen of the new republic. Mr. Haszard is also
gratefully remembered as the benefactor of many
whom he aided during the "famine" of 1837, and also
for having established the first carding and cloth-
dressing factory in the province. Mr. Haszard's paper
was called the Prince Edward Island Register, and in
its first issue made a trenchant exposure of some highhanded acts of Governor Smith and some of his near
relatives. The result of this was that he was at once
cited to appear in the Court of Chancery, of which
the Governor himself was Chancellor. He was permitted to make a brief statement of his defence, when
the Chancellor addressed him: 'I compassionate your
youth and inexperience. Did I not do so, I would lay
you by the heels long enough to remember it. You have
delivered your evidence fairly, clearly, and as becomes
a man. I caution you when you publish anything
again, keep clear, sir, of a Chancellor. Beware, sir,
of the Chancellor!"
The first half of the nineteenth century in the Maritime Provinces was a time of pioneers living in log
huts, battling with the forest; of making roads to
widely separated settlements; a time of mounted evangelists, riding along bridle paths to fervidly proclaim
the Gospel as they understood it; a time of New Light
revivals that swept thousands into the Baptist and
Methodist churches, which were not churches at all to
the ruling classes of Churchmen; a time when Catholic
emancipation had yet to be won in the colonies after
it had been won in Britain; a time when Baptist and
Methodist ministers were put in jail if they dared to
solemnize marriage between the members of their
flocks; a time when a Dissenter or a Roman Catholic
could not hold the office of justice of the peace or constable; a time of Family Compacts ruling by a claim
of divine right over peoples whom they held in close
But the time soon came that saw these masses moving from beneath, with a giant's strength, to "make
and break and work their will," and all these shackles
and impediments to freedom were one by one swept
away. It was under circumstances such as these that
Joseph Howe launched the Nova Scotian newspaper
in Halifax; attacked the irresponsible magistracy that
ruled there, was arrested for libel, pleaded his own
cause and won it, and was carried home in triumph on
the shoulders of a rejoicing people. And as he fought
on, an unwearied soldier of the press and of the tribune,
to win equal rights, responsible government, and the
abolition of class privileges, his newspaper office became
a "school of the prophets" of reform and progress. IN THE MARITIME PROVINCES       139
George E. Fenety learned the printing business in
Howe's office and imbibed much of his courage and
liberty-loving spirit, and crossing to St. John launched
the Morning News in 1839, as a champion of popular
rights^-the first penny paper printed in America. He
had none of Howe's speaking power, but he was a hard
worker, knew something of the value of news, and was
a very capable business man. His paper grew in
influence, prospered, and became a powerful factor
in promoting like reforms to those which Howe and
his associates were urging forward in Nova Scotia.
Edward Whelan, a poor Irish boy whom Howe had
taken to his heart and home, learned the printing art
in the Nova Scotian office, went to Charlottetown and
there established first The Palladium and a few years
later The Examiner, under a motto from Euripides,
which it still carries—"This is True Liberty when
Freeborn Men Having to Advise the Public May
Speak Free." He fought a sturdy battle for equal
rights, responsible government, for the rights of the
Island tenantry, and for free schools, down to the date
when these were gained, and later became the eloquent
advocate of the union of the provinces. He died in the
year 1867, when four provinces had been joined together, while his own province was still remaining
without the fold.
David Howe, an elder brother of Joseph Howe, was
for some years editor of the St. Andrew's Herald, established at St. Andrew's, N.B. Thus closely was the
journalism of the three provinces connected in its
personnel and in spirit. There were other journals of
the pioneer period that ought to be mentioned, notably
. - - - _ I
4f H
1 eS
the New Brunswick Courier, established by Henry
Chubb in 1811, the best newspaper of its time in the
province down to the establishment of the Morning
News, and the first to become a paying property. The
New Brunswicker, published in St. John by Till
Brothers, is also still favorably remembered by readers
of the older generation.
Timothy Warren Anglin came from Ireland to St.
John, and about 1854 established The Freeman, which
he conducted with much ability for many years, and
which figured conspicuously in the public discussions
from that date down to near the close of the century.
John V. Ellis went to St. John from Halifax and with a
partner planted The Globe, which still flourishes and
has always possessed a peculiar charm for a large
reading circle. The Globe, along with Mr. Anglin's
Freeman, were opponents of the scheme of confederation.
John Livingston went from Richibucto to St. John,
and after some time engaged on the Morning News
under Mr. Fenety, started The Telegraph in 1862. He
was a genial man, a trenchant campaign writer, and
pushed his paper rapidly to the front. A little later
Rev. William Elder established the. Morning Journal,
both this and The Telegraph being tri-weeklies and
published on alternate days. In process of time, the
two papers were united and as a daily attained still
wider influence and popularity under the management
of Mr. Elder, till it stood in the front rank of Maritime
newspapers. Shortly after Mr. Elder's death in 1883,
the writer of this article succeeded to the editorial
charge  of   The   Telegraph, which he held for nearly
ten years, when, on a change of the proprietorship, he
was in turn succeeded by Dr. Hannay, the historian of
Acadia. After several later changes, about five years
ago E. W. McCready, A.M., only son of the former
editor of the same name, was called to the editorial
chair of The Telegraph, which position he still retains.
It was the golden age of New Brunswick journalism
when William Elder, John Livingston, John V. Ellis,
and T. W. Anglin were the leading editorial writers
in St. John with a number of bright young men engaged
under them. The Daily Sun was established in 1877,
and has been a strong newspaper from its inception,
principally under the successive editorial direction of
John Livingston and S. D. Scott, the latter being its
editor from 1885 down to the change in ownership
about a year ago. Halifax also possessed a galaxy
of bright newspaper men about the time of the union
of the provinces, including the Annands, William and
Charles, who succeeded in line to Joseph Howe's
Nova Scotian (now The Chronicle), and under whom
W. S. Fielding developed his abilities as an able and
luminous public writer; the Blackadars of the Recorder;
Compton, of The Express; J. C. Crosskill and J. G.
Bourinot on The Reporter; E. M. McDonald, George
Johnson, Martin J. Griffin, and others whose names
will quickly recur to the memory of the yet living newspaper readers of that time. The Halifax Herald, established in 1878, grew to be a power under the management of the late J. J. Stewart.
In Prince Edward Island a number of vigorous
newspapers, not all of them destined to long life, bridged
the time between Haszard's Register and Whelan's
it Li
Examiner. Among these were The Islander, established by the late John Ings in 1842, and continued
for thirty years; Ross's Weekly from 1859 to 1866;
The Island Argus, founded and conducted by James
H. Fletcher in 1869 and continued till 1881, when it
was absorbed into The Examiner. In 1864 The Patriot
was established by David Laird as a weekly, becoming
a daily in 1882. It was a forceful Liberal journal
under Mr. Laird, and when he took office in 1874, under
the late Henry Lawson. Mr. Laird resumed its management after his retirement to private life and remained its editor down to 1896, since which time it
has been creditably conducted by Frederic J. Nash.
The three daily newspapers of Prince Edward Island
at the present time are The Guardian, independent in
politics, and the only morning daily issued in the
province, which for the past twelve years has been under
the editorial charge of the writer of this article; The
Patriot, last above referred to, and The Examiner, a
Conservative journal, of which W. L. Cotton has been
editor and proprietor for a lengthened period.
In this brief sketch only the metropolitan newspapers
of the three provinces have been referred to and space
will not permit mention of the host of journals that have
sprung up outside of Halifax, St. John, and Charlotte-
town, some of them, notably the dailies of Moncton
and Sydney, of very vigorous growth and conducted
with ability. The three original Gazettes which marked
the beginning of newspaper life in the Maritime section
of Canada have multiplied to twenty-two daily papers
and more than a hundred weeklies and semi-weeklies,
which minister to the reading public of every city, town,
and larger village.    It may be mentioned that the Maritime  newspapers  have from  a very early day been
owned and controlled almost entirely by men bred on
Maritime soil.    They have very rarely imported a man
from the west.    J. T. Hawke, the prosperous editor
and proprietor of The Transcript, of Moncton, is almost
the only example of a western newspaper man who has
come eastward.    But from Eastern Canada not a few
have gone, from time to time, to the west.   Among these
were Martin  J. Griffin, who   went from   a Halifax
newspaper   to    The Mail, of   Toronto, and is now
Parliamentary   Librarian at Ottawa.     John Livingston, of St. John, was in later years editor   of the
Montreal Herald, the Empire, of Toronto, and the
Herald, of   Calgary, successively.    Amor deCosmos,
founder of the Victoria, B.C., Colonist, was a Nova
Scotian, while a later editor of the same journal was
C. H. Lugrin, a New Brunswicker and at one time
editor of the St.  John  Telegraph;   still later Henry
Lawson, formerly editor of The Patriot, of Charlotte-
town, filled the editorial  chair of  The  Colonist for
some time down to his death.    Thomas Gorman, some
time editor of the Free Press, Ottawa, was a graduate
from a Prince Edward Island newspaper office, as was
also J. K. Mclnnis, of the Regina Standard, and many
other names might be mentioned in the same connection, or of the still larger number who have made names
for themselves in connection with newspapers in the
United States.
The people of the Maritime Provinces are a reading
people and support their favorite newspapers loyally.
It has been claimed with some show of plausibility II
ill 11 \
that in the smaller field down by the sea may be found
the newspaper having the largest circulation in proportion to the population of the city and province in which
it is issued. Be that as it may, and while the weight
of the larger and more widely circulated journals of the
big central provinces is a greater factor in moulding
the public opinion of the Dominion, the people of
the east are not unreasonably proud of their best newspapers and of the able and patriotic public writers who
during a century past championed the cause of reform,
and led the way in the march of intellectual, political,
and material advancement.
Quite a number of the Maritime journalists were
from time to time elected to the provincial Legislatures
or the Canadian Parliament, or both in succession.
Among these were Hon. Joseph Howe, who served
for years in the Legislature and Government of his
province, and afterwards as a member of the House
of Commons and Secretary of State, and died in office
as Lieutenant-Governor of his native province. E. M.
McDonald, of the Halifax Citizen, was elected to the
first Canadian Parliament as representative of the
county of Lunenburg. Hon. W. S. Fielding, for
twelve years past Minister of Finance at Ottawa, was
for many years editor of The Chronicle at Halifax,
and was also for a long term Premier of Nova Scotia.
Hon. Timothy Warren Anglin was repeatedly elected
a member of the House of Assembly of New Brunswick;
was for a time a member of the Provincial Government,
and also served in the first two Parliaments of the
Dominion, becoming Speaker under the Mackenzie
Administration in 1874.    Hon. Edward Willis, of the
wmi-twiii i -._ -- ^^.,. _ -m
St. John Morning News, served in the New Brunswick
Legislature. Hon. William Elder was for some time
Provincial Secretary of New Brunswick, and died in
office in 1883. Hon. John V. Ellis, the veteran editor of
the St. John Globe, had seen service in the Provincial
Legislature and in the House of Commons before his
appointment to the Senate of Canada. Hon. David
Laird, of the Charlottetown Patriot, served with distinction in the Island Legislature and later in the House
of Commons, and as Minister of the Interior, and is
now Indian Commissioner in Winnipeg. Of those here
named, only Mr. Fielding, Mr. Laird, and Senator Ellis
are now living,
J. E. B. McCready.
i i
i ]
\ II
m PI
lit J
HOW marked and significant is the contrast between
the newspaper press of the Province of Quebec as
it is to-day and the press of the same Province fifty years
ago, only those who have some recollection of that far-
off time can even imagine. If it be asked in which
section of our population the contrast is the more
striking and inevitable, the answer may be given without hesitation. The dingy offices in which French-
Canadian editors whose names have long been historic
were willing to write their appeals to reason or to sentiment would excite unconcealed distaste in their more
fastidious successors of the twentieth century. This is
but one point of contrast, but it means much. It
suggests a progress so comprehensive that it was absolutely undreamed-of in the days that form the starting-point of this hurried retrospect. Nevertheless, before the summer of 1858 was quite completed, an event
had occurred which, though it was followed by catastrophe, prompted to the thoughtful mind endless possibilities of development for the press of Canada, as
for that of the world at large. The writer can well
recall the illuminations and other signs of rejoicing
with which Montreal greeted the short-lived triumph
of the first Atlantic cable.    The words of peace and
— --* „   ,„ j?\m
-* —mmemmm* IN QUEBEC
friendship that passed between Queen Victoria and
President Buchanan were, alas! to have for sequel
the awful strife of the Civil War before the failure of
1858 was succeeded by a fruition that had "nulla
vestigia retrorsum." But the great fact had been
accomplished, and men like the late Lord Kelvin (then
Professor Thomson, F.R.S.) knew that no casualty
could do worse than postpone the operation of oceanic
cables. How much the growth of the Canada of our
Association's birth and infancy into the Canada of
1908 has been due to the influence of the telegraph, it
is needless to insist. That force which stands for the
grandest achievement of our time had its culminating
moment in that victory of August, 1858. The All-Red
Route was still far off, but in the forecast of science and
faith it was assured.
Our point of departure (1858), while to us it suggests
the day of small things, was regarded very differently
by the Canadian contemporaries of Cyrus Field and
his co-workers. Two years earlier, in the fall of 1856,
took place what is still remembered in Montreal as the
Grand Trunk Celebration. Three years earlier the
Boston Jubilee had brought together the chief men of
standing and influence in both countries—including the
President of the one and the Governor-General of the
other. Six years after the birth of our Association, the
hundredth anniversary of journalism in central Canada
was commemorated at Quebec by the representatives
of William Brown and Thomas Gilmore.
In the Province of Quebec (which originally included
what is now known as Ontario), the establishment of
journalism was one of the immediate results of the
/-ill 148
transfer of Canada to Great Britain. On the 21st of
June, 1764, only five years after the arrival of Wolfe
at Quebec, the leading inhabitants of the capital beheld
the novel sight of a newspaper printed within their own
walls, and containing local news and advertisements.
William Smith, in his History of Canada, credits
Messrs. Brown and Gilmore with the introduction, not
only of journalism, but of the art of printing. M. Phileas
Gagnon, in his Essai de Bibliographic Canadienne,
says that Bishop de Pontbriant had a press for printing
his mandements. M. Gagnon's statement deserves
serious attention. It must be borne in mind that
journalism had been in operation in Halifax for seven
years before Messrs. Brown and Gilmore reached
Quebec. What interests us especially, however, in
connection with this pioneer newspaper is that it lived
to celebrate its hundredth anniversary. On the 21st
of June, 1864, Mr. Middleton, the actual proprietor,
issued a centennial number, including a fac-simile of
the first Gazette. Mr. Middleton became its owner and
conductor on the death in 1848 of Hon. John Neilson,
a nephew of William Brown, of the original firm. The
story of our earliest Quebec newspaper is thus brought
within the scope of the present volume. Fourteen years
after the foundation of the Quebec Gazette, Montreal
thought well to follow the example. The story of
Fleury Mesplet, who founded La Gazette Litteraire of
Montreal in 1778, has been told with admirable fullness
by Mr. R. W. McLachlan, in a paper read before the
Royal Society of Canada in May, 1906. According to
Dr. Dionne, seven newspapers, printed at least partly
in English, had been founded in the Province of Quebec IN QUEBEC
before the close of the eighteenth century. In 1805
the Quebec Mercury was founded by the head of the
Cary family, in whose possession it remained for nearly
a century. The Mercury closed an eventful career on
the 17th of October, 1903.     "
On October 19, 1811, appeared the first number of
the Montreal Herald. Its first proprietor was William
Gray; its first editor, Mr. Mungo Kay, who died in
September, 1818. In June, 1823, N. Mower, however,
began the publication of the Canadian Magazine and
Literary Repository. It was conducted by Joseph
Nickless, and made its appearance once a month.
Four bulky volumes of nearly six hundred pages each
bear witness to the enterprise of the publishers and to
the aspirations of the contributors. Newton Bos worth
says the magazine was well edited and that some of its
contents were of a high order of merit. But it failed to
receive the support that it deserved. Almost contemporary with the Canadian Magazine was the Canadian
Review and IMerary and Historical Journal, which was
published quarterly from July, 1824, until September,
1826, forming five numbers of about two hundred and
forty pages each. Some years later the Literary Garland was undertaken by Mr. John Lovell, and edited
by Mr. J. Gibson, assisted latterly by Mrs. Cushing.
It was a monthly magazine of tales, sketches, poetry,
and music. The first series lasted from 1838 to 1842;
the second, from 1843 to 1852. Among the contributors to the Literary Garland were Dr. William Dun-
lop, Mrs. Leprohon (Miss Mullin), Mr. Andrew Robertson, Mr. Fennings Taylor, Mrs. (Col.) McLach-
lan,   Mr. Hugh G. Montgomery.    The Montreal Wit-
ness was founded on the 5th of January, 1846, as a
weekly paper. In August, 1860, it was made a daily,
and, under the control of the late Mr. John
Dougall, became a journal of widespread influence,
especially in the cause of temperance. The Quebec
Morning Chronicle was established in May, 1847. In
January, 1854, it entered definitely into the ranks of the
daily press and has ever since exerted a large political
and social influence. Among its editors have been
Charles Roger, Isaac Watson, George Stewart, E. T. D.
Chambers, and J. J. Proctor, who has charge of it at
present. The Pilot, founded by Sir Francis Hincks,
in May, 1844, was for some years a journal of considerable importance. For a time the founder edited it
himself. It then (1848) passed under the control of
Mr. William Bristow, who, on starting the Argus in
1854, left the Pilot in charge of Dr. J. P. Litchfield.
The Transcript, started in 1834, by Donald McDonnell,
was edited first by Robert Abraham, and after the
Argus had ceased to exist, by William Bristow. In its
last years A. N. Rennie had charge of it. In 1867 it
passed into the hands of Mr. John Lovell, who renamed it the Daily News. In May, 1857, a newspaper
named the New Era was founded by (the Hon.)
Thomas Darcy McGee, who had recently removed from
the United States to Canada. A few months later
Samuel James Watson started the Irishman. Both
these journals were bright and vigorous. But to-day
they are almost forgotten.
The earliest paper published in the Eastern Townships was the Farmers9 and Mechanics9 Journal and
Eastern  Townships  Gazette,  which was  founded by IN QUEBEC
Messrs. Walton and Gaylord at Sherbrooke, in 1834.
In 1838 it became known as the Sherbrooke Gazette,
but remained under the same proprietors until 1870,
when Messrs. Walton and Gaylord sold it to Messrs.
Bradford and Morehouse. The Stanstead Journal
was founded in 1845 and was for some time conducted
by Mr. L. R. Robinson. It is issued at present by
the Stanstead Journal Company. The St. John News
and Frontier Advocate was founded in 1848 by Mr.
E. R. Smith and has maintained its well-earned character and circulation for sixty years. A paper known
at first as the Advertiser and Eastern Townships Sentinel was founded at Emowlton in January, 1856, with
the support of Hon. Messrs. Knowlton, Huntington and
Moore, and Mr. H. S. Foster. In the following year it
became the Waterloo Advertiser, and is now owned and
controlled by Mr. C. H; Parmelee, M.P. Another ably
conducted paper is the Canadian Gleaner, founded in
1863 by Mr. Robert Sellar, author of Gleaner Tales and
the History of the County of Huntingdon, etc. The
Richmond Guardian, founded by W. G. Jones, and
known at first as the Richmond County Advocate; the
St. Francis Telegraph, started at Sherbrooke in 1851 by
W. L. Felton; the Three Rivers Inquirer, founded by
G. and R. Lanigan; the Yamaska News; the Coaticook
Observer; the Cowansville Observer; the Pontiac
Advance; and the Three Rivers Echo may also be mentioned.
The Province of Quebec has been the stage on
which a number of religious papers—more or less
controversial in their tendencies—have played their
parts.    Among them may be mentioned the Canadian
i if II
ii >J
Baptist magazine, the Berean (Church of England)*
the Bible Christian, edited by the Rev. Dr. John
Cordner, brother-in-law of Parkman, the historian;
the True Witness, edited for some years by Mr. J. C.
Clerk, of the family of Clerk of Penicuik (baronets),
near Edinburgh, and later by Mr. C. A. McDonnell
and Dr. Foran; the Canada Presbyterian; the Protestant; the Juvenile Presbyterian, edited by John Green-
shields; the Echo and Protestant Episcopal Recorder,
edited by the Rev. F. B. Tate, and published by
Thomas Sellar; the Church Observer, edited by a committee of clergymen and published by W. R. Salter;
The Voice of Jacob, edited by the Rev. A. DeSola,
professor of Hebrew and Spanish literature in McGill
University, are only a few out of many papers of
this class.
In papers devoted to wit, satire, humour, and the
comedies of common life, this province has been fairly
rich. Among those that sprang to life, blossomed, and
decayed when the circumstances that favoured their
birth had undergone a change, may be mentioned Nonsense, The Jester, The Wasp, Grinchuckle (a comic nom
de guerre of the late William Workman, formerly
Mayor of Montreal), Diogenes, Stadacona, Punch, The
Gridiron, The Sprite, The Free Lance, The Bee, The
Dagger, Paul Pry, and Punch in Canada. This last
acquired celebrity during the excitement attending the
discussion over the Rebellion Losses Bill and the
burning of the Parliament House in Montreal. Lord
Elgin received a good deal of satirical attention in it.
The Free Lance was started by G. T. Lanigan, who was
also associated with the beginnings of the Montreal
*"**"     "' IW^.'^ M.   A.   J A31
ninent Member ofeAss*
for many years
H.  P.  Moore
President 1892
T. H. Preston
President 1894
! i
ES 1 i
irk, of tb$
£**g E&mlmt
I Jht. Won
p^ magazine, the B^^*%Thurch of England
pMM&; Christian, edited % the  RevflDr.   Jofe
pdner,  brother-in-law  of   Farkman,  th^ histoia. ■•
True '  riimmn edited- %r mmm years by Mr. J.
ktnily of laerl  of* Penicuik (baronets j
ifed later- bv MfpC* A. McBojam.S'
le Canada Pregbyk-mtn; the Fffl
Presbyterian,-edited by .JohnGreess
W&ho and Protestant Episcopal Eecorim
Rev.  F.  B.  Tate,  and published 1
r; the Church Observer, edited by a ce
ammoa of clergymen and published by W. R. Sale5
■0m Vowe of Jacob, edited by the Rev. A. Dots
lessor of Hebrew and Spanish literature in Meo
ersfty, are only n""few  out  of   many  paper:"
satire, humour, and
fpliince has been iee
o life, blossomed* j
tie* ih.mi. favoured f$jj
*^te mentioned^
mehmkle (a comic j
■ijjfberre   of  the  late  William  Workman-,   for-re
| of Montreal), Diogenes, Stadacona, Purkh:,
ron, The Sprite, The Free Lance, The Bm.
Dagger, Paul Pry, and Punch in Canada.    Thjfg
paired celebrity during the excitement attend
[ife'ii^feil  over  the -KebelMon  Losses  Bill   agi!
a sag of the Parliament House in JMontree-
JHIj      recemd. a good deal of satirical attesting
« Lanm was started by G. T. Lanig&n, H|
III the beginnings of \the If
;*e 3 A. F. Pirie
President 1893
T. H. Preston
President 1894  IN QUEBEC
Star. He was subsequently connected with the New
York World and ended his days in Philadelphia.
Diogenes was of a higher literary rank than most of the
ephemeral sheets of this kind that shot across the literary, social, or political horizon. It was edited by Mr.
George Murray, B.A. (Oxon.), an accomplished scholar
and well-known poet. The Spectator, started by T. D.
King, though it lasted only a few weeks, contained some
well-written articles on prominent Montrealers of forty
years ago, including a portrayal of Lieut.-Col. Cham-
berlin,  C.M.G.
Of legal, medical, commercial, educational, industrial, financial, and special trade journals, the number
started from time to time may, in the aggregate, be
called legion. Free Masons, Odd Fellows, and Templars of Temperance had also their organs. Of literary
magazines the most successful were the New Dominion
Monthly (John Dougall & Son), the Canadian Illustrated News (G. E. Desbarats), the Saturday Reader
(R. Worthington), the Hearthstone, the Dominion Illustrated Monthly, the Studenfs Monthly and other
college journals; Canadiana, a monthly magazine established by Mr. W. J. White, advocate, as the organ
of the Society for Historical Studies; the University
Monthly, representing Toronto, McGill, and Dalhousie
Universities; World Wide, an eclectic (John Dougall &
Son), and the Standard, an illustrated weekly, published
by the George Murray Company, and of which Mr. F.
Yorston is managing editor. Of scientific periodicals
there have been a good many from time to time, but the
most permanent and valuable is the organ of the Natural History Society of Montreal, now known as the THE CANADIAN PRESS
Record of Science. Mention ought not to be omitted
of the publications of the Literary and Historical Society of Quebec, and of the Numismatic and Antiquarian Society of Montreal.
Among the journalists of the Province of Quebec
during the first century after the Conquest, there were,
as may be gathered from this hasty retrospect, some
men of rare endowments and interesting careers. The
names of Dr. Waller, John Fleming, Dr. John Charlton Fisher, Thomas Storrow Brown, Charles Roger,
the Hon. John Neilson, Mungo Kay, Dr. O'Callaghan,
(the Hon. Sir) Francis Hincks, Robert Weir, David
Chisholme, L. H. McCullough, S. H. Wilcocke, the
Careys, the Middletons, suggest, some of them, taste
and learning, others, strong convictions and a determination of purpose that recoiled from no perils. The
men who bore those names represented each great
division of the Mother Country and they differed
widely in their political views. Some of them have left
apologies for the decisions at which they arrived at great
turning points in their own lives and in the destiny of
Canada. We judge them more leniently than they
judged each other and try to understand and excuse
where we cannot approve. One of them who died at
sea and whose body was committed to the deep has left
himself a monument in the epitaph he wrote for the
foes who received their death wounds on the Plains of
Abraham. While Wolfe and Montcalm live in men's
memories the name of Dr. John Charlton Fisher cannot
be forgotten.
And who were the successors of those pioneers at the
time when this  narrative  opens?   We can  at least
; ■ 11
recall the names of some of them. In the year 1858
Arthur Harvey, Brown Chamberlain, D.C.L., David
Kinnear, Robert Abraham, John Henry Willan, John
Dougall, A. N. Rennie, James Moir Ferris, William
Bristow, Matthew Ryan, Rollo Campbell, Thomas
Carey, J. F. McDonnell, Thomas Darcy McGee,
Edward Goff Penny, E. H. Parsons, John Lowe, were
well-known figures in Lower Canadian journalism.
McGee had just begun that Canadian career which was
to be so fruitful, although it was so sadly cut short.
He began it as a journalist, and we may almost regard
his New Era as prophetic, for few laboured more
zealously than he in the cause of Confederation. He
lived to see the new era inaugurated, but not to see the
Dominion completed. Parsons became the fiercest
of champions for the Southern cause. John Dougall was
the advocate of the Northern ideal. They were both
vigorous writers, but Parsons held the most formidable
pen of his day. Practically he was (apart from his
dream of a powerful Southern Confederacy) a free
lance, and was dreaded at times by friend as well as
foe. He was at this time editing the Montreal
Advertiser: later he had charge of the Evening Telegraph.
One by one the men who had the lead in the journalism of Quebec when our Association's annals began, disappeared from the places that knew them. Some died
in harness; others entered the civil service and in due
time were pensioned off; others became more or less
prominent figures in the political life of their time. In
their stead others came to the front, of whom some had
learned from them the secrets of their mystery (metier),
\ \
mm^m\ t
m SI\
and had tried to follow in their footsteps: while others
were newcomers who had already made a reputation.
It would not be easy to give a list of the inore eminent
newspaper men of any period or any locality that would
be satisfactory to every reader. When the story of
Lower Canadian journalism comes, however, to be
written by the future historian, certain names are pretty
sure to be mentioned, some of which are comprised
in the following list:—Hon. Thomas White, John
Livingstone, F. E. Molyneux St. John, S. L. Kydd,
Frank Carrel, John R. Dougall, E. R. Smith, G. E.
Desbarats, Richard White, G. T. Lanigan, Frederick
Yorston, Henry Dalby, Hugh Graham, C. H. Par-
melee, Russ Huntington, Charles Denroche Barr,
George Spaight, C. B. Allardyce, Watson Griffin, G.
Krauss, Leslie Thorn, A. G. Doughty, John Boyd, John
Norris, J. Ferguson, Captain Kirwan, Martin J.
Griffin, James Kirby, LL.D., advocate, R. S. White,
George Murray, T. Robertson, Smeaton White, T.
Marshall, Joseph Walsh, J. S. Brierly, G. Tolley,
George Young, John Phillips, John T. Lesperance, J.
Corey, J. P. Edwards, G. H. Larminie, Hon. Peter
Mitchell, James Stewart, John Wilson, Carroll Ryan,
E. J. Duggan, J. C. Cunliffe, Austin Mosher, J. J.
Proctor, E. F. Slack, James Harper, Senator Cloran,
Charles Maxell,' M.P., E. G. O'Connor, George
Barnum, J. R. V. Forest, J. Clifford Smith, A. H. U.
Colquhoun, D. Browne, T. Bark, H. Mason, Newton
MaeTavish, M. S. Foley, L. S. Channell, P. D.
Ross, J. E. Atkinson, Lyon Cohen, Mrs. Atkinson
(« Madge Merton"), Mrs. Everard Cotes (Miss
Sara J. Duncan), Mrs. J. Clark Murray, Miss Frazer
(author of «Atma"), Miss Charlton, Miss Blanche
L. Macdonell, etc. The life story of some of the
bearers of the foregoing names could be made not only
interesting but instructive and exemplary. They represent various, but by no means all, the activities of
successful journalism. Only a few of them learned the
newspaper business in its entirety. Some of them planned what others executed. It would not be fair to call
any of them mere dilettanti, though to some of them
the newspaper was merely a path to what they deemed
a more toil-worthy goal. They did not all wield the
pen of the ready writer, but most of them had the instinct for discernment and selection which made them
good leaders, good lieutenants, or clubbable and
efficient co-workers.
In estimating the progress of this section of the
Canadian press during half a century, it might first of all
be essential to establish what is meant by progress.
There are probably as many kinds of progress as there
are of glory, even if we leave the stars out of the reckoning. The progress that we have in mind would be
that which would result from striking an average. In
the material appliances for composition, press-work, the
expeditious printing off of big editions of voluminous
papers, the change since 1858, when our Association
began its career, has been so profound and far-reaching that we hardly know which of the two would
furnish the greater surprise—the marvellous contrivances of to-day to the elderly foreman of fifty years ago,
or a selection from the presses that then prevailed to
the up-to-date superintendent of to-day. Improvements in printing presses which mark a regular evolu- u
i GiH
tion, the chief agents of which might be counted on the
fingers, have induced corresponding changes in the
training of the men and women who woffk them. The
compositor of fifty years ago has become obsolete.
The editorial and business staffs of even leading papers
in 1858 would be futile for the diversity of departments
of their actual successors. We have already referred
to the effect of the ocean cable on the destiny of the
press. To us of 1908 the paper of 1858 would hardly
seem to be a newspaper at all. Yet in some respects
the development of our papers in certain directions may
be of doubtful value. Of course, much must depend
on the point of view. Elderly clergymen or lay moral
reformers may sometimes stand aghast when they
see papers nominally religious in tone and whose
principal aim used to be all kinds of reform largely
addicted to horse-shows, foot-ball matches, and the
social divagations, and barely stopping short at the
prize ring! Then, again, a great deal more space is
given to the description of spectacular crime than was
once customary, indeed, possible. But, if there are
excesses to-day where fifty years ago there were shortcomings, there is also unquestioned advance in several
ways—in the fairness and fullness of parliamentary and
other political reports; in often excellent digests of the
business situation from day to day; and in admirable
culled or original reading for young and old. Whether
the moralist has, on the whole, more reason to be
dissatisfied or to be pleased with the position that the
British press now occupies in this Province of Quebec,
one perhaps may be excused from affirming positively.
For our own part, however, we are disposed to take the
■ !§ Tl
more hopeful view, and to conclude that the remarkable
material progress of the last fifty years has been identified with an intellectual and moral advance that is not
out of keeping with it.
OF the public press of Ontario, it has been said that
it gives the public far more than it receives, and
that it is capable of serving a community many times
the size of that in which it disseminates the news. That
this opinion is not unfounded, comparisons with the
journalism of Great Britain and the United States
abundantly prove. In both these lands, business centres
of the same strength as to population and wealth as
those of Ontario can boast no such productions as our
city dailies, whether they be "mornings" or 'evenings." There, also, the press of the 'provinces," to
borrow the English term, is inferior to that portion of
Canada of which we are now speaking. Ontario, as a
matter of fact, has, for the spreading of information
among the people, machinery which, if we take into
consideration the market possibilities for its products,
surpasses that of most English speaking countries.
This situation is to be attributed to the popular relish
for public discussion, which is one of the results of our
system of education, and to the zeal of those who have
made the moulding of public opinion their life work.
It was from small beginnings, and in the face of
difficulties and disappointments, that the excellence of
to-day was attained. The first editor to publish a
paper in what is now Ontario, and what was then
Upper  Canada,  was  a  Frenchman,  Lewis  Roy by IN ONTARIO
name. This father of Ontario journalism issued his
"Salutatory" on the 13th day of April, 1793. How
came he to launch upon the troubled sea of newspaper-
dom at that early date? It appears that the separation of Upper from Lower Canada, and the appointment of Governor Simcoe in 1791 to rule over the new
division of the country, gave currency to the view that
a great population would soon occupy the new west,
and that Newark, the capital, would speedily become
an important centre of trade and of industry. Mr. Roy
heard of the prospects, and consequently hastened to
the promising field to establish his journal under the
name of the Upper Canada Gazette and American
Oracle. High were the aspirations of the publisher.
The Upper Canada Gazette and American Oracle was
to become "the vehicle of intelligence in this growing
province of whatever may tend to its interest, benefit,
and common advantage." High, also, were the rates
for the pioneer journal. The subscription price was
three dollars per annum, and the charge for advertising
four shillings for twelve lines. Roy's weekly was well
printed on good paper. But the enterprising Frenchman could not command a large subscription list
among the early settlers; nor was his advertising patronage sufficient to cover his expenses. After a year's
trial, therefore, he abandoned the field and made
Montreal the scene of his labours. Here he took
charge of the Montreal Gazette, the paper which Benjamin Franklin had established in the mistaken belief
that he could make it a medium for the preaching of
antagonism to British institutions. The successor to
Lewis Roy was Gideon Tiffany, a printer who united
with his journalistic work the business of printing for
the Government. Mr. Tiffany continued the publication until 1799, when, the seat of Government having
been transferred to York, now Toronto, the Gazette
followed it to the northern shore of the lake. Tiffany
and his brother, however, remained at Niagara, for
they had confidence in that town, and jointly issued
a successor to the Gazette, which they designated the
Canada Constellation, the first number of which was
issued on July 20, 1799. The Messrs. Tiffany intended to serve the public independently and well. Their
introductory appeal to the people dwelt upon the usefulness and the influence of the press, and deprecated
the "political printer "—referring no doubt to the publishers of the Gazette, which had crossed the water with
the Governor, and had become under Messrs. Waters
and Simons, the new proprietors, a species of Governr
ment organ. As independent publishers they contended that they could contribute to the unity and the prosperity of the community. Their policy was one of
local loyalty, and they proposed to devote themselves
to the interests of Niagara, rather than to those of York,
the rival town across the lake, whose pretensions they
Unfortunately, the Constellation perished at the end
of the year. Its successor, the Herald, holding an
inquest upon the remains, attributed the sudden death
to starvation. The publishers had forgotten to insist
upon payment in advance, and had suffered in consequence. Curiously enough the Herald, with the
experience of the Constellation before it, fell into the
error which it had detected in its predecessor, and was IN ONTARIO
able to hold out for but two years. A third enterprise,
and still another, followed the Herald and the Constellation, all dying for want of support. Yet there
was some advertising for the active business manager
to capture. Here is a sample from the Niagara Herald
of January 2, 1802:     -        HB^R
'For Sale—A negro man slave, 18 years of age,
stout and healthy, has had the smallpox, and is capable of work either in the house or outdoors.
"The terms will be made easy to the purchaser,
and cash or new lands received in payment.    Enquire
of the printer."
Of such announcements, however, the Niagara
journal did not have the monopoly, for there appear in
the York papers of the same period advertisements
such as this:
"To be sold.—A healthy, strong negro woman,
about thirty years of age, understands cooking and
"N.B.—She  can  dress  ladies' hair.    Enquire of
the printer.    York, Dec. 20th, 1800."
And again, warnings of the following nature:
"All persons are forbidden from harbouring my
slave 'Sal'  and will be prosecuted if they keep her
half an hour.        Charles Field."
It ought to be explained with reference to these
notices that while the few slaves brought to the province
in early days could be legally held, no additions to the
holdings of that nature were permitted. The Legislature at its first session at Niagara proclaimed the
introduction of slaves illegal, and slavery died an early
and  natural     death.    Niagara turned  out to be   a THE CANADIAN PRESS
graveyard for the infant newspaper. Nor need this
be a matter for surprise. With the removal of the seat
of Government to York, much of the business of the
first capital of Upper Canada slipped away from it.
It was to York that the public officials came. It was
at York that the Legislature sat. It was in York that
the little trade of the new province centred. All that
was left to Niagara was the military post and such business as the surrounding country, which was practically
unoccupied, afforded. Under the circumstances, the
newspaper publisher could not look for a livelihood,
much less for comfort, in Governor Simcoe's deserted
village. More hopeful was the outlook on the other
shore of the lake, where the Upper Canada Gazette, first
under the management of Messrs. Waters and Simons,
and, afterwards, under that of Mr. J. Bennett, was now
issued. This paper, however, had its difficulties.
One of these was an occasional paper famine which
necessitated its publication, sometimes, on wrapping
paper, and at other times on the blue paper used for
the covers of official reports. Another was the inability to procure the news with which to make the issue
attractive and interesting. The Gazette depended upon
the New York papers, which were very irregular in their
arrival, for its British and foreign intelligence, and it
passed over local affairs altogether. The whipping or
branding of a criminal, according to the custom of
those days, would be mentioned, but the public meetings, although duly announced, received no attention, and there was no discussion of public movements.
Until 1813, the Gazette was issued.    In that year it IN ONTARIO
came to a sudden stop. The invaders from the United
States scattered its type, and destroyed its press. In
1817, however, it was revived by Dr. Home, an army
surgeon, and was subsequently transferred by him to
Mr. Charles Fothergill, who changed the name to the
Weekly Register, under which designation it fought
William Lyon Mackenzie and his propaganda. Meanwhile, political discussion called a variety of papers
into existence. One that became celebrated was the
Upper Canadian Guardian and Freeman9s Journal,
which was launched in 1807 by Joseph Wilcox, a member of the Legislature, and the first leader of the Opposition. Wilcocks was so fiery in his attack, and so
relentless in his pursuit of the powers that be, as to
achieve martyrdom in the form of imprisonment for
breach of privilege. Whatever sympathy may have
been extended to him by reason of his incarceration
was not of long duration, for in 1812 he deserted to the
Americans, and was killed at the siege of Fort Erie,
thus proving himself a traitor and an enemy of the continued independence of the Canadian people. Another
Opposition journal to become famous was the Colonial
Advocate, which appeared in May, 1824. Printed at
Lewiston, N.Y., dated from Queenston, and circulated
in York, the Colonial Advocate, under the editorship of
William Lyon Mackenzie, was a thorn in the side of
the Administration. Removed to York, it became even
more objectionable to the ruling men and to the Tory
element. At one time the feeling with reference to it
was so bitter that its office was raided, and its type
thrown into the lake. But it laboured on, with responsible   government  as   the   reform   for   which   it 166
I      !
struggled. William Lyon Mackenzie was a tremendous
worker, and a keen writer; but somewhat impetuous.
The resort to arms in 1837 brought the Colonial Advocate to its last issue. While Mackenzie's journal was
fighting the Government, that authority was not idle
in so far as the formation of public opinion was concerned. It had the support of the Upper Canada
Gazette under Dr. Home until 1820, when John Carey,
the first Canadian Parliamentary reporter, who had
reported the debates for the Gazette, began the publication of the Observer as an organ favourable to the
Administration. It also had the assistance of the
Loyalist, a paper established for the defence of the
Government in 1826, and the Courier, established by
George Gurnett in 1828
The troubles of 1837 seem to be the dividing line
between primitive Ontario journalism and the journalism of the mid-century period, for after that date
there appeared the moderate Liberal newspaper which
called for reforms without advising extreme measures,
and the moderate Tory paper which stood by the
powers as they existed, but did not antagonize timely
changes. Of the former class of journal the Examiner,
established by Mr. (afterwards Sir Francis) Hincks in
1838, and edited for years by Charles Lindsey, was an
early example. Mr. Hincks was a Reformer of the old
school, and an earnest advocate of responsible government in the sense in which it was understood by Robert
Baldwin. In the same category was the Banner,
founded in 1843 by Peter Brown, the father of the two
distinguished journalists George and J. Gordon Brown,
who gave the Globe, which was first issued in 1844, and IN ONTARIO
into which the Banner and the Examiner were merged,
its character and its name. Of a similar type was
the North American, edited by the public man afterwards known to fame as Hon. William Macdougall.
This paper, which first saw the light in 1850, had a
mission and a distinct programme. The union of
Upper and Lower Canada had been accomplished and
responsible government had been conceded. Mr. Macdougall saw there was more to be done, and through
the North American he laid down his propositions.
These were fifteen in number. They included a demand for an elective Upper House, for the abolition of
the property qualification for Parliament, for the extension of the franchise to householders, for the ballot
in elections, for representation by population, for the
right of Canada to regulate her commercial intercourse
with other nations, for a decimal currency, and for the
free navigation of the St. Lawrence. It is interesting to
observe that all these reforms were tried, and that some
of them remain with us to this day. Mr. Macdougall's
paper became the mouthpiece of the Administration
formed by Mr. Hincks, the founder of the Examiner,
but in 1857, as a result of a new turn in the political
wheel, was amalgamated with the Globe, Mr. Macdougall himself joining the staff of that paper as an
editorial writer. Up to this point all the journals
of Liberal proclivities published since the rebellion
centred in the Globe, of which Hon. George Brown
was the master mind. The Globe flourished under Mr.
Brown up to the time of his assassination by an employe, and continued its successful career under Mr.
Gordon Brown, Mr. John Cameron, Mr. E. W. Thom-
son, Mr. J. S. Willison, who resigned to take charge of
the News, and Rev. James A. Macdonald.
On the other side of politics important papers came
into existence. In 1838 the British Colonist was established by Hugh Scobie, and the Palladium by Charles
Fothergill, while in 1840 the Patriot was introduced by
Thomas Dalton. On the death of Mr. Dalton, the
Patriot was conducted by his widow until 1848, when
Col. O'Brien, of Shanty Bay, afterwards a member
of Parliament, purchased it. Mr. Lucius O'Brien became the editor and Mr. Samuel Thompson the business manager. One year later Mr. O'Brien sold to
Mr. Ogle R. Gowan, a prominent member of the
Orange Order, who, with Mr. Thompson, conducted
the paper until 1853. In that year the weekly was
taken over by Mr. Gowan and the daily became the
property of Mr. Thompson. Meanwhile the Colonist,
under Hugh Scobie, had forged ahead, but it had lost
its founder, and was being conducted by his widow.
The situation was such as to facilitate the union of the
Daily Patriot with the Colonist, and this amalgamation
was accomplished in 1853, when Mr. Thompson, who
had become the proprietor of the Patriot, bought the
Colonist and combined the two properties. It is said
of the Colonist of that period that it was in get-up an
exact counterpart of the London Times. The size of
the sheet, the type, the manner of setting the ads., were
all copied from the Thunderer. That it was ably
written, there can be no doubt. One of its editors was
John Sheridan Hogan, a public man of great power,
whose essay on Canada written for the Universal
Exhibition of   1856 won the highest commendation.
m%  Col. €
~f Pari
fr. J. S. Willison, e-bo resi^nod to take
iW News, and Rev. Jamee a-  macdonald.
On the other side of poiitk* j|jB|>ortant ^papers cafi
into existence.    In 1838 &   $tmkk CoUnist was c
tablishedby Hiifi Icpbi% «rf tfc; 1 ^^fcby Charl
FothergilL ^-oom 18#§-11kj s .. - m $ introduced 1
Thomas  laakos,    I I 1   tee  arMh  pi    - \a j0
ft*   ee'd by his widow m- •-  sa482. w!-e
dr* Shanty Bay, afterw.-. •     1  mejmbe
furchped it|   Mr. Lucius 6 Brien i  ■
r and Mr. Sauiuel Thompson the bo--.
e$.    One year   later Mr. O'Brien sold t-j
R.   Gowaa|i a preeminent member  of |§i
Orange Order, who, with Mr. Thompson, conducts
e paper until 1853.    In that year the weekly^ • ■ .
by Mr.'.Gowan and the daily became l; i
'/-Is. Thompsoail MeanwhOe the Golmiv]
, had forged ahead, but it had jmj
fits widrn
onion ^o£!
jl&mphshed j& i&$$, when Mr. Thompson, wl
Bad- become the proprietor of the Patriot, bought
Colonist and combined the two properties.    It is
of the Colonist of that period that it was in get-up |
counterpart of the London Times.   The .HM
tile sheet, the type, the manner of setting the ads.* lj|
■.   copied from the Thunderer.    That it was J|
there can be no don lot    One of its editors- ■ ■
\. Sheridan Hogan, a public man of great 000 i
essay  on   Canada   written   for the  UmV
t.   ,<m of   1856 won the highest commend.   IN ONTARIO
Mr. Hogan met with a tragic end. In the winter of
1858 he was missed. It was reported that he had left
for Texas. But in the spring his body was found in
the Don, where it had been thrown by the Brooks'
Bush Gang, a notorious collection of thugs, by whom
he had been murdered. Another editor of note was
Robert A. Harrison, who afterwards became Chief
Justice of Ontario. In 1857 there came a great financial
crash, in which Mr. Thompson, the proprietor of the
Colonist, suffered heavy loss. This necessitated the
sale of the paper a year later to Messrs. Sheppard &
Morrison. These proprietors afterwards sold to the
publisher of the Leader, Mr. James Beaty. The
Leader had been established in 1852 as a Conservative
journal, and was vigorously managed under Mr.
Charles Lindsey, its editor. After taking over the
Colonist, it became a strong force. It, however, met
with competition, its earliest opponent being the
Telegraph, which was started in 1866 by Mr. John
Ross Robertson, now the proprietor of the Telegram.
This paper flourished until 1876. Meanwhile a new
Conservative daily had come into existence—the Mail—
in 1872. The Mail was founded through the exertions
of Mr. Thomas C. Patteson, a friend and admirer of
the two Macdonalds, John A. and John Sandfield.
He was aided by Charles Belford and George Gregg,
the former editor, and the latter Parliamentary reporter, of the Leader. The purpose of the Mail was to
give strength to the Conservative party, and to advocate the principle of protection which was popularly
described as the National Policy. Along these lines
it worked, the chief writers being Mr. Patteson, Mr.
j i
Belford, Mr. William Rattray, Mr. Edward Farrer,
and Mr. John Maclean, father of Mr. W. F. Maclean,
M.P. In 1877 the Mail became the property of Mr.
John Riordon, of St. Catharines, and Christopher W.
Bunting was appointed as its manager. Edward Farrer
and Martin J. Griffin were successively its editors. On
the death of Mr. Bunting the management passed to
Mr. W. J. Douglas, with Arthur Wallis as editor. In
the meantime, however, an evolution had taken place
in respect of this paper. In 1885 it came into controversy with Sir John Macdonald on the Riel issue, and
the allied question of the position of the French race
in Canada. This breach widened, and Sir John in
1887 established as the mouthpiece of the Conservative
party the Empiref under the direction of Mr. David
Creighton, with Mr. John Livingstone as its first editor-
in-chief, and Mr. A. H. U. Colquhoun as his successor.
The Empire was vigorously conducted, and was a growing force in the land. In 1895 it was amalgamated
with the Mail, and the two journals were thereafter
known as the Mail and Empire. Long before the establishment of the Empire there was another candidate
for public favour—the Toronto World. This daily
was founded during a bye-election in West Toronto
in the year 1879, with Messrs^ W. F. Maclean, Archi-
bald Blue, and Albert Horton as its proprietors. From
small beginnings it assumed large proportions, and
through the withdrawal of the other partners, became
the exclusive property of Mr. Maclean.
The era of the present-day evening paper began in
1873 with the Sun, a short-lived venture. This journal
was succeeded in 1876 by the  Telegram.    Mr. John
Ross Robertson, its founder, saw that with the growing
city population there was a field for a city paper as
distinguished from a provincial paper. He therefore
made the Telegram strongly local, applying it in an
especial sense to the discussion of municipal concerns. To the initial success of this journal Mr. A. F.
Pirie, its first editor, powerfully contributed. Mr.
John Robinson, his successor, has by his ability and
versatility added to the popularity of the enterprise.
The second of the evenings to enter the field was the
Evening News, which was established as the afternoon
edition of the Mail in 1880. This paper was ultimately
divorced from the Mail. Under the editorship of Mr.
E. E. Sheppard it was an aggressive radical publication advocating many changes. It was subsequently
managed by Mr. William Douglas, and edited by
Mr. H. C. Hocken. In 1904 Mr. J. S. Willison, who
had edited the Globe with distinction, took charge of
the News, and conducted it as a journal of the more
advanced type for the independent discussion of political,
educational, and social matters. The Evening Star
came into existence in 1893, and ultimately passed under
the management of Mr. J. E. Atkinson, when it achieved
success. The Star had for some years Mr. Joseph T.
Clark as chief editorial writer, and on the withdrawal
of Mr. Clark, who became the editor of Saturday Night,
he was succeeded by Mr. John Lewis.
While the press of the capital city was growing that
of 'the provinces" or of the cities and towns of
Upper Canada was making rapid headway. The
eastern end of the province, owing to the fact that it was
the first section to be  occupied,  led in journalistic 172
enterprise. As early as 1801 there appeared in Kingston the Gazette under the management of Messrs.
Miles & Kendall, formerly of Montreal. This paper
continued to publish until the war of 1812—a period
during which there ought to have been no end of copy
—when its suspension was regarded as necessary. It
resumed after the war under the name of the Gazette
and Religious Advocate, and is supposed to have been
the first religious weekly in America. It ante-dates
the Christian Guardian, established in Toronto by Rev.
Dr. Ryerson in 1829. Kingston is the home of long-
lived journalism. There in 1810 the Chronicle, afterwards the News, and now the Standard, was established.
In 1851 the News became a daily, and it has served the
public in that capacity ever since. The Whig was
launched in 1834 by Dr. F. J. Barker. It passed to
Mr. M. L. Pense, and is now the property of Mr. E.
J. B. Pense, M.P.P., the grandson of the founder.
This journal is one of the few that have remained in
the family by which they were founded. While the
Kingston News, now the Standard, is the oldest of the
Eastern Ontario papers, the Brockville Recorder is the
next in the order of seniority. This journal was established in 1820 by Col. D. Wylie, known to his comrades in later years as the father of the Ontario press,
and is the property of Hon. George P. Graham, the
Minister of Railways and Canals. The first paper to
be printed in the district lying between Kingston and
York was the Hallowell Free Press, which appeared on
Dec. 28th, 1830. Hallowell was the Picton of to-day.
The chief town of Prince Edward County, it must
have been a busy place at the time when lake naviga- IN ONTARIO
tion was the principal means of communication between
the East and the West. In the opening number of this
paper, we get some idea of the conditions under which
newspapers were begun in those early days. The editor
says: " A number of attempts have been made to publish a journal in this country, proposals circulated, subscriptions obtained to a considerable amount, and the
expectations of the public wrought up to the highest
degree. Yet every attempt has proved abortive except
the present. Repeated imposition has, no doubt, had
a tendency to create in the public mind a spirit of indifference and apathy respecting newspapers." Evidently the business of the genuine newspaper man was
handicapped by the work of speculators who collected
subscriptions on the promise that they would start
local journals, but failed to go any farther. Joseph
Wilson, who founded the Hallowell Free Press, began
to print from a wooden press of his own design and
secured an iron press from the United States one year
later. In 1840 the Prince Edward Gazette began to be
published. This paper became the Picton Gazette
in 1847, and has been issued regularly ever since. Its
contemporary, the Picton Times came into existence
a few years later. Belleville was one of the pioneer
newspaper towns east of Toronto. Its first paper was
the Anglo-Canadian, commenced in 1831. Of this
journal the Ontario is the descendant. In September,
1834, George Benjamin began the publication of the
Intelligencer. This gentleman was an Englishman of
more than ordinary ability, and a strong Conservative.
He issued the paper, ran for Parliament, and was a
member from 1856 to 1863.    On his death a young THE CANADIAN PRESS
man who had entered his office as a "devil" succeeded
him in* the management of the paper, and in the representation of the county. This individual was Mackenzie Bowell, afterwards a Minister of the Crown,
a senator, a knight, and Premier of the Dominion.
Western Canada, or the district west of Toronto,
had a few little papers in the "thirties," but no publications of permanent or substantial character were issued
until the "forties." The first paper to be established
early and to last long was the Hamilton Spectator.
By Robert Reid Smiley the Spectator was founded, and
its first number came out on July 15, 1846. The paper
was Conservative, but independent and progressive.
It advocated many reforms, among them the secularization of the Clergy Reserves. On the death of Mr.
Smiley in 1855, John Smiley and William Gillespie
became the owners. But these gentlemen were hit by
the business depression and were compelled to part with
the property. The new proprietors were Thomas and
Richard White, who took possession in 1864. These
experienced newspaper men made the Spectator a success; but soon removed to Montreal, where, in a wider
field, they published the Gazette. In 1873 William
Southam and William Carey took control. Under
their management, in co-operation with such writers
as David McCullough, A. T. Freed, and J. Robson
Cameron, the Spectator prospered. The Hamilton
Times, a vigorous Liberal paper, for years edited
by H. F. Gardner, was a later candidate for public
recognition. It was first issued in 1858. The Herald,
independent, is still more recent. It was founded in
1889.    London's first permanent newspaper was es- IN ONTARIO
tablished in 1849. There had been a printing plant
at St. Thomas with which Thomas Watson Woodward
printed an occasional paper of the Reform type. In
1837 Woodward abandoned journalism and joined the
militia. He is said to have declared that while a
Reformer he was not a rebel. His plant found its way
to London, and was bought by William Sutherland,
who in 1849 started the Free Press. In 1852 Josiah
and Stephen Blackburn bought the paper, running it as
a weekly until 1855, when it became a daily. For
years Mr. M. G. Bremner has been the editorial manager. The Advertiser was founded by John Cameron
in 1863. An advanced journal of Liberal views, it
speedily won public favour. It has been edited by
Mr. Cameron himself, by Hon. David Mills, and by
Mr. M. Rossie. Brantford received the benefit of the
public press early in its career. The Courier was established by Mr. Henry Lemmon in 1834, and the
Expositor, now the property of Mr. T. H. Preston,
M.P.P., in 1852. It is not possible within moderate
space to follow the history of journalism in Ontario
in all its phases, or to do justice to every publication
now being issued, and to every worker in the great
publicity field. For this reason this review is confined
to the story of the pioneers. These enterprising men
commenced their work amidst many drawbacks; but
left behind them a public taste for current literature
which is the most valuable asset of the journalism of
Arthur Wallis. Ill::
I FIRST knew Toronto in 1856. The dailies were the
Globe, Colonist, and Leader. It is a mistake to suppose the Globe owed its pre-eminence to its politics.
It was due to its excellence as a purveyor of news.
It recorded everything of public interest and did so
promptly. There was a trial of a physician at Cobourg
for murder. A reporter was sent who telegraphed
his notes, which meant heavy cost. In collecting
news the Globe far outdistanced the two other papers,
and even people who did not like its politics read it first.
Its excellence in this regard was due to Gordon
Brown, who really made the reputation of the Globe,
for while his brother's personality stamped it in public
repute, it was Gordon's work that put it in the front
rank. He was a silent, observant man, who led, so
it impressed me, a lonesome life. His capacity for
work was great, and he was unwearied in making each
number of the Globe the best possible with the means
at hand.
His first assistant I knew was James K. Edwards,
probably the best stenographer Canada has known.
He died in Washington, where he was head of the
Congressional staff. Edwards had a rare faculty of
paragraphing and condensing, and nothing in the
papers escaped him His watchfulness of the news
columns of the Globe was unceasing. He always
accompanied George Brown on his political tours and
reported  his   speeches  verbatim.    They  were   never REMINISCENCES OF 1856
published, however, as he wrote them. Brown carefully went over them, changing and adding in a way
that, boy-like, I did not think was morally right, for
I thought they should have been printed as they were
spoken. Even trivial utterances, on occasions of no
importance, had to be thus submitted to him and
revised. Brown did little work on the paper, indeed
was seldom in the editorial room. He was much
away at Bothwell, where he had land and mills, and in
attending political gatherings. When at home he always had a succession of visits from people of all sorts,f or
he kept in touch with each constituency of the province,
and had really no time for the paper, to the business
branch of which he paid more attention than to the
literary. His articles can always be picked out by
their big type and prodigality of italic, exclamation
points, and capitals. From what I know, I should say
Gordon was the maker of the Globe. Though George
left the editing of the paper to his brother he impressed upon it features Gordon did not care for.
Theatrical performances were neither reported nor
advertised, nor were horse races and the like. Work
was suspended on Saturday at midnight, a few compositors, by rotation, returning at midnight Monday
The Globe's chief competitor was the Colonist,
which, in 1856 and later on, had a strong hold on the
public, which it lost from being poorly managed and
its strong dependence on Government support. The
Leader never was a paper of the people, and had
little support outside Conservative circles. It introduced, if I am not mistaken, in 1860, the cent daily.
It was a small sheet printed on straw paper. Instantly
there sprang up another novelty to Toronto—the newsboy—and every afternoon, about 4 o'clock, the streets
resounded with, " Here ye are for the Ev-ning Lee-
dar I' I have a pleasant recollection of it from
reading in its columns, where it was reproduced as
a serial, "Tom Brown at Oxford."
Of the other papers little need be said. The Mirror
was a Catholic paper, poorly printed and got up.
The Message was a curiosity, dotted with cuts of
roosters and all sorts of old pictures that had accumulated in its office. It made no pretension to give the
news, and what was original was personal items about
the editor. Mackenzie was ill-balanced, and his
morbid egotism led him to criticize whatever jarred
on his notions. To speak of him as a newspaper man
is absurd. The Message had no regular publishing
day and appeared when it was ready.
Another fake paper was the Times, published by
a Mr. Hope, who was a well-known character. He was
a little man, with a squeaky voice, who haunted the
post-office, and was known by the sub-title of his paper,
the Old Countryman. He was English, and everything that was not English was wrong. He boarded
at the Queen's and toadied after the politicians, getting
much profitable advertising for his paper, which had
no circulation outside the city.
I cannot give the date when the Grumbler appeared
—'59 or '60 I should say. It was the first successful
literary paper Canada had and the best. I say literary,
for in its first three volumes will be found much clever
writing.    As its founders dropped off it fell into in-
ferior hands, and its humor became mechanical. The
Conservatives started opposition to it, the Poker. It
was well named, for it had no more wit or humor in
it than a poker.
Of the country press it is to be noted that it had no
existence worth mentioning until 1851, and if you examine the title pages of papers now published few will
be found that existed before that year. The reason
of this was the rates of postage. On their being modified a swarm of country papers started. It was not
difficult ; a few hundred dollars was sufficient. I
knew of papers whose plants did not cost $300. They
were as a rule poor affairs, yet better than their support
warranted. Places that are towns and cities now were
villages then, and it was easier to obtain subscribers
than to collect subscriptions. Conservative papers
were liberally dealt with in getting official advertisements, the Government check often paying the paper
maker. Many worthy printers wore out their lives
in the struggle to establish papers in places that could
not give adequate support. In some points the coun^
try papers of that time were superior to those of the
present. Nearly all their proprietors having come
from the Old Land, their ideal of a newspaper was
the British press: those of to-day are imitators of the
American. There was none of the wretched gossip
that passes now for local news, and their columns were
not sewers into which every passer-by could pitch
In this one regard, that they did not minister to the
vanity of their readers nor intrude into the privacy of
the home, I hold these old-time journalists in respect.
They tried to have an editorial in each number and
reported whatever was of public interest without exaggeration, and in better English than their successors.
The best printed and the best prepared of the country
papers was the Sarnia Observer, and after it the Barrie
Advance. The worst printed and edited was Kirby's
paper, the Niagara Mail. The poverty of these publishers of country papers half a century ago made
them the servants of their party and of the big man of
their constituencies. There were exceptions, where
men earnestly strove to mould public opinion on the
lines they believed were true. The editorial style
of the time I speak of was quite pretentious, and writers
whose knowledge of Latin did not go beyond the
delectus were fond of learned quotations, preferable
to the flippancy and would-be smartness that too many
aim at now.
It used to be the rule, that the man who published
a paper was a practical printer, and the general belief
was that no publisher could be successful who was not.
An amusing illustration of this was a fond father
entering the Globe office one forenoon with his son,
and telling Mr. Brown the boy was ambitious of being
an editor. " All right," was the reply, I j the first step is
to give him a general knowledge of printing: send him
down to-morrow morning." When the lad appeared
he was detailed to roll for a hand-press—two rolls
and distribute—damn yer eyes—with added instructions as to the brayer. When six o'clock came he went
home to his mother daubed hands and face and shirt
with ink.    He did not return to his editorial class.
THE first newspaper in what was known as Rupert's Land, and long prior to the transfer of the
North-West Territories to Canada, was called the Nor-
Wester. It owed its inception to the enterprise of two
well-known Ontario newspaper men, who came from
Toronto in the autumn of 1859; Wm. Buckingham
and Wm. Coldwell. The former came as a representative of the Toronto Globe, and the latter as a
correspondent of the Leader.
The first issue of the Nor-Wester is dated the 28th
Dec, 1859, and was published at Fort Garry, a mere
hamlet, yet the Chief Post of the Hudson's Bay Company in this country. They brought their outfit along
with them, and had a somewhat rugged experience
in its transport from St. Paul to Fort Garry by the
transport system then in vogue via Red River cart. A
file of this paper is in the reference section of the Provincial Library, and a perusal of it brings up many
fond reminiscences of the early history of the country.
It was a four-page weekly with quite a lot of advertisements, well selected Canadian and foreign news; its
leaders, too, were ably written, and had much to do
with the early development of Manitoba and its subsequent transfer to the Dominion of Canada. THE CANADIAN PRESS
Mr. Buckingham's connection with the paper lasted
only a year, as he returned East to assume charge of a
paper in Stratford. He afterwards became private
secretary to the Hon. Alex. Mackenzie during the
Liberal regime at Ottawa from 1873 till 1878. Mr.
Coldwell continued to edit the newspaper, and took
into partnership with him Mr. James Ross, a relative,
and son of the late Alex. Ross, author of several volumes
on the Western Country. James Ross, although a native
of the Red River Settlement, had quite a penchant for
literature. He was educated at St. John's College,
Red River, and Toronto University, where he graduated
with honours in 1857. He was classical master in
Upper Canada College in 1858. He returned to Fort
Garry in 1859, where he became Postmaster and
Sheriff. It was about this time, too, he became identified with the Nor-Wester, which he edited and partly
owned from 1860 till 1864. Mr. Ross severed his connection with the paper at this date to become associate
editor of the Hamilton Spectator, and was also a writer
in the Toronto Globe. He was admitted to the Bar of
Manitoba in 1870, and became Chief Justice during the
Provisional Government of Louis Riel. He died 20th
September, 1871. The Nor-Wester after 1864 was
published by Messrs. Coldwell and Schultz, but the
former retired in 1865, and the paper was afterwards
published by Dr. Schultz until 1870. Wm. Coldwell
went to Toronto in 1865, but returned again to the Red
River in 1870, and was about to embark upon another
journalistic venture, the Red River Pioneer, but only
the outside pages were printed, when Riel pounced
upon the plant and confiscated it to his own use. IN  MANITOBA
Upon the wreck of the Pioneer, Riel started the New
Nation, with H. M. Robinson, an American, and a
member of his Provisional Government, as editor.
This journal had but an ephemeral existence for eight
months, and ceased publication with the advent of the
troops under Sir Garnet Wolseley in September, 1870.
It is perhaps only fair to Riel to say, that shortly after
seizing the plant of the Pioneer, he compensated Mr.
Coldwell for the loss he sustained in connection with
his venture to start the Red River Pioneer. The veteran
Coldwell, who had lived a retired life for some twenty
years, died in February, 1907, having left behind him
the imprint of yeoman service as a journalist in the great
West. The Manitoban, another weekly journal, has to
be linked with the name of the late Mr. Coldwell, who
had R. Cunningham, who came to the West as correspondent of the Toronto Globe, associated with him in
this new enterprise, which started in 1870. It ran for
two years, when it became the victim of disaster. A
mob wrecked the office, and at the same time the
offices of the Nor-Wester and Le Metis, a French paper
started by the late Hon. Joseph Royal. The Manitoban and Le Metis were resurrected, the former
merged ultimately into the Free Press, and the latter
ceased publication in 1882.
There are four other names that must be mentioned
in connection with early journalism in this country,
and those are: Messrs. W. F. Luxton, P. G. Laurie,
Stewart Mulvey, and Hon. Frank Oliver. All four were
identified with journalism at Winnipeg in the early
seventies. Mr. Luxton started the Free Press in 1872,
Mr. Laurie published the News Letter about 1875, an
interesting little sheet, but it lasted only about a year.
He subsequently took up his residence in Battleford,
the first capital of the North-West Territories, and there,
in 1878, started the Saskatchewan Herald. This paper
still survives the demise of Mr. Laurie, who died over
a year ago, at his adopted home, in the far off Saskatchewan, much of whose development is due to the
virile pen wielded by this veteran journalist.
The name of Major Stewart Mulvey is strongly
interwoven with the texture of early development in
Manitoba. He came out as an officer with the Ontario
Battalion of the Wolseley Expedition of 1870, and after
the Rebellion was over, settled in Winnipeg. Being
of an active and vigorous temperament, he at once
identified himself with the growth and development of
Manitoba. He was much associated with the promotion of education, and although not an expert journalist, yet he contributed largely to the press in the
discussion of public questions of the day. He also
established a journal called the Liberal, in 1871, but
it only lived about two years, there being evidently
sufficient papers already in the field to supply the
demand. Mr. Mulvey joined the Civil Service, being
for many years collector of Inland Revenue at Winnipeg. He was greatly devoted to military matters, and
went out in the Rebellion of 1885, as Major of the 95th
Battalion. He was a politician too, having unsuccessfully contested Selkirk for the House of Commons in
1882. He subsequently sat for one term in the local
Legislature. In later years he became Secretary-
Treasurer of the Board of Public School Trustees. His
death took place at Vancouver on the 25th of May,  THE CANADIAN PRESS
►ting little sheet, but     lasted only about
| subsequently took up his residence in Battle
the first capital of the North-W«fcf Territories, and thei
in 1878, started.the Saskafy^ I   a Herald.    Tills pop
still survives tli^ deie t e ;-'   'd    Laurie, who died ov
"-adopted I -doo m ma far oil Ss
| whose develop am m  ;*- due to |
by this veteran journalist.
e   of   Major Stewart  Mo key §|   stroij
urith the texture of early development
lie came out as an officer with the Ontaj
the Wolseley Expedition of 1870, and all
the Rebellion was over, settled in Winnipeg.    Ber
of an active and \ vigorous temperament, he at ot
identified himself with the growth and development
was  much  associated with  the p
education, and although not an expert jej,j
toto the press in t
r?   ■ ^jm d«y;    He m
*   "5
j «e
t  a em. eej yearn-    d-e:  '   t,^ evides
Ǥ^ papers  aires dy  m   ii    fckld  to  supply
demand.    Mr. Mulvey joined the Civil Service, b*
for many years collector of Inland Revenue at Witf
peg.    He was gfeatly devoted to military matters,
went out in the Rebellion of 1885. as Major of the |
Battalion.    He was & polltloiai*. kx>3 having imsiuo
contested Selkirk for the House of Comm;o
He subsequently sat for one term in tho -j
ykture.    In   later   years   he   became Sec; - ; j
of the Board of Public School Trustees,
place at Vancouver on the 25th of   IN MANITOBA
1908, and he was buried in Winnipeg, where a large
public funeral bore testimony to his popularity.
Hon. Frank Oliver worked for a time as a printer on
the Winnipeg Free Press, and wrote at intervals for
both it and Eastern papers. He was born at Brampton,
Peel County, Ontario, in 1853, and came to Manitoba
in the early seventies. He migrated to the West in
1880, taking up his residence in Edmonton. He became a member of the North-West Council in 1883, and
was elected after to the Assembly, in which he sat from
1888 to 1896. He was next elected to the House of
Commons, and now enjoys the distinguished honour of
being Minister of the Interior in the Laurier Cabinet.
It is, however, as a journalist that he must be noted.
He started the Edmonton Bulletin in December, 1880,
the first volume of which is not much larger than a
primer, and for a copy of which ten dollars was paid,
for the Provincial Library. It has since become one
of the leading journals of the Province of Alberta, with
an extensive circulation and generous advertising patronage. Hon. Mr. Oliver owes much of his popularity
and success in public life to the able and fearless way
in which he conducted the editorial columns of this
The Manitoba Free Press, established in 1872 as a
weekly, with a daily edition in 1878, has been one of the
most successful newspapers in Canada as a business
venture, and to-day is one of the leading journals of
the Dominion. The name of the late Williarn F.
Luxton is indelibly connected with the founding of this
great enterprise, and much credit is due him for the
success which has attended it since its inception.    Mr. 186
Luxton was born in Devonshire, England, in 1844, and
came to Canada when eleven years of age, settling in
St. Thomas, Ontario, where he subsequently taught
school. He started a newspaper in Strathroy called
the Age. He sold this paper and next founded the
Huron Expositor, at Seaforth, one of the leading journals in Western Ontario. Mr. Luxton migrated to
Manitoba in 1871, having come out as correspondent
for the Toronto Globe. He taught the first public
school in Fort Garry, but for only one year. His penchant for journalism having revived, he conceived the
idea of starting a newspaper in the West, and hence the
origin of the Free Press in 1872 by Kenny & Luxton.
The rapid growth of the West and the necessity for the
enlargement of this newspaper prompted Mr. Luxton
to make it a joint-stock concern, and attached to it was
a large job printing establishment. This marked an
epoch which ensured the future success of the enterprise. All, however, did not go well with the original
promoter. The control of the stock fell into the hands
of political and commercial syndicates who desired a
certain policy from the paper. This, Mr. Luxton, as
managing editor, could not see his way clear to pursue,
as he deemed the policy desired adverse to the interests
of the people. His independent attitude cost him
dearly, for he lost his interest in the concern, and retired from the paper altogether, very much chagrined
at the loss of an enterprise which was his own creation.
The newspaper has since been re-organized under new
auspices, the owners having erected one of the finest
printing houses in Canada. It is the organ of the Liberal party in Western  Canada,   and  wields  a  large
ffl^Tf'j'S* ■ ■!!!■■■■
influence in Manitoba and the adjoining Provinces.
Mr. Luxton has held many public offices both municipal
and Parliamentary, and was largely identified with the
progress and rapid development of his adopted Province.
He was managing editor of the St. Paul Globe for several
years, but ill-health compelled him to retire from the
position. He returned to Winnipeg in 1901, taking a
position in the Civil Service of the Province, which he
retained until the time of his death in May, 1907. He
was accorded a public funeral and his death was greatly
lamented by the entire community.
It might be as well just here to enumerate some other
newspaper ventures that for a time shed a dim lustre
in the community, but soon after found a journalistic
graveyard, owing to a plethora of newspapers, in advance of the demands of the population. Capt. G. F.
Carruthers started the Manitoba Gazette in 1872, but
it lasted only a year. Alex. Begg started the Trade
Review the same year, but its career came to an end in
less than twelve months. Mr. E. L. Barber revived
the old Nor-Wester, but it lived only a couple of years.
Molyneux St. John started the Weekly Standard in
1874, but in about a year it was merged in the Free
Press. W. G. Fonseca started the Manitoba Weekly
Herald in 1877, but its career was of short duration.
Henry J. Clarke started another Gazette in 1879, but it
survived only a few months. A comic weekly, Quiz,
started in 1878 by some unknown publisher, created
some excitement in the town for over a year, with its
somewhat caustic references to the public men of the
day. Mr.Nursey started the Manitoba Telegraph, but it,
too, like its predecessors, was consigned to an early tomb.
#• 188
The first real live paper, however, to rival the Free
Press, was one established early in 1879, by C. R.
Tuttle.    It was called  the  Times, and had both daily
and weekly editions.    Its advent was concurrent with
the return to power of the Sir John A. Macdonald Government, and it espoused the policy of the Conservative
party.    It started with a fair capital and under favourable auspices, but the expenses of maintenance being
in excess of its revenue, and in advance of the requirements of the Province, it got into financial difficulties
in about a year.    In the interim George H. Ham, now
of Montreal, started the Tribune ostensibly to supplant
the C. R. Tuttle enterprise.    The plant of the latter
establishment was, however, bought early in 1880 by
Amos Rowe, of Ottawa, and the Times was revived, in
the interest of the Conservative party.    Messrs. Rowe
and Ham consolidated their interests and the Tribune
was merged in the Times, Mr. Ham taking the editorial
management of the joint establishment.    This continued up to 1885, when Mr. Rowe retired to become
Lands Agent and Customs Officer at Calgary.    The
Times next fell into the hands of a company, and the
name was changed to the Manitoban.   It followed up
the policy of its predecessor, and was Conservative in
politics.    Another change took place in the paper in
1887, when the name was changed to the Morning Call,
and was under direction of Acton Burrows as managing
editor.    Upon the retirement of Mr. Burrows in 1890,
the paper underwent another change, and with it a new
name, the Nor-Wester.    Geo. H. Ham accepted the
position of managing editor.    Everything moved along
smoothly until 1900, when a new company was formed, IN MANITOBA
and the name again changed to the Telegram, under
the direction of James Hooper, now Deputy Provincial
Secretary and King's Printer of Manitoba, who was
followed shortly after by Sanford Evans as managing
The independent press has not been without representation in this country, for as early as 1882, W. H.
Nagle, an Ottawa journalist, started a paper called the
News, which he subsequently changed to the Sun, but
this enterprise did not last over two or three years.
T. H. Preston, now of the Expositor, of Brantford,
Ontario, started a new Sun which was conducted for a
number of years with some ability and financial success.
Mr. Preston sold out his interest in the Sun to the
Manitoban Printing Company, and the paper was
merged into a new journal, already referred to above,
and known as the Manitoban. Another journal known
as the Evening News was started by W. T. Thompson,
formerly of the Times staff, but since connected with
the Duluth Tribune. It, however, succumbed to the
inevitable fate of many other papers in less than a year.
R. L. Richardson, who had been upon the editorial
staff of the Sun, launched a new enterprise upon the
journalistic stage in 1901, and called it the Winnipeg
Tribune, and it, like its confreres, the Free Press and
Telegram, survives to the present day. At the outset
this paper was Liberal, but after the Free Press became
the Liberal organ the Tribune changed to an independent paper. Many prominent men have been
identified with the press of Manitoba in a journalistic
capacity since the advent of the newspaper to Western
Canada.    A few names have been already mentioned THE CANADIAN PRESS
but there are others besides, whose names have only to
be mentioned to be remembered favorably in this connection—E. F. F. Brokovski now of Battleford, Saskatchewan; G. B. Elliott, late of Regina; J. R. Cameron, late
of Hamilton Spectator; E. Farrer, now of Ottawa; A.
C. Campbell, R. Houston, of Toronto; J. P. Robertson,
Legislative Library, Winnipeg; E. W. Thomson, now of
Boston; C. W. Allen, Wm. Dennis, now of Halifax; Fred
C.Wade, now of Vancouver; W. E. McLellan, of Halifax,
J. Kernighan, "The Khan," of Toronto; G. B. Brooks,
of London, England; Lud K. Cameron, now King's
Printer, Toronto; D. J. Beaton, formerly of Orillia,
Ontario; Arch. McNee, of Windsor, Ontario; R. Moss,
late of Toronto; J. C. McLagan, late of Vancouver
World; Nicholas Flood Davin, late of the Regina
Leader; Thos. Collins, of Portage la Prairie, now of
Summerland, B.C.; Chas. Douglas, of Emerson, now
of Vancouver, B.C.; G. F. Galbraith, late of Morden
Monitor; C. Cliffe, of Portage la Prairie; and W. J.
White, formerly of the Brandon Sun. There are others
whose names do not occur to me just now, but the names
of the managing editors of the three large Winnipeg
dailies cannot very well be overlooked: J. W. Dafoe,
of the Free Press; W. E. Nichols, of the Telegram, and
J. J. Moncrieff, of the Tribune.
In conclusion allow me to pay a high compliment to
the press of Western Canada, for without it, this country could never have reached the stage of development
which it now enjoys. The fourth estate in the West
compares favourably with that of the press in any other
part of Canada or the United States. When you take
into consideration that thirty years ago there was but IN MANITOBA
one newspaper in the small hamlet then known as
Fort Garry, and that to-day there are thirty monthly
publications, twenty-five semi-weekly papers, two hundred and fifty weekly newspapers, and thirty dailies in
Western Canada from Lake Superior to the Pacific
Coast, and with a population less than a million souls,
you will be able to form some conception of the magnitude of the community and the intelligence of the
people to whom the press caters. The first Press Association in the West was formed early in 1882, with the
writer as President and Lud. K. Cameron, who founded
the Nor-West Farmer at Winnipeg that year, as secretary. This Association had the pleasure of a visit from
the Canadian Press Association in August, 1882. The
Club treated their guests to a sail down the Red River
some forty miles, to where it empties into Lake Winnipeg. The mayor and corporation of Winnipeg entertained them afterwards to a drive around the then young
city, and to a sumptuous banquet. The Canadian Pacific Railway authorities next treated the visitors to a ride
over the Canadian Pacific Railway to Regina, and some
six miles further west, where they honoured President
Pense in naming a station after him, the mother of
Lud. K. Cameron, secretary of the Winnipeg Press
Club, performing the baptismal service.
The Western Canada Press Association is still kept
up, and has now become a large organization covering
a large field. J. W. Dafoe, of the Free Press, is honorary president for 1908; C. D. McPherson, of the
Portage la Prairie Graphic, is president; G. H.
Saults, publisher of Town Topics, secretary; and John
Stovel, of the Nor-West Farmer, treasurer.    The other THE CANADIAN PRESS
officers and executive are all representative of the leading newspapers of the West, and they have succeeded
in ^making the Western Canada Press Association a
pretty live institution.
J. P. Robertson,
SOON after the "great lone land" became part of the
Dominion of Canada, and the provisional districts
of Assiniboia, Saskatchewan, and Alberta were organized
under the general name North-West Territories, Hon.
David Laird became our first Lieutenant-Governor,
and established temporary quarters at Battleford. The
late P. G. Laurie followed closely the trend of events,
and was on the spot with his printing press almost
simultaneously with the Lieutenant-Governor and his
suite. Thus did Mr. Laurie become the pioneer
journalist of the vast territories now composing the
two prairie provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta.
Mr. Laurie established the Saskatchewan Herald,
which he personally conducted until his death, only a
few years ago.
Frank Oliver, who is now the Hon. Minister of the
Interior, was a close second to Mr. Laurie as a pioneer
journalist. Mr. Oliver carted his outfit from Winnipeg to Edmonton, a distance of seven hundred miles,
across the prairie trails by ox cart. For many years
Mr. Oliver personally conducted the smallest and the
dearest paper in Canada, the Edmonton Bulletin.
To-day the Bulletin is an eight-page daily, ably conducted and giving the world's news as early and promptly as its closest competitor.
The third newspaper venture was that of C. E. D.
Wood, who established the Gazette at Fort Macleod in
1882. For fourteen years Mr. Wood remained in
charge as editor and proprietor, and although he has
since entered the legal profession at Regina, the paper
which he founded still flourishes in the old military
post, now known as the town of Macleod.
These were the three pioneer journalists who preceded railway extension and braved all the difficulties
and other discouragements of their day.
In 1882 the Canadian Pacific Railway reached Regina on the morning of August 23rd. The late Nicholas
Flood Davin was one of many visitors to the place soon
.after. Being a well known litterateur and journalist,
.and Regina having then been chosen as the seat of
Territorial Government, Mr. Davin decided at once
to identify himself with the future of the Territories,
and announced his decision to establish the Regina
Leader. Decision soon ripened into action, and the
brilliant thoughts of its talented founder soon found
expression in the columns of his own paper, which
circulated far and wide and increased both his own
fame and the fame of Western Canada.
Two other papers established in the early history of
the country were, the Qu'Appelle Vidette, by the Proctor Bros., and the Moosomin Courier, by Beers &
The Calgary Herald is also a long established
journal, and was at one time edited by the late John
Livingstone, a veteran journalist who had served some
years on different newspapers in Eastern Canada.
In 1885 C. J. Atkinson founded the Regina Journal. IN ALBERTA AND SASKATCHEWAN   195
In 1891 the Journal plant was sold to a company and
became the Regina Standard, which is now the property
of J. K. Mclnnis & Sons, issuing in semi-weekly and
daily editions. The Standard is the pioneer daily of
the Province of Saskatchewan.
Almost all publishers in the prairie provinces are
members of the Western Canada Press Association,
and several very pleasurable excursions have been held.
The press has certainly kept pace with the general
progress of the West, and there is now a weekly paper
in almost every hamlet between the Red River and the
Rocky Mountains.
The daily press is also well represented. There are
two dailies in Regina, two in Saskatoon, and two in
Moose Jaw. Edmonton, the capital of Alberta, has
two dailies; Calgary three and Lethbridge one. Western business men are good advertisers, and the general
public good subscription patrons. The field, however,
is very fully covered at present, but doubtless there will
be room for more as population increases and new
districts become opened up.
FROM the number of newspapers which have come
and gone in British Columbia in fifty years, that
province may be described as a journalistic cemetery.
Throughout   the   expanse   of  territory bounded   by
the    Rocky   Mountains    on   the   eastern   side,   the
Pacific Ocean on the western side, the Skeena River
on the north, and the international boundary line on
the south, there are scattered profusely the remains of
ambitious pioneer journals.    Away back in the early
Cariboo days, Messrs. Allan and Lambert (the latter
still lives in the town of Chatham, Ontario) "packed"
up the long trail that leads from Yale to Williams Creek
the plant upon which the Cariboo Sentinel was printed.
It was a small, four-paged paper, it sold for a dollar a
copy, the editor got $150 a week, and no advertisement,
however small, was inserted for less than $5.00 per
issue.     Among   its   most   celebrated   contents   were
Sauny's Letters Hame."    These were in the form of
verse and were written by a very clever Scotchman
named Anderson,  and described,  in  a graphic  and
humorous way, the early and true life of the first and
greatest mining camp British Columbia ever possessed.
The news is principally of the mining camps of Cariboo,
but there are occasional belated news of all kinds, and
some miscellany.    I got the only file that exists from IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
Lambert when I came to British Columbia years ago,
and it is now deposited in the Provincial Library at
Victoria. That was one of the few papers in British
Columbia which "paid" from the grass roots until
the mining industry of Cariboo began to decline and
the population dwindle away. It expired of sheer
inanition. The plant—I may be mistaken—was removed afterwards to Kamloops to start the Kamloops
Sentinel. One of the editors, Mr. Geo. Wallace, was a
very well-known writer of his day. If we except the
coast cities of British* Columbia—Victoria, Vancouver,
New Westminster and Nanaimo, and it is true to a
considerable extent of these in the earlier days—the
history of journalism has been the history of pioneering
and townsiting. I could give you a list of fifty places
offhand that have had newspapers that do not possess
them now. I once tried to keep track of them for
the purpose of preserving files for the Provincial
Library, but at times they had come and gone to
their eternal rest before their existence was known of
in the capital city.
There are, obviously, good reasons why there have
been many failures in newspaper business in a province
like British Columbia, where the population is not large
and much scattered. Three hundred or four hundred
subscribers for a "country" newspaper is not a bad list
for this province, and even large papers, like the
Colonist of Victoria, have a ridiculously small subscription list in proportion to the influence they wield
and the amount of money it costs to produce a paper.
There are, besides, the high prices of labor, of rent, of
paper and printing material.     Of course, rates of ad- if
vertising and subscription are higher somewhat in
proportion, and some of your eastern men would grow
green with envy if they saw the charges. I have seen
as many as eight papers published in a district where
there were not that many thousand people altogether.
There was, however, always the prospect of making
a city, and so the journalist boneyard kept being
filled up.    It is still filling up as merrily as ever.
Out of the many men who came and went, there
were developed some characters. One of them was Mr.
John Houston, who first started a little paper in the
mountain town of Donald, on the main line of the Canadian Pacific railway, known as Truth. Afterwards
he printed the Daily Truth in the city of New Westminster; and later on dipped into newspaper work in
the city of Nelson, where he published the Miner and
the Tribune. He was vigorous in style, democratic in
his policy, was more or less oblivious to popular opinion
as to his language or the cut of his clothes. He always
invariably spelt Mr. with a small "m." As a consequence
he became popular with the miners and others who
adjured "biled shirts" and fine speech. He acquired
considerable property, became mayor of the city, and
was elected several times to the Provincial Legislature.
Circumstances finally went against him, and he tried
his fortune as a printer in Goldfields, Nevada. He
is now printing a small newspaper, as virile and as
spicy as ever, at Prince Rupert, the proposed terminus
of the Grand Trunk Pacific. This he managed to do
despite the efforts of the company to dislodge him, and
is succeeding. There was another man who came
from Petrolea, one of the Lowery Brothers, I believe, IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
who published the Petrolea Topic, of a different stamp
from Houston, but not less remarkable in his way.
When I first knew him he was running a little news
stand at Nelson. Subsequently he blossomed out as an
editor, publishing at various times papers at New
Denver, in the Slocan country, at Lardeau, at Kaslo,
at Greenwood, Nelson, Fernie, and probably elsewhere. His best-known paper was the New Denver
Ledge, somewhat after the fashion of the Eye-Opener,
of Calgary. Lowery, if vulgar at times, was really a
humorist. It was finally forbidden of the mails.
He also published a paper styled the Claim, which met
the same fate. He concluded finally that British
Columbia was getting too civilized and he left for some
part of the Pacific coast States. He published a paper
at Kaslo, called the Claim, which upon its demise he
placed in mourning, the first page being in the form of a
funeral tablet, bearing an adaptation of the usual
tombstone legend in large letters,—Died, etc., and
concluding with "Let her R. I. P." His next venture,
the Lardeau Claim, was not more fortunate, and its
last issue was printed on brown wrapping paper, with
a flaring catch line on the title page—"Busted by
Gosh!" It was these melodramatic effects he delighted
in, and made him more or less famous as an eccentricity in journalism of the "wild and wooly'r type.
There are others in the same line, feeble imitators of
Houston and Lowery.
The first paper started in British Columbia was
under the auspices of the late Bishop Demers, the pioneer Catholic missionary episcopate of the North-West
coast,  much honoured in the annals of the Oblate
Order, more familiarly known, perhaps, as the O. M. I.
In the work of writing and publishing, the Bishop was
assisted by the Comte de Garro, a Paris Frenchman,
who left his native city during and consequent upon
the troubles arising out of the coup d9etat of Napoleon
in 1851. The Bishop had a plant of old-fashioned
French type and old-fashioned printing press, and he
was anxious to publish a paper in Victoria, largely
devoted to church news. Two numbers were published, and the paper died for want of support.
This was followed, after the rush of 1858, by another
paper called the Victoria Gazette, started by the firm
of Whitten, Towne & Co., who ran it until December
of the same year, when it went the way of all things.
Shortly after the last named came into life, Frederick
Marriott, an Englishman, a resident of California,
started another paper, called the "Vancouver Island
Gazette.99 It lasted for only a few weeks. Before the
end of the year a celebrated character in British Columbia history had acquired the plant of Bishop Demers
and commenced the publication of a tri-weekly paper
bearing the title of the British Colonist, from which the
Daily Colonist of to-day is a lineal descendant, at least
in name. Marriott edited for years the News-Letter
of San Francisco, and was in many ways a remarkable man—fearless, trenchant, cynical. He lived to
be an old man, preserving his tireless faculties and
his distinguished appearance to the end. A word
about the proprietor of the British Colonist, who
was to take a prominent place in political affairs,
and to achieve an almost world-wide celebrity. His
real name was Smith,  and he came orginally from IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
Nova Scotia. Attracted by the mining excitement in
California, he migrated thither. While in that State
he aspired to a more aristocratic name than Smith,
and he had the latter changed by Act of the State Legislature to Amor de Cosmos, literally meaning in a combination of words of three languages "lover of the
world." He came very nearly going down to posterity
however with a less inviting cognomen. During the
passage of the bill through the Legislature, one of the
members moved an amendment that his name should
be Amor de Muggins, which narrowly escaped being
carried. Notwithstanding his eccentricities, of which
his changing his patronymic was an evidence, De
Cosmos was a strong man, an effective speaker and a
vigorous writer. He immediately entered into a campaign in the Colonist against the Government of the day,
which meant Governor Douglas, and during the next
twelve years, through the varying phases of political
life of the colony, he was ever prominent and in the
firing line of the Opposition. He was one of the first
advocates of the union of the colonies of Vancouver
Island and British Columbia, and when that was
effected in 1866, began an agitation in favor of Confederation with Canada. In 1872, by the turn of
events, he became Premier of the Province, but subsequently left the arena of the local House for that of
the Dominion. The credit and fame of De Cosmos
were greatly enhanced by a story of which he was not
the real hero. The story, in brief, is that he made the
longest speech on record in an effort to save the settlers of Vancouver Island from ruin threatened
through  eviction,   etc.    The  facts   are  that   it   was THE CANADIAN PRESS
a Mr. McClure, a brother editor, who made the speech
with which he is credited, and it was to prevent a bill
brought down by the Government at the eleventh hour
to extend the time in which settlers could redeem land
sold for taxes from becoming law, that this unparalleled
forensic effort was made. De Cosmos and McClure
had bought up a lot of this land at tax sales for practically a song, and as times were hard, it was proposed
by the Government to extend the time for redemption
twelve months. If the bill were not passed before twelve
o'clock the next day it would be inoperative, so the two
men in question proposed to talk it out, which they
succeeded in doing. McClure spoke sixteen hours,
when De Cosmos took up the burden and spoke for
six hours. Both were thoroughly exhausted. McClure
died six months after from a disease superinduced by
the tremendous strain on him.
Leonard McClure, the real hero of the story, was
editor of the New Westminster Times, printed in Victoria by E. Hammond King. It supported the Government of Sir James Douglas in opposition to the Colonist,
It was removed to New Westminster and succumbed
shortly afterwards. So far as known, his speech, on
the memorable occasion referred to, was the longest
ever made by any public speaker, and it is almost the
irony of fate that he should have been robbed of what
credit was due him, and at the same time give his life
as a penalty for his indiscretion. The Daily Times,
the Telegraph, the Express, the News, and the Standard
followed in quick succession in Victoria. The Chronicle was established in 1862 by D. W. Higgins, now the
doyen of newspaper men on the Pacific coast, and Mr. IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
McMillan, for many years sheriff. Higgins had previously established the Chronicle of San Francisco,
sold out and came to British Columbia. In 1866 the
Colonist succumbed to hard times and sold out to the
Chronicle, both papers being merged into one under
the name of the Colonist. Mr. Higgins continued in
proprietorship and editorial control until 1888, when he
entered the local Legislature for Esquimalt, and sold
out and retired from journalism, as he thought, for
good. Subsequently, he occupied the position of
Speaker during.two Parliaments, but eventua y was
defeated in his constituency. During his active period
of life he acquired large interests, the greater part of
which he lost in investments. Within the last few
years, he again, with considerable success, turned his
attention to literature. Two of his books of short
stories of pioneer life in British Columbia were popularly received. For two years he occupied the position
of editor of the Vancouver World, but has again retired to devote himself to real estate investmen s.
Outside of De Cosmos, Higgins has been the most
notable figure who has occupied an editorial chair in
this province.
The Evening Post was established in 1880 by William McDowell, and lived only a couple of years.
The present Daily Times was established about
1884, and has developed into the leading Liberal organ
of the province.
One of the men associated with this paper from the
commencement, and its principal owner, is now a
member of the Dominion Cabinet—Hon. William
Templeman, Minister of Inland Revenue.    Mr. Tern- mFj
pieman, though a vigorous writer when the spirit
moves him, never identified himself with the editorial
side of the paper, but was contented to look after its
business interests, and the political possibilities that
lay ahead of him. The Times is managed by Mr.
John Nelson, and is edited by Mr. Dunn, an ingenious and facile political writer.
Vancouver journalism followed in the line of that of
other parts of the province—at first ephemeral. The
pioneer newspapers were the News, the Advertiser, and
the Herald; one of those was started by the son of the
late Hon. William MacdougaU. The News and Advertiser were merged into the News-Advertiser under
its present control, and the Herald—conducted by
William Brown, many years a real estate agent of the
city—died a natural death. In the fall of 1888, J. C.
McLagan, who had been associated with Mr. Temple-
man on the Times of Vancouver, and J. M. O'Brien,
editor of the Colonist, formed a partnership and started
an afternoon paper, the Daily World, which has withstood the vicissitudes of hard times and is now a paper
of metropolitan pretensions. McLagan was a man of
tremendous energy, and though rash and impulsive
and often erratic, he built up his paper by shrewd
enterprise and hard work. At first Conservative, the
World became in time the recognized organ of the
Laurier Government. Later on the Daily Province
was started under the guidance of its present managing
editor, Mr. Walter Nichol, who came here from the
Hamilton Herald. The original capital for the enterprise was supplied by Hewit Bostock, now Senator, and
was, of course, originally Liberal in its policy.    Its
success from the first was marked, and it for some time
has led all the other papers in the province in point of
A word about the News-Advertiser. Its guiding
spirit from the time its original factors were merged has
been Mr. Francis-Carter Cotton, now Hon. Mr. Cotton,
President of the Council. It has been remarkable as
the impress of Mr. Cotton's own mind and handiwork
throughout its career. Educated and trained in England, not as a journalist, Mr. Cotton has had a variety
of experiences in many parts of the world, in banking,
diplomatic service, ranching, railway contracting, irrigation, etc., but throughout it all he preserved the
English traditions and spirit, which he imparted to his
paper. Consequently from the very first it has been
Conservative in tone, non-sensational, clean, reliable,
and well edited—a good old-fashioned newspaper,
going on without change from day to day, uniform in its
dress, and consistent in policy with all previous expressions of opinion.
One other marked figure in journalism and politics
was the Hon. John Robson. In the early days he
edited the New Westminster Columbian, which after
many years of a chequered career is still in existence
and prosperous under the management of Mr. J. D.
Taylor. He was a vigorous writer, a forcible speaker,
and a remarkably shrewd politician. For some time
he occupied the position of editor of the Colonist.
During the early survey days of the Canadian Pacific
Railwav he was receiver for the Mackenzie Govern-
ment. Having made the boast that several millions
of dollars passed through his hands without a dollar
i 1 \
- ''& I
sticking, a journalistic contemporary, Mr. Suter, of the
New Westminster Guardian, in his paper christened him
"Honest John," by which name he was familiarly
known to the day of his death. Mr. Robson had a long
legislative experience both before and after Confederation. He joined the Hon. A. E. Davie's Government as
Provincial Secretary in 1883, and became Premier on
the death of his leader. In 1892, while in England in
connection with the large Crofter scheme of colonization, he met with an accident which, though slight in
itself, developed into blood poisoning and speedily
death. He was one of the ablest of British Columbia's
public men.
Still another man whose connection with British
Columbia journalism is worthy of mention was Mr.
Henry Lawson, who with rare discrimination and
good judgment was editor of the Colonist from 1888
until 1897. Coming originally from Prince Edward
Island, he spent some time in Montreal, and finally
found his way to the coast under engagement. There
have been several editors of that paper since, including
the present occupant of the chair, C. H. Lugrin, Hon.
F. C. Cotton, D. B. Bogle, and the writer of this
article. Among others who are either now or have been
associated prominently with journalism of recent
years are: T. L. Grahame, at one time editor of the
Times, recently deceased, a versatile and brilliant
writer; J. B. Ker, now editor of the Vancouver Province, and formerly editor of the Rossland Miner; J. D.
Taylor, managing editor of the New Westminster
Columbian, formerly of Ottawa and Victoria papers,
now a candidate for Dominion Parliamentary honours;
.'    .   -   - . _ _     _. ■--rtt^rm- IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
F. J. Deane, M.P.P., managing editor of the Nelson
News, the leading paper of the interior; J. M. O'Brien,
formerly of the Colonist and Vancouver World; D. M.
Carley, for years in the Province in one journalistic
capacity or another, and now managing editor of the
Nelson Daily Canadian; C. E. Race, for some years
editor and manager of the Rossland Daily Miner, at
one time editor of the Nelson Daily Miner; the Kennedy
Brothers, who conducted the New Westminster Columbian for a considerable period; John C. Brown,
now warden of the penitentiary, who was editor of New
Westminster papers at various times, postmaster of
New Westminster, and a member of the Legislature
and of the Dominion Fisheries Commission; C. Gregg,
assistant editor of the Daily Colonist, and for a period
editor of the Nelson Miner and the Rossland Miner
and Victoria Globe; E. Jacobs, editor of the British
Columbia Mining Record and correspondent of several
leading mining papers, who has the distinction of being
the best informed and most reliable writer on mining
matters on the coast: C. H. Gibbons, a facile writer,
for years associated with the Colonist and correspondent
of various newspapers; C. H. Lugrin, already referred
to, a barrister by profession but a journalist by instinct;
Gordon Smith, of the Colonist, who made a reputation
for himself as war correspondent during the Japanese
War, and is a shrewd story writer; W. Blakemore,
editor of the Week and of the Westward Ho! magazine,
a particularly bright and effective writer; A. H. Scaife,
original founder of the Province, a man rarely gifted as
a journalist, who contributed materially to the transformation in politics which took place during and subse- )flilfl
quent to the time he occupied the editorial chair; Mart
Egan, for some time city editor of the Victoria Times,
for a time very prominent in the Associated Press
service, and now editor of the Washington Star; Geo.
Denny, who served on both the Times and Colonist,
and who is now second in command of the Associated
Press in London, Eng.; George Norris, who established, and for many years conducted, the Manitoba
Free Press.
These are a few of the men whose names come to
mind without special reference to order or merit.
There have been frequent collisions between the newspaper press and the courts in consequence of complaints of libel, etc., and on three occasions the press
came into collision with the Legislature. On one
occasion, in 1861, Mr. De Cosmos of the Colonist was
brought up for a libel on Mr. Speaker Helmcken,
now Hon. Dr. Helmcken, and was arrested by the
Sergeant-at-arms, and while the Legislature deliberated what was to be done, he apologized and
was liberated.
On another occasion the proprietors of the Chronicle
were charged with libel on G. E. Dennes, member for
Salt Spring Island, and were debarred for one week
from sending reporters to the Gallery.
The third occasion was when the Kennedy Brothers
(the Columbian, New Westminster) were arraigned,
fifteen or sixteen years ago, for libel on members of the
Legislature. They were arraigned at the Bar, and,
refusing to apologize, sentenced to be imprisoned by
the Speaker, Hon. Mr. Higgins, until the Legislature
had been prorogued.     This it did in the course of IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
a day or two, and they were liberated by the Speaker's
The first cylinder press was placed in operation in the
Colonist office in the summer of 1863, and steam was
first applied to a printing press in the same office in
1876. I
Among the comic papers that have attempted an
existence were the Scorpion and the Comet, two lively
but short-lived journals, the later of which was promoted by Mr. John Fannin, the founder and late curator of the Provincial Museum, who, by the way, was an
effective writer on natural history subjects.
There were a number of other papers of evanescent
character, such as the Telegram and Mail and Courier,
of Nanaimo, the Daily Telegram of Vancouver, and
others almost too numerous to mention here, in various
parts of the province. The Mainland Guardian, owned
by Mr. Suter, was published weekly in New Westminster for a number of years, and was succeeded in 1890
by the Daily Trufh, and subsequently changed to the
Ledger, for some years defunct.
Donald, Steveston, Mission City, Surrey, Lardo,
Wardner, New Denver, Sandon, Fort Steel, Silverton,
Slocan City, Trail, Union, Essington, Three Forks, etc.,
etc., in recent years each had its whilom journalistic
At the present time journalism is well represented
in the province, and, speaking generally, the press of
British Columbia is vigorous and well conducted.
Taking the leading daily newspapers, it would be
difficult to find in the whole of Canada, having consideration for the size of their respective constituencies, THE CANADIAN PRESS
their parallel in size, enterprise, and general efficiency.
The Vancouver and Victoria papers especially compare
favourably with, if they do not surpass, the largest and
best of the Western Canadian papers.
R. E. Gosnell. INDEX
Abbott, J. B., 51
Abraham, Robert, 150, 155
Acadian Recorder, 87, 135, 141
Advance, Barrie, 180
Advancei Pontiac, 151
Advertiser and   Eastern   Townships
Sentinel, Knowlton, 151
Advertiser, London, 51, 175
Advertiser, Montreal, 155
Advertiser, Vancouver, 204
Advertiser, Waterloo, 151
Advertisements (Style of 1802), 163
Advocate, Mitchell, 107
Advocate, Richmond County, 151
Age, Strathroy, 56, 186
Allardyce, C. B., 156
Allen, C. W., 190
All-Red Route, 147
Amsden, Samuel, 15
Anglin, Hon. T. W., 140, 141, 144
Anglo-Canadian, Belleville, 173 >
Annand, C, 141
Annand, W., 141
Archibald, Sir Adam G., 87
Argus, Montreal, 150
Argus, St. Mary's, 35
Armstrong, W., 7
Atkinson, C. J., 194
Atkinson, J. E., 93, 128, 156, 171
Atkinson, Mrs. ("Madge Merton"),
Atlantic Gable, 146
Aylesworth, Hon. A. B., 131
Baldwin, Robert, 166
Balfour, W. D., 113
Banner, Brampton, 107
Banner, Toronto, 166, 167
Barber, E. L., 187
Bark, T., 156
Barker, Dr., 7, 15, 91, 172
Barnum, G., 156
Barr, C. D., 72, 83, 85,  106, 112,
Beach, J., 7
Beacon, Stratford, 28, 63
Beaton, D. J., 190
Beaty, J., 169
Bee, 152
Beeman, C. J., 69
Begg, Alex., 187
Belch, A. G., 35
Belford, C, 169, 170
Bengough, J. W., 73, 83, 107
Benjamin, G., 173
Bennett, J., 164
Berean (Magazine), 152
Berliner, Berlin, 107
Bible Christian (Magazine), 152
Biggar, E. B., 27, 133
Blackburn, Josiah, 11, 16, 29, 93,
Blackburn, Stephen, 175
Blakemore, W., 207
Blue, A., 170
Bogle, D. B., 206
Bone, John R., 94
Bostock, Hewit, Hon., 204
Boston Jubilee, 147
Bosworth, Newton, 149
Bourinot, J. G., 141
Bowell, Sir Mackenzie, 7, 9, 15, 54,
63, 122, 123, 125, 174
Bowes,- Mayor, 16
Boyd, John A., 156
Boyle, R, 32, 56
Bremner, M. G., 175
Brierley, J. S., 117, 118, 123, 156
Bristow, W., 56, 150, 155
British American, Kingston, 28,   35
British Canadian, Simcoe, 35
British Colonist, Toronto, 12, 168,
169, 176, 177
British Colonist, Victoria, 200, 201,
202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 207
Britton, F., 72
Brokovski, E. F. F., 190 a
Brooks' Bush Gang, 169
Brooks, G. B., 190
Brossoit, Thos., 110
Browne, Dunbar, 7, 156
Brown, Gordon, 11, 13, 166, 167,
176, 177
Brown, Hon. Geo.: attitude of the
Globe, 3; advice to Thos. Sellar,
13; addresses the Association,
66; allusion to his death, 91;
other references to, 166, 167, 176,
Brown, J. C., 207
Brown, Peter, 166
Brown, T. S., 154
Brown, William, 147, 148, 204
Buchanan, Hon. Isaac, 75
Buchanan, J. G., 69, 83, 93
Buchanan, President, 147
Buckingham, Wm. E., W. Gilles-
py*s reference, 15; depicts early
conditions, 18; experiences in the
West, 27; edits the Beacon, 28;
career in public life, 28; presidential address, 60; founder of
Nor'-wester, 181; return to the
east, 182
Bulletin, Edmonton, 185, 193
Bunting, C. W., 170
Burns, N., 72
Burns, P., 52
Burrows, Acton, 188
Bushell, John, 133, 134
Butcher, W., 107
Gable, Atlantic, 146
Cameron, H., 35
Cameron, Hon. J. Hillyard, 3
Cameron, L. K., 83, 190, 191
Cameron, John, early membership,
16;   refers to the founders,  19;
position in journalism,   28;   describes the excursion of 1875, 42;
on the liberty of the press, 83;
his connection with the Toronto
Globe, 175
Cameron, J. Robson,U74, 190
Campbell, A. G, 190 *
Campbell, E. G, 69
Campbell, J. A., 14, 35, 56
Campbell, Rollo, 155
Canada Constellation, 162, 163
Canadiana, 153
Canadian Associated Gables, 124
Canadian Baptist Magazine, 152
Canadian (Daily), Nelson, 207
Canadian Gleaner, 151
Canadian Illustrated News, 153
Canadian  Magazine  and  Literary
Repository, 149
Canadian Press Association:
organization meeting, 1; antecedent political conditions, 2-3;
gathering at Kingston, 4; the
chief founder, 7; Sir M. Bowell
refers to, 9; objects of, 10; first
officers elected, 11; early records,
14; D'Arcy McGee's tribute, 17
first move against postage, 30
Hamilton meeting, 1862, 31
presentation to Mr. Gillespy, 37
excursions began, 40; annual admass in verse, 45; name of Association, 54; a change proposed,
56; death of D'Arcy McGee, 56;
the Upper Lakes excursion, 58;
Hon. Geo. Brown's address, 67;
Mr. Somerville on free puffs, 71;
a period of depression, 73; visit
to the Centennial Exposition, 84;
action on postage matters, 95-
100; trip to Western Canada, 102;
beginning of printed reports, 115;
fight with a paper combine, 127-
132; visit to the West, 191
Canadian Presbyterian, 152
Canadian Review and Literary and
Historical Journal, 149
Gardner, Rev. Dr. John, 152
Carey, J., 166
Carey, Thomas, 155
Carey, W., 174
Carley, D. M., 207
Carman, J. S., 107
Carman, J. W., 28, 35
Carnegie, John, 114
Carrel, F., 156
Carruthers, Capt. G. F., 187
Cave, J. J., 107
Central Canadian,  Carleton Place,
Chamberlain, Lieut.-Col. (C.M.G.),
153, 155
Chambers, E. T. D., 150
Champion, Milton, 35
Charmell, L. S., 127, 156
Charlton, Miss, 157
Chisholme, David, 154
Christian Guardian, Toronto, 107,
Chronicle and Weekly Gazette, Nova
Scotia, 135
Chronicle, Halifax, 144
Chronicle (Weekly), Halifax, 136
Chronicle, Kingston, 172
Chronicle, Quebec, 150
Chronicle, San Francisco, 203
Chronicle, Victoria, 202, 208
Chubb, H., 140
Church Observer, 152
Citizen, Halifax, 144
Citizen, Ottawa, 107
Claim (British Columbia), 199
Claim, Kaslo, 199
Claim, Lardeau, 199
Clark, Dr. Daniel, 107
Clark, H. J., 187
Clark, Joseph T., 94, 132, 171
Clarke, Rev. W. F., 74
Clergy Reserves, Secularization of,
Clerk, J. G., 152
Cliff, W. W., 107
Cliffe, C., 190
Climie, Rev. J. R., 51
Climie, W. R, 28, 35, 51, 56, 58, 74,
83, 92
Goran, Senator, 156
Cohen, L., 156
Coldwell, Wm., 27, 181
Collins, Thos., 190
Colquhoun, A. H. U., 156, 170
Colonial Advocate, 165, 166
Colonist (Daily), Victoria, 200, 204,
207, 208
Colonist, Victoria, B.C., 143
Colonist,  Victoria  (British),    200,
201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 207
Columbian, New Westminster, 205,
206, 207, 208
Comet (comic paper), 209
Comet, Owen Sound, 51
Commonwealth, Kincardine, 52
Conger, J. W., 56
Constitutional, St. Catharines, 29
Cooper, John A., 93, 127, 128, 130
Corey, J., 156
Cotes, Mrs. Everard, 156
Cotton, Frances-Carter,  Hon., 205
Cotton, W. L., 142
Courier, Brantford, 8, 175
Courier, Moosomin, 194
Courier, Morrisburgh, 52
Courier, Nanaimo, 209
Courier, New Brunswick, 140
Courier, Perth, 52
Courier, York (Toronto), 166
Cox, W. J., 15, 32, 35, 51
Crabbe, J. J., 107, 120
Creighton, David, 69, 91, 102, 114,
123, 170
Crosskill, J. C, 141
Culloden, W. G., 7, 31
Cumberland, Col., 57
Cunliffe, J. C, 156
Cunningham, R., 183
Cushing, Mrs., 149
Dafoe, J. W., 190, 191
Dagger, 152
Daily News, Montreal, 150
Daily Times, Victoria, 202
Daily World, Vancouver, 204
Dalby, H., 156
Dalton, T, 168
Davidson, J. A., 107, 112
Davies, Hon. A. E., 206
Davin, Nicholas Flood, 190, 194
Davis, J. E., 107
de   Cosmos,  Amor, 143, 200, 201,
de Garro, Comte, 200
de Pontbriant, Bishop, 148
De Sola, Rev. A., 152
Deane, F. J. (M.P.P.), 207
Demers, Bishop, 199, 200
Dennes, G. E., 208
Dennis, W., 190
Denny, Geo., 208
Dent, J. C, 107
Desbarats, G. E., 153, 156
Despatch, Strathroy, 51
Dewart, Rev. Dr., 107, 117, 120
Dewhurst, E. R, 35, 56
Dingman, W. S., 117, 118, 124
Diogenes, Montreal, 152, 153
Dionne, Dr., 148
Dominion Editors'  and Reporters'
Association, 84
Dominion Illustrated Monthly, 153
Dominion Monthly, 153
Dougall, John, 54, 150,^153, 155,
Doughty, A. G., 156
Douglas, Chas., 190
Douglas, Governor, 201, 202
Douglas, W. J., 170, 171
Doyle, J. E. P., 7
Draper, Mrs., 135
Duggan, E. J., 156
Duncan, Sara J., 156
Dunlop, Dr. W., 149
Dwight, H. P., 12
Dymond, A. H., 69
Eastwood, John, 75
Echo (Magazine), 152
Echo, AmheiBtburg, 113
Echo, Montreal, 13, 35
Echo, Three Rivers, 151
Edwards, James K., 176
Edwards, J. P., 156
Egan, Mart, 208
Elder, Hon. Wm.,  88,  106,  140,
141, 145
Elgin, Lord, 152
Elliott, G. B., 190
Ellis, John V. (Hon.), 140, 141, 145
Empire, Toronto, 143, 170
Era, Newmarket, 51, 107
Evans, Sanford, 189
Evans, Thos., 51
Evening News (Manitoba), 189
Evening Post  (British Columbia),
Evening Telegraph, Montreal, 155
Examiner, Barrie, 51
Examiner, Charlottetown, 139, 142
Examiner, Peterborough, 51
Examiner, Stratford, 35
Examiner, Toronto, 2, 166, 167,
Expositor, Brantford, 51, 107, 175,
Express, Halifax, 141
Express, Victoria, 202
Eye-Opener, Calgary, 199
Eyvell, Geo., 83
Fannin, John, 209
Farmer's Advocate, London, 107
Farmers' and Mechanics' Journal
and Eastern Townships Gazette,
Farrer, E., 170, 190
Father of Ontario Journalism, 161
Father of Ontario Press, 172
Felton, W. L., 151
Fenety, Geo. E., 88, 139, 140
Ferguson, J., 156
Ferres, J. M., 15
Ferris, J. M., 155
Field, Cyrus, 147
Fielding, Hon. W. S., 86, 129, 130,
141, 144, 145
First Canadian Newspaper, 133
First Canadian Parliamentary Reporter, 166
First cylinder press in Colonist
office (British Columbia), 209 1 •
First King's Printer of New Brunswick, 136
First Newspaper in Prince Edward
Island, 137
First paper published in Montreal,
First paper published in Quebec, 148
First Penny Paper printed in America, 139
First Press Association in the West,
First printing press supplied with
steam in Colonist office (British
Columbia), 209
First Religious Weekly in America,
Fisher, Dr. John Carlton, 154
Fleming, John, 154
Fletcher, J. H., 142
Floyd, W. H., 31, 107
Foley, Hon. M. H., attends Hamilton meeting, 16; edits Long Point
Advocate, 21; receives postage
deputation, 30
Foley, M. S., 156
Fonseca, W. G, 187
Foran, Dr., 152
Forest, J. R V., 156
Foster, H. &, 151
Fothergill, G, 165, 168
Franklin, Benjamin, 161
Frazer, Miss, 156
Freed, A. T, 174
Free Lance, Montreal, 152
Freeman, St. John, 140
Free Press, Hallowell (Picton), 172
Free Press, London, 51, 175
Free Press (Manitoba), 183,185,186,
187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 208
Free Press, Ottawa, •« 143
Fullerton, J., 107
Gagnon, M. Phileas, 148
Galbraith, G. F., 190
Gardiner, H. F., 107, 174
Garro, Comte de, 200
Gazette and General Advertiser, New
Brunswick,  136
Gazette and Religious Advocate, 172
Gazette and Weekly Chronicle, Nova
Scotia, 135
Gazette, Fort Macleod, 194
Gazette, Halifax, 133, 134, 135
Gazette, Kingston, 172
Gazette, Manitoba, 187
Gazette, Montreal, 24, 161, 174
Gazette, Nova Scotia, 134
Gazette, Picton, 173
Gazette, Prince Edward, 173 J
Gazette, Quebec, 148
Gazette, Sherbrookt, 151
Gazette, Vancouver Island, 200
Gazette, Victoria, 200
Gazette, York (Toronto), 162
Gibbons, C. H., 207
Gibson, J. H., 51, 149
Gillespie, Dr., 7
Gillespy, Wm., 4, 7, 9, 10, 11, 15,
24, 32, 38, 55, 56, 83, 174
Gilmore, Thomas, 147, 148
Gissing, F. J., 72
Globe, St. John, 140, 145
Globe, St. Paul, 187
Globe, Toronto, 3, 12, 13, 20,?27, 36.
107, 122, 123, 166, 167.171, 176,
180, 181, 182, 183, 186*
Globe, Victoria, 207
Gorman, T. P., 107, 143
Gosnell, R. E., 206
Gowan, Ogle R, 168
Gowan, Sir James, 58
Graham, Hon. G. P., 172
Graham, H., 156
Grahame, T. L, 206
Grand Trunk Celebration, 147
Grant, H. C, 7, 15
Grant, J. R, 107
Grant, Principal G. M., 2,T87
Grant, W., 35
Gray, W., 149
Graphic, Portage la Prairie,|191
Green, Bartholomew, 134
Green, Samuel, 134
Greenshields, John, 152
Gregg, C, 207
<M 1JG
Gregg, G, 169
•Gridiron, 152
Griffin, M. J., 141, 143, 156, 170
Griffin, Watson, 156
Grinchuckle, 152
!Grumbler, Toronto, 178
Guardian, Halifax, 27
Guardian, Mainland, 209
Guardian, New Westminster, 206
Guardian,  Prince  Edward  Island,
Guardian, Richmond, 151
Gurnett, Geo., 166
Gurnett, J. S., 15
Hacking, J. H., 69
Hale, W. M., 72
Ham, G. H., 188
Hannay, James, 141
Harrison, R. A., 169
Harper, J., 156
Harvey, Arthur, 155
Haszard, J. D., 137, 141
Hawke, J. T., 143
Heavysege, Chas., 54
Hearthstone, 153
Helmcken, Speaker (Hon. Dr.), 208
Henry, Anthony, 134
Henry, J. S., 52
Herald, Calgary, 143, 194
Herald, Halifax, 141
Herald, Hamilton, 174, 204
Herald, Montreal, 24, 143, 149
Herald, Niagara, 162, 163
Herald, St. Andrew's, 139
Herald, Saskatchewan, 184, 193
Herald, Vancouver, 204
Herald, Weekly (Manitoba), 187
Herring, R, 72
Higgins, Hon. D. W., 202, 203, 208
Higgins, W. J., 56
Hilliard, J., 107
Hincks, Sir Francis, 2, 5, 150, 154,
166, 167
Hocken, H. C, 171
Hogan, Henry, 54
Hogan, John Sheridan, 15, 21, 168,
Holland, Anthony Henry, 135
Holmes, Robt., lit
"Honest John" (Hon. J. Robson),
Hooper, James, 189
Horn, Dr., 165, 166
Horton, Albert, 107, 170
Howard, R, 107
Howe, David, 139
Howe, Hon. Joseph, 2, 61, 135, 138;
his arrest for libel, 138, 139, 141
Howe, John, 135
Hough, H., 56, 74, 83, 106, 112
Houston, John, 198, 199
Houston, R, 190
Houston, Wm., 83, 118
Hull, C. H., 51
Hundredth Anniversary of Journalism,   147
Huntington, Russ, 156
Huron Expositor, Seaforth, 186
Hynes, C. J., 52
Illustrated News, Hamilton, 28
Independent, Belleville, 51
Ings, J., 142
Innes, James, 29, 74, 89
Inquirer, Three Rivers, 153
Intelligencer, Belleville, 35, 173
Irishman, Montreal, 150
Island Argus, Prince Edward Island,
Islander, Prince Edward Island, 142
Jackson,  Erastus,  15, 29, 51, 56,
69, 83, 118
Jackson, J. G., 107
Jacobs, E., 207
Jacques, John, 7, 11, 15
James, M. A., 107 INDEX
Jester,   152
Johnson, George, 87, 141
Johnston, James, 107
Johnston, W. S., 32, 35
Jones, W. G., 151
Journal, Halifax, 135
Journal, Ottawa, 128
Journal, Regina, 194, 195
Journal, St. Catharines, 35
Journal, Stanstead, 151
Juvenile Presbyterian, 152
Kay, Mungo, 149, 154
Kelly, W. P., 52
Kelvin, Lord, 147
Kennedy Brothers, 207, 208
Kennedy, H. C, 35
Kennedy, Wm., 52
Ker, J. B., 206
Kernighan, J. ("The Khan"), 190
"Khan, The" (J. Kernighan), 190
King, E. H., 202
King, John, K.C., 40,43,52, 56, 83,
118,   123
King, N., 69
King, T. D., 153
Kingston meetings, 4, 6
Kinnear, David, 155
Kirby, C. H., 54
Kirby, James, 156
Kirwan, Captain, 156
Krauss, G., 156
Kydd, S. L., 156
La Gazette Litteraire, Montreal, 148
Laing, Joseph, 52
Laird, Hon. David, 142, 145, 193
Lanigan, G., 151
Lanigan, G. T, 152, 156
Lanigan, R, 151
larke, J. S., 29, 52, 56
Larminie, G. H., 156
Lawson, Henry, 142, 143, 206
Lawson, W. H., 51
Laurie, P. G.x 183., 184, 193
Leader, Regina, 190, 194
Leader, Toronto, 35, 169, 176, 177,
Ledge, New Denver, 199
Ledger, New Westminster, 209
Le Metis, 183
Lemmon, H., 175
Leprohon, Mrs. (Miss Mullin), 149
Lesperance, J. T., 156
Lewis, John, 171
libel Law, The, 105, 111, 113
Lindsay, James, 52
Lindsey, Chas., 166, 169
Litchfield, J. P., 150
Literary Garland, 149
Little, Hon. Otis, 134
Livingston, J., 140, 141, 143, 156,
170, 194
Longley, J. W., 87
Louden, J., 52
Lount, Wm., 58
Lovell, John, 149, 150
Lowe, John, 7, 155
Lowery Brothers, 198, 199
Loyalist, York (Toronto), 166
Lugrin, C. H., 88, 143, 206, 207
Luxton, W. F., 56, 183, 185, 186,
McClure, L., 202
McCready, Caleb, 136
McCready, E. W., 141
McCready, J. E. B., 140
McCullough, D., 174
McCullough, L. H., 154
McDonald, E. M., 141, 144
McDonnell, C. A., 125
McDonnell, Donald, 150
McDonnell, J. F., 155
McDougall, D., 11, 16, 33
McDougall, Hon. Wm., 3, 167, 204 218
McDowell, W., 203
McGee, Hon. T. D'Arcy, 3, 16, 56,
61, 150, 155
McGillicuddy, D., 127, 128
Mclnnis, J. K, 143
Mcintosh, Thos., 11
Mcintosh, W., 56
Mc Lac hi an, Mrs., 149
McLachlan, R. W., 148
McLachlin, A., 35
McLagan, J. C, 190, 204
McLean, Alex., 29, 56, 69
McLellan, W. E., 190
McMullen, Geo., 32
McMullen, J., 69
McNab, Sir Allan, 3
McNee, A., 126, 127, 190
McPherson, C. D., 191
McQueen, Thos., 15
McWhinnie, R., 51
Macdonald, A. G. F., 127, 130
Macdonald, Hon. J. S., 58, 169
Macdonald, Rev. J. A., 168
Macdonald, Sir John, 3, 5, 24, 26,
29, 71, 108, 169, 170
Macdonell, Miss B. L., 157
MacKay, J. F., 118
Mackenzie, Hon. Alex., 28, 84, 182
Mackenzie, Wm. Lyon, 20, 27, 165,
166,   178
Maclean, G. W., 107
MacLean, J. B., 93, 117, 124
Maclean, John, 28, 66, 83, 170
Maclean, W. F., 28, 170
MacNamara, M., 52
MacTavish, N., 156
"Madge Merton" (Mrs. Atkinson),
Mail (Nanaimo), 209
Mail, Niagara, 180
Mail, Toronto, 143, 169, 170
Mail and Empire, Toronto, 170
Mainland Guardian, 209
Manitoban, 183, 188, 189
Manitoba Printing Company, 189
Manitoba Weekly Herald, 187
Marcil, C, 156
Marshall, T, 156
Marriott, F., 200
Mason, H., 156
Mason, Jas., 52
Massie, J., 107
Matheson, Hon. A. J., 83, 107
Mathewson, David, 52
Mathewson, R., 52, 56
Mercury, Guelph, 107
Mercury, Quebec, 149
Mesplet, Fleury, 148
Messagej Toronto, 178
Messenger, Mackenzie's, 20
Messenger, Thos., 15, 56
Messenger, Simcoe, 16
Miles, G., 35
Mills, Hon. David, 175
Minerva, La, Montreal, 56
Miner, Nelson, 198, 207
Miner, Rossland, 206, 207
Mining Record, British Columbia,
Minus, W., 136
Mirror, Toronto, 178
Mitchell, Hon. Peter, 156
Moncrieff, J. J., 190
Monetary Times, Toronto, 107
Monitor, Morden, 190
Montgomery, H. G., 149
Moore, H. P., 117, 121
Morning Call (Manitoba), 188
Morning Chronicle, Quebec, 150
Morning Journal, St. John, 140
Morning News, St. John, 139, 140,
Morrison, Daniel, 15
Moscher, A., 156
Moss, R, 190
Motz, J., 107
Mowat, Sir Oliver, 113
Mowat, Wm., 32
Mower, N., 149
Mower, P. E. W., 56, 107
Mullin, Miss (Mrs. Leprohon), 149
Mulvey, S., 183, 184
Murray, George, 153, 156
Murray, Geo. & Co., 153
Murray, Mrs. J. Clark, 156
Murray, P., 107
Murray, W., 107
Nagle, W. H., 189
Nash, F. J., 142
Neilson, Hon. John, 148, 154
Nelson, John, 204
New Brunswicker, 140
New Dominion Monthly, 153
New Era, Montreal, 3,150
New Nation (Manitoba), 183
News-Advertiser, Vancouver, 204,
News and Frontier Advocate, St.
John,   151
News (Daily), Montreal, 150
News, Evening (Manitoba), 189
News, Kingston  172
News Letter (Manitoba), 183
News-Letter, San Francisco, 200
News (Manitoba), 189
News, Nelson, 207
News, Toronto, 168, 171
News, Vancouver, 204
News, Victoria, 202
News, Yamaska, 151
Newsboy, first appearance in Toronto, 178
Nichol, Walter, 204
Nichols, W. E., 190
Nicholson, W. M., 51, 58
Nickless, J., 149
Nonsense,   152
Norris, Geo., 208
Norris, J., 156
North American, Picton, 51
North American, Toronto, 3, 167
Nor'-wester, Fort Garry, 27, 181,
182, 183, 187, 188
Nor'-West Farmer,  Winnipeg, 191
Nova Scotian, Halifax, 138, 141
O'Connor, E. G., 156
O'Connor, R. E., 31
Observer, Coaticook, 151
Observer, Cowansville, 107, 151
Observer, Sarnia, 180
Observer, York (Toronto), 166
Obstacles to press unity, 3
"Old Countryman," 178
Oldest newspaper in the Maritime
Provinces,  135
Oliver, Hon. Frank, 183, 185, 193
Oliver, R. J., 7
"O.M.I." 200
Ontario, Belleville, 107, 173
Organization meeting, 1
O'Brien, Col., 168
O'Brien, Lucius, 168
O'Brien, J. M., 204, 207
CCallaghan, Dr., 154
Pacaud, A., 107
Palladium, Charlottetown, 139
Palladium, Toronto, 168
Panton, S. P., 83
Paper Combine, Fight with the, 127,
Parliamentary Reporter, First Canadian, 166
Parmelee, C. H., 151, 156
Parsons, E. H., 155
Patriot, Charlottetown, 142, 143,
Patriot, Toronto, 20, 168
Patteson, T. C, 169
Pattullo, Andrew, 108,117,120, 121
Pattullo, Geo. R, 111
Paul Pry, 152
Penny, Hon. E. Geoff., 75, 155
Pense, E. J. B., 69, 101, 106,|118,
172, 191
Pense, M. L., 172
Pettypiece, H. J., 127, 128
Phillips, J., 156
Pilot, Montreal, 2, 150
Pirie, A. F., 117, 121, 122, 171
Planet, Chatham, 26, 128
Poker, Toronto, 179
Post, Evening (British Columbia),
203 HfiHff
li ?
Post, Lindsay, 52
Postage Question, The, 30, 95, 100
Powell, J., 52
Preston, T. H., 60, 117, 122, 128,
175, 189
Preston, W. T. R, 107
Proctor Brothers, 194
Proctor, J. J., 150, 156
Progress, Windsor, 107
Protestant,  152
Protestant Episcopal Recorder, 152
Prototype, London, 22
Provencher, M., 56
Province (Daily), Vancouver,  204,
206, 207
Punch, 152
Punch in Canada, 152
Quebec Press Association, 107, 110
Quiz (Manitoba), 187
Race, C. E., 207
Railway rate fixed in 1879, 91
Rattray, W., 170
Rebellion Losses Bill, 152
Record of Science, Montreal, 154
Recorder, Brockville, 42, 52, 172
Red River Pioneer, 182, 183
Reformer, Gait,  25
Reformer, Simcoe, 28
Register, Prince Edward Island, 137,
Register (Weekly), York (Toronto),
Rennie, A. N., 150, 155
Reporter, Halifax, 141
Review, Kincardine, 35
Review, Peterborough, 24
Review, Strathroy, 107
Richardson, R. L., 189
Riel issue, 170
Riel, Louis, 182, 183
Biordan, J.,  170
Roberts, S. L., 35
Robertson, A., 149
Robertson, J. P., 190, 191
Robertson, J. Ross, 169, 171
Robertson, T., 156
Robinson, C. Blackett, 52, 56, 83,
Robinson, H. M., 183
Robinson, Hon. John Beverly, 57
Robinson, L. R., 151
Robson, Hon. John, 205, 206
Roger, Charles, 150, 154
Romaine, Robt., 52
Ross, Alex, 182
Ross, Hon. G. W., 28
Ross, James, 182
Ross, P. D., 100, 118, 128, 156
Rossei, M., 175
Roy, Lewis, 160, 161
Royal Gazette and Weekly Advertiser,
St. John, 136
Royal Gazette, Charlottetown, 137
Royal, Hon. Joseph, 183
Royal St. John's Gazette and Nova
Scotia Intelligencer, 133, 136
Royal Society of Canada, 148
Rowe, Amos, 188
Ryan, Carroll, 156
Ryan, Matthew, 155
Ryerson, Rev. Egerton, 20, 172
St, Germain, A. H., 56
St. John, Molyneux, 156, 187
Salter, W. R, 152
Saskatchewan Herald, 184
Saturday Night, Toronto, 171
Saturday Reader, 153
Saults, G. H., 191
"Sauny's Letters Hame," 196
Sauvalle, Marc, 125
Sawle, W. J., 83
Seaife, A. H, 207
Schultz, Dr., 182
\ w
Scobie, Hugh, 15, 168
Scorpion (comic paper), 209
Scott, a D., 141
Sellar, Robert, 151
Sellar, Thomas, 7,11,13,15, 54,152
Sentinel, Cariboo, 196
Seymour, James, 11, 29, 32
Shannon, James, 29, 83, 91
Shannon, L. W., 117, 123
Sheppard, E. E., 171
Sheppard, George, 11, 12
Sheppard, W. A., 7
Siddons, John, 32, 51
Signal, Goderich, 35
Simcoe, Governor, 161, 164
Slack, E. F., 156
Smiley, J., 174
Smiley, R. R, 15, 21, 29, 174
Smith, E. R., 151, 156
Smith, Goldwin: joins the Association, 1875, 75; his connection
with Canada, 77; on journalism
as a profession, 78; banquet by
the Association, 79; on journalism and literature, 81
Smith, Gordon, 207
Smith, Governor, 137
Smith, J. C,  156
Smith, William, 148
Somerville, James, 7, 11, 15, 52, 56,
71, 83, 107
Somerville, Roy V., 117, 118
Southam, W., 174
Sower, Christopher, 136
Spaight, G.,  156
Spectator, Hamilton, 4, 8, 9, 24, 29,
31, 50, 174, 182, 190
Spectator, Montreal, 153
Spence, Hon. Robert, 21, 29
Sprite,   152
Stadacona, 152
Standard, Kingston, 172
Standard, Regina, 143, 195
Standard, St. Mary's, 51
Standard, Victoria, 202
Standard, Weekly (Manitoba), 187
Star, Cobourg, 35
Star (Evening), Toronto, 171
Star, Hastings, 107
Star, Montreal, 105, 121, 153
Star, Washington, 208
Statesman, Bowmanville, 35, 51, 107
Statistics of the Press in 1858, 8
Stephenson, Rufus, 26
Stevenson, A. F., 107
Stewart, Geo., 150
Stewart, J. J., 141, 156
Stovel, J., 191
Students Monthly, 153
Sun, Brandon, 190
Sun (Daily), St John, 141
Sun (Manitoba), 189
Sun, Toronto, 170
Sutherland, W., 175
Talbot, Freeman, 21
Talbot, Marcus, 15, 21
Tarte, Hon. J. Israel, 128
Taschereau, Mr. Justice, 131
Tasse, Joseph, 110
Tate, Rev. F. B., 152
Taylor, Fennings, 149
Taylor, J. D., 205, 206
Telegram (Daily), Vancouver,r209 .
Telegram (Manitoba), 189, 190
Telegram, Nanaimo, 209
Telegram, Toronto,  121,  169,   170,
Telegraph, Berlin, 40
Telegraph (Evening), Montreal, 155
Telegraph, Manitoba, 187
Telegraph, St. Francis, 151
Telegraph, St. John, 106, 140," 141,
Telegraph, Toronto, 169
Telegraph, Victoria, 202
Templeman, Hon. W., 203, 204
Thorn, L., 156
Thomson, E. W., 167, 190
Thomson, Prof. F. R. S., 147
Thomson, S., 168, 169
Thompson, Sir John, 123
Thompson, W. T, 189 222
Thoroughgood, R., 35
Tiffany, Gideon, 161, 162
Till Brothers, 140
Tilley, Sir Leonard, 87
Times, Brampton, 13
Times (Daily), Victoria, 202, 203,
204, 206, 208
Times, Hamilton, 51, 107, 174
Times (Manitoba), 188, 189
Times, New Westminster, 202
Times, Owen Sound, 114
Times, Picton, 173
Times, Port Hope, 94
Times, Toronto, 178
Times, Vancouver, 204
Tolley, G., 156
Topic, Petrolea, 199
Topping, W. M., 35
Toronto World, 107, 170
Town Topics (Manitoba), 191
Trade Review (Manitoba), 187
Transcript, Moncton, 143
Transcript, Montreal, 150
Trayes, J. B., 79, 83, 94, 106, 112
Tribune (Duluth), 189
Tribune (Manitoba), 188
Tribune, Nelson, 198
Tribune, Winnipeg, 189, 190
True Banner, Dundas, 107, 121
True Witness, 152
Truth (Daily),  New Westminster,
198, 209 '
Truth (Donald, B.C.), 198
Tuttle, C. R, 188
Tye, Geo., 13, 56, 105
Union, Ottawa, 31
United Empire, 21
University Monthly, 153
Upper Canada Gazette and American Oracle, 161
Upper Canada Gazette, York (Toronto), 164; type and press
destroyed, 165; other reference
to, 166
Upper    Canadian   Guardian   and
Freeman's Journal, 165
Vancouver Island Gazette, 200
VanDusen, O. V., 51
Verral, G. W., 32
Vidette, Qu'Appelle, 194
Voice of Jacob (Magazine), 152
Wade, F. C, 190
Walker, G. L., 52
Walker, J. W., 83
Wallace, Wm., 35
Waller, Dr., 154
Wallis, A. F., 170
Walsh, Joseph, 156
Warder, Dundas, 21
Wasp, 152
Watson, Isaac, 150
Watson, S. J., 150
Watt, H., 72
Watt, W., 83, 113
Week (British Columbia), 207
Weekly Chronicle, Halifax, 136
Weekly, Prince Edward Island, 142
Weekly Register, York (Toronto),
Weekly Standard (Manitoba), 187
Weir, R, 154
Weld, W., 83, 107
Western Canada Press Association,
191, 192, 195
Westward Ho! (Magazine), 207
Whelan, E., 139, 141
Whig, Kingston, 15, 23, 172
White, Hon. Thomas, career on the
press, 24; political success, 24;
lecture on newspapers, 25; president of the Association, 25, 52,
156, 174
White, Richard, 24, 156,174
S\>  Appendix I.
1859 to 1908
Meeting for Organization at Kingston, September 27th, and Toronto, February,
W. Gillespy President.
J. G. Brown 1st Vice-Pres.
Josiah Blackburn.. .2nd Vice-Pres.
Thomas Sellar Sec.-Treas.
D. McDougall Hon. Sec.
George Sheppard..
James Seymour..
James Somerville.
Thomas Mcintosh.
John Jacques	
Second Annual Meeting at Hamilton, September 28th.
W. Gillespy President.
D. Wylie 1st Vice-Pres.
D. McDougall 2nd Vice-Pres.
Thomas Sellar Sec.-Treas.
J. E. P. Doyle Hon. Sec.
C. J. Hynes	
A. McLachlan...
James Somerville
Josiah Blackburn
W. G. Culleden.
Executive .Com.
Third Annual Meeting at London in September.
W. Gillespy President.
D. McDougall 1st Vice-Pres.
Rufus Stephenson.. .2nd Vice-Pres.
Thomas Sellar Secretary.
J. E. P. Doyle Hon.-Sec.
J. G. Brown	
D. Wylie	
M. Coldwell \- Executive'Com.
A. McLachlan	
J. W. McLean	
Fourth Annual Meeting at Toronto, September 23rd, and Hamilton, November
D. McDougall President.
D. Wylie 1st Vice-Pres.
Thomas White 2nd Vice-Pres.
Thomas Sellar Secretary.
M. Bowell Hon. Sec.
W. Gillespy	
J. Young	
J. A. Campbell \ Executive Com.
W. T. Cox	
R. E. O'Connor..
Fifth Annual Meeting at Toronto, November 20th.
D. Wylie President.
Thomas White 1st Vice-Pres.
M. Bowell 2nd Vice-Pres.
Thomas Sellar Secretary.
J. A. Campbell Hon. Sec.
A. McLachlan	
James Seymour....
W. Wallace h Executive Com.
George McMullen..
W. T. Johnson.....
tv mm
Sixth Annual Meeting at Belleville, November 24th.
Thomas White President.
M. Bowen 1st Vice-Pres.
Thomas Sellar 2nd Vice-Pres.
J. A. Campbell Sec.-Treas.
W. T. Cox Hon. Sec.
D. Wylie	
T. Messenger.
J. Somerville.
A. J. Belch...
J. Laing	
- Executive Com.
Seventh Annual Meeting at Brockville, September 6th.
M. Bowell President.
Thomas Sellar 1st Vice-Pres.
J. A. Campbell. 2nd Vice-Pres.
W. T. Cox Sec-Treas.
W. Buckingham... .Hon. Sec.
T. White	
D. Wylie	
John Siddons.
J. Somerville.
W. M. Nicholson.
Executive Com.
Eighth Annual Meeting at Montreal, August 22nd.
Thomas Sellar President.
J. A, Campbell 1st Vice-Pres.
W. T. Cox 2nd Vice-Pres.
W. Buckingham Sec.-Treas.
S. I. Jones Hon. Sec.
E. Jackson	
W. N. Nicholson..
A. J. Belch } Executive Com.
C. B. Robinson....
R. Romaine	
Ninth Annual Meeting at Goderich, August 7th.
J. A. Campbell. President.
W. T. Cox 1st Vice-Pres.
Robert Boyle 2nd Vice-Pres.
E. Jackson Sec.-Treas.
A. J. Belch Assistant Sec.
W. M. Nicholson...
C. BLHull	
J. McLagan J- Executive Com.
J. Cameron.	
Tenth Annual Meeting at Collingwood, July 10th.
Wm. Buckingham...President.
Robert Boyle 1st Vice-Pres.
W. M. Nicholson... .2nd Vice-Pres.
E. Jackson Sec.-Treas.
H. Hough Assistant Sec.
R. Mathison....
A. McLean	
J. K. Mason....
J. Cameron.
C. B. Robinson.
Executive Com.
Eleventh Annual Meeting at Cdbourg, July 20th.
D. Wylie President.
J. Cameron 1st Vice-Pres.
A. J. Belch 2nd Vice-Pres.
E. Jackson Sec -Treas.
J. Somerville Assistant Sec.
R. Mathison	
W. Gillespy	
W. Halley J- Executive Com.
W. Buckingham.  .
J. S. Gurnett	 226
Twelfth Annual Meeting at Brantford, July 19th.
E. Jackson President.
J. Somerville 1st Vice-Pres.
A. McLean 2nd Vice-Pres.
W. Buckingham... .Sec.-Treas.
A. J. Belch Assistant Sec.
R. Matheson.
W. R. Climie.
R. Matheson.
J. Parnell	
W. Gillespy..
Executive Com.
Thirteenth Annual Meeting at Toronto, July 18th.
James Somerville.. .President.
Rev. W. F. Clarke... 1st Vice-Pres.
E. Miles 2nd Vice-Pres.
R. Matheson Sec.-Treas.
H. Hough Assistant Sec.
W. Gillespy	
E. Jackson	
A. MacLachlan f Executive'Com.
M. Bowell	
J. Smith	
Fourteenth Annual Meeting at Bracebridge, July 10th.
John Cameron President.
J. Innes 1st Vice-Pres.
W. R. Climie 2nd Vice-Pres.
H. Hough Sec.-Treas.
J. G. Buchanan Assistant Sec.
Rev. W. F. Clarke..^
J. Smith	
T. Messenger	
W. H. Hacking...
E. Jackson	
' Executive Com.
Fifteenth Annual Meeting at London, September 24th.
Rev. W. F. Clarke. President.
H. Hough 1st Vice-Pres.
A. Matheson 2nd Vice-Pres.
J. G. Buchanan Sec.-Treas.
John McLean Assistant Sec.
James Somerville.
E. Jackson	
P. Burke	
John Cameron....
M. Bowell, M.P...
Executive Com.
Sixteenth Annual Meeting at Toronto, July 21st.
H. Hough President.
A. Matheson 1st Vice-Pres.
John Smith 2nd Vice-Pres.
J. G. Buchanan Sec.-Treas.
John McLean Assistant Sec.
W. R. Climie	
James Innes	
John Cameron } Executive Com.
E. Jackson	
F. J. Gissing	
Seventeenth Annual Meeting at Hamilton, July 20th.
John Cameron President.
C. D. Barr 1st Vice-Pres..
D. McCullough 2nd Vice-Pres.
J. G. Buchanan Sec.-Treas.
John McLean Assistant Sec.
E. Jackson	
A. Matheson	
James Somerville...
W. R Climie	
Goldwin Smith	
Executive Com.
_^jmmiS^^ OFFICERS
Eighteenth Annual Meeting at Toronto, June 30th.
C. D. Barr President.
D. McCullough 1st Vice-Pres.
J. G. Buchanan 2nd Vice-Pres.
W. R. Climie Sec.-Treas.
F. J. Gissing Assistant Sec.
H. Hough	
A. Matheson	
James Somerville.
E. Jackson	
James Shannon...
Executive Com.
Nineteenth Annual Meeting at Toronto, August 13th.
James Innes President.
James Shannon 1st Vice-Pres.
A. Matheson 2nd Vice-Pres.
W. R Climie Sec.-Treas.
F. J. Gissing Assistant Sec.
H. Hough	
John Cameron.
J. B. Trayes...
J. Somerville..
E. Jackson	
* Executive Com.
Twentieth Annual Meeting at Guelph, July 9th.
James Shannon President.
Goldwin Smith 1st Vice-Pres.
J. B. Trayes 2nd Vice-Pres.
W. R. Climie Sec.-Treas.
C. B. Robinson Assistant Sec.
H. Hough...
N. King	
A. Matheson.
E. Jackson..
C. D. Barr...
James Innes.
► Executive Com.
Twenty-first Annual Meeting at Kingston, July 22nd.
A. Matheson President.
J. B. Trayes 1st Vice-Pres.
E. J. B. Pense 2nd Vice-Pres.
W. R. Climie Sec.-Treas.
George Tye Assistant Sec.
C. D. Barr	
H. Hough	
E. Jackson	
James Innes	
C. B. Robinson.
James Shannon.
Executive Com.
Twenty-second Annual Meeting at Toronto, August 5th.
J. B. Trayes President.
E. J. B. Pense 1st Vice-Pres.
George Tye 2nd Vice-Pres.
W. R. Climie Sec.-Treas.
A. J. Matheson Assistant Sec.
CD. Barr a
H. Hough	
E. Jackson	
James Innes	
C. B. Robinson....
James Somerville..
A. Matheson	
Executive Com. 1
Twenty-third Annual Meeting at Port Hope, August 2nd.
E. J. B. Pense President.
George Tye 1st Vice-Pres.
A. Blue 2nd Vice-Pres.
W. R Climie Sec.-Treas.
A. J. Matheson Assistant Sec.
C. D. Barr	
D. Hough	
E. Jackson	
James Innes	
C. B. Robinson	
James Somerville..
J. B. Trayes J
Twenty-fourth Annual Meeting at Toronto, August 22nd.
Executive Com.
George Tye President.
C. B. Robinson 1st Vice-Pres.
G. R. Pattullo 2nd Vice-Pres.
W. R Climie Sec.-Treas.
J. B. Trayes Assistant Sec.
CD. Barr -a
H. Hough	
E. Jackson	
James Innes	
H. Smallpiece....
W. Watt	
E. J. B. Pense....
Twenty-fiflh Annual Meeting at Montreal, August 7th.
- Executive Com.
C. B. Robinson President.
G. R. Pattullo 1st Vice-Pres.
J. A. Davidson 2nd Vice-Pres.
W. R. Climie Sec.-Treas.
J. B. Trayes Assistant Sec.
George Tye	
E. J. B. Pense....
CD. Barr	
H. Hough	
W. Watt	
H. E. Smallpiece.
James Somerville.
Twenty-sixth Annual Meeting at Toronto, August 1st.
> Executive Com.
G. R. Pattullo President.
J. A. Davidson 1st Vice-Pres.
W. Watt 2nd Vice-Pres.
W. R Climie Sec.-Treas.
J. B. Trayes Assistant Sec.
George Tye	
E. J. B. Pense....
CD. Barr	
H. Hougb    	
H. E. Smallpiece.
James Somerville.
C B. Robinson...
X Executive Com.
Twenty-seventh Annual Meeting at Toronto, August 4th.
J. A. Davidson President.
William Watt, jr.... 1st Vice-Pres.
H. E. Smallpiece... .2nd Vice-Pres.
W. R. Climie Sec.-Treas.
J. B. Trayes Assistant Sec.
George Tye	
E. J. B. Pense	
C. D. Barr	
H. Hough	
James Somerville.
C B. Robinson...
G. R. Pattullo...
- Executive Com. OFFICERS
Twenty-eighth Annual Meeting at Toronto, August 5th.
William Watt, jr... .President.
J. J. Crabbe ... 1st Vice-Pres.
A. Pattullo 2nd Vice-Pres.
W. R. Climie Sec.-Treas.
J. B. Trayes Assistant Sec.
E. E. Sheppard..
H. P. Moore	
W. R. Davis	
C. D. Barr	
H. Hough	
J. A. Davidson...
Executive Com.
Twenty-ninth Annual Meeting at Toronto, August 2nd.
J. J. Crabbe President.
A. Pattullo 1st Vice-Pres.
E. H. Dewart, D.D..2nd Vice-Pres.
W. R. Climie Sec.-Treas.
J. B. Trayes Assistant Sec.
John Cameron •
H. P. Moore	
H. Hough	
C B. Robinson	
Roy V. Somerville..
William   Watt,    jr
Executive Com.
Thirtieth Annual Meeting at Toronto, July 31st.
Also first Winter Session at Toronto, February 22nd, 1889.
E. H. Dewart, D.D.. President.
D. Creighton,M.P.P..lst Vice-Pres.
Roy V. Somerville. .2nd Vice-Pres.
W. R. Climie Sec.-Treas.
J. B. Trayes Assistant Sec.
H. P. Moore	
A. Pattullo	
Lyman J. Jackson..
J S. Brierley.	
J. B. MacLean	
J. C Jamieson	
J. J. Crabbe	
> Executive Com.
*Thirty-first Annual Meeting at Toronto, July 18th.
Second Winter Session at Toronto, February 14th, 1890.
Roy V. Somerville. .President.
Andrew Pattullo... .1st Vice-Pres.
H. P. Moore 2nd Vice-Pres.
W. R. Climie Sec.-Treas.
J. B. Trayes Assistant Sec.
H. Hough "-,
D. Creighton	
L. G. Jackson	
J. A. Davidson	
J. S. Brierley	
E. H. Dewart	
Executive Com.
♦This was a purely business meeting, and all papers were deferred until
the winter session, held February 14th, 1890, thus making the winter session
so important that, after the next year, no further summer sessions were
Thirty-second Annual Meeting at Toronto, August 5th.
Thirty-third Annual Meeting at Toronto, February 13th.
Andrew Pattullo*... President.
H. P. Moore 1st Vice-Pres.
J. C Jamieson 2nd Vice-Pres.
J. B. MacLean Sec.-Treas.
J. S. Brierley Assistant Sec.
J. B. Trayes	
T. H. Preston	
W. R. Climie. Y Executive Com.
A. F. Pirie	
Roy V. Somerville...
*The above held office for a year and a half.
Thirty-fourth Annual Meeting at Ottawa, March 3rd and 4th
L. W. Shannon...
T. H. Preston	
Robt. Holmes... .
L. G. Jackson....
R. L. Mortimer...
Andrew Pattullo..
H. P. Moore President.
A. F. Pirie 1st Vice-Pres.
P. D. Ross 2nd Vice-Pres.
J. E. Atkinson Sec.-Treas.
J. S. Brierley Assistant Sec.
' Executive Com.
Thirty-fifth Annual Meeting at Toronto, February 9th and 10th.
A. F. Pirie President.
P. D. Ross 1st Vice-Pres.
T. H. Preston 2nd Vice-Pres.
J. E. Atkinson Sec.-Treas.
J. B. MacLean Assistant Sec.
J. S. Brierley	
Andrew Pattullo..
A. R. Fawcett	
L. G. Jackson... .
R. Holmes	
H. P. Moore	
- Executive Com.
Thirty-sixth Annual Meeting at Toronto, February 9th.
T. H. Preston President.
L. W. Shannon 1st Vice-Pres.
J. S. Brierley 2nd Vice-Pres.
J. B. MacLean Sec.-Treas.
H. B. Donly. Assistant Sec.
J. S. Willison	
R. Holmes	
C W. Young	
W. L. Dingman..,
Andrew Laidlaw.
A. F. Pirie	
t Executive Com.
Thirty-seventh Annual Meeting at Toronto, January Zlst.
L. W. Shannon President.
J. S. Brierley 1st Vice-Pres.
J. B. MacLean 2nd Vice-Pres.
John A. Cooper Sec.-Treas.
J. E. Atkinson Assistant Sec.
C W. Young )
J. S. Willison	
W. S. Dingman...
S. Stephenson....
A. Laidlaw	
T. H. Preston J
" Executive Com.
Thirty-eighth Annual Meeting at Toronto, February 6th and 7th.
J. S. Brierley President.
J. B. MacLean. 1st Vice-Pres.
Robert Holmes 2nd Vice-Pres.
John A. Cooper Sec.-Treas.
J. E. Atkinson Assistant Sec.
W. Ireland ^
D. McGillicuddy.....
W. S. Dingman	
A. G. F. Macdonald.
R. S. Mortimer	
L. W. Shannon	
Y Executive Com.
Thirty-ninth Annual Meeting at Toronto, February 4& and 5th.
J. B. MacLean. President.
Robert Holmes 1st Vice-Pres.
W. S. Dingman. 2nd Vice-Pres.
John A. Cooper Sec-Treas.
A. H. U. Colquhoun. Assistant Sec.
J. S. Willison	
W. Ireland	
Jos. T. Clark	
D. McGillicuddy.....
A. G. F. Macdonald.
J. S. Brierley	
i Executive Com.
Fortieth Annual Meeting at Ottawa, March 10th and 11th.
Robert Holmes President.
W. S. Dingman. 1st Vice-Pres.
J. S. Willison 2nd Vice-Pres.
John A. Cooper Sec-Treas.
C. A. Matthews Assistant Sec.
J. T. Clark ^
L. J. Tarte	
W. Ireland	
D. McGillicuddy....
A. G. F. Macdonald
J. B. MacLean .
Executive Com.
Forty-first Annual Meeting at Toronto, February 2nd and 3rd.
W. S. Dingman.... .President.
J. S. Willison 1st Vice-Pres.
A. G. F. Macdonald.2nd Vice-Pres.
John A. Cooper Sec.-Treas.
C. A. Matthews Assistant Sec.
L. J. Tarte 1
W. Ireland	
J. T. Clark	
D. McGillicuddy....
J. F. McKay	
Robert Holmes J
Executive Com.
Forty-second Annual Meeting at Toronto, February 1st and 2nd.
J. S. Willison President.
A. G. F. Macdonald. 1st Vice-Pres.
D. McGillicuddy 2nd Vice-Pres.
John A. Cooper Sec.-Treas.
A. W. Law Assistant Sec.
A. McNee	
J. T. Clark	
A. H. TJ. Colquhoun
H. J. Pettypiece.... j
L. J. Tarte	
W. S. Dingman.... J
Executive Com. w
Forty-third Annual Meeting at Toronto, March 21st and 22nd.
A. G. F. Macdonald..President.
D. McGillicuddy 1st Vice-Pres.
H. J. Pettypiece 2nd Vice-Pres
John A. Cooper Sec.-Treas.
A. W. Law Assistant Sec.
J.T.Clark *\
A. H. TJ. Colquhoun.
A. McNee	
J. W. Eedy	
Smeaton White	
J. S. Willison	
► Executive Com.
Forty-fourth Annual Meeting at Ottawa, February 27th and 28th
D. McGillicuddy... .President.
H. J. Pettypiece 1st Vice-Pres.
John A. Cooper 2nd Vice-Pres.
J. T. Clark Sec.-Treas.
M. 0. Hammond... .Assistant Sec.
A. H. U. Colquhoun."
A. McNee	
J. W. Eedy } Executive Com.
A. G. F. Macdonald
Forty-fifth Annual Meeting at Toronto, February 5th and 6th
John A. Cooper 1st Vice-Pres.
A. McNee 2nd Vice-Pres.
J. T. Clark Sec.-Treas.
J. R. Bone Assistant Sec.
A. H. U. Colquhoun.-
D. Williams	
W. E.Smallfield...
D. McGillicuddy...
Executive Com.
Forty-sixth Annual Meeting at Toronto, February 4th and 5th.
John A. Cooper.... .President.
A. McNee 1st Vice-Pres.
A. H. U. Colquhoun.2nd Vice-Pres.
J. T. Clark Sec.-Treas.
J. R. Bone Assistant Sec.
D. Williams	
W. E. Smailfield.
J. F. McKay	
M. A. James	
W. Ireland	
H. J. Pettypiece.
" Executive Com.
Forty-seventh Annual Meeting at Toronto, February 2nd and 3rd.
Arch. McNee President.
A. H. U. Colquhoun. 1st Vice-Pres.
J. T. Clark 2nd Vice-Pres.
John R. Bone Sec.-Treas.
A. E. Bradwin Assistant Sec.
J. F. McKay	
W.E Smailfield..
L. S. Channell...
F. H. Dobbin	
John A. Cooper....
► Executive Com.
j£->  MMll
Appendix II.
Membership Roll
of the
Acton, C.S Acton Trade Papers Toronto.
Acton, James Acton Trade Papers Toronto.
Adams, Frank Advertiser London.
Appleford, L. M News Seaforth.
Armstrong, W. S. B The Pioneer Toronto.
Atkinson, J. E Star Toronto.
Auger, P. H Agent Montreal Star Toronto.
Auld, J. A Echo	
. Amherstburg.
Bastedo, D. E Herald Bracebridge.
Bastedo, W. E Herald Bracebridge.
Bean, David Chronicle-Telegraph Waterloo.
Belanger, L. A Le Progres Sherbrooke, P.Q.
Bell, G. J. Times Port Colborne.
Bell, J. J Can. Mining Review Toronto.
Bengough, J. W Globe Toronto.
Biggar, E. B Pulp & Paper Journal Toronto.
Bilger, W. F Agent Montreal Standard..   .. Toronto.
Blackstone, H. T Times Orillia.
Bole, W. H Elgin Sun West Lome.
Bone, John R Star Toronto.
Boright, AT News St. John's, P.Q.
Boright, T. A Record.
Sherbrooke, P.Q.
Bourbeau, Aug L'Echo des Bois Francs Victoriaville, P.Q.
Bowell, Chas. J Intelligencer	
Bradwin, A. E Reformer	
Bragg, H Can. Municipal Journal	
Bragg, H. W Can. Municipal Journal	
Brennan, F. J Standard	
Brett, R. R Free Press	
Bridle, A Engineering Journal	
Brierley, Jas. S Herald	
Briggs, Rev. W., D.D Christian Guardian Toronto.
Brown, W. J Weekly Globe Toronto.
Browne, R. H. C Nugget Cobalt.
Bryan, Claude G. Journalist Toronto.
Burgoyne, Henry B Standard St. Catharines
Burgoyne, W. B Standard St. Catharines
St. Catharines.
Burrows, Acton. Railway & Marine World Toronto.
Bywater, H. E Enterprise-News Arthur.
Calkins, H. W Standard St. Catharines.
Cameron, W. J Outdoor Canada Toronto.
Campbell, A. C Hansard Ottawa.
Campbell, W. B Office and Field Toronto.
Campbell, F. O Canadian Courier Toronto.
Campbell, Dugald Gazette Almonte.
Canniff, B. E Reporter Gait.
Carleton, E. M Montreal Star Toronto.
Carman, T. S Ontario Belleville.
Carpenter, G. H Dairyman Peterboro.
Carrel, Frank Telegraph Quebec.
Carswell, R Canadian Law Times Toronto.
Cave, J. J Express Beaverton.
Cave, John J Express Beaverton.
Chagnon, A. E Journal de Waterloo Waterloo, P.Q.
Champion, Thos Telegram Toronto.
Channell, L. S Record Sherbrooke, P.Q.
Charbonnell, L. E Chronicle Cookshire, P.Q.
Chester, Howard Economist Shelburne.
Claridge, T. F. E Economist Shelburne.
Clark, Hugh, M.P.P Review Kincardine.
Clark, J. T. Saturday Night Toronto.
Cliff, W. W Central Canadian Carleton Place.
Climie, W Banner Listowel.
Colquhoun, A. H. U Deputy Minister of Education. .Toronto.
Copland, John A Tribune Harriston.
Cook, Fred Journalist Ottawa.
Cooper, John A. Canadian Courier Toronto.
Cowan, H. B Canadian Horticulturist Peterboro.
Cowsert, V. H Mirror Toronto.
Craick, W. A. Printer & Publisher Toronto.
Craig, W. Logan Star and Vidette Grand Valley.
Cranston, J. H Star Toronto.
Creighton, W. B Christian Guardian Toronto.
Crew, T. Northern Advance Barrie.
Crews, A. C Epworth Era Toronto.
Cromarty, R R Canada Law Journal :.. .Toronto.
Cummings, Mrs W Letter Leaflet Toronto.
Curran, Robert News Letter Orillia.
Cutting, H. B Horticulturist Peterboro.
Dale, James..
Davie, A. G..
Davis, W. H..
Davis, W. R.
Dawson, Wm.
.Guardian Toronto.
.Tribune North Bay.
World ,. Beeton.
.Advocate Mitchell, j
. Gazette Review Parkhill. 236
Denholm, Andrew News Tribune  .Blenheim.
Dickson, H. A. Megantic Gazette Rectory Hill, P.Q.
St. Catharines.
St. Thomas.
Dillon, R. W Journal
Dingman, W. S Herald..
Dingman, L. H Times...
Dobbin, F. H Review..
Donaldson, A. G. Star	
Donly, Hal. B Reformer
Douglas, W. J Mail and Empire Toronto
Downey, J.P., M.P.P... .Herald Guelph.
Duggan, E. G Hansard Ottawa.
Dunbar, Robt. C Hansard Ottawa.
Duncan, J. M Teachers' Monthly Toronto.
Dyas, T. A Record Niagara Falls
Dyas, W. J Canadian Druggist Toronto.
Dyas, V. W Canadian Druggist Toronto.
Eastwood, John M Times Hamilton.
Edmonds, W. L MacLean's Trade Papers Toronto.
Eedy, Lome Journal St. Mary's.
Egan, Charles Enterprise Wyoming.
Elliott, Fred. B Sun Cobden.
Elliott, H. B Times Wingham.
Elliott, Joseph G Whig Kingston.
Elliott, W. J Chronicle Ingersoll.
Ewan, John A Globe Toronto.
Fawcett, A. R Arrow Burk's Falls.
Featherstone, G. W Star-Transcript Paris.
Ferrie, Robt. B Times Hamilton.
Field, Fred. W Monetary Times Toronto.
Findlay, W. A. H Free Press Ottawa.
Finlayson, Hugh " Journal" Renfrew Ottawa.
Fisher, James Toronto Agent, Toronto.
Fisher, A. M Journal of Fabrics Toronto.
Fleming, Howard Sun Owen Sound.
Foley, John Sun Orangeville.
Forster, A. S Star Oakville.
Fraser, Jane Wells East and West Toronto.
Fraser, Rev. R. D Teachers' Monthly Toronto.
Fry, W. A Chronicle Dunnville.
Fullerton, J. Can. Music & Trade Journal Toronto.
Gagnier, H Gagnier's Papers Toronto.
Galbraith, Thos Mail & Empire Toronto.
Garrett, E Witness-News Bradford.
Gibbard, G. E Pharmaceutical Journal Toronto.
Gibbens, W Standard Cornwall. MEMBERSHIP ROLL
Gilbert, George Bulletin Toronto.
Giles, J. S Watchman La Chute, P.Q.
Gillies, Allan Watchman-Warder Lindsay.
Gillies, D. B Canadian Mining Journal Toronto.
Given, W. S Reporter Millbrook.
Good, H. J. P World Toronto.
Goodfellow, C. A. Gazette and Chronicle Whitby.
Goodfellow, J. F Free Press Midland.
Gordon, C H Jewelers' Journal Hamilton.
Gorman, F Observer Sarnia.
Graham, Hon. G. P Recorder. Brockville.
Graham, Percy M Recorder Brockville.
Grange, E. W. Mail & Empire Toronto.
Grant, S. W. The Westminster Toronto.
Greenwood, W. H World Toronto.
Gummer, H Herald Guelph.
Hagey, Jacob Gospel Banner Berlin.
Hale, C.H Packet Orillia.
Hallman, H. S Gospel Banner  .Berlin.
Hammond, M. O Globe Toronto.
Hanna, J. B Star St. Catharines.
Harpell, J. J Can. Mining Journal Toronto.
Harpell, T. W Can. Mining Journal Toronto.
Harper, J. Echo Sundridge.
Harris, W. C R Star Toronto.
Harris, Elgin A Gazette Burlington.
Harris, R. B Herald Hamilton.
Hawke, J. T Transcript Moncton, N.B.
Haycraft, Miss E. E Statesman Bowmanville.
Heveron, James Sentinel St. George.
Hocken, H. G Sentinel Toronto.
Hocken, H. C Sentinel Toronto.
Hogg, W. A. Enterprise-Messenger Collingwood.
Holmes, R New Era Clinton.
Holland, J. C Journal Stanstead, P.Q.
Horton, Albert Hansard Ottawa.
Hunter, G. E. M Journal Ottawa.
Hurley, J. J Canadian Bee Journal Brantford.
Hutchinson, M. J. MacLean's Trade Papers Toronto.
Ireland, W. North Star Parry Sound.
Irving, T. C Bradstreet's Toronto.
Irwin, William Chronicle Durham.
Jackson, E Era Newmarket.
Jackson, L. G. Era Newmarket.
Jaffray, J. P. Reporter Gait.
Jaffray, Robert Globe Toronto.
Jakeway, H. W Saturday Night Toronto. THE CANADIAN PRESS
James, G. W Statesman Bowmanville.
James, M. A Statesman Bowman ville.
Jeffreys, C. W Star Toronto.
Johnston, E. W., jr Review Bridgeburg.
Jones, Walter W Gagnier Trade Papers Toronto.
Keefler, J. K Times Weston.
Keller, W. H Journal "Oxbridge.
Kerr, J. L Standard Blyth.
Knowles, CO Telegram Toronto.
Laliberte, Wilfrid L'Echo des Bois Francs Victoria ville. P.Q.
Lambert, J. A Representative Mount Forest.
Lance, A. L Times Richmond, P.Q.
Lance, Nye Times Richmond, P.Q.
Lane, Byron Press Winchester.
Langelier, J. Geo Journal de Waterloo Waterloo, P.Q.
Langlois, Godfrey Le Canada Montreal.
Lapp, C A Ensign Brighton.
Lawrance, E Ry. News & Com. Traveller Toronto.
Leavens, F. N Enterprise Bolton.
Lebourdeau, H. C Record Sherbrooke, P.Q.
Lee, C H Saturday Night Toronto.
Le Drew, H. H O. A. C. Review Guelph.
.. .Leader Mail Granby, P.Q.
.. .Review :. .Niagara Falls.
... Star Toronto.
.. .Times North Bay.
... Gazette Bracebridge.
... Independent Grimsby.
.. .Record Sherbrooke, P.Q.
.. .Banner Aurora.
Legge, Geo	
Leslie, F. H	
Lewis, John	
Liddell, John	
Linney, Harry	
Livingston, Jas. A.
Logie, H	
Lundy, S. H	
MacBeth, Andrew...
MacBeth, Malcolm..
Macdonald, A. G. F..
Macdonald, J. A	
Maclntyre, J. R	
MacKay, John F	
MacLaren, J. A.
. News Linwood.
. Sun Milverton.
.News Alexandria.
.Globe Toronto.
. Herald Dundalk.
. Globe Toronto.
.Examiner Barrie.
MacLean, J. B MacLean's Trade Journals Toronto.
Maclean, W. F., M.P... .World Toronto.
Maclean, Wm. D Expositor Seaforth.
McAdams, Johnston Canadian Sarnia.
McConnell, J. P Saturday Sunset Vancouver/B.C
McDougall, Arch. L Can. Implement and Veh. Trade/Toronto.
McGillicuddy, D News Calgary.
McGillivray, M. W Toronto Manager Montreal Star.Toronto.
McGuire, B Banner Orangeville. MEMBERSHIP ROLL
Mcintosh, G. J. E Standard Forest.
Mcintosh, J. Innes Mercury Guelph.
McKay, John A. Record Windsor.
McKay, J. D Express-Herald Newmarket.
McKay, K. W Municipal World St. Thomas.
McKay, W. J Canadian Baptist Toronto.
McKerrecher, B. J Review Madoc.
McKinnon, D Can.    Harness    Journal Toronto.
McKinnon, D. O Canadian Manufacturer Toronto.
McKitrick, A. D Banner Orangeville.
McLean, Hugh C Trade Papers Toronto.
McLeod, James Gazette Almonte.
McMahon, T. F Liberal Richmond Hill.
McNee, A. Record Windsor.
McTavish, Newton Canadian Magazine Toronto.
Marsh, A. W Echo Amherstburg.
Martin, W. T Montreal   Gazette Toronto.
Mason, George Journal Prescott.
Matthews, C.A. ... .Hansard Ottawa.
Matthews, W. C Dun's Bulletin Toronto.
Merrill, Annie The Prairie Calgary, Alta.
Merry, W. T Guardian Toronto.
Meyer, N. A. Leader Farnham, P.Q.
Milne, W. S Money and Bisks Toronto.
Mills, R. E Express Mora.
Mitchell, James Star Goderich.
Mitchell, Geo. H Post Hanover.
Monteith, E. C Sun Aylmer.
Moore, H. P. Free Press Acton.
Moore, J. E Canadian Grocer Toronto.
Moore, J. M Herald Georgetown.
Morang, Geo. N Nor'-West Farmer Toronto.
Morgan, L. G. Maple Leaf Port Dover.
Morrill, V. E Record Sherbrooke, P.Q.
Morrissey, M Record Sherbrooke, P.Q.
Mortimer, R. L Free Press Shelburne.
Moyer, W. A. E Journalist St. Catharines.
Murray, G. M Industrial Canada Toronto.
Murray, J. C Can. Mining Journal Toronto.
Murton, C. A Canadian Ready Print Papers. .Hamilton.
Neill, J. Stanley Leader Mail Granby, P.Q.
Nichol, W. C Province Vancouver.
Nicol, W. Glen Enterprise Wyoming.
O'Beirne, W. M Beacon.
Orr, J. R Review,
Orr, James A. Journal
. Madoc.
Sudbury. 240
Panton, Wm Champion Milton.
Paquette, A. E L'Industrial Shaw'gan Falls, P.Q.
Parkinson, M Canadian Teacher Toronto.
Parmalee, C.H Advertiser Waterloo, P.Q.
Patterson, J. H. L Type an(i Press Toronto.
Pearce, C.T News Toronto.
Pearce, C G Star Waterford.
Pelletier, J. E Le Journal d'Agriculture Montreal.
Pense, E. J. B Whig Kingston.
Perrault, G L'Union des Canton de l'est Arthabaska, P.Q.
Perrault, E L'Union des Canton de l'est... .Arthabaska, P.Q.
Pettypiece, H. J Free Press Forest.
Phelps, Norman Times North Bay.
Pierce, E. G Record Sherbrooke, P.Q.
Planche, R. S Record Cookshire, P.Q.
Preston, T. H Expositor Brantford.
Preston, W. B Expositor Brantford.
Price, H. D Express Aylmer.
Ramage, C Review Durham.
Rathbone, J. B Ottawa Journal Toronto.
Redditt, J. J. Methodist S.S. Papers Toronto.
Reeves, George Advocate Cayuga.
Robertson, J. Sinclair.. .Telegram Toronto.
Robertson, Chas. N Journal Ottawa.
Robertson, Irving E Telegram Toronto.
Robertson, J. Ross Telegram Toronto.
Robertson, W. H Signal Goderich.
Robertson, W. E Westminster Toronto.
Robertson, Wm Banner Dundas.
Robinson, John R Telegram Toronto.
Roebuck, A. W Herald New Liskeard.
Rook, W. G Can. Horticulturist Peterboro.
Ross, P. D Journal Ottawa.
Rossie, Melville W Advertiser London.
Rutherford, J. H Times Owen Sound.
Rutledge, C. W Standard Markdale^
Ryan, J. J Advertiser Waterloo, P.Q.
Salmond, James J Monetary Times Toronto.
Sanders, C.H Advocate Exeter.
Sawle, Chas. H Progress Preston.
Sawle, George R. T Messenger Prescott.
Scroggie, Geo. E Mail and Empire Toronto.
Sears, F. H Telegraph Welland.
Sears, Thomas H Telegraph Welland.
Seeley, B. A Advance Kemptville.
Sellar, R Gleaner Huntingdon, P.Q.
Shantz, S. P Star Toronto.
--      es i MEMBERSHIP ROLL
Sharpin, W. J Vidette Gorrie.
Shaw, W. A Times Tilbury.
Shaw, Jean Music Journal Toronto.
Shurtleff, W. L  Observer Coaticook, P.Q.
Sidey, John J. Tribune     Welland.
Simpson, George Hansard Ottawa.
Sims, Thos. W Herald Thamesville.
Smailfield, W. E Mercury Renfrew.
Smallpiece, H. E. Toronto Agent Toronto.
Smith, R. Wilson Insurance Chronicle Montreal.
Smith, W. L  Sun Toronto.
Smith, E. R News St. John's, P.Q.
Smith, G. P News St. John's, P.Q.
Snell, Rendol Herald Marmora.
Snider, Chas Telegram Toronto.
Southam, Harry S Citizen Ottawa.
Southam, Wilson M Citizen Ottawa.
Spence, F. S. Pioneer Toronto.
Spence, B. H. Pioneer Toronto.
Spry, D. W. B Commercial Publishing Go Toronto.
Stephenson, S Planet Chatham.
Stone, C F Expositor Perth.
Sutherland, A. E Transcript Glencoe.
Sutherland, F. W Municipal World St. Thomas.
Tarte, L. J La Patrie Montreal.
Taylor, D. B Sentinel Review Woodstock.
Taylor, W. J Sentinel Review Woodstock.
Templin, J. C News Record Fergus.
Tessier, G. J Le Temps Ottawa.
Thomson, J. A. Journal Gananoque.
Thompson, J. H Post Thorold.
Thompson, J. M Telegram Kemptville.
Torrance, T. W Reporter Gait.
Vandusen, H. A Leader Tara.
Van Vleet, P. G Implement Trade Toronto.
Vosper, J. T Herald Campbellford.
Watson, A. H Star Creemore.
Waldron, Gordon Weekly Sun Toronto.
Walker, Jas. M Journalist Gananoque.
Walker, W. W Courier Perth.
Wall, Garrett Horticulturist Peterboro.
Wallis, A. F Mail and Empire Toronto.
Watson, J. P. Record Sherbrooke, P.Q.
Warren, R. D Herald Georgetown.
Watson, W. J. Vindicator Oshawa.
Webster, A. E Dental Journal Toronto. THE CANADIAN PRESS
Weld, John Farmers' Advocate London.
Wheaton, J. W Farming World I Toronto.
Wilgress, A. T Times Brockville.
Williams, D Bulletin Collingwood.
Williams, W Bulletin  .Collingwood.
Williams, Fred. H Free Press Ottawa.
Willison, J. S News Toronto.
Wilson, C A North Ender Toronto.
Wilson, P. W Advertiser Petrolea.
Wilson, Geo. H. Post Lindsay.
Wilson, S. Frank Wilson's Papers Toronto.
Wilson, Fred. W Guide     Port Hope.
Wilson, F. Page Monetary Times Toronto.
Wilson, C. Lesslie Wilson's Papers Toronto.
Wilson, Murray Wilson's Papers Toronto.
Wing, M. L Evangelius Bote Berlin.
Withrow, Florence Onward Toronto.
Woodward, A. C Banner-News Chatham.
Wright, A. W Confederate Mt. Forest
Wrigley, Weston Hardware and Metal Toronto.
Young, C W Freeholder Cornwall.
Young, J. A Record Thamesford
Young, Clarence G Courier Trenton.
Honorary Members
Barr, C D. Lindsay.
Blue, A., Ottawa.
Bowell, Sir Mackenzie, Belleville.
Boyle, Robert, Picton.
Buckingham, Wm., Stratford.
Cameron, Lud. K., Toronto.
Clark, Dr. D., Toronto.
Crabbe, J. J., Toronto.
Creighton, David, Toronto.
Davidson, J. A., Guelph.
Elliott, R., Brantford.
Gardiner, H. F., Brantford.
Gwatkin, R. L., Toronto.
Hilliard, Thos., Waterloo.
Houston, William, Toronto.
Hough, H., Toronto.
King, John, K.C, Toronto.
McNaught, W. K., M.P.P., Toronto.
Matheson, Hon. A. J., Perth.
Mathison, R., Toronto.
McEwen, W. P., Almonte.
McGuire, W. M., Tillsonburg.
Motz, John, Berlin.
Nicholls, Frederic, Toronto.
Patterson, R. L., Toronto.     ,
Pattullo, G. R., Woodstock.
Russell, S., Deseronto.
Scott, W. C, Napanee.
Shannon, L. W., Kingston.
Somerville, J., Dundas.
Somerville, R. V., London, Eng,
Smith, Prof. Goldwin, Toronto.
Trout, E., Toronto.
Watt, W., Brantford.
Way, B., Hamilton.
Young, Hon. James, Gait.
Murray Printing Company, Limited, Toronto
 —an- —  I if
BO"-  V -*  


Citation Scheme:


Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics



Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            async >
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:


Related Items