BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

The Selkirk Range Vol. I Wheeler, A. O. (Arthur Oliver), 1860-1945 1905

Item Metadata

Download

Media
bcbooks-1.0348680.pdf
Metadata
JSON: bcbooks-1.0348680.json
JSON-LD: bcbooks-1.0348680-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): bcbooks-1.0348680-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: bcbooks-1.0348680-rdf.json
Turtle: bcbooks-1.0348680-turtle.txt
N-Triples: bcbooks-1.0348680-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: bcbooks-1.0348680-source.json
Full Text
bcbooks-1.0348680-fulltext.txt
Citation
bcbooks-1.0348680.ris

Full Text

           THE  SELKIRK  RANGE fiHi  Photo. S. J. Jay-vis, Ottt
Lord Stbathoona. THE SELKIRK RANGE
A. O. WHEELER, F.R.G.S.
VOL.  I.
OTTAWA
GOVERNMENT PRINTING BUREAU
1905 PUBLISHED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
1905
Us To the Honourable Clifford Sifton, K.C.,
Minister of the Interior,
Ottawa, Ont
Sib,—I have the honour to submit the following account of
a topographical survey of the portion of the Selkirk mountains
adjacent to the line of the Canadian Pacific railway.
It is accompanied by a brief review of travel and exploration, of previous surveys and of mountaineering in these regions.
In the Appendix will be found :—Notes on the zoology,
ornithology and botany by Professor John Macoun, Dominion
Naturalist and Botanist; on the climatology by R. P. Stupart,
Director of the Meteorological Bureau; extracts from a note on
the geological structure of the Selkirk range by the late Dr.
George M. Dawson, Director of the Geological Survey of
Canada; elevations along the line of railway referred to sea-
level, accompanied by a profile, compiled by James White,
Geographer to the Department; a technical description of the
railway through the range by H. B. Muckleston, one of the
company's engineers; an account by A. L. Rogers of the finding of Rogers pass by Major Rogers; and other matters of
interest to the subject in hand.
Two seasons have been spent upon the work, and it is hoped
that the accompanying topographical map will fill all present
requirements. The ground has been covered between Beaver-
mouth and Bevelstoke, from the eastern to the western slopes of
the range.
At the latter point, a connection is made with J. J.
McArthuVs topographical survey of the Columbia valley and VI THE   SELKIRK   RAJ5T&E
Arrow lakes. By this means, a continuous zone has been topographically surveyed for some miles on either side of the railway
and river, forming a base from which the work can be expanded
in any required direction.
During the second year, the survey was extended southward
to embrace all previous travel and exploration of the higher
Selkirk summits and to enable a reliable guide map to be furnished to tourists and mountaineers.
Owing to the great influx to our Canadian Alps, from all
parts of the world, of those interested in mountains and
mountain scenery, the subject has become one of great interest.
Accurate maps and reliable information are frequently asked
for, and on this account, if no other, the accompanying notes
may be of use.
Respectfully submitted,
ARTHUR O. WHEELER,
Topographer,
Department of the Interior.
The maps, diagrams, and plates accompanying this volume
Q be found in a separate pocket (Volume II.) ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Eirst, I desire to acknowledge the excellent service rendered
in the field by my assistants, Mr. H. G. Wheeler and Mr. M. P.
Bridgeland, B.A., who were my companions on many a dangerous climb, under all conditions of weather; also their steady
attention to duty while preparing the maps and tables accompanying this report, a somewhat tedious operation.
Next, I beg to thank most heartily those gentlemen whose
names appear under articles in the appendices hereto, written
by them on matters of interest pertaining to the Selkirk
mountains; also the following persons who have kindly contributed information embraced in the text, viz.: Professor
John Macoun, Mr. Walter Moberly, Mr. W. S. Gore, Mr. W.
F. King, Mr. A. H. Whitcher, Mrs. J. M. Young, Mr. Richard
Hunter, Mrs. Dr. Macdonald and Mr. H. A. Perley.
For illustrations, in addition to my own, I am deeply
indebted to those whose names appear below the prints; also
to the following, who have kindly supplied me with photographs
for the accompanying portraits:—Mrs. Charles Schaffer (photograph of Sir James Hector), Mrs. Frank Moberly and Mrs.
M. G. Kimball, niece of Major Rogers.
Lastly, I wish to acknowledge most gratefully the excellent
work done by Mr. W. McMahon, Superintendent of Printing
to the Department of Public Printing and Stationery, and his
able staff in the publication of this report No pains have been
spared to bring it out in good form, and it is entirely due
to their efforts that the publication appears in the present
acceptable manner.
A.O.W.  CONTENTS
PART I.—THE SURVEY
CHAPTER I
OVER THE SELKIRKS
Instructions to make topographical survey.—Photographic methods employed.—
Decide to make preliminary excursion.—Conditions leading to survey.—
Maps published.—Edward Whymper and party at Banff.—Revelstoke.—
Ascend Mt. Mackenzie.—Caught on trestle.—Albert canyon village.—The
Gorge.—Laurie mining camp.—Cork-screw trails.—The Loop.—Glacier
House.—Swiss guides.—Ascend IUecillewaet glacier and Mt. Lookout.—
Snowsheds.—Follow railway doxcn Bear creek.—Beaver river valley.—The
Gateway.—C. P.Ts. 3
CHAFfER II
THE SURVEY
The diamond hitch.—Camera stations in vicinity of Albert canyon.—Silver
creek.—Shoot three bears.—The Albert peaks.—North Twin camera
station.—Old mm at Greeley creek.-See eighteen deer.-Clach-na-coodin
group.—Bush on fire.—Measure base line.—Tropical growth in Columbia
valley.—Mts. Mackenzie and Cartier.—Shoot four goats.—Camp at Rogers
pass.—Mt. Avalanche.—Whistlers.—Mt. Sir Donald.—Narrow escape in
snowshed.—Swiss peak.—Mt. Macdonald.—Napoleon Mt. Grizzly and
Mt. Cheops.—Bear creek explored.—Mt. Abbott.—Complete work at base.—
Walk from Albert canyon to Beavermouth ----- m
THE   SELKIRK   RANGE
CHAPTER III
HE SKY-LINE
Asulkan valley and pass.—Head of Bear creek—A flock of wild goats.-Mt.
Bagheera.—Twenty glaciers in view.—Ursus Major and Minor.—Rogers
peak and Mt. Hermit.—Ptarmigan.—Trip to Mt. Bonney.—Dog falls SOO
feet.—Castor and Pollux.—Red snow.—Geikie glacier.—The Dawson
camp.—Tourist in crevasse.—Death of Fritz.—Ascent of Mt. Dawson.—
Measurements of lUecillewaet glacier.—Supply camp broken into by
grizzly.—Donkin pass.—Mt. Fox—The Witch tower—Mt. Selwyn —Don-
kin pass—Ascend Mt. Purity—Beaver Overlook—The Grand Glaciers —
Huber, Topham and Forstcr's camp—Trip to Fish creek—Trip to Bald
mountain.—Pack horse falls down mountain side.—Mt. Sir Donald from
the east.—Good hunting grounds.—Glacier circle. -
PART II.-TRAVEL AND EXPLORATION
A BRIEF REVIEW
The Selkirks.—Geographical position of the Range.—David Thompson's map.—
Sketch of David Thompson's life.—Athabasca and Howse passes.—
Alexander Henry.—Gabriel Franchere, Ross, Cox, and other early travellers—Mounts Hooker and Brown—Sir George Simpson crosses the
Rocky and Selkirk ranges—The Rev. Father P. J. De Smet.-The White-
man'spass.	
CHAPTER II
THE COMING OF THE C. P. R.
The Palliser expedition—The Kananaskis pass—Dr. Hector discovers the
Kicking-Horse pass—Lieutenant Blackiston.—Dr. Hector reaches the
Columbia river by the Howse pass—Mr. Sullivan's explorations—Pal-
liser'smap.—J. W. Trutch's map—Dr. G.M.Dawson's map—Mr. Walter
Moberly explores the nieciUewaet river.—Exploration and survey parties
of the Canadian Pacific Railway—Professor Macoun's explorations-
Canadian Pacific Railway Company formed—Major A. B. Rogers—Rail-
way surveys in Rocky and Selkirk Mountains.    ----- CONTENTS
CHAPTER in
THROUGH THE RANGE
Sir Sand ford Fleming to report upon the railway route.—Party arrive at Calgary.—Canyon of the Kicking-Horse river.—Meet Major Rogers.—The
Beaver river valley.—Summit of Rogers pass.—Descent of the niecillewaet
river.—Devil's club.—Rain! Rain! Riinl—Skunk cabbage.—Disappointment.—The driving of the last spike.—Stopping places along the railway
found necessary.—' By track and trail, a journey through Canada.'
PART m.-PREVIOUS SURVEYS
CHAPTER I
BEFORE THE COMPLETION OF THE RAILWAY
David Thompson's surveys.—Origin of name 'Selkirk Range'.—Survey of International Boundary by Captain Hawkins.—Mr. Walter Moberly's surveys.
—Sketchof Mr. Walter Moberlys career in British Columbia—Arrives
at Victoria.—Tries mining at Lillooet.—Founds the city of New Westminster.—The Cariboo Trail.—Discovery of the Eagle pass.—Runs the Little
Dallas.—Exploration up the niecillewaet river.—District Engineer for the
Mountain Division of the Canadian Pacific Railway.—Crosses the Selkirk range on Snowshoes.—Burning of the railway records.   - - -
CHAPTER II
FIRST TOPOGRAPIIICA]
5 of Railway adopted as survey base.—Statistics concerning snow-slides.—
O. J. Klotz measures a number of peaks.—Topographical survey by J. J.
McArthur.—Rev. W. S. Green's topographical survey.—Instruments
used.—Base measured.—Glacier crest.—Terminal peak.—niecillewaet
snowfield.—Topographical features named.—Asulkan valley visited.—
Loop creek valley.—LUy Col.—Van Home glacier.—First ascent of Mt.
Bonney.—Corbin'spass.—Expedition to Geikie glacier.—BaHlie-Grohman
describes the Selkirks.—Green's topographical map.    -
C R-8 THE   SELKIRK   RANGE
CHAPTER HI
ROCKY MOUNTAIN TRIAJ
Triangulation of the Railway Belt.—Around the Big Bend.—Huber, Sulzer and
Topham in the Selkirks.—W. S. Drewry's operations on the Spillifiaeheen
river.—Atmospheric phenomentt.— ViewfromBaldmountain—Reconnaissance survey of Fish creek.—Battle creek.—Fail to ascend Mt. Purity.—
Fifty-five days of rain or snow.—Selkirk scenery.--Topographical survey
of Columbia valley and Arrow lakes.—Base measured near Revelstoke.—
Other surveys.       ----- -  !
CHAPTER IV
TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEYS IN THE LOWER SELKIRK'S
Photographic survey of the Kootenay Mining Districtn.—W. S. Drewry in
charge.—Geographic conditions.—Means of communication.—Base measured at Nelson.—Kootenay lake and river favourite tourist resort.—Excellent fiy fishing.—Mount Grohman.—Forest fires.—Difficulties of the
work.—Names and altitudes of the mountains.—Other methods adopted.—
Map of Kootenay Districts.     ------ -   !
CHAPTER V
NOTES ON UPPER AND LOWER KOOTENAY VALLEYS AND LAKES
Baillie-Grohman's first visit to Lower Kootenay Valley.—Results of spring
freshets.—Outlet of Kootenay lake.—Possibility of enlarging outlet.—
Upper Kootenay valley.—Benches make good pasture land.—Close proximity of Kootenay river and Upper Columbia lake.—River overflowed
to lake.—'Land-locked' salmon.—Attempts to reclaim Lower Kootenay
valley.	
PART IV.-MOUNTAINEERING IN THE SELKIRKS
EARLIEST RECORDED CLIMBS
dian Alpine Club organized in 1883.—Mountaineering section defined—Some
opinions on the Selkirk range.—First recorded ascent near the summit of
the range.—Professor Macoun at Rogers pass.—Ascent of Mount Mackenzie.—Measurements of the IlleciUetoaet and Asulkan glaciers commenced.—Rev. W. S. Green visits the Selkirks in 1888.    - - - -   ! CONTENTS 3
CHAPTER II
THE SWISS ALPINE CLUB.
H. W. Topham of the English Alpine Club.—Topham and Forster visit Deville
neve and Grand glaciers.—Herr Emit Huber and Herr Carl Sulzer of the
Swiss Alpine Club.—Ascend Glacier Crest—Ascend Uto peak.—First
ascent of Mount Sir Donald.—Join forces with Topham and Forster.—Expedition to Deville and Grand glaciers.—First ascent of Mt. Sugarloaf
and Beaver glacier.—First ascent ofMt. Purity.—Sulzer ascends Swiss
peak.—Electric storm.     ---------!
CHAPTER ni
THE APPALACHIAN CLUB OF BOSTON, U. i
'Back Ranges of the Selkirks '—Second ascent of Mt.Fox.—First ascents of Eagle
peak and Mt. Cheops;—A lady aseends Mt. Afton.—' Our Bivouac on
Eagle Peak'—Appalachian Club strongly re presented in 1895.—The Abbott
ridge.—ML Afton.—The Rampart.—The Dome.—Castor and Pollux.—
Ascent of Ross peak.—First ascent of Rogers peak.—Peter Sarbach from
Zermatt.—Ascents of the Dome, Castor and Pollux.—Minute book opened.
Magnetic variation.—Programme for a week's visit to Glacier.—Advice to
photographers.—Dr. and Mrs. Schaffer.    - - - - - -294
CHAPTER IV
SUBSEQUENT TO THE INTRODUCTION OF SWISS GUIDES
ard Feuz and Christian Hosier oj
peak.—First ascent of Mt. D
artists in the Selkirks.—Four
Donald ascended by a new rm
terlaken.-Mt. Sir Donald via Terminal
on.—Glacier measurements.—Toronto
riss guides at Glacier in 1900.—Mt. Sir
—Encounter an electric storm.—Three
other ascents ofMt. Sir Donald.—First ascent of Mt. Sifton.—First ascent
ofMt. Swanzy—Additional climbs.   -------
CHAPTER V
LADY MOUNTAINEERS IN THE SELKIRKS
Second ascent of Mt. Dawson.—Mt. Sir Donald attempted by Mrs. Florence
Gough.—Mt. Sir Donald ascended by Mrs. E. Berens.—First ascent ofMt.
Grizzly.—Eagle peak ascended by Henrietta L. Tuzo.—Mt. Macoun
ascended for the first time.—Plucky ascent of Mt. Sir Donald by Miss
Marion Raymond.—Ascent of Cougar mountain by Mrs. E. S. Weiss.—
Notes on Eagle Crest and Albert Canyon byH. W. Gleason.—Climbs by the
Topographical Survey.—Death of Fritz.—Ascent of Mt. Macdonald.—Mt.
Sir Donald by north arete.        -------- THE SELKIRK RANGE
CHAPTER VI
OTHER MATTERS OF INTEREST
Trails, bridle-paths, cabins, etc.—Meteorological—Rainbows.—Spectre of the
Brocken.—Cloud formations.—Snow mushrooms.—Disintegration of the
masses.—Action and movement of glaciers.—Measurements of the niecillewaet glacier.—Row of plates .across the ice.—Publications relating to niecillewaet and Asulkan glaciers.—Glossary of terms.—Notes in Minute
Book.—Natural History.—Relief map.—Technical terms.—Outfitting.—
Work of 190k.	
APPENDICES
A.—Altitudes along the line of the Canadian Pacific Railway.—Calgary
to Revelstoke. Accompanied by profile (in Vol. II). By James White,
F.R.G.S., Geographer, Department of the Interior.       -
B.—Notes on the Natural History of the Selkirks and adjacent mountains. By
John Macoun, M. A., F.R.S.C., Botanist and Naturalist to the Dominion
of Canada. - -        -        -        - -        - -        - _      -  ;
C.—Note on the Geological structure of the Selkirk range. By the late George
M. Dwason, D.Sc., F.R.S.C., etc., Director of the Geological Survey of
Canada. ............
D.—Climate of the Upper Mainland of British Columbia. By R. F. Stupart,
Director of the Meteorological Service of Canada. -
E.—Major A. B. Rogers'first expedition up the IUecillewaet valley in 1881. By
his nephew, A. L. Rogers.
F.—A short description of the Canadian Pacific Railway through the Selkirks.
By H. B. Muckleston, late Assistant Engineer Pacific Division.
G.—Game Protection Act, 1898, British Columbia.
H.—An Actio preserve the forests from destruction by fire. LIST  OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Lord Strathcona Frontispiece.
Edward Whymper  8
Swiss Guides at Glacier  10
The Dlecillewaet, Glacier, showing bed moraine recently vacated by the ice. 16
The Lower Gorge, Albert Canyon  18
Crevasse Formation in Ulecillewaet Glacier  22
Mt. Sir Donald and Eagle Peak from below the Loop  24
Snow-sheds and Glances along the niecillewaet Valley  28
New Steel Bridge over Stony Creek  30
New Steel Bridge over Mountain Creek  30
The Devil's Gate, Beaver Canyon  32
In the Forest at Glacier, B.C  34
The Rocky Mountain Goat (Haplocerus montanus)  36
The Railway Summit of the Selkirk Range, showing Summer and Winter
Tracks  38
The Bighorn or Rocky Mountain Sheep (Ovis moat ana)  40
The Caribou (Rang if er tar and us)  44
The Devil's Club or Prickly Aralia (Panax horridus, Fatsia horrida).... 46
Denizens of the Mountains and the Plains  48
Hoary Marmot, Whistler or Siffleur (Arctomys Columbianus)  50
Hermit Mountain from Hermit Crest  56
Grizzly Bear (Ursus horribilis. Rich.,/  58
Black Bear (Ursus Americanus Pallas)  60
Glacier House in Gala Dress  64
Falls'in the Asulkan Valley  66
Rogers Peak, Swiss Peak and Hermit Mountain  68
Erythronium giganteum, Hook  70
Ptarmigan in Winter Plumage..  74 XVI
THE   SELKIRK   RANGE
Marion Lake on Mount Abbott  76
Hlecillewaet Valley from Observation Point  78
Ice Grotto, Asulkan Glacier  82
The Dawson Amphitheatre  86
The Twisted Rock, Dawson Amphitheatre  88
The Dawson Range from Summit of the Asulkan Pass  90
The South Side of the Asulkan Pass from Mount Fox  92
The Bishops' Range from Summit of the Donkin Pass  96
Odin and Thor Glaciers, Mt. Wheeler and Grand Mt  98
The Grand Glaciers, Mts. Sugarloaf, Beaver and Duncan  J60
The Big Game of the Rocky and Selkirk Mountains  104
The Labrador Tea Plant (Ledum glandulosum)  110
The Salmon Berry (Bubus Nutkanus)  118
Porcupine up a Tree  120
The Summit of the Rockies  122
The Moccasin Plant (Cypripedium pubescensj   .. 128
A Snow Cap  136
Sir James Hector  140
The Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga Douglasii)  144
Sir William Van Home  152
Major A. B. Rogers  154
Sir Sandford Fleming (Early Photo)  158
The Hemlock (Tsuga Pattoniana).  160
Glacier House, B.C  176
Mount Sir Donald and the niecillewaet Glacier, from Glacier Crest..   .. 178
Mr. Walter Moberly, C.E  186
Hellebore or Indian Poke (Yeratrum viride)  196
Rev. William Spotswood Green, M.A., F.R.G.S., A.C  208
Mount Bonney from below the Loop  212
The Geikie Glacier below Mount Fox.. ,  214
Asulkan Valley, showing specimen of Pinus albicaulis near timber line. .216
Mount Sir Donald from Bald Mountain  226
Topographical Surveyors taking their Instruments up a Mountain  230
Sir Sandford Fleming (Later Photo)  260
Professor John Macoun, M.A., F.R.S.C  266
Herr Carl Sulzer and Herr Emil Huber " 274
The IcefaU of the niecillewaet Glacier from trail to Avalanche Crest.. 276
Mount Sir Donald from Mount Abbott  280
Bird's-eye view from Rogers Peak  288 LIST  OF ILLUSTRATIONS
XVII
Professor Chas. E. Fay, President of American Alpine Club  294
On the Asulkan Trail  296
Forefoot of the Asulkan Glacier—Castor and Pollux  304
The Hermit Range and Summit of Rogers Pass  314
At the head of Asulkan Creek  318
Seracs on the niecillewaet Glacier  320
Edouard Feuz and Christian Hasler  326.
Ice Cave, niecillewaet Glacier  328
Mount Sir Donald in Midwinter  336
Mrs. Berens, of St. Marys Crag, Kent, Eng  338
The Upper Gorge, Albert Canyon  344
A Snow Mushroom  354
Tongue of the niecillewaet Glacier  356
A Wilderness of Seracs  358
A Glacier Table  362
Kamloops Trout, Salmo gairdneri, Eamloops (Jordan)  364
Interior of Mackay & Dippie's Showrooms, Calgary, Alt a  368
Grouse (Dendragapm obscurus richardsonii, DouglJ  396
Parnassia fimbriata, Kcenig  398
Spiranthes Romanzoffiana, Cham  400
Dryas octopetala, L. (if flowers are white).   Dryas Drummondii, Hook.
(yellow)  402
Rhododendron albiflorum, Hook  404
Smilacina racemosa, (False Solomon's Seal)  404
Saxifraga bronchialis, L  404
Cassiope Mertensiana, Don  404
Sketch Section through the Selkirk Range, B.C  406
Old wooden bridge over Stony Creek  424
Old wooden bridge over Mountain Creek  426
Interior of a Snow-shed  428
Two Sketches of C. P. Ry. typical Snow-sheds  430 tfgy
ERRATA.
Page 109,
line 2:
for
Page 233,
line 5:
for
Page 233,
line 20:
for
Page 245,
line 2:
for"
Page 287,
line 23:
for
Page 311,
line 20:
for
Page 354,
line 28:
for
Page 368-
-Illustration:
Page 385,
line 2:
for
Page 398,
line 35:
for
Page 398,
line 37:
for
Page 398,
line 42:
for
South branch read North branch.
Osooyos read Osoyoos.
Mt. Oden read Mt. Odin,
necessaires read necessaries,
from read form.
Corner Grat read Gorner Grat.
Broken Bow read Brocken Bow.
: for Duppie read Dippie.
West of Glacier House read East of Glacier House,
glandulifera read glanduliflorus.
tetragona read Mertensiana.
Douglasii read involucrata.
Pages 22, 28, 78 and 280, imprint. " Copyright by Detroit Photographic Co.,
1902," should appear under each illustration. PART   I.
ACCOUNT   OF  THE   SURVEY *ia f*K*
Mounts Cheops, Gkizzlt and Sdtton.
CHAPTER   I.
AlYprevio!
■LH eastern s
OVER   THE   SELKIRKS.
vious surveys of this nature had been confined to the
i slopes of the Rockies and the cretaceous area of the
Crows Nest coal beds in southeastern British Columbia, practically among more or less timbered foothills, with an occasional
climb to the alpine park-lands of the higher summits. It was,
therefore, with a thrill of satisfaction I realized, on reading
my instructions, that the work lay among the biggest of the big
fellows, and that I was to go into the heart of the Selkirks. THE   SELKIRK   RANGE
The letter read: to make a topographical survey of the Selkirk
mountains adjacent to the line of the Canadian Pacific railway,
paying most attention to that portion, in the vicinity of the
summit, visited by tourists and mountain climbers during the
summer months.
As a medium for making the survey, it was intended to use
the photographic method introduced into Canada by Mr. E.
Deville, Surveyor General of Dominion Lands. The method
is eminently suited for topographical delineation of the present
character. In mountain regions, where the season between
snow and snow extends but little over three months, during
which time alone the peaks can be climbed in safety, the ability
to cover a large tract of country in a short time is of much
importance.
Photography as applied to surveying was first experimented
with in 1849 by Colonel H. Laussedat, member of the Institute
of Erance and President of the Conservatoire National des
Arts et Metiers. It has since been applied in Germany, Austria, Italy, Switzerland and the United States, but far more
comprehensively in the Dominion of Canada, where~li number
of extensive topographical surveys have been carried on by its
aid.
The general principle of the method may be stated briefly:
The photographs are perspectives from which, by the inverse
rules of perspective, the visible lines or points defining the topographical features, therein seen, may be projected on a ground
plan. It is necessary that the features to be mapped be seen
in, at least, two views taken from stations some distance apart
and of which the position and elevation above a given datum,
generally sea-level, have been ascertained. A topographical
map usually consists of contour lines, which represent the projection on the plan of imaginary lines following the inequalities
of the surface at given intervals of altitude. A sufiicient
number of points  are  determined  from the  photographs to ACCOUNT  OF  THE   SURVEY
enable an accurate delineation, within the scale of the map, to
be made upon the plan. The elevations of the points so determined are proportional to their altitude above or below a
horizontal plane passing through the camera station and their
distance from such station, and can readily be obtained from
the photographs. They permit the contour lines to be drawn
at any suitable equi-distance. The position and relative elevation of the camera station are ascertained by the ordinary
methods of a trigonometric survey, carried to a greater or less
degree of refinement. The accuracy and detail of the mapping
is dependent upon the precision of the base work, the number
of the camera stations and the scale of the map. The method
is very similar to that of the plane-table, with the following
exceptions: With the plane-table, much of the plotting is done
in the field, with the camera, the same work is done in the office;
with the plane-table you can occupy but one station at a time,
with the camera, when plotting, you practically occupy both at
once. You then have before you, at the same moment, the views
taken at the two stations and thus see the ground simultaneously
from both points of view. This is a very strong factor in the
identification of points. On the other hand, the most perfect
photographs are but a weak representation of nature's contrasts,
and the delicate inflections of light and shadow are much
impaired by transition through the camera lens and reproduction on the best of sensitised plates.
The degree of satisfaction caused by my instructions was
somewhat diminished by more mature reflections. The difficulties encountered during the survey and construction of the
Canadian Pacific railway, by the Rev. William Spotswood
Green, F.R.G.S., by Messrs. Huber and Topham of the Swiss
and English Alpine Clubs and by W. S. Drewry of the Canadian Topographical Surveys staff, all of whom had made
surveys in the vicinity, acted as a damper upon the first feeling
of exultation.    They suggested the wisdom of a preliminary THE   SELKIRK   RANGE
excursion to spy out the land and ascertain the most suitable
point for a start and the methods of transportation that should
be employed. With these objects in view, it was decided to
make a trip into the mountains and go over the ground on
foot to become acquainted with the actual realities of the
undertaking.
A short statement of the conditions leading up to the survey
may not be amiss: By the terms of the Union under which the
Crown Colony of British Columbia joined the Federated provinces of the Dominion of Canada (July 20, 1871), it was
agreed that within two years from the date of the Union the
Government of Canada should commence, simultaneously, the
construction of a railway from the Pacific ocean towards the
Rocky mountains and from a point selected east of the Rocky
mountains towards the Pacific, to connect the seaboard of British
Columbia with the railway system of Canada, and to secure
the completion of such a railway within ten years from the
date of the Union. On the other hand, the Government of
British Columbia agreed to convey, in trust, to the Dominion
Government, for the purpose of aiding the construction of the
portion of the Canadian Pacific railway on the mainland of
British Columbia, to be appropriated as the Dominion Government might deem advisable, a tract of land, not to exceed twenty
miles on each side of the said line, provided that the line of
railway referred to should be one continuous line connecting
the seaboard of British Columbia with the Canadian Pacific
railway then under construction on the east side of the Rocky
mountains.
In addition to the administration of these lands, the mineral, timber and other franchises, a feature of much importance,
involving a very considerable source of revenue to the country,
had of late years, sprung into existence. Nature, in one of her
capricious moods, had laid the several passes, fated to be those
selected for the transcontinental railway, through the wildest, ACCOUNT   OF  THE   SURVEY
grandest and most attractive portions of the whole Rocky
mountain system. It is only within the past two or three years
that we are beginning to understand that, in this respect, we
may aspire to rivalry with the European Alps and other mountain ranges of the world. I refer to the inflow of tourists^
globe-trotters, hunters, sight-seers and bona fide mountain-
climbers made possible by the construction of the railway.
Some idea of the proportions this travel has assumed may be
derived from an article in Appalachian April, 1901, written
by Prof. Chas. E. Fay, giving statistics gathered from the
Register Book of Glacier House, the tourist headquarters at
the summit of the Selkirks. The compilation was made while
awaiting suitable weather to attempt the first ascent of Mt.
Dawson. It shows that, between the years 1887 and 1898, no
less than 12,000 guests stopped for at least a day at the hotel,
many spending a considerable portion of the holidays there,
making an average of 1,000 yearly. From 1898 to the close of
1902, the travel has been very much more extensive and the
hotel has been taxed to its utmost, numbers during the past
two seasons being turned away through lack of accommodation. In 1901, from the middle of March to the end of
November, 1,261 names are registered. In 1902, from the end
of January to the beginning of November, the register shows
1,873 visitors. These are people, who have stayed over at least
one nighty and has no reference to those passing through daily
on the train. To the figures given must be added the very
much larger number visiting Banff, Laggan and Field in the
Rockies without passing on to the summit of the Selkirks. It
may be stated as a significant fact for the future, that at Field
during the summer of 1901 the guests were sleeping in Pullman cars along the side tracks, the hotel being filled to repletion. It has also been whispered, with what truth I cannot
say, that as many as four persons have been booked for one
room—three being out on little excursions while the fourth 8 THE   SELKIRK   RANGE
was the occupant, pro tern. Moreover, although the railway
company had just completed at Field a handsome addition to
the original hotel, capable of holding from seventy-five to a
hundred guests, it was found necessary to build still another
addition for the prospective travel of 1903, and to construct at
Glacier an entirely new hotel.
The administration of territory requires maps of its general
features. Travellers in a new territory ask for maps, and thus
a general topographic survey became necessary.
A topographical survey of the Rocky mountains was commenced in 1887, using the photographic methods already
described, and a triangulation extended up the Bow valley as
a base for the camera operations. The survey was expanded
on either side for a considerable distance and carried over the
summit to the Beaverfoot valley. It was discontinued at the
close of the season of 1892, owing to Messrs. J. J. McArthur
and W. S. Drewry, D.L.S., who had charge of the work,
being detailed to conduct similar operations in connection with
the Alaskan boundary survey. During the last season^of work,
W. S. Drewry made a reconnaissance survey in the Selkirks,
with a view to extending the main Rocky mountain triangulation to that range.
A topographical map has been published in sheets covering
10° of longitude by 7£° of latitude, or a block of about sixty
square miles. The published sheets reach nearly to the summit,
but beyond this no finished map has yet been issued. It was
intended to pick up the work where it had been discontinued,
but owing to the fact that Mr. Edward Whymper, the famous
English mountaineer, who made the first ascent of the Matter-
horn, was about to enter the Rockies and conduct explorations
and surveys in the interests of the Canadian Pacific railway
company, it was decided to leave the field open and in no way
hamper his operations. For this reason, the topographical work
in the Selkirks was taken up, to be subsequently connected   ACCOUNT   OF  THE  SURVEY
with the general system of triangulation carried up the Bow
and down the Kicking-horse valleys.
Having decided upon the wisdom of a preliminary examination of the ground, arrangements were soon made: a leather
knapsack, an aneroid barometer, a prismatic compass, maps of
previous surveys and an assistant completed the list, and on
the 9th of June, I started from Calgary for Revelstoke.
Mr. Whymper and party, who were on the same train, got
off at Banff, where he proposed to make his headquarters for
some time. Having never been at Banff, I stopped over for
a day, met Mr. Whymper and was introduced to his staff,
among whom were four Swiss guides, newly imported. He
kindly showed me his outfit and instruments. It was evident
that much care and experience had been employed in their
selection, and that the weight had been reduced to a minimum.
He further had the guides set up one of his specially designed
Alpine tents. They are made of a light drill with a waterproof coating, are wedge-shaped, the sides and back end being
joined at the base by a piece "acting as a floor-cloth. When
occupied, the weight would prevent the tent being blown away
by anything short of a hurricane. Wooden supports are fastened to the ends and open out with the tent ; a rope stretched
over the supports and fastened to the ground at either extremity
by piled rock acts as a ridge-pole and holds the tent erect. In
one pattern the supports can be taken out or inserted at will,
and during transit can be used as alpenstocks. They are of a
good serviceable pattern when camping above timber-line.
In a short talk with Mr. Whymper, I soon learned that he
would be moving much more slowly than my party and that
there would have been no clash between us ; however, it was
now the Selkirks, so on to Revelstoke. In 1896, under instructions from the Surveyor General of Dominion Lands, Mr. J.
J. McArthur, assisted by Mr. A. St. Cyr, conducted a photo-
topographical survey from Revelstoke south along the valley 10 THE   SELKIRK   RANGE
of the Columbia river and Arrow lakes with a view to connecting the Dominion lands system of the railway belt with
the International boundary. Mr. McArthur had measured a
base line, on a long tangent of the branch of the .Canadian
Pacific railway running south to the Arrow lakes, a*bout two
miles from the terminus at Revelstoke. It now seemed likely
that the same tangent would not only serve a similar purpose
in connection with my survey, but also enable it to be made
continuous with McArthur's.
I left Banff on the 11th of June by the Imperial Limited.
It was a perfect spring day, for summer comes late in the
mountains. The atmosphere was clear and fresh after a recent
rainfall. The sun shone in dazzling splendour on snowy peaks
and the fleecy clouds cast moving shadows on the ever-changing
landscape. Full of the business in hand, the mind climbed
rapidly through cool dark forests of pine, up ragged rock precipices, across shining snow-fields and glistening glaciers, occupying peak after peak and gazing afar on the silent grand array:
here a rounded dome, there a sharp-cut pyramid, beyond the
pinnacles and spires of some great cathedral mass and further
still the castellated turrets and battlements of impregnable
fortifications; across dark valleys filled with violet haze, where
streams, like threads of silver, glisten in the soft warm atmosphere at depths that seem unfathomable. The mountains are
in a smiling mood and fairyland is supreme. An eagle swoops
into space and, hundreds of feet below, remains fixed, a dark
speck against the sunlight on the opposite slope, then slowly
soars in widening circles till a pin point overhead and—with a
shock, the mind returns to realities and wonders^how in creation
survey instruments, cameras and the necessities of existence
are ever to be taken up to these outposts of the earth.
On we glide, in serpentine folds, down the valley of the
Kicking-Horse; now with a roar into the darkness of a tunnel;
now overhanging white, boiling waters;   with the rush and   ACCOUNT   OF  THE   SURVEY
11
swirl of the river always in our ears, first on one side, then on
the other. Above, an endless array of crags and rocks rise forever ; while the hoarse, weird shriek of the engine adds the last
touch, and reverberating in every crack and hollow intensifies
the fantasy of it all. It is with a sigh, akin to a relief, that
the tension is broken and the gorge opens upon the dark green
timbered swells and more gentle landscape of the Columbia
valley.
On board the train, I met the engineer looking after the
division between Golden and Revelstoke, Mr. H. B. Muckleston,
who subsequently rendered me some kind assistance in connection with my survey.
Beyond the picturesque villages of Golden and Donald, we
commence to climb the eastern slopes of the Selkirks, rising tit
the rate of 116 feet to the mile; and so, on a path carved
directly from the mountain side, up the Beaver river valley to
the Rogers pass, lying between Mts. Tupper and Macdonald—
formerly known as Hermit and Carroll.
Over the summit and down the grade to Glacier House,
situated at the foot of the great glacier, where heads the rushing
west-bound niecillewaet river. We stop here for supper. The
pretty well-lighted rooms, the strange wild flowers decking the
table, the white-clad waiters, the mountain bric-a-brac, photographs and pictures scattered around seem but a part of the
grand transformation scene we have been enjoying all day.
After supper, Mr. Muckleston introduced me to Mrs. Young,
the lady manager, of whom I saw a good deal later on.
The sun had long set when we left Glacier House and the
gathering gloom hid the view as we rattled down the western
slopes along the valley of the Hlecillewaet. The change in the
noise made by the rapidly moving wheels from tenor to bass
frequently indicated the passage over a trestle or a bridge;
while the roar of rushing waters, heard even above the sound
of the train, held the excited fancy always on the qui vive. 12
THE   SELKIRK   RANGE
We put up at the Hotel Revelstoke. It is a comfortable,
well-kept house, owned by the railway company and managed
by Mr. H. A. Perley, formerly manager at Glacier House and
well known to early visitors and explorers when the Selkirks
first came into prominence as a tourist resort. The hotel is built
upon a commanding bench, the view from the piazza sweeping
the Columbia valley, at its second crossing by the railway,
in three directions. On the left rise the snow-clad heights
of Mts. Clach-na-coodin, Mackenzie, Cartier, and Sproat, the
long timber slopes divided at the upper end of the reach by
the deep, dark valley of the Illecillewaet river. On the right,
the Columbia, here a noble stream four or five hundred yards
wide, having made the northerly circuit of the Selkirks,
flows at the eastern base of the Gold range. Just beyond the
town, a glimpse is caught of the long railway bridge below the
Big eddy and of the railway disappearing up the valley of the
Tonkawatla river into the recesses of the Eagle pass. A short
distance to the north, the dark heavily-timbered depths of the
Jordan pass look dim and mysterious in the early morning
light. To the south rise the majestic masses of Mts. McArthur
and Begbie, the glaciers near the summit of the latter glistening
brightly in the rays of the sun as it shows above the sky-line of
Mt. Mackenzie; and further still, the shining river winding
its way through dark green forests of fir, cedar and hemlock,
the many channels terminating abruptly as hidden from view
by the numerous islands dividing its flow.
As you gaze at the landscape before you, the dull red
station and round-house, the unsightly water-tank, the lines of
freight cars and battered old yard-engine, the rows of wooden
houses and dusty roads grow dim and suddenly vanish from
view; you see, instead, a grand unbroken sweep of forest reaching right down to the river. On a high, sandy bank, in full
view of the Eagle pass, stand a group of men, ragged and
weather-stained, gazing intently across the river.    A tall, sun- ACCOUNT   OF   THE   SURVEY
13
burnt, distinguished looking man, with a fair beard and
commanding appearance, evidently the leader of the party, lifts
his pack from his shoulders and points earnestly at a column
of smoke rising from among the trees near the opposite shore.
1 Thank God/ he exclaims, ' We have established our connection! Our friends are in front with the provisions on which
we depend!' While they watch, figures emerge from the woods
and two canoes are launched and paddled swiftly across the
stream. As the canoes approach, fierce disappointment is
visible on every face. They contain only Indians, a half-
starved squalid lot out on a hunting expedition from Fort
Colville. They speak no English, but, by the help of a little
Chinook, make it understood that the expected relief party from
Kamloops has not yet arrived. The tall fair man was Sandford
Fleming (now Sir Sandford Fleming, K.C.M.G.), Chief
Engineer of the Canadian Pacific railway from its inception
until the year 1881. With him were the late Rev. Dr. Grant,
Principal of Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario; his son,
Sandford Fleming ;• Mr. Albert Rogers, nephew of Major
Rogers, of Rogers pass fame, and five packers; the year, 1883.
They had just travelled over the newly selected railway route
through the mountains, by trail where any existed, and beyond,
through virgin forest and untrodden gorge. They were expecting a party to meet them with provisions at the mouth of the
Eagle pass, having only brought sufficient to carry them thus
far, the Hudson's Bay post at Kamloops being still one hundred
and twenty-eight miles distant. (See Sir Sandford Fleming's
* England and Canada, a Summer Tour between Old and New
Westminster.')
On the 12th June, Mr. Muckleston took us down the Arrow
lakes branch on a velocipede, to have a look at the long tangent
we proposed to use as a base from which to initiate the triangu-
lation for fixing the position of the camera stations. It was
found to answer the purpose well, and that Mts. Mackenzie and 14
THE   SELKIRK   RANGE
Cartier would be excellent and easily accessible points from
which to expand to the east. The same day, I looked over the
town, called upon some of the leading merchants and found
that all the requirements of camp life could be had in good
condition and at reasonable prices.
Revelstoke, formerly Farwell and before that referred to as
' The Eddy,' is a neat, well-ordered town, of some 2,000 inhabitants, prettily situated in a bend of the river immediately below
a circular erosion in the right bank, known as the Big eddy.
This recess is invaluable to the mill company operating here,
for holding the logs cut along the reaches of the river above the
mill. As the town becomes more populated and the buildings
increase in number, its now straggling extremities will be
cemented together, and a good street car service, to supplant
the present single 'bus line, will render its extended location,
due to the formation of the flat upon which it is built, a matter
of little importance. It is the centre of a division of the Canadian Pacific railway, the headquarters of the superintendent
and his staff and is chiefly populated by railway officials and
employees with their families.
You are immediately impressed with the stir, bustle and
brisk air of business that pervades the atmosphere. After the
trip through the vast solitudes of the mountains, it is with a
feeling of surprise that you come upon a live, stirring community in the very heart of the wilderness, with different
subjects for discussion and different aims for realization, but
fully as keen and alive to their interests as the people in the
prairie towns on the other side of the Great Divide. In addition
to its railroad interests, Revelstoke is a distributing centre for
the Kootenay mining districts, and much travel to that section
of country stops at this point on the way south via the Arrow
lakes. It is also the head centre for miners and prospectors of
the vicinity. ACCOUNT   OF  THE   SURVEY
15
Hearing that two C.P.R. employees were going on a little
prospecting trip up Mt. Mackenzie, I made arrangements to join
the party in the hope of getting a good look over the country
at this end. The official in charge of the stores kindly lent me
some blankets, we packed provisions for three days in our knapsacks and turned in early. We were up at 3 a.m. the next day
and well on the way by 4 o'clock. The trip was unsuccessful;
about 5 a.m. it commenced to rain and continued during the
morning. It rained and snowed all the next day, most of which,
when not replenishing the fire in front of the tent, was spent
under the blankets. On Saturday, it was fine, but cloudy, and
although an ascent was made to the peak, nothing could be seen.
However, I found here McArthur's cairn, erected for use in his
survey down the Columbia valley. It subsequently did me
good service. As the stock of provisions was exhausted, it
became necessary to descend and we had only got well on the
way, when the clouds disappeared and the landscape was
revealed in all its glory.   It was, however, too late to reascend.
On Sunday, the 16th, a beautiful day, we started east along
the track, feeling all the better for our preliminary canter on
Mt. Mackenzie. A stop was made for lunch at Greely creek,
six miles from Revelstoke. Here, a rushing mountain torrent
is crossed by the'railway and on its bank stands a disused mill.
I immediately marked the spot as a future camp ground, mentally observing that a large roof set on posts, formerly employed
to protect some of the machinery, would serve excellently as
a combined kitchen and dining-room. There was, moreover,
quite a nice little patch of feed for ponies in the opening round
the mill.
Before leaving Revelstoke, one of our prospectors had
whispered that a strike among the trackmen in the employ of
the railway company was imminent and that developments
might be expected any moment. On reaching Twin Butte
siding, ten miles from the start, the news was confirmed by the 16
THE   SELKIRK   RANGE
foreman of the section gang, who informed me that he had been
instructed to quit work the next day.
A mile and a half east of Twin Butte, two most picturesque
mountain torrents meet immediately below the railway. They
are crossed by a long wooden trestle about a hundred feet above
the bottom of the ravine. When midway across, a freight train
suddenly emerged from a cutting at the other end and took the
trestle. There was nothing for it but to hang on to the side
timbers of the bridge as best we might, not a comfortable position with a pack on your back and a hundred-foot drop below.
That was the longest and slowest train I ever saw. I think we
were both a little bit frightened as we shook ourselves together
and vowed more caution in the future.
It was with a feeling of thankfulness that we saw the red
section-house and tank of Albert Canyon come into sight round
a bend; twenty-two miles of ties become tiring even though
surrounded by the most glorious of scenery in the world. Albert
Canyon village is built on a small flat, towards the north end of
which the Illecillewaet is joined by its northerly branch. It
was originally the headquarters of the Waverly mining company. The mine is twenty-four miles from the village on the
headwaters of Downie creek. A good road has been built up
the north branch and valuable machinery taken in, but no ore
of any account has ever been taken out. The mine is now
abandoned and, during the past summer, the machinery was
removed and sold.
The village is most picturesquely situated in the midst of
high timbered spurs and frowning cliffs, rising to snow-clad
slopes and rock peaks capped with snow. To the south are two
fine peaks, very nearly 10,000 feet above sea-level. In the
recesses between them, several interesting looking glaciers form
in part the source of the twin creeks, previously referred to, on
the west and of Moose creek (local name) on the east. The
latter furnishes the water supply for the railway tank at Albert
Canyon. Ear
f
wPmQSL
mmm
mm
mm
mm
fllil
is
I
fflrt&^B/k
IF*
jj'^j  ACCOUNT   OF  THE   SURVEY
17
Some ground has been cleared and crops put in. A path,
opened out through giant fir and cedar, devil's club, skunk
cabbage and other tropical undergrowth, leads up one of the
slopes for about half a mile from the clearing; here, a large
spring bubbles from the ground, said to contain mineral properties. A bath-tub of cedar slabs has been made by the inhabitants, so arranged that it can be filled or emptied in about ten
minutes; when not in use, the overflow from the spring passes
through along the bottom. The water has a temperature of
about 75 or 80 degrees. During the strike, the section men
employed their leisure hours in enlarging the tub. It is now
12 by 20 feet. Judging by the quantities of soap lying around,
the inhabitants are of a cleanly disposition.
It was with difficulty we obtained supper. A signboard
proclaimed a dirty looking shack to be the * Springs Hotel,'
but the proprietor informed us that he had no cook and that the
hotel had not been running since they took away his license—
a rather significant fact—he could, however, put us up for the
night. It was that or the open air, and nights are cold in these
exalted regions. After a night of misery, we rose early and
walked to Illecillewaet, six miles distant, for breakfast.
Albert Canyon village is located in a beautiful spot and
with a good, well-managed hotel would become a most attractive
resort for lovers of mountain exploration and climbing. The
road up the north branch of the Illecillewaet gives access, for
twenty odd miles, to as wild and grand scenery as can be found
in any part of the range. The numerous branch valleys, in
themselves gems of nature, lead to high rugged peaks, many of
them accessible only to mountain goats or the best of Alpine
climbers. To the south, a trail leads up and over a high timbered ridge to the headwaters of Moose creek, inclosed in a
deep, gorge-like valley and overhung by glaciers, lying between
jagged1 rock buttresses. On both these trails, ponies can be
used, and plenty of pasture is found for them at the village. 18
THE   SELKIRK   RANGE
To the west, about two miles away, not far beyond the tunnel,
the rushing Illecillewaet is crossed by a swinging seat on a wire
cable. Starting at the north bank, a trail, cut during the past
summer, leads up Silver creek. The numerous auxiliaries of
the stream are fed by snowfields and glaciers, from which rise
majestically the many heights of Clach-na-coodin, while sparkling below, may be seen tree-clad lakelets; some bright emerald,
some deep violet, others dingy brown.
Eastward, up the track, leads to the Canyon. Two miles
from the village in this direction, the river is restricted by the
tilted rock strata and pours through a narrow gorge with tremendous impetus. The rocks ascend nearly vertical from the
water's edge to a considerable distance above the track, the bed
for which has been cut from the face of the precipice and in
places overhangs, on trestles, the gulf below. The scene is one
of much beauty and grandeur.
The depth of the rushing water from the track looks far
greater than it really is. Before closing the survey I had occasion to again walk over this part of the road and then climbed
down and measured the drop with an aneroid barometer. A
man was standing on the platform as I swung over and commenced to descend. ' Don't go down there, you'll kill yourself
sure!' he called out, and stood staring with a pained expression
on his face, until I was again beside him. Upon being asked
'How far down do you think the water is V he replied, ' I don't
know, at least a thousand feet!' Both descent and ascent had
given the same results, one hundred and forty-seven feet. A
platform has been erected above the chasm, and formerly trains
stopped several minutes to allow the passengers to enjoy the
wild beauty of the place; now the world moves faster and time
is too precious to waste on matters so unprofitable. I confess
to a preference for the good old days when time was not so
valuable, and remember one morning at Field, when the boast
of the C.P.R.  that its conductors were endowed with true The Loweb Gorge, Albert Canton.  ACCOUNT   OF  THE   SURVEY
19
Parisian politeness, was fully exemplified. I had been eating
my breakfast slowly and looking round at the wonderful fluffy
things (pussy willows) and other bric-a-brac with which the
centre table was loaded, when the conductor came in, hat in
hand, and remarked, ' The train is waiting^ sir! As soon as
you have finished we will start.'    Now it's,   ' All aboar-r-r-d.'
Illecillewaet was at one time a promising mining village,
but its early aspirations have been nipped in the bud, and it
now looks shabby and weather-worn.
The day previous we had been passing between steep slopes,
covered by brule and windfall, with here and there a belt of
dark green timber, rising in shoulders to the bare snow-clad
summits. The rock cuttings and boulders strewn around
showed gray gneiss, in many cases highly, micaceous and glittering brightly in the sunlight. Upon leaving Illecillewaet,
the valley became narrower and hemmed in by steep walls of
rock, rising in places almost perpendicularly to sky-line. The
formation here is of a clayey schistose nature, crumbling readily
upon impact.
Some snow-sheds are soon encountered, showing danger
from snow and rock slides to be imminent. It is very pleasant
to leave the heated sun-lit track and plunge into their cool,
dark depths.
At two and a half miles from Illecillewaet is seen the
prettily situated, but deserted, mining camp of Laurie. In a
little grassy flat on the opposite side of the river, is placed a
fine hotel, office and manager's residence, and to the right a
number of miners' cottages. The river is crossed by a bridge.
Near the track a brand new concentrator, equipped with the
latest machinery, was convenient for loading ore into the cars.
Perched high up on the perpendicular face of the cliff is the
bunk-house, near the mouth of the main shaft From this point,
the ore was carried in iron buckets along a steel wire cable to
the concentrator, 3,000 feet below.    The cable was suspended 20 THE  SELKIRK  RANGE
over a deep, rocky gulch to an open woodwork tower, erected
on a projecting spur, midway between the bunk-house and the
concentrator, from which point it descended sheer to the latter.
It was customary for the miners to ascend and descend in the
buckets. The cable has now been removed, but I should think
it must have been a trip requiring much nerve.
The company owning these buildings had consolidated the
group of which the Lanark, Maple Leaf and other well known
claims formed a part, and had commenced operations on a
somewhat extensive scale. The ore is a rich galena, but,
through some miscalculation, was never found in sufficient
quantity to pay and the very large sums of money expended
on the building were practically thrown away, for recently the
concentrator and machinery have been sold and removed to the
Kootenay mining district. It is a pity that some enterprising
company does not take hold of the hotel as a summer resort:
for here, in the peaceful solitude of these greatest works of
nature, the blase and tired-out man of the world can find the
rest he would search for elsewhere in vain. The trails of the
miners give ready access to snowy peaks; and glaciers, snow-
fields, alpine valleys, lakelets and dense forests may be founcT
galore on both sides of the track; while a daily mail from the
east and west will keep the recluse in close touch with the world
from which he has temporarily retired. At Illecillewaet village, two and a half miles distant, two bridges cross the river
and trails are found leading in several directions, both north
and south of the railway;   all lead to summits or passes.
Beyond Laurie, the valley again widens and somewhat
changes its characteristics; long timbered spurs stand out on
either side, and dense bodies of heavy timber fill in the intervening depressions and extend to the lower slopes of the main
valley.
At Flat creek, about three miles easterly from Laurie, a
good trail follows up the stream and over the divide, joining ACCOUNT   OF   THE   SURVEY
21
the Fish creek valley, down which it passes to the Lardeau mining country. A little farther on, a second trail crosses the river
by a bridge and leads to the north up Cariboo creek. Both are
easily seen from the railway. Numbers of these trails or paths
traverse the creeks and mountain sides. They are in most cases
the work of the prospector, for Indians do not hunt much in the
Selkirks, and furnish the only means of travel. Some are well
cut out and of sufficiently easy gradients to admit of ponies or
mules; others ascend the steepest and most difficult mountain
sides and are too rugged and broken for any but human travel.
As a rule, they ascend cork-screw fashion, keeping on easy
grades until, some obstacle presenting itself, the path is turned
and run up in the opposite direction, and so on to the top.
They are frequently built by a Government appropriation.
Beyond Ross peak siding, the valley again contracts and the
sides become steep and precipitous, rising to the summits of
Mt. Green, Ross peak and Cougar mountain. At the end of the
vista, to all appearances blocking further exit or ingress, reach
heavenward the great monarch, Sir Donald, and his attendant
court, Uto, Eagle and Avalanche. High on a shelf, carved
from their apparently perpendicular sides, can be seen a white
line representing the snow-shedding along the railway, while
between lie the sinuosities of the ' Loop.'
At Cougar creek, a tributary of the Illecillewaet from the
north, there is a large water-tank. Here, a convenient freight
train, that had passed us at Ross Peak siding, was stationary
while its engine was replenishing the water supply. The day
having been hot and walking on the track very tiring, we got
on board and were soon at Glacier House, three miles distant
in a straight line, five by the railway. ' The Loop ' is a lasting
tribute to the skill and ability of Major Rogers, the chief engineer in charge of the construction. The distance was found too
short to overcome the drop from the summit of the range to the
bed of the Illecillewaet river, by a direct route.   To meet the 22 THE   SELKIRK   RANGE
difficulty, the shelf along the base of the mountain, above
referred to, was extended to Mt. Abbott and the line carried up
the valley of the stream draining the glacial basin contained
by Mts. Abbott, Swanzy, Bonney, Green and Ross rpeak, now
known as Loop creek. The valley is crossed and recrossed in a
great pear-shaped curve, on high trestle bridges, and doubling
back to Mt. Abbott, passes below its first traverse of that mountain at a depth of 125 feet; then, describing another wide curve,
again crosses Loop creek close to its junction with the Illecillewaet river, having first, however, twice crossed the river.
On board a west-bound train, as it slowly creeps along the
trestles, and you listen to the creaking, groaning timbers; as
you gaze into space at the rushing broken water below, and
above at the frowning peaks, part hidden by drifting masses of
cloud; as the vapour-filled pass gradually closes to your view
and Glacier House, the one bright spot of the surroundings,
fades slowly in the distance, your thoughts rise above self in
the wonders of creation, and, following on, pass to the indomitable iron will that carried the first explorers successfully
through a wilderness that even now, seen from the midst of
luxury, sends a feeling akin to a shudder through your frame.
A similar device for solving a difficult problem has been
employed farther south on the Crows Nest branch of the Canadian Pacific railway, where the loop extends for some miles
up the valley of Michel creek, and crossing and recrossing that
stream takes the same hillside 175 feet below the upper line.
In both cases, a very considerable part of the distance is covered
on elevated trestle work.
The walk from Albert Canyon had been chiefly remarkable
for the number of crossings of the Illecillewaet river and the
variety of bridges by which they were effected. We had followed the river from its confluence with the Columbia at Revelstoke, through all its twistings and windings; watched it flow
as a turbulent flood, gouging out the banks at each turn, and   ACCOUNT  OF  THE   SURVEY
23
broken only where some boulder had sufficient weight to stem
its impetus; again as a boiling, surging rapid over rough,
steeply sloping bed; then in falls and leaps, down rocky steps;
till now, bereft of more than half its volume, it was only a
mountain torrent that could be passed by leaping from boulder
to boulder.
During the day, we had passed groups of idle men, washing
their clothes, talking, laughing and evidently enjoying a holiday, the first phase of the strike. They regarded us with suspicion, assuming, for some unknown reason, that we were
employees of the railway company. On reaching Glacier House,
Mrs. Young was not in the office and we were consigned to the
most distant corner of the farthest away building, ' Bachelor's
Hall.' On meeting her after dinner, she apologized very nicely,
stating that the people were under the impression that we were
detectives, sent by the company to look after its property at
Glacier. She had perfect confidence in her section men and
feared no harm at their hands. She did not want detectives,
and so we had been relegated to the farthest corner. Mrs.
Young added in confidence, that if there had been a farther
corner, we should have gone there. She now made amends by
offering us any room we liked in the establishment, for we were
the only guests. I may say that Mrs. Young's opinion of her
section men, as she called them, was well founded. During my
numerous visits to the hotel, I never met one of the officials or
employees who could say enough in her praise, or who would
not have done anything in their power to please her.
The chief wonder of the Illecillewaet, or Great glacier of
the Selkirks, as you look at it from the lawn in front of the
chalet, across the intervening belt of dark forest timber, is that
it appears to tumble directly out of the sky between the steep,
rocky slopes of the ridges known as Glacier crest, on the one
side, and the south flank of Mt. Sir Donald, on the other.
Although a mile and a half from the hotel, its immense mass
5 24
THE   SELKIRK   RANGE
and height, over four thousand five hundred feet to the summit
of the snow-field in which it has its source, dwarfs the immediate surroundings and foreshortens the distance. Very nearly
the whole of the ice-fall is seen, but even so, like a first view of
the Niagara falls, the feeling is rather one of disappointment
than otherwise. To fully appreciate the magnificence of the
spectacle, it is necessary to study it; to see it under different
aspects, in light, in shadow, with the sun sparkling on its many
ice points, and covered by a soft mantle of fresh snow; to go
up among its crevasses; to stand beside its seracs; to follow
its snow slopes to sky-line and gaze upon the pigmy world
below.
On the morning of the 18th of June, we rested and made
the acquaintance of the four Swiss guides resident at Glacier
House during the summer months. I used these guides later
when establishing trigonometrical stations on Mt. Sir Donald
and Swiss peak. I found them careful, patient workers and
always cheerful companions; on snow and ice they are good,
competent men; on rocks, my own men—Canadians—were,
before the end of the season, quite their equals; and in the
bush and brush could give them points. They are admirably
adapted to the purpose for which they have been brought out.
Many people go up on the ice of the surrounding glaciers and
climb the rocky peaks, who would not dream of doing so without the confidence inspired by a guide at one or both ends of
the rope. In the extended trips that will shortly be demanded
by the more adventurous spirits and that must be arranged for,
if interest is to be kept from flagging through the peaks immediately surrounding the summit of Rogers pass becoming
hackneyed, they will be found of still greater service and the
railway company is to be congratulated upon this successful
addition to their list of attractions. A more careful attention,
however, to the details of costume would have a pleasing effect,
and fill more nearly the prevailing idea of the hardy and
picturesque Swiss mountaineer. II  ACCOUNT  OF  THE   SURVEY
25
At 12 o'clock, with the two guides, Edouard Feuz and
Charles Clarke, I started for the glacier and Mt. Lookout
Added to a charm, peculiarly its own, of climbing on snow, was
the exhilaration and excitement of setting foot upop a glacier for
the first time. All was new and interesting; the turbulent
mud-coloured streams issuing from its base; the boulder-packed
moraines, existing evidence of its ebb and flow; the deep, dark
crevasses, with sides of gleaming ice; the grotesque but imposing seracs, standing like a city of mummies, newly raised; the
limpid pools collected in the hollows; the glistening neve of
pure white snow reaching to the feet of the rocky sentinels
guarding it for ever. I think the guides assumed the rope, more
from force of habit than actual necessity; it is, however, a wise
precaution, where the least danger exists, not so much for its
actual usefulness as for the confidence inspired. You are far
less likely to lose your footing with a good manila rope around
you and an experienced guide at the other end, than without.
I did not go beyond the second highest point of Mt Lookout, as I wished to have sufficient time to study the surroundings. A considerable portion of the Selkirks world lay below,
above and around. By the assistance of my prismatic compass
and map, I was able to locate, with ease, most of the peaks
bearing names: To the north-east, out-topping all aspirants, rose
the isolated mass of Mt. Sir Donald, so named in honour of Sir
Donald A. Smith—now Lord Strathcona and Mount Royal—
chief representative in Canada of the Honourable the Hudson's
Bay Company, President of the Bank of Montreal and Senior
Director of the Canadian Pacific railway, who drove the last
spike at Craigellachie on the 7th November, 1885. It was
first named ' Syndicate peak' by Major Rogers in 1881, but
the name was subsequently changed by Order-in-Council.
In rotation northward are seen the less exalted peaks of the
same chain, Uto, Eagle, Avalanche, and on either side of the
gorge through which the railway reaches the Rogers pass sum- 26
THE   SELKIRK   RANGE
mit from the east, Mts. Macdonald and Tupper, guarding with
everlasting vigilance the Great National Enterprise. The former was originally Carroll and the latter Hermit, but they were
rechristened in honour of the statesmen, who had so warmly
supported the construction of the transcontinental highway, the
true solution of the Northwest Passage. Still to the north,
outlined against the sky, rose the new Hermit, formerly Stony
mountain. Stony creek, a tributary of the Beaver river, has its
source in a glacier upon its northern flank.
Westward, along sky-line, appear next the sharp points of
the Swiss peaks, the second and highest showing, like the figure
of a tiny man, the cairn raised by Carl Sulzer of the Schweizer
Alpenclub to commemorate the first ascent of that peak. Then _
Rogers peak, after Major Rogers, the pioneer white man to
travel over the summit by the pass which bears his name.
Again westerly rise Grizzly, Sulzer, Roy (the names Sulzer
and Roy are now abandoned) and, isolated between Bear creek,
Cougar creek and the niecillewaet river, the pyramid of Cheops,
with its outlying spur, Napoleon.
Across the river, looking south, may be seen in order: Ross
peak and Mt. Green, a tribute to the Rev. William Spotswood
Green, M.A., whose charming and instructive book, ' Among
the Selkirk Glaciers,' accompanied by the first detailed map of
the vicinity, was published in 1890, and may be classed as a
text-book of the region; then, the long escarpment of Mt.
Bonney, named after Professor Bonney, President of the English Alpine club at the time Mr. Green made his survey; it
forms one side of an enormous amphitheatre, a very birthplace
of glaciers. Still eastward, forming the south side of the
amphitheatre, are Clarke's peak and Mt. Swanzy, the latter
after Mr. Green's travelling companion, the Rev. H. Swanzy.
Beyond Fish creek may be seen the sharp peak of Mt. Donkin,
named by Mr. Green in 1888, after Mr. Donkin of the Alpine
club, killed that year in the Caucasian mountains;  and in the ACCOUNT   OF  THE   SURVEY
27
distance the snow white summit of Mt Purity; then, the master
mass of Dawson, in honour of the great geographer and geologist, the late George Mercer Dawson, D.Sc., F.G.S., Director of
the Geological Survey of Canada. It is the highest in the
vicinity, out-topping even the monolith Sir Donald by some
three hundred feet. Its two summits are named after the Swiss
guides, who made the first ascent with Professor Fay of Tuffts
college, Massachusetts, and Professor H. C. Parker of Columbia university, the easterly Hasler and the westerly Feuz, who
even now sat beside me. I asked him if he did not feel important in having this highest point of the Selkirks bear his name.
With a true Swiss shrug he replied laconically,  ' Oh no!'
Next, Mt. Deville,* in honour of the present Surveyor General of Dominion Lands, a scientist of much repute, who has
introduced into Canada the application of photography as a
method of making topographical surveys. Nearer this way is
the square peak of Mt Fox, commemorating a member of the
Alpine club, who, with Mr. Donkin, lost his life in the Caucasus
in 1888. And last, but not least, rising from the pure white
snows of the Illecillewaet neve, Mt Macoun, in honour of the
well known naturalist and botanist, Professor John Macoun,
M.A. There they stand in grand and lasting array, a lexicon
of the great dead and living; it is a lesson worth the learning
and one not soon forgotten.
I have not enumerated the minor points, such as: The
Dome, The Rampart, Castor and Pollux, Glacier Crest, etc.;
they were all in full view, but, while of much prominence when
looked at from a lower position, from above became insignificant as mere spurs and ridges of the dominating peaks. I had
learned much and descended to the chalet well satisfied with
the results of my afternoon scramble.
♦There is a Mt. Deville in the Rockies that has been confirmed by the
Geographic Board, consequently the above name has been changed to Mt.
Selwyn. 28
THE   SELKIRK   RANGE
Before retiring, arrangements were made with Mrs. Young
to ascend Mt. Sir Donald the next day. She kindly placed the
guides at my disposal. I selected Edouard Feuz and Carl
Schluneggar, but as Charles Clarke had never made tkfe ascent,
it was also decided that he should accompany the party. It
was not necessary that I should ascend Mt. Sir Donald, as the
panorama seen from Mt. Lookout had supplied all the information required for the present, but I was anxious to ascertain
the possibility of taking a survey camera and transit to the top;
for, from its prominence and the fact that it out-topped all the
surrounding peaks, it would prove a very valuable trigonometric
station. Unfortunately, I did not at this time succeed. We
were up the following morning before daylight, had breakfast
and stepped out ready to start. The weather looked ominous,
black clouds and scud around the peak. The guides declared
the climb dangerous in bad weather at this time of the year, so
it was postponed until the morrow. It turned out a beautiful
day, and had we started all would have been well. The next
morning it rained and we were not even called. Again, a third
disappointment; so, after breakfast, we shouldered our knapsacks and set out upon the last day of the tramp. It soon cleared
and became fine, rendering the walk over the summit most
enjoyable.
On both sides and immediately at the divide the way lay
over and through snow-sheds. On the west, the sheds are rendered necessary by the steep and treacherous slopes of Mt.
Avalanche, on the east by the almost- perpendicular descent
from the summit of Mt. Tupper. Looking at the great piles of
rock, tree trunks, dirt and other debris that are swept down the
steep mountain sides by the masses of sliding snow, one wonders
that it is possible to devise structures that can withstand the
awful impetus; and yet, the engineers of the company have
been very successful in this respect and it is only at rare intervals that a shed is swept out of existence.   Their success is due   ^
ACCOUNT   OF  THE  SURVEY
29
to the skill displayed in construction: the sheds are built at a
natural angle with the slope, permitting the mass to pass over
without a greater strain than its own weight. In addition, crib-
work fences, glances and other structures are placed high up
on the mountain sides to turn the rushing torrents of snow and
direct them into safe channels. One of the fences may be seen
in the accompanying illustration, taken from the top of a snow-
shed at the summit Reference to these sheds will be found in
the appendix in an article by Mr. H. B. Muckleston, C.E., one
of the company's engineers, previously referred to. An interesting and instructive monograph, well illustrated, has also been
published by William S. Vaux, Jr., of Philadelphia. It was
written for the Engineers' club of that city (Vol. XVIL, No. 2,
of the proceedings, May, 1900), and is entitled ' The Canadian
Pacific Railway from Laggan to Revelstoke, with map of railway.' Special reference is made to snow-shed construction,
illustrated by some neat drawings.
While the sheds protect the passing trains from a very great
danger, they are, themselves, liable at any time, to destruction
by fires that may be raging in the contiguous forest or started
by a spark lodging among their dry timbers. To guard
against this contingency, watchmen are stationed at intervals
along the track. Telephones connect the cabins in which they
live with the nearest operating stations. Each watchman daily
goes a tour of inspection through the sheds allotted to him, prior
to the passage of an express train, to see that the line is clear
and in good running order. In addition to these precautions,
the sheds are furnished with fire alarms, hydrants, hose, nozzles
and as perfect a system of water-supply as the possibilities of
the location admit of. That much personal danger is incurred
by the company's officers and servants, in this connection, is
evidenced by the death of the late Assistant General Superintendent of the Pacific division, who was instantly killed in the
summer of 1901, by a rock falling from the roof of a burning 30
THE   SELKIRK   RANGE
shed, while directing the clearing of the track. There must
have been great danger, for he had just laid his hand upon the
foreman's shoulder and shouted, so as to be heard above the roar
of the flames and the din of falling timbers, * There will be
some one killed here yet,' when the rock fell striking him on
the head.
The casual tourist, viewing the line from the observation
car, vanishes into one of these tunnels, where, in contrast to the
brilliant sunshine, all is pitch darkness and smoke. He reappears at the other end rubbing his eyes and blowing his nose,
and before he realizes that an opportunity has come for a
glimpse of the scarred and seamed rock precipices of Mt.
Macdonald, rising heavenward a full mile, the glacier near the
summit looking a snow spot from the depths below and its
cascades like jets of spray, he is into another hole arid again
enveloped in darkness and smoke. To appreciate these marvels
of engineering skill and the wonderful precipices that they hide,
you must have leisure to walk through them, to examine them,
to study them.
At the summit of the pass an open stretch of meadow-land
extends, on the south side, for half a mile; the same meadow-
land that gladdened the eyes of Major Rogers in 1882, when,
having ascended Bear creek to the summit, he recognized the
familiar patch of grass-land seen the year previously from the
slopes of Mt. Avalanche. Following in the footsteps of Mr.
Walter Moberly, he had then reached the summit from the west
by way of the Illecillewaet river. I saw that this spot would
furnish an excellent camp ground for a base from which to reach
the surrounding heights; indeed, evidence was plenty that it
had been the site of many a camp ground.
A short distance north of the summit, Bear creek emerges
from between an outlying spur of Mt! Cheops and the southerly
flank of Mt. Grizzly, and flows between the precipitous slopes
of Macdonald and Tupper.     The railway follows the narrow ~N^
■
New Steel Bridge over Stony Creek.
New Steel Bridge over Mountain Creek.  ACCOUNT   OF   THE   SURVEY
31
valley on the north side, along a shelf cut from the slopes of
Mt Tupper, and gradually rises from the bed of the creek until,.
at the junction with the Beaver river, five miles farther on, it
is some nine hundred feet above the stream. Near this point,
a fine cascade, fed by the snows of Mt. Tupper, tumbles down
the mountain side and passing beneath a bridge of dressed
masonry joins Bear creek.
The railway now continues down the valley of the Beaver,,
descending at the rate of 2 -2 feet per hundred. The road-bed
for the greater part of the distance to Beavermouth is cut
directly from the steep slopes on the west side of the valley. To
appreciate the difficulty of the undertaking, a position should
be taken on the edge of the prairie hills bounding the Beaver
valley on the east; from such a point of vantage, the road-bed
shows like a white line against the dark background of the
western slopes. With a field-glass, as many as twenty bridges
can be counted.
To descend from the Rogers pass summit to the level of the
Columbia valley, it was necessary to keep high up on the mountain side; this naturally necessitated the passing over a number of beds of torrents. The principal are : Stony creek,
Surprise creek and Mountain creek. They are now crossed by
fine steel bridges, the first being three hundred feet above the
torrent it spans. Each is of a different type, suited to the
formation of the chasm which it traverses.
Prior to construction, the Beaver valley was one of the most
beautiful portions of Selkirk scenery. It possessed a softness
and variety, not seen in the wilder and more rugged sections,
where the nearness and cold grandeur of the surroundings
inspire a feeling rather of awe than of pleasure. Here, the
river, a milky green in colour, is seen winding its way through
the dark masses of spruce filling up the bottoms, varied by
golden patches of marshland and shining ponds half hidden by
trees.   And what trees!   Professor Macoun, when camped here 32 THE   SELKIRK   RANGE
in July, 1885, waiting until the completion of Stony creek
bridge should enable him to visit Rogers pass, speaks of them
as follows:—e The timber in the Beaver valley is of stupendous
proportions. Cedars were seen over ten feet in diameter, and
trees on the slopes between Six-mile creek and Rogers pass from
150 to 200 feet high.'
Alas! It is all changed; the advance of civilization has
swept nature out of existence; the fire-demon has done his
work, and excepting along the immediate bottom of the valley,
nothing remains of the grand forests but an unsightly array of
gaunt skeletons and fallen monarchs.
Near its junction with the Columbia, the bed of the Beaver
river is much contracted and the stream flows turbulently in a
rock channel of which the strata are twisted and tilted at every
conceivable angle. At one point in particular, it passes between
great slabs set on end, through a gap so narrow that it looks as
though one might jump across. It does not exceed twenty feet
in width and is known as ' The Gateway.'
At Beavermouth, I met a man, who offered to sell me as
many pack-ponies as I required at $25.00 each. He had at
Golden a number of these animals. My trip had been most
successful and information had been gathered that would enable
me to commence the survey without delay.
In 1886, Mr. O. J. Klotz, Assistant Astronomer to the
Department of the Interior, had made a declination survey of
the line from the summit of the Rockies to a point near Revelstoke, where he had connected with a similar survey by Mr.
William Ogilvie, D.L.S., carried eastward from the Pacific
coast The surveys were made in conjunction with a series of
latitude and longitude observations arid had in view a true
location of the railway as a base for future surveys within the
forty-mile belt Reference marks were then placed at every
mile, or more frequently; to do this, the company's telegraph
posts  had  been   used,   and  the  letters   ' C.P.T.'   (Canadian   ACCOUNT   OF   THE   SURVEY
Pacific Traverse), with the number, cut deeply into the post.
The method was undoubtedly a mistake; for although the posts
afforded prominent and ready points for reference marks, yet
many have since disappeared, owing to the poles having been
renewed or the rotted part cut off and the poles replanted, the
' C.P.T.' being buried. Notwithstanding, a number were
found and subsequently made good use of. Photo.' H. W. Gleason, Boston.
Camera Station, Mount Abbott.
CHAPTER  II.
THE  SURVEY.
1901.
AS the result of my preliminary trip along the railway, it
was decided to commence work at Albert Canyon village.
At the summit there was too much snow, and the climbs were'
too severe for a green and untried party. Moreover, the time
at my disposal was too short to set signals in advance, and I
desired to have some ready for use when working from the base
up.   For these reasons, Albert Canyon, twenty-two miles from   ACCOUNT   OF   THE   SURVEY
35
Revelstoke and twenty-five miles from the summit, seemed to
isuit well. Besides, there were at least two trails that would be
of material assistance at the start A party and outfit were
soon got together, and on the 8th July, we found ourselves
under canvas at Albert Canyon station, within a few yards of
the track and with Moose creek at our feet.
We were deeply involved in the mysteries of the diamond
hitch, and already had several of the ponies loaded, when along
came the delayed express, puffing, panting, full of business and
its own importance. Pack animals are always restless for some
time after the loads are cinched on, and the train rushing in
beside them settled the matter. A general stampede ensued;
ponies careered in every direction, prancing and snorting; men
rushed here and there, shouting and swearing, trying to hold
them; everything was frantic and desperate. Despite our
efforts, one broke away, dashed madly through the brush and
fallen timber, leaped a tree trunk, four feet high, and rolled
head over heels on the other side; then, having burst the hook
from the lash-rope and scattered the pack to the four winds,
went wildly scouring through the clearing among the fallen logs
and other debris with which it was littered. The train was
crowded with passengers by the latest steamer from Japan, and
the observation car full of people. These cheered, clapped their
hands and waved their handkerchiefs, while some even went
the length of shouting 'Encore/ They were evidently under
the impression that it was all arranged by the fatherly management of the C.P.R. for the amusement of its passengers. There
seems to be a general idea, among a section of the travelling
public, that the company provides stage effects as an advertising
medium. A story is told at Glacier House of a certain lady
from Seattle, who ordered a pony to go and see the great Illecillewaet glacier. She rode to the edge of the forest, gazed foi
awhile at the enormous mass of crystal ice rising 4,000 feet in
front of her, then returned to the hotel and asked in all earnest- 36 THE  SELKIRK  RANGE
ness: ' Is it a real glacier, or only one that the company has put
there for an advertisement V
The diamond hitch, or rather series of hitches that shape a
diamond, is the combination of rope twists by wh,ich a load is
kept in position on the back of a pack animal. I am not aware
who invented it—he should have been knighted. It is most
ingenious and effective, but difficult to learn and remember. It
looks so simple and is done so quickly that, seen once, you are
sure you have it, and it is only when you try that some little
point always goes astray. A pack, properly tied on will go
without a move for an entire day, over the roughest of country,
through woods, windfall, or any place in which a horse is
capable of motion.
In the 1887 report of his topographical survey of the Rocky
mountains, J. J. McArthur writes: - About six miles up, we
came to a tributary canyon, about one thousand feet deep; it
took us a whole day to get across. The descent to the creek was
made without accident, but the other side was heavily timbered
and much steeper. We reduced the packs, intending, after we
should get the horses to the top, to return and carry up the
remainder ourselves. About every fifty feet up the zigzag pathway, resting places had been cut in the side of the hill. We
succeeded in making one horse carry his load to the top, but the
second one, after we had got him half way and with his fore
feet on one of the resting places, balked and, falling backwards,
rolled down the side of the canyon. He made two or three
frantic efforts to arrest himself and then disappeared, the loud
ringing of his bell telling of his violent descent. In a few
seconds this had ceased and we started after him, clinging to
the brush and over sharp precipices, expecting to find him with
his neck or limbs broken. About three hundred feet down, we
found him lodged, head downwards between two trees. The
imploring look in his eyes told us he was alive; his pack had
not been displaced, but our alpenstocks, which were tied on top, The Rocky Mountain Goat (Haplocerus montanus).  ACCOUNT  OF   THE   SURVEY
were both broken off close to the irons. We removed his load
and with some difficulty extracted him and were surprised to
find that, with the exception of half a dozen small cuts and a
few bruises, he had escaped uninjured.'
On the morning of the 9th of July, taking two pack horses,
we ascended the trail up Moose creek (South river) to the summit of the high timbered ridge south of the village.
The trail rises in zigzag gradients and on reaching the crest
of the ridge descends to the valley of the creek beyond. It is
said the trail was commenced to connect with the Fish creek
valley and that there is a pass, but it has not yet been completed
the entire distance. At the crest of the ridge, branching off to
the left, the ponies were taken for a mile and a half through the
timber, but it entailed such heavy cutting that, finding a convenient pool at which to camp, it was decided to make the
remainder of the distance with the instruments on foot
The following day, two points, about one mile and a half
apart, were occupied on the high spur nearly due east of the
village. On the way up, we disturbed a mountain goat, who,
having taken a good look at us, ambled easily along the face of
a precipice and disappeared round a corner. Albert Canyon
village is 2,227 feet above sea-level. The first station occupied
is at an altitude of 7,276 feet, or 5,049 above the railway. It
overlooks the railway and village of Illecillewaet to the east,
the railway and village of Albert Canyon to the west, and northward the westerly slopes of the valley of the north branch of
the river and the snow-clad peaks, glaciers and valleys beyond.
The station is recorded as ' Albert Canyon East.'
The second point occupied is on the same ridge. It over'
looks the two branches of Moose creek and gives a fine view of
the two high peaks immediately west across the valley. They
are little short of ten thousand feet, the altitude of the northerly
one being 9,562, and that of the southerly 9,998 feet. Three
glaciers hang upon their eastern- flanks.   So far as I could learn,
I 38 THE   SELKIRK   RANGE"
they have not been named. I would suggest the ' Albert peaks '
as appropriate, and that the creek at their eastern base be
changed to ' Albert creek.' The second station is 7,829 feet
above sea-level and has been recorded .as l Moose Creek East.'
Looking south, the view is wild and rugged in the extreme.
Near at hand may be seen six small glaciers and beyond, several
large snow-fields. These valleys, with their surrounding precipices, crags, glaciers and summits, will furnish a fruitful source
for the explorer and mountaineer, and the Albert peaks, from
this side at least, are worthy of a conquest; what features they
present upon their western faces had yet to be discovered.
While the stations were being occupied, other members of
the party were sent to place a signal upon a prominent point
on the north side of the river. A signal had also been placed
beside the railway, a short distance westerly from the station-
house. They consisted of white cotton targets nailed at right
angles to a pole, twelve to fifteen feet high, according to circumstances ; the pole is held upright by three supports nailed to it
in the shape of a tripod. Both signals were clearly seen through
the telescope of the transit-theodolite and angular readings taken
upon them. A full set of views were also obtained at each
station.
On the 13th and 14th of July, a trip was made up the north
branch of the Illecillewaet along the road leading to the Waverly
mine. Two cameras and transits were taken and, having
reached a camp ground, the party divided, ascending on both
sides of the valley to the crest of the-slopes forming it The
station southeast of the stream is named ' Canyon station,'
from the fact that it is nearly above the Albert canyon. It is
at an altitude of 5,640 feet. That on the north side, or ' North
Fork' station, is 7,047 feet. Both command a fine view up
the valley of the north branch, disclosing an array of tributary
valleys and, at their heads, rugged snowy peaks, many of them
apparently over ten thousand feet above sea-level.    The good   ACCOUNT  OF  THE   SURVEY
39
road up the stream, affording facilities for the use of pack animals, furnishes an excellent opportunity to explore the wild
beauties of the surrounding country. On its way, the trail
crosses the stream several times by bridges in good repair, and
thus both sides can be reached.
To occupy the next station, it was necessary to cross the
main river. This was accomplished by means of a wire cable,
consisting of four telegraph wires twisted together. They had
been stretched across near the mouth of Silver creek, a tributary from the north, joining the Illecillewaet about two miles
below the village. The cable is secured at one end to a beam on
which rock has been piled, and on the opposite bank t» a tree
stump. The river is here about 150 feet wide and rushes like
a mill sluice, fifty feet below. A narrow board, bolted to a
two-wheeled trolley on the cable, forms the medium of transit;
an endless rope enables the trolley to be hauled to and fro.
The contrivance looked old and worn and decidedly suggestive
of sudden death. When examining it for the first time, I asked
an old prospector who happened along, ' Do you think it will
carry two?' He replied, 'I dun'no, she been't very strong.'
As this was my own opinion, the camp outfit was sent over by
instalments and the passengers one at a time.
Camp was pitched in the thick timber on the opposite bank
and, on the 16th, 17th and 18th, three stations were occupied:
one on the south side of the river, c Albert Canyon West,' at an
elevation of 5,363 feet, and two on the north side, ' Albert
Canyon North,' elevation 6,999 feet, and ' Silver Creek East,'
7,584 feet above sea-level. The last is a prominent isolated
point commanding an excellent view up the north branch of the
Illecillewaet on the east and Silver creek on. the west. To
occupy the latter stations, it was necessary to make a camp at
timber line and for this purpose to carry up a light tent,
blankets and provisions in addition to the camera and transit,
a work of much labour.    Indeed, I found it was very seldom 40 THE   SELKIRK   RANGE
possible to make an ascent and occupy a station properly the
same day. An ascent with packs usually takes from five to six
hours, the work at a summit, three to four hours, according to
the number of camera stations, and the descent about three
hours, or twelve hours' continuous labour of the hardest kind;
for the instrumental work requires the closest attention and is
quite as fatiguing as the physical portion. The above estimate
is on the assumption that clear, bright weather prevails throughout the day, which, in the Selkirks, is the exception, not the
rule. Try this sort of thing for five or six days in the week
and then see how you feel on the seventh.
While here, a party in the employ of the Government was
engaged in opening a pack trail up Silver creek, to give access
to mineral deposits said to exist on some of its numerous
branches. Four tributary streams feed Silver creek. Each has
a fine deep valley, heavily timbered at the base of the slopes
containing it; then leading by a series of alpine slopes to the
glacier or glaciers forming the source of the many silver threads
that wind through the grassy uplands. Beyond, to the west,
from beds of snow, rise the ragged ridges and white domes of
the group called ' Clach-na-coodin.' These charming valleys,
tenanted only by the wild goat and the caribou, have a wonderful
fascination when seen from above. Their dim and mysterious
lower depths suggest difficulties that add zest to the endeavour
to reach the bright uplands ; and there is always what lies
beyond sky-line as a final goal. The main creek is renowned
locally for the quantity and size of its trout. A bridge across
the river at the site of the cable could easily be reached from
Albert Canyon village and would open up a most beautiful
region to lovers of nature.
On the 20th, camp was moved to Twin Butte siding, ten
miles westerly. The move was made by means of one of the
company's push-cars. On the road down, the cook shot three
bears, an old one and two cubs.    Both cubs climbed a tree, The Big-Horn or Rocky Mountain Sheep (Oris montana).  ACCOUNT  OF  THE   SURVEY
41
instinct failing to tell them that this was no protection against
modern firearms. There was not time to pick up the carcasses,
as a freight train was expected shortly and it was not desired
to unload by the way. The old bear and one cub were subsequently brought in. They proved to be the ordinary brown
bear of these regions, not of large size. The pelt was in poor
condition, although the cook subsequently sold it for five dollars.
The meat of the cub was found palatable—like coarse beef with
a taste of pork—and the old one made good soup.
On the-21st of July, my two assistants, young men studying for the profession of land surveyors, who had been with
me during the survey of the Crows Nest coal lands in southeastern British Columbia, left the camp. They found the
labour too great for their powers, and they did not desire to
become attached to a branch of the profession entailing such
hardship and extreme physical exertion.
On the 22nd, a station was occupied to the south of Twin
Butte siding at an altitude of 6,996 feet It commanded the
upper reaches of the two creeks previously referred to as those
crossed by the long trestle where we were caught by the train.
The station was a good one, presenting magnificent views of
the Illecillewaet valley both east and west. Easterly, the river
could be seen winding, at the foot of the great buttresses extending from the Clach-na-coodin group, the entire distance to
Albert Canyon; westerly also it could be followed almost to its
junction with the Columbia, and the snow-capped domes of the
Gold range and the Jordan and Eagle passes beyond Revelstoke
were distinctly in view. Rising steeply from the east branch
of the Twin creeks, the great mass of the Albert peaks was seen
at close range. Although apparently much more accessible
from this side, it could be realized that many problems were
presented for solution. Three small glaciers are enwrapped in
its folds.   I promised myself a closer inspection at an early date.
Next day, I walked to Revelstoke and hired two men to 42 THE   SELKIRK   RANGE
make up the deficiency in the party. One, an Irish Canadian,
had been a member of the Strathcona Horse in South Africa
and whiled away many an evening, up near the stars, by stories
of the war. He was an untiring worker, and his ability to travel
tbrough the bush with a pack on his back, at once constituted
him the leader among the men. George could not, however,
stand on a height overlooking space, and had always to keep on
the lee side of a precipice. The ability to do this is not given
to every one, and no amount of education or nerve can overcome
such a weakness. It may safely be said that those who can
stand in precipitous places at great heights are very much in the
minority.
On- the 24th July, using the ponies, camp was taken to the
westerly of the Twin creeks, immediately below the long trestle,
in order to be sure of an early start the following day. We were
up at 3 a.m. and, crossing the creeks, ascended the ridge extending westerly from the northerly of the Albert peaks, reaching
a plateau 5,000 feet above the railway by noon. The day was
very warm and the road much encumbered by fallen timber,
consequently the time of ascent was slow. Leaving the party
to make camp, accompanied by George, I started on up the
ridge. Several hundred feet higher, we found one of J. J.
McArthur's signals, placed in his reconnaissance survey of these
regions—a tin cone on a cairn of stones, held in position by
wiring. A few hundred feet farther up brought us to a prominent point already observed from below. From here, a sharp
arete leads to a col, and beyond, a second arete rises to the summit of the northerly of the Albert peaks. The ascent by this
path presented many difficulties in the shape of rock cliffs, and,
even if practicable, would take considerable time. The alternative route lay across the foot of a glacier and up the arete on
the north side, which likewise appeared to present many difficult
places. From a mountaineer's point of view, the peaks will
furnish an interesting climb;   from a survey point of view, ACCOUNT   OF   THE   SURVEY
43
however, the time required to reach the summit of either would
not be compensated by the results; so it was decided to occupy
the point already attained and the following day we completed
the usual round of photographs and transit readings. The altitude of the station, ' North Twin,' is 8,033 feet, 6,050 above
the railway; as previously stated, the altitude of the north
peak is 9,562 and that of the south peak 9,998 feet The views
were good and the cloud effects magnificent, although brewing
thunder storms filled the valleys with gloom. That night it
snowed and stormed, and the next day we were enveloped in
clouds and heavy mist
July 29th, again using the push-car, camp was moved to
the old mill at Greely creek, six miles from Revelstoke. It was
an ideal camp ground. The tents, four in number, were ranged
on three sides of the large open shed where the cook had established his quarters. An impromptu table, sideboard and benches
were quickly constructed from the old boards lying around, and
the camp cook-stove glowed merrily in one corner. A board
inserted in a crack in the mill flume brought water almost to
our feet and the huge roof kept off the rain and shine. The
open patches around the mill were well grown with timothy and
the ponies got fatter daily. Raspberries grew everywhere in
wild profusion and a dishful could be picked without going
twenty yards from the camp. I have always looked back upon
that camp ground with pleasure, and regretted that most of my
time was spent away from headquarters.
The last two days of July were spent on the ridges immediately east of Greely creek and between it and the Twin creeks.
Three stations were occupied, * Greely Creek East,' ' Greely
Creek South' and ' Twin Creek West,' at altitudes of respectively 7,241, 7,749 and 7,568 feet; the altitude of the railway
at Greely creek is 1,699 feet. The views were much like those
taken from other stations, except that numerous lakelets and
ponds were noticed in the alpine valleys above timber line and, 44
THE   SELKIRK   RANGE
if possible, the scenery was bolder and more rugged. The
locality was chiefly remarkable for the quantities of deer seen.
Early on the 31st while asc