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A voyage around the world, in the years 1785, 1786, 1787, and 1788: published conformably to the decree… La Pérouse, Jean-François de Galaup, comte de, 1741-1788 1799

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Array           VOYAGE j
IN THE YEARS 1785,1780, 1787, AND 1788,
OF  THE 22D OF APRIL,  1791*
J799t  m»
VOL.    III.
anchorage in the bay of Avatfcha.—Obliging reception
given us by lieutenant Kaborof.—Arrival of Mt.
Kajloff-Ougrenin, governor of Okhotjk> at the harbour of St. Peter and St. Paul.—He is immediately
followed by Mr. Schmaleffl and by the unfortunate
Ivachkin^ who infpires us with the moft lively inter efi
in his fate,—Kind attention paid us by the governor.
—A ball of the_ Kamtfchadales.—A courier from
Okhotjk brings us letters from France.—*We difcover
the tomb of M. de la Croyere> and place an inferip^
tion on copper over ity as well as over that of captain Clerke.—New views- of Mr. Kq/loff, in the
ùdminiftràtion of Kamtfchatka.—We obtained per*
mijjion to fend our interpreter to France with our
difpatches.—Departure from the bay of Avatfcha
page i
Sumtfiary account of Kamtfchatka —Marks for failing
in and out of the bay of Avatfcha.—We run down
the latitude 37 ° 30^ for a fpace of three hundred
A 2 leagues^ I CONTENTS.
leagues, in fearch of land, faid to be difcovered by
the Spaniards in 1620.—We crofs the line fof
the third time.—We make the ifland of Navigators after having pajfed by the ifland of Danger >
difcovered by Byron.—We are vifited by a number of canoes, barter with the Indians, and anchor at
the ifland of Maouna    -    -    -    -    -    page 37
Manners, cufloms, arts, and ufages of the iflanders of
Maouna.—Contrafl of that beautiful and fertile country, with the ferocity of its inhabitants.—tfhe fwell t
becomes very heavy, and we are obliged to get under
way.—M. de Langle wifhing to water his jhip, goes
on fhore with four boats manned and armed.—He and
eleven perfons of the two crews are murdered.—Cir-
■ cumflantial account of that event     -    -    page 6$
Departure from the ifland of Maouna. —Defcniption of
the ifland of Oyolava.—^Exchanges with its inhabitants.—We make the ifland of Pola.—New de-
j tails concerning the manners, arts, and cufloms of
thefe iflands, and concerning the productions of their
foil. — We fall in with Cocoa-nut and Traitor
iflands     -     -     ----,_     page 102
vt- * yei& wwf 'A 55 V2ÇÎ1 jt^VisebS» CONTENTS.
Departure from the Iflands of Navigators.—We direSi
our route towards the Friendly Iflands.—Fall in
with the ifland of Vavao, and feveral othets of that
archipelago very ill laid down in the charts.—
The inhabitants of Tongataboo haften on board tê
trade with us.—We anchor at Norfolk Ifland.—•
Defcription of that" ifland.—Arrival at Botany
Bay     --.-.--.----    page 128
ExtraEl of a journey to\ the Peak of Tineriffe, by Mef-
Jieurs de Lamanon and. Mongès, and the refults
of fever al chemical experiments made on the fummit
of the mountain ; together with a defcription of Jome
new varieties of volcanic Schorl's        -     page 155
Eulogy of Lamanon, by Cit. Ponce        -      -      160
Differtation on the inhabitants ofEafler Ifland andMowée,
by M. Rollin, M.D. - -        page 171
Geographical memoir on Eajler Ifland, by M. Bernizet,
geographical engineer       - page. 184
Pbyfiological and pathological memoir on the Americans,
by M. Rollin       »        -        -        -    page. 199
Of the Natives of Chili     -        -      199
Of the Natives of California     -        200
Of 1ft
Of the Americans in the neighbourhood of
Port des Français      *        -    page 2o£
General Obfervations - -      204
Table of Comparative Proportions of the
Native Americans - - 222
Defcriptive Memoir of certain Irfeffs, by M. de la Mar*
tiniere, Naturalifi to the Expedition page 223
Differtation on the inhabitants of ihe Ifland of Tchoka
or Segalien, and on the Eaftern Tartars, together with .
a Table of the Comparative Proportions of thefe People, by M. Rolliny M.D.        ~        %    page 234
Obfervations by M. de Monneron, Captain of Engineers,
and Engineer in Chief to the Expedition    page 247
Ifland of Trinidad - % 247
Ifland of St. Catherine - 251
Eajler Ifland, and Sandwich Iflands  -   263
Baie des Français - - 264
Harbour of Monterey        % %        266
.Memoirs concerning Manilla and Formofa, by M. de la
Pêroufe      -.-------    page 26 S
Memoir un Tçrebratulœ, or Anomiœ, together with a
Defcription of a new Species found in the Sea of Eqfi
Tartary, by M. de Lamanon -    -    -    page 278
Defcription of ihe Shell     -      -      -      282
Ditto-—— of'the Animal   -     -*     -      288
Memoir CONTENTS. vu
Memoir on ihe Cornua Ammonis, with the Defcription of a new Species found between the Tropics in the
South Sea, by M. de Lamanon    -     -     Page 298
Memoir on the Fur Trade, particularly that of the Sea
Otter, by M. de la Péroufe    -    1    -     page 304
State of the Otter and Beàver Skins procured in Port
des Français, on the North-Weft Co aft of America*
by the Frigates Bouffole and Aftrolabe    - page 31£
JLxtraEls from the Correspondence of Meffieurs de la Pe-
• rpufe, de Langle, Lamanon, i£c. with the Minifter
of the Marine    -     -----     Page S18
Extracts of Letters from Meffieurs de la Péroufe and
Dagelet to M. Fleurieu      - page 380
* Extraits of Letters written by M. de la Péroufe, to
M. de la Touche, Adjutant Direffor of the Ports anâ ^
Poft Captain -, and by M. de Lamanon to M. de
Servières   --------    page 416
Letter from M. de la Martiniere fo the Minifter of
Marine    -------     _   page 422
JLxtra£l of a Letter from M. de Lamanon to M. Con-
dor cet    --------    page 428
JS/Iemoir and Table of Obfervations made for the Pur-
pofe of ftjfcovering the Flux and Reflux of the Atmosphere, by M. de Lamanon -    -    page 434
J)efcriptive Note on the Lianes of Chili, by Ventenat,
Merger of the National Inftitute -    -     page 4 y
NAUTICAL 'Tables, fhewing the Courfe of la Bouffole, during the
years 1785, 1786, 1787, 17%8, from the time of
the fhifts failing from Europe till its arrival in Botany Bay $ page  1
Tables, fhewing the Courfe of VAftrolabe, during the
years 1785, 1786, 1787, from the time of the
fhip9s failing from Europe till its arrival in Kami"
Jchatka        -        -        -        «        -     page 33
Table of Longitudes, from the nth of April to the
yth of September, 1787, by M. Dagelet    page 57
Page   11, line 20, infert they after determination,
    45,   — 26, for Kabroof read Kahorof.
'■ - 134,  j— 47, for Cooke read Cook.
• 155,  —    |i for Journal read Journey.
•— 159, — 1(5, ij, for plans read planes.
 171, — dele Chapter XXVII.
 329, — ult. for ri'vality read rivalry.
É—- 340, — penult, for fmailer read lefs.
1785,   1786,   1787, AND   1788.
Anchorage in the bay of Avatfcha.—Obliging reception
given us by lieutenant Kaborof.—Arrival of Mr.
Kafloff-Ougrenin, governor of Okhotfk, at the harbour of St. Peter and St. Paul.—He is immediately
followed by Mr. Schmaleff, and by the unfortunate
Ivachkin, who injpiresus with the moft lively inter eft
in his fate.—Kind attention paid us by the governor.
—A ball of the Kamtfchadales.—A courier from
Okhotfk brings us letters from France.—We difcover
the tomb of"M. de la Croyere, and place an infcrip-
tion on copper over it, as well as over that of captain Clerke.—New views of Mr. Kafloff, in the
adminiftration of Kamtfchatka.—We obtained per-
mifjion to fend our interpreter to France with our
difpatches.—Departure from the bay of Avatfcha.
(SEPTEMBER    1787.)
WE had not yet moored before the harbour of
St. Peter and St. Paul, when a vifit was paid us
by the toy on, or chief, of the village, and feveral other
Vol. III. B inhabit 2 LA  FERGUSES  VOYAGÉ
inhabitants.    AU of them brought ùs prefents of
falmon, or fkate, and offered us their fervices in
hunting bears, or in fhooting the ducks, with which
the ponds and rivers are covered.  We accepted their
offers ; lent them muikets ; gave them powder and
fhot -, and found no want of wild-fowl during our
whole flay in the bay of Avatfcha. They required no
money as a reward for their fatigue ; but we had
been fo amply provided at Breft with articles of the
greateft value  to Kamtfchadales, that we infifted
upon their accepting tokens of our gratitude, which
our  opulence enabled us to proportion rather to
their wants than to the worth of their game.    The
government  of  Kamtfchatka   had  been   entirely
changed  fihee  the departure of the Englifh.    It,
was now only a dependency of that of Okhotfk ;
and the different pofts of the peninfula were commanded by different officers, who were accountable
for their conduft to the commandant-general of that
province alone.    Captain Schmaleff, the fame per-
ibn   who   fucceeded   major   Behm   pro tempore,
was (till in   the country,  with  the title  of commandant of the Kamtfchadales.    Mr. Reinikin, his
real fucceffor, who arrived at Kamtfchatka a fhort
time after the departure  of the Englifh, had remained there only four years; and had returned to
Peterfburg in 1784.    Thefe particulars ^ere communicated to us by lieutenant Kaborof, who was
governor of the harbour of St. Peter and St. Paul,
with a ferjeant and a detachment of forty foldiers
8 or mi
,fcQUND   THE   WORLtt* |
&r ooffacks under his command. The kind attentions of this officer were boundlefs : his perfonal
exertions, thofe of his foldiers, every thing, in fhort,
that he poffeffed was at our fervice. He would not
even permit me to fend off one of my own officers
to Bolcheretik, where Mr. Kafloff-Ougrenin, the
governor of Okhotfk, who was making a tour
through his province, happened moft fortunately to
be. He told me, that the governor was expe&ed
to arrive in a few days at St. Peter and St. Paul's,
and that he was probably already on the road. He
added, that the journey was more tedious than wre
might fuppofc, becàuïe the time of the year not permitting the ufe of a (ledge, it was neceffary to travel
half the way on foot, and the other half in a canoe
Upon the rivers of Avatfcha and Bolcheretfk.
Mr. Kaberof at the fame time propofed to fend off
a cofTack with my difpatches to Mr. Kafloff, of
.whpra he.fpoke with an enthufiafm and fatisfaétion
in which it was hardly poffible not to participate.
He congratulated himfelf every moment upon the
opportunities we fhould have of converfmg, and
communicating with an officer, whofe education,
manners, and knowledge, were not inferior to thofe
of any officer of the Ruffian empire, or indeed of
any nation whatever. M. de LefTeps, our young
interpreter, who (poke the Ruffian language ,as
fluently as French, tranflated the kind expreffions
of the lieutenant ; and wrote a Ruffian letter in my
name to the governor of Okhotfk, to whom I
B 2 alio 4 LA   PE ROUSE S   VOYAGE
affo wrote in French myfelf. I told him, that the
narrative of Cook's laft voyage had • fpread the
fame of the hofpitality of the Kamtfchadale government; and that I flattered myfelf 1 fhodtd
meet with a reception fimilar to that of the Englifh
navigators, fince our voyage, like theirs, was meant
to conduce to the common advantage of all maritime nations. As Mr. Kafloff's anfwer could not
reach us in lefs than five or fix days, the worthy
lieutenant told us, that he only anticipated his orders,
and thofe of the emprefs of Ruffia, by begging
us in the mean time to confider ourfelves as in our
native land, and to difpofe freely of every thing
the country afforded. It was eafy to perceive by
his geftures, his looks, and his expreflions, that if
it had been in his power to perform a miracle,
the mountains and moraffes of Kamtfchatka would
have been transformed for our gratification into
an efyfium. A report was circulated, that Mr. Kafloff
had no letters for us, but that Mr. Steinheil, the former governor, whom Mr. Schmaleff fucceeded as
captain-ifpravnik, or infpe£lor of the Kamtfchadales,
and who refided at Verkhnei-Kamtfchatka, poffibly
had; and inflantly upon this vague conje&ure, which
hadfcarcely afemblance of truth, hefent off an exprefs,
who had more than 150 leagues to travel on foot.
Mr.Kaborof knew how extremely defirous we we re of
receiving letters from France. He had learned from
M. de LefTeps how great our difappointment had
been on finding that no packets addrelTed to us
had . ROUND   THE  WORLD. 5
had arrived at St. Peter and St. Paul's. He appeared almoft as much afflifted as ourfelves; and
by his folicitude and cares feemed to fay, that he
would go to Europe himlelf in fearch of our letters,
if there were any hope of his finding us on his
return. The ferjeant and all the foldiers maïïifefted
an equal defire to oblige, and Mrs. Kaborof, on her
part fhewed us every poffible attention : her houfe
was open to us at all hours of the day, and tea and
the other refrefhments of the country were prepared
.there for our ufe. Every one wilhed to make us
prefents, and, in fpite of our determination not to
receive any, it was impoffible to withftand the preflf-
ing felicitations of the lieutenant's lady, who
forced our officers., M. de Langle, and myfelf to
accept a few fkins of fables, rein-deer, and foxes, far
moreufeful, without doubt, to thofe who parted with
them, than to us who were about to return towards
the tropics. Fortunately we had the means of
acquitting ourfelves1 of the obligation ; and we infilled on being permitted in our turn to offer fuch
things as were not be found at Kamtfchatka.
But though richer than our hofts, our artificial man- *
ners did not permit us to vie with them in that
fimple and affe<3ting expreffion of kindnefs, which
ftamps a value on the meaneft gift.
Through the medium of M. de Leffeps I figlt
nified to Mr. Kaborof, that I was defirous of forming a little eftablifhment on fhore, for the purpofe
of lodging our aftronomers, and depofiting a qua.-
B 3 mÊ drant f %Jk PER0TTSE S VOYAGE
drant and a pendulum. Immediately the mall
commodious houle in the village was offered us ;
and as we repaired thither but a very few. hours
after the requeft was made, we thought we might
venture ta accept it without indelicacy, becaufe to us
it appeared uninhabited, But we learned afterwards^
that the lieutenant, to make room for us, had turned
out the corporal, who was at the fame time his fe-
cretary, and the third perfon in the country. Such
is the Ruffian difçipline, that its movements are
executed with as mufch promptitude as thç manual
exercife, no order being neceflary but a nod of
the he^d.
Our aftronqjmers had fcarcely ereéted their pbfer-
yatory, when our naturalifts, whofe zeal was nos
ialerior to theirs, determined to vifit the volcano, in
appearance pot more than two leagues diftant^ though
in fa6t it was at }eaft eight to the foot of the mountain, which was almoft entirely covered with fnow^
and al the furnmit of which the crater was fituated.
The mouth of this eteater, turned towards the bay
p( Avatfcha, prefented conftantly to our eyes thick;
clouds of fmoke j and once during the night we
perceived fains blue and yellow $ame$; but they
rofe to a very inconfiderable height*
The zeal of Mr. Kaborof was as much excited in
fevouif of our naturalifts, as of our aflronomers ; and
immediately eight Coffacks were ordered to accompany Meffieurs Bernizet, Manges, and Receveur.
TJie health of M. JUma&ofr was not ^efficiently re-
teftablifhed BOUND THE WORLD.
«ftablifhed to permit him to engage in the expedition. Never perhaps was one fo laborious undertaken for the advancement of the fciences. Not one
of the learned Englifh, Germans, or Ruffians, who
had travelled in Kamtfchatka had ever ventured
upon fo difficult an enterprife. From the afpe&
of the mountain 1 judged it to be entirely inaccefli-
Md. There was no appearance of verdure—it was
aofchiog but a rock, of which the acclivity was
terribly fteep. Our intrepid travellers {ct off in
hopes of overcoming theie obftacles. The Cof-
facks were loaded with their baggage, which con-
. lifted of one tent, a number of flâns, and the pro-
vifion that each perfon had laid in for four days.
The honour of carrying the barometers, the thermometers, the acids, and the other articles neceflary
for obfervation, was retained by the naturalifts, who
could not truft fuch frail inftruments to any other
hands; befides, their guides were only to con-
<àu£t them to the bottom of the peak, a prejudice,
as ancient perhaps as Kamtfchatka, making both
Kamtfchadales and Ruffians believe, that the mountain emits a vapour, which muft infallibly fuffocate
all who are rafti enough to afcend it. They flatter-
âd themfelves no doubt, that our natural philofophers
■would, like themfelves, flop at the fbét of the volcano, having probably been infpired with a fender
Concern for their fate by a fewjglaffes of brandy given
t&£fB. previous to their departure. With this hope
Chey fet off: in high fpirits, and made their firft halt in
B 4 the s
the middle of the woods, at fix leagues diftance from
the harbour of St. Peter and St. Paul. •' The ground
they had as yet gone over oppofed little obftacle to
their paffage, though covered with fhrubs and trees,
the greater number of the latter being of the birch
ipecies. The pines that were there were flunted,
and little better than dwarfs. One fpecies of them
bears cones, of which the feeds or nuts are good to
cat ; while a very wholefome and agreeable beverage
flows from the bark of the birch. This liquor the
Kamtfchadales take care to colled, and drink very
freely. Berries of every kj.nd, and of every fhade
of red and black, alfo offered themfelves to the
travellers at every flep. Their tafte is in general
fomewhat acid ; but they are rendered highly palate-
able by the admixture of fugar.
At funfet the tent was pitched, the fire lighted,
and every thing prepared for paffing the night,
with a promptitude unknown to people accuflomed
to refide in cities. The greateft care was taken to
prevent the firç from fpreading to the trees of the
fçrefl. The application of the flick to the backs
of the Coffacks would not have fufficed to expiate
fo ferious a fault, becaufe the flames never fail to
put the fables to flight. After fuch an accident no
more are to be found during the winter, which is
the hunting feafon; and as the fkin of thefe
animals, the only riches of the country, is given in
exchange for all the commodities the inhabitants
ftancL in need of, and ferves to pay the annual
wb tribute ROUND THE WGRLD. 9
tribute due to the crown, it is eafy to conceive the
enormity of a crime that deprives the Kamtfchadales of advantages fo important. The Coffacks
accordingly were at great pains to cut down the
igrafs round the fire place, and before their departure, to dig a deep hole to receive the afhes, which
they extinguifhed by covering them with earth
well moiflened with water. During this day's
journey they faw no quadruped but a hare, which
was almofl white: neither bear, argali*, nor reindeer, made its appearance, although thefe animals
are very common in the country. The next morning they rofe at break of day, and continued
their journey. It had fnowed hard during the
night, and, what was flill worfe, a thick fog covered the volcanic mountain, the foot of which our
natural philofophers did not reach till three o'clock
in the afternoon. Their guides, according to
agreement, flopped as foon as they reached the
limits of the vegetative earth, pitched their tents,
and lighted a fire. That night's reft was a necef-
J&ry preparative to the fatigues of the next day.
* This animal is the mountain-fheep, or Capra Ammon of
the Linnean fyftem. It is fuppofed to exifl in no part of
Europe but Corfica and Sardinia, and to be the fame of which
a living fpecimen exifted a few years ago in the Prince of
Conde's collection at Chantille. It was there called Mouffolï,
pnd was confidered by M. Euffon as the parent flock whence
all the varieties of domeftic iheep are fprung.   T.
At fix o'clock in the morning Meffieurs Be*nizet*, and Receveur, began to afce'nd the fteé£,
and did not flop till three in the afternoon, when
they reached the very edge of the crater, but at the
lowermoft part.    They had been often obliged to
have recourfe to their hands in order to fupport
themfelves among the broken rocks, the intervals
between   them being   fometimes  very dangerous
precipices.    All the fubftances of which the mountain is compofed are lavas more or lefs porous, and
almoft   in   the   ftate   of pumice-ftone.     At the
lummit they met with gypfeous ftones, and cryftaj*
lized   fulphur;    but    the   latter   was   much   lefs
beautiful than that of the peak of Teneriffe.    In
general, indeed, the fchorls, and all the other ftones
they found there, were much inferior in beauty to
thofe of that ancient volcano, which has not been in .
a ftate of eruption for a century paft, whereas the
Kamtfchadalian   mountain   threw   up   ftones and
aihes in 1778, during captain Clerke's flay in the
bay of Avatfcha.    They brought back with them,
however,   fome tolerable fpecimens of chryfolite;
but they encountered fuch bad weather, and pafled
over fo rough a road, that their being able to add
a new weight to that of the barometers, therrnome-
ters,   and  other inftrurnents, is   truly aftonilhing.
Their horizon never extended beyond a mufket-
fhot, except for a few minutes only, when they perceived the bay of Avatfch^ and the frigates^ which
from -ïtOW'HD THE WORLD.
from that elevation appeared no bigger than fmall
canoes. Their barometer upon the- edge of the
crater fell to nineteen inches, eleven lines, and T%*
while ours on board the frigate», where we were
making hourly obfervations, pointed at the very
fame time to twenty-fèven inches nine lines $|$
Their thermometer was two degrees and a half below the freezing point, and differed no lefs than
twelve degrees from the temperature at the water-
fide. Thus, admitting the calculations of the
natural philofophers, who believe in this mode of
meafuring elevations, and making the requifite ecwrr
reftions by the thetsaometer, the travellers mufl
have afca&ted about fifteen hundred toifes, a prodigious height, considering the difficulties they had
to furmcunt. But their views were fafraftrated by
fogs, that they refolyed to go over the fame ground
again the following day, if the weather fhoujd be more
favourable, difficulties having only increafed their ardour j and with this courageous determination de-
feended the mountain,and repwedto their tents. The
jBight being already come on, their guides had faid
prayers for their fouls, and (wallowed a part of the liquor, for which they fuppofed that dead i men could
no longer have occafion. The lieutenant, when informed- on their return of this hafty proceeding,
prdered the moil culpable to be. punifhed with a
hundred ftripes, which were duly adminiftered before we knew any thing;Àif the matter, md con-
fequently IZ
fequently before it was poffible for us to folicit their
pardon. The night, after this journey to the mountain's top, was dreadful: the fall of fnow redoubled,
and in a few hours covered the earth feveral feet
deep. This forced them to give up all idea of
executing the plan of the preceding afternoon, and
that very evening they arrived at the village of St.
Peter and St. Paul, after a march of eight leagues,
which the natural declivity of the ground rendered
lefs fatiguing than they had found it before.
While our mineralogifts and aftronomers were
making fuch good ufe of their time, we filled our
cafks with water, and our hold with wood, and cut
and dried hay for the live flock we expected ; for
we had now only one fheep left. The lieutenant
had written to Mr. Kafloff, begging him to colled
as many oxen as he could : he calculated with
forrow, that it was impoffible for us to wait for
thofe that were no doubt coming from Verknei by
order of the governor, as it would require at leafl
fix weeks for their conveyance. The indifference of
the inhabitants of Kamtfchatka in regard to cattle
has prevented their multiplying in the fouthern part
of that peninfula, where, with a little care, they
might foon be as abundant as in Ireland. The
fineft and thickeft grafs grows in natural meadows
to the height of more than four feet; and an im-
menfe quantity of hay might be made for the
winter, which in that climate lafts between feven
and eight months. But the Kamtfchadales are incapable of fuch cares : it would be neceflary to
have barns, and vaft ftables fheltered from the
cold; while to them it appears far more commodious to live upon the produce of their hunting and
fifhing, particularly upon the falmon, which comes
every year at the appointed time, like the manna
of the defert, to fill their nets, 'and infures them a
plentiful fubfiftence till the return of the fèafon.
The Coffacks, and the Ruffians, who are better
foldiers than farmers, have adopted the fame method.
The lieutenant and the ferjeant alone had little gardens for the cultivation of potatoes and turnips ; but
neither their exhortation, nor their example, had
any influence over their countrymen, who ate potatoes with an excellent relifb, but who, to procure
them, would not have confented to take any farther
trouble than that of pulling them up, in cafe nature
had offered them fpontaneoufly, lilicfaranne *, gar-
lick, and efpecially the berries, of which they make
agreeable drinks, and fweetmeats that they referve
for the winter feafon. Our European feeds having
kept very well, we gave a great quantity of them to
Mr. Schmaleff, to the lieutenant, and to the ferjeant ;
and hope on fome future day to hear that they have
retained their vegetative   power.     In  the  midft
*   A   fpeaies  of  lily   peculiar   to   Siberia   and   Kamtfchatka.  t. I5ËÎ?"' W$W-
of ill{
of our labours we found time for pleafure ; a&u-
made feveral hunting parties on the rivers Avatfcha
and Paratounka, being very defirous of getting a
fhot at the bears, rein-deer, or argalL We were
obliged, however, to be contented with a few
ducks, or rather teal, a paltry fort of game, which
ill repaid our long and fatiguing excurfions. We
were more fortunate through the medium of our
friends the Kamtfchadales, who brought us, during
our flay, four bears, an elk, and a rein-deer, with
fuch a quantity of divers, and other wild fowl, that
we diftributed them among our crews, who began
already to be tired of fifh. A fingle call of the net al-
moftclofealongfideofour frigates would have fufficed
for the fubfiflence of half a dozen (hips ; but there
was little variety of fpecies, the fifh taken being
feldom any thing but fmall cod, herrings, plaice,
" and falmon. I gave orders to fait only a few barrels, becaufe it was reprefented to me, that fifh fa
fmall and tender could not refift the corrofive activity of the fait -, and that it was better to preferve
our flock of that article for the hogs we fhould find
in the iflands of the South fea. While we were
paffing our time in a manner which appeared very
pleafant after the fatigues we had recently undergone
in exploring the coafts of Oku-Jeflb and Tartary,
Mr. Kafloff had fet off for the harbour of St. Peter
and St. Paul; but he travelled flowly, becaufe he
wifhed to examine every thing, the objed of his
journey being to eftablilh the beft poffible order in
thé adminiftrarion of the province. He knew that
a general plan could not be formed for that pur-
pofe till he had fir ft inquired what the country produced, and what it might be made to produce by a
mode of cultivation fuitable to the climate. He,
wifhed alio to make himfelf acquainted with the
ftones, minerals, and in general with all the fob-
fiances that cornpofe the foil. His obfervations
detained him a few days at the hot fprings at twenty leagues diilance from St. Peter and St. Paul,
whence he brought feverai ftones, and other volcanic matters, with a fpecies of gum, which was analyzed by Mr. Monges. On his arrival, M. Kafloff
told us- with great civility, that having learned by
the public papers, that feverai able nafturalifts had
embarked on board our frigates, he had been defirous of availing himfelf of fo fortunate a circum-
ft^ftce, in order to leàrn rhe nature of the minerals
of the pebinfula, and thus to become a naturaiiÉ
himfelf The politenefs of Mr. Kafloff, and indeed
the whole of his  behaviour, was exactly the fame
as  that  of the
U    (1
educated inhabitants of the
fcrgeft cities in Europe. He fpoke French ; and
was well informed concerning all the objects of
our refearch, as well in geography as in natural
philofophy. It is eafy to conceive, that aiï
intimate acquaintance between him and us was
ïpèedily farmed,     The day after  his  arrival  he
came ï6
came to dine with me on board the Boufible, irî
company with Mr. Schmaleffi and the vicar of Pa-
ratounka. I ordered him to be faluted with thir-*
teen guns. Our faces, which befpoke better health
even thanthatwhich we enjoyedat our departure from
Europe, furprifing him exceedingly, I told him, that
we owed a little of it to our own care, and a great
deal to the good living we had met with in his
government. Mr. Kafloff feemed to participate in
our comfortable fituation ; but he expreffed the
greateft concern at his inability to get together more
than feven oxen before the time of our departure,
which was too near at hand to admit of their being
brought from the river of Kamtfchatka, a hundred
leagues diftant from St. Peter and St. Paul. For
fix months* he had been in expectation of the veffel
that was to, bring from Okhotfk the meal and
other provifion neceffary for the garrifons in Kamtfchatka, and began to feel fome anxiety for her
fate. Our furprife at not receiving any letters was
much leffened when he told us, that fince his departure from Okhotfk he had not received a fingle
exprefs. He added, that he was going to return
by land, along the fhores of the fea of Okhotfk, a
journey almoft as long, and certainly attended with
more difficulties than that from Okhotfk to Pe-
The next day the governor, with all his fuite,
dined on board the Aftrolabe, where he was alfo
'feluted with a dÉftarge of thirteen guns ; but he
carneftly requefted, that this compliment mi|jht be
paid him no more, that in future we might fee one
another with more eafe and comfort.
It was perfectly impoflible to make him accept
the value of the oxen. In vain did we reprefent,
that we had paid the, whole of our expences at
Manilla, notwithftanding the ftrift alliance between
France and Spain. Mr. Kafloff told us, that the
principles of the Ruffian government were different,
and that his only regret was the having fo little
cattle at his difpofal. He invited us to a ball which
he was to give the following day, on our account,
to all the women, both Kamtfchadales and Ruffians, of St. Beter and St. Paul's. If the affembly
were not nunlerous, it was at îèaft extraordinary»
Thirteen women, dreffed in filken fluffs, ten of the
number being Kamtfchadales, with broad faces,
little eyes, and flat nofes, were fitting on benches
round the room. The Kamtfchadales as well as
the Ruffians had filk handkerchiefs tied round their
heads, almoft in the manner they are worn by the
mulatto women in our Weft India iflands. The
ball began with Ruffian dances, of which thé tunes
were very pleafing, and very much like the country-
dance called the Cojfack, that was in fafhion at Paris
a few years ago. The Kamtfchadale dances that
followed can only be compared to thofe of the con-
Vol. III.
vuljionnaires, x8
.vulfionnaires, at the famous tomb of St* Medard*,
the dancers having opcafion for nothing but arms and
,fhoulders,andfcarcely for any legs at all. TheKamt-
fchadale females,by their convulfions, and contradict
motions, infpire the fpeélator with à painful fenfation,
which is ftill more flrongly excited by the mournful
cry that is drawn from the pit of their flomachs, and
that fervesas the onlymufic to direft their movements.
Their fatigue is fuch during this exercife, that they
are covered with perfpiration, and lie ftretched out
upon the floor, without the power of rifing. The
abundant exhalations that emanate from their bodies
perfume the whole apartment with a fmell of oil
and fifh, to which European nofes are too little ac-
cuftomed to find out its fragrance. As the dances
of all thefe nations have ever been imitative, and in
faft nothing but a fort of pantomime, I afked what
two of the women, who had juft taken fuch violent
exercife, had meant to exprefs. I was told that
they had reprefented a bear-hunt. The woman
who rolled on the ground a<5led the animal; and
the other, who kept turning round her, the hunter;
but if the bears could fpeak, and were to fee fuch a
pantomime, they would certainly complain of being
fo awkwardly imitated.    This dance, almoft as fa-
* The tomb of a pious abbé at Paris, where lame people
were cured by being thrown into convulfions.     T.
'$$mm   truing
■    -WUJ ~^9Bit
Vigttîng to the fpe&ator as to the perforiher, was
fcarcély over, when a joyful exclamation announced
the arrival of a courier from Okhotfk*    He was
the bearer of a large trunk filled with our packets*
The ball was interrupted* and each of the females
difmifled with  a  glafs of brandy,  a  refreshment
Worthy of fuch votaries of Terpfichore.    Mr. Kafloff, perceiving our impatience to learn the news of
all that was interefting to us in Europe, entreated
us not to defer the pleafure; conduced us to his
own room \ and retired, that he might not reftrain
the effufion of the different fentiments sby which
we might be affefted, according to the news received by each from his family or friends.    It was
favourable to all,  particularly to me, who, by a
degree of favour to which I dared not to afpire,
had been promoted to the rank of commodore.
The compliments every one was eager to make
me foon reached Mr. Kafloff, who was pleafed to
celebrate the event by a difcharge of all the artillery of the place.    To the laft day of my life, I
(ball remember, with the ftrongeft emotions of gra*
titude, the marks of friendfhip and affe&ion which I
received from him upon this occafion.    I did not
indeed pais a moment with him that was not marked by fome trait of kindnefs or attention.   ,It ia
needlefs to fay, that as fince his arrival all the inhabitants of the country were hunting and fifhing
for us, we were unable to confume the quantity
C   2 Of
i 2®
i i
of pfovifion furnifhed us. To this he added prefent^
for M. de Langle and myfelf. We were forced tO'
accept a Kamtfchadalian fled for the king's cabinet
of curiofities, and two royal eagles for the menagerie,
as well as at-gr-eat number of fable-ikins. We offered hirivih our turn, every thing that we thought
ufeful or agreeable to him ; but as we were only
rich in commodities for the favage market, we had
nothing worthy of fuch a benefactor : we begged'
him, however, to accept the narrative of Cooked
third voyage^ with which he was much pleafed, ef-
pecially as he had in his fuite almoft alt the per-
fonages.whqm the editor has brought forward upon*
the ftage—Mr. Schmaloffi the good vicar of Para-
tounka, and the unfortunate Ivafchkin; To them:
he tranflated all the paffages that concerned them,
and at the rehearfai of each they repeated that
fitly word was ftriélly true. The ferjeant alone,.
who then commanded at the harbour of St. Peter
and St, Paul, was dead. The others enjoyed the
belt ftate of health, and ftili inhabited the country,,
except major Behm, who had returned to Peterf-
burg,; and Port, who reiided at Irkoutfk. I teftified
my fcupprife to Mr. Kafloff at finding the aged
Ivafchkin in Kamtfchatka, the Englifb accounts
ftating, that he hadat length obtained permiffion to
go and live at Okhotfk.    j
We could not help feeling great concern for the
fate of this unfortunate man5  when told that h&
S only «i&TWD THIS W0RLD4
ffitty crime was fome indifcreet expreffions corfcërn^
ring the emprefs Elizabeth, at the breaking up of a
convivial party, when his reafen was difordered by
wine.    He was then under twenty, was sn officer
in the guards, belonged to m Ruffian family of distinction, and could boaft of a handfome face, which
-neither time nor misfortune have been able to alter»
He was cafhiered, and banifhed to the interior of
Kamtfchatka, after having fuffered -the punifliotent
of the knout, and had his noftrils Ûk.    The e-rp-
prefs Catherine,   whofe attentions   are carried as
far  as   the viftims  of preceding reigns, granted
this unfortunate man a pardon feverai years agô'ï
but a flay of more than fifty years in the midft of
the vaft forefts of Kamtfchatka $ the bitter recoî*-
leftion of the ignominious punifhment he fuffered $
perhaps, alfo, a fecret fèntiment of hatred againfl
an authority which punifhed fo cruelly a fault, that
was   rendered  excufable, by circumftances ;  thefe
various motives rendered him infenfible to a tardy
aft of juftice; and he purpofed ending his days in
Siberia.    We begged him to accept fome tobacco,
powder, fnot, cloth, and every thing, in fhort, which
We fuppofed ufeful to him.    He had been educated
at Paris, flill underftood a little French, and recol^
îefted a number of words exprefiive of his gratitude.
He loved Mr. Kafloff like a father, and accompanied him in his journey out of affeftion ; while the
good governor treated him with an attention well
C 3 calculated %%
calculated to make him forget his misfortunes*.
He did us the favour of pointing out the grave of
M. de la Croyère, whom he had feen buried at
Kamtfchatka in 1741» We placed over it the foU
lowing infcription, engraved on copper, and com^
pofed by M. Dagelet, a member, like himfelf, of
the Academy of Sciences:
Here lies Louis de l'lfle de la Crovère, of the Royal
Academy of Sciences at Paris, who died in 1741, on
his return from an expedition undertaken by commancj
of the Czar, in order to explore the coaft of America :
as an aftronomer and geographer, he was emulous of
two brothers celebrated in the fciences, and was defending of the regret of his country.    In 1786, the Count
i The remembrance and the ihame of an nnjuft puniûV.
ment fo purfued the unfortunate Ivafchkin, that he determined
to hide himfelf from the eyes of Grangers ; and it was. not till
a week after the arrival of the frigates, that LeiTeps found
means to difcover him. The interpreter, affected by his fitua-
tion, gave an account of it to La Péroufe, who, admiring; the
noble difpofition of the old map, and pitying his misfortune,
requeued to fee him. It was with difficulty, and by means of
Mr. KailofFs influence over his mind, that he was prevailed
en to quit bis retreat. The amenity of manners of La Péroufe
foon infpired Ivafchin with the greater!: confidence^and the
unfortunate man, who was ever mindful of the civilities he
received, teftihed his gratitude flill more ftrongly, when the
French general made him a number of ufeful prefents, of
which he was in the greateft want.
This anecdote, which LcfTeps has related to me lèverai
|im£s, is not out of its place here*—(Fr> Edit)
âe là Péroufe, commanding the king's frigates, the
Bouffole and Aftrolabe, did honour to his memory by
g-iving his name to an ifland near the places vifited by
himfelf., . ItimÈWÊÊk
We alfo afked Mr. Kafloff's permiffion to engrave upon a plate of the fame metal the infcription
over the grave of captain Clerke, which was only
written with a pencil upon wood,  a matter too
perilhable to perpetuate the memory of fo eftim-a-
ble a navigator.    The governor had the goodnefs
to add to the permiflion which he gave us a  pro-
mife  to   ereft without delay a monument more
worthy of thofe two celebrated men, who paid the
debt of nature in the midft of their arduous undertakings, at fo great a difta^ce from their native
land.    He told us, that M. de laCroyère had married   at Tobolfk, and that his.. posterity enjoyed a
great deal of confideration at that place.    The hif-
tpry   of  the   voyages   of   Behring,   and  captain
Tfchirikow,  were familiar  to   Mr. Kafloff,  who
thence took occafion to tell us, that he had left Mr, :
Billings at Okhotfk,  charged by the ftate to build ?
two veflels for the purpofe of continuing the Ruf-j
fian difcoveries in the Northern     He  had
given orders, that all the mçans at his difpofal Ihould,
be employed to accelerate the expedition ; but his
zeal, his beft endeavours, his earneft defire, to fulfil
the wifhes of the emprefs, did not fufflce to ovçr-
çprpç   the  obflacles,  which neceffarily prefented
Ç 4 themfelve§
.     ! 34
■ m
themfelves in'a country almoft as favage as on the
fir ft day of its difcovery, and where labour is fuf-
pended by the rigour of the climate for more than
eight months in the year. He was of opinion, that
it would have been more economical,, and far more
expeditious, to let Mr. Billings take his departure
from fome port in the Baltic, where he might have
provided for all his wants for feverai years to
We took a plan of the bay of Avatfcha, or, more
correftly fpeaking, we verified that of the Englifh,
which is exceedingly correél; and M. Bernizet
made a very elegant drawing of it, which he begged
the governor to accept. M. Blondela alfo offered
him a view of the Oftrog; and the abbes
Monges and Receveur made him a prefent of a
fmall box of acids for the analyfis of mineral waters,
and the afcertainment of the different fubftances of
which the foil of Kamtfchatka is compofed. Mr.
Kafloff was no ftranger to the fciences of chemiftry
and mineralogy: he had indeed a particular tafte for
chemical experiments s but he convinced us, by reafons
of which the force is eafily felt, that previoufly to attending to die minerals of an uncultivated country, it
was the part of a wife and enlightened adminiftra-
tion to endeavour to procure the inhabitants bread,
by accuftoming them to agricultural labours. The
rapidity of vegetation befpoke great fertility of foil,
and he did not doubt, that it would produce abundant ROUND THE WORLD. &J
dant crops of rye or barley, in cafe of the failure of
wheat, which might be prevented from fhooting by
the feverity of the winter. He made us remark the
promifing appearance of feverai fmall fields of potatoes, of which the feed had been brought from
Irkoutfk a few years before; and purpofed to adopt
mild, though infallible means, of making farmers of
the Ruffians, Coffacks, and Kamtfchadales. The
fmall-pox in 1769 fwept away three fourths of the
individuals of the latter nation, which is now reduced to lefs than four thoufand perfons, fcattered
over the whole of the peninfula -, and which will
fpeedily difappear altogether, by means of the continual mixture of the Ruffians and Kamtfchadales*
who frequently intermarry. A mongrel race, more
laborious than the Ruffians, who are only fit for fol-
diers, and much ftronger, and of a form lefs disgraceful to the hand of nature, than the Kamtfchadales, will fpring from thefe marriages, and fucceed
the ancient inhabitants. The natives have already
abandoned the youris, in which they ufed to burrow like badgers during-the whole of the winter, and
where they breathed an air fo foul as to occafion a
number of diforders. The moft opulent among
them now build ifbas, or wooden houfes, in the
manner of the Ruffians. They are precifely of the
fame form as the cottages of our peafantsj are divided into three little rooms ; and are warmed by a
brick && LA FE'rOUSE's VOYAGE
brick ftove, that keeps up a degree of heat* infup-
portable to perfons unaccuftomed to it.    The reft'
pafs the winter as well as the fummer in balagans,
which are a kind of wooden pigeon-houfes, covered
with thatch, and placed upon the top of pofts twelve
or thirteen feet high, to which the women as well
as the men climb by means of ladders that afford a
footing very infecure.     But thefe latter buildings
will foon difappear; for the Kamtfchadales are of
an imitative genius, and adopt almoft all the cuf-
toms of their conquerors.     Already the women
wear their hair, and are almoft entirely drefled, in
the manner of the Ruffians, whofe language prevails
in all the oftrogs; a fortunate circumftance, fince each
Kamtfchadalian village fpoke a different jargon, the
inhabitants of one hamlet not underftanding that of
the next.    It maybe faid in praife of the'Ruffians,
that, though they have eftabliihed a defpotic government in this rude climate, it is tempered by a mild-
nefs Sè%fquity, that render its inconveniencies unfelt.
They have no reproaches of atrocity to make them-'
felves, like the Englifh in Bengal, and the Spaniards
in Mexico and Peru.    The taxes they levy on the
Kamtfchadales are fo light, that they can only be
confidered as a mark of gratitude towards the fove»
jreign, the produce of half a day's hunting acquitting
| Not lefs than thirty degrees of Reaumur's thermometer.
the imports of a year It is furprifing to fee in
cottages, to all appearance more miferable than
thofe of the moft wretched hamlets in our mountainous provinces, a quantity of fpecies in circulation,
which appears the more confiderable, becaufe it
exifts among fo fmall a number of inhabitants. They
confume lo few commodities of Ruffia and Chin&,
that the balance of trade is entirely in their favour,
and that it is abfolutely neceflary to pay them the
difference in rubles. Furs at Kamtfchatka are at
a much higher price than at Canton, which proves,
that as yet the market of Kiatcha has not felt the
advantageous effeft of the new channel opened in-
China. The Chinefe merchants .are, no doubt, careful, to let thefe furs run off in an imperceptible
ftream, and thus to make enormous gains; for at
Macao they bought of us for ten piaftres what was
worth a hundred and twenty at Pekin. An otter
fkin is worth at St. Peter and St. Paul's thirty rubles; a fable three or four: the price of fox fkins
cannot be fixed, I do not mean black foxes, which are
too fcarce to be,come the fubjeft of calculation, and
which are fold for more than a hundred rubles a-
piece. The white and grey vary from two to twenty rubles according as they approach to black or red,
which lad only differ from thofe of France by the
ibftnefs and thicknefs of their fur.
The Englifh, who, by the happy conftitution of
jjieir company, have it in their power to leave to
the private trade of India all the adlivity of which-
it is fufceptible, feat a fmall veffel laft year to Kamtfchatka.    It was fitted out by a commercial houfe
of Bengal, and commanded by captain Peters, who
fent colonel Kafloff. a letter in French, which he
gave me to read.    The Englifh captain, upon the
plea of the ftri6fc alliance which  unites the  two
courts in Europe, requefted permiffion to trade with
Kamtfchatka, by bringing thither the different commodities of India and China, fuch as fluffs, fugary
tea, and arrack, and taking the furs of the country
in return.    Mr Kafloff was too enlightened a man.
not to perceive that fuch a propofition was ruinous
to the commerce of Ruffia, which fold the fame articles to the Kamtfchadales at a great profit, and
made a ftill greater upon the fkins which the Englifh
wifhed to export ; but he knew alfo, that certain
limited permiffions had fometimes been given to
the detriment of the empire at large, for the increafe
of a colony, which afterwards enriches the mother
country, when it has rifen to fuch a pitch as to have ,
no farther occafion for foreign commerce.    Thefe
confiderations prevented Mr. Kafloff from deciding
the queftion ; and he permitted the Englifh to tranf-
mit their propofition to the court of Petersburg.
He was fenfible however, that, even if their requeft
were granted, the country confumed too little of the
commodities of India and China, and found too good
a market for its furs at Kiatcha, for the Bengal
merchants HOUND $HE WORLDS
merchants to find it a profitable fpeculation. Be-
fides, the very veffel that brought thefe commercial
overtures was wrecked on Copper Ifland, a few
days after going out of the bay of Avatfcha, and
only two men faved,. to whom I fpoke, andfur-
nifhed fome articles of clothing,* of which they flood
in great need. Thus captain Cook's fhips and our
own are the only ones which have yet made a
fortunate voyage to this part of Afia.
It would be incumbent on me to give the readers
more particular account of Kamtfchatka, if the works
of Coxe and Steller did not afford ample fatisfaftion*..
The editor of captain Cook's third voyage has had
recourfè to thefe fources, and has given a new degree
©f intereft to every thing relative to the country,
about which more has been written than concerning feverai of the interior provinces of Europe, and
which, as to climate and the produétions of the foil,
may be compared to the coaft of Labrador in the
vicinity of the Straits of Relle-Ifle ; but the men,
like the animals, are there very different. The
Kamtfchadales appeared to me the fame people as
thofe of the bay of Caftries, upon the coaft of Tar-
tary.     Their mildnefs and their probity are die
| Very curious particulars, which deferve to be compare*}
with thofe given by Coxe and Steller, have been furnifhed by
Lefleps in his interefting Travels from Kamtfchdtka to France^
pubiiihed in Engliih by Johnibn, St. Pauls Church Yard.
fame, and their perfons are very little different
They ought then no more to be compared to the
Efquimaux Indians, than the fables of Kamtfchat*
ka to the martins of Canada,  i
The bay of Avatfcha is certainly the fineft, the moft
convenient, and the fafeft,that is to be met with in any
part of the world. The entrance is narrow, and fhips
would be forced to pafs under the guns of the forts that
might be eafily ereéled. The bottom is mud, and excellent holding ground. Two vaft harbours, one on
the eaftern fide, the other on the weflern, are capable
of containing all the fhips of the French and Englifh navy. The rivers of Avatfcha and Paratoun-
ka fall into this bay, but they are choaked up with
fand- banks, and can only be entered at the time of
high water. The village of St. Peter and St Paul
is fituated upon a tongue of land, which, like a jetty
made by human art, forms behind the village a little
port, ft ut in like an amphitheatre, in which three or
four veffds might lie up for the winter. The entrance of this fort of bafon is more than twenty-five
toifes wide; and nature can afford nothing more
fafe or commodious. It is on its fhore that Mr.
Kafloff' pùrpofes laying down the plan of a city,
which fome time or other will be the capital of
-Kamtfchatka, and,perhaps the centre of an extensive trade with China, Japan, the Philippines, and
America. A vaft pond of frefh water is fituated
northward of the fite of this projected city ; and at
Only three hundred toifes diftance run a number of
. ftreamlets, the eafy union of which would give the
ground all the advantages neceffary to a great efta-
blifhment. Of thefe advantages Mr. Kafloff under-
flood the value; " but firft," faid he a thoufand
times over, " we muft have bread and hands, and
our flock of both of them is very fmall." He had,
however, given orders, which announced a ipeedy
union of the other oftrogs to that of St. Peter and
St. Paul, where it was his intention immediately to
build a church. The Greek religion has been
eftablifhed among the Kamtfchadales witjiout persecution or violence, and.with extraordinary facility.
The vicar of Paratounka is the fon of a Kamtfcha-
dale and of a Ruffian woman. He delivers his
prayers and catechifm with a tone of feeling very
much to the tafte of the aborigines, who reward
his cares with offerings and alms, but pay no tithes.
The canons of the Greek church permitting priefts
to marry, we may conclude that the morals of the
country clergymen are fo much the better. I believe them, however, to be very ignorant ; and do
not fuppofe, that for a long time to come they will
ftand in need of greater knowledge. The daughter,
the wife, and the fifter of the vicar, were the befl
.dancers of all the women, and appeared to enjoy tha
befl ftate of health. The worthy prieft knew that
we were good catholics, which procured us an ample
afperfion of holy water -, and he alfo made us kifs
.   the "sz
the crofs that was carried by his clerk : thefe ceremonies were performed in the midft of the village.
His parfonage-houfe was a tent, and his altar
in the open air ; but his ufual abode is Paratounka,
and he only came to St. Peter and St. Paul's to pay
us a vifit.
He communicated to us a number of particulars
ïïllfëeïning the Kuriles, of which he is alfo vicar,
and of which he makes the tour once a year. The
Ruffians have found it convenient to fubftitute numbers to the ancient names of thofe iflands, concerning which authors are much at variance with one
another. They now call them N° i, N° a, &c,
as high as twenty-one, which laft terminates the
pretenfions of Ruffja. According to the report of
the vicar, it is very likely, that this laft is the ifland of
Marikan ; but I am not very fure of it, becaufe the
good prieft was exceedingly diffufe. We had, however, an interpreter who underftood the Ruffian
language as well as French ; but Mr. LefTeps thought,
that the good prieft did not underftand himfelfi
The following particulars, concerning which he did
not vary, may be neverthelefs considered as almoft
certain. Of the twenty-one iflands belonging to
Ruffia, four only are inhabited—the firft, the fécond,
the thirteenth, and the fourteenth. The laft two
may indeed be counted only as one, becaufe the
inhabitants all pafs the winter upon N° 14, and
return to N° 13 to pafs the fummer months.    The
others round the world,
Others are entirely uninhabited, the iflanders only
landing there occafionally from their canoes for the
fake of hunting foxes and otters. Several of thefe
laft mentioned iflands are no better than large rocks,
and there is hot a tree on any one of them. The currents are very violent between the iflands, particularly
at the entrance of the channels, feverai of which are
blocked up by rocks on a level with the fea. The
vicar never made the voyage from Avatfcha to the
Kuriles in anything but a canoe, which the Ruffians
call baidar -, and he told us, that he had feverai
times been very nearly loft, and ftill nearer dying of
hunger, having been driven out of fight of land;
but he is perfuaded, that his holy water and his caf-
fock delivered him from the danger. The population of the four inhabited iflands amounts at moft to
fourteen hundred fouls. The inhabitants are very
hairy, wear long beards, and live entirely upon feals,
fifh, and the produce of the chafe. They have juft
been exempted for ten years from the tribute ufually
paid to Ruffia, becaufe the number of otters on
their iflands is very much diminifhed. Thefe poor
people are good, hofpitable, and docile, and have
all embraced the Chriftian religion. The more
fouthern and independent iflanders fometimes pafs
in canoes the channels that feparate them from the
Ruffian Kuriles, in order to give fome of the* commodities of Japan in exchange for peltries. Thefe
iflands are part of Mr, Kafloff's government; but
$s the landing is very difficult, and as they are of
little confequence to Ruffia, he did not purpofe
vifitîng them ; and, although he expreffed fome regret for having left a chart of them at Bolcheretfk,
he did not appear to put much confidence .in its
accuracy. At the fame time he feemed to place
fo much in us, that we could have wished to communicate to him the particulars of our expedition.
His remarkable difcretion in that refpeft deferves
our praife.
We gave him, however, fome little account of
our voyage ; and did not conceal from him, that we
had doubled Cape Horn, vifited the north-weft
coaft of America, and put in at China, and the
Philippines, whence we were come to Kamtfchatka.
We did not allow ourfelves to enter into any farther
details, but I allured him, that if the publication of
our difcoveries fhould be ordered by government,
I would fend him one of the firft copies of the work.
I had already obtained permiffionto fend my journal
to France by M. Leffeps, our young interpreter.
My confidence in Mr. Kafloff and in the Ruffian
government was fuch, that I fhould have been free
from all uneafinefs if I had been obliged to put my
packet in the poft-office ; but I thought I fhould
render a fervice to my country by giving M. de
Leffeps an opportunity of making his own obfervations on the different provinces of the Ruffian
empire, where he will probably on fome future day
fill the place of his father, our conful-general at
Peterfburg. Mr. Kafloff told me kindly, that he
would take him as his aid-de-camp as far as Okhotfk, whence he would furnifh him with the means
of proceeding to Peterfburg, and that from the pre-
fent moment he fhoùld confider him as one of his
family. So great a favour, fo obligingly conferred, is felt more ftrongly than it is expreffed; and
it made us lament his abfence at Bolcheretzfe
during part of our flay in the bay of Avatfcha.
The cold gave us warning to depart. The'
ground, which on our arrival on the 7th of September, was covered with the moft beautiful verdure, was as yellow and as much parched up on the
25th of the fame month, as it is in the environs of
Paris at the latter end of December; while the
mountains of two hundred toifes elevation above
the level of the fea were covered with fnow. I
therefore gave orders to prepare every thing for our
departure, and on the 29th got under way. Mr.
Kafloff came to take leave of us, and as the calm
forced us to bring up in the middle of the bay,
dined on board. I accompanied him on fhore with
M. de Langle and feverai officers, and there he
gave us a good fupper, and another ball. The next
morning, at day-break, the wind having fhift-
cd to the northward, I made the fignal for failing ; and before we were well under way, heard a
difcharge of all the  cannon  of St. Peter and St.
D 2 Paul's. S6
Paul's. I ordered a return to be made to this falute,
which was repeated when we Were at the mouth of
the bay, the governor having fent a detachment of
foldiers to pay us the honours of departure at the
inftant when we fhould pafs the little battery to the
north of the lighthoufe that flands at the entrance.
It was not without emotion that we parted with
M. de Leffeps, whofe good qualities had endeared
him to us all, and whom we left in a foreign
land at the moment of his undertaking a journey
equally long and laborious*; We carried away
with us a grateful remembrance from this country,
with the certitude that the laws of holpitality had
never been more fully obferved in any country, or
in any age.
| I refer the curious reader for more ample details to de
Lefleps's journal : he will there fee an interefting account of
all the interpreter underwent in the route from the harbour of
St. Peter and St. Paul to Paris, and of the care he took to fulfil his million, and to convey to France one of the moil valuable parts of la Péroufe's voyage.—(Fr. Ed,J
Summary account of Kamtfchatka -—Marks for failing
in and out of the bay of Avatfcha.—We run down
the latitude 37 ° $oh, for a fpace of three hundred
leagues, in fearch of land, faid to be difcovered by
the Spaniards in 1620.—We croft the line for
the third time.—We make the ifland of Navigators after having paftfed by the ifland of Danger,
difcovered by Byron.—We are vifited by a number of canoes, barter with the Indians, and anchor at
the ifland of Maouna.
(SEPTEMBER   and   OCTOBER   1787)
It is not to foreign navigators, that Ruffia owes
her difcoveries and her eftablifhments on the coaft
of Oriental Tartary, and on that of the peninfula
of Kamtfchatka. The Ruffians, as eager after
peltry as the Spaniards after gold and filver, have
for a long time undertaken the longeft and moft
difficult journies by land, in order to procure the
valuable fpoils of the fable, the fox, and the fea-
otter; but being rather foldiers than hunters, they
found it more convenient to impofe a tribute upon
the natives of the countries they fubdued, than to
ihare  with  them in   the   fatigues of the  chafe.
in vs&œ
They did not difcover the peninfula of Kamtfchatka
till towards the clofe of the laft century, their firft
expedition againft the liberty of its wretched inhabitants having taken place in 1696. The authority of Ruffia was not fully acknowledged throughout the peninfula till 1711, when the Kamtfchadales accepted the conditions of a tribute very
little onerous, and fcarcely fufficing to pay the ex-
pences of adminiftration. Three hundred fables,
two hundred red or grey fox, and a few otter
fkins, make up the whole revenue of Ruffia in
that part of ilfia, where fhe flations about four
hundred foldiers, moftly Coffacks and Siberians,
and feverai officers who command in the different
The court of Ruffia has feverai times changed
the form of government in the peninfula. That
which the Englifh found eftablifhed in 1778 no
longer exifted in 1784. Kamtfchatka then became a province of the government of Okhotfk,
which is itfelf a dependency of the fovereign court
The oftrog of Bolcheretfk, formerly the capital
of Kamtfchatka, where major Behm refided at the
time the Englifh arrived, is now only governed by
a ferjeant of the name of Martinof. Mr. Kaborofi
a lieutenant, commands, as I have already faid, at
St. Peter and St. Paul's; major Elleonoff at
Nijenei-Kamtfchatka,    or   the  oftrog   of   Lower
Kamtfchatka 1 ROUND THE WORLD.
Kamtfchatka; and laftly Verknei, or Upper Kamtfchatka, is under the command of ferjeant Mù-
mayeff. Thefe feverai commandants are under no
fefponfibility to one another ; but each renders his
own account diredtly to the governor of Okhotfk,
who has eftablifhed an infpeétor with the rank of
major, and with a particular command over the
Kamtfchadales, no doubt to proteft them againft
the prefumed oppreffion of the military government.
This firft view of the commerce of thefe countries Would give but a very imperfeft idea of the
advantages that Ruffia derives from its colonies in
tile eaftern parts of Afia, if the reader were not
â$ârë, that expeditions by land have been followed
by voyages eaftward of Kamtfchatka towards the
eoafts of America. Thofe of Behring, and Tfchiri-
kow are known to all Europe. After the names of
thefe men rendered famous by their adventurous
expeditions, and by the misfortunes that eventually
attended them, thofe of feverai other navigators
may bé mentioned, who have added to the poffef-
fions of Ruffia the Aleutian Iflands, the clufter to
the eaft known by the name of Oonalafhka, and all
the iflands to the fouth of the peninfula.
Captain  Cook's   laft voyage fuggefted expeditions   flill   farther eaftward;   but   I   was told at
Kamtfchatka, that the natives of the countries where
the Ruffians landed had refufed to pay them tri-
D 4 bute. 4°
bute, and even to havç^any dealing with them. The
latter probably were injudicious enough to let
them perceive the defign they had formed of fub-
duing them; and every one knows how proud the
Americans are of their independence, and how jealous of their liberty,
Ruffia has been at very little charge in extending her dominions. Commercial houfes fit out
veffels at Okhotfk, where they are built at enormous expence. They are from forty-five to fifty
feet long, with a fingle maft in the middle, much
like our cutters, and carry forty or fifty men, who
are all better hunters than feamen. They fail from
Okhotfk in the month of June, generally pafs between the point of Lopatka, and the firft of the
Kuriles, fleer eaftward, and continue for three or
four years to run from ifland to ifland, till they have
either bought of the natives, or killed a fufficient
number of otters themfelves, to pay the expenfe of
the out-fit, and to afford the merchants a profit of
cent per cent upon the capital advanced.
Ruffia has not yet made any permanent efta-
blifhment eaftward of Kamtfchatka: each veffel
forms a temporary one in the port where it winters,
and when it fails either deftroys or gives it up to
fome other veffel belonging: to the nation.    The
gtng to the nation.
of Okhotfk ftriftîy enjoins the  captains
of thefe cutters to make all the iflanders they vifit
acknowledge the authority of liuffia, and he embarks
barks-on board each veffel a fort of cuftom-houfe
officer commiffioned to impofe and levy a duty for
the crown. I was told, that a miffionary was to fet
off from Okhotfk without delay, in order to preach
the Chriftian religion to the people that have been
fubjugated, and thus to make them fome fort of
compenfation by fpiritual gifts for the tribute they
exa£t by right of fuperior power.
It is well known, that furs fetch a very high price
at Kiatcha, upon the frontiers of China and Ruffia -,
but it is only fince the publication of Mr. Coxe's
work, that we have been acquainted in Europe
with the importance of that article of commerce, of
which the exportation and importation fall little
fhort of eighteen millions of livres * a year. I was
affured that twenty-five veffels, the crews amounting to about a thoufand men, Kamtfchadales, Ruffians, and Coffacks, had been fent this very year in
queft of furs to the eaftward of Kamtfchatka.
Thefe veffels will difperfe themfelves from Cook's
river to Behring's ifland. Long experience has
taught them, that the otters fcarcely ever frequent
the latitudes farther north than the 6oth degree ;
a circumftance that directs all the adventurers towards the peninfula of Alafhka, or ftill farther eaft,
but never to Behring's ftraits, which are obftru6led
by everlafting ice.
When thefe veffels come back they fometimes
put in at the bay of Avatfcha; but always return
* £. 750,000.
ultimately m
ultimately to Okhotfk, the ufual refidence of their
owners, and of the merchants who go to trade di-
re£lly with the Chinefe upon the frontiers of the
two empires. As the ice leaves the entrance of the
bay of Avatfcha open at all times,'the Ruffian navigators generally put in there when the feàfon is
too far advanced for them to arrive at Okhotfk
before the end of September ; a very wife regulation of the emprefs of Ruffia having forbidden the
navigation of the fea of Okhotfk after that epoch,
àt which thofe hurricanes and gales of wind begin
that have occafioned very frequent fhipwrecks in
that quarter.
The ice never extends in the bay of Avatfcha
farther than three or four hundred toifes from the
Ihore -, and it often happens, during the winter,
that the land winds drift away that which blocks up
Ûte mouths of the rivers of Paratounka and Avatfcha. The navigation of thefe rivers then becomes
As the winter is generally lefs fevere in Kamtfchatka, than it is at Peterfburg, and in feverai provinces of the Ruffian empire, the Ruffians generally
fpeak of it as the French do of that of Provence ; but
the fnôw which furrounded us as early as the 20th
of September, the white froft that covered the
ground every morning, and the grafs, as completely
withered as; that of the environs of Paris in the
tnonth of January, all combined to indicate a winter ROUND THE WORLD. 43
ter of which the feverity muft be infupportable to
the inhabitants of the fouth of Europe.
We were, howçver, in fome refpeéls lefs chilly
than the Ruffian and Kamtfchadale inhabitants of
the oftrog of St. Peter and St. Paul. They were
clothed with the thickeft fkins, and the temperature
of their ifbas, in which ftoves are conftantly burning,
was from twenty-eight to thirty degrees above the
freezing point. The heated air deprived us of respiration, and obliged the lieutenant to open the
windows whenever we were in his apartment. The
people of this country have inured themfelves to thé
extremes of heat and cold. It is well known, that
their cuftom, in Europe as well as in Afia, is to go
into vapour baths, come out covered with per-
fpiration, and immediately roll themfelves in
the fnow. The oftrog of St. Peter had two of
thefe public baths, into which I went before the
fires were lighted. They confift of a very low
room, in the middle of which is an oven conftrufted
of ftones, without cement,, and Heated like thofe
intended to bake bread. Its arched roof is fur-
rounded by feats one above another, like an amphitheatre, for thofe who wifh to bathe, fo that
the heat is greater or lefs, according as the per-
fon is placed upon a higher or lower bench. Water
thrown upon the top of the roof, when heated red-
hot by the fire underneath, is converted inftantly
into vapour, and excites the moft profufe perfpi-
ration. 44
ration. The Kamtfchadales have borrowed this
cuftom, as well as many others, from their conquerors ; and ere long the primitive character that
diftinguiihed them fo ftrongly from the Ruffians
will be entirely effaced. Their population at
prefent does not exceed four thoufand fouls, fcat-
tered over the whole peninfula, which extends
from the fifty-firft to the fixty-third degree of latitude, and occupies feverai degrees of longitude.
Hence it appears, that there, are feverai fquare
leagues for each individual. They cultivate no one
production of the earth ; and the preference they
give to dogs over rein-deer in drawing their fledges,
prevents their breeding either hags, fheep, rein-deer,
horfes, or oxen, becaufe thefe animals would be
devoured before they could acquire fufficient
ftrength to defend themfelves. Fifh is the princi-
pal food of their draught dogs, which go notwith-
ftanding as much as twenty-four leagues a day.
They are never fed till they come to their jour-
ney s e
The reader has already feen, that this manner of
travelling is not peculiar to the Kamtfchadales.
The people of Tchoka, and the Tartars of the
bay of Caftries ufe no other cattle. We were exceedingly defirous to know whether the Ruffians
were at all acquainted with thofe countries, and
were told by Mr. Kafloff, that the Okhotfk veffels
had feverai times perceived the north end of the
ifland, at the mouth of the great river Amur, but
that they had never landed, becaufe it is beyond
the limits of the Ruffian eftablifhments upon that
The bay of Avatfcha very much refembles that
of Breft; but it affords much better holding ground^
its bottom being mud. Its entrance is alfo narrower, and confequently more eafy to defend. Our
lithologifts and botanifts found neither mineral nor
vegetable fubftances upon its fhores, but fuch as
are exceedingly common in Europe. The Englifh
have publifhed a very good chart of this bay. Attention fhould be paid to two banks, fituated eaft
and weft of the entrance, and feparated by a large
channel for veffels to pafs through. They may
be avoided with certainty by keeping two infulated
rocks on the eaft coaft open with the light-houfe
point, and by fhutting in with the weft coaft a large
rock on the larboard hand, which is only feparated
from the land by a paffage not more than a cable's
length in width. All the anchorage în the bay is
equally good; and fhips may approach more or
lefs near to the oftro?
according to the intercourfe
they wifh to keep up with the fhore.
According to the obfervations of M. Dagelet,
the houfe of lieutenant Kabroof is fituated in 530
tf north latitude, and 1560 30' eaft longitude.
The tides are very regular.    It is high water at
md change of tht
half part three, at the time of full 46
moon, the rife in the harbour being four feet. We
obferved that our time-keeper, No. 19, loft iof/ a
day, which differed 2/f from the daily lofs attributed
to the fame at Cavité fix months before.
The north wind, which was fo favourable to our
failing out of the bay of Avatfcha, deferted us when
we were two leagues in the offing.    It Jhifted to
the weft, and continued to blow with an obftinacy
and violence, which did not permit me to follow
my plan of reconnoitring, and laying down the latitude and longitude of the Kuriles, as far as the
ifle of Marikan.    The gales of wind and fqualls
followed  each other fo rapidly, that I was often
obliged to lay to under the forefail, and found myfelf driven eighty leagues from the land.     I did
not attempt to ftruggle againft thefe obftacles, the
reconnoitring of the Kurile iflands being of little
importance ; but fleered a courfe fo calculated as to
crofs the parallel of latitude of 37^ 30' in the longitude of 165°,  where feverai geographers have
placed a large, rich, and well-peopled ifland, faid
to have been difcovered by the Spaniards in 1620.
A fearch  after   this ifland made part of captain
lilies' inftru&ions ; and there is alfo a paper with
fome particulars concerning it, in the fourth volume
of the  academical  collection,   under  the  foreign
head.    It appeared to me, that among the different
objefts of refearch rather indicated than ordered by
my inftru£tions, this deferved a preference.    I did
•   not ROUND THE  WORLD.. • 47
not reach the latitude 3"0 39^gll the 14th, at mj^
night, in the courfe of which j^y we had feen fevcjgil
fmall land birds of the linnet genus fettle upon
our rigging. The fame evening we alfo perceiy^
two flights of ducks, or corvorants, birds which
fcarcely ever wander far from land. The weather
was very clear, and in both frigates we Jiiad men
cor\ftantly upon, the look-out from the tnaft-head,
a reward fomewhat confiderable being promifed to
him who fhould firft fee land. This motive of
emulation was little neceffary, every failor being
eager for the honour of difcovering an ifland,
which, according to my promife, was to bear his
name. But, notwithftanding the certain indications
of our being near land, We difcovered nothing;, al-
though the horizon was very extern! ve* Ifuppofed
that the ifland in queftion muft lie farther fouth,
and that the violent gales tljat had recently blown
from that quarter, had driven northward the little
birds that we had obferved to fettle upon our rigging. I therefore fleered a fouth courfe till midnight. Being then exaétly, as I have faid above,
in 370 30' latitude north, I gave directions to fleer
due eaft, under very eafy fail, waiting for the day
with the utmoft impatience. It was done, and we
again faw two fmall birds. I continued an eaft
courfe, and the fame evening a large turtle pafifod
along-fide of the fhip. The following day, ftill
running down the fame parallel towards the eaft,
we favv a bird, fmaller than the European wren,
perched upon the main-top-fail yard arm, and a
third flight of ducks. Thus were our hopes every
momëht kept up ; but we never had the good fortune to fee them realized *.
During this fearch we met with a real misfortune.
A Teaman fell overboard from the Aflrolabe while
furling the mizen-top-gallant-fail. Whether he was
wounded in his fall, *or could not fwim, I know
not ; but he never rofe again, and all our efforts to
lave him were of no avail.
Thefignsof land continued on the 18th and 19th,
although we had made a long run to the eaftward.
We perceived flights of ducks and other birds that
frequent the fhore : a foldier even pretended that he
faw fome fmall bits of fea-weed (goémon) float by ; but
as this fact was lupported by no other teftimony, we
rejected it unanimotifly, preferving neverthelefs the
* Was la Péroufe ignorant, that the parallel of 370 30' north
had been run down to no pnrpofe, for a fpace of 450 miles,
towards the eaft of Japan, by the ihip Kaftricum ? Or was he
afraid to depart from his inftruétions, and from the indication
given him in the forty-eighth geographical note inferted in
the firft volume? Whatever motive may have determined
his condu6t; it is matter of regret, that la Péroufe did not follow the 3;th or 38th parallel of latitude. The land difcovéred
in former times having been almoft all clifcovered in our own,
this ifland will certainly be the objeét of new refearches ; and
there is reafon to hope it will be found by running down the
parallel of 3 6° 30'.—(Fr. Ed J
ftrongeft ROUND THE WORLD.
ftrôngeft hopes of fpeedily making land. Scarcely
had we .reached the 175th degree of eaft longitude,
when all thefe figns difappeared. I continued,'
however, the fame courfe till the 22d at noon;
but at that epoch the longitude indicated by the
..time keeper, No. 19, placing me at 20' beyond
1800 eaft of Paris, the limits prefcribed for the
fearch of the ifland in queftion, 1 ordered a fouther-*
ly courfe to be fleered, in order to meet with lefs
ftormy feas. Since our departure from Kamtfchat*
ka we had conftantly navigated in the midft of a
very heavy fwell; and at one time a fea wafhede
away ,our jolly-boat, though lafhed to the gangway, and threw more than twenty tons of water
aboard. Thefe little accidents would hardly have
been noticed, had we been fortunate enough to
meet with the ifland, the fearch of which had coll
us fo much fatigue, and which certainly exifts in the
neighbourhood of the courfe we fleered* The figns
of land were too frequent, and of too, decided a nature, to permit us to doubt it. I am inclined to
think, that we ran down too northerly a parallel ;
and were I to begin the fame fearch■ again,s I fhould
follow the parallel of 350, from 160 to 1700 of
longitude. In that fpaçe it was, that we perceived
the greateft number of land birds, which appeared
to me to come from the fouth, and to have been
driven to fea by the violence of the gales that had
blown from that quarter. The farther objeds of
Vox-. III. • E, my £0 LA PÊ'RÔ-XfSJES VOYAGE
my voyage did not give me time to verify this ca&r
jeéture, by running as far weftward as we had jufl
run eaft. The wind, which blows almoft invariably
from the weft, would have made me confume more
than two months in a pafîàge that I had made in
eight days. I therefore Shaped my courfe towards,
the fouthern hemifphere, in that vaft field of discoveries where the tracks of Quiros, Mendana,
Tafman, &c. are croffed in every direétion by
thofe of modern navigators, and where every one
of the latter has added fome new iflands to thofe
which were already known $ but concerning which
the curiofity of Europeans ftill defired more cir-
cumftantial details, than thofe given in the narratives
of the earlier navigators. It is well known, that in
that vaft part of the great equatorial ocean there
exifts a zone, from 12 to 15 degrees, from north ta
fouth, and of 140 degrees from eaft to weft, inter-
fperfed with iflands, which are upon the terreftriai
globe what the milky way is in the heavens. The
language and manners of their inhabitants are no
longer unknown to us; and the obfervations that
have been made by the laft circumnavigators even
enable us to form probable conjeélures concerning
the origin of thefe people, which may be attributed
to the Malays, as that of the different colonies on
the coafts of Africa and Spain is to the Phenicians.
It was in this Archipelago that my inftruftions directed me to navigate during the third year of my
expedition* fiÔtTNB THE WOfell),
expedition. The weftern and fouthern part of New
Caledonia, of which the eaft Coàft was difcovered by
Captain Cook in his fécond voyagé; the fouthern
ifles of the Archipelago of the Arfacides, of which
the northern ones were feen by Surville ; the northern part of the land of la Louifiade, which M. Bougainville had been unable to explore, but of which
he had been the firft to run down the fouth-eàS
coaft ; fuch were the geographical points, that had
principally attraéled the attention of government i
and I was enjoined to mark their limits, and to determine their precife latitude and longitude^ The
Society, and Friendly iflands, the New Hebrides,
&c. were known, and could no longer excite the
curiojity of Europe ; but as they afforded refources
in provifion, I was allowed to put in there accord*
ing to the want I might be in ; it having been pre*
fumed with great reafon* that, on leaving Kamtfchatka, I fhould have a very fmall proportion of
frefh flock, which is fo neceffary for the preferva*
tion of feamen's health.
It was impoffible for me to get fpeed to the
fouthward foon enough to avoid a gale of wind
which blew from that quarter on the 23d of October. The fea ran exceedingly high, and we were
obliged to lay to all night under the fore-fail. The
winds were very variable, and the fea very much
agitated as far as the 30th degree of latitude, a pa*
rallel which we reached on the 29th of October.
Ë 2 The m
The health of moft of us was affedted by the too
fudden paffage from cold to intenfe heatj but
we experienced only flight diforders, which did not
oblige any one to keep his bed.
On the firft of November, being in 26®
27I north latitude, and 1750 38' eaft longitude,
we faw a great number of birds ; among others,
curlews and plovers, two fpecies which never fly
far from land. The weather was thick andfqually;
but all the parts of the horizon fucceffively cleared
up, except towards the fouth, where fome large
clouds remained conftantly fixed ; which made me
think it likely that there was land in that point of
the compafs. I fleered my courfe accordingly, and
for two or three days we continued to fee birds. By
degrees, however, the figns of land left us ; but it is
probable, that we paffed by fome4fland or flat rock,
of which we did not get fight; but which chance
will perhaps prefent to future navigators. We now
began to enjoy a ferene fky, and it became at laft
poffible to find the longitude by lunar obfervations, which we had not been able to do fince our
departure from Kamtfchatka. The longitude by
obfervation was a degree farther weft than that
which was given by our time-keeper No. 19.
We caught feverai doradoes and two fharks, and
found them delicious eating, becaufe we were all
reduced to fait pork, which began to fuffer from
the influence of a burning clime.   We repeated our
lunar obfervations, and the difference was conflarçt-
ly the fame. Having at length reached the tropic,
the fky became clearer, and our horizon was of
great extent ; but we perceived no land, though wè
every day faw birds, which are never met with at a
great diftance from the fhore. On the 4th of November, being in 23° 40' north latitude, and in 1750
58 ' 47/; of weft longitude, according to a feries of
obfervations made that very day, we caught a golden plover, which was flill moderately fat, and
which could not have been wandering long at fea,
The 5th we croffed our own tra6t from Monterey
to Macao ; the 6th that of captain Clerke from the
Sandwich iflands to Kamtfchatka, by which time
the birds had entirely difappeared. Our fhips laboured exceedingly by reafon of a heavy fwell from
the eaft, which, like that from the weft in the Atlantic ocean, conftantly prevails in this vaft fea.
Neither bonetas nor doradoes came in our way,
nor any thing, indeed, but a few flying fifh ; a
grievous circumftance, as our frefh provifion was
entirely confumed in confequence of our depending
rather too much upon the fait element for the improvement of our unpalateable fare. The 9th we
paffed by the fouth point of the fnoal, or flat of
Villa Lobos, according at leaft to the pofition a£*
figned to it in the charts prefented to me by M.
Fleurieu. I proportioned my canvas in fuch a
way as to crofs its latitude in the day-time ; but a$
we perceived neither birds nor weeds, ï am in-
E 3 clined £4
dined to think, that, if fuch a fhoaî exift, it muft hé
In a more weftern pofition, the Spaniards having always placed their difcoveries in the great Pacific
ocean too near to the American coaft. At this
time the fea became fomewhat fmoother, and the
breezes rhore moderate; but the fky was covered
with thick clouds, and fcarcely had we reached the
ïoq degree of north latitude, when it began to rain
almoft inceffantly, at leaft during the day; for the
nights were tolerably fine. The heat was fuffocating,
and the hygrometer had never indicated more humidity fince our departure from Europe. We werç
breathing an air deftitute of elafticity, which, joined
to unwholefome aliments, diminifhed our ftrength,
and would have rendered us almoft incapable of
exertion, if eircumftanees had required it. I redoubled my care to preferve the health of the crew
during this crifis, produced by too fudden a paffage
from cold, to heat and humidity. I had coffee
ferved out every day for breakfaft; and I ordered
the fhip to be dried and ventilated between decks $
while the rain-water ferved to wafh the failor$
ihirfs. Thus did we turn to account even the unfavourable temperature of the climate which we
were obliged to çrofs, and of which I dreaded the
influence more than that of all the high latitudes
that had occurred in the courfe of our voyage. Oq
the 6th of November, for the firft time we caught
eight bone-fas, which furnifhed a gpod repaft to the
Wfioje crew, and to the officers^ who, as well as
pyfelf, HOUND THE WORLD. 55
Sïiyfel£ had no longer any provifion but that of
the hold.    The rain and florms ceafed, and the
heavy fea fubfided about the  ï 5th, when we had
reached the 50 of north latitude.    We then enjoyed a clear fky; a very extenfive horizon made
us eafy about the night's run ; and the air was fo
pure, the heavens fo ferene, and the light thence
refulting fo ftrong, that we could have perceived
any danger as pkinly as in opei^ day.    This fine
weather accompanied us beyond the equator, which
we croffed on the 21ft of November, for the third
time fince we took our departure from BrefL    We
had been three times at the diftance of about 6oQ
from it to the north or fouth ; and, according to
the further plan of our voyage, we were not to re-
vifit the northern hemifphere till we fhould enter
the Atlantic ocean in our way back to Europe.
Nothing interrupted the monotony of this long run.
We were fleering a courfe nearly parallel to that
which we had fleered the preceding year in our
paffage from Eafter ifland to thofe that bear the
name of Sandwich.    During that paffage we had
been conftantly furrounded with birds and bonetas,
which afforded- lis wholefome and abundant food :
in the prefent one, on the contrary, a vaft folitude
reigned around us, both the air and water of thi$
quarter of the globe being nearly deftitute of inhabitants.    On the 23 d, however, we  caught two
!&' E 4 fharks^ S5
fharks, which afforded two meals to the crew, and
we fhot on the fame day a very lean curlew, apparently much fatigued. We fuppofed that it came
from the duke of York's ifland, from which we were
about ioo leagues diftant. It was hafhed up and
eaten at my table ; and was fcarcely better than the
» fharks. In proportion as we advanced in the
fouthern hemifphere, the noddies, man-of-war birds,
terns, and tropic birds, flew more frequently round the
fhips. Wetookchemfor the harbingers of fome ifland,
which we were exceedingly impatient to fall in with;
and murmured much at the fatality, that had prevented
our making thé fmalleft difcovery in the long line
we had run down fince our departure from Kamtfchatka. Thefe birds, which became innumerable
when we had reached the fourth degree of fouth latitude, infpired us every moment with the hopes of
making land ; but, although the horizon was of
prodigious extent, none could we fee. We made,
it is true, but little way. While welv were under
the fécond degree of fouth latitude, the breeze
abandoned us, and was fucceeded by light airs of
wind from N. to W. N. W., of which I availed
myfelf to gain a little eafting, being afraid of falling
to leeward of the Friendly iflands. During thefe
calms we caught feverai fharks, which we preferred
to fak-meat, and fhot fea-birds, which we hafhed.
Though very lean, and fmelling and tailing of fifh
to a degree that was infupportable, they appeared to
us, in our prefent want of frefh provifions almoft a*
good as woodcocks. Black goélettes, and others
entirely white, which I believe peculiar to the South
fea, as I never law any in the Atlantic ocean, were
fo plenty that we killed more of them than of noddies, or man-of-war birds. And yet the latter flew
round the Ihips in fuch numbers, efpecially during
the night, that we were flunned by the noife they
made, and could with difficulty hear each other
fpeak upon the quarter-deck. Our fport, which
was tolerably fuccefsful, punifhed their infults, and
afforded us tolerable food* but when we had paffedthe
6° they entirely difappeared. The light winds from
N. W to W., which had let in about the 3d degree
of fouth latitude, then gathered ftrength, and did not
give over blowing till we had reached the 12th.
A heavy fwell from the weft rendered our navigation exceedingly fatiguing ; our cordage, rotted by
the conftantly wet weather we had experienced while
exploring the coaft of Tartary, kept breaking every
moment -, and, as we were fearful of exhaufting our
flock, was not replaced till the laft extremity. Till
the 2d of December, when we reached io° 50',
fqualls, florms, and rain conftantly accompanied our
courfe. The wind, though ftill blowing from the
weft, then grew more moderate ; and as the weather cleared up, we were enabled to make lunar
pbfervations, in order to reftify the error of our
time-keepers. Since our departure from K&rfitfc
chatka, they appeared to have loft five minutes of
time, or, in other words, to indicate the longitude i°
15' too far eaft. According to the above aftronô-
mical obfervations, of which the refolt was 1700 7*
of longitude weft, we paffed exadly over the fpot
where Byron's iflands of Danger are laid down; for
we were exaftly in their latitude : but as we neither
faw land, nor the fmalleft fign of there being any
near us, it is evident, that their longitude has been
miflaken ; which was the more eafy, as Byron regulated his navigation by the defective method of
a dead-reckoning. The following day, December
the 2d, we were in ii° 34' 47" fouth latitude, and
170° 7-' i11 longitude weft, according to aftronomi-
cal obfervation, precifely in the fame parallel of
latitude as Quiros's Ifland of the Handfome Nation,
and one degree farther eaft. I would willingly
have run a few degrees weft ward in order to fell
in with it ; but the wind blew dire&ly from that
quarter ; and the ifland is laid down in too uncer*
tain a manner to be fought for by working to
windward. I therefore thought it better to avail
myfelf of the weftern gale, in order to reach the
parallel of Bougainville's Navigators Iflands, a dif»
covery due to the French, where we might hope to
procure frefh provifion, of which we Were in the
greateft want.
On the 6th of December^ at three in the after*»
8 nooni
noon, we got fight of the moft eafterly ifland of that
Archipelago j flood towards it till eleven in the
evening ; and then flood on and off during the reft.
of the night. A>s I purpofed anchoring, in cafe I
met with £ proper place, I pafled through the channel between the great and the little iflands that
Bougainville: left to the fouth. It is fcarcely a
league wide; but it appeared entirely free from
danger. We were in mid-channel at noon, and at
£ mile's difiance from the fhore found the latitude
by obferyation to be 140 yf fouth, the fouthern
point of one of the iflands bearing fouth 360 weft»
That point is confequently fituated in 14 87 fouth
Though we did not perceive any canoes till we
were in the channel, we had feen habitations on the
windward fide of the ifland, and a confiderable
group of Indians fitting in a circle under cocoa-nut
trees, and appearing quietly to enjoy the fight afforded them by our frigates. They did not then
Jaunch a fingle canoe ; or did they follow us along
fhore. This ifland, of about two hundred toifes
«elevation, is very fteep, and covered to the top
with large trees, among which we diftinguifhed a
great number of the cocoa-nut kind. The houfes
are built about half way down the declivity, a fitua-
jion in which the iflanders breathe a cooler air than
^long fhore. Near them we remarked feverai fpots
pf cultivated ground, planted probably with fweet
m 6o
potatoes or yams ; but, upon the whole, the ifland
appeared far from fertile, and in any other part of
the South fea I fhould have thought it uninhabited.
My miftake would have been the greater, as even
two little iflands, that form the weftern fide of the
channel through which we paffed, have their inhabitants. We faw five canoes fet out from them,
and join eleven others that came from the eaftern
ifland. After having paddled feverai times round
the two fhips with an air of diftruft, they at laft
ventured to approach, and make fome exchanges
•with us, but of fo trifling a kind, that we only obtained about twenty cocoa-nuts, and two blue
gallinules. Thefe iflanders, like all thofe of the
South fea, were difhoneft in their dealings; and
after receiving the price of their cocoa-nuts beforehand, feldom failed to paddle away without fulfilling
their part of the agreement. The amount of their
thefts was, it is true, of little importance, a few bead
necklaces with fome fcraps of red cloth, being
hardly worth afking for again. We founded feverai times in the channel with a line of a hundred
fathoms, but got no ground, though at lefs than a
mile's diftance from the fhore. We continued our
courfe m order to double a point, behind which we
hoped to meet with fhelter; but found, that the
ifland was not of the breadth indicated by M. de
Bougainville's plan. It terminates, on the contrary,
in a point, its greateft diameter being at moft a
league. We found that the eaft wind raifed a furf
Upon the coaft, which is furçounded with reefs; and
fawplainly, that it would be vain to feek an anchorage there. We then flood out of the channel,
with the intention of running along the two iflands
to the weft, which are both together nearly equal ia
extent to the more eaftern one. A canal lefs than
a hundred toifes wide feparates them, and at their
weftern extremity is a fmall ifland, which I fhould
have called a large rock, had it not been covered
with trees. Before we doubled the two fouthern
points, it fell dead calm, and we were toffed about by
a heavy fWell, which made me fearful of running
foul of the Aftrolabe. Luckily fome little puffs of
air foon extricated us from that difagreeable filiation, which had not permitted us to attend to the
harangue of an old Inclian, who held a branch of
kava in his hand, and delivered a difcourfe of con-
fiderable length. We knew, by reading a variety
of voyages, that it was a fign of peace ; and, while
throwing him a few pieces of cloth, anfwered him
by the word tayo, which, in the language of lèverai
nations inhabiting the iflands of the South fea, means
friendi but we had not as yet had fufficient praûice
to understand and pronounce diftinftly the words
of the vocabularies that we had extracted from
Cook's voyages.
At length, when the breeze reached us, we made
fail, in order to fland away from the coaft, and geç
out 6é
out of the region of calms. All the canoes Éhéfl;
came up alongfide. In general they fail pretty
well, but row very indifferently; and, as they over-
fct at every moment, would be ufelefs to any body
but fuch excellent fwimmers as thefe iflanders are.
They Sire no more furprifed or uneafy at fuch an ac-^
cident, than we are at the fall of a hat. Taking up
the canoe on their fhoulders, they empty the water
out of it, and then get in again, with the certainty
of having the fame operation to perform half art
hour after, it being almoft as difficult to preferve ari
equilibrium in fuch ticklifh veffels as upon the tight
rope. Thefe iflanders are in general tall, their
mean height appearing to me to be five feet fevert
or eight inches. The colour of their fkin nearly
refembles that of the Algerines, or other nations of
the coaft of Barbary : their hair is long, and tied up
on the top of their heads: their eaft of countenance1
far from agreeable. I faw no more than two women ; and even their features did not appear to be more
delicately fortned. The younger, who might bû
about eighteen years of age, had a dreadful and dif-
gufting ulcer upon her leg, Several of the men
alfo had large fores about their perfons, poffibly a
beginning of leprofy j for I remarked two among
them whofe legs, covered with ulcers, and fwelled to
the fize of their bodies, did not admit of a doubt as
to the nature of their difcafe. They approached us
with fear and without arms, every thing befpeaking
them as peaceable as the inhabitants of the Society
and Friendly iflands. At one time we thought
they had entirely taken leave of us, and their appa^
rent poverty eafily reconciled us to their abfence 3
"but., the wind having fallen in the afternoon, the
fame canoes, accompanied by feverai others, came
two leagues into the offing, to traffjjck with us
anew. After quitting us they had gone afhore, and
now ^turned rather more richly laden than before*
We obtained from them at different times feverai
curious articles of drefs, five fowls, ten gallinules,
a fmall hog, and the m oft beautiful turtle-dove we
had ever feen. Its body was white, its head of the
fined purple, its wings green, and its breaft checkered with red and black fpots, like the leaves of the
anemony. This charming bird was tame, and ate
out of the hand and mouth ; but it was not probable that we could convey it to Europe alive. And
fo it proved, its death only permitting us to pre-
fcrve its feathers, which foon loft ail their fplendour.
As the Aftrolabe was conftantly ahead in this day's
run, afl the canoes began their traffick: with M. de
Langle, whp;|>urchafed tvvo dogs, which we found
excellent eating.
Although the canoes of thefe iflanders are well
conftrudted, and furniîh a good proof of die fkiii
with which they work in wood, we could never
prevail on accept our hatchets, or any other
inftrupent of iron.    They preferred a few glafs,
beads, %
beads, that could be of no tife to them, to all the
hardware, and fluffs, we offered them ; and gave
us in return, among other things, a wooden vefïèl
filled with cocoa-nut oil, exactly of the fhape of our
earthen pots, and fuch as no European workman
would undertake to fafhion by any other mean tffip
a turning lathe. Their ropes are round, and twift-
ed like our watch chains: their mats are very fine;
but their fluffs are inferior to thofe of the Eafter and
Sandwich iflands. It feems alfo, that they are very
fcarce ; for all the iflanders were abfolutely naked,
and only fold us two pieces. As we were fure of
meeting with a much more confiderable ifland farther weft, where we flattered ourfelves we fhould
at leaft find fhelter, if not a port, we deferred making more extenfive obfervations till after our arrival
at that ifland, which, according to M. Bougainville's
plan, is only feparated from the laft ifland we had
upon our beam at night-fall, by a channel eight
leagues wide. I ran only three or four leagues to
the weftward after funfet, and paffed the reft of the,
night in flanding off and on under eafy fail. At
break of day I was very much lurprifed not to fee
the land to leeward, nor did I get fight of it till "Ibi t
o'clock in the morning, becaufe the channel is infinitely wider than that laid down in the plan that
ferved mé as a guide. It is a great pity, that the
charts of a voyage, which yields to none but that
of captain Cook in accuracy of obfervation, and in
extent and importance of difcoyeries, fhould not
have been drawn up with greater care, and upon a
larger fcale.
We did not find ourfelves oppofite the north-eaf?
point of the ifland of Maouna till five o'clock in the
evening. Intending to feek an anchorage there, I
made a fignal to the Aftrolabe to haul her wind,
that we might flretch backward and forward to
windward of the ifland during the night, and have
the whole of the next day before us to explore it in
every part. Though we Were three leagues frofti
the land, two or three canoes came along-fide the
fame evening,, bringing with them hogs and fruit,
which they exchanged for beads. Hence we conceived a high opinion of the riches of the ifland.
The next morning, I approached the land, and
ftretched along it, at the diftance of half a league.
It is furrounded by a reef of coral, on which the fèa
broke with great fury ; but that reef was almoft
clofe in fhore, and in the creeks formed by feverai
fmall projections of the coaft there Was room for
canoes, and probably for our barges and long-boats
to enter. We difcovered a number of villages at
the bottom of each creek, whence came innumerable canoes, laden with hogs, cocoa-nuts, and other
fruit, which we purChafed with glafs ware, Such
great abiindafcce increafed my defire to anchor,
efpecially as we faw water falling in cafcades from
the tops of the mountains to the bottoms of the
Vol. III. F villages* LA PE ROUSE S VOYAGE
villages. So many advantages made me little fera-
pulous as to an anchorage. We hauled clofer in
fhore, and having found at four o'clock, at a mile
from land, and in thirty fathom water, a bank com-
pofed of rotten fhells and a very little coral, we let
go our anchors ; but we were toft about by a very
heavy fwell that fet in fhore, although the wind
blew from the land. We immediately hoifted out
our boats ; and the fame day, M. de Langle and
feverai officers, with three boats manned and armed
by the two frigates, landed at a village, where they
were received by the inhabitants in the moft friendly manner. As night was coming on when they
went afhore, the Indians made a great fire, to light
the place of debarkation ; and brought down birds,
hogs, and fruit. After an hour's flay, our boats
returned on board. Every one feemed fatisfied
with this reception, our only concern being to fee our
frigates anchored in fo bad a roadftead, where they
rolled as if in the open fea. Though we were fhel-
tered from the eafterly winds, the calm thence re-
fulting fufficed to expofe us to the greateft danger,
in cafe our cables fhould part, while the impoflibi^
lity of getting out left us no refource againft a
ftrong breeze from the north-weft. We knew by
the relations of preceding navigators, that the trade
winds are very uncertain in thefe feas ; and that it
is almoft as eafy to fail eaft as weft, a circumftancc
which favours the natives in their long excurfions to
leeward. We had ourfelves experienced this in-
conftancy of the wind* the weftern breeze having
only left Us in the latitude of 126. Thefe reflections made me.pafs a very bad night, efpecially as a
florm was gathering to the northward, whence the
wind was blowing frcfh, but fortunately* however,
the land breeze prevailed.
F a
Manners, cufloms, arts, and ufages of the iflanders of
Maouna.—Contraft of that beautiful and fertile country, with the ferocity of its inhabitants.—The fw ell
becomes very heavy^ and we are obliged to get under
way.—M. de Langle wijhing to water his fhip, goes
on fhore with four boats manned and armed.—He and
eleven perfonstf the two crews are murdered.—Cir-
cumftantial account of that event.
•    (DECEMBER    1/87.)
The next morning, as the rifing of the fun announced a fair day, I refolved to avail myfelf of it,
in order to reconnoitre the country, obferve the
inhabitants at their own homes, fill water, and then ,
get under way, prudence forbidding me to pafs a
fécond night at that anchorage, which M. de Langle
had alfo found too dangerous for a longer flay. It
was therefore agreed upon, that we fhould fail in
the afternoon, and that the morning, which was
very fine, fhould be in part employed in trading
for hogs and fruit. As early as the dawn of day,
the iflanders had furrounded the two frigates with
two hundred canoes full of different kinds of provifion*
which they would only exchange for beads—in their
eftimation diamonds of the firft water.    Our axes,
bur "cloth, and all our other articles of commerce,
tfiejrâifdained. While a part of the crew was occupied in keeping them in order, and in trading
Mth them, the reft filled the boats with empty cafks,
in order to go afhore to water. Our two, boats, armed,
and commanded by Meffrs. de Clonard and Coliner,
and thofe of the Aftrolabe commanded by Meffrs. de
Monti and Bellegarc^ fet off with that intention at
five o'clock in the morning, for a bay about a league
diftant, and a little way to windward ; a convenient
fituation, as it^abled them, when loaded with water,
to come back with the wind large. I followed clofe
'■'•fer Meffrs. Cldftard àM Monti in my pinnace
(bifcayenne), and landed at the fame time as they did.
Unfortunately M. de Langle refolved to make an
excurfion in his jolly-boat to another creek, about
a league diftant from our watering place. This
excurfion, whence he returned delighted with the
beauty of the village he had vifited, was, as will be
ken hereafter, the caufe of our misfortune. The
creek, towards which the long-boats fleered, >ÉÉ
large and commodious; both they and the other
boats remained afloat at low water, wkfein half a
piftol fhot of the beach ; and the water was both
fine, and eafily procured. Meffrs. de Clonard and^
dp Monti preferved the belt order poffible. A line
of foldiers was pofted between the beach and the
Indians, who amounted to about two hundred, including a great many women and children. We
F 3 prevailed mm
prevailed upon them all to fit down under coç$|
trees, that were not more than eight toifes diftapt
from our boats. Each of them had by him fowls,
hogs, parrots, pigeons, or fruit, and all wifhed
to fell them £t once, which occafiogçd fome con-
fufion, . e^^e-ei^^^^^
The women, fome of whom were very pretty,
offered their favours, as well as their' fowls and
fruit, to all thofe who had be^ds to give them;, W&
foon tried to pafs through the line ofj foldiçrp, who
oppofed but a feeble refifta^ft to their attempt
Europeans who have made a voyage round the
world, efpecially Frenchmen, have rip arms to ward
off fimilar attacks. Accordingly the fair favàJÉ$j
found little difficulty in breaking the ranks; the men
then approached ; and the confufion was growing
general ; when Indians, whom we took for chiefs,
rnade their appearance with flicks in their hands,
and reftored order, every one returning to his poft,
and our traffiçk heginning anew» to the great fatif-
faftion of both buyers and fellers. In the mean
time a fcene had paffed in our long-boat, which was
a real aft of hoftility, and which I was defirous of
repreffing without effufion of blopd. An Indian
had gotten upon the ftern of the boat, had laid hold
of a maljet, and had aimed feverai blows at the arms
and back of one of our faiiors. I ordered four of
the ftrongeft feamen to lay hold of him, and to
throw him into the fea, which was immediately done*
The other iflanders appearing to difapprove of the
conduct of their countryman, this fquabble was attended with no bad confequences. Perhaps an example of feverity would have been neceffary to awe
thefe people ftill more, by letting them kpow how
much the force of our fire-arms was beyond their
individual ftrength ; for their height of about five
feet ten inches, and their mufcular limbs of coloffal
proportions, gave them an idea of their own fupe-
riority, which rendered us by no means formidable
in their eyes ; but having very little time to remain among them, I thought it right not to infiiét
a feverer penalty upon him who had offended us ;
and, by way of giving them fome idea of our power,,
contented myfelf with buying three pigeons, which
were thrown up into the air, and fhot in the prefence
of the whole affembly. iglj|
While all this was paffing with the greateft tranquillity, and our cafks were filling with water,
I thought I might venture to the diftance of two
hundred yards to vifit a charming village, fituated.
in the midft of a wood, or rather of an orchard,
all the trees of which were loaded with fruit. The
houfes were placed upon the circumference of a
circle, of about a hundred and fifty toifes in dia-*,
meter, the interior forming a vaft open fpace,
covered with the moft beautiful verdure, and fhad-
ed by trees, which kept the air delightfully cool.
Women, children, and old men, accompanied me,
and invited me into their houfes.   They fpread the
F 4 fineft 73 LA PE ROUSE S VOYAGE
fineft and frefheft mats upon a floor formed of litth
chofen pebbles, and raifed about two feet above the
ground, in Qrder to guard againft the humidity I
went into the handfomeft of thefe huts, which pro-*
bably belonged to a chief; and great was my fur-
prife, to fee a large cabinet of lattice-work* as well
executed as any of thofe in the environs of Paris.
The befl architect could not have given a more elegant curve to the extremities of the ellipfis that terminated the building; while a row of pillars at five
feet diftance from each other formed a complete
colonnade round the whole. The pillars were made
of trunks of trees very neatly wrought, and between
them were fine mats laid over one another with
great art, like the fcales of a fifh, and drawing up *
and down with cords, like our Venetian blinds.
The reft of the houfe was covered with leaves of
the cocoa-palm.
This charming country combines the advantages
of a foil fruitful without culture, and, of a climate
which renders clothing unneceffary. The trees,
that produce the bread-fruit, the cocoa-nut, the
banana, the guava, and the orange, hold out to
thefe fortunate people an abundance of wholefome
food ; while the fowls, hogs, and dogs, which live
upon the furplus of thefe fruits^ afford them an
agreeable variety of viands. They were fo rich,
and had fo few wants, that they difdained our inftru-
piçqts çf iron and our cloth, and afked only for
/ ù
beads.    Abounding in  real   bleffings,   they were
defirous of obtaining fuperfluities alone.
They had fold at our market more than two
hundred wood-pigeons, which would only eat out
of the hand; and a number of the moft beautiful
turtle-doves and perroquets, equally tame.    What
cold imagination could feparate the idea of happi-
nefs from fo enchanting a place ? Thefe iflanders,
faid we a hundred times over, are, without doubt,
the happieft beings on earth.    Surrounded by their
wives and children, they pafs their peaceful days irr
innocence and repofe :   no care difturbs them but
that of bringing up their birds, and, like the firft
man, of gathering, without labour, the fruit that
grows over their heads.   We were deceived.    This
delightful country was not the abode of innocence.
We perceived, indeed, no arms ; but the bodies of
the Indians, covered over with fears, proved that
they were often at war, or elfe quarrelling among
themfelves ; while their features announced a ferocity, that was not perceptible in the countenances
of the women.    Nature had,   no doubt, ftamped
this character on their faces,  by way of fhewing,
that the half-favage, living in a ftate of anarchy, is a
more mifchievous being than the moft ferocious of
the brute creation.
This firft vifit paffed without any difpute capable
of leading to difagreeable confequences.    I learned,
however, that there had been quarrels between individuals, 74
duals, but that they had been very prudently appealed..
Stones had been thrown at M. Rollin, our furgeon-
major ; and an Indian, while pretending to admire
M. de Monernon's fabre, had attempted to friatch it
from him ; but finding the fcabbard alone left
in his hand, he had run off in a great fright at
the fight of the naked weapon. I perceived, that
in general thefe iflanders were very turbulent, and
in bad fubje&ion to their chiefs ; but as I intended
to leave them in the afternoon, I congratulated
myfelf on not having attached any importance to
the little inftances of moleftation we had met
with. Towards noon I returned to the fhip
in my barge, and was very clofely followed by
the long-boats. I found it difficult to get along-
fide, both frigates being furrounded. by canoes, and
our market being as much crowded as ever. When
I went athore I had given the command of the
Bouffole to M. Boutin, and had left him at liberty
to eftablifn fuch police as he might think proper,
either by permitting a few of the iflanders to come
on board, or by pofitively oppofing their entry,
according to the turn çircumftances might take.
Upon the quarter-deck I found {even or eight Indians, the oldeft of whom was prefented to me as a
chief. M. Boutin told me, that he could not have
prevented their coming on board unlefs by firing
upon them ; that when they compared their bodily
ftrength to  ours they laughed at our threats, and
made a jeft of our fentinels ; and that my well-
fci|0$s$|j.principl^jof moderation had made.hig& recur to violent meafures, which, how-*
ever, were the only ones capable of keeping them
in awe. He added, that, fince the chief was pre-
fent, thofe who had come on board before were
grown more quiet and lefs infolent.
I made the chief a number of prefents, and
ihewed him every mark of kindnefs ; but wifhing
at the fame time to infpire him with a high opinion
of our power, I ordered feverai experiments on
the ufe of our weapons to be made in his prefence.
But their effeft impreffed him fo little, that he
feemed to think them only fit for the definition
of birds.
Our boats now arrived loaded with water, and
I made every preparation to get under way, and
profit by a light land-breeze which gave us hopes
of having time to make a little offing, M. de
Langle returned at the fame moment from his excurfion, and related, that he had landed in a noble
harbour for boats, fituated at the foot of a delight-?
ful village, and near a cafcade of the moft pek
lucid water. On going on board his own fhip, he
had given orders to get under way, of which he
felt the neceffity as well as myfelf; but he infifted
in the moft urgent manner upon our remaining,
Handing off and on, àt a league from the coaft,
^nd upon our getting on board a few long-boat
loads ?b
loads of water, before we fhould entirely abandon
the ifland. In vain did I reprefent to him that we
were not in the fmalleft want of it.—He had
adopted captain Cook's fyftem, and thought water
recently fhipped a thoufand times preferable to that
which we had in the hold ; and as a few individuals
of his crew had flight fymptoms of fcurvy, he
thought, with reafon, that we owed them every
relief in our power. Befides, no ifland could be
compared with this for abundance of provifion :
the two frigates had already taken on board more
than five hundred hogs, a great number of fowls
and pigeons, and a great quantity of fruit ; and yet
all thefe valuable acquifitions had only coft us a few
glafs beads.
I felt the truth of thefe reflexions ; but a fecret
prefentiment prevented my immediate acquiefcence.
I told him, that I thought the iflanders too turbulent
for us to truft our boats on fhore, when they could
pot be fupported by the fire of the fhips ; and pbferved
to him that our moderation had only ferved to embolden men, who calculated upon nothing but our
perfonal ftrength, which was certainly very much inferior to theirs. Nothing, however, could fhake M. de
Langle^s refolution. He told me, that my refiftance
would make me refponfible for the progrefs of thç
fcurvy, which already began to fhow itfelf in an
alarming manner, and that, befides, the harbour hç
was fpeaking of was infinitely more commodious
*faan that of our watering place.    Finally, he begged me to permit him to put himfelf at the head of
the firft party, affuring me, that in three hours he
would return on board, with all the boats full of
water.    M. de Langle was a man of fo found a
judgment, and fo much capacity, that thefe considerations, more than any other motive, determined
me to give my confent, or rather made my will give
way to his.    I promifed him then, that we would
Hand off and on all night, and that in the morning
we would difpatch our two long boats, and two
barges, armed in any way he fhould think proper,
and that the whole under his command*
The event fully juftified our opinion, that it was time
to get under way.    On heaving up the anchor we
found one ftrand of the cable cut by the coral; and
in two hours more the whole cable would have been
cut through.    As we were not under fail till four in
the afternoon, which was too late an hour to think
of fending our boats on fhore, we poftponed their
departure till next day.    The night was ftormy, and
the wind, which fhifted every moment, made me come
to a refolution of ftanding off about three leagues
from the coaft.    At break of day a flat calm did not
permit me to approach it; and it was not till nine
o'clock, that a fmall breeze fprang up from the
north-weft, and enabled me to near the ifland, from
which at eleven o'clock we were fcarcely a league
. diftant.    I then difpatcfeed my long-boat and barge,
commanded 75 LA PEROÛSE S VOYAGE
commanded by Meffieurs Boutin and Mouton, ôfî
board the Aftrolabe, to take M. de Langle's orders*
All thofe who had any flight fymptoms of the fcur^
vy were  put  into  them,  as well as  fix foldiers
armed, with the matter at arms at their head.    The
two boats contained in all twenty-eight men, sâifl
carried twenty empty cafks, which were meant to be
filled at the watering place.    Meffieurs de Lamanon and Colinet, though lick, were of the number
of thofe that fet off from the Bouffole.    M. de
Langle, on the other hand, {et off in his barge, accompanied by M. Vaujuas, a convalefcent.    M. le Go-
bien, a midfhipman, commanded the long-boat, and
Meffrs. de la MartiniereJ5L.avaux, and father Receveur, made part of the thirty* three perfons fent by
the Aftrolabe.    Among the fixty-one individuals, of
which the whole party confifted,were thechoiceftmen
of both crews.    M. de Langle armed all his people
with mufkets and cutlaffes ; and ordered fix fwivels
Vo be mounted upon the long-boats.   I had left him
ppfeétly at liberty to provide every thing he might
think conducive to his fafety.    The certitude we
were in of having had no difpute with the natives,
of which they could retain any refentment; the im~
rnenfe number of canoes that crowded round us in
the ofltlng; the air of gaiety and confidence that prevailed :in our markets ; every thing, in fhort, tended
to increafe his fecurity, and I confefs that mine
But it waa
could not well be greater than it was.
contrary to my principles to fend boats on fhore,
without the greateft neceffity, efpecially in the midft
of an immenfe number of people, when they could
not be fupported or even perceived by the fhips.
The boats put off from the Aftrolabe at half
paft twelve, and in three quarters of an hour arrived
at the watering place. What was the furprife of all
the officers, and of M. de Langle himfelf, to find, in-
flead of a vaft and commodious bay, a creek full of
coral, through which there was no paffage but a
winding channel lefs than twenty-five feet wide, and
on which the fwell broke as upon a bar ! When within, they had only three feet water ; the long-boats
grounded, and the barges only continued afloat
becaufe they were hauled to the entrance of the
channel at a confiderable diftance from the beach.
Unfortunately M. de Langle had examined the
bay at high-water only, never imagining that the
tide at thefe iflands rofe five or fix feet. He
could not believe his eyes. The firft movement of
his mind was to quit the creek, and repair to that
where we had already filled water,, which combined
every advantage. But the air of tranquillity and
good humour of the crowds waiting for him upon
the beach with an immenfe quantity of fruit and
hogs;^ and the women and children he faw among
the Indians, who take care to fend them out of the
way when they have hoftile intentions; all thefe
circumftances concurred to banifh his firft prudent
idea, whijjjjï an inconceivable fatality forbad him td
purfue. He pyt th% .cafks on fhore from, the
four boats with the greateft tranquillity ; while his
fbldiers preferved the*, befl order poffible upon the
beach, being drawn up in two lines with a fpace left
open for the working party. But this calm was not
of long duration. Several of the canoes, which had
parted with their p.rovifion to the fhips, had returned to the ifland, and had all landed in the bay
of the watering place, fo that in a fhort time it was
entirely full. Inftead of two hundred natives, including women and children, whom M. de Langle
had found there on his arrival at half paft one, there
were at three o'clock from a thoufand to l^elve
hundred. The number of canoes, which had
traded with us in the morning, was fo considerable, that we fcarcely perceived its diminution in the
afternoon ; and I gave myfelf credit for keeping
them employed on board, in hopes that our boats
would be fo much the quieter on fhore. Great was
my miftake ! M. de Langle's fituation became
every moment more and more embarraffing. He
found means however, with the affiftance of Mef-
fieurs de Vaujuas, Boutin, Colinet, and Gobien, to
fhip his water; but the bay was almoft dry, and he
coukl not hope to get the long-boats off before four
in the afternoon. He ftepped into them however,
as well as his detachment, and took poll in the bow
with his mufket and mufketeers, forbidding any
one to fire before he fhould gifce the word*   He
began however to be fenfible that he fhould foori
be forced to do fo.   Already the ftones began to
fly, and the Indians, who were only up to their kneesr
in water, furrounded the lortg-boats at lefs than fix
feet diftancc, the foldiers, who were embarked,
making vain efforts to keep them off.   If the fear
of commencing hoftilities, and of being accufed of
barbarity, had not withheld M. de Langle, he would
doubtlefs have given orders to fire a volley of muf-
ketry and fwivels, which would not have failed to
put the multitude to flight ; but he flattered himfelf
that he fhould be able to keep them in check without cffufioh of blood ; and fell the viftim of his
humanity.   ïn a very fhort time a fhower of ftones,
thrown from a fmall diftance with as much force as
from a fling, ftruck almoft every one of thofe who
were in the long-boat.    M. de Langle had only
time to fire his two fhot, when he was knocked
down, and unfortunately fell over the larboard fide
of the boat, where more than two hundred Indians
immediately maffacred him with clubs and ftones.
When he was dead they tied him by the arm to one
of the row-locks of the long-boat, in order, no doubt,
to  make furer of fpoil.    The  long-boat of the
Bouffole, commanded by M. Boutin, was aground at
two toifes from that of the Aftrolabe, leaving in a parallel line between them a little channel unoccupied
by the Indians.    It was by that channel that all the
Vol. III. G wounded, -
wounded, who had the good fortune not lo fall on
the other fide, faved themfelves by fwimming*
They got on board the barges, which, having moft
fortunately been kept afloat, were the means of faving-
forty-nine perlons out of the fixty-ofre of which the
party confifted. M. Boutin had imitated all the movements, and followed every ftep of M. de Langle : hia
^ater-cafks, his detachment, all his people, had been
embarked at the fame time, and placed in the fame
nttnnerj and he occupied the fame poft in the bow
of the boat. Although afraid of the bad confequences
of M. de Lângle's moderation, he did not take
upon him to order his detachment to fire till after
M. de Latfgfe had begun. It may be fuppofed that,
at the diftance of four or five yards, every fhot muft
have killed an Indian, but there was no time to reload. M. Boutin was like wife knocked down by a
ftone, and by good fortune fell between the two
long-boats, on board of which not a fingle man remained in Ms than five rflinutes. Thofe whofaved
themfelves by fwimming to the two barges, had received feverai wounds each, almoft all on the head :
thofe, on the contrary, who were unfortunate enough
to fall over on the fide of tht Indians were inftantly
difpatched by their clubs. But the rage for plunder
was fuch, that the iflanders haftened to get pofifeffion
of the long-boats, and jumped on board to the
number of three or four hundred, tearing up ihe
feats, and breaking-the infide to pieces, in order to
féek for our fuppofed riches. While this was
going on they no longer paid much attention to
the barges ; which gave time to Meilleurs de Vau-
juas and Mouton to fave the reft of our people, and
to afcertain that nobody remained in the hands of
the Indians, but thofe who had been maffacred and
killed in the water by the blows of their patows.
The crews of the barges, who till then had fired
upon the iflanders, and killed a good many, now
began to throw their water-calks overboard, in
order that every body might find room. They had,
befides, almoft exhaufted their ammunition; and
their retreat was become a matter of fome difficulty,
with fuch a number of perfons dangeroufly wounded, who lay ftretched out upon the thwarts, ; and
hindered the working of the oars. To the prudence of M. Vaujuas, to the good order which he
eftablifhed, and to the ftrict difcipline kept up by
M. Mouton, who commanded the Bouflble's barge,
we were indebted for the prefervation of the forty-
nine perfons of both crews who efeaped. M. Boutin, who had five wounds on the head, and one in
the breaft, was kept above water by the cockfwain of
the long-boat, who was himfelf wounded. M. Co-
jinet was found lying in a ftate of infenfibility upon
the grapnel-rope of the barge, having an arm frac*
tured, a finger broken, and two wounds on the head.
M. Lav aux, furgeon major of the Aftrolabe, was fo
G 2 grievoufly * 84 la pe'rousë's VOYAGE
grievoufly wounded, that he was obliged to fuffer
the operation of the trepan.    He had, however,
fwum to the barges, as well as M. de la Martinière,
and father Receveur, who had received a violent
contufion on the eye.    M. de Lamanon and M.
de Langle were maflàcred with unexampled barbarity, with Talin, matter at arms of the Bouffole,
and nine other perfons belonging to the two crews.
The favage Indians, after having killed them, flili
continued to wreak their fury upon the inanimate
bodies with their clubs.    M. le Gobien, who commanded the Aftrolabe's long-boat under the orders
of M. de Langle, did not abandon his poft, till hé
found himfelf entirely alone.  After having exhauft-
ed his ammunition, he leaped into the water, on
the fide of the little channel left between the two
boats, which, as I have faid above, was unoccupied
by the Indians ;  and notwithftanding his wounds,
found means to fave himfelf on board one of the
barges.   That of the Aftrolabe was fo deeply laden,
that it grounded.    This event infpired the natives
with the idea of difturbing the wounded in their
retreat.     They came down accordingly in great
numbers towards the reefs at the entrance, within
ten feet of which the barges were neeeffarily obliged
to pafs.    The little ammunition that remained was
exhaufted upon the infuriated crowd ; and at length
the boats extricated themfelves from a place, more
dreadful on account of its deceitful fituation and
the cruelty of its inhabitants, than the dens of wild
At five o'clock they came on board, and informed
us of this difaftrous event. We had round us at
that moment not lefs than a hundred canoçs, in
which the natives were felling their provifions with
a fecurity which fufficiently proved their innocence.
But they were the brothers, the children, the
countrymen, of the barbarous affaffins; and I con-"
fefs that it was neceffary to call up all my reafon to
reprefs the anger that tranfported me, and to
hinder the crew from putting them to death.
The foldiers were already calling loofe the guns,
#nd laying hold of their mufkets. I flopped thefe
movements, which were, however, pardpnable
enough; and ordered a fingle gun loaded with
powder to be fired, as a warning to the canoes to
depart. A fmall boat that came from the coaft, informed them, without doubt, of what had juft
paffed ; for in lefs than an hour not a canoe remained in fight. An Indian who was upon the quarterdeck when our barge came on board, was arretted
by my orders, and put in irons. The' next day,
having approached the coaft, I permitted him to
jump overboard, the confidence with which he had
remained on board being an unequivocal proof of his
My firft projçét was to fend another party on
G 3 fhore 85 LA PE'EGtISÉ*S VOYAGE
fiiore to revenge the death of our unfortunate corn**
panions, and to recover the wrecks of our boats.
With that intention I flood to the wçftward in
fearch of an anchorage; but I found nothing but
the fame bottom of coral, with a fwell that fet |q
fhore, and broke upon the reefs. The creek'
in which the mafiacre took place, was befides very
deeply indented in the fide of the ifland, and it did
not appear poffible to approach it within cannpn-
fhot. M„ Boutin, whofe wound confined him to
his bed, but who retained the foil command of his
mind, reprefented to me alfo, that the filiation of the bay was fuch, that if our boats fhould
unfortunately run agrPuqd (a thing very poffible)^
not a fingle man would return alive ; for the trees,
which are clofe to the fea-fide, while protecting
the Indians againft our mufketry, would leave the
men whom we might debark expofed to a fhower
of ftones, fo much the more difficult to avoid, as
being thrown with uncommon force and addrefs,
they produced almoft the fame effect as our bullets,
and had the advantage of fucceedfog one another
with greater rapidity. M* de Vaujuas was of the
fame opinion. I would not, however, accede to k^
till I had fully afcertained the impoffibility of anchoring within gun-fhot of the village. I pafibc|
two days in working to windward oppofioe the bays
and could perceive the wrecks of our long-boats
aground upon the fend, and round thern an immenfe
8 number
nytîiber of Indians. What will no doubt appear
incredible is, that during this time five or fix canoes
came off from the fhore with hogs, pigeons, and
cocoa-nuts, to offer us in exçjjjânge. I was obliged
every moment to curb my anger, left I fhould give
orders to fend them to the bottera. The Indians,
not knowing that we had any arms of longer range
than our mufkets, remained without the leaft ap-
pi#ienfion at fifty toifes diftance from the fhips,
and offered us their provifions with great apparent
fecurity. Our geftures gave them no encouragement to approach, and in this way fhey paffed a ;
whole hour in the afternoon of the 12th of December. Their offers of barter were fucceeded by
railjeiy, md ere long I perceived feverai other
canoes quit the beach in order to join them. As
they had no fufpicion of the range of our guns,
and as every thing indicated that I fhould foon be
forced to depart from my principles of moderation,
I ordered a ihot to be fired into the midft of them.
My orders were executed with the utmoffc precifion.
The ball dafhed the water into the canoes, and they
piftantly made the beft of their way to the fhore,
being joined in their flight by thofe that had left
jthe beach a little while before.
It-was with difficulty that I could tear myfelf
from this lata! fpot, .and leave the dead bodies of
our murdered companions. In M. de Langle I
loft an old friend, a man of fenfe, judgment, and in-
formation. 88
formation, afid one of the befl officers in the French
navy. His humanity was the caufe of his death.
Had he allowed himfelf to fire upon the firft Indians
who came into the water in order to furround his
boats, he would have faved his own life, and thofe
of M. de Lamanonand ten other vidims of Indian
ferocity. There were befides twenty perfons belonging to the two frigates grievoufly wounded;
this event deprived us for the moment of thirty-
two hands, and two long boats, the only ones we
had capable of containing a fuf&cient number of
armed men to attempt a defcent. Thefe confidera-
tions were the guide of my future conduit. The
fmalleft check would have forced me to burn one of
the two frigates to man the other. I had indeed
the frame of a long-boat on board; but I could not
put it together without going into port. If, to fa-
tisfy my revenge, I had only wifhed for the maffacre
of a few Indians, I had an opportunity of deftroy-
ing, finking, blowing to pieces, a hundred canoes,
containing more than five hundred perfons ; but I
was afraid of being miftaken in the choice of my
vidtims ; and the voice of confcience faved their
lives. Thofe whom this narrative may remind of
the cataftrophe of captain Cooke fhould bear in
mind, that his fhips were anchored in the bay of
Karakakooa ; that their guns rendered them mafters
of the beach ; and that they could give the law to
the Indians by threatening to deftroy the canoea
7 that
that remained at the water-fide, as well as the villages that fkirted the coaft. We, on the contrary,
were at fea, out of gun-fhot, and obliged to keep
off the coaft, where a calm might have been attended with the greateft danger. A heavy fwell
drifted us conftantly towards the reefs, outfide of
which we might, without doubt, have anchored
with iron chains ; but ftill we fhould have been out
of gun-fhot of the village, befides that the fwell was
fufficient to cut our cajble at the hawfe-holes, and
thereby to expofe us to the moft imminent hazard.
I exhaufted every calculation of probability before
I left this fatal ifland ; being at length convinced
that anchoring was impraticable, and that a defcent
unfupported by the frigates would be rafhnefs in
the extreme. Even fuccefs would have been ufe-
lefs, fince it was certain that not a fingle man remained alive in the hands of the Indians, and that
our boats, which we had the means of replacing,
were broken to pieces and aground. I fleered in
confequence, on the 14th, for a third ifland, which
was in fight, bearing W. by N. and which M. de
Bougainville had only feen from the malt-head,
being driven off by bad weather. This ifland is
feparated from that of Maouna by a channel only
nine leagues wide. The Indians had given us the
names of ten iflands that compofed their archipelago, and had rudely traced their fituation upon a
iheet of paper.    Although no great dependence is
to 9°
to be placed upon the plan they drew, yet to me if
appears probable that the people of thefe .different
iflands are in a kind of confederacy with ose another,
and that they keep up a frequent intercourfe.
The farther difcoveries we have made leave no
doubt of this archipelago being more confiderable
than the Society iflands, while it is equally wetl-^ '.
peopled, and abounds in provifion no lefs than
they. It is even probable, that very good harbours might be found ther©; but having nb boat,
and knowing the exafperated ftate of mind of
my crew, I refolved not to anchor till I came to
Botany Bay, in New Holland, where I purpofed
putting together the frame of the new long-boat
that I had on board. It was my intention, never-?
thelefs, for the fake of advancing the fcience of
geography, to explore the different iflands I might
meet with, and to determine their latitude and longitude with precilion. I hoped alfo to be able to
traffic with the inhabitants by lying to at a fmall
diftance^ from the coaft. I willingly abandon to
Others the care of writing the uninterefting hiftory
of fuch barbarous nations. A flay of twenty-four
hours, and the relation of our misfortunes, fuffice to
fhow their atrocious manners, and their arts, as well
as the produirions of one of the fineft countries of
the univerfe.
Before I   continue the  account of our  voyage
among the iflands of this archipelago, I think   it
» I proper
- -   i HOUND THE WORLD, £1
proper tô give the narrative of M. de Vaujuas,
who commanded during the retreat from the hay
of Maouna. Although he only went afhore as a
0onvalefe<ent, and was not upon duty, the urgency
of circumftances r^ftored to him his ftrength, and
be- did npt leave the bay, till he was well|iaffured
that not a fingle Frenchman remained alive in the
hands of the natives. •
j   Narrative çf M. de, Vaujuas.
iC Tuefday, December nth, at eleven o'clock in
tthe morning, M. de /la Péroufe fent his long boat,
and his barge, iad^n with water-cafks, with a detachment of foldiers under arms, to join a party under
the command of M. de Langle.    M. Boutin had
already received inftrpftions concerning the means
of preferving order, and of providing for our fafe-
ty, when   the   boats fhould go   afhore.    At   the
fame hour our captain alfo hoifted out his boats,
and in like manner had water-cafks and arms put
into them.    At half pad twelve,  the fhips being
three   quarters of a  league   from  land,  with   the
Jarboard tacks en board,  the four boats fet off in
order to fill water in a creek, that had been etfamin^-
ed by M. de Langle.    This watering place was to
jfeeward of the one whither we had already been,
and was thought preferable to it by M. de Langle,
becaufe it appeared lefs inhabited, and equally commodious;   but the .firft had the advantage of an
eafier 9«-
E*  i
eafier entrance, and of a fufficient depth of WK
ter for the boats to be in no danger of getting
cc M. de Langle propofed to me, although I
was ftill in a weak ftate, to accompany him
in his excurfion, by way of taking an airing on
fhore. He took the command of the barge himfelf, and gave that of the long boat to M. le Go-
bien. M. Boutin commanded the Bouffole's long*.
boat, and M. Mouton the barge. M. Colinet,
and Father Receveur, who were both fiek, with
Meffieurs de Lamanon, la Martiniere, and Lavaux,
accompanied us, as well as a number of other perfons
belonging to the two frigates, fo that we made up
a detachment of fixty-one perfons, the crews of the
two barges included.
€< While on our way we faw with concern, that
many of the canoes that were alongfide of the fhip
followed us, and were coming to the fame creek.
We faw alfo along the rocks, that feparated it
from the neighbouring bays, many of the natives
repairing thither from the other villages. Upon
our arrival at the reef, which forms the creek of
the watering place, and only leaves a narrow and
fhallow paffage for boats, we perceived that it was
low water, and that the long-boats could not go in
without getting aground : they touched accordingly
at half a mufket fhot from the beach, which we
could only approach by pufhing them on with our
Oars. This bay had appeared to the captain in a
more favourable point of view, becaufe, at the
time he examined it, the tide was not fo low.
Cf Upon our arrival, the favages, who lined the
coaft, to the number of feven or eight hundred,
threw into the fea, as a token of peace, feverai
brandhçs of the tree from which the iflanders of
the South Sea draw their intoxicating beverage.
When we landed, M. de Langle gave orders, that
each boat fhould be guarded by a foldier under
arms, and by a failor, and that the crews of the
long-boats, while filling the cafks, fhould be under
the protection of a double line of foldiers extending from the watering place to the boats. As faft
as the cafks were filled, they were put quietly on
board, the natives fuffering themfelves to be kept
in tolerable order by the armed foldiers. Among
them was a confiderable number of women, and
very young girls, who offered their favours to us in
the moft indecent manner, and whofe advances
were not univerfally rejected. The children we
few there were few.
cc Towards the end of our labour, the number of
natives increafed, and became more and more
troublefome. This circumftance induced M. de
Langle to abandon his original intention of trafficking for a few provifions ; and he gave orders to
re-embark without delay : but in the mean time,
and this, I think, was the firft caufe of our misfortune,.
I 94
tune, he made a prefent of a few beads to a fort of
chiefs, who had helped to keep off the inhabitants.
We were, however, certain, that this police was a
mere mockery, and that, if thefe pretended chiefs
had really any authority, it extended to a very
fmall number of individuals* The captain's pre-
fents, diftributed to five or fix perfons, excited the
difcontent of all the reft. From that moment a
general clamour arofe, and we were no longer able
to keep them quiet. They fuffered us, however,
to get into our boats; but a part of them ftepped
into the water in purfuit of us, while the others
picked up ftones upon the beach.
cc As the long-boats were aground at a little dif-
tance from the ftrand, we j were obliged in our
way to them to pafs through the water up to
our waifts ; and in fo doing feverai of the foldiers
wet their arms. It was in this critical fituation that
the horrible fcene began which I am about to narrate. Scarcely were we in the long-boats, when
M. de Langle gave orders to fhove them off, and
to weigh the grapnel ; but this feverai of the moft ]
robuft iflanders oppofed by laying hold of the rope.
The captain, witnefs of their refiftanee, feeing the tumult increafe, and perceiving the ftones reach him,
tried to intimidate the favages by firing a mufket
in the air ; but, fo far from being frightened, they
made it the fignal of a general attack. Immediate-*
ly a fhower of ftones, hurled with equal force and
celerity, came pouring upon us ; the fight began on
both fides, and foon became general. Thole 'whole
mufkets were in a ferviceable ftate brought feverai
of the infuriated Indians to the ground ; but the
others were by no means difmayed, and feemed to
combat with redoubled vigour. A part of them
came clofe up to the long-boats, while the reft, to
the number of fix or feven hundred, continued to
ftone us in the moft dreadful and murderous manner.
" Upon the firft aft of hoftility I threw myfelf
into the water, in order to fwim to the Aftrolabe's
barge, which was deftitute of officers. The exigency of the cafe gave me ftrength fufficient for the
fmall diftance I had to go ; and, notwithstanding my
weaknefs, and my being ftruck on the way by feverai ftones, I got into the boat without, afliftance.
I faw with defpair that there was fcarctly a mufket
that was not wet, and that nothing remained to be
done but to get her afloat without the reef as foon
as pofiible. In the mean time the combat continued ; the enormous ftones hurled by the favages
maimed one or other of our people at every moment; and whenever a wounded man fell into the
water on the fide of the favages, he was immediately
difpatched with clubs and paddies.
€C $fo de Langle. was the firft viftim of the ferocity of thefe barbarians, who had received nothing
but favours at his hand. At the very beginning of
■PIP ' the ttlï
g6 la pe'Rouse's Voyage
the attack, he was beaten down from the bow of thâ
long-boat, on which he was Handing, and fell into
the fea, with the mafter at arms, and the carpenter,
who were by his fide. The fury with which the
iflanders fell upon the captain faved the two latter,
who found means to get on board the barge.
Thofe who were in the long-boats foon fhared the
fate of our unfortunate commander, except a few
who got away to the reef, and fwam thence
towards the barges. In lefs than four minutesx the
iflanders made themfelves matters of the two boats*
and I beheld with grief and rage the maffacre of
our unfortunate companions, without being able to
afford them the fmalleft affiftance. The Aftrolabe's
barge was ftill within the reef, and I expeéted every
moment to fee it involved in the misfortune of the
long-boats ; but it was faved by the avidity of the
iflanders, the greater part of whom rufhed into the
latter, while the reft contented themfelves with
throwing ftones. A few, however, came down, and
waited for us in the channel, and upon the reefs.
Although the fwell was heavy, and the wind right
on end, we found means, notwithftanding their
ftones, and the dangerous wounds by which many of
us were difabled, to extricate ourfelves from this
fatal place, and to join the Bouffole's barge without, commanded by M. Mouton, who, by throwing
his water-cafks into the fea, had lightened her, and
made room for all thofe who fwam on board.   I
had taken into that of the Aftrolabe Meflieurs Bou-
•m and Colinet, as well as feve/al other perfons.
Thsfc who had efcaped to the barges- were all either
more or lefs wounded. The boats were therefore
defencelefc, and it was impoffible to think of returning to a bay whence our efcape had been moft
fortunate, in order to make head againft a thoufand
enraged barbarians. It would have been expofing
ourfelves, to no purpofe, to certain death.
iC We fleered our courfe then towards the two
frigates, which at three o'clock, the moment of the
maffacre, had made a tack off fhore. They did
mt fo much as fufpeft that we were in the fmalleft
danger, and the breeze being frefh, were a long
way to windward; an unfortunate circumftance for
us, efpecially for thofe whofe wounds required
fpeedy dreffing. At four o'clock they tacked again,
and-flood in for the land. As foon as we were without the reefs, I fet the fails, and hauled clofe to the
wind, in order to get clear of the coaft, throwing
overboard every thing likely to impede the failing
of a boat fo full o^ people. Fortunately, the ifland-
|ers,bufy in plunderingvMie-long-boats, did not think
of purfuing us. 'Our whole, means of defence confuted of four or five cutlaffes, and a charge for t&o
or three mufkets ; a poor refource againft two or
three hundred barbarians armed with ftones and
clubs, and:: matters of light canoes which would enable them to choofe- their diftance. Several of thefe
Vol. III. H canoes PS
là pe rouse s voyage
canoes came out of the bay fhortly after we left rt|
but they made fail along fhore, whence one of theH
number fet off to give information to thofe that had
remained alongfide the frigates. The Indians on
board had the infolence to make menacing figftS as
they paffed by; but our fituation obliged us to fuf-
pend our vengeance, and to referve our feeble
means for felf-defence.
I As foon as we were in the offing, we pulled up
with the wind on end towards the frigates, hoifting a
red handkerchief at the maft-head, and on our nearer
approach, firing our three laft mufket fhots. M.
Mouton made alfo the fignal for affiftance with two
handkerchiefs; but we were almoft alongfide'before we were perceived. The Aftrolabe, the neareft
of the two frigates, then bore down upon us; and
at half paft four Î put thofe who were the moft feverely
wounded on board of her. M. Mouton having done
the fame, we repaired without delay to the'Bouffolc,
where 1 informed the commodore of this difaftrous
event. After the precautions with which his prudence
; had infpired him, and the juft confidence he had
placed -in that of M. de Langle, his furprife was
extreme; and I can only compare hie grief to that
whicfy I felt myfelf. Our prefent misfortune reminded us ftrongly of that of July 13th, 1786, and
helped to throw a flill ftronger gloom over our
voyage ; though in this laft circumftance we were
ftilî fortunate ia faving the greater part of thofe
who had gone afhore. If the defire of plunder
had not for a moment flopped or fixed the fury
of the favages, not a man of us would have ef-
caped. .
ccIt is impoflible to defcribe the confirmation oc~
cafioned by this fatal event on board the two frigates.    The death of M. de Langle, who enjoyed
the confidence and efteem of his crew, was matter
$f the deepeft regret to every one.    The iflanders
who were alongfide when I came on board, were
on the point of being immolated to the vengeance
of our failors, whom we found it extremely difficult
to reftrain.    The general affliftion which reigned
on board is the beft panegyric that can be pro-
npunced on the captain.    As to myfelf, 1 loft in
him rather a friend than a commander.    The kind-
nefs with 'which he treated me will make me regret
him to the laft moment of my exiftence, and happy
fhould I have been if I could have proved my attachment and my gratitude by facrificing it in his
defence.    But this brave officer, being more expof-
ed than any one elfe, was the firft who fell a,prey to
the wild beads that, affailed us.    In my weak and
convalefcênt ftate, I had gone afhore without arms,
under the protection of others; and when I reached
the barge all the ammunition was either exhaufted
or wet. All then that I could do was to give orders,
which were unfortunately of too little, effect.
1  j I fhould do injuftice to thofe who like me |pd
H I the ÏOO
the good fortune to fave their lives, if I did not lëf
Clare that they conduéted themfelves with all poffl-
ble bravery and Jang-froid. Meilleurs Boutin and
Colinet, who, notwithftanding their bad wounds,
Were perfectly collefted, had the goodnefs to affift
me with their advice; and I was alfo ably féconde^
by M. le Gobien, who was the laft to leave the
long-boat, and whofe example, intrepidity, and dif-
courfe, contributed not a little to reaffure fuch of thé
failors as felt therflfelves difmayed. The petty officers, foldiers, and feamen, executed the orders given
them with equal pun&uality and zeal; and M.
Mouton had no lefs reafon to be fatisfied with the
crew of the Bouffole's barge.
ff Every one who was on fhore can atteft with
me that no violence or imprudence oh our part provoked the attack of the favages. Our captain fiM
given the ftriéteft orders in that refpedt, and they
were univerfally obeyed.
Lift of the Perfons. maffacred by the Savages of the Ifland.
of Maouna, December 11, 1787.
The Astrolabe.
M. de Langle, poft captain, commande**.
Yves Humon, John Kedelleg, Francis Eer$
k$t, Laurence Robin, and a Chinefe, feamen.
8 Louis ■""
Louis David, quarter-gunner.
JoHtf Geraud, domeftic.
The Boussole.
M. de Lamanon, natural philofopher and natu-
Peter Ta lin, gunner.
Andrew Roth and Joseph Rayes, quarter-
Departure from the ifland of Maouna.*—Defcription of
the ifland of Oyolava.—Exchanges with its inhabitants.—We make the ifland of Pola.—New details concerning the manners, arts, and cufloms of
, thefe iflands, and concerning the productions of their
foil. —: We fall in with Cocoa-nut and Traitor
The 14th of December I flood for the ifland of
Oyolava, of which we had fight five days before
we arrived at the anchorage, that proved fo fatal
to us. M. de Bougainville had obferved the fouthern
part of it, laid down in his plan of this archipelago,
from a very great diftance. This ifland is feparated
from that of Maouna, or of the Maffacre, by a channel about nine leagues wide, and is at leaft equal to
Otaheite in beauty, in extent, fertility, and population. When at the diftance of three leagues from
its north-eaft point, we were furrounded by innumerable canoes laden with bread-fruit, cocoa-nuts,
bananas, fugar-canes, pigeons, and gallinules, with
a very few hogs. The inhabitants of this ifland
much refemble thofe of the ifland of Maouna, who
had E0U5TD THE, WORLD, 10$.
had behaved to us with fuch horrible treachery.
Their drefs, their features, and their gigantic ftaturey
were fo little different, that our feamen thought they
recollected feverai of the affaffins, and it was with
great difficulty that I prevented their firing upon
them: but I was certain, that they were blinded by
their refentment ; and a revenge, which I did not
think allowable upon the canoes of the very
ifland of Maouna, at the moment I was informed of
the dreadful event, could not be juftly taken four
days afterwards, in another ifland, and at fifteen
leagues from the field of battle. I contrived, then,
to appeafe the fermentation, and we continued our
exchanges. It was conduced with more tranquillity
and honefty than at the ifland of Maouna, becaufe
the fmalleft afts of injuftice were punifhed with
blows, or repreffed by threatening words and gestures. At four o'clock in the afternoon we brought
to abreaft of perhaps the largeft village that exifts in
any ifland of the South Sea, or rather oppofite a
very extenfive inclined plain, covered with houfes
from the fummit of the mountains to the water-fide.
Thefe mountains are nearly in the middle of the ifland,
whence the ground defcends with a gentle declivity,
and prefents to fhips an amphitheatre covered with
trees, huts, and verdure. We faw the fmoke rife
from the interior of the village as from the midft
of a great city ; while the fea was covered with
canoes, all of which endeavoured to approach our
H 4 veffels^
i 104
veffels, feverai of them being paddled along by
idle gazers, who, having nothing to fell, went round
and round our frigates, and appeared to have no
object in view, but to enjoy the fpectacle we
afforded them.
The prefence of the women and children,' who
were among them, might have led us to pre fume,
that they had no bad intention ; but we had great
reafon to truft no longer to fuch appearances, and
we were prepared to repel the leaft aft of hoftility,
in a manner that would have rendered the navigators formidable to the natives. I am a good deal
inclined to believe, that we are the firft who have
traded with thefe people. They were perfectly
unacquainted with iron, conftantly refufing that
which we offered them, and preferring a fingle
bead to an axe, or a nail fix inches long^ Rich
in the fubftantial bleffings of nature, they fought
in their exchanges nothing but fuperfluities, and
articles of luxury. Among a considerable number of women, I remarked two or three of agreeable countenance, who might be fuppofed to have
ferved as a model for the defign of the young
woman bearing prefents in Cook's third voyage. '
Their hair ornamented with flowers, and tied round
wh a green ribbon in the way of a bandeau, was
plaited with grafs and mofs; their fhape was elegant4;
their arms were well turned and admirably proportioned;   and   their   eyes,   their   countenances,
âfid their geftures, befpoke great fweetnefs of temper,
while thofe of the men exprefled nothing but fur-
prife and ferocity.
In the dufk of the evening we filled our fails
and "flood on, abreaft of the ifland, all the canoes
returning to the fhore. The beach, covered with
breakers, offered no fhelter to our fhips, becaufe
a high fea from the north-eaft broke with fury
againft the north coaft, along which we were navigating. If I had intended to anchor, I fhould
probably have found good fhelter on the weft
fide. In general, within the tropics, it is only
to leeward of the iflands that navigators ought to
feek an anchorage. The whole of the next day a
flat calm prevailed, with frequent flafhes of lightning followed by thunder and rain. Very few canoes
came alongfide, which led me to believe, that they
had heard at Oyolava of the event that had taken
place at Maouna. As it was poffible, however, that
they were kept in their ports by the rain and lightning, my conjecture may have been ill-founded;
but it acquired a high degree of probability on the
17 th, when we wrere abreaft of the ifland of Pola.
Though we approached much nearer to it than to
the former, not a fingle canoe came off. Hence I
prefumed, that thefe people had not yet made
fufficient progrefs in morality to know, that the
penalty ought only to fall upon the culpable, and
that the punifhment of the real affaffins could alone
fatisfy îo6 la perouse's voyage
iatisfy our vengeance. The ifland of Pola, fome-
what fmaller than that of Oyolava, but equally
beautiful, is only feparated from it by a channel
four leagues acrofs, which is itfelf interfered by
two iflots of fome little extent. One of them is
low, well wooded, and probably not deftitute of
inhabitants. The north coaft of Pola, like that of
the other iflands of this archipelago, affords no ac-
cefs to fhipping ; but on doubling its weft point,
the navigator will find a fmooth fea without breakers,
which promifes excellent roadfteds.
We had learnt from the natives of Maouna, that
the Navigators Iflands are ten in number; namely:
Opoun, the moft eafterly ; Leone, Fanfoue, Maouna, Oyolava, Calinaffe, Pola, Shika, Offamo, and
We are unacquainted with the pofition of the
laft three. The Indians, in the plan they traced,
laid them down fouth of Oyolava ; but if fo fituated, it is certain, that the courfe fleered by M.
Bougainville muft have brought him in fight of
them. Notwithftanding $11 the patience and faga-
city of M. Blondela, who took particular pains to
get fome geographical information out of the iflanders, he was perfectly unable to form any conjecture
concerning their bearings ; but the fequel of our
voyage taught us, that two of them may poffibly bç
Cocoa and Traitor iflands, laid down, according
15- too far
to captain Wallis's obfervations,
weft. ^
Opoun, the moft foutherly, as well as the moft
eafterly.of thefe iflands, is in 140 y1 fouth latitude,
,and 171 ° 27; 7/y weft longitude. Several geographers attribute this difcovery to Roggewein.
According to them he gave them the name of
Beaufnan's Iflands in 17 21 ; but neither the hiftorical
j[:4g$àils concerning thefe people, nor the geographical petition affigned to the iflands by the writer of
Roggewein's voyage*, agree with that opinion.
Let us hear what he fays on the fuhjecft himfelf.
§f We difcovered three iflands at the fame time,
€€ in the 12th degree of latitude, of a very agreeable
u appearance. We found them well flocked with
H fine fruit trees, and all forts of herbs, vegetables,
cc and plants. The natives, who came out to meet
<c our veffels, offered us a great variety of fifh,
" with cocoa-nuts, bananas, and other fruit. Thefe
cf iflands muft be very well peopled, fince at our
C€ arrival the beach was already crowded with feverai
<f thoufand men and women, the former armed with
|f bows and arrows.    All the inhabitants are white,
* The hiftorical relation of Roggewein's voyage, brought to
France by the prefident de Brofles, was written in the French
language in fl 739, by a German, a native of Mecklenburg,
and ferjeant of the troops embarked on board ftoggewein's
*c and L©8
la fGrouse's voyage
" and do not differ from Europeans, except that
" fome of them have their (kin- much burned by the
*c exceflive heat of the fun.    They appeared a good
** fort of people, lively and gay in conventions
" and kind and humane towards one another.  No*
f€ thin
«* ners
Kîno- indeed favage is obfervable in their mm*
Neither were their bodies painted' like
iC thofe whom we had before difcovered. They
*< were clad from the waift to the ancle with fringes
«of a filken fluff, fkilfully wrought; and their
u heads were covered with very large and fine hats,
*€ to protect them from the heat of the fun. Some
cc of thefe iflands were ten, fourteen, and ev*en
" twenty miles in circumference. We called them
** Beauman's Iflands, after the name of the captain
<c of the Tienhoven, by whom they were firft dif-
cc covered. It muft be confeffed (adds the author)
u that they are the moft civilized and honeft nation
€€ we have met with in the iflands of the South Sea.
u There is good anchorage all along the coafts of
" thefe iflands, in water from thirteen to twenty
« fathoms.'*
It will be feen in the fequel of this chapter, that thefe details have fcarcely the leaft relation
to thofe which we have to give concerning the
people of Navigators Iflands. As the geographical pofition is equally unlike, and as a German
chart exifts in which   the track of {toggewein is
marked, R0UΫ> THE WOn&Df
marked,   and   which   lays  down   thefe iflands in
15'°, I am juftified in  believing*  that Beau-mam's
Iflands are not the fan
ie as
which M.
Bmigam ville has given the name of NêïïiMiéfi
Iflands, It appears to me, however, neceffery to
let them retain that denomination, in order that â
eonfufion may not be introduced into geography
Very hurtful to the progrefs of the fcience. i Thsfë
Mands, fituated about the 140 of fouth latitude, and
between the 171ft and 175th degrees of weft ion-
j gitude, form one of the fineft archipelagoes of the
South Sea ; and are as interesting in point of arts,
productions, and population, as the Society and
Friendly Iflands, of which the Englifh navigators
have given us a defcription highly fatisfaétory. As
to the moral qualities of the natives, although our
intercourfe was, but of a moment's duration, we
had But too much reafon to be acquainted with
their difpofition, and we have no hefitation in affert-
ing, that it would be vain to endeavour to excite
thé fentiment of gratitude in their ferocious minds,
which are only to be reftrained by fear.
Thefe1 iflanders are the tailed and befl made
that we have yet met with. Their ufual height is five
feet nine, ten, and eleven inches ; but their ftatufe
is lefs aftoaifhirtg than the coloffal proportions of
the different parts of their bodies.    Our curibfity,
: which often led us to meafure them, gave them an
opportunity of making frequent corripârîfoïis "of their
bodily no
bodily ftrength with ours. Thefe comparifons were
not to our advantage; and we perhaps owe our
misfortunes to the idea of individual fuperiority
refulting from repeated trials. Their countenances often appeared to exprefs a fentiment of
difdain, which I hoped to deftroy, by ordering our
arms to be ufed in their prefence; but my end
could only have been gained by direéting them
againft human viétims; for, otherwife, they took
the noife for fport, and the trial for a diverfion.
Among thefe Indians a very fmall number is
below the height indicated above. I have, however, meafured feverai who were only five feet four
inches, but thefe are the dwarfs of the country; and
although their ftature refembles ours, their ftrong
and nervous arms, their broad chefts, and their legs
and thighs, are of a very different proportion. It
may be fafely faid, that they are in regard to Europeans, what Danifh horfes are in refpeét to thofe
of the different provinces of France.
The men have the body painted or tatowed, fb
that any one would fuppofe them clad, although
they go almoft naked. They have only a girdle of
fea weeds encircling their loins, which comes down
to their knees, and gives them the appearance of
the river gods of fabulous hiftory, whom it is cuf-
tomary to dépicSt with rufhes round their waift.
Their hair is very long. They often twift it round
their heads, and thus add to their native ferocity of
countenance, which always exprefles either furprife
or anger. The leaft difpute between them is followed by blows of flicks, clubs, or paddles, and
often, without doubt, cofts the combatants their lives;
They are almoft all covered with fears, which can
only be the confequence of their individual quarrels.
The flature of the women is proportioned to that
of the men; They are tall, (lender, and not without grace; but they lofe, while yet in their prime,
thofe elegant forms, of which nature has not broken
the mould among this barbarous race, but of which
£he appears to leave them in poffeffion only for a
moment, and with reludance. Among a great
number of women that I had an opportunity of
feeing, I only obferved three really pretty. The
grofs effrontery of the reft, the indecency of their
motions, and the difgufting offers which they made
of their favours, rendered them fit mothers and
wives for the ferocious beings that furrounded us.
As the hiftory of our voyage may add a few pages
to that of man, I fhall not expunge fome traits,
that might feem indecent in any other work. I
have to relate, then, that the very fmall number of
young and pretty females, of whom I have already
fpoken, foon attracted the attention of feverai
Frenchmen, who, in fpite of my prohibition, endeavoured to form a connexion with them. The
looks of the Europeans expreffed defires which
were foon divined ; fome old women undertook the
negotiation $ HZ
la pe'rouse's voyage
negotiation; the altar was prepared ki the hand-
fomeft hut in the village; and all the blinds were let
down, and the inqtiifitive eftckïded. Thé viâim
. was. then laid in the arms of an 6l$ îMan, Who exhorted her, during the ceremony, to moderate the
expreflion of her pain ; while the matfôtiK fang, and
howled ; the ceremony being perforrried in tbçïr
prefence, and under the aufpices of the old man,
who ferved at once as prieft and altar. All the
women arid children in the village were round the
houfe, gently lifting up the blinds^ and feeking to
enjoy the fight through the fmalleft crevices in the
mats. Whatever former navigators may have faid,
I am convinced, that in the Navigators iflands, at
leaft, the young girls, before they are married, are
miftreffes of their perfons, and that they are not
difhonoured by their complaifance. It! is even more
than probable, that in marrying they are called to
no account concerning their parft conducSt ; but I
have no doubt that they are obliged to bernôre re-
Terved when provided with a hufband.
Thefe people cultivate ' certain arts with fuccefs*
I have already fpoken of the elegant form which
they give to their huts. It is not without reafon
that they difdain our iriftruments of iron ; for they
finifh their work very neatly with tools made of a
very fine and compaft fpecies of bafaltes in the form
of an adze. For a few glafs beadè they fold us large
three-legged diflies, of a finglepiece of wood,-aid
fo well polifhed, that they Teemed to have been laid
over with a coat of the fineft varnifh. It would
take an European workman feverai days to produce one of thefe difhes, which, for want of proper
inftruments, muft coft an Indian feverai months labour. They fet, however, fcarcely any value upon
them, becaufe they fet little upon the time they employ. The fruit trees, and nutritious roots, that grow
fpontaneoufly around them, infure them their fub-
(iftence, as well as that of their hogs, dogs, and
fowls; and if they fometimes floop to work, it is to
procure enjoyments rather agreeable than ufeful.
They manufacture very fine mats, and fome paper-
fluffs. I remarked two or three of them whom I
took for chiefs, with a piece of cloth tied rotund their
waift like a petticoat, inftead of a girdle of weeds.
It is compofed of real thread, preparedj no doubt,
from fome filamentous plant like the nettle or flax ;
and is manufactured without a fhuttle, the threads
being abfolutely laid over one another like thofe of
their mats. This cloth, which has all the fupplenefs
and folidity of ours, is very fit for the fails of their
canoes; and appeared to us far fuperior to the paper
fluff of die Society and Friendly Iflands, which they
manufacture alfo. They fold us lèverai pieces ; but
they hold it very cheap, and make very little ufe of
it, the women preferring the fine mats which I
havefpoken of above.
We did not at firft difcover any identity between
Vol. III. 1 their ïï4
their language and that of the natives of the Society
and Friendly Iflands, of which we had vocabularies;
but a more mature examination convinced us, that
they fpeak a dialeél of the fame language. A fa&
which tends to prove it, and which confirms the
opinion of the Englifh concerning the origin of thefe
people, is that a young domeftic, a native of the
province of Tagayan in the north of Manilla, under-
ftood and explained to us the greater part of their
words. It is well known that the Tagayan, the
Talgal, and the generality of languages fpoken
in the Philippines, are derived from the Malay; a
language more diffufed than were thofe of the
Greeks and Romans, and common to the numerous
tribes, that inhabit the iflands of the great Pacific Ocean. It appears to me evident, that ail
thefe different nations are the progeny of Malay
colonies, which, in fome age extremely remote, con-*
quered the iflands they inhabit. I fhould not even
wonder, if the Chinefe and Egyptians, whofe antiquity is fo much vaunted, were mere moderns in
comparifon of the Malays. But however this may
be, I am fatisfied that the aborigines of the Philippine Iflands, Formofa, New Guinea, New Britain, the New Hebrides, the Friendly Iflands, &c.
in the fouthern hemifphere, and thofe of the Ma-
rianna and Sandwich iflands in the northern, were
that race of woolly-headed men flill found in the
interior of the iflands of Luconia and Formofa.
They feotrftï>'#fitE woRifik
They were not to be fubjugated in New Guinea,
New Britain, and the New Hebrides ; but being
overcome in the more eaftern iflands* which were
too fmall to afford them a retreat in the centre, they
mixed withihe conquering nation. Thence has re-
fulted a race of very black mm$ whofe colour is ftill
feverai fhades deeper than that of certain families of
the country, probably, becaufe the latter have made
it a point of honour to keep their blood unmixed.
I was ftruck with thefe two very diftin£t races in
the Iflands of Navigators, add cannot attribute to
them any other origin.
Thç defcendants of the Malays have acquired in
thofe iflands a degree of vigour and ftrength, a lofty
ftature, and a herculean form, which they do not
inherit from their forefathers, but which they owe,
without doubt, to an abundance of food, to a mild
climate, and to the influence of different phyfical
caufesi which have been conftantly a&ing during a
long feriès of generations* The arts, which they,
perhaps, brought with them, may have been loft for
want of materials and inftruments to pradtife them ;
but the identity of language, like Ariadne's clue,
enables the obferver to follow all the windings of
this hew labyrinth. The feudal government is alfo
preferved here: that government whichllittle tyrants may regret; which was the difgrace of Europe for feverai centuries; and of which the gothic
remains are ftill to be found in our laws, and are
I 2 the lib
the medals that atteft our ancient barbarifm : that
government, which is the nioft proper to keep up
a  ferocity  of manners, becaufe the  fmalleft dif-
putes occafion wars of village againft village, and
becaufe wars of this nature are conducfted without
magnanimity, and without courage.    Surprifes and
treachery are employed by turns, and in thefe unfortunate countries, inftead of generous warriors,
nothing is to be found but bafe affaffins.    The Malays are ftill the moft perfidious nation of Afia, and
their children have not degenerated, becaufe the
fame caufes have led to, and produced the fame effects.    It may be objected, perhaps, that it muft -
have been very difficult for the Malays to have made
their way from weft to eaft, to arrive at thefe different iflands; but the wefterly winds blow as frequently
as theeafterly in the vicinity of the equator/along a
zone of feven or eight degrees from north to fouth,
where the wind is fo variable, that it is hardly more dif-
cult to navigate eaft than weft. } Befides, thefe different conquefts may not have been effected at the fame
time : the people in queftion may, on the contrary,
have fpread themfelves by little and little, and gradually have introduced that form of government
which ftill exifts in the peninfula of Malacca, at Java, Sumatra, and at Borneo, as well as in all the other
countries fubjecft to that barbarous nation.
Among fifteen or eighteen hundred Indians, whom
we had an opportunity of obferving, thirty, at leaft,
had ROtJN-D THE WORLD. 11/
had the appearance of chiefs. They kept up a kind
of police, and belaboured the refradtory with their
flicks ; but the order, which they had the air of
wifhing to eftablifh, was tranfgreffed a minute afterwards. Never were fovereigns worfe obeyed ; never
were more frequent diftwders occafioned by anarchy
and a want of fubordination.
It is not without reafon, that M. de Bougainville
has named them the Navigators. They do not go
fo much as from one village to another on foot; but
perfoÉn all their journies in canoes. Their villages
are all fituated in creeks by the fea-fide, and have no
paths except to penetrate into the interior of the
country. The iflands we vifited were covered to
the $êhy fummit with fruit treesp'On which wood-
pigeons and turtle-doves, green, red, and of various
b&ler colours, were fitting." We alfo faw beautiful perroquets, a fpecies of black-bird, and even
partridges. It is by taming birds that the natives
charm away the tœdium that refults from their idle
mode  of life.    All their houfes were full of wood
1 pigeons, which they bartered with us by hundreds.
They alfo fold us more than three hundred galli-
nules of the moft beautiful plumage.
Their canoes have outriggers, are very fmall, and
* generally contain only five or fix perfons : fome few,
however, may contain as many as fourteen. They
do not appear to deferve the praife that navigators
have beftowed on their fwiftnefs.    I do not think
I 3 when îi8
when under fail that it exceeds feven knots; and
with their paddles they could not keep way with us
when we were running only four miles an hour.
Thefe Indians are fpch excellent ffyifcnmers, that
their canoes feem only to ferve them to reft them**
felves in As upon the leaft falfe movement they
fill, they are obliged every moment to leap into the
fea, take up their firing veffels upon their fhoul-
ders, and pour out the water. They fometimes joia
two togetter by means of a crofs-piece of wood, tr|
which they make a flep to receive the maft. In
this vmy they are lefs likely to overfet, and can pees
ferve their provifion during a long voyage. Theif
fââlkmf of matting, or of maafcd cloth, are extended
by a fprit, and do not deferve a particular defcrig*
Their only modes of fHfefeig are v^içh the hoplf
and liiie, and fweep-net. They fold us fome of the
&çt$, and baits of mother of pearl, and white fhells
very fkilfully wrought. Thefe inftruments are in
the fh^pe of flying fifh, and have a hook attached to
them made ôf tortoife-fhell, and ftrong enough tq
hold a tunny, boneta, or dorado. They exchanged
{heir largeft fifh for a few glafs beads, and it was eafy
fo fee by their eagernefs, that they were in no fear of
wanting food.
The iflands of this archipelago, that I vifited, ap«*
peared to me volcanic.    All the ftones of the beach*
gjiwhich the fea breaks with fuch fury as to throw
3 up ROUND   THE   WORLD, Iig
up the water more than fifty feet high, are nothing
but pieces of lava, or bafakes in the form of pebbles, and of coral, with which the whole ifland
is furrounded. The coral leaves in the middle of
almoft all the creeks a paffage, which, though narrow, is fqf^cient for canoes, and even for boats and
long boats; and thus forms little ports for the navy
of the iflanders, who never leave their canoes in the
water; but on coming afhore lodge them near their
houfes, under thefhade of treej;. They are fo light
that two men can carry them upon their fhoulders
with eafe.
The moft lively imagination would find it difficult, to figure to itfelf fituations more agreeable than
thofe of their villages. All the houfes are built under fruit trees, which keep them delightfully cool.
They are featedupon the borders of ftreams, which
run down from the mountains, and by the fide of
which are paths, that lead into the interior of the
ifland. The principal objedt of their architecture
is to protedt them from the heat, and I have already
laid, that to this advantage they add that of elegance. Thefe houfes are fufficiently fpacious to
lodge feverai families; and are furrounded with
fj^finds, which are drawn up to windward, and fhut
upon the funny fide. The iflanders fleep upon very
fine and clean mats, perfedlly out of the way of all
humidity. We perceived np morai ; neither can
we fay any thing of their religious rites.
I 4 Thefe 130
Thefe iflands abound with hogs, dogs, fowls,
birds, and fifh. They are alfo covered with cocoa-
nut, guava, and banana trees, as well as another tree
bearing a large nut that is eaten roafted, and that in
tafle much refembles a chefnut. Sugar-canes grow
fpontaneoufly upon the banks of the rivers ; but
they are watery, and contain lefs facçharine matter
than thofe of our Weft India iflands ; a difference
which proceeds, no doubt, from their growing in
the fhade, without cultivation, and upon too rank a
Notwithftanding the danser of making an excur-
fion into the interior of the ifland, Meffieurs de la
Martinière and Collignon rather followed the im-
pulfions of their zeal, than the didlates of prudence;
and, at the time of the landing that proved fo fatal
to us, advanced fome diftance inland in order to make
bptanical difcoveries. The Indians exadted a glafs
bead for every plant picked up by M. de la Martinière, and threatened to knock him down when he
réfufed to make them the retribution required.
Followed by a florm of ftones at the moment of
the maffacre, he fwam to the barges, with his bag
of plants upon his back, and by thefe means brought
them fafe on board. Till then we had perceived
no other arms but clubs, or patow-patows ; but M.
Boutin affured me, that he had feen feverai bundles
of arrows in their hands, but nothing like a bow. I am
inclined to think, that what he took for arrows were
only lances, which ferve them to,ftrike fifh. Their
effedt in a battle would be far lefs murderous than
that of ftones of two or three pounds weight, which
they throw with inconceivable vigour and addrefs.
Thefe iflands are exceedingly fertile, and I fhould
fuppofe, that their population is very confiderablc
The eaftern ones, Opoun, Leone, and Fanfoué,
areTdiill, efpecially the laft two, which are about
five miles in circumference ; but Maouna, Oyolava,
and Pola, may be numbered among the largeft and
moft beautiful of the South fea. The accounts of
£tl$e^ different navigators prefent no pidture to the
imagination at all comparable to the beauty and immenfe extent of the village, to leeward of which we
lay to on the north coaft of Oyolava. Although^
was almoft night when we arrived there, we were
inftantly furrounded with canoes, that curiofity, or
the defire of traffick, had brought out of their
ports. Several of them had nothing on board, and
only came to enjoy the novel fight we afforded
them. There were fome among them extremely
fmall, containing only a Tingle man, and covered
with ornaments. As they paddled round the fhips
without making any exchanges, we called them
whifkies (cabriolets),, of which they poffefs the bad
qualities ; for the flighteft contadt of the other canoes
overfet them every moment. We had alfo a near
view of the great and noble ifland of Pola ; but we
had no intercourfe with its inhabitants. On doubling IZZ
bling the weftern part of this laft-mentioned ifland
we perceived fmooth water, which promifed good
anchorage as long, at leaft, as the wind fhould blow
from the eaftward, but the fermentation among the
crew was too great to permit me to think of coming
to an anchor. After the event that had happeï^Èl
%o us, I could not prudently fend our feamen afhore,
-without arming each man with a mufket, and each
boat with a fwivel ; and then the confcioufhefs of
their ftrength, added to their defire of revenge,
would perhaps have induced them to reprefs the
fmalleft adt of injuftice on the part of the favages
"with mufket fhot. Befides, in thefe bad anchorages
a fhip runs a rifk of being loft, when unprovided
with a boat capable of carrying out an anchor, by
which fhe may warp out.
It was in confequence of thefe confiderations, that
I determined, as I have already faid, not to anchor
till I Ihould reach Botany Bay, confining myfelf to
purfue fuch tracks in the different archipelagoes,
as were likely to lead me to new difcoveries.
When we had weathered the weftern coaft of the
ifland of Pola, we loft fight of all land. We had
feen nothing of three iflands which the favages
had called Shika, Offamon, and Ouera, and to which'
they had affigned a pofition fouth of Oyolava. I
made every effort to fland to the fouth-fouth-eaft ;
but was at firft prevented by a breeze from the eaft-
fouth-eaft, To light that we' only ran ten or twelve
league^ ROUND THE WORLD. ï$3
leagues a day.    At laft it fhifted fucc^ïïvejy to the
north, and north-eaft, which enabled me to make
eafting in my courfe, and on the 20th I got fighç
of a round ifland» precifely fouth of Oyolava, but
pearly forty leagues off.    M. de Bougainville, who
paffed between thefe iflands, did not pçrcejve the
former, becaufe he was a few leagues too far to the
northward.    Want of wind did not permit me to
approach it that day;   but on the following I ran
within two leagues of the coaft, and faw two other
iflands to the fouthward, which I plainly difcovered
to   be Cocoa and Traitors iflands of Schouten.
Cocoa Ifland is very lofty, and in the fhape of a
fugar-loaf : it is covered with trees to the fummit,
is nearly  a league in diameter,   and is feparated
from Traitors Ifland by a channel about three miles
wide.    This channel is itfelf interfedted by a fmall
ifland, which we perceived at the north-weft point
pfthe one laft mentioned.    Traitors Ifland is low
^nd flat, with only a hill of fame  height in the
middle ; and is divided into two parts by a channel,
of which the mouth   is about   150 toifes wide.
Sçhouten had no opportunity of feeing it, becaufe for
fhat purpofe it is neceffary to be in the oppofite point
of the compafs; we ourfelves fhould not have even
fufpedted its exiftence, if we had not run clofe iq
with that quarter of the ifland.    We had no longer
any doubt that thefe three iflands, of which two alone
. <3eferve the name, were in the number of the ten,
1 124
M; I
which, according to the accounts of the favages,
compofe the archipelago of the Navigators. As it
blew very frefh from the north-weft, as the weather
had a very threatening appearance, .and as it was
late in the day, I w£s very Kttle furprifed at feeing
no canoe come on board, and determined to pafs
the night in Handing off and on, in order to reconnoitre the land the following day, and to trade with
fkù Indians for a few refrefhments. The weather
was fqually, and the wind only varied from north-
weft to north-north-weft. I had perceived fome
breakers on the north-weft point of the Little Ifland
of Traitors, which made me work out a little into
the offing. At day break I neared the laft-men-
tioned ifland, which, being lower and more exten-
five than Cocoa Ifland, I thought likely to be better
peopled. At eight o'clock in the morning I
brought to to the weft-fouth-weft at two miles from
a fandy bay which is in the weftern part of the
Great Ifland of Traitors, and in which I did not
doubt finding an anchorage fheltered from eafterly
winds. About twenty canoes immediately left the
fhore, and approached the fhips in order to make
exchanges : feverai had alio come out of the channel
that divides the Ifland of Traitors ; and were loaded
with the fineft cocoa-nuts I had ever feen, with a
fmall number of bananas, and with a few yams.
One alone brought out a fmall hog and three or
rlgjar fowls. It was eafy to perceive, that thefe Indians had already either feen or heard of Europeans. They approached without fear, traded with.
a good deal of honefly, and never refufed, like the
natives of the archipelago of Navigators, to give
their fruit before they were paid for it ; or, like
them, did they give a preference, to beads over
nails and pieces of iron. They fpoke, however, the
fame language, 'and had the fame ferocious look ;
their drefs, their manner of tatowing, and the form
of their canoes, were the fame; nor could we doubt
that they were one and the fame people : they differed, indeed, in having univerfally two joints cut off
from the little finger of the left hand, whereas in
the iflands of Navigators I only perceived two individuals, who had fuffered that operation. They
were alfo of much lower flature, and far lefs gigantic make ; a difference proceeding, no doubt, from
the foil of thefe iflands, which being lefs fertile, is
confequently lefs favourable to the expanfion of the
human frame. Every ifland that we faw recalled to
our minds fome trait or other of Indian perfidy :
Roggewein's crew had been attacked and floned at
the Recreation Iflands to the eaftward of the Iflands
of Navigators ; Schouten's at Traitors Ifland, which
was in fight, and lay j fouth of that of Maouna,
where we had ourfelves been treated in io atrocious a manner. Thefe reflections had changed our'
mode of acting in regard to the Indians.    We re-
preffed tiS
preffed by force the fmalleft adts of injuftice, or the
tnoft trifling thefts ; we fhewed them by the effedts
of our arms, that flight would not fave them
from our refentment ; we refofed them permiffiori
to come on board, and we threatened to punifh with
death thofe who fhould dare to violate the prohibition. This condudt was a thoufand times preferable to our former moderation; and if we had any
reafon for regret, it was our having arrived among
thefe people with principles of mildnefs and patience. Reafon and common fenfe tell us, that wé
have a right to employ force againft the man who
we well know would be our affaffin, if he were not
rcftrained by fear.
The 23d, at noon, while we were trading for
cocoa-nuts with the Indians, we were affailed by a
heavy fquall from the weft-fouth-weft, which dif-
perfed the canoes. Many were overfet, and after
righting again paddled away in hafte for the land-.
Notwithftanding the threatening ftate of the weather, we made the complete circuit of Traitors
Ifland, in order to difcover all its points, and lay
down the plan of it with precifion. M. Dagelet
had taken a very good obfervation of the latitude
at noon, and in the morning had obferved the longitude of both iflands, which enabled him to redti^r
the pofition afligned to them by Wallis. At four
o'clock I made the figaal to fleer fouth-ibuth-eaft
toward*  M
p   i
POLA tn&enatl
ùlken at JH
—— BM'lft'wimmiii tn*
? i7S7
JmJ  —*—      Minium    anuanHBSE
towards th» archipelago of the Friendly Iflands,
jnirpofing to reconnoitre fuch as captain Cook had
not had an opportunity of exploring, and which, ac*
cording to his accounts, I might expedt to find to
the north of Inamooka.
Departure from the Iflands of Navigators.—We direct
our route towards the Friendly Iflands.—Fall in
with the ifland of Vavao, and feverai others of that
archipelago very ill laid down in the charts.—
The inhabitants of Tongataboo h aft en on board to
trade with us.—We anchor at Norfolk Ifland.—-
Defcription of that ifland.—Arrival at Botany
(DECEMBER   1787-      JANUARY   If SB.)
The night after our departure from Traitors
Ifland was a dreadful one. The wind fhifted to the
weft, and blew hard, with a great deal of rain. As
the horizon did not extend a league at funfet, I lay
to till the next morning with the fhip's head to the
fouth-fouth-weft, the weft wind ftill continuing
violent, and being ftill accompanied by heavy
All thofe who had any fymptoms of fcurvy fuf-
fered exceedingly from the humidity of the atmo-
fphere. None, indeed, of the crew, was attacked
by that difeafe; but the officers, and our fervants
in particular, began to feel its effedts. I attributed
!'   7 it ^Zatiûtde0fth£udn£ÏwringIïa£ejL4?zi 4.3"South,
andrfie£ongèàidex86°4.o 07 East.   \
oflîirt of
th_e Island of
Marthe   Mû&s
à\ jé,,\ \'r^fe^ite': ,ëe'tiïïa.o\'^
Bmtùm of the Zona Boats
' dCBa/yes oftheFrencfi
Jftçates a tike time of
. theJdassacre,
\.laBou&ïoleJ loiuj lioat
^.lAstrolabes   d?    d.°
C. laJBottssoles Barge
TXlAstroiabes   d?
jWe o/" r^w^j-  ROUND THE WORLD. 129
It to the want of frefh provifion, which was lefs
fenfibly felt by the failors than by the domeftics,
who had never been at fea, and confequendy were
not accuftomed to fuch privations. A man of the
name of David, the gun-room cook, died on the
loth, of a fcorbutic dropfy. Since our departure
from Breft, not one individual on board the Bouf-
fole had before died a natural death ; and if we had
only made a common voyage round the world, we s
fhould have returned to Europe without the lofs
of a fingle man. The laft months of a long voyage are always the moft difficult to fupport ; the
body grows weaker with time, and the provifion
fpoils ; but if there be limits that cannot be paffed,
in the length of voyages of difcovery, it is important to be acquainted with thofe that may be attained ;
and I think that on our return to Europe the experiment in that refpedt will be complete. Of all
the known prefervatives againft the fcurvy, melaffes
and fpruce beer are, in my opinion, the moft efficacious. Our fhips companies continued*to drink
them in hot climates; a bottle per day being dif-
tributed to each perfon with half a pint of wine,
and a fmall glafs of brandy, diluted with a great
deal of water ; which ferved to render their provifion more palateable. The great quantity of hogs
which we had procured at Maouna was but a tran-
fient rcfource. As we could not fait them becaufe
they were too fmall, or keep them for want of
Vol. III. K proper
<, (go
proper food for their fubfiftence, I determined to
ferve out frefh pork twice a day to my crew :
then the fwefiing of the legs and all the other
fymptoms of fcurvy difappeared. This new regimen had the fame effedt upon our health as a long
flay in port; which proves, that feamen have a lefs
urgent need of land air than of falubrious aliments.
The north-north-weft winds followed us beyond
the archipelago of the Friendly Iflands. They
were always accompanied with rain, and bkfw as
hard as the weftern gales that often prevail in
the winter upon the coaft of Brittany. We knew
very well, that we were in the winter fealbn, and
confequently in that of ftorms and hurricanes; but
we did not expedt to meet with fuch confiant bad
weather. The 27th of December, we difcovered
the ifland of Vavao, of which the weftern point at
noon bore precifely weft, our latitude being 180
34'. This ifland, which captain Cook never vifited,
but with the exiftence of which he was acquainted
by the report of the inhabitants of the Friendly
Intends, is one of that archipelago** being not only almoft equal to that of Tongataboo in extent, but having, from its greater elevation, the advantage over it
of never^ wanftfig frefh water. It is in the midft of à
great number of other iflands, which, no doubt, bear
the names captain Cook has given a lift of, but
which it would be extremely difficult for us to
clafs. It would be unjuft to attribute to ourfelves
this difcovery, which is due to the Spanifh pilot
Maurelle, and which adds to the archipelago of
the Friendly Iflands a number almoft as confider-
able as that of thofe already explored by the Englifh navigator.
I had procured at China an extradt from the
journal of the above Spanifh pilot, who fet off from
Manilla in 1781, to execute a commiffion in America. He purpofed going thither by the fouthern
hemifphere, following pretty nearly M. de Surville's
track, and endeavouring to get into a high latitude,
where'he expedtçd with reafon to meet with wefterly
winds. Maurelle was unacquainted with the new
methods of determining the longitude ; nor had he
ever read any of the relations of modern navigators;
but was guided in his voyage by the old French
charts of Bellin, and make amends by the greateft
exadtnefs in his reckoning and bearings, for the im-
perfedtions of his method, of his inftruments, and of
his charts. Like M. de Surville, he coafted along
New Ireland, and perceived feverai fmall iflands
which Mefïïeurs de Bougainville, Carteret, and Sur-
ville, had already gotten fight of. He alfo difcovered three or four new ones, and thinking himfelf
near Solomon's- Iflands, fell in with a land to the
north of Vavao, which he called Magoura, becaufe
it did not afford him any of the refrefhme ts if which
he flood in need. He had no opportunity of feeing
K 2 another tàz
another ifland to the eaft of it, which we fully difcover-*
ed^ and which cannot be perceived at more than three
or four leagues diftance, on account of its being
very low and flat. At length he arrived at Vavao,
where he anchored in a pretty good port, and procured water, and a confiderable quantity of provifion. The particulars of his relation were fo true,
that it was impoflible not to recognize the Friendly
Iflands, and equally difficult to miftake the portrait
of Poulaho, who, being principal chief of all thofe
iflands, inhabits feverai of them ocafionally, but
feems to make Vavao his more particular refidence.
I fhall enter into no farther details of this voyage,
which I have only mentioned from a principle of
juftice towards pilot Maurelle. Lie had called the
duller of Vavao the Iflands of Majorca, after the
name of the viceroy of New Spain, and that of
Happaee, the Iflands of Galvez, after the name of
the brother of the minifter for thç Indian depart*
ment; but being perfuaded that it is infinitely
preferable to preferve the country names, I thought
proper to infert no others in M. Bernizet's plan.
That plan has been conftrudted according to the
latitudes and longitudes determined by M. Dagelet,
far more exadt than thofe of the Spanifh navigator,
who laid down thefe iflands about fix degrees too
far to the weftward. This error, copied from 'cen-s.
tury to, century, and iandtioned by fucceflive
geographers,   would have given birth  to a new
•archipelago, ROUND THE WORLD.
archipelago, having no real exiftence but in the
We made feverai boards during the 27th, in
order to near the ifland of Vavao, from which we
were kept at a fmaH diftance by the weft-north-weft
wind. Having made a long ftretch to the northward during the night, by way of extending my view
twelve or fifteen leagues beyond the ifland, I got
fight of Maurelle's Magoura, which bore eaft ; and
having approached it, I faw another ifland, of little
elevation, and covered with trees. The ifland of
Magoura, on the contrary, is high land, and it is
more than probable that both of them are inhabited. After we had taken all our bearings, I bore
up for the ifland of Vavao, which was only to be
feen from the maft head. It is the moft confider-
able of the Friendly archipelago, the other iflands
fcattered to the northward and weftward not being
comparable to it. Towards noon, I was at the entrance of the port in which Maurelle had anchored.
It is formed by fmall iflands of fome elevation,
which have narrow, but very deep paflages between
them, and which afford complete fhelter againft the
winds from the offing. This harbour, infinitely fu-
perior to that of Tongataboo, would have fuited
me perfedtly well for a flay of a few days ; but the
anchorage is within two cables length of the fhore;
and in that pofition, a long-boat is often neceffary
to carry out an anchor in order to get off the coaft.
K 3 Everv ÏS4
Every inflant I was tempted to lay afide the plan
I had formed when leaving Maouna, of putting
into no port till 1 fhould reach Botany Bay; but
reafon and prudence made ,me refume it. I was
defirous, however, of making fome acquaintance
with the iflanders ; and brought to at a fmall diftance from the land ; but not a fingle canoe came
Hear the fhips. The weather was fo bad, and the
fky wore fuch a threatening afpedt, that I was little
furprifed at it; and as the horizon became every moment more and more loaded with clouds, I flood
away myfelf to the weftward before night came on,
fleering towards the ifland of Latte, of which we were
in fight, and which in clear weather is to be feen
tit twenty leagues diftance. The name of Latte is
mentioned in the lift of the Friendly Iflands given
by Cooke; and it was alfo affigned to the fame
ifland by Maurelle, in his Journal, in confequence
of information given him by the inhabitants of
Vavao, who told him befides, that it was inhabited,
and that fhips might anchor there, It is eafy from
this to perceive how much it imports to geography
to preferve the true names of countries ; for if, like
the navigators of former times, or like Maurelle
himfelf we had had an error of {even or eight degrees in our longkude, we might have fuppofed, on
meeting with this ifland, that we were at a great
diftance from the Friendly archipelago. The conformity of language, of manners, and of drefs, would
not have fufficed to remove our doubts, becaufe it
is well known, that there is a great refemblance between all thefe people, though fituate very far
from one another ; whereas the identity of name,
and a very flight defcription of the figure and extent of the ifland, formed a certain proof of the
identity of place.
The following night was dreadful : the darknefs
in which we were involved was fo impenetrable,
that it was impoffible to fee anything around us.
As in this ftate of the atmofphere it would have
been very imprudent to fland on in the midft of fo
many iflands, I determined to make fhort tacks till
day-break ; but when the day came, it was ftill
more tempeftuous than the night. The barometer
had fallen three lines, and if it were poflible for a hurricane to blow harder, it certainly could not be announced by weather of a more unpleafant appearance. I fleered a courfe, however, for the ifland of
Latte, and flood within two miles of it, though
very certain that no canoe would dare to put to
fea. I was fo overpreffed under that ifland by a
fquall, that I was obliged to bear away towards the
iflands of Kao, and Toofoa, from which we muft
have been but at fmall diftance, although the mift
did not permit us to diftinguifh them. Thefe two
iflands were laid down for the firft time upon
captain Cook's charts. He paffed through the
channel two miles in width, that  feparates them
from one another, and determined the latitude
and longitude with the greateft accuracy. It was
highly defirabje for us to take this opportunity of
verifying the longitude given by our time-keepers.
It is true, that I purpofed going near enough to
Tongataboo, in order entirely to complete the
comparifon. M. Dagelet with reafon regarded the
obiervatory of Tongataboo as that of Greenwich,
the determination of its latitude and longitude
being the refult of rpore than ten thoufand fets of
obfervations, t^ken in the fpace of four or five
months by the indefatigable Cook. At five
o'clock,in the evening, the weather cleared up, and our view the ifland ofKao, refembling
in form a very lqfty cone, and perceptible at the
diftance of thirty-leagues, when the atmofphere is
clear. The ifland of Toofoa, though alfo very
high, did not fhew itfelf, but continuçd ftill enveloped in the fog. I paffed the night, like the
preceding one, flanding off and on, but under the
main-top-fail and fore-fail only; for it blew fo
frefh, that we could carry no other fail. The
next day the weather was tolerably clear, and at
fun-rife the iflands of Kao and Toofoa were both
in fight. I ran within half a league of the latter,
and convinced myfelf that it was uninhabited, three
parts of the way round at leaft; for I flood near
enough in to diftinguifh the ftones upon the beach.
This ifland   is  very mountainous  and   fteep;   is
covered with trees to the fummit; and may be
about four leagues in circumference. I imaginç
that the inhabitants of Tongataboo, and the other