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Array  THE LIBRARY
THE UNIVERSITY OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Gift of
Mr. W.P. Pearce.
il     The Author.       Coming to Winnipeg in the very early days, the author,
Mr. William Pearce, has ever since been a most interested observer of
and active participant in the development of the four Western Provinces.
For many years as a surveyor and agent of the Dominion
Government and later as an officer in the Natural Resources Department
of the Canadian Pacific Railway Company at Calgary, he has had unique
opportunities of travel throughout the West, and of securing at first
hand full information on the topics concerning which he writes.
These advantages, reinforced by a keen observation, a retentive memory, a ripe judgment and a scrupulous care for accuracy make
his record of exceptional historic value.
The Revision. The wording of the original manuscript has been preserved
except where changes seemed necessary for the sake of brevity or clearness.
In most of the chapters re-arrangement of material has
been made in order to secure a better sequence of thought. In a few
instances for the same reason material has been transferred from one
chapter to another.
References to statutes and books which somewhat cumbered
the text have been withdrawn and placed under indices at the foot of the
page. A table of Contents has been placed at the beginning of each
chapter.
The system of paging of each part or number of the
manuscript separately at the top of the sheets has been allowed to stand.
It will be useful in referring to the original» But in order to
prepare an index of the whole work it has been re-paged at the bottom
of the sheets also, and this pagination is used in the Table of Contents,
the Contents of Chapters, and the Index»
J. Ao Jaffary
Provincial Librarian
Edmonton, Alberta,
November 7th, 1925»  WILLIAM
Statistician to the Department of Colonization and Development,
C.P.R., Calgary, Alberta.    Born Dunwich Township, Elgin County, Ontario,
I February 1st, 1848, son of John and Elizabeth (Moorehouse) Pearce.
Educated: Public Schools; County Grammar School,  St. Thomas, Ontario,
Toronto University.      Engaged on private and railway surveys until 1873J
in charge of survey parties on survey of standard meridians and parallels,
? Manitoba and Northwest,  1874-1881.      Appointed Inspector of Agencies on
Dominion Lands Board, 1882j appointed Superintendent of Mines, 1884, having
charge of investigating, reporting and making recommendations on all daims
to land of which the greater part were half-breed land claims,  extending
from the Red River to the Rocky Mountains, and from the 49th to 56th parallel
of latitude, also all conflicting claims to land by settlers or arising out
of confliction of various large interests;  engaged largely on adjustment of
railway land grants,  etc., 1898-1901; Chief Inspector of Surveys, 1901-1904;
voluntarily left the service of the Government, 1904, since when has been
connected with administration of irrigated and other lands and the lands in
British Columbia, for the C. P. R.:    largely engaged reporting on probable
resources of many districts in Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British
Columbia, particularly the drainage of the Athabasca and Peace rivers.    First
person to direct attention to irrigation in Canada east  of the Mountains.
Married Margaret A. Meyer, daughter of L. Meyer, Seaforther, Ontario, 1881,
Clubs:    Manitoba, Winnipeg; Ranchman's Club, Calgary.    Recreations:    Travel.
Conservative. Anglican. Residence:    2014, 17th Avenue East, Calgary, Alberta.
• Who's Who and Why, 1917-1918.  CONTENTS
Page
Chapter I
Titles to land in the Three Prairie Provinces.
Early Administration and Development.•».......
Chapter II Railways.o,.».».»»»»,»»».»...»...»...»».......
Chapter III Postal Communication in the three Prairie Provinces.
Chapter IV Postal Communication in British Columbia .....
Chapter V Telegraph and Telephone Communication.........
Chapter VI Early Navigation of Rivers»»....»».«...»....••
Chapter VII Transportation and routes of same No. 1 ......
Chapter VIII Transportation No. 2 Survey of International
Boundary and Trail in Connection therewith
Chapter IX
Chapter X
Chapter
XI
Transportation No. 3» Route travelled by the
North West Mounted Police in 1874»•	
Transportation No. 4. Bull Trains and String
Teams».».
Half-breed Settlements in districts that are now
Alberta and Saskatchewan».»»........
Chapter XII Whiskey and Fur Trading Posts in Southern Alberta
Chapter XIII Buffalo Pounds and Extermination of Buffalo...»
Chapter XIV Wolfers...	
1
61
96
110
128
133
145
157
162
169
174
175a
183
189
191  CHAPTER      I.
TITLES    TO    LAND    IN    THE    THREE    PRAIRIE    PROVINCES.
EARLY    ADMINISTRATION    AND    DEVELOPMENT  TITLES TO LAND
EARLY ADMINISTRATION AND DEVELOPMENT
CONTENTS PAGE
First title vested in Hudson's Bay Company.  6
Transfer to Government of Canada..».....»,. ».  6
Hudson's Bay Company's lands  8, 9
Earl of Selkirk*s grant  10
Council of Assiniboia »... <,„..  10
Surveys by direction of Council of Assiniboia.»  11
Surveys for the West - history of system adopted.............. 12
Manitoba:
Boundaries  14
Legislature  15
Keewatin:
Boundaries..,...«  15
Lieutenant Governor.  15
North West Territories
Lieutenant Governor and Council».». «,.  15, 16
Legislative Assembly» ....,  16
Provisional Districts of Assiniboia, Saskatchewan,
Alberta and Athabasca set apart, 1882.  17
Unorganized territory divided into Ungava, Franklin, Mackenzie
and Yukon, 1895. » 17
Surveys required by the Manitoba Act for quieting of titles... 18
Half-breed land grants in Manitoba..,..  19, 22
"   • "   "    "   " North West Territories.........  23
Scrip for white settlers:
Members of Wolesley Expedit ion 1869-70  24
N. W. M. Police..».»..  24
Scrip to settle land deficiencies...........  25
Volunteers for North West Rebellion 1885 and
South African war.  25
Administration of Half-breed lands and scrip issues.....  25
Rights of Common, Park Claims and staked claims  26, 28
Squatters' rights in North West Territories................... 29
Indian reserves  ;  30
Homesteads  31
Preemptions,,  32
Reservations s
Mile Belt reservation..  33
Towns it e»»«...,,.,,. »,......  33
Government town plots•......................o................. 34
Hamlet system of settlement :-
Mennonites  35? 37
Mormons,  36
Various other colonization schemes».,.  37s 38
Grazing lands » ».  40
Stock watering and shelter reservations..,..  41
Coal and other minerals reserved......  42
Privy Council upheld claims of Sir John Lester-Kay
Co. and C. & E. Ry.Co. to minerals on their lands... 42
Marble and stone quarries reserved......  52
Squatters «...  43 Jt TITLES TO LAND
EARLY ADMINISTRATION AND DEVELOPMENT
CONTENTS
(Concluded)
Railway Land grants:
Canadian Pacific Ry. '
Various 0. C.'s re. lands prior to charter 1881......
Grant by charter 1881	
Irrigation block	
Land free of taxation for twenty years.........	
Privy Council's decision re........	
Prices of C. P. R, Land	
Sale of lands to C. N. W. Land Co.....	
Canadian Northern Ry	
Winnipeg & Hudson1 s Bay Ry	
Various other railway lines.	
School Lands:
Squatters on.	
Administration policy......,,	
For support of public schools only, ,	
University of Manitoba grant	
Swamp lands»• »..,.,..	
Irrigation, lands for• •	
Reservations for public uses for religious organizations and for
Agricultural schools.	
Hay lands, ».	
Wood lets. Forest tree culture..» ,	
National Parks»	
Wild fowl breeding grounds»...»	
Timber limits	
Torrens system of title,.. •	
Page
44
45
46
46
47
47
48
48
48
48
49
49
50
50, 51
50
52
57
54
55
51
5ô
59
60  TITLES TO HAND IN THE THREE PRAIRIE PROVINCES
ALSO
MATTERS RELATING TO THE EARLY ADMINISTRATION AND
DEVELOPMENT, TOGETHER WITH SOME INCIDENTS
IN CONNECTION THEREWITH.
The first title to land in the three Prairie Provinces and the North-West
Territories was vested in the Hudson's Bay Company under Royal Charter, from
Charles II, May 2nd, 1670.  These lands were conveyed by what is styled the
Deed of Surrender which appears in an Imperial Order-in-Council dated at Windsor,
23rd June, 1870.  (Statutes of Canada 1872- pp. LXIII to LXXXIII).
TRANSFER TO THE GOVERNMENT OF CANADA
By Clause 146 of the British North America Act 1867 under certain conditions
the Parliament of Canada was authorized to admit Rupert's Land and the North
West Territories, or either of them, into the Union.    Rupert's Land was confined
to the country which had its drainage into the Hudson Bay; the North-West
Territories to that which had its drainage into other than the Hudson Bay, as
for instance,  into the Mackenzie or the Yukon.    There is a small portion of
Alberta in the Mississippi drainage.
An address to Her Majesty the Queen,  from the Senate and Commons of Canada,
dated 16th and 17th December, 1867, praying Her Majesty to unite Rupert's Land
and the North-West Territory to the Dominion was presented,  and on the 23rd of
April 1868, the Secretary of State for the Colonies expressed Her Majesty's
willingness to comply with the prayer of the address..
By an Order-in-Council October 1st, 1868, the Hon. Sie George Etienne
Cartier, and the Hon. William McDougall, were appointed a delegation to England
to arrange the terms under which Canada would acquire such Hudson's Bay Company's
rights.    Sir Stafford H. Northcote, then Governor of the Company, acted on its
behalf.
The first signed agreements which were memoranda subject to approval by
the British and Canadian Governments, were dated 22nd and 29th March, 1869»
They incorporated certain terms recited in a letter from Sir Frederick Rogers,
Under Secretary of State for the Colonies,  of 9th March I869, which letter was
addressed by the British Government both to the Company and to the Canadian
Delegates.
This matter was approved of by Her Majesty's Government on the 23rd June
1870, and the date fixed as the date of surrender was the 15th July, 1870.  A consideration of 300,000 pounds sterling was paid to the Hudson's
Bay Company by Canada.
According to that agreement, within the fertile belt the Company was to
receive one-twentieth of all the land laid out for settlement within fifty
years of date of surrender.    The fertile belt was described as:  - bounded on
the South by the International Boundary, - on the north by the North Saskatchewan,  - on the east by Lake Winnipeg, the Lake  of the Woods,  and the waters
connecting them,  - and on the west by the Rocky Mountains»    This  one-twentieth
was eventually satisfied by the giving of the Company Section 8,  and the South
half and North-West quarter of Section 26 in all regular townships, and the
North-East quarter of Section 26 in Township 5 and all multiples of five.
Special allotments were made in irregular or fractional townships.
In addition the Company was to retain:-
"All the Posts or Stations now actually possessed and occupied by them, or their
Officers  or Agents,  whether in Rupert's Land or any other part of British North
America, and may within twelve months after the acceptance of the said surrender
select a block of land adjoining each of their Posts or Stations within any
part of British North America not comprised in Canada and British Columbia,  in
conformity,  except as regards the Red River Territory, with a list made out by
the Company, and communicated to the Canadian Ministers, being the list in the
annexed schedule.    The actual schedule is to be proceeded 'with all convenient
speed."      The total area not to exceed 50,000 acres.
The said Schedule states:-
For Upper Fort Garry,   (now Winnipeg),  Lower Fort Garry,  and the White Horse
Plains,  such number of acres as may be agreed upon between the Company and the
Governor of Canada in Council.
It was afterwards arranged that so far as Red River was concerned, there
should be 500 acres at Upper Fort Garry, 500 acres at Lower Fort Garry, and
500 acres at the White Horse Plains»    That added to the schedule to said agreement
makes an area of 46,660 acres.    The balance of the 50,000 acres, viz: 3S340
acres has been allotted to the Company elsewhere.
Just here it might be mentioned that in one of the preliminary memoranda it
was recited as follows:-    "It is understood in the Red River Settlement, the size
of the blocks to be retained"round Upper Fort Garry shall not exceed 10 (ten)
acres,  and that round Lower Fort Garry shall not exceed 300 (three hundred)  acres".
The public appear to have obtained information regarding this item, and
assumed that was the final agreement, and at once parties commenced to squat on
land in what is now the City of Winnipeg,  close to the Hudson's Bay Post,    A
great deal of controversy and high feeling was engendered,  and the accusation
was pufelicly made that the grant of 500 acres to the Hudson's Bay Company at this
point was unjustly made, favouritism and graft being publicly charged.    However
in time that died out.    Another interesting point of controversy was what
constituted the Western Bounday:    Was it the summit of the Rocky Mountains
or was it the Foot-Hills?    That held up several grants for some years, but
finally the Government of Canada passed an Order-in-Council interpreting what
was meant by the Western Bounday.    That was done in 1896.  HUDSON'S BAY LANDS.
Whilst the Company had a statutory title to the lands under the Deed of
Surrender, the Government to keep records clear, saw fit to issue patents for
these.
The Company at the earliest possible date surveyed the lands desired by it
around its posts except those in the very far North. Many of these plots
became centres of settlement: towns, villages, and in some cases cities sprang
up around them, as, for instance, at Winnipeg and Edmonton.
When the Deed of Surrender was being negotiated the reports of the proceedings show that for very little more than 300,000 pounds sterling, which was the
amount paid, the Hudson's Bay Company would have sold all its claims to land
and perhaps to trade, but the Canadian Delegation said "No, we desire you to
have an interest with the Canadian Government in the settlement of that country
and assist us; we want your hearty co-operation, not opposition or even cold
business indifference", and that was the reason for giving them the interest in
the country that was decided on.
The Company, however, until recently has never fulfilled its implied agreement with the Government in the matter of co-operation in settlement. It has not
been a better promoting factor in that respect than any other business concern
located in the West, not nearly as valuable as many. In the early days of
settlement the greatest wet-blanket the settlers received was the discouraging
rumours, opinions or alleged facts regarding the suitability of the country for
settlement, from the old fur-traders themselves. Eventually, however, all
or very nearly all of those who survived changed their attitude.
The Company's policy seems to have been to sit tight and get every dollar
out of the lands it was possible to obtain - holding them at a high price until
by reason of settlement around them they attained very considerable value. In
that respect the contrast between them and most other large dealers in land is
most striking.
Had the then Government in the Election of 1878 been sustained at the polls,
there is no doubt that very shortly thereafter the whole of the Hudson's Bay
Lands would have been acquired by the Government of Canada for $1.00 per acre,
perhaps even for less. This was arranged for but not made public, as it was
felt it would not be a popular cry when an appeal to the country was made. The
Hudson's Bay Company at that time was somewhat under a cloud, so far at least
as the settlers in the West were concerned. The cause of its unpopularity was
its practical monopoly of the only trade route into the country, the intolerance
of some of its officials, and the popular idea that it had a good deal to do with
the Riel Rebellion of 1869» Impartial investigation shows, however, that while
a very few, perhaps not more in all than two or three officials of that Company
were at least sympathetic with if not aids to, Riel and his followers, 99$ of
the Hudson's Bay factors were strongly adverse to Riel, and did all they could
to suppress the rising. L As an example of the interesting controversies that arose between the
Company and the Government over the interpretation of clauses in the Deed of
Surrender, it may be noted that the Company claimed it was entitled to one-
twentieth of all lands of the Indian Reserves, and also of the lands laid out
in the old settlements of Manitoba» On reading the correspondence the writer
thinks the Company had the best of the argument. However, its contention was
not recognized» L EARL OF SELKIRK'S GR
On the 12th of June 1811 the Hudson's Bay Company ceded to the Earl of
Selkirk (in consideration of the sum of ten shillings) "all that tract of land
or territory being within and forming part of the aforesaid land and territories
of the said Governor and Company, bounded by an imaginary line running as follows:
that is to say, beginning on the Western shore of Lake Winnipie (otherwise
Winnipeg) at a point in 52 degrees and thirty minutes North Latitude, and thence
running due West to the Lake Winnipigoos, otherwise called Little Winnipeg, then
in a southerly direction through the said lake, so as to strike its western shore
in Latitude 52 degrees, then due west to the place where the parallel of 52
degrees North Latitude intersects the Western Branch of the Red River, otherwise
called Assiniboine River, then due south from that point of intersection to the
Height of Land which separates the waters running into Hudson Bay from those
of the Missouri and the Mississippi, then in an easterly direction along the said
Height of Land to the source of the river Winnipie or Winnipeg, (meaning by such
last named river the principal branch of the waters which unite in Lake Saginagus)
thence along the main stream of these waters and the middle of the several
lakes through which they flow, to the mouth of the Winnipie River, and thence in
a northerly direction through the middle of Lake Winnipie to the place of
beginning»!-
The interest of the Earl of Selkirk in the district of Assiniboia was
transferred back to the Hudson's Bay Company, February 12th, 1835»^
GOVERNMENT
The first attempt toward government outside of the Hudson's Bay company
was the establishment of what was known as the Council of Assinboia. That
appeared to be confined in its jurisdiction to the area purchased by the Earl
of Selkirk, and later it seems to have been confined to the Municipal District
of Assiniboia which was all the Red and Assiniboine Rivers. Subsequent to
the transfer of the Selkirk grant back to the Company, although the Council
appears to have been largely, if not wholly, nominees of the Hudson's Bay
Company, it would appear that the Company dealt fairly equitably with the
people. For instance, if a petition was presented by any considerable number
of the law-abiding people of the district, asking for some one to represent
them on the Council, he was usually appointed.
^See Publications of the Canadian Archives, No. 9, "The Canadian North-West,
its Early Development and Legislative Records", Prof. E. H. Oliver of the
University of Saskatchewan, Vol. 1, p. 154 et eec. (a most interesting
publication).
For Map see "Lord Selkirk's Work in Canada", C. Martin, p»226«
Minutes of Committee state: "As on 1st of June 1834 see "Lord-Selkirk's
Work in Canada", C. Martin, Toronto, 1916, p.223 but actual transfer
accomplished Feb, 12th, 1835»  SURVEYS MADE UNDER DIRECTION OF THE COUNCIL OF ASSINIBOIA.
Along the Red River from a short distance below where the town of Selkirk
now is, up to seven or eight miles above where Winnipeg now stands, and along
the Assiniboine River from its mouth to the westerly limit of the Parish of
White Horse Plains, some thirty miles west of Winnipeg, the lands were laid out
on the ground into lots fronting on the rivers and extending back as nearly as
could readily be done at right angles to said rivers, having various widths. The
standard attempted was 12 chains in width and 2 miles in depth, giving nearly
200 acres of land of each lot. A register was kept of these in the Hudson's Bay
Company and sales were made of these lots. Most of the sales were nominal,
although there were some cases where there was a fair consideration stipulated,
and in many cases paid. In some cases a deed was given but little or no attention was paid to such documents. Land was treated as we now treat chattels.
John Smith sold to William Jones, and in some cases the two went into the Hudson's
Bay Company office at Upper Fort Garry, generally styled the Forks, now Winnipeg^
and if Smith's surname was on the register and he stated he had sold to Jones,
the clerk merely drew a line through his name and wrote Jones, sometimes he dated
it, and sometimes not. In the majority of cases however, not even this formality
was complied with. There appears however to have been very few disputes over
land prior to the transfer presumably because land was very plentiful, but to
some considerable extent because of a higher standard of commercial morality.
It is an interesting speculation whether or not this higher standard was
not the outcome of trading with the Indians. In regard to such trading the conduct of the Hudson's Bay Company is an outstanding example of integrity and just
dealing.
Under the Deed of Surrender no transfer by the Hudson's
subsequent to the 8th of March 1869 was to be recognized.
The following has been kindly furnished me by I
Company made
. J. N, Wallace, D.L.S.:
"The earliest reference to any survey in the Western Provinces is found
in a letter from Miles Macdonnell, Lord Selkirk's Agent at Red River, to Lord
Selkirk dated 17th July 1813» In this letter Macdonnell states as follows s-
"There being no time in the spring to lay out regular lots I gave as much
ground on this point to the settlers as they could maintain. I have since laid
out lots of 100 acres, of 4 acres front on the river, according to annexed rough
sketch No. 18. On these lots they are now preparing to build. The farms in
Lower Canada are of 3 acres front, and the first settlers in Upper Canada had
the same, but they found it afterwards too narrow which induced me to add one
acre additional to the breadth of our lots. It would be proper to make reservations of wood on the east side of Red River in the proportion of about
100 acres for every five settlers»"
"The lots referred to by Macdonnell were ten chains wide and over a mile
deep. They commenced a little north of the present main line of the C.P.R."
It is stated that St. John's Church, Winnipeg, is located on number four
of said lots. It is said these lots extended for about five miles down the
River on the West Side, and were laid out by one Peter Fiddler, who at that time
was authorized to make surveys.
11. L
àl Having acquired th
surveys.
country, the next thing to be decided was the matter of
The system of surveys finally adopted by the Dominion of Canada in the West
1st, perhaps, the most complete that ever was inaugurated, that is the sectional
system, with townships six miles square, divided into thirty-six sections, as
nearly as may be, each one a mile square, or 64O acres. It was admirably carried
out and proved most effectual in the prevention of disputes.
Probably the Government wisely adopted a system somewhat different from that
of the United States, by providing road allowances. The numbering of the sections
differs also. It is true in many parts of the country where it is rolling
and broken by streams that a different system might have proved better fitted to
igpoditions, but on the whole it has worked out well, and particularly in the
matter of preventing litigation regarding boundaries, from which the three Prairie
Provinces have been absolutely free in those portions of the country laid out
under the sectional system of survey.
The first scheme for surveys was decided by Lt. Col. J. S. Dennis, under
instructions of the Minister of Public Works, issued on the 10th of July, I869.
Col. Dennis proposed a system of survey which was approved by the Order-in-Cbuncil
of 23rd Sept. of that year. Briefly, this scheme was as follows:
1. The system to be rectangular; all townships to be east or west, or north and
south.
2. The townships to number northerly from the 49th parallel of latitude, and the
ranges of townships to number east and west from a given meridian, this meridian
to be drawn from the 49th parallel at a point say, ten miles west of Pembina, and
to be called the Winnipeg Meridian.
3. The townships to consist of 64 squares of 800 acres each, and to contain in
addition 40 acres, or 5%  in area in each section, as an allowance for public
highways.
4. The townships on the Red and Assiniboine Rivers where the same had ranges of
farm lots laid out by the Hpdson's Bay Company, to be surveyed, the broken sections
abutting against the rear limits of such ranges, so as to leave the same intact
as independent grants.
Anyone desiring a complete history of the various surveys in the three
Prairie Provinces should read the most interesting report thereon made by
Col. J. S. Dennis, C.M.G., some of the aforementioned Lt.Col. J.S, Dennis,
which appears in the report of the Department of. the Interior for the year 1891."
4 See Sessional Papers (Ottawa) Vol.XXV, 1892, No.9, Sessional Paper No,13, Part
VI»  Under the Dominion Land Act, first passed in 1872, succeeding an Order-in-
Council, which had the effect of an act, first passed 1st March 1871, the Government took to itself power to lay out along the rivers or elsewhere, river lots, or
lots similar thereto. In addition to the old settlements of Manitoba this was
largely carried out, particularly on the South Saskatchewan River, the Bow and
Belly Rivers, and to a slight extent the Red Deer River. Outside of Manitoba there
were, at the time the sectional system of survey was adopted, only four settlements
of the very many which had been laid out, and disposed of as river lots along
streams or lakes, three in Alberta, and one in Saskatchewan, viz:- in the former
St. Albert, Lac La Biche, and Lac Ste, Anne, and Prince Albert in the latter.
In addition there were a very few settlers at Batoche on the South Saskatchewan.
This system of survey though logical, and though it would in many cases have
fitted the conditions much better than the ordinary sectional system of survey,
proved, outside of the half-breed settlers, very unpopular. This was due to the
people having become so accustomed to the sectional system which proved a ready
means of definitely locating any land. So most of the people protested against
it. In February 1884 it was finally decided to abandon the river lot system,
and revert to the section system, and in due course the posts and mounds
indicating the river lot system were destroyed, and those to indicate the
sectional system established. That portion of the City of Calgary lying
along both banks of the Bow River was originally laid out as river lots.
The Canadian Pacific Railway Irrigation Department also adopted a system of
survey to conform to the topographical features of a section of the country proposed to be irrigated. It received the warm approval of the Provincial Department
of Public Works, particularly as the system reduced the cost of construction of
roads and bridges within the tract, to the extent of probably seventy-five per
cent. The lands were laid out of fair size and shape as nearly as possible rectangular, but the public had become so habituated to handling land by the sectional
system of survey, that even after these lots had been disposed of to a considerable
extent the parties agreed to pool their purchases and have the land laid out under
the sectional system. This has a very great bearing on schemes which have come
to the front very prominently in connection with proposals for the settlement of
returned soldiers.
The following interesting matter has been furnished me by Mr.J.N. Wall£e, D.L.S.
"The following account of the origin of the United States system of Survey,
collected from an article published in year 1883, seems to prove that the rectang-
| ular system antidated any surveys in Australia.
'In June 1783, before the disbanding of the Revolutionary Army, 283 officers
petitioned Congress for certain land. The petition was presented by General Putman
! through his friend George Washington. Putman wrote a letter at the same time to
Washington in which he said: "The petitioners hope that no grant will be made out
by townships of 6 miles square or 6 by 12 miles, or 6 by 18 miles. Allowing to
each township 3,040 acres for the Ministry, schools, waste land, water and highways,
each township will contain 20,000 acres of settlers' lands.'
"The writer of the article referred to states "This is the first historical
mention of townships 6 miles square. The petition of the officers and all the
; correspondence are now in the library of Marietta College, Ohio, and prove
conclusively that General Putman was the founder of our present system of
i surveying public lands."  8 A.
"The first official action was the Ordinance of Congress", May 20th, 1785,
which provided among other matters, that the surveyors should proceed to divide
the territory into -townships of 6 miles square by lines running due north and
south and others crossing them at right angles, as near as may be. The townships
to be designated by progressive numbers to the westward. The lots of the townships were to be marked by lines to show lots each one mile square. (Note:
The expression "Sections" was not used until the year 1796). The lots were
numbered from 1 to 36.
"Townships in accordance with the above regulations were actually being surveyed along Ohio River in the year 1787, according to a report dated 23rd July
of that year, made to Congress."
"General putnam was born in Massachusetts in 1738. At the outbreak of
the revolution he was engaged in surveying lands. He joined the American Army
and in 1776 became Chief Engineer with the rank of Colonel. After disbandment
of the Army he was appointed Surveyor General of the United States, by George
Washington. He died in 1824."
PROVINCE OF MANITOBA
Manitoba as first laid out was bounded on the south by the International
Bounday, on the north by the parallel of 50 '30 north latitude, on the east
by longitude 96 West, and on the west by Longitude 99 «
After surveys were effected this was in 1877 amended to some extent so as
to conform to the system of survey, the boundaries being defined on the south
by the south limit of Township 1, on the north by the north limit of Township 17,
on the east by the east limit of Range 10, East, and on the West by the west
limit of Range 12, West.^
The Province was enlarged in 1&81?,  the westerly limit being the centre of
the road allowance between Ranges 29 and 30, and the northerly limit of the
road allowance between Townships 44 and 45* the easterly limit a line drawn due
north from where the westerly boundary of the Province of Ontario intersected
the International Boundary.. The Westerly limit of Ontario was at that time a
matter of dispute, but as finally settled it is a line drawn due north from the
north-west angle of the Lake of the Woods, which is about the easterly limit
of Range 17 East.
1 Cap. Ill, 33 Vic. Assented to 12th May, 1870.
2 "  VI, 40 "
3 "  XIV, 44 "     "    " 21st March, 1881,
14.  In 1912 it was again enlarged, giving it a considerable shore line on the
west side of the Hudson Bay south of Latitude 60.^
When the province was created the legislature was to consist of two houses.
After an agitation extending over two or three years,  in I876 an Act was passed
abolishing the upper or second chamber.    A branch of a legislature voluntarily
putting itself out of existence is probably somewhat unique.2
The District of Keewatin was created out of the North-West Territories,
the boundaries being carefully set forth, and the Lieutenant-Governor of Manitoba
was appointed Ex-0fficio Lieutenant-Governor of the said district.3
In the autumn of I876 a smallpox outbreak took place among the Icelanders
who had recently arrived in the country.    The following were appointed as a Council
with the Lieutenant-Governor of Manitoba as Chairman and Chief Executive; J.A.H.
Prevenchier;  A. G. Jackes, M.D.; Lieut. Col, W. Osborne-Smith; William Hespe^er;
Hon. Gilbert McMicken;  and Alfred Codd, M.D.    The members acted in merely an
advisory capacity and their term expired with the suppression of the smallpox
outbreak,
NORTH-WEST TERRITORIES
When Rupert's Land and the North-West Territories were admitted into the
Union of the Dominion of Canada,  it was provided that they should be styled and
known as "The North-West Territories".    A Lieutenant-Governor was to be appointed,
but all the other public officers and functionaries then holding office were to
continue until otherwise ordered by the Lieutenant Governor.4-
In the Act creating the Province of Manitoba it was provided that "the
Lieutenant-Governor of the said province shall be appointed by commission under
the Great Seal of Canada, to be the Lieutenant-Governor of the same, under the
name of the North-West Territories.5
The following year the Governor-in-Council was authorized to appoint a
Lieutenant-Governor for the North-West Territories.    The Lieutenant-Governor of
Manitoba, however, was appointed as Ex-0fficio Governor of the North-West
Territories,"
In 1873 the Governor with the advice of his ministers was empowered to
appoint a Council to aid the Lieutenant-Governor in the administration of the
North-West Territories,    The said Council to be composed of not more than 21
members or less than 7. '    That Council was duly appointed and held office until the
passage of "An Act to amend and consolidate the laws respecting the North-West
Territories", in 1875, by which the Council appointed was not to exceed 5 persons
to aid the Lieutenant-Governor in his administration.^    These five were to include
the Stipendiary Magistrates.    The Act does not state how many Stipendiary Magistrates were to be appointed.    There were then two Stipendiary Magistrates,  one
the late Hon. Matthew Ryan, and the second the late Col. Macleod.
Cap. 32,  2 Geo.V. Assented to April 1st,  1912.
Cap. 28, Statutes of Manitoba,  1876
Cap. 31, 39 Vic.    Assented to April 12th, 1876
4 Cap 3, 32-33 Vic. Assented to June 22,  I869
5 Cap 3, 33 Vic.      "    " May 12, 1870
6 Cap, 16, 34 Vic.      "    " April 14th, 1871
7 Cap. 5, 36 Vic.      "    " May 3rd, 1873
8 Cap. 49, 38 Vic.      "    " Apr. 8th, 1875.  10.
In 1877 the North-West Territories Act for 1875 was amended providing for
a Council, not to exceed 6 persons including the Stipendiary Magistrates, to
assist the Lieutenant-Governor,^   The Stipendiary Magistrates at that time consisted of Messrs, Richardson and Macleod.
In 1876 the Hon. David Laird of Prince Edward Island, Minister of the Interior for two or three years prior to that date was appointed Lieutenant-Governor
of the North-West Territories.    The seat of Government at that time was at Fort
Livingstone on Swan River, then un-surveyed territory.2    The first session of the
North-West Council was held there March 8-22, 1877.    In August the Lieutenant-
Governor and his effects were moved to Battlefcrd.3
This remained the seat of the Government for the North-West Territories,
and headquarters of the Indian Department until 1882, when it was removed to
Regina, which remained the capital of the North-West Territories until 1905,^
In 1905 the Provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta were formed, Regina becoming
the capital of the former, and Edmonton of the latter.
By Cap, 25 of 43 Victoria 1880, the Council was to consist of six members,
but it was further provided by Clause 15 of said Act, that when any portion of the
Territory not exceeding 1,000 square miles in area, contained not less than 1,000
adults, exclusive of aliens or Indians, the Lieutenant-Governor by proclamation
could erect an electoral district and a member for such district could be elected.
When this district reached 2,000 habitants, two members could be elected, and when
the members thus elected reached 21,  the nominated Council of 6 ceased,  and the
members so elected should be constituted a Legislative Assembly of the North-
West Territories.    The length of term of office for members was two years.
1. Cap. 6, 40 Vic. Assented to April 28th, 1877.
2. The site of Fort Livingstone was on the S.E. Quarter of Section 8 and S.W.
Quarter of Section 9, Township 34, Range 32, West of the Principal
meridian, being on the plateau between the Swan River and Snake Creek,
south of the former and east of the latter.
3. The Administration Buildings at Battleford outside of the N.W.M.P. were
erected on the plateau, or top of the hill on the south side of Battle
River, on Section 19 and 20, Township 43, Range 16 W»3rd, the townsite
itself being located chiefly on Section 30, north of the riger in Township 43, and on the east side of the townsite the N.W.M.P. were located.
4. See O.C. of 22nd of March 1882. w* Another step in the political evolution of the Territories was the division
in 1888 of the three Provisional Districts, Assiniboia, Saskatchewan and Alberta,
into nineteen Electoral Districts.    Eleven of them were in Assinoboia,  four in
Alberta and four in Saskatchewan, and any judge in the Supreme Court might be
appointed as legal expert,  said legal experts, however, not to exceed three.    The
duration of Assembly was fixed at three years»    Members'  sessional indemnity to be
$ 500.00 legal experts' f 250.00 and travelling expenses.    (Probably the travelling
expenses applied to both classes)«1
In 1891 the Legislature was increased to 25 members, all elected, with twelve
electoral districts for Assiniboia, seven for Alberta,  one of which, Calgary,
returned two members;  six for Saskatchewan,2
Three years later it was provided that the representation should consist of
26 members until the Assembly otherwise provided,3    It would thus appear that subsequently to the date mentioned the number of representatives in the Assembly
was regulated by the Legislative Assembly itself, and to follow the representation
in that Assembly it would be necessary to follow the Ordinances of the North West
Territories.
By Order-in-Council of the 8th of May, 1882, four Provisional Districts were
set apart in the then North-West Territories,    First: Assiniboia, supposed to
contain 95,000 square miles, bounded on the south by the International Boundary,,
on the east by the west boundary of Manitoba, on the north by the 9th correction
line or N. limit of Township 34,  which is near to the 52nd parallel of latitude
(Note:  the 52nd parallel is about 2 miles north of said correction line).    On the
West by the line dividing Ranges 10 and 11, West of the 4th Meridian.
Second:    Saskatchewan, which contained 114,000 square miles bounded on the south by
the District of Assiniboia and the Province of Manitoba, on the east by Lake Winnipeg
and Nelson River flowing therefrom,  on the north by the 18th  correction line of
Township 70,  or Latitude 55°, 06'  46", on the west by the line between the 10th and
11th Ranges, West of 4th Meridian.
Third: Alberta, containing 100,000 square miles, bounded on the south by the International Boundary, on the east by the Districts of Assiniboia and Saskatchewan, on
the west by British Columbia and on the north by the 18th correction line.    (Note:
the 18th correction line is about 7 miles north of the 56th parallel).
Fourth: Athabasca,  containing 122,000 square miles, bounded on the south by the
District of Alberta, on the east by the line between the 10th and 11th Ranges, West
of the 4th Meridian, until it intersects the Athabasca River, then by that river to
Athabasca Lake, and Slave River, to its intersection with the 32nd correction line,
j which is the northern boundary very nearly the 60th parallel of latitude,   or 60°
00'  11.54",  and on the West by British Columbia»
These four districts together with the addition of territory lying to the east   ■
of Athabasca and north of the old Provisional District of Saskatchewan, were in 1905
converted into the provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta.**
1        By Order-in-Council 2nd of November 1895, the unorganized and unnamed districts
of the North-West Territories were divided into four provisional districts, to be
named Ungava, Franklin, Mackenzie and Yukon,    For description see Statutes of Canada
1896, page XLVII of the Order-in-Council.    It will be noticed that the Order-in-
Council added to the District of Athabasca about 143,500 miles, making in all about
Cap,
1
2
3
4. ("
("
19, 51 Vic. Assented to 22nd May, 1888.
22, 54-55 Vic,  "  " 30th Sept,, 1891
15 (Sec,16) 57-58 Vic. Assented to 23rd July,
31, 4-5 Edward VII, (for Alberta)
42, "    "   "  (for Saskatchewan)  12.
265,000 square miles,    The extension consisted of extending the old boundary west
to the 100th Meridian of Longitude, which was made the westerly limit of Keewatin.
Anyone desirous of ascertaining what were the boundaries of those divisions,  see
the Statutes mentioned.    The description,  it is thought, are too lengthy to insert
here .
By Order-in-Council 18th December 1897, the districts of Assiniboia, Alberta
and Saskatchewan remained as originally established; Athabasca as established by
the Order-in-Council 2nd of October 1896; and the boundaries of Ungava, Keewatin,
Mackenzie, Yukon and Franklin were slightly changed.
MANITOBA ACT
Surveys required to be made because of the provisions of the Manitoba Act.2
Section 32 recites as follows:
"32".    For the quieting of titles, and assuring to the settlers in the Province the
peaceable possession of the lands now held by them it is enacted as follows:
1. All grants of land in freehold made by the Hudson's Bay Co., up to the eighth
day of March, in the year 1869, shall if required by the owner, be confirmed by
grant from the crown.
2. All grants of estates less than freehold in land made by the Hudson's Bay Co.
up to the eighth day of March aforesaid, shall if required by the owner be converted into an estate in freehold by grant from the Crown..
3»    All titles by occupancy with the sanction and under the license and authority
of the Hudson's Bay Company up to the eighth day of March aforesaid,  of land in
that part of the Province, in which the Indian title has been extinguished, shall
if required by the owner, be converted into an estate in freehold by grant from
the Crown.
4.    All persons in peaceable possession of tracts of land at the time of the
transfer to Canada,  in those parts of the Province in which the Indian title has
not been extinguished shall have the right of pre-emption of the same on such
terms and conditions as may be determined by the Governor-in-Council.
5»    The Lieutenant-Governor is hereby authorized, under regulations to be made
from time to time by the Governor-General in Council, to make all such provisions
for ascertaining and adjusting on fair and equitable terms, the rights of Common,
and rights of cutting hay, held and enjoyed by the settlers in the Province, and
for the commutation of the same by grants of land from the Crown.
Clause 4 is most sweeping, providing a liberal construction is given to the
[words "peaceable possession"»
It was, however, urged that the clause was not broad enough, and in 1875
it was amended as follows:-    "Be it enacted that persons satisfactorily establishing undisturbed occupancy of any lands within the Province prior to, and being by
[themselves or their servants, tenants or agents,  or those through who, they claim
in actual peaceable possession thereof,  on the 15th day of July,  one thousand
eight hundred and seventy, shall be entitled to receive letters patent therefor
granting the same absolutely to them respectively in fee simple".
1. See Canada Gazette, Volume 31, Page 2612
2. Cap. 3, 33 Vic. Assented to on the 12th May, 1870
3. Cap. 52, 38 Vic, Sec. 3, assented to 8th April, 1875.  13.
It will be observed that this broadened very materially the scope of land
[grants, and opened wide a door for the flimsiest claims, and very many totally
[fraudulent were preferred and no doubt a considerable percentage of them succeeded.
At the time the Canadian Government took possession only in a portion of what
Iwas ceded to Lord Selkirk had the Indian title been extinguished, and when that
jtitle was finally extinguished the Canadian Government fixed the 15th of July 1870
lin treating with all claims to land by reason of peaceable possession thereof.    In
[practice the 15th of July 1870 was substituted for the 6th of March 1869.
In addition to the River lots laid out under the authority of the Council of
[Assiniboia which claimed and exercised jurisdiction of all lands within a radius
of 50 miles of the junction of the Red and Assiniboia rivers, there were laid out
the following parishes:- St. Peter's and St. Agathe on the Red River; Baie St.
IPaul, Poplar Point, High Bluff, and Portage la Prairie on the Assiniboine;
ILorette and Ste Anne des Chênes,  on the Seine; Westbourne on the White Mud River,
and St. Laurent and Oak Point on Lake Manitoba.    Also various scattering claims
lfor individuals throughout the older settled portions of the Province.    Those on
[the Red and Seine Rivers and Lake Manitoba were wholly half-breeds, the remainder
partly half-breeds and partly whites.
The foregoing class of claims, and also what is recited further on, viz:
[staked claims, necessitated a special system of survey, and the River lot
system was usually adopted, these claims all fronting on some body of water.
[HALF-BREED GRANTS. WHICH EVENTUALLY WERE RESTRICTED TO CHILDREN.
Section 31, Cap,3 - 33 Victoria, 1870, recites as follows:-
j"31"      And whereas it is expedient, towards the extinguishment of the Indian title
[to the lands in the Province, to appropriate a portion of such ungranted lands,
[to the extent of one million four hundred thousand acres thereof,  for the benefit
of the families of the half-breed residents,  it is hereby enacted that under
regulations to be from time to time made by the Governor-General in Council,
the Lieutenant-Governor shall select such lots or tracts in such parts of the
[Province as he may deem expedient to the extent aforesaid, and divide the same
(among the children of the half-breed heads of families residing in the Province
at the time of the said transfer to Canada,  and the same shall be granted to the
said children respectively,  in such mode and on such conditions as to settlement
and otherwise as the Governor-General in Council may from time to time determine.
Probably no greater mistake was ever made, although we only followed the cus-
|tom in the United States, than to establish three classes of citizens: Indians,
half-breeds and others.    It would have proved impossible and provoked great
dissatisfaction had the Government insisted on settlement or that certain improvements be made by said half-breeds or those to whom they sold.
There were many people living in the country prior to this date, who would
have been insulted if they had been called half-breeds.
19.  14.
In fact they had so little Indian blood that it was with difficulty recognizable
and in many cases could not be recognized, but the temptation to acquire land
under this clause was too great, and in order to participate they declared them-
jselves as half-breeds. If the term "half-breed" had been popularly applied it
would not have carried so much odium as the term "breed", which was the one used
jby a large percentage of the newcomers»
The 1,400,000 acres of land set apart for the half-breeds was on the
[estimated basis of 10,000 living in the country and 140 acres, a common farm
junit in the Province of Quebec, was allowed for each.
The selection of these lands to satisfy these Reserves was left for the
French half-breeds largely to the Roman Catholic hierarchy, and for the English
to the Protestant clergy, among whom the late Archbishop of Rupert's Land, the
Most Reverend Robert Machray, was largely responsible.
In the early days of settlement, particularly in the neighbourhood of
Winnipeg, the half-breed grants proved one of two outstanding grievances. It was
claimed that the best land in that vicinity was occupied by the half-breed grants,
and the newcomer without taking the trouble to enquire into it naturally concluded
that the charge was correct. As a matter of fact, so far as 90$ of these grants
were concerned, they selected the poorest land available» It is within the mark
to say that up to date, although these lands could with absolute certainty of
title be acquired very cheaply, since about 1879, in many cases for a fraction of
a dollar per acre, and though they have been acquired, yet owing to their character
they are not occupied or improved to a greater extent than probably 25$, and the
reason is that they were chosen either as hay land or for their timber. The hay
lands proved in many cases too wet for that purpose except in phenomenally dry
years.. The timberland did not yield anything but fire wood and fence poles,
and with the construction of the railway line from Winnipeg to Rat Portage,
completed about 1881, these lands did not prove valuable even for fuel. For
many years cordwood could be brought by railway into Winnipeg and other points
for less than it could be hauled to the settlements from these half-breed grants.
This part was deleted on original M.S.  15.
This page was deleted in original M.S.
21.  This part was deleted in original M.S.
[Lands reserved to Extinguish the Indian Title.
There is no doubt that when this Act was passed the intention of Parliament
Irais that the grant should cover everything required in the way of lands for
khe extinguishment of the Indian title within the province of Manitoba.    In
pther words to satisfy claims of children and heads of families.
It was subsequently determined that legally only those who were married were'
entitled to participate in this grant, the heads of families were not entitled,
[Bearing in mind a definite amount of land was set aside to satisfy the children
pf half-breeds without specifying any maximum amount for each, it was therefore
contended that no matter how large the area for each the whole must be distributed among them.    The Government first had what it thought was a fairly close
Estimate.    Prior to this however, the government had concluded that deducting
the heads of families from the 10,000 estimate would give 190 acres for each.
pi allotment on that basis was then in course of preparation, when in 1874
[it was decided to take a census, and commissioners were appointed for that purpose.    As the result of that census it was decided that there were 240 acres for
[each half-breed entitled to participate in the grant, and on that the allotment
was made, which however, was not concluded till 1878-79.    Subsequent to the
allotment and partition of the 1,400,000 acres, however, parties came forward
end furnished evidence that they were entitled.    Many no doubt were spurious
put the evidence seemed conclusive and about 50,000 acres were required to
satisfy these claims.    This extra area was taken from lands then available
and lying as close to the old settlement as possible.    Six thousand and thirty-
pour allotments of 240 acres each equals 1,448,160 acres, the area required to
satisfy .the claims of the half-breed children.
If speculators could have been kept out of the deal no doubt there was
land enough set apart in the first instance for all the legitimate claims.
[The half-breed naturally was not tricky nor desiring to be dishonest, but
he was urged on by unscrupulous dealers and the latter succeeded to a remarkable
jdegree.
1. Cap. 3, Sec. 31, 33 Vic. Assented to 12th May, 1870.  17.
The Government in a fatherly way thought to protect the half-breed land
allotment by legislating that their transfers were not good until after the
land was allotted.    In other words, all transfers made prior to that date could
be repudiated.    The result was,  of course,  that the lands depreciated very much
an value owing to the risk involved, thereby playing into the hands of these
Scoundrels at the expense of the honest - a result which frequently follows
extra paternal legislation.
The same thing to a very considerable extent, probably even to a larger
extent, was  carried out in connection with the half-breed scrip and land in the
territories outside of Manitoba.    So far as half-breed children and heads of
families were concerned, the children obtained 240 acres in land or $ 240.00 in
bcrip and the heads of families $ 160.00 in scrip.1    In 1885 half-breed scrip allotment in the North-West Territories did not have a very large percentage of
ffraud in connection with it, as at that time land was a drug on the market, but
fche last allotment,  viz. the Northern half-breeds,  outside of the old district
pf Assiniboia, Saskatchewan and Alberta had a very large percentage of fraud,
and if it were possible to have another half-breed allotment, unless more care
was taken than in the last, at least 75 per cent of the claims would be fraudulent.
Having disposed of the children of half-breeds, the question then arose
ptfhat was to be done with the parents and it was decided to give them scrip for
|$ 160.00 each.    Three thousand one hundred and eighty-six claims of $ 160.00
|each equals $ 509,760.00 so patented.    At that time the price of Government lands
was one dollar per acre, so that f 160.00 in scrip represented 160 acres of land,
and the scrip was in due course applied on the land prior to the increase in
[price on 28th of June, 1879.
PARTIES PERMITTED,  IN FACT ENCOURAGED TO CEASE
BEING CLASSED AS INDIANS & CONVERTED INTO HALF-
BREEDS.
To relieve the Indian Department of its wards, the Indian Act was amended
enabling anybody who could show that he had white blood in his veins to cease being
[considered an Indian and qualify as a Half-Breed.    This was carried to a deplorable extent in the late eighties.    People who should never have been allowed to
come out of treaty did so, and later fell back on their relatives in the reserves,
and although possibly they are not now getting annuities - probably a large
number of them are - they require and obtain support from the Public Funds.
Provision for extinguishing Indian Title in the N.W. Territories
[Cap. 31, 42 Vic. Sec. 125, Sub.-Sec. e and f, assented to 15th May, 1879  The question then arose, if the man living in the country who
appened to have Indian Blood in his veins was entitled to a grant of land,
toy should not those who were full whites and came to the country in the early
lays.    The result was that an issue of Whites Settlers' Scrip was provided for.
It was restricted to the original settlers or descendants thereof, "who came
nto the Red River country under the auspices of Lord Selkirk between the years
kne thousand eight hundred and Thirteen and one thousand eight hundred and
hirty five,2 or children of such original settlers, who are not half-breeds
Lnd cannot therefore claim any part in the lands set apart under the Act above
ited, although they are fairly entitled to consideration.    Therefore Her
lajesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate and House of Commons
bf Canada, enacts as follows:-
"Under regulations to be from time to time made by the Governor in
îouncil, the Lieutenant Governor of Manitoba shall select from the ungranted
ands of the Crown such lots or tracts in such parts of the Province as he
aay deem expedient, not exceeding in the whole forty-nine thousand acres, for
Lhe purpose of making free grants thereof to persons now resident in the Province,
being original white settlers who came into the Red River country under the
raspiees of Lord Selkirk, between the years one thousand eight hundred and
thirteen and one thousand eight hundred and thirty-five2, both inclusive, or
Lhe children, not being half-breeds, of such original settlers; and such grants
pay be made in such mode and on the same conditions as to settlement or otherwise, as regulate the grants to the half-breeds under the Act above cited; but no
mch grant to any one person shall exceed one hundred and forty acres"»
It was found that the 49,000 acres would not give 140 acres to each
Irhite settler, but only 92.4 acres, the assumption being that there were 350
such settlers. It was found after enumeration that they numbered 530. Before
ihis matter was disposed of, eight hundred claims were allowed. They having
petitioned to be issued scrip in lieu of land, an Act in 1874, authorized the
Issue of scrip to the amount of $ 160.00 each.3 Land being $1.00 per acre, it
fas equivalent to 160 acres of land.    A total of $128,000.00.
WOLSELEY EXPEDITION AND N.W.M.P. SCRIP
There was script to the extent of $ 160.00 or 160 acres each assignable
!"or the volunteers who came up with General, then Colonel Wolseley, probably
1*00 in all.
In some cases the members of the North-West Mounted Police have been
p-anted similar land scrip.
Many of those rights to scrip of the volunteers who came up with
jtfolseley were sold over the bars in Winnipeg for a treat for the crowd.    Ten
dollars was considered a high price for it.    With so much scrip, until 1879, the
average value of scrip was not more than 50$ of its facfe value.
1.   Cap. 37, of 36 Vic.    Assented to 3rd May 1873»
Feb. 12th, 1$35 was the date Lord Selkirk's rights were transferred back
to the Hudson's Bay Co.
|3.    Cap. 20, 37, Vic. Sec. 4, assented to 26th May 1874. L 19.
luch of it was sold for half that. The Half-breed land scrip 240 acres, was
frequently sold as low as ten cents per acre.
SCRIP TO SATISFY LAND DEFICIENCIES AND OTHER CLAIMS
Another issue of scrip was made to satisfy claims of land, for which
[he land could not be given, usually because it was otherwise disposed of.
he issue was $ 1,50 of scrip for each acre the party was entitled to. Also
|crip was issued to satisfy claims other than for land.
SCRIP FOR 1885 VOLUNTEERS IN SUPRESSION OF HALF-BREED AND
INDIAN UPRISING. AND SOUTH AFRICAN VOLUNTEERS.	
When the half-breed rebellion of 1885 took place there was an
|gitation to give $ 80 in scrip, or 320 acres as a homestead to the parti-
ipants, and that was donel, similarly with the South African men or their
lubstitutes. This scrip was most generously issued. A man could personally
omestead and purchase a South African land bounty right to a homestead of
|20 acres and thus obtain a 480 acre homestead. Further these land bounties
fcould be utilized by parties not entitled to make an ordinary homestead entry.
ery grave abuse of the homestead privileges arose under these provisions.2
If as a result of the issue of such scrip, settlement had been
induced, or if by granting the half-breeds land scrip settlement thereon by
hem had been promoted, there would have been some fair return to the public for
he territory distributed and alienated from the Crown, but the amount of
iettlement that was induced or promoted by the issue of scrip was practically
iii. It all, or nearly all, inured to the benefit of the speculator and the
tore unscrupulous he was the greater the profit»
ADMINISTRATION OF HALF-BREED LAND CLAIMS AND SCRIP ISSUES.
The Government was particularly fortunate in obtaining the services
)f two men who had been appointed as Surveyors under the Council of Assiniboia,
Roger Goulet and Herbert L, Sabine. The latter came to the country in
558, accompanying the party of the late S. J. Dawson, C, E. on his" first
ixploration from Thunder Bay to Red River, and remained in the country. The
bepartment of the Interior engaged his services in 1871, and he was associated
rit h Roger Goulet in connection with the allotment of Half-breed lands. He
md Goulet were authorized as surveyors by the Council of Assiniboia. He
became regularly appointed on the staff of the Dominion Lands Office at
Winnipeg by Order-in-Council dated January 23rd, 1875, and died about the first
pf January 1886» Up to the time of his death he was still an employee of the
pterior Department.
Roger Goulet was a native of the country, a French Half-breed and
hature had furnished him with a marvelous memory for names, faces and locations,
and he had done perhaps 80$ of the surveying during the time from his appointment by the Council of Assiniboia till the transfer of the country to Canada.
In his younger days he was a man of very good endurance, and had for some years
larried mail by pony or dog train between St. Paul and Winnipeg. From the time
ne came into the Department of the Interior in 1871 or 1872, until his death
J25th March, 1902, he was nearly the whole time in the services of said Department and saved the country hundreds of thousands of dollars by reason of his
integrity and ability, in the way of checking of spurious claims, etc.
Cap. 73, 48-49 Vic. Assented to 20th July, 1885,
Cap. 67, 7 - 8 Edw. VII, Assented to 28th July 1908
Cap. 60, 7 - 8 Edw, VII, Assented to 4th July, 1910
25.  20,
le was one of the Half-breed Scrip Commissioners who was appointed in 1885 to settle
,he claims to scrip of the Ha f-breed residing outside Manitoba and within the
Liaits of the then Provisional Districts of Assiniboia, Saskatchewan and Alberta,
md performed invaluable service as such»
A most interesting incident in the life of Roger Goulet occurred during the
irst Reil Rebellion in 1869»    Goulet together with some few other French Half-
ireeds refused to have anything to do with Riel.    Riel and. his party owing to
foulet's influence and reputation with the French half-breeds were particularly
.nxious to have his endorsement and co-operation in the movement and as an induce-
isnt offered him the position of Minister of Customs in his Provisional Govern-
isnt.    Goulet refused.    He then had Goulet incarcerated and kept in confinement
or some weeks.    This is the only instance the writer has come across of a man
>eing sent to jail because he refused to accept office.
Another interesting matter was the fact that the French-Canadians
•f the Eastern Provinces were during the 1885 uprising ardent admirers of Reil and
ihat they termed their co-patriots the French Half-breeds.    As a matter of fact
he French half-breed disliked the French-Canadian much more than he did any
ither of the residents of Manitoba and the North-West.    Probably if they had
ealized this they would not have been such strong supporters of Reil.
The following may be of interest in connection with Roger Goulet accept-
ng the half-breed Scrip Commissionership in 1885»    It was known some time
>efore the Commission was appointed that one would come into existence.    Prospect-
Lvè1 Scrip dealers made a very handsome offer to Goulet to act for them in the
atter of buying scrip in advance of the issue of same.    From his knowledge of
he half-breeds anything that he would consider, would be a safe purchase.    When
he Commission was being formed the Government was exceedingly anxious that
roulet should be a Member of it, and the writer was despatched from Ottawa to
innipeg primarily to secure Goulet*s services, and secondarily to organize
nd get the Commission under way.    It was thought that owing to the extremely
riendly relations existing between the writer and Goulet, that if anyone could
induce him to become a Member of the Commission the writer could.    At first Goulet
emurred, but after an appeal to him on the grounds of patriotism and pointing
ut that by his being a Member of the Commission he would prevent a great amount
if fraud, and do his country a very great service, he accepted»    His so doing no
oubt saved the country many hundreds of thousands of dollars in Scrip.    Finan-
ially he would have done very much better in purchasing scrip.    He was instinc-
ively opposed to fraud or dishonesty in any shape, and considered it his duty
o far as lay in his power to check it,* even if it were in a matter in which he
light be considered to have no direct connection.    The world is rather short of
^en of that type.
Rights of Common. Park Claims and Staked Claims.
Prior to Manitoba becoming part of Canada the inhabitants therein,
nder regulations provided by the Council of Assiniboia, had primary rights to
11 the hay and wood lying in what was known as the Outer 2 miles of the River
ots, the Outer 2 Miles being the projection of the river lot back from the river
from two to four miles.    They'do not seem to have provided, however, for cases
here owing to change in direction these lots would intersect each other, widen
;ut to great widths or be cut off in toto, but as there was plenty of land at
hat time this condition never seemed to have become grave.
A L 21.
The parties had also in some cases rights to land called wood lots on
he opposite side of the river to their holdings where the same was largely
limbered and therefore unoccupied. Thus, in St. Agathe, and considerable portions
f Kildonan, St. Paul and St. Andrews the east side of the river originally was
aken up as wood lots, appertinent to the holdings on the west side which was
rairie. In the majority of cases, however, these wood lots ceased to be wood lots
o any considerable extent, and as after a short distance of from one-half to one
lie from the river was attained, they in many cases, probably to the
jctent of 70 percent became open prairie, frequently too wet for cultivation
tiough suitable for hay lands. Hence they became largely settled on.
An agitation at once started that these two outer miles should be made
free grant, in connection with the inner two, or River Lot, and eventually the
overnment acceded to that request and surveyed the said outer two miles, 1874-
376. The original 12 chains lots became sub-divided lengthwise, the people preferred to live along the river and some holdings became as narrow as one chain in
idth. One man in St. Andrews had a lot one chain in width on the west bank of
1e river and another one nearly opposite on the east bank, also one
[lain in width; his holding was eight miles in length and contained only 64 acres.
These narrow river lots have been the bane of the whole settlement of
he Red and Assiniboine Rivers and as early as 1874 many of the enterprising
id intelligent settlers along Red River informed the writer that if, when the lands
fere surveyed in quarter sections to the rear of them they had abandoned their
vfsr  claims and gone out and settled on the quarter section they would then, in
B74, only three seasons after such lands were available have been better off
tnaneially than they were.
It was deemed necessary on account of the surveys in the case of the
ater two miles of the river lots, to provide road allowances between the lots
p distances varying from 1 to 2 miles apart, and this was done as far as possible
ithout interfering with improvements taking 75 chains off each lot, and for the
ind so taken, compensation was given the owner of the land to the extent of
1.50 in scrip for every acre so taken. Roads along or some short distance back
■om the banks of the rivers across said lots were laid out in early days by the
buncil of Assiniboia throughout the entire settlement known as the King's
p-ghway, and were two chains or 132' in width. Main street Winnipeg, is the
prtion of said highway within the boundaries of that city. In a few cases a road
id been laid out by the Council of Assiniboia or by arrangement by the settlers
lemselves, between lots extending from the river to the two mile limit of said lots.
PARK CLAIMS
Another class of claims was then preferred, viz., Park Claims.
\ie  settlers from time to time had gone out on to the said two miles and taken
session of a choice piece of prairie land, breaking and cultivating it» In
kny cases they built cabins and lived on it in the summer time, taking their
5Ws and calves out, as the pasturage was better than where it was brushy along
fie river. One of the largest settlements of this nature in the rear of St.
bdrews was known as Buttertown. These people took up their claims regardless of
kether they were on their outer two miles or not, and they were of all widths
pngths areas and shapes, varying from 2 to more than 100 acres in area. They
re generally taken up on the first land that was suitable nearest their river
it residence» An agitation was started that they should have these lots also
anted them and a survey was made and patents were granted; scrip to the extent
E* $1.50 in lieu of each acre of land taken for such Park Claims from each lot»
27.  lis granted to the owner thereof» Up to 1879 all Dominion Lands in Manitoba were
bid at the rate of $1.00 per acre.
Compensation for Hay Lands and Rights of Common
 Where there was no Outer Two.
The question then arose what was to be done with those who had no
[iter two miles, that is - those who by reason of change in direction of lots
bald not obtain such, or - in those settlements west of White Horse Plains along
he Assiniboine, and also the Seine, White Mud, and around Lake Manitoba and some
kher points where there has been no apportionment of Outer Two Miles. Their
Lairas were commuted by granting them as many dollars in scrip as they had acres
land to which they were entitled under the Manitoba Act. This concession
las eventually granted to all Manitoba Act Claims to which there was no outer
pro miles, in a very large number of cases an absurdly liberal concession. They
»re privileged to go where they chose for hay and timber. For hay, a day was
bt apart and everyone went out and cut around what hay he could, thereby establ-
ping his first claim or right thereto.
Scattering Land Claims
In addition to the settlement mentioned there were some enterprising
bn who claimed considerable holdings, by accumulating considerable herds of
pock, pasturing, cutting hay and erecting stabling and shelter thereon. They
id not permanently reside on them, but at certain seasons of the year they
Ether resided themselves or had their agents or employees, while looking after
pe stock, perform a certain amount of residence thereon. At Crosse Isle the
ate Hon. Alfred Boyd had such a claim, embracing several thousand acres. He
as largely engaged in stock raising, and was also an extensive fur trader.
obtained 640 acres under Manitoba Act and considerable adjacent area ht $1.00
br acre. These grants and opportunity to purchase at $1.00 in scrip for each
pre of land, finally accorded them very liberal treatment. A large percentage
iceived at least 320 acres of land. These claims were not confined to any
|articular districts.
Staked Claims
Another class of claims came to the front shortly after known as
[Staked Claims". They were chiefly along the Rat and Seine Rivers, though there
;re some few others distributed throughout the country.
About the time that it was anticipated the Canadian Government would
lake possession of the country, a large number of French half-breeds seemed to
bve been impressed with the idea that if they staked out claims anywhere in the
pantry they would probably obtain them. The result was that along the rivers
tentioned a large number of claims were so staked, stakes being erected to show the
[oundaries between the claims near the banks of the river, and these lots were
jupposed to conform to the usual practice, extending at a right angle to the
|eneral coarse of the stream back for two miles. They were usually 12 chains
n width, though in some cases a very considerably greater area than that
[as claimed. Thus if the river was very crooked at a certain point they allotted
pe crooked part to one or two, and then went on to where the river assumed a
pre direct course. These lots where the river was tortuous frequently were sever-
1 hundred acres in area. Nothing further than more staking was done for some
{ears. [
mm 23.
This was a matter of very warm controversy for some years largely
ring to the fact that speculators had bought these claims for a song and then
itated in the names of the original owners for recognition thereof. Finally
ey were granted, about 1877-78, under the following condition; Those who had
ken possession of lots personally staked or acquired up to the date mentioned
free grant of 160 acres, and one dollar an acre for the balance. Those who had
t taken possession were allowed to acquire their claims at one dollar per acre.
e  land so staked was presumed to be choice land.
Other Manitoba Act Claims by reason of Survey of Lands.
There was another class of claims which were recognized as coming
[rectly under the Manitoba Act. The Council of Assiniboia had always one,
jnerally two, legally qualified men authorized to make surveys, and where lots
[d been surveyed by these men at any time prior to the transfer, recognized to
i extent of an acre equal to twelve chains in width by two miles in length,
nominally 200 acres. Many of them, however, were restricted to 160 acres,
no more land was available in the immediate vicinity» These claims being
Inèrally isolated were usually satisfied by a quarter section, or legal sub-
Ivision equal to a quarter section. When they fell short of 160 acres the
llance was made up in scrip issued for one dollar per acre.
Squatters' Rights outside of original Province of Manitoba.
North-West Territories.
In the North-West Territories the claimants were squatters in advance
I surveys. To whatever extent claims to land were recognized it was solely as
lose of squatters and limited to 160 acres, unless a greater area was cultivated
Id there was not one such case of excess came under the writer's cognizance,
Id at least ninety-eight per cent of all such claims lying between the Red River
Id the Rocky Mountains, and between the International Boundary and the Athabasca
Iver were investigated and reported on by him. A man however was allowed to inc-
lase his area to the extent of 320 acres in all by purchase at the minimum rate,
le dollar per acre, provided such increase lay adjacent and did not conflict with
fcr other claims. If settlement was made subsequent to the price of land being
Ire than one dollar per acre such additional area was sold to him at the price
iling at the date of settlement.
The settlements in the Territories, the chief of which were Qu'Appelle,
Laurent, Prince Albert, St. Louis de Langevin, Lac La Biche, F. Saskatchewan,
monton, St. Alberts and Lac Ste. Anne, were squatted on chiefly by half-breeds,
:cepting to some extent Edmonton and to a large extent Fort Saskatchewan. The
'jority of these half-breeds excepting those of Lac la Biche, St. Albert and
c Ste. Anne had come from Manitoba or were descendants of those who came from
ere, and were accustomed to the river lot settlement and desired to stay closely
gether. In the majority of cases these lots were originally twelve chains
width but in some cases very considerably more than that was claimed and
entually recognized. One in particular in the neighbourhood of Edmonton
own as the Great Claim contained probably 600 acres. It was probably a mistake
I recognize these claims in the shape of river lots, but that was the
sire of the half-breeds. The plan of the government to settle on them as
r as reasonably possible on individual quarter section was alleged to
• the chief cause of the Rebellion in 1885. (The term "alleged" is used advisedly).  24.
In passing it might be said that upwards of ninety-two per cent of the half-
feeds who took part in the Rebellion of 1885 were Manitoba half-breeds, and had no
pirns in the North West Territories to either scrip or land by reason of being
possession of or successors to those in possession of land prior to the date of
psfer, 15th of July, 1870, and not two per cent were residing on any lands at
|td date, being buffalo hunters and traders.    Those who were in possession by
«mselves or through their parents at that date in the Territories were confined
the settlements of Lac la Biche, St. Albert and Lac Ste. Anne, and to a very
tght extent the English-speaking half-breeds at Prince Albert.    As every one of
bse claims was investigated by evidence taken, and a recommendation for disposi-
bn made by the writer, the foregoing assertion regarding the right of the claim-
» is placed beyond dispute.    It is also a satisfaction to the writer to be able
state that of the many hundred cases so acted on by him, less than one-half per
fit were settled otherwise than as he recommended in the first instance.1
INDIANS AND INDIAN RESERVES
It will be noticed that in the Deed of Surrender the Canadian Government
i*eed to take charge of the Indian matters, and a basis of land grants to Indian
serves was laid down.
It was originally thought that a small annuity granted to the Plains
ftians, varying from five dollars for the head of the family up to twenty-five
thirty dollars for the chief would be sufficient for them after they were once
iced on the reserves and a little farming instruction imparted and assistance
ren to them.2 To the Wood Crées and other Wood Indian bands no material assistée beyond what was specified in the Treaty has been granted, owing to their
iting, fishing and trapping privileges, being only slightly at first, and after-
wda  only gradually interfered with by settlement. To prevent want and desti-
lion a very large expenditure was necessary in the case of the Plains Indians,
big to the rapid extinction of the buffalo shortly after "coming under treaty".
m  considerable mortality resulted from the rapid change of conditions. Housing
fern a considerable portion of the year, in fact in some cases for the entire
iod, and the substitution of bacon, vegetables and flour, for the game formerly
hsumed produced the results mentioned. Little or no fish has ever been used by
1, nor is such in any considerable quantity readily available.
The Reserves were laid out on a basis of 64O acres for every five souls,
as a matter of fact more than double that amount was granted, and some cases
bee or four times the area. This error arose from excess in estimation of
fcir number when the Treaties were made with the various bands, all present or
■resented were enumerated, and in that enumeration a very large percentage did
E, belong to the band in which they were enrolled or counted as belonging. These
Iras went from one treaty point to another and the same individual would be counted
1 many belonging to four or five different bands.
The same thing happened in the first two or three years in payments. The
wernment sent a paymaster who went from band to band to pay them. The Indians
laid move as rapidly as he could without his knowing it, and he paid the annuity
the same Indians at several different points. When the Government resorted to
king the Indians directly through their agents on the reserves, of course this
nud was stopped. That change in amount paid out gave rise to the impression
|it the Plain Indians were fast decreasing in numbers. They probably are now
Cap. 31, 42 Vic. Sec.125, sub-sec. (e) and (f) assented to 15th_May 1879
|i "  16,62-63 Vic. Sec. 4 "     Ù) and (f2)   "   » 11th Aug.1899.
For actual payments, initial at treaty and annuities, see Hand book of Indians
of Canada, Ottawa, 1913, p.478 and Morris, Treaties of Canada, etc.1880,p.261.  [.creasing slightly but not to any considerable extent.
As soon thereafter as could reasonably be done, these reserves set apart
[r the Indians were surveyed, and the government has been very strict in retain-
ig the reserves from squatters.
The Blackfoot Indians were finally given reserves in a different location
jam the original grant. The change was made with the consent of the Indians
(barest ed, and greatly to the benefit of them and the public interest. The
jiginal Black-foot Reserve was a narrow strip on both sides of the South Sask-
chewan River, extending from the mouth of the Red Deer up probably a slight
stance west of Black-foot Creek, and it was not till 1883 that the exchange was
[de.
It is probable that the Indians at the time of the treaty were told that in
Idition to the ownership of the reserves they would enjoy the privilege as here-
ifore, of roaming over the country hunting. At least that was promised to the
oney Indians at Morley. It has not been much of a grievance to restrict them
their hunting to the reserves, except to the Stoneys who roam along the foot-
LLls and far into the heart of the mountains, even at times across the Rocky
hintain range, from the International boundary to the Smokey River. It is
aimed that they are destructive of game by shooting out of season. If so,
lobably this matter will be shortly arranged as the law regarding game protection
[plies to them as well as to others.
Although it was repeatedly pointed to the government that very much more
Ind had been granted the Indians than had been agreed upon, the government had
Is is ted on carrying out the reserves to the fullest extent. With the consent of
le Indians, however, a good many of these reserves have been considerably
fduced. The lands have been sold by public auction and the proceeds devoted to
[e advantage of the band to whom the reserve was allotted. In the case of the
jackfoot and also the Blood and Peigan reserves this has or will shortly amount
I a very considerable sum. The advancement of the Indians, particularly on the
[serves last mentioned, in the way of industry and effort toward self-support
is been in the last few years very marked. For some time after they came under
le control of the Indian Department it was feared that their case was hopeless,
[t conditions at present warrant a more, if not most, hopeful outlook.
Homesteads
The first regulation regarding homesteads was an Order-in-Council of
It of March, 1871, followed by the first Dominion Lands Act which came into
I'fect on the 14th of April 1872. Under that Act and prior to it the administra-
lon of lands came under the Department of the Secretary of State, But in 1873
le Department of the Interior was created and it was assigned all matters per-
Lining to lands,
At first 160 acres was granted as a homestead, and that has been in effect
i to date, excepting in the case of the regulations promulgated on the 28th June
7f# by which an attempt was made to restrict homesteads lying within a certain
stance of where it was anticipated the Canadian Pacific Railway would be con-
ructed to 80 acres, a practice that was also attempted in the United States
Hway land grants» That scheme did not remain in effect for any considerable
ngth of time. It was very unpopular, and both in Canada and the United States it
Cap. 4, 36 Vic, Assented to May 3rd, 1873.
31.  as dropped and the area extended to 160 acres.
Parties entitled to Entry
26.
In 1886 the right to homesteading was restricted to one entry. Prior to
bat there was no liait to the number of homestead entries a man could make, and
any acquired from 320 to 640 acres under personal homestead privileges. Up till
the regulations which warranted the issue of title were fairly strict,
equiring at least six months residence to each year for three years. If we had
ollowed the United States practice and made it five it would have been better.
n 1884 an amendment to the Dominion Lands Act was passed whereby a man could ob-
ain a homestead without living on it, excepting for three months immediately
receding his application for patent but he had to do a certain amount of break-
n and cultivation. This scheme was initiated by the Senate and certain Senators
rided themselves very greatly on the wisdom of such legislation. It was passed
a opposition to the protest of all the administrative officers of the Department,
10 should have been the best judges. The result was disastrous. Having made
is concession, it seems utterly impossible to withdraw it. The cultivation was
Dne, though only to the amount of thirty acres in the most perfunctory manner,
3d in most cases after title was obtained the land was abandoned. The "habitable
Duse" was a shack that could be pot on a wagon and drawn any place, one shack
auld do duty for a dozen different applications for patent. This law enabled
atent to be obtained so long as one lived within two miles of his homestead
oarter section. This regulation was afterwards extended to any place in the
ime township, then to any place within six miles, and for cultivation, stock
o the value of a few hundred dollars was substituted. A homesteader would
archase a small band of stock to the requisite amount and give his note for it.
fter he obtained his recommendation for patent his note becoming due, the holder
f the note took the stock back. The same stock would do to prove title by
bmestead right to any number of quarter sections.2
Those responsible for the Homestead Act and the administration thereof seem
irgely, if not wholly, to have lost sight of the fact that a homestead was
itended as a home, not as a gift of 160 acres to a man for coming into the
jsuntry. Thus around all our town and villages under the Act all the lands were
Lken by people who lived in them, not on the homestead. We would have had them
Lthout giving them 160 acres, and if that 160 acres had not been given but had
sen occupied by progressive settlers, the livelihood of these men in the towns
wild have been greatly bettered. The result is that to-day in many portions of
is Provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan and in the neighbourhood of villages,
jwns and cities, there is more production per acre from the lands which have
^en sold to land companies cr others granted as railway land grants, than there
from the lands acquired as homesteads. The unfortunate part of it is that a
irge percentage of these homestead lands are held in small lots, the majority
pt being more than one holding to the individual. If they were held in con-
Lderable areas by anyone interest it is probable that action could be taken to
Id greatly to the occupation and production. As good lands became scarce for
Mnesteads and more valuable, the treatment zeems to have been to give them away
increasingly easty terms.
Pre-emptions»
Up to 1890 if the adjacent quarter sections to the lands homesteaded were
railable, the entrant to the homestead was entitled to take it as a pre-emption
paying a fee of ten dollars and obtain fuU control if it and when entitled
Cap. 27, 49 Vic, Clause 37, assented to 2nd June 1886.
Cap, 20 1 Edw, VII, Sec. 3,  Sub. Sec. b, assented to 23rd May 1901,
32,  27.
his patent for his homestead, could acquire the pre-emption at the price ruling
the date he made his entry. The rates varied from one to three dollars per
e. While the homesteader had no right to pre-emption from 1890 to 1908, he
bid readily secure by purchase and thus increase his holdings. That, together
th the rights acquired under the half-breed and South African scrip enabled
ry considerable holdings to be obtained. This was far from being good public
licy. The result was that all lands specially attractive to settlers were
sposed of long before the country was settled to fifty per cent of the density
psible had the Homestead Act been efficiently administered»
In 1908 amendments to the Dominion Lands Act are worthy of perusal as
||ttrtrating a revival of the pre-emption rights and the homestead purchase rights
th certain areas of Saskatchewan and Alberta then thought to be the areas that
account of paucity of rainfall were primarily more suitable for grazing or
bck raising than for grain cultivation. Many people assefcbto this day that
by should have been retained for grazing purposes excepting such portions as
iuld be made absolutely productive by reason of irrigation. A sbriking feature,
bëver, in connection with that area is that when there is sufficient précipitât-
n to produce a crop of grain the yields are at least double those of lands
p.ch are supposed to have in the majority of years sufficient precipitation,
a further, the cost of production is per acre very much less. The temptation,
ferefore, to settle on them became very strong and they were all taken up under
je provisions of the Act in considerable areas, in very few cases less than 320
pes, the evolution in connection with those lands will be interesting to watch.
Origin of the "Mile Belt Reservation"
and purpose anticipated to be served thereby
In the latter part of 1881 and the forepart of 1882 a very considerable
bd boom occurred iii Manitoba, and among the other places affected were certain
lilted on the Canadian Pacific Railway, notably Brandon, large prices being paid
lots therein. During the session of 1882, the Opposition of the day criticised
s Government very severely for not taking steps so that the enhanced value of
ads by reason of the building of the railway (which railway the Eastern province
Dple contended was being built by themselves) should accrue to the public and
b to enterprising individuals, speculators or squatters. The leader of the
pernmenb ab bhe bime assured bhe House bhab sbeps would be-.immediabely baken bo
tract the public interest in such respect. At once orders were issued to reserve
pm homestead entry all of what is known as the Mile Belt along the main line of
Canadian Pacific Railway.
Townsite Reservation
There were also certain, areas reserved for townsites, notably at Qu'Appelle,
gina, Moose Jaw, Medicine Hat and Calgary. A very considerable area, at least
township in extent at each point was so reserved. Immediately after the reser-
bion of the said Mile Belt bhe lands were inspecbed and a price seb on bhem,
t very few were sold. They were subsequenbly, about 1884 thrown open bo
nestead entry. The same action regarding the townsite reservation was baken
soon as bhe area required for bownsite purposes was debermined.
Sec. 27, 28, Cap.20, 7-8 Edw. VII, assenbed bo 20bh July, 1908.
33.  ATTEMPTED SALE OF LANDS bhab were seb aparb as homesbeads,
bhen reserved and again available for Homesbead Enbry
During bhe summer of 1882 ib was suggesbed bo bhe Government that all bhe
^disposed of lands lying soubh of the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway,
id practically all east of the Missouri Coteau^ and which were bhen open for
«esbead enbry be sold, and bhe proceeds bo reimburse bhe country for its outlay
l bhe consbrucbion of bhe Canadian Pacific Railway bhereby relieving bhe
Lability to the country, particularly bhe Easbern Provinces. Ib was represenbed
Lab bhese lands could be sold ab $ 5.00 per acre, and bhab bhey would be readily
squired ab bhe price menbioned by people who would sebble bhereon. The resulb
is bhab Governmenb withdrew all bhese lands from homesbead enbry. This reser-
Ltion conbinued in effecb for aboub a year when ib was wibhdrawn. A very small
ea was sold probably nob 2,000 acres and bhe purchasers were allowed subse-
[lenbly bo homesbead bhe purchased areas if bhey so desired.
Where bhe reservations were made for townsites, so soon as ib was found
tab were so required, bhe remainder was opened for homesbead entry. Usually
hose on even sections were obtained by men who had squatted on bhem prior bo,
• very shorbly after, the reservation.
GOVERNMENT TOWN PLOTS OR INTEREST IN SAME
The first Government Town Plot was bhab of East Selkirk which was laid out
i 1875. No lots were disposed of, but a few squatted on them and buildings were
•ected. It was anticipated àtcthat time that Selkirk would be a divisional
pint on the C.P.R., and it was thought that it would become a place of very
bnsiderable importance. Owing to the change of the location of the C.P.R.
pwever, it became valueless for townsite purposes. The buildings erected for
kilway purposes were removed, which included among other things, a round house
pd a turn table, and the lands were eventually disposed of as farm lands. The
Lnal disposition did not take place till about 1898-99.
The Government also laid out town plots at Gimli and Virden in Manitoba,
ie»Appelle, Regina, Moose Jaw, Battleford, Calgary, Maclecd, and Lloydminster
\l the terribories. Those of Virden in Maniboba, Regina, Moose Jaw and Qu'Appelle
the North-West Territories were joinb town-sibes in which bhe Canadian Pacific
Lilway had undivided one-half inberesb wibh bhe Governmenb. The rest of bhe
pwn plobs were wholly under Governmenb conbrol. Calgary proved strikingly provable bo bhe Governmenb as all bhe lobs were sold. In the remainder only a
hall portion of the subdivided part was disposed of.
The citizens of bhose points initiated an agitation that the Governmenb
jiould hand over bo bhose municipalibies bhe unsold lobs-, and pressed bhis claim
p bhe ground bhat these lobs nob being liable for baxes, bhey insisbed bhab bheir
Jiare of pasb taxation was fully equal to their then value.
A Commission underline Great Seal was issued on the 19bh of June bo James
|. Smarb, bhen Depuby Minisber of bhe Inberior and E. F, Sbephenson, Inspector,
own Timber Agencies, bo investigate and report on the matter so far as the town-
btes of Virden, Regina, Moose Jaw and Qu'Appelle were concerned, which Commission
tde a report on the 6th December, 1900, and on the 29th of December, 1900, an
rder-in-Council was passed authorizing a winding up of bhe arrangemenbs arising
\A  of bhe joinb Administration of those townsites. They had been administered
f trustee jointly for the C.P.R. and the Government. On the 6th of April, 1903
a Order-in-Council was passed and handed over to the four respective municipali-
lies all the undisposed lots which had, through the said settlement, reverted to
Vicinity of Regina.
34.  29.
i||prown.      As already stated Calgary was sold out.
Owing bo bhe greab advance of Regina and a boom in real esbabe, bhe lobs
at were handed over to the Municipality, comprising a very large area, have
come very valuable. The Municipality in giving a statement of its assebs
is placed a value on bhem of several million dollars, and has already secured
■om bhose sold many hundred thousand dollars. In other cases the area being
^all, the values were not very great.
Many have maintained bhab bhis acbion was neibher logical nor equitable.
ie contention is that these bowns were no more enbitled bo bhe profib obtained
om bhe lands bhan any other portion of bhe country and that it should have
crued bo bhe public revenue, also bhab bhe plea regarding baxabion was not
logical one and that it was owing largely, if not wholly, to the action of
ie Government that these towns owed their existence and maintenance.
Unfortunately the matter, particularly in the case of Regina, drifted into
Lrty polibics, and when such is bhe case even if strict justice be mebed oub,
by will argue bo bhe conbrary.
HAMLET SYSTEM OF SETTLEMENT
Ib has ofben been urged bhab bhe hamlet,  or some other system of grouping
ttlers would be beneficial.    This has been tried on a very considerable
ale in bwo places very far remobe, each from bhe obher, and by differenb
asses of people, bhe Mennonibes in Soubhern Manitoba and the Mormons in
luthern Alberba.
HAMLET SETTLEMENT OF MENNONITES
The Mennonibe settlement  (Russians of German ancestry) was originally
together a hamlet system, and their affairs were to a slight extent run in
'-operation or partnership.    The stock was herded by some of bhe residenbs of
e village and each conbribubed bo bhe cost in proportion bo bhe number of
ock herded.    There was also partnership in bhe more expensive farming imple-
nbs.    As bhe land farmed by bhe differenb sebblers became greaber in area
was found necessary bo move bo bhe individual homesteads.    Many had pre-
bbions and obhers had purchased land in addition.    In less bhan bwenty years
he process began wibhin bhree) bhe hamlets were all broken up and each
ttler located on his own homestead and carried on operations largely if not
oily on his own account.    Frequently a village was located where two road-
bs intersected, causing four homesteads to a slight extent to be occupied by
e village, there being at that time no distinction between odd and even
jetions for homesteading.    In such Cases the original homesteaders are still
ving where they settled.
By an Order-in Council on the 3rd of August, 1904, the unsold lots of
Macleod were handed over to the Municipality.
By an Order-in-Council on the 17bh of June, 1907, bhe unsold lobs of
Babbleford were handed over bo bhab Municipaliby.
By an Order-in-Council on bhe 4th of September, 1908, the unsold lots of
Gimli were handed over to that Municipality.
By an Order-in-Council on bhe 14th of February, 1914, the unsold lots in the
wn of Lloydminster were handed over to that Municipality; and further LS 11
Sec.2-50-28-W.3rd was granted exclusively for park and recreation purposes.
35.  30.
Hamleb Sebblemenb of Mormons
The hisbory of bhe sebblemenb of bhe Mormons in Soubhern Alberba is of suf-
JLcienb inberesb bo describe in some debail.
Mr. Card wibh bwo cr bhree associates was sent by Mormon interest to British
ilumbia in 1886.    They procured pack-horses to inspect the country, and during
tch inspection they ran across the late Wm. Ogilvie,  D.L.S. who was then making
brveys for the Dominion Government in that Province.    Mr. Ogilvie suggested to
jiem that they should go east by the C.P.R. to Calgary, and then south along the
bothills, and he thought there they would find country that would suit them,
key did so and finally decided on a centre for settlement at Lees Creek, where
^rdston now is.
They returned to Utah,  and came back with a very considerable following.     In
fe87 Cardston was established as their headquarters, and continues to be so still.
[>oub half of bhese Mormons sebbled in hamleb s and aboub half on individual holdings.
ie fifby per cent that settled on their individual holdings were perhaps at the f£
Ime they came in the more wealthy.    A good many of them had brought  in considerable
;ock.    Mr. Card, who was the head of the settlement, made a statement  about five
six years after the settlement was first effected, as follows:
"During the first two,  or possibly three, years after the settlers came in,
lose in hamlets made double the progress of those that had settled individually,
ht after that time those on the individual holdings made progress much more
pidly than those  in the hamlets."
The hamlets of the Mormons eventually developed into town and villages, and
ke introduction of irrigation into the eastern portion of the Mormon settlement
isisted largely in those hamlets being maintained and extended, as under irrigation the unit necessary for a livelihood was not large.    Further they were enabled
irrigation to make very pleasant homes, through the planting of trees and flower
krdens, which contribute greatly to the pleasures of home life.    The only hamlet
lich was not provided with irrigation to a greater or lesser extent was Mountain
Lew, and it has not thriven like the others.    While the chief town in the districts
.z., Cardston,  is not strictly under the irrigation system,  still the townsite
»self was in the earlier days irrigated and probably to some extent still is.
ie first thing the Mormons did -when they set bled there was to take  out an irriga-
i.on ditch from Lees Creek.    Then they planted trees, natives in the immediate
Lcinity - cottonwood - out around the streets and their holdings, and to-day
be town from a distance has the appearance of a forest,  so much so that very
py trees have had to be cut down.
There was also a rather interesting experiment tried in this settlement in
bnnection with a butter factory at Aetna.    The factory was established where
tere was a considerable area open for pasturage, with good water,  and it was
served wholly for cows.    The cows were run there and milked in proximity to
I factory.     In the first year or two of its existence  it gave promise of being
very great  success,  but  ib is now reported that it has closed.    Probably the
|)rmons, like a good many others, tired of milking
36»  31.
There were also some other hamlets established under the former provisions
f the "Dominion Lands Act", some of them as far back as the early eighties.
1ère was one at Russell, Manitoba, and another, a French Canadian settlement
a Southern Manitoba.    Neither of these was a success as a hamlet, but the settlers
10 constitubed bhe same would probably nob have made a success in any case.    They
pre nob fibbed for farming or were shiftless.
Loans bo Sbimulabe Sebblemenb
Ab various bimes efforbs were made bo sbimulabe homesbead sebblemenb by loans,
iz. of $ 100,000 bo bhe Mennonites by their co-religionists, who were protected
p a very considerable extent by the government.    This worked out very well.l
Ivances to immigrants for passage and erection of buildings, secured by a charge
[i the homestead,  as provided for in the Dominion Lands Act of 1881, and sub-
iquent amendments,  did not generally worm out well,  either for the settlers,
(lose who furnished the funds,  or for the government.    Settlement was very slightly
at all, increased thereby.
Various Dispositions of Land
Lands were disposed of by railway and land grants,  homesteads, pre-emption,
kle, by the application of scrip issued for the satisfying of many claims mentioned
pder that head, and also under colonization conditions, and to aid in irrigiation.
For Colonization
By an Order-in-Council of the 18th September 1872,  lands for a Swiss colony,
the extent of 100,000 acres were set apart.    Nothing came of this.
By an Order-in-Council of the 16th of October 1872, lands were set apart for
ie German Society of Montreal, on which to colonize German settlers.    A very
[tble colonizabion arose oub of bhis.
By an Order-in-Council of bhe 28bh of November 1872, lands were seb aparb for
Scotch settlement.    Nothing came of this.
By an Order-in-Council of the 3rd of March 1873, eight townships were set
art for Mennonites, and one and one-third townships for Germans.    The Mennon-
es were then styled "German settlers from Russia".    The lands set apart for the
nnonites lay easb of Red River, and immediabely easb of where the Pembina branch
the C. P. R. was located the following year, being composed of portion of
iwnships 5, 6 and 7, Ranges 4, 5 amd 6, East of P.M.    For the German settlement
fwnship 13 and part of 14, Range 4 West of P.M. being north of Poplar Point
ttlement.    This eventually had a few Germans settle therein.    That reserved for
nnonites was eventually fully settled by them.
By an Order-in-Council dated the 3rd of April 1873,  a further area was set
fart for a Scotch settlement, and on the 19th of May a further area was set
[art for the Mennonites, and on the 14th of August 1874 a further reservation
made for Danes»    Except for the Mennonites there were no results.    Their
iserve was very satisfactorily settled.
On the 13th of March 1874 a reservation was made for French-Canadians to be
patriated by the French Colonization Society of Manitoba.    Some settlement,
»t not very much was effected by this.
On the 8th of October 1875 lands were set apart for Icelanders on Lake
nnipeg.    This proved a successful settlement.
1.    Cap.28,52 Vic.1889.
37.  32.
On the 1st of January I876 lands were set apart for a Welsh settlement con-
Lsbing of Township 15, Range 8, and Townships 15, 16 and 17, Range 10, wesb
bhe Principal Meridian.    One, A. Spencer Jones seems to have been the promoter
this scheme for the Welsh Immigrants, bub he included in ib also bhe right
j> colonize with English.    He undertook to place sixty-four settlers in each
|wnship bill half bhe lands were occupied, and the balance of the lands in said
awnships were to be sold him at one-half the upset price, fifty cents an acre.
)thing came of bhis.
Secbions 14 and 15 of bhe Dominion Lands Acb of 1874 enabled bhe governmenb
> seb apart lands for settlenenbs, and as remunerabion for cosb bo promober of
ich sebblemenbs bo sell any obher or addibional lands in bhe said sebblemenb
a reduced price.    Ib also provided bhab any expense occurred in bhe way of
lying passage, and subsisbence, erecting buildings, providing farm implemenbs
kd seed, could be agreed upon by bhe parbies and made a charge on bhe homesbead
such immigranb, bhe amounb so advanced nob bo exceed Two Hundred dollars, and
be acknowledged by bhe immigranb before bhe local Dominion Lands Agenb.
Under the foregoing provisions by Order-in-Council of the 11th of May 1877,
[wnship 13, in Range 19 - and Township 12 in Range 20, were set apart for the
minion Steamship Company.    It was required to place sixty-four sebblers in each
wnship, and afber bhose were sebbled bhe remaining lands were bo be sold ab
fby cenbs per acre.    Few, if any, sebblers were esbablished by bhis company.
By Order-in-Council of 31sb of July 1878, eighty acres of land oub of each
ree hundred and bwenby acres was bo be given bo anyone who would place a
bbler bhereon from bhe Easbern provinces.    A considerable number were brought
under these conditions*    Messrs. Pretbie &. Young of Toronbo senb up a
nsidérable number.    All, or nearly all, who were bhus broughb in sebbled in
e neighborhood of Minnedosa and Rapid City, bhe points to which most attention
at that time directed.    The settler took a homestead of one hundred and sixty
res free, and a pre-emption of eighty acres at the regulation rate of one
liar per acre, the other  eighty acres being given as a reward to the parties
0 brought the settlers in.
By an Order-in-Council of 12th of February 1879 the Rev. L. 0. Armstrong
dertook to settle in a township fifty families from Argenteuil, Quebec, and
r that purpose he was to take a homestead in the township and fulfil his
^ies, and bhe balance of bhe secbion on which his homesbead was locabed was
be made a free gifb bo him.    Nobhing was effecbed under bhis.
On bhe same dabe J. H. Wood of Woodsbock and J. J. Crawford of Sb. George,
tario, undertook bo sebble fourteen totoiships of which Birtle mighb be
3umed as bhe centre, on lines similar bo those accorded Mr. Armstrong,
psrs. Wood & Crawford did establish settlement under this to a slight extent.
On the 20th of May 1881, a grant was made to the Norton Dairy Farm Company
|der conditions as follows:    if they chose lands within bhe C.P.R. belb, bhey
re bo pub sebblers on each even secbion,  oubside of bhat belb bwo sebblers
th on bhe even and odd secbions, bhen bhe balance of bhe land would be sold
pm, if wibhin bhe railway belt at $1»25, if outside $1.00 per acre.    The
npany made some effort to carry out its undertaking but the results were most
} appointing.
38.  33.
The Outstanding Colonization Scheme
Regulations for bhe Same
By Order-in-Council of the 23rd of December 1881, when the late Hon. D.L.
bPherson was Minister of the Interior, a colonization scheme was brought into
feet which caused applications amounting to several million acres of land.
There were bwo plans for colonization, one that it was anticipated would
3t require much capital to secure the land but eventually it was found it did:
lie other required a large outlay initially and no lands or rights were acquired
jider it»
The first plan was that the odd sections were to be sold at $2.00 per acre,
cenbs per acre addibional for survey fees, length of bime was five years.    Two
ktblers were bo be placed on each homesbead secbion and bwo on each odd secbion.
ie sebblers on bhe homesbead secbions were bo be accorded bhe righb of pre-emp-
t.on of one hundred and sixty acres adjacenb ab $2.00 per acre.    Whabever lands
re lefb afber bhe sebblers were pub on were bo be sold bhe company ab $1.00
r acre.    The granbs were bo be composed wholly of lands within twelve miles
f any projecbed line of railway.
It will thus be seen that all the colonization companies were located north
bhe main line belb  of bhe Canadian Pacific Railway and oubside of any obher
fen projecbed branch lines of railway»
The second plan was bhab lands were sold ab $ 2.00 per acre, bub bhey had
place one hundred and bwenby-eighb sebblers in each township.    The lands sold
$ 2.00 per acre, wibh a rebabe of fifty per cent if the contract were fulfilled,
jrebabe on each sebbler as far as placed was allowed of one hundred and bwenby
liars ab bhe end of each year, and forty dollars addibional was bo be paid when
conbracb was completed.    These amounbs, ib will be observed, book up bhe re-
te.    This was an impossible scheme.    No land was ever acquired under ib.
Plan No. 1 was also largely a failure and in 1886, while bhe Hon. Thomas
Ibe was Minisber of bhe Inberior, mosb of bhe companies became, or were likely
become, bankrupt, and were wound up.    The governmenb was mosb liberal in bhe
nding-up arrangements enabling bhe parties bo geb out wibhoub losing very much
pey, some of bhem probably made a libble.    If bhey had been kepb sbrictly bo
rms of conbracb ninety-eighb per cenb would have been forced inbo bankrupbey.
a small percentage of bhe area so baken bhe scheme was carried oub.    Many of
jem never abbempbed anybhing beyond paying bhe firsb insbalmenb which was one-
[fth of bhe area of bhe odd sections ab bhe price fixed.    This money was reburned
bhem in bhe shape of land scrip.    Scrip ab bhe dabe they received it was probab-
worbh nob more bhan eighty cents on the dollar, so that they lost on that part
bhe bransacbion the inberesb and bwenby per cent of the principal.
This colonization scheme gave a good opening for opposition criticism and ib
b anticipabed bhab such would arise.    However, none did arise, probably because
bhe facb bhab many proainenb men on bobh sides of bhe House were financially
fceresbed in ib and gave a sigh of relief when bhe mabber was finally wound up.
b settlement of the country had proved most disappointing and the financial
Ligations proved very much greater than was anticipated.    It, however, had
sbably one effect which was far more reaching than was at the time bhoughb,
abbention was direcbed bo bhe West as a place of settlemenb and many parties
re brought in from the Eastern provinces who would probably otherwise have
Ifted to the United States»
39.  Sales of Land
34.
Owing bo bhe boom of 1881-82 bhe governmenb decided bo hold a land sale, one
[ Winnipeg bo dispose of any remnants of river lots, or fractional pieces of
bid left in the Eastern part of the province and one at Birtle. These sales
jre held during March and April of 1882 and a very large amount of land was sold,
pe of it bringing considerably more than the regulation price. Terms were cash.
Ie Birtle sale which was much the larger, realized upwards of $  700,000.
Grazing Lands
The Dominion Lands Act from its very inception in 1872 provided for the
pposal of lands for grazing purposes. It was not until 1881 that these were
ch sought. Then there arose a considerable demand along the foothills of the
[cky Mountains and to the east thereof, from Bow River to the International
junday.
Regulations for the disposal of grazing lands were first promulgated by an
jier-in-Council of the 18th of May, 1881. The area to be granted any one party
is 100,000 acres. It was to be stocked up within five years at one head for
[ery ten acres, rental one cent per acre per annum. The lessee was entitled to
[quire an area sufficient to protect his home farm and corrals to the extent of
>ve per cent of the area leased. The length of the life of the lease was twenty-
e years.
By an Order-in-Council of lsb of March 1886, bhe rental was raised bo bwo
bts per acre per annum.    A year or two subsequently, on representations that
[der the then conditions of ranching 10 acres for each head was not sufficient,
■e area was raised to 20 acres per head.    By an Order-in-Council of 7/4/87,
I lazing lands were to be disposed of by public competibion.
The Calgary and Edmonton Railway located in 1890-91, a considerable portion
J its land grant being on these leased lands, naturally desired to obtain title
[ereto.    Negobiabions were enbered into between the leaseholders, the railway
ppany and the Government, the railway company offering to treat the leaseholders
ty liberally.    The resulb was an Order-in-Council passed on 22nd of April 1893,
| wind up the leases by which the lessees were allowed to purchase ten per cent
[ the leaseholds at $ 1»25 per acre.    There being nothing bo prevenb bhe Govern-
pt giving bhe C. & E. bhe even as well as the odd sections, an arrangement was
rived at agreeable to all three interest, the leaseholder, the railway and the
Irernment, to grant them the even as well as the odd sections in that area which
fey had undertaken to sell to the leaseholders, and the railway company sold at
[ices varying from $1.00 to $1.25, possibly in some cases as high as $1.50 per
Ire.    By that means one of the largest ranching companies in the country, viz.
Ie "Cochrane", acquired nearly all its leasehold,  and it was to that company
post profitable venture.    The Bar U and some other leaseholders also acquired
bids to as great an extent as they desired, and all could have done so under
pilar conditions.    Most of them within five years greatly regretted that they
•i not availed themselves of the privilege to the fullest exbenb.
The Alberta Railway and Coal Company also had in ibs land granb lands under
Use and bhey had made an amicable arrangement with the leaseholders to sell
the land desired and did so at very low prices.    The Government was not a
to any of the arrangements within the land grant of this last corporation.  55.
Jusb here ib might be sbabed bhere is no ground whabever for bhe assertion
fide by many bhab bhe railway land granb corporabions book advantage of their
Dsition bo extort money from bhe settler.    There is probably not one such case
id there are many where the settler was treated by bhe railway corporabion much
>re generously than he merited»
Stock-Watering and Shelber Reservations
The inevitable conflict arose, th ought not in a very acute form between stock
!n and squatters on the stock grazing areas under lease. The latter claimed bhab
ley were bona fide homesteaders and intended to cultivate their claims. There is no
oubt whatever that at least ninety-five per cent aimed to become stockmen, not ordinary
griculturists, and the temptation was very great, provided, of course, they could
iccessfully protect and eventually obtain their claim»» Several advantages accrued
? them. One was bhe cash obbained for pubbing up hay fences or buildings far bhe
iockmen or leaseholders, also for assisbing in bhe handling of stock during the
ound-up" and ab many other bimes. There were a greab many sbray cattle unhranded
[deh they could pick up. Doing so generally would not maberially injure bhe sbock-
n as many of bhem would have perished if bhey had not been succored by bhese
juatters or settlers»
Having once acquired a few females of breeding age, they obtained the services
j? the very best balls in the country without cost. On the whole, the conditions
ire ideal for successful development on the most economical lines.
They invariably squatted on springs, river or creek bottoms, which injured
kterially bhe general range capacity of bhe counbry, both for waber supply and shelber.
course bhat action by them did nob militate against their own bands as their stock
mal1y grazed around their holdings. When asked why they settled along these river
ttoms or on springs, their reply was that they could not get water elsewhere for
.emselves or their stock» Assuming that condition was correct it necessarily follow-
l that if only bhose portions could be settled on, it was inadvisable to throw bhe
lunbry open bo general settlement, as its value for stock raising purposes would be
iterially depreciated by reason of such settlement, and the production of the country
om sources other than stock would not be materially increased.
Many of these squatters were most undesirable citizens for any community. They
knsidered that the large ranchers were their legitimate prey, in short stealing their
operty was quibe warranted» One sees the same spirit manifesting itself widely, so
kat ib has almost become a proverb that there is no harm in cheating the government
large corporations. A most regrettable sentiment, but one which seems difficult
eradicate»
The undersigned investigated this matter and then urged upon the government the
visability of setting apart sufficient stockwatering and shelter reserves through-
^t the grazing areas where portions suitable for that purpose were already occupied.
That policy was approved of, and the first large reservation was made in the
iar 1885 along the Old Man, Belly, and St. Mary's and Bow Rivers» This was followed
om year to year by additions. All bhe chief springs in bhe counbry unoccupied were
served. In bhe meantime a great many had been squatted upon. This policy remained
t effect till 1897 or 1898, when there was a very considerable settlement chiefly
[om the United States into what was then the grazing district, and at first was
Irgely located along the line of the Calgary-Edmonton Railway between Macleod and
[nton.
The first large United States settlement in the ranching district of Alberta was
at of the Mormons in 1887» Owing to their mode of settlement and the locality,
is colony did not materially interfere with the reservation for stockwatering and
alter.
For a year or two after '97-98 these reservations were practically left untouch-
Then an agitation arose to have very many of them thrown open for entry on the
found that they were not required for the purpose for which the reservation was made.
u. SB**11 36»
The adminisbrabion of bhis mabber was wrebchedly weak»    The operabion was
. follows:    A applied for an enbry on some one of bhese reservabions and he
loughb a pebibion signed by several parties who purported bo live in bhe
j.cinity endorsing his application, which invariably stated it either was
Lsuitable, or nob required for bhe purpose for which ib was reserved.    A home-
lead inspector or some official was sent oub who probably knew libble or
Ibhing aboub bhe subjecb, bo report whebher it should or should not be re-
lined for the purpose for which the reservation was made.    In the majority
j the cases the report was bhab bhe reservabions should nob be aainbained,
[e result was that bhe enbry was granbed.
Time, however, has broughb ibs revenge, vindicabing bhe original policy of
[e reservabions.
Ab a convention held in Lethbridge in bhe summer of 1918, having for ibs
Ijecb the providing of water for domesbic purposes which, of course,  includes
ock, a sbrongly worded resolubion was passed urging on bhe Dominion Govern-
inb the necessity of acquiring certain areas to give access to water and
[elter for stock»   Probably ninety per cent of the areas specified by that
invention had been at one time reserved but had been withdrawn because cf the
pion or indifference of many of those who now so strenuously urged that they
[ again acquired and set apart»    However, the damage had been done.
A large proportion of the country to be served by the reservations
[scussed at this convention has been or will be brought under irrigation,
Id when that is done the question of domestic water supply will be largely
[lved.    Shelter will nob bhen be a problem, because when irrigation takes
lace the stock will not be in large bands, and bhe necessity of shelber
pervabions will nob be so vital as when the major part of the sbock was
[nning ab large.
Lands Reserved for Coal
In bhe early days of settlement very considerable reservations of coal land
I which incoming people were forbidden to locate were made along bhe Souris,
w, Belly, South Saskatchewan, North Saskabchewan Rivers and Cascade Creek»
bse reservations were withdrawn by Order-in-Council of the 13th of April, 1886
t in granting entry within them coal rights were reserved»    The doing away with
[serrations did not fully meet the conditions, as outside of these tracts bhere
be very considerable areas on which coal exisbed, so on bhe 31st of October 1887,
I Order-in-Council was passed providing bhab in bhe pabents for all lands west
I bhe Third Meridian reservabion should be made of coal and obher minerals.    By
kalations of bhe llbh January, 1890,  coal was reserved in all lands under
atrol of the Dominion Government.
The Minister of Justice, to whom this Order-in-Council was referred said
pa reservation should be inserted in all patents of land then not issued al-
pugh the land had been entered for, unless said lands were given for "valuable
asideration."    "Valuable consideration" has been construed to mean differing
bm the ordinary terms under which land was acquired.
Just here it might be mentioned that a controversy has arisen whether or
t "other minerals" include petroleum and natural gas.
Two very interesting cases arose in regard to land grants.    One - bhe
fcadian Agriculbural Goal and Colonization Company, commonly known-as bhe C. A.
| Co. or bhe Sir John Lester-Kay Co.    The former claimed that it had had no
bice of such reservation that in its negotiations it had poinbed oub bhab
I inbended bo enter inbo bhe coal mining business and ibs name indicabed bhab.
42.  37.
je Government contested the claim»    It went into the court and was finally
ttled by the Privy ^Souncil in favor of the Company.    In the second case,
at of the Calgary and Edmonton land grant, the contention was made by the
mpany that owing to certain negotiations and letters which had passed bet-
^n the late James Ross and the then Minister of the Interior, the late Hon.
gar Dewdney,  it was distinctly understood that the company was to get the
nerals in the land.    It went bhrough bhe various courts, the Canadian
hrernment won till it reached the Privy Council.    The Privy Council decided
favour of the company on grounds not raised by either of the contestants,
z., that the Subsidy Act in providing this land for the company did not reserve
, it the mineral right and therefore the company was entitled to have it.
SQUATTERS.
Prior to the amendment to the Dominion Lands Act in 1880 , squatters were
ptected on any land they had settled on, so long as they did not prove to be
dson's Bay lands.    When found on Hudson* s Bay lands the company (usually on
quest of bhe Departmenb of bhe Inberior) would relinquish ibs righb bo bhe
me, baking lands elsewhere.    In bhe exchange bhe Hudson's Bay Company almosb
prariably made a very good bargain, bhe land bhey selecbed being worbh much
[re bhan bhe land bhey relinquished.
The amendmenb authorized bhe Governmenb not to recognize squatters on
hds which had been granted to any railway company.    Squatting before or
ter survey and without obtaining entry was afterwards prohibited»    The clause
ntioned states as followst
"Provided that on the survey of a torgRship being made the Government
shall not be bound bo protect any person found to have settled on
land which may have been set apart as railway land or for any other
special purpose by the Governor in Council, or which by law or allotment duly made may be claimed by the Hudson's Bay Company.r
"2
[ practice, however, parties who were found to have squatted on school lands,
tLor to surveys, were granted a homestead and also if they desired a pre-empbion
kht on the same,  an equal area of land in the neighbourhood was set apart in
feu of the land so disposed of.
Immediately after the passage of the said Act in 1880, the Government issued
ry full notice by dodgers, and through the newspapers, calling attention to the
let that squatters proving to be on lands set apart as railway lands, or to be
B-d far railway purposes, would not have the right to homestead thereon.    In
per words,  squatters right would not be recognized.    In practice, however, if
[e land was open for homestead, the squatter thereon, if entitled to homesbead
[try, and if he applied within a stabed bime was granbed bhe same:    if nob
[bibled, ib was sold bo him.    Many cases arose of squatters on these lands not
bng eighteen years of age when they were open for entry.    In probably every
se the lands were not disturbed and when the squatters attained eighteen years
I age bhey effecbed enbry.    This notice in 1880 caused great excitemenb through-
lb the country»   Public meetings were held by parties affected in certain
rtions of the country and most vigorous probesbs made.    This was. particularly
m case in bhe viciniby of Turtle Mountain, and also several other localities»
Irever, the Government took no action and the grievance soon diMdown and
ttled itself.
Cap. 26, 43 Vic. assented to 7th May, 1880.
I   Clause 5 of Sec. 34, as amended
43.  38.
RAILWAY LAND GRANTS OR RESERVATIONS
By amended regulabions of the 25th of April, 1871, the Governor-in-
[ncil was authorized after the 1st of May, 1874, to withdraw if he saw fit from
operation of the Act, three full townships on each side of the line finally
[ictioned for the "Inter-Oceanic Railway".    That would be a belt averaging thirty-
miles wide.
Under the Dominion Lands Act of 1872   the Governor-in-Council was authored to reserve "land to such extent as may be required for railway purposes" and
1er the power so conferred the reservations hereafter mentioned were made,  in
Umber 1874, February 1876 and April I876.
It will be noticed that the Government had at bhab time power to survey
lids as it saw fit, and in connection with the final location of the Canadian
lific Railway under Government auspices when the late Sir Sanford Fleming was
Id of the Railway surveys, he elaborated a scheme of settlement along the line
[railway.    A highway abutted on each side of the railway with lots fronting
Ireon, those lots extending back about two miles and behind that the sectional
Item of survey.    No railway crossings were to be allowed except where the stations
be, which sbabions were placed aboub seven or eighb miles apart»    Each of bhose
las bo be used as bown plots at the station had a suggested scheme for subdivision
Ich had many admirable features in connection with it.    When the town plot of
lian Head was laid out Sir Sanford Fleming's scheme of subdivision for town plots
i; adopted for at least that portion north of the railway track, and anyone ac-
inted with that can form an estimate of its value.    The writer of this paper
ksidered it had a good many points of merit.
During 1874 the government had located the railway line from Thunder
b as far west as Fort Pelly or Livingstone On the Swan River»2
During 1875 and 1876 the line was located as far west as Jasper House
[practically to the summit of the mountains through the Yellow Head Pass. By
J Order-in-Council of the 26th of December 1874 there was to be withdrawn from
he stead entry and settlement all the land on each side of the railway line as
[located,  from the western boundary of Ontario to twenty miles west of Fort Pelly.
By an Order-in-Council 28th of February 1876 the reservation was extended
[twenty miles west of the junction of the Battle and Saskatchewan Rivers, and
reservation for a townsite was to be made of four miles square, as hear bhe
;icbion of said rivers as bhe bopography and condibions would permit»
By an Order-in-Council of 22nd of April I876, this twenty miles reser-
Ipion was extended bo Jasper House»
These reservabions creabed a good deal of opposibion and excitement be-
Jise there was no provision for the disposal of any lands therein.
On the ninth of November 1877 an Order-in-Council was passed opening
bse lands to the maximum extent of three hundred and twenty acres to each indiv-
pal.    He was required to reside upon and improve it, pay $1.00 per acre before
:ing possession, and pay such further amount as would be arranged for.    A con-
fcerable number settled under those conditions, and when it was finally ascertained
pt the road would not probably be built on the route as contemplated, a very
sat agitation took place for betterment of terms, so that by Order-in-Council
the 14th of October 1880, these settlers had the amount they had paid, viz.-
Cap.23, 35 Vic,
Sections 8 and
Sec. 105, assented to 14th April 1872
9, tp» 34, Range 32, West P.M.
44.  39.
LOO per acre refunded to bhem, and bhey were accorded ordinary homesbead enbry
the exbenb of one hundred and sixty acres of the land so purchased and a pre-
jpbion to a further one hundred and sixty acres at $ 2»00 per acre»    At that
pe only the even sections generally were open for homestead entry.
§jr a resolution of the House of Commons in 1879, one hundred million acres
I land were set apart for" the construction of the Canadian Pacifie Railway and
kuse 7 of said resolution provided that these lands should produce $2.00 per acre.
On the 28th of June 1879 an Order-in-Council was passed laying cut the whole
untry into belts which extended for one hundred and ten miles on each side of
hre the Canadian Pacific Railway was supposed to eventually be located.    The first
It was five miles on each side of the line, the next fifteen miles, then two of
bnty miles, each, and one of fifty»    In the two belts nearest the supposed line
ly eighty acres were allowed as a homestead, and the pre-emption adjoining the
bestead was to be sold at a price varying from $5»00 down to $4.00.    Beyond that
L5O and down to $1.00 in the outer belt where the pre-emptions were to be at
at price»    The price of the odd section, however, was from $6,00 down to $1.00
i most of the belts somewhat higher than the pre-emption prices.
This Order-in-Council was amended by one of the 9th of October of the same
br, which lowered the price slightly of the pre-emption, and also granted in all
fees one hundred and sixty acres as a homestead.
Coming now to the Canadian Pacific Railway as it at present exists.    The
bernment had prior to its entering into a contract with bhe company, eibher com-
:ted or had carried fairly well along toward completion, the line from Fort
Lliam bo Selkirk, also from Emerson bo Selkirk and from Winnipeg as far as
rbage la Prairie»    Ib was also under conbracb bo complete the line from Kamloops
Port Moody.    A good portion of bhe line bebween Winnipeg and Portage La Prairie
ffered considerably from ibs present location»    The then railway between Poplar
pnt and where Sbonewall now is, was abandoned and a fairly straight line connect-
Poplar Poinb with Winnipeg was consbrucbed in 1881 by bhe presenb company.
The Canadian Pacific Railway obtained its charter on bhe 15bh of February,
31, and in this connection it is rather interesting to note the different views
Ken by the members of Parliament during the discussion thereonas to the value
the land grant.    If the different valuations be taken it will be found the averts was about $ 3»50 per acre, and just here it might be noted that the Canadian
pific Railway in 1886 sold back to bhe Governmenb enough of ibs land granb ab
50 per acre bo amount to $ 10,000,000 and a year or so subsequently offered to
[Linquish a large portion of land which had been granted for the building of
anch lines of railway, if the Government would allow it $ 1,00 per acre for same.
a matter of fact there was a verbal offer by Sir William Van Horn to relinquish
b lands for fifty cents per acre, and as late as about 1899 or 1900 before a
pillion of right was filed by the Qu'Appelle, Long Lake and Saskatchewan Railway2.
3 company offered to relinquish its land grant on the payment of $1»50 per acre.
a matter of fact it was prepared to take very much less, possibly as low as
[fty cenbs per acre»
It will be noticed that the Canadian Pacific Railway Act^ granbs bhe odd num-
ed section then available for twenty-four miles on each side of bhe mail line
i ibs branches»    At bhe close of that section it ie recited "The Company may wibh
b consent of the government select in the North Wesb Territories any tract or
ficts of land not taken up as a means of supplying, or practically supplying such
iciency but such grants shall be made only from lands remaining vested in the
gemment.
Debates of House of Commons, 1879, Vol.  II, p. 1895, May 10th.    Compare this
with Sub. Sec.  'b'  of Section 125,  of the Dominion Lands Act of 1879.
See Qu'Appelle vs. Regina and Qu'Appelle vs. Rex.
Cap.l, 44 Vic. Sec. 11 Assented to 15th Feb., 1881.
45.  40.
It was under bhab clause bhab bhe Canadian Pacific Railway was granted en
ic, land which is known as bhe Irrigabion Block.    Lands were also granbed en
>c to the Alberta Railway and Coal Company, and bhe North Wesbern Coal and
figabion Company.    The lands lying bebween bhe Bow, Belly and Old Man Rivers
fuabed bo bhe branch lines of bhe C. P. R. were granted in blocks of one town-
.p.    It was at that bime supposed those lands were only suitable for grazing and
utilize them for that purpose bo best advanbage considerable area in one
eel was necessary.
The Government long ago book power bo itself bo granb school secbion so
kg as lands of equal value were available elsewhere, bo be subsbituted bherefor,
that the Canadian Pacific Railway under bhab Clause gob also bhe school sec-
>ns wibhin said Irrigabion Block.    Ib made an arrangement with the Hudson's Bay
îpany by which throughout a portion of the block it obtained the  Hudson's Bay
Étions but had to pay full value for them.
By referring to said Clause 11 it will S
:ites as follows:
seen that one portion of ib
"But should any of such secbions consisb in a material degree of land not
prly fit for settlement the Company shall not be obliged to receive them as
\t of such grant."
This opened bhe door for a very big dispube as bo whab was "fairly fib for
blemenb".    In bhe early part of the Company's selection, the lands in parts of
dtoba were rather wet and they rejected a lot of them on that ground as not
ng fairly fit for settlement, claiming that they were swamp lands.    The
toany's standard for lands at the outset was much higher than the Act warranted.
Government of Canada ht that time being under obligation to pass over to the
rrince of Manitoba swamp lands within its boundaries, at once passed over to the
ivincial Government some of these lands so rejected, without having examined
matter. The provincial government found a very considerable demand for these
ds and sold them at very high prices for that date. When the attention of the
pinion Government was called to it, the mere rejection or desire to reject
by the Canadian Pacific Railway as swamp lands, or any others as not being
a material degree fairly fit for settlement was not acted on without an exam-
tion and special report on same.    Eventually the whole matter was disposed of,
the adjustment spread over a good many years, in fact it was not till about
(3 that the final winding up was effected.    The company insisted on the right to
ect in units as low as a Legal Subdivision, and in some cases even less.    It
finally arranged that the smallest unit must be the entire section.
I    Under Clause 16 of the Act, these lands were free from taxation for 20
irs after the grant thereof from the Crown»    By many it was contended that the
years started at the date of the Company's charter, but on the other hand
was contended that the 20 years did not start until the patents to the land were
ued, and the latter contention has been sustained by bhe Privy Council.
In 1881 bhe Land Branch for bhe Canadian Pacific Railway was organized at
Inipeg, bhe firsb commissioner being bhe labe J» H. McTavish.    Ib was decided
t no lands would be sold except on condibions bhab ab leasb fifty per cenb of
i were cultivated and improved within two or three years, and a fixed price
put on bhe land of $2.50 per acre, with a rebate of fifty per cent on that to
extent that they were cultivated.    This did not work out at all well, the
tivation was in many cases merely sufficient bo enable a man bo geb a title, and
n the land was abandoned.    This rebate for cultivation was done away with,
sales were carried into effect without any conditions regarding residents
(improvements.    Further, many parties bought during the boom of 1881-82 large
ntities of land and found they could not pay for them.    The result was a com-
46.  4L
«mise in which bhe purchasers were dealb with most liberally.    They were
.owed to concentrate the monies paid on whatever lands they desired to retain
relinquish the rest.    Those relinquished lands, it was thought by certain
licipalities, particularly the Municipality of Cornwallis, became subject to
licipal taxation by reason of having been sold by the company, and they pre-
ided to tax them»    The company disputed this and it was followed from one
irt to another, the final decision being given by the Supreme Court of Canada
,t the Canadian Pacific Railway had not disposed of those lands and therefore
y were not liable for taxation.    This exemption from taxation was in many lo-
.ities claimed, or at least alleged, to be illegal, and also a grave injustice,
i Province of Alberta took up this matter and two cases were decided in favour
the Canadian Pacific Railway contention by the Privy Council •    One raised
point decided by the Supreme Court of Canada in the case of Cornwallis vs.
ladian Pacific Railway already cited.2    The other case ruled that the period  of
nty years exempbion commenced at the date of the issue of patent.    As the
d period of exemption had in many cases expired, and the balance will in a
r years expire, and further as a large percentage of those lands which would
ierwise be exempted have been sold by the Canadian Pacific Railway and are
before liable for taxation, this matter is now practically dead.    It has al-
Idy been stated that the Canadian Pacific Railway sold back enough of its land
Int at $1.50 per acre to amount to $ 10,000,000, the original grant being twenty-
e million acres.
PRICES OF CANADIAN PACIFIC LAND
When bhe Canadian Pacific Railway lands were first put on the market in
fl£a uniform flat rate of $ 2.50 per acre was adopted, wibh a clause requiring
by per cent to be cultivated within a fixed time.
An inspection of the lands was commenced in 1881, then a system of sales
lending on the location and quality of the land adopted, prices varying from
00 per acre up.    In the early part of 1892 or 1893 owing to the very slack
Land for lands, a flat rate of $ 3.00 per acre was placed upon all their lands.
object sought was bo stimulate purchases.    That policy continued for two
three years, and the company then reverted to prices varying as to quality and
ation, and that has continued up to the present time»
m Since the early part of 1915 the policy of selling lands only to actual
[tiers has been adopted. It probably might have been well if that policy had
n adopted many years previously.
About 1890 the Government insisted on the Canadian Pacific Railway selecting
L remainder of its lands.    Ab bhab bime a very considerable area wibhin which
company was entitled to select its lands was nob subdivided, but in spite of
[t the company made its selection by sections or portions of secbions.
siderable risk bo bhe company was baken by reason of having bo selecb lands
phe unsubdivided area.    Subsequenb bo bhab bhe company decided bhat if bhe land
□d be obtained in blocks and the last sentence in Clause II of the charter
phe C.P.R. no doubt enabled it to do so, it would take a certain portion of
lands in unbroken large areas, wibh a view bo irrigabion.    This was pro-
ed for by legislation in 1894»'    After considerable discussion and negotiation
lut 1902 the irrigation block was finally decided on, embracing all the lands
[the disposal of the government between Range 10, W. of the 4th and the 5th
idian, and between the Bow River on the south, the Red Deer River and the
therly limit of Township 28 on the north.
The Canadian Pacific Railway Company immediately on its organization issued
d grant bonds to the extent of $ 10,000,000 which they received at $1.10 for
h dollar in payment of land.    These land grant bonds at one time were selling
siderably under par, but eventually they came to and then above par.
1911 Appeal Court Cases, p.328.
(1891)  19,  Supreme Court Reports p.702.
Cap. 7 - 57-58/Vic. assented to 23rd July 1894.
47.  42.
In 1882 an arrangemenb was made bebween the Canadian Pacific Railway and
me English  capitalisbs bo sell the labter 5,000,000 acres of its land grant
$ 2.50 per acre.    This land was to lie east of the Missouri Coteau, 1    It
jso included a half interest in certain townsites, viz» Regina, Moose Jaw
dicine Hat and Calgary.    This company merged itself eventually into what is
bwn as the C.N.W. Land Co. and its purchase was reduced to 2,500,000 acres
a certain specified sections in the various townships within the area in
ien the land purchased lay was allotted to it.    That company had in its earlier
ys rather "hard sledding",  its stock at one time going to below fifty cents on
dollar.    A controlling interest in the stock was gradually accumulated in
e hands of a few parties.    A rabher ingenious scheme was worked oub by bhem.
flab rabe of $ 5.00 per acre was put on the land and anyone could buy land by
snaent in stock, the stock at that time being very much below par.    The result
s all the stock excepting that owned by those who controlled it was absorbed
land at a rate about double what the lands cost.    In the meantime, the lands
Ire increasing in value, so those who controlled the majority of the stock
pi held on to it made a very handsome thing out of it*
CANADIAN NORTHERN RAILWAY
Land grants have been given to a large extent to this corporation,
b grant of the Winnipeg and Hudson's Bay Railway, that of the Manitoba and
pth-Eastern Railway, that of the Lake Manitoba Railway and Canal Company
ing to it, and possibly others.    There were originally two rival lines proved to the Hudson Bay, known as the Winnipeg and Hudson's Bay Railway and
b Nelson Valley Transportation Company.    The latter also had a land grant for
certain branch which was to connect wibh bhe Canadian Pacific Railway from
be poinb wesb of Lake Winnipegosis bo a poinb on ibs line somewhere bo bhe
th of Lake Winnipeg.    This granb was 6,400 acres per mile, bhe grant bo bhe
inipeg and Hudson's Bay Railway 12,800 acres per mile.    The lands finally
pained under bhese various land granbs by bhe Canadian Northern Railway were
pept so far as right of way was concerned, and certain timber lands in the
pLghbourhood of the Red Deer Lake, situated far distant from its original
cation.    It is rather interesting to study the various stages in the Winnipeg
i Hudson's Bay Railway which after several changes has finally become the main
of the Canadian Northern System.    Starting with the avowed object of
fetching Hudson Bay it developed inte a transcontinental line with an easterly
ii westerly course.
The first Order-in-Gouncil in connection with the Winnipeg and Hudson*^ Bay
JLlway in regard to the land grant was dated 28th of July 1882.    It amalgamated
h the Nelson Valley Railway on the 4th of June 1883.    The other lines, the
:e Manitoba Railway and Canal Company and the Manitoba and South-Eastern
e chartered several years later.
Other railways that received considerable land grants were the Manitoba and
ith-Western, Maniboba and North-Wesbern, Maniboba and South-Western Railway
i Colonization Company, bhe North-Wesbern Coal and Navigabion Company, bhe
aerba Railway and Coal Company, bhe Norbh-Wesb Cenbral Railway, the Regina
ig Lake and Saskatchewan, and Calgary and Edmonton.    Nearly allsa if not all,
:eived 6,400 acres per mile as a land grant.    Lands were allotted and set
irt to satisfy several other branch lines which, however, never materialized
for instance, the QutAppelle and Wood Mountain, the Red Deer Valley Railway
several other short lines.
These lands were originally bo be sold bo bhese railways ab $1*00 per acre
is bhe cosb of survey, which was nob bo exceed ben cenbs per acre.    Land
rnted under that condition were found to be worthless as a means of obtaining
3ital for the enterprise.   As a result an agitation was started that they
)uld be granted free.
, l&seiniby of Regina. ,*	 mm**1 I 43.
krds of Trade, public bodies and the Government of Manitoba all joined in
petition to the Federal Government to that effect and it was granted.    This
inge came into effect about January 1886.    After the free grant was made the
k was almost immediately raised that the railways had been treated with a
berality nobhing short of scandalous.
A mabber of inberesb arose oub of bhis inbended sale of railway land bo
ee lines ab $1.00 per acre.    An esbimabe was made by the Deputy Minister of
b Department of the Interior as to the receipts that would likely accrue to
b Department of the Interior from the sale of land.    Changing the conditions of
iise grants,  of course, modified his estimate very much, and the Government,
rticularly the late Sir Charles Tupper was severely "roasted" by the Opposition
i his optimistic estimate of the returns the Government would receive from
pds by reason of the construction of the railways.    Many of his optimistic
Ltements as to possible traffic and developments by the railways were quoted
j)m some years with derision, but it was eventually found that in the vast major-
of cases he was not so far astray.    In fact, in many cases the results went
beyond his prophecy.
It is also interesting to note that in June 1883 the Government had conceived
idea that $1.00 was too little for these lands, and then by an Order-in-
[uicil stated that no further lands should be disposed of at less than $1.50
acre.    Three years later they gave them away.
On the Manitoba and South-Western Railway the government of Manitoba
ranced the Canadian Pacific Railway $ 900,000 on its land grant, interest at
t per cent to be paid to enable it to raise the money to construct that line,
b proceeds of the land grant to the extent of $1.00 plus interest per acre   -
[ each acre sold to be first applied to extinguish this advance.    This arrangement
i effected in January 1886.    The Company, however, did not wait for the sale of
i'ficient acres, but in the course of a very short time paid off the entire loan
bm the proceeds of the sales.
SCHOOL LANDS
From the very inception of the regulations regarding the disposal of lands
the three prairie provinces, provision was made for school lands, section 11
il 29 in each township being set apart therefor.    These from the start were to
sold by public auction.    Where these lands were found i ijjhe time of survey
be squatted upon, lands of equal value as near thereto as possible were set
krt in lieu of those occupied, it then being, and probably still is, the
i.icy of the Government to grant homestead entries to squatters on school lands
advance of survey where it can be shown that they were unwitbingly sebbled on
i;h school lands»1
Up to 1893 a very burning question was the disposition to be made of parties
p knowingly had squabbed on school lands»    The firsb case arose in 1874»    Had
py been as rigourously breabed as similar cases had to be eventually there would
rer have been much harm done by squatbing. However, bhe mabber was sebbled evenb-
Lly by practically giving these squatters a free grant to the extent of 60 acres
a homestead, but so much worry and trouble had been meted out to them that when
p Government announced that no attention would be paid to any further squatting,
had the effect of preventing it since that date.2
It was provided that these school lands were to be administered by the Domin-
ii Government and this arrangement has been continued up to the present date, even
pugh at many times considerable pressure has been brought to bear_upon the Govern-
[it to hand them over to the provincial authorities»    The result heretofore has
M advantageous to the school lands fund and it is possible if not probable that
[Ltinual administration by the same authority would be found equally beneficial.
Cap. 26,  57-58 Vic. Assented to 23rd July 1894.
Cap. 18,  56 Vic. assented to 1st April 1893.  It was early laid down tnat these lands should not be disposed of until they
ii acquired considerable value, and when disposed of, only by public auction.
b result was that the provinces contended that in the meantime they were entibled
some revenue from bhem. To meeb that the Dominion Government advanced rrom time
j time monies to the various authorities which were charged agaxnst future recexpts
bm sales. Tnese lands, the Acb recibed, were bo be devobed to public schools.
pre has been a disposition at times to devote a certain proportion of bhem bo
ther educabion in bhe universities. Tnat request has not yet been met. The
Lversity of Manitoba, however, had a special granb of 150,000 acres of land
ten bo it for the purpose of higher education.! At the time this granb was
le bhe bebber lands were iargely baken up, and bhe resulb was tnat the land obtain-
Le was nob very valuable, probably nob one-third the value of the average school
ids in the settled portions of the province.
The school lands were sold on ben year berms, one-benbh down, bhe balance in
be equal payments, with interest thereon at the rate of six per cent per annum.
Ls rate of interest was reduced in 1900 to five per cent and made retroactive.
has been claimed that bhis was going beyond whab bhe liovernmenb should have
ie since the rate of interest fixed at bhe bime bhese sales were effected was
much a part of the consideration as the amount per acre to be paid.
it is claimed that bhe Government has been very lax in collecting either
Lncipal or interest on the unpaid balance and bhab a door is thereby being
bned bo whab may prove a serious grievance, liands in arrears have been large-
j purchased for speculabion, and ib possibly might be good policy to enforce pay-
kb on arrears on bhose on which little or no improvements has been made.
There is no doubt whatever that tnis fund will give great assistance to
KLic school education provided it is economicalxy administered and provided
Lt the principal is not encroached upon.
SWAMP LANDS.
Following the practice adopted in many of bhe S babe s of the Union, an agi-
kion was started in Maniboba in bhe early days bnab bhe swamp lands should be
ided over bo bhe provincial aubhoribies. This was finally» acceded bo and in
J5 ib was enacbed that "All Crown lands in Manitoba which are shown to the sab-
racbion of the Dominion Government bo be swamp lands shall be bransferred bo bhe
Ivince and innure wholly bo ibs benefibs and uses".2 Tnis was part of bhe
ftter Terms" much debated in 1884-86 between the political followers of John
[quay and Tnomas Greenway.
Tne Dominion Government appointed commissioners to select bhese swamp lands
L bhey conbinued bo work for several years.
The objecb in handing bhe swamp lands over to the provincial government was
it they should be drained and made available for cultivation. Unfortunately
f the province most of these swamp lands lay in the brushy, woody muskeg to the
Sec. 2 Cap. 50, 48-49 Vic. Assented bo 20th July, 1885.
Cap. 50, 48-49 Vic. assenbed to 20th July 1885.  45 o
5t and north of the province. A very large percentage of them could not for
jy years be of much value, and to drain them thoroughly would, in most cases,
st more than they would be worth. The province sold some of tnem. Tnen
ter considerable negotiabion bhey were handed back bo the Dominion Government.
[was enacted that all swamp lands transferred to the Province of Maniboba
paining unsold should be transferred to the Dominion Government, rive per cent
• annum being charged the prqyince in payment of its annual subsidy on
I net amount received from the sales it had made.l
There was also bo be deducbed from bhe annual subsidy five per cenb on bhe
u of $300,000 because of the 150,000 acres granted as an endowment to the
Lversity of Maniboba.  Although this Act was not passed till 1912 the arrangent was bo date back to the 1st April 1908.
The amount of swamped lands that lie in the settled portions of the provinces
[Saskatchewan and Alberta are very small, hence these provinces have never made
r strenuous exertions to obtain possession of them. There may come a time
rever, when in the northern part of these provinces vast areas, largely muskeg,1
LI require special treatment, but lands will have to be very much more valuable
In they are likely to be for many years before the outlay necessary, to render
pm suitable for settlement will be warranted. There are, however, severax
, some of considerable size, lying south of the worth and South Saskatchewan
/er, in some cases, lakes, with many so called muskeg or swamps which, owing
the nature of the underlying soil will prove of little or no value even when
^inedo
Sub sec. 2, 3, 4, of Sec. 5»    Cap 32. 2 Geo V.
Assented to April 1st, 1912.
Sub. sec. 5, Sec. 5« of above
Sec 2. Cap 50. 48-49 Vic    Assented -to July 20th, 1885»  46.
LAMPS, SOLD FOJl_lRRIGATION PURPOSES
The areas referred to herein do not include such lands as the Canadian
kfic Railway, or the Alberta Railway and Uoal Company have acquired and util-
[d for irrigation, the land so used by these Companies having formed part of
[ir land grants and having been charged to them under the head of "Lands Granted
Railway Companxes". Outside of these two companies the area granted is
)57,278 acres of which 76,921 acres lie in the province of Saskatchewan, and
I  remainder, 980,357 acres, in Alberta. These lands have been sold at the
Le of $io00 per acre on condition that they were put under irrigation and
expenditure made on them in that connection of at xeast $2.00 per acre for
L total area sold. If less than that amount is expended by so much is the
i.ce increased above $1.00 per acre. It is not probable however, that a case
[l arise where the price to be charged will be above $1.00 per acre,
fortunately, owing to very lax administration, comparatively little public
[efit has accrued.h
The Government withdrew in 1879 from ordinary sale lands which included water
per, harbour, marble or stone quarry.2 Tnis seems to have been the first with-
Lwal of lands valuable for the stone thereon. Among the early reservations
;■ stone, and long prior to this date under the general powers conferred on the
kernmenb, a reservabion of aboub 900 acres was made, including Sbony Mounbain, and
Lumber of quarries were laid out thereon. Most of it however was taken by the
[itentiary sibe, the  buildings being erecbed bhereon in 1875-76.
LANDS FOR RELIGIOUS BODIES, BURIAL GROUNDS,
PUBLIC SQUARES. MARKET-PLACES And JAILS.
By bhe Acb respecting Public Lands in 1872 the Government was authorized
set apart lands for the above purposes, and to make free grants thereof^
ie trusts and uses to which they are bo be subj ecb being embraced in bhe
Sec. 12, Cap. 31, 61 Vic. 1898
Sub Sec.2, Sec 30, Cap 31, 42 Vic.
Sec. 32 Gap 23 35 Vic	
Assenbed to 15th May 1879
.Assented to Hbh Apr. 1872
1
52, f ibers Pabenb". Very considerable areas in various places have been seb aparb
bhese purposes.
Nearly all bhe granbs of any considerable size in the Province of Maniboba
Le to religious bodies were acquired under the. manxtoba Act. Some of these
ints, as for insbance bo bhe Roman Cabholic Cnurch ab Sb. Boniface, were of
y considerable area.
Those which were established and claimed by squatting on land ahead of
itlement were treated as ordinary squatters. They comprise a large number
Roman.Catholic Churches, schools and convents, a considerable number of
jlican and a few Presbyterian and Methodist churches. As a rule tne grant
I not in any case exceed 320 acres, in the case, however, of the Roman
Lholic church at t>t. Albert, owing to extensive improvements in tne way of
.ldings, etc. a very considerable area was granted. Liberal treatment as far
area was concerned was also accorded that church at lac La Biche and Qu'Appelle.
At Calgary the Roman Catholic Church received 320 acres all of which is
itrally located in what is now the city of Calgary. On the sturgeon River
•th of Edmonton, the Church received 320 acres for the establishment of a grist
saw-mill. As a rule these religious bodies were not at all troubled with
;reme modesty in making their claims.
INFLUENCE OF MISSION WORK ON HALF-BREEDS.
Prior bo bhe Norbh-Wesb rebellion of 1885, bne Roman Cabholic Cnurch claimed
I no doubb honesbiy believed bhat sebblemenb of bhe counbry had progressed
houb turmoil, largely, if not wholly due to its influence. That rebellion,
rever, showed that the influence of the Cnurch on its halfrbreed adherents
[ much less than it imagined. It was found bhab when thé Indian nature was
[ficiently aroused the church's influence was practically negligible.
Other religious bodies, notably the Methodist Church, pointed out with pride
it its adherents had not been participants in the said rebellion. A rather
pited and amusing controversy in the press arose over this matter between
s leaders of the respective religious bodies, notably between the late Rev.
I McDougall on behalf of the Methodists, and bhe Rev. Pere bcullen on behalf
[bhe Roman Catholics. An investigation into the matter, however, would lead
lisinterested person to conclude bhab bhe difference in acbion was nob due
[the denomination to whxch they professed to belong, but to other conditions
[>lly apart from their religious affiliation.
aAY LANDS
In 1872 provision was made for leasing hay lands bo sebtlers.l it was first
lited to 80 acres to one person. Tnis area was afterward materially increased.
}8e  leases were subject, however, to cancellation if the lands were otherwise
fposed of, the lessee being paid the actual value of any improvement ne might
re  thereon. This provision was not taken advantage of to any large extent.
Later, permits were given to settlers to cut nay on Dominion Lands, the
tticular quarter sections being specified, xf for their own use, the fee was
•ely an office fee for issuing the permit, if for sale, a low rate per ten was
jrged. It grew inbo a cusbom bnab where bhere were railway land granbs, Hudson' s
', or other vacant lands, the settlers would take out a permit to-cut hay on the -
pinion land and at the first of the season would devote their energies to
|axring hay from off such railway and Hudson's Bay Company land bhus obbaining
' for sale without paying any fee at all.
Sec. 34, Cap.23, 35 Vic, assenbed bo 14th April, 1872. ■ 48.
jeourse as this class of lands was disposed of the opportunity became of
II and less value and at present there is not much hay thus obtained.
WOOD LOTS.
The Dominion Lands Act of 1872 provided in the survey of the country for
ting aparb any areas bhab were fairly well wooded and dividing bhem up inbo
d lots of not less than ten, and not more than twenty acres, xn practice they
•e probably all twenty acres. They fronted on one. of the sectional road
owances, five chains in widbh, and ran back the full depth of the quarter sec-
>n, forty chains. The scheme worked out very well in cerbain parbs of
iboba, particularly in bne Pembina Mounbain district, and in the neighbourhood
Portage là Prairie., and where the country had more or less wood lands
.ttered over ib. These lots were under the Act of 1872 a free gift with a
kestead. Under the Act of 1874 they were sold at the same price as land.
It was continued under the Act of 1879 but snortly after that the price of
Id lots was raised to $5°00 per acre. As, however, settlement extended
re were considerable areas of bare prairie, it was decided to give permits to
i a certain amount of timber off any lands that were vacant Dominion Lands,
se permibs bhough issued for the Dominion Lands were ubilized bo cub bimber
' any lands that were vacant, whether Dominion lands or not. Tne Lands set
|.rt for railway purposes, Hudson' s Bay and School sections were badly pillaged.
[the early days it was quite common if you met a settler witn a load oi' wood
i. asked him where he obtained it, he would reply on Section 37. This meant
[practice bhab he had stolen it, and yet he probably would be the loudest in
Iplaining of the injustice done to the settlers by reason of the grants of
se lands to others, and would repudiate indignantly the charge of theft.
The principle of permits, as administered, was a disastrous one so far as
■  protection of the timber was concerned. Parties went in, cut and slashed,
:ing out only the very best timber because they feared someone else would take
if they did noto No  attention was paid bo bhe cubbing and sbacking of brush,
freby prevenbing disasbrous fires. The administration was lax in tnat respecb.
course, it would have cost a good deal to have enforced a vigourous admini-
jabion, and bhe quesbion arises, was public opinion ab that time strong enough
sustain vigourous administration* The result was tnat the first prairie fire
ch came along cleaned out these bluffs of timber altogether. On the other
id, in cases wnere the wood lots were owned by individuals they took very good
•e of tnem, and there were some districts, notably Pembina Mountain, in the
Lghbourhood of Manitou, where twenty years after the settlers had gone in the
per had increased two fold. The settlers owning the timber took care to
kan up all dead stuff and leave bhe woods in such condxtxon that fires would
; readily attack bhem, and if bhey did nob much damage would ensue. Somebimes
\se  bimber belbs were protected by fire breaks and a vigilant outlook against
\  spreading of i'ire was maintained.
FOREST TREE CULTURE
By an amendment to the Dominion Lands Act, 18761, provision was made for
|*est tree culture. A person could obtain entry for a quarter section, on
idition that he planted in the first year eight acres to timber, the second
I eight acres, tne third year sixteen acres, a total of thirty-two acres, or
s-fifth of the area of the quartersection, if, however, he entered for xess area
had a proportionately less amount to put under tree culture.
Sec. 21, Cap. 19, 39 Vic. assented bo 12bh April 1876.  49.
(further was required to cultivate this planted area and at the end of six
1rs obtained his patent.
This was amended in 1879 , giving entrants down as low as forty acres for
\  purpose of forest tree culture. The lands were free, excepting for the office
This experiment in forestry with us, as in the United States, was practically
failure. Anyone could take it up whether entitled to homestead entry or not,
he were a British subject, or announced his intention of becoming one. In the
ited States a great many women took up tree claims. With us until recently
|y person" has been restricted to the male sex.
When the Democrats (after having been out of office for upwards of twenty
krs) came into power in the United States in I885, a vigorous investigation
made into the administration of many departments, including the Department of
Interior, and one of the Inspectors stated that if all the lands for which
ents has been secured under tree culture in the United States, amounting then
i some millions of acres, could have the timber grown thereon concentrated on
t  quarter section it would not stop a gentle zephyr. That probably was an ex-
jeration, but at the same time it was a good illustration of the failure that
[ended the attempt to grow forest trees by free grants of land. Like many other
Lngs it looked well in theory, but in practice did not work out, possibly largely
bag to lax administration coupled with want of appreciation, by the majority,
[the benefit of a tree belt. There are, however, some notable exceptions. In
ilition, through the seventies and part of the eighties there was a popular
Lnion that trees would not grow on the prairie, except under very favourable
accidental conditions. The Act of 1883 did not provide for forest tree culture
p any legislation since then.
Ever since the establishment in the eighties of the Dominion Government
berimental Farms at Ottawa, and in the Prairie Provinces, very considerable
pention to the growth of trees has been given. Some years later the tree cuire portion was separated from the rest of the experiment work and the head-
Lrters for it placed at Indian Head, Saskatchewan. Certain areas devoted to theI
pwth of brees have also been established at other points. It would be well that
re of them should be established as experience has taught that the less change
elevation from a lower to a higher in transplanting trees the better the chance
success. Having that in view it would be well that some stations for the growth
trees for transplanting were established at considerable elevations. While the
pwth there would probably not be as rapid, other advantages would accrue which
pld more than compensate for the lesser growth.
The tree planting branch of the Experimental Farms has displayed a great deal
zeal and has been of very great benefit in cultivating a taste for trees.
e Government has been most generous in encouraging it. All the settler has to >
is to advise the Government he wishes to plant a certain area in trees or a
rtain number of trees, and within limits the Government will ship the trees to
la free of charge. The Government however, insists that the ground shall be
Spared for the reception of the trees under the lines laid down by it, and it
ppects bhe ground to see that it has been so prepared.
This scheme may perhaps have a little too much of the paternal element in it,
i it is worthy of consideration whether the time has not now arrived when the
l^pogation of trees could well be left to the settlers themselves. They would
pbably take better care of them if they had to pay for them. Such-policy would
bnulate the establishment of nurseries throughout the country and thus another
py strong agency.would come into play for the beautifying of the homes of the
[it 1er s .
Sec. 66 and foil. Cap 31, 42 Vic. assented to 15th May 1879
56. 	  49A.
AGRICULTURAL SCHOOLS
in 1879 authority was given to grant free 960 acres of Xand "to any person
persons who will establish and keep in operation thereon for a term of not
is than five years a school on instruction in practical farming and all matters
•taining thereto, adapted for thirty pupils, witn the approval and the satis-
:bion of bhe Minister of the interior".1 There have been two or three attempts
establisn agricultural schools under the provisions of this Clause, but none
them has proved a very marked success, either in the way of scnools or of
:ing money out of the propositions. After the establisnment by the Dominion
[rernment of the experimental farms in x887, action under this clause seems to have
I largely if not wnolly <
FOREST PARKS
in 1884 provision was made for setting apart of forest parks.2 The provisions
the clause were further extended to include forest reserves.
A special Act was passed in 1906 dealing with forest reserves^ and to that
; is a schedule outlining eight reserves in the province of British Columbia,
ir in Saskatchewan and three in Alberta.
sub. sec. \d)  of Bee. 125, ^ap° 31, 42 Vic. Assented to 15bh May 1879.
Bee. 5, Cap. 25, 47 Vic. Assenbed to 19th April 1884»
Cap. 14, 6 Edw. Vll, assented to I3th July 1906. 1 50.
Since bhen, however, the Rocky Mountain which is the largest forest reserve
been set aside, it has nad rather a chequered career, it was first set
rt in 1898, and remained a reservation for some little time when pressure
brought to bear upon bhe adminisbrabion of bhe day bo withdraw and granb
knission bo cub timber on it. After a good deal of agibabion on bhe part of
se inberesbed in foresb protection the reservation was re-inaugurated some
or twelve years later and it probably will prove one of the most valuable
jest reservations in Canada. The public seemed to have come to bhe conclusion
[b foresb reservabion meanb bhab no one could obbain any timber therein, but
course tne administration of a forest reservabion on correct principles
[vides for the cutting of matured timber. But it should be taken out in such
[ay as not to endanger by fire what is left, it also should provide for the gra-
g of stock where bhere are open lands suibable, and where bhe animals would
injure growing bimber.
A very healbhy public opinion, however, has been developed regarding probecbion
foresb reservabions, so that in bne future it is probable that the administration
these will be conducted on right lines. It has required a very long and vigorous
[paganda to educate public opinion up to its present standard, in tnis education
Canadian Forestry Association has been the chief factor.
The mountain forest reservations were first made for the conservation of
er supply, all of them, but particularly tne Rocky Mountain Forest Reservation,
pre this great end,
MATIONAL PARKS.
Tne first National Park created out of Dominion Lands in Canada was the Rocky
mtains Park, popularly known as Banff, wnich was set apart by an act of Parlia-
[t; in 1887c1 The reservation for that was first made by Order-in-wouncil,
Hi of November, 1885. Thus has been followed by furtner and more extensive
ervations, nob only in the three prairie provinces, but also within bhe.railway
b in British Columbia, notably at Field, Glacier, Revelstoke, Eagle Pass, ebc.
s acbion of the Dominion Government has been supplemented by the provincial
[ernment of British Columbia to some extent in the neighborhood of bhese reser-
lions, and the provincial governmenb has gone farther and creabed very considerable
[k area on Vancouver island and probably ab other points in British Columbia.
[-provinces of Ontario and Quebec have also made large park reservations, and it
rbe that the Maritime Provinces have also.
I Within the Rocky Mounbain Foresb Reservabion there are several park reserves,
Rocky Mountains Park, that at Waterton Lakes, and Jasper Park.
The creation of a forest reservation well administered should be ample pro-
ftion for a park but the parks law is perhaps a little more stringent than
[t concerning forest reservations. That regarding parks is largely enforced under
[pecial Act of Parliament, whereas forest reservations are to a greater extent
forcible under Order-in-Council, and there is danger of pressure being brought
in the government bo relax or change certain regulations..
WILD FOWL BREEDING GROUNDS
In 1887 provision was made for Wild Fowl Breading Grounds.  This reservation
Cap 32, 50-51 Vic. Assented to 23rd June 1887.
C. C. 8th June 1887.
58.  	  51.
made under the general provisions enabling the Government to set apart lands
any special purpose for which there was no specific authority under a special
I, provided the Governor-in-Council was satisfied the subject merited such action.
POLUJTIQN OF RESERVOIRS
In 1891 authority was given to prevent the pointions of reservoirs when granb-
enbries for land.1 The principle laid in bhis Acb would evidently enable
[ Governor-in-Council to protect any water supply whether in bhe shape of a
prvoir or a running stream and it would also no doubt enable him to make regul-
pns regarding such polution insofar as it did not interfere with, or encroach
p the provincial righbs regarding healbh.
TIMBER LIMITS
Under bhe first Dominion Lands Acb, 1872 , provisions were made for granbing
pr lease lands covered by foresb timber. The leases were for twenty-one years,—
lessee under the act had to erect a saw mill or miUs to cut at least 1000 ft.
rd measure every twenty-four hours, for each 2 l/2 square miles of said lease,
isuch other arrangement as might be agreed upon. He was to pay a bonus which
fixed by the Governmenb unless bhere was more bhan one applicant for bhe land,
which case ib was bo be pub up for competition. He was also to pay $2.00 per
jare mile annually for ground rent, and a royalty of five per cenb on his oubpub.
pracbice ab bhat time and for many years after bhere was only one applicanb,
pe no compebition. The acb of 1872 applied only bo bimber limibs in surveyed
Ids. In 1874 ib was exbended to unsurveyed territory with pracbically bhe same
ii tions.
By the Dominion Lands Act of 1879^ the bonus per square mile was to vary
lording to the situation and value of the limit, and was sold to the highesb
[der eibher by bender or by public aucbion, the Department, however, reserving
pLbself the right bo granb permibs bo sawmill owners bo cut timber off Dominion
Ids where such was required by settlers. In that way a great many portable mills
e been at various times placed and operated, cutting out small clumps of timber
[t would make lumber. On the whole no doubt bhis policy worked well, bub in
nr cases ib has been greably abused.
L1M1TIMG PURCHASERS TO 6A0 ACRES
The Dominion Lands Acb of 18724- provides bhab no more bhan 640 acres shall be
Id bo any one individual. Sec. 71 of said Acb provides for regisbering an
[ighmenb of righbs bo land.
In 1879 bhe same provision regarding limiting sales bo 640 acres is effecbed.
[bion 80 of the Act provides for the registration of assignment of rights to
d.
1. Sec. 14, Cap. 24, 54-55 Vic. assented to 30th Sept. 1891.
2. Cap. 23, 35 Vic. Assented to 14th April 1872
3. "  31, 42 Vic   "    " 15th May. 1879.
4. Sec. 29, 32-35 Vic. assented to 14th April 1872.  The Acb of 1883 also restricts purchasers bo 640 acres and Clause 76
[reof compels bhe Minisber of bhe Interior bo keep a book of assignment of rights.
The registration of such assignments of rights called, and probably still
Is for the payment of a fee of $2.00. In practice it worked out thus: A, desiring
[purchase a large area of land, would get men to put in applications either by
[mselves or by himself as attorney, for any amount of land he desired to purchase
[tricting each to 640 acres, and tnen A„ would file an assignmenb bo himself of
I bhose lands so purchased. The pabenb would bhen issue bo him for bhe bobal
[unb in one document. This illustrates how attempts to restrict action on such
[es worked out xn practice, and the same results are manifest in many other cases.
TORRENS SYSTEM OF TITLE.
The early introduction of the Torrens system of title inbo bhe bhree Prairie
[vinces - in Maniboba probably both systems are still in force - has done more
[quiet titles and prevent litigation bhan any other one factor.
At one time the old system of registration was in effect in both Manitoba and
[ Territories, as it is in effect to-day in the provinces of Ontario and Britisn
lumbia. It still is in effect in Manitoba but very little registration is done
[er it, as nearly all the old titles have been voluntarily brought under the new
;tem, and in the case of newly patented lands the new system is compulsory.
In Ontario and also in British Columbia, owing bo the expense of first bring-
r under the Torrens title lands which have gone through a large number of trans-
lions, it has not been utilized to the extent that its merits warrant. As clouds
(the title arise, however, it will no doubt be invoked.
Unfortunately, however, our legislatures have seen fit to make certain amend-
Lts to the Act which have rendered the certificate of title under the Torrens
item far less valuable than was Its original intention.
It is probable that the name Torrens was applied to the Act from the fact
Lt it is stated that one, Torrens, wno was a Colonial Treasurer of South Australia
[Adelaide, and had been connected wxth the Customs at that point for many years,
Produced the legislation necessary to put the process inbo force. Some claim he
I bhe originabor of ib. He argued bhab if you could convey a ship worth $100,000
[a mere slip of paper, certainly you ought to be able to convey land. In a new
sntry its introduction was comparatively easy.
If it were not for the Torrens system many of the titles in Manitoba would be so
ffused that litigation must have ensued witn a great amount of loss to all parties.
The Winnipeg boom of 1882 had one redeeming feature, viz., that parties who
fght land insisted on obtaining the Torrens title for it, when the Act came into
fee about 1886. Without that the titles were so clouded that no reputable lawyer
pld undertake to pass on a large percentage of them. In order that lands might be
might under the Torrens title it was necessary that encumbrances should be re-
fed. The result was that the Dominion government was repaid a large number of
fns advanced for seed grain and relief during the grasshopper plagues prior to
['6 which it otherwise would probably never have recovered. There have been no
kespread devastations by grasshoppers since.
The small percentage set apart as an assurance fund has so far met several
lies over the claims preferred against it.
I Cap. 11, 46 Vic. assented to 25th May 1883«
Sec. 106'Cap. 51, 49 vic„ R.S.C. 1886.
    60.  . A I L W A Y S
CONTENTS
MDIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY
Dr. Adam Shortb's nobe res
Lord Durham and a bransconbinenbal line. 62
Palliser, Dawson and Hind Expeditions»,,.,. .....62
Palliser's report re, responsibilities of a railway from
Lake Superior to the Pacific»,..,,»••• ...63
Early suggestions of a transcontinental railway,...,, 63,64
Dawson Route»,,»oo.o»»o.oo,»,o»«, »....,o 65
British Columbia entered Confederation with promise of Pacific
Railway in ten years0..............,,.,,,, .....65
Surveys begun and possible routes,,,.,»«,,..,,,...,,, .66,67
Construction of C.P.R. by Government,,,,............. ...67
First Locomotive reached Winnipego,o..oo,.............................68
Agreement with Syndicate afterwards C.P.R. Co, ratifies 1881 69
Progress of consbrucbion prairie and Pacific sections»»»»».»..........69,70
Progress of construction, Callander to Fort William...................71
Statistics of construction».........»..«.«.....»......................70,72
History of the more interesting component part of the C.P.Rs
Crow's Nest Pass Ry...................... 72
Westbourne and North Western Ry, or Portage Westbourne
and North Wesbern Ry, or Maniboba and North Wesbern Ry. Co.
and now bhe Winnipeg Yorkbon, Saskaboon and Edmonbon Ry........74
Souris and Rocky Mountain Ry.. .75
Qu'Appelle, Long Lake and Saskaboon Ry .....75
Maniboba and South-Western Ry 77
Lacombe bo Moose jaw.............. 0.0... 78
Calgary and Edmonbon Ry. ••»• • 78
Esquimalt & Nanaimo Ry.........................................78
Change of route from Yellowhead to Kicking Horse Pass, reason for
and result s.......0000..»o..».».««.»«.»....«. ....13
JNADIAN NORTHERN RAILWAY
Various links - lengths and dates of construction and charters,
History of the more interesting component parts of C.N.R.;
Hudson's Bay Ry......... <
Lake Manitoba Railway and Canal Company0...............<
Red River Valley and Northern 'Pacific and Manitoba Railway,
Portage and North-Western Railway»».»»»»«»••	
Winnipeg Transfer Ry0..».»»».»...	
Soubh Saskatchewan Valley Ry»«.»••.».»•». ,
Vancouver Island Lines»»»..»»........»»».......»..».*.»,
[AND TRUNK PACIFIC RAILWAY.........„.....»..»......................
LEAT NORTHERN RAILWAY. Branch lines west of Red River ....,
ICIFIC GREAT EASTERN RY0900. .»..	
'PENDIX;  Lines chartered on which no construction was done»,»»...
.85
.86
.87
.87
.90
.90
.91
.91
.92
.94
.95A.
61»  PREFACE  TO  RAILWAYS
When the compiler of the data following commenced to obtain the material
ich will be found in this, his first intention was to confine it to the three
ief railway lines connecting the Great Lakes with the Pacific Ocean, viz. the
lin line of the Canadian Pacific Ry., the original Canadian Northern Railway
id the Grand Trunk Pacific, but as he worked it out it occurred to him that
[ere should be included other lines of historical interest which were more or
Lss closely connected with either of the lines mentioned, such as the Crows'
hst Pass Railway, or which in the early days of railway construction were
kominent in the affairs of Western Canada.    Among the latter are the following:
te Red River Valley Railway, started by the Province of Manitoba, which even-
kally evolved into the Northern Pacific and Maniboba Railway, and in burn became
bsorbed by bhe Canadian Northern inberestsj bhe Portage Wesbbourne and North-
psbern, which being extended is now known as bhe Minnedosa; Saskaboon and
Lmonton Branch of the C.P.R; Manitoba and South-Western Colonization Railway;
te Qu'Appelle and Long Lake and Saskatchewan Ry.; a line connecting the Soo
pes with the C.P.R. system via Portal; the original North-Western Coal Navi-
Ltion Co., Ry; the Calgary and Edmonton.
Outside of these there are many branch lines which are of great importance,
kt the historical associations connected therewith are not very strong, as for
kstance, the line from Dauphin to Prince Albert, and the present Hudson Bay
kilway and extension of the C.N.R. branch line bo bhe Pas; bhe Goose Lake line
F bhe Canadian Northern; the line by the Canadian Northern from Portage la
rairie via Brandon to Regina; the lines of the C.P.R. known as the Souris
[•anches; the Pheasant Hill Branch; and many other branch lines by the same sys-
km, also other branches of the main line of the Canadian Northern, and to some
pent of bhe Grand Trunk Pacific Railway, bhe D. and B.C. Ry., and bhe Alberta
id Greab Waberways Railway.
RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION
Canadian Pacific Railway.
Dr. Adam Shortb, Chairman of the Historical Documents Publication Board
[' the Public Archives of Canada, has very kindly furnished the fallowings
(a) It is quite true that Lord Durham in the latter part of his famous
pport of 1838, referred to the desirability of an intercolonial railway.    It
is not, however, as between Upper and Lower Canada, but between Halifax and
tebec,  in order to prepare the way for the Confederation of the existing B.N.A.
kovinces after the reunion of Upper and Lower Canada.    Only in a very indirect
ky, therefore, did his project foreshadow a transcontinental line, and more
pncrete railway schemes were to be brought into operation before his own ideas
;re realized.
(b) Re. the Palliser exploring expedition for the British Government and
ie Dawson and Hind Expedition for the Canadian Government:    It is true that
kese were the outcome of a vigorous agitation in Canada, led by the Toronto
Lobe, against the monopoly privileges of the H. B. Co., which demanded thab
s charter which was to expire in 1859 should nob be renewed. The firsb resulb
is an enquiry by a selecb commibbee of bhe Bribish House of Commons, the details
!" which were presented in the great report of 1857.    The evidence adduced as to  2.
le natural resources of the country, the possibilities of extensive settlement,
e means of access, and the wisdom or otherwise of relaxing the control and pri-
lleges of the Company, was so very conflicting that both the Canadian and British
Ivernments debermined bo investigate these matters for themselves. There was no
ireement, however, as to a division of the work between the Imperial and Canadian
Ivernments. The expeditions operated quite independently, and covered much the
ime ground, as far west at least as the elbow of the South Saskatchewan - the
jmporary limit of the Canadian exploration at the end of I858, and which was not
newed in '59» Both exploring parties operated from east to west, beginning at
je head of Lake Superior. The Palliser expeditions extended from 1857 to I860.
jrious interim reports were published and a final report in 1863 covering in
[tail the whole field from the head of Lake Superior to the Pacific. In I859 after
le greater part of the territory had been covered, the Home Government asked
LLliser to report on four questions. I give the gist of the answer after each,
rst - Whether the Red River settlement is possessed of such qualifications as
uld justify the establishment of a separate colony there.
swer - A qualified "Yes".
[cond - What would be the dimensions and boundaries of such a colony?
[swer - From the Lake of the Woods to the Rocky Mountains, and between the
rth Saskatchewan and the 49th parallel.
lird - What means of access would there be to such a colony?
[swer - At that time practically only through the United States.
lurth - Whether the country between Lake Superior and the Pacific affords a reason-
[le prospect for the construction at some time in the future of a transcontinental
lilway.
swer - Through most of the territory quite easily, and there are no insuperable
fficulties in any part.
[e Dawson and Hind explorations from Canada were conducted in 1857 and I858. The
[rst was to ascertain the most feasible route between Lake Superior and the Red
Iver at Fort Garry. The second was to ascertain the nature and resources of the
[untry with a view of settlement, etc., from the Red River to the South Saskatchewan,
.d between the American boundary and the North Saskatchewan. In the instructions
[ference was made to the possibility of a subsequent extension of the exploration
[rther to the west, but lack of funds and the results of the Palliser exploration
[parently rendered this unnecessary.
Naturally the chief source of information on these explorations are the
[luminous reports which were presented to the British and Canadian Governments.
le Canadian reports were sent home by the Governor, Lord Monck, and were re-publish-
l by the British Government in I860 with excellent maps, etc. Hind afterward pub-
Lshed his reports in two volumes with maps and colored plates. All these reports
■e now very rare and bring high prices.
There were numerous more or less visionary suggestions of a railway communica-
Lon between the Atlantic and the Pacific from the time that railways were first
produced. I do not recall anything of W.L. McKenzie on the subject, but another
■dical, Thos. Dalton, who afterwards cooled off with age, as radicals are apt to
L was about the most definite of the earlier speculators. He predicted about
63.  but 1834 bhab bhe teas and silks of China would be transported directly from
[e shores of the Pacific to Toronto "by canal, by river, by railroad and by steam".
he R. Bommycastle in his book on "Canada in 1846" says "We shall yet place an
ch belt from the Atlantic to the Pacific, a railroad from Halifax to Nootka
und and thus reach China in a short voyage."
The first, however, to put the project into something like definite shape
s Lieut. M. H. Synge, R.E., F.R.G.S., and Imperial officer employed in connection
fch the Canadian canals»    He first outlined his scheme in 1847.    As an intermediate
ggestion he proposed a combination or rail and water from the head of Lake
perior to the Pacific, to be converted later into an all-rail road»    The following
ar Major R. Carmichael-Smyth, R.E. in a published letter to Haliburton still
pther developed the idea of "A British Colonial Railway communication between
e Atlantic and the Pacific from the magnificent harbour of Halifax, in Nova
otia, to the mouth of Fraser's River in New Caledonia»"    Later in the same
ar after learning the project of Synge, and following up the discussion raised
his letter, he came out with another pamphlet on "The Employment of bhe People
id bhe Capital of Great Britain in Her Own Colonies, at the same time assisting
[igration, Colonization and Penal arrangements, but undertaking the construction
!' a great National Railway between the Atlantic and the Pacific, from Halifax
rbour, Nova Scotia, to Fraser's River, New Caledonia»"    As indicated in the title
s scheme was to construct the western section of the railway with British convict
hour.    In 1849, also Fitzgerald in his book on the Charter and Proceedings of
e Hudson's Bay Co., re Vancouver Island, outlines and advocates a railway
nnecbion between the Pacific and Canada.    The following year, 1850, two other
glishmen, F. A. Wilson, K.L.H., and G.S. and A.R. Richards, a barrister, issued
very considerable volume under the title of "Britain Redeemed and Canada Pre-
Irves", in which they worked out still farther the schemes of Carmichael-Smyth
r the construction of a transcontinental railway from Halifax to Vancouver
land by means of convict labour.    Their proposed line follows the route of the
ans continental from Quebec to Winnipeg, and roughly the C.P.R. from there to
[e Coast.    In 1852 Lieut. Synge returns to the project, and still further develops
is plan of a mixed waterway and railway connection between the head of Lake
perior and the Pacific.    This was to be followed later by a complete railway
[om Quebec to Fort Garry, and thence to the Pacific.    For the latter section he
s two alternative routes, roughly those of the C. P. R. and the G. T. P.    In
e East he has two branch connections from the main line north of Quebec»    These
n in common to Lake St» John, thence one goes down the Saguenay, and the other
> Hamilton Inlet, Labrador.    This is the first suggestion of the Labrador
(nHSction.
Bills were introduced in the Canadian legislature in 1851, I853 and I855,
> charter a railway from Lake Superior to the Pacific, but were blocked by the
B. CI.    In 185Ô the "North-West Transportation Navigation and Railway Ci."
ceived a charter to carry through a mixed system, practically on the lines laid
kn by Synge,  except that between the navigation stretches wagon roads would
pne firsb and railroads later.    The American Civil/War suspended development for
['me years.    After it was over and Confederation achieved, we come into the modern
a and the shaping up for the C.P.R."
This is a bare outline of the subject, much of it you are doubtless familiar
th.    It is however part of my programme here to publish, in extenso, the essen-
[al documents connecbed wibh bhis and other phases of transportation in Canada.
Immediabely afber bhe union of Upper and Lower^Canada in I84O, an agitation for
[transcontinental highway from bhe Ablanbic bo bhe Pacific, and also bhe acquire-
kb of Rupert's Land and bhe North Wesb Terribories were subjecbs of very earnesb
64.  [cussion and bhere was a sbrong preponderance of feeling in favour of giving
et bo ib if ib could be. accomplished.    In January, 1845, bhe labe Sir John
[Macdonald enbered polibical life, and one of bhe chief planks of his plab-
if not the chief, was "roads".    The building of highways for commerce, whe-
jr by wagon, water or rail, adhered to him until his death, and it was very
gely owing to his enthusiasm and ability that the Canadian Pacific Railway
ame an accomplished fact as early as it did.
The late S.  J. Dawson, Esq., CE. was commissioned in 1857 to make an
tLoration with a view of making a highway partly on land and partly on water,
kn the neighbourhood of Port Arthur to some point on Red River.   Fort Garry,
Winnipeg, was the chief point at that time on the river.    The result of
exploration was the establishment of the Dawson route, partly by land and
ply by water, the longest water stretch being from Rainy Lake waters to the
ph-West angle of the Lake of the Woods.
From the late 50's to 1867, Upper and Lower Canada's attention was directed
ifly towards Confederation whieh was brought into effect on the first of July,
7.    This compact entailed the building of the Intercolonial Railway.    The
pican Civil War also diverted attention from this project.    Immediately
eafter steps were taken to acquire Hudson's Bay Rights from Rupert's Land
the North-West Territories.    That was accomplished and in 1870 the authority
bhe Dominion of Canada was established over bhab district.
|  In 1869 the Governor-in-Council was authorized by way of a loan to raise
million four hundred and sixty thousand dollars for the purpose of opening
. communication with and of the settlement and administration of the Government
he North-West Territories.
This probably might be considered as the first Act of Parliament having
brect bearing in a financial manner, in connection with bhe consbruction of
I present Canadian Pacific Railway.    A very considerable portion of these funds
p utilized for the construction of the Dawson Road and other expenses inciden-
I to the establishment of the Federal Government in the West.    At the same time
pry considerable amount of exploratory work was done, having in view the loca-
[a and construction of a Canadian Railway.    All explorers were especially inflated to keep in view the problem of the building of the Canadian Transconbinen-
I Railway, which was limited to the establishment of a connection between the
ÎLway system of the Eastern provinces and the Pacific Coast.
I     By#Order-in-Council of the 16th May, 1871, Bribish Columbia was brought into
[federation on bhe 20bh day of July 1871, and one of bhe conditions was bhe
pdy construction of the bransconbinenbal railway.    Secbion 11 of bhe Order-
Council reads.
I,".The Governmenb of bhe Dominion undertakes bo secure bhe commencemenb
iiltaneously, within two years from the date of the Union of the construction
a. railway from bhe Pacific towards the Rocky Mountains, and from such point
pay be selected east of the Rocky Mountains toward the Pacific, to connect
I' seaboard of British Columbia wibh bhe railway sysbem of Canada; and further
3ecure the completion of such railway within ten years from the date of the
f>n."
After the advent of the MacKenzie Government in the fall of 1873, it was
[tended that it was impossible to carry out literally the terms o:Tthat contract;
lb the time must be much further extended.    A violent agitation arose in
feec. 4, Cap. 1. 32-33 Vic.      Assented to 22nd June 1869.
65. mm***1 tish Columbia.    That province threatened to secede from the Union unless the
ms were at least fairly well carried out.    An appeal to the British Government
made.    The result was the Carnarvon terms.    Lord Dufferin was sent as Embassy
[the Canadian Government, to try and placate the hostility.    The success of his
pion was not particularly marked though no doubt it did some good.    Certain
cessions were offered to the British Columbians; one was to build the Vancouver
jand Railway, and rails were purchased in England and shipped to be utilized
[that road.    Nothing in actual construction was established.   Eventually things
not turn out so badly as was anticipated.    Slightly less than fourteen years
four months after enbering Confederabion bhere was a continuous line of rails
m bhe railway sysbem of Onbario bo Port Moody.
In bhe year 1871 railway surveys were acbively undertaken and a very consid-
[ble amounb of preliminary work was done.    The Late Mr. Walter Moberly commenced
jveys in B.C.  in bhe summer of 1871.    In 1872 surveys were inaugurabed ab very
to poinbs bebween Lake Nipissing and bhe Pacific Coasb, and a large number of
pies were placed in bhe field covering bhe berribory alluded to, and in the
LLowing year, 1873, ib practically had been decided that the route through bhe
|ky Mountains should be by the Yellowhead Pass.
In November, 1873, a change of governmenb book place, John A. Macdonald
pgsucceeded as premier by Alexander Mackenzie»    The change of governmenb,
fever, did nob inberfere wibh acbive prosecubion of surveys.    Ib was however,
pghb ab bhab bime bhat an all-rail roube from Easbern Canada to the Pacific
pb was too great a financial undertaking for Canada, and a policy was proposed
to some extenb adopbed bo use bhe "Waber-sbrebches" bo a considerable extent.
Mas thought advisable bo build from Fort William bo connect with the Lake of the
ds drainage, and utilize the water of Rainy Lake and the Lake of the Woods,
some of the tributaries for a portion of bhe disbance, bhen a railway from
watin to Selkirk, and with that in view the contract for the Fort Frances Lock
let, and active construction commenced in 1875»
A survey was made for a railway line from bhe easb side of Lake Nipissing bo
[rgian Bay ab bhe moubh of bhe French River, and also an invesbigabion inbo
| feasibilities of turning that river into a canal.    If it had been thought
iisable to adopt that canalization scheme, the traffic would have been from
jut the vicinity of the North Bay to Fort William by water»
In 1874 the final route of the road from Fort William to Selkirk was decided,
Ing practically where the road is now built, and a contract was let on the 9th
[February, 1875, to build a telegraph line along it from Port Arthur bo Selkirk.
In Ocbober 1878 John A. Macdonald again came into power bub prior to that thé
[ernment had decided on what was to be the route of the Canadian Paeific Railway.
If act, as early as 1876, the route from Fort William to the Yellowhead Pass was
[ally decided upon.    As already stated, as early as 1875 it was thought the
[lowhead route would prove the one that should be adopted, and surveys were pro-
fated with that end in view»    That route practically followed the present loca-
fi of the C.P.R. from Fort William to Selkirk.    From Selkirk it went north-
iterly crossing Lake Manitoba at the Narrows, and on north of the Duck Mountains,
I then followed the valley of Swan River to Livingstone, the first capital of the
fth Wesb Territories, which was on Section 9, Twp. 34, Range 32, W, let or Prin-
[al Meridian»    From there it went westerly keeping north of the Quill Lake,
I on to old Humbeldt which was in the southerly part of Twp»37, Range 4, W.3rd,
p it struck westerly keeping south of the North Saskatchewan River,
66.  [Battleford between the Battle and North Saskatchewan Rivers in Twp. 43, Range
W.3rd, and then proceeded north-westerly following for a considerable portion
[the distance along the present route of the Canadian National to about Marshall
j»49, Range 26, W,3rd.    Then it struck westerly keeping south of the Beaver
Is passing the Hay Lakes, then through where Leduc now is, and crossing the
[th Saskatchewan River about at the oubleb of Lake labamun, bhen following bhe
|senb roube of bhe Grand Trunk Pacific to Yellowhead Pass.    From bhere to the
st the route was not finally decided on.    There was also a suggested alternate route striking north from a point on the aforementioned line about R.10-W,4th.
There were three suggested routes to the Coast.    One following the present
|te of the Canadian National to the west end of Kamloops Lake, and from there
Port Moody following the present route of the Canadian Pacific Railway; another
ng to Butte Inlet; another to some point further north on the Coast,  and also
lading a scheme for crossing over to Vancouver Island in the neighbourhood of
Loot Narrows, and building down to Victoria.
The eastern route then most favoured, and which would probably have been
rated had the line been constructed by the Government, was to build from Callan-
Station which was the western terminus of the Canada Central Railway near the
ft end of Lake Nipissing, following the present route of the C.P.R. to Sudbury
kction, then striking north-westerly. Ib had been determined to build to Sault
s, Marie in order to connect at that point with the American system of railways;
.ce keeping west to Sudbury before striking north-westerly; one route ran to the
[th of Lake Nipegon, another to the south skirting said Lake, and still a third
Llowing the present route of the C.P.R. for the latter a reccnnaisance or survey
made in 1875»    It is impossible to say what route would have been eventually
rated but the probabilities are in favour of the Northern,    If the one north
Take Nipegon had been adopted it would have joined the present route of the
f.R,, in the neighborhood of Kenora, practically following the route of the
Lnd Trunk Pacific from the North of Lake Nipegon.    If the route skirting the
:e on the south had been adopted Nipegon Bay would have been made the Lake
kerior port for the Canadian Pacific Railway, being connected with the main
Le by a short branch, but as early as 1874 it has been decided to make Fort
Lliam the Lake Superior port.
CONSTRUCTION OF THE C. P. RAILWAY
The first contract of the CP.R. was awarded to Joseph Whitehead on the
kt of August 1874, for the Emerson Branch of the C.P.R., and consisting of
iding from a very short distance north of the International boundary to the
Ine River in Manitoba,    The grading was done that year but the track was not
Ld on it till the autumn of 1878, when a connection was made with the Sb.
[M, & M.  (Sb..Paul, Minneapolis and Manitoba).    That company laid the track
km its Minnesota line north to a short distance south of the Roseau River,
[l Joseph Whitehead laid it from St. Boniface south.    At that point the last
Ike was driven on the Tbh November 1878»
This work was undertaken as a relief measure on accounb of the grasshopper
pitation of that and the preceding year.    The parties that required relief,
irever, were not fitted to do the grading,  and consequently as a relief measure
[was not a success.
On the 3rd of April 1875, a contract was let to Sifton and Ward,  commencing
the east bank of Cook's Creek, a short distance east of the east bank of
I River at Selkirk to Cross Lake.    On the same date a contract was let to the
pe firm far forty five miles from Fort William West to Shebandowan where Savanne
j* is»
67.  7.
In June 1876, a contract was let to Pur cell and Ryan from Savanne to
[lish River.
In January 1877, a contract was let to Whitehead and Company from Cross
ce to Keewatin, and for track-laying and ballasting between Selkirk and
watin. On the 11th of May 1877, a contract was let to the same company
[ grading and track-laying from St. Boniface to East Selkirk.
The rails for that portion of the track from St. Boniface to Keewatin,
| from St. Boniface south to the International boundary, and from Winnipeg
some considerable distance west, were brought via Duluth by water from Montreal,
. therefrom taken over the Northern Pacific to Moorehead, and from there floated
barges down Red River to St. Boniface, Selkirk, and one if not more points
[ween these places. These rails were so transported in the seasons of 1875
i 1876.
On the 7bh of March 1879 a conbracb was leb bo Purcell and Flynn from
lish River bo Eagle River, and on bhe 20bh of March 1899 a conbracb was leb
Fraser-Manning & Company from Eagle River to Keewatin and thus completing
route Fort William bo Selkirk.
The firsb locomobive bo arrive in Maniboba and to the west of that province
[ched Winnipeg on the morning of the 9bh of October 1877, and was for use on
C.P. Rly. It was brought down on a barge and on another barge were half-
pzen flabcars and a caboose. These should have reached Winnipeg labe bhe
[ning before, bub were held up the river and arrived at a time the people could
come them. These barges were brought down by the steamer "Selkirk". All the
am whistles and bells in the City of Winnipeg were making all the noise they
Id, and the whistle on the Selkirk also; and the stewardess, a large colored
an was vigorously ringing the bell on the hurrican deck of the steamer. Mr.
tehead stood on the bow of the same deck with plug hat in hand waving it to
cheering crowd. After stopping for a short time at the foot of Lombard
eet the Selkirk steamed down to immediately below the mouth of the Seine
er on the opposite bank of the Red River where a track was already laid to
eive the railway equipment. It was hauled up to the top of the bank, and tracking within a very few days commenced from St. Boniface. The end of the track
at Brokenhead River about the 1st of January 1878, and reached the neighbor-
d of Cross Lake in the spring or early summer of 1878. There was considerable
ention at that point owing to unexpected difficulties with the embankment or
ling over Cross Lake, and the track did not reach Keewatin till sometime later.
the report of the Chief Engineer of the Canadian Pacific Railway dated the
I of April 1880 5 it is stated that the rails were laid 136 miles west from
t William and 90 miles east from Selkirk^ and traffic was being carried on
m Emerson to Cross Lake, a distance of 160 miles. Ninety miles east from
kirk would be about Lowther Station^, which is about 21 miles west of Keewatin.
t track crossed the Winnipeg River at Rat Portage, now Kenora, during the
[son of 1881. The track was continued easterly where it joined the line
d from Fort William west at Eagle River in 1882, exact date not certain but
[bably about the 1st of July. The track laid west from Fort William reached
le River in October 1881. It had reached ^Ignace in April 1879. Ignace is
miles west from Fort William.
A gentleman whose veracity is unquestioned, states that in the latter part
August 1882, he left Port Arthur on the first train to carry passengers
ect through to Winnipeg. It was a day coach attached to a construction train.
did not state what time it took to make the trip.
So much opposition was evinced against the proposed route of the railway a m Selkirk via Livingstone, and on west to Humboldt that in 1878 attention
j given to the location of a line from Selkirk passing to the south end of
e Manitoba, and west from about Westbourne, practically following the route
re the Manitoba and North-Western, now styled the Winnipeg, Yorkton, Saskatoon
Edmonton is located, to a short distance west of Yorkton:    Thence westerly
Skirted the south edge of the Touchwood Hills, then north-westerly striking
present line of the Canadian National Railway in the neighbourhood of Humboldt.
Early in the season of 1879, a contract was let for the first hundred miles
that road from Selkirk with a branch to Winnipeg. Construction was commenced
ever at Winnipeg, the end of the branch. There was a temporary crossing of
Red River at that point, the first track being laid on the ice in the winter
1878~79, and after the ice went out of the river replaced by a pile structure
ch was operated till the Louise bridge was construcbed. This was bhe f irsb
n and sbone sbructure built across the Red River and was completed during 1881.
During 1880 a contract was let for the second hundred miles.    Not much work
done on this and it was abandoned because of the agreement entered into on
21st of October, 1880, between the Government and what was known as the
dicate, afterwards the Canadian Pacific Railway Company.    Early in 1881, this
eement was approved and ratified by parliament in an Act respecting the Can-
aa Pacific Railway.1
In the first 100 mile contract a line was constructed from Winnipeg northerly
join the line which was intended to cross the Red River at Selkirk and go
terly south of Lake Manitoba.    This point of juncture with the Winnipeg branch
a short distance east of Stonewall, Manitoba, and the line as first constructed
due west from Stonewall to a point north-east of Poplar Point,  it then
ned south-westerly and struck the location of the present line of the Canadian
ific Railway in the neighbourhood of Poplar Point,  and followed the present
e of the said railway till a short distance west of Portage La Prairie.    On
ount of strong agitation by the settlers of Poplar Point, High Bluff, Portage
Prairie and Rat Creek, the line was deflected from its original route which
Id have brought it about ten miles north of Portage la Prairie.    No construc-
n was ever done on bhe link from a short disbance easb of Sbonewall bo Selkirk.
As already sbabed bhere was no consbruction by Government wesb of Portage la
irie till Kamloops was reached, but from that poinb bo Port Moody construction
done by the Government.
In March 1881, the present Canadian Pacific Railway company commenced active
vice on those portions of its present system on which the rails were laid west
Rat Portage, now Kenora, also construction between Callendar Junction and
t William was most vigourously prosecuted.    During the year the line was built
m Winnipeg via Rosser,  Meadows, Marquette, and Reaburn, to join the line
eady built from Poplar Point to Portage la Prairie.    This line was built
riedly with not sufficient embankment, and the high water of April 1882 put it
of commission, and when so out of commission the old line built by the Govern-
t was utilized, but during the summer of 1882, this line was re-established
since that time,  it has been the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
rails of the line from Stonewall to Poplar Point were later removed.
About the first of September, 1881, the end of the track was in the neighbour-
d of Carberry and during that year was extended and operated to where Oak
e now is (then called Flat Creek) which was made a depot for material to be
d further west.    The track, however, was laid to Gopher Creek a short distance
t of Virden.    Gopher Creek is now known as Boss Hill Creek.
In 1882 a line was built and track was laid to within
Cap. 1, 44 Vic. assented to 15th Feb. 1881.  ween twenty and tnirty miles easb of Medicine Hat.
Moose Jaw was made the base of supplies for extensions in 1883. In
,t year the end of the track crossed tne Boubh Baskabchewan Rxver ab Medicine
, on bhe 14th of June, reached Calgary on tne 10th of August and was extended
what was then nolt Cxty, afterwards Laggan, now Lake Louise. That point
made the base of supplies for the following year. In 1884 bhe brack
.ched bhe moubh of bhe Beaver River. On November 7th, 1885 the last spike
; driven at Craigellachie, east of that point having been constructed from the
t, was of there from the west.
On the 23rd of December, 1879 a contract was let to Andrew Onderdonk
■ twenty-nine miles extending from Emery's Bar, in the neighbourhood of Yale,
Bosbon Bar. On bhe lOtn of February, 1880, a contract was let from Boston
■ bo Lybbon, bo Ryan-Goodwin and company, afterwards assigned bo Onderdonk.
bhe 23rd of December in bhe year preceding, viz. 1879, a contract was let
m Lytton bo Junction Flat, to Onderdonk. On the same date in that year
ontract was let bo Onderdonk from Junction Flab bo Savona' s Ferry. In
uary, 1882? a contract was let to Onderdonk for construction of the line from
ry° s Bar to Port Moody.
Under a contract entered into between the Syndicate and the govern-
,t on bhe 21sb of Ocbober, 1880, bhe governmenb was bo complebe bhe line from
t Moody bo, Kamloops. Up bo that date it had not been determined that the
e should pass through Kamloops, and if the Government had built to the east
Savona's Ferry, in bhab or bhe succeeding year, ib would no doubt have
lowed the route of the Canadian national Railway, and would not have passed
'ough Kamloops, but in tne neighbourhood thereof. From Kamloops easterly
I Canadian Pacific Railway Company constructed the line. That portion
ween Kamloops and Craigellachie, however, was done under the direction of
trew Onderdonk, as was tnat between Savona8 s Ferry and Kamloops, Mr. J.M.
,ey being superintendent of operations on the ground.
in 1885 construction of the line from Port Moody to Vancouver
menced and was completed in May, 1887.
TRACK LAYING ON THE BRITISH COLUMBIA PORTION
CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY»     f##M
Construction in British Columbia.
ding commenced at Yale^Jjay 1880.
ck laid 1881 Emory (1) to Spussum Creek
,ck laid 1882 to Wnite's Creek
.ck laid 1883 to Fraser River Bridge, Cisco
ck laid 1884 to Hammond (2)  to Emory
ick laid 1884 to Savona ^end of government work)
ick laid x884 to Moody (.end of government work)
.ck laid 1885 «ov„ 7th to Craigellachie
97
to
120
U9
to
224
Miles from
.Vancouver
97
24
fst through train from Montreal left bhere Juxy xst, and arrived at Port Moody
y 4th, 1886.
at through train from Montreal arrived at Vancouver May 23rd, 1887.
jES ^l) Emory is head of river navigation on Fraser River
^2) Hammond is head of coastal navigation on Fraser River. IMMIBIIB^ 10.
The last spike inserted at Craigellachie on the 7th of November,
was driven by Donald A. Smibh, afberwards Sir Donald A. Smibh and later
jk;Strathcona. It was an ordinary railway spike. After being driven it
drawn out. Lord Strathcona nad it cut up into cubes varying from 3/16*
/2" on the edge. These cubes were connected with a liberal amount of gold
:s, swivelled and made into a necklace and two bracelets, an exceedingly
Isome piece of jewelry and was presented to Lady MacDonald. .
CALLANDER STATION TO FORT WILLIAM
xmmediately after bhe passage of bhe Acb incorporating the C.P.R. Co.,
the 15th of February, 1881, acbive construction of the link between Callander
tion and Fort William commenced, also a branch bo Baulb S be. Marie. The
pion of bhe road from Callander bo Forb William was divided inbo bwo portions
placed under the direction of bhe labe Mr. Harry Abbobb, and bhe late Mr.
. Ross.
The former sbarbed ab Calxander and worked wesb, and had as his
sbanb-in-chief the late Richard Marpole, to wnose energy and ability very much
he rapid construction of that railway should be credited. The forwarding
- this rout» during the latter part of Marcn and early in April of 1885, of troops
supplies required for the suppression of the half-breed and Indxan rising
that date, was very greably acceilerabed, if not made possible, by Mr. Marpole's
•gy and management. Tnere were then 76 miles of unlaid track in four gaps of
.7-10 and 7 miles respectively. -
Mr. John Ross was a uanadxan wibh very many years of experience in
Lway constructing in various parts of the United States, and was, and no doubt
;ly, ranked among the outstanding men of America for ability in pioneer
^way construction. A portion of this section contained extremely heavy
: work and particularly the part from about Rossport bo near Heron Bay. Ibs
màch bo bhe snores of Lake superior, however, enabled ib bo be abbached ab
irai poinbs, viz. Fort William, Port Arthur, Uipigon Bay, Gravel River,
iport, Jackfish Bay, Coldweli and Heron Bay. From Callander bo Sudbury
sbion bhere" were facilities for obtaining supplies via bhe Georgian Bay and
irs, Lakes, ebc* bributary therto.
For the balance, Budbury Junction to Heron Bay, provisions and a
lain amount of construction material were brought in by the way of Sudbury
tion, Dog Lake, and Missinabi, and Heron Bay. Missinabi being on bhe
rs of bhe Micnipicoten Rxver, access by canoes bo Lake Superior was available
[ng the season of open water. This however, involved a good deal of portaging.
From the evidence available it is difficult at this date bo locabe
tisely Callander Sbation. Ib is defined in the Act of 1881, incorporating
C.P.R. as bhe wesbern berminus of the Canada Central Railway. There is
illander Junction on bhe line of bhe <3rand Trunk Railway sysbem, a few miles
tn of Nipissing Juncbion, which in burn is just a few miles east of Nortn Bay.
L however, is not the point specified in said Act. From the best information
Unable it can only be concluded that Callander Junction was very close to
\e  the mileage 343 from Montreal now is, which is slightly more than one mile
féf Hasbonsing Station, which stations is 15.5 miles east of North Bay.
kming that as the correct point for the commencement of bhe laying of sbeel
pe C.P.R. bhe easbern end of bhis construction was commenced in the spring
.881, and on the 26th of February, 1882 was laid as far as North Bay, stated i 11.
be 20 miles and on bhe 21sb of February 1833, bhe end of bhe sbeel was ab
,-geon River sbabed bo be 40 miles in all. On bhe 2nd of February 1884,
[ras four miles wesb of Sudbury Junction, or one hundred miles in all.
the 31st of December, 1884, the track appears to have been laid from Callander
pbion westward for 243 miles, which would be about 10 miles west of Ridout,
j> it was laid from about 5 miles east of Jackfish to Black and from 5 miles
I  of Rossport to 5 miles west of Caver and from 2 miles east of Kama to 3
ss west of Nipigon, and from 10 miles west of Nipigon to Fort William.
5 _~ From 10 miles west of Ridout to 5 miles east of
Jackfish....... 250 miles
From Black to 5 miles west of Rossport0........ 28  "
From 5 miles west of Caver to 2 miles east of Kama       11  "
From 3 miles west of Nipigon to 10 miles west..  2  "
Total 296  "
On the 9th of February 1885, ninebeen miles more had been laid. That
kes at that date a gap of 275 miles, but as track was being laid at many
pts, each day a less gap resulted so, that early in April there was only the
Mentioned, viz. 76 miles, 1 and on the 17bh of May of bhab year bhe brack
I complebed.
Ab aboub bhe lsb of April in bhab year when broops and supplies for
suppression of the Half-breed and Indian uprising in the North West
'itories were being sent west, navigation on the Lakes not being available,
prding to the newspaper reports there were four gaps, 76 miles in all»
Miles
».»From 3 miles west of Dalton to 7 miles west of Franz,..       42
L».From 3 miles east of Heron Bay to 5 miles east of Coldwell    17
|,..From Black to 2 miles west of Schreiber...................     10
...From Caver to Kamao.o.o.o.................................     7
On the 10th of October 1885,  bhe brack was officially declared
i for braffic from Callander to Biscotasing.
On the 2nd of November of that year it was authorized open for
r?fic from Callander to Port Arthur.
HISTORY__pF_M0RE INTERESTING COMPONENT PARTS OF THE C.P.R.
History of what  is known as the Crows"  Nest Pass Ry.
What is popularly known as the Crows' Nest Pass Ry0 of the C.P.R.
[at be defined as commencing at Dunmore Junction and connecting with the
a line at Spence's Bridge.    At one time it would have been considered as
elected with the main line at Revelstoke; later it might have been considered
[joining the main line at Shuswap, but for the purpose of this narrative
^ill confine it to starting at Dunmore Junction and going to Brookmere, with
banch from there to Spence's Bridge and the main line continuing to petain.
£ is made up of several links of road consolidated.    From Dunmore Junction
Lethbridge was built by the North-Western Coal and Navigation Co., the history
phis portion is detailed later under the article "North Western Coal and
p.gation Company".
In 18972 the British Columbia Ry. Co., was authorized among other
>ee third par. p. 10
lap. 36, 60-61 Vic. Can.
ented to 29th June 1897
72. IBM*J"*1 12.
jags to build a line from Lethbridge to the summit of the Rocky Mountains which
I constructed in 1897-8,  its charter controlled by the C.P.R. which had at
p time also acquired the North-Western Coal and Navigation Company's line
n Dunmore Junction to Lethbridge.    That portion of the line between the
jnit of the Rocky Mts, and Kootenay Landing was built in 1897-8, under the
, Southern Charter»!
From Proctor to Nelson the line was built in the year 1900 by the
|iish Columbia Southern Ry. Company, under the Charter of the Cariboo Ry.Ci.2
From Nelson to East Robson a line was built in the year 1890 and 1891,
«e the Provincial Charter known as the Columbia and Kootenay Railway.    This was
broiled by the C.P.Ry interests.    From about two miles south of East Robson to
fray, the line was constructed in the years 1898 and 1899, under a charter known
phe Columbia and Western,3 also by a charter incorporating the Kettle River
ley Ry. Co. enacted by the Dominion Government.^   The Railway from Midway to
ficeton, and from Brookmere to Merritt was built under two Dominion Government
kers in the years 1910 to 1915 inclusive.5
From Princeton to Brookaere built in 1910-11, under the Charter of
V.V. & E, Ry, and Navigation Company, in 1910-11.
From Brookmere to Petain was constructed in the years 1913-1914, under
Irters of the K.V. Ry. and the V.V. & E. Ry, and Navigation Co,, both Companies
Lng certain rights but so far (1921) being controlled wholly by K,V,Ry« interests.
From Spence's Bridge to Merritt and on to Nicola some 7 miles to the
; was built in the year 1905 to 1907 under a charter known as the Nicola, Kam-
ps & Similakmeen Coal & Railway Co,, with Provincial and Dominion Charters" and
Railway is   leased by the C.P.R.
For detailed history of the C.P.Ry, connection with what was originally
North Wesbern Coal and Navigabion Go,'s lines,  see part relabing to that
pany.    That portion of this line Dunmore to Lebhbridge was built by that Co,
In 1884,^ this Company which had been incorporated in England in April,
2, was authorized to build a railway from some place near Medicine Hat, in a
ph-Wesberly direction to the Company's mine on the Belly River,  (now Lethbridge)
a an extension westward thereof to Macleod.    A narrow gauge line 3'6" was
pbrucbed as far as Lethbridge in 1885, and a line of the same gauge was built
1L890 from Lethbridge south-westerly to Great Falls Montana, via Coutts on
International Boundary5 and was operated by the said Company till the 4th of
nary, 1904, when bhe line was made sbandard gauge and bhat portion from Coutts
Great Falls was taken over and operated by the Great Northern Interests.
A branch off the Lethbridge-Great Falls line at Stirling, 20 miles
ph of Lethbridge was built to Spring Coulee in 1901, under the Charter of the
Mary's River Railway Co,S    This was extended to Cardston in 1904 and in the
3 year the branch Raley to Woolf ord was constructed.
Cap.  53,  57 Vic. B.C. Assented to 11th April, 1894
1  54, 59  ■   "
" 17th   "
1896
"  68, 1 Edw.VII.Can.
•    23rd May
1901
" 117, 6 »  "  "   !
'    26th June
1906
H    95, 8-9 ■    "    "
•    19th May
1909
"  47 50 Vic. B.C.
•     20bh April
1891
,! I64 3 Edw.VII.Can.
24th Oct»
1903
"  74,47 Vic. Can.
19th Apr.
1884
1  79,63-64 Vic.Can.    '
14th June
1900
73.  13.
The first Standard gauge train over the line Dunmore to Lethbridge
shed there on 23rd November, 1893,  being operated by the Canadian Pacific
.way which had the line under lease from that date till January. 1st, 1896,
l it was acquired.
The lines south-west of Stirling were all built narrow gauge, First
i|rd rail was laid Lethbridge to Raymond, September, 1902.    From Raymond
îardston and Raley to Woolford were completed as standard gauge June 1906.
On the 31st of March 1912, the Canadian Pacific Railway acquired
the interest of this Company's railway and lands.
WESTBOURNE & NORTH WESTERN RAILWAY, afterwards changed to PORTAGE
WESTBOURNE & NORTH WESTERN RAILWAY, and finally to MANITOBA & NORTH
WESTERN RAILWAY COMPANY OF CANADA.    Lease to C.P.R. on 1st of May
1900, for 999 years, and now styled THE WINNIPEG, YORKTON, SASKATOON,
& EDMONTON BRANCH OF THE C.P.R.
In 1880 the Legislature of Manitoba chartered a line called the
-bourne and North-West em Railway running to the northern and western boundary
hat Province from some point on the Canadian Pacific Ry»    This act was amended
fbtly the following year by the Local Legislature and in 1882, an Act of
.Lament of Canada came into effect, which among other things changed the name
.he Portage, Westbourne and North-Western Railway.    Its route was defined
rtarting at Portage la Prairie and extending in a north-westerly direcbion
i point ab or near Prince Albert on bhe North Saskatchewan River•
Work was commenced at Portage la Prairie in 1881, and thirty-five
o were graded by February 1883»    The first fifty miles were completed
he 17th September, 1883»    The track was laid to Minnedosa on the 24th October,
\ (78«54 miles).    The line was completed to Solsgirth, 51 miles beyond
ledosa,  in all 129»54 miles from bhe Portage in November I885»    To Birtle on
JJuly 1886,    To Langenburg on 13bh December 1886,    To Saltcoats on 31st
>ber 1888, and to Yorkton on 1st of December, 1890, and afterwards to 5,6
is west of Sheho, 43 miles west of Yorkton in 1902.    To three and one-half
1/2) miles east of Wyngard in 1908, to a half (1/2) a mile east of Lanigan
l909.
The branch line to Rapid City and the Sheel river branch to Russell
i complebed in December 1886,    This line was acquired by bhe Canadian
ific Railway, lsb of May 1909, and was extended from 5.6 miles west of Sheho
Saskatoon to Westaskiwin on the Calgary and Edmonton branch completed as
.ows;    Construction commenced at Wetaskiwin in 1904, was carried easterly
')bx 1905 a track was laid to Dayslandï    in 1906 to Hardisty.   Webaskiwin bo
listy was built under the Charter of the C, & E. Ry,
From Sheho to Lanigan the line was known as the Quill Lake Branch of
l&nitoba and North-Western,
Grading was commenced ab Saskaboon in 1906, and from
Cap, 80, 45 Vic. Can., Assenbed bo 17bh May, 1882.  14.
out a mile east of Saskatoon to about a mile west of Asquith the track was laid
t that year. In 1907, a track was laid from Lanigan to two miles east of
skatoon and completed in Saskatoon in 1908, and in that year, 1908, the track
,s continued to one mile west of Gilkie and completed through to Hardisty in
In 1910, bhe brack from Kerrobert to Macklin was laid.
SOURIS AND ROCKY MOUNTAIN RAILWAY
_, the early railways and one thab has a very chequered career was
s Souris and Rocky Mbunbain, incorporabed in 1880.1
The point of commencement is defined as follows s A point on the
nadian Pacific Ry. between the International boundary and the 51st deg. of
rbh Latitude, thence to the Rocky Mountains with a branch line of railway
luth-westerly to, or near the coal-beds on the Souris River. It had several
iendments to its charter, and in 1883 a grade was constructed starting at
lhourne Station on the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway which was
.nety-eight miles wesb of Winnipeg. Thence ib proceeded Norbh-wesberly in
,e direction of Rapid City, and the grading was completed for several miles,
\ fact fairly continuously till Range 18 was reached, a distance probably in all
iarly, if not fully fifty miles. Nothing further was ever done by that Company,
small portion of bhat grading was afberwards ubilized in bhab consbrucbion of
ie C.P.R. line bebween Macgregor and Varcoe.
QU°APPELLE.LONG LAKE AND SASKATCHEWAN RAILWAY.
This railway was aubhorized in 1883,  bhe route from Regina passing
jong Long Lake on either side and striking some point on the North Saskatchewan
i or near the lOTbh deg, of Longitude, with power to use any navigable waters
ong said route by boat. The 107th deg, of Longitude would bring it to the
rbh Saskabchewan River, aboub the Elbow, practically where the Canadian
[tional crossed.
An O.C. of the 30th of December, 1880 recited that whereas C.R.
fgsley on behalf of the Q.L.L. & S. Ry. Co., has been advised that 6,400
res per mile would be granted to said company for 20 miles of Railway from
gina at the
Cap. 58, 43 Vic, Can. Assented to 7th May, 1880.
Cap. 72, 46 Vic, Can. Assented to 25th May, 1883.  15.
•ice of $ 1,06 per acre, and thab he had visibed England to promote said
j.mpany, and learned when there that the Government had decided to make those •
ants free, except so far as a nominal charge of 10$ per acre for surveys and
ministration, and he had applied for similar terms to be accorded to his
mpany, and that he is to be granted to the 1st of May 1883, to complete said
Biles of Railway and place a steamer suitable for the navigation of Long
pee on said Lake, which lake is estimated to extend for 60 miles from its foot
the direction of Prince Albert.
By an O.C. of the 11th of June 1885, it would appear that Folley Bros,
r St. Cloud, Minnesota, had commenced grading that 20 miles, and certain modi-
[cations were made in bhe berms of bhe O.C. regarding bhe land granb, bhereby
fusbing bo facilitate the financing thereof by Mr. Pugsley.    The land was
p usual free grant.
A report dated 2nd June 1886, from the Department of Railways and
nalsp  states that 20 miles of grading and track-laying had been completed and
Le grading nearly completed for some 2 miles further to bring the line to the
ot of the Lake, and by an O.C. of the 15th November, 1886,  it is recommended that
I a bond being given by Mr. Pugsley for the completion of the grading to the lake
e land grant to be passed to him and that as it is intended to continue the
•nstruction of the line along the margin of the Lake there would be no necessity
r a steamer to be placed on the Lake.
By an 0,0, dated the 20th of June,  1887, an amalgamation of this
mpany with the South Saskatchewan Valley Ry. was authorized,  the amalgamated
terests to build a line to the neighbourhood of Saskatoon and from that point
k> branches,  one north-west to the Elbow of the North Saskatchewan, and the
Jher north-east to Prince Albert.    The 50 miles of that line commencing about
miles from Regina on the Pugsley line already built should be completed on
e 20th of July 1888»
By an O.C. of the 16th of June,  1888, the completion of the aforesaid
miles was extended to the 1st of January 1889.
An O.C. of the 26th of June, 1889, refers to an agreement made by the
hrernment with a new Company, being composed of Messrs. Ross, Osier,  and others,
e C.P.R. is made a party thereto to operate the line when constructed.    The
mpany undertakes to construct to Saskatoon by the 1st of March 1890 and it
jabes bhere is no doubb bhab bhab will be completed by that date.    The two
janches mentioned were to be completed by the 1st of November,  1892.    This
tter date is provided for by an order in council of the 29th of November 1889.
By an O.C. of the 7th of November, 1890, the railway Department
ports state that the line has been laid and operated and is in good condition
to Prince Albert.    The railway Departmenb report recibed in a memorandum
om bhe Minisber of the Interior dated 24bh Ocbober, 1890, states that the
togth of the line from Regina to Prince Albert is 248 miles and authorizes a
ant of 6,400 acres of land, per mile to be passed to the Company subject to
e 10 ct. per acre charge for survey and administration»
76.  16.
,MANITOBA_AND SOUTH-WESTERN RAILWAY
In 1879, an Act was passed to incorporate the Manitoba and South-
|tern Railway Company!»    The territory covered was from Winnipeg to the Rocky
retains.    The right was given to connect with the Pembina Branch of the
adian Pacific Railway, at or near St. Boniface.   The original route proposed
| to cross the Assiniboine some miles above Winnipeg, then strike south till
set the old trail at that time travelled to some extent and which had been
■srly laid out by buffalo hunters and fur traders, leading from Fort Garry to
kel's Lake in Dakota; continuing along the trail tiU the summit of the Pembina
Lteau was reached.    Tp. 3 R.7,W. of the Principal meridian, and then striking
terly to Rock Lake»    Some preliminary exploration surveys were made over that
te under the direction of Major Scoble in the autumn of 1879.
In 1880, the Charter was amended giving the Company the right to
end from Rock Lake to the Souris Coal Fields,  on a line parallel or nearly so,
the boundary line of the Dominion of Canada.    Also provision was made for
biches, location to be subject to the approval of the Governor in Council, from
line to contiguous points on the main line of the Canadian Pacific Ry. and a
nth from a point at or near the City of Winnipeg running thence to the point
we the Canadian Pacific Ry.  crossed the Red River.
As already stated, up to this time the crossing of the Red River
the Canadian Pacific Ry. had been only a temporary one.    The Louise Bridge
f built by the City of Winnipeg as a subsidy to the Manitoba and South-West era
[ and was commenced in 1880 and completed in 1891.    One, General Hammond, was
ager and chief of the construction of the railway during the latter part of
il, and the major part of 1882, and commencement was made, but no considerable
hint completed.    The Company failed during 1882 and its rights were acquired
the Canadian Pacific Railway.
Before the C.P.R. acquired the Charter of the Manitoba and South-
[tern Colonization Co., in 1882, it had built in 1881 under its charter, a line
an Winnipeg to Gretna, which was completed in 1882, and also had extended it
m Rosenfeld to Manitou and completed it in the same year.    In 1884 to 1886
ended it from Manitou to Deloraine;    from Deleraine bo Napinka was built
1891 and 1892,    At Napinka, it joined the line that was built as far west as
k Creek in 1882, by the Manitoba and South-Western Railway Company.    A branch
te, Elm Creek to Carman was also built in 1889.    Between 1882 and 1892,  it
[ended this line from Elm Creek to Souris where it Joined the line built as a
'.R. branch line in 1889 from Kemnay on the main line, the first station west
Brandon.    The line from Souris to Napinka was built in 1890 and 1891»   From
ire to Estevan it was completed in 1892»    This line from Portal through Este-
fto Pasquo was built in 1892 and 1893.
Cap.  66, 42 Vic.    Can.    Assented to 15th May 1879.
77.  LACOMBE TO MOOSE JAW
17.
û-y. The track was laid easterly from Lacombe to Stettler in 1905;    Stettler
Castor in 1909;    Castor to Coronation in 1911}    Coronation to Consort 1912;
^nsort to Monitor,  I9I3.    In 1906 the track was laid from Moose Jaw northerly
t Tuxford, about 14 miles in all.    From there to Outlook in 1908.    From
rrobert to Herschel in 1910, and from Outlook to Herschel in 1911 and from
irrobert to Monitor in 1914.
CALGARY & EDMONTON RAILWAY
In 1890 the construction of the Edmonton and Calgary Ry. was authorized.
ie route was from the town of Calgary to a point at or near Edmonton, with
twer to extend northerly to Peace River, also from Calgary southerly to the
tternational boundary.    That railway finally extended from Macleod to Edmonton.
ie construction was commenced in July 1890, and in August 1891 the track was laid
td operation was commenced from Calgary as far north as the south bank of the
fskatchewan River at Edmonton.    In 1891 the track was laid south to High River,
fing to financial conditions no construction was performed in 1892.    In 1893 it
I finished to Macleod.    After construction the Canadian Pacific Railway operated
at line for a time, then the Calgary and Edmonton Railway operated it.
In 1903 Parliament enabled a lease of this line to be made to the C.P.R.
id this went into effect on the 1st of July of that year.    Sec.  5 empowered the
& E. to construct from Wetaskiwin easterly 100 miles and from Lacombe easterly
ie same distance and these branches were constructed to some considerable extent
fder the above eharter.
ESQUIMALT AND NANAIMO RAILWAY COMPANY
At the time the people of British Columbia developed such opposition to
Le Dominion Government because of the delay in the construction of the Canadian
cific Railway, it was anticipated that the main line of the Canadian Pacific
iilway would sbrike the Pacific Coast at Butte Inlet, and it was then proposed to
Lrry bhe line bo Nanaimo or Vicboria.    For bhe purpose of conciliabion bhe bhen
vernmenb of Canada made the provincial government an offer bo build as soon as
ascnably possible bhat portion of the line that was located en Vancouver Island,
id for that, purpose in 1874 rails necessary for the construction of that line were
prchased in Great Britain and brought out and stored at Esquimalt and Nanaimo.
at offer, however, was not acceptable to the British Columbia people.
These rails were afterwards used on the mail line of the C.P.R. from Port
fody east.
The late Hon. Robert Dunsmuir was the moving spirit in the final construction
I this road which had a very considerable land grant.    It eventually passed over
po the hands of the Canadian Pacific Railway.    The history of its construction,
bidly furnished by H. E. Beasley, Esq., the Superintendent of the line,   is as fol-
>ws;
The first survey of the E, & N, was started by Mr. Joseph Hunter,  (who is
ill in Victoria)  in March, 1883.    The line was under construction during 1884-5
d track laying completed between Esquimalt and Nanaimo in 1886 and the line was
[tended and track laid from Nanaimo to Wellington in 1887.    Track was extended from
quiaalt to Victoria and the first train run over the bridge on.the arm of bhe
•rbour in March 1888.
The Canadian Pacific took over the Esquimalt & Nanaimo Ry. in May, 1905.
nstruction of the line from Wellington to Port Alberni was commenced in 1908,
I track was laid as far as Cameron Lake and passenger train service was inau-
rated to that point in December, 1910.    Track laying from Cameron Lake to Port
78.	  18.
berni was finished and the first through passenger train to Port Alberni was run
December 21st, 1911,    Grading between Parksville Junction (the Alberni line
verts here) and Coutenay was dene in 1912-13 and track laying completed to Court-
ay and the first regular passenger service Victoria to Courtenay inaugurated
gust 5th, 1914.
SUPPLEMENT TO RAILWAY SECTION. PART 2.    9/2/23.
Abandonment of the Yellowhead route in favour of the
Kicking Horse Pass for the main line of the C.P.R.
Had the Yellowhead Pass been chosen the route would probably have been
it is now from Winnipeg to Portage La Prairie:    It would have then swung off
d followed the line of the old Manitoba and North-Western By.    (now the Winnipeg
taskiwin branch of the C.P.R.) to a short distance west of Yorkton:    then ccn-
nuing north-westerly and striking the route of the Canadian Northern about where
mboldt is, and following practically the course of that railway to Kamloops.
om Kamloops westerly it would have followed the route of the C.P.R.    By the charter
the C.P.R. dated February, 1881, it will be noticed that the government under-
ok to complete the road from Kamloops to Port Moody.
Looking at it from a national  standpoint, there is in my mind no doubt what-
er it was well to adopt the route which the C.P.R. did.    By so doing ib was able
give railway communication bo bhab part of B.C., Alberta and Saskatchewan and
nitoba lying adjacenb bo bhe International Boundary, and if that had not been
ne the entire trade of that district would have gone to American points.
As it worked out, a good deal of railway construct having such diversion
its object had been sbarted and much more would have followed.    An idea of
ab was attempted to be done in connection wibh tapping Canadian production and
king it to the U.S. may be seen by glancing at the branch lines built by the
eat Northern as detailed pages 31 and 32.
Nos» 1,2,3, mentioned on those pages are still being operated, though
ne of them are taking out much Canadian production.    Nos. 1,2, and 3 could take
of Canada considerable grain, and might bring in a certain amount of goods,
t not much of the latter.    No. 4 is now abandoned.    No. 5 is now operated by the
P.R.    No. 6 does a very small business, chiefly passenger;    very little of bhe
oducbion of Canada is baken by ib bo U.S. points.    No» 7 is abandoned.
The branch line of the V.V. & E. from Grand Forks, mentioned in the last
atence of No. 8, is now abandoned, and I mighb have added further bhab a short
anch of bhe north fork of the Ketble river, extending from the said Smelter
pth, is also abandoned. The main line of bhe V.V. & E from where ib crosses bhe
ternational Boundary a short distance south of Cascade and its terminus on the
lameen river at Brookmere, is still being operated (I think about three days a
ek) but so far as draining B.C. production into the U.S, it is negligible.
You will notice also that a considerable portion of No. 12 and all of
13 have been abandoned.
Of the lines near the coast in B.C. going inbo U.S. poinbs oubside of bhe
ssenger braffic bhere is nob much business.
79.  19.
When the C.P.R. was considering the route it should adopt, the principle
laid down was to place the route so far south that it could fight to the best
[rantage against traffic developed in the country south of its main line, being   •
Lined to American points.
Even by building the track where it was, entailed on the C.P.R. a big and
pensive fight to make tributary to it the production of the country lying south
[its line.
Just reflect what would have occurred had the main line of the C.P.R. follow-
bhe roube as at first adopted;    forty percent of the production of Manitoba;
rty percent of the production of Saskatchewan and at least seventy-five percent
the agricultural production of Alberta would then have lain so far away from its
in line that it could only be served by branch lines, and would have been at par
fch the branch lines from the American System,  (these from the C.P.R.)
Two articles are absolute necessities bo bhe prairie portions of the West,
taely, fuel and lumber.    Consider the great advantage the present route has in
pplying these.    In regard to fuel, the southern route called into being the
pws' Nest Pass Railway, to supply Coal, Lignite and bituminous.    In both it has
bhorter haul than the C.N.R.
UNITES %      The Lignites of Medicine Hat are as good as those of Clover Bar, in the
ighbourhood of Edmonton, which latter are the best lignites mines in the Edmonton
strict.    The distance from Winnipeg to Medicine Hat Coal mines is 666 miles,
pm Winnipeg to Clover Bar, via the Canadian Northern route (which is about the
pe as would have been by bhe roube menbioned) is 820 miles»    Further the best
gnite coals in Alberta would not have been touched, viz» those in the neighboured of Lethbridge»
TUMINOUS:    In the matter of the bituminous coal.    Take Canmore on the main line
[ the C.P.R. which is in round numbers 900 miles from Winnipeg; Blairmore the centre
the bituminous production of the Crow is 845 miles from Winnipeg, as against Brule
J28 miles which is the centre of the bituminous coals on the other route»
MBERs
The Yellowhead route would have missed the whole of the timber supply of the
tlumbia and Kootenay Rivers and their tributaries, also that tributary on the main
pe through the Eagle Pass, of which there is a vast amount.    This probably would
ve been all controlled by the U.S. interests»
PIT:
Where would all the fruit developments of B.C., east of the longitude of
knloops have been, if the Yellowhead route had been adopted» That development
juld not have been in existence except to a very limited extent. As it is, with
1 the fostering and protection we have been able to give it, by reason of trans-
jrtation lines and duties, the large fruit interests of the U.S. handicap it very
jverely.
JTER POWERS:
Should there be as many think, and as it seems possible, a great development
ii use of hydro-electric power instead of steam, then in that matter the route adop-
has all the valuable powers that lie along the line of the Yellowhead route.    Any
jhers are not important and could only be installed at prohibitive cost»    The
[portant water powers along the Yellowhead route lie almost wholly~along the north iii ompson, main Thompson and Fraser rivers.    These are all available by the
P.R. on the present route and in addition power may be had from the Columbia
d Kootenay rivers and their tributaries and a small power out of the Kettle
T«e, also from Adam's Lake, tributary to the South Thompson river probably a
by large water power plant could be economically installed»    Again at
pnington Falls, on the Kootenay river a large power has already been created,
its possibilities are probably two or three bimes bhe present development»
e other powers, viz. those on the Columbia river, lie immediately alongside
a short distance frbm the main line of the C.P.R. and are scattered along it,
that the very expensive factor of transmission cost would be low, the longer
Is distance, the greater the cost per mile for transmission.
Taking the population and production of the mainland portion of B.C. and
■eluding therefrom a margin lying along the coast, it is probable that eighty
tcent or eighty five percent of ib lies eibher bribubary bo bhe mainline of bhe
P.R.  or south of it.
Shortly afber the C.P.R.  came inbo exisbence ib applied for aubhoriby bo
lild bhrough bhe Crowe' Nesb Pass.    The Governmenb refused ib on bhe ground bhab
lobably certain links in it would be boo close bo bhe U.S. boundary.    The
bulb was bhat bhey bhen decided bo adopt bhe presenb roube and although it
k some adverse grades,  it is probable that when traffic warrants it bhe grades
111 be so reduced bhab coupled wibh bhe use of electric energy as motive power
e cost of operation will be much less than by the Yellowhead route.
THE CANADIAN NORTHERN RAILWAY
The original Canadian Northern Railway, now a portion of the Canadian
[bional Railway between Port Arthur and Vancouver, is made up of a large number
links.    For the sake of precision it may be well to commence at Port Arthur
d number these links in succession giving bheir lengths, when track was laid,
i under what charter the construction was effected.
(l)    From Port Arthur to Twin City Junction, length 12,31 miles constructed
I 1880 by the Prince Arthur's Landing and Kaministiquia Railway.    It was con-
bed to bhe Crown in 1882.    The Crown in bhis case represenbs the Province of
fcario.    The Crown conveyed it to the C.P.R.  in 1885.  21.
Cont.     The C.P.R. having built its own line abandoned ib as a railway and
kveyed ib to the City of Port Arthur, for use as a Highway in 1888.    The city
kveyed it to the Port Arthur, Duluth & Western Railway in 1891, which Company
^er its charter relaid the track that year, and continued the same south tods North Lake.    In 1900 it conveyed it to the Canadian Northern Railway.
Twin City Junction to Kakabeka Falls, a distance of 9,55 miles having been
^structed in 1900, built under the Charter of the Ontario and Rainy River Ry.
Kakabeka Falls to Atikokan 119.4 miles built in 1900 under the Charter of the
,ario and Rainy River Ry.
Atikokan to near Rocky Inlet, a distance of 76.3 miles built in 1901, under
Charter of the Ontario and Rainy River Ry.
Built near Rocky Inlet westerly to Fort Frances 12,3 miles in 1902, under the
irter of the Ontario and Rainy River Ry,
From Fort Frances to the International Boundary Rainy River 54.8 miles, built
1901 under the Charter of bhe Onbario and Rainy River Railway.
This makes 272.38 miles of line builb under bhis Charter and brings us bo a
^nb 284.69 miles from Port Arthur.
Rainy River bo near Sprague disbance 52.2 miles builb in 1900.    Of bhab
72 miles was builb under bhe Charter of the Minnesota and Manitoba Ry. being
illy in the State of Minnesota.    The balance of the line to near Sprague 8.48
Les was in Manitoba, and was built under the Charter of the îfenitoba and South-
item Railway.1
From near Sprague to Marchand, distance 53 miles, built in 1899 under the
^rter of the Manitoba & South-Eastem Ry.
From Marchand to Paddington being the crossing of the C.P.R. near St.
iface a distance of 45 miles was built in 1898, under the Charter of the
litoba & South-Eastern Ry., which makes in all 106.48 miles built under the
titoba & South Eaotorn Ry»j which makoo in all 106.40 milca built undsg eho
litoba and South-Eastern Railway Charter, and a total distance by this line
>m Port Arthur to the crossing of the C.P.R. at St. Boniface 432.9 miles.
)    From the crossing of the C.P.R.  into Winnipeg 2.5 miles built in 1901, under
s charter of the Canadian Northern Ry.    To get into Winnipeg at the point de-
fed, however, a further distance of .51 miles of line built under the National
inscontinental Ry. was. required, said portion being joint trackage by what
then the Canadian Northern Ry. and the G.T.P. Ry.
.)   From Winnipeg to Portage la Prairie a distance of 55.37 miles was built in
S8-89, 1,29 miles of which was built under the Red River Valley Charter, the
ance 54.08 miles being built under the Charter of the Northern Pacific and
|dtoba Railway.    The portion built under the Red River Valley Ry. was acquired
the Northern Pacific and Manitoba Ry., in 1889, and in 1901 this portion was
Cap.  60.    52 Vic. Assented to May 2nd,
82.  [quired by the Canadian Northern Railway from the
22.
lorbhern Pacific and Maniboba
2)    From Portage la Prairie bo Beaver, a disbance of 19.67 miles was builb in
[99 under bhe Charter of the Pacific & North-Western Railway, and was acquired
1901 by the Canadian Northern Ry,
[3)    Beaver to Gladstone a distance of 8.32 miles was built in 1901 under the
brter of the Canadian Northern Ry,
k)    Gladstone to North Junction, a distance of 87,27 miles was built in I896
her the Charter of the Lake Manitoba Ry, and Canal Co,    The Charter to this
ine was acquired by MacKenzie and Mann and the line constructed by them.    It
rried,  it was thought, a very valuable land grant and this seems to be the
rst of the operations of MacKenzie and Mann, in building what is now the main
knscontinental line of the Canadian Northern system between Port Arthur and
jncouver.    For history of the Lake Manitoba Railway and Canal Co. see what
cited under that heading,
5)    From North Junction to Grandview (North Junction is 3 miles north of Dau-
in) a distance of 26,6 miles was built in 1900 under the Charter of the
padian Northern Railway.
Under this charter the road was constructed from North Junction to Edmonton
jnction, a distance of 648,02 miles,  as set forth in (16),  (17),  (18),
,6)    From Grandview to Ross Junction, a distance of 92,6 miles was built in
k)3 under the same charter as No. 15.
7)    Ross Junction to Ceepee a distance of 214.9 miles was built in 1904, under
e same charter as No. 15.
j.8)    From Ceepee to Edmonton Junction a distance of 313.92 miles was built in
'05.    Edmonton Junction is about a mile west of the C.N.R. Station in
.monton,  built under the same charter as No. 15.
.9)    Edmonton Junction to St. Albert a distance of 8.25 miles was built in
f06 under the Charter of the Edmonton and Slave Lake Ry., which was acquired
MacKenzie and Mann.
From St, Albert to Summit of the Rocky Mountains, a distance of 250.66
lies was built under the Charter of the Canadian Northern Alberta Ry., which was
[MacKenzie and Mam interest,
[0)    From St, Albert to Bilby, a distance of 21.53 miles was built in 1911.'
!1)    Bilby to Fullstone, a distance of 83.53 miles was built in 1912, under
U Charter of the Canadian Northern Alberta Railway.
Î2)    Fullstone to Lucerne,  a distance of 151.56 miles was built in 1913.    Lucerne
f 5 miles west of Summit and that 5 miles distance was built under the Charter
l the Canadian Northern Pacific Railway, the balance under the Charter of the
knadian Northern Alberta Railway.
b)    Lucerne to Pyramid, a distance of 93.6 miles was built in 1914 under the
barter of the Canadian Northern Pacific Ry., which Charter covers^Ehe line from
ie Summit of the Rocky Mountains to Port Kells.
m)    Pyramid to Birch Island, a distance of 78.6 miles was built in 1915 under
pe C.N.P, Ry, Charter.    This was the last link in the building of the line connectai Port Arthur and Vancouver.
83. 	  >5)   From Birch Island bo Copper Creek, a disbance of 97.28 miles was builb
ider bhe Charter of .bhe C.N.P. Ry., in 1914.
26)    Copper Creek bo Trafalgar, a disbance of 140.85 miles was consbrucbed in
B12 under bhe charter of bhe C.N.P. Ry.
E7)    From Trafalgar bo Sumas, a disbance of 45.60 miles was consbrucbed in
B12, under bhe charter of bhe C.N.P. Ry.
18)    Sumas bo Port Kells, a distance of 27.80 miles was constructed in 1911, under
he Charter of the C.N.P. Ry,
It might be interesting to recapitulate here in sequence in time, the
[fipruction of the various lines between Port Arthur and Port Kells.   From
pe latter point into Vancouver was acquired from Great Northern interest.
The oldest piece of construction is No. 1,  in '.
mileage 12.31 Mi.
,   The next in sequence of date is No. 11, constructed in 1888 and 1889, mileage
55.37 miles.
L The next is No. 14 constructed in I896, mileage 87,27 miles,
, No. 9 constructed in 1898, mileage 45 miles.
L In 1899, Nos. 8 and 12 were constructed, mileage 72.67 miles.
\ In 1900, Nos. 2, 3, 7 and 15 were constructed, mileage 207.75.
k In 1901, Nos. 4,  6, 10, and 13 were constructed, mileage 151.92 mi.
L In 1902 No, 5 was constructed, mileage 12,3 miles,
i In 1903, No, 16 was constructed, mileage 92,6 miles.
I In 1904, No. 17 was constructed mileage 214.9 miles.
. In 1905, number 18 was constructed, mileage 313.92 miles.
I In 1906, No. 19 was constructed, mileage 8.25 miles.
»   Between 1906 and 1911, there does not appear to have been any construction
and in the latter year Nos. 20 and 2B were constructed, mileage IQ .33
miles.
L In I912, Nos. 21 and 27 were constructed, mileage 129.30 miles.
» In 1913, Nos. 22 and 26 were constructed, mileage 292.41 miles.
I» In 1914, Nos. 23 and 25 were constructed, mileage 190.88 miles.
I In 1915, No. 24 was constructed, mileage 78.6 miles.
p)    Port Kells to Fraser River Junction, a distance of 9 miles was built under
pe Charter of the New Westminster and Southern Railway, and was completed in
^90.    This was a subsidiary company of the Great Northern and was-acquired
pom that road by the C.N.R.  in 1915, and through that it acquired running rights
ker the Fraser River bridge, which is owned by the B.C. Government.    From
1ère into Vancouver, a distance of 13.47 miles running rights were acquired
84.  24.
5m the Great Northern Railway, for 20 years from Feb. 6th, 1915, over a line
Lit under the Charter of the V.V. & E. By, which link was constructed in 1903-4.
From Fort Mann which is situated on the Fraser River about 7 miles west of
"t Kells, and on the line from Port Kells to Fraser River Junction, the
ladian Northern (now Canadian National) runs a ferry to Patricia Bay on Vancouver
Land, which is connected by rail with Victoria, about 18 miles distant.    So far
LS ferry has only been used for a freight line, but it is stated that a passenger
■vice will be put on it.    The railway line from Patricia Bay to Victoria is
irated by bhe Canadian Nabional,    Originally bhis was part of bhe MacKenzie
i Mann Canadian Northern interest, and was built by them.
On the main land of B.C. the Canadian Northern had a line partly builb down
Fraser River on bhe north bank from New Wesbminsber bo Sbevensbon.    Nobhing
been done on it since 1914.    Its location through the city of New Westminster
s not yet been approved.
Historical sketches of a few of the most interesting component parts of
Is great railway system will now be given.    These are in order;    The Hudson's
j Ry., Lake Manitoba Ry, and Canal Co., Red River Valley Ry., Northern Pacific
1 Maniboba Ry., Portage and North Western Ry,, Winnipeg Transfer Ry., Waskada
i North-Western Ry,
History of More Interesting Component Parts of
Canadian Northern Railway.
HUDSON'S BAY RAILWAY
Which afberwards became part of the Canadian Northern Railway»
Amongst the earliest railways urged in the West was a line from Winnipeg
Hudson's Bay,    In 1880,  incorporation was granted to the Winnipeg and
[ison' s Bay Railway and Steamship Company (2), and the Nelson Valley Railway
transportation Company.  (3)
Cap, 59, Vic. 43, Assented to May 7th,  1880.
Cap. 59, Vic. 43, Assented to May 7th, 1880.
85.  25.
The former company was authorized to build a railway from a point in or
I the City of Winnipeg to Port Nelson or some obher poinb on bhe shores of
ion Bay ab or near Nelson River.
The labber was given aubhoriby bo build a railway bebween a poinb on bhe
,h shore of Lake Winnipeg, and a poinb ab or near the Churchill River, at or
» the shores of Hudson's Bay§ also to build a branch railway from any point
Its main line to a point on bhe Canadian Pacific Ry., wesb of Lake Winnipegosis.
In 1883 bhe above menbioned railways were amalgamabed under bhe bitle of
"Winnipeg and Hudson's Bay Railway and Steamship Company,^ and in 1887 the
s of the Company was chaiged to "The Winnipeg and Hudson's Bay Railway Co."2
in in 1894 was changed to "The Winnipeg Great Northern Railway Company" and
time extended for completion of the railway to the Saskatchewan River to the
I December 18963,
In September 1886, a contract was let to Messrs, Mann and Holt, now Sir
ild Mann and Sir Herbert S. Holt, to build forty miles of line by bhe lsb of
smber of bhab year, and ib was complebed by that date.    The contractors
i to furnish the rails, do the grading, etc.    When one considered that at
letting of the contract the rails were in England, no ties or bridge timber
, surveys not made, this contract might probably be considered a record one
it was carried oub.    This ccnsbructed track lay for a number of years till
ties and culverts were all rotten.    Eventually it formed a part of whab may
■ermed bhe Gypsumville branch of bhe Canadian National Ry.    It commenced
diately north of the main line of the C. P. Ry., about four miles out of
lipeg.
On the 24th of January, 1887, the Government Chief Engineer reported that
track on the first forty miles from the junction with the Canadian Pacific Ry.
j miles from Winnipeg, was in fair condition for operating, but that the work
aot fully completed, and on the 28th of December, 1889, he again reported
; as the road had not been under traffic and therefore uncared for, damage may
i been done which would have to be made good, in addition to the work already
doned by him and it was not until the 30th of May, 1905, that an Order of
Board of Railway Commissioners was issued opening these forty mi. for traffic,
-hen becoming a portion of the Gypsumville branch of the then C.N. Ry,
In 1899, the Winnipeg Great Northern Ry, Co, was amalgamated with the .Lake
.toba Railway & Canal Co,, under the name of the "Canadian Northern Railway
any" and extending the time for completion of the Company's lines of railways
he south of the Saskatchewan River bo July 10th. 1904, and the lines to the
-h of the Saskatchewan River to July 10th, 1906.4
LAKE MANITOBA RAILWAY & CANAL COMPANY
Absorbed by the Canadian National Railway.
The history of the Lake Manitoba Railway and Canal Company is briefly as
Lows:
0,C, 4th June 1883,
1883.
Cap, 81, 50-51 Vic.
Cap. 94, 57-58 Vic.
Cap. 57, 62-63 Vic.
under authority of Cap.
Assented to June 23rd, 1887.
, Assented to July 23rd, 1894.
, Assented to July 10th, 1889.
46 Vic. Assented to May 25th
86.  26.
It was incorporated in 18891, and authorized to construct a railway
[om near Portage La Prairie, to Lake Manitoba with certain powers regarding the
'gation of Lakes Manitoba and Winnipëgosis.    This was amended in 1890,
Ithorizing the railway to be extended to Lake Winnipëgosis»2    In 1892, the
tapany was incorporated anew, and given power among other things to build from
adstone,  or some point on the Manitoba and North-Western Railway to Lake
nnipegosis, keeping west of Lake Dauphin.    Under this Act a new lot of men
[em to have been brought into the Company.3    Again in 1895, there was a renewal
j the last Act specifying authority to build 100 miles from Gladstone or Arden,*1,
In 1897, Parliament authorized very extended powers to the Lake Manitoba
ilway and Canal Company, among other things to confirm an agreement entered into
[th the Manitoba and North-Western Railway Company.    It empowered it to go to the
jrbh Saskatchewan between Cedar Lake and Cumberland House, and build a branch line
om a point at or near the town of Dauphin, through the Gilbert Plains to Shell
[ver, and to enter into further agreement with bhe Maniboba and North-Wesbern
lilway Co., C.P.R. and obher lines.5
Again in 1898, bhis railway company was aubhorized bo enber inbo an agréent for amalgamation with the Manitoba and North-Western Railway Company, the
pnipeg and Great Northern Ry, or the Manitoba and South-Eastern Ry. Co.° The
nnipeg and Great Northern Railway Company afterwards changed to the title of the
padian Northern Ry. Company, the Manitoba and S.E. Ry. Co. was also absorbed
the Canadian Northern, and both are portions of railway built and controlled
the Canadian National, formerly controlled by the Canadian Northern between
trt Arthur and Vancouver.
Mackenzie and Mann appear first on the scene in bhe building of bhe line
pm Gladsbone north-west for 87.27 miles, in 1896, under the Charter of the
ke Manitoba Railway and Canal Co.    This charter had been in existence for
!ny years, and carried what was thought to be a valuable land grant.
1. Cap.  57,  52 Vic, Assented to 16th April, 1889.
2. Cap. 79, 53 Vic., Assented to 26th March, 1890.
3. Cap. 41, 55 Vic. Assented to 10th May,  1892.
I   4. Cap. 52,  58 Vic. Assented to 22nd July, 1895.
5. Cap. 49, 60-61 Vic. Assented to 29th June 1897.
6. Cap. 70, 61 Vic. Assented to 13th June, 1898.
RED RIVER VALLEY RAILWAY, NORTHERN PACIFIC &
MANITOBA RY», AND PORTAGE & NORTH-WESTERN RY.
Absorbed,by the_C_.N.Ry. -
Clause 15 of the Charter of the C.P.R. reads as follows:
"For twenty years from the date hereof, no line of railway shall be
[thorized by bhe Dominion Parliament to be constructed south of the Canadian
leific Ry., from any point at or near the Canadian Pacific Ry., except such
pe as shall run south-west, or to the westward of south-west; nor within fifteen
les of Latitude 49, and in the establishment of any new Province in the Nôrth-
st Territories provision shall be made for continuing such prohibition after
[ch establishment until the expiration of the said period."
The Legislature of the Province of Manitoba passed several railway charters
fich the Dominion Government contended were in contravention of this agreement.
•nitoba insisted that it had a perfect right to charter railway where it desired
-thin the limited of the Province of Manitoba, as it existed at the date of the
P.R. Charter 1881.    At that time the eastern limit of Range 10, east of the
'incipal meridian was the easterly boundary of the Province, and the westerly  27.
mited of Range 12, west of the Principal Meridian was the Western boundary of
[e Province.    The northern limit of Tp. 1? being the northern one.    That contention
the part of Manitoba was denied by the Dominion Government.    The first charter
[at appears to have been disallowed by the Dominion Government was that to incor-
[rate the Rock Lake, Souris Valley and Brandon Railway Company, which was passed
the Legislature of Manitoba on the 29th of May, 1885, and disallowed by Order-
k-Council of the Federal Government on the 22nd of March, 1887.    It might be
[ticed that this line lies largely to the West of the old Province of Manitoba.
the 1st of June 1887, the Legislature authorized the construction of the Red
hrer Valley Railway which was by order-in-council disallowed on the 6th of July
that year and on the 9th of August 1887, the Dominion Government by Order-in-
uncil disallowed acts, incorporating the Manitoba Central Railway Co.    The
pnipeg and Southern Ry. Co. and Emerson and North-Western Ry. Co. passed earlier
the year.
The Manitoba Government, however, in 1887, went on actively with the con-
[ruction of the Red River Valley line, but were met by injunctions, the first being
om a private individual whose land was crossed.    It was felt that this party was
[ting wholly in the interest of the C.P.R. as he was an official of that company.
only acquired those lands shortly before he applied for an injunction, and under
[amination he admitted that he had purchased them so as to obtain an injunction
jainst the railway.    When the matter of this injunction was brought to the attention
the Manitoba Courts,  it was refused.    The Dominion Government whose lands were
tossed by this railway brought an injunction, and this latter the Courts sustained.
tat brought the building of the roads to a standstill.    A great deal of excitement
s created however.
In 1888, an agreement was confirmed between the Government of Canada and the
JP.R. under which the latter waived its right granted by said Clause 15, the Govern-
nt guaranteeing for 20 years at three and a half (3 1/2) per cent interest, a loan
fifteen million dollars to the C.P.R.l    These monies were to be expended in better-
|nb of its main line.    It is probably needless bo say that the said guarantee did
t cost Canada one cent.    One would assume that on the passing of the Act .all the
cket and ill-feeling because of disallowance would have at once ceased, but such was
p bhe case as the row over the crossing of the C.P.R.  line at Fort Whybe by bhe
rbhern Pacific and Manitoba Railway took place late in bhe aubumn of 1888.    Ib is
pbable bhat bhis row was bo some extent caused by the feeling and excitemenb which
d been worked up by bhe previous disallowance of Charters, or it may have been
ab certain legal sbeps iii connecbion with the construction of that line had not
en complied with, and that the C.P.R. felt that it was in its interests to
event bhe crossing until all legal obligations were fulfilled.
Cap. 32,  51 Vie. Assented to May 22nd,   1888.  Ib might be added as an illustration of the feeling that can be worked
over very simple matters to recite that the provincial Government, on account
the obstructions ab bhe crossing ab Fort Whyte swore in a large number of
becial constables and provided each of bhem wibh a bin badge, certifying bhey
^re such.    Many of bhe leading citizens and merchants of Winnipeg were so sworn
i, accompanied by a lot who were probably more interested in the excitement
iused by the dispute than they were in the merit of it»    The result was, a very
Lrge crowd gathered to enforce the crossing of the Canadian Pacific Ry.  track
\ the Northern Pacific and Maniboba Road.    The official in charge on behalf
1 the C.P.R. adopted a very efficient manner of preventing them carrying out their
îrpose, namely, playing on them with a hose from the C.P.R. locomotive, which
is stationed at the crossing.    It is said the idea arose in the crowd that
robably hot water would be turned on them.    That cured their enthusiasm, and
pis body of special constables trudged to their homes in Winnipeg, very much down
(1 the mouth.    In a very short time, the whole event ceased to be other than a
bke.
The following is a statement made by probably the very best authority that
in now be obtained regarding this matter.
"The row over the railway crossing at Fort Whyte must have taken place in
ovember or December, 1888.    Mr. Whyte (afterwards "Sir William") successfully
Locked the crossing.    The N.P. & M. Company, backed by the Government applied to the
kilway Committee ab Ottawa for permission to effect the crossing.   The Committee
sferred the matter to the Supreme Court asking for an answer to question as to
he capacity and power".    The Court without giving any reason simply answered the
lestions in favour of the right to cross the C.P.R. track.    This decision must
kve been rendered early in 1889.  29.
In 1888, the Legislature of Manitoba incorporated what is known as the
them Pacific and Manitoba Ry.l, and under that Charter the Red River Valley
e was transferred to it, and it among other things provided for the construction
a line from Morris to Brandon and also from the Northern Pacific Junction in Fort
ge,  (now part of Winnipeg) to Portage la Prairie.    It was on this latter
tion where it crossed the C.P.R. line, Winnipeg to Gretna, that Fort White was
ated.   The line from Northern Pacific Junction to Portage La Prairie, was
It in 1888-89;    the line from Morris to Brandon was completed in 1889 or early
1890.    In 1889, the Northern Pacific and Manitoba Railway interests acquired
harter known as the Portage & North Western Ry., authorizing the construction
a line from Portage la Prairie to the western boundary of the Province via
iota and Birtle with several branch lines, among other one to Gladstone.    From
iormation furnished however by the Canadian National interests, it is stated that   .
s Charter was utilized only to build as far as Beaver, some 19.67 miles west of
tage la Prairie which was done in 1899.    From Beaver into Gladstone, 18.32
es was built in 1901, under the Canadian Northern Ry. Charter.    As, however,
Canadian Northern had at that date,  1901, acquired all the ri^its of the
thern Pacific and Manitoba and its allied interests in Manitoba it is now
sible that the line may have been built under the Charter of the Portage and
th-Western Ry.
WINNIPEG TRANSFER RAILWAY
It
In 1890, what is known as the Winnipeg Transfer Ry. was constructed.
a line connecting the Northern Pacific and Manitoba Ry. near the foot of
br Street on Red River in Winnipeg, then down along the river bank far some
tance, and swinging to the north west and joining the main line of the C.P.R.
jut a quarter of a mile east of main street in Winnipeg.    This was constructed
operated for some little time by Winnipeg interests, wholesalers and others.
By Chap. 36, 1st. Ed. VII, Manitoba Statutes, assented to on the 20th of
ch, 1901, the Province of Manitoba purchased the Northern Pacific and Manitoba
fLway interests so far as they were located in the Province of Manitoba, and then
them bo bhe C.N.R. for a long term of 999 years.    The railways which came
0 that agreement were the Canadian Northern; Northern Pacific and Maniboba;
Winnipeg Transfer; Portage and North-Western Ry. and the Waskada and North-
tern Ry.   What this latter railway charter was brought in for is at present
very apparent, as Canadian Northern interests have never yet reached a point
rer than 20 miles of waskada.
pm 32, formerly 30 )
SOUTH SASKATCHEWAN VALLEY RAILWAY
Incorporated in 1880, by an amending Act, 1882^, the South Saskatchewan
ley Railway was to start about Qu'Appelle Station on the Canadian Pacific Ry.,
th-westerly of Humboldt, and on the same course to the Birch Hills, thence to
South branch of the Saskatchewan, thence at or near a point at Prince Albert
(the north Branch.    The interest behind this and those of the Qu'Appelle, Long
p and Saskatchewan, incorporated in 18833 already were amalgamated in due
frse.   O.C. of 20th of June 1887, already recited^ and from out of that amalga-
b-on there was constructed the line between Regina and Prince Albert via Saskatoon
m as the Regina, Long Lake and Saskatchewan Ry, now a portion of the C.N.Ry
tern.
Cap. 2, 52 Vic. Assented to Sept. 4th, 1888
Cap. 56, 43 Vic. Can. Assented to 7th May 1880 & Cap.82,45 Vic. Can. Assented to
Cap. 72, 46 Vic. Can. Assented to May 25th, 1883. (17th May 1882.
See Page 15 par. 4.
90.  30.
VANCOUVER ISLAND LINES
The lines on Vancouver Island were built by MacKenzie and Mann under an
'eement with the B.C. government, ratified March 10th, 1910 . Under said
•eement a line from Victoria to a point on or near Barkley Sound (Alberni Canal
1 finally decided on) was to be constructed, an estimated distance of 100 miles
,  it has proved considerably more. It has been located and graded for 100
.es and the track laid on 74.4 miles of the grade. Over a portion of this
.eage a limited train service is being given. It is expected that before long
1 track will be laid over the total 100 miles and this length of line operated,
is alleged that the delay in track laying was in the construction of bridges.
The line from Patricia Bay to Victoria already recited was also originally
jied by MacKenzie and Mann and now forms a part of the Canadian National System.
GRAND TRUNK PACIFIC RAILWAY
i    The Grand Trunk Pacific Ry. was brought into being in 1903 , being a link
the road from the Atlantic to the Pacific The Grand Trunk Pacific became
kntually bwo section, the Eastern Section consisting of the branch from Thunder
to the Main line at Superior Junction, and the line from Winnipeg west to the
t, the Western section of the National Transcontinental Railway.
The following are the data furnished by J. A. Heaman, Esq., Assistant
[.ef Engineer, Grand Trunk Pacific By., Winnipeg, dated 18th of May 1920.
"First sod turned in construction of Lake Superior Branch or line between
ke Superior Junction and Fort William by Sir Wilfrid Laurier, Monday, September
h, 1905, at West Fort. Track complete to Superior Junction, December 18th,
D8. Construction sufficient to allow freight traffic between Lake Superior
action and Winnipeg October, 1910.
Construction proceeded west as follows:
First sod, Prairie division, turned October 29th, 1905.    Track was laid
^t and west from Portage la Prairie crossing the Assiniboine River near Portage
Prairie on
Cap. 3,  Ed. VTI, 1910,  B.C. assented to March 10th,  1910.
Schedule,  Sec. 4,  Sub Sec.   (b).    See also Cap. 4,  Sec. 3, Sub. sec.  (b)
Cap. 122, 3 Ed. VII, assented to Oct. 24th,  1903 and also Cap. 71.
91.  31.
?il 18th, 1908.    Reaching Winnipeg,  July 1908,    Track laying towards the
rt crossed the South Saskatchewan River March 31st, 1908; the Battle River
bember 16th, 1908; and the Clover Bar Bridge was completed December 26th, 1908.
pel was laid east from Edmonton and a connection was made east of Clover Bar
idge on July 26th, 1909, the first train reaching Edmonton the same date.
3t of Edmonton progress was as follows:
Track laid over Pembina River Bridge, Entwistle, December 15th
W} Macleod River, July 16th, 1910, Bear Creek, March 7th, 1911.    Steel
kched the Yellowhead Summit November 20th, 1911.    The summit Lucerne is
Leage 1057.
On the 31st of December, 1912, the end of track was at mile
|)6 near Tête Jaune, and on December 31st, 1913, at mile 1266, 13 miles east
Prince George.
The Grand Trunk Pacific Railway crossed the Fraser River four
es;    the first crossing of the Fraser is at Mile 1073.6 and the track was
td there on June 4th, 1912, the second crossing at Mile 1190, track laid
ky 31st,  1913; and the third crossing at Mile 1232.9 track was laid November
bh, 1913} and the fourth crossing at Prince George, Mile 1279.6; track laid
ie 22nd,  1914.
As will be noticed below, the last spike was driven near Fort
iser, at a point 93.8 miles west of Fort George on the 7th of April, 1914»
is difficult to reconcile that with having crossed the Fraser River at
Jnce George on the date given.    Both statements are made by the same  official
the Grand Trunk Pacific Ry», Mr. Heaman.    Possibly he alludes to the crossing
Fort George on the last date mentioned on the permanent bridge.    There may
ire been a temporary crossing a sufficient length of bime prior bo bhe driving
bhe last spike to enable the track-laying outfit to cross the Fraser River.
Constructing from Prince Rupert Easterly.    Work was begun in
p, 1908, Zanardi River Bridge crossed July 31et, 1910, track being laid to
Le I646.4 near Usk, December 31st, 1910.    Mile 1644.5 December 31st 19H; Mile
56 Seaton, December, 31st,  1912; Mile 1425.$ Sheraton December 31st,  1913; and
line connected and the last spike driven at Mile 1373.4 west of Winnipeg,
ailes west of Fort Fraser on April 7th 1914.
First scheduled passenger train service between Winnipeg and
Ince Rupert left each terminal on September 6th, 1914.    Passenger service
Lween Winnipeg and Edmonton was inaugurated July 3rd, 1910.
BRANCH LINES BUILT IN CANADA WEST OF RED RIVER BY GREAT
NORTHERN RAILWAY INTEREST - COMMENCING AT THE FURTHEST EAST
AND EXTENDING WESTWARD
The line from Gretna to Portage la Prairie was authorized
1er Charter to the Manitoba Midland & Western Ryl, and was opened for traffic
•ch 11th, 1907.
The line from Grafton, N,Dak. about 16 miles west of it which termin-
id at Morden, was authorized as the Morden and North-Western Railway, in 1901 .
Cap. 47,  62-63 Vic, Man., Assented to 13th of April,  1899.
Cap. 61, 1 Ed. VII       " un 29th March, 1901.
92.  I was opened for traffic on the 16th of December,  1907.
vain bo Brandon was chartered as bhe Brandon,
and was opened for braffic on bhe 4bh of April
The line bhrough Boiss
kkatchewan and Hudson Bay Ry.
r7e
The remainder of bhis article has been furnished by B.C.Ry.
Departmenb and A.H. MacNeil, K.C. of Vancouver.    The bwo
aubhoribies do nob agree in some particulars and therefore I
have used my own knowledge or judgment as far as it was available in selecting which to adopt.
Port Hill to Kuskanook,  constructed under the Charter of the Bedlington
i Nelson Ry. Co.2 a Dominion Government Charter, which authorized the construc-
bn of a road from Bedlington to Nelson and branch lines in connection therewith3,
would seem bo be diffieulb bo define bhis line as a branch road from Bedlingbon
Nelson.    This line was consbrucbed in 1904, but it is stated in the Government
port as never having been operated.    While it is true that probably very little
bration has been carried on there has been some.    The idea was to take the ore
aed along the Kaslo and Slocan Ry., transported in cars by barges from Kaslo to
pkanook, and then convey it by this line bo any point in bhe U.S. ib mighb be
pired.    The scheme however never worked oub bo any considerable exbenb.
Kaslo and Slocan Ry. aubhorized by B. C. Sbabubes in 1893   bhe land granb
p aubhorized bhe same year Cap.37.    It was constructed during 1894 and 1895,
1 was operated for some years when it was abandoned, and by Cap.37, of 1912, the
C. Government leased the line to the C.P.Ry. which now operates ib.    The labber
peived a subsidy of $100,000 for reconsbructing ib, and operabing ib for a berm of
krs.
Waneba bo Nelson, Chartered as bhe Nelson and Fort Shepperd Ry Co.5    This
ie was consbrucbed in 1893 and 1895, still operabed by the G.N.R.
The Red Mountain Ry. .Co., had charters for the Canadian Portion from the
3. and Dominion Governments® on the line built from Northport to Rossland.    One
Lhority says ib was built in 1894, and another states that it was built in I896.
j is possible that it was at least commenced in 1894.    So far as this line lies
Canada the rails have been removed and the line abandoned.
The Vancouver Victoria Eastern Railway and Navigation Co. was also authored by Provincial and Dominion Charters.'    This line starts at Marcus in Washington
Lch is the point where the Kettle Valley River empties into the Columbia, then
M-Ows up the Kettle Valley River crossing the International Boundary a short
stance south of Cascade;    still following the said river Valley and coming back
po the state of Washington a short distance to the south-west of Grand Forks,
ill continuing along the Kettle Valley and re-entering B.C. at Ferry,  just south
Midway, which it reached in the season of 1905, then following westerly at no
Bat distance northr of the International boundary, and crossing back into Washing-
» a short distance south of Bridesville, it shortly afberwards re-crossed bhe
fcernabional Boundary into B.C. and in a few miles leaves
Cap.
3 Ed.VII, Can. Assented to 13th of August 1903.
47, 60-61 Vic.
53, 62-63 " "
52, 56 Vic. B.C.
58, 54 Vic. B.C.
57, 56 Vic. Can
61, 56 Vic B.C.
60, 58-59 Vic. Can.
75, 60 Vic. B.C.
89, 61 Vic. Can.
8th   May 1897
10th July 1899
12th April 1893
1891
1st   " 1893
12th   " 1893
28th June 1895
8th May 1897
13th June 1898  33.
ab Molson then keeping westerly and to the south of Osoyoos Lake, then
llowing up the Similkameen River and crossing back into B.C. at Chopaka it
llows up that river to Princeton.    It was afterwards built from Princeton up the
psmeen River and its branches to Brookmere,  in 1914.    From Brookmere to Hope,  it
s an arrangement with the Kettle River Valley Railway giving it running rights,
torn Hope to Kilgard on the Sumas Lake there is a gap not yet built, but the line
bm Abbottsford to Kilgard was extended north along the west side of Sumas Lake
connect with the Canadian National Railways,    This portion is now reported to
ive been abandoned, but the portion from Abbottsford to Kilgard, about 5 miles
length is still controlled and being operated if necessary through judging from
3 appearance there is very little operation on ib.    The line from Marcus bo
had Forks and on bo Midway was builb in 1904,    In bhe same year and under bhe
arter V.V. & E. branch line Grand Forks bo Smelber, 4.74 miles, and also a
pe from Grand Forks to Phoenix was built at the same time but it is now abandoned
d the rails removed.
The line from New Westminster to Blaine via Cloverdale was authorized by
re Charter of the New Westminster Southern Railway Company of 1887^ and was built
prtly afterwards,  completed in 1890.    The portion of it from Cloverdale to Port
pis has been abandoned, the portion from Kells to New Westminster Bridge 8.55
Lies was acquired by the Canadian Northern in November 1915.
The line from New Westminster to Blaine via Colebrook was built under the
arter granted to the New Westminster Southern Railway Co., of 1883 and 1887.
per the bridge across the Fraser River was built this charter was purchased by
e Great Northern and the line built into Vancouver in 1903-4»
. The line from Cloverdale to Sumas on the International boundary and the
anch line from Abbottsford to Kilgard was built under the Charter of the V.V. &
j Railway and Navigation Co. in 1902.
The line from Cloverdale westerly to Guichon was built in 1902 under the
arter granted to the Victoria Terminal Railway and Ferry Co.3., Cap. 85,  of 190.,
pchased by the Great Northern Railway, and operated as bhe wesberly secbion of
[Line running from Guichon bo Sumas in Washingbon via Abbobbsford.
I The line on Vancouver Island from Sydney bo Victoria was incorporated in
(92.^   It was constructed in 1893-4 and was operated under lease by the Great
rthern Railway interest until 20th April 1919.    Failing to produce revenue to
y the interest on the bonds and operating expenses the Great Northern abandoned'
I and went into the hands of the Receiver and has not been operated since.    The
pis and anything else of value on the line have been sold.
Cap.
36,50 Vic, B.C. Assented to 7th April 1887.
«
27,46  ""        it    tr          1083
Cap.
36 as above.
Cap.
85, 1 Ed. VII, B.C.   "   " 11th May 1901
I
66, 55, Vic B.C.    "   " 23rd April, 1892
THE PACIFIC GREAT EASTERN RAILWAY
This line was promoted by parties interested in the Grand Trunk Pacific,
esumably having in view two Pacific Ports available by the G.T.P. viz., Prince
pert and also North Vancouver on Burrard Inlet.    A very large subsidy or
nus was given by the Provincial Government of B.C. but in spite ...  34.
that the Company did not carry out its contract and it discontinued work in
m
The following is the history of the road as furnished me by the Department
Railway of B.C. under dabe of the 8bh of June 1921.
"Incorporabed under Charter, 36, 1912
Surveys commenced May lsb, 1912
Consbruction commenced Ocbober 27bh, 1912.H
This railway was originally planned bo commence ab North Vancouver
plowing bhe shoreline of Burrard Inlet and English Bay wesb of Port Atkinson
pytecliff) thence turning north along Howe Sound to Squamish and continuing
rtherly bo Fort George via Lilloet, Williams Lake and Quesnel.    The above
heme was subsequently modified however, by making Squamish the main line terminus
ph car barge and passenger boat connection to Vancouver or North Vancouver, or
r point to which it might be possible or profitable to ferry cars.    The section
track between North Vancouver and Whybecliff, a distance of 12.6 miles, is opera-
ji locally by gasoline-electric car-service.
The North Shore Line between North Vancouver and Whytecliff was constructed
ring I9I3-I914 and opened for traffic in the latter year.
Main line completed and operated as follows:
Squamish to Pemberton, 58 miles, 1914
Squamish to Lilooet, 120 miles 1915
Squamish to Clinton, 167 miles, 1916.
feel laid for a further distance of 15 miles north from Clinton (Mile 182)
'ing 1916, when the P.G.E. Ry. Co. entirely abandoned construction work.    In
L8 the whole system was taken over by the Provincial Government of British
Lumbia and construction work started again in September cf the same year, track
ing laid to Lone Butte, mile 211,    During September, 1918, track reached Williams
œ an important divisional point at Mile 278, and was extended to Mile 286,
pre work ceased for the year.    During 1920, brack laying was extended north
Australian Creek, Mile 329, and brack-laying is now proceeding bowards Fort
He, 428 miles from Squamish, wibh bhe object of reaching that place during
11.    NOTE.    This has been accomplished.  35.
APPENDIX TO RAILWAYS
LINES CHARTERED ON WHICH NO CONSTRUCTION WAS DONE
SASKATCHEWAN AND PEACE RIVER RAILWAY CO.
By an Act of 1882   the Dominion Government authorized the construction
of a railway from some point on the North Saskatchewan river near Prince Albert
north-westerly on the best engineering line to Peace River.   Nothing ever came
of this.
LAKE ATHABASCA & HUDSON BAY RAILWAY
By authority of the Dominion Government in 1882    a railway was chartered
from the east end of Lake Athabasca to some point on the Hudson's Bay at or
near Churchill.    Nothing came of this.
SASKATCHEWAN AND NORTH WESTERN RAILWAY
The Dominion Government authorized in 1883    the construction
of a line from some point on the Canadian Pacific Railway between Swift Current
and Medicine Hat Northwesterly,  crossing the North Saskatchewan River at
Edmonton or at some point to the east thereof and continuing to Peace River
at or near the mouth of the Smoky, or at some point farther down that stream.
Nothing ever came of this.
95-A.  CHAPTER III
POSTAL        COMMUNICATION
IN THE
THREE PRAIRIE PROVINCES  CHAPTER      III
POSTAL      COMMUNICATION
THREE PRAIRIE PROVINCES
CONTENTS
Packets of Hudson's Bay Company - twice a year prior to 1853
in 1853 service once a month, and later weekly, begun through U.S.
Early postmasters.•	
After Province Manitoba established, 1870, regular service between
Windsor, Ont. and Fort Garry, by closed mail bags through U.S.
Mail by train from Pembina, November, 1878.	
MAIL ROUTES out of Fort Garry
Fort Garry to Portage la Prairie.........	
Portage la Prairie to Gladstone	
Fort Garry to Edmonton, 1876, 900 miles...,.	
Carlton to Prince Albert,...	
Portage la Prairie (end of ry.) to Edmonton, 1880.................
Brandon (end of ry.) to Edmonton, 1881.....	
Oak Lake (end of ry.) to Edmonton,  1882	
Qu'Appelle (end of ry.) to Edmonton,  Sept. 1st,  1882.	
Calgary (end of ry) via Edmonton, to Fort Saskatchewan, Sept.15th
1884, weekly,  continued to 1891 when C. & E. Ry. built......
Swift Current to Battleford,  July 1885, weekly	
Fort Benton to Fort MacLeod,  1874	
Medicine Hat to, Fort Macleod 30th June,  1884.................	
Calgary to Macleod,  Jan.  1st, 1884.....................*	
Emerson west0.« ••
Winnipeg east...........	
Edmonbon to St. Albert,« *	
Winnipeg north	
Edmonton to Athabasca Landing .« ...»
Athabasca Landing to Peace River....	
Athabasca to points on Athabasca, Slave and Mackenzie rivers......
Peace River Crossing to Fort Vermilion.........	
Mail service through N.W.M.P. posts	
Lists of Mounted Police posts in Western Canada.	
Mail service in the far North,....................................
98
98
99
99
99
100
100
100,102
100
101
101
101
101
102
102
103
102
102
104
104
106
105
106
106
106
106
106,107
109
107
109  RE POSTAL COMMUNICATION
IN
THE THREE PRAIRIE FROVINCES
Mr. Hargrave in his "Red River" pages 99 - 101 written in 1869 stat
follows regarding postal communications:-
"Before the year 1853, the postal facilities of the
colony consisted only of the packets of the Hudson's Bay
Company; these were despatched twice a year. One went to
York Factory in summer, and at that place, connected with
the ship which came annually from London bringing the goods
to be used during the ensuing season for barter with the
Indians, and taking back, on her home voyage, the returns
of the previous year's trade. The only other opportunity
which the Red River people possessed of communicating with
the outside world took place during the winter when the
Company's packet went overland to Canada. The return of
the labber from Montreal occurred at open water in spring
when canoes manned by Iroquois tripman came from Lachine,
a municipal village, nine miles from Montreal, by way of the
River Otbawa and Lake Superior."
"In 1853 a public mail service was firsb organized by
some of bhe sebblers, in prosecubion of which posbal
communicabion took place once a month between Fort Garry
and Fort Ripley in Minnesota, then the most advanced of
United States post offices. In 1857, the American Government established an office at Pembina, on the United States
frontier, at the point where it is inbersecbed by bhe Red
River, and carried a mail bo bhab place once a monbh,
and more recently once a fortnight. It was met by a
courier from the settlement, and brought by him over the
seventy miles which intervene between Fort Garry and Pembina,
In 1862 the American government having organized a bi-weekly
mail system to Pembina, the authorities in the settlement
increased their periods of communication to once a week.
The expense of the local Red River mail service are defrayed
by a charge of one penny on each letter weighing less than
half an ounce, one halfpenny on each newspaper and twopence
on each magazine passing through its office. No local postage
stamps existed, and so far as the outside world is concerned,
American stamps are used for outgoing letters which, as the
United States authorities do not recognize the official  1-A
capaciby of our posbmasber, are supposed to be posted at Pembina.
There is, however, a postmaster in the colony who receives an
annual salary of § 20.00. Each trip between the settlement and
Pembina both ways occupied between three and four days, and costs twenty-
five shillings in wages paid the runner, who travels on horse-back
in summer and uses a dog-sledge during the winter months."
"Letters arriving for different individuals employed in the
Northern Department are received by the Company's Agent at
Fort Garry where a regular private post office exists, in which
accounts are kept open with the officers and servants resident inland."
The first postmaster appointed was William Ross who held office from 27th
February 1855 until his death in I856. His salary was six pounds per annum.
His successor was William Drever, appointed at the same salary in May, I856.
Mail into the country via Hudson's Bay practically ceased when the Province
of Manitoba was established. As soon as the Canadian authority was established
at Fort Garry in 1870, arrangements were made, with the assent of the United
States Post Office Department for the Transmission through the American mails
of closed mail bags between Windsor, Ontario and Fort Garry, by way of Chicago,
St. Paul and Pembina, A transit rabe was paid for bhe conveyance of bhese bags
to the United States Post Office Department, The U.S. mail bags did not pass
Fort Pembina. Between it and Fort Garry the mail was transmitted as occasion
offered.
On the 1st July, 1871, a contract to carry the mail twice per week from
Winnipeg to Pembina was given to Roger Goulet. This expired on the 13th September
1871, and on the 14th of that month a contract for a tri-weekly service was
given bo Blakely and Carpenter, which firm continued the service until the mail
was brought to Winnipeg by a railway train in April 1879. Ib was really broughb
in on the railway by Blakely and Carpenter from the date of railway communication,
November 1878.
The mail service between Pembina and Fort Garry was increased to six times
per week between the 1st July 1874 and the 1st July 1875, the exact date of
commencement has not been obtained. These six mails per week were continued
until the mail was brought in by railway train. From Pembina to Canadian
points in Ontario, chiefly if not altogether at Windsor, the mail was carried by
the United States Postal service.
The stage started in 1872, from Moorhead on the Red River in Minnesota,
passed Grand Forks and Pembina and on to Winnipeg.
1. The Canadian North West; its early development and legislative records.
Professor C.H. Oliver, Canadian Archives No. 9, Ottawa, 1914. pp.415 and
420.  From Winnipeg, or Fort Garry as ib was bhen bermed, bhe following mail
roubes were established, and afterwards became a part of bhe mail roube from
Winnipeg to Edmontons
July 1st 1872, Winnipeg to Portage la Prairie,  contractor G. Tait, length
of contract three months, weekly service the duration of the contract.    It
would appear in this and many other mail contracts, that no matter what might
be the specified duration of mail contracts, it was permitted or often forced
to be continued until a new contract was entered into.
On 1st October 1874, this contract was extended to Palestine, now Gladstone
for four months, weekly.    Afterwards extended for eight months twice each week,
same contractor.    The following year it was extended another 12 months to the
same contracter, service twice a week.    The next year it was extended another
12 months to the same contractor same service:    and the following year 1877 it
was continued - same contractor for another 12 months.    In 1878, this roube
was granbed bo J. MacKay who had bhe contract from Winnipeg to Edmonton which
was over the same route.    The service from Winnipeg to Palestine was twice a
week, and the length of this contract was eight months.    It was continued bo
McKay for anobher bwelve monbhs, and prior to the 30th June 1880, MacKay had a
contract three times a week to Portage la Prairie and twice a week to Palestine,
and at the same time a contract was let three times a week from Palestine to
Rapid City, to one C. Cannon, weekly service.
On August 1st 1881, a contract from Portage la Prairie to Gladstone, two
trips a week, was granted to J. W. McLean.
The next longest mail route, and probably the most important was that
from Winnipeg to Edmonton, an estimated distance of nine hundred miles.    This
was first established in bhe aubumn of 1876, and bhe conbracb was given bo
James McKay for eighb monbhs,  one brip every bhree weeks.    The next conbracb,
year ending 30bh June 1878, was for bwelve monbhs.
Aboub a year afberwards MacKay was given a contract to carry the mail from
Carlton to Prince Albert.    That conbracb however was for four monbhs.
In 1878 MacKay's contract from Winnipeg to Edmonton was extended for one
year, trip every three weeks.    The MacKay alluded to is the Hon. James McKay
who resided near Winnipeg, at that time very prominent in provincial affairs,
a half-breed, and when a young man, was prominent as guide for Hudson's Bay
officials, particularly the late Sir George Simpson.
Prior to the 1st July 1880, he carried mail between Prince Albert and
Carlton, contract for twelve months, once eaeh three weeks.
On the 1st of May 1880, a contract for the mail from Carlton to Prince
Albert was granted to one S, Blanchard:    one mail in three weeks, continued for
six months, and on the 1st of October 1880 a contract was let from Stobart to
Prince Albert to E, MacKay; once every three weeks.    The route Stobart (afterwards Duck Lake) to Prince Albert was substituted for the one Carlton to  ince Albert as ib was shorter.
On bhe firsb of October 1880, a contract from Winnipeg to Edmonton was leb,
jid on bhe lsb December of bhab year ib sbarted at Portage la Prairie, a trip each
hree weeks, ccntracb J.W. McLean.    McLean was commonly known as  'Flabboab
tLean', an old-timer of Winnipeg and a Canadian who had been a miner in the
kriboo District in Bribish Columbia.
During bhe aubumn of 1880,
Portage la Prairie.
bhe railway was opened for braffic as far wesb
MacKay's contract, Winnipeg to Edmonton was by Red River cart in summer,
pd dog train in winter.   When MacLean took the contract it stipulated a convey-
bce to carry passengers.    As a matter of fact very few passengers presented
pemselves owing to the length of time between stages, and in any event passenger
pnveyance was not provided further than Stobart or Carlton.    Leeson and Scott's
bntract required a conveyance bo be provided for all the routes.    In fact by
pat time there was very much more profit to the contractor in carrying passengers
lid express than there was in the mail.
On October 6th,  1881 (at that date the C.P.R. was operated as far as
'andon) a contract was let from Brandon to Edmonton to J.W. McLean, one trip
kich three weeks, and for the six and a half months preceding,  it appears the
bntract was from Portage la Prairie to Edmonton.    At the same time, October 16th,
b81, a contract was entered into with McLean to carry the mail between Fort
(Llice and Minnedosa, and Fort Ellice and Rapid City, two trips in three weeks.
On the 1st April 1881, a contract was given to G.McKay, a trip every three
: from Stobart to Prince Albert and good for three months, and on the 30th June
hat year the same contract was given to J.W.McLean for nine months, a trip every
.iree weeks and about the same time a contract was let from Touchwood Hills to
L'Appelle to C.Saffery, a trip every three weeks,    Qu'Appelle mentioned is no
pibt Fort Qu'Appelle and was served from Touchwood Hills which was en route from
pandon to Edmonton,    On 1st April 1882, a contract was let to McLean for three
pnths, one trip each three weeks from Brandon to Edmonton,
On the 1st July of that year this contract was changed to run from Oak Lake
b Edmonton for two months» The railway at that time was operating as far as Oak
lake.
On 17th of September 1882, this contract was again changed and McLean
as given a contract for six months, one trip in three weeks from Troy, now
n'Appelle Railway Station, to Edmonton.    This route joined the original route
few miles east of Touchwood Hills.
On September 19th 1882, McLean was given a contract for six months from
trey to Fort Qu'Appelle, trip every two weeks, and about the same tine  he was
aven a contract for 12 months, a trip every three weeks from Stobart to Prince
lbert.
On the 31st May I883 he was given a contract from Troy to Edmonton, good
[or five months,  trip once in three weeks.    Prior to that he had been given a
ontract up to the 31st of May for two months from Troy to Edmonton, and on the
1st of March 1883, he was given a contract for two months to Prince Albert
rem Stobart, trip every three weeksÔ  4.
October 31st 1883, a contract was given from Troy to Prince Albert once each
Uek to one R. Elliott, and on the 31st of December 1883, a contract was given to
|cott-Leeson and Stewart Company for three months from Troy to Prince Albert.
On September 15th 1884, a contract for fortnightly mail, good for six
[onths to Eort Pitt from Stobart was given to Leeson and Scott, and on the same
kte a contract for six months was given from Calgary to Fort Saskatchewan via
|daonton, fortnightly service.    As a matter of fact, Leeson and Scott established
weekly mail and express route from Calgary shortly after the C.P.R. reached
bat point in August 1883, and carried the Edmonton and Fort Saskatchewan mail
mat way rather than on the route for which they held the contract.    The original
pute from Winnipeg to Edmonton was Portage la Prairie, Palestine, Minnedosa,
heal Lake, Fort Ellice, Touchwood Hills, Humboldt,  Butoche,  Stobart  (now Duck
Uke) Carlton, Battleford, Fort Pitt, Pakan, Fort Saskatchewan and Edmonton.
men the contract started at Portage la Prairie, it followed the foregoing route
pom there west.    When it started from Brandon it met the original route at
[irtle.    When it started at Troy it met the old route at Touchwood Hills.
Leeson and Scott also established an express and passenger service between
[wift Current and Battleford immediately following the close of the half-breed
b=rising about early in July 1885, and by that route was established probably
[weekly mail.    The contract was for fortnightly service, but as a matber of facb
[t was weekly.    This contract was dated 1st June 1885»    The passenger and express
ervice warranted a weekly service and entailed no more tonnage in mail weekly
nan fortnightly»
The route from Calgary to Edmonton was as per contract, weekly from 1884
pd continued until the railway was opened from Strathcona to Calgary in August
On January 1st 1884s a weekly route was established between Calgary and Fort
lacLeod and continued until the end of September 1892 which is the date given in
]he schedule of the Post Office Department»    This date should probably read 1893
|.s the railway was not completed to MacLeod until that date.    The Stewart Ranch
fo. carried that mail.    There was a weekly mail from Calgary to MacLeod until the
railway was constructed.
A route, fortnightly,, was established on the 30th June 1884, from Medicine
|at to Fort MacLeod which was continued till the North-West Coal and Navigation
Sompany Railway which was the contractor of this route, was built into Lethbridge
pout September 18850    This portion of the route from Lethbridge to Fort MacLeod
ras taken over by the Stewart Ranch Company about the 1st of January 1885.
The route from Fort MacLeod to Pincher Creek, a fortnightly service was
established July 1st 1883, and continued later a weekly service until the ccn-
itruction of the railway in 1898.
On the 1st July 1885, a route was established from Fort MacLeod to Fort
ionrad in Montana (probably Fort Benton is meant) fortnightly service.l    It
pontinued for several years.
|See statement by Sir Cecil E. Denny, Page 4A. ■ira 4A.
The following is a comment made by Mr. Huckvale of Medicine Hat than whom
srhaps there is no better authority for anything that happened subsequent to
lie autumn of 1883, when he first took his residence in Southern Alberta, and also
ly comment on it:
There surely is a mistake about the mail route between Fort Benton and
lort Macleod.    It probably terminated in 1885 rather than commenced.    It was
Icing in 1883-4, and a man named Jack Lee drove it most of the time.    I have
leard Norman McLeod of Lethbridge say he drove in with Jack Lee in 1881, and I
jeceived mail by it in 1883 that was much wanted.
While no doubt the foregoing assertion is absolutely correct, and I know
If no one whose assertions I would depend on to a greater extent than I would
in yours,  I still think that it was as stated by me in 1885, and said route under
[he control of the Canadian postal authorities was first established.    Ib was
lob until that date that the Canadian postal authorities got into fairly close
louch with Macleod by postal routes.
While no doubt the route was carried on as you say, it probably was a private
Indertaking, and they possibly obtained a subsidy from the government,  in the
Interests of the N.W.M.P. for carrying the Canadian mail.    There possibly was an
|rrangement with the United States postal authorities to carry to or from Fort
lenton any Canadian letters which were put in a special packet for such conveyance.
Sir Cecil E. Denny
on
MAIL SERVICE BETWEEN FORT MACLEOD AND FORT BENTON. MONTANA
After the establishment of Fort Macleod by the North West Mounted Police
jLn October, 1874, a mail service was conducted by messenger under contract with
phe Police between Macleod and Fort Benton.    Outgoing mail was prepared in the
Mounted Police Barracks, stamped with American stamps and made up to be posted
it Fort Benton.    When navigation ceased on the Missouri river in winter, this
bail went by stage from Fort Benton to Helena, and south to Corrin, to reach the
Jtah Northern branch of the Union Pacific Ry.    Abe Farwell had the first
pontract to carry mail once a month and he continued to do so for some years.
When Fort Walsh became headquarters in 1878 a similar mail service was set
bp between there and Fort Benton, touching at Fort Assiniboine in the United
ptates, where some six hundred officers and men were stationed.
Mail communication between Fort Macleod and Fort Walsh was maintained by
[police messenger as occasion demanded.  EMERSON WEST
During bhe year ending 30bh of June 1879, a weekly mail roube was esbablished
'or bhe bhree months from Emerson westerly to Salterville, which was located in
?wp. 6, Range 4W. and at the same time a bi-weekly mail was established from Emerson
;o Morris»    The latter appears to have ended on the 17bh of April of bhab year.
Some bime afberwards ib would appear bhab a mail roube was esbablished bo
bhe neighbourhood of bhe Pembina River, where bhe old boundary commission brail
crossed ib, which was aboub secbion 26, twp.2, R.9. ib probably was also continued
to Salterville from where the old half-breed brail from Winnipeg meb bhe boundary
lonaission brail, which was a short distance west of where the town of Morden now
a»    This mail route was continued from Emerson until the 1st April 1881.    From
embina Crossing there were three short branch mail routes established;  one to
rest on,  one to Silver Spring, and one to Snowflake.
In the Autumn of 1880, Post-offices were established as far west as
JDeloraine along the old boundary commission trail, which was for part of the
Distance in Township I, balance Township 2.    These mail facilities were granted
[from Emerson.    Those were however, discontinued from Emerson and served later
bhan Brandon sometime in 1882.
WINNIPEG EAST
From Winnipeg to Point de Chien, a weekly mail was established on the 1st
[of July 1871;  on the 1st July 1872 a weekly contract was let from Fort Garry to
St. Anne's, frequently known as Point de Chien.    Weekly mail contract let for
[six months.    In 1875, a contract was let for 12 months;    in 1876, it was let
[for another 12 months; and it was let again in 1877, and also in 1878 each for
12 months.
During the year ending 30th June,  1877, a contract was let for six months
from St, Anne to Fort Francis; once per month.    During the same year for three
months a contract was let for once in six weeks.
In the year ending June 1878, a contract was let from St. Anne's to Fort
Francis every six weeks.    Only two trips were performed, and during the same
year a contract for once every month, two trips performed; and during the same
year from Winnipeg direct to Fort Francis, one trip per week.    This contract
extended for nine months and eight days.    The contract between Winnipeg and St.
Anne's seems to have been discontinued during 1879.    During the year ending
30th June,  1880, a contract was let from Rat Portage now Kenora to Fort Francis,
fortnightly, 12 trips were made, and during the same year a contract was let
from Winnipeg to Fort Francis,  one trip a month.    The contract extended for two
months.    During the same year ending the 30th June, 1880, a contract was let  Jrom Winnipeg to Rat Portage,  one for four months ending the 31st of December
1879, and one for two months ending 14th of March 1880, weekly trips.    During
Jhe year ending June 1881, a contract was let between Winnipeg and Rat Portage,
Jut only one trip was made.    By this time the railway was in operation from
[innipeg to Rat Portage.
WINNIPEG NORTH
On the 1st of July 1871, a mail route was established from Winnipeg to
Lower Fort Garry, and on the 1st August of that year it was extended to Eagle's
test, which is eleven miles down the river from Lower Fort Garry. (Eagle's
|est was afterwards named Peguis). From Peguis to Gimli, a weekly mail. Gimli
first settled by Icelanders in the Autumn of 1876, and shortly afterwards the
[ail extension was made.
Routes not exceeding 20 or 25 miles were established connecting the Winnipeg
Branches with the various settlement as they developed.
Having established a main route from Winnipeg west the following were
established as branches to it. The first was Headingly and Boyne, distance 40
dies, weekly. Established prior to the same date in 1878 and other 12 months
brier to same date in 1879 a further 12 months and no doubt was extended until
the railway came into operation to Carman, which was formerly known as Boyne
lettlement.
The next was Poplar Point; From Poplar Point to Oak Point, Lake Manitoba
fortnightly service was established on the 1st October 1872. The duration of
bhe contract was four years. In 1876 this appears to have changed to a weekly
service and this continued to 1879. Subsequent to that time it does not appear
pn the schedule.
The following branch services were established from Portage la Prairie.
iPortage la Prairie to Oakland weekly service, distance 15 miles. A year's
contract given prior to the 30th June 1878 extending the following year for 12
months. It does not appear further on the schedule.
On the 1st of April 1881, a mail route was established from Portage la
Prairie to Holland, f orbnighbly, 45 miles, and bhab seems bo have been continued
[to December 31st 1882, when Holland was served from railway Winnipeg to Souris.
Prior to the 30th of June 1883, a service was established from Portage la
prairie to Littleton, 52 miles once a week. Contract expired on the 1st April
1883, and it does nob appear bo have been conbinued.
From Brandon which came inbo exisbence as a mail sbabion on consbrucbion
land operabion of bhe Railway bo bhat poinb in Ocbober 1882, bhe following branch
routes were established: Brandon to Milford 23 miles, two trips per week,
puration of conbracb 5 months, from October 17bh, 1881, afberwards extended bo bhe
31st December 1882.
On Ocbober 17bh 1881, a mail roube was esbablished from Brandon bo
Mianedosa, bi-weekly. Thab was extended afterwards to 30th September 1882.
On the 1st March 1882, a mail route was established from Brandon to
Souris, 82 miles weekly, that was extended foi?. 12 months dûringephej.^earlëhding
[30th of June 1883.  On the 1st July 1883, a mail route, 70 miles, weekly was established from
brandon to Menota, and ,on the 1st April 1884 a mail route was established from
brandon to Antler. That contract was let for nine months and does not appear on
[he schedule as having been renewed.
On the 30th June 1884, a mail route was established from Brandon to
ieloraine and Turtle Mountain. Deloraine is 66 miles from Brandon, Turtle
kiountain 25 miles from Deloraine, and was extended further east to Wokapa about
,he same time weekly service.
On the 31st of March 1881, a mail route once in three weeks was established
From Fort Ellice to Sheel river, distance 29 miles, and on June 30th of that year
Lt was changed to once every two weeks. The contract continued for nine months,
jlfterwards continued to December 31st 1882 and for three months after.
A mail route, once every three weeks was established from Prince Albert to
tilfcstino, 35 miles commencing February lsb 1883, and conbinued for bwo monbhs.
Lt probably was continued for several years.
On the 1st of June 1887, a mail route was established from Fort Saskatchewan
io Pakan, length 55 miles, once in two weeks.
The next distributing point was Edmonton. The 1st of July 1880, a mail
route was established from Edmonton to St. Albert for nine months, once every three
reeks, afterwards extended 12 months longer and continued thus until more frequent
bail service was established to Edmonton, when this was made to correspond with it.
Weekly mail service was established from Edmonton to Athabasca Landing on
the 22nd of January 1901. On the 1st February 1901, a mail route was established
for five months from Athabasca Landing to Peace River. The schedule does not
state how frequently bhe service was bo be. In 1903, bwo trips during bhe year
were made from Abhabasca landing bo Fort Chipewayan.
During 1906, bwo brips were made from Abhabasca Landing bo points on the
Athabasca, Slave and MacKenzie Rivers.
On the 4th of October 1905, a mail route was established from Peace River
Crossing to Fort Vermillion, four trips in winter and six in summer.
For further mail service in the North see the last portion of this article
pertaining to the Mounted Police establishments and mail facilities through the
medium of that force.
The following information furnished by the Commissioner of the Royal
Canadian Mounted Police dated the 22nd March 1920, will be of interest and is
intimately connected with mail service. The establishment of the N.W.M.P. Posts
iaeant mail communication usually to the nearest established Post Office, or to the
Headquarters of the force. It was then the custom where there was no regular
ipost office to send mail either for delivery or mailing, to any reliable party
travelling; in many cases freighters conveyed it, and the efficiency and honesty
of the services rendered is particularly striking. I Through bhe Mounted Police was a favourite method for any parties desiring
o forward or secure their mail, and such facilities were cheerfully rendered.
The establishment of mail service in the far North was performed wholly
[y the Mounted Police or under its direction.    (See portion of schedule under
he heading of Mail Service).
LIST OF PRINCIPAL MOUNTED POLICE POSTS
 IN WESTERN CANADA	
establishment of:
>ATE NAME
-873
1874
1874-5
L878
1887
1895
Lower Fort Garry, Man.
Dufferin, Man.
Wood End,  NaW.T.
'Depot' Cripple Camp.  (See route of the N.W.M.P. in 1874)
Wood Mountain, abandoned in 1883, re-established 1886.
Swan River
Fort Hamilton
Fort Macleod - location changed in 1883 to 3 ads» S.W.
Fort Carlton, destroyed in I885
Fort Pitt
Fort Walsh (Cypress Hills) abandoned in 1883
Fort Kipp
Calgary
Edmonton, Headquarters removed to Fort Saskatchewan '86.
Fort Ellice,  changed to Fort Pelly.
Fort Saskatchewan - Post turned over to Government of Alberta 1911,
Headquarters moved to Edmonton in 1909.
Stand-Off
Battleford
Shoal Lake
Qu'Appelle
Prince Albert
Regina, Headquarters removed to Ottawa in 1920
Maple Creek
Medicine Hat, transferred to Lethbridge district 1907
Lethbridge
Depot (Regina)
Moosomin
Pincher Creek (in 1875 a N.W.M. Police Farm was established at Pincher
Creek)
Esteven
Grand Rapids, Man.
Yorkton
Coutts
Norway House (Keewatin District)
Oxford House
Cumberland, withdrawn in 1895
Amalgamation of "D" and "H" Divisions at MacLeod and "E" and "Depot"
Divisions at Regina.
Saskatoon
Duck Lake m NAME
1895
1896
Fort Cudahay (Y.T.) Ft. Constantino
Moosomin District divided into two districts,  one called Moosomin Sub-
district, and the other Regina sub-district.
Lesser Slave Lake
Athabasca Landing, made Hd» Qrts*  of "N" division in 1908»
Fort Chippewyan,
Grand Rapids»  Late name
1.897 Dawson,  (Fort Herchner) Y,T.
j» White Horse, Y.T,
In Summit White Pass, Y.T.    (Tagish District)
I» Tagish, Y.T,,  (withdrawn in 1901)
1898 Fort Smith
I9OI Peace River sub-district established
1.903 Fort MacPherson
[b Herschell Island
[n Fullerton (H.B)
1.904 Title  of "ROYAL"  conferred on the Police
I9O5 Athabasca District created
f» Fort St.  John
['" Fort Graham
I « Fort Resolution
Mail from Dawson to McPherson carried by the Police
Province of Alberta and Saskatchewan established.
L9O6 Split Lake
[» Fort Churchill
L9IO "H" Division, White Hose, merged to "B" division Dawson
L913 York Factory - removed to Fort Nelson in 1914
[ » Fort McMurray
[ n Dunvegan
[ " Rampart House Y.T.
" Chesterfield Inlet (H.B.)
[ " Drumheller
I" Le Pass (Keewatin)
1915 Baker Lake, N.W.T.
f» Great Bear Lake, N.W.T.
1916 Blairmore, Headquarters, Crow's Nest Pass
" Manitoba Patrol
1917 On January 1st, Police relieved of duties in Sask. and Manitoba, and
in Alberta on March 1st.
.  All detachments in New Manitoba, except Port Nelson and Fort Churchill,
withdrawn.
" In N.W. Territories,  outposts maintained at Baker Lake, at Head of
Chesterfield Inlet, ab Herschell Island, in Beaufort Sea, and ab
Forb MacPherson, Fort Norman, Fort Resolution, Fort Simpson, and
Fort Fitzgerald on the Mackenzie River.
MAIL SERVICE
In 1904 - 5, a patrol carrying mail was sent from Dawson to Fort
McPherson and has been kept up since.
In 1908, a semi-weekly mail service was established by stage between
pdaonton and Athabasca Landing; monthly between Lesser Slave Lake and Athabasca
landing, leaving the latter place on 15th of each month.    Vermillion on the
Peace River, monthly from Peace River Crossing by steamer during the summer
^d dog train during the winter.
Chippewyan, Smith's Landing, Fort Smith and Resolution on the Great
[Slave Lake - from two to three mails by steamer during the summer, and three by
dog train via Lac La Biche in the winter, a distance from Edmonton to Fort
Resolution of about 900 miles.
A summer service of one trip by steamer from Fort Resolution to Peel
River, on the Lower Mackenzie River, and one by dog train in the winter. I CHAPTER IV
F-0-S_T_A L      C. OMMUNICATION
BRITISH   .COLUMBIA
CONTENTS Page
Preface ..o..............................  Ill
Mail facilities in British Columbia prior to the date of its entry
into Confederation 20th July, 1871:
Mainlands-
Thompson's letter carried by messengers, 1812....... 112
Various contracts, 1862-1870  112-115
B,C. Express & Transportation Co's plans ........... 115
Vancouver Islands-
Victoria to Comox, 1864  116
Victoria to Esquimalt and Saanich .................. 117
Mail facilities in British Columbia after the entry of the province
into Confederation, 1871s
New Westminster to Barkervixle0oo........... ....» 118
Side routes from the above mail line»..  119-120
Clinton to Dog Creek<,»o..»..0.««....... ..,. 121
Quesnel to Qminecaooo.o..».oooo.o........................ 122
Hope to Kootenay0ooo.oo»o.«oo.«.»••••........... ......... 123
Kootenay to U.S.A. points...oo.»..oo.o.o.  124
Victoria to New Westminster«o..............,,« «... 124
Vicboria bo San Francisco»..........«o  125
Victoria bo Skeena00ooo.oooo..o.0oo...................... 126
Vicboria bo San Juan».ooo..o.«..«..  127
Vicboria bo Wrangle».oo.»..»•«••••■..•••  127
Clinton to Lillooetooo.oooo««o»«o«ooo.oo.oo»...»  127 V   |< POSTAL COMMUNICATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
PREFACE
As to some extent there is an interlocking between the postal
jommunications of British Columbia and that of the three Prairie Provinces,
It has been thought well to give a resume of postal facilities of the Pacific
Province as far as they can be ascertained.
The Post-office Department at Ottawa was appealed to for the data
jiecessary to compile a narrative of the mail facilities, but that Department
•eplied as follows:    "Thorough research has been made in the records of the
pepartment, bub it has been impossible to glean any information giving an
jiccount or history of the establishment of the first mail route, the only information obtainable being a list of the mail services with the names of the
contractors and the frequency of the services.      It was thought, however, that
feven this might be of some use to you, and the enclosed lists were therefore
prepared.     Up to the year, 1879* the names of all the mail services which were
established in the Provinces have been included, but the succeeding years only
contain the services which have any reference to the information desired.
It will however, be noted that any service not included in the list for the
[following year must have been superseded or discontinued.     Nevertheless,
from, the information given it can be ascertained almost the exact number of
norths that a service, was in operation."
It will be seen that very little information is obtainable from the
bttawa authorities regarding postal facilities in B.C. prior to the entry of
chat province into confederation on the 20th July, 1871. Mr. J. T. L. Meyer
bf Victoria has, however, furnished me with valuable details regarding the
[services provided prior to that date. It may also be taken for granted that
these services were in 1871 the same as those assumed by the Dominion Govern-
laent when the province first came into Confederation.  APPENDIX "A"
Postal Service in British Columbia up to confederation»
Mainland
"To the spring of 1812, must be referred the very first long distance
transmission within territory of British Columbia and beyond it. On the 6th
April, six couriers arrived from Fraser Lake bringing a letter addressed to the
Manager of the North-West Company at Stuart Lake from David Thompson, bhe explorer, who reached Kamloops from bhe Columbia River via Okonagan River and Lakes
and Grand Prairie and who, no doubb, firsb locabed the river that bears his name.
The letber was dabed Ilk=Koy=Ope Falls, on the Columbia River where Fort Colville
stood, and now called Ketble Fallss Augusb 28th, 1811."
While Thompson's map shows the Okanagan River, Osoyoos Lake, Okanagan
Lake, Long Lake, Shuswap Lake, Kamloops Lake and the outlet of Shuswap Lake into
the Fraser River, now known as the South Thompson and Thompson River, there seems
to be some doubt whether the information on that map was obtained personally by
Thompson or received from others. It is contended by some that Thompson did not
visit that territory.
According to the Thompson narrative issued by the Champlain Society on
the 28th August, 1811, Thompson was probably at Hk~Koy-Ope Falls. From there he
wrote a letter bo Harmon ab Sbuart Lake bo which he refers in his journal as
fellows s-
"Stuart Lake, Mondays  April 6th, 1812.  Six Indians have arrived from
Fraser "s Lake, •who delivered to me a letter written by Mr. David Thompson
which is dated August 28th, 1811, at XLk-Koy-Ope Falls on the Columbia
River.  It informs me thab bhis gentleman accompanied by seven Canadians
descended the Columbia River to the place where it enters the Pacific Ocean,
where they arrived on the 16th July. They found a number of people there,
employed in building a fort for a company of Americans who denominated
themselves the Pacific Fur Company. Mr. Thompson, after having remained
seven days with the American people set out on his return to his establishments which are near the source of the Columbia River»  From one of these
posts he wrote the letter above mentioned and delivered it to an Indian to
bring to the next tribe with the direction that they should forward it to
the next and so on, until it should reach this place»  This circumstance
accounts for the great length of time that it has been on the way, for the
distance that it has come might be travelled in 25 or 30 days."!
a wonderful example of honesty and respect for written paper.
From historical B.C. by Howay and Scholefield, Vol. 2, Page 87, on the
7th July, 1862, a contract was entered into with F. J. Barnard, for carrying the
mails as follows s •=■
From New Westminster and Douglas to Lillooet and return, through same
places once a week in summer and once a fortnight the remainder of the year.
(note by the writer)  This route was evidently via Harrison Late and
Lillooet River and Lake, to Pemberton Portage, by said Portage and
Lakes Anderson and Seton to Lillooet.
1. A journal etc, Harmon '.
184.  Repeated later
113.  From New Westminster, Hope, Yale and Lytton, Williams Lake and bhence
to Antler, and return to and through the same places once a fortnight in summer
and once a month the remainder of the year»
From New Westminster, Douglas, and Lillooet to Williams Lake and thence
to Antler, to and through the same places, at least once a month, calling for and
j taking mails at all intermediate stations where Post Offices are, or shall be
esbablished.
From New Wesbminsber and Douglas and Lillooet bo Will jams Creek bhence
Antler, and return bo and through same places at least once a month»
From New Wesbminsber, Hope, Yale and Lybbon bo Williams Creek and bhence
I to Antler and return to and through same places at least once a month»
Williams Creek was the mail terminus until later on it went to Bajkerville
it being close to there»
Antler was a mining camp a few miles beyond Barkerville.
In June 1864, practically the same contract was made with F. J. Barnard,
George Dietz and Hugh Nelson.  It provided for the following routes from 1st
April to 1st November.
From New Westminster to Douglas and return twice a week on every
nail steamer.
From Douglas to Lillooet and return, once a week.
From Yale to Lytton and return, once a week.
From Lillooet via Clinton and Quesnelle Mouth to Williams Creek and
return, three times a month.
From 1st November to 1st of April as follows :-
114.  night.
5.
From New Westminster via Hope to Yale and return once a week.
From New Westminster to Douglas and return, once a week.
From New Westminster, via Hope and Yale to Lytton and return once a fort-
From New Westminster via Douglas to Lillooet and return once a fortnight.
From Lillooet via Clinton and Quesnelle Mouth to Williams Creek and return
| once a month.
For this contract, the contractors received 416 pounds, 13 shillings and
[4 pence per month, there being a penalty of 4 pounds sterling per diem for every day's
[delay in delivering of mails.
All Government dispatches and papers to be taken without extra charge.
It seems likely that the same contractor, Barnard, Dietz and Nelson, con-
jtinued to have the contract for this system of routes with perhaps some changes in
[the service, until 1870, when a tender from G.G.Geron, and Aaron Johnston was
accepted on 28th September 18?0 for one year for $13.00 being from New Westminster
to Williams Creek and intermediate points with branch service from Clinton to
Lillooet and return.
In 1868, the routes included a branch service to Lillooet and Savona's
Ferry, and return, twice a month in winter and once in summer.
The foregoing taken from B.C. Archives, File 1435.
From Savona's Ferry a mail was carried by a small boat or canoe to Seymour
at the head of Seymour Arm of Shuswap Lake, first by Gar butt and Birmin^iam, and
afterwards by John Carraghan, alias "Big Jack", at Seymour it probably would be
taken by pack train to French Creek.  French Creek being on the Columbia River
where the "Big Bend" Placer Mining rush was at that date. This stage was evidently
a branch service of the Barnard Contract, as it states he dropped the mail at
! Savona's Ferry and picked it up again at Seymour the post offices in these places
being in charge of the Hudson's Bay Company.
The service from Cache Creek to French Creek, first commenced in 1870, the
[first contract being to one Patrick Reid, and afterwards to Bennet and Lumley, the
compensation being $100.00 each trip.  In May 1869, there was an offer from Charles
|A, Semlin, to carry the mail between these two places once a month for $100.00 a
month. See Archives file, 1433. This offer was not accepted.  Previous to this
there was evidently a service from Ashcroft to French Creek as a notice appears in
the Gazette January 1867, to the effect that the contract having expired an offer
was open to any one with satisfactory references, to deliver letters enroute between
Savona*s Ferry and French Creek, and to receive $60.00 for each trip on receipt of
mail matter at French Creek.
(From Archives File, 127/30)
In October 1870, an offer was made by F.J. Barnard, to incorporate a
Company to be called the British Columbia Express and Transportation Company, to
introduce steam power for transportation of mails on the common roads of the
Mainland and proposed to import six of R.W. Thompson's Patent India Rubber Tired
Road Steamers, two of which
. 115.  !»»
6.
buld be constructed for speed for transportation of mails, express and passengers,
lid four of greater power and less speed for general transportation purposes in confederation of a subsidy for conveyance of mails of $32,000 per annum, for service
Is follows s
To carry mail weekly as per advertisement by coaches with accommodation
lor 24 passengers. To travel at average speed of seven miles per hour. At this rate
■fter six hours rest at Clinton, mail and passengers can be carried from Yale to
kda Creek in 48 hours, and to Barkerville in 72 hours the cost of passage to be
3 pounds, 10 shillings respectively, exclusive of steamboat fare. Freight trains
jo run once a week from Yale to Soda Creek, and to travel at a rate of 40 miles per
jay. Each train to have passenger, coaches, the fare not to exceed $17.50 for
ach adult passenger, and would deliver all mail between post offices without extra
harges. Mining machinery to be carried at a material reduction from usual rates,
jnd also to make reductions in freight and other commodities, and would also expend
liberal sum in advertising. The requisite engines to be imported free of duty and
protection for exclusive rights for three years.  This offer was not accepted.
In the mail service from New Westminster to the Cariboo, the country
transportation by water was used as far as the head of navigation. It seems
impossible to obtain any record of the mail service further east, viz., the Okanagan
[iid Kootenay, and probably this service was via some point near the U.S. Boundary,
jnd taken to its destination most of the way by water.
When boats under contract could not run, the mails were carried by the B.C,
javigation Company.  Archives File 1435.
In December, 1870, a contract was given to W.R. Lewis to carry mail
between New Westminster and Burrard Inlet for 1871, for $200.00
POSTAL SERVICE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
VANCOUVER ISLAND
Victoria to Comox and Intermediate Points.
The first record of this service in a search in the Archives is a contract
Riven 1st of April, I864, to Andrew Jackson Rise, for conveying the mail from
[Victoria to Comox and return, once a month, and to Nanaimo and return, twice a month,
per steamer, "Emily Harris". The Steamer was to touch at Johnny Lemoux (Cowichan
fist) Maple Bay, Salt Spring Island and Nanaimo every trip and at two places on Salt
ppring Island coming and going. To remain twelve hours at Comox for receipt of
freight and passengers, 6 hours at Johnny Lemoux, Nanaimo and Maple Bay, and 3 hours
pt Salt Spring Island. To arrive at Comox on the 22nd of each month, and at
panaimo on the 3rd and 20th of each month, $ 194<> per month.
From some correspondence in the archives it seems the steamers Alpha and
Carolina carried the mail between Victoria and Nanaimo in 1862.
In 1865, the Vancouver Coal Mining and Land Co., had the contract from
Victoria to Comox and intermediate points, as stated above.  Uhether the contract for this mail route fell to any others between I865 and 1871
I not, could not be ascertained from a search in the Archives or the Gazettes.
Phe route had been the same for years, except some increases in intermediate
balling places.
VICTORIA TO ESQUIMALT AND SAANICH
In January I864, a contract was given to Wm. Giles Bowman and Cornelius
jfalsey, for carrying the mail once a week from Victoria to Rev. W. Lowes' House
bn Saanich Road, or some other point on that road as the Government may require,
juid intermediate points to and fro for one year for $ 250.00. Bowman is likely
jhe same man who afterwards kept a livery sbable on Broad Sb. where the Colonist
pffice now is.  In I865, the contract was given to Henry Fry at $ 300.00 per
innum.
In January 1864, a contract was given to Harry Ed. Wilby to carry the
bail between Victoria and Esquimalt for the consideration of 5 pounds per month.
For I865, it was given to John J. Howard, at the same rate. Since then
ko records could be obtained, but probably the service frequently changed and that
jf Saanich would have expanded with the increase of population. John J. Howard,
Lho had the Esquimalt contract for I865, had for years kept the Howard's Hotel
it that place»  MAIL FACILITIES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA AFTER JULY 20th. 1871
New Westminster to Barkerville
The longest continuous mail service was from New Westminster to
jarkerville 485 miles. The contract for this was granted on the 20th of July 1871.
t was carried from New Westminster to Yale by water. During the winter season when
he Fraser River was jammed with ice in certain places, it was packed over those
ammed portions and in the open portions carried by portable boats or canoes» From
kle it followed the right bank of the Fraser River up to the Suspension Bridge some
birteen miles, then crossed the river and followed up the left bank of the Fraser
o the mouth of the Thompson to Spence's Bridge, crossed the river there to the
tight bank and followed it up to opposite where Ashcroft now is, then struck north
[ia Cache Creek, Clinton, Lac La Hache, striking the Fraser River and Soda Creek and
o onto Quesnel, then struck westerly to Barkerville the total distance given being
m miles» This is the first contract that appears after British Columbia comes
nto confederation. It no doubt had been in existence for some years previously.
On the 20th July, 1871, a fortnightly contract covering the foregoing
loute was let to Jerrow and Johnston. This conbracb evidently was in exisbence prior
jo bhab dabe. On bhe 4th March, 1872, this contract was given to F.L.Barnard, an
.P. and a prominenb man in Bribish Columbia Affairs. The following year, 1873, the
onbracb was leb bo him from New Wesbminsber bwice a week as far as Yale, and weekly
rom Yale bo Barkerville; and bhen in 1873 a conbracb bo carry mail by steamer was
tôt from New Westminster to Yale, service twice a week to Fleming and Parsons for
hree months. During the same year Mr. Barnard had the contract from Barkerville
|o Yale once a week.
During 1874, both Barnard and Fleming and Parsons, appear as contractors,
the former had a contract for six months, Yale to Barkerville, weekly, and the
latter for twelve months between New Wesbminsber and Yale which would appear probably bo be bwice a week.
During 1875, Mr. Barnard had the contract from Yale to Barkerville weekly,
.nd during the period of navigation of that year, there would appear to have been
hree contracts between New Westminster and Yale| Fleming and Parsons, and also
'arsonss the former for six months, and the second for bhree monbhs, bwice a week.
«raard's contract was fortnightly for six months. During 1876, this contract be-
ween Yale and Barkerville was awarded to Barnard, weekly service, also during
.877 and during 1878»
During 1877, between New Westminster and Yale, there were two contracts,
Nwto Irving, bwice a week for eighb monbhs by sbeamer, bhe obher bo Barnard once
> week for four months»
In 1878, bhere was a weekly service, contracbor Barnard, from Yale bo
llarkerville, and bebween New Wesbminsber and Yale, two contracts, one to Irving
-wice a week for eight months and the other to Barnard, weekly for four months»
During 1879, a contract from Yale to Barkerville was let to Barnard weekly,
bd between New Westminster and Yale two contracts one to Irving for eight months
«^weekly, and the other to Barnard weekly for seventeen trips» (Presumably this
jeant four months in order to meet his stages Yale to Barkerville).
In 1880, a contract from Yale to Barkerville granted to-4;he British
Uolumbia Express Company, weekly. From New Westminster to Yale a short time carried
l'y Irving, twice a week, and the rest of the time by the British Columbia Express
Company, once a week.
In 1881 a contract weekly, was let from Yale to
118.  krkerville bo bhe British Columbia Express Company. From New Westminster to Yale,
Lght months to J. Irving, twice a week, and four months to the British Columbia
çpress Company, once a week.
In 1882 a contract from Yale to Barkerville was let to the British
jlumbia Express Company, weekly, and in that year between New Westminster and Yale
contract was let for nine months to J, Irving, twice a week, for three months to
je British Columbia Express Co., weekly.
In 1883, a mail contract was let between Yale and Spence's Bridge to the
ritish Columbia Express Co,, for twelve special trips.
In 1884 a contract for four times a week service between Victoria and
kle was allotted to J. Irving, and during the same year between New Westminster
id Yale to the British Columbia Express Company, to make trips as required. They
ppear to have made twenty-one in all.
In 1884 the British Columbia Express Company had a contract from Spence's
ridge to Kamloops, and they also had a contract between New Westminster and Yale.
One month prior to the first of September 1884 the British Columbia
kpress Company took bhe weekly mail from Lybbon bo Barkerville. Ib probably wenb
p bhe left bank of the Fraser River to Clinton. For two months prior to
pe 31st May 1884, the same Company carried the mail from Davona Ferry which is
p the foot of Kamloops Lake, to Barkerville, and during the six months commencing
MpEirst of October 1884, the same Company carried the mail to Barkerville, from
pence's Bridge, weekly service, and for the last three months of 1884, the same
pmpany carried the mail weekly from Spence's Bridge to Clinton, and during April
id May 1885, the said company carried the mail weekly from Savona to Lillooet,
pd from the 1st day of May, 1884 for six monbhs bhey carried bhe mail from Yale
b Spence's Bridge.
During the year ending 30th June 1886, bhe Canadian Pacific Navigabion
pmpany carried bhe mail as required bebween New Westminster and Yale. Early in
xly 1886, railway communication was established. The C.P.R. was operated as far
est as Port Moody. Trains entered Vancouver in May 1887, and no doubt mail was
arried by that railway.
MAIL FROM OFF THE NEW WESTMINSTER TO BARKERVILLE ROUTE
Year ending 30bh June 1874, forbnighbly communicabion was extended from
krkerville to Harvey Creek, distance of 142 miles. (Another place in the
phedule it is stated to be 50 miles). The first seven months the contract was
pt bo E.H. Kimball, and the rest of the year to R. Borland. For the year ending
bth June, 1875, bhis route contract appears to have been granted for 12 months to
L Littler, weekly service. In I876, the contract was extended ai other year to
patractcr Borland? a portion of the year to be weekly and the remainder fortnightly,
pd in 1877, 1878, it was extended for 3 months weekly and fortnightly, it was
pended another year, weekly and fortnightly.  It ceased to appear subsequent to
bat date as a mail route.
Between Cache Creek (which is about six miles north of Ashcroft on the
hate to Cariboo) and French Creek, the latter is on the Columbia River near
bCullough Creek.
jx*.  10.
bare was a contract over said route which expired on the 31st of October 1871,
bd was entered into with Msssrs. Bennett and Lumley, distance stated 224 miles,
Kx trips per annum, round trip not to occupy more than 40 days.    This probably
as a contract in existence at the time British Columbia came into Confederation
h the 20th July 187L    This contract appears to have ceased on the 31st October
On the 22nd of May, 1872 a contract was entered into from Cache Creek to
amloopp, to be carried as required, which contract was to end on the 26th of June
I that year.    During that year a contract for 1 1/2 months was given over the
;ame route to another party.    During the year ending 30th June, 1875, a contract
her the same ground was given to one J. McClennan and he seems to have made five
[rips.    There is nothing to show the intervals between the trips.
The year ending 30th June, 1882, a contract between the same points was
blven for 12 months to one J. B. Leighton a weekly contract.    This route does
pt appear subsequent to the last date mentioned.
From Cache Creek to Okanagan, now Vernon, and Okanagan Mission, now
fâlowna,  a contract was entered into wibh F. J. Barnard on bhe 22nd May 1872.    From
[ache Greek bo Okanagan is esbimabed 116 miles service weekly.    From Okanagan to
kanagan Mission 35 miles, fortnightly service, a contract for eight and one-half
paths.
In the same year a similar contract was entered into with A. Vance, weekly
s far east as Okanagan, and fortnightly to Okanagan Mission.
Year ending 30th June 1875, Vance's contract extended for 12 months
eekly as far as Okanagan, and fortnightly to Okanagan Mission.
Year ending 30th June 1874, Vance's contract was over same route fort-
pghtly to Okanagan and monthly to Okanagan Mission, length of contract 12 months.
Year ending 30 June 1876, Vance's contract was extended for another 12
[oaths, service weekly and fortnightly.
Year ending 30th June 1877, Vance's contract was on the same terms,
xtended for another 12 months.
Year ending 30th June 1878, this contract was extended another 12 monthsj
fear ending 30th June 1879, this contract to Vance extended another 12 months,
jnd same contracter for nine months to 31st March, 1880.
For the year ending 30th June 18&1,  same route, same contractor for 12
pths.    For the year ending 30th June 1882, this route seems to have started at
amloops given to F.D. Leighton, weekly in summer and fortnightly in winter for
2 months.
For the year ending 30th June 1883, a contract from Okanagan Mission to
soyoos granted to E. Lequimie, distance 70 miles, 4 trips a year. Contract closed
st April 1883.
For the year ending 30th June '.
there was a  iii roube by steamer, let to J. A. Mara, three trips a week, between Savona
Brry and Kamloops» The opening of the C.P.R. probably then operating from
amloops to Port Moody no doubt caused the cessation of this route.
During the season of 1885, a contract by steamer was let to J. A. Mara,
Istance 90 miles, from Kamloops to Eagle's Pass.    Mara and Mcintosh had a
reamer route as early as 1884, probably some time previously, which operated from
avona Ferry through Kamloops Lake, up the South Thompson into Shuswap Lake and
3 the Head of that Lake at Sicamous, and then up to Lake Mara on the Shuswap
iver.
From Clinton, a point on the trail between Cache Greek and Barkerville,
bout 35 miles from Cache Creek, a mail contract was let to Lillooet in 1873
onthly service for three months, Contractor A. Ferguson.
Year ending 30th June, 1874, a weekly service was established with the
eons contractor for 12 months.    For the year ending 30th June 1875, the same
ontractor, weekly service for anobher 12 months, and for the year ending 1876
30th June) over the same route, with the same contracter for nine months and
ttother conbracb over the same route appears to have been let to one Gallagher for
2 months.    It would appear likely however, that during a portion of the year this
ontract was only bo be carried fortnightly, and for the year ending June 30th
378, a contract over this route weekly was let for 12 months to B.D. Bullard, and
ar bhe year ending 30bh June 18795 over bhe same roube, weekly brips, bhe same
onbracbor for 12 monbhs, and for the year ending 30th June 1881, over the same
oute bo the same contractor,  Bullard, contract was entered into for 12 months
eekly services  and for the year ending 30th June 1882, contract over the same
Dute was let bo one, G. Tinker, weekly for 12 monbhs.    Thab is the last date
his route seems to have been under contract.
CLINTON TO DOG CREEK
The year ending 30th June 1874, a contract was entered into by J.C.
àgher distance 60 miles, fortnightly for 12 months.
For the year ending 30th June 1875, a contract over the same route, part
eekly and part fortnightly, was let to the same contractor for 15 months, and
or the year ending 30th June 1876, over the same route, same contractor, weekly
nd fortnightly for twelve months j and over the same route and the same contractor
or the year ending 30th June 1877, weekly and fortnightly for twelve months.
For the year ending 30th June 1878, to one T„ Saul, weekly and fortnightly
ervice,  contract for 12 months.
For the year ending 30th June 1879» same route, same contractor Saul,
"eekly trips for 12 months.
For the year ending 30th June 1880 over the same route contractor Saul,
'eekly and fortnightly for nine months ending 31st of March 1880.
For the year ending 30th June 1881, same route  jams conbracb or Saul, fortnightly service for 12 months.
For the year ending 30th June 1882, same contractor, weekly service for
Lfelve months.    The contract over this route seems not to have been extended
eyond bhab dabe.
There is a roube laid down in bhe schedule senb me, viz., Lybbon bo
jicola Lake.    Ib is  evidenbly a misbake.    Ib should have been Spence's Bridge bo
icola Lake.     The mileage indicabed bhab»      The mail may possibly have been made
b ab Lytton and carried through to Spence's Bridge by the mail going to Barkerville,
nd put off at Spence's Bridge the distance given being 45 miles, which is about
me distance from Spence's Bridge to Nicola Lake.
The first contract for this route appears in the year ending 30th June
1873, fortnightly service, for nine months to J. Clapperton, and for three months
o W.A. Mickle»
The next year 1874, a contract to the same party Mickle, mileage made
ive miles shorter,  or forty miles in all, fortnightly service for 12 months to
ams contractor Mickle.      The next year 1875, same contractor, same mileage, fort-
[ightly service for twelve months.    The next year 18?6, same route, same contractor,
ame mileage,  fortnightly service for 12 months.
For the year ending 30th June 1877, this contract seems to have been ex-
ended to the head of Nicola Lake, and is given as starting at the proper place now,
pence's Bridge, distance 60 miles, fortnightly service for nine months.
Year ending 30th June 1878, same route same contractor, same distance,
[ans service for 12 months.
Year ending June 30th 1879, same contractor, same mileage, fortnightly
[ervice,  six months ending 31st March 1880o
Year ending 30th June 1881, two contractors, Mickle fortnightly,  service
;ix months to September 3rd,  1880, and then the contract appears to have been let
o P.L. Anderson, for three months from the 3rd of September 1880.    For the year
[nding 30th June 1882, same route, the contract was let to J. Gilmore, fortnightly
[or 12 months.      That is the last time the contract appear on the schedule.
According to the returns of the 30th of June 1882, there was a stage
oute from Clinton to Alkali Lake once a week.    T. Sault had it for one month ending
1st July 1881, and N. Gustafson had it for eight months, once a week, distance eighty
pies.    The same services which were in operation in 1882, were in operation during
[he year ending 30th June 1883.
The contract for this route was let to R. Sylvester, and one trip a month,
[istance 350 miles, from 20th July 1871 to 30th July 1872, evidently this contract
ias in existence when British Columbia came into Confederation.
Quesnelle is on the Fraser River where the route turns west to Barkerville,
'ear ending 30th June,  1873 the mail route continued from Quesnelle to Omineea, a
fistance of 350 miles.      Contractor R. Sylvester.  Omineea is on the drainage of the Peace River, and at bhab bime bhere
is considerable placer gold developmenbs. For six monbhs during the year 1873,
ie J.A. Gardiner was contractor, and he was succeeded for three months by R.
pLvester. That contract was renewed the following year 1874 for nine trips. In
■b year ending 30th June 1875, same contractor nine trips, in two months. Year
pding 30th June 1876, same route, same contractor, for nine trips. This route
bes not appear to have been continued after this.
H0PE,.Tp_K00TENAY
Year ending 30th June 1872, there was a route from Victoria to Kootenay,
tstance estimated at 614 miles. This contract was evidently in existence at the
Lme British Columbia entered Confederation, 20th July, 1871, six trips per annum
ting performed within sixty days. The following year a contract from the 31st of
krch bo bhe 31sb of July 1872 was awarded bo bhe same contractor, and required to
ike special trips. After this date Kootenay seems to have been served from Hope
nich is on the route from New Westminster to Barkerville.
Two contracts appear in the schedule for the year ending 30th June 1872,
pe for two months to one F. J. Robertson, and the second for one month, presumably
pnthly brips, given bo J. Wardle and in the same year there seems to have been
| contract leb bo Johnsbon, for two months to Kootenay from New Westminster,
tstance, 522 miles. Another contract from Victoria to Kootenay, distance 597
pies was let to Johnston, trips to be made as required, and during the same year
he third contract from Victoria to one G. Bradfield who made one trip. All the
butes of course passed by Hope. From Hope the routes went up the Dewdney trail,
ver the Hope Mountain, down the Similkameen to near the International boundary,
prough the Richter Pass and on to the Okanagan River, and over to where Rock
peek empties into Kettle River, and so on to Midway and on to Grand Forks and
ien to Cascade over the mountains in the neighborhood of Rossland, and then to the
olumbia River at Trail, crossing the Columbia and along the Kootenay River and
pke to Creston, and through to Yahk on the Moyie, then following up the Moyie,
ad then over the Divide to Cranbrook to Fort Steele and Wild Horse Creek.
Year ending 30th June 1874, a contract six trips per annum was let from
ppe to Kootenay to J. Wardle. Year ending 30th June 1875, over the same route,
lame contractor, six trips per year.
Year ending 30th of June 1876, same contractor, six trips per year»
par ending 30th June 1877, same route, same contractor, six trips per year. Year
pding June 1879, same route, same contractor, six brips per year. Year ending
pth June 1880, same route, same contractor, six trips per year. Year to end on
pe 31st of March 1880,
Year ending 30th June 1881, same route, same contractor, five trips per
ear,  14.
Year ending 30th June, 1882, same route same contractor, four trips in a
[ar, and this seems to have been the last of this route.
Year ending 30th June 1876, a contract was let between Kootenay and Pioneer
^ek»    There are no distances given.    There were two parties; first contract
s C. Booth, and the other W.C. Milly.    Both appear to have been for special trips.
CONNECTION BETWI
OTENAY
MP UNITED STATES POINTS
From Sany Point in the United States to Kootenay, distance 150 miles, H.
futtleworth,  conbracbor, eighb brips per year, for six monbhs ending 31sb Dec.1882.
The same year from Pend'Orrelle to Koobenay, for bwo brips disbance 100
les. Conbracb was made wibh J. Russell. Ib is probable bhab bhe roube was from
pdy Poinb inbo Koobenay passed Pend'Orrelle.
VICTORIA TO NEW WESTMINSTER
On 20bh July 1871, extending bo bhe 30bh July 1874, a conbracb was leb
[ Hudson's Bay Company for a mail route by steamer from New Westminster to
[ctoria, twice a week in summer and once in winter.
Year ending 30th June 1873, a contract seems to have been entered into
[th one James A. Grahame.    James A. Grahame was shortly afterwards Chief Commissioner
the Hudson's Bay Company.    Probably at that time he was the Chief Hudson's Bay
ficer on the Pacific Coast.    He became Chief Commissioner the following year.
Year ending 30th June 1874, Hudson's Bay Company had this contract, twice
[week for a year,  and for the year ending 30th June, 1875, one Wm. Charles had
■>.e contract bwice a week for a year.    Wm. Charles was bhe Hudson's Bay Facbor ab
[cboria and was for many years in charge ab bhab poinb.    He was probably ab bhab
cte in charge of the Hudson's Bay Company there.
Year ending June I876, same contractor, W. Charles twice a week for a year
[ar ending 30th June 1877, same contractor twice a week for a year.    For the year
iding 30th June 1878, same contractor twice a week for a year.    Year ending 30th
[ne 1879,  same contractor twice a week for a year.    Year ending 30th June 1880,
Ime contractor twice a week for nine months, up to the 31st March,  1880.
Year ending 30th June 1881,  same contractor, twice a week for a year.
I 1883 this contract does not appear in the schedule.
Year ending 30th June 1884, J«  Irving appears to have had a contract from
[ctoria to New Westminster and then on to Yale.    Year ending 30th June I885, J.
[ving appears to have had a contract from the 1st of July 1884.    Year ending
[th June 1886, contract for this route appears to have been awarded to the
tnadian Pacific Navigation Company, which company also had a contract for the
[aser River,  I suppose meaning that it went up the Fraser River above New
[stminster.    That contract was for 12 months when required.    The contract between
pw Westminster and Victoria was for special trips.  15.
Year ending 30th June 1875, contract was entered into with J. Johnston,
assiar to Fort Wrangle, distance 250 miles, monthly service for 12 months. Year
nding 30th June I876, same contractor, same distance for six months. Year
pding June 30th, 1877, same contractor, same trip, once a month for five months,
ear ending 30th June 1878, same contractor, one trip a month for six months,
ear ending 30th June 1878, same contractor, one tfip a month for four months. This
s the last time that route appears on the schedule.
There are no other considerable mail routes on the main land. From
anaimo to Comax and from New Westminster to Comax, the contract to W. Rogers
istance 100 miles, weekly service for 12 months expired 31st March 1886. This
u-the only time this route appears on the schedule.
From New Westminster the balance of the routes on the main land are all
port tones, being side trips from the chief routes already mentioned.
ROUTES FROM VICTORIA, 1st - WATER ROUTES
Victoria to San Francisco, 750 miles, fortnightly service commencing
15th August 1871,
m th<
Olympia bo Vicboria.    Evidenbly bhis roube was esbablished when Bribish
[olumbia came into confederation.    E. A. Starr was the contractor,  and it would
[ppear that this contract expired on the 30th June 1874, service once a week. In
he returns ending 30th June 1873* same route,  same contractor appears, and the
[ervice had been for 12 months bub for a portion of bhab time it had been increased
[0 twice each week, and the returns for the 30th June 1874, same route,  same contactor for 12 monbhs, service once a week.
Year ending 30bh June 1875, a conbracb was leb bo E. A. Sbarr, 185 miles
.0 Olympia,  shorbly afberwards changed bo Tacoma, once a week, bwo conbracbs combined being for ben monbhs.    Year ending 30bh June 1879, bo bhe same contractor,
[istance 40 miles, Victoria to Port Townsend,  for eleven months,  contract twice
1 week.    The mail no doubt continued from Tacoma till changed to Port Townsend.
For the year ending 30th June 1880, same contract same contractor, twice
I week for nine months, ending 31st of March 1880.    Year ending 30th March 1881,
lame contract twice a week for a year.    Year ending 30th March, 1882, same route,
lame contractor, twice a week for 12 months.    March 31st, 1882,  contract over the
lame route, contractor G. J. Ainsworth, twice a week for three months.    June 30th
1883, same route,  contractor Oregon-Westington Railway & Navigation Company six
limes a week,  contract ending 26th March 1887.    There does not appear to be anything
further regarding this route.
125.  16.
When British Columbia came into Confederation this contract appears to
Ie been in existence, being carried out by means of the Steamer "Sir J, Douglas"
je a week and once in two weeks from Nanaimo to Comax.    According to the
ledule 30th June 1873, this route seems to have been covered by the Government
lamer, same service for 12 months.
For the year ending 30th June 1874, there appear to have been three dif-
lent contracts, Welsh Rithot and Company, for five months - J. Cooper for seven
;tths - and J. Spratt for five months, service from Victoria to Nanaimo weekly, and
Im Nanaimo to Comox fortnightly.
For the year ending 30th June 1875,
he service for 12 months.
same route,  J. Spratt,  contractor,
For the year ending 30th June I876, same route,  same contractor,  same
[vice for 12 months.    Year ending 30th June 1877,  same route same contractor, same
[vice for 12 months.    Year ending 30th June 1878, there appeared to have been two
[tracts the old contractor Spratt,  same service for ten months, and another
[tractor W. R. Clark, same service for two months.    Year ending 30th June 1879
ie route,  Contractor Spratt,   same service twelve months.    Year ending 30th June
BO, same route, same contractor, same service for nine months.    Year ending 30th
[e 1880,  same route,   same contractor same service for nine months.    Year ending 30th
lie 1881,  same route same contractor, same service 12 months.    Year ending 30th June
b, same route same contractor, same service 12 months.    Year ending 30th June 1883,
ie route,  same contractor,  same service, 12 months.    Year ending June 30th, I885,
[te seems to have stopped at Nanaimo.    People's Steam Navigation Company contractor
■vice three times a week for six months from September 30th,  1884.    On 30th June
9 contract to People's Steam Navigation Co., three times a week for 12 months.
hing further appears after that on the schedule.
VICTORIA TO SKEENA
This route appears to have been established when British Columbia came
0 Confederation.      The Hudson's Bay Company was the contractor,  distance 514
.es, service no interval fixed.    Year ending June 30th, 1873, J.A. Grahame appears
have been the contractor.    (See preceding observations about him) Seventeen
ps during the year, distance 514 miles.
Year ending 30th June 1874, Hudson's Bay Company contractor, nine months
I vice as required.    Year ending 30th June 1875,  same route,   contractor W.  Charles.
)e preceding observations about him).    Service as required.    Year ending 30th June
'6, same route,   same contractor,  for 12 months,  service as required.    Year ending
June 1879, same route, same contractor, three trips in a year. Year ending
■h June 1880, same contractor, trips when required, season seven months. Year
ling 30th June 1882, same route, same contractor, 12 months as required. Year
ling 30th June 1882, same route,  same contractor.   Year ending 30th June 1883
schedule stated that the steamship company was the same as it was for 1882,  so
ft New Westminster and Victoria and New Westminster and Yale,  Victoria and Yale,
:toria and Port Townsend,  Skeena and Victoria,  should be extended to the year
ling 30th June 1883, and not stop at the 30th June 1882, as some of them do as
schedule.
126. w 17.
VICTORIA TO SAN JUEN
This route seems to have been in existence on the date British Columbia
ne into Confederation, weekly services R. Prit chard, contractor, distance 25
[Les, and by the schedule en the 30th June, 1873, this contract, contractor, and
vice made six trips.  This is bhe last bhis roube appears.
VICTORIA TO FORT WRANGLE
Year ending 30bh June 1877, Oregon Sbeamship and Navigabion Co., 250 miles,
3 trip a month for four months.  The distance is probably intended to read 750 mi.
Year ending 30th June 1878, Victoria to Wrangle, Oregon Steamship Company,
k trips. Year ending 30th June, 1879, same contractor, only special trips were
pe. Year ending 30th June 1880, Fort Wrangle appears bo have been reached via
isnora, by sbearner Cassiar, special brips.
Year ending June 30bh 1881, over bhe same route, same steamer, special
JLps. Year ending 30th June 1882, over the same route, contractor R. Lysebb,
c brips and ib would appear by bhe 20bh June 1883, (Schedule) bhab bhis service
k sbill in exisbence wibh same conbracbor.
CLINTON TO LILLOOET
Ib may nob be generally known bhab camels were ubilized in Bribish
Lumbia for mail bransporbabion, some six or eighb of bhem were used aboub 1872
the route from Cache Creek to Okanagan.  They proved a failure and were left
Grande Prairie, but they strayed away.  Some years afterwards some were seen
the vicinity of Kamloops. The company which brought them to this country
i the company building the Overland Telegraph Line via Alaska, which line
iched about Telegraph Creek when the Atlantic Cable proved a success, as a
ksequence its construction ceased. They imported these camels for packing,
they were not a success, and where these camels were obtained is not now
by easily traced. If they were hot, arid country animals, it is easy to underbid their failure. If on the other hand they had been brought from the Northern
t of China or Mongolia they might possibly have proved at least a partial
bcess. In the latter countries they live in the open when the temperature is
fer than minus 50 degrees Farenheit.
127. w CHAPTER     V
TELEGRAPH    AND    TELEPHONE    COMMUNICATION  CHAPTER  V
TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE COMMUNICATION.
CONTENTS
Anglo-American Russian system	
First line into Winnipeg, 1871.....	
Manitoba, Alberta and Saskatchewan provincial systems.
130
130
130
GOVERNMENT TELEGRAPHS;
Winnipeg to Livingstone 1876..  131
Livingstone to Edmonton 1876  131
The "Edmonton Bulletin" founded, 1880  131
Port Arthur to Selkirk, 1870.....  131
Qu'Appelle Station to Touchwood Hills, 1883. 132
Clark's Crossing to Prince Albert, 1883  132
Battleford to Edmonton, I885-6  132
Edmonton to Athabasca Landing .............. 132
Dunmore to Lethbridge, Macleod and Pincher
Creek, I885  132  TELEGRAPHS    AND    TELEPHONES
It is well known that telegraph lines have been usually established by
e railways and built along their lines. This, however, has not been the case
the part of Canada referred to in this article.
The following article is prepared from information furnished me by Dr.
am Shortt, head of the historical publications of the public archives of Canada,
der date of 2/6/20.00 "At the close of the investigations held in 1857 by the
itish Government  into the affairs of the Hudson's Bay Company, that company
dertook to open up the country between Red River and the Rocky Mountains,
d among other things to construct a telegraph line,  connecting wibh bhe American
stem of belegraphs.    Shortly after that the Anglo-American Russian system was
dertaken which was intended to connect America and Europe, via Siberia, by tele-
aph.    Its route lay across British Columbia in the neighbourhood of Kamloops,
d thence went north to the Yukon, and following down the Yukon, thence across
jaska to Behring Strait, and at the Strait was to connect with the Siberian
•stem.    The Hydson's Bay Company initiated proceedings to build a line from
©rgetown on the Red River to connect with this American-Anglo-Russian System,
lobably in the neighbourhood of Kamloops.    At that time the only route across
>e mountains which had been travelled to any ex±ent was through the Yellowhead
,ss, and practically followed the route of the C.N.R. to Kamloops".
"About  one hundred and fifty tons of telegraph wire was brought out and
ored at Fort Garry, and some of it probably at points further West.    Owing to
ie failure of the Anglo-American-Russian enterprise caused by the success in the
lying of the Atlantic cable this project was dropped.    The wire brought  out
.s afterwards disposed of to the Canadian Government and used by it for Canadian
legraph lines in the West."
"The first telegraph line into Winnipeg, probably the Western Union, was
fady for the first message on the 20th of November,  1871,  on which date messages
sre exchanged between Lieut. Governor Archibald at Fort Garry and Lord Lisgar,
jvernor-General of Canada.    This line was an extension of the American lines,
tossing the International boundary on the west bank of the Red River, and follow-
ig the government road from that point  into Winnipeg.    It was installed and for
toy years managed by Mr.  Horace McDougall,  brother of the late Hon. William
fcDougall. "
In Manitoba and Alberta the provincial governments have established tele-
lone lines,  in both cases acquiring them from the Bell Telephone Company and after-
irds extending them.    In Saskatchewan the telephone lines are to some extent
[ovincial, but largely they are private enterprises.    The same observations apply
■ptish Columbia.    At the present time there seems to be a tendency for
povincial governments to acquire the private telephone lines.    From bhe economic
tandpoint  it  is advisable that the whole telephone system in any one province
Tould be under one management.    With the rapid extension of a long distance tele-
nonic communication, and having in view wireless telephonic communication it would
3 advisable,  if practicable,  and probably there is  no reason why it should not
fove practicable, that the whole of the telephonic communications of Canada,
ILreless  included,  should be under one management.    Many of the lines originally
hilt as telegraph lines have been converted into telephone lines.  GOVERNMENT TELEGRAPHS
On the 17th of October 1874, a contract was let to Sifton, Glass and Company,
j* build a telegraph line from Winnipeg to Selkirk, thence along the  C.P.R.  survey
I then located, to Livingstone.    This line was in operation for its whole length
I 30th of June I876.    It has not been used for many years past.
On the 30th of October, 1874, a contract was let to one Richard Fuller of
Lnilton, Ontario, to build a telegraph line from Livingstone to the neighbourhood
I Edmonton,  following the route of the C.P.R. which was to be located shortly after-
ird.    This construction was started in 1875, and Battleford was reached in that
lar.   The route, lay in a nearly direct line from Livingstone to a point about
lur miles south-west of where Humboldt now is, being about on Sec.  7-37-23-W, of
Le 2nd.    That point was also called Humboldt.    Thence in a fairly direct line
h Clarke's Crossing of the South Saskatchewan river which is a point inhere the
•uradian National Railway crosses that stream en route to North Battleford.
tereafter it followed nearly due west striking the South Saskatchewan river about
ie centre of Tp. 39-9-W of the 3rd., thence following the south bank of the
Iskatchewan river west to Battleford, which is located on the flat lying between
ie Battle and Saskatchewan Rivers.    It then proceeded westerly, following, the
lute which approximabes bhab of bhe Canadian National Railway, to about Marshall
lation, thence it proceeded directly west to where Leduc new is and twenty miles
juth of Edmonbon..  Ibs roube skirted the south end of the Beaver Hills, and
[issed Hay Lakes in Tp. 49-21-W of the 4th.    This line was completed on the 31st
pcember I876,
ATelegraph station was established at Hay Lakes, some twenty five miles
ksb of Leduc, about 1877. The late Mr. Alexander Taylor of Edmonton was operator
t that point. In I876, the line was extended from Leduc into what is now Edmonton.
ie office was established on the south bank of the Saskatchewan, a short distance
•slow where the C.P.R. High level bridge is located, opposite to the then Hudson's
ly Post, and where the principal and upper ferry crossing the North Saskatchewan
Mrer was installed. The citizens of Edmonton furnished and erected poles and the
bvernment supplied the wire and strung it.
As a matter of interest in connection with this telegraphic connection,
b might be stated that the first newspaper in Edmonton was established during the
pnter of 1879-80.    The Hon. Frank Oliver, afterwards Minister of the Interior
B05-11 procured a small printing press and in October of that year the first
psue was made.    It was a small, weekly paper of about six by eight inches, two
kgesj subscript ion for the winter being two dollars.
On the 9th of February, 1875, a contract was entered into to construct a
Hue from Prince Arthur Landing, how Port Arthur, along bhe locabed line of bhe
[.P.R. bo Selkirk, Maniboba, which line was completed and open for traffic in 1878.  In 1882 a line was built from Qu'Appelle Station.    In October of that year
poles were set as far as the touchwood Hills.    In the early part of 1883, a
[egraph office was established at Fort Qu'Appelle, and during January and February
11883, bhe wires were strung to the Touchwood Hills joining on to the old line at
|boldt.    The line however, from Humboldt east to Selkirk and south to Winnipeg
not been operated for many years.    During 1883 a line was built from Clark's
fssing, about one mile west of Clarkboro on the Canadian Northern Railway down
west bank of the river to Duck Lake and on to Prince Albert.    One half of the
It of this was contributed by the Hudson's Bay Company and Messrs. Moore and Mac-
lell of Prince Albert, the Government paying the other half.
In 1885-6 a telegraph line was built from the original line seme thirty miles
It of Battleford north-westerly, following the trail which crossed the North
skatchewan at where Fort Pitt originally stood, which was in Tp.53-26-W 3rd.
then proceeded via Onion Lake, Frog Lake, Saddle Lake and Old Victoria,  now called
where it crossed the river and proceeded first southerly and westerly, and
bn south-westerly to Fort Saskatchewan,  and from there on to Edmonton.
In the year 1904 a telegraph line was built by the Government from Edmonton
|Llowing the road to Athabasca Landing,  and was extended from time to time till
[reached where Peace River Crossing now is,  keeping along the north of Lesser
pve Lake.    That line is still operated by the Government.
The Government also built a telegraph line in 1885 from Dunmore Junction
the mail line of the Canadian Pacific Railway to Lethbridge,  and on to MacLeod,
b from there westerly to Pincher Creek.    The Government also built  in 1885-6
telegraph line from Moose Jaw to Wood Mountain, and it is still being operated,
least in portions.
The rest of the telegraphic communications have been built and operated
the railways as these were constructed.    In some cases these lines are used
Iso as telephone line for dispatching.    To-day outside of the telegraph lines
fctioned, there is very little mileage.
On the 9th November 1874 a contract was let to build a telegraph line
Itween Cache Creek in B.C.  and Edmonton.    Little,   if anything, was ever done on
|at contract.
The settled portions of the western provinces are fairly fully served by
llephone lines.
132.  CHAPTER    VI
EARLY _N_A_V_I_G_A_T_IJ)_N_ 0F_ R I V E R S
CONTENTS
Page
D RIVER;
"North Star", first boat on Red River, 1859	
134
"The International"    1862.	
134
■SKittson line" and various other boats until railroad opened
in 1878.......	
134-5
Biniboine River	
136
KES MANITOBA AND WINNIPËGOSIS.	
136-7
BKATCHEWAN RIVER, NORTH BRANCH ........................... .....
137
.    "The Lily"	
137
"Manitoba",  "North West", and "Marquis", used during 1882,
1883, and 1884..................	
138
Carried about sixty per cent of H.B.  goods	
139
Employed in North West Rebellion, 1885	
139
SKATCHEWAN RIVER - SOUTH BRANCH and OLDMAN:
"Baroness",  "Alberta" and "Minnow"..........................
139
HABASCA,  PEACE, and MACKENZIE RIVERS;
Early fur trade routes of Hudson's Bay and North West Compan
ies..
140-1
Sir Alexander Mackenzie's voyage to the Pacific ocean.„	
142
David Thompson's trips over the mountains...................
142
Freight trail out from Edmont en to Athabasca Landing........
142
Steamers on Athabasca river running from Athabasca Landing
"Athabasca^ and "North Land Sun" and "Abhabasca No.2"..
142
Slave and Peace Rivers
"Grahame", 1882-3,  "Grahame", 1895...».................
143
Peace River from Peace River Landing, the Chutes to Hudson
Hope;    A mission boat,  "Peace River" and "D.A.Thomas"...
143
Edmonton to Grouard, Grouard to Peace River.	
144
Mackenzie rivers
BWrigley", 1886,  "Mackenzie River", 1908,  "Liard River",
1919.......
144.
133.  EARLY NAVIGATION OF RIVERS
RED RIVER
A sbeamer known as bhe "North Sbar" owned by Anson Northup, which ran bebween
|Anbhony and Sb. Cloud in Minnesoba, was equipped wibh machinery builb in Banger
oe, and bransporbed bo bhe Mississippi River.    This machinery was placed firsb in
sbeamer,  "Governor Ramsay" (which was afberwards burnt) and was bhen insballed
|bhe "North Sbar"»
In I858 bhe "North Sbar" was baken up bhe Mississippi, ib was said wibh bhe
Lent ion of transferring her to Lake Superior, which attempt was abandoned.    She
I; then brought to Crow Wing which was opposibe Fort Riley.    Northup decided he
ild build a new boab on bhe Red River and transfer to ib bhe machinery from bhe
pth Star" and any other material bhat would warranb bhe transportation.    The
pth Star" was taken bo pieces near Cull River on bhe Crow Wing River, and on bhe
fst of April 1859 the material transported by oxen reached Red River about opposite
mouth of the Cheyenne river by way of Ottertail and Detroit lakes.
A hull was constructed at that point and the machinery installed»    As soon as
mpleted sufficiently to be moved she steamed to Fort Abercrombie where cabins were
Jit on her.    On the 17th of May, 1859, she left there for Fort Garry and reached
latter point some days later.    On her arrival at Fort Garry she made an excursion
the mouth of the river, taking many citizens of the neighbourhood along.  (Evident-
the river must have been fairly high at thab season or she would have had difficul-
Jwibh bhe St. Andrew rapids).    On her reburn bo Fcrb Garry she bhen made a brip bo
brgebown and book passengers along.    She bhen proceeded bo Fort Abercrombie and was
Id by Northup bo Burbank and Blakeley, who loaded her wibh goods for bhe Hudson's
Company which were baken bo Fort Garry.    She no doubb continued bo ply on bhe
[l River for some years bebween Fort Abercrombie and Fcrb Garry,
The foregoing is probably reliable bub ib is only fair bo poinb out that
bording to an article that appeared in the Manitoba Free Press under date of
[/ember 8th, 1919,  it is not correct.    I think the author of the latter article
U drawing on his imagination considerably or else had been supplied with erroneous
It is stated that the last article was published in the St. Paul Dispatch
fenty-five years ago.    That would bring it back to 1894, at which date it was
pbably as difficult to obtain reliable information regarding what happened on the
|i River in 1858-59 as it is to-day.
In the winter of 1860-61^- the "International" was built at or near Fort
brcrombie,  in the interest of the Hudson's Bay Company, and made the first trip
Fort Garry in 1861, was managed by Mr. Kittson of St. Paul, formerly a Hudson's
\\f officer in Manitoba and with various repairs and renewals remained in commission
11 after the railway connection was established between Winnipeg and St, Paul in
[vember 1878.    In the winter of 1870 and 1871, the late James J. Hill built the
iamer "Selkirk" and shortly afterwards amalgamated with Kittson, and thus the
fcttson" line or officially known as the Red River Transportation Company line of
per Sbeamers came into being, and the "Selkirk" continued to ply on the Red River
tl railway connection was established.    In 1877 she brought down-
Hargrave, the historian of Red River, and a resident of Fort Garry from 1861
to 1870 states that the steamer was built in the autumn of 1861 at Georgetown
(which was a H.B.Co. Depot $0 miles north of Abercrombie and about 200 miles
south of Fort Garry), and that the steamer first reached Port Garry on the 26th
of May, 1862.    She was 150 feet long and 30 broad.   Registered 133 tons.    So
large a steamer, he states, was unsuited to the river, and had much trouble with
the bends.    Two hundred passengers reached Fort Garry on her first trip, most
of them subsequently crossing to B.C. by Yellowhead Pass, t
Dates here correspond with the MS. "Overland to Cariboo" by A.L. Fortune.  2.
b barges on which were bhe firsb locomotive,  flat cars and caboose,  for the late
Wph Whitehead, to be used in the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway
U first railway transportation outfit in Canada west of Ontario.    The advent of
|Ls is treated more fully in the article under railways.    In the winter of 1871 and
the steamer "Dakota" was built on the Upper Red River by the Kittson line and
htinued to ply for some years.
In 1873 the steamer "Cheyenne" was built.    Some years later she was converted
bo a passenger steamer.    Prior to that she was wholly confined to carrying freight
Ii towed barges or scows loaded with freight, also rafts of logs.
In 1873 a small screw boat, a propeller called the "Maggie" built in Hamilton
b brought by rail to Moorehead, and intended as a tug on Red Rivers    the venture
|s a failure.    She was owned by Hamilton, Ontario, interests.
In the winter of 1874 and 1875 an opposition steamship company known as the
^•chants Line was formed,  composed largely of Winnipeg interests, the late Mr.
H. Ashdown being at the head.    Two steamers were built at Moorehead, the
hnnesota" and "Manitoba",    The material timber for those two boats was procured
Cincinnati, Ohio, transferred by rail to Moorehead, there put together, and the
Ichinery built by bhe North Star works of Minneapolis installed, and service inau-
rated in May 1875, and the "Manitoba" reached Winnipeg on the 21st of May 1875,
[e "Minnesota" a few days later.    This Company had not been in existence more
an a few weeks, when on the 11th of June of bhab year one of its steamers, the
pnitoba" was sunk by colliding wibh a sbeamer of bhe rival company, bhe "Inber-
■tional"  on the Red River a short distance above Winnipeg.    The Merchants Company
w financially so weak, that this disaster so crippled it that the result was it
lid out all its interest to its rival.
From 1872, to the Autumn of 1875, the steamboating started at Moorehead where
e Northern Pacific crossed the Red River in 1872, prior to that from Fort Aber-
[ombie, some miles higher up the river.    In the autumn of 1875, an extension of
[at is now a part of the Great Northern system, was made from Clyndon on the
pbhern Pacific to Fisher's landing on the Red lake River, a few miles above where
joins the Red at Grand Forks, and this was the starting point for steamers till
■vember 1878, after which the railway took all the freight that would otherwise
|ve been brought down the Red River.    The only opposition other than mentioned
[at this Company then had till the railway came in November 1878, was flat-boating,
t the bonnage carried by bhem consbibubed a very small percenbage of bhe whole,
ling largely confined bo braffic bebween local poinbs.    Flatboating, however, in
[gh stages of water brought down first from Fort Abercrombie,  afberwards from
forehead and Fisher's Landing, a considerable amounb of goods bo Winnipeg.    Logs
Iso were floabed down from Dakota and Minnesota points, in some cases made into
pts and towed, and manufactured into lumber by a saw-mill located at Winnipeg.
Ith the advent of the railway into Winnipeg there was no further steamboating on
d River of any importance.    That has been the result on all rivers in North
lerica, excepting bhe rivers connecbing bhe Greab Lakes, and to some extent the
|>wer Ohio and the Mississippi below the mouth of the Ohio, and even in the latter
■se with that stream practically open all the year round and with a good depth
I water, the railroads have fairly killed
135.  traffic on it, except a one-way traffic of coal and metal coming from the
lintry tributary to the Ohio and Pennsylvania, and West Virginia, which traffic
floated down to supply the wants of the people located immediately on the banks
said streams.
In the winter of 1876 and 77, a small boat called the "Lady Helen" was
felt and operated by Hamilton McMicken of Winnipeg and for a few years ran
Jbween Winnipeg and Selkirk.
In bhe winber of 1878 and '79, a boab was builb ab Moorehead by Capbain
[lliam Robinson, now of Winnipeg, for plying on Lake Winnipeg, which service she
laugurated in bhe season of 1878. Her name was "W. Robinson". It was largely
gaged in handling timber and supplies for saw mills then established on Lake
tinipeg. It also brought in a considerable amount of railway construction
perial in the way of ties and piles, etc., to Selkirk. This was trans-shipped
the railway cars at the mouth of Cook's Creek, which stream was also a harbor
t wintering any craft that could conveniently reach that point.
ASSINIBOINE RIVER
In 1877 the first steamer the "Prince Rupert" went up the Assiniboine as
jr as Portage la Prairie, and more or less traffic was carried on that river sub-
quent to that date. In 1876, McArthur8s steamer the "Marquette" commenced running
I the Assiniboine, and in May of that year made one trip as far as Fort Ellice.
ivigation was however, carried on till the autumn of 1889, fairly regularly as far
I Fort Ellice. In 1879, bhe Red River braffic having pracbically ceased any amount
LJgafts were then available for navigation on the Assiniboine River. This navi-
tion continued until the Canadian Pacific Railway was open for operation as far
1st as Moosomin, which was about the first of August, 1882. After the freight
Ir point on the Assiniboine, Fort Ellice and above was freighted in by wagons and
Irts from Moosomin, or other points on the railway to the east. During the high
|ter of the spring of 1882 one boat went up as far as Fort Pelly on the Assiniboine
Hr. which is in Twp.32, R.32, W. 1st.
LAKE MANITOBA NAVIGATION
In 1880 a boat was built by Peter McArthur at Totogan, on the Whitemud
j.ver, a short distance (some three miles) above where that sbream empbies inbo
Ike Maniboba, and she plied for some years on Lake Maniboba. An attempt was made
[" him to reach Lake Winnipëgosis via bhe Waberhen River and Waberhen Lake, but
Is unsuccessful owing to boulder obstructions in the stream between Waberhen Lake
d Lake Manitoba.
It has been a dream or aspiration for many years to build a canal across
ladown Portage between Lake Maniboba and Winnipëgosis, and also a canal from Lake
laiboba bo bhe Assiniboine River, bhus pubbing Winnipeg in direcb waber communi-
ition wibh bhose Lakes. Ib was further proposed bo build a canal from Lake
Minipegosis bo Cedar Lake, and extend bhe waber communication to the Saskatchewan
Lver, north and south branches. But such has never been realized and it is not
I'obable that it ever will be. Nature has fitted the country in the three Prairie
pvinces so that it can be better served by railways than by canals or rivers,
136.  ver,  ideas seem bo die hard,  and many are sbill seriously advocabing bhe canalisons of bhe Saskabchewan and other rivers.    A little study of the conditions
bh nature has imposed would convince anyone who had a knowledge of the subject
jthe fubiliby of making bhe abbempb.
NAVIGATION OF THE SASKATCHEWAN & NORTH BRANCH THEREOF
In 1874 an attempt was made by the Hudson's Bay Company to send supplies
bhe Saskabchewan River and bhe north branch as far west as Edmonton.    The first
erne was the building of a boat which was to go up the then Little Saskatchewan,
Bt. Martin's River (now called Dauphin River) from Lake Winnipeg, then by St.
pin's Lake and Fairford River into Lake Manitoba, then by Lake Manitoba, Waterhen
\9 Waterhen River,  and Lake Winnipëgosis to Mossy Portage at the north end of
s Winnipëgosis.    A warehouse was erected on Lake Winnipëgosis at Mossy Portage
a road constructed from there to Cedar Lake.    From Cedar Lake the scheme was
jpe first year to carry goods by York boats, after that it was proposed to build
1er steamers.
A boat was built at Lower Fort Garry or the Stone Fort in the winter of 1873
74, called "The Chief Commissioner" to cover the ground between Lower Fort Garry
Mossy Portage.    Cord-wood was cut and piled along the route for her use.    She
1er made the trip there being several falls or rapids between St, Martins' Lake and
p Winnipeg she could not surmount.
After this scheme proved a failure, the "Chief Commissioner" was tried on Lake
hipeg, but she proved unfitted to stand the buffetting from the waves on a consid-
ble portion of that body of water, and in 1875> a steamer most suitable for the
ligation of Lake Winnipeg was built, also at Lower Fort Garry, named the "Colvil"
paunch craft.    She continued plying on the route between the Stone Fort, Selkirk
Grand Rapids for several years, and during high water in the Red River went up as
as Winnipeg.    The Hudson's Bay Company had built a warehouse at the mouth of
k's Creek, and also at Grand Rapids.
In 1878, and for several years thereafter a railway track connected what is
East Selkirk with the"mouth of Cook's Creek where said warehouse stood.    She
p occasionally made trips to Norway House at the north end of Lake Winnipeg,
to Fort Alexander on the Winnipeg River.    She continued in commission until
[ffic by way of Grand Rapids largely ceased in I885.
In 1877 the Hudson's Bay Company had for the transportation of goods both
Is completed a tramway about four miles in length at Grand Rapids, thereby over-
ping the very heavy rapids at that point.
"Steamer Lily".    In 1878 the Hudson's Bay Company built a stern-wheel steam-
It named the "Lily" at the head of the Grand Rapids on the Saskatchewan River.    The
U. was of steel plates.    All ironworks, steel plates, boilers, engines, and other
pings were supplied by "Yarrows" of either London or Liverpool and were shipped out
a knocked down condition by water to Duluth, railway to Fisher's Landing, Red River
paers to Selkirk, and to Grand Rapids by steamer "Colvil".    She was a small boat and
between Grand Rapids and Battleford for some years.    She made a trip to Edmonton in
[L, with a general cargo, but on her return down the river she ran on a rock and was
phed in a sinking condition near Fort
Huckvale, Mayor of Medicine Hab, who is extremely well informed op. such mabbers,
tes as follows concerning the steamer "Lily":- The steamer "Lily" came to an un-
ely end on the South Saskatchewan in 1884.    Having been sent up as far as Medicine
3 ran on rocks on the return trip about Drowning Ford, now called the Rapid
Irows, which is about on the line between Tps. 17, Rs. 3 and 4, W. 4th,, and was
ken up.     I believe by the force of the river.    There are still some boilers there
ch are probably hers.
"•-..■-■■■ 137.	  tkabchewan.    Afber bemporary repairs she was pumped out and returned to Edmonton
lire she was hauled out and repaired the following winter and returned to the lower
tkatchewan in^the spring of 1882.    Shortly after her hull was sheathed with oak
|mks which ruined her as a light draft vessel, and she was condemned and hauled
at Prince Albert.
Mr. Huckvale, Mayor of Medicine Hat, who is extremely well informed on such
Iters,  states as follows concerning the steamer "Lily":-
"The steamer "Lily" came to an untimely end on the South Saskatchewan
in 1884,    Having been sent up as far as Medicine Hat she ran on rocks on
the return trip about Drowning Ford, now called the Rapid Narrows, which
is about on the line between townships 17, ranges 3 and 4,- W, 4th Mer.,
and was broken up.    I believe by the force of the river.    There are still
some boilers there which are probably hers".
In 1881 one of the stern-wheel steamers "Minnesota11 which was built at
brehead in the winter of 1875 and 1876 was attempted to be towed to Grand Rapids
in the fall.    Though the machinery was taken out of her she went to pieces
the Lake.    In the spring of 1882 three boats were towed out early in the
feson across the Lake.    They were called "Manitoba",  "North-West'' and "Marquis".
U last is said to have been one of the best boats ever built for navigation on
\3 Canadian rivers embraced in this article.    They were towed across by the steamer
5n known as the "Princess".    These three boats were warped up through the Grand
bids to the comparatively calm waters above, a very difficult; and expensive
partaking.    They had, however, owing to adverse currents to be warped across Cross
a distance of about five miles.    This warping was done by means of a fixed
ble.
These boats between the head of Grand Rapids and up the main river and north
fench as far west as Edmonton did good business for a year or two,- but subsequent
early autumn of 1883 when the Canadian Pacific Railway was open, very little
laffic was carried on the river above Prince Albert.    In fact, in the autumn of
|82 and winter of 1882 and '83, freight from Qu'Appelle was carried by team.    One
the steamers,  "North-West", made one trip as far as Edmonton in the summer of
|84, but that was the last.    It is stated, however, by some that she continued
the river till 1889 when she was hauled out at Edmonton.    Her mission was
bsfly to take flour, and other supplies from Edmonton down the river to various
puts like Fort Pitt, Saddle Lake, Landing at which points considerable Indian
pplies were landed and also supplies for the lac La Biche district.
It was found more satisfactory to freight in supplies to such points as
|ince Albert from Qu'Appelle;  Battleford from Swift Current; and Edmonton from
|lgary.    Such freighting was largely done by half-breeds wibh carts drawn by
pies or oxen.    The rabes did nob exceed aboub 1 1/4 cent per pound, per mile,
[d ab bimes ib was done for fifty per cent of that, and occasionally less»
Another attempt at river navigation was made by the Hudson's Bay Company in
spring of 1883»    Goods were attempted to be taken by means of York and
[argeonhead boats from Swift Current, down Swift Current Creek to the South
Ijlptchewan river, and down the latter river to about where the Canadian Northern
ilway crossed the South Saskatchewan river, known as Clarke's Crossing»    The goods
jre then to be freighted across to the North Saskatchewan river, a distance of
iisjoximately twenty-five miles, and from there to be taken by sbeamers bo poinbs as
I west as Edmonton»    A brigade of boats was brought out as far as Swift Current
Id launched in Swift Current creek at that point.    After two days trying to profess down that stream the boats found themselves within a stone's^Ehrow of the
[in line of the Canadian Pacific Railway at a point twenty miles nearer Winnipeg
[an where they had started from a Swift Current, consequently this scheme was
landoned.  After, and to some considerable extent prior, to 1883, bhe goods required
|>r bhe Upper Saskatchewan were supplied from Prince Albert, Battleford and
Bmonbon, and were freighbed by beams from bhe main line of bhe Canadian Pacific
tilway.
In 1883 roubes for bhe carriage of goods,  express and evenbually mail, were
kid out connecting the following points ; from Qu'Appelle,  (then known as Troy)
h the Canadian Pacific Railway via Fort Qu'Appelle, Touchwood Hills, Humboldt,
ktoche, Duck Lake bo Prince Albert.    From Swift Current on the C.P.R. to
kttleford.    From Calgary to Edmonton via what is practically the route of the C.
kd E. railway to Edmonton.
The establishment of the foregoing routes practically killed the North
kskatchewan River traffic, excepting Edmonton, Battleford and Prince Albert,
rom which points a certain amount of goods were shipped down stream on flat boats.
h 1884 there was one trip made on the river from Prince Albert to Edmonton and
kturn by sbeamer.    During bhe half-breed and Indian uprising,  1885, both the
prth and Soubh Saskabchewan Rivers were used by sbeamers for bhe bransporb of
kn and supplies bebween Grand Rapids and Edmonbon, and on bhe Soubh Saskabchewan
s far up bhab sbream as Medicine Hab.
Ib is bo be borne in mind,  bhat ab no bime for very many years prior bo 1883
sre the goods required by other than the Hudson's Bay Company in that country carried
i the river.    The transportation of goods on said river was confined wholly bo bhose -
elonging bo said Company, and probably nob in any year was 60$ of ibs goods brans-
prbed by water, the balance together with that of bhe sebblers and braders being
ransported by carts.    Ib is probable bhab in 1882, upwards of 60$ of all bhe goods
squired for bhe North Saskatchewan and north of it was freighbed in by carts,  ex-
.spbing bhose,  of course, bhab entered via bhe Beaver and Clearwaber rivers.
SOUTH SASKATCHEWAN & OLDMAN RIVERS
The next navigation worth speaking of was the South Saskatchewan River, and
lie Belly (now the Old Man River) as far west as Lethbridge and the following,
ith some slight changes is a quotation from a letter by Mr. H. McBeth, who
pen occupied a prominent position with the North West Coal, and Navigation Company
^Lethbridge which company conducbed bhe enberprises and whose narrabive can be
pplicibly relied upon.
"        "Commencemenb was made in bhe early fall of 1885, by bhe building
of bhe sbeamer "Baroness", and some bwelve or sixteen barges.    The latter
were built at Macleod and the former at Coalbanks - where Lethbridge is now
located.    The hull of the Baroness was finished in the spring of 1884, and
was floated down to Medicine Hat where the machinery was installed and the
upper deck and pilot-house were put on.    The material used in the construction of this boat, as well as the barges was of pine, Douglas Fir, from a
wrin  operated by bhe Company in bhe Porcupine Hills, locabed aboub on Sec.
20-9-29    - W, 4bh."
Ab bhe bime bhe "Baroness" was under consbrucbion, bhe sbeamer "Alberta"
was also under construction at Medicine Hat. This boat was built of oak
brought from the East.
In the meantime the "Minnow" a small steamer purchased by the Company in
Winnipeg had arrived and was launched.    On the completion of bhe "Alberta" and
he "Baroness" in the spring of 1884, this fleet of three steamers started up the
iver for the Coalbanks at which place the barges were being loaded with coal ready
'or their arrival.
139.  7o
The sbeamers before leaving Medicine Hat loaded up all the freight for
[cleod and district which had accumulated there while awaiting their completion,
e two larger of these boats, the Baroness and Alberta made §everal trips up and
wn the river during that season, but it was soon discovered that the only
biod of the season which they could be operated with any degree of satisfaction
|s during that of high water.    It was also discovered at the same time that at
ks period of navigation, the boats had not the necessary amount of power to
[opel them up stream, on account of its rapid flow together with the number of
[rges required to equip themselves for the return journey, so the season closed
d negotiations were started to build the narrow gauge railway from Dunmore to
ie Coalbanks.
In April of I885, the Saskatchewan half-breed and Indian uprising broke out,
[d the three steamers with several barges were leased to the Dominion Government.
left Medicine Hat with the steamers early in April, and proceeded down the river,
[ok on a number of soldiers and their stores at Saskatchewan Landing (the crossing
the trail from Swift Current to Battleford) and then proceeded on down stream
Clarke's Crossing (now Saskatoon).    Clarke's Crossing is about 15 miles below
skatoon, at which point more soldiers and supplies were taken aboard, and proceeded
km the stream, finally arriving at Batoche and the Forks of the Saskatchewan
Lver.    From this point we proceeded up stream to Prince Albert,  Battleford and
ponton,  carrying soldiers and supplies.    When the Rebellion was over, the
ldiers for Winnipeg and Eastern Canada with their stores were taken aboard, and
th a barge full of wounded soldiers started down the Saskatchewan River, finally
[riving at Grand Rapids, the mouth of the Saskatchewan into Winnipeg.    At this
lint our cargo of soldiers and their stores were transferred into Lake Winnipeg
[ats, and we returned up the Saskatchewan.
"The Minnow" was sold to a lumber firm at Battleford on the return trip.
je "Alberta" and the "Baroness" being brought to Medicine Hat.    At this point
e "Alberta" was hauled out of the stream, dismantled, the machinery being
aded on the "Baroness" which was brought to Lethbridge and also dismantled,
e hull of this boat was also pulled out of the river, and the remains of it
[e still to be seen on the banks of the river to-day 1919.
The "Minnow" no doubt was transported from Winnipeg to Medicine Hat by C.P.
.xlway flat cars.
It might be interesting to relate that the "Coal Co." in I884 advertised in
ie Macleod Gazette that it was prepared to accept freight from Medicine Hat to
.cleod by boat.    The firm of I.G. Baker and Company took all,  or nearly all their
fflieity at 80 cts. per cwt.    By hard work the steamer got up as far as the mouth
' the Little Bow and then the Company hired Baker's "bull teams" to haul the
bight the rest of the way to Macleod at $ 1.00 per cwt.    I think that only one
[rge ever reached Lethbridge on the return trip from Medicine Hat.
ATHABASCA. PEACE & MACKENZIE RIVER NAVIGATION
As having a bearing on the transportation on the waters of the Athabasca,
face and Mackenzie River, drainage and tributaries,  it would probably be well
[ recapitulate.
There were for the west generally, including the Athabasca, Peace and
ickenzie rivers, two main sources of supply for goods for trading,    Oneby the
[dson's Bay, which was used chiefly, if not altogether, by the Hudson's Bay Co,
[e other from Montreal via Lake Superior waters and so on to Lake itfinnipeg waters
liich were used originally largely by the North West Fur Trading Company. The Hudson's
iy Company established a line of communication for goods between.York Factory up the
[yes River and so on through to Norway House near the north end of Lake Winnipeg.  When it became desirable to send in supplies to Lake Athabasca and the
ptntry tributary thereto on the Mackenzie and Peace Rivers the Hudson's Bay Co.,
|it in bheir supplies from Churchill and bhen bhrough by Reindeer and Wallasbon
:es, Black River and Black Lake and so on bo bhe easb end of Lake Athabasca (Fond
Lac).    Aa the North West Fur Trading Company extended its operations westerly
approached Lake Athabasca by the following routes starting at Cumberland House
the Saskatchewan River, then through by the chain of Lakes to Churchill River,
n up the latter via Ile de la Crosse Lake, Peter Pound Lake, Lac La Loche and
on by the Metly Portage or as frequently called Grand Portage, to the Clearwater
rer and down the latter to the Athabasca which was reached where Fort McMurray now
I    After the amalgamation of the two companies, the Hudson's Bay Company appear
have brought in their supplies from York Factory via Norway House and Grand Rapids
i so on to Cumberland and then followed the route which appears to have been first
tablished by the North West Fur Trading Company through to the Athabasca River.
Is company may also to some extent have gone through to Lake Athabasca via
Lndeer Wallaston and Black Lake, bhe roube already described»
The North West Fur Trading Company also laid out a route leaving the Churchill
rer at Lake Ile de la Crosse, following up the Beaver River from its outlet to
3 source near Lake la Biche, portaging into the latter lake and then taking the Ia
;he River into the Athabasca»    There is no doubt that the route was very cons id-
Ifely travelled by individuals particularly if they were in a hurry, but it would
Dear probable bhab nob many goods were baken into bhe counbry by that roube excepb-
so far as bhey would be required by bhe posbs along bhe Saskabchewan from
nonton west and also possibly by the Lake Ste» Anne and Lesser Slave Lakes trade»
is probably doubtful, however,  if very many goods even for those points ever
iched their destination over the Beaver River route.    When the traffic became
fivier over the Metly or Grand Portage, oxen and carts were put on it to transport
Dds.    It is stated bhab bhe portage was aboub eighbeen miles in lengbh and that
divide between the Clearwater and Churchill drainages was a very considerable
Lght.  \wm*
The first crossing of the continent of America, from ocean to ocean was made
[1793, by Sir Alexander MacKenzie, who had spent the winter preceding on the
•th bank of Peace River about opposite the mouth of the Smoky.    He went up the
Lee River and so on to the Pacific Coast reaching Belle Coola and the Burke
Let on 22nd July, 1793.    Burke Inlet is some distance south of where Prince
pert is.''
The second crossing made in Canadian territory was under the auspices of the
ke Company by David Thompson, the astronomer.
Thompson first crossed the summit of the Rocky Mts. by bhe Howse Pass on bhe
th June, 1807; reaching bhab point by the North Saskatchewan River.   His house
be he wintered he named "Kootanae House" located on the flats of the Columbia
kr the bank of Tobey Creek, a short distance north of the north end of the Lower
pmbia Lake, now called Lake Windermere.    He returned crossing the summit of
mountains on bhe 22nd June, 1808, and went west again in the autumn of bhab
kr crossing said summib on the 27th October.   On attempting his next trip, the
Ird, in 1810, he was turned back by the Kootanae Indians.    He then returned to
ttry Mountain House, followed down the river for some distance, then struck
jth-westerly to Jasper Lake, and continued up the Athabasca River and over the
lumit via Athabasca Pass, and down the Wood River to where it empties into the
Lumbia at the mouth   of bhe Canoe River ab Boab Encampmenb.    Bebween January 6th
1 the 18th, 1811, he was travelling between the mouth of the Miette which stream
I ids in the summit of Yellowhead Pass and the mouth of Wood River.    On the 15th
June 1811, he reached the mouth of the Columbia and was back at Boat Encampment
the 18th September of that year.    He had probably heard of the Yellowhead Pass,
on this return trip he proceeded for two days from Boat Encampment up the
lice River looking for a Pass and then returned not having found it.
There also appears to have been communication established by the North-West
\? Trading Company and continued by the Hudson's Bay Co. from Lake St. Anne,
œ forty miles west of Edmonton, to Fort Assiniboine on the Athabasca River on
:. 2-26-6 W, 5th,    (This latter post was abandoned in 1876»    It stood on the
rbh bank of the Athabasca River»    The route then passed over to high mountainous
Lntry and continued to the west end of Lesser Slave Lake and to the mouth of
3 Smoky River on the Peace.
Until, and including 1885 all of the supplies for the Hudson's Bay Company
h other traders on the Lower Abhabasca,  Mackenzie and Lower Peace River waters
re brought  in by the route or routes already mentioned via the Churchill, Methy
rtage and Clearwater River.    In I876 the Hudson's Bay Company decided to bring
a certain amount of their supplies to that country via Edmonton and a road was
It from Edmonton to Athabasca Landing, by Joseph McDonald of Edmonton, in the
later of 1876-77, he being bhe first officer in charge.
In 1879, considerable improvemenb in bhe way of widening and corduroying
|s done under bhe Supervision of Mr. Leslie Wood, John Sinclair being in charge
bhe men cubbing out,grading and bridge building.    The Hudson's Bay Company
lilt a stern-wheel steamer called the Abhabasca and had it in use late in the
ason of 1885»    She ran to Grand Rapids on the Athabasca which is in Twps. 84-5
nge 17, W»5th.    A bramway was built over Grand Island ab that point and goods
ansf erred.    From there to Fort McMurray, freight was carried in York and
jurgeonhead Boats.
This steamer went up the Athabasca River from Athabasca Landing to a few
[les above the mouth of the Lesser Slave River or Mirror Landing. ^From there
kds were carried by Tcrk and Sturgeonhead boabs bo bhe head of Lesser Slave
[ke and freighted across* to where the town of Peace River is situated»    This
learner Athabasca ran till the year 1897, and for some time after that transport-
lion was by means of Sturgeonhead boats»
 142.	  10,
In 1903, Messrs. Cornwall and Barber built a small stern-wheel steamer
[Athabasca Landing called the "North-Land Sun".    She ran on the river from
[abasca Landing down to Grand Rapids and up to Mirror Landing and continued to
on that route till 1914, when she was taken over the Grand Rapids in the
(abasca and is now, 1920, running between Fort McMurray and Smith's Landing
is called the "North Land Echo".    In 1906, Messrs. Cornwall and Barber put on
fewr Slave Lake a light draft side wheel steamer called the "Northern Land
pit".    She ran from a point on Lesser Slave River about fourteen miles above
mouth to Grouard at the head of the lake,  and continued in service there until
E.D. & B.C. Road was built,  and possibly she may still be doing some work
|und Lesser Slave Lake.
In 1912, the Steamer "Athabasca No. 2" was built at Athabasca La&ing by the
[son's Bay Company, designed to run down the river to Grand Rapids, and up the
1er to above Mirror Landing on Lesser Slave River.    She continued in that route
1 1914, when she ran down over the rapids and proceeded to the Chutes on the
Ice River some forty miles below Fort Vermillion, and during the winter of 1914
she was hauled to above the Chutes and launched and operabed from bhe Chubes
[Hudson's Hope in the years 1915-16.
FORT MCMJRRAY TO FITZGERALD ON THE SLAVE RIVER AND TO
 PEACE RIVER	
In 1882 - 1883, the Hudson's Bay Co, built a steamer called the "Grahame" a
[rn wheel flat-bottomed boat.    She ran from McMurray to Fitzgerald and also up
Peace River to the Chutes furnishing to the Hudson's Bay and ho other trading
Its, transportation on the Athabasca, Slave and Peace Rivers between the points
[tioned.    The second steamer of that name was built in 1895, f°r the same run
she or her successor by the same name is still  running (1920),
PEACE RIVER NAVIGATION FROM THE CHUTES TO HUDSON'S HOPE
I    The first steamer on the Peace River was built by the Roman Catholic Mission,
was of small capacity intended to the Mission work, but was utilized as far as
jld be, for general freight and passenger purposes.    She ran three or four years
ween the Chutes and Hudson's Hope up till about 1909.    She was built at the
sion which is situated on the north bank of the Peace River some two or three
.es above the mouth of the Smoky.    She probably was constructed about 1902-3.
In 1905, the Hudson's Bay Company built a steamer called the "Peace River",
[ch operated until the steamer "Athabasca" was put on by the same company in 1915*
In the winter of 1917-18, the D. A. Thomas Co, built the steamer "D.A. Thomas"
then made a contract to handle the Hudson's Bay freight on the Peace River from
arabes to Hudson's Hope, at a rate which that company considered was less than
would cost them to do it by the steamer "Athabasca",    Reference has been made
MThistory of the "Athabasca",    The reason given for the "D,A. Thomas" boat being
.e to do the freighting cheaper than the Hudson's Bay Company could, was because
•ugh double the capacity, it cost very little to operate her.    Up to and
luding 1920, the "D.A, Thomas" operated season was a very short one, in other
[ds she was out of the water fully fifty percent of the season of navigation,
before the argument would appear to lose some of its force.
From Peace River, the point the E.D. & B.C. Ry. crosses the Peace up to
[son's Hope and for some distance up the Smoky, there are two or three small
[oline driven boats which carry occasional passengers and a small amount of freight.  ROUTES FROM PEACE RIVER TO EDMONTON
The road from Grouard at the head of the Lesser Slave Lake to Peace river
•ossing was first cut in 1878.    One, Charles Anderson, it has been stated, was
la charge of the work, but he informed me that Mr. John Baxter, afterwards prominent-
b connected with the "Quern Ranch" south of Calgary, was in charge of this "work,
[lis route was used till the construction of the E.D. & B.C. Ry, about 1914.
It might be well to mention that there was an old route travelled to a small
xfcenb by packhorse in the summer and dog teams in the winter, from Edmonton to
„ Albert, thence to Lac La Norme, and bhence to a point slightly below Fort
bsiniboine; thence by boat down the Athabasca to the mouth of the Lesser Slave
per by Mirror Landing,  and from there by the route already mentioned to Grouard»
p the winter time, there was also a dog sleigh route in a very direct line from
bsiniboine to the West end of Lesser Slave Lake, over the Swan Hills or Mountains.
MACKENZIE RIVER NAVIGATION
In 1893, the Hudson*s Bay Company built at the lower end of the Rapids at
biths Landing a sbeamer called bhe "Wrigley" which ran from Smibh's Landing down
Te Mackenzie bo Fort Simpson.    She was followed in 1908 by a steamer called bhe
Mackenzie River" which is sbill running.    A boab was builb called bhe "Liard
tver" and was put together at Smibh's Landing in bhe winber of 1918 and 1919, bo
b operabed on bhe Liard and Nelson Rivers.    The sbeamer, "Wrigley" and "Mackenzie
iver" occasionally went down as far as Fort McPherson at the mouth of Peal River
lich is located on Peel river some 40 miles j between Fort McPherson and Herschel
bland communication is kept up by small craft propelled by steam or gasoline.
During 1921,  owing to the oil excitement in bhe viciniby of Fort Norman
pveral crafb, mostly small have been installed on this route.
EXTRACT FROM THE REPORT OF W. OGILVIE TO THE DEPARTMENT
 OF THE INTERIOR 1882.1	
The steamer Wrigley, was built at Fort Smith, by the Hudson's Bay Company,
a 1886, and made her first trip in 1887.    The magnitude, of such an undertaking,
pall as she is,  can be appreciabed when we know bhab every piece of lumber used
q her consbrucbion had bo be sawn by hand.    All her machinery had bo be trans-
prbed upwards of 100 miles by horses over prebby bad road, and bhen taken nearly
W) miles in scows and 300 on the Company's Steamer "Grahame",    Her dimensions
Is given me by Captain Bell are eighty feet keel, fourteen feet beam, five to six
pet draught at stern when loaded and four to five at bow.    Her propeller is a four
id a half feet four bladed screw with adjustable blades»    Her engine manufactured
F the John Doty Engine Co, of Toronto, with about 60 lbs. pressure, will drive
pr about 8 miles an hour but she can be driven ten.    In the course of a season
pe requirements of the Company's service necessitate her travelling about 6,500
pes, and her may-imnm load is about thirty tons.    In this connection I will here
bate that the two steamers plying in the Athabasca, Peace and Great Slave Rivers
amed respectively "Grahame" and "Athabasca" (the latter above Grand Rapids on the
phabasca and on Lesser Slave Rivers) are flat bottomed stern wheelers capable of
prying one hundred and forty tons if required; with this load I was told they
iuld draw two and a half to three feet of water.    Loaded light they draw less than
po feet.    They are said to be capable of steaming twelve miles an hour in dead
Iter, they do not try more than that.    The "Grahame" was built at Fort Chipew-
an in 1882 and 1883 and as in the case of the "Wrigley" all the lumber for her
fed to be sawn by hand.    The "Athabasca" was built at Athabasca Landing but in her
Hpruction bhe aid of a Wabrous Portable sawmill was obtained. The intention when
he was built was to run her up to Lesser Slave Lake Post at the West end of the
kke, but up to date she has not succeeded in doing so."      1.    Sessional papers,
ttawa, 1893, Vol.8, Sessional Paper 13, Part VII, P.6.
144.  CHAPTER      VII.
TRANSPORTATION AND ROUTES OF SAME
No, 1 ^If^t Page
Transporbabion by canoes, dogs and toboggans, horses and carts ...... 146
Indian social and travelling customs  147
Hunters' and fur collectors' travelling customs  147
Routes of the fur traders, Montreal to the West..  148
Fort William, the great rendezvous,  erected.  149
Southern Alberta a terra incognito to the early fur traders.  149
Sir Alexander Mackenzie's crossing of the  continent........  150
Thompson back and forth over the mountains and to the mouth of the
Columbia  150
Fraser discovers the river named after him... , 150
The Dawson Road.    Wolsely expedition over it...........  151
Passengers and freight by York and Sturgeonhead boats................ 151-2
Flat-boating and timber-driving to early settlements. ., 153
-King's Highway along Red River .,....,,,...  153
Trails Fort Garry to Edmonton..................  154
"      Edmonton to Morley, and others...................  155-6
145.  TRANSPORTATION AND ROUTES OF SAME
No. 1
EARLY TRANSPORTATION IN THE THREE PRAIRIE PROVINCES
including also the route of the Boundary Commission
Trail and bhab taken by the Mounted Police of 1874.
Also some incidents connected with the early settlement of Southern Alberta and S.E. Saskatchewan.
There is a marked distinction in type and habits between the Indians dwelling
n the plains and those on the wooded area.    Even in the once tribe of the Crées,
art of which lives on the plains and the remainder in the woods, this difference
Is easily seen.
Outside of the great treeless plains of the three prairie provinces drained
ly the South Saskatchewan and its tributaries and to a considerable extent the
Iributaries, particularly the Souris and Qu'Appelle, the Assiniboine, the Indians
lived during a large part of each year along the lakes and streams which were
navigable by canoes when not frozen, and transportation was by that means.    During
[.he remainder of the year conveyance was usually by dogs and toboggans.    Later
throughout the plains horses and travois were used.    Afterwards carts were
jnployed.    It is not quite clear at what time carts were first introduced, but
lertainly not before the fur traders of the Hudson's Bay Company and the North
■est Company arrived, probably not till the first quarter of the nineteenth century,
lor is it clear just how early horses were introduced.    It is likely they were not
such used before the advent of Lord Selkirk.
In the open parts of the country extending, say, from the headwaters of the
pour is to the mountains, horses were brought in from the south by migrating Indians,
probably by the Blackfeet tribes.    Under the term "Blackfeet" are included the
Bloods, Peigans, Crows and Gros ventres, all allied and practically the same race.
Ihey all roamed at one time as far south as Mexico and their horses no doubt originally came from that country where they were introduced by the Spaniards.
Paleontologists tell us that from the fossil remains it is evident that the
horse was a native of this continent and was originally a five-toed animal. Prior
io the advent of the Spaniards there is no evidence that in the process of evolution he had reached the stage of the modern horse. Probably prior there he became
in extinct species.
The open-plain Indians used horses almost altogether for transportation and,
po a slight extent, dogs.    On the prairies horses found the finest pasturage, a
fair supply of water and for the most part,  good winter feeding,  and hence increased
rapidly.    In winter they would paw off the snow to enable them bo graze and if
fhey had sufficienb feed bhey could sband any amounb of cold.
146.  |iiitt*Ét
2.
Among bhe Indians, all of the family, men women and children, where conditions
1ère suitable, rode horses, and in moving their camps the tent-poles were used for
ravois, on which any luggage they had was packed.    Those unable to walk or ride,
loo young or infirm were carried on a bed built on these travois.    The dogs were
kilized for dragging along the travois.    They never used carts to any extent,
■ at all, until after they came under treaty.    At that time they procured light
jnd heavy wagons but even so that great majority -when travelling, rode.
Whether the Indians of the Canadian West, before the advent of the Whites
Iver had carts is doubtful.    It is possible they were introduced by the Whites
fcr Half-breeds.    So far as the territory under discussion is concerned, those
larts were made out of the native woods, axles and wheels of oak when available,
lad had not one piece of iron in their construction.    Later a draw-pin in the
lhaft for ; convenience was of iron, but a wooden peg would have fairly met the
;onditions.    The harness was wholly shagnappi (semi-tanned leather) made of deer,
luffalo or cow hide.    The saddles were home-made and there was no wood in their
lonstruet ion.    The bit which originally was either wood or leather thong was later
I iron.    Buckles were unknown.    For lashings this leather was twisted into ropes
ind answered the conditions admirably.    In case the felloes or hubs of the cart-wheels
[split they were wrapped around with heavy shagnappi moistened, and while in a
Indstened condition, drawn very tightly and fastened, and when it shrunk it could
pot be detached unless cut off or worn out.
The tents and teepees were made from the hides of game.    In the wooded
oortions log huts were erected,  and a chimney made of wood and mud.    For windows,
fish skin was used.    It admitted sufficient light but was not transparent.    Bedding
■as originally buffalo robes or other hides tanned with the hair left on.    Later
Blankets were obtained when brought in by the traders.    Meat,  game and fish were
the chief diet.    The roots of native plants were usually the only vegetable eaten.
They appear to have been always fond of tea when they could obtain it,  and utilized
the leaves of certain shrubs or bushes as a substitute for bhe beas of commerce.
Kgir bobacco was home grown.    A large amounb of Kinni-Kinic (inside bark of bhe
pillow) was smoked.    If mixed wibh bobacco a very considerable improvement was
kffected in it.    At certain points and during certain periods, an amount of tobacco was grown.    The term "Kinni-Kinic" was also applied to bhe leaves of a
[ground planb.    These somewhat resembled bhe leaves of bhe wintergreen.    They
were sometimes gathered in large quantities, dried, and used as a substibube for
tobacco, bub much bhe larger amounb used was produced from bhe willow bark.    The
kfoods'  Indians lived largely in hubs, winber and summer.    Some of bhe Indians of
Rhe Plains lived in hubs in winber along bhe river banks where bhese were wooded,
jbut a greater part of the time in teepees.
Travelling with these carts was easy where the country was open.    The horses
lor oxen for transportation by carts found sufficient food along the trail.   Not
[much travelling or freighting was done in the winter, excepting between points
[not many miles apart or in the territory subject to chinooks, where usually there
^Blitble or no snow, and bhe pasburage was good.
Ordinarily bhe buffalo hunber and bhose collecbing furs bravelled in large
paravans composed of carts drawn wholly by ponies or small horses, on horseback.
■In the later days the chief of the outfit, together with his wife and any small
■hildren, might travel in light spring wagons.    The hunbers when nob acbively
engaged in running buffalo, usually bravelled in carts, only one man being mounted,
unless bhey were likely bo meeb wibh game or hosbile parties.    With each caravan
[of carts, there was usually a considerable band of spare ponies or horses to be
[«sed in the carts when necessary or when required for riding.  The speed and endurance of the ponies utilized in running down the buffalo
as wonderful.    The rivers, when not fordable, were crossed by rafts made of their
jart bodies, with wheels lashed underneath.    Even the wheel of the cart with a
teased tanned buffalo hide over it made a boat which could readily be propelled
Icross a river by one man.    The contents of the carts were usually transported
p the rafts towed by rawhide ropes; the horses swam.
I   Even in I860, except for short distances connecting Prairie areas and portions
if the King's Highway, hereafter alluded to, there were few roads out through the
bods or bush that were suitable for a cart.    Ib was an easy mabber bo cub out a
load so that flat sleds or toboggans drawn by dogs or horses could readily pass over
p when there was a reasonable depth of snow.    Thus it was not until 1868-9 that
[ commencement was made on the road from Winnipeg or rather from St. Anne de Chênes
\o the north-west angle of the Lake of the Woods,  and that was done by the Canadian
Iprernment, as part of what was known as the Dawson Road Route.
Such arteries of communication as the road from Edmonton to Athabasca-
Landing were nob consbrucbed unbil bhe labe seventies.
In the greater portion of the three prairie provinces, until 1821, transportation was carried on chiefly, by the traders of the North Wesb Fur Company, and ibs
[redecessors.    Mosb of bhe roubes of communicabion bhab have been ubilized by
ither Companies, excepting the one from York Factory of the Hudson's Bay Company
o Norway House on Lake Winnipeg, and from the mouth of the Churchill River through
ria Reindeer and Wollaston Lakes to Lake Athabasca, were first opened by the North-
pest Fur Company.
In the amalgamation of the two companies the influence of the North-West
leems to have greatly predominated, the charter of the Hudson's Bay Company
(prally being adopted as it gave certain strong legal rights.
The first artery of communication from Montreal, the headquarters of the
Bjfch-West Fur Company was up the Ottawa to Mattawa, then up the tributary of it,
which heads towards Lake Nippissing, then portaging into Lake Nippissing, then
following the French River to Georgian Bay| thence west to Sault Ste. Marie, and
kkirting the north shore of Lake Superior bo Grande Portage at the mouth of Pigeon
liver and up it utilizing its various portages and coming into Rainy Lake drainage,
•"ollowing that drainage, through and coming into Rainy Lake, Rainy River, Lake of
the Woods, Winnipeg River to Lake Winnipeg, through Lake Winnipeg the Saskatchewan
^■reached, and routes established throughout all the country tributary to that
'iver.    A route also was used from Cumberland House through to the Mackenzie
feiver drainage reaching the Athabasca River via the Clearwater and that Company
Jstablished posts on the Athabasca, Peace, Slave, Mackenzie and the lakes connected
therewith.    The Red and Assiniboine Rivers were also utilized as were Lake Manitoba
ffinnipegosis, Dauphin and their tributaries.
About the year, 1798,, it was found that Grande Portage was in United States
rerritory, and in 1800 a U.S. collector went to the N.W. Co. at Grande Portage and
bhreatened to exact a duty on all furs.    The N.W. Co. had been seriously concerned
kbout its depot as soon as it was discovered to be in U.S. Territory and had been
an the lookout to find a new route which would altogether avoid foreign territory.
Roderick Mackenzie, one of the chief wintering partners and cousin of Alexander,
Pe explorer, heard from the Indians during one of his trips down from the North-
kest, of another route further north which emerged at Lake Superior at the mouth
fifthe Kaninistiquia river.
Roderick Mackenzie determined to investigate this route, and  (jÉBHWftdiliMlB
fcllowed it down to Lake Superior, and then found it was the old French route used
Ifore the cession of Canada which had been absolutely lost, and had been unknown
b the British traders until rediscovered by Roderick Mackenzie. When his report
■Received the N.W. Co., promptly applied for a site at the mouth of the
luninistiquia River. Their application was granted by the Governor of Canada who
bat Colonel Bruyères, a disbinguished officer of bhe Royal Engineers bo selecb a
^B"for bhe new fort. (Col. Bruyères subsequenbly laid oub many of bhe Forts in
fcper and Lower Canada aboub bhe bime of bhe war of 1812, and died ab Quebec, 1814).
Having determined on the site, the N.W. Co. named it Fort William after
JLlliam MacGillivray, one of their chief men at that time and during the years
BOO and 1802, they gradually moved everything from Grande Portage to Fort William
hd thus entirely abandoned the Pigeon River route.    Fort William remained their
[spot until the Union of the N.W,Co, and H.B.  Co, in 1821, when it became a post
f the United Companies, but the new Governor Simpson, anxious to obliterate as
Itch as possible a route which offered such facilities to free traders for entering
I tie North West from Eastern Canada,  sidetracked the whole route by Lake Superior,
Jtid substituted that by Hudson Bay which became the great highway for all the fur
lade of the United Companies as it had always been the highway for the H.B.Co,
The headquarters of the North-West Company were,  of course in Montreal where
111 business was transacted, but during the occupation of Grande Portage and latterly
lort William by this Company, these points were the great rendezvous where each
jammer the agents from the east met the wintering partners coming down from the
firth-west.    Here the goods brought up from the east were exchanged for the furs
bought down, the wintering partners taking back the supplies with them, while the
pstern agents brought the furs to Montreal.    At this annual meeting all arrangeants for the ensuing year were made.
Just here it might be mentioned as a matter of very considerable interest
pat both to the Hudson's Bay Co. and the North West Fur Traders, the southern
-ortion of Alberta and the S.W. portion of Saskatchewan was practically a "Terra
fecognito" even as late as the Palliser expedition in 1858 to I860.    Palliser's
jap of the North West is amusingly wanting in data of that territory.    The reason
las that this territory was occupied by the Blackfeet and allied families and they
1ère a terror to the other Indian tribes, and also to the hunters and traders,
mere was one exception among its allied families in blood relationship and a rather
leculiar one, namely, a small band of the Beavers from Peace River country who moved
louth and attached bhemselves bo bhe Blackfeeb.    Their successors are now bhe
prcee Indians.    The Sbony Indians,  a branch of bhe Assiniboine belonging bo bhe
[ioux bribes, who had sebbled only bo a slighb extenb on Canadian Terribory, pushed
;'est for some reason or other,  and established themselves at MORLEY, and another
«mail band settled in the neighbourhood of the Battle River, along the line of the
lalgary and Edmonton Railway,    Still another small band established themselves
p the Saskatchewan river, a short distance above Saskatoon, and three or four
■all bands in Manitoba,    Many of these in Manitoba, if not all, came from Minnesota,
If ter the terrible massacre by the Sioux in that state in 1861.    The Blackfeet and its
Hied families made raids at time on the Stonys (Sioux) and to a very considerable
Spent on the Crées, and the Crées retaliated.   When Professor Hind's expedition
|n 1858-9 was being conducted he mentions that then or shortly previous there had
pen a raid by the Blackfeet as far east as where Moose Jaw now is.    They frequently
fent as far north as Edmonbon, and on certain occasions crossed bhe river and abbacked
•he Fort on the north side.     (Thoy aloo froquontly went ao far north no Edmonton,
ja^eV-
d  faho rivor and attacked tho Fort  on tho north oido).
on oortain oocaoiono  crooooi
ley also frequently raided Rocky Mountain House,    The operations_of the Kootenays
lire described more fully elsewhere.    The last conflict between the Blackfeet
wd the Crées took place on the West banks of the river to the west of where
lethbridge now stands.    That occurred in 1870.
-US»  The Crées and the Blackfeet had apportioned to some extent their respective
[territories, and the Peace and Neutral Hills were supposed to define approximately
[the boundaries,  but such arrangement was not closely observed to any marked extenb.
The firsb crossing of the continent of America, north of Mexico was made
lin 1793 by Sir Alexander Mackenzie, who prior thereto had gone down the Mackenzie
reiver.    His route was up the Peace.    In crossing the continent he struck the
iFraser and followed it for about one hundred miles below Fort George, when finding
it was taking him too far south,  he returned to Fort George and then struck West.
The next crossing of the continent was by Lewis and Clark.    The next crossing
[was on Canadian Territory by Thompson, an official of the N.W. Co., who reached the
[Columbia River, waters via the North Saskatchewan, Howse Pass via Blueberry River,
[in the autumn of 1807, and continued to use that route till 1810 when he was turned
[back by the Kootenay Indians.    He returned by Rocky Mountain House,  proceeded
[down the Saskatchewan River some 30 or 40 miles and then struck north-westerly
[to the Athabasca River,  followed up it to its summit,  and then down Wood River
[reaching Boat Encampment on the Columbia on the 26th of January, 1811, and on the
[l4th of July 1811,  reached the mouth of the Columbia River.    The next to nearly
[reach the Pacific Ocean was Fraser.    He struck the Fraser at where Fort George is
and followed it down to within a few miles of its mouth, where he was stopped by
Indians.    He likewise was an official of the N.W. Fur Trading Co.
In 1805 prior to Fraser's arrival west of the mountains,  one,  James MacDougall
also an official of the said Company discovered MacLeod Lake in Northern British
Columbia.    Later in the same year Fraser arrived from Fort William and Fort MacLeod
was established on the lake, the first post ever established west of the Mountains.
Next year,  (1806) MacDougall discovered Stuart (not Stewart) Lake and again Fraser
joined him later in the year,  and on that lake established Fort St.  James which
for many years after was the headquarters of all New Caledonia.    Fraser's route
started from Stuart Lake and followed down that river and the Nichka River,  striking
the Fraser at Fort George, which River he thought was possibly the Columbia.
150.  The Dawson Road
In 1887, bhe labe S.J. Dawson, C.E. was commissioned to establish a highway
Itween Thunder Bay and Upper Forb Garry as bhe juncbion of bhe Red and Assinboine
■vers.    After a good deal of exploration a route was established, partly land
ud partly water.    The route left the Lake of the Woods on its western course at
he N.W. angle, and came through to Upper Fort Garry, and the first settlement it
It with was Ste. Anne de Chênes on the Seine river, about thirty miles south-
Isberly of bhe Fort.    From bhere ib followed the old brail along the north bank of
le Seine river to St. Boniface.    The N.W.Angle is adjacent to Sec.12-5-17 E., and
le. Anne de Chênes where the trail was met about Sec. 24-8-6E,, and the route is a
lirly direct line between those points.    From the Fort, now Winnipeg, to the N.W,
lge, was called one hundred and eight miles.    Active construction on the Dawson
bute, however, was nob commenced bill aboub I865, which consbrucbion commenced
L Lake Superior, firsb called Dawson's Landing,  At the time of the Wolsely expedition
n 1870, the roube was sufficienbly esbablished from Dawson's landing, afberwards
Irhice Arthur's Landing, evenbually Port Arthur, so that the expedition came over it
0 the Rainy Lake waters, and then followed the old Fur Trader's route to Fort Garry,
la Winnipeg river, and Lake, and Red river.    In 1871, the Dawson road was sufficient-
j opened up between the N.W. Angle and Ste. Anne des Chênes to permit survey parties
d come over it, but on many stretches, however, the road was nob in such shape
mat even carts could readily be run over ib, and bhose parties who travelled by it -
fcually on foot - carried their own blankets.    Of course, during the winter time it
as a fair route for flat sleds and toboggans.    In 1872 and 1873 detachments of
plunteers sent to Fort Garry to replace the troops stationed there were brought
n over that route.    In 1874 a contract was let by the Government to Carpenter and
lompany to establish a regular stage and mail and express route from Thunder Bay,
Irince Albert's Landing to Winnipeg, and that was continued to the close of '76.
It possibly was also carried on to some extent in '77| however, a very few people
t any bime availed themselves of the use of that route.
In 1875 there was a great deal of traffic over this road between Winnipeg and
Ihe North-West Angle as in that year the construction of the lock at Fort Frances
las commenced, and all the supplies and men from Winnipeg and Fort Frances went over
It.    In I876, the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway from Rat Portage
lest also caused a great deal of traffic in supplies via the North-West Angle,
luring the summer months of those years a small steamer was running from the North-
lest Angle to as near Fort Frances as she could get, and also to Rat Portage.    There
1ère also small barges and tugs on the Lake of the Woods.    The opening of the C.P.
lailway as far as Rat Portage from Winnipeg in 1881, of course, diverted traffic
Irom this road, except that for small sebblemenb s near ib such as bhose on bhe Broken-
lead, Whibemoubh and Birch rivers.    The Winnipeg Water District Railway supplies
jo a considerable extent the district formerly served by the Dawson route.    It leaves
Ihe Lake of the Woods waters about sixteen miles farther north, and joins it at St.
loniface.
On the larger rivers, and also on the lakes, a boat known as the York boat,
Ind later a boat somewhat on the same lines known as the Sturgeonhead boat, was
bed. The large York boat, with one or two masts could sail over a large body of
pater such as Lake Winnipeg,    It was very seaworthy and some would carry six to ten
Ions, or even more, of freight.    To illustrate - The York boats brought the supplies
irom York Factory to Lake Winnipeg.    They were hauled over the portages.    At the
forth end of Lake Winnipeg the freight required for the districts tributary to the
Winnipeg and Red rivers was taken by them direct to these streams_and sbored for
feisbribubion bhroughoub bhe counbry bributary.    The goods for bhe Upper Churchill,
tad also bhe Mackenzie river drainage, were baken bo bheir destination over the routes
plready described.
151.  littttlËtf
The York and Sturgeonhead boats were constructed in the country, the frames
king dressed by an axe, and the balance sawed out by whip-saw as shiplap.
For pitching boats the gum of spruce mixed with grease was utilized.    It
ormed an excellent material for that purpose.
Prior to the influx of settlers subsequent to 1870, the rivers were,  outside
If transportation of the merchandise of the fur traders, used to a very limited
kbent.    In some cases, a certain amounb of bimber was cub and floabed down bhe
pream bo where ib was required.    Where bhe rivers were nob boo rapid, boabs were
kilized by bhe sebblers for moving from poinb bo point for short disbances bub
«arally bhe currenb was boo heavy bo make ib pleasant or even possible bo
roceed upsbream by an ordinary row boab.
Where bhere was any considerable adverse currenb,  "Tracking" i.e. bhe bowing
k boabs by man powerf bwo men wibh poles being on a boab one ab bhe bow and one
t bhe sbern, bo prevenb conbacb wibh bhe banks and obsbruction,~was utilized in
onveying furs and supplies.
A special line, known as the Double Cod or Tracking line, was used for such
piring.    It was not above five-eighths of an inch, probably considerably less in
pameter and in proportion to its weight its strength and endurance were marvellously
ood.    •
A York or Sturgeonhead boat carrying four or six tons of freight, would have
pom six to ten men on the tow line.    The tow-path was along the margin of the
pream and when busy slides or cut banks occurred, coupled with considerable
priât ion in the height of the stream, the tow-path was far from ideal, and progress
[as very slow.