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The land of heart's desire : the Inland sentinel quarter century commemorative number 1905

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"he Lai
Heart's Desire
Quarter Century   :   :
Commemorative Number
Kamloops, B.C., May 29th, 1905.
TWENTY-FIVE CENTS.    M  ^^—■—    ■■HIM i II MWIII—^n—mm
The Lapd of Heart's Desire EstalblîsHeci   1859.
Photo   Taken   I860.
r "?
The Globe Hotel is the pioneer
hostlery of the Interior. Was
founded in 1859 by Louis Hau-
tier, father of the present owners^
Visitors to Lytton and tourists
will do well to stop at the historical hotel of British Columbia.
Wholesale and Retail Dealers In
Iron, Steel and Hardware of all kinds, Wire
Ropes, Mine Rails, Miners5 Tools, Farm
Machinery, Wagons, Buggies, Saw
Mills, Dairy Supplies, Mowing
Machines, Road Scrapers, Etc,
E. G. PRIOR & CO,,
Vancouver S The Kamloops Lumber Company,
?jj      Head Office for B. C.
Managing Director
geo. Mccormick-
r /Will Just Completed  at  Kamloops
Shingle Mill—Annis.
Fifty Million Feet B. M. Lumber.
Fifty Million Shingles.
—Manufacturers   of—
—and all kinds of—
White Pine, Cedar, Fir, Yellow Pine and Spruce Products.   Write to our nearest Mill
for Quotations when in the Market. ^^^^^^^^MM^^^^m^^M^I^^^M^WI^M^y- H \^/f^f^^^^0WfWWW(0^
A. H.
= F* O  R HH
Groceries,    Crocl-cery    &    Gloss \a/ are.
is Our Strong Point.
As we always Vuy the best goods on
the market we are in a position
to give Satisfaction.
in Teas & Coffees
we carry a full line, ranging
in prices from 25c to "/5c
P&r lb. Our 40s Ceylon
Tea, 3 Lbs. far .f,1.00, is
splendid value.
Our Crockery and Glassware Department is
Opposite K. M. & A. A.
^.MM^^^MMMMMM^^^M^MM^^J^^^'M^^M-MI^MMMM^v-^. ;vv 'w->
Commercial Centre
IS *
TheA. E. Howse Co., Ltd.
carry the largest stock of
General Merchandise,
Plain and Dressed Lumber in that section. Write
to us if you want any information regarding- this
great mineral country.
Deal with us and we will
guarantee you satisfaction	
Agents Nicola Townsite.
Forwarding Agents.
Insurance Agents.
General Merchants,
INicola,    Princeton.
Mining Supplies,
Boots and Shoes,
Dry Goods, Gents' Furnishin
Drugs and Stationery, Flour and Feed,
i COi 3
is situated at the foot 'of
Nicola Lake. It has a
fine  hotel   under   lirst-
class management	
A  striking feature of
this growing town is the
Mammoth Store f ,; ' '.      "   1
Patenaude & Sons      1
» a   &   ©
General   Merchandise,   Furs,    Etc.
Aimers' Supplies a Specialty.   Gold
I      Dust Bought : : : :
r\ H     IVI EL 1 O W 5
■ :.' ■: ...  S
Jni ft ill!
on s a,
ft i.
Freight and
Horsefly Lake
taken to
Deliver Freight at the
Horsefly Diggings.
»£■'■•;■* '.* %^Â:l*i ffl.ll • • • ?W » gj Headquarters for Supplies for
Miners and Farmers
Hardware,   Groceries,   Footwear, Clothing, Dry Goods,
Agricultural Implements,
Mining Tools, General Supplies
If you want to purchase land
for fruit growing, dairy
farming or ranching in
the celebrated Nicola
Valley, write to us.
Telephone Connection with Kamloops, Aspen
Grove, Princeton and all points in Similkameen
Is Now Under New Management.  Entirely .Renovated and Refurnished.
SlriclH) First Class
Tourists and Hunters of Big Game, Mountain Sheep, Big Horn, Etc., leave
the C. P. R. at this point and
make this hotel their
Blair & Co., i- »• was™,
Stock of Supplies
Constantly on Hand for
Miners and Ranchers.
insurance Agents
From This Point Radiate Roads and Mails to:
Importer- of Scotch Tweeds,
Worsteds, Etc,
Mammette Lake, Coldwater, Ten Mile
Creek, Yoight Valley, Spence's Bridge,
Kamloops, Otter Valley and Princeton.
Business Suits,
Riding Breeches,
Dress Suits,
Outing Suits,
Overcoats, Etc.
Jfrt, ©ualttp anb ^orfemarcsotp
d5iiantttfi>i>h ^ North B.C
Leaves Soda Creek Wednesdays and Sundays-
Leaves Quesnel Tuesdays and Satnrdays.
From May 1st to November 1st.
mmmmm A.   EL   C ARLINGTON,
Dry Goods
Boots & Shoes
Eïirything that
Conntry Store
Should Have.
Intending Yisitors
! or Settlers are
United to Calif
Special Attention given to
Family Me.
Fresh Groceries
Always en
No Trouble to
Show Goods.
Satisfaction Guaranteed.
Fair Dealing.
Nicola Lake is the Finest Location in the Valley.
Inland  : Armory
Practical Gunsmith
—Importer of—
-Situated in the Centre of British Columbia's Greatest Natural Game and Fish Preserves ; 'Tf^^/Z^^^i,
lkOunlevy estate
General jflerchanté, Ctt.
otra Creek,
Over a Quarter of a Century
Hotel in Connection
.McDonald 8 McGillivray.. %
General Merchants
B. C.
® s®
Parties going to Hazelton, Peace River, etc., would do well
to buy their Supplies from us.
We Make a Specialty to Outfitting R J.Glasgow
General "Merchant.
: Groceries:
Boots and Shoes
Men's Furnishings
Dry [Goods and
All - Ki n d s - of
Farm     Produce
Salmon   Arm,   B.C.
Orchard for Sale
400 Acres of Fruit
Trees, Two Miles
N.-E. of Salmon Arm
in the Okanagan District, for Sale	
an of urn
40 Acres Cleared and Fenced.
Frame House and Stable.
Plenty of Good Water. A
Splendid Location for a Good
Fruit Ranch. Terms, Cash.
James Evajvs,
Salmon Arm, B. C.
salmon arm  Coronation Hotel
B. C.
Convenient to
Railway Station..
Delightfully situated overlooking- the beautiful waters and scenery of Shus-
wap Lake : : :
j2 Excellent huntingand fishing. Boating and other recreations.    Good stabling.
First-class table and accommodation for tourists
andffamilies at reasonable
rates : : :        :
BROWN & WATERSTON,  Props. Gold Dust Bought    |||,- -      Dealers in Furs
fame* &eft Catate,
General Merchants,
QUESNEL,    -    B.C.
We Carry the Largest General
Stock in the Country.
Flour and Sawmill Proprietors
and Dealers in Lumber. R. M. Woodward,
Lower Nicola, B. C.
Dealer In—
Lumber, Miners' Tools &
General Merchandise.
Prospectors   and   Settlers
Invited to Call.
iiifiiiP ^    * •      w
Fruit   Acre 1
Lands  Bl04
H. C. Fraser,    |j
J Furs Bought and Sold. Gold Dust Bought
Cariboo ^T&Am$ Co,,
150 Mile House,   Cariboo, B. C.
jftntt Class ^otel m Connection. ffi. Ptmtô & Co,,
Wholesale and Retail Dealers in
Beef,  Pork,   Mutton,   Etc.
Sausage  Meat.
Corned Beef, Pickled Pork, Hams and Bacon
a specialty.
Kamloops, B.C.
Vernon, B.C.
eadquarters   for
High   Grade
Correspondence  Papers.
Photographic Supplies
Souvenir Post Cards
Fancy & Comic Post Cards
Letter Cards, Leather Post
Cards, Post-Card Albums
Souvenir View Books
Kodak Albums
Souvenir   Novelties
Agents for Eastman Kodaks and Supplies
Kamloops and Vernon.
Wh  Not Get a
Yon will have barrels of fun
and much wholesome enjoyment
if you do.
Our Stock
Of Cameras and  Photographic
Supplies   contains    everything
necessary for picture-taking.
Low Prices
You will be surprised to note
how extremly low are our prices
in this dine.
Caring for
the Teeth..
Losing one tooth is a misfortune—losing all your teeth is a
Avoid losing any of your teeth
by taking good care of them.
Cream   Dentifrice
Is a  most   agreeable   cleanser
and decay preventive.     Cleans
and purifies the whole mouth,
making teeth, gums and mouth
sweet and healthy:—25c.
Soie muscles and stiff joints
quickly limber "up"  when   you
rub on—
A splendid relief for  bruised,
sprained   or   strained  muscles.
Used as rub down after exercise
it prevents stiffness.            ;> -"je < \
The Mallery Drug Co., Ltd!
East Store Masonic Temple —West Store Next the Post Office.     'MSB
*^    Kamloops, B. G.    «jgji)  ..W$t ïanfa of £emf* ®e£tre„
HERE are but four'newspapers published in British Columbia that can boast of having
existed a quarter of a century; these are the Colonist, Victoria; The Free Press, Nanaimo;
The Columbian, New "Westminster, and The Inland Sentinel, Kamloops.
On the 29th. of May, 1880, the. first number of the first volume of the Inland Sentinel
was issued at Emory, a few miles below Yale, by its founder, proprietor and editor,
Michael Hagan. After a few months business exigencies made it advisable to move the
plant to Yale and this was accordingly done, and until June, 1884, it continued to be
...published there. The near approach of the completion of the Onderdonk contract on the Canadian
Pacific Railway brought about other and important changes. Yale ceased to be the centre of trade
and commerce for the Interior and Kamloops bade fair to become the Inland Capital. Thither Mr.
Hagan determined to move his plant and the plan was put into execution in July, 1884. Since then,
though it is many years since the founder withdrew his guiding hand and long since ceased to taka
an interest in mundanej affairs, The Sentinel has continued to live and thrive and grow where he
placed it, a living influence on men and things.
Within the quarter of a century since its inception great changes have come to pass, in the province
as a whole and in certain specific localities in an even more marked manner. For instance, Yale,
twice thronged with men, bustling with activity and enjoying such a flood of prosperity as has fallen
to the lot of few towns in British Columbia, is now slumbering, inert. Emory is scarcely known, even
as a* name, save to the few. The glory of the gold mining days, the days of '58, when the bars of the
Fraser within easy reach of Yale, gave employment and wealth to thousands of rough and ready
miners, has long since departed, but who shall say never to return ?
jA man's age haspassed since Kamloops saw its first newspaper issued and thus it happens that
in celebrating reaching the qarter century post, The Sentinel also marks having attained its majority
since its migration to Kamloops. A doublé event is thus commemorated by the souvenir edition; a
birthday within a'birthday. ^^Sllll
When] the j intrepid fur traders reached this western slope they recognised a field particularly
adapted to the successful carrying on of their avocation. The sole desire of their hearts, the one aim
of all their {toil and energy, was the getting of pelts, and from the conditions they found obtaining
west of thefRocky Mountains'each trader regarded this new, rngged country as the land of his heart's
desire ; the course of a large and profitable trade ; a stepping stone towards the attaining of the goal
of hfe.ajabiti.Qn... ;_ ^ 1%£^*/!^L«V&!1.,. L^.<fe£^(fjy^y^f^|
The miners that feverishly struggled in '58. and the '60's against the numerous obstacles they
encountered on every hand in their search for the precious metal, regarded the country as the land
of their heart's desire ; unlimited wealth, as the goal to happiness ; the open sesame to all the good things in the gift of the gods.    Far beyond the river bars,  surmounting frowning peaks, delving-
into remote fastnesses, many sought, and a few found the desire of their hearts gratified.
The mad rush of fortune hunters from all quarters of the habitable globe and every section not
habitable, has ceased ; there is no longer the frenzied stampede from one placer camp to another but
there is no cessation of the same persistent, insistent search for wealth, which varies only in method
and degree. Copper, silver, lead ; timber, coal and other natural resources; replace gold and afford
capital an opportunity to make much into more. But it is to its lands and the possibilities thereof ;
to the fertile valleys, the timbered bottom lands and slopes, the semi-arid benches producing naught
save parched sage brush and wormwood and prickly pear; that the eye now turns, >the mind clinging
H that fondest desire of the heart, the making of a home in a land made to flow with milk and honey. I
To him who reads the story of the Land of Heart's Desire as it is unfolded in the succeeding pages,
the connecting of the past with the present will be a task at once pleasant and profitable.    !
Great care has been exercised in the preparation'of the articles descriptive of the districts more
or less tributary to Kamloops. The statements made therein are conservative; there is no attempt
made to paint the rose. Distinctly compiled with the sole idea of commemorating an interesting stage
in the career of one of the historical journals of the Province, this number is net issued with the object
of "booming" any particular locality nor of advertising any special commercial undertaking or business
interests; opportunity offers to tell the world about this great Interior of British Columbia, its history
and vast resources^- and the story is told simply and unadorned so that he who runs may read and
The editor acknowledges with thanks the valuable assistance rendered by Mr. George Kennedy,
Mr. Hugh McCutcheon (a former proprietor), and others; the gift of photographs by Rev. H. S.
Akehurst, Mr. W. Janes, Mr. J. Richards and others; the loan of cuts by the Mining Record, Mining
Exchange, Mr. T. J. Smith and the Provincial Government, and the courteous permission of Rev.
Father Morice to use cuts from his History of Northern British Columbia.
ifiote* of Cbenttf.fn tfje ^istorp of ^progrcsô in tfje ŒfjompJïon anb Jfrager ^alleps;.
H early history
largely an accoun
discoveries of the
spirits  who  made  the  unk:
f   British    Columbia   is
){ the  explorations  and
trepid  adventurous
slope of the continent
:ld of their labors. It is not intended
s article to attempt to give even a
: of the early history of the province;
that would require greater space than can
well be spared and would besides be foreign
to the purpose; but a brief reference to the
early events that have resulted im the devel-
epwnent and settlement of the Interior is necessary
to the proper conception of those more recent events, of
which the establishment of the Inland Sentinel is one.
The birth of the Sentinel took place on the banks of
that great artery of the province, the Fraser river; subsequently it took up its abode and has since continued
its existence on the banks of another great waterway,
itself a branch of the Fraser, the Thompson river, and
it is noteworthy that the first white men that traversed
the Interior discovered those two streams,. In this:
indirect fashion the Sentinel is connected with those
first explorers in the unknown west. The first of these
was   Alexander   Mackenzie,  who  made   the  first  partial
descant of the Fraser as early as 1793. an. expeditioi
in the interests of the North West Company in
service he was. The hardships and well nigh
mountable obstacles he encountered, and which
have daunted a less bold spirit, are modestly told
journals. v&kvtr'j
Following in his steps came another servant of the
same great fur trading company, the NoT'Westers,
Simon Fraser, and his explorations have exercised a
material influence upon the history of the province. He
did not confine himself to making explorations; he
fcttsied himself establishing trading posts and. forts and
gaining for his company a secure foothold in the fur
trade in the virgin land. Thinking he had reached either
the Columbia or «me of its main tributaries, Fraîer,
in 1806, navigated the stream, established several forts
and In the spring of 1808, in company with John Stuart
lurice Quesnel left Fort George, at the junct-
raser and Nechaco rivers, he set out to trace
its mouth. It was not a pleasure trip as
iscovered.    In  his  journal,  Fraser mentions
reached the village of the Askettihs, and
îe  he   is   presumed   to   mean   the   Lillooet
men, who were dressed in coats of mail,
1 with a volley of arrows. The village, he
"a fortification one hundred feet by twenty-
tided by palisades eighteen feet high, slant-
and lined with a shorter row, which sup-
e, covered with bark, constituting the dwel-
is now situated,  and  the  rest of the journey  they did
on  foot  as   far  as   the  vicinity  of   what  is   now   Yale,
where they secured a canoe and journeyed to the coast
in  comfort   and   safety.    Between   Lytton   and   Yale   he
was not long in finding evidences that the natives among
whom   he   wasi  traveling),   had,   directly   or   indirectly
trafficked   with   other   Europeans   since   articles   of   Eu
n his
ropean   manufacture   were   seen   at   intervals.    One:   of
:et iron. After
was considered
he   troublesome
but one day's
art George had
its portals on
de  the journey
that   John  Jacob   Astc '   î ■BiBiuiT
out his expedition oh the Tonquin to establish the
Pacific Fur Company at Astoria, at the mouth of the
Columbia, David Thompson, a Welshman, like Alexander and Fraser a Nor' Wester, set out for the west,
•having already tmade several trips, penetrating* '!the;
Rockies as early as 1800, and arrived at the Columbia
river, in British Columbia, in January, 1811. Early
in the spring he set out for the mouth of that great
stream and reached Astoria on July, 15th, only to find
that Mr. A'stbr's expedition had arrived a few weeks
bsfore and. were then ens:aged building their fort He
remained a few weeks for rest and then set out on
the return journey and by way of Arrow Lakes and
the Columbia, reached his starting point. It was during
this expedition he descended the Thompson river and
established Fort Thompson, afterwards named Fort
"Kamloops. .
British Columbia was then not know by that name;
it was spoken of as New Caledonia, though by somei
that portion of it north of Alexandria only was so
called, the southern portion being named the Thompson
district. Farther south still was the Oregon country
and it was from there that the netxt visitor came to
Kamloops, or as it was then called, Fort Thompson, in
1812^. Thlis visitor was Alexander Ross, one! of the
members of the little community established at Astoria,
- at the mouth of the Columbia by the Pacific Fur Company of which Mr. Astor was the leading spirit. When
in 1813 the North West Company acquired the property of the Astor company some of the men were
given their choice of entering the service of the new
masters or accepting a free passage to New York on
Montreal. Of those who chose to remain in the country .
and  the new service  was  Alexander Ross.
With the change of owners Astoria changed also its
name and became known as Fort George, and from
that point, in the spring of 1814, the first great movement of the North West Company on the Columbia
was begun, the departure for. the Interior, en route to
Fort William, of the spring brigade, consisting of fourteen boats in which were embarked no fewer than 124
men, exclusive of the men of the Astor company who
had elected to return to Canada by land in preference
to making the voyage round the Horn, the whole leaving
the Fort with flags flying and the din of a general
salute ringing in their ears. Ross and a little party
accompanied the brigade as far as Fort Okanagan where
they separated, the brigade continuing their journey
along the Columbia, Ross taking pack horses overland
back to his post at Kamloops. In his first experience
at that point he must have encountered some competition from the North Westers for in his book, "The
Fur Hunters" he alludes to there "being now no rivalry
there." Of this second journey he says:—"From Okanagan I proceeded northward, some 300 miles, to my
own post at She-whaps. There being now no rivalry
there, or elsewhere to contend with, I put the business
in train for the season, and immediately returned again,
with the view of being able to carry out a project of
discovery, which I and others had contemplated for
some time: this was to penetrate across the land from
Okanagan, due west, to the Pacific, on foot, a distance
supposed not to exceed 200 miles ;, and for the performance of Which I had allowed two months."
The following season Ross again visited Kamloops and
of that visit he says:— "I set out for my post at the
She-whaps, and reached that place in the month of
August. During my absence a man by the name of
Charette, whom I had left in charge, had been murdered.
The] murderer was a young Indian lad who had been
brought up at the establishment. They had gone on
a trip to Fraser's river, six days' journey north, and
had quarrelled one evening about making the encampment. During the dispute the Indian had said nothing;
but rising (shortly afterwards, and laying hold of Char-
eUe's own gun, he suddenly turned round and shot
him dead, without saying a word and then deliberately
sat down again."
That winter, 1815-6, Ross spent fur hunting between
She-whaps and Okanagan, returning to Fort George, as
was the custom, in the spring for supplies, again going
north to his old post in time for the winter trapping.
He recounts how on this journey one of his men, named
Brusseau, iell sick •and-'was unable to continué.' The
only course left was to make him comfortable, place
him in charge of another man, leave a supply of food
?nd let him remain until either recovery or death. As
the case was considered hopeless, the nurse was given
a spade with which to dig the grave should the sick
man die. Ten days afterwards the nurse arrived at
Kamloops with the news of his patient's death and as ,
for the spade, the Indians had stolen it. All this
passed for truth, until some time afterwards who should
turn up but poor dead Brusseau, escorted by some
friendly Indians." The nurse had become frightened at
the approach of Indians and had taken to his heels,
leaving the poor sick trapper to his fate, and but for
the    kindly offices of some natives he would have died:
The following year, 1817, Ross made a trip to Canoe
River in pursuance of orders from headquarters to,
examine the eastern section, lying between She-whaips
and the Rocky Mountains: a large tract of wild countrj'
never trodden before by the foot of any white man.;» -
He took with him two of his trustiest men and two
Indians on foot and followed the North Thompson, for
three days, then striking off through the timber north., j
of the valley The double journey took but 4.7 days,
remarkably good time over a trail-less country, on foot,
packing on their backs the' camp outfit and food. Of
the district he formed a very poor opinion. >^^S|
Ross relates going a bear hunt with some of the local
chiefs shortly after his return from the journey to
Canoe river. The fruit of the chase would be hailed
with delight by nimrods now-a-days. They only went
ten miles from the fort before they commenced operations and in two days the party killed seven bears,
nine wolves and eleven small deer. "On these oecar
sion/s," says Ross, " they feel flattered by their trader
accompanying them. The party were all mounted on
horseback, to the number of seventy-three, and exhibited a fine display of horsemanship." One of the party,
"the chief Pacha of the hunting party," who rejoiced
in the name of Short Legs, was severely wounded in
the head by a female bear and Ross; acted the part of
surgeon with some skill and considerable success, removing several portions of the skull from the wound, "I
extracted a bone measuring two inches long, of an oblong
form, and another of an inch square, wdth several
smaller pieces." In fifteen days the, Indian, who was
after all a good for nothing, was up and about, to the
delight of himself and his near relations, but to the
disgust of the men at the fort against whom he was
constantly plotting.
This trader who for so many years did honors at
Kamloops gives the details of many adventures and
throws much light upon what were considered the
duties, troubles and pleasures of the fur trader's life.
"And one of the greatest pleasures, here alluded to,
consists in doing homage to the great. A chief arrives;
the honor of waiting upon him in a servile capacity falls
to your share, if you are not above your business.
You go forth to meet him; you invite him in; see him
seated; and if need require it, you untie his shoes, and
dry his socks. You next hand him food, water and
tobacco; and you must smoke along with him. After
which, you must listen with ftrave I attention to all he
has got ta say on Indian topics, and show your sense.
of the value of his information by giving him some
trinkets, and sometimes even articles of value, in returji.
But the grand point of all this ceremony is to knOW
how far you should go in these matters, and when you
should stop. By overdoing the thing, you may entail
on yourself endless troubles. When not employed in
exploring new and unfrequented parts, involved in difficulties with the natives, or finding opposition in .trade,
he general routine' of dealing with most Indians'goes
on smoothly. Each trading post has its leader, its in- S
terpreter, and its own complement of hands; and when
things are put in proper train, according to the customs
of the country, the business of the year proceeds without -
much trouble, and leaves you sufficient time for reçre'--
afaora. You take your gun on your hack; you can
instruct your family, or improve yourself in reading
and reflection; you can enjoy the pleasures of religion
to better advantage, serve your God to more perfection and be a far better Christian than were your lot cast
in the midst of the temptations of a busy world."
The first pioneers received their supplies overland from
Montreal via Fort William and across the continent
by canoe and portage; a long wearisome journey and
they so continued to get their supplies until the desirability of a more expeditious mode became sufficiently
recognized. The Pacific Fur Company had shown the
feasibility of taking supplies from the coast into the
Interior of the Thompson district, She-whaps as. Ross
called it, by way of the Columbia to Fort Okanagan
and thence by pack animals overland to their fort at
Kamloops. In 1821 this route was adopted for carrying supplies to the forts in New Caledonia, a distributing f
station being established at Alexandria on the Fraser.
To that point the pack trains went from Kamloops,
following the Kamloops Lake to Copper Creek, opposite Savona, ascending that stream across the hills to
Deadman's Creek, and then by way of Loou Lake and
Green Lake on to Alexandria. To Alexandria came the
boats and canoes from the post at Fort George, Fort
James, etc., and received supplies brought by the pack
trains, by which, in turn, the pelts gathered at the
northern forts were taken south and ultimately reached
Fort Vancouver, which in 1824 had superseded the post
at Astoria. From Fort Vancouver the furs were taken
round the Horn by the vessels that brought the enormous supplies required for the system of posts in Oregon,  Thompson  and  New  Caledonia.
Kamloops was the capital of the Thompson district
and the fort was strongly palisaded; within the stockade
there was room for the large horse brigades employed
in the transportation of furs and goods. These pack
trains were large affairs, numbering from 200 to 300
animals. In the winter season they were tuwied out
m the hills near the fort where there was then abundant pasture and in the spring the band was gathered
in, fat and sleek.
After making his trip to Canoe River from Kamloops
in 1617, Ross returned to Astoria and did not again
visit his old post at She-whaps. From 1817 there is no
available record of his successor, the next trader mentioned in charge of the post being John McLeod who
ruled it from 1822 to 1826, and when Sir George Simpson
visited Fort Thompson in 1828 he found trader Ermat-
inger in charge. The next recorded ruler of the district
was Samuel Black. Black was a Scotchman and once
entertained a fellow countryman, named David Douglas,
at the fort. The guest bluntly expressed his opinion,
over the night cap of toddy, that the fur traders had
not a soul above a beaver skin, whereupon Black took
instant fire and challenged Douglas to mortal combat,
but the latter took his departure early in the morning
and so avoided the duel. la 1814 Thompson district
was added to New Caledonia. During the winter of
1841-3, Black was foully murdered by a nephew of a
deceased friendly chief, named Wanquille, on the excuse
that the trader had charmed Wanquille's life away. In
the name Wanquille it is not difficult to recognise Tranquille, the name of a small stream near Kamloops.
FoUowSng Samuel Black came John Tod. He is
described as being a man possessing neither good looks,
nor learned, polished nor refined, and as having lapsed
into a stage of semi-savagery. In physique he was tall,
wiry, with facial characteristics of the race of which he
was a son, the Scottish. But in spite of personal drawbacks and deficiencies he was a man from the ground
op, with a powerful arm and a strong wiU to help it
out The original fort was built on the flat at the
north side of the Thompson river in the angle formed
fey that stream and the North river. Tod built a new
one on the opposite side of the main stream, differing
little from the forts afterwards built at other points by
the' Hudsoitfs Bay Company. It consisted of sere»
buildings, used as stores, dwellings and shops, enclosed
within palisades 15 feet high, with gates on two sides
and bastions at two opposite angles. To the older building were added strongly stockaded corrals for the hundreds of horses bred and kept at this postt Within the
fort dwelt the chief trader with his Indian wife and
their three children, half a dozen mea aad a halfbreed
boy. Protected only by this small force, a large stock
of trinkets and supplies of all kinds were kept on hand
with which to trade with the Indians, to the number of
several hundreds, who made Kamloops their trading
point.   Seven tribes traded here, coming from Kootenay,
Okanagan,   Similkameen,  and  other  distant iilahies  for
that purpose.
Towering 2,000 feet above the valley of the Thompson
and overlooking Kamloops city is a large eminence
known as Mount St. Paul. It bears its name from a
certain Shuswap chief, given that same name by the
traders and the company's men but christened Jean
Baptiste Lolo by the missionary Catholic priests, for
already they had visited the post, Father Demers, who
afterwards became bishop,_ visiting it in 1845, the year
before John Tod began his reign. Lolo lived near the
fort and enjoyed almost absolute1 authority over his
people. The regular winter supply of salmon for use
at the fort and by the Indians was procured, no»t from
the waters of the Thompson, but from the Indians at
the Fountain, on the Fraser river, a few miles above
Lilooet. It was arranged that Lolo should lead a
party of men and Indians, for the annual fish
supply and in due time a start was made. Greatly to
Tod's surprise two days later Lolo returned, alone, and
after a good deal of beating about the bush, for the
red man is not a lover of direct methods when more
circuitous way can be used, it transpired that he had
learned of a conspiracy entered into by over 300 Indians,.
all members of the Shuswap tribe, to capture the fort
at Kamloops and after murdering the inmates, rob it
of its contents. Tod knew nothing of fear, was resourceful and had a thorough knowledge of the native character and his mind was soon made up. .He briefly explained the situation to his wife, wrote a full explanation
addressed to his superior officers in case he should fall,
and bidding the halfbreed saddle two of his swiftest
horses, while Lolo was asleep in his own lodge, with
that one lad as his sole attendant, he set out to quell
the threatened rising.
Lolo had a covetous eye upon a certain sorrel horse
belonging to Tod and as he had made a request for
this animal when reporting the conspiracy, a request
brusquely refused, it was a matter for conjecture
whether the alleged uprising was a mere piece of deception to gain the horse as a reward for a fancied service,
or whether he had the stern reality before him. By
hard riding he overtook the party from Kamloops, ait
the point Lolo had left them, by noon and found they
had no knowledge of the conspiracy, though he discovered this without letting them become aware of it
Orders were given to look well to the condition of their
arms and next morning they moved forward, and presently, on reaching an open space, he detected signs of
opposition; painted armed savages lurking behind trees
and bushes; men only, lack of women and children
clearly indicating a war party. Calling to him a Canadian named George Simpson, he bade him fall back
quietly with the horses and should disaster befall, to
ride to the fort as quickly as possible. Simpson hesitated and wanted to share the danger. "Damn you,
go," roared Tod. Then he carried out his scheme, daring
as it was simple. Riding at full speed towards the war
party, who raised their weapons to pour a volley that
would have torn him to pieces had it been fired, he drew
his sword and pistols, raised them aloft and then deliberately threw them on the ground. Then, unarmed,
alone, he made his horse perform all manner of evolutions, and while the Indians gazed, curious as to what would happen next, he charged into their midst He
smiled at them but they knew him and saw his smile
wa& oif anger, not mirth. He demanded what they
wanted. "We want to- see Lolo. Where is he?" they
demanded in turn. "Then you have not heard the news?
Poor Lolo, he is at home sick," he replied and then
proceeded to tell them that Lolo had the smallpox!
They had heard of the dread scourge and they had
learned, too, of the way it had decimated the Indians
of Oregon after the Whitma'n massacre; a punishment
sent by the gods for wrong doing! He told them how
much he loved his red brothers, that they must not
come near the fort until he gave them notice and that
he had brought medicine to keep them from' dying
from the disease they dreaded so much. There was a
complete revulsion of feeling; the man they would have
cheerfully killed, they hailed as their savior and flew
to obey him when he bade them load his_ horses with
salmon. He kept them employed while this was being
done and then vaccinated as many as his supply of
virus would suffice, instructing them how to vaccinate
others from the vesicles when they became ripe. And
so ended the great Shuswap conspiracy, and, needless to
say, Lolo received the sorrel he had so long and ardently
Nicola lake and river are named after a noted Indian
chief jsyho lived near tire lake that bears his name in
the days that Tod ruled at Fort Kamloops. One day
there came to the fort a band of Okanagans who asked
permission to camp near the fort as they feared Nicola.
The desired leave was granted and when Nicola heard
of it he was very wroth. But he was short of gun's and
the Okanagans had many. The only way he could get
them was in trade and so he caused an abundant supply
of pelts to be sent to the fort, accepting gun's and ammunition in exchange but when they came again, a third
time, and asked for knives, Tod refused them for he
feared they had in view the killing of the Okanagans.
He did more; he sent word to Nicola that if he dared
attack any person within five miles of Kamloops he would
visit him with untold punishment. The effect of this
message was to rekindle the old chief's anger and he
harangued his tribesmen to such effect that they decided
to capture the fort with a large force. Tod had but
six men with him, as usual, and on the approach of
danger the Okanagans retired to a place of safety._ Tod
was a strategist, and so it happened that by lying in
ambush he personally captured one of Nicola's men
whom he took to the fort and compelled to bring from
the magazine, three kegs of powder. Seating himself
upon one, he bade the Indian break in the heads of
the remaining! 'two, ' took the captive's flint and then
coolly informed him that he was ready for Nicola and
M his men, and would blow to atoms all the world from
Kamloops to Okanagan lake. By special favor he
permitted the thoroughly affrighted Indian to save himself on promising not to tell Nicola of the fate in store
for him but, as Tod anticipated, no sooner had the
captive gained the open than he hastened to tell his
chief what he had seen. If a small charge of powder
could bring down a deer, what might not three whole
kegs do., especially since the one who fired the gun
received no injury and Tod might himself escape unhurt
while his enemies were blown to pieces. As a result
of this subterfuge Nicola gave up his designs against
both fort and Okanagans. A few months later, Tod
was moved to  another station and  Kamloops knew him
While Tod, howeve
15th,   t8<i6,   A.   C.   Ai
He 1
, had charge of the fort, on May
derson, who then had charge of
nost southerly post on the Fraser
set out with five men detailed for
y a new route of travel to the
1 that the negotiations then pend-
rnments of Great Britain and the
pect to the international boundary,
j distributing' point being selected
ke the place of Fort Vancouver,
: time proved unsatisfactory on
osition in which the company
tounrl themselves by reason of the dual occupancy of the
territory in dispute Should such a new post be created,
a way of reaching'it from Alexandria would be a necessity.   They   passed   down   Kamloops   lake,   where   they
United Stal
made their first camp; crossed Deadman's creek m
an old canoe and made their Way to the Bonaparte,
camping at Hat creek. Next day they traversed the
Marble canyon, reaching Pavilion ranchene and following the Fraser to the Fountain. Arrived at Lillooet they
crossed the Fraser, followed Seton lake, Anderson lake,
and Lillooet and Harrison lakes to the Fraser again,
arriving at Fort Langley on May 24th. He had been
unable to bring horses farther than Fountain and had
sent them  to the  Similkameen  country, there to await
On May 28th he again left Fort Langley and attempted
to find a way over the Hope mountains to the  Nicola
country.   After trying several passes he fell in with  a,
Thompson   river   Indian  who   agreed   to   act   as   guide,
but   he   was   not   of  much   service.   Finally   the   party
arrived at Vermilion Bay where they found their horses
awaiting them, and easily made their way to Kamloops
via Nicola lake, arriving at the fort on Oth June.   Anderson was not' satisfied, however, and next year he sought
to find a better way.   Leaving Kamloops with five men
he went to  Nicola lake and  followed  the  Nicola  river
j to its iunction with the Thompson.   Thence he followed
the Thompson  to the  Indian village  that  stood where
Lytton now'is. and made his wav down the Fraser as
far as  the village  of the  Sachincos   (Yale).    A trip by
canoe  to  Langley  did  not  delay   them  long,  and  then
began   the  return   journey.    At   Kequeloose,   a   point  a
short  distance  above   Spuzzum,  a  short  cut  was  taken
across  the  mountains  to  Nicola  lake  and  thence  back
to Kamloops.
Early  in   1848  Fort  Yale   was   established   by   Chief
Factor James Murray Yale then in charge of Fort Langley, and  who  had  entered  the  service of the  company
in  1815.    Short in  stature he was know as  Little Yale
to the  officers of the. company, but in everything save
physique  he  was   a  giant;  brave,   fearless^ reckless,  he
was   possessed  of   good   administrative   ability.   It  was
the  conclusion  of the  Oregon  treaty which placed the
international bouhdary line far north of Fort Vancouver,
and  the unrest  that followed  the  hostilities  consequent
to   the   Whitman   massacre   that   caused   orders   to   be
issued to all Interior posts to proceed to Fort Langley
in 1848 for their supplies instead of to Fort Vancouver.
Three brigades set out, one from Alexandria, one from
'Kamloops  and  one from  Coilville;  the route they were
to follow was that traversed the preceding summer by
Anderson.    But it proved a  disastrous road and it was
condemned,   the   route  bv   Hope   being  chosen   instead,
and  Fort  Hope was buih during the winter  of  1848-0
The  road   was  made   the  next   season   and.   under the
name of the Hope Trail, was followed until i860 when
the government road was made.   To those who see Hope
now it will come as a suprise to learn that in that year,
i860, it was the second largest town on the mainland,
it  was   for   a  time  a   rendezvous   for  the  gold  miners
going  to  and returning from  the  Upper Fraser mines
ant*   Cariboo,   one   authority   asserting  "and   a   number
of Chinese have taken up their abode in it.    It is making
rapid   progress,   and   roads   are   being   pushed   forward
north and east of it"
In  the  sixth  decade of the   TOth   century  a  new  era
dawned upon the country.    Hitherto the fur companies
had monopolised it and their' one object was to secure
furs  in  as  great abundance as  possible.    In  the  fifties
however, the presence of gold in the streams and rivers'
iown and Chief Trader McLean, then in charge
Kamloops    in   1852   purchased   gold   from   the
■ho_ had obtained it from the Thompson river
Nicomen, between Spence's Bridge and Lyttori
in paying quantities was first discovered.   Then
ral auarters came the report of fresh dfscover-
and Canadians from Fort Colville, fbr-
w -...   ...-   employ  of  the  Hudson's   Bay Company,
made their.way to the vicinity of Lytton, found rich
bars and their success becoming noised abroad soon
brought new comers from afar. McDonald and Adams.
TrT^^Trfw^ETi.™ m,n,n?f "n the Thompson and
Fraser m J#7-8 took some gold down to the lower
country where McDonald killed Adams, took his Void
and coolly exhibited it at Olympia.   The rush soon beg^n
VrÂl?l?J"Lm -?58 th0"sandsT of «en over-ran the
P raser river from its mouth to Lytton and above that
point on both the Fraser and Thompson rivers.
of   Fort
Halfbre Wail* thousand» arrived from various ports, most af.
them landing at Victoria and thence by what transport*
ation was available to Fraser river points, a large number
made the journey overland from California. For protection against the Indians they found it advisable to
travel in companies, these being composed of from 400
to 500 men. The route taken was ,in the main, that
which Ross had followed forty years before when he
was almost the sole white man in tthe whole southern
Interior of the country, by way of Okanagan and Kamloops. Some of them traveled with pack trains, others
with oxen, the latter sold for beet on arriving at the
mines. One of these companies from California and
Oregon Was under the leadership of McLaughlin and
numbered 160 well armed men. At Walla Walla they
Were informed of the hostile attitude of several powerful bands of Indians. Before reaching the Columbia one
of the party was killed by the natives and after crossing
the river, when about to traverse a ueflle, McLaughlin
fortunately detected an Indian scout spying from behind
a rock. Loth sides-of the pass were ambuscaded, uy the
Indians and severe fighting took place, three men being
killed and several severely wounded. While the engage-
meat was in progress a detachment crossed tthe river
to outflank the Indians and after setting fire to the grass
the latter abandoned their position. A few days later
the party suffered attack by mounted natives but ultimately a parley ensued and peace was patched up. It
was not of much force, for cattle were stolen and thefts
and annoyances of daily occurrence until within three
days journey of the Thompson river which they reached
at a point nearly midway between Lytton and Spence's
Bridge. Others came by way of Okanagan lake aad
The Victoria Gazette, the first newspaper published in
British Columbia of August 17, 1858, refers to one of
these overland parties as follows:—
"Oar Yale correspondent states that Mr. Tucker, formerly of Lehama, California, who had arrived at the Forks
(By this name the junction of the Thompson with the
Fraser af Lyttoa was thea designated) ia a company
of 160 men, with 400 animals, from the Dalles, had been
30 days on the trip, and had a severe tight with the Indians on the road at Fort Okanagan, an old Hudson*» Bay
Company post, in which they lost three killed and six
wounded. .Had beaten the Indians ott with the loss of
five horses."
The fortune hunters who came overland made in the
main for two points, the Forks (.Lyttun) and the Fountain, above Lillooet. Those who came by sea and from
Washington Territory, mined in the vicinity of jHope
and Yale Twenty thousand men mined on the Fraser
and Thompson in 1858, the major portion of them between Hope and the Forks. As Hope was the point of
departure for the upper reaches by the Similkarneen-Nic-
ola trail, besides being the then head of navigation, it
became the most important place on the mainland.
Townsites were laid out and surveyed at Langley, Hope
and Yale and lots were sold by auction, bringing good
prices. A writer thus describes Yale as it was when he
saw it on July 28th, 1858. "We arrived at Fort Yale m a
little less than -nine hours from Fort Hope. There are
probably 700 or 800 people here, nearly all of whom are
miners, living in canvas tents, and waiting for the river
to fall I saw no drunkeness or lawlessness of anykind.
Everything was peaceful and quiet A number of miners
were at work on the river bank, with rockers, and most
of them making a living by washing the loose dirt and
cobble stones." (At that time there were 2000 miners
working between Yale and Hope, taking out from $10
to $90 a day on the bars). "I slept at Mr. Johnson a (of
Ballou's express) tent that night, and breakfasted next
morning with my old San Francisco friend, Henry M.
Snyder, whom I found tenting a little way dowa the
river. He gave me a good breakfast, consisting «tried
salmon, bacon, hot bread and coffee, cooked by himself,
and served in tin plates and cups—each man sitting down
tailor fashon on the ground. I had a sharp appetite
aad did the fare full justice."       ptfc*
There ia but one public eating house in the town, aad
the {«variable diet ia bacon, salmon, bread, tea and coffee,
aaa ttt charge b $1 a meal. No milk or bntterja ever
IM.   Tfoottsf aoase is kept in a log »•■** 9«*T «•»-
ered with bark, and with a dirt floor. Everything is doac
in the same room, which is not more than 12x14 and is
consequently exceedingly cramped for space and as hot
as an oven." It was on that same day that the Umatilla, the pioneer steamer to reach Yale, made her first
trip to that town, taking five hours to make the trip from
tHopej the return trip was made in 51 minutes, her advent being the occasion for general rejoicing, the miners
firing off rifles and revolvers and yelling themselves
hoarse to celebrate the event. Yale then became thé
head of navigation and this speedily brought about a
new order of things. The Hope route became a secoad-
ary matter and a reversion to the old Anderson route*
pack trains between Yale arid Spuzzum being in operation in the following month. At Spuzzum, Frank Way
had erected a bridge and a mile above he ran a ferry.
The first pack trains over this route reached the Fork*
(Lytton) on September 10th There was, • however, a
rival road, a land and water route, between Harrison
river and Lillooet (In i860 a new and better read was
opened between Yale and Lytton, which afterwards became the famous Cariboo, wagon road). The river
was worked for 140 miles up-stream from Hope, and
also up the Thompson to 15 miles beyond the Confluence with the Nicola river. Boston Bar became quite
a settlement, and by October, 1858, Lytton had 50 dwellings. Miners worked up above that town and'by November there were 3,000 working near Fountain.
But this had not all happened without some trouble
with the natives. The Indians had taken to mining and
there were frequent disturbances between the natives
and the whites over mining ground and charges for
transportation by canoes. At Hill's Bar the native*
threatened to clear the entire country of the white men.
Governor Douglas rated both Indians and native*
roundly, but many a prospector who went up the Fraiser
full of hope was never again seen. On August 7th„
1858, two Frenchmen were killed on the trail above the
Big Canyon. As soon as the news reached Yale forty
miners, well armed, and headed by Captain Rouse, left
for the scene of the murder. At Boston Bar they were
joined by 150 miners congregated there, and ou the 14th
the party encountered the Indian's at the head of the
canyon, a pitched battle took place and seven braves
were sent to the happy hunting grounds, and the IndL
ans were driven out. The party thereupon returned to
Yale. Referring to this expedition the Victoria Gazette
of 12th  Sept.,  1858,  says:—
"Our Yale correspondent states that he learned from
James Stewart, who has just arrived from up river, that
after being perfectly satisfied that it was useless to
attempt to mine under the present state of affairs, his
party sold some of their provisions and buried the rest,
and started down the river for this place, when just at
the head of the Big Canyon they had a fight with the
Indians, killing nine, and among that numbïr was one
chief. Quite a number were wounded, and three taken
prisoners. The miners routed the Indians, who took
refage in the moan*»»».    Five of their reachsries were Further fighting took place a few days later, but Ike
leader of the whites, H. M. Snyder, made treaties of
peace with all the Indians as far as the Thompson, and
soon the trail was alive with miners again. Early ia
September, of the name year, Doaglas agaia visited
Yale and for better preservation of the peace he appointed a commissioner, ten troopers and *en special
constables, a similar disposition was made at Hope, and
at Lytton a commissioned (Captain TrevaMis), tea troopers and a warden of the river were appointed. Langley
was expected to be the capital of British Columbia. and
great preparations were made for the Roval Engineers
who were to be stationed there. In November, 1*38,
they arrived, 25 of them, under Colonel Moody and
Captain  Grant.
The following January a report reached Victoria of
an outbreak at Yale. Col. Moody at ^nce took his
whole force there and was reinforced *>v 1 , arty'of
blue jackets atnd marines from the Satel'it*. The difficulty, which arose out of a petty squabb''», in wMch a
man named McGowan figured orominenttiv. retween a
couple of justices of the peace. Fortunately it ended
without any serious consequences, thou^ i* premised
at one time to be the cause of grave disturbance. It
was soon after this that the site of New Westminster
was examined by Lieutenant, afterwatrds Admiral,
Mayne and Dr. Campbell on behalf of Co1. Moody.
After 1858 the Thompson, the first^ ground where gold
was mined, received but little attention and the mining
population was never great, though the gold was, and
is extensively distributed all along its course. In 1858,
Tranquille creek was prospected for a distance of 40
miles. In 1859 five men were making $300 a day with
sluice boxes, and others took out $10 to $12 a day with
the rocker. In i860 there were 200 Chinese mining at
the mouth of the creek, and in the^ following year ISO
miners averaged $16 a day in the vicinity of the creek.
Up to this time, however, there was no mining done on
the North river aad save for the lira* done at Tranquille, Kamloops was out of the hurly burly:that agitated
the forts at Hope, Langley and Yale. The more peaceful and less exciting pursuit of trading with the Indians
engaged the whole attention of the Hudson's Bay officers
and men, and peace and quiet prevailed.
The condition of affairs at Kamloops in the year 1850,
is well described by Commander Mayne of Her Majesty's ship Plumper, engaged in surveying, who made
a trip through the districts bordering on the Fraser,
Thompson and Harrison rivers. He says: "It was eight
o'clock in the morning when we came in sight of Kamloops. The view from where we stood was very beautiful. A hundred feet below us the Thompson, some
30» yards wide, flowed leisurely past us. Opposite,
moving directly towards us, and meeting the larger river
nearly at right angles, was the North rivei, at its junction with the Thompson, wider even than that stream,
and between them stretched a wide deli a of alluvial
plain, wbich was continued some eight or ten miles until
the mountains closed in upon the river *o nearly, as
to only just leave a narrow pathway by tfu water's edge
At this fork, and on the west side atoo. Fort Kamloops, enclosed within pickets; and opposite it was the
village of the Shuswap Indians. Both fie plain and
mountains were covered with grass and early spring
wild flower».
We descended to the river side, and our Tnd'ian;
companions shouted until a caioe was seat across, in
which we embarked and paddled across to the fort.
Kamloops differed in no respect from other forts of
the Hudson Bay Company that I had seen, being a
mere stockade enclosing six or eight buildings, with a
gatew.ay at each end. Introducing ourselves to Mr.
McLean, the Company's officer in charge of the fort
and district, we were most cordially received, and with
the h ispitality common to these gentlemen, invited to
stay'in his quarters for the few days we must remain
here. At this time the only other officer at this_ foirt
was Mr. Mason. With them, however, was staying' a
Roman Catholic priest, who, having got into some
trouble with the Indians of the Okanagan country, had it prudent to leave that district and take up
his abode for a time at Kamloops.
"The life which these gentlemen lead at their inland
stations must be  necessarily dull and uneventful;  but
they have their wives and families with them, and grow,
I believe, so attacked to this mode of existence a* rasefcy
to care to exchange it for another. It# may be weH to
describe here, in as few words as possible, the position
of the Hudson Bay Company in these districts, of which
until lately «hey formed the sole white population.
Those who have seen the "fur traders" only at their
seaports, can form but a very inadequate idea of the rnea
of the inland stations.
"Inland, you find men, who, having gone from England, or more frequently Scotland, as boys of 14 and
16, have lived ever since in the wilds, never seeing any
of their, white fellow creatures but the two or three
stationed with them, except when the annual fur brigade called at their nosts. They are almost all married
and have large families, their wives bfeing generally
halfbreed children of the older servants of the Company. Marriage has always been encouraged amongst
there to the utmort as it effectually attaches a maai
to »be country, and tends to prevent any glaring immorality among the subordinate*, wMel If aot ebeelei,
would so>n lead to an unsafe familiarity with the neigh-
bourirrir Indians, and render the maintenance Of the
port very difficult, if not impossible.
"The- day after onr arrival at Kamloops, we went
across North River to the Indian village, to pay a visit
to 'he chief of the Shuswap tribe, who ww described
to us as being somewhat of a notability. Here we* tbe
site of the old fort of «he North West Company which
some twelve years back, after the murder of Mr. Black
(the officer-in charge of it) by the Indians, had been removed by his successor to the opposite side of the river.
No doubt the old site was preferable to the new, which
is subject to summer floods. Only the year before our
visit indeed, all the floors had been started by the water,
and  the occupants  of the  fort buildings had  to  move
"The interior of the hut is divided into compartment»
and, upon entering, you may see a fire burning ia each,
with six or eight individuals huddled about it—their
dusky forms scarcely distinguishable in the clouds of
white'blinding smoke' which had no other outlet than
the door' or sometimes a hole in the roof. Their temporary hut is constructed of thin poles covered with mats,
but these are generally used only in the summer, and
upon their fishing expeditions and travels. It is aot
usual, however, from some superstitious reason, or because of sickness breaking out, to leave their village with
everything standing, and never retara to these."
Commander Mayne also mentions that he want %§
see the bands of ho ses driven in, and those p.<at weak
selected for food. There were some two hundred ar
three hundred horses of all torts and ages at the station.
Just outside the fort were two pens, or corrals as they
cajled them, aad into these the horses were driven. À
few colts were ch*.*i n for breaking in, and then the old
mares, whose brewing time was past, were selected
and—for it was upon horse flesh principally that the
people of the fort lived—driven out to be killed, slda-
ned and salted down."
In 1861 the presence of gold in the bars of the North
Thompson and its branches first attracted attention.
Jamieson Creek, Clearwater river, Barrière river (where
a Party of Frenchmen made $50 a day), Adam» river,
Moberly creek and other streams made things a little
livelier around the old fort and in 1862 there was stilt
urther addition by the arrival of an adventurous party
who had made the long trip across the prairies and -
while a portion of the original party descended the Fraser to Quesael, another portion followed the North
River. Two of them were drowned and the remainder
nearly perished for lack of food. Among them was
one woman having in her care three children aad addina
ÉPI Aumber a .fewtJ?ll« above Kamloops. AmonaV
those who came ia tin* party were the Eté Samuel
Moore, J. A. Mara, C. T. Cooney, G. C Taastail delate
James Mcintosh, etc each of whom has since that loo*
înity * t0 °P the town and *£
In 1863, the late Jos. W. McKay was in charae of th.
Hudson's  Bay fort  at Kamloops  and  WdkWG   Co*
issioner and police masdal
looet each had its gold commi
tuener.   la itti. Kasa- loops was honored with a vist from Governor Douglas
who made the trip by way of Kamloops, and Okanagan
Lake to Rock Creek, returning by way of the Dewdney-
Moberiy trail, then nearly completed. In 1862 Douglas
determined to build the wagon road along the Fraser.
There was already in use the water aad land route via
Harrison river to Douglas and Lillooet, in the construction of which 500 men—anxious to get to the Cariboo country where gold had then just been found—
were employed. Governor Douglas agreeing to land at
Douglas all provisions and supplies at Victoria prices
if the men would turn to and build the road, all of which
was done. In 1862 the great rush to Cariboo was at its
height and the projected new road along the Fraser was
at once pushed.   A writer describing the road and Yale,
encountered in carrying out the above work have been
considerable, and a bridge has yet to be thrown across ;
the river (Fraser) before the chain of commumcatioa
is completed. There is no doubt that this will become
one of the main (roads into the Interior of the country* :
Mr. Spence, ia connection with Mr. Trutch, bnilt the
suspension bridge at Spuzzum across the Fraser and
the new road was. soon thronged with pack trains aad
heavily laden freight wagons bound' fojr the Cariboo
mines or the Hudson's Bay posts at Kamloops aad
elsewhere. The road is now a thing of the past; for
since the C.P.R. came into being it is no longer passable;
bridges have given way, rock slides block up the roadway, cribbing has tumbled into the turbulent waters of
the Fraser, and the "old timer" who sees these things
Us starting point, in 1863, says:—
"Since the Fraser River excitement of 1858, Yale has
always been a hustling, busy little place, and notwithstanding the competition of the Douglas route* that via
Yale has always retained its popularity." (This must
have reference to the trails along the Fraser.) "The
great government works which have been carried on
in the valley of the Fraser above Yale during the past
summer, have had a beneficial effect on the prosperity
of the place, and caused a considerable rise in the value
of lots in the town. By the middle of next May a road,
passable for wagons, will have been completed from
Yale to Williams creek (lake is no doubt meant) a
distance of 160 miles. The road from Yale to Lytton
(63 miles) which goes through the precipitous channel
of the Fraser, known as the Big Canyon, has been constructed at a great cost to the colony. From Yale to
Pike's Riffle, six miles and six chains, the road was
built by the Royal Engineers; from Pike's Riffle to
Chapman's bar, a distance of 8 miles, by Mr. (afterwards
Sir J. W.) Trutch, for $47>ooo; from Chapman's Bar to
Boston Bar, 11 to 12 miles, by Messers Spence fcndi
Trutch (the Spence here mentioned constructed the
bridge over the Thompson river at the place which still
is known as Spence's Bridge, though the bridge has
long since been washed away) for $75,ooo, from Boston
Bar to Lytton, 32 1-2 miles, by Mr. Spence for $88,000,
Mr. Spence employed 600 men on this work which he
completed in four months.   The engineering difficulties
mourns for the good old road and the good old days
spent on it. :.
With the working of the bar diggings in the viciaity
of Yale -and the inauguration of regular stage lines to
Cariboo, Yale gradually lost a considerable part of her
population and the town lost.much of its bustle and stir.
The forwarding of merchandise to Cariboo and other
intermediate points by pack trains, mule teams, ox teams
("bull teams" they were called) aad other means of can»
veyance, engaged the attention of many men who have
since risen to prominence in the province and maay way
side houses were kept for the public convenience, aad
the proprietor's profit, by others who have attaiaed a
like eminence;
Towards the latter part of that memorable decade, the
sixties, the question of confederation became a burning
issue in the province and in 1868 we find that aa important convention was held at Yale to consider the question,
the gathering being attended by delegates from all parts
of the province, those from the Interior being; from
Yale, C. Evans, J. McLardy and iH. Havelock; from Lytton, R. Smith; from Lillooet, Dr. Featherstone; from
Lac la Hache, Dr. Brouse; from Williams Lake, Hon. F.
Barnard; from Quesnelle Mouth, J. C Armstrong; and
from Cariboo, C. W. King and E. H. Rabbitt Resolutions were unanimously passed favoring immediate admission to the Dominiea of Canada. This was the first
representative assembly in B. C. at which this manient,
ous issue was discussed.   It was net, however, nasi ittt •that confederation  was  accomplished.
| .One of the conditions of the compact entered into by
B.i C. and the Dominion was the construction of a transcontinental railway. Of the disappointments and postponements and heartburnings before that condition was
-fulfilled there is no need to enlarge in this necessarily
brief synopsis of events, suffice it to say that it wa» not
•«Util 1880 that the first sod of the C. P. *?. was turned
in the ^province but once begun, it was pushed vigorously.
j Andrew Onderdonk, familiarly referred to by everybody
on or off the road as "A. O.," was the contractor aad
the amount involved for that portion of the road from
stores aad built residences, the regular 1
■eotion with New Westminister was sooi
with trains—not very elegant affaira, with most umeaav
fertable coaches—from down the nver.aad as «he rose
progressed eastward, by trains running in that atreesjaa
as   well. .     I
Supplies for the road were taken partly by wagaa,
partly by pack train, but this was expeasive and slow
and finally it was decided to build a steamer to run the
canyon of the Fraser and convey the supplies more
nomically to the farther camps. The steamer Skuzzy
i built at the Big TunneJ, east of Spuzzum, and after
Emory to Savona, including .the cantilever bridge at
Cisco, was $11,200,000, an average of $43,000 per mile.
Over 7,000 men were employed, sawmills were built by
the contractor, a powder factory was erected and operated between Yale and Emory, machine shops were
built at Yale and although for a time the main offices
were at Emory,- it was soon found that Yale was better
adapted for the management's headquarters and Yale
once more put on the airs of a city, and the bustle and
stir surpassed that of 20 years before. It was a wide
open town, money flowed like water, good wages were
earned and freely spent and for a lively place, few western
towns could compare with little resurrected Yale. Town
property jumped to a high  figure, business men put up
some difficulty a skipper was found willing to essay the
task of taking the vessel through the boiling, eddying,
treacherous rapids as they foamed through the dangerous
canyon. Finally two brothers named Smith consented
to try and with j. W. Burse as engineer, aided by a
powerful steam winch and capstan and 150 Chinamen
hauling on the ropes the first load of freight was safely
carried and distributed along the river. Several trips
were made up and down, Lytton being the farthest point
reached. Subsequently the Skuzzy was tied up at
Reefer's and there remained until 1884, when the machinery was removed, taken to Savona and placed in the
newly built hull of the Skuzzy number two.
With the  passing of the period  of activity coincident
|YALE— LOADING FREIGHT FOR THE CARIBOO ROAD with railway construction, Yale again fell into desuetude;
quiet reigned where bustle had prevailed; the streets, once
thronged with men, became deserted, and gradually sinking farther and farther from the harlycon days of yore
houses, deserted and desolate, sank into decay; stores
eflices and warehouses, cheerless and empty, gave silent
witness of a greatness that had been but was not Twice
Yale rose to a state of prosperity and affluence and twice
has- it fallen into peaceful rest; who will say it may not
again become and permanently remain a hive of industry? Yale but experienced the same fate that befell
many other towns. Lytton, too, was once a bustling
little town, so were Savona, Ashcroft and Spence's
Bridge. Eagle Pass Landing a* the head of Shuswap
lake shared the same fate that came to them all save
Ashcroft,  varied  only  in   degree.    But  such   places   as
being then in charge, the only available local source of
supplies, in anticipation of the rush, built the Steamer
Marten during the winter of 1865. The following
spring the rush began and the Marten made regular
trips from Savona to Seymour, at the head of Shuswap
Lake, the fare being $10 for passengers, and freight
rates $20 a ton. Each trip the litle boat was crowded
with miners, thousands flocked to the new mines and:
Seymour, form which point the rest of the journey was
made by trail, became quite a' thriving town, of which,
however, little trace is left at this time. Kamloops gained some benefit from the excitement and the improvement was such that Messrs. Mara and Wilson opened
up a store in 1867. The Marten was the first steamer
to ply on these waters and ascended the North River
to a point 120 miles from its mouth.    In 1868 Wm. For-
endured have flourished, striking examples of the survival of the.fittest.
In 1863 the Hudson's Bay Company again moved
their post at Kamloops, this time to the south bank,
opposite the second site, there they remained until the
march of progress rendered it advisable to make another
change and the building in the west end of the town recently occupied by the Standard, was erected in 1885.
In 1804 they moved to their present commodious quarters). In 1864 the Columbia river bars attracted attention
of the gold  miners  and   with the  discovery of gold  in
the Big Bend a busy time came for Kamloops, which
waë on, the direct route of travel to the new mines. The
government opened a trail from Kamloops by way of
Shuswap Lake, -and in 1866, the wagon road was extended
form Cache Creek to Savona at the foot dLKâMj»ps
Tflfr    llSnwhife the H.B.Co., the late J. W. McKay
tune, who built the first house in Kamloops, built the
first flour mill in the' interior of B. C, the burrs coming
from Buffalo and costing $1,200 for the pair. A short
time after the road was completed to Savona it was decided to extend it to Kamloops, and the late James Mcintosh had the contract for building it. 1
In 1868 John Peterson pre-empted a parcel of land
east of the then little village, and afterwards purchased
an additional 320 acres. On the pre-emption he. built
a house and stables, which are still standing, a short
distance east of the railway station. This location is of
interest as this land, the Peterson ranch, constitutes the
new town of Kamloops. In 1870 Barnard's express
stages, carrying the mails, ran as far as Savona, the
system soon extended to Kamloops and finally to Okanagan mission. The difficulty in procuring lumber led to
the establishment of a new industry about 1875, when
a combined flour and lumber mill was built on the flat,
then east of the town. Messrs. Mara, Wilson, Mcintosh
and Usherwere the owners. The last named gentleman
was the government agent at Kamloops at that time,
and met an untimely death, while engaged in the performance of his duty, at the hands of the McLean and
Hare gang, four in number, in December, 1879. The
murderers were hanged at New Westminster, January
3T,  1881.
The year 1878 saw another steamer built on these
waters, the Lady Dufferin, the property of Win». Fortune.
The boat ^id a general carrying business, running between Savona and Spallumcheen. The Spallumcheen,
owned by Mara & Wilson, also plied on the same waters
for a number of years.
Apart from the settlement - that had been quietly aad
steadily going on in the district for some time, another
important factor was at work in this decade in assisting
tc btlild up Kamloops, and this was the fact that from
its position Kamloops would be a place of semejmport-
ôn^ tfc^MfwSof thé proposed Canadian Pacific Rail-
It VU basa the intëntioa to cerry the road oat to the coast at Bute Inlet and in 187a surveyors were
sent out to survey the North Thompson and to explore
for a route from the Clearwater to the Cariboo wagon
rPad, with the view of getting to Bute Inlet via Chil.
cotin, but this idea was abandoned and it was ultim-
mately decided to bring the line down the North Thompson to Kamloops and then carry it to the salt water by
the route since adopted. Lord Dufferin visited Kamloops in 1876.
Kaniloops was given telegraphic communication in
1878, the line being built by the Liberal Government
under Premier Alex. Mackenzie. F. J. Barnard, who
afterwards sat in the House of Commons as representative for Yale district, was the contractor for this work.
Kamloops  was  now fairly on her feet,  and  boasted
steamboat for J. A. Mara to run, »c«*^. *,**,£?•
onist, "between Cook's Ferry and the head of ««viga-
tion." The Peerless made a trip to Harper's miU, at
the mouth of the Bonaparte (near Ashcroft), injuoe,
1881, without using a line on the journey, accomplishing
the distance, 20 miles up stream» in five hours,*n*
subsequently made one trip to .Cook's *«"* JSP*»*!n'
Bridge), Captain John Irving being in commwa. K»m
loops reached out for trade in those days, perhaps proportionately more than today, although trade,was not
always of the briskest The Standard /a Victoria newspaper that long ago ceased to have its nemg). m t»e
issue of June 12, 1880, says: "Times at Kamloops are
dull at present The Shuswap mill has been <*nder
water for the past month.   The Tranquille mill is rua-
of hotels, ss well as stores. The Diniinian Hotel was in
the heads of Mcintosh * Mc Phaddea, and 'he Cosmopolitan was conducted by John Peterson «St Dassonvi'le.
Mara & Wilson had the only store in the village, tht
Hudson's BayCompany's store being some little distance west of it, where near the bridge the old building
are yet standing. In 1880 there were three stores, three .
hotels, two blacksmith shops end a school. Father
Grandidier was the first resident clergyman taking up
his abode in Kamloops in 18^8. He and other visiting
clergymen attended to the spiritual welfare of the people.
In that year, A. Watson, of Victoria, built the Peerless
ning night and day. The steamer Lady Dufferia is
making regular trips every Tuesday to Spallumcheen.
. Large quantities of flour are being shipped from Tranquille mill to Savona's Ferry, Cariboo and other places."
In building the Peerless, Mara * Co. showed their
faith in the business future of the district Captain
Insley was the navigator and August Manenteau, still
a resident in this district, was also an officer of this
steamer. For several years this craft made regular
trips from Savona to the headwaters of the Shuswap
lakes, but now a discarded hulk, she lies at the edge
of the river, her day of usefulness gone.    pS^ri.;
THE PEERLESS AT KAMLOOPS. U Decssabcr. 18S0, J. F. McCrdght %» ,
Judge for tile inland country, to sit at Kamloops
May, 1881, saw Major Roger* set out from Kamloops
bl "£*£*? to Et*1! nwr to loo« for » pae» ttronS
the Selkirk range. for the Cl P. R. construction on
which was now going forward with vigor.   A pass was
5ÎT^S!îf,ntly Jou5d'oand the "?■*• was »**"» changed.
The Yellow Head Pass was abandoned, and an entirely
new route was selected, the line reaching Kamloops by
the South Thompson instead of by the North branch. At
about the same time in the press the claims of Kamloops
as the proper capital »f the Mainland were put forward
and discussed.
In the same year increased mail service was given
to points east reached by wagon road from Kamloops.
So far a semi-monthly mail had been given, but in the
spring of 1881 the mail contract from Cache Creek
to Okanagan Mission (now known as Kelowna), via
Kamloops and Spallumcheen, giving a weekly service
for four yearsi wa* awarded to J. B. Leighton, the present energtic superintndent of the British Columbia
Express  Company.
The Province was in 1882 in the throes of the fourth
general election (Provincial) since Confederation, and
Mr. Mara was elected for the third consecutive term,
with him being associated Preston Bennett who had
represented the same district in the previous legislature,
sad C. A. Semlin, who was one of the trio selected from
Yale to represent that district in the first legislature
of the conjoint Province.    Mr. Benett sat in the fourth
Ms successor to tit* Governor-Generalship, visited the
Up to 11884 no newspaper had been published at
Kamloops, but in that year the Inland Sentinel made
its appearance as a Kamloops publication. This was
not however, the beginning of the paper. Mr. Hagan,
its founder, first established the paper at Emory, a few
miles below Yale, on May 29, 1880, removing to Yale
shoirtfly afterwards!. Moving with the times and the
railway, Mk Haghn brought the Inland Sentinel to
Kamloops,  where   it  has  remained.
In that same year the first firemen's company was
established, the meetings at which it was formed being
held in Spelman's (Cosmopolitian) hotel, in August
The folowing month a movement was set on foot to
build a hospital in Kamloops. Arrangements were soon
made, and the contract for the building was given to
W. A. Simmons. The hotels in 1884 were of some importance, for half the population lived in them. The
Arlington, near where_ the Queen's hotel now stands,
was kept by Sears & Nichols. At a later date the building was removed bodily to the east end of the street
and was named the Oriental, now Montreal hotel.
Frank Rushton doing the honors as host for a time.
Jos. Ratchford, recently the superintendent of the Pre.
vincial home, ran the Kamloops house. The late Ed.
Cannell had the Dominion, J. T. Edwards the Cosmopolitian and Desormier the Colonial. The medical profession was represented by Dr. S. J. Tunstall, now of
Vancouver,   and   Dr.  Offerkaus,  now  of  Spallumcheen.
parliament for a few days after the election he had
an attack of hemorrhage of the lungs, and died on
August 9, 1882, at the residence of Mr. John Tait local
manager of the Hudson's Bay Company's post since
1872. The vacancy caused by Mr. Bennett's death was
filled by G. B. Martin, who continued to represent Yale
until the general election of 1808. when he was defeated
by F. J. Deane, who in turn was defeated in 1900 and
1903 by F. J. Fulton.
Social life in the earlier days was not marked by
the lines that characterlBe it to-day. The people were
almost like one large family, and at time* they met
for jollity and pleasure; balls and impromptu dances
in winter, at which Donald McLean generally scraped
the fiddle; horse-racing and other sports on sucji public
holiday* a* were) observed in the lïttfh; town. But
a change was at hand. The C. P. R. was coming slowly
but steadily nearer. The shrill whistle ofs the locomotive
was soon heard at Savona, and in the winter of 1884
the grading of the roadbed between that point and
Kamloops was under way.    Kamloiips. ..was. now a busy
2ace, with a constant stream of people going and com-
g-, end it was not without its distinguished visitors.
October, 1883, had seen the Marquis of Lome in Kamloops, aad three year* later the Marquis of Lansdowne,
It was a treat to see the latter, clad in his dressing
gown, stalk down to the stables through the only street
Kamloops then possessed, to feed and groom his little
cayuse. W. W. Spinks, now judge of the county court
was then practising as an attorney, and for some time .
was the only member of the bar in town. The housekeeper of the present day would be staggered were our
storekeepers to revert to the prices of 1884. Flour was
$6 per 100 lbs.; ham and bacon 30 cents per lb.; tea
80 cents to $1.50 per lb.; pork 25 cents; sugar 25 cents
and eggs 75 cents a dozen. Hay sold at 925 per ton,
and lumber at $20 to $30 per thousand.
A visitor in Oct., 1884, was Hon. Wm. Smythe, then
Premier, who was also Chief Commissioner of Lands
and Works, which latter portfolio, after his death in
1887, fell to F. G. Vernon, one of the three member*
for Yale district, which then for the first time secured
cabinet  representation.
The next year saw many advances made. The Hudson's Bay people moved their store into the town. A
new steamer, the Kamloops, was built early in the year,
and was launched in April, the machinery being that
from the Myra, a stern-wheeler that had formerly run
below Yale. • xtâ£'' -   -
w KAMLOOPS 1884.
bKAML0OPSjl886, Faffing to come to an arrangement with Mr. Mara
for the transport of supplies, Mr. Onderdonk determined to build a steamer to ply on these waters, using
the machinery from a discarded steamer, the Skuzzy,
which had made several .eventful trips through the canyon of the Fraser. A hull was built at Savona, the
machinery installed, and then a compromise arranged.
The Skuzzy ■ was put to good use, however, serving as
a floating hotel for the tracklayers, and moving along
with them, as they came on towards and beyond Kamloops. The Skuzzy was afterwards bought by Mr. Mara,
and  is now lying beside   the  Peerless,  sheer  hulks.
In July, 1885, the railway track reached Kamloops,
and on November 7th of the same year, at 3 o'clock in
the afternoon, the first through train from the east to
Port  Moody, arrived.
In the .'same year John Peterson disposed of his ranch
lying to 'the east of the old town to the townsite syndicate, of which Messrs. Mara, Ward and Pooley were
members. The new townsite was surveyed at once by
R. H. Lee. In 1885 the Government decided to build a
new court house. Government Agent Tunstall chose
the present central site, and in that same year its construction j was entered upon. The old court house
destroyed-by fire three years ago, was a log cabin, whitewashed, with the cells opening direct into the confined
space that served as court room, în (which', indeed,
many matters of grave moment have come before the
judges of both the County and Supreme courts. Court
day was deemed a sort of festival, and the coming of a
Supreme court judge—and Mr. Justice Walkem was the
favorite—was looked forward to with s a zest that is
not seen in the present and more prosaic age.
With the coming of the C. P.. R., the town grew
steadily, and its being made a divisional point at once
added largely to its growing population.    ~i early days,
water was carried from the river in backets, ar healed
up in barrels, but with the growth of the towa these
means became altogether inadequate.   The late Mr.Meln-
tosh, who was never lacking in enterprise, met the
want and supplied the town from a reservoir into which
the water was pumped from the river. By private enterprise also the town was supplied with electric light
In 1893 the city was incorporated, and the water and light
: acquired by the municipality by purchase.
• plants
1 put i
,5 the presence of copper-gold ere was discoverer
on Coaï hill, not far from the place wnere a few years
previously Major Vaughan and others had mined with
more or less success for coal. Development has progressed steadily and the Iron Mask mine is now a regular shipper, and other properties give indications of
arriving at the same stage in the near future.
But little mention has been made of local representation in the House of Commons. Dominion elections created very little excitement until the last two or three contests. Chas F. Houghton was first chosen, but his terra
was short, the -parliament only lasting 187I-72. ! He was
succeeded by Edgar Dewdney (afterwards Lieut-governor of the province), who sat for Yale from 1872 until
his appointment as Indian commissioner. F. J. Barnard
stepped into his shoes, to be himself replaced by J. A. '
Mara, who occupied the seat from 1886 until his defeat
by Mr. Bostock at the general election, 1806, in the united
constituency of Yale-Cariboo. In the general election
of 1900, W. A. Galliher of Nelson, was elected M. P., and
in 1004, the district being divided into two constituenees,
Kootenay and Yale-Cariboo, Duncan Ross was elected
for the latter, H. Bostock being created a senator ia
the same year. ^^^^?S^^ *-$*        ,'",'"""TB
INDIAN UAMP. Jfte Jdattle of Ôpujjunv
**    #     j*    A TALE  OF   1858.    a*    ^    .*»
Author  cf
"The   Mystic   Spring,"
T was the 8th of April 1858, the year of the
great rush into the Fraser River country by
thousands of miners in search of gold. The
day had been sultry; but with the going
down of the sun a light breeze had sprung
up and the inhabitants of the busy town of
Yale, where thousands of people had gathered,
stood without their shops and tents to enjoy
the cool air and-talk over prospects and plan
schemes for the-future. Back of the town
huge mountains reared their snowy heads.
In the foreground the swift-rolling Fraser,
roaring, seething and tumbling, as it glided by on its way
to the ocean, there to be swallowed up and lost in the
vast Waste of waters that ebb and flow the world around,
fumed and fretted like an insatiate monster ahunger for
victims. Children romped in the full view of their parents,
despite the fact that the Indians were known to be in a
sullen mood, for they imagined that with the coming of
the gold seekers, sfahmoni their principal article of food,
would be frightened away and the tribes would starve.
A few natives, wrapped in an air of sullen dignity and
bright-hued blankets, lounged in front of the shops,
silently watching the movements of the whjitesi but
declining to converse or accept any favors from the
invaders. There had been dark rumors of an Indian
rising tor several! days. The tribes that occupied villages
between and along the Big and Little Canyons of the
Fraser, and the Thompson River Indians, further up the
stream, were reported to be preparing for war. The Hudson Bay Company's officers were confident there would be
3 trouble if the miners refrained from selling the Indians
whiskey and dii
advice Which the Whi
".made no preparations
Amongst- the  childi
evening were a girl
meddle  with   their
rept an attack should 1
: be
> played on Yale Flat that
ioy named Evans, aged ten
and eight years, the girl being the elder. One of these
children was the happy possessor of a rubber ball, which
was tossed from hand to hand, and afforded'keen enjoyment for the little band of urchins. The shades of evening were gathering when the voice of the mother of
the Evans children was heard calling them home. ,
'•''Let' us have one more throw, mother," cried the
little girl.
"Let it be the last," was the reply.
The girl threw the ball far from her. It rolled down
the face of the bluff and lodged somewhere among the
boulders on the bar near the river's brink. The children
ran to recover the ball and searched long and anxiously
for it, but without success, and were about to abandon
'the Search when a shrill cry from the Evans girl, who
was in advance of the others, drew all eyes to the spot
L$rhere she stood.
The girl seemed rooted to the ground. She uttered
shriek after shriek and beat her hands together, while
she gazed at some objeet before her.
"Good heavens, it's a rattler!" cried one of the men,
and he seized an axe and ran towards the child, closely
followed by others. As he approached her the girl, pale
as death, pointed to the ground. The man, as he rushed
forward, instinctively raised the axe to bury it in the body
of the supposed rattlesnake, when something met his
eyes that turned him sick at his stomach and froze his
blood.   He staggered and almost fell, for before him,
wedged closely between two boulders, where it had been
tossed by the current of the river, was the decaying
head of a white manl It had been hacked from the trunk
with a dull instrument, and, as it lay. there, looking upward, with eyes wide open, it seemed to
sure full in the man's face with an expression
of anguish and fear. The head had long black
hair and full whiskers and moustache, of which
the wearer must have been very proud when in
life. A clumsy attempt had been made to scalp the head;
but die murderer succeeded in only inflicting a deep gash.
The alarm spread quickly through the town and hundreds flocked to the spot to view the awful spectacle.
"A murder has been done and those d d redskins
did it," was the popular verdict. Few people slept in
Yale that night for an attack was feared. The night
passed, however, without incident, but the morning light
disclosed the headless bodies of two white men on the
river brink. Later in the day three more decapitated bodies
floated down stream and were brought ashore. An ia»
quest was held and a verdict of "Found murdered" was
In a few hours, miners aad prospectors cam* pouring
into Yale from the canyons, bringing aew* of Ittdiaa
outrages and declaring that the headless bodies were those
of five Germans who had occupied a cabin at Boston Bar,
and who had been shot and beheaded by Indians.
The population flew to anna. No communication with
the authorities at Victoria was possible. There was no
telegraph, no police, no organized courts, no semblance
of authority in the country save a J. P. at Hill's Bar aad
a weak old man at Yale, who had been made Gold Commissioner because no other subject could be louai to take
the position at the meagre salary. At Yale two companies
were formed.each about forty strong. Another body of
armed miners got together at Thompson River; they
called themselves the Texan Rangers, and pro»
ceeded to inflict punishment on the tribe*. They
killed many Indians, destroyed their •tore* of
dried fish, cached high up among the branche*
of the tall trees, and completely cowed the redskin*.
This was accomplished without the loss of a
single man of the attacking party.
The Yale contingent departed early on the morning of
the tenth of April. They marched out in high spirit*,
the men who remained at home cheering and the the few
women and children then in camp waving their handkerchiefs a,s tokens of their sympathy. An enthusiastic little
Scotchman breathed several of Scotia's national airs
through the bagpipes and accompanied the companies
as   bandmaster..
The next day the warriors returned to town with
shattered r.?nks, and torn clothes. Some were minus
their weapons. They bore on rude litters two dead bodies
and four wounded men. One of the bodies was that of the
gallant little Scot, who the day before had played cheer»
ful airs on the bagpipes, and whose inspiring, notes had
encouraged his comrades, awakened the echoes of the
crags and canyons and startled the eagles from their eyries.
The poor k.ddie lay cold in death now, with nis pipes
reverently reposing on his torn breast And so he was
buried, far away from home and kindred, in a grave that
no man now living can point out, and where he will lie
until the last trump shall summons him from earth to
What ha..
by one of the members in his own
itingent «
* homely i liquid
he narrated the misfortune to a friend on the e
the return.
The two men stood at a Yale bar taking «
"Jerry," said a man who didn't go to the war, "what
happened you fellers in the canyons? Tell us all about it"
No, Bill,   returned Jerry, "you ougbterVe gone yersdf,
an then yer d a known all erbout it yerself."
"I was sick," said BUI, "true I was."
"Yer wos skeered, «that's wot yer wos.    I don't give
no news to adurned coward the likes o' you."
Honest Injun, I was real sick, hope I may die if I
wasn t. Ask the doctor if I wasn't Anyway come and
have another."
So the two had "another" and still "another" at Bill's
expense until Jerry was mellowed and told the story of
the battle."
"Yer see," he began, "we was armed with rifles and
shotguns an' revolvers, an' some had picks. We went along
thf, ^l1 eleven n"1' till we come to a Indian village
called Spuzzum, which lies atween the Big an' Little
canyons. * The captings they sed we'd better camp thar
fer the night an' so we sot down an' cooked our grub.
Thar warn't a redskin to be seen, an* that war a bad sign.
They'd clartawaed. The boys wos in good fettle an'
singed songs till all hours. We didn't have no tents an'
no blankets, so we just lied down in wot we stood up in
a-i' tried to sleep, artier buildin' a roarin' fire to keep us
vann an light the camp. In coorse we posted sentries,
bit the beggars was lazy or too tired an' didn't keep a
good watch an' at last they fell asleep an' the fires died
out. As I lay thar with my face turned up to the twinklin'
stars I began to think erbout what I had read in a book
wunst erbout er feller as went to sleep without nothin'
over him Vept the blue canopy er heaven an' caught er
c- «M in all his bones. I 'shivered an' shook like er nigger
with the aiger, an I remember thinkin' a umbreller would
a ben better to keep the damp out when all of er suddent
I dozed off an' fell to dreamin.' I dreamed I wos settin'
by er blazii ' log fire, and that my old Californy pardner
Charlie Broivn, wos er cookin' slapjacks an' sizzlin' bacon
in er trypan. I cud jest smell the good things a fryin'. an'
thar wos coffee with er lovely aromy, too, an* hot milk.
Holy gee! How my mouth did water! The sweetest sound
I ever heerd in all my life wos Charlie's voice as he sez
stz he.
"Grub's ready."
I sot down to a old stump, which was our table, an' just
as I was carryin' a piece er fat bacon to my mouth with
my fingers—thar warn't enny forks but one an' Charlie
h?d that—I heerd the goldarndest row! Men was ashoutin'
an' arunnin' an' somewun yelled out,
"The Injuns is upon us. Run fer yer lives."
I was up in a minit, an* thar wos the wildest clatter I
ever heerd en all my born days an' when I looked down
wnr the stomp had bin thar wosn't no stump. It an'
Charlie an* die supper had vanished. Gosh! how hungry
I wos, but I hadn't no time to more than look» fer men wos
a-shoutin* an' a-swearin' an' guns an' pistols wos afirin*
It was pitch dark, for the sentries had gone ersleep an'
the fires had died out an' no one knowed what ter do or
whar ter run. I grabbed my revolver when I stood up au'
cocked it Just then a great big, husky feller, breathm'
like er porpus, butted agin me. I could just make out
his figger in the dark, an' I fell down an' the blamed fool
fell right atop o* me an* I couldn't shake him off.
"Wot* the matter with ye, ye condemned ass?" I managed to ejaceriate. "Is yer crazy, or is yer skeered out o'
yer seven wits? Consarn ye, ye idjlt, lemme up. I'm ban
"Oh." he said, "fergive me. I thought you was a Injun.
They*s all erbout us an' they is makinr mutton of our men.
I seen 'em tomahawk five of our fellers before I runned
away.   My God! it's or full"
"Well, lemme up, can't yer." He was er big, heavy man
an' I'm only er little feller as yer can see.
But he wudn't get up. He just sprawled atop o me an
hollered like a sick caff, while all erbout us thar wos men
er shoutia' "Murder," sa' swearia* wuss thea old Satan
The flashes from the guns showed figures a-hoppia* erbout
aa' wuast I thought I seen er man fall as if he wos «hot
te aa," I
lemme up. Sure, I never felt so much like IdHin' er nan
before in aiU my life.
"Lemme up, yer d d fool." I panted.    "Yer dirty
coward. Lemme go, I say."
"Noi,"sez he, "I won't You'll get shot an' scalped ef I
do, an' I'll have yer blood on my head."
Gosh, but I was mad thru an' thru, an' I just brought
ny pistol down wunst! twicet! on his topnut. They wos
heavy whacks, too. At the fust crack he sex in a sleepy
sort er way, "Oh Mommer! Mommer!" When he wo»
struck he thought uv his mother. The wust men do that
wen they's in trubble, but they never think uy her at enny
other timie. After the second whack he just let go uv me
an' rolled over an' lay thar still as death. ,1 jumped up.
In the light off the flashes I could see men a-dartia*
backards an' furrards, an' the only word I heerd wos
"Injuns." In the dark anuther man run agin me an' fell at
my feet, just war the other feller lay. I thought it wos
a Injun this time, sure; but when he spoke I seen he was
a white man who took me fer a Siwash.
"Oh,"he cried, "don't matnaloosh me, please."
"Git up," I sez to him in Englishv 'Ifchere ain't no Injuns
herabouts." : N^iX^,-,
"Why, they is all erbout us," he sed.
"Well, why don't yer git up aln' fight.'em," I,sed. "Don't
stand Joaffin' erbout my feet an' huggin' my knees an'
cryin'. Do somethin'. Yer comled out to fight, didn't yer?
Then why don't ye git up an' pitch in."
"But he just lay there an' bleated. Suddently' he scream
ed, "Thar's a dead man here, an' I'm alayin' atop o' Mm."
"My God!" beshouted, as he scrambled"to his feet an*
crawled away in the dark, an' I saw him never no more.
All this time the fightin' an' shootin' an' swearin' wos
goin' on, an' bullets whistled by my years. How long
the tow would er kept up I cain't say. Perhaps til we wos
all killed, when I heerd a loud voice sing out,
"Stop shootin'! It's* ail a mistake. We has been kiHin'
ourselves. Thar ain't no Injuns within ten mile of us.
Wait till yer git a light an' see fer yerselves."
So the men stopped shootin' an' swearin' an' somewun
started up the fires an' then we seen that we'd been killin'
?.n' woundin' our own fellers!"
"How did it all come about?" ajsked Bill.
"Well, you must know that they wos a exciteable
German in our company, an' he drunk too much whiskey
before he lay down beneath the blue canopy aforesaid to
sleep. As he lay thar he fell to dreamin' an' then his
head began to ache from too much licker an' he nat-
erally thought that the Injuns wos acuttin' off his scalp. So
he yelled an' jumped up an' fired his pistol an   then the
"What became of the man you whacked on the head?"
asked Bill.
"Oh, he's orl right   He wos brought to with a glass of
whiskey an'water. He wasn't much hurt, an'T think he
wos playin 'possum, made believe ter bein' hurt, so s he
wudn't have ter fight. He hain't the slightest idee who
twas that belted him' over the head, an' don't yer tell him.
if ever you happen to meet him."
Bill looked long and searchingly into Jerry's face, wink-r
ëd slowly and shook his head solemnly. Then he walkLd
across the room, spat into a spittoon, took another chew of
tobacco and, approaching the warrior, said with emphasise
"HaveSanother. "
«ia.   By «his «fan* I'd got th*
1res aa' I esksd aim agla 1er *&&&&&&&
1 a Jttatter of Conscience,
s       PS	
3f   8 fttorp of fye Carlp Bapa at Itptton.
H bar diggings in the vicinity of the junction
of the Fraser and Thompson rivers, "The
Forks" as the place now known as Lytton was
then called, yielded goodly sums of the precious dust as early as '58 and '59, at wlich
period British Columbia became known to
the outside world as something other than
a mere preserve for the Hudson's Bay Company. "EasjCCome, easy go," was the motto
of the big hëaTted, deil-may-care, adventurous
miners who recklessly squandered their earnings without thought of the morrow. When
winter came on and the ice bound rivers no longer furnished the daily quota of gold, hundreds of these thoughtless fellows found themselves "dead broke," and the
experience alter the comparative affluence in which they
had passed the preceding month or so was not to their
Mking though they took to it philosophically enough.
The winter of '59-'6o was passed by the miners very
much after the same fashion as the previous one had been;
some of the miners braved, the perils of the trail, and
of these the vengeful, unfriendly Indians were not the
least and passed down to Yale; others contented themselves at the Forks with the double object of avoiding
unnecessary dangers and, what most appealed to them,
of being at 'hand to recommence operations on their claims
as soon as the weather rrtoderaited sufficiently and tiie
ice king released his grip on the gold laden riversj.
While some lived in .their cabins, others w
in the hotel which served as a general re
all hands whether guests or not
"Its hard lines, aint it boys?" queried Jir
most reckless  of  the  crowd -that  loafed  a
: quartered
ezvous  for
ray   the
sur dust and we can go to ,"
chipped in another, bringing his hand down on the table
with so emphatic a thump as to make the glasses behind
the counter in the little bar shake and jingle musically.
Several, others murmured their concurrence in a general
way for they were all a prey to that insatiable thirst
that torments a man when he imagines he is in sore need
of the unattainable.But the grumbling, never seriously
meant, did not please the man behind the bar who sought.
to defend 'his employer and the reputation of the house.
"What's that yer sayin'? he demanded, glowering at the
little group ranged around the card table drawn up near
the great stove.
Everybody looked at Jim who was very intent upon
the essential and inspiring occupation of shuffling and
cutting the  greasy,  well   thumbed  cards.
"You're a lot of ungrateful diwils," continued the barkeeper seeing the impression he had made and determined
to drive his lecture home, "Doesn't every mothers son of
yer get a cocktail on the house every mornin'?"
As this was true enough each man felt he had a personal
grievance against Jim, and they therefore stared at him
all the more and in a manner that said as plain as words,
"There now, aren't you ashamed of yourself?" Jim began
to whistle, a proceeding that inspired the barkeep, who
Was protid of the success he had met with, with a desire
tO pass scornful and withering remarks but this laudable
purpose was fustrated by the arrival on the scene of
the gold commissioner, whose advent created a diversion
that completely knocked the wind out of the orator's sails.
J&P* igaf> jicnticmen," cried the Captain, smiling pleas-
make a dollar or two?   If so, let him come; I wen* hlsa;
"What's  up,  Captain?" asked the barkeeper,  wiping the
glasses   suggestively.
"A pack train has arrived from the States witii case*
of provisions, bacons, and all things. I examine a lsetie
bit and I find the provisions are kegs of whiskey and the
bacons are kegs of brandy. So I confiscate the whole
cargo in the name of the good Queen," he replied, f"'""
out his chest like a drum major.
"Smuggling, eh?"
"Just so and now, mes enfants, come," and the c
strutted out with all the dignity his little frame would
permit, followed by half a score men ready to Ao anything
to kill time rather than for the little pay there was m it
It did not take long to snugly stow away the confiscated
cargo within the gold commisioner's quarters and on
returning to the hotel they found their friend behind
the  bar waiting for them. • • -
"Come and take something, boys!" he called out heartily,
and they all lined up, imbibed the something like urne
men and finally wound up the day by playing seven up
for the drinks. But it was only a drop ia the bucket for
next day not a single dollar could be pooled by all basai*
combined and once more they were thrown upon the
mercy of the court—the power behind the bac—for a
At times some hardy, restless wanderer would deep
in from some point along one or other of the riven
and liven up the crowd. Such transient visitors were
welcomed with open arms but hard times came; a severe
cold snap shut off, for a time, all travel and as the impecunious miners sat around the red hot stove, their thirst
unslaked, they bemoaned their fate and thought hardly
of the little town, its people and all thing*, save ana
except themselves.
Jim, generally fertile  in resource, sat unusually  1
and   silent   "Up   to   some   devilment!", whispered   one,
"He's like a kid; when you don't hear no noise-yer know
he's up to some mischief,   Thet's Jim's fia jest now."
"No 'taint, Bill," said Jim, who had not been so deeply
engrossed in his thoughts that he had aot heard the
sotto voce remark. He dexterously directed a mouthful
of tobacco juice into the sand box beneath the store
and continued; "I'm dry; that's all there's to'*, Say,
boys, who wants a drink?"
"That aint the question, which is.   Is there anybody
- as doesn't want a drink?" Bill chipped in.
"Well, them that's jinin' me had better get a hustle
on," remarked Jim as he got up, yawned, shook himself
like a big dog, complacently rubbed his bristly chin and
slowly made for the door, which he opened and them
deliberately passed out into  the  night
"He's got suthin' up his sleeve and I'm a goin' te
see it through!" remarked one of the others. Half a docea
more went out with him and caught up to Jim as he
stopped at the door of the gold commissioner's modest
abode. A loud "rat-tat" brought the captain at once.
"Leave the talkin' to me," whispered Jim in warning,
and then as the door opened and the commissioner
appeared;—"Good evenin', captain," he cried, cheerfully,
and a general chorus of "evenin,' apprised the commissioner of the presence of the others.
"Come to see me, eh?" cried the genial Frenchman,
approvingly, "That's right; come in and warm yourself?
"Thank 'ee," acknowledged Jim, selecting a comfortable
seat and motioning his comrades to follow his example,
"You see, Captajin,'!' Jim went on, in a eelightfu%
confidential tone, "Me and my mates here helped yer
to stow away .that stuff yer confistercated awhile back,
+ a:11ri«'      n«      SÎ     »... TIC-      t t      -      ZT1
have been talkin' of it over. We feef j
uneasy; it is a matter of conscience. Yer see, capt—,
it is this way; we have had no proof that the stuff ia them
kegs is whiskey. If it aint, then the mistake should
be set right but if tt are, why its easy to prove it to
us; for we are reasonable men."
The commissioner sat bolt upright «he picture of
bewilderment during this harangue to which Jim'* fellows v listened with open mouthed admiration far «fier
began to see his drift
"Aint those our sentiments?" he demanded, with am
atrocious wink.
.."Yes, that's the*»," was the uagramsnatieal hut smnhiti' Sacre nom d'ua pipe!" sputtered the excitable Captain
"Do you doubt my word?
"Not by a jugful, my Captain!" declared Jim with
emphatic protestation, "Not a bit of it; your word is as
good as gold but there's such a thing as a man being
mistook, and we would be to blame, our consciences
would be oneasy, we would not be doin' our dooty if
we didn't ask about it. Yer see it might be molasses,
or—er—vinegar, or—lime juice! We're in honor bound
to give  every  man  a  fair   shake."
The word ^honor* appealed to the Captain more than
all the rest of Jim's talk.
"In plain English, Captain," Jim continued with brazen
face," We don't believe the stuff is liquor of any sort,
'cos if it were we'd have seen some of it before this!"
"That's it that's it" shouted the now thoroughly excited
gold commissioner, "I will prove it to you. I will satisfy
yonr conscience, your honor} I will show you I was not
unjust! You, sir, come with me and bring in any keg
you like and we will see, eh?" and his little eyes snapped
The keg was brought in, it was duly tapped and a
sample drawn oft* into a glass. "Now you see?" triumphantly cried the Captain.
"It certainly looks like liquor" and Jim sniffed the air
critically, "and—yes, it certainly does smell like it."
'TJrink it, man, drink it," urged the Captain impatiently,
pushing the glass into Jim's willing hand. As he raised
the glass to his lips, Jim winked solemnly at his friends
who watched his every move with watering mouths.
"Well what you say now, eh, what?" demanded the
commissioner. "Well, I must say it is a sort of mild
liquor," replied Jim slowly as in a fit of abstraction he
held the glass under the tap and handed a goodly allow-
tasted, merely to compare his own sensitiveness of asiate
with that of the connoisseurs before him. "It is good,"
he declared, eyeing the liquor approvingly, "but not SO
good as the eau de vie. I will seek some and you
shall  see."
In a very brief space he returned carrying a small
keg, already tapped, thus giving evidence of the fact
that he 'had already been sampling its contents. This,
too, went the round andi the miners realized' they had
struck a pretty good thing. Their tongues loosened under
the influence of the potations, yarns were told, pipes
smoked, and good fellowship reigned. Th etùal Captain did not forget his duty as host but ba* them help
themselves and set such a good example that, overcome possibly
by the fumes of the liquor, he became confidential, thsn
maudlin and finally had to be put to bed by the-miners.
But before he had reached the stage of utter helplessness
he slapped. Jim solemnly on the shoulder. "You fed
all right now, Jim, eh, what? That is liquor all right
eh?" and he chuckled softly. The miner paused a while
before replying.   "Yes Captain," he admitted «lowly and
reluctantly, "In that keg, yes, but I can't swear to the
others yet!"
When the commissioner had been snugly tucked in
under his blankets, Jim marshalled his forces and lead
them safely home. ^S^^>>
"Well, boys, we got our drink in good shape?"
"Jim,  you  are. a janious,"  vowed  Mike.
"That's nothing, boys," chuckled Jim, delightedly, "I'm
just thinking we may test every keg in the skeokam house
before the winter's over if we play our cards right!"
And so they did! Sj
By Harold Sands.—Edil
of Strange Gods.
1WASH Tom had views on marriage. "Every
man to his tribe," was the Indian policeman's
pronouncement "Mixed marriages no good,"
was the statement born of knowledge of
white folk and their folk/.
I remembered his saying when I heard that
Reginald Hall had been killed by an Indian
at Fort Rupert.
Hall came to British Columbia in the days
when it was a Crown colony.   The journey
from  England was no joke in those  early
—   times.   It meant a voyage round the Horn in
a small sailing ship with the likelihood of being Robinson
Crusoed en route.
• When he came to Fort Camosum, as Victoria was then
called, the Hudson's Bay Company post was «till excited
over the Cariboo gold finds. Hall joined in the rush.
With Alfred Windgaite as a partner he bought a small
boat and was lucky enough to escape drowning while
crossing the Gulf of Georgia, which is not the pleasantest
gulf for a small row boat to be out in. Many a poor
gold-seeker who attempted a like fool-hardy trip perished.
"I never knew, till we struck the Fraser, that there was
so much virtue in fresh water." Windgate confided to the
Hudson's Bay trader at Fort Langley, where the two men
outfitted for 'the mines. The first steamer took them to
Lake Douglas. "No more small boat for me," Hall said,
and the American echoed the statement. Their troubles
started again on the Pembenton Portage. Even by placing on their backs loads under which they staggered they
had to abandon some of what the Englishman insisted on
calling their "luggage."
Hall was a decent enough sort of chap when he left
the Old Country. In the land where Mrs. Grundy reigns
supreme his vices had to be controlled for the sake of
appearances. But in this new land of «he West the
natural man asserted himself. Pioneering brings out both
the good and the bad. Little as his timid mother and
flushing sister at home imagined, Hall had all the qual
ities which go to make a man wicked, and none of the
self-control nor .the real desire which enable the right-
minded Briton to overcome the old Adam. He was,
as the Indians afterwards  said of him, me-«a-chîe.
No matter the road that was taken to Cariboo in those
days, it was vile. Rough was the way and narrow the
path that led to wealth. It was either a case of plough*
ing knee deep through mud or dodging avalanches on
the edge of a precipice. The two men added new words
to the swearers dictionary as they struggled along and
found that the gold of Cariboo was only to be won by
much sweating.
Ideal partners; are as rare on the gold trail as on' life's
rough way. The real Hall—not the Hall of England, but
the Hal! of the West—began to do some thinking on the
road to Cariboo. And it was evil. As he lay under the
tent one night after ^ weary day's tramp, the devil came
to Hall and he reasoned thus:
"One pack horsetean carry all I need. Here am I
making a mule of myself for a man I never saw until I
reached Victoria,"^ How can I get rid of him?"
Those were dangerous thought» to be in the mind
of a bad man who was eager to get to the placer grounds
The American, unconscious of evil hanging over him,
was dozing in front of the fire which waS burning near
the tent Bears and coyotes were plentiful around «he
camping ground, to say nothing of the fretful porcupine, and it was necessary to keep a bright fire burning
all through the night
"A stroke of the axe and all would be over," mnetd
Hail. A scoundrel is generally a coward and the Estg-
glishman shrank at the thought of posible contingencies.
He reasoned that one of the many Indians in the neighborhood might be induced to murder his partner far
what a whiteman would consider insufficient considerations.
An American, a mere "Boston man," was not to be coat*
pared in those days to a Hudson's Bay musket—in the
eyes of a Cariboo redskin.
Hall got up from his bed of dry twigs aad sauntered
to  the  fire.
"You're almost asleep," he said to the American, "get
into the tent. Ill keep the fire going till dawn and wttt
wake you at three. Then you can get breakfast whale
I take a snooze." „
Windgate was nothing loth. He turned in and Hall
heaped the fire up. The blaze cast ghostly shadows in
all directions and lit up the figure of the miner. Hall
was a big fellow. Standing in front of the fire he looked
gigantic. He was dressed in a blanket suit and still had
on his gumboots. He might easily have been mistaken
for a typical pioneer; one of those large-hearted mea af
muscle who have made the British colonies what they
are to-day, despite a forgetful home government. But
in his case the appearance was certainly deceitful. He
had left his country for his country's good] and British
Columbia was the worse for his presence in it.
The next day the men halted for the noonday meal near
to a family of Indians. Hall got into conversation with
them and fixed upon a dirty, pock-marked reprobate as
a likely murderer. It took some trouble to eatiee this
fellow to one side but at length Hall was able to lead
up to his desire. With a bad Indian not even the best of
us wonld find it desir ble to be straightforward. Hall had
had no previous dealings with the Indians, but he instinctively knew the way to approach the worst of them.
"Mesika tikee musket" (You like gun) he said Co the
The far from noble redman did not have to think mere
than one second as to the character of the new chum,
Even chee-chacos do not offer guns for nothing. This
whiteman, he divined must have morals aa bad aa hi*
"What  you want?"  he asked in tolerable  English.
HaM began a rambling parable about whitemen journeying to the fields' of gold, that one was mad and the
Saghalie Tyhee (God) demanded his life. But it was
against the law and his own, conscience to slay the mad
man and, moreover, the Tyhee had commanded that the
lunatic be killed by an Indian in order that the nte-sah-
chie (wicked) spirit might depart from the man's body aad
he could go to the happy hunting grounds. He had beea
ordered to give the Indian a lahash (axe) and a sukwalal
(gun) in order to help the release of the tortured spirit
The Indian' gently but firmly intimated that three
bottles of whiskey were also necessary for the repose
of a> white man's soul. They should, he said, be laid
outside the miner's tent in a camp some mile* to the
north which the white men should be able to reach
before «he next night
. "Where in h—1 have you been?" was Windgate's greeting as Hall returned to the tent W   ~
What tiie devffl has that got to do wth you?" walk the
reply. After so inauspicious an opening to a day of
toil it was not surprising that the couple were not oit
speaking terms by the time they reached the camera*
ground which had been selected as the last reatina place
of Windgate. By the time the tent was up and sooner
over it was quite dark.   Hall waited until the America. we*> asleep and then placed the gun, axe aad whiskey
•«Jtiad * nearby tree. Then he, too, lay down aad
pretended to sleep.
Sooa the flaps of the tent door parted and the Indian
entered. He glanced craftily around, noted the «lumberers
and silently made his way to the side of the American.
He raised lue axe. A revolver sounded. The redskin
dropped to the ground, stone-dead, with a bullet in his
head.   Hall jumped up at the sound of the pistol shot.
"Move another foot you 5 and you're a dead man,"
cried Windgate, who covered Hall with a still smoking
"You miserable cur," he went on, *VKd you think I was
•0 dead easy? You can't hide the changes that take
place m your rotten brain. I suspected a little game
like thî» and was ready for you and your precious Indian.
Tomorrow III hand you over to the other miners. In
the meantime lay down again and stay quiet, or I'll put
a bullet through yon."
The American was no match for his partner tt it came
to a fight, so he could not bind Hall. He hnd to remain
■wake for the rest of the night his weapon ready with
which to shoot the scoundrel should he attempt to move.
When morning came he made HaH march in front of
Mm down the road they had blasphemed over so much
the «fay before. Soon they met three raon- miners, to
whom the situation was explained by Windgate. HaH
wals at once bound. Then all proceeded to the camping
place where the attempt at murder had been made..
Th^re they found ample corroboration of the story
Wlndejate toM. Mtrfce evidence was aU around. The
dead body of the Indian lay in the terrt, the Judas' payment, minus the axe, was behind the tree. The axe itself
was *t the feet of the redskin.
A r^lnerS* court was at once convened. Joe Thompson,
a Oal'Fbrnian, was chosen Judge and, that everything be
done h» order, a Jury of 12 was selected Wlndgefl*
conducted Ms own prosecution. The court was held In
the open. The judge sat upon a sack of flou» The Jurymen were stationed around the prisoner, forrr.rng a circle
through which It would have been dangerous to seek to
"IVsoner at the oar," said the judge wit^ solemnity,
"yon are accused of getting a pock-marked Indian to
eftenwt the life of a free-born American; what have you
to say tor yourself?"
The words, "free-born American," woke JTall up. He
had been lethargic since he looked down the barrel! off
a revolver the previous night It had been his first experience in that direction and had un-nerved h'-n. An evil
gleam came into Ms eves, but otherwise h:s face was
passive. He dM not repfy, nor would he make any remark
to the question:
"Are you guilty or not guilty?"
The interrogation had no terror for htm. Well aware,
as he was, what must be the verdict of that rough court,
he felt somewhat inclined to laugh. The evidence was
dead against Mm. As he noted the grim f:>.ces around
him and saw |ov seriously the men regarded the business
of the moment he was unable to refrain fron* ohockling^
The Jury was amazed.   The judge sternly enod,   Order.
"Might I advise your ludsblptp clear the court?" asked
Joe Thompson wondered. This was not the first occasion oa wMch he had officiated at a hanging bee, but it
was the «ret time he had heard a prisoner m the predicament of Hal! chuckle in such indecorous fashion. It
was absolutely without precedent in his experience and
he was not quite sure what he should do. He was visibly
disconcerted when he again spoke and said:
"What have you to say, prisoner, in reply to the
charge?"   Hall answered: ... .
"You fool) you pack of damned fools. Are you such
idiots as to imagine that you are still inthose wretched»
States of yours. This is not a Repubhc, where every man
Is free and freedom is just another way of spelling murder.
Judge Lynch does not dwell on this ssde of parallel 49-
The Union jack waves over Canada, you blasted sons of
 .   Goi save the Queen."
God's name ht the mouth of a man like HaH seemed,
even to those rough miners, as worse than blasphemy^
But the words were powerful    "'
"God save the Queen"
But as judge, he determined to go through with she
matter to its Californian, and therefore, to Mm, its logical
end.    He would first get the verdict of the jury.
"Gentlemen," he said as he rose from «he sack of flour,
"you have heard the evidence for the prosecution anil
the prisoner, in reply, has tried to bluff the court. The
bluff don't go with this here judge and jury. It appears
to me that the Britisher is afraid to meet the charge Hke
a man. I leave it to you to decide whether he is guilty
or not"
The jury did not retire. Every man had made up his
mind before the trial began.
"Guilty," said the man next the judge, and the word
passedround the circle.
"Seeing as how the prisoner has reminded us that this
is British soil I will borrow a black cap," remarked the
judge. One of the jurymen had fur headgear of the
required  color.
"Gentlemen," went on the Judge as he adjusted ft
"kindly remove vour hats." He then placed the fur cap
on his own head, forgetting, in Ms rather natural excitement, to remove Ms own cloth cap. However the other
man had the bigger head. Hall noted the action with
"It seems to me, my lud," he remarked, ^tlhat you've got
a swelled head."
California Joe disdained to notice such unseemly levity.
"Prisoner," he remarked, "you have been found guilty
of a crime which, among miners, is considered the worst.
You have tried to make awav ^wrth your pardner. In nr
oounftry you would make acquaintance with a rope for that,
but I recognize that we are now beyond the good and
soothing influences of the blessed Stars and Stripes."
'^Hear, hear," cMmed in Hal.
"But don't you think," went on the judge with rising
passion, "that shouting 'God save the Queen* will help
you entirely to escape the responsibilities of your crime
You see the forest «here (and he pointed to one sMe of
the trail) there lies your road. Come back to tMs trail,
make your way to the gold fields if you dare; one of
us is sure to come across you and will snoot you, taking
chances with «he police and all the Judge BegMes on this
side of the line. How does your bluff work now? grimly
concluded the old Californian as he hçard the murmur
of approval from the jurymen. "You're welcome to sT»
as soon as you like.   I should advise an early,start"
Hall's bravado left him. He shuddered as he looked
at «he green timber, at the seemingly endless rows of
coniferous trees, where men and animals would be Ms
enemies and berries Ms only sustenance. Death would
stalk Mm there. But it was death to remain on the trail.
He felt sure that if he defied them those earnest miners
would take his Efe, despite his boast of the powers of the
law on British soil. Moreover he dreaded being handed
over to that law, ais.might possiblv happen were conciliatory counsels to prevail. He had to choose the lesser
evil. They gave Mm a little food, some matches, a Mg
knife and a blanket and told him they would spread the
news of his crime and his punishment up and down the
road so that the name of Hall would be execrated from
the Coast to Cariboo.
And then they watched him make his way info the
pathless  woods.
Thus Hall was driven from the gates of the land of gold.
Cariboo, with its promise of nuggets—and nuggets meant
wine and wnrnen and arme-, the breorh of his nostrils to
a man like Mm—faded as he made Ms way through the
cone-strewn aisles of the forest His story quickly
reached the ears of «he authorities who, seeing that aa
Indian was the sole sufferer—as the law sees suffering—
did notMng to trace «he unhappy man. But he had the
devil's own luck. Before his food was gone Hall fefl
in with a party of Indians who thought that all "King
George" men were upright as were the servants of the
Hudson's Bay Company, «he "good traders with good
hearts." The Englishman told them «hat he wa» returning from the goldfields to «he Coast and had lost Ms way.
They 'said they were going to Fort Rupert but they would
depute one of the tribe to show him the Lillooet trail.
That being the last place in the world Hall desired o
reach, he succeeded in Inducing the natives to allow him
r." mVj-ZmZ Si. it.-* J,- reacn, ne succeeaea m maucing une nmwves to show nun who had been with the unfortunate who had fallen a
victim to the revolver of Windgate.
Fort Rupert at that time was a village of totem poles
and fleas. The collection of huts within a stockade harbored more than human families. In the center was the
great Feast House. A Canadian would have called it a
barn, and a bad barn at that, but to the Indians it was as
Westminister Abbey is to the Londoner. Remarkable carvings ornamented its interior, fantastic totem poles at
the door told stories of departed chiefs. Sacred wooden
vessels of the feast were as religiously respected as the
tombs of kings. Some were six feet wide and held enough
dog meat or salmon to feed a small tribe. Recently
Siwash Tom told me some of the remarkable legends that
were carved on its walls. He sickened me, also, with
accounts of horrible, debasing orgies that took place
within the structure.
Hall determined to stay in the village and made up Ms
mind to become in. turn medicine man and chief. To do this
he had to lend himself to a licentious and heathenish
existence, a part for which he was well-qualified by
nature. His first step was to marry and, as his ill-luck
would have it, he chose the girl upon whom the Indian
who knew him and suspected his crime had also cast
lustful eyes. That marriage led to his leadership and to
the grave.
It took 60me years for Hall to qualify as a candidate for
the post of medicine gam. When, at length, he was in
a position to ride the goat in the Hall of the Devil's Own
be  "v^s a whiteman no longer.   The Feast House was
crowded on that night of disgusting memory. Absolutely
nude, this once an Englishman danced in front of she
tribe to the strident accompaniment of women's 9creams,
and the beating of strangely-formed drums. He bit pieces
out of his own flesh and out of the bodies of aspiring
braves, and made a meal of raw and stinking dog meat
The step from medicine man to chief was comparatively
easy. Wealth came to Hall as the doctor of the tribe
and he used it in his campaign for the highest honors
Fort Rupert held for him. When at length he reached
his goal he gave a potlach so gorgeous that it ia remembered in the north even now and the history of it is
written on the totem poles. But the instrument of Death
was at .the potlach. One of the guests was the Indian
who still loved Hall's first wife—the Englishman had
others since attaining wealth and power. The orgi* was
just about over and Hall was leaving the Feast House
when this implacable enemy fired his 'Hudson's Bar
musket at the new chief and in the confusion which
followed, seized the woman and made off into the wood*.
With the attainment of his poor ambition came the end
of everything for HaH.
News of the tragedy was brought to Victoria by one
of the coasting steamers. There were only a few of us
who remembered the Englishman and knew something of
his history. Degenerate though he was, I could not but
feel sorry for the unbecoming end of an Old Countryman.
But he brought his fate on Mmself. Whenever I think
of him and of how he died, I realize the remorseless fore*
of the words of Siwash Tom: "Every man to his tribe."
J When History was A-Making
Jlirrfj Chroea of a ifloat
pregnant (©narrer Century
in TLitt of €mpire of the
&btoent of Sentinel of the
Interior at ÏBaton of tlje
&euolntiom?ing &ailtoap
& pioneer ^ournalirt anij
(glimpse of fôig Work "3t
the jfront." Cfje ê>ttne,
$a£t anb present. .. ,„   .   .
ANG! Boom-boom!—Bang! Crash!—R-a-t-t-1-e
—Bang!! Puff-puff-puff—Toot ! Toot! Ding-
do ong,   ding-do ong,  ding-do ong—
Bang!—Boom!—B-a-n-gl !'!
It was not the bombardment of Paaerderberg, nor Oyama and Kuropatkin trying cos-
elusions in the Manchurian hills. The time
was a full quarter of a century before the
stirring eyents that are, making such signal
history in the Far East in this lurid year of
•f Grace. Japan had scarce awakened to her
marvellous renaissance The world, at. any
rate, did not dream that she had . She was looked upon
popularly, notwithstanding what the seers may have.seen,
as a rather interesting, semi-civilized, comic opera little
people—quite a "negligible quantity" among the Great
Powers—she who has just taken and shaken by the "scruff
of the neck" one of the greatest and most dreaded of those
hoary military puissances, till his horrid teeth are loose!
Paaerderberg had not been thought of—it was,yet a score
of years in the future, though less than a year was
Majuba Hill, destined to rankle in British hearts for
two decades nearly, till Roberts and his Anglo-Canadian
"first-class fighting men" more than made it good on
the "Lion of the veldt" and his doughty Boers, at memorable Paaerderberg, on "Majuba Day" (27th February),
A War of Peace.
But peace hath her triumphs no less renowned than
those of war—and no less as well the dust and din and
turmoil, and clash and crash, of the fray, and the bold
emprise and high essay of brain and brawn, and fierce
conquering joy of conflict with great elemental and primeval forces and obstacles. It was the rude multi-voiced
report of such a. conflict that assailed the ear, a quarter
of a century ago to-day, in the wild and hitherto uncon-
quered canyons of the Fraser, whose pristine state of
gloomy and savage grandeur had been maintained almost
inviolate from the frowning bastions of Hell s Gate to the
more placid upper reaches of Boston Bar. A wagon
road it is true—the famed Yale-Cariboo wagon road-
carved out of the solid rock by the sturdy fore-runners
of nearly a quarter of a century before wound his way
msinuajtrnaly and haif apologetically up the muraty
mountain gorge at a dizzy eminence from the churning
waters below, almost shouldered into the abyss by the
jealous towering guardians of the pass at many ;
curdling turn. t     .u-
The crumbling remains of this
highway to the northern Eldorado
to-day, at point after point, by the lu
tourist in Pullman or observation car, „-
from his comparatively, secure passage through
dozen or more long tunnels bored through the mountain s
heart within the first score of miles northward from Yale.
But the hour had struck when proud man was no longer
content to creep through the grim mountain monarch s
domain on sufferance. He demanded free passage way
for his thundering car of progress as a right; and, being
1 blood-
hardy pioneer
may be seen
riously lolling
»ne of the
haughtily refused, prepared to take it by force.
War was Declared 1
And the defiance sent forth from those theretofore inviolable ramparts and fastnesses of the eternal hills should
be pierced, levelled, and scaled by man's great modern
invader and conqueror—the rai'way of steel, bearing the
Iron Horse and his train. The gage of the battle roysl
had been thrown down and accepted, and to one of
the great captains of railway construction of those days,
an American railway contractor and engineer—Andrew
Onderdonk for half a decade thereafter a household word
up and down the valley of the Fraser)—was cc^nmitted,
by tru Dominion Government of the day; the arduous
campaign of forging the .first links of the Canadian
Pacific Railway in British Columbia—first, the link from
Yale-Emory to Savona'* Ferry (130 miles in round numbers, through the mountain stronghold of the Cascad*
or Coast Range), and then the completing, link 10 the
coast from Yale-Emory to tidal water*at Port Moody,
the head of Burrard Inlet—the line afterwards being
extended thirteen miles down "the .Inlet to Vancouver,
the present terminus. The length of this completing
link was a little over 8$ miles, following the river along
a comparativedy easy route. ■
Some idea of the engineering and construction difficulties encountered oyer the greater part -of^ the first
link mentioned (Yale to Savona), may be gained from
the following brief extracts from an authority:
"On portion» of the road, arid especially betweea
Emory and Boston Bars, it is probable that the difficulties
were greater than had hitherto been encountered in railroad building, except perhaps in Switzerland and Peru,
the average cost per mile being' $80,000, and of some
miles as much as $200,000. Along nineteen miles of the
route thirteen tunnels were bored. Elsewhere, the roadway was literally hewn out of rock,-the crevices being
filled with masonry a/nd the ravines and rivers spanned
by truss and trestle bridges. Some of the work was of
an extremely hazardous nature, men being often lowered
hundreds of feet down almos*- perpendicular rocks, ia
order to blast a foothold on the mountain side. Supplies
were forwarded on pack animals, over trails' never before
deemed practicable except by Indians, and by" them only
with the aid of ladders. Building materials were landed
at enormous cost, the toll of ten, dollars per ton on all
freight passing over the Yale-Cariboo road being strictly
Base of Operations. . .
Field Marshal Ondcidonk, early in 1880, pkched his
camp and established the headquarters of 'his great
industrial army, Which numbered as high as seven or
eight thousand at times, at the then historic head of
navigation on the lower Fraser—Yale, extended to Emory,
about five miles down stream, where a considerable quantity of steel rails had been landed by river steamers nearly
two years earlier, as a sort of strategic move in the long
and fiercely, waged "battle of the routes'* which preceded, and Relayed for almost a decade, that railway construction which was the principal condition on which British First Number of Inland Sentinel 29th May, 1880 (Half Size). Columbia formally entered the Confederation, on July 1,
1871. These rails were conveyed (in 1878) by steamer
from Esquimalt and Nanaimo, where, by a contrary
strategic move in favor of the other route, they
bad been landed, when it had been prematurely decided by OrdeMn-Oouncil of the Macdonald (Ottawa)
Government (in June, 1873) that Esquimalt should
be the terminus and Bute Inlet the route instead
of that finally selected by the Mackenzie Administration (1873-1878) via the Fraser valley to Burrard Inlet. Most of the additional rails and construction
material required were also, after construction had
actually commenced in 1880, conveyed by steamier to Yale
and Emory, which was the center from which both the
links of the C. P. R. constructed by Onderdonk, as a
links of the C. P. R constructed by Onderdouk, as a
Government work, and afterwards handed over by the
returned Macdonald Administration to the Canadian Pacific
Railway Company, were built. The five miles from Emory to
Yale was the first piece of track on the C. P. R., or any
other railway, properly speaking, laid in British Columbia
The statement last above has been submitted to and
approved of by Mr. H. J. Cambie, C. E, the present veteran
chief engineer in British Columbia of the C. P. R, who
was in charge of railway construction, for the Dominion
Government, from Emory to Boston Bar, in the early
ssghties, and on whose report; soma yeas* earlier, approved by
the chief engineer of the Dominion Government, Sir Sanford
Fleming, the Fraser River route .was selected by the Mackenzie Administration. Mr. Gambie, in a letter to the writer,
under date of April 12, 1905, adds the interesting information
that there had, in 1880, been some short lines of railway
to mines in existence for a few years—at Comox, Wellington, and Nanaimo. Jerry Rogers (after whom Jericho [B.
C, of course] is named) had a line two or more miles long
from English Bay, close to what is now the Lulu Island
Railway, for getting out logs, and he hauled them with an
engine which had originally been a traction engine imported
by Mr. F. J. Barnard for use on the Yale-Cariboo wagon road.
Big Guns Begin to Boom.
By the middle of May, 1880, General OnderdonsVs campaiga
(Yale-Emory to Savona) was fairly opened, and his siege.
guns of dynamite and giant powder, trained on the impregnable granite walls that barred his northward way, began to
boom, and construction trains to run and clang and clatter,
and ceased not day nor night for the space of some four
years, till the coveted passage was won. inch by inch
through, under and over the adamantine barriers, despite
the doggedly passive, and at times tragically active, resistance
of the hoar and sullen guardians of the pass. As an undertone to the intermittent 'bang !—boom !—bang !" of the blasting batteries, the crash and rattle of the violently hurled
rock masses, the clang and clangor of the construction and
ballasting trains, and the reverberant shrieks of river steamers
and locomotives, ran the ceaseless obligato of pick, shovel and
drill in the hands of jabbering Chink or Dago or the more
stolid and sturdy worker of Celtic-Saxon blend, accented by
the musical metallic ring, as of a giant triangle as a huge
creaking crane swung aloft one herculean armful after
another of rust-discolored steel rails from the deck of the
long stern wheeler, straining at her moorings in the swift
swirling stream, to the sandy shelving beach sloping up to
a bluff-like bench above. .     ....
Amid scenes and sounds like these—in such titanic birth
throes—the birth throes of the new era for this westernmost and hitherto isolated Province of the Dominion-
ushered in by the first railway construction that had-ever
wakened the vibrant echoes of the savage canyons of the Fraser—the Inland Sentinel (now standing «tard far the
capital of the interior—at the "Meeting place of the waters )
was born, or, rather, Minerva-like,
Sprang Full Armed
into the arena from the genius of the thunder-dealing Jupiter
that brooded over the scene. Other journals, before and
since, have been wont to send war correspondents "to the
front." The Sentinel was "at the front"' itself, bag and
baggage, in time to chronicle the firing of the first shot in
the long and arduous campaign, and followed all the
the long and ardous campaign, and followed all tne
vicissitudes of the wars till victory was gained and peace
• settled  down once  again  o'er the conquered but untamed
°Thenfirst number of the Sentinel, a copy of which il(before
me, was/printed  at Emory,  Saturday,  May », 18»*, If
Michael Hagan—or M. Hagan, as he invariably signed himself—who was founder, editor, and sole owner of the plucky
little sheet, a five column, four-page weekly, whose regular
day of publication was advertised as Thursday, though the
first number, owing to some not to be wondered at exigency
in the circumstances, did not appear until Saturday.
The building in which the Sentinel made its advent was a
rough frame, story-and-a-half, structure erected by Mr.
Hagan on the side of the hill, just above the New Westminister-Yale wagon road and immediately opposite the steamboat landing—the hard shelving beach, unadorned by any
wharf or pier—where the Rithet, Wm. Irving, Royal City,
Western Slope. Glenora. and other steamers of the Irving and
Moore opposing lines used to land thousands of tons of steel
rails and other material incident to railway construction.
Miscellaneous freight, supplies, etc., for the most part, went
on to Yale, there being no stores, nor even dwelling houses
to speak of, at Emory. The only other building in the
immediate vicinity of the Sentinel office was one of similar
construction and appearance to the right of the Sentinel
building, looking up from the river, used as a boarding house
for working men. A hundred yards or so to the right
on Emory Creek, was the sawmill of T. W. Gray and H.
Hoy, of New Westminister, which cut a great quantity of
railway timber; pertaining to the mills being also residences
of the proprietors and other small buildings. About fifty
yards to the left of the Sentinel building, on the hillside
above the road, was a small house or shanty occupied by
one of the mill hands and his wife. And this was Emory—
as I knew it, in 1880—or Emory City, as it was called in the
prospectuses—always excepting the site, which was expansive albeit somewhat steep in places—like the prices—and
the unappropriated town lots,   whose name was legion.
I should add that, a year or two later, when Onderdonk
had taken over the Emory Creek mill and removed it to
Texas Lake, a short distance below Emory, where some
two hundred men were employed for a time, Emory town-
site experienced a mild "boom," and a few more buildings
were erected, including an hotel by P. O. Bilodeau, now
of the Depot Hotel, New Westminister. But not a vestige
of anything now remains.
Raison D'Etre of Emory
The main inducement, as I recollect it, which influenced
Mr. Hagan to begin the publication of the Sentinel at Emory,
instead of Yale (to which latter place he removed in the
all the railway construction works. Mr. On*erdonk*s new
owners of Emory townsite, prominent 'among whom were,
if my memory serves me correctly, the late Hen. John Robson,
afterwards Premier of the Province, and the late David
Oppenheimer, of Oppenheimer Bros., one of the leading
merchants of Yale, and afterwards a leading business man of
Vancouver and mayor for several terms of that city, which
was still in the womb of futurity twenty-five years ago. The
plausible raison d'etre of Emory—which never even remotely
justified the presumable expectations of its promoters—was
thus indicated in thejnital number of the Sentinel: "Had
Yale more of a flat and less mountain scenery, the Government engineers need not have planned the railway down to
Emory, in order to find room to operate** Nevertheless,
all the railway construction works, Mr-Onderdonk's fine new
residence (which now serves admirably as the domicile
for All Hallow's (Anglican) School for girls), and a lot
of new hotels, stores, and other buildings, all frame structures,
of course, were erected at Yale, and for three or four years,
until the railway "moved on," the romantic old Hudson's
Bay post (established in 1848 and named after Chief Factor
Yale) enjoyed a return of the palmy days of the gold
excitement (1858-9 and the early sixties). In a salutatory
paragraph in the first issue of the Sentinel, the editor had
this further reference to his adopted domicile, which seems
to bear a trace of veiled, perhaps unconscious, humor: for
Mr. Hagan, ordinarily, was of a serious rather than a humorous turn of mind, and did not betray a keen sense of the
ridiculous. "We expect by the time Emory is a city, to
have an enlarged daily, issued by steam.
"'In pity spare us while we do our best
To make as much waste paper as the rest"*
A Unique Character.
Mr. Hagan, the Sentinel's founder, was a character in
himself, an all round, "from the ground up," and pioneer
newspaper man by preference, having established, five years
before, the Thunder Bay (north shore of Lake Superior)
Sentinel, while railway construction on the transcontinental
highway was on in that vicinity, and selling out and coming when work commenced on the
was at one time, at an earlier
a newspaper enterprise with the late celebrated Thomas
D'arcy McGee, whom, notwithstanding his literary brillancy,
Mr. Hagan, 1 remember, told me he found an unmethodical
and unsatisfactory business partner, who, perfectly innocently,
would raceive money for subscriptions or advertisements, put
the money in his pocket, and forget all about it—which, of
course, Mr. H. could not stand for. Mr. Hagan, it is
perhaps unnecessary to say, was a devoted son of the Emerald
Isle, as well as a devout member of the Roman Catholic
Church, while broad minded and liberal in his attitude
toward those of other faiths. In person, he was above the
medium height, slightly stooped, and wore his plentiful black
hair, streaked with gray, rather long, which, with features,
barely concealed by a scanty beard, of a somewhat heavy
and lugubrious cast, belied by a kindly smile and an unfailingly
cheerful air, gave him a benevolent, almost patriarchal
appearance, especially in his later years. He was probably
p.bout sixty years of age when he started the Sentinel at
Emory, and was active for his age, his noticeab'e figure
stout staff in hand, as he walked at a brisk pace, being a
familiar one up and down the line from Emory to Yale
and beyond, in railway construction days, as he went forth
on his news-gathering, and canvassing tours. As man and
journalist, Mr. Hagan was possessed of the rugged and
sturdy virtues of courage, self-reliance, integrity, independ-
enceTand a rough-and-ready aptitude for pioneer and frontier
rewsoaper work, that was reflected in his journalistic style,
wbHi eschewed euphemisms for the most part, and sometimes
«corned even the dicta of the grammarians, when taking
a characteristic "short cut" to a desired point. He could and
r'id do anything and everything about a newspaper office
from writing the editorials to "bucking" the hand-press, and
his duties also embraced the culinary and domestic arts as
practiced by "a mere man."
Policy and Principles
A few extracts from the leading salutary article in the
first issue of the Sentinel, as outlining the policy and principles of the editor, will not be without interest here. After
remarking that "Victoria and $ew Westmin ster, also Nanaimo, are well represented to the front," journalistically
speaking, Mr. Hagan said, "and it is now proposed to keep
time with the march of progress and issue a journal at the
seat of active railway advancement and convenient to the
highway to mining development and stock' raising. While
conductir^r the Sentinel we shall at all times be pleased to
act an honorable and independent part, guided only by
constituted authority when it is consistent with our notions
of the 'higher power' and our manhood to do so for the
public (rood. We believe it to be the duty of the Press (with
a capital 'P') not only to foster, but also assist in creating
a healthy public opinion; and while we disclaim wearing any
man's collar, we hold ourselves personally responsible for
whatever appears in our columns. Discussions, however of
a sectarian or partizan character would be foreign to our
columns ; we propose leaving controvertible questions of that
mediums to give vent to thoughts that would be out of place
in a commercial publication, devoted to a cosmopolitan population, with honest opinions." [I have followed spelling,
punctuation, etc., in these extracts, although a fine point
or two of a "controvertible" nature may thus be raised.
That Mr. Hagan (who, by the way, was an enthusiastic
amateur mineralogist, and had a beautiful collection of ore
samples from all over Canada, of which he was pardonably proud) had a shrewd insight into the then undisclosed
possibilities of quartz mining in this Province, is proved
by a lengthy paragraph on the subject, concluding with the
expression of the prophetic belief that "a new era is about
to dawn upon the mining interests of this country."
Interesting Old Relics
While getting together the plant for his venture (in the
winter of 1879-80') and generally organizing for his arduous
campaign at the front, Mr. Hagan made New Westminster
his headquarters. Most of the type, etc., was second hand
material, obtained, if I remember rightly, from the Victoria
Colonist. The press, also "dug up" in Victoria, I think,
was an ancient second hand affair (hand-press, of course)—
a Ruggles of quaint design turned out about the middle of
last century. It was still a serviceable enough machine s
quarter of a   century  ago, and its  disjecta membra,  I am
given to understand, may be seen at this day at Kamloops,
whither the Sentinel, after the completion of the railway and
the subsidence of Yale, was removed by its founder. The
"steam" press dreamed of by Mr. Hagan at Emory soon
reigned in its stead, and now still another and larger press
driven by water motor turns out a much enlarged and
improved Sentinel twice a week. Another even more interesting historical relic in the shape of a press, obtained by
the Sentinel, for some purpose, subsequent to my comparatively short connection with the paper, in 1880-81, and
which is still on view in the Sentinel office, is the little
old hand-press of French origin with which the Cariboo
Sentinel was printed at Barkerville in the early sixties.
This is undoubtedly the same press which, as narrated in
the B. C. Year Book (1897-1901), was originally brought
to British Columbia (Victoria) in the middle fifties, under
the auspices of the late Roman Catholic Bishop Demerfe
and the Comte de Garro, a Frenchman who had left Paris
during the political troubles consequent upon the Napoleonic
coup d'etat in 1851. At Victoria, which was still Fort
Victoria in 1852 (established by the Hudson's Bay Company,
first as Fort Camosun, a few years earlier), a few numbers
of a church paper were printed.
Hon. D. W. Higgins, Speaker of the Provincial Legislature   for  many   years,  and  "the
Doyen of B. C. Journalists
also the author of "The Mystic Spring," a collection of
surpassingly interesting early British Columbia history and
lore, recently published,' to whom I wrote about this old
press, a week or two ago, says it "was imported by Demers
and Garro about 1856-7, together with a font ofl quaint
French type. Both were used in getting out a small weekly
about twice the size of a sheet of letter paper. As neither
were printers, they employed a tramp compositor, who
arrived all the way from California, and who got out two
or three numbers of the Courier, eta They were the
queerest looking specimens of typography ever published."
The B. C. Year Book also says that Hon. Amor De Cosmos
started the publication of the British Colonist (Victoria),
as a tri-weekly, with this press. I am, while open to correction, disposed to doubt the accuracy of this lajtter statement, as the little eld French press (as stated, now la#
Kamloops) will ,take a chase of only about 11x18 inches,
and, therefore, would just print a paper about "twice the
size of a sheet of letter paper," as Mr. Higgins says was the
size of the church paper originally printed on it It is. I
think, more probable that the old Ruggles press with which
Mr. Hagan and I printed, the Inland Sentinel in 1880-81
was the press with which the British Colonist was first
printed (in 1858), as it was of quite a respectable size, the
bed (which is still intact) measuring 35x25 inches. I do
not know what the dimensions of the British Colonist were
when first printed, but it is hardly likely that the late
Hon. Amor DeCosmos, who was diffusive and expansive
both as a speaker and writer, could have confined his verbal
powers, even in 'cold type," to such a "pent up Utica,"
figuratively speaking, as an 11x18 inch dodger, three times
a week ! 1 his, on the other hand, is just about the size
of the Cariboo Sentinel,, which was started at Barkerville,
not very ong after the first publication of the Colonist, by
Geo. Wallace, and which was undoubtedly the best paying
newspaper proposition for its size on the American continent, while the Cariboo placers of those days held out—"famhw
prices m gold dust being charged for both subscriptions
ana aavertisememss. All ' controvertibleV' questions aparti
thoroughly agree with the opinion expressed by Mr Himrins
in his recent letter to me, that these intensely interesting
historic relics—or what is left of them—"should be acquired
by the Government and placed i~ iL
The lat   " '
. Hagan, founder of the Sentinel, it might be
itioned here, sold out the Sentinel some years after removing to Kamloops   and accepted the superintendence of I
the Dominion Industrial School for Indians  established the».
agan7wheSreehrdi'ed        positlon' amoving to the Okan-
"GettSng Out the Paper."
As   previously noted,  the  first  number  of  the   Inland
Sentinel was printed at Emory, on May apth. 1880*   Mr
S'th? Ilv? ^ assist*n« th« fi«t few monlhs-part
of the time, a tramp printer who happened along and
J-?S2Tl M un»«««>«t"^Jr »ud casuaHy a, né ltd
come upon the sceae, as was the wont of the genus, now SB
rapidly becoming extinct with the vogue of the typesetting machine. The writer of these "recollections,"
then not many years out of his apprenticeship to the
'art preservative," did not join Mr. Hagan at Emory,
until late m the summer of 1880. The varied and manifold duties of pioneer journalism which Mr. Hagan per-
t years, have
ough,  by  the   edit
:ntinel i:
I lent a hand in the fulfilling c
the exception of writing editor-
re jealously guarded, and rightly
r, _ as _ without my purview, though
ssist in reading and correcting the
lid m a unique and rather incon-
e forms "had been put to press."
sly guarded his prerogatives, I had
of my own. after the typesetting
ies were completed. It was mine,
gone to press," to "play the devil"
iael"—in other words, to smear the
types with that black, muddy corn-
liters ink, by shoving the long-
asses   roller   back   and   fort"
:ept the
nationalities, embraced a percentage of "black sheep,"
and the "fleecing" classes, who find an especial harvest
in such conditions, free from the ordinary restraints of
more settled communities, were not conspicuous by their
absence. On Sunday, immediately following the monthly
pay day, especially, there was literally, as well as figuratively,  "a   hot  time  in  the old  town."
I remember one such, with peculiar vividness. It was
the first Sunday after my arrival at Emory, and Mr.
Hagan, myself, and one or two others, with the expert
assistance nf two Indian canoe-men, had poled and paddled our way through the riffles and rapids if the Fraser
canyon from Emory's Bar to Yale, where we spent the
greater part of the day. (It took, by the way, a couple
of hours or so to go up, while a few minutes sufficed
tor the home dash in the evening, all the energies of
-—*ug the frail craft "right
i up
nth (
.")    Th:
1 fete that
et   like
a   prize   fighter,   and
d jerk
ng like  an  animated
se  whe
have played an  en-
led  ha
k!   press  will   "appre-
>een d
lly "worked off," and
itor with  the  greater
. wher
e the majority of the
the   compara'titvedy
t  Emc
ry and at the camps
ute.     It  was   another
er journalist,  that he
the go
ods"  himself, to dele-
preferred thus to "tal
gating  the  work to  omers.
Yale in "Construction" Days.
Lute in the fall of 1880, as intimated, the Sentinel was
removed from Emory to Yale, which was a very lively
place, indeed, especially during the earlier years of railway construction, when the large floating population engaged on the work was concentrated at or immediately
adjacent to that central starting point. Onderdouks
"lambs,'» as they were jocosely called, while comprising
many fine stalwart workingmen in all lines and of many
ed  ;
chief 1
timbers, rails, and_ other
ris, men in advanced stages of ihtoxi-
d fought or snored in bestial oblivion.
uel assumed a gory and, tragic guise,
e sweating, swearing gladiators started
antagonist's neck with a jack knifet
er of the peace, at this stage, separated
igerents. while a handy medicine man
mding job on  the  lacerated connecting-
From Then to Now.
Chickety-click—clickety-click—clickety-click! Yes, that
was Emory we just passed: Two burnished streaks of
steel paying out into the twilight, through a narrow
strip of greensward, marked here and there by a charred
or decayed post or a depression in the ground, showing
where a post had been. A trinity of shrill shrieks—the
measured but nervous jangling of the engine bell—and
we are slowing,up at the station at Yale—the Yale of
to-day—a picturesque, peaceful, hill-environed hamlet, redolent in the springtime of cherry, apple and peach bios-
w 46
soms. Tumbling mountain streams, joining the swirling
Fraser in its gorge-like bed below, are the lurking place
of the speckled trout. Terraced foothills and towering
Alpine peaks invite both the artist and the tourist on
healthful pleasure bent. Nestling amid Arcadian bowers
' —an almost ideal spot for such an institution—is All
Hallow's mission school and flourishing seminary for
girls, under surveillance of an Anglican sisterhood, lending an harmonious life and color to the sylvan scene.
The old, then superanuated, Roman Catholic church j
where the Sentinel was printed a quarter of a century
ago. is no more, but the call to matins and vespers
issues yet melodiously from the bell tower of the little
old (renovated) Anglican church on the hillside and from
a newer Roman Catholic chapel across the foaming
waters of Yale Creek. Vanished as if it had enly been
a dream, is the noisy mushroom town that sprang up as
if by magic twenty-five years—gone are the strenuous
alien sights and sounds. Even the river steamers, that
,-onnected here with the Cariboo road at an earlier period,
and "made things hum" again during the railway construction  epoch,  awaken  the echoes of the canyon no
more.   In the suggestive lines of the "RecesMonaL
"The   tumult  and  the  shouting  dies,
The  captains and the kings depart,
Still   stands   Thine   ancient   sacrifice—
An  bumble  and  a  contrite heart"
Reflecting on the new British Columbia which had its
renaissance in  that time of stress  and turmoil, at the
centre of the first railway construction in the province,
twenty-five  years  ago,   and  upon  the  vast  progressive
strides that have been made since in every part of the
great Canadian West, one can not but hopefully subscribe
to the san e optimism of the immortal Victorian laureate—
"Yet   I   doubt  not   thro'   the   ages
One increasing purpose runs,
And the thoughts of men are widened
With the process of the suns."
New Westminster, B. C. April 28, ICOS-
ALL HALLOW'S SCHOOL- J fie  Ôentinel  at   JVan\l
AVING decided to migrate to Kamloops, Mr.
Hagan moved The Sentinel plant to the quartiers he had first selected and the first copy of
the paper published in the city was issued July
31st, 1884. In his editorial of that issue he
says: "The Sentinel having carried out the
original intention at the time of starting four
years past and is now issued from Kamloops,
the outside world may be a little -urious to
know something of the place." Then fellows
a ttescription of the town, one paragraph reading, "Evidently a new day is dawning—the
silver lining is visible—when Kamloops will be better known
and more fully appreciated.   At present the  old Hudson
= -.uupied by Mr.
J. O. Grahame, the manager of the company here, while at
the extreme east end stands the commodious new residence
of Mr. Mara, with garden, etc." The premises occupied as
an office by The Sentinel for the first year or so was, however, half a mile or more east of the "extreme east end,"
being located in one of the buildings on the Peterson ranch
opposite where now stands the residence of J. Latremouille.
On the completion of the first Oddfellows' Hall, The Sentinel moved into the now extending town and eight years
ago moved into its present quarters.
For the following interesting information the editor is
indebted to Mr. Hugh McCutcheon, now Customs Officer
af Greenwood, to whom on September 1st, 1886, Mr. Hagan
sold The Sentinel. The new proprietor did not attempt to
fill all the offices on the staff as had Mr. Hagan, but had as
editor Mr. D. J. King, of Peterborough, Ont., who for
eight months filled the editorial chair, did the reporting
and between times worked at the case. He afterwards
worked at the case for two years, when he left to accept a
position on the staff of the Victoria Times.   In 1895 he left
for the east to* study medicine and is now engaged in that
profession. Mr. D. T. Fairbairn, formerly of the Port
Arthur Daily Sentinel took the position of editor in December, 1887, and remained until October, 1888, when he went
to the coast. He died in Victoria in the spring of 1899. ,He
was succeeded by Mr. D. C. McMorris, of Meaford, Ont.,
who remained as editor until the spring of 1890, when he resigned to take a position with the Columbia and Nelson
Navigation Company, where he remained until last year,
resigning his position to accept the office of City Clerk at
Nelson, which office he now holds. Mr. C. Del Smith., of
Toronto, took Mr. McMorris' place and remained for eight
months, going to Victoria as reporter on the Colonist
staff; he is still in that city. Mr. James W. Vail wsb next
and was with The Sentinel for some time. He was editor
and manager of the Kootenay Star, a paper published by
Mr. McCutcheon at Revelstoke, for some years. Mr;. Vale
left for his old home in Illinois about three years ago and
died soon afterwards.
In October, 1893, Mr. McCutcheon sold The Sentinel to
Theodore Davie, who was at that time Premier of the Province. He and his friends turned over the plant to Jones,
Spink and Finbow, who afterwards sold out to Mr.
Bostock. Mr. Jones is now running a printing plant at
Nelson, B. C.;Mr. Spink is foreman of the News-Advertiser
and Mr. Finbow left for the east. Mr. Davie afterwards
denied that he had anything to do with buying The Sentinel,
but Mr. McCutcheon says: "He was the man I made the
bargain with for the sale. I had some trouble in getting
my money but I forced Davie and his friends to put it up
and pay interest as well. ' '
Mr. W. Baillie was Mr. Bostock's first editor and was
succeeded by Mr. F. J. Deane, who afterwards, in 1900,
acquired the paper, which he conducted until January 1st,
1904, when he sold it to the present proprietor.
1/  i5»*^%3634JÈ%3*«3é%563«3«3iW3436^
Kamloops City and District.
Resources, Climate and Agricultural Capabilities.
on the
ROM the fact that for many y^ar-.i it was tp j
sole place of any size or conequence in the
interior of the province, the distributing
point and base of supplies for all parts of
the Interior, and also from the fact of its
being centrally situated, Kamloops came honestly by the title frequently given to it, the
Inland Capital. Nature has done much for
it in repect to location, climate, soil and
abundant natural resources in the hills and
valleys with which it is surrounded. Midway
between Calgary on the east and Vancouver
it, it faces the confluence of the north and
south branches of the Thompson river, its location being
ideal and the view from the higher portion of the
city dieting the admiration of visitors from all parts of
the world.
The history of the city and the surrounding district
is replete with interesting events and these will be found
set forth in another chapter, but interesting as have been
past events, the promises of the future are of still
greater moment. The city itself is similar to all other
places equipped with modern conveniences and peopled
with men and women who keep pace with the ever
onward march of progress. Its stores are well stocked;
it has schools, public, high, and private; all the chief
religious denominations have their places of worship
and it has an up-to-date, municipal owned water and
electric lighting plant capable of giving good service
to a population ten times its present number, which is
in the neighborhood of two thousand. Possessing a
telephone service, local and long distance (giving connection with Nicola, points in Similkameen and Penticton
at the foot of Okanagan lake), and being on-the main
line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, of which it is a
divisionafpdrot, Kamloops is in close touch with every
part of the province and all the world beyond its borders
accessible to any other city within the pale of civilisation.
Kamloops is also the principal town in the great Yale
district, and the courts of justice, civil and criminal,
are held here. This district, 60 miles across its widest
point, is Kamloops' commercial territory, and out of it
a kingdom might be carved and never missed. Bounded
on the north and west by the Lillooet district; south
by the Yale, Nicola and Osoyoos divisions, and east by
the Kootenay. district, it has an area of 24,000 square
miles. Within this magnificient distance are rivers and
lakes and mountains, bounteous valleys and broad plateaus, capable of supporting a population of many
thousands. Not only are there vast expanses of agricultural lands in all sections of the district but the mineral
wealth; coal, copper, iron, silver, lead, gold; will, as the
country progresses, give employment to thousands where
to-day occupation is found for but hundreds. North and
east of Kamloops the forest growth is now receiving a
larger share of attention than has hitherto been the case
and the result is to be seen in the increasing number of
sawmills in operation in the district. These will be
added to in the very near future and will be supplemented
by pulp «ills, a large supply of timber of suitable size
and varieties being obtainable. # .
The time was when the whole district was m the hands
of a few cattle ranchers whose herds grazed undisturbed
2*4 grew .fat upon the nutritious bunch grass with
which the rolling plateau and low hills were clothed.
Baft thai day fan* practically passed; with the advent of
; beer
lany  of the
part,   thei
; domains
'e already
dings, and fruit growing
tuiu niiAcu limning are becoming staple industries. Hundreds of tons of butter, cheese, farm produce and many
thousands of eggs are imported annually into the province, which is not only capable of supplying its - own
markets but others as well. The land is here; it requires,
but the people to till it and to make it yield its increase.
Fruit-growing will unquestionably be a great industry
"'--ps district, and unlimited markets are openly ootenays, the North-
îspecially that
which  ■
ing. up for the fruit-gro
west, and the Old Coun
strict." British Columbia
nte'rior, is establishing a
..._ stand it in good stead
in the future, and which insures a steady demand for the
tramloads that will be shipped in the future-for-every
carload that is now produced. The apples compare'favorably in flavor, size and appearance with the choicest products of Ontario and Nova Scotia, and possess, besides,
a superiority in firmness and lasting quality which admirably adapt them to supply a distant market, whenever
the nearer ones mav fail.
The climate of the district is eminently favorable to
fruit-production, and pears, plums, prunes, cherries,
peaches, and small fruits, attain a perfection which commands top prices wherever they are sold. The natural
advantages of soil and climate are all that can be desired,
and the application of care and skill to the business of
fruit-growing may be relied upon to produce fruit which
will equal or excel that of the most favored sections.
A great point in favor of the district is the total absence
of those destructive enemies to the orchard, the codling
moth   and  the  San  Jose  scale.
The climate is such that grapes, melons, tomatoes, corn,
peaches, etc., ripen in the open; hav grain and roots
give bountiful crops and all the small and large fruits
common to the tempefate zone, thrive in every locality.
Twice the size of Switzerland: as large as Holland and
Belgium combined, the district possesses far greater
natural resources than either of these countries, each of
which supports a large population. In comparison with
them, this district should bear comfortably a population
equal to all three together. With the coming of the new
era which is dawning, upon the era of active
development in which railway construction will play an
chief part, Kamloops district will begin to assume part
at least, of the role it is yet to plav in the destinies of
the great province of the west. The coming of the
Grand Trunk Pacific will entail the essential corollary of
a railway through the great central natural avenue from
south to north, by way of the valleys of Okanagan lake
and the Nicola river to Kamloops and thence via the
North Thompson to Cariboo, and on by the Nechaco
valley to tap the great transcontinental railway with which
the name of the Laurier government will ever be allied.
Even now, in the month of May, 1003. there are signs
and tokens of the great immigration that will come when
the transportation problem is solved by the construction
of the G. T. P.; forerunners of the thousands to follow,
spying out the land and settling upon it.
Within the boundaries of the Kamloops district there
are thousands upon thousands of acres of land suitable
for mixed farming and fruit-growing awaiting the settler
and homeseeker.   Throughout the breadth of British Col-
y so
nmbis, the railway belt, forty miles wide, twenty miles
on each side of the C. P. R, is administered by the Interior Department of the Dominion government Beyond
that belt, the lands are in the hands of the Provincial
authorities and in the city of Kamloops are to be found
the agents of both governments. Of the lands within
the railway belt little conception of their area and value
from an agricultural view point is to be obtained from
the railway, and yet too many content themselves with
merely that very superficial inspection of the country.
Nestling among the everlasting hills, whose slopes serve
as the natural reservoirs for the water supply from which
the dry lands derive the water for irrigation, there are
countless valleys and plateaus where numerous families
can find their homesteads, and along the shores and upper
benches forming the larger valleys, expansive areas await
thesettler. Within the bounds of the Kamlnons distHie
and beyond it too, there is no dearth of land from which
the homeseeker may make his choice. Extending from
the Rocky Mountains in the  east to the mouth  of the
e as any 01 ins now ïamrm mmr
respect to water supply.   This
I by the  success that ha* bean
sessing the same «oil aad subject
for nothing but for grazing purposes, yet «
they would be as fertile as any of the I
veniently situated with i
is amply demonstrated I,
attained with lands possessing the same I
to similar climatic conditions upon which water k
taken. There are thousands of acres of these arid land*
within the dry belt and the greater part of these area*
are within the Kamloops district. Many, of these blocks
are capable of reclamation by conveying water from
distant sources of supply. Such reclamation cannot he
done by individuals but must be carried out either by
the government or by a company or companies organised for the purpose and possessed of sufficient capital
to prosecute the necessary works, as the cost of tile
undertaking will be considerable. One company, the
Canadian Real Properties, Ltd., has already done a great
deal towards reclaiming six thousand acres of excellent
land of unsurpassed fertility on the west shore of the
North Thompson river, the land being in the main pur-
Fraser in the west, the belt embraces every variety of
land and climate, from the dense forest lands of the
Lower Fraser and the more sparsely, yet abundantly,
timbered plateaus and slopes east of Shuswap, to the
practically timberless areas lying between Lytton and the
Little Shuswap lake; varying in climate from the dry
belt with arid and semi-arid lands, corresponding to the
timberless area, to the moister districts at the coast
and in the mountains. Even in the rugged canyon of
the Fraser, that gorge in the Cascade range through
which the mighty Father of waters has forced a channel,
benches and tributary valleys afford opportunities for
the settler to engage in dairying, fruit-growing and
poultry  raising.
Between Lytton and Shuswap lies the dry belt, a
region where irrigation is essential to the growth of
every crop raised by the agriculturist and horticulturist.
Those places more readily irrigated have long been veritable oases in the desert; as settlement has progressed,
a few attempts have beeu made to conduct water hy
means of fluming and ditching upon lands not so easily
provided and while there are considerable areas upon
which water may be taken at comparatively little expense,
there are much more extensive areas, possessing excellent soil but absolutely worthless as agricultural  lands in
chased from the former owners who, after holding it
for years without being able to procure a water supply
or grow crops, were glad enough to dispose of it to
those with enterprise and capital enough to successfully
cope with the situation. This has been accomplished and
the barren lands of the past will shortly be one expanse of
fruitful orchards and dairy farms. Other similar works
of reclamation are being arraged for and when completed there will be available so many more thousand* of
acres of lands for the homeseeker to pitch hi* tent.
Not only are these areas suitable for settlement to be
found within the railway belt but beyond it, in the domain
of the Provincial government, there is no dearth of
good land. As in the railway belt, so in the Provincial
lands there are arid and humid districts, the former
lying more within the Nicola country, and the former in
the valley of the North Thompson river.
In addition to lands for the fruit grower, farmer and
rancher, there are abundant mineral deposits and extensive coal beds in process of development and awaiting
capital   for   exploitation.    The  several  sections  of the
district, while having much in common ia these f	
have the further advantage of an excellent
this varying in the several localities in point of 1
snowfall aad temperature. Climate
Lg?£E the most valuable assets  of Kamloo,
"wfueh^X'the p"rinciparQattra,cLdeHghth1  cHmate'
The a r possesses a clear, crisp quality, which rives ^
effr5n£?ratn,R '****<**«, rathlr thin The deposing
wfrt5-S?».COmm-0n-in damPer districts near the coast
Within the semi-and zone, the "dry belt," the rainfall is
1? alsKhtaVandgtng ,5° iDCh T Vth' ^heSnowfall
overThJiïLi £ IS"17,?10" than three or four inches
IsTnl^li!! * ^ Va"eyS' and '«««««y t«e ground
IM 2are j°r^he greater part of the winter. On the
higher ground the temperature being lower, the snow
{W^wn" and*i!S xT°" six to eight inches deep.
In the valley of the North Thompson and around Shuswap
lakes, the forest growth alone betokens more rainfall
though this is never excessive, and in the winter a heavier"
snowfall though rarely does this exceed more than a
foot or fifteen inches in depth.
Around Kamloops there are no extremes of temperature
and the following figures taken from the records of, and
furnished by the meteorological station in Fp.irloons. toi]
the facts with all essential clearness and detail. ' The
highest temperature recorded during the summer of ioor
was 92; in 1002, 94; in 1903, 96; and in 1904, 98 degrees.
The lowest temperature in the winter of igot was -17,
which point was reached twice that season; in 1002 it
eaefcrd -K' o».•-■;:: i> ire ■!■.• :h.-n, .n-, .-■ n--.. ,-••■ -:. 1 a.1
low as zero, the coldest being within half a degree of
it on one occasion, and in 1904 it fell twice below zero,
once to -3 and once to -8; in each case cited the "snap"
was only of a few hours duration. The records of the
meterological office also show that the average precipitation of moisture, rain and snow included, was less
than one and a half inch per month.
The mean temperature for the coldest months in the
year   is   28   degrees   and   for   the   summer   months,   60
Timber Resources
A most important natural  resource  of the  district is
forest   growth   found   in   the   upper   valley   of   the
North Thompson and in the valley of the great Shuswap
lake and tributary streams. Cedar, white pine, spruce,
fir. hemlock, birch, red pine, and cottonwood are the
chief varieties of timber found, and while immense logs
such as are cut from the Douglas fir at the coast^ are not
a common occurrence in the Interior, the grain is closer
and firmer, the wood possessing greater resisting and
wearing power. Cedar cut in the Interior mills is of a
far superior grade to that cut from coast grown trees.
The North Thompson timber areas may< be said to
begin about Louis creek, some excellent timber being
found in the Barrière valley and between it and the mouth
of the Clearwater. From the latter point onward to practically the sources of both the North Thompson and its
large tributary, the Clearwater, the timber is more abundant and of larger growth. A good deal of logging has
been done up the North Thompson for many years and
latterly logging operations have greatly increased, the
demands of the Kamloops Lumber Company keeping
the supplying camps busy for a considerable portion of
the year. Logging operations give promise of being
carried on still more extensively in the near future as
another company Is preparing to enter the miBïng
field with the additional consuming plant of a pulp mill,
for which there is an abundance of material available,
aot only in the North Thompson country but also on
an.«nr^*d slope* hemm,n* in Shuswap lakes contain
.niii£2TSUS am°UAnt ^merchantable timber, both for
milling and pulp. A number of logging camps are located
m favored spots on all sides of the lakes andStreams,
«.mma"1il<;0î,slImers being the Kamloops Lumber Com-
 llls   ««■   h*n.'oo].s   «ml   Knderhy,
î near Sicamous; and the Colum-
—., JWth mills at Kault, on Shuswap
Salmon Arm and at Golden. The mills at
Kamloops, Ann.s and Kault are supplied from the Shuswap laKe camps, a large amount of lumber being annually
turned out from them, a large portion of the output finding its way to the Northwest.
Not a tithe of the timbered areas have as yet been
touched, and with the care taken of the timber within the
railway belt for the prevention of forest fires, the supply
of logs is not likely to be prematurely exhausted should
a dozen sawmills draw upon it. The importance of these
large logging operations is patent to all, and the camps
are the mainstay of several small places along the line
between Kamloops and the Rocky Mountains. The presence of hemlock in quantity is of considerable importance
in view of the probable establishment at Kamloops of an
abattoir and cold storage plant on a large scale, the hides
and hemlock bark suggesting a tannery, with glue works
as as side issue.
Coal and Minora' Resources
10 part of the Province is to be found a greater
ty of mineral deposits within a comparatively
r compass, than in the districts surrounding and
contiguous to Kamloops. Within a stones throw of the
city there are extensive deposits of gold-copper ores and
lying between them and the town there Jies a portion
of a basin carrying coal beds, whose extent is at present
problematical but which is being demonstrated by the
sinking  of  a   shaft   through   the  measures,   about   three
miles from the city. Seams of coal of variable thickness
have been encountered and one seam gives promise of
proving workable.
The copper ores are found scattered over a zone of
fifty or sixty square miles in area, and consist mainly of
chalcopyrite and variegated pyrites, sometimes associated with magnetite and calc spar. The first location
made in the Kamloops was the Python, upon which
considerable work has been done, a long tunnel being
driven at the present time to serve the double purpose
of developing the property and serving as a drain to
the shaft. The Iron Mask, located shortly after the
Python, is now a shipping mine, well equipped with
air compressors, electric light, concentrator, etc. j A
smelter of small capacity, is in process of construction
on this property which gives employment to from 60 to
100 men in the mine, concentrator and at the sawmill
and their timber limits. The Kamloops Mines, Limited,
operates this mine. •
Other properties in the camp, more or less developed,
some of them to a shipping point, are the Copper King,
Wheel Taraar, Monte Carlo, Grass Roots, Chieftain, Erin, o
11, Truth, Pothook, Cyclone, etc. Many of these are in excellent shape and but require capital to place them on a
shipping basis. Kamloops Coal Hill camp offers many
promising prospects to capital for investment.
At the western limit of the copper zone at Cherry
creek, there is a valuable deposit of high grade magnetite
on the property of the Glen Iron Mining Co. Several
thousands of tons of ore have been shipped from the ore
bunkers alongside the siding put in by the C. P. R. to
facilitate shipments, most of which went to the Hall
Mines smelter at Nelson. Across the Kamloops lake at
Copper creek, extensive deposits of cinnabar exist, similar deposits being found south of Savona on the
Mamette lake road, and also on Criss creek, a branch of
Deadman's creek which empties into the Thompson a
short distance west of Savona. Copper ores are also
found in the vicinity of Copper creek.
The North Thompson mountains yiejd ores of another
character. Copper and gold are found but more in a
quartz formation and frequently allied with silver, zinc
an antimony. The .Homestake mine at Adam's lake and
the property of the same name on Jamieson Creek, are
promising prospects. On each a good deal of work has
been done and large deposits of ore exposed but capital
is_ required to develop these properties and equip them
with modern mining armamentarium in order to reach
the productive stage. Father up the river and along the
Clearwater, silver-lead and silver-zinc ores predominate,
lack of adequate transportation facilities alone preventing their development.
Around Shuswap lake enormously rich deposits of
silver-lead ores have been located and some promising
copper prospects staked. Capital is, however, needed to
place these properties in proper condition for shipping
their ores.
In addition to the coal basin adjacent to Kamloops,
more extensive areas exist on the North Thompson, fifty
miles north of Kamloops, the coal being a true bituminous,   possessing  excellent   coking  properties.    Only  the
outcrop of the seams, several of which have been., laid
bare by the erosion of the measures by the action *f
one   of   the  mountain   streams,  which   has  cut its' way
through the measures where they have come to the
surface, have been touched and no systematic development has as yet been attempted. Lying to the south,
been demonstrated, numerous borings hâve been made at
at Quilchena, at the mouth of the Coldwater and at
Coutlee, all in the Nicola valley, large coal beds have
points all over the valley and the results show that practically the entire valley is underlaid by coal'measures,
some of the seams being of great thickness. The advent
of a railway into the Nicola country will give the stimulus
lus necessary to the development of this large field, which
offers excellent opportunities for the employment of cap-
w I"
tat» The time will not be long deferred now that railway construction is assured when the demands of local
mining interests and the requirements of the railway
companies will prove active factors in hastening the
development of the Nicola, Kamloops and North Thompson coal beds. Lying within the railway belt, south of
Sicamous, near Endenby, a seam of coal, apparently semi-
bituminous in character, and twenty feet thick, has been
discovered and partially developed and its exploitation
will not be long deferred.
Agricultural Lands
These are to be found throughout the entire district,
the Shuswap, Thompson, North Thompson, and Nicola
valleys affording ample selection to the intending settler
or purchaser. More detailed mention will be' made of
these when the several sections of the disrict are considered separately. All vacant surveyed lands within the
railway belt, not held as timber berths or reserved to
the crown, are open to purchase or homestead. The
price ot agricultural land is $5 per acre, payable one fourth
within one month of date of application and balance on
time, bearing interest at six per cent.   Should the settler
wish to make an entry for homestead he should apply
to the Dominion Land Office at Kamloops. where he
will receive all available information and courteous
treatment from the officials in charge., A fee of $10, is
charged for an ordinary homestead entry and in order
to receive a patent for the homestead the settler must
fulfil three years residence thereon and cultivate the
land. Six months in each year is counted a year's
is divided into three classes, first class $5 per acre; J
cond class, $2.50 per acre and third class, $1 per acre. In
the case of pre-empted lands the price is fixed at $1 per
acre, duties as to improvements and residence are exacted but time is given for payment If the lands are
unsurveyed, the settler must have them surveyed at his
own expense. While the Provincial land policy is not
so generous as that of the Dominion government, it is
apparently sufficiently so to prove attractive. The Dom.
inion lands have the additional attraction of being more
accessible to the main line of the C.P.R.
North Thompson. |
Facing Kamloops stretches the vaUey of the North
Thompson and included in that term are all the tributary
and accessory valleys and plateaus on either hand. The
first few miles on the east side of the valley is an Indian
Reservation and included in that are all the tributary
and accesory valleys and plateaus on either hand. The
first few miles on the east side of the valley is an Indian
Reservation and opposite lies reclaimed land acquired by
the Canadian Real Properties Limited, Subdivided into
convenient small holdings, possessed of soil and other
conditions suitable for fruit farming, these six thousand
acres, irrigable from the canal bringing water from|
Jamieson creek, 18 miles distant, will soon be aU planted
out in fruit trees, a number of residents of Kamloops
being among the first to purchase small blocks. Settlers
are constantly locating upon vacant Dominion lands in
the several tributary valleys as well as in that of the
main stream and there is room for many more. At Adams
Lake and  Barrière  river there  is  an  extensive rolling
plateau, lightly timbered, admirably adapted to dairying,
and where many families would have ample room to locate and carry large herds of stock. Louis Creek valley
contains a number of settlers but is by no means all settled and there is some first-class land still vacant A
certain amount of clearing is required. The soil in these
valleys is very rich and yields abundantly when brought
under cultivation. Beyond the Upper Indian Reserve
there is a considerable extent of vacant land open for
settlement on both sides of the river and some extensive
meadows are found at Stillwater, Goose Lake, Blue River
and other points. Settlers are straggled along the main
valley for a distance of 100 miles north of Kamloops,
and_ at each place there is ample demonstration of the
fertility of the soil and the favorable temperature; melons,
tomatoes, corn, grain, fruit and grasses growing and
ripening with results that are pre-eminently satisfactory.
The timber resources of the North Thompson and its
branches and the varied mineral deposits as well as the
extensive coal fields in the valley have already been referred to. Practically none of these resources have as
yet been touched and not until a railway traverses the
valley, traversing it as part of the route of thé great central artery that must ere long connect the southern railway systems with the national transcontinental railway,
whose construction is at hand, will they be fully exploited. Enormous beds of gypsum, huge masses of
limestone, large beds of brick clay suitable for fire bricks,
are additional resources that will sooner or later be in
demand, provocative of additional industries upon which
Savona and the
Thompson  River.   fj
West of Kamloops the Thompson river widens out
into a lake of about 18 miles in length, bordered by
sloping benches, rocky cliffs and rolling hills, all carrying
a scanty growth of scattered pines and firs, with cotton-
woods in the bottoms. A few favored spots have been
Uken up for mixed farming and several large cattle
ranches are also located in this district, these being mainly
in the vicinity of Cherry creek and Savona (including
Mamette Lake). There are large areas of land suitable
for cultivation if water can be brought upon it and it
I* understood an attempt will be made '
SHIPPING HORSES AT SAVONA. broad acres in the near future by private enterprise
directed to the promotion of a comprehensive scheme of
irrigation. Should this venture be rewarded with the success it merit», the whole of the tract redeemed from the
arid waste will be available for fruit growing or for the
raising of other crops as desired, the land being very
fertile, this being demonstrated at several pionts where
water has been procured from limited local sources and
the land cultivated. At Savona, where there is an excellent water supply available for the irrigation of the
few places brought under cuutivation, melons, tomatoes,
corn, and all kinds of fruit ripen without trouble and enormous crops of hay, grain and roots are grown.
Savona is an attractive little spot where a holiday may
be enjoyably spent, quarters being procurable at the hotel
if camping is not considered preferable. Near the hotel
there is a capital bathing place, a dressing room being
conveniently placed near by. Boats may also be hired
and guides obtained for hunting parties,' for there is plenty
of game, large and small, to be had in the mountains
and valleys in the vicinity, and the trout fishing in the
river at the foot of the lake is one of the assets of the
In addition to these attractive features, a movement
is now in contemplation to establish good fishing camps
and hunting lodges on the high plateaus of Deadman's
creek,   a  country  that  has   been   sadly   overlooked   for
the Cariboo wagon road takes its departure. It is situated on the Thompson river, about 26 miles above
Spence's Bridge. The country around it, which includes
Cache Creek, is generally open, with rolling hills, fairly
well supplied with water for irrigation. The altitude
of Ashcroft is 966 feet (C. P. R.), while that of Ashcroft
Farm (Cornwall's), three mile distant, on the other or
northern side, of the river, is at 1,508.
Along the Thompson river, as in so many other parts
of the Interior, all the land suitable for cultivation or
ranching does not lie in the main valley; there are tribu-
but very few of these have been even looked at by
settlers, this being due to the fact that the local business interests have not seen fit to take any steps to
attract people to their neighborhood, many, in fact,
knowing so little, and realizing still less of the capabilities of the country by which they are surrounded, as
to be ignorant of the opportunities offered. Continuing to Spence's Bridge, the same kind of country as
that( already referred to is found, with similar coa-
ditio'ns prevailing.
Like the rest of this district, it is a famous section
for fruit. The Nicola river empties into the Thompson
at this point, and the wagon road to Nicola and Kamloops   follows  its  valley.
This district may truly be said to be unexcelled for
the lack of proper advertising and transportation facilities, this latter being restricted to saddle horses. By
this new departure parties of sportsmen can be assured
of a splendid outing and all a sportsman can desire,
where he can capture trout of all sizes, either lake or
creek fishing, experienced local anglers knowing where
to conduct visitors to obtain good baskets. In the fall
and winter the country abounds in big game, black,
cinnamon, and silver tip bears; deer, and feathered
game of all varieties found in the Interior. Accomplished guides are always on hand and their services
may be had on reasonable terms. -As an ideal place
for an outing, Savona has few peers. The climate is
similar to that of Kamloops from which city the village
is distant 25 miles and may be reached either by water,
rail or wagon road.
Below Savona there are some excellent stretches of
land but these are. unfortunately, mainly devoid of available water supply for irrigation purposes. Here and
there smiling farms, veritable oases in the desert, afford
a striking contrast to the parched arid ground surrounding them. This condition of affairs prevails until
Ashcroft, the gateway to Cariboo, is reached. Ashcroft
is the point on the Canadian Pacifie Railway at which
the production of fruit of nearly all kinds. With it*
proximity to the coast markets, this district should ia
time be able to supply all the tomaoes, grape*, melons
and similar products that are consumed, to the exclusion of California fruits.
Timber is not abundant on the lower lands; there
is, however, plenty for farming purposes and fuel On
the hills, however, there is an ample supply. The principal timber trees are bull or yellow pine, Douglas fir
and poplar.
The valleys are from 700 to 3,500 feet above sea level.
The tops of the surounding mountains go as high as
5,000 feet above the sea. The district may be said to
consist of round or sloping mountains, intersected by
numerous narrow valleys of different 'altitudes, land
containing more or less agricultural land. Small lakes
and creeks are numerous in some parts. The mountains and valleys, up to an elevation of almost 2,000
feet, are covered principally with sage-brush, grease-
wood worm-wood, cactus, considerable bunch-grass in
some places, and scattering yellow pine trees. Above
2,000 feet, the mountain sides are almost everywhere
covered with grass and scattering timber, pine and fir,
the latter seldom very thick. Along the water-courses
there is often a little brush and many poplar and birch
trees, seldom of large size. The country is nowhere
thickly timbered. g*
1.   By the  river  at  Kamloops.      2. The  Scotch   Cap,   Kamloops   Lake.    3. The  little  old  log cabin.
Cattle watering.    5. A bit of North Thompson road.    6. Chase's Creek, Shuswap. The town of Lytton, known
exciting days of 1858-9, is sor
lower than Kamloops, less than 100 miles distant. It
is the gateway to the pass through the Cascade range
on the one hand, and to the several settlements along
the Fraser, on the other. Small areas of land are found
on the benches east and west of the town, which is
located on a bench 100 feet above the deep gprges
through which the Fraser and Thompson rivers run,
the Thompson joining the Fraser at this point. Behind
the town towers Lytton knountain and 'facing it is
the valley of the Fraser, rich in gold in bars, river
bed and benches; rich in fertile soil and rich in an
equable climate. The scenery along the river between
Lytton and Lillooet is grandly majestic, with pretty
picturesque nooks and corners at frequent intervals,
d ncArthwand along the
; beyond   Lillooet i
The   climate   otf   Lytton
siderably 1
ights being
equable,  the prevail
, the
iloops.    Spring
of shorter dura-
and the climate generally
fresh  breeze  almost
:  of
daily, however, preventing any oppre
summer. Grapes, melons, peaches, tomatoes, corn, etc.,
are grown in large quantities and thrive amazingly.
Given the land and place water upon it, and it will grow
practically anything except tropical truit. Very little
attention has been paid to this section of the country by
settlers, though its climatic advantages and the fertility
of the soil cannot fail to prove attractive when the tide
of immigration sets in this way with more earnestness
than has been the case hitherto. There are some excellent fruit ranches in the vicinity, notably that of T. G.
Earl, fruit inspector.) Irrigation is required, though
there is more precipitation here than along the Thompson valley. Lytton was once a place of considerable
importance; that was in the old days of staging, freighting and packing;, but the advent of the C. P. R. temporarily killed the little old town. Since the construction
and operation of gold dredges in the Fraser began,
about six years ago, it has revived to a certain extent.'
A good deal of placer mining is carried on at low stages
of the river.
From Lytton to Yale the railway belt of. Dominion
lands offers patches only of land suitable for agriculture, the rugged nature of the canyon forbidding large
areas being available. Gold mining made the entire
canyon as well as the bars below Yale, famous nearly-
half a century ago- and today gold mining is still an
industry yielding profitable returns.
Many of the ranche's in this district have been in the
hands of their owners for a long term of years, and
most of them are comfortably well off. But that the
new settler can do great things for himself is shown
.by the successes of newer owners. As examples, the two
following  cases  may  be   cited:
Robt. Ruddock came from Iceland to Lytton 16 years
ago with practically no money. Took up 280 acres 18
miles from Lytton, on Lillooet road. The first 6 years
he and his family had a very hard struggle to live, but
like an Irishman, troubles didn't worry him. To-day.
he has 120 acres in hay and several acres of an orchard.
Mr. Ruddock also raises hundreds of head of cattle for
the market. He has at present some 300 head of as
fine cattle as any one could wish to see. He started
cattle raising some 12 years ago. with but two cows.
Mr. Ruddock is a living example of what pluck and
determination will do. He is worth to-day over $25,000.
His latest enterprise is wine making, he claims-that
the valley canyon has as fine grapes as anywhere in
California; as for peaches, they cannot be beaten anywhere. when he settled on his present beautiful place, which
he took about the same time as Mr. Ruddock. He
has about 160 acres, the most of which is under cultivation. Mr. Kane makes a specialty of fruit-growing,
and claims that is oe of the most profitable crops for
a farmer to go in for. He clears from $200 to $400
per acre. Through his hard work he is today comfortably,  or  rather, independently well   off,  and  is  rated   at
olVhe  is'
es for  the
The Nicola Country.
In  this  term .
of  :
1 Kamloi .
traversing the entire distan
lies partly within the rail
under the provisions of
Largely given  over  tQ^Jîhe
a-ttle breeders,
. fair
>ed, ha3
- and fruit
Coutlee, Nicola lake,~Quilchena, Rockford. Stump lake
and Campbell Creek are all embraced in the description
of Nicola, though perhaps the latter may with greater
propriety be included in the strictly local vicinity of
Kamloops, from which it is distant some ten miles. The
most important settlement in the valley as at Nicola
lake, whose altitude fis about 2.000 feet, being 1,000 feet
higher   than   Spence's   Bridge  and  800   feet   higher   than
that of the Thomp-
:emperàture   being   a
and summer, with
r   snowfall.
NICOLA VALLEY. In the vicinity of Nicola (lake there are extensive
areas of land, to be had for the asking at $i Per acre
adapted  to mixed  farming and  fruit growing   »"«*£
The  town  of  Nicola,  where  are  located, the. Government Agent's office, post and telephone offices, and well
squipped   stores,   is   beautifully   situated   near .'the   river,
" ''        "       promising a section of the country as
les.    Not only  has ifyg'^plendid  cli-
h in the bottoms and benches, excel-
;   where   large   herds-. Of   'cattle   are
lowed with mineral'.Wealth that gives
|'■* things  coming to Nicol^.' • .Coal of
quality, gold, silver and coppe^ore^-àri'd'Time-
iong   the   most   importanY-^fttthe'   mineral
lley and  the most important of them
raised, but
all is-undoubtedly the coal. The Nicola ceal basin is.
aa extensive one whose limits, yet undefined, are known
te extend over an enormous area, one outcrop occurring on the Thompson, ! between Lytton and Spence's
Bridge in one direction and another being found near
Quilchena in the other. Boring has been done in several places and several workable seams have been
passed through. Exploratory work has been done at
Coldwater,  Coutlee,  Quilchena and other points  by the
several parties owning the rights to prospect the ground.
It is partly with a desire to gain access to these coal
fields that the C. P. R. has entertained the proposition
of building a railway through that section of the country,
and it may be asserted without fear of after contradiction
by the development of events, that no section will respond more fully or more promptly to increased and
improved transportation facilities than Nicola valley.
Lower  Nicola   and   Coutlee  are  two   sections   of  the
valley lying between Nicola lake and Spence* Bridge,
and possess characteristics identical with those of the
former. The soil is productive and the mild climate
permits the growth and maturing of almost any crop,
whether fruit, roots, wheat or oats, corn, alfalfa, eta
Stores, post offices, and telephone service through the
Kamloops-Nicola-Penticton line, afford the people Of the
lower valley opportunity to profit by the march of progress in more popuous districts.
At Aspen Grove there are very extensive deposits of
copper ores, these mainly occurring in the form of
native copper or tetrahedrite (gray copper). Machinery
is being installed in some of the properties and the
development of power from convenient sources of water
supply is now being undertaken, as have also initial
steps for the erection of a smelter in connection with the
mines of the Portlans Mining Company. Aspen Grove
is tributary to Nicola lake, the importance to the town
of the progress of the mining camps is apparent.
As in most parts of the Interior there is plenty of
game to be had, in season, and the duck shooting in the
fall on the numerous lakes in the valley and surrounding hills attracts many people from the coast and other
At Quilchena, Douglas lake, Stump lake, and Rockford
there are numerous ranches with large herds of cattle
and bands of horses, hay being the principal crop grown.
The land is fertile and the country open and suitable
for mixed and dairy farming in the valleys.
Campbell Creek is a half way house between Nicola,
Kamloops and the Upper Thompson valley. It < is
higher than the latter but lower than Grand Prairie
and is all within the railway belt, the result being here
as elsewhere, that there are many settlers located on'
land, and there is a thriving settlement in consequence.
A fine supply of water is derived from Campbell creek.
The intervening country between this settlement and
Grand Prairie is vacant, owing to the difficulty of procuring a supply of water for irrigation purposes, though
this will no doubt be remedied by private enterprise
at some future time.
1.—On Shuswap Lake.   2.—Gold u
—AJbit of roadway. NDER the name
grouped not only (
around Barkerville
but the whole dist
by the Cariboo Wag
the  old  days  of th
3 of a
The Cari
is to that
Road   t<
;' the
Jes the Fraser river
s. Creek, and traverses the country
east-of that river, including all points between
Ashcroft and Quesnel, the principal of which
, Bridge- Creek, Lac la Hache. Williams Lake,
the 150-Mile*Hoûse," Soda Creek and Alexandria. All these
points are connected by stage—three times a week—with
Ashcroft, the point of connection with the Canadian Pacific
Leaving Ashcroft for the north, Clintc
the road, is reached by following f
distance the valley of the Bonaparte
gained fame on account of the excl
there produced. Excellent crops of
the many farms that occupy the val h
cant land within the railway belt aboi
favored localities is being taken ujj
32 miles from Ashcroft, was formerly
since there the two routes to the Carib
Harrison Lake and Lillooet and th
Yale, joined. Stock raising and d
at the 70-Mile house and other place
Bridge Creek, where the land is fertj
| to agriculture than in the green timb
ary crops are gi
. the fir
uto a
crops and are ext<
Cattle are prodiy
liams Lake, 150-Mile House and Chimney Creek. The
country in this vicinity is possessed of many valuable re
sources. Fur bearing animals are plentiful, mart!a, beaver
. the rare silver fox, etc., there Is Dear by a large body of oil
shale yielding petroleum; an extensive alluvial deposit car-
\ rying gold lies within thirty miles of the 150-Mile House
„ and a large dredge will be put in operation on it next year,
and there are large bodies of silver-lead and copper gold
ores east of this point. The 150 is the centre, in fact, of a
inost important district which, besides being rich in min-
•erals, is also largely adapted to agriculture and fruitgrowing. Tomatoes, cucumbers and similar crops ripen in the
open air on the bench lands along the Fraser. Apples, pears
• and the hardier fruits do well. The man who wants to go
, in for stock raising will .find here large ranges suited to his
purpose, with the advantage of not being so closely hemmed
in with neighbors as is the case j	
E. A. Carew Gibson, managf
Company,  successors to Veith i
largest trading companies in the nor
sive stock, is deeply interested in '
claims is one of the richest and possessing more latent resources than any other part- of Canada and is willing to impart to others the benefit of his experience and as the company have, in addition to their other business enterprises,
a herd of over  700 head of cattle,  he knows whereof he
From the 150-Mile House the Horsefly and Quesnel are
reached by wagon road. At the former there is a good
deal of capital invested in mining enterprises, one of the
largest of these being the Horsefly Hydraulic Mine. Thev
company operating it came into existence in 1895 Their
ground, however, has been mined sinee 1878 by the present
manager, R. T. Ward. The ground is worth $2.75 per cubic
yard. In 1900 55.000 cubic yards yielded §156,000. Next
year a dredge will be put on to work the property and will
cover two acres per month working to a depth, of 20 feet and
moving 30,000 cubic yards averaging $1 per yard. Mr.
Ward owns a half interest in the claim.
On Horsefly Lake A. Meiss  operates a steamer which
r the railroad.
r of the Cariboo Trading
nd Borland,   one of the
, which h».
SPl»w^' carries both passengers and freight and is a great accomodation to the miners and others engaged in that section of
the country. On referring to a map it will be noted that
Horsefly district is only separated from the Clearwater
River, a branch of the North Thompson, by a short dis-;
tance. The elevation of Horsefly is 2450 feet, 510 feet lower
than Clinton. Oats, which here grow to a height of 7 feet,
and  all  kinds  of roots  and vegetables thrive in this lo-
At Bullion, on the South Fork of the Quesnel River, is
situated the most important hydraulic mining enterprise in
British Columbia, the large holdings of the Consolidated
Cariboo  Hydraulic  Company, under the
ed o
of  thii
who has
6,000 miner's'inches of water under a head of 420 feet. The
sources of supply are at Bootjack lake and Polley lake,
about 19 m iles distant, and Morebeàd lake,-10 miles distant
fromthe co mpany's mines at Bullion. All the above named
takes have been converted into efficient storage reservoirs
by the construction of substantial dams across their outlets
and have an aggregate capacity for storing 1,016,000,000
cubic feet of water, which is equal to 470,370 miner's inches. -
This storage supply is greatly augmented by the waters of
Dancing Bill Gulch, and ensures a^ supply, varying with
precipitation, of from 3,000 to 5,000 miner's inches of water
w throughout the mining season of six to seven months. The
water supply is to be increased by bringing other lakes into
the feeding system, and thus any shortage due to dry seasons
will be obviated. Since 1894 this company has recovered gold
valued at $1,208,734 and the former owners of part of the ground
took out nearly a million. A tunnel is now being driven, 1,200
ft. long with 150 ft. upraise, to strike the bottom of an ancient
channel. The tunnel is 104 feet high and 10 feet wide* and is
being driven by electric drills, the first, by the way, to be used
in this Province, at one eighth the cost of compressed air. The
tunnel will have an 8 ft. sluice with a 5% grade. The average
cost of driving it is $12 afoot.
Soda Creek and Alexandria lie along the Fraser river and
the Cariboo Wagon Road. The valley of the Fraser, above
Soda Creek, widens out considerably. Soda Creek is at the
confluence of that Creek with the Fraser, and the first point of
contact the wagon road has with the Fraser. At this point are
some farms, on which wheat, barley and oats are the principal
cereals grown, the latter two principally for horse and cattle
feed, a large quantity being required, as all the Cariboo country
is supplied by means of teams by the wagon road. The district
is well adapted tor the production of cattle and horses, bunch
grass and wild vetch giving an abundance of  most nutritious
At the mouth of the Quesnel river stands the old town of
Quesnel.     It is beautifully situated at the confluence  of the
Quesnel and Fraser rivers and wes- practically started in 1869
by the late .Senator Reid.    It has a population of
about 200 and has hotels, churches, stores, flour and
tural district, which extends to within ten miles of
the famed Cariboo1 mining camps. It is'thus admirably adapted to.supplying, the dairy and farm
produce required at the mines, as nothing can be
districts.    The clim
route, that from Hazleton being over bad trails without the feed
The Reid estate conducts a flour mill and sawmill business
in addition to a large general store and operates a steamer, the
Charlotte, between Quesnel and Soda Creek If the obstruction
near Fort George were removed from the Fraser river channel,
there would be uninterrupted navigation for a very considerable
distance into the heart of  a vast country rich in natural re-
district, there ai
occupied.    As yet fruit is grown to
grow luxuriantly in favored ioealit:
;ultural lands as j
a limited extent; ;
Improved land
per acre and en
pre-emption fro
■—-Salmon River, m
Grand Prairie is a rich farming settlement 36 miles
from Kamloops and 18 miles distant from the nearest
C. P. R. station, at Ducks, on the Thompson. A very
large acreage is under cultivation and the whole settlement is a splendid illustration of what can be done
on the elevated plateaus. iHay, grain, roots, fruit and
legumes do extremely well, large crops of peas being
grown for feeding hogs, which are largely raised here
and either shipped to the coast or made into bacon,
locally.    Cattle  raising is   extensively  carried  on.
A good wagon road leads from the settlement along
the Salmon river valley, and is a trip that should not
be missed by those in search of farming land. The
humidity is here greater than in the Thompson valley
and much of the land is timbered, though quite easy
to clear. The soil is rich and varies from sandy loam
to clay loam. There is a goodly amount of bottom
land  from  which  willows  and  cottonwoods  have to be
cleared. The higher ground may require some irrigation in dry seasons.
Flourishing settlements are springing up in the valley
of the Salmon river, notably at Falkland and Glenemma,
and many of the settlers, who have taken up homesteads,
the entire valley being within the Dominion belt, have
comfortable homes and good farms. Fruit does well
and all kinds of crops grow to perfection. The district is connected by wagon road with the Okanagan.
country on the one hand and with the C. P. R., via
Grand Prairie, on the .other. By the completion of a
few miles or road, another avenue to the C. P. R.
would be opened by following the valley down to where
the river empties into Shuswap lake at Salmon Arm.
There is room for a large number of settlers all
along the valley, and when transportation facilities are
improved by the construction of a railway, the route of
the proposed north and south central line of railway
traversing the, district, every acre will be quickly taken
ntly expended
mit  of'fl
of   :
esteads,  the
Kault  taking all the  supply
offered  them,  the  settler thus  being materially assisted
in his efforts to make a home for himself and family.
Another flourishing settlement is located at Silver
creek, some ten miles distant from Salmon Arm, but
at every turn one comes across a clearing and sees the
'Ughty settler hard at work getting his homestead in
n to the Arm, at lessening
is a chain of farms frmg-
: the
.   ,nd from that
als of vacant la
gon road.
..SalmoniArm...   |
flHUSWAP LAKE lies within an extensive art- a
of lands admirably adapted to agriculture
d fruit growing. With few exceptions
: south, or railway, side of the lake has
alone attracted settlers and several important
settlements have sprung up at intervals along
its slopes, notably .those of Notch Hill,
Tappen, and Salmon Arm. Mixed farming
( and fruit growing are carried on, to an annu-
J ally increasing extent, in each of these places
in no section has development and settlement progressed as rapidly as at Salmon
Arm, a thriving settlement beautifully situated at the
head of the arm of the same name, of the great Shuswap
lake, the point where the Salmon River empties into
it. It contains about 1,200 people, all sections included;
is on the main line of the C. P. R. and is connected by
wagon road with the valley of the Spallumcheen. The
lake, which is simply a part of the Thompson river system, affords direct water communication with the Spallumcheen valley and, in the opposite direction, to the
west, with Shuswap, Kamloops and Savona at the foot
of Kamloops lake. Salmon Arm station is S3 miles from
Kamloops and 316 miles from Vancouver. Unlike Kamloops, it is not in the dry belt and the rainfall is sufficient
for the growing of crops without irrigation and yet
there is not that excess of moisture prevailing at the
coast, nor is the snowfall so abundant as in the mountains. In short the climate is a half way house between
the extremes of the dry belt and the coast in summer,
and the dry belt and the mountains in the winter.
With an area of something like 100,000 acres, only
about five per cent, is actually in cultivation, and there
» ample room for a large number of settlers. 1 he
valley is so endowed with resources, and its capabilities,
are such that a very large population can be supported
oa it» lands.  The chief product! raised in this settlement
nilk, butter, hay and grain; corn and
id yield abundantly.    A   large  quantity
by rail, mainly to towns easterly, Rev-
owhead, Beaver, etc., drawing the bulk
■n the Salmon Arm dairies.   The mining
of the Kootenays offer excellent mar-
; of farm produce and- the extensive
y the   North  West  and  Manitoba  for
enormous quantities of fruit readily absorb the surplus
grown at this and neighboring points. A large acreage
is now being planted in fruit, this crop yielding a comfortable income from a small orchard. Mr. Thos. Earl,
fruit inspector of the B. Gr Board of Horticulture and
Mr. W. J. Brandrith, secretary of the B. C. Fruit Growers' Association, have publicly stated that Salmon Arm
district is pre-eminently adapted to fruit culture and the
results obtained prove that their -opinion _ is in consonance with the facts. Fruit grown here is unsurpassed
for appearance, color and flavor and finds a ready market wherever offered for sale. At the Provincial Exhibition held last fall, fruit shown from this young settlement
took second rank, an excellent testimony to the adapt- ability of Salmon Arm for this class of farming. For
the fruit grower, farmer, stock raiser, dairyman and
po.ultryman, there is no more favorable spot than this.
The soil is black alluvial loam in the bottom lands and
trict and the question of centralization is under consideration.     The   churches   are   well   represented,   and   the
: lodges here;, there is a gun club, Agricultural Asso-
on, political societies, and all the organizations usu-
found in thriving communities. The population is
nopolitan and the new comer from the United States
iv-es as cordial a welcome as does his cousin from
eastern provinces of the Dominion. The American
ens soon discover they have lost nothing by coming
British Columbia but that they enjoy the same priv-
;s that they-had at home with others added.
■>mc attention has been given to the mineral deposits
The   ,
of  trout,   ranging  from   the   half   pounder
side   of  life
people   engage
and thus  help
I  at s
:   Salm
looked   ;
social   gatherings   from
promote that good feel-
prosperous   communities,
seven public schools in the dis-
in the hills overlooking the settlement. Several most
promising prospects have been partially developed and
from one of these a shipment of ore realized $1,000 per
ton in silver and gold. To properly open up these
prospects capital is required and no doubt as the worth
of the mineral deposits becomes known the necessary
capital   will   be   forthcoming.    There   are   many   other openings for investment of capital in enterprises that
give every promise of proving highly remunerative. A
creamery is much needed and with it might be joined
a cheese factory. A fruit cannery, a box factory, a cold
storage plant, brick works, etc., are among the openings
for needed industries. There are already established in
the district sawmills, shingle mill, sash and door factory
and box factory.
There are public roads to all outlying districts and
these   will   be  put  in   better   condition    no.v    that    the
power is available and it is probably only a question
of time, not remote, when the outlying portions of .the
settlement' and the towns of Enderby, Armstrong and
Vernon will be connected with Salmon Arm by electric
trams. Timber is abundant for fencing and building
purposes and the settler who does not wish to homestead
or purchase uncleared land will be able to buy improved
lands at reasonable cost. There are several excellent
stores, a hotel; many of the farm houses are connected
with the station by telephone; there is a daily mail service from both east and west and the city of Kamloops,
the county seat, is but a short run by train.
Half a century has worked wonders in Salmon Arm
as in other parts of the Interior. Prior to the building
of the C. P. R. it was practically an unknown land
though in the gold excitement that brought men from
all parts of the world to- this province to search for
he precious metal, Salmon Arm did not escape their
attention and in the fifties a number of miners were massacred there by Indians. One miner made a good strike
in the vicinity of the Arm and in a few weeks cleaned up
over $1,800 but having occasion to go to Kamloops for
additional   supplies   failed   on   his   return   to   again   find
lis claim and the bonanza has yet to be rediscovered.
With the coming of the railway its possibilities were
ibserved and in 1885 a German, whose name is given
is Swordfighter, built the first habitation erected there
)y a white man and in the year following, the cabin
vas enlarged by H. C. Fraser who, along with W. Wal-
ace and W. Miller, homesteaded the greater part of
section 14. Close upon their heels came the late Mr.
Palmer, and then others followed, the settlement gradu-
illy being won from the wilderness by dint of strenuous
oil. Of all the early settlers H. C. Fraser alone holds
lis original homestead and the first cabin erected in the
settlement is still to be seen on his place. Where once
the forest grew to almost the water's edge, smiling
prchards and green fields welcome the new arrival who
las ample opportunity to learn by observation of what
has been accomplished in so short a time, how great
:",,iies  of  this  district.    Its   progress  has
of 1
that   the  pro
ductiveness of its soil, its salubrious climate,
extent of its lands available for settlement, are better
known, the influx of settlers and home seekers is showing
a marked increase year by year.
Being within the railway belt, all its vacant lands are
under the beneficent and generous regulations of the;
Dominion government, whose excellent and wise policy
with respect ( to encouraging the settlement of crown
lands has done and is doing so much for this province
and the Dominion at large. There is no part of the district that better deserves the attention of settlers with
small capital, and the consideration of those with means,
desirous . of purchasing partly 'improved places, than
Salmon Arm and that vast extent of land bordering on
Shuswap lakes.
"and   for tw
a large i
:t of  <
intry y
above sea level, covered w
land gradually slopes to 1,200
creek joins the North Thompso
high altitude and under the si
unmelted, and eventually fills v
that no fears ot drought or dry
ueted on the slope of the
a the end of each lot in
r convenience sake has
third block C is the one
ahd is of a very fertile character when sufficiently
irrigated. It is well adapted to the growing of
farm crops including asparagus, celery and tomatoes and has exceptional value for the growing of
fruits which succeed in the temperate zone. The
climate of the district is also particularly favorable
to the development of fruit of high quality in great
abundance." The production from orcuari
the high quality of the fruit grc
pests like the codling moth and
the fruit industry are unknowr
ots and o
s fort
nursery stock and fruit
fully inspected and ft
Board of Horticulture,
to see that nothing pre.
GROWN BY IRRIGATION. clies or laterals  fidf
supply is ample.    I
and for twenty n
drain a large tractr
above sea level, c(F.
land gradually slof.
creek joins the Nfc
high altitude and
unraelted, and evfc.
med as required,
that no fears ot of-;
Grocers, Provision Merctom
fill your  valued  orders  for any
our line.
It is our daily purpose  to m
service of this store such that w
once deal  with   us you will not
going elsewhere.     We g-ive a c
lor cash and  honest  exchange
money. _
ment.    Wè ^-.««.«u,» ^
prospectors and settlers,
ds and courteous
—P. O.   BOX   203—
of doing- business is to save
money for oiir customers in every legitimate way. We give better quality for less
price. We decrease our profit in order to
increase our customers' satisfaction. We
give the best .service in every way at the
minimum cost.
To have a customer means t
him at this store. We hold him by
giving him reason to go elsewhere
carry what people want; we give th.
of service that people like, and we
prices that always please.
We have been doing this eve
we started in business and find that
to do it.
Entrust us with your mail order
ship them same day as order is recei
The Corner Druggist & Stationer
Kamloops & Ashcroft,
it pays
•s. We
IT'S A F APT    ,
^ts. Shoes antÏÏ slrtofïo^   T*»  ^   BEST*
;.   j IH A PACT when w ^ ^ M,
«at can be named on our °Ur prices are the l°«i
I      m	
|make good
'*»• IT A a..  "
1 e good" our statement*
  _ Outfitte^^
KAMloops, ^C*^  


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