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BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

Snapshots from the North Pacific Ridley, William, 1836-1911 1904

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Array           The Right Rev. Bishop W. Ridley, D.D.
Map Of the North Pacific       ....
A Scene near Victoria, Vancouver's Island .
Kifcsela's Canon. Skeena River
A View of Hazelton        .....
An Encampment on a River Bank
A Medicine-Man    ......
A Mining Camp     ......
Chief's Sepulchre at Massett
View of Massett    ......
Mission-house at Massett      ....
Two -Chiefs    .......
Buildings in Metlakatla.        ....
Indian G-irls' Home, Metlakatla
Kwagutl Heathen Women of Rank
Indians Canoeing  ......
Port Essington, Alert Bay     ....
Bishop Ridley at Giatwangak
The Village of Kitkatla ....
Mission-house at Kitkatla     ....
Burrard Inlet, showing the " Narrows," Vancouv
A Christian Chief, Kincolith
View of Hazelton   ......
Exterior of a Heathen Chief's House    .
The Saw Mill, Aiyansh .....
"Grist for the Mill"	
--*"  SNAPSHOTS FROM THE NORTH PACIFIC.
CHAPTEE I.
INTKODTJCTOBY.
I [ Roll back the curtain of our night, and shine
Till all the world shall see Thy light divine."
THE following letters are not in any sense a continuous
history of the British Columbia (formerly known as
the North Pacific) Mission. Eather, they are snapshots
taken at varying intervals, and developed by a skilful hand,
so bringing out details of scenery and work with a vividness
that is sometimes almost startling. The prevailing thought
in the mind of the reader will probably be, that beautiful as
are the rushing streams, the gloomy forests, the snow-clad
mountains of British Columbia, far more beautiful to the
Indians are the feet of those who have taken good tidings
and published peace to them. The wilderness and the
solitary place have indeed been glad for them, and the
desert has rejoiced and blossomed as the rose.
Fifty years ago no attempt had yet been made to reach the
Zimshian Indians and other tribes on the north-west coast
of the great continent of North America—now Christianity
is the rule and Paganism the exception. Neat villages, with
their churches, schools, and well-ordered homes, testify to
the power of the grace of God to civilize as well as to
Christianize. Medicine men have laid down their charms
and submitted to the Cross of Christ, and hymns of praise
resound where once were heard the fearful sounds of the
heathen potlach.
The story of the starting of the Mission in consequence of
Captain Prevost's appeal on behalf of the Indians in 1856 2 Snapshots from the North Pacific.
has been already told in Metlakahtla and the North Pacific
Mission, by Mr. Eugene Stock. Begun by Mr. Duncan, a
young layman, in 1857, and Continued by him until his
secession from the C.M.S. in 1881, it grew with startling
rapidity. The first baptism of Indians took place in 1861,
and in 1863 the Bishop of Columbia admitted fifty-seven
adults into the visible Church. The settlement of Metlakatla was established in 1862, and the first stone of the
church was laid in 1873. In 1879 the Diocese of British
Columbia was subdivided, and the northern portion became
the new Diocese of Caledonia, the Eev. W. Eidley, formerly
a missionary in the Punjab, but who had been obliged to
resign his work there on account of health, being consecrated
as its first Bishop on July 25th, 1879.
This slight sketch of the Mission will prepare the way
for the statement written by the Bishop for the Church
Missionary Gleaner before sailing for his new diocese :—
" The Diocese of Caledonia stretches from Cape St. James
and Dean Channel 52 deg. north latitude to the 60th parallel;
from the Eocky Mountains to the North Pacific Ocean, and
also includes the numerous adjacent islands.
" The best known place in it is Metlakatla. Our lay
missionary, Mr. Duncan, laid the foundation of that Indian
settlement in simple faith, and it has become the most
prosperous of its kind. To the 60,000 aborigines of the
province the Metlakatla community of Christians is as a
star of hope. Before it arose we feared that as a race they
were doomed to extinction. The twenty millions of Indians
our forefathers found in North America have dwindled
down to two millions. Civilization threatens to blot out
inferior races, but on it their disappearance leaves a blot
and a crime. Its pioneers—drink, violence, and debauchery
—destroy their few virtues, leaving them more wicked than
before, and only less dangerous because less vigorous. I
thank God that most of the Indians of my diocese, especially
the Hydahs, have been so savage as to make the trader's
risk greater than his hope of gain. Introductory
This section of the people now draws upon our
sympathy. A great opportunity is ours. The material
prosperity of Metlakatla has aroused in them a spirit of
emulation, and shed upon them a gleam of hope. The
Christian's heart cries, ' Is there a future for them among
the nations ? ' and from Metlakatla comes the answer, ' Yes,
only do as you have lovingly done here.' The trial is being
made at four other mission stations in my diocese, and
success is already visible. The greater the breadth of sea
between the islanders and the mainland the better for their
future. Their ignorance of the benefits of civilization is
a greater good than a knowledge of them, until they are
fortified morally and spiritually by the Gospel against its
evils. The enterprise of commerce, which we shall be glad
of then, is beforehand with us now in bridging over the
broadest channels, so that the plague is begun. We must
enable the missionary at once to emulate the merchant.
The very noblest Indians must be enriched with the pearl of
great price, or they will sell themselves to perdition while
we tarry."
The Bishop made an appeal for a steamer, and it was not
very long before he had the joy of knowing that friends in
England had come to his help. Before the vessel arrived the
Bishop was overtaken by a gale in a small canoe in which
ten men were crowded, and wrote afterwards, | How I
longed for my steamer; unless I get one a new Bishop
will soon be wanted, for the risk in these frail crafts is
tremendous, and a short career the probable consequence."
On August 12th, 1880, the little vessel was launched, and
was well named the Evangeline, for its errand was to carry
the Gospel to the Indians up and down that indented coast,
and among the many islands. It was not available for river
navigation, and even on the sea expense was sometimes
saved by the use of a sailing boat. The Bishop was captain
and often chief engineer also. Some years later he wrote to
the S.P.G., "What would your Committee think could I
have stepped out of my engine-room into their board-room,  Introductory. 5
wiping my black hands in cotton waste to remove the grease
before I could shake hands?"
The description of Metlakatla, written by the Bishop on
his arrival there in 1879, shows how it first struck him, both
by its natural beauties, and also by the wonderful transformation that had taken place in the twenty-two years of
evangelization, and of training in the habits of civilized
life:— |
" Metlakatla has not disappointed me.    The situation is
_*___«M_^.te_M;_B_____r. -1-   ■*-
excellent. There is no spot to compare with it this side of
Victoria. During this week the weather has been charming. Frosty nights, but the days mild, as in Cornwall at
this season. Numbers of the worn-out old folk have been
basking in the sun for hours daily. Squatting in the long
grass, they looked the very pictures of contentment. They
all gazed on the sea. No wonder if they loved it. Besides
being the store-house from which they took their food, it is
the chief feature in one of the most beautiful views I have
ever seen.
•' We are at the entrance of an estuary that winds about
labyrinth-like, until it leads up to a stream more than
twenty miles distant inland. Outside are large islands,
their lofty heads pine-clad, and the same garment reaching
to the very waves on all sides. These are God's breakwaters. Inside, wherever the channel widens, there are
smaller islands, so disposed as to make it impossible to say
what is island and what continent. These are gems in a
setting that perfectly reflects the grass and pines fringing
the sea's glossy service, as well as the background of snow-
patched mountain.
| Yesterday the stillness was reverential, and quite in
keeping with Sunday rest. Scores of graceful canoes were
drawn above the tide. Not a paddle broke the silence. As
Admiral Prevost and I stood in the mission garden we heard
in the distance the howls of a pack of wolves. A flight of
crows or rooks claimed a moment's attention. Besides this
nothing disturbed the calm sea, or the stillness, but the wing  Introductory.
7
of some wild fowl splashing the sea as they rose. Before we
turned to the house we were ravished with the splendour of
the sunset. The giant that had run its day's course transformed the scene. He touched everything, till sea and sky
vied with each other in glorious effects. The snowy peaks
to eastward blushed.
| But, after all, the Sun of Eighteousness has produced a
far more beautiful transformation in the character of the
Indian, and the change is not fleeting. The church bell
rings, and, from both wings of the village, well-dressed men,
their wives and children, pour out from the cottages, and
the two currents meet at the steps of the noble sanctuary
their own hands have made, to the honour of God our
Saviour. On Saturday I had made a sketch of the village.
Mr. Duncan remarked, as the people streamed along, * Put
that stream into your picture.' ' That would never do,' I
said; \ nobody would believe it.' Inwardly I exclaimed,
\ What hath God wrought! ' It would be wrong to suppose
that the love of God alone impelled them all. All, without
reasonable cause to the contrary, are expected to attend the
public services. A couple of policemen, as a matter of
routine, are in uniform, and this is an indication that
loitering during service hours is against proper civil order.
This wholesome restraint is possible during these early
stages of the corporate life of the community. But history
is likely to repeat itself. Heathenism is prostrate, Christianity dominant. Persecution has ceased. The fiery trial
is over, so that the baser metal is sure to pass current. At
present one strong will is supreme. To resist it, every
Indian feels would be as impossible as to stop the tides.
This righteous autocracy is as much feared by the ungodly
around as it is respected and admired by the faithful.
Thus are law and Gospel combined with good results."
The Bishop did not then foresee that a time of trial was
again approaching the little Christian community, from
which, through God's grace, it emerged after some years
with added growth and stabilitv.
v_? %/ HE Bishop was not long
before he began to fulfil his
intention of becoming acquainted with the inland
tribes of his diocese. In
June, 1880, he wrote the
following letter, with the title
3 In Camp on the Skeena
Eiver." It will be seen that
already the wonderful natural
beauties which surrounded
him on his journeys were to
him a God-given . means of
strength and uplifting, a
beautiful commentary on the verse, | All things are yours,
things present," as well as " things to come " :—
" It is refreshing to think of the many well-wishers at
home whose prayers are now helping me. The least return
I can make them is to tell them what I am doing out
here. The following extract from my journal shall be the
preface I
Trinity Sunday.—A glad, a joyous day. These stately
and lovely works of Thy hands praise Thee, 0 God. We,
Thy people, have worshipped Thee. Our prayers Thou
hast heard. The morning sacrifice has been offered. Yet
the service lingers. My crew of faithful Indians from
Metlakatla are without a care. Beside me the fine fellows
are stretched at full length with their hands under their A. Summer's Journey and a Winter's Campaign.
9
heads and eyes almost closed—for the light is strong. So
they bask and softly chant over again, in parts, the Venite,
re-echoing the harmony that lately rang along this fringe of
the forest and rose above the swish of the broad river that
stealthily sweeps past our feet. They will be still praising
Thee. My heart is thrilled by the harmony of this celebration. All Thy works in grace and Nature praise Thee,
O God: we acknowledge Thee to be the Lord.'
" The next extract brings vividly before my mind the
varied succession of Sundays I have lately been enjoying :—
" ' I am writing this in a canoe on a quiet reach of the
«_(__&_2_5y*iSS«*§S_k__aiL . _k*blfii „_j__i^ '*__^P^^^
,'>»'4
K^^i^*^*^
KitsoiiA's Canon, Skeena River. IO
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
Skeena Eiver, twelve days distant from my lodging (not
having yet found a home), and last Sunday was the tenth
since March I have spent on the sea or river, or in the forest.
My hearers have been people of all sorts and conditions.
There have been the downright sort, some Heathen, some
Christian; and Christians who are Heathen at heart, and
Heathen who are all but Christians. The first were so
ignorant of Jesus Christ that the one who asked whether
He was a man or a woman was not behind the rest, but
only more inquisitive. The downright Christian often, or
as often as I met with such, made me value the communion
of saints. The other sort of Christians, the greater number
of them white men, moved my heart towards them, for they
care as little for their own souls as they have been cared
for, and truly they have been as sheep without a shepherd.
No wonder if they sometimes outsinned the worst of the
Indian Heathen, and placed a stumbling-block in the Native
Christian's way. The Heathen who are almost Christians
are those unbaptized Indians who have learnt so much of
Christianity that they have renounced the ancient devilry
and learnt to pray to God through Jesus. Intercourse with
the Native Christians is working this beneficial change
among them.
" i My hearers have been sailors, traders, loafers, miners,
Greeks, Germans, and Norwegians; French, Maltese, and
Britons; Eussians, Kanakas, and Yankees; Chinese and
Canadians; Jews and Gentiles; whites and greys, browns
and blacks; Caucasians, Semites, and Mongolians; Indians
of the salt water, and fresh-water Indians; hunters, fishers,
packers, and nondescripts; round heads, flat heads, and
peaked heads, all beautifully supplied with hair as black as
jet, sometimes short and clean, sometimes foul, greased,
and matted.
" ' I have preached on the beach and on shipboard, in
the miner's cabin and trader's log hut, in the Indian branch-
built hunting lodge, and his larger but less agreeable village
home, where the smoke fails to subdue the pervading ill A Summer's Journey and a Winter's Campaign.
ii
odour; also amid the tangled forest on the coast, and clouds
of mosquitoes on the prairie. My churches have been
decorated in season and out of season, but have had neither
pulpit nor prayer-desk, belfry nor organ. The care of
Nature called for no help or scrutiny from Archdeacon or
Eural Dean, Churchwarden, or Verger; And oh the joy of
it!    There have been no church expenses, no collections or
_K
*_S5S
W*
.....  ^tsir-.:..
Hazelton, on the Skeena.
painful pleading for subscriptions, and no newspaper reporters present to make a hash of the proceedings. Of
most of my churches the builder and maker is God. He
raised the lofty pillars of cedar and spread out the branches,
and Himself formed the arches, grained, fretted, foliated,
and coloured the whole in befitting tints. His, too, was
the music, or rather, He used His winds and waters as
ministers  in His beautiful temple.    At His command the waves of the sea, the roaring cascades and splashing waterfalls, lifted up their voices. His fingers touched the clattering torrents, and evolved music from the big river where it
rushed down between the granite rocks that force the angry
rapid foaming through their narrow throat. The high wind
at sea somewhat risked the harmony when it made the
steamer's funnel howl and her rigging shriek, but never
marred it really; while nothing could be softer or more
sustained than its notes ashore as it played on the top of
the forest trees. Unwearied the orchestra poured forth the
music that Divine skill alone can discourse to the listening
heart.
' •? But it has been a far higher pleasure to see proofs
of God's Spirit awakening dead souls through the power of
Jesus' name.
Later on, the Bishop wrote from Hazelton, up the Skeena
Eiver:—
"I shall describe my winter's work as a winter campaign.
It was preceded by seven months of seafaring among the A Summer's Journey and a Winter's Campaign.
13
many maritime tribes of Indians. Last May (1880) I paid
my first visit to the inland tribes of Indians. It was a
novel experience, and much pleasanter than tossing about
the open sea in a ' dug-out,' as canoes are called. Oh, for
the comparative luxury of my stout steam launch! My
voyage up lasted a fortnight. Fourteen days breasting the
rapid Kshia or Skeena Eiver; fourteen days amid fine
scenery; thrice fourteen camps beneath forest trees beside
a river, in some places two miles broad, dotted with innumerable islands. Working from dawn to sunset, often
soused,   as  sailors  say,   by the  angry-looking  rapids, we
enjoyed our
hard-earned
rest each
night. With
branches from
the same
friendly cedar
that spread its
arms over us,
our bed was
soon made.
My crew were
no sooner outstretched than
they sunk into
deep sleep undisturbed by
each other's
snoring. This,
like the wild
rapids, that
twist and twirl
our canoe as if
she were a
nutshell, one
soon  becomes
A Medicine-Man *x
V**-M/K^
14
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
accustomed to. Fresh air aided sleep, and each morning saw us. thrust out into the current with a relish
for battling with it. How I should have laughed at
pity. I rather pitied my former self wrestling with the
work and worry of a large Yorkshire parish.
"My purpose took me into every cluster of Indian lodges.
I advise the lovers of the picturesque to content themselves
with a distant view. Dirt prevails over all. It partly
accounts for the Indians' roving habits. A few years of
staying at home would immure them within a rampart of dirt.
They make a new home rather than cleanse the old one.
" I saw no time should be lost when I came here in the
spring. As I could send no teacher I changed my own
plans, and instead of settling in my newly-built house at
Fort Simpson came up here, and though ill-prepared, began
operations in the heart of the enemy's country. Mrs.
Eidley came, too, and is the first Englishwoman who has
navigated the Skeena. Horrors and calamities were predicted, but, happily, were falsified by the event.
I On arrival I rented a cabin, but finding the rent heavy
and the property for sale, I bought it, lest it should get into
hands inimical to Missions. After building a fireplace and
putting in glass windows, we got some native bark mats
and nailed them over the logs to keep out the wind and
snow. Fairly lodged, we feared not the cold that has kept
the mercury frozen.
" My first operation was to open a day-school. So the
battle began. My pupils were my infantry. Few or many,
I drudged away daily at A, B, C, and 1, 2, 3. The school
grew--—nearly two hundred attended. The medicine-men,
who are the priests of this Heathenism, took alarm. A
band of the painted wretches danced round the entrance to
the school. As the din stopped work I stepped quickly up
to the chief performer, took him by the shoulders, and
before he could recover his self-possession, had him at the
river's brink, assured him I should assist him further down
the next time he interrupted my work.    This prompt action A Summer's Journey and a Winter's Campaign.
i5
seemed to unnerve the party. After loud talking they
withdrew, and ever after kept their distance. This also
seemed to encourage the pupils. It intensified the hatred
of the enemy. When the school-bell was rung through the
village, out would rush one of the foe on the ringer. But
ring, ring, ring goes the bell daily, and in flock my infantry.
They have done famous havoc in the enemy's ranks. Bolts
of truth have been shot into their camp. The three E's
have been taught. The first class have read half through
the Second Book, First Series, and the writing of some
is remarkably good. While the teaching proceeded the
background would be filled by interested and wondering
spectators. The pictorial Bible lesson was a great attraction. The school has been a marked success. I have great
faith in my infantry.
I Now I must describe my artillery practice. The medicine chest is my ammunition tumbrel. Stoppered phials
have been my Armstrong guns, and my shells were hurled
on the foe from pill boxes. During school hours bodies of
the wounded would accumulate, and, school over, my
artillery would be plied. Five hundred and fifty applications for healing have been made, and if, as the medicinemen say, I have killed some, I have relieved so many that
I am the most famous medicine-man known to the nation.
So raged the battle. You may like to hear of one particular
encounter. I was called to see a sick woman, but the
native practitioner was there before me. My rule was to
have nothing to do with cases where native treatment was
also applied. So I would not treat this case that night.
About fifteen feet apart, with the blazing fire between, sat
twelve brawling men with sticks like yard measures in their
hand. With these they kept good time in striking the
resonant cedar planks laid before them. The drummer
was between me and the fire, and the doctor standing over
the patient was the other side of the fire. So the party
formed a square with the friends of the patient interspersed.
Over her stood the doctor, a strapping fellow painted red, i6
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
the colour of his only clothing. In his right hand was his
gourd-shaped rattle, and with his left hand he made mesmeric passes, and stroked the woman energetically, even
frantically, from head to foot at each stroke. Though the
cold was great, the prolonged effort caused the perspiration
to stream down and damage his paint. The din was fearful,
but good time was maintained throughout, and by degrees
the woman became quiet, and appeared to lose consciousness. I turned away in sorrow and pity. Next day I was
called again, but found it too late to do aught but afford
temporary relief. She died that night. On my next visit
the corpse was surrounded by the poor creature's valuables,
the most prized, an accordion, being placed on her face.
For weeks afterwards the mother made the valley ring with
her plaintive lamentations at the grave, over which the same
valuables and instrument still dangle.
I Space would fail (time, too) to narrate all the exciting
events of this winter. Nothing interfered with steady
school work and my medical practice. Young men gathered
round me. An undercurrent of rebellion against the heathen
abominations became apparent. The old men complained
of their loss of influence. Indications of a better state of
things grew clearer. The dog-eating rites were performed
less boldly. The time had come, I thought, for a bold step
on my side. I invited the four chief men of each Indian
confederacy, and thirty-two responded favourably and came
to my feast. After the eating and drinking came the
speaking, I addressed them, and seven responded. The
older orators announced their resolve to finish their course
on the old lines. The younger demurred. This was most
promising for the Gospel. The children first, then the
young men, and these secured, the old men will follow the
younger eventually. The week following I was invited
back, and was received by about five hundred men with
much distinction. Again the old men stated their case.
Their spokesman held aloft the mask and other symbols of
the past, and said, ' These were my forefathers.    These are A Summer's Journey and a Winter's Campaign.
i7
my Bibles. Would you give up your Bible? Why then
should you require me to give up mine ?' But again a
better feeling was abroad. This happened on the last day
of the feast. The crowds melted away, but reassembled at
a village eight miles distant before the final break up.
Before this took place I was invited to meet them again.
When the same invitation was repeated I walked up the
frozen river, and a great lodge containing about four hundred men was prepared for my reception. Then I took
solemn leave of them, urging them to turn to God and forsake the evil of the old ways. This has been the largest
gathering of Indians that has taken place for a generation,
and placed an opportunity for doing good in my reach,
worth not only the labour it involved, but more than it is
possible to compute. The place is now well-nigh emptied
of its people. They are scattered in all directions, some
carrying stores to the gold mines, some going to their
hunting-grounds, and some to the coast to be ready for the
fishery.
I What are the results of the winter campaign? you will
ask. It is impossible to state this fully, for God only knows.
But this we know, much suffering has been alleviated,
much ignorance removed, and much enmity overcome."
The gold fever, which during the last few years has so
suddenly populated the former solitudes of the northwestern corner of the Dominion of Canada, had already
attacked some persons in 1881, and the influx of Europeans
foreseen by the Bishop before he left England was
beginning.
As a sad rule where whites have come in contact with
native races there has been a quick deterioration of the
latter, so it is a pleasure to find on reading the next letter
that this is not always the case. Probably the advent of
Mission work almost simultaneously with the miners had
much to do with this. The restraining influence of the
former on the latter would prevent many of those excesses
c
r* V*M-'
18 Snapshots from the North Pacific.
which have  ruined  both  dark-skinned  and  white  people
together.
Writing again from Hazelton, in October, 1881, the
Bishop said:—
" The community here is mixed. The Indians have
worked for the gold-miners during the summer, and both
live here during the winter. This steady employment has
told advantageously on the Indian's character. He is above
all things naturally fickle and indisposed to steady work.
As a rule the miners have paid them well, and taught them
the value of labour. Hence these people, formerly the
lowest of the low, and called the dogs of the Skeena, have,
through the material advantages they have enjoyed, risen in
the scale, and now have better houses than their neighbours,
better   food,    and   better   clothing.     They  are   therefore
**-,**'
Si*iSS*5Ss^S;
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A Mining Camp. A Summer'_* Journey and a Winter's Campaign.
19
healthier, stronger, less dirty than the rest, and the proportion of children greater. Contact with the whites therefore
has not produced the deplorable results that one too often
hears of. Now that a Mission has been established here,
and stress laid upon education, this community of Indians
is likely to advance rapidly. Their progress is stirring up
envious feelings among the other tribes of this nation.
Deputations have come to me begging me to send them
teachers, but we cannot support them if we had them.
• \ Our services have been crowded by attentive congregations, especially the regular daily evening service. The
miners, too, come, and I rejoice to see them, not only for
their own sakes, but for the sake of the Indians, on whom
they exercise much influence. When in the spring they left
for the mines, it was a pleasant sight. In returning they
looked worn and weatherbeaten. When they started, all
looked smart. The white men with braided leggings and
ornamental snow-shoes, and the Indians with streamers
fluttering from their caps of ermine, marten, and other furs,
looked quite picturesque ; even the dogs harnessed to the
birch-wood sleighs seemed proud of their tinkling bells and
gay adornments.
" Never before was Sunday kept on the long marches. I
had given prayer and hymn books to some of the whites, and
suggested that one of them should minister to the rest, but
none ventured. The Indians had prayers every day, and
spent the Sunday in a most profitable manner. The whites
attended the services, and though they could not understand
the prayers, they joined in the hymns and encouraged the
Indians.
" I had not appointed any leader ; but J , a catechumen, last winter, .a, dog-eater, came forward as a natural
leader, and said the prayers, and exhorted the listeners.
He is a splendid fellow, square built, of great muscular
strength, having a large head, and intelligent, though unhandsome, face—this man cannot but attract attraction.
During the summer he paid a visit to Hazelton, and the 20
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
ij\
_-f;
days spent here could not be quiet. His attentions to
Mrs. Eidley, then here alone, were almost comical. He
hung about her all day long. The clock would not go fast-
enough to hasten school or service-time, that he might ring
the bell and gather in the people. He was the terror of
gamblers, and hated of medicine-men.
"Last Saturday morning J  came to me with something weighty on his mind, I could see at a glance. He
was full of plans. ; To-morrow is Sunday,' he said; 'at
the lower village they do not serve God. May I go down
and hold services ? '
1 \ Yes, go, and be gentle, as Jesus was,' I said.
"< May I take a bell ? '
I l Yes, take a small one, because you have only a little
knowledge.'
it t Trae) but I will tell them all I know.'
| So he packed his Bible, hymn-book, salmon, and rice in
his blanket with the small bell, and trudged away. Before
he returns he means to go to the second lower village to see
the five Christians who live there whom I baptized last
spring. He will have had a journey of seventy miles at
his own charges for Christ's sake.
1 It was he who conducted service on the miners'
march.
I At the mines the best building was cleared on Saturday
and placed at the Indians' disposal for Sunday services,
much to the credit of the miners, who always attended and
enjoyed the singing, if nothing else. One Sunday morning
an Indian family reached the miners' camp, and would have
passed forward with their packs. ' What,' asked the miners,
• travelling on Sunday ! Is this what the Bishop teaches
you ? ' \ We are short of food, and must press on.' • No,
you need not; we will give you food.' So they travelled on
together from Monday morning to the end.
II had intended to follow them and go to the Fraser Eiver,
but was providentially hindered. The interval between
that appointed start and my real start for the coast was full
pf blessing.    Then came the resolve to build small houses. A Summer3s Journey and a Winter's Campaign.
21
Privacy is impossible. Those of strong character, who,
when converted, become mighty men of God, are able to
resist the flood of persecution rolled on them by the evil-
disposed ; but not so the weaker folk. One evening a quiet
fellow, since baptized, was reading his Bible by the firelight. One of the evil ones interrupted him again and again.
He stood in his light, rudely questioned, abused, and finally
assaulted him. ' Why read that book? Your fathers did
not, nor do we. Would you be wiser than all ? ' When the
book was struck from the reader's hand he nimbly recovered
it and meekly walked away from the jeering circle round
the cheerful fire.
" The whole clan live in the same large and undivided
house. In old times such herding together was a defence,
but now that imperial law is gaining respect, order is being
established, so that it will be safe to break up the old-time
clan into families, and each family live apart from the rest
in small cottages. This will be a great upward step, and the
beginning of a higher morality. Now we are in a transition
state. Not ten minutes ago a wild-looking fellow came to
complain of his sister's thieving. ' I would have killed her,'
he said to me, ■ but now you are our chief, and have brought
laws from the great Shigitumna,' i.e. Queen.
" I must summon J before you again, the man now
on his way to hold services at the lower villages. I had
called a council to discuss the whisky-drinking at the mines.
J 's turn to speak came.    He proposed strong measures.
An  Indian I  will  call  A dissented.    J  became
impatient.
'' i Did force make you good ? if not, how can you expect
to force any man to be good ?' asked A .
"J 's temper got beyond his control, and, dashing his
New Testament on the table, he walked away full of anger.
This  exhibition  damaged   our  council.    A  remarked,
after the silence of surprise was passed, i He is a good man;
I am sorry I provoked him.'
I f I said, ' If he is good he will return and show his
contrition.' 22
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
I"
•* After some hours of bitter grief he returned with a
parcel under his arm. He found me alone. 'What do you
want ? ' I somewhat coldly said.
" ' I want to see A here before you.'
_  «<Why?' |
" ' To give him this,' holding out the parcel.
I • He wants no gift,' I said.
" Away he went and soon brought in A .    They stood
near together, A  waiting to hear why he was called,
and J trying to master the emotion the twitching of the
corners of his mouth betrayed. At length, in tones of
contrition, he began: ' I have sinned—against thee—
against the chief—against God. Thou art good—thy words
wisdom—thy heart large. I am a fool, my enemy is
myself.'
" The apology was ample, the confession noble in its
fulness. The bundle was opened. It contained a propitiation that cost him perhaps eight or nine dollars. There was
unfolded a new garment of black cloth that, matched with
coat and vest, would make the wearer respectable in the
best company.    But J stopped the whisky-drinking.
" This Hotspur is a tender-hearted being. He found an
old Heathen dying the day after he had heard me speak of
the penitent thief. At once he pressed the mercy of Christ
upon her. Not satisfied with his own skill, away he ran to
fetch the only Christian then here. ' Surry up, hurry,
hurry up, the old woman is nearly dead.' Almost dragging
his friend towards the house of death, he urged him to tell
the poor creature what I had told them the day before.
• Make it plain, very plain, hurry up, Jesus may yet save her
—make it very plain.' But it was too late. The spirit had
fled.
'' As soon as navigation on the river was resumed, I left
Mrs. Eidley behind to do what she could, and right well she
carried on the Mission for months single-handed.
" The breaking up this past spring I was fortunate enough
to witness. It was not the immediate action of the sun that
effected it, but the south wind and the consequent downpour A Summer's Journey and a Winter's Campaign.
23
of ice-cold water from the mountains, where the snow lies
fathoms deep. The floods uplift the ice by slow degrees till
the weight of water starts the ponderous mass that winter
laid on the river's bosom. I have seen the rivers of
Germany break up, but the scene was tame compared with
the tumult on these swift rivers of North America.
" I was on the ice when the movement first took place.
It moves! What moves ? The banks seem to glide up
stream. Then came a slight tremor beneath my feet, and I
sprang to the shore. The sensations were like those produced by shocks of earthquakes. The stone-like surface I
had often walked on was in motion from bank to bank. At
no great distance the channel narrows, and the greater
breadth of ice from above was here caught as in a vice. The
river is in agony—groaning, gurgling, sighing, surging,
tilting, hissing, roaring deep and loud like subterranean
thunder. What can ever dislodge this piled-up mass ? The
flood is rising at the rear foot by foot. Crack, crack, crack !
Look ! there go the trees falling inward. The forest king,
that has drunk life from the river at its roots, is quivering.
There it lurches ! Down, down, flat on the ground without
axe or tempest, all its roots now exposed to the ice in motion.
The rising mass scalps the river's bank as an Indian would
his foe. At last, with a sullen groan rising into a terrific
roar, away goes the stupendous obstruction, and down sinks
the river as if to rest after its splendid victory. Then
succeeds the ministry of the south wind; then triumphs the
gracious sun in his royal progress northwards. As the
baffled ice king retreats, the snow-clad heights are melted as
with the joy of freedom. The tears trickling from under
the snow-fringe swell the cascades that furrow the mountain's face. Down they roll, swelling the river until its
volume sweeps away all obstacles, and leaves it ready to
bear the traveller seaward.
"So is the Gospel ministry dissolving hard hearts around
me ; uplifting the dread incubus drawn over them by Satan,
and setting free those streams of faith and love that remove
all barriers between man and his rest in God." £_j
1
CHAPTEE III.
STOEMS FULFILLING   HIS  WO ED
" All storms His voice obey,
Cloud shadows pass away,
But Jesus comes to stay,
And peace bestow."
H
W'y*
ro
' II
<*%
W>T>
A Totem
Pole.
V
FEOM 1881 to 1887 the
community of Metlakatla was passing N , ■
jihrough a time of testing.
The secession of Mr. Duncan from the Church Missionary Society's work
caused an upheaval among
the Indians, many of
whom naturally sided with T^va
him. He and they with-
drew finally northward to
Alaska, in the territory of the United States. It is unnecessary to go into the details of the schism here. They
were painful, and may well be forgotten, except as a matter
of thanksgiving to Him Who " out of seeming evil, still
educes good." One great good was that whereas until now
the Indians had not had any part of the Scriptures in their
own language, but had depended on the translational gifts
and powers of their teachers, they now had in their hands
the Gospels and parts of the Prayer-book in Zimshian and
one or two other dialects. The Bishop wrote of this as
follows, in January, 1886 :—
" The spirit of prayer that sprang up amid our misfortunes,
has been steadily maintained. The persevering attention to
the consecutive reading and exposition of the Gospels has
__L Storms Fulfilling His Woi'a 25
edified the hearers in a marked manner. " We had some
links," said one intelligent man, when the reading of St,
Matthew was complete ; " now we have the chain." Another
remarked at the same time, "We saw through a narrow
slit; now the door is wide open; we see the whole picture ! "
These are results to be expected from a larger knowledge
of Holy Scripture. The translations into the vernacular
will make it impossible to any false teachers to impose their
errors on a people who can themselves read the words of the
Great Teacher.
" Lack of knowledge has been their curse, and the trans-
lational and educational labours of the missionaries are
lifting it off them. The four Gospels and most of the
Prayer-book, including its extracts from the Epistles, and
some hymns, are translated into Zimshian. The Gospels of
St. Matthew and St. John, some hymns and prayers are
put into Kwagutl, St. John's Gospel, and portions of the
Prayer-book and some hymns into Nishka. Portions of the
Prayer-book are being printed in Haida. These works
indicate solid progress."
Some letters written to the Eev. Canon W. W. Gibbon,
of Eipon, in December, 1887, and January, 1888, at the
close of the seven years of trial, show the spirit of the little
community of Christian Indians, when they had learned the
lesson of that time of sifting, and also tell of more of those
voyagings which are the necessary means through which
direct missionary work is carried out in British Columbia.
From the nature of their office, the Bishops have even a
larger share of these than the other workers.
|v     I I " Dec. 31st, 1887.
" We have now to try to forget our past miseries, and to
lose no time in restoring what is necessary for the advancement of Christ's cause. We stand in sore need of help.
Those who have extended to us their sympathy will, I hope,
make some sacrifice on our behalf.
" It is natural to put these our sorrows to the front, but
it is not because we have no progress to record.    God has rr
26
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
m
been using His pruning-knife, and consequently the plant of
His own planting has borne precious fruit. Our Christians
have attained greater ripeness of character ; their knowledge
of the Scriptures has increased. This has placed sin more
distinctly before them as transgression against God's law.
Instead of mere shame at being found out, there is^now the
sorrow of true repentance. Since I first administered the
Holy Communion I have not had to exclude any one. They
have excluded themselves whenever there has been a quarrel.
Conscience has been awakened. Conduct has been so
excellent, compared with that of other Indians, that the
Government Commissioners sent last November to report on
the condition of these disturbed districts state that our
Church Indians are in happy contrast with all others, and
are a credit to their instructors. The magistrate and Indian
agent lately appointed selected four Indians to be constables
in different places, and, without exception, all are Churchmen.
I Quite recently, some hundreds of converts in communion
with another denomination have revived one of the worst
of heathen customs, so that there is a dread among their
teachers that they will relapse into Heathenism. I am
thankful that our Christians, as soon as they heard of it,
held a council on the subject, and drew up a most kind
letter of remonstrance to send to their backsliding fellow-
Christians. In this way they are witnessing for Christ, just
as they have been true to their earthly sovereign during
seven years of alluring temptation to assert their independence of all State control.
I With many perils around them, their constancy and
faithfulness is very remarkable, and, I am convinced, is a
proof that God is in their midst, keeping them in this their
hour of temptation, and will keep them."
i f| fpfll I     1Jan' 3r^> 1888-
" Our Christmas and New Year's festivities are happily
over. That part provided by the Indians has been more
profuse and entertaining than ever,  and  the reason they
__-*- Storms Fulfilling His Word.
27
assign is that they hope that I shall have such a pleasant
recollection of it when next Christmas I shall be in England,
that I shall wish myself back. It is pleasant to be loved
and trusted.
" On Monday, the 26th ult., we distributed the garments
kindly provided by the Belvidere and Park Chapel working
parties, besides the residue of what Colonel Martin, that
holy man, purchased for us. I can truly say I have no
other like-minded. He always understood our position, was
my best counsellor, and never ceased to write frequent wise
and affectionate letters. He is enjoying the rich reward of
his countless private and public services for the Lord he so
greatly loved.
" Mrs. Eidley sent a share of those gifts to the other
stations that she knew had no helpers. In this way many
hundreds of Indians have had their poverty relieved, who
would otherwise have shivered through the winter. We
always feel thankful to be able to afford them little
comforts.
" My Indian students you have heard of. I have ten
now, and they are making good progress.' Not long ago I
was walking with one of the seniors, Peter Haldane,
and was imparting to him some astronomical knowledge,
when the subject of the tides was adverted to. He
asked why it was high tide at the same time on opposite
sides of the globe, if the moon, which could be only on one
side, is the chief cause of tides. I gave him the usual
answer, but the doubtful way in which he listened infected
me with his doubts. I mention this to show you how
thoughtful the lad was. Several of them are clever, and
now have reached the stature of men. Not long hence I
expect to see them the leading minds among their
countrymen. Their general behaviour is most satisfactory.
I encourage all kinds of athletic amusements, and they
are capital sailors. In this capacity I sometimes find
them useful. They, however, had a scare a little while
ago.    To save the expense   of constantly using my little r^
__™____L _ S__jT__i_____
28
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
I:
s
steamer, I bought a cutter-rigged yacht, twenty-four feet
long by seven feet beam, to use when the wind should be
favourable. One early morning at dawn, I started with
five of my lads as crew, and had a light, but fair wind, to a
small settlement about twenty miles distant, where I
occasionally go to minister to the few white people, jj On
our return we rowed a couple of miles, because it was calm,
after which an adverse gale sprang on us. For miles our
course lay between an extensive reef to seaward and a
rocky coast, from which in three places dangerous reefs
stand out. While the daylight lasted our hearts were
light, and we enjoyed the pace at which, under close-reefed
canvas, we raced over the waves. But to beat to windward
amongst those rocks in the darkness that became black,
and to be drenched with the cold spray blown from the wave-
crest, was a very different thing. Except close to the reef
or in-shore, the water is from sixty to a hundred fathoms
deep—to us unfathomable. I had no sounding line on
board.    But with a fishing-line and a large jack-knife at its
end we sounded,
and the moment
we  got   soundings we  put
about  on the
other   tack.     I
tried to buoy up
the spirits of
the lads, but at
last we all became  as   silent
as fish, excepting  when   I
gave    orders
to handle the
sheets   for
going about
Chief's Sepulchre at Massett. on obtaining Storms Fulfilling His Word.
29
soundings. We often heard the breakers, but could see
nothing in the darkness. It was past midnight when we
felt our way into a sheltered cove to anchor for the night.
There we thanked God, and huddled under the decked-
in part forward, where on very hard boards we stretched
ourselves in our drenched clothes, and indifferent to the
roaring gale outside, we slept till daylight. As soon as
the storm abated we again put to sea, and surprised our
people by entering the harbour under full canvas and flying
colours.    Our arrival relieved many anxieties.
"Since then, when I was on my southern voyage, she
was in a more perilous condition. She was at her moorings
when an unusually fierce westerly gale snapped her chain,
and away she danced across the inlet towards some rocks.
Before she could strike, my lads, with great promptitude,
put off in the long boat, and, boarding her, skilfully steered
her round and under the lee of the rocks, that first
threatened, but finally protected her. I bought her from
two Norwegian sailors, who thought gold-mining would fill
their pockets. Losing what they had, they were glad to
sell the craft that had conveyed them over 1,800 miles of
sea. I gave them letters to the managers of salmon
canneries, where they earned £12 a mouth instead of the
£4 in Europe. They found fishing more profitable than
gold-mining. One became a total abstainer, and made me
caretaker of his savings.
"All sorts and conditions of men drift towards me. A
few days ago I sent out some of the lads to bring in pine
and other branches to decorate the church and house.
Instead of bringing the evergreens they came back with an
American, a Norwegian, and their Chinese servant, whom
they found in distress on an island, having been wrecked.
The Chinaman has remained here; the others were helped
on their way.
" A wealthy English sportsman dropped in one day. He
had come here to add some specimens of bighorns to his
trophies, and succeeded.    Before going south to get buffalo, 6
O
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
he imprudently sallied forth after prayer on Sunday to
shoot. A heavy sea got up and swamped his canoe. He
lost his firearms, and but for help would have lost his life :
he was taken out of the water unconscious. The Indians
thought God had taught him it was wrong to break the
Sabbath when he had plenty to eat."
= &.' | "Jan. 5th, 1888.
" You will be interested in reading of my last visit to
Massett. The distance is a little over 100 miles. As the
weather seemed settled, I preferred sailing to steaming,
and also because it is much less expensive. The wind was*
light and shifty, so that at sundown we had arrived off a
small harbour in an island only eighteen miles distant.
There we put in, intending to sail again at daybreak next
morning. But the weather changed, and it blew so heavily
that we dragged our anchor, and there we were,  wind-
i_-_-gH_£~-_*-*;--;;
___)
J'.HK**iro*1iiji|w    ,
t.^jlljilllc  "*TTI |ri'""_*rm—:
•m_4to*-_-
View of Massett. Storms Fulfilling His Word.
31
bound three days. As game abounded, food was plentiful.
One of my crew told me why the harbour was called Lthazit
(pronounced nearly like Cladzeet, the last syllable long
drawn out).    You will notice it is almost a hissing sound.
" Once upon a time the bloodthirsty Haidas of Queen
Charlotte's Islands tried to surprise and murder or enslave
a party of Zimshians, who were encamped here, gathering
food of various kinds.    It was night, still and starlight.
Several families were sleeping in the huge but roughly-built
hunting-lodge.   Beyond the promontory that protected them
the heavy ocean swell rolled past and broke occasionally on
some outlying sunken rocks with a sullen roar.    A solitary
Zimshian was fishing at the harbour mouth, when he heard
a hissing  sound as  if  one  man  was  signalling  another.
Snatching up a sharp mussel shell, he cut away his long
fishing line, and with a few deft and silent strokes of his
paddle .took his canoe in shadow, close under the rocks, and
so reached his sleeping relatives unobserved.    He put his
hanJ on the mouths of several sleepers, and told his fears
into their waking ears.    They in their turn waked the rest,
and all glided into the dark forest, taking what movables
they could with them.    But one little old blind man was
overlooked and forgotten.    He was roused and alarmed by
the war-whoops of the Haidas as they made a rush on the
lodge, and knowing an empty cedar-box, in which grease
was kept, stood in the corner, with great presence of mind
he turned it over his head, crouched down, and awaited the
worst.    Furious that they were disappointed, the Haidas
went round the lodge, smashing everything, and knocked in
the bottom of the grease-box without discovering the old
man.    At last they moved off, and took to their canoes.
After listening carefully, and thinking his enemies clean
gone, he ventured out, and crept away to where he thought
his friends were hidden.    But he heard most awful cries,
which soon ceased, and only a single voice reached his ears.
He told his friends, who then reconnoitred and found a
youth clinging, half-drowned, to some seaweed on the rocks. 32
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
Jfe
w
Mission-house at Massett.
They dragged him up, and finding who he was, intendejl to
kill him, but the Zimshians who saved him found he belonged to the same crest brotherhood, and at great risk
stood between him and their angry fellow-Zimshians. In
course of time they handed him over to his father, a Haida
chief, whom they met on neutral ground. Some slaves
were offered as a ransom, but rejected. Thereupon a peace
was made, which lasted until the pale faces came and for
ever rolled away the red tide of war. Such, in brief, was
the story, and the hissing was the signal made by the
Haidas from their canoes to one another. The youth
was the only one saved of a crew of a canoe that, un-
observed by the rest, struck a sunken rock and was smashed
to pieces.
" At length we reached Massett, the home of these former
terrors of the North Pacific. Only about -150 of them
reside there now. We had a missionary among them in
1874, and at intervals up to this date. The village stands
back a little way from the beach, agate strewn, in front of
J__s Storms Fulfilling His Word.
33
which flowTs an arm of the sea two miles wide, extending
southwards thirty miles, forming an inland sea of exquisite
beauty, fringed with the largest forest trees. Standing
before the houses is a serried line of magnificent trees,
carved artistically with grotesque figures representing the
fortunes of the family each belongs to. The Indian scholar
can read from these the valorous deeds of the heroes of
their nation. Behind the houses on a slight elevation,
where last year I gathered delicious wild strawberries,
now stands the prettiest church in the diocese. Not far
off is the plainest of school-houses, and further back,
embosomed in forest trees that dwarf it, stands the mission-
house.
" Up went flags when I was seen approaching, and as I
stepped on shore all the Haidas then in the village pressed
round with the missionary to shake Imnds. At once three
canoes were despatched to call in the people from their seal
and otter hunting. For two days they paddled in the teeth
of a strong westerly breeze, and even then could not meet
with all. They came back, some 200 of them, on the
wings of the wind. On Saturday I consecrated the pretty
church. At the west entrance I was met by the principal
men. The churchwardens and sidesmen carried long
gilded and carved staves of their own workmanship. In
the procession was a choir of thirty voices that sang an
anthem in perfect time and harmony. I counted 264
Indians and six white men in the church at the consecration. Then came some churchings, seventy-two baptisms,
and sixty-three persons were confirmed. There seemed to
be a swarm of babies, who piped and crowed and cried,
unheeded by all but myself. Lastly, I married eighteen
couples. I was tired out that Saturday night, and the
weariness almost banished sleep.
"Next day I preached three times, administered the
Holy Communion, assisted by the missionary, to ninety
communicants, and as some candidates had arrived too
late  for   the   Saturday  confirmation,  I   held  another  on
D 34
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
rjfc
Sunday. The offertory amounted to $150 = £30, of which
at least £20 came from the Indians. On Monday, when
the three crews that had called the rest came to be paid,
they received their wages, and handed it back again at once
as their offering to God.
" It will prolong my letter, but I must introduce a small
incident. Just at the end of the line of candidates came a
young man in his workaday clothes, in marked contrast
with the well-dressed multitude. He knelt before me, was
confirmed, and turned back to his seat. He was barefooted,
and left a track of blood along the chancel aisle.
"I had observed that a churchwarden had taken the
missionary's place in marshalling the candidates, but until
later was not aware that the young man had entered the
church in haste, bathed in perspiration, and had appealed
to the missionary in distress lest he should be passed by.
He had been prepared for baptism, and the missionary,
having appointed the churchwarden to his post in the
chancel, took the young fellow to the font at the west end,
baptized him, and was in time to present him for confirmation. The baby choruses throughout the church had barred
from my ears the sound of the service proceeding as I was
confirming.
"When the canoe arrived to call his comrades on the
western coast he was separated from them, and did not
return to the rendezvous until nightfall. He guessed the
reason of its emptiness, and at daybreak set off for Massett,
twenty miles distant, wore off his boots on the trackless
and rocky coast, and, as I have written, reached the church
in a torn and worn condition.
"I doubt not but that the heavenly gift bestowed upon
him was in blessed proportion to his earnestness in
seeking it.
" Foremost among the principal men was a former high-
priest of Heathenism, a clever man who believed in himself.
Formerly, so he told me, he held converse with demons,
who would come at his call; but now angels come unbidden,
and so fill his mind with bright thoughts, that he cannot Storms Fulfilling His Word.
35
help smiling, and people often ask him why he laughs when
alone. He is a good druggist, draughtsman, carver, and
counsellor. Better than all, and the crown of all, he is an
energetic and consistent Christian.
" Only twelve years before, the first missionary to the
Haidas stepped on the shore where I was so kindly welcomed. He found Heathenism in full possession, and in
the height of its degrading power over souls and bodies.
For the first year the missionary, his brave wife, and their
infant found shelter in the corner of one of the great
Indian houses, objects of curiosity at first, then on the part
of the medicine-men hostility, but now of affection and
respect.
1 On reaching home, the first man I met was a Christian
Indian from a village fifty miles distant, where there are
only twenty-three Christians among 204 Heathen. These,
under the late delusion, rose, burnt down the church, and
since then made the lives of the Christians a burden to them.
This man has an unconverted grown-up son, who begged
his father to give him some money to pay the fees of
graduating in some heathen mysteries. In a weak moment
the father acceded. So deep was his sorrow that he came
all the way here for counsel. He confessed his sin; and
so deep was his emotion and distress that he suddenly
dropped on his knees, and continued some time in silent
and apparently agonizing prayer. I was also moved by his
spiritual agony. As he rose from his knees I took his cold
and trembling hand and assured him that God had put
away his sin. \ I have prayed so long for pardon,' he said,
| that my whole body is sick.'
I Since then he has come again with another sin oh his
conscience. He had been in the circle of his band sitting
round the fire when the intoxicating cup was passed on. To
avoid singularity and to conceal his scruples, he put the cup
to his lips without drinking. \ I was a coward,' he said to
me, ' and twice I have encouraged sin by my weakness, and
helped the devil; but I feel happier now that I have
told you.' 36
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
" Such was his simple story—the outcome of a sincere
heart, self-tortured, as well as sorely tempted.
I To me it is a great delight to perceive any signs of
conscience at all among the Heathen; and when it does
appear, great tenderness and skill are needful to train
it by gradually forming a right judgment as its groundwork.
How many things we ought to lay before God ! "
Journeyings such as those described in the last letter are
not without their perils, and on February 25th, 1888, the
Bishop had to send the Society for the Propagation of the
Gospel the sad news of the death by drowning of one
of their missionaries working in his diocese—the Eev.
A. H. Sheldon, who was ordained by the Bishop of New
Westminster in 1881.
I You will share my grief when you read that our dear
brother Sheldon is drowned. Immediately after morning
service on Monday he embarked in a new canoe, and set off
with four Indians for Fort Simpson. Before he lost sight
of his earthly home he was on the threshold of the heavenly.
He was going on a forty-mile voyage, partly for medical and
partly for ministerial work. About three weeks before he
had gone to JJort Simpson for similar reasons. There were
many sick there. You will like to know the full particulars.
With Mr. Sheldon were four Indians—one the wife of the
trader here, Mr. Cunningham. She was the ardent and
most efficient helper of her pastor. Another, his Indian
boy, about seventeen years old, who for some time was one
of my youngest students. He was a good lad, named
George Prevost. Besides these, were the captain of the
canoe, and a young man, named Libagait Neuk, the sole
survivor. The cause of the accident was a sudden gust
of wind. The leverage of the mast split the canoe almost
from end to end. She was a dug-out, about forty feet long
and five feet beam. The water came in through the split
much faster than they could bale it out, and to avoid sitting
in the water both Mrs. Cunningham and Mr. Sheldon rose
(this was the mistake) and sat on the thwart. No one had
the presence of mind to let go the sheet.    Consequently the Storms Fulfilling His Word.
37
pressure of the wind, now that the centre of gravity was so
much higher, capsized the canoe, and all were in a moment
immersed and struggling for dear life. The canoe was now
bottom up, but the split enabled all to hold on excepting
Mrs C, who put her arms round the captain. This was the
position for half an hour, when the captain lost his hold and
sank; Mrs. C. soon followed him. For another hour the
other three held fast, and the canoe all this time was
drifting towards the shore, a mile distant at least.
" These particulars I elicited from the survivor.
" He tells me that ' Mr. Sheldon did not cry out. He only
prayed for us boys. He asked the God of heaven to save
us boys.' \ How do you know? ' I asked—for he cannot
speak English.
I' George translated for me. He said, | Listen, he is
praying God to have mercy on us." '
\ \ So was this untaught youth brought near to God in that
hour of agony. He had seized a paddle that floated near,
and then pressed it wedge-wise into the split that alternately
opened and shut with the action of the waves. It also
eased the vice-like pressure on the fingers of the others.
A doubtful benefit.
"Then the survivor scrambled astride the canoe, and so
was secure. Then also Mr. Sheldon's hand was withdrawn ; but he did not sink at once, because he had
jammed the edge of his coat in the split, and this held him
fast. He had put his hands together in his ever-devout
attitude of prayer. ' His eyes were shut,' said the survivor,
■ he spoke not. I saw the blood on his hand, and the flesh
was torn from his fingers.' This was caused by the
alternate opening and closing of the split by which he
held. This loss of blood, and the icy coldness of the water,
probably made him almost insensible to pain.
| ■ Then came a huge wave and washed him off. Upborne by his fur-lined coat, he floated away, half his head
remaining for a long time above the water. To the last
his hands were touching his face. It was George, who
had also found a paddle, who gave it to his master.    The 38 Snapshots from the North Pacific.
survivor pulled his paddle from the split when he saw
Mr. Sheldon washed off, and pitched it towards him. It
struck his face. The youth cried out, ' Chief, chief, take
the paddle—the paddle ! ' But he gave no sign of hearing
or seeing. The noble lad who threw the paddle towards
his master gave up the only means he had of saving his
own life.
"Here I am in Mr. Sheldon's house, letter-writing, but
sadly hindered by the company of women and old men, who
think they are comforting me. Last night George's mother
came in, and burst into loud wailing. It is most distressing
to witness her grief. As soon as the crying was nearly spent
I pointed out to her a photograph of Mr. Sheldon's mother.
In a moment she became calm, and gazed upon it with pity
in every feature. Her motherly heart poured sympathy on
the more aged mother. It was evidently a relief to her. As
if she saw her fellow-sufferer, she began to softly speak in
most loving tones : \ O dear lady, your son led my son along
the way to God. Both now see Je.sus, see God. It is bitter
to us—to you, lady, and to me—but sweet to.them. Do not
die, lady; only their flesh lies in the river. It is well, all is
well. God's will is good. Oh (here she moaned), my heart
is broken. But it is all, all well with them. The grief
stays here. None gets into heaven. They are with Jesus.
We suffer because they are gone, but not they. They left
pain behind to us. They feel no cold, they cannot be
wrecked (capsized), they see God. All is well, nothing ill,
nothing wanting with Jesus. Dear lady, you look older than
I am. God knows which will first see our sons, mine with
bright light over him, yours near Jesus. I may first see
them. Do not die, lady. You will see your son, because
the mother of so holy a priest must be good.' The pathetic
words and sympathetic tone of this illiterate but true Christian moved me almost to tears. They comforted me. The
simplicity and faith were so evidently genuine that I was
thereby helped to bear my own burden." "•YT*sn
AA-" VPi
>«*»■-
^_bv*"
_5_-
/S.lf^*
•Thrsfir
rJi.r&m  t~n n/..fife [fa Ira A //&   4-cn.    f/u   (hurtA
w
Cr\**r?h(/ard
St***
CHAPTEE IV.
A CEY AND A EESPONSE.
" I pray to God, to Whom belong
All souls of every race on earth."
IN 1889 the Bishop attended the Lambeth Conference,
returning to his Diocese in May, 1890. Six months
later he wrote the letter now to be quoted. His account
of the death-bed of one of his Indians seems an echo of the
words " 0 death, where is thy sting? ' and proves that the
Gospel is able now as of old to lighten the dark valley to
those passing through it, and to comfort the hearts of those
left behind. Such a scene lends fresh emphasis to the
appeal from an Indian chief who longed that his own tribe
should have the same privileges, and which had, for the
time at least, to be refused. No wonder that the Bishop
writes with a sense of shame; but one cannot but ask, whose
should the shame be ? Theirs who go, or theirs who stay
away? However, this time Christians in England responded, as will be seen from the next letter. Immediate
steps were taken to send the necessary funds, and two days
after the telegram arrived the Evangeline was ready to carry
the good news to the waiting chief.
I " Metlakatla, Nov. 5th, 1890.
" The widow of Moses Venn, one of the best old men I
have known, paid me a visit to-day. I had administered
the Holy Communion to him last night, after Evening
Prayer. He was then dying, but fully conscious, and with
signs of inward peace stamped upon his wan face.    When 4o
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
I had duly prepared, I asked how many present wished to
communicate with the dying chief. In answer, ten knelt
at once on the floor. The dear old wife sat still where she
was, beside the sick man on the bed. She is a woman of
strong mind, but withal most tender and affectionate. My
voice, I am sure, betrayed my own emotion, though I strove
to check it. I knew how worthy the old chief was. His
life has been unblemished from the time I learnt to honour
him ten years ago. True and steadfast in the faith, wise
in his household, and a peacemaker in the settlement of
unavoidable disputes, it was to be expected that his deathbed would be attended by many. Hence the house-door
had to be locked before I began the service, to prevent
crowding. I do not know a people who honour the Lord's
Table more consistently than these. The Spirit of the
Lord was with us as we broke the bread. There meekly
kneeled the faithful, by whom the Body and Blood of Christ
were verily and indeed taken. I am not a stranger here,
nor a novice. After a ministry in many lands for a quarter
of a century, I count it a high privilege to minister to such
a company of disciples as knelt around me last night.
Moses' old widow came in just as we were assembling in
the chapel for Morning Prayers, and joined us. Then she
came with me into my study. She seemed so composed,
that I thought the sick one had rallied. Her opening words
fixed that idea. Thus she spoke, very calmly, ' Chief, you
saw Moses last night, and how he rested free from pain and
full of heart peace. As this morning dawned, that best
half of my flesh slept soundly.' I thought she meant
natural sleep, and said in reply, j Wonderful!'
" 'I had not watched the clock, because I loved to look
on his smile.'
" It dawned on me that he was dead.
" ' I said to our sons and daughters and their children, I
said it slowly, "Make no weeping; is he not now peacefully
going away with Jesus—with Jesus ! '' By this time I was
sure the old man was dead.    1 Do you not see the shadowT A Cry and a Response.
4i
of his soul resting on him ? " She meant the smile on his
face. She continued her story in exact detail. " His soul
left its work. Look on his face. Notice the smile. Make
no weeping. Look out at the window. The sky is cloudless
—so his face. Will you with tears bring in clouds ? Make
no mist arise. His soul is joyful. The half of my life—
no, the whole of my joy is gone; no, no, I must not say so.
Some of his joy stays in my heart." So I stopped weeping, but our hearts were tearful. My words could not wipe
away tears from our hearts, though we knew how he was
with Jesus in heaven.'
" I then remembered that the dear old man had entrusted
me with his will. Mr. Collison had written it at his dictation, and Messrs. McCullagh and Hall had witnessed it with
their signatures. She asked me to translate it for her. I
will transcribe a part of it. Thus it runs :—' This is to
testify that after my death, my tribe or any member of it
may not erect any large stone or monument over my grave
or in any other place as a record of my chieftainship. I
only desire a nice stone not exceeding four feet in height,
and a tablet in marble or brass erected in the church suited
to record the memory of one who has departed in the faith
of the Gospel.'
I \ ha I Aabuku: uwha I" (' Ha! I remember certainly!')
so she said when I had finished. Then she told me this
story. \ At that time (in 1888) there was a turning back to
former evil ways at Fort Simpson. The sin reached Kin-
eolith. My uncle, chief E. Gokshau, was dying. He called
his tribe to his side, and exhorted them to raise four lofty
stones over his grave, and to spare no ancient ceremony at
the installation of his successor. Then Moses called his
household together, and told them of all these things. He
was a strong man, but as he spoke he cried like a woman,
because of the report. Thereupon he further exhorted his
sons Peter and Charles to take good heed that after his
death he should be buried as a Christian, without any sign
of pride or waste.    So he commanded.    Then he went to 42
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
Mr. Collison, and dictated that law you have now translated
in my ears.    He said he would do so.    He said he had
done it.    He never changed.    So shall it be as his hear
desired.'    Certainly it was a noble testimony !
" Last Sunday we had our harvest festival. The Indians
tried in vain to catch some salmon for decoration purposes.
They brought all kinds of foods from sea shore and river,
from forest and garden. Mr. and Mrs. Gurd superintended,
and I believe suggested the whole thing. But I was
shocked or thrilled through as I entered the church from
the vestry. A burst of brass-band music resounded through
the church (the largest in the province). It ceased as I
knelt in the chancel to say a silent prayer, and was not
resumed. The surprise sent the blood coursing along from
my heart. It was an innovation. I had not been consulted.
'Why should they,' &c, &c. Then pleasure arose in my
mind because I knew they would not have done it if they
had not thought I should be pleased. Therefore I tuas
pleased, and I am bound to say that the suddenness of the
musical outburst so affected my heart that more of it than
usual leaped out and got into the service, and kept in to the
very close! Mr. Gurd preached in Zimshian in the afternoon, I in English in the evening according to our custom,
for the benefit of the English and the English-speaking
people. I saw three Chinese there also. The Sunday
before there were several Japanese.
" Just before my last long journey a Japanese called and
asked to see me. I was occupied elsewhere, and was not
to be found. So he shyly told Miss Dickenson (the young
lady trained as a nurse who has come out to help us without salary) that he loved Jesus; he belonged to Him as she
did. Then he took 3 dols., equal to 12s. 6d., from his
pocket, and gave them into her hand, saying, ' I am a poor
man. I work to live. My money is few, but I give this
to you to help the work of God.' Then he went away.
He was baptized by a missionary in Japan, and since then
came across the ocean for the same sort of reasons that yysjc***^*s'
A Cry and a Response.
43
induce English people to emigrate. The delightful part of
it was his identifying himself with God's people, who were
strangers to him, and entrusting them with his offerings.
" You would be surprised to know how I am often distracted by the demands made on me to provide the means
of grace for people. There are some white people who
are really angry with me, and say I care not for their souls
because I cannot send them a clergyman or go myself.
I cannot send what I have not got, and as for going myself,
I am always going myself—am forced to go ! There is now
beside me (I generally have company as I write my letters)
an Indian chief from a distance of 250 miles. W7hat has
he come here for ? To wring out of me a promise of sending
to his tribe the Word of Life. I first said to him and
those of our own people who introduced him, ' Wait a
fortnight and I will open my mouth.' So I sent hither and
thither to consult with some of our senior missionaries to
know what could be done. Here is what one writes: ' I am
sorry you have asked me to open this Mission, because it is
a very painful task to ask you not to lay this burden upon
me. I see fully the necessity of accepting the invitation of
the chief. A wise man would soon gather a united band of
Christians around him, but I feel I cannot leave my fifteen
villages and two thousand souls even to enter such an
inviting field.'
" Well, now, what am I to do ? Here is this chief, who
seems to know that my answer will decide the question of
eternal life for many of the souls he pleads for. I am torn
asunder by the claims urged upon me. I am ashamed—I
am afraid; I scarcely dare face that Indian chief. Shall I
not see him at the last judgment! Will he not say, • I
offered you an open door. Souls clung to you as I pleaded
for them. You let them drop. See them ! ' I wish my
readers could answer for me, and make for me a way of
escape. My heart leaps up at the bold venture that would
say, '■ Go home. Be of good cheer. The Gospel shall be
preached to your people.    Your children shall be brought to
K 44
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
LoJ
mm
1 .
Jesus for blessing '—and then trust to the Lord to provide.
I confess I have not that bold faith or assurance. When
this Indian chief is going back to his people with their fate
on his heart, I shall feel ashamed—baffled, beaten, disgraced.
Time will perhaps blunt this my longing and my sense of
failure, but it will not help these Heathen with outstretched
hands towards me. They cannot keep them stretched out,
and—what then? It is your fault, your despising and
rejecting, your indifference to the Man of Sorrows pleading
through this Indian chief—your sin !    Here sits in silence
this powerful
chief, accusing the
Church of
Jesus of
allowing him
and his
p e ople to
turn their
eyes down to
the ground,
and stagger
back into the
shadows that
will grow
blacker since
they looked
out towards
the light in
new-born
hope. Weakly I inquire
if he cannot
stay a little
longer?—I
have done.
We are  dis-
»:
■
Two Chiefs. V-'."v •*"- •„/!r.TlffiB_l______l
•""" • *"w.   "W. "_________«__
W. v* *__.)•' V^i-n!^^
73-    ^fission   Beiurt     a-r
-__*  rr^Mt   ihc    /lxtiutcj __
comfited.    The Prince of Darkness wins this tribe offered
to us by the Crucified One !
l(Nov. 1th.
" We have had a lovely summer. When I came back
from one of my trips I found Mrs. Eidley full of delight
with our pretty garden. She does love it. ■■ There is a
perfect rose seven inches in diameter. Look at the others.
Are they not lovely ? See these carnations ! There is a
sunflower eight feet six inches in height, and ten inches in
diameter.' I am taken all round, and shown all the beauties
that had sprung up in my absence. Then I ask, * How
have the boys, my eight Indian boys, and the seven Indian
girls behaved ? How do the day-schools progress ? Tell
me all the news, news from home, news from the neighbourhood.'
"So it happens when I return from time to time. Formerly Mrs. Eidley accompanied me a good deal, now her
home work of superintending, teaching, visiting the sick
and others, takes up much time. How can she go now?
Impossible. There is a round of work that brooks no
intermission. She lately added to our institutions a Home
for Indian girls, where they are as carefully watched,
guarded, and taught as in a good boarding-school in England.
The opening took place soon after my return from a long
journey into the interior.
We have now a boys' boarding-school, another for girls,
a mixed day-school of girls and small boys, and a day-school 46
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
 ii
-j
1
•1       *
J*- I
9_i_-
1
^*^w
iljaHll
H       I
_%»
■
•  •
Indian Girls' Home. Metlakatla.
\
for big boys; a Sunday-school for children, another for
adults. We have an average of more than sixty at our
daily meeting for prayer. Sewing classes, Dorcas parties,
missionaries' prayer union—a constant stream of visitors,
who come chiefly for instruction; tea parties, brass-band
practisings, choir practices, and many other agencies for
increasing knowledge, sacred and secular, and for advancing
the arts of civilization. This is the only community of
Indians I know that has a natural increase of the population. Crime is almost unknown; the standard of moral
conduct is higher than that of any other place I ever lived
at. Purity of life leads to health, and that to happy homes
full of chubby children. Such is the actual condition of
Metlakatla, and it has a hopeful future.
" What is better than the growth of only one place is the
spread of the Gospel in every direction. Ten years ago I
found in the diocese but two clergy, now ten and a candidate A Cry and a Response.
47
for holy orders ; then two churches, now there are ten, and
three projected. Then not one of the languages had been
reduced to writing, now we have printed books in Zimshian,
Haida, and Nishga. In this enumeration I do not include
our work among the Kwagutl, where Messrs. Hall, Corker,
and Brotchie are working. Yet there is much land to be
won for Christ.    Forward is the order.
" I have not the leisure I once had for translational work,
but now several good linguists are engaged in it. The pure
Word of God, not a haphazard, slipshod, extempore translation, is used in all our congregations. The last new missionary that joined us was able to read the prayers and the
gospels in the Native tongue after two months' residence.
In four months he read his own sermon. This proved a
diligent use of means. These means had no existence eight
years ago. The printing-press is now a preciousj.auxiliary
to our work.
- /■■ ._•?:•.■ &-i-  . ^
\m
jg_H
Kwagutl Heathen Women of Rank. 48
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
" Have we not good reason for rejoicing over what God
has wrought ? May we not count our treasures and boldly
challenge those who trust in other methods of elevating the
uncivilized races of the earth, to show results equal to those
consequent on preaching Apostolic doctrine ? The Bible is
the Book for perishing souls. Its words are still winged
with a Divine power to convert, to build up, and to ripen for
eternity. We could not do without it, and those who try
will waste their pains."
The following letter is not in chronological order, but as
it is occupied with the subject of the response to the Indian.
Chief's appeal it seems better to place it here. By the time
that the Bishop could use the funds so generously provided,
a Canadian Society had undertaken the work, but it will be
seen from a later letter that the money was applied for the
furtherance of the Gospel in another direction :—
" Metlakatla, June Uh, 1891.
" The telegram about the Indian Chief's appeal reached
me late on April 1st; on the 3rd the steamer Evangeline was
ready for sea. A hurricane squall, wTorthy of the tropics,
on the next day, did fearful damage along the coast, and
threatened to sink the ship at her moorings. The 5th was
Sunday ; on Monday she sailed and had a fine passage. As
I was crippled with rheumatism, I sent, as the Church's
messenger, the best man I could find. Besides a letter to
the chief, I had carefully prepared him for his embassy, and
he fulfilled it excellently.
" Five months had then elapsed since the appeal came,
and I thought it possible that as it failed here it might be
repeated in some other quarter. This had happened in the
case of the most southerly of the three villages. Its chief
had gone beyond the bounds of my diocese, and he was
persuaded to migrate with his tribe, and building materials
were given him and others to erect new houses at a Christian
mission station far to the south, and worked by another
Society.    As soon as the news arrived that I could help A Cry and a Response.
49
them, the migrants were for returning to their old homes
and putting themselves under our instruction. But I had
told Charles Eyan, our messenger, that in such a case I
should consider them already provided for, and would not
disturb such plans. Then he retraced his steps some fifty-
five miles to the nearest of the three villages from which the
appeal was made. He had found the most distant village
permanently deserted, as it appeared from the quite empty
and dismantled houses. At the nearest a few old people
remained, the whole able-bodied section of the community
having gone off to their hunting. In this village there was
great joy at the prospect of having a missionary. The chief
was away, but the letter I had written was explained and
left behind for him. He may not return for months, and
then may find a difficulty in meeting with a literate person
to write for him his reply.
" In the meantime I am looking for a suitable missionary
to break ground there in the autumn. The present prospect
is the inviting *of the Indians of the two nearest villages and
the building up a much smaller work than would have been
likely had I been sooner in the field. That all who sought
the blessing of the Gospel will riow be brought under its
saving influence must be a source of gladness to those hearts
that have yearned for their salvation.
" You now see how the matter stands. If it be asked
whether it is prudent to lay out money on the rescue of so
small a community, only perhaps between 100 and 150 souls,
I would reply by asking what would be thought of the
Government if, hearing of so many starving to death, they
did not succour them promptly ? Souls appeal to Christians
because Jesus died for them. I know no grander or more
apostolic missionary than Bishop French. Would he not
gladly lay down his life to win an Arab for Christ ? What
would he not do or dare to win a hundred ? Let but a man
be sent by the Holy Ghost, and I shall expect to see these
remnants of once powerful tribes united in the bonds of the
Gospel. 5°
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
" I may not exactly tell you how the reading of Mr. Fenn's
telegram affected me. It rebuked me—it rejoiced me.
First, it struck me dumb, Then gratitude, like a peaceful
vision, possessed me. I saw those favoured servants of
Christ placing their money at His feet and His acceptance
of it.    They will have treasures in heaven incorruptible.
" Your letter to me, and letters from Clifton, Leamington,
and several other places, as well as the paragraphs in the
Gleaner, come like waves of cheer from God. To Him be
praise and.thanks for all."
^SPft
■>••:?»■•_£/ v./'*-
£*IP
1*__*S1I
;»,«sw*-"»#5 IN JOUENEYINGS OFTEN.
My hearb has gone before my feet,
Which now shall tread the trail ye beat
Through forests new.  . . ."
TWO letters were received from the Bishop in 1891,
giving an account of a journey up the Skeena Eiver,
one addressed to the C.M.S. and published in the Gleaner,
the other to the S.P.G. The latter, being more full of
description and interesting detail, is given here, as published
in the S.P.G. Annual Eeport of 1890-91. It is dated
December 15th, 1890:— -fB^'     H
" The excessively stormy weather has delayed the expected mail steamer, and given me a day's grace for
giving some account of the Skeena and Cassiar Mission
work.
" I am too old a sailor to dwell on perils by water, though
sailors are licensed to spin yarns. Whoever goes about a
great deal by the small and frail craft that often do duty
for missionaries' boats on the river or on the open sea must
needs get into alarming situations. To the beginner they
are terrifying, and, of course, sometimes dangerous. But
the old salt has steadier nerves, and, because of oft deliverances, comes to think he has a charmed life. Some time
ago, in returning from a visit to an Indian Mission where 52
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
I heard the missionary was sick, I was caught in so furious
a fair wind that my crew became as silent as fish as we
swept over the huge wavos in my trusty open boat under
sail. For miles we kept company with the American
mail steamer, though eventually she left us far behind.
A stretch of forty miles in the open sea, at nine miles an
hour at least, in an open boat, speaks for itself to a sailor.
It would mean to a landsman constant dread of being
engulfed. The muscular effort in controlling the sheet
and the tiller taxed all my powers, and left a legacy of
aches for many days.
" During my stay there I saw the work as I had not
before. It keeps the missionary constantly at work. I
am sorry to say that among my many patients two Indians
from the interior died. I thought I had seen them consigned to their last resting-place when I buried them near
to the grave of dear Sheldon. But, in October, when I
was returning from my long journey in the interior, I met
the same dead ones on the river. I met at least thirty
canoes returning, full of Indians, who had finished their
summer's work on the coast, and were going home with
the proceeds. Over two of the canoes floated little black
flags, signs of a corpse on board. Before the funerals I
was surprised at the length of time they kept the coffins
in their huts. Happily they were tin-lined and soldered
down, and therefore air-tight. Outside they were covered
with black cloth, and decorated with white and red
rosettes. ... I found that the colours were symbolical,
and it is both curious and touching to know some of the
inner thoughts in this connection. The red signifies the
pardoning blood, and the white, the purity becoming a
newly baptized Christian—for both had been baptized early
in the season, having been prepared the year before. Not
a few come to Essington for a livelihood, and go home
with a new hope of eternal life.
" Among other Indians I met in the interior were Old
Lthim  and   his   family,  whom  I   baptized   last  year  at Essington. Others, whom I had forgotten, recognized
me, and came forward from among their heathen tribesmen, and claimed kinship in the faith with me. There
were several others at different places, and I could not J
but admire their robust faith that shrank not from constant prayer in public among these ignorant but proud
pagans.
" The Methodists have lately begun a Mission where we
-___      vfe    j**v        .■ _* * *■••    ****■■*■• "^_t   *        i &&'iifrft:i\il1&Tfc1il
Indians
Canoeing.
S&$S$S§S*
P'^PM-"^
^^^^ had some converts won at Essington, but they are steady
in their allegiance, and cling to me as the official representative of the Church they love.
I These autumnal journeys that I take annually are
tedious and costly. When canoeing I find time for reading.
This last autumn I made a much more accurate survey of
the Skeena Eiver than has been attempted before. The
result is a map on a large scale which I have found time
to make, and that I am by this mail sending to the
Surveyor-General, in the hope that it will forward the
settlement of immigrants on the excellent land I saw in
different places. In one district I walked in one day thirty
miles over a splendid country fit for the plough, where in
years to come there will be fine farms.
| "Dec. 16th.
" The district assigned to the Eector of Essington
formerly reached the Hudson Bay Co.'s forts, a month's In Journeyings Often.
55
travel from the coast, and the gold mines yet more distant.
The expense of travelling has so increased that I cannot
provide the money to send a missionary the round annually.
My autumnal visit has to do double duty. One little bit
of my experience will interest you.* As soon as the miners
who had married Indian women knew that I had determined on instituting a Girls' Home on my return to the
coast, they wanted to give me their little girls. I brought
away with me one little mite, and another came on soon
after, and are now, with others, comfortably settled in the
new home. The child I brought with me shrank from my
Indians, saying she did not like to sleep with Siwashes, a
corruption of the French sauvage. But my tent measures
eight feet by six only, and into it are stowed my kitchen-
box, provision-case, valise, gun, and bed ! The walls are
eighteen inches high, and my head just clears the ridgepole ! A less lavish enjoyment of space must content me
that I may entertain the rosy-cheeked little maiden who
objected to Siwashes. I stow her away to leeward, with
my waterproof and overcoat as a bed and my thin coat as
pillow. She had two blankets, but one was soaking wet.
The single one I doubled over her, and then tucked her
up with one of my own. I Where is your pillow?" I asked.
■ Me and Eddie (her smaller brother) had one, and I gave
it to him.' This made me love the little soul. She slept
better than I did, for that night the frost was, I thought,
bitter. I was also short of wraps, which partly accounted
for it. But the tent, which was dripping when I pitched
it, was so stiff with the frost next morning that we had to
drag it into the river to thaw it before we could safely fold
it. To fold canvas tightly when hard frozen is to break the
fibre ; so also a frozen rope can easily be broken, That
night I had other company. The sudden change from a
wet southerly wind to the sharp nor'-wester made the tent
sought after by the many forest mice. They kept me
awake most of the night, though I was accustomed to their
ntrusion.    Now and then one would be swept suddenly 56
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
from my face. One sought his way to his nest through my
ear, but he was too fat to get far in. Another nestled in
.my beard, and might have had a comfortable berth if it
had not been so restless. As bedfellows they are not
objectionable so long as they keep their feet still, but they
will not. The most worrying was he who kept scraping
under my pillow among the springy branches of the hemlock pine. I scuffled, turned over my pillow, pounded it
and spoke angry words, and all in vain. I was trying to
sleep in his forest, and he would not stop nibbling his
favourite bark to allow a tired bishop to be there without
taxing his patience. He was an unfeeling little republican,
and I still have a grudge against him. But they are not as
obnoxious as rats. _
"Late on Saturday night, long after dark, we reached a
village that has long been deserted as a winter residence.
The gardens are very good, and some families came from
Essington and Metlakatla to plant potatoes there. We
had to climb some rocks for about two hundred feet before
we came to the plain trail. Leaving our canoe moored, we
struggled up the steep, bearing only what we wanted over
Sunday. My load was my bedding. The lantern-bearer
was next in front of me. After about a half-mile walk we
came to the houses. Two were lighted up. From one, as
we neared it, floated sounds of song. We stopped and
listened, and through the wooden walls we could hear
every word uttered in prayer. These praying Indians had
assembled as they were accustomed to on the coast, and
though a week's journey from their coast homes, and
unconscious that their Bishop was within a yard of the
leader, they observed their duty to God as duly as if they
were within the sound of the church bell. My heart
throbbed with gratitude to God for shining into these
simple souls and making them more Christ-like than
myriads at home satiated with privilege.
" We slept that night in a house belonging to my Indian
captain, who formerly lived here, but for years past has In Journeyings Often.
57
been at Metlakatla. We soon had a blazing fire, and after
supper sought rest. Before I lay down my captain asked
me to climb up the ladder into a small attic. * Look,'
said he. X Well, I only see potatoes.' Then he gave me
one, and pointed out the marks of some small rodents'
teeth. \ Poor rats ! %poor rats ! Alas ! your labour is lost.
I shall bag these potatoes.' So the captain seemed to
pity the bushy-tailed rats which had dug out from the
garden all the small-sized ones they could mouth, and had
managed to carry them one by one between the outer and
inner lining of the wooden house straight up from the
foundations to the attic. There must have been two
hundredweight there spread out to dry in readiness for a
hard winter.
" I pitied the rats, and more so when as I awoke I found
one dead in a trap. In his agony he had dragged the trap
close to my bed, and so seemed to appeal for justice against
his murderer. They are the bravest little animals I know.
They are absolutely fearless. At the next village, where
I slept in another deserted house, they swarmed; and though
I kept a lantern burning all night, they vainly attempted
to get on a table on which my breakfast was spread over
night so as to have no delay next morning. That night I
wished all rats were trapped. I had been teaching a schoolroom full of Indians for three hours up to 11.30 p.m., and
then came the rats. Before daylight I was again in my
canoe, and I have not forgiven them. But they are surpassed
in wanton cruelty by mosquitoes. They keep their victim in
a fever, but by their blood-letting prevent it from reaching
a dangerous height, only to preserve him alive for further
sport. I know from experience that they are to be reckoned
among the enemies to the Propagation of the Gospel in
Foreign Parts. Perhaps you smile and think them feeble
folk. They have made me black in the face. I have shut
up my tent with swarms of these plagues, like such as
worried Pharaoh. Then I have lighted a fire and produced
the most disgusting of smoke nuisances, until my eyes filled _ Jjtfiflaj"?
58
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
It
with tears that made channels down my sooty face. I have
then lain down and seen these monsters cling to the tent
until asphyxiated and then drop off dying, and I gloating
over this wholesale destruction. Some few revive, but they
are then tamer than an English gnat.
"When travelling on the rivers a rnid-day halt is called
by the captain of the canoe, who can tell the time by God's
great clock. \ Look out for drift-wood,' is his order to the
Indian in the bow, who, as soon as he sees some on the
bank, calls out, ' Lak O.! lak 0 !' which means, ' Fire O !
fire 0 !' Quickly the axes are swung by ready hands, and
soon the kettles boil. Off go our hats, grace is said. Dinner
over, we start afresh to struggle onward against the swift
current. M-
" One day several canoes hauled alongside to get the
benefit of our fire just as we were about to push from the
bank. Out poured a crowd of Indians, young and old, with
their many wolf-like dogs. The moment I was recognized
many were suddenly seized with hacking coughs. On they
came, the lameness of some increasing every moment.
Sores are unbound, hands pressed on those parts that suffer
from indigestion, the symptoms are graphically described.
I gravely listen as I open my medicine chest, taking care
to have a kettle full of pure river water at hand; pots of
ointment become lighter, sticking-plaster is disposed of;
pills are wrapped in fresh leaves, teacups brought for cough
mixture; salts and senna are begged for. The serious
cases are carefully attended to; the half real pretenders,
without a sound organ (so they say) in their bodies, are
treated with grave sympathy, and large doses of medicated
water made nasty. Faith they mix with it and get cured,
so they say. I am known for hundreds of miles as a
medicine-man.
"Among this crowd was an Indian whose head I put
together eight years ago, after he had been most shockingly
cut and bruised by a fall over the steep bank of the frozen
river from a height of quite four hundred feet.    He was  p
J_*__:_____-________.
60
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
thought himself a hero ! Now he remembered my surgery,
and regarded me as a sort of property, walking round and
round me, muttering all the time something I could not
distinguish, and then stopped and declared he was quite
ready to hear me preach ; he would listen long and go far,
he would hear no one else ! So I had my reward, you see.
The picture I saw in him is not to be forgotten. I suppose
he was dressed. He was covered from his neck to his knees
with rags of many colours, toned down with a rich brown of
pervading dirt. I saw no buttons—he was knotted together,
like the old woman whose coating of loathsome garments,
in rags, had to be peeled off before I could set the stethoscope on her chest. Then the odour! Such poor old
Heathen never change or cleanse their clothes until, for
obvious reasons, the torment becomes past endurancje. My
ragged friend had not reached that stage. The Christians
are never in such case ; cleanliness with them attends on
godliness.
11 never choose to encamp beside such a crowd, but at a
distance not too far to be traversed after supper by lantern
light. In such cases I spend an hour beside their camp fire
speaking of the kingdom of God. Sometimes my crew go
with me, and then we sing as well as pray, which is very
delightful on the river's bank or in among the forest trees
when it is stormy.
•' Their dogs are villainous thieves because ill-fed; they
howl, they cannot bark like our faithful companions. One
night, while I slept, they entered my tent, and before I was
quite roused by their noise they had gnawed through my
provision box. I awoke in time to save my victuals, and
drove them helter skelter from the tent. But they are
dangerous brutes to attack with bare feet. When the canoes
are deeply laden the dogs have to find their way along the
banks, which are sometimes very precipitous. Then their
sagacity is remarkable. In winter they are used to draw
the sleighs, and therefore are valuable. We> met an old
man seeking his lost dogs, which we had seen the day before In Journeyings Often.
61
and tried to entice them to follow. Delighted was the old
man when he heard his dogs were not many miles below,
and on he trudged to save them.
" This was kinder than some other Indians we passed one
day in their camp. They told a sad story of three hunters
being lost high up among the mountains, but they made no
search, which surprised me. Towards sundown that day
we Were pushing on in-shore, under some steep cliffs, when
we heard strange sounds overhead. There were the three
lost men laden with parts of mountain sheep, so that they
could not starve. The fresh snow had covered their tracks
so that they became bewildered. We set them right with
much pleasure, and they pushed on with revived hopes.
How gladly would we direct them to a heavenly rest!
" Another day we overtook a canoe with a party ashore
towing it. For the sake of a stretch I got out of mine and
had a long walk. Harnessed with two Indian women was
a white man from Glasgow, who had lost his money in the
gold mines, and was now working his passage and dependent
on Indians for food.
" Another day I met one of my clergy, and he waded with
his long indiarubber boots on from the bank to my canoe,
and we transacted a good deal of missionary business while
his crew were skinning and cutting up some venison. The
day before I had in his absence been among his people,
ministering to and advising them in matters they had kept
open for my decision. The day before that, at another
station, I had confirmed seven candidates, the first company
of confirmees in the interior. For the first time were
Indians of that nation admitted to the Holy Communion.
"It is often very lonely on these large Canadian rivers.
Yet there are ceaseless matters of interest occurring, such
as meeting with wild beasts, at very close quarters sometimes ; finding rare plants, shooting ducks, geese, and
frequently swans, which means abundance of fresh food, no
small matter to hard-working men living and sleeping in
the  open  air.    One  night   after  I  had got  between  my 62
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
blankets I heard a loud outcry, and jumped up to see what
was the matter. The captain had gone to the beach to see
if the river was swelling or falling, and, returning, stumbled
over a porcupine. A few minutes later I smelled, as I
thought, a burning blanket, and called out a warning.
\ No, we are roasting the porcupine,' was the answer. I
tried it next day, but it was too tough for me. Young bear
is really nice, so also young mountain sheep, but the mature
ones have a flavour that one must be educated up to before
it can be enjoyed.
" The scenery will yet become famous. If my crew were
asked what impression that trip made on them they would
use one word—'rain, rain, rain.' Perhaps they might add
—\ wind, wind.' For one whole week it rained day and
night. We camped amid the trees, whose tops were bent
by the gale, while at the roots we were sheltered. Now and
then one would fall with a loud crash—a very unpleasant
sound to one in a tent close by. But, at last, during the
night, the change came ; instead of great drops falling on
my bare head when I thrust it out to see to the camp fire, I
looked up and saw between the branches stars shining as
they only do on frosty nights. The river gliding past made
soft music with which harmonized the muffled tones of the
distant rapid. How much better than a roaring tempest!
Next morning a thick mist rose from the river and had
encrusted everything with beauty, helped by Father Frost.
What a lovely robe had been woven under the twinkling
stars ! Then rose the sun and mastered the power that
wrought such loveliness in the dark. But greater glories
are now revealed. The eastern sun made the mountains
blush. Swift is the transformation as the sun scaled the
sky. There stood the lordly mountains, lately enshrouded
by black clouds of tempest, but now from base to summit
wrapped in purest snow, their pinnacles rising miles into
the blue expanse.
" How I rejoiced in the vastness of the translucent blue
hung  over a world of beauty, in  the spotless whiteness "■f
In Journeyings Often.
63
adorning the mountain crests, and in the bewitching beauty
of the autumnal foliage that exhibited Divine skill in
painting even the trembling leaf!
" Then came night again, and with it higher delights.
Across a branch of the river a camp fire shot up among the
trees. After our evening meal, as we sat gazing into our
own friendly fire, we heard, borne on the still night air,
sweet sounds of holy song. There, we then knew, were
Christian Indians, praising the Lord Jesus we also loved.
Then followed silence. We knew they then were praying.
We prayed in our hearts. Sweet is the communion of
saints. What was the river between ? Our hearts were
one in faith and hope and love. No delight like this on
earth. Talk about missionary perils and hardships !—there
is not a drawing-room in London where heaven seems so
nigh as it does to us sometimes in our wanderings.
I On our side we lifted up our thankful voices, tuned all
the better because of the emotion caused by the song beyond
the river. Across there our praise would kindle holy
thoughts in the hearts of the tired Indians as they lay
stretched out to sleep. I then prayed-with my crew, and
we all lay down without a care to rest and sleep, though
the beasts of the forest move and seek their meat from God.
From God, therefore, we were safe.
" So pass days and nights till the work is done. But the
perfect rest remaineth to the people of God. Whoever
would enter into the rest ought first to labour, not to win
it, but to please Him who offers it freely to all who love
Him." God's tools cut through a knotty will,
And turn by turn He drove His drill,
Until His light flashed clearly through
And so the soul saw all things new."
THE story of Sheuksh, the Indian Chief, contained in the
following letter, is now well known as one of the most
wonderful triumphs of grace in the history of Christian
Missions. After eight years of fervent, believing prayer,
the answer came, so complete, so glorious, that the letter
announcing it was well headed in the CM. Gleaner, "A
Triumph Song from the North Pacific." He who had been
" a blasphemer, a persecutor, and injurious," became by the
grace of God a humble follower of Christ, and his after life
bore witness to the reality of the change. On February 7th,
1901, the Christian Chief, after ten years of consistent
witnessing for Christ, passed away to his rest:—
| " Metlakatla, Nov. 19th, 1891.
• • Four stout Indians came into my study an hour ago,
newsladen.    Their   greeting   was   quiet,  and   their   faces
afforded no token of the nature of their embassy.    They sat
full in front, and distant the width of my writing table. A Triumph Song.
65
There was an earnest expression, but the closest scrutiny
failed to penetrate their secret, or lift the veil of mystery.
I may not ask, ' Why have you come ? ' or, ! Is all well ? '
I am as Indian-like as they, so far as my impassive countenance is concerned, but I am burning with anxious curiosity
all the time, because I remembered how many have been
the vicissitudes of the Mission to these Kitkatlas.
" Six winters ago a half-drowned crew came here from the
same place, and sat in like manner on the same chairs.
Their tale was woeful and laconic. I cannot forget it. Our
Native teacher was spokesman then. This was his lamentation :—\ They have burnt the church, they have torn up
the Bibles, they have blasphemed the Saviour. Only the
ashes remain, and a great victory for the devil.' Then they
relapsed into a gloomy silence. My turn then came. ' No,
never,' said I, 'the war is only just begun. Jesus Christ
will win. You are not burnt. The devil has laughed
before.    God will laugh at him, and you will laugh.    Be
strong.
" For more than a year no teacher was suffered to land
among the Kitkatlas. No public service could be held. The
most strenuous efforts were made to stamp out the work of
grace, but the hotter the persecution, the purer the life. I
cannot say how many dated their change of mind from that
Saturday night which was turned into a brief day by the
flames they kindled in the witnessing House of God. If
every church in the land were burnt, with similar spiritual
results, the loss would be gain.
11 While the latest news rings and thrills within me—
before I enter upon any other pursuit, if I can command the
leisure—I will write it down, and send it at once, if the
alreadv overdue mail steamer does not arrive to-dav.
j <j
"Luke, a Christian of a year's standing, is the chosen
spokesman. How his face was transformed as he related
his beautiful message ! Mrs. Eidley had come in to hear it.
We both listened to the answer of a prayer of eight years'
duration.    We had long wrestled for. it.    Now we have it. f
66
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
I have for years past expressed to the Committee, in my
letters, the settled conviction that a great blessing was in
store for the Kitkatlas. It was no fancy picture, but one
drawn by the reasonable faith that time has justified. Now,
as we attend to Luke's recital, our hearts are aglow with
gratitude. Affliction is justly regarded as the most potent
factor in humbling the soul, and revealing to us the Saviour ;
but the sympathetic gladness that turns to His throne,
because it glorifies the Victorious King, also melts the soul
and shapes it to lowliness.
" ' Ltha goudi eshk gish Sheuksh,' were Luke's first words,
which, being interpreted, is, j He has perfected his promise,
has Sheuksh.' Had we a peal of bells I would have them
rung because the most able, most stubborn, and boldest
warrior of Satan has submitted to Christ, and publicly,/
before his own tribe, has promised to serve Him as long as
He keeps him alive on earth. Outworks, one by one, have
been taken during the last two years, now the banner of the
Crucified floats above the citadel!
| Sheuksh is a man of powerful build, with a very massive
head, in which are set eyes that never look below yours, a
mouth with jaws like a vice, but which easily smiles and
breaks into a hearty laugh, dimpling his plump cheeks. He
is a fine fellow—a chief of chiefs. He was not by birth the
heir to this leading position, but has won it by capacity for
affairs and oft-tried courage, although the chief once in
power, and still alive, shrank not from murder to maintain
it. But this Sheuksh, chief of the Kitkatlas (more correctly
spelled Giatkatlas), the last to rally round him the braves of
an old system, that made them as proud and ruthless as
Moslems, has bowed his head before the Cross.
" Their island home, Laklan, breasts the western ocean,
and is the outermost of an archipelago sheltering the three
mouths of the Skeena river. Y et farther seaward, standing
alone as a sentinel, is an islet called Lak-Kul, fifteen miles
from Laklan. Out there go the fur-seal hunters each
summer, and thither, for the first  time,  our  hardy mis- A Triumph Son±
67
sionary, Mr. Stephenson, followed them. Their leisure
hours were employed in felling trees and shaping logs, to
set up the framework of a church, 45 ft. by 40 ft. The
women sewed sail-cloth together for walls and roof, and,
when all else was finished, brought white sand from the
beach for the floor. Thus was God's house planned, and
built, and fitted by themselves at their own expense. Then
came that pestilent la grippe, and none escaped; some died.
The missionary bestowed all his provisions, excepting a
little flour, on his stricken flock.    He would have died had
<_*£_
we
Hill
-rn
;_£§ ■
The Village of Kitkatla.
not I sent to fetch him here alive or dead. We nursed him ;
God restored his strength. But he did not return to that
post, because his people were soon scattered far and wide.
At this moment he is tending a sick wife, but is expecting to
return to Kitlan at the first opportunity. This, the winter
home of the Kitkatlas, is in a wild and exposed situation.
A rocky point juts out north-eastward, on which, in grim
disorder, stands the central part of the village. On either
side a sandy cove sweeps back in graceful curves. Above
the bank stand, in a crescent, several very massive houses
but of some only the bare frames.    Nearly in the midst is 68
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
the home of Sheuksh, its low-pitched gable seaward, and in
front a monolith of great size, concerning which the strangest
tales are told.
" The floor of his house covers 3,600 square feet, a space
without a post or pillar within the walls to support the low-
pitched split-cedar roof. The floor is of solid cedar. In
the midst is the sand-strewn hearth, from which the smoke
ascends and escapes by the central aperture above it. The
daylight is dim within on the brightest day. Therein no
books vexed or delighted the generations past. Could they
declare it, what a strange history would these smoke-stained
walls recount! Had I the time I could put on record and
rescue from oblivion many an oft-recited tradition there that
would please the lovers of ancient things—things that would
have been old to Abram among the Chaldeans. But I have
something new and true to tell, better than all the strange
tales of old.
" The summer toil and autumn peril are past. The furs
are sold. The winter's provision laid in. All, or nearly all,
of this most numerous tribe are at home. Last Sunday the
church was too small, though the standing room was
thronged. On Tuesday the chief invited all the adult males
to meet him. His secret was well kept. The many thought
the meeting was to be assembled to discuss the plans for
winter. As daylight faded they gathered at the chief's
great house. A large stack of fuel betokened a long discussion. A pile of logs was on the hearth, and over them oil
was ladled now and again. Up shoot the brilliant tongues
of fire, which cast a dark shadow behind each illuminated
face. The flames leap aloft as the crowd increases—a wondering crowd. There is Sheuksh, arrayed in a scarlet robe,
bedecked with mother-of-pearl and curious embroideries, and
seated alone on a low kind of settle; his people on the other
three sides of the great square, awaiting the opening of the
Parliament. Christians are mingled with the unbaptized.
Nearer than the rest to the chief are seated six of his lead-
the
lng men
-his   faithful supporters   in vainly resisting A Triumph Song.
69
progress of the Gospel. These were declared enemies of
the Church. It seems strange to say that I admire their
constancy and moral courage.
" Up rose Sheuksh grandly, and though the Christians
are too numerous to apprehend any serious attempt to
curtail their liberty or power, yet they anticipated an
attempt to do so. He stretched out his arms, as if to display
his sturdy person and the robe that had figured in many
heathen orgies. ' I wear,' said he, ! the outward sign of
former ignorance and of ancient customs, that never changed
until the white man's faith was preached. I thought I
ought to keep them, for I am not wiser than the ancients
who kept them and did great deeds. I loved them. So did
you. I have struggled to maintain them. I have defied the
Queen's officers. They threatened me as late as this last
springtide with prison and disgrace. I told them I would
not avoid them. I also resisted the Bishop, and suffered
not his teachers to land. I concealed not the wish of my
heart. You know to what lengths I went. Most of you
approved my doing. . But the end has come. Let the waves
tell the story of our fathers. Our children's lips will form
no fit words. Where do dead things go ? This goes with
them.' Here he threw off his scarlet robe and the other
insignia of a heathen chief. • I am naked, but can clothe
my body with the white man's clothes.' This he there and
then proceeded to do. What will cover my heart ? I can
wrap nothing round it. God sees it, and He knows all the
past and the present. He knows I am ignorant and sinful.
He has this summer made me know it. I am now dressed
like a Christian. Those tokens of the dark past I will
never touch again. What shall I do next? I am too old
to go to school. I cannot read. I am like a child, knowing
little, but wanting to learn. Will Jesus Christ have me ?
Will He help me ? I will never turn back. I give myself to
God. Now pray'for me—pray, pray ! I want to know what
will please Him.    I must know.    Begin at once to pray ! '
" So the whole company bowed their heads in silence 7o
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
_
m
until one of the earliest converts, named Stephen Gaiumtkwa,
broke it with uttered words of earnest supplication. This
ended, a Christian of the same standing, the most diligent
in the Scripture, his name Samuel, started Wesley's hymn,
\ Hark ! the herald angels sing,' and many voices took it up.
Then Samuel recited a verse of Holy Scripture, and as Luke
described it, 'broke it small for Sheuksh to eat.' James
Dakaiya prayed, after which Samuel said the first verse of
the hymn, 'Praise, my soul, the King of heaven,' and after
it had been sung, expounded another passage of Scripture.
Daniel Whadibo prayed, and next was sung ' Safe in the
arms of Jesus.' Charles Luahaitk prayed, and then was
sung ' Come, Holy Spirit, heavenly Dove.' Prayer and
Praise and Holy Scripture followed in like succession for
seven hours and a half.
I ' But, were you not tired ? ' I asked.
" ' No, nobody went out but to go round and tell the
women, and when they heard the chief was converted they
also prayed and the children too.'
" ' Was there any noise or rushing about ? '
" ' No, nothing but praying and singing; and when we
returned after midnight to our own houses, we told the
women, who had kept the lamps burning, and they were not
extinguished all night. At daylight we again assembled to
pray in the chief's house and left some praying when we
were sent away to tell you the truth.'
" Such is the story. I have quite forgotten another point
of interest. The men who had held to ShCuksh in the prolonged struggle with the Christians, one by one between the
intervals of prayer rose and solemnly renounced the past
and professed themselves catechumens if they could be
received as such. Not a shred of outward Heathenism exists
in what till lately was its one stronghold. Not a soul
remains that is not pledged in this wonderful manner to ve
and die as a Christian.
" What if some of this should prove ephemeral! It will
not differ  from  the purest religious movement, except in A Triumph Song.
7i
degree, even if it should (as doubtless it will) be followed by
the carelessness we are familiar with in England of the only
nominally Christian. This great demonstration was not
without a divine effusion of spiritual power. It was as real
as in the nature of such a movement it could be. Doubtless
not long hence many will be baptized, but it does not follow
that all will wear more than the outward profession of
Christianity.
" The least thing gained is a public acceptance of Christ
Jesus as Lord, and that is a great thing in itself. Heathenism is demolished. Now follows missionary building up,
which is proceeded with everywhere amid difficulties. The
kingdom of darkness has been conquered in one of its most
ancient strongholds. The cross of Christ has done it, and
may be trusted to hold the fort just won.
" I can write no longer because the interruptions during
the day have forced me into the morning hours, and yet I
have not .finished.
i, {* "Nov. 20th.
" There has been a heavy gale of wind all night with
frequent lashing showers of hail. This has detained the
steamer, I think, so that there may be time to finish my
narrative and mail it. Not long after the arrival of the
canoe of which Luke was the captain, a second arrived, and
I had to admit the crew to a two hours' interview, though
I was uneasy at the interruption. They confirmed the
good news, adding a few details which I have woven into
my letter. Pencil in hand, I noted points of interest.
One was, that after the first canoe had been dispatched the
British ensign was hoisted on the chief flagstaff; the firemen
and other organized companies attired themselves in their
uniform, then fired a salute from the two cannon, and,
accompanied by the band, sang ' God save the Queen.'
This was most significant. Eeligion and loyalty are aspects
of the same spirit, one as it relates to heaven, the other to
earth.
" During the day many of our Metlakatla people dropped 72
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
in to speak of the great event, Samuel Pelham among them
He was the first native teacher I sent to the Kitkatlas—the
true pioneer of the Cross—under his instruction the first
converts were prepared for baptism. Our young men
educated under my roof have advanced in knowledge beyond
him and others who were formerly native teachers, so that
the latter, through consciousness of their comparative
ignorance, cannot be induced to teach as of old. He and
Matthew sometimes preach, and do so with conspicuous
ability without any thought of remuneration. Samuel
Pelham is a natural orator, and now is a churchwarden here,
and devotes much time to his office.
"'Ah!' said he, 'I remember soon after you arrived
(this was in 1879) being captain of the great canoe that
took Captain Plevy (he meant Admiral Prevost) and Mr.
Duncan to Laklan. No good grew out of it. Sheuksh
mustered all his people and ordered a dance and a feast of
wickedness to mock Mr. Duncan, who did not want to go
there because he had no power to force the Kitkatlas to obey
him. They laughed and howled and danced the shameful
dance, and we came home again vexed and angry. Two
years later you gave me slates and copy-books, salts and
senna, a bell and Bibles, and I went alone in my own canoe.
I was received by Gaiumtkwa. After I had eaten, Sheuksh
and Nishweuksh came in and told me I was not wanted to
teach them. " If you come as a chief's son [which Samuel
is], come to my house and be my guest. But let me hear
no bell; drums are better. Let us see no books ; biscuits
are more nourishing." Then said I, " Shimoigiat [chief],
I have not come to the sound of the drum or to feed on
biscuits. I have tasted better food; money cannot buy it.
The son of our fathers cannot take it into his hand [he
meant the child of ignorance], or see it with his eyes, or hear
it with his ears, or taste it with, his mouth. The sun of the
new day [meaning Christ's light] loves it, eats it, speaks it,
dreams it, keeps it, gives it. You can have it, and will love
it because it is beautiful and sweet, its silence heard above A Triumph Song.
73
drums, its dimensions exceeding the clouds. God, it is
God ! " Then they left me, and I remained all the winter
teaching the children and the young men. I cooked my own
food, and often entertained visitors who came secretly. Now
Sheuksh is converted. What cannot God do ? Wonderful ! That lord of iniquity converted ! That root of
mischief plucked up ! That right hand of the devil broken !
Wonderful! who can resist Him if Sheuksh cannot ? God
has shaken the mountain. God's auger has bored through
him. [Here Samuel imitated the movements of a carpenter
using an auger.] God turned and made it cut into him.
Slowly through knots as hard as stone. So, so, so [suiting
the action to the words]. Oh, the tools of God ! They go
through men's hearts. They are sharp, but oiled, and let in
the light.    God knew His work.    Now we see it.'
" After musing awhile Samuel, in an undertone, remarked
as if to himself :—' The devil has lifted up his head at Fort
Simpson, and here has struck a blow (he alluded to a case of
drunkenness), but at Kitlan I see his mouth in the sand. It
is hard for him to meet with Jesus, the Son o God.'
" Now I have finished. Glory be to the Father, and to
the Son, and to the Holy Ghost; as it was in the beginning,
is now, and ever shall be, wTorld without end.    Amen."
Mission-house at Kitkatla. Scene on the Stikine River.
CHAPTEE VII.
NEW WOEK AND OLD.
:' Wave on wave, a courier be.
Carrying tidings joyfully,
Spread, 0 Spirit, idle sails,
Filling all with steady gales."
LATEE letters will tell of the work on the Stikine Eiver.
Although much on the Bishop's heart, it was up to this
time almost untouched, till the fund provided in answer to
the appeal of one of the Indian chiefs [See page 48] made it
possible to go forward. Even so, it was only a beginning.
The work did not really develop until later years, when it
became a memorial to Mrs. Eidley, whose life was devoted
to the Indians, and whose death made such a deep impression on them. The Bishop wrote at the beginning of
1892:—        %   ' I t P'
Ten years ago I made an attempt to go among the
Stikine Eiver Indians, but just as I reached the mouth of
the river the only steamer on it was wrecked on a bar.    So New Work and Old.
75
I returned. Since then I have several times been on the
point of making another attempt, but the troubles near at
hand always hindered me. Now I could not go because my
walking powers have been sapped by la grippe. Still I feel
bound to try to lead them to Christ. If I cannot go I must
send.
" These Indians, unlike all others I have yet met with,
have no settled homes, but are hunters, and live entirely by
the chase. No white man knows anything of their language.
The gold-miners tell me they are very shy, especially their
women, which is as commendable as unusual among Indians.
They have no belongings beyond what they and their dogs
can carry on their backs. Their powers of endurance are
said to be extraordinary. The cold they seem to defy. The
summers are delightful. Whoever undertakes the duty of
missionary pioneer must be a great itinerant. I should
license him to a district as large as the two Provinces of
Canterbury and York, with Scotland thrown in. He must
be sound in wind and limb as well as in the faith. He must
not have a wife. During the winter a log hut will be home.
Servants will not be required, therefore accommodation for
one will suffice. As soon as the confidence of the Indians is
won, then some of the boys of the tribes can be received as
boarder pupils, and the hut enlarged to admit them. Eventually the Indians will settle down near the missionary for
part of the year, and so become civilized as well as evangelized. This work is really heroic and requires a man
inspired with spiritual fervour strongly flavoured with
common sense.
" Where to find him God alone knows at present. I pray
that he may quickly obey the King's command."
The above letter was soon followed by one telling of the
Bishop's serious illness, and of his need of change. He
determined if possible to reach England in time for the May
meetings of 1892. The following touching account is given
of the affection of the Indians for their Bishop :—
11 must tell you of a beautiful thing.    When the Indians 76
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
were no longer allowed to see me, they met every afternoon
in the church for special prayer on my behalf. Men and
women prayed in succession, eight or nine at every meeting.
They did not tell our Mission party of it, who heard of it
accidentally. I saw Mrs. Eidley slip out of the room every
afternoon, and heard her leave the house. Curiosity led me
to inquire the meaning of it. Thus I learnt of their love for
me. I knew it was there before, but not to this affecting
extent. I suppose I was weak at the time, which accounts
for the narrow escape I had from tears. It was some time
before I recovered from the melting mood. No pastor at
home could be better loved, I think."
In 1893 the Bishop wrote to the S.P.G. on his return to
his diocese from England, and an extract from the letter will
show that the maintenance of the Evangeline proving too
costly, she had to be relinquished, and passages taken in any
steamers that might be plying up and down the coast—a
proceeding which, it will be seen, was not always satisfactory!
."In the spring, as soon as the doctor thought me sufficiently recovered from a long attack of inflammation of the
lungs, brought on by long exposure to inclement weather, he
sent me off for a year's rest and change, recommending
California. But I chose the old country, and spent four
months there, of which three were spent in inactivity caused
by extreme debility.
" I returned within the six months to my post, but very
unfit for work, waiting for the healing hand of Him Who has
been more precious to me than ever before. Because I have
been unfit to buffet with storms, I have not attempted to use
my own open boats in visitation, but did the best I could
by taking my chances on the trading vessels that ply on
these waters. My own diocesan steamer, my Evangeline, I
was forced—shall I confess the truth?—by poverty to sell.
Could I have kept her, I should, I think, be hale now instead
of an invalid. I had to choose between the extension of the
Gospel, and a safe and expeditious means of keeping in
touch with our work and workers that has cost me from £200  78
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
Kitlaup Indians and whites in Gardner's Inlet, was, like
several preceding ones, a failure.
" A steamer was advertised to call there on her homeward
voyage, and I accordingly embarked. Before we reached
the entrance of this long inlet the ship had gathered up her
full complement of passengers and freight. With many
apologies the captain told me he could not then go up the
inlet (two days' sail there and back), but would proceed
thither on his outward voyage. So I was taken to Victoria,
and stayed at an hotel until she again sailed northward.
Again I embarked. On the voyage we met with frequent
storms which detained the ship at various anchorages, and
just before we reached the entrance of the inlet again the
captain made his apologies, saying that he was extremely
sorry (as he really was) he could not proceed to the head of
the inlet, because of the impatience of the crowd of passengers
to reach their destinations farther along the coast.
" I was set down eventually at the same point from which
I had embarked, having sailed 1,200 miles, wasted nearly
a month at sea or in an hotel, and spent about £20!'
The Bishop succeeded in reaching England just before the
Anniversary, but his stay was a very brief one. In September of the same year, 1892, he returned to his diocese.
The year 1893 was marked by much blessing along the
Naas Eiver. At Kincolith there was a great increase of
earnestness, manifested in a desire of the Christian Indians
to reach their heathen brethren. The work begun in the
winter was continued when Archdeacon Collison followed
them to the spring fishing. Many were brought in, backsliders reclaimed, and permanent results followed the efforts
made. No wonder that the good news so rejoiced the
Bishop's heart that it improved his bodily health, rendering
him once more able to resume active labour. He wrote in
July of that year :—
" It would not be fair for me to tell you the good news I
have heard from the lips of our brethren in the North Pacific  8o
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
m-
on the Naas Eiver, where the Christians have been powerfully energized in trying successfully to win the Heathen for
Christ. From time to time written accounts reached me
and cheered my seclusion as with spiritual tonics.
" The joy of these tidings, I believe, really improved my
health, which you know has been broken for about two
years. During the winter I have been an unwilling prisoner,
so that the pastoral care of this place has been entirely in Mr.
Gurd's hands, and they have been efficient. This enforced
seclusion has been ordered for the best. The discipline
must have been required or it would not be imposed by the
Divine Bishop of souls. No longer do I impatiently chafe
as a caged bird, though I am glad to be on the wing, set free
to go and come by the same kind Hand that shut me in.
" Sympathy is very sweet, and of this I have had
innumerable proofs. But my weather-tanned face and
hands hardened by the paddle make no further claim.
Since April my writing-desk has been rarely opened because
of my constant voyaging. My fingers, lately so thin and
pliable, now are stiff and scarred and blistered. On the
twenty-seventh anniversary of my wedding day I paddled
sixteen hours in steady rain, and during the week's
travelling slept two nights in the bottom of the open boat
anchored close in shore. As I dozed I was startled by what
I at first thought was a steamer's whistle, but it was only
the buzz of a bold mosquito exploring my ear, which I
smartly boxed to kill the poisonous intruder. He did me a
service, however, for, being wide-awake, I became conscious
that on my right side my blankets were soaking in the rain
water that accumulated in the boat. Wringing them out, I
tucked them more tightly round me for the night, and next
day, on my arrival at Kincolith, Mrs. Collison hung them
round her kitchen to dry.
" I  can   scarcely realize that I am the same man that
/spent the winter months watched and tended as an invalid.
It has its advantages, for though often weary with bodily
infirmity I was able to devote an average of six hours daily New Work and Old.
.81
to linguistic work, which has already proved valuable to my
brethren, and will be yet more useful to new missionaries.
As long as I was able to follow my out-of-door episcopal
work I could make no leisure for the literary department, so
God enforced the leisure, and it has borne as good fruit as
the most active winter I have ever spent in this country.
" Another effect of seclusion is in keener sensibilities and
perceptions towards Nature as showing forth the glory of
our God. Long absence enhances the delights of once
more wandering among the sweet solitudes of forest, and
river, and ocean. How many voices harmonize in the
concert of praise ! The birds are envied no longer, for I
have wings, too, stronger and more than they. The mountain ridges stoop down, not only to faith, but to fancy and
imagination to form the substratum of the mountain of the
Lord's house, with the ensign of redemption crowning all.
" I must add yet another pleasure I have enjoyed, and that
is the meeting amid their work our honoured brethren who
are God's instruments in winning souls and building up His
Church in regions where a sympathetic visitor is welcomed
as an angel of God.
I' How little does even the true Church, much less the
crowd of self-centred Christians and the world, know of the
travail and joy of the missionary ? Not that he thinks of
this; his one concern is his work, a commerce directly
between him and his Master, Who makes His servant's life
as full and complete as may be possible amid the city's
concourse, and much more healthy. It makes him self-
contained, and this tends to make him reticent and to
restrain his pen when a full'record of the common incidents
of his work would be as fuel to kindle sacrifice of praise in
many a pure and devout heart at home. Often do I wish
they would write just what they tell me, for though it is the
fruit of faithful endeavour, it has the bloom that only the
sunshine of heavenly grace can paint.
" The real romance of Missions is not yet written, and
never will be, because God's greatest works  are like the
G 82
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
diamond and dew—perfected in the secret places of the
Most High, and await the great day to reveal them. Then
will they go to swell the praises of eternity. God is a true
economist, giving sufficient but not wasting His grace on us,
shedding gleams of His glory now to cheer, but concealing
more in order to reveal it when He shall have accomplished
the number of His elect.
" Earely do I write of those who die in the Lord, because
a consistent life is a greater triumph than a happy death ;
but the latter is sometimes worthy of remark. The most
inclement winter we have ever known here has been wonderfully conductive to health. At our Naas Eiver stations not
a death occurred. Here we lost a young man who had been
long ill. The day he died he asked for writing materials,
and though he was in a state of exhaustion he intended to
write a letter to his brother living on the Skeena. So he
wrote, ' My dearest brother,—I am going to Jesus, and I
want you to come." His task on earth was done ; he could
write no more.
" An old chieftainess, a woman of great force of character,
who gave to the Society the land on which the Mission
premises are built, had been ailing for more than a year, and
after much suffering passed away. Just before she died,
after having lain many hours in silence, she began to recite
the Apostles' Creed in Zimshian. Her strength failed
before she could finish it, but she proceeded, I believe, as far
as ' He sitteth at the right hand of God.'
" At present nearly all our staff are concentrated at the
mouths of the Skeena and Naas Eivers, ministering to all
classes of people engaged in the great industry of canning
salmon for foreign markets. Formerly as the Indians dispersed from their winter homes the missionary remained
behind and ministered only to the mere handful of feeble
people unable to accompany the rest on their hunting
expeditions.    Half the year was spent in a solitude.
In 1886 I outlined a plan of following the people.    Now
the rule is that the whole year is economized.    Services and' New Work a?id Old.
83
school work go on with redoubled energy. Already is plainly
evident the solid results of this continuous labour. Our
young people are steadier and the children more advanced.
Formerly they forgot in summer what they learnt in winter,
and so the work had to be done over and over again. Now
there is a marked contrast between the behaviour of our
Christians and others, so the employers of labour say, and
of course we see it yet more plainly. Our school children
are far advanced beyond all others. I am most glad to hear
and see such testimonies.
" Dr. Ardagh, from Essington as headquarters, is expected
to regularly visit all the other little fishing towns, so render
ing good service. The work is arduous. Mr. Gurd has been
most successful at Claxton, where he has been instrumental
in building a very pretty and substantial church to seat 150
persons. The S.P.C.K. has kindly made a grant of £20
towards it. Mrs. Gurd's activity has largly contributed to
the success. Miss Dickenson and Mr. Keen, in succession
after Miss West, and now Mr. and Mrs. Hogan, have worked
at Sunnyside, chiefly among the Indians, who came over
annually from Mr. Duncan's ill-fated station in Alaska to
work in this diocese. Many of them call on me and behave
most courteously. They deplore the blunder they made,
and cannot understand why they may not be allowed to
enjoy the privileges their brethren here possess. Not only is
the Holy Communion forbidden them, but also Baptism.
Several infants of theirs were baptized by Mr. Gurd. Last
week they asked Miss West to write to Mr. Duncan on their
behalf to obtain his consent to her instructing their children
with ours.
" Miss West has spent already three months at the
Inverness fishery, where she has won many hearts. Until
Sunnyside could be supplied she held school there once a
day and once at Inverness, rowing her own boat over the
mile and a half between the two places. Swift are the tides
and often difficult the landing on the slippery rocks ; but in
all weather she pursued her steady course, so that she has 84
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
become an expert sailor, handling her sixteen-foot boat all
alone as well as any man on our staff. She had it all to
learn—to her cost. Once she got into serious difficulties,
being capsized in deep and rough water, and was half
drowned before she could climb back into the boat. It was a
risk to appoint a lady to such a station single-handed where
there are some hundreds of Indians, Chinese, Japanese, and
a band of white men unaccustomed to social or religious
restraints. ; The issue has justified the methods. The sick
have been assiduously nursed, the children regularly taught
twice daily, and Bible-classes held for adults. For the
Sunday services a band of suitable Indians was organized,
and, what is more important, carefully instructed in the
subjects of the sermons. The Divine blessing has manifestly sealed these strenuous efforts with a success that
disarms criticism. At first the white men asked what they
had done to have a woman sent among them, forgetting
they had threatened (though they were idle words and not
really meant) to drown the parson if he ever came again
among them. It was the old outcry, ' Let us alone, what
have we to do with thee ? ' This is all changed now. Frowns
have been turned into smiles and rudeness to respect.
They saw how true womanliness accorded with self-sacrificing service for Christ, and therefore dropped their scornful
arguments, ashamed to use them against this type of
ministry.
" Miss Appleyard, our latest arrival, entered on similar
work the week after her arrival, and will continue it to the
close of the fishing season.
" It must not be inferred that only the unmarried ladies
actively promote the great work. The missionary's wife in
several instances resists the tendency of absorption by
domestic affairs. In these instances they have succeeded
in speaking the native language, and so become valuable
yoke-fellows with their husbands in spiritual husbandry.
But those who do not attain to this standard often prove
themselves valuable accessories in their vocation." New Work and Old.
8«
" July 26th, 1893.
" The only fiction about this is the calling it a second
letter. I wrote the former pages working till nearly midnight yesterday, and resume my task this morning because
I am in the humour, and on Friday must start again on
further voyaging, when letter writing will be impossible.
"On the 10th inst. I started to the Naas Eiver station,
vid Fort Simpson, and back. Eowing and sailing, we only
accomplished on the first day thirty-seven miles, between
two in the afternoon and ten at night. Then we had some
trouble in finding water shallow enough to anchor in, because
it was a dark night, and the narrow sea was hemmed in by
lofty mountains that added to the gloom. As soon as we
found anchorage we dropped the anchor and moored also to
the shore. It was perfectly still. At two a.m. we were
aroused by our uncomfortable position. We had not
reckoned rightly the condition of the tide at this distance
from the ocean. A further step was out of the question. I
lighted our little petroleum stove, got ready the oatmeal, and
water for the coffee. The pots we had to lash to the stove
to keep them from slipping off, on account of the list of the
boat. Then my cook took it in hand, but as our kitchen box
was under his bed boards, it was difficult to get at a spoon.
But burnt porridge is unpalatable. Stirred it must be, for
we cannot take off the pot without unlashing both. It was
too hot for a finger and too deep for a rowlock. My
umbrella stowed away for use on shore was within reach,
and after looking in vain for anything else, I handed it to the
cook, who first washed the ferrule, then stirred the porridge !
" At 2.30 a.m. we were afloat, and the sea like glass.
Fortified with our repast and prayer, we bent to our oars,
and after about nine miles' rowing got a breeze, which, as
the day advanced, grew stronger, until we had to shorten
sail, and then run before the half gale, with the crests of the
waves flush with the gunwale. On we bounded exultant,
my hand for nine hours on the tiller and eye on the stem,
the wind steadily rising, until twelve hours distant from our 86
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
weighing anchor we ran into the river at the back of Kinco-
lith, and received such a welcome that we soon forgot we
had been hungry.
"From Kincolith, next day we sailed to Echo Cove, the
summer residence of Mr. and Mrs. McCullagh. During the
fishing season they, with their little daughter, contrive to be
happy and extremely useful in a hut consisting of one room
with a narrow lean-to, as we call this kind of shed.
Wonderful parsonages some of them are ! I will suppose
your committee room is at least say 55 ft. by 28 ft. Into
that space you could set up the two parsonages at Echo
Cove and Sunnyside, my picturesque old palace at Hazelton,
and leave a choice of situations to pitch my tent on. A cabman's shelter would make a commodious parsonage by
dividing it into two parts, thus adding a luxury.
"We called' again at Kincolith on returning, where
contrary winds detained us two days, which our hosts
would gladly have seen extended to many more. This
detention gave us a chance of recruiting our strength, for the
short nights and long days induce weariness."
The last extract of this chapter, written November, 1893,
relates to an interesting opening among another tribe:—
"I have had but a glimpse of the Kitkatlas this year, but
enough to see that there is continuous progress. It is
probable that one of the first baptized of the Kitkatla
Christians will be sent as missionary to the Kitlaups. I
visited the latter in June, and found them willing to put
themselves under his instruction. They are a very backward tribe, residing at the head of one of the most beautiful
inlets I have ever seen, distant about 180 miles. Several of
them are able to speak Zimshian very well, and through
them I communicated with the rest. The chief is an
enormous man, larger than Sheuksh, who married his brother
chief's sister. I cannot but think that Sheuksh's influence
is powerfully felt for good by his brother-in-law, and this
may account for the tribe's readiness to receive a native
teacher and erect a school-house." ?_§_&
" Thunder rolls,
Yet peace is singing in their souls."
AN is immortal till his work is done." The truth
of these words is often brought home to us as we
read of the dangers encountered by missionaries in pursuance of their work—risks run, not from love of adventure, or even in the cause of science, but for the sake of
Christ and of His poor wandering sheep, of whom He said,
Them also I must bring." The Bishop's account of a
journey up the Skeena Eiver in a steamer is more exciting
than many of the contests with Nature described in books of
travel, and one cannot but praise and admire the wonderful
providence of God, Who has harnessed science to His chariot
wheels, which roll for the furtherance of the Gospel. The
Bishop wrote :—
I :; " July 27th, 1893.
' It maybe cruel to inflict further pages of manuscript on
you, but I hope and think it is not, because you must be
habituated to it. Do not be scared when I assure you that
I have not.written a line of what at the beginning I intended
to say.    My first voyage this year was to Hazelton, and that i*fc-*r"»
88
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
braced me for those that succeeded. All have been full of
the goodness of the Lord. Nine times I have ascended the
Skeena Eiver by canoe : this time by steamer. The unexpected has happened. I thought the fierce rapids would
baffle science, which has really scored a victory. Some of
the rocky impediments have been removed by dynamite, but
even now the struggle is fierce. The ship's speed of fourteen
knots an hour allows her to drop astern hopelessly. In the
swiftest places strong cables hooked to ring-bolts in the rocks
are hove in on the steam capstan, when slowly inch by inch
science masters blind force and surmounts the down rush of
the torrent.
" But the swiftness is a difficulty rather than a peril. Not
so the whirls and cross currents at the confluence of some of
the largest tributaries. At these points skill and nerve are
summoned to the contest, and exciting it really is. Let me
try to describe one such. I was in the pilot house by permission. Charley, an Indian, is at the wheel, and the captain
with his binocular surveying the water ahead. ' There she
is, that nasty Copper river. What do you think of her,
Charley ? ' asks the captain. But Charley deliberates as he
gazes on the murky torrent sweeping into the lighter Skeena.
' Black and white ' is the best English he can muster to
speak his thoughts. Like a dark arrow it sped into the
main river, curving downwards at last until suddenly
checked by some rocks which broke it into angry waves that
danced past like a living frill of foam embracing them. We
have to venture between this turbulent stream and those
grim rocks. Slowly at half-speed we creep towards the
difficulty, storing up power for use at the critical moment.
Three strong men are stationed at the wheel, which controls
three rudders close to the great stern paddle-wheel. The
steam presses 140 lbs. to the square inch. All is ready.
Fenders hang over the bow and port side. We edge up to
the cross current and the signal is given, ' Full steam ahead.'
The ship seems to leap into the torrent. Words now are
useless, drowned by the dashing water's roar.    The captain's Perils by Water.
89
jaws seem firmly locked together, his eye measuring the
water's behaviour as well as his ship's. We appear to climb
the torrent which breaks over the bow by tons per second,
making the vessel lurch ominously. Sweeping through the
water, we shall soon overcome the difficulty. Indeed no.
The rocks seem rushing on us. Eeally we are being swept
towards them. What have looked like a frill of foam, now
at close quarters looks like mad furies trying to engulph the
panting ship. To avoid them the captain offers his port bow
to the masterful current, and we are swept backward, almost
brushing the rocks on our downward drift. Failure number
one, but something learnt. We try again, and at last push
beyond the roaring torrent and steam easily over a long
reach of smooth water. Tongues wag again. The captain
drops into a chair, mops his head and neck, looks round,
showing a face puckered by a smile, and asks, ' Ain't she a
beauty ? '
" Shortly after he is again struggling through what  he
called   'the  wickedest  bit  of  all."    But  the  greater the
mm
*<
■Hi
diP
View of Hazelton. 9°
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
struggle the greater the gain until we attain our goal at
Hazelton, where the old men, looking from the bank at the
moored pioneer of science, say to one another, " It is time
for us to die." They did not realize that a force greater
than steam had reached them twelve years earlier by a frail
canoe. Then the Spirit of the living God owned the work
of His ministers, since which sixty souls have, we humbly
hope, been converted : more than that number having been
baptized, and many entered into rest eternal. At first we
had been objects of curiosity, then suspected, hated by the
medicine fraternity, then respected, and now loved, when
commerce has become an instrument and science a giant in
making a highway for our God.
"Ihad intended to bring down Mr. and Mrs. Field to the
coast to assist at the canneries before they left for England
in the autumn on furlough, but after hearing of the station
work I fully agreed that they would do better to wait until
a locum tenens could be found. I brought away with me an
Indian girl for Miss Dickenson's home, the fourth from
Hazelton. The poor child caught cold directly she reached
the wet and chilly coast, and had to be nursed safely
through a long and dangerous illness. Here it is that Miss
Dickenson's skill as a trained nurse is of so much value.
She is a most successful girls' home directress, keeping the
girls together as no one else has been able to. I thank God
for her devotion and liberality.
"At intervals the steamer stops to load fuel from the
long stacks of firewood cut by the Indians, and at every
village. Wherever there are Indians I am recognized in a
moment, and as the fuel is piled on the ship's deck I am
dispensing medicine on the river's bank, surrounded by the
sick or their attendants. Time is most precious, as the
steamer cannot afford to linger. So the Indians press
around me, pouring a clatter of woes into my ears. ' I have
a hacking cough ;' ' I have ulcers ;' ' my eyes are nearly
blind;' ' I want Epsom salts (maunum Kuldas);' ' I want
eye lotion ;' \ give me ointment;' ' my child is dying;' look! Perils by Water
9i
give liniment, all my joints are swollen;' ' this man's arm
is broken;' ' my mother is withering;' ' my heart is sick;'
etc., etc. I call out, ' Bring bottles, cups, cans, or any vessel
at hand.' The wise who had them at hand are first served.
With as much precision as under the circumstances is
possible, I dispense and direct as rapidly as I can, praying
in my heart all the time. To each I try to speak, if but one
word for Jesus.
" Scream, scream goes the steamer's whistle. I look
round in dismay, for many are still waiting anxiously. I
roar at the top of my voice, ' Hold on, captain ; wait a bit.'
Taking grace from the stopping of the whistle, I work faster
than ever. The captain is a man of heart and takes in the
situation; but time is precious, so at last the whistle screams
again. I bundle the drugs into my convenient cassock, a
sailor standing by picks up the medicine-chest and rushes
for the ship. We are off and away from the downcast
remnant, who are wailing because I left them without the
help hoped for. God help them. The next business is to
return bottles and pill boxes to their compartments, and
once more I shall have eyes for the glorious work of the
Creator. As I stand and gaze, I see outlined on the face of
Nature the forms of the sufferers, the withered limbs, the
ophthalmic eyes, the hectic cheek, and foul ulcer. But time
slowly dims the vision. Insensibly it fades, displaced by
the infinite completeness and splendour of the scene as if
displayed on a canvas hung out from heaven.
" We steam along almost under the branches of the tall
cotton-wood trees, their spring verdure reflected in the
mirror that bears us on its surface. The leafage of the
birch and maple brush our smoke stack. Across the river,
from the fringe of tender herbage to the forest-clad foothills, and beyond to the pinnacled background, built up of
lofty, snow-clad, cloud-tipped mountains, the glory of the
Lord is revealed, and one's heart is ravished with it. But
memory sketches features of faces, each line traced by un-
alleviated. suffering despite all the inspirations of Nature, Q2
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
The  contrast  starts  a  train  of thought that ends   in   a
sigh.
'' A bend in the river gives a fresh direction to these
reflections. Here stands another village, the smoke ascending from many an Indian lodge, and there rising above them
is the symbol of our redemption. What are all the voices
of Nature to the voice from the cross of Christ ? That tells
of sympathy with suffering, hope for the helpless, and escape
from sin. This small cross reveals another world, creates a
higher joy, speaks a language of its own, understood as well
by the Indian who worships under it as by me who just
before was only concerned with the skirts of His glorious
^-Se*5*m^*««^^aSE^W**__"__-*W«<HW^
M!5S3CI35Bp5)C3W«8SrCT
SSWS«^?S«^*OTf3*^M^S3»gWS3iSa«.^
1111 Mill
->*?«.
1    I      '
*^Ps§"lF^i§i§
-_-_____-)_-
Exterior of a Heathen Chief's House. Perils by Water.
93
clothing that He stripped off to wear our nature and die for
both alike.
" Here is a native teacher and one of my old boys as
schoolmaster, both of them members of the tribe they are
striving to save. Twelve years ago I left there a Zimshian
teacher I brought from Metlakatla. Now the native Church
has produced its own first stage of ministry. Three adults
during the winter were prepared by them for baptism and
are now baptized. Others are coming forward. There was
not a single Christian in the nation among any of the tribes
when I first saw them; now though only a few are found, it
is rare to find any body of Indians without some Christians
among them. On the coast from the Skeena to the Naas
Heathenism has been conquered by the Cross, and a similar
process is in progress in the interior.
"Is it not an unspeakable joy that heaven is nearer and
brighter to them than their sunlit mountains ? The sense
of this abides as tempest and calm succeed each other. The
word of the Lord that is turning light on dark souls
will endure when river, forest, and mountain shall have
passed away, and the heavens overhead be rolled up as
a scroll. Then shall the full glory of the Lord be revealed, and the immortal fruit of our mortal endeavours
be His joy and crown. ' To Him be glory for ever and ever.
Amen."
The history of another stormy voyage is given in the next
letter, written in December, 1893, but the disappointment
which it entailed must have been, to the Bishop, the most
serious part of it. After much careful preparation, the
Chief Sheuksh was pronounced ready for baptism, and he
earnestly wished that the Bishop would come from
Metlakatla, and admit him into the visible Church of Christ
before Christmas Day. The attempt was made—with what
results will be seen :—~
'' How to get there is the difficulty. Not that the
distance is great—not farther than from the Isle of Wight
to Oherbourg, or from Holyhead to Dublin.    The difficulty 94
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
springs from the inclemency of the winter, and the exposure
in a cockle-shell of an open boat, though I ought not to
disparage my Rescue. But really nineteen feet by five feet
eight beam does look small in a gale of wind in the open sea.
Just try it, my friends, across the strip of twenty-one miles
from Dover to Calais, any day in December. We are here
in yet a higher latitude, where winds are just as wilful, and
waves as high. I am getting up in years, only lately
convalescent, and too matter-of-fact to love risks and revel
in tempest as in my younger days.
'' Without exciting opposition by expressing the intention
of trying to go, I quietly got things ready. What concerned
me most was the leakiness of the Rescue through being
laid up in a loft for the winter. The wind and frost had
opened her seams, and for at least the first day afloat she
would leak through every seam like a sieve. As soon as I
was forced to divulge my secret intention, my wife's solo
soon changed to a full chorus of dissuasiveness. She said,
' 'Tis madness;' they said, ' You ought not to think of
such a thing.' She said, 'Don't go;" they said, 'Wait a
little while.' What she further said I may not say, because
I should not shine in the controversy. I never tried to
argue, because I knew my arguments would in a moment
be torn to shreds. I had my eye on a good crew of light,
wiry Indians, a good little tent of No. 1 canvas, and
provisions for a fortnight, in case of being driven by contrary
winds into the woods.
" Perhaps you do not realize that, with the mercury anywhere below zero, every drop of spray is frozen as it pelts you,
and all the water from the crests of the waves, or percolating
through the leaky seams, freezes in the bottom of the boat,
steadily increasing her displacement, and diminishing her
freeboard, which adds to our discomfort in choppy seas, and
danger in tide rips. The solitary advantage of the icy wind
is, that, being from the north, it is fair, which makes it just
possible to sail from point of departure to destination in one
day, between dawn and nightfall. Perils by Water.
95
" As long as it lasts, however, we cannot return; and if
we should be detained days or weeks, as we may be, our
chief occupation is felling for fuel the forest trees, and our
only comfort burning them night and day till the wind
changes. How delightful, say my juvenile friends. Well,
yes, they would enjoy it for half a day, perhaps until they
began to get blue when sent, axe in hand, to find a frozen
streamlet, and chop out a big block of fresh water ice to
make the coffee for breakfast! Then thaw out the bread
and butter. Look out on the sea! It is steaming like a
geyser. Take a bath if you dare. You would come out
coated with ice, and must dress before you could be thawed.
Indeed, you must wash your face with circumspection, first,
because water is scarce, and then, because you could only dry
yourself on the side facing the crackling logs. People don't
wash much in camp in the interior with the thermometer,
say, twenty degrees below zero, and a northerly blizzard.
Neither do they undress, but coil up in all the blankets
procurable on trying to sleep. Among the big trees, however, the fierce wind is not much felt, but the snow comes
down from the branches in patches flop into your frying-pan,
or on your neck. This is worse after a calm, when the
tongues of flame loosen the overhead snow from the branches.
It is only delightful to read about. When it smothers a man
who looked happy as he gazed into the fire, his countenance
changes, and, though he tries to grin after the first surprise,
he does not really like it. It does not hurt him. Cold
weather is a tonic, but has its drawbacks.
" On the very day when I had intended to call my crew
to fix terms there was a most unexpected cry of ' steamboat !' Like the snow falling into a camp fire, my plans
dissolved, and at mid-day I was on board an ugly sloth of
a steamship bound for Kincolith, thence to the Queen
Charlotte Island, and thence back to Metlakatla. The
captain was kind, and considerately agreed to return vid
Kitkatla, only half a day's divergence from his proper
course, and to give me two hours on shore to baptize the 96
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
chief. This involved a round trip of 360 miles instead of
from fifty to sixty and back, dependent on the course taken
by the Rescue, but I regarded this change of plans as
providential, and therefore eagerly came to terms.
" Away from the wharf we proudly sailed, for the sea
was smooth in the inner harbour. One hour brought us
face to face with a strong northerly wind and swell. The
old tub made her obeisance to the sea with low curtsies, but
Neptune wTas implacable. We pitched, and kept pitching
into the sea, but the longer it lasted the fiercer the battle,
and the worse we fared. The sun was setting and we were
still struggling. The elements were winning; we were
drifting astern after all our efforts. ' About ship !' was the
word. Look out everybody ! Won't she roll in the trough
of the sea ! So she did, to the clatter of crockery and the
smashing of the companion rails by the shifting of the deck
load. Back again to the outer harbour of Metlakatla, where,
three miles further in, blinked the lights, the only sign of
the town, for darkness had fallen on us. Off came some
canoes, and in them returned the Indian passengers, who
had had enough pitching and rolling for the year. Nearly
all of them had been sea-sick,.
" Before daylight next morning we weighed anchor and
again strove to proceed to Kincolith, but the gale would not
suffer us, for it had increased in violence. Once more we
put about ship and headed for Queen Charlotte's Island.
What a dismal day we had! The wind abeam enabled us
to carry a little sail to steady the ship, but with her heavy
tophamper she so rocked in the cradle of the deep that some
feared the creaking old thing would roll too far over. No
meal could be served that day. I jammed myself in a recess
of the pantry and managed to drink a basin of soup and eat
a chunk of bread. Then I robbed some unoccupied berths
of their pillows, and with them contrived in my own berth a
sleepy hollow, where once made snug, I spent the rest of
the day reading, admiring the all-round correction of
' Working Substitutes,' by his Grace of Canterbury, and the
— Perils by Water.
97
doctrinal tracery of the Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol, in
their recent charges.
"It was quite dark before we moored at Skidegate, a
distance of rather more than 100 miles from Metlakatla.
All night through the steam winch whirred as we discharged
cargo and loaded a new one. The snow was here said to be
five feet deep. It snowed all night, so that what it was
when we left could only be guessed. Next morning we
reached a harbour forty-five miles to the southward, called
Clue. Again unloading and loading day and night. The
next day the wind shifted and blew hard, so that we dared
not leave our moorings. The next night it ceased not till
six in the morning, when it moderated.
" Now then, at last, we are off in the direction of
Kitkatla, with a strong beam wind, but a heavy sea. Before
the island shores astern of us sank below the western
horizon, we sighted the tops of the mainland mountains
peeping over the eastern, but set in a saffron sky betokening
foul weather. Slowly, but defiantly, the wind backed to
the eastward, rolling up before it a heavy swell, precursor
of a fresh gale in store for us. The foresail shook, and was
stowed; higher and higher rose the swell, until the ship's
way nearly ceased. There stood the mountain behind
Kitkatla. I could locate the village to a nicety, but my
hopes of seeing it that day faded. The captain beckoned
to me. I knew what he wanted, because I had worked out
the problem myself with the fateful elements. ' Very
sorry, Bishop, I can't make Kitkatla.' ' I have known
this, captain,' I said, ' for some time, and thank you for
your goodwill in trying.'
" From Monday to Friday I have endured this useless
tossing, and the loss of precious time, and now when my
destination was almost reached, and the joy of admitting
Sheuksh into Christ's Church by baptism filled my heart,
the one word - starboard,' spoken to the man at the wheel
filled me with keen disappointment. I grudged this victory
to the wind and waves, and found a grim kind of satisfaction
H 98
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
in making up my mind to go to Kitkatla by my own Rescue
as soon as possible.
" For the present our old ship was driven before the
wind, until just as darkness began to thicken around us, we
came to a sheltering bay, and rode all night at anchor, with
the heavy gusts evoking shrill music from the rigging. At
daybreak we weighed anchor, headed for Kincolith, and
anchored off the village about nine o'clock next morning.
" I was assured of three hours ashore, and after receiving
a large number of Indians, and settling some diocesan
affairs with Archdeacon Collison, I was in the pulpit
preaching in Zimshian to a crowded congregation. How I
then grieved over the loss of the capacious new church by
fire ! The drip from the roof drove me out of the pulpit. I
stood outside it, and during my sermon shifted my position
again and again to avoid the water dropping from the
ceiling. Poor lawn sleeves, how your pride is humbled!
And the satin in the rear, how its beauty is departed! I
do hope the Archdeacon's friends will promptly help him
to build a new church. Before I returned to the ship the
Archdeacon expressed his great thankfulness, because
what I had said in my sermon was, he thought, as a
message from God, to set at rest some hurtful ideas among
the more ignorant and fanatical part of his people, which
had caused him much uneasiness. I began to see why I
had not gone to Kitkatla; had I done so, I could not have
reached Kincolith on Sunday.
" At mid-day w7e sailed for Fort Simpson and arrived at
evening service time, but found the rector there so ill of la
grippe thai) he could not take any service. Here is another
reason for missing Kitkatla, for I was able to spend many
hours at Fort Simpson. On Monday, just a week after
sailing from Metlakatla, I returned, having done what I had
not intended to do, and left undone what I meant to do,
showing how man proposes and God disposes."
The chief was baptized by the Eev. F. L. Stephenson
just before Christmas Day. CHAPTEE IX.
VISITATION   WOEK
' i Unseen a life divine
Is felt to intertwine
Their hopes with God's
design."
N   1894   the   Bishop
and Mrs. Eidley
came to England, returning to the Mission
in May, 1895. The health of the latter was failing by this
time, and the days were not far distant when, for her,
earthly toils would be over. A long letter from the Bishop
gives an account of a journey he undertook as soon as he
reached his diocese.
"Metlakatla, July 11th, 1895.
Yesterday I returned from a round trip to the Skeena
Eiver, and feel disposed to give you some account of it.
Four weeks from sailing from Liverpool we steamed into
the Skeena on the 6th of June, twenty-eight miles from
home. It was a clear morning, and before sunrise I opened
the port. The little bits of cloud set in the calm sky at
dawn might have been gates of pearl. As Chatham Sound
opened up, the sierra of the Western Isles was steeped with IOO
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
radiance by the rising sun, which was concealed from our
view by the adjacent eastern heights.
" My dear invalid was lying on the lower berth, and
could not see the blushing sunrise; but without knowing we
were near the river, recovered me from my rhapsody by
saying, ' I smell the Skeena and feel better. I must get
up.' ' Wait a little, the Claxton wharf is not more than
nine miles distant.' She really did revive, and much more
so when Mrs. Gurd came on board at Claxton to see her
and tell of all the good news.    But she soon became weary.
| Both Mr. and Mrs. Gurd looked fagged by the long
winter work at Laklan, chief Sheuksh's home among his
Kitkatlas. We spent a whole day in the Skeena, and next
morning were warmly welcomed at Metlakatla at three
o'clock. After seeing my wife, Miss West and Miss Tyte
safely landed, I re-embarked and went on to the Naas
Eiver to bring back the Archdeacon, and next day we
opened a very pretty church at Fort Simpson, on the spot
where the Gospel was first preached in this district by our
missionaries thirty-seven years ago.    Then all was dark and
savage.
a
Next came the C.M.S. Conference, and my heart glowed
with praise for all the gracious showers of blessing on all
our workers. I praised them too for their faithful labours
during my year's absence, for they richly deserved it. I
wish you could have listened to our brethen's wonderful
stories of the victories of the Cross over Heathenism. At
these conferencss there is no restraint. I get the cream.
It cannot be sent by post. We ought to have a stenographer to save the words that come from the speakers'
lips. This would fix the richness of local colouring and
prevent the revision that only polishes away the soul from
off the sentences new-born from glowing hearts. You know
the Indians say the soul is not contained within, but is
shadowlike; and the spirit is as the fragrance of a flower
within and without.
" The break up of the Conference left me in clerical and Visitation Work.
101
medical charge of Metlakatla with three sick Haidas in the
hospital. Happily Miss Tyte has had some training in
nursing, and volunteered to take temporary charge of the
patients with me as an amateur physician. After I had discharged two of the patients I decided to pay a visit to all the
canneries on the Skeena and see how our brethren fared.
11 So the Rescue was launched and left at her moorings
two days, to tighten her leaky seams. At 4.30 a.m. on the
third day I drew my blind up. A light breeze sprang up,
and away we slowly sailed for a couple of hours. The sea
was like a mirror and the sun scorching. Fortunately I had
on board my wife's old garden hat with broad brims. In
this I cut two holes and passed through them a piece of
twine, tying it under my chin to keep the structure on my
head. Of course I couldn't tie it without tying in part of
my beard, which hurt me almost as much as the clutching
of it by baby fingers when I baptize the lively ones. I wore
this thing without remembering what I had on, and a lady
who saw me thus hatted regretted she had not a Kodak! I
am rather glad she hadn't, or you might have had my poor
picture to illustrate this page.
| The monotony of our passage was relieved by the
frequent bobbing up of gentle-eyed seals ; the salmon leaping, and splashing, and glistening lustrously ; the porpoises
rolling lazily along as if on strike; eagles wheeling in great
circles or descending like a flash into the water, and
strenuously rising out of the sea with their talons gripping
a salmon whose weight taxed the bird's strength to the
utmost till it reached the bar. There I counted nineteen of
them feasting together on their prey later in the day.
"Away ahead stood two rocky islets which, when we
neared them, became alive with white wings and grey. The
sea-fowl, mostly gulls, screamed in myriads. . Let us land,'
said I. What an uproar ! ' Lots of eggs,' said my Zim-
shian, as we clambered up. It was a pleasant change to
all but the birds. Better still, we espied from the top a
blue line on the sea, a proof of a coming breeze.    So we 102
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
hurried back "to the boat, and before we could push off the
cat's-paw reached us. How it cooled our brows! My
broad brims shaded me from the sun's direct rays, but their
reflections from the sea-mirror came up from the deep to
tan us. Indians used to believe that spirits lived under
water, and during storms, especially in a tide race, caused
the trouble. Here was a sun-god, as fishlike as Dagon,
bathing in the calm deep, but the breeze brings him to
the surface. The light sparkling on the waves in the line
of the sun they call shium giamuk, or the feet of the sun.
" The only sound now breaking the ocean silence since we
parted from the birds was from the wavelets lapping against
the bow of the boat and the creaking boom. We lapsed
into silence. I was steering. Near me sat the Haida counting eggs, and beyond sat the Zimshian, one of my former
pupils who had lived under my roof nearly eight years.
' May I read? ' he asked. ' Certainly,' I replied. He was
absorbed. ' Let me hear what you read; what is it ?'
Turning the back of the octavo towards me he said,
1 Pearson on the Creed. I am reading the second article.'
So there we were borne slowly along on the broad Pacific
by the gentle breath of heaven, while an Indian, whose
parents had been Heathen, read with intelligence to his
Bishop the proofs that' Jesus is Lord' and ' our' Lord 1 He
would occasionally stop to ask the meaning of hard words,
such as ' presage,' ' invalid,' ' economical,' ' immarcessible.'
Suddenly looking up, he asked, ' What is the difference
between attrition and contrition ? ' ' Why do you ask ? It
is not on that page.' ' Oh, I came to them in my reading
some time ago, and my dictionary said both meant " rubbing." I couldn't understand it.' ' Well,' said I,' attrition
means feeling a little sorry about some bad thing; contrition
is real sorrow for felt sin.' ' Ah, one is the crying of the
eyes, the other of the heart.' I assented. ' What are the
tripods of Vulcan ?' ' What ? ' I exclaimed. ' The tripods
of Vulcan.' ' Tripods of Vulcan,' I muttered; ' tripods of
Vulcan ; a lame dog on three legs.    Anything on three legs Visitation Work.
103
is a tripod. Vulcan was one of the gods of wThom poets
wrote nonsense. Let me see the book.' I found he had been
dipping into Pearson's Notes, and was puzzled, as was I
until I saw them. Then memory recovered. As I handed
back the book I looked round and then said, ' The wind
dies; let us row.' So we stowed our sail and our studies
together and found relief in our oars. Many of my grey-
bearded readers would have done the same if they happened
to be in a boat with Pearson on the Creed and an inquiring
youth catechizing them on his Notes.
I It was a very gloomy evening, and getting dark when
we arrived. We all had intended to spread our blankets on
the church floor, as my men did, but Mrs. Ardagh kindly
insisted on giving me some supper and offered me a bed.
Her Chinese cook, a recent convert, hearing of my arrival,
hurried back to the house and seconded his mistress's
endeavour to show me hospitality. Not until my men were
asleep, and too late to go off to my anchored-out boat for my
blankets, did I find I was turning the Chinaman out of his
bed. I felt a sort of shiver as I lay down, but the
conversation I had with him reconciled me to my situation.
" The lamp was on the floor, and the man, standing with
his back to the wall, had his face lighted up. What a study
it was ! He is a comely Celestial, with a plump oval face
and almond-shaped eyes full of liquid light and sympathy.
I sat on the edge of the bed, the only seat in the' room,
listening with grateful delight to his broken but burning
words. Would that I could reproduce them in full! He
described his visits as a Christian with another Chinese
Christian to the China-house, as we call the ugly buildings
the Chinese crowd into for the fishing season. ' I pray long
time,' he said. ' I read book of God. I read Luke to them,
15th chapter to-night. They hear it all; they smoke, they
lie down, they hear all the time, they speak not. Then we
sing hymn in China words, then plenty sing; they sing
hard. You know, Bishop, Chinaman not much know God.
Some know little, plenty not know nothing.    China country 104
Snapshots-from the North Pacific.
dark, very dark.' So he ended in a slow, serious manner of
speaking as if he remembered how the darkness felt. Then
he opened wide his arms till they touched the wall he stood
against, and began to try to express God's all-embracing
love. He looked as saintly as artist ever painted. There
was a far-offness in his eyes ; his lips parted as if unable to
express the feeling flooding his soul. Had I been a Frenchman I would have sprung to my feet and embraced him as
he tried and tried to tell me how much God loved dark
China. ' Oh, you know, you know, Bishop.' Then,
bringing his extended arms together, he clasped himself to
show how God had lifted him out of darkness into light.
Eelapsing again from his rapid utterances to slow, solemn
tones, he said, ' I know God, I love God, I love God very
much.'
" What a sight it was ! I could hardly restrain myself
from saying, ' And I love you.' 'I spoilt it by saying, ' I
am very glad you know and love God.' I think my voice
by its tone expressed more than the poor words. I hope so.
God's grace makes all races lovable. I could not but
reverence this Chinese servant because of his beautiful
confession. I kept awake many hours meditating on the
transforming power of this grace and love. I no longer
envied my men the church floor.
"The Chinaman waited on me most assiduously, and I
found on embarking that he had prepared for my dear
invalid a delicacy, because, as he said, Mrs. Eidley ' not eat
too much,' meaning that she had a very poor appetite. His
last words were to commend my new Chinese servant to my
sympathy, saying, ' He know God only very much little, but
by-an'-by know Him more and be very good Chinaman.'
His great object was to stimulate me to take a spiritual
interest in my servant.
" Away we went, rowing out of the river with the remaining ebb tide and into the offing, until by close sailing we
could lay on our proper course back to Metlakatla, thankful
for all God had shown us." Visitation Work.
io
The following letter, dated Metlakatla, January 17th, 1896,
is a long one, and is particularly graphic in its description
of the Indians. It contains an account of the Bishop's
visitation, and of the steady advance which he found along
the entire line.
" No missionary can be dull among the Zimshian Indians,
unless failing in his duty he keeps them at arm's length.
Where they give their confidence they give no rest. They
have an alertness of mind and purpose which forbids stagnation. This is my seventeenth year among them, and yet
I rarely pass a day without hearing something of interest
or being presented with some strange problem to  puzzle
over When news of the Ku-cheng massacres came,
how pitifully these Indians at our daily prayers besought
the Lord to have mercy on the Chinese ! ' Say again, dear
Jesus, " Father, forgive them, for they know not what they
do." Oh, gracious Spirit, Thou art not quenched by blood.
Let it make Thy garden soil strong to grow Chinese
believers in.'
" At home great orators are rare whose lips drop wisdom;
the rest of us tremble with self-consciousness when forced
to hem and haw. Out here all adult Indians, like the fearless wild flowers everywhere, blossom out at a moment's
notice in ready and florid speech with becoming modesty.
I do not deny the inconvenience of this fine gift when the
listener's time is precious, or his breakfast interrupted
through its exercise. For instance, this very morning
twenty-six Kitkatlas (counting, like them, the small boy as
nobody) were just about to embark in their canoe, when, as
as an afterthought, the chief, Sheuksh, sent up a few of his
leading men to ask some questions and obtain a written
introduction to a distant band of Indians they were about to
visit, as I shall relate.
" The breakfast begun must wait. We are not here to
eat, but to work. Having satisfied my untimely visitors, I
returned to chilled coffee and porridge to finish it while
discussing with my Indian churchwarden, who had just then io6
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
come in, how to go on with the church roof repairs now that
two of the sheets of zinc had sunk in deep water between
the ship and the wharf. On the entrance of the bride of the
week he withdrew. Three Kitakshans from the Skeena
Eiver awaited her departure to ask for my sanction to a new
branch of the diocesan Church Army. Every detail must be
gone over.    To urge brevity increases prolixity.
" This is the way they proceeded after a respectful preface : ' Chief, the work of God is no light thing. All parts
are weighty. Small things are parts of large things. Little
things differ not from large in things of God. God makes
no difference. If otherwise thou wilt explain. In our
ignorance so we think, but thou art older and wiser than we.
What thou sayest we will do. Now listen, chief.' Of course
I listen.
" Among other greater things such questions as these
were put, ' When praying in the street must we kneel when
it is muddy?' 'Look out for the clean spots,' was my
reply. ' We will never look on strong drink, but must we
give up tobacco ?' ' I do not smoke; you are free men.
Drunkards do not enter heaven. Nothing is said about
smokers. I cannot afford it.' 'Now, chief, we ask no
trivial questions. When we are ready to burst with emotion
may we find relief in crying out in church "Amen," or
" Alleluia " ? ' This I saw to be Salvationist infection, and
asked, ' Do you know the meaning of those words ? ' j No.'
* Then don't say words without meaning. God looks for
sense from men and noise from dogs. Say aloud the responses, for relief.' ' May women preach in a loud voice on
the streets ? ' ' Yes, if they speak wisely.' ' Then, why not
in church?' * Because St. Paul says "No."' 'Suppose
men on the street laugh at us ? ' ' Pay no heed.' ' Suppose
they make a row in our house-meeting ? ' ' Turn them out.'
1 May we appoint men to do this ? ' ' Yes, the strong and
good-tempered ones.'
" While this colloquy was going oh there came in one of
our lady workers for consultation, and before concluding the Visitation Work.
doctor came on business.    He departed as an Indian entered
to explain that he gave his wife a black eye in play by «
accident.    She agreed, and I found it was true.    Only once,
and then in the delirium of fever, have I known an Indian j
strike a woman, and then, though blameless, his fellows j
degraded him from his chief-constableship.
" A widow has just one word to say. ' Chief, Thunder
wants to marry me. What do you ^think? ' ' Well,' said
I, ' do you love him ? ' 'I hardly know.' ' Does he love
you ? '    'I hardly know.'    ' Then don't.'    ' Chief, I won't.'
" When I resolved to write to you, the two main ideas
were to exhibit the spiritual energy of our new converts and
also the spiritual activity of our younger Indians of the
second generation, baptized in infancy and trained as
Christians. The latter we have no right to expect to be
more zealous than the corresponding class at home. But
we shall see.
"As I write I am constantly interrupted by Indians.
Since I wrote the last paragraph an Indian entered. Excommunicate for a long time, she is now penitent. I could
read her deepest thoughts almost at a glance. She poured
out her soul in burning words. ' I last night knelt before
God confessing my sin after five months' misery in the
dust. God knows all, and you know part of my shame.'
'Yes,' said I, 'do not tell me more. I know enough. I
know also the cleansing power of Jesus' blood on all sin.'
She began again by saying that the whole day would be too
short to tell of all her sin. There she broke down. I said
the comfortable words in the Communion Service, and by
God's own Word ministered absolution to this broken heart.
Eecovering her composure, she said, ' There are crumbs for
dogs; one has dropped from your lips, and I find it sweet
to my heart—sweet, sweet.' She quite broke down again,
but found relief in tears. I knelt beside her and prayed,
then rose, took her hand, and said softly, jj The Lord hath
put away thy sin ; go and sin no more.' By this time she
has reached her home I think, restored, forgiven.    You will io8
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
The Saw Mill.
not mind this digression I hope. Now I can confidently say
that in this whole community, where we have eighty-six
communicants, there is not a single drunkard, thief, or
unclean person. Ever since I returned from England I
have prayed for this one now standing in God's light, her
withered heart absorbing it.    Glory be to God !
" My last visitation was complete excluding Massett,
which I could not find means to reach. I have travelled
more during the last half-year than in any previous year.
" Arriving at Aiyansh, on the Naas Eiver, after inspecting the Indians' steam saw-mill on the opposite shore two
miles below, I climbed up the steep bank, expecting to find
Aiyansh as I last saw it, but it was nowhere to be found.
I stood in speechless amazement. All things had become
new. Instead of the old narrow trail in front of a single
row of huts, I saw fine broad roads, with really beautiful
cottages dotted about, set in the lovely autumnal foliage,
each with a large garden separating house from house so Visitation Work.
109
widely that a fire in one could not damage its next
neighbours.
" The little old Mission-house, built, I think, and furnished
by Mr. McCullagh himself, was quite lost amidst the well-
planned adjuncts. Within and without it is now a perfect
model. I wish I had such a dwelling, and see why we must
not covet our neighbour's house.
" The house stands close to the river's bank. Looking
from it northward, the lofty mountains hedge in the intervening rich plain called Aiyansh, meaning evergreen; before
me stretched the long new road ending at the church under
construction. It has a deep, broad ditch on either side,
from which the soil cast up makes a roadway that must be
always dry. The trees, hewn into square sills, lie on the
ground ready for making the side walk. It is, I think, or
will be, the best piece of road-making in the diocese. The
women did it all of their own free will to make it easier for
1L ---_-^^w_J _*-_£•*    vjI&L^.. ~<~*^.L'...*:„  ' ..« . ...Av
*hsr$zz-~s
;t GrRIST  FOR  THE  MlLL  new buildings, private and public, expressed the ideas of a
single mind. It is a model village, planned by an artist's
eye and pleasing in every feature. It expresses the thought
of a Christian, the civilization that springs from the resurrection, apart from which in our day solid progres is impossible.
Let those who deny it disprove it. They lack the motive
power for experimenting, and discharge their theories, like
blank cartridge, into our camp harmlessly.
The Indians themselves bear the entire cost of this
material advance. The saw-mill is theirs, and they alone
work it. All is done by them excepting what Mr. McCullagh
does in designing and superintending. Not one penny of
C.M.S. money has been spent excepting on the first Mission-
house. The Government gave a grant to the school, and
the S.P.C.K., I hope, will grant £50 towards the church. 112
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
All the rest is done by the people on the spot.    Nor is this
a singular instance; it is the rule.
" In travelling on the river I stop at every village. In the
Christian villages one meets troops of healthy, well-clad
children who fearlessly meet our gaze. The dwellings are
either new or in good repair, and full of modern furniture;
the gardens fenced in; the roads not mere tracks. One sees
signs of comfort, cleanliness, and ambition; one hears the
school-bell and whir of the sewing machine, and after the
day's work is done music right and left, unless downed by
the volume of sound from the public hall, where the band
practises each week-day evening almost all the winter
through.
" The Heathen are dirty, rugged, dispirited, and jealous of
the Christians. To avoid treading in filth one must walk
on the crooked trails with circumspection. The children
stand at a distance huddled together. I have seen two, even
in the biting blast of winter, wrapped in a single piece of
blanket, their only covering! The houses are rotting,
propped up, and patched. Squalid within and dismal
without, they truly show the moral and physical condition
of their ignorant and superstitious inhabitants. These cling
with a passionate resolve to the yaok, or potlach. ' That is
our mountain,' say they, ' our only joy, dearer than life. To
prison and death we will go rather than yield.' Yet this is
their ruin. It is impossible to heighten the contrast between
the Christless and the Christian people of the same tribes.
Great is our present reward in seeing the elevating, as well
as saving, effects of a pure Gospel. The things endured in
the process are forgotten in the joy that abideth.
'' The spiritual state of the Christians compares most
favourably with that of the whites. We missionaries know
each member of the community intimately, and grieve at
any lapse from a standard that would be impossible at home.
These Aiyansh people and those of Kincolith, Christians of
much older standing, are zealous in extending the Gospel.
A band of volunteer preachers from each place go
among  ii4
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
the Kitikshans over the winter trail for a hundred miles
each way at their own charges. No one sends them or pays
them, nor have they any other object in going than to preach
the Gospel. This tests their devotion and self-denial in
great reality. Nor are these itinerations without fruit, as I
will now show.
"In July, 1895, I was visiting the upper Skeena, and
some Indians from Gishgagas, sixty miles north-east from
Hazelton, who had heard those preaching itinerants, begged
me to send them a teacher; and, to impress me more with
their need, got some one to send me a written petition from
nineteen chiefs and principal men.
" After treating it as Hezekiah did the Assyrian's letter,
I thought it right to rely on the money specially contributed
by some friends of the Society for extension work. At
Hazelton was Mr. E. Stephenson, who had been locum
tenens for the Eev. J. Field for the past year. He had done
well in the language, and now had been working in the
Society's Missions in the diocese about three years. As
soon as I asked if he could venture on so arduous and distant
a work, he said he was ready to go anywhere he was sent,
and do his best at anything he was required to try. I bid
him go and God-speed. There he is now alone, sternly
enfolded by the strong arms of the most violent winter we
have had for many years. The Gishgagas tribe is the flower
of the Kitikshan nation, and I hope will soon be won for
Christ. ' Speak unto the children of Israel that they go
forward.'
\' Last Friday the mail steamer arrived from the south at
four o'clock, and brought news picked up by the way of
Sheuksh's death. A cartridge swept into the fire, exploded,
it was said, and hit him fatally in the forehead. I was so
grieved that my thoughts turned to a visit of condolence to
his tribe. At six o'clock two Kitkatlas came just as we
were about to sit down to dinner and announced the arrival
of the chief.. It sounded ghostly. I went.and found him
standing outside the door.    Taking him by the hand, I led ■HII>'| ■ ii n6
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
him bodily in and gave him a seat at my table. I said to
his crowd of followers, ' The chief will eat with me ; provision will be made for you elsewhere. You will meet the
chief at prayers.' I found that four men had been injured
by gunpowder on New Year's Day.
4' Sheuksh behaved as if he had been born to the use of
knife and fork. As soon as I had told him of the false
report of his death, he said, ' The steamer is at the wharf.
If you will write I will send a letter to my brother chiefs to
turn away their grief for my death.' So in the interval
between dinner and prayers, he dictated these words:—
(Translation.) ' Be not sorrowful; I am not dead, most
certainly not. I salute you in the name of Jesus. Further
I say this, I am on my voyage of reconciliation to
Lakgagugwalumamsh. Greet all the brethren and all the
chiefs, I pray you. Carefully lead your people into the way
of God.—W. E. G. Sheuksh.' §
" Last month I spent some days among the Kitkatlas,
going by the steamer that was bound there, for a wonder,
and returned by a hired sailing boat. On board the steamer
I met an accomplished man on his way to Victoria, and
greatly appreciated his society. He was a professor travelling for the furtherance of science. Before we arrived at
Kitkatla he told me he had visited all the Presbyterian
Missions in Alaska and the Missions of the Methodists and
of the Church along the coast in this diocese. After very
careful inspection he came to the conclusion that our system
is the best for the natives, as it elevated them all round,
besides taking special pains in education. I was not aware
he was a Methodist at the time, and value his testimony the
more highly because unlikely to lean in our favour. Great
was his surprise as we first saw the Kitkatla village. Only
about half of it could be seen from the ship's deck, and ye
there in sight stood twenty-four new houses being built,
and on a spur in a fine situation stood the frame of a substantial church roofed in, and men busy working at it. I
grant I was highly pleased, but my companion was profuse
ny Visitation Work.
117
in his admiration. ' Such a sight I never saw,' said he;
• that is astonishing !' In a short time the Kitkatlas came
off in great numbers. ' What fine fellows these are! I
never saw such a bustling set of Indians in my life. I
congratulate you, Bishop.' These and many more such
appreciative remarks were made by my friend the professor,
which were fairly deserved by what he saw.
" Many were my engagements while there, among them
the confirmation of twenty-eight adults.
" These Kitkatlas are the best hunters in the province.
On their return from otter-hunting they hung up three of
the best otter skins in the old church as a thank-offering to
God. They sold for £50 apiece. Besides this they subscribed nearly $700, or £140, for the new church, and are
giving then* labour without wages in its erection. In
addition, they collected cash to buy food for the builders,
and the women cooked it for them.
" What a life these people lead their missionaries, Mr.
and Mrs. Gurd! They are not expected to be ever tired, or
resting, or doing anything that is not for them and the work
among them. The great stress would quickly kill men in
tropical climates.    Happily this is exceptionally fine.
- ■ You now understand how they can start off on a long
canoe voyage, spending at least a fortnight away from home,
and that in the very depth of a severe winter unusually
stormy in order to obey what they felt a call from God.
They are the same men who about ten years ago burnt
down the church, drove away the missionary, and blasphemed
the sacred name. ' Old things are passed away; all things
have become new.' " Scholars at Fort Simpson (Bee 'page 120).
CHAPTEE X.
EEGIONS BEYOND,
I To-morrow God will show the way."
IN British Columbia missionary work has been carried on
inland by means of the rivers, which, as roads are nonexistent, are practically the only means of transit. In this
way the Naas and Skeena Eivers had been utilized for the
carrying of the Gospel message, and the Stikine Eiver,
further north, had, it will be remembered, also been
attempted. However, the time had come when more definite
efforts were made to reach the Stikine Indians, and the
remaining letters will chiefly have to do with this extension.
The Bishop writes with enthusiasm of the natural features,
and also of the adventurous life which he had to live in
those wilds;—
***- Regions Beyond. 119
"Metlakatla, Aug. 18th, 1896. J
"Have you not found that the 'regions beyond' are
always an attraction to missionaries ? Thirty years ago I
chafed behind the frontiers of the Punjab, as if the British i
side had not difficulties enough! Then the spirit of
adventure bred in British bone might have had a large
share in this yearning to go forward; but now I am too old
to be carried away by that—I had nearly added ' that
nonsense.' It is not nonsense, however, but a national
quality God has implanted for set purposes. A worn-out
charger puts on war-like airs in his paddock at the bugle's
call, and we applaud his quenchless spirit. So I fancy even
worn-out missionaries will say in their hearts, ' Go ahead,
boys,' as they see in young soldiers of the Cross a desire to
break through old lines right and left.
"It is for Committees to restrain undue ardour, not
quench it. I am neither young nor worn out, but seasoned
by long service, and therefore I write under responsibility
when I state a case for extension. Secretaries and Committee-men will shake their heads and smile; but let the
readers of this letter only send them the money or money's
worth, and then they will smile as they vote extension.
"I want an enterprising but determined bachelor, very
self-contained, yet full of the Spirit as the chief qualification.
He will want a log-cabin first, and later a larger building
for church and school purposes. Within a few weeks he will
do as another did when he showed me his hands blistered
through using his axe. I could only comfort him by saying,
if he stuck to it his hands would harden. The language
will be the sooner learnt without a wife to pity him. A
little but increasing knowledge of medicine will add to his
value.
I This is just the post for a man of private means. How
I shall welcome him ! How much, do you ask ? Say £150
a year—a little more if he be dyspeptic the first year. Then
a little less, because he will eat anything, unless there
should be a doctor about with his awful yarns.    A bacteric 120
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
and germ-hunting doctor is a nuisance in a climate where
bacteria go a-begging and starve on ozone.
'' But suppose some reader can on a pinch lend to the
.Lord £150 per annum, and so support a substitute !    Would
this  not  be  something   tangible  for the  Master's  sake?
Something must be done, because prayer will not cease, and
this is the modus operandi of all our extension.
" When I began to write I had no intention of making
this appeal, which makes me hope it comes from above.
My sole intention was to describe my recent journey into
the regions beyond. In April last I left home for a visit
to the headwaters of the Skeena Eiver, and returning on
May 18th, stopped here twenty minutes to exchange some
clothing. Then I started for the Stikine Eiver, about 190
miles to the north-west.
We stopped first at Fort Simpson, twenty miles distant,
where I preached twice and held a confirmation. Our course
then lay across a good stretch of ocean, so that, because the
steamer was intended for river navigation, we had to wait
for a smooth sea before sailing. In fine weather the rule is
for the westerly wind to calm down at night; so we started
soon after midnight. Off we sailed under the stars and dew,
extracting phosphorescent light from the deep by our great
stern-wheel. There was a long but easy swell, into which
we plunged at twelve miles an hour, holding forth as by an
invisible hand an arc of light amid the sparkling foam from
our bows.
'' By sunrise we had turned from the ocean into one of
the Alaskan channels northward, formed by countless
islands. Here, though it was twelve miles wide at first,
the swell began to subside. By the time we had neared
the eastern shore it was impossible to distinguish the mountains' feet bathed in the still sea from their imprint, except
by halving the beautiful picture—half reality, half reflection.
" Then Zephyrus, waking up, made of the surface a
palimpsest, writing on the picture of earth the characters
of heaven.    The myriad ripples removed the mountains, that
A Regions Beyond.
121
a path of golden brilliants might be paved by the sun to run
his race over. God's Spirit is doing greater things than
these over the sea of life.
" We had to run out of our course into a sheltered bay in
Mary Island to clear at the U.S. Custom House; then
crossed the broad channel to a white spot on the shore of
Annette Island, where the Zimshian colony migrated in
1887. The whiteness turned out to be a noble-waterfall,
alongside which we moored to fill our water-tanks. Away
again at a rattling pace over the laughing waves that the
west wind piped to louder as the day advanced.
" The sky was cloudless, but its lovely blue was rivalled
by the ultracerulean of the sea. The gulls, making merry
in and out of our smoke and steam, never failed to examine
any fragment dropped overboard. Great eagles, alarmed,
bent the boughs from which they took flight. Bears are
now in season, and abound; wolves troop after the deer;
whales spout and dive, raising high in the air their broad
tails before they sink with a gurgling splash; porpoises
rollick beside us without dreading our stern-wheel, which
would mangle them without mercy. I used to pity the
halibut when I saw it fighting the voracious dogfish, but
since I found the latter's backbone in the other's stomach I
pity neither.
" Islands everywhere, with their tops snow-clad in May !
Not a rood of turf anywhere, or an open glade, or a level
spot big enough for bowls. Trees stretch their branches
over the waves by which they are kept in trim—trees right
away to the snow where Christmas lasts the whole year—so
many trees that you wish Nature were less bountiful in
clothing these steep mountains standing out of the great
deep. Whether the green is grey or the grey green, I cannot decide. The only variation is where the deeper soil of
the valleys nourishes the bigger trees, which are doubtless
green; so that the vast forests are only veined by the
narrow valleys or ravines, where the deep shadows are
almost black. 122
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
" Night falls over the again calm sea, and now, instead of
the reduplicated shore and the powdered peaks photographed
on the burnished surface as they were at sundown, the dark
reflection in-shore would be sombre, but for the elastic stars
floating on the ebony mirror, the counterpart of all but the
fixity of the starry splendour above.
1 Tired with watching the varied moods of God's handiwork, we thankfully moor alongside the wharf at Fort
Wrangel. There we take on our cargo and a large number
of horses for our destination at the head of navigation on
Stikine Eiver. Half-way across to the river's mouth, as we
steam along, wTe see anchored off the only salmon-cannery,
a full-rigged ship that lately brought the workers and
materials. By-and-by she will ship the produce of their
summer work, and sail away to distant shores.
" A few hours' steaming takes us through the U.S. territory into our own. The entrance to the river is encumbered
with vast sand-banks, so that we could not pass over until
high water, and then by a passage so tortuous that only a
local pilot knows the shifting windings.
I Our pilot from Fort Wrangel was a wizened old Indian
shaking with palsy, and so impressed with the importance
of his temporary charge that he bought a new suit of
clothes with the money to be earned. So small was he for
his garments that they seemed to be nearly empty. He
posted himself opposite the big Zimshian quartermaster at
the wheel, who, as soon as the bar was crossed, steered his
own course, much to the disgust of the new suit of clothes.
'' What a vista in mountain snow-land burst on us as we
turned into the first long reach of the river ! Eange after
range abutted on the river, so that the valleys opened to us
as we steamed past, each with its glacier, giving the mountains an appearance of a serried line of gigantic sentinels
guarding the avenue, rather than a magnificent defile opening into the treasures of the snow.
"At Wrangel, in the one poor little garden, I saw there
were daisies and pansies, lettuce and radishes.    The willows The Stikine River, showing Floating Ice.
on the river's mouth were putting on their spring verdure,
three weeks later in the season than the Skeena I had
lately left, which had then arrayed itself in summer attire.
" In the space of two hours we had left all this behind
and plunged again into winter. Not only were the mountains all snow-clad, but the islands and sand-bars were
buried to the water's edge. As we proceeded, deeper and
deeper was the covering, until it was six feet thick.
" About fifty miles from the entrance, after passing many
lesser glaciers, we reached the largest, where we donned
our overcoats and shivered. The timber dwindled as we
approached it until it became a mere scrub under its shadow
—again it became stalwart as we left the sprawling monster
behind. The present right bank was the former edge of
the moraine—now the glacier has receded 400 yards, and is
still shrinking, though its curved face measures fully three
and a half miles, and its top edge is 200 feet above the 124
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
river. It issues from the broad valley about fiYQ miles
back, and is spread out like a fan on a bed of its own
making. It is said (but I doubt it) that with all its ramifications the ice area of this one glacier is equal to 200 square
miles. The scattered granite boulders, often as large as a
room, found many miles from their first bed, testify to the
former desolation.
" The strange thing was to see the aspen growing on the
river banks, standing out of deep snow, opening their buds
and looking like pale gold from a distance. With icy water
percolating round their roots, snow above, and an atmosphere in the daytime nearly to freezing point, they were
still true to the call of their Easter summons. Dauntless,
hopeful children of God, what a lesson in faith ye teach us !
" After passing through the coast range, the birthplace of
snow, the scene changes as if by magic. On the eastern
slopes summer like a queen reigned supreme, less than fifty
miles from the throne of winter in the same merry month
of May. f f;' -#
" On arriving at our destination, 180 miles from the
coast, I saw strawberry blossom and other flowers in bloom
on the 23rd of that month. The mountains were much less
lofty than the coast range, and free from snow. Three
days' steaming against an average current of six miles an
hour, but often swifter, took us not only into bright sunshine, but so hot that I was glad to wear a straw hat on
shore, and in the daytime spread my blankets over my stout
little tent.
" One evening after we had moored to the bank a huge
bear came down the mountain to inspect us. A bevy of
our sporting passengers rushed to their cabins for their rifles,
and began stalking the brute until they got within seventy
yards. Poor beast, I thought, your tough hams will soon
simmer in the galley ! Seven deadly weapons are emptied
at his feet! Forward rush the sportsmen, each sure he sent
the fatal bullet! We, the lookers on, saw the dust peppering poor bruin, till he scuttled nimbly round a rocky point, Regions Beyond.
125
alarmed seriously, no doubt, but less ashamed of his flight
than were his pursuers on their crestfallen return to the
ship. After relieving themselves by graphic proofs of the
misbehaviour of their rifles—no one cared to allude to the
subject, or speak of bears. All had been too eager, and
missed.
"We ran short of firewood, which is expected to be
found ready cut and stacked on the shore, and this is how
we got supplies. Mooring the steamer alongside a great drift
pile, strong hawsers were hitched onto suitable trees, which,
by means of the steam capstan, were dragged out of the
tangled mass and piled high across our bows. Then, off we
went, and all hands set to work to saw it into four-foot
lengths as we steamed ahead, and so lost but little time.
The fire-box holds about eighty cubic feet of fuel, and is
kept full and roaring madly to supply the two six-foot
cylinders with steam at 130 pounds pressure per square
inch. In this way an incredibly large quantity of fuel is
consumed.
" In what other part of the world such weird but impressive scenery can be enjoyed from a steamer's deck I cannot
tell. The first impression causes ceaseless wonder and
admiration. One's eyes dilate as avenues through which,
as in a vision, the stately spirits of the white-robed mountains and of the circle of infinite blue troop into the soul to.
consecrate it wholly to God.
" Happily you are not bound to present my raptures to
your readers. My idea has been to, once for all, present to
them my own first impressions, which may help them and
the coming man to realize what the land is like now lying
in spiritual darkness, but which not long hence will be
bathed in heaven's light and resound with songs of praise
ascribed by Christian Indians to Him Who, before He made
the mountains, planned their redemption.
" We arrived at our destination at 9 a.m. on Sunday,
May 24th, the Queen's birthday. For the first time two
steamers  arrived  there  together,   and   began   discharging 126
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
cargo as if Sunday were Monday. It was such a race that
every man and boy that could be found was employed at two
shillings an hour ! As both ships were to leave at daylight
next day, and it was late before the work was done, I could
get no one to help me in landing my luggage and pitching
the tent. It must be done, and I had to do it, but almost
groaned over my rheumatic elbow.
" The whites are settled in log cabins facing the main
river; the Indians on the steep sides of the creek that here
falls into the river. My object was to get among the latter.
It was hard to find a level spot anywhere near, and to do
so I was forced to climb at least 150 feet above the river.
The chosen place was between three log cabins, very smelly
on account of the neighbourhood of uncivilized Indians.
There I perched beside the deafening creek. Just above
was the burying-ground, perhaps sixty feet higher, on the
edge of the flat which was formerly the bed of the river,
nearly two hundred feet above its present level. A more
picturesque situation it would be hard to find, but most
difficult of approach. To get there the creek must be crossed
by a shaky corduroy bridge, and then a climb up the steep
bank, composed of the glacial gravel, full of boulclers, that
has a trick of slipping from under one's feet or rolling down
•when disturbed. The creek had cleft a passage through
basaltic rocks, which stand half a mile back from the river
bank, and left precipices on either side a thousand feet high.
Outside this gorge the mad down-rush of water had an easy
task to sweep a narrow passage through the gravel to flow
into the Stikine.
" That Sunday morning was spent in carrying my
belongings from the ship to the spot described, and
pitching my little 10 by 8 foot tent without assistance. In
the main river valley there was a strong wind, but it was
calm in the sheltered creek; so that, besides the great heat,
there were the mosquitoes to attend to. This was difficult
with both arms employed. I think it did the elbow good,
because the pain was less at the finish than at the  start. Regions Beyond.
127
j This looked like a bad beginning of a Bishop's Sunday, and
certainly not justified by anything short of compulsion. I
believe it was an object lesson to the whites, worth the unwonted toil, for it showed that lawn sleeves do not cover
soft arms or spare them the dignity of labour.
" Now look inside the tent. At the far end lie my
blankets ; then comes a camp table and chair. Near the
door stands a small paraffin cooking-stove beside my kitchen
box, which contains pots, pans, and provisions. .Before
dishing up my dinner I gathered some beautiful flowers to
decorate my table as a reminder of home. Too busy to
prepare lunch, I had put a biscuit into my pocket and
washed it down with a draught of iced water from the creek.
You should have seen my dinner. Talk about the privations
of missionaries, you people are the ascetics ! Listen! In
my box was a piece of beef, roasted at home three weeks
before. It was sweet, but a little green with mildew in
the chinks. Eemove the mildew and slice thin. Slice two
potatoes. Pour some salad oil into the frying pan, boil it
on the stove. Arrange the sliced potatoes, to which, when
nearly browned, add the beef; make room for dropping in
two raw eggs ! By the time these are cooked your dinner
is ready. On removing the frying pan, put on the kettle,
with just water enough to pour over a tea tabloid and fill
the cup. This used, pour more water into the kettle to
warm up for washing dishes. Can the Lord Mayor beat
this ? Whoso calls this conceit must be jealous, or destitute
of honest pride in the first of arts.
" During this operation my tent is filled with little
children, whom I coaxed in and rewarded with sugar cubes.
I was also able, besides satisfying my hunger, to gratify my
visitors with fragments of my meal, which were tit-bits to
them. My hospitality was so much valued that I could not
get rid of the little brownies so as to wash up alone, and,
as they say in Yorkshire, ' side things a bit,' or in Devonshire, make it ' bitty.' There they sat watching my operations, and learning how to clean plates without letting the 128
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
dogs lick them. I regarded these live curiosities as future
candidates for school, baptism, and confirmation, and dear
dirty little things they are, raw productions of nature.
There is policy as well as kindness in all this, because if
you can win the children, they are so naturally disobedient
that the parents will not be able to restrain them from
coming, and where they go their seniors follow. After
singing to them a little, I went for a short walk, they
toddling after me, and the two biggest, following my
example, gathered flowers.
" As soon as the ships were unloaded I went down to the
tired workers and asked if they were too weary to come to
a service. At once the big store, which was full of boxes
and bales, was roughly arranged, and two lamps lighted.
All crowded in, Indians and whites. I stood inside the
counter and drew from under it an open box of soap to
kneel on. The light was so poor that I did not see the
treacle spilt on the counter and dripping from it on my
soap-box. Before I could read a Lesson I had to wipe the
treacle from my Bible on a bale of bear-skins beside me.
The light was so religiously dim that my congregation could
not read from the hymn-books I had lent them, so that I
had to sing two solos, which appears to have pleased the
Indians immensely, though they could not understand a
word.
" By the following Sunday I had made many friends,
among them a ten-year-old half-breed. He had picked up
some English by running about among the gold-miners, and
became useful in telling me the names of things in the new
language. He was more dressed than his confreres, and a
leading spirit among them. He had a bright face and a
pair of eyes sparkling with intelligence, mischief, and fun,
under the shadow of a felt hat whose brims slouched nearly
to his shoulders. The coat was man's size, matching the
trousers, which were docked just below the knee. His
boots, if laid aside, will fit him seven years hence. No
laces!    There was real cleverness in preventing all but his Regions Beyond.
129
hat from slipping from his shoulders to his feet. When on
a visit he was propriety itself, especially as to his boots. At
other times, happy lad, he owed nothing to the shoemaker
and not much more to the tailor. By becoming my shadow
he prevented others from crowding me, and was always
ready to expel the too intrusive. Had I so wished it I
daresay he would have tried to cook and chore for me, but I
prefer to be my own maid-of-all-work.
" On the second Sunday morning, before I was dressed,
he worked himself under the wall of my tent, and after he
had arranged his hat, sat in silence watching me. Then he
shared my breakfast, and finally ran off to the store with my
Bible and Prayer-book. Back he scrambled, and we started
down together, but not before he had startled me with a
shrill cry that brought a number of red-and-blue things
swiftly down the opposite bank from a height of quite six
hundred feet above us. - What did you say ? ' I asked. ' I
say,' he proudly answered, ' come, come, devils, come hear
singing man.' He often used profane language without
suspecting it was not classical English.
" On entering the store he missed the red-and-blue things,
and rushed out again, his voice dying in the distance, but
like a shepherd's dog he rounded up my flock and brought
them, Indian like, stately enough now, though panting after
the long descent from the mountains. Most of them were
young women and girls ; the old ones filed in more slowly to
hear the singing man. All listened as if they profited, but
none understood. It appealed to their religious instincts
and conveyed a sort of satisfaction that awoke a craving for
some unknown good.
" I rose with the sun next morning and saw the steamer
sail for the coast, and then returned to an early break-
_/
fast.
" Among my first visitors were Dandy Jim and his one-
eyed wife.    She had formerly lived with a white miner, for
whom he had worked, and both had picked up a strange
assortment of English.    Another visitor was a pretty half-
is: Snapshots from the North Pacific.
breed woman with her two children, one four years old, and
the younger two. She was one of those women, ladies born,
who have not to consider before doing the proper thing.
Though ignorant as any, she was refined and modest, a
genuine lily among thorns. She liked to come to see me,
but always had a female companion, and behaved like a
princess. Her partner, I wish I could write husband, lived
about two hundred miles in the interior, as agent of the
storekeeper whose store was our church. He had left strict
injunctions that whenever any clergyman of the Church of
England should visit the country his beautiful blue-eyed
children should be baptized, the two storekeepers to stand
as sponsors. This most unlikely thing happened. I had
the elder boy with me daily, and taught the little chap some
prayers with as much of the faith as he could understand,
and the day before I left the settlement I baptized them.
The mother herself at the last moment desired baptism, but
I felt that she was too densely ignorant to be admitted
into the Church without further instruction. This was
the first sacrament ever celebrated in this vast district as
large as Scotland.
" Never did I work harder than during this first visit to
the dark regions. Though I had to devote some time to
domestic duties, I spent fully twelve hours a day studying
the language, by the help of those Indians I have named
and others who were tried in succession. The material collected on paper is quite sufficient for compiling a small grammar, which I hope to prepare at my leisure for the coming
missionary. Daily I had preached to puzzled but eager
listeners ; among them some whose drunken volubility was
disturbing, and profanity disgusting. At first they liberally
offered me whisky, when I told them I never drank what
destroys the man and loosens the beast in him. You see
in what manner civilization improves the Indian without
the Gospel.    What murderers we are !
" I was a little shocked to the very last to find that my
scholars thought of God as a very good man out of sight: Regions Beyond.
13*
but they were all taking pains to learn, and did learn quickly,
considering their unfathomable ignorance.
" Dandy Jim sulked over the whisky and sheered off,
but I went to him even in his cups, so that at last he and
his wife promised with shocking oaths (in English) to ' shut
down on it.' Fortunately he got a sharp attack of rheumatism, ^wjaich brought out my medicine-chest. Though I
cannot cure myself, I relieved him through the use of that
powerful ally.
"A white man called me to see his sick woman, who was
suffering from heart disease, and she also found relief. He
was really devoted to her, and, but for the fear of grieving
his parents, would marry her. Through the capsizing of a
canoe in a rapid he was in peril of drowning, when she, a
mere girl, at her own risk, saved him from a watery grave.
' I couldn't but take her after that,' said he, ' could I ? '
" Dandy Jim had adopted an orphan boy, who, like my
other chum, was devoted tome. He was willing to give
him to me, and my first fast friend was of the same mind ;
but a few hours before I was to leave by steamer, their dread
of expatriation got the better of their ambition. Dandy
Jim finding this out, and fearing his boy would hide himself,
took away his clothes to keep him in the cabin. When I
embarked neither could be found, but about half a mile
lower down the river, as we were passing at quite fifteen
miles an hour, they emerged from the thicket and gesticulated energetically, but I could not hear their voices distinctly
because of the noise made by the engines. We hope to get
them some day.    The seed sown will grow.
"During my visit the weather was superb; a pleasant
breeze blew up or down the river daily, and the sun shone
without intermission. In the creek the heat was great and
mosquitoes active, so in the morning I used to pin my
blankets together with long thorns and arrange them on the
roof of my tent; but even then the thermometer rose to 93
degrees Fahr. inside at noon. At night I was glad to roll
myself in all the blankets because of the cold. 132
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
" The principal village of these Kaiya Dheni (or Tinne)
is twelve miles distant, but during the summer it is deserted.
To the north-west are the Tagish, and to the east are the
Kaska, or Cassiar, as miners call them.
" Physically, they are more slim than the coast Indians,
but quite as strong and intelligent. The traders tell me
they are fine hunters, and from the miners I heard that
those who worked for them were fairly industrious; so that
they are not in the state of savagery I had heard described.
" No white man has studied their language, which is
probably allied to the Athabascan family; but I found they
did not recognize any words in the Bishop of Selkirk's Tinne
translations. Here I want to post a man of God who will
love these people and seek to save them. He must have a
pioneer's spirit.
" I used to set the blue-eyed four-year-old on my knee and
tell him of the child Jesus, of His dear love and His precious
death for him. His eyes, full of wonder, were fixed on
mine, and he would say, ' Mother never told me this. Why
did not mother tell me ? ' I knew why : she did not know.
When I told him God loved him, he would say,' What is it ? '
and then, ' Where is He ? Who told Him about me ? ' 'Is
He older than you ? Did you see Him ? \ The mother was
almost as simple as her child and as ignorant of divine
things.
" I would not think of denying that there is a repulsive
side to Heathenism such as the missionary cannot but see
and feel when he becomes familiar with it. Be sure it is
no work for physically or mentally feeble men to enter
upon; it requires the best qualities the best men are endowed with.    I mean not the cleverest, but God's best men.
" In all that morals can accomplish, among all the loftiest
ambitions that burn within us, of all human activities and
glorious endeavours, there is nothing so great, so honourable,'
and so productive of results unbounded by time as the
pioneer pouring of heavenly thought into a new language
and binding new tribes to God by conscious sonship." CHAPTEE XI.
AN  ABUNDANT ENTEANCE.
This is the perfect work of God.
The late Mrs. Eidley
WE now come to a time in the Bishop's correspondence
which is too sacred for many words other than his
own. On December 6th, 1896, Mrs. Eidley, after some
time of weakness and suffering, passed straight from work
to rest, for to the last her bright example and loving words
were a blessed influence for good on all around her. What
were the depths of her courage and self-devoti6n may be
gleaned from the following extract from one of the Bishop's
letters, written a few months before her death, and published
in the S.P.G. Eeport. He had been in 1880-81 at a remote
place on the Skeena Eiver, and had returned to Metlakatla
after placing there a clergyman and his wife. He wrote :—
" They recoiled from the horrors of savage life, and to
our great surprise, at the end of one year suddenly appeared
at my house on the coast en route to England. Then (in
November) it was too late to find a clergyman to succeed
him, and a long winter's break would probably ruin the
work and prospects. Before they had been in my house an
hour I had a volunteer. She said, ' Let me go, I will hold
it together until you find somebody else.' ' Do you mean
it ?' I asked. ' Yes !' ' Then wait till morning, and we
will discuss it!' So before breakfast, being pressed for an
answer, I said, ' Yes.' 134
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
" It was difficult to get a crew to face a November
' Skeena,' which freezes in hummocks from end to end ;
but that same day, with a year's provision, we started.
... It was a dismal journey for both of us, camping and
sleeping on the snow being but the least of the discomforts.
At the end of fifteen days we arrived, and packed the provisions in the snug log house. I offered my cuew an extra
pound a-piece if they would delay their return but a single
day, but nothing would induce them to wait. So I left
her behind among Indians and miners, the only white
woman within 170 miles, and the first to ascend the river.
The isolation was complete. Events forced me to visit
England, but I had returned before she knew I had left
the diocese, and travelled 14,000 miles ! ... At the end
of a year I had found an excellent man for the new
Mission, so that I was able to fetch away my wife. The
miners said she was the best parson they ever had, and
the Indians call her ' mother ' to this day. It was a hard
time. Her entire household consisted of two Indian
schoolboys."
In the letter  announcing  his  great loss, the following
touching particulars are given :—
"Metlakatla, Dec. 1th, 1896.
"The Indians, feeling their great loss, have already
clustered round Miss West to know if she will always stay
with them, and as they put it, wear my dear one's clothes,
or as we should say, her mantle. ' I am not worthy,' she
replied, 'but I will do my best.' So she will take up the
. pastoral work, and all the classes that have lost their head
will gather round the chosen successor of her who first
formed them. Indeed Miss West is the only one here
who is competent to do these things, because she alone
can speak the Native tongue. When the Indians found to
their joy that she consented to this new order they at once
said they would love her as Mrs. Eidley's ' keepsake.'
"My darling laid down her work yesterday at 11 a.m., An Abundant Entrance.
135
leading many souls to Jesus with her dying breath.
Heaven came down to us all. She was taken to church
the Sunday before in Mr. Hogan's strong arms, when it
was noticed that she looked much changed. In the afternoon of that day she was taken into the chapel, and she
took her women's class as usual. They say she spoke to
them like a prophetess on St. John xiv. 1-7. Nearly all
are aged women and quite illiterate, but they can all repeat
the first three verses. It was her custom to help them to
commit such passages to memory every week, they repeating them after her till fixed in their wonderful memories.
In this way she has filled them with great stores of Holy
Scripture. Two of the strongest of the women brought
her from the chapel to her easy-chair in the great dining-
room. For a long time she has been unable to stand alone
or walk, but she never remitted any duty or missed public
worship, though of late she generally slept through much
of the service from sheer inability to sustain attention.
'' When Mr. Hogan came in some hours before evening
service to ask if he should take her to church, his tone was
deprecating, because he felt her helplessness in the morning ; she hesitated at first, and then rather mournfully said
she thought she would stay at home that evening. It was
not my turn to preach, but I had intended as usual to share
the service with Mr. Hogan. Then I thought of keeping
back one of the servants to keep her company at home,
but she disallowed it, saying she did not mind being alone
for*a time. I felt a secret misgiving, and finally insisted on
staying with her, and I read the service in English with
her. She said she would read one of the Lessons, but when
I found she misread a verse or two in the Psalms, which I
half thought might be attributed to failing sight, I would
not let her attempt a Lesson. I was so uneasy that I
shortened the service, and but briefly commented on the
love of Jesus for Lazarus and his sisters, and the significance of His tears. But she fastened on Him as the
Eesurrection and the Life. 136 Snapshots from the North Pacific.
" After the service the two ladies, sitting with us as usual
at that hour round the fire, became anxious about her,
though she seemed bright, but there were signs of special
effort to keep up. Before bed-time she showed great signs
of physical distress, and we tried to carry her upstairs to
her bedroom, but she fainted in our arms. I ordered a bed
to be made up for her where we were, because it is a fine
airy room, and there we laid her. When she revived we
perceived signs of real agony, which she strove to conceal.
By midnight we thought she was dying.
" She passed from that night of exhaustion, and her eye
became bright, and her conversation full of animation and
spiritual profit. Next day (Tuesday) crowds of Indians
hung round her bed, and she was delighted. Wednesday
she was a little weaker, but had a small set of fLve Indian
women in for informal instruction. Thursday afternoon
she was placed in a chair to share the Bible-reading I am
used to give to all, and she spoke beautifully on Eomans
viii. 17. All this time the chapel was full of Indians, night
and day, praying for her recovery. We could hear their
singing, and she was much touched by their love.
" That night another attack came on, and we thought
again that she was dying. After the choking was over she
desired to take leave of all. She first blessed all our lady-
workers, and commended Miss Davies to Miss West's care.
All were weeping, she alone calm. ' Kiss me,' she said to
me, and she held my face close to her, when she into my
ear privately spoke words of love and encouragement. I
can only remember, and cannot write beyond this which I
can venture on: ' The work of God must not suffer through
my departure.' Shall it ? She saw our Chinese cook
standing near with bent head. It is the Cha Li I have
before written of, when he was the doctor's servant (see
page 103). Some one said to him, ' Mrs. Eidley speaks.'
She then again said, ' My Cha Li, my dear Cha Li.' He
ran to her side, knelt down, kissed her hand, and rained
his  tears  on  it  only to  kiss  them  away.    At the  same An Abundant Entrance.
137
moment one of our old house-boys (now with a family of
his own), hearing her say, 'My own dear boy, my son,
Herbert,' was likewise overcome, and six foot as he is, he
burst into tears as he pressed his face on her other hand.
Immediately behind her was a young Kitikshan maiden, a
tall and powerful girl of about eighteen years of age.    To
her she turned slightly, saying, ' Mary is such a blessing to
me,' which  convulsed  the  dear  creature, who  owes  her
salvation from savagery at  Hazelton  to the  saint whom
she has often of late borne along in her arms.    Four races
at the same moment held her in their hands and mingled
their tears as she blessed them all.    Besides all the Mission
party kneeling  around, the  room, a  very large  and airy
one, was covered with silently praying crowds of Indians.
My heart was like melting wax as I saw such fruits of her
long and loving labour, and their wonderful love for her.
At one moment we thought she was near the last gasp, but
again she slightly rallied.    From that time onward to her
death all work in the town was suspended.    For the three
days and nights when she lay a-dying, often nearly choked,
the prayer-meeting in the chapel adjoining our house never
once flagged.    It was always full, and the overflow in other
rooms.    Every ten minutes messengers  passed  from the
bedside to the supplicating  crowds, reporting her  actual
condition.    They  had  changed   their  petition  when they
saw it was God's will to take her, and prayed that she
might have a peaceful, painless end, and that I might be
upheld  by the everlasting Arms.    Many souls found the
light during the death-struggle.    In her death she, by her
beautiful and tender words, and patient endurance of agony
at times through choking, drew more souls to Jesus than
ever.   It was victory on victory, triumph on triumph.   Quite
two hundred souls shared in the blessing, including our new
lady-helpers.
'' I have given her body to the Indians to do entirely what
they like with it, and they have taken their treasure as a
most precious trust.    They have sent off a canoe to fetch 138 Snapshots from the North Pacific.
the Archdeacon, another for Mr. Gurd, and a boat for Mr.
Stephenson. I have just heard that hundreds of Indians at
Fort Simpson are keeping up prayer continually for her
recovery.    They have not heard yet of the end.
■ ■ What I have written will have a pathetic interest for
you, and call out your prayers on behalf of the bereaved
1/ ' •_/ _L 1/
people and myself.
" If you ever see a copy of the notes I have made of what
the Indians have said to me to-day, I am sure you will agree
with me in the conviction that only the Holy Spirit could
have taught these dear people as they are taught. It reads
like inspired poetry. Here I will add a saying or two, and
cease writing.
"Hannah said, 'God has driven the nail in, blow after
blow ; quite in; it hurts, but it fastens. . . . She passed
into the breakers from the shore, but has gone up on the
further side, beyond the dark arch, into the peace of angels.'
'' The mother of Henry said, ' We see fulfilled after many
years the first promise of the Gospel among the Zimshians.
It burnt nearly out when she brought her torch.    She held
,2 .%-.-:-• . ;■•->.,■•'-
*i«it_»t«ii«_r
Mrs. Ridley's Grave. An Abundant Entrance.
139
it aloft. She never let it drop. It never shone so before,
and most splendidly as she lay down to die, her work done.
She never kept back from us provision (zilom) for our rough
voyage in life. She saw us lying in the stones and dirt, and
put her pure hands under us to lift us up.'
" S. L. said, ' I have most reason to grieve. When in my
sin all kicked me and trod me under their feet, she alone
came to me and took me in her loving arms and told me
to rise up again and walk with God. She was the humblest
soul we ever saw, and God has exalted her. She saw no one
too bad to love and help.'
" Nansh A. said to me, ' Your anchor is now cast in these
waters.    You can never leave us.'
" Eoger said, ' She has gone from the waves to the top
of the rock . . . we are orphaned.. Thou God art also our
Father and wilt help those who help us sinful Zimshians.'
He added in his prayer, ' God bless the Society and bless the
Church which sent so pure a soul to land on our shores and
walk like an angel among us.'
" C. Powell said, ' Our mother gave her life for us; you
now give her flesh to our keeping. Our hearts open wide
at the thought of our rich charge. We feel it more than
white men think. Her grave will be holy. Our children
will have a place to learn how to live, and what is new to us
—how to die. Our children will hear of the humble life of
the greatest chieftainess, who lifted dirty Zimshians up and
led them to Jesus.'
" Albert L. said, ' Jesus said, " I am the Way ; " now have
we seen pure feet on it—a humble soul walking straight
along it. We can now only see her back ; her face is in the
glory. . . . She kept all the commandments of God. We
never saw it so before.'
" But I must stop, though there is pleasure in dwelling on
the story of her great love and complete self-abnegation." Kitkatla, facing North-west.
(See page 146.)
CHAPTEE  XII.
A MEMOEIAL MISSION. §;
" Soon tearful mists will fade from sight,
And calmer joy reach softer light,
Where larger thoughts will clearer glow,
To mingle with Thy overflow."
IT will be remembered that in 1896 the Bishop made a
journey up the Stikine Eiver to see what could be done
towards evangelizing the tribes in the north of British
Columbia. Difficulties had always stood in the way, but
now by God's providence they were removed, and the new
Mission was started as a memorial to her who had laboured
so lovingly among the Indians. The Eev. F. M. T. Palgrave
offered himself for the arduous post, and was taken into
local connexion for five years. The Bishop wrote in May,
1897:— I
" Hope dawns at last on the Stikine Eiver and the large A Memorial Mission.
141
district of Cassiar in the extreme north of British Columbia.
Long ago I vainly tried to reach them, but was driven back
to the Skeena instead. The difficulties in my path indicated
God's order.
" Now we have a chain of flourishing mission stations
from the mouth of the Skeena Eiver to Gishgagas, 250 miles
to the eastward, cutting through the Coast and Selkirk
ranges of mountains, and almost reaching to the watershed
sloping towards the great prairie land drained by the
majestic Mackenzie Eiver. The next river to the north of
the Skeena is also fairly gripped by the chain of Missions
called the Nishga.
" Only to the far north on the Stikine Eiver is Satan's
reign undisturbed, unless my visit to it last year may count
as a challenge—a taking possession in God's name. The
darkness is still dark as death, and Christ's banner not
planted.    But the time for it seems near.
" A few weeks ago thus it happened, in this order. A
lady at Torquay was debating in her mind what she should
do with £25. She sent it to me for the Stikine Mission, with
the promise of sending as much annually. A lady at Ipswich
sent £15, another in Edinburgh sent £5. Then came from
Canada, from an unmarried clergyman, who has had a year's
medical training and is a tried linguist, an offer of service.
He had read my letters in the February CM. Intelligencer,
and at once wrote to me stating that if I agree he will go to
the Stikine Indians this summer. Having found all I could
to satisfy me of his fitness I have told him to go and to expect
to see me after him in August next, if he cannot wait till
then on the sea-coast. He is animated with a burning desire
to devote himself to those poor degraded and sinned against
Indians. He was ordained to an English cure of souls, but
having (in 1892, I think) heard me speak at Plymouth of the
work in my diocese he felt called to the Mission-field, went
as far as the Province of Eupertsland, gaining valuable experience, and now goes to the farthest west as a pioneer, a
most honourable distinction. 142
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
" Do my readers perceive how it has all come about ? It
is an instance of a seed falling into the earth, dying, and then
bringing forth fruit. It is life out of death ; the outcome of
sacrifice. Until she died who with me sought the Lord on
behalf of those long-neglected Indians, the door seemed barred
tightly and could not be darkened by the shadow of the
missionary of Christ. Now that on earth her prayers are
ended the door is opening. I have lately received a pathetic
petition from the Indians begging for a teacher. His feet
will be thither tending and soon, I hope, will pass the
threshold.
"Is it not a sign of life out of death? It may be life
through the interest of a higher life. If she can read the
heart of Him which was pierced for these Indians, it may be
as in a mirror that can only reflect the pure and good, she
sees His plans and glories in them with adoration, just as
we below, tracing His will through His works, bow down
in blessed hope.
11 like to think a missionary whose earthly toil is over
may still in spirit remain one as long as there is an unsaved
soul on earth, and then with the angels share in the rejoicing
over the last penitent wThen the number of God's elect shall
be accomplished. Then the interest in the salvation of
sinners may be swallowed up in the greater joy of welcoming
the home-coming of the last trophy of the Cross, the complete
triumph of the Eedeemer.
" This should be the Church's aim, for she is the appointed
agency to effect it up to the point in time when Christ's re-
entrance on the scene of His humiliation will magnificently
complete in person what He is now by His Spirit enabling
us to do in extending His Kingdom.
" This forward movement to the Stikine is to hasten this
glorious consummation. It is a small part of a perfect whole
in which each member of Christ's body is privileged to claim
a share. What if Arctic cold clasps the river, the mountains,
and valleys, in icy folds ! Christ's ambassador will not be
bound.    His feet will be free, his voice heard over the awful A Memorial Mission.
143
silences telling of his Lord's great pity for his loved, but
too long neglected, Indian brother and sister.
" I shall think of the solitary man of God and plead his
wants daily before the Throne. So can my readers with
equal effect. Think of him toiling over that far-off, lone
land of distances ! What faith in his Master's word; what
hope of winning against all odds ; what love for wandering,
sin-stained, and unlovely souls ! He will be, of all in my
vast diocese, the most out of touch with all on earth that
the average man counts precious as life and absolutely
necessary to it. To visit him from my house at Metlakatla
the probability is that I shall often have to sail 560 miles
to Victoria to embark on the American steamer to Alaska,
700 miles distant, then proceed up the river 180 miles to
the head of navigation, and then walk I know not how far.
Then comes the returning, so that the total distance
travelled to see him and his work may be 2,500 miles !
Yes, God's road-makers must work without stint in makin g
His path straight.
" So far as the journey is concerned the enterprising
traveller might well be satisfied. The river scenery itself
is very striking from end to end; but the first fifty miles is
unique in my experience. The course of the river is nearly
at right angles to the three great ranges of mountains it
cuts through—the Eockies, the Selkirk, and the Coast.
The latter is higher than the two beyond and culminates in
Mount St. Elias, that monarch of the northern continent at
the extreme north-west of my diocese where its snowy head
looks pre-eminently grand from the western ocean.
" Such treasures of snow I have never, seen as on this
range near the Stikine mouth. There the vapoury ocean
tribute, brought by the south-west and south-east winds
for most of the year, is transformed into fairy crystals that
fall and fall over this treasure-house of snow until the mass,
compactly pressed, glides gravely down the mountain steeps
and fills the valley with glaciers.
" Happily our missionary has no mission here because no 144
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
man there abides. He presses forward until he reaches the
great divide, and then for a parish has a sparsely peopled
region larger than Ireland. He must be the shepherd seeking the lost on a sea of mountains, among awful solitudes.
Excepting in the linguistic notes I made last year the
language is quite new to science and unwritten. It is no
easy task to master the language."
The next letter is dated from Glenora, on the Stikine
Eiver. It is more in the form of a journal, for an attack of
influenza, and the subsequent weakness which lasted for
three months, entailed arrears of work which made letter
writing a difficulty. The Bishop's rule of writing, when
possible, while everything was fresh in his memory,
accounts for the vividness of his descriptions, and for his
power of transferring his impressions to others.
I . 1    "June 11th, 1898.
" Before I write of my present doings, your readers will
like to hear of a visit in midwinter to Sheuksh and his tribe.
I had a letter on the stocks describing it, but illness overtook me, so that it was never launched. It would be
ancient history to me now, so that I could not put any heart
into its revival.    It shall now fall into the form of a log.
"Jan. 1st.—Dr. Webb, who was wintering with Mr.
Gurd at Kitkatla, arrived at Metlakatla, Miss West was,
we feared, too ill to recover ; but one evening two Indian
women came to ask my advice on some question, and as
they were leaving I casually expressed a wish that Dr.
Webb were present. They went off to the Church Army
meeting then going on and spoke of my wish. At once ten
men volunteered to fetch him. One of them came to me
announcing this resolve, and said they would start next
morning. Off they went, battling with a head wind that
rose to half a gale, but on the third day they reached
Laklan, Sheuksh's town, fifty miles across the sea. Two
days sufficed to bring them back, with the doctor. After
he had spent some time in charge of the case, they took A Memorial Mission.
145
him back again, thus completing a distance of at least 200
miles on the high sea in a canoe. Not a cent would they
take as payment. Do you think that such a thing could
be done at home ? Would any parish provide ten volunteers and an open boat to cross, say, from Dover to
Boulogne, twice and back again, to get medical aid for a
sick worker in the Church ? Impossible. Love and gratitude nerved those Indian hearts to do this, and to feel proud
to do it. They did a precisely similar thing the winter
before. We thank God for sparing Miss West's life. She
is now recovering, after a journey to England. I never
thought she would survive. I quite look forward to her
return. Though somewhat frail in health, her rich experience and natural energy will be of great value in helping on the work and advising the other ladies of the Mission,
who naturally look to her as their head, and miss her now
very much.
" Jan. 11th.—I embarked in a big canoe with nineteen
Indians from the Fort Simpson Church Army, now a body
of about 130 people, who regard me as their general. A
delegation from our Metlakatla Church Army came along
in another large canoe with twenty paddles. We were off
on' a sort of ten days' mission to the Kitkatlas, and to con-
_/ *
secrate the new church built by them at their own expense.
But for the rain it would have been pleasant. We sang and
sang, hour after hour, as we paddled along with a moderate
head wind. Our voyage over, we halted about four hundred
yards from the shore ; no one in the village discovered us
in the darkness. The lights twinkled in the street lamps
and from many a window, but all was silent until we burst
out in song. This signal opened doors and attracted crowds
to the shore to receive us as we paddled landwards. Our
baggage was picked up by many hands. I was led to the
Mission-house, and my party to Sheuksh's, whose guests
they became.
" Next day I consecrated the new church, held a con-
firmation, preached three times, and received many visitors. 146
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
Then the Indians who came with me began their mission.
From  dawn to  late in  the evening the sound of prayer,
sacred song, and preaching was heard, excepting at meal
times, and even then the grace expanded into long intercession.    Mr. Gurd called it a religious epidemic.    Nothing
else was done.    God and the  soul were the only topics.
From day to day the number of awakenings was brought to
me.    There was excitement, but no extravagance that  I
knew of.    A day was fixed for our leaving, but when the
morning dawned the pressing requests to stay another day
prevailed, to my regret.    The weather was then favourable
and the fair wind strong enough to take us home in one day.
" Next morning   was   calm, but very ominous of dirty
weather approaching.    After a few miles of paddling, the
gale burst on us, and we ran before it wTith reefed sails at a
piping rate.    As we got into open water a fearful sea rolled
after us, threatening every moment to poop us.    Twenty
miles further brought us to two islands with a narrow and
winding channel dividing them.    A large steamer loomed
up ahead.    The pilot mistook the channel and ran his ship
ashore.    It was a lee shore, and we dared not attempt to
approach  her   and her  400   passengers.    There  was  no
danger of   their destruction   because the shore was close
and water deep.    All safely landed, but their experiences
were distressing on shore, camped on the deep snow without protection for a long time.    We sailed along to the far
end  of  the  island,   eight miles distant, where under the
shelter of the land we beached our canoes and then camped
in hardly less discomfort than the wrecked folk at the other
end of the island.
I We were on the deep snow, with the falling snow turning to sleet, trees uprooted by the howling gale falling with
a crash. Two lanterns were hung to the branches of a
tree, and swung about in the wind. To kindle a fire was
almost impossible, and therefore cooking was out of the
question. Everything became soaking wet. I suppose we
ought to have been miserable, but we were not.    Before A Memorial Mission.
147
lying down for the night we had prayers. I own to have
been weary and longing to observe ordinary limits, but no
less than thirteen hymns were sung, the words from
memory, and a short prayer between each hymn. It took
a little over two hours ! All were cheery but myself, and I
kept as bright a face as I could as men and women prayed
on and on. After forty-eight hours we put to sea, which
remained rough, but we safely reached Metlakatla.
" On the Sunday spent among the Kitkatlas an interesting ceremony took place. The wife of chief Sheuksh had
been elected by the Kitkatla band of the Church Army as
one of their officers. At one point of the service in the
church Samuel Walsh, the blind captain, led by a sergeant,
presented Sheuksh's wife to me for admission to the office.
On the holy table the red ribbon had been placed. She
knelt at the chancel rails. I then charged her to be faithful
to Jesus, to be an example of holiness, to watch over the
women of the tribe, especially the young ones, and to
remember she must give a final account to Jesus at the
great day. Then I placed the ribbon round her neck and
told her to think of it as a token of being bound as a servant
to our Master. Old Sheuksh was in the front pew all the
time on his knees, his lips moving as if in prayer, and his
eyes fountains of tears. What a contrast with the savage
past!
" Soon after this I was at Claxton trying to get the
hospital a bit shipshape. The gold fever has reached the
Indians, so that I think but few will remain ior the fishing,
and therefore the hospital will not be in much request this
year. But this fever will not last, and there stands the
hospital ready for its blessed mission of healing.
" On the 6th of May I started for the Skeena Eiver, en
route to Hazleton, and was delighted to get into the bright
sunshine of the interior, away from the weeping skies of the
coast. The winter had been mild, but the snowfall on the
mountains very heavy. Instead of a gradual blending of
spring with summer, the warm weather rushed upon us. 148
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
During the latter part of April the thermometer in the shade
in my garden rarely fell below 60 degrees Fahrenheit
between eleven a.m and five p.m. The consequence of
this charming and unusual weather was the swelling of the
river a fortnight earlier than the average. Instead of finding
it at a good stage for sailing on we met the freshet, which
gave us endless trouble and caused some risk. When we
got to the canyon it was full of a raging flood, so that we
had to moor below it for a long time. As soon as a few
cooler nights came, which checked the thaw on the
mountains and diminished the downrush, we entered the
canyon.
" But it was a fearful sight. Fixed in the rocky sides are
ring-bolts here and there. The sailors, like cats, climb the
rocks, and pass on long cables with iron hooks at the ends.
One was of steel wire, 1,300 feet long. As soon as it is
hooked on to the ring-bolt the steam capstan on the bow
revolves, and on we go at the rate of nearly a yard a minute !
The great stern wheel revolves as rapidly as the engines
can work it, and churns the water with fury as it rushes
past us at the rate of more than twenty miles an hour.
" The speed is not the only serious feature. Worse than
that are the boiling whirls that rise from beneath, you know
not where beforehand, springing like the beginning of a
giant geyser, then pouring a flood of water from below to
spread from a centre with force enough to sweep aside our
steamer, 125 feet long by thirty feet beam, as if it were a
bit of drift wood. One blow made by a rock, as we were swept
against it, broke through the planks, happily just above
water mark, rolling up an iron plate as if it had been a piece
of leather. The greatest skill, courage, and resource are
necessary to overcome such difficulties.
" God is most merciful in sparing me from disaster amid
these frequent perils. Some people have called it a charmed
life; it is rather a living in the hollow of God's hand.
" I was much touched by the Indians at Hazleton coming
to comfort me, as they said,    They had not seen me since A Memorial Mission.
149
my bereavement. The Heathen seemed as much concerned
as the Christians, and all wanted photographs of my late
wife. I had several with me and gave them to some women
who had been blessed in their souls through her ministry.
How they handled them! So tenderly! Tears were
brushed aside. Few,words were spoken, but there was
much squeezing of my hands in token of sympathy. I had
to promise to send some more copies of her photograph,
especially to the native teacher, who told Mr. Field she was
the first who ever taught him saving truth. Many might
truly say the same. The most refined Christians in England
could not have behaved with greater delicacy.
" Now let us talk about the Stikine Eiver. It took me
more than a month to reach my present quarters from
Metlakatla. I stepped on board ship very feebly, but full of
the hope of full restoration to health as I journeyed on.
Thank God, I am making steady progress. Last Sunday I
administered the Holy Communion in a large shed belonging to a railway contractor. At 10.30 I preached to two
hundred soldiers en route to Klondyke, or, to be more exact,
going to Fort Selkirk, in the diocese of that name. It is
but a name now, being, I am told, deserted, but as it is at
the junction of two great rivers it is a good place for
barracks. There are four Victorian nurses proceeding
under the military escort. Like the soldiers, they have to
walk more than 180 miles to Lake Teslin, and then go by
rafts or boats, there to be built, right on to their destination.
All the party seemed to value the unexpected means of
grace, and loud were the cheers as I waved to them this
morning at seven o'clock a parting salute at their embarkation on a steamer for Telegraph Creek, where the long walk
begins.
" Mr. Palgrave heard of my arrival and walked on here to
see me. Twenty-six miles.did not seem much of a walk to
him. Last Sunday he took a service near here, then walked
to Telegraph Creek, a distance of thirteen miles, for a
five p.m. service for the Indians and a seven o'clock service mo
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
for the whites. That over, he walked back to my tent, and
arrived at midnight. It is as easy to walk at night as in the
day because of the clear sky and light. You can read at
any hour of the night without artificial light. Indeed, it is
easier to travel by night than by day because of the heat.
In my tent, though it has a double, roof, the thermometer
stands at 91 degrees Fahrenheit. This sun bath is trying
in some respects, but my health is improving steadily.
" There are about 2,000 white men in my neighbourhood,
and on the whole very steady and well-behaved men they-
are. The hardships endured in getting here, partly on the
frozen river (now in flood) and partly in boats rudely made
on the banks, have been fearful. Many have died from
them. The transportation companies have grossly misrepresented the easiness of the routes. I pity the poor
fellows very much. Many are in distress because the
exorbitant charges for transportation have exhausted their
funds. They are selling their food supplies at 150 per cent,
less than their cost, to realize a little money to pay their
way onward. Unless they meet with rapid success in
mining they will be in dire distress next winter.
" Mr. Palgrave will pursue his arduous work at Taltan,
the chief Indian centre of the vast district. I earnestly
plead for him your prayerful sympathy, and for the benighted Indians, that they may receive the message of
salvation effectually."
-~^r
•iT.* Indian Boys, Klondyke District
CHAPTEE XIII
ENLAEGED  OPPOETUNITIES.
" 0 heavenly gale supply the force
To waft us nearer to the source
Of grace abounding."
THE territory covered by the Dioceses of Caledonia and
Selkirk was now about to rise into world-wide importance. For years, as we have seen, gold had been
found by a few enterprising miners, but now there came
a gigantic rush for the newly-discovered goldfields, and
the name of Klondvke became familiar to many who would
have been puzzled if asked to point it out on the map.
It was decided that Bishop Eidley should take the entire
superintendence of the work in Lake Atlin and Lake Bennett
district, and the S.P.G. made a grant for that purpose. In
1899 he journeyed there to make the necessary arrangementsc
le gives the following account of what he saw :—
ff " Lake Bennett, July 21st, 1899.
" The easiest and perhaps the clearest way of helping you 152
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
to locate me on your map of British North America is to
give you my latitude and longitude. Look out the 60° parallel
and note where the 135th meridian crosses it, then descend
southward ten miles on the meridian. There stands my tent,
the same I have often described as measuring ten feet long
and eight wide. Last November I came within forty miles
of the same spot, but was not well enough to face the White
Pass in the teeth of the driving blizzards that then prevailed.
I turned back before the raging elements. Lately they
invited me forward with their smile.
" I embarked -on a steamer from Vancouver called the
Cutch, because she was built for the Eajah of Cutch, who
tired, I suppose, of his beautiful and staunch steam-yacht.
So she was bought for the China trade, and eventually crossed
the Pacific, where she is a favourite. She picked me up
at Metlakatla on her voyage from Vancouver to Skagway,
where she landed me, after a very enjoyable voyage along the
smooth channels that separate the countless islands from
the mainland of British Columbia and Alaska for a thousand
miles.
" The November voyage was a rough one, not so much
because of heavy seas, but on account of the unpleasant gales.
All the other vessels at that time sought shelter, ours braved
the northern blast and reached Skagway, at the head of
the Lynn inlet (or canal as we call these inlets), thickly
coated with ice, looking like a fairy ship, but to us on
board like an iceberg disguised as a ship. To those on
the dock as we made fast, she must have been a vision
of beauty, if they had eyes for it. On board that pleasure
was denied us. The cold wind was terrible. Below we
were comfortable enough, but I prefer the deck in all
weathers.
" It was necessary to use axes to free the cables before
the ship could be moored. As we passed up Lynn Canal
we crossed the seaward end of one of its branches called
the Taku Arm. The blizzard here was abeam, and my
cabin on deck was to windward.    The sea was one mass Enlarged Opportunities. 153
of short, stinging waves, and from their foaming crests the
gale licked off the briny water and hurled it at the ship's
broadside with a tornado-like howl. Where it struck it
stuck. The moment the water reached my cabin window,
a good eighteen feet from the loadline, it froze and froze
until hght was shut out. These northern winter's gales can
be cruel! The colder interior is nearly always calm when
the cold is intense, say from —30° to —60°. It does not
there distress one at all; but here on the sea it goes to the
marrow, and makes one consider how long one could face it
and live. Last week Bishop Bompas complained of the
cold here at Bennett.
" From the ship's berth at the Skagway wharf is a bridge-
way I thought a mile long, but it is rather more than a
quarter of that perhaps. I really felt that if there had not
been a handrail I would never have dared it for fear of beinc
blown off. It was the worst cold I ever met, though not
much below zero.
'' The Church people of the town seem to be a very hospitable folk. I found myself at their choir practice in the
evening, tired as I was, and their apparent devoutness, and
grief at having no resident clergyman, so touched me that
I promised to either come back on Saturday for Sunday
from Bennett, forty-two miles, and give them the benefit
of the Church's ministration, or else send the S.P.G.
clergyman stationed at Bennett. The latter was so charmed
that he almost lost his heart among them.
" I was fortunate in reaching Skagway after the railroad
was opened to Bennett. The ordinary cars ran nearly
half-wTay when we had to ride on the platform set on
wheels and called here ' construction cars.' We got up
among the baggage and each chose for himself the package
that made the best seat, and to that we held fast. But this
I felt thankful for, because I am getting too old to walk
long distances now. This reminds me that to-morrow is my
sixty-third birthday. The figures make me look older than I
feel.    Now that my health is so much improved by this dry i54
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
climate, I seem to feel as young as when I came here twenty
years ago. But when a week's walk looms in front, my
grey beard pleads for pity for my feet. The Eev. F.
Stephenson I sent in before the snow was removed by the
April sun, and he had a six days' walk from Skagway to
Atlin, having, besides the land journey, to walk about 100
miles over frozen lakes that now bear a fleet of steamers
and hundreds of boats on their bosom.
" My journey by rail from Skagway was first along the
level delta bearing a dense forest. In its heart were the
railroad workshops, a Swindon or Crewe in miniature. After
a few miles we began to climb the eastern mountain slope,
gaining on the white thread of a river at the bottom of the
valley. In ten miles we ascended 2,900 feet, and certainly
it is a thrilling experience that would be trying to the nerves
but for the surprise and admiration called forth by the
grandeur of the mountain gorge. The fir-trees grew to a
very moderate size tfor half the distance, then became
scrubby, and finally ceased, unless apologies be accepted
for trees.
" Having made the ascent—in one gulch so narrow that
the switchback plan was adopted—we found ourselves
among nature's paving-stones, great round backed granite
rocks that looked like a troubled ocean turned to granite at
a peremptory word of command. We snaked between the
billows, or skirted bogs and lakelets due to the melted snows,
or over the glacial deposits-left in many a vast hollow that
otherwise would have held a lake. Some miles beyond rose
the ancient mountains, treeless and naked but that the snow
remaining in the fissures and gloomy gorges cross-stitched
the sullen range.
'' It was a scene of awful desolation that chilled the soul
and made one ready to pity the puny flora, while one admired its daring to live at all. Tiny firs, bearing all the
marks of decrepid old age, bent by the northern furies and
gnarled by the awful winters, looked up pathetically into
one's face, instead of offering to the  traveller a welcome Enlarged Opportunities.
155
under sturdy branches, such as I am accustomed to in the
southern parts of this vast diocese. The juniper humbly
crawled from rocky hollows and crevices, but rarely
ventured above the highest parts of the granite dome that gave
it scanty shelter against the black tempests from the weird
north, the terrific north. When the train stopped I slipped
off my perch and made a rush for the nearest flowers, and
surprised myself by their variety. These, like the mountains,
attain to a maturity denied everything else; the latter as if
in pride as earth's pillars, the former as sharers of a faith in
resurrection, live their short life of beauty to please Him
who clothes them, and therefore rise to perfection through
the ages that wear away the mountains. You should see
the puny trees ; then you would form some idea of the
cruelty of the fierce winters. I gathered a pine with cones
on it and placed it, root and all, among the flowers in my
left hand to mingle a little extra greenery among the bright
BSfi-gjP
_"T
Pack Horses crossing a Bridge over a Tributary of the Stikine River. 156
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
flowers. Its record on this page is happier than if I left
it to its cradle—a baby tree, until it slowly died.
" As we descended from the White Pass towards the
lakes we met timber again, of small dimensions, and at the
margin of the lakes I found so great a variety of ferns and
flowers that it would take several pages even to name them.
Is is a bright compensation for the terrors of winter to those
who endure them.
" All along the route skeletons or carcases of pack-horses
lie in gruesome numbers, telling of the toil and agony of the
thousands that struggled on over the snow before the railway was built. Twenty thousand are said to have been
stabled on the frozen lake this spring, to rest a while, on
the road to Klondyke. A few yards behind my tent is a
perfect skeleton, from which I have learnt more of the
anatomy of the horse than I ever expected to obtain. It is
the relic of sacrifice to the average miner's god. But justice
as well as a love of adventure compels me to own, though
compulsion does not express the pleasure of it, that many
of them are not only strong but godly men.
" Well, here I am with the desolation miles away, among
the granite hillocks and mountains, and with the lake about
200 feet below and in front. I look out on a scene of
characteristic attraction. The mountains that embrace the
lake remind me of the eastern shores of the Eed Sea, dismal
enough in dismal winter; but the bridge of azure and the
rippling turquoise lake below impart a charm to the granite
setting of the gem that only needs the glory of the rising or
setting of the sun to complete a picture of rare beauty.
'■ I am rambling on as if it were easy to sketch it with
my pen, which would be presumption indeed if I thought it
possible. This is really an introduction to letters that may
hereafter be written of work done. I am now exploring, so
far as the Indians are concerned, and ministering to the
whites with two clergy here for the summer.
" In about an hour I embark for Atlin City, 109 miles
distant.    There, I am told, are three tribes of Indians that, Enlarged Opportunities.
*57
till gold was found, were inaccessible from the coast. After
my week at Atlin I may add some further information, but
for the present my pen must rest."
" Bennett, Aug. 2nd.
"1 arrived here from the gold-mines, 125 miles distant,
about two hours ago, and hasten to finish my observations
before I strike camp again.
" This is a much more windy place than Atlin, 118 miles
farther on, and therefore the open-air guards one from the
mosquito pest to some extent. It is a very bracing place,
rocky and dry. No fault can be found with the climate
here.
'' The only Indians in the place are Zimshians whom
many years ago I baptized on the coast. They sought me
out, and never miss a service. Boat-building is their trade,
and very well paid they are in it. Some of these boats
are mere barges, flat bottomed and square ended, but they
run the rapids safely and carry large cargoes and horses to
Dawson on the mighty Yukon Eiver. It is possible to
embark in boats not more than thirty miles, as the crow
flies, from the sea at Taku Arm of Lynn Canal, and proceed
along rivers and lakes for nearly 3,000 miles to Behring's Sea,
and thence to any shore washed by the ocean. This great
waterway is now open to the globe-trotter. From Liverpool
he could reach Dawson, the Klondyke capital, in twenty
days.
" The Bishop of Selkirk, Dr. Bompas, has the full tide of
civilization forced upon him to his sorrow. He lives three
miles from Dawson, and therefore must see his heaven
lighted up at night by the electric demon. A week before
my arrival he stood where I now write. Would that he
waited the few days that I might have had the honour of
welcoming him to my diocese! He thought Bennett and
Atlin were within his, and therefore ventured so far.
Arriving here he found he had trespassed beyond his
jurisdiction no less than fourteen miles! The newspaper
man who reported an interview with him states  that he -58
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
hurried northwards and buried himself once more in the
frozen north, that no man knows as he does, and no other
man loves but for the sake of its gold. This report, copied
into an American paper, added striking glosses to the account.
What would the dear Bishop think if he saw himself described as the most devoted of Catholic (meaning Eoman
Catholic) bishops in the wide world! This gloss evidently
was by a Eoman newsman who covertly hit at the snug and
comfortable lives of Protestants who assumed episcopal
authority. Bishop Bompas, the paper said, was so modest
that he would not talk of the countless hair-breadth escapes
from awful peril and death, treating them as phases of everyday life not to be counted worthy of notice. Now that Eome
can no longer take the credit of such splendid heroism, you
may be sure it will cease to be admired in that quarter.
"I must not further enlarge on this subject or I shall not
again get so hearty an invitation from the Bishop as the one
now before me, dated July 6th, and written on this spot.
At Dawson, on my way to his Indian Mission, he says Mr.
Naylor, the clergyman there, ' will be only too happy to
lodge me either in the Mission-house or in the church, where
we sometimes find quarters.' I quote this to show the use
we sometimes, yea often, put our churches to, such as they
are. Then he adds, ' Access from Dawson is only by boat.'
How he must rejoice over those three miles of water between
the Indians and himself and the noise and riot of drinking
saloons and gambling hells at Dawson! Yet this habitual
retirement and shrinking from civilization must seem strange
to many of you.
" I cannot now accept my next-door neighbour's invitation, and this grieves me. I could get to his side in three
days ! Could I spare them, the journey would be full of
pleasure without an hour of toil, unlike the one I have
taken since I began this letter. I am so stiff and sore from
this, that I am glad to sit down, and find an excuse for
sitting, in writing this.
" Just over the border and within my brother Bishop's Enlarged Opportunities.
159
diocese are some Indians at Tagish and also some whites,
whom he asked Mr. Appleyard, our clergyman settled here
for six months, to go over and minister to. So Mr. A. went
and I took his duty here.
" Ten days ago I started for Atlin City and. thence to the
gold-diggings. There I spent a busy and happy time. The
day after my arrival I went to hunt Indians, and found a
number of huts where they live. The first thing I did was
to write all the numerals up to a thousand—a queer way of
beginning missionary work you will say. It is important to
do no harm at the start, and to ask questions easy to answer.
Next came the names of the fingers from the little finger of
the left hand to the thumb of the right.
" Before I got through, I had planted a little confidence
among the vouths from whom I sought information.    Later
O *J c_>
I met at the ranche an Indian from the coast who claims
that he has some white man's blood in his veins. He came
to me a few days later and brought four young Indians with
him. Knowing a little English we could talk. As he talked
he turned back my coat to look for something. What do
you think it was for ? He had met on one occasion a Eoman
bishop who passed through the country with a priest and
baptized many as they went. So said my friend, pointing
to himself, ' Me Catholic' He had turned back my coat to
look for a pectoral cross. Catholic or Heathen I was interested in him, but later on the whites bade me to be
careful how I trusted him, because ' he is a smart but
worthless fellow, the worst of the whole crowd,' meaning
the Indians.
"He is a burly fellow, and rude enough for any rough.
Yet he may have some good qualities and be worth digging
for.    He knows no more of Christ than the other—what
»
shall I call them ?—Heathen. He towered above his companions, and is evidently, though a foreigner among them,
a man of much influence corresponding with his energy.
His humour, too, is grim enough for anybody. Pointing to
the largest of the hotels in the city, he said it would be his i6o
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
when all white men leave the country. He looks forward
to this yet did not wait idly for it, but got some gold claims
into his possession, and sold them for a sum of money that
makes him rich. I fear he will be an hindrance in teaching
the Indians he lives among. One of the objects I had in
view in getting hold of their numerals was to find out
whether their language has any affinity with those I already
know, and this is one of the readiest ways of ascertaining.
"My impression is that these three bands of Indians
called by the whites Tagish, are related to those Mr. Palgrave
is bravely working among on the Stikine : if so, this may be
regarded)as an out-station of that. One of them, a small man,
not more, I think, than 4 ft. 8 in. in height, with hair reaching lower than his knees, marched through the streets as
unconcerned as if white men were trees. Pride in him
stood on tiptoe. He was a medicine-man, followed at a
distance by a boy as tall as himself. How strange for him
to see white men building in the midst of his forest, fishing
in his streams, hunting on his mountains, and he all the
time believing himself the largest man and perhaps the
happiest: certainly he was the dirtiest, which would count
with him among the cardinal virtues, pride coming next, and
then gluttony. Most people saw him with amusement. I
know one who pitied him, but what could he do ? He
prayed that the Light of the world might reach the dark
avenues and shine through his heart. The problem with
me now is how to evangelize these wanderers. They do
not remain long in the same place, but go after game from
place to place.
" I sailed along this group of lakes 109 miles, walked over
the ridge for two miles to Lake Atlin, then crossed the six
miles over that to Atlin City. There I was accommodated
in a room belonging to a bank, arid went to a cafe for my
meals. In this city I bought a house for the missionary,
the Eev. F. Stephenson, spending £100 on that and the
beginnings of a church. At present service is held in a
large tent. Enlarged Opportunities.
161
" Then I went forward to the gold diggings, went down
by the creek-sides into the ' claims,' as the 100-foot squares
of land are called, and ' panned out' a pan full of ' paying
dirt,' earning five shillings in fifteen minutes. I saw plenty
of nuggets and handled bricks of gold, each worth about
£600. Strange to say, in the midst of this wealth sought
among rocks and soil there is much destitution. I held
service in a big tent here also. One hundred and seventy
were present, and twenty-five horny-handed miners received
the Communion there.
I In the evening, seven and a half miles distant, I recognized three men who were present at the morning service,
which shows at least, by their fifteen-mile walk over
stumps and stones, how much they relish the Gospel. I
saw a few Indians at the diggings, but could not talk to
them. Gold has a strange fascination for men. I confess
that as I washed out the ' dirt' from my pan and saw the
yellow sediment, I had a slight tremor of pleasure as if I
had found the philosopher's stone. When there is no gold at
the bottom the dirt is said to be ' dead.' The gold gives it
life. It is in a small way related to the joy of finding souls
after toil for Jesus.    This gold is living indeed.
" The country I have travelled over is the most beautiful
I have yet seen. No one from these parts need go to Italy
for blue skies, and lakes; soft airs, or mountain umbrageous
to the snow-line, where the green glaciers are fountains of
streams that laugh all through the summer—they have them
all after windy Lake Bennett is crossed and lovely Atlin is
seen. The climate is all one could wish—the days breezy,
the nights calm, cool, yet most genial beyond anything even
Devonia, my own dear home, can boast. Even now the
nights are not only balmy, but light enought to read by
without artificial light. Lake Atlin is about 100 miles long,
with no one knows how many islands dotting it. One is a
mountain range in itself ; others are low, with open glades in
the forest covered with beautiful flowers and stocked with
edible berries.    The clear blue waters abound with fish—
M 162
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
trout, grayling, wmite fish, and other finny beauties. The
streams and waterfalls—oh, how beautiful! I was about to
break out into poetry and so spoil my prose."
The Bishop wrote at the same time to the S.P.G., which
had made him the grant for carrying on the work:—
"I have no diocesan fund, and never had, unless the
occasional gifts for current expenses be so called. I have
more and more learnt to trust God to provide as necessities
arise, and He has provided. The need is laid before him in
simple faith, and He opens the hearts of some of His servants
to help as help is needed. I am often down (as miners say)
to bedrock, not knowing how to act; but 'tis there the golden
promises are fulfilled. If iny career were to end to-morrow,
my successor would not find a debt of £100 in the whole
diocese, and yet the desire of my heart is almost accomplished.
When we get into spiritual touch wTith the Indians on Lake
Atlin the whole diocesan field will be occupied. I ought to
publicly own the goodness of God in letting His servant see
such a glorious completion of evangelistic work in his episcopate. Of course, on these foundations the work of edifying
must now go on. In some respects it is the more arduous
work, calling out the best qualities of our best men. There
is no denying that pioneering, with all its difficulties and
hardships (as some imaginative people call the exercise of a
healthy and vigorous life), contains the romantic strata of
adventure and the zest of peril. I like to see it in my
younger brethren, and seldom check even its extreme,
because experience will do this soon enough. A soft creature
can never become a missionary, even if paid as one. Such
do not stay with me. No soldier's heart beats more bravely
than the hearts of my brothers in arms scattered over a
diocese larger than England and France together. They
have wrought wonders^ and will be remembered out here
for ages to come as the vanguard of Jesus in the enemy's
land." FIEST-FEUITS FEOM THE STIKINE EIVEE.
" Most wondrous things
Descend on everlasting wings,
Enriching earth with grace abounding,
While heaven is stirred by praise resounding."
ONE more letter from the Stikine Eiver shows that the
Bishop had lost none of his powers of endurance, nor
of his apparent enjoyment of hardships ! But however this
may be, the end of his journey must have quite compensated
him for the efforts made on the way. To see the fruit of the
Memorial Mission did indeed rejoice his heart.
Glenora, on the Stikine River, British Columbia,
li. "June 6th, 1900.
" On May 26th I embarked on the river steamer Strath-
cona, which, after a twenty-three miles' sail, remained three
days at the Fort Simpson Wharf. Some of you will remember my faithful Chinese servant, Cha Li. I left him
behind, a downcast prophet. In 1898 I took him with me
on my rounds, and he was a great comfort, but a greater expense. He pleaded hard to go again. ' Costs too much,
Cha Li.    Two tents, two mouths to fill in the wilds, two sets 164
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
of steamer, railway, and canoe fares.' So off I started alone
as he muttered that I was sick and old. Very impudent,
no doubt, but quite true. ' Oh, I shall never die, Cha Li,'
said I, as a last farewell; but he looked all the more woebegone to stay at home and take care of an empty house.
He and the cat disagree. Last November we parted—I to
go to England for a year, he to China to see his widowed
mother and risk the consequences of sea-sickness and
marriage. The claims of the C.M.S. on me at the New
York Conference altered my plans, and I wrote to him
instructions to join me at Metlakatla early in May instead
of October. In broken English his reply asked, ' What for
write two words ? What for come back quick ? What they
do to you in England ? Now I marry too quick and leave
wife to work for my mother. She tell me to write thanks
to you for kind to me, and she say you beat me if I not too
good."
" At Fort Simpson I met large congregations, but was not
well enough to preach more than once. Then came the
voyage to Wrangel, about 130 miles along Alaskan waters,
favourable on the whole, and always charming. Not a
whale in sight. Now that mineral oils have displaced sperm,
the whales sulk; feeling neglected, they shake the dust off
their feet. Formerly they rollicked in shoals; now we
rarely see one.
" Wrangel was reached in sixteen hours, and there we
loaded for a trip up the Stikine Eiver. It depends chiefly
on this river trade, and is a mongrel little town with more
than half its shanties empty. It is an American town of the
least savoury kind. There is one church only, Presbyterian,
which is served by the Eev. Mr. Courser, who invited me
to give a lecture to the whites in it. Later I addressed the
Inclians, about eighty in all, I think. They are less advanced
than those nearest to them in Canada, our Zimshians, for
instance, and the reason is, I think, that the missionaries are
not required to learn the vernacular, and do not. They have
no school under their direction.    The Government is sup- First-fruits from the Stikine River.
165
posed to teach both whites and Indians, and there is no place
for religious instruction in their system. The missionary
staff is not inferior to ours, but because of the divorce
between the schools and religion the results are plainly
inferior. The Indians are able to procure spirituous liquor
easily, and drunkenness is common. They are well fed,
because the sea, with its food supply, never fails. The
interior tribes, who face terrible winters, and depend upon
the precarious chase for food, find it often fails them, and
they come near starvation point. Those Heathen farthest
from the whites are healthiest and most moral, according to
their own loose standard. They have their virtues, but these
do not fall into our categories. These interior tribes used to
depend on those from the coast for imports and barter, and
were generally cheated. The coming of the white trader
exchanged this for liberty to copy his loose living, and this
is incredibly low and degrading. License to the Indians is
more deadly than bondage, and the whites sink with them,
from our standard, more hopelessly low.
" This is the way things go where there is no ministry,
and this has been the state of things for a quarter of a
century till three years ago, when Mr. Palgrave settled
for a term of five years on this river. His life and work
have been like twin rays of light in the darkness. It has
been almost a living martyrdom. Greater courage or self-
forgetfulness or truer devotion to our Master's work I have
yet to discover.    Would that he could remain permanently!
" I was much struck with the complaint of a trader who
Said the magistrate was becoming stricter of late. In one
year he inflicted fines on drunken Indians amounting to
£300. ' But who supplied the liquor ? ' I asked. ' The
white man.' The presence of the missionary has been a
stimulus to the magistrate. ' He takes the Indian's money
from us,' moaned the man. ' You plied your trade,' I said,
' until the Indian would hunt just long enough to be able to
buy drink, and then trade away his women to eke out his
income to live on.    You kill the
goose
to
get
at the
egg i66
Snapshots from the North Pacific
quickly, and now sell less than ever legitimately, to your
own loss.' Nothing is sadder than to see these, our fellow-
countrymen, unconsciously act as if thoughts of God and
about their souls never come to them. Christless and
reckless!
" 8th.—On this voyage up the river it is so very low, on
account of the lateness of the winter's snow in thawing,
that the steamer cannot reach Telegraph Creek, the outpost
of so-called civilization on this river. So here I am, landed
twenty-six miles short of my destination. This ought to be
a small matter, but not now for me. My health is still
weak, so I pitched my tent here in Glenora, under the lee
of a deserted building, for protection from the westerly
gales, and beside a sparkling stream that, dances down the
rugged bank to its own joyous music. The margins have
put on their beautiful apparel of flower-decked verdure to
teach one the blessedness of being planted by the river of
life, and the joyful duty of pleasing Him wTho delights in all
beauty, especially the beauty of holiness.
" In 1898 I was camped near by, between a company of
soldiers and about 3,000 miners. Now it would be a solitude, but that the Hudson Bay Co.'s store remains
occupied. In the stable I found a spade to level the floor
of my tent with, and some hay and a potato-sack, which
makes an inviting pillow, a real treat just now, when sleep
comes to me unwillingly.
" Of course it is rather soft to provide creature comforts ;
nor is it always a success. In my kitchen box I packed a
small paraffin-oil stove, taking care, as I thought, to empty
it. On shipboard it travelled upside down, and some drops
penetrated the single packet of corn-starch I had. This
morning I had some leisure, and thought I would fry an
omelet. I had a dozen eggs—now but ten. Two I broke
into the starch with some tinned milk. I am half ashamed
to confess to such luxurious tastes—not habits, for I was
only indulging in a special breakfast. In the tiny frying-
pan that holds but a half-pint the omelet looked deliciously First-fruits from the Stikine River.
167
yellow and brown. Here is cooking for you ! thought I.
I swallowed a spoonful before I could help it, and sat like a
martyr before the concoction with the spoon at rest. Then,
turning round, I flung the mess out among the waiting
dogs, who did not seem to object to the high flavouring of
paraffin. Two eggs gone! Well, thought I, dinner will
make up for this. In my kitchen box I had the knucklebone end of a ham. That, too, was tainted, but only outside.
In a box given to me before I landed, by the steamer's cook,
was a loin of mutton he bought at Wrangel and cooked for
me.    That was free from taint.
" Before dinner I went out of my tent, shut it carefully,
and returned about half an hour later. To my surprise I
saw a strange Indian emerging, and, behind him—ruin !
Then, on coming closer, I saw a pair of legs belonging to
another man. His face at first was above the slit forming
the doorway. I exclaimed, ' What are you doing there ? '
The mutton-box was on its side, the top torn off, and it was
empty! Captain's biscuits strewed the floor, and the
debris of other chattels. The legs belonged to Mr. Palgrave.
Strange, indeed, was the welcome to his legs, but his
astonished face made amends for the lost mutton. He had
not rifled my scanty store.
" I sat down on the empty box, and, out of sheer desperation, laughed, to guard against any other emotion. Then I
explained it all. Dogs had raided my tent, and had left me
with nothing but farinaceous food, and much of that nosed
over and nibbled. That ringleader of the dogs came again in
the middle of the night and forced himself halfway in. Ah,
then was my chance ! Forgetting my bare legs, I kicked
him, but less than I meant to. It surprised him so much
that the great brute did not stop to bite my feet. He
howled as he retreated.
I That I did not instantly recognize Mr. Palgrave was
not my fault. He looked like a cadger of the first water,
without a reputation to lose. Will he forgive me if I try
to describe what I saw ? i68
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
" On his head was a shapeless felt hat—dirt-colour to
hide dirt—with three holes in it, not for ventilation, because
round the sides and rim. It covered a head as close
cropped as ever Newgate sheared its victims. This is a
wise and economical fashion, as it does away with the use
of brushes or pomatum. Then came a faded Cardigan
jacket. One pocket seemed intact, the other torn down.
That, with the slouched hat, might have been worth nine-
pence, but I would not have picked it out of the gutter.
Then below were stained blue linen trousers: no pawnbroker would have taken them in. Last of all were the
boots, all strange to blacking, and with long rents in them,
or cuts, so that as he walked through the mountain streams
the water would ooze out as fast as it oozed in. The wearer
does not shave, but uses scissors to keep down the growth
of hair on face as well as head.
" Such a missionary costume I never saw before, and yet
there one saw God's gentleman through it all. So complete
an instance of the truth of the Divine words, " The body is
more than raiment,' I never saw. May I be forgiven for
thinking I had caught a thief before I saw him face to face !
I had sent for him to come to me, and he appeared a day
sooner than I thought it possible.
"Then followed my grief at my loss. The mutton was
gone that I had intended chiefly for him. " What shall I
give you to eat ? Nothing but oatmeal left!' ' Oh, I don't
mind.' Nor did he. I had a mouldy loaf of bread left—
mouldy, but gnawed. That pared off, we had oatmeal and
bread—no butter—for supper, bread and oatmeal left overnight, for breakfast. I need not go further into it as to
dinner. The only difference was bread fried in milk and
water.    Which course came first I forget.
" A stranded gold-prospector heard of our short commons,
and next morning brought round a pot of beans and bacon
to share with us, and a nice relish it was.
" Just before Mr. Palgrave arrived I had rambled off to
the spot where my tent stood in 1898.    What a flood of First'-fruits from the Stikine Rivet
169
thought burst over my heart; there was the space I cleared
for my tent; there stood the very pegs I drove ; there remained the skeletons of the fir branches that formed my
bed : on that particular spot I knelt more than a hundred
times, remembering my ties to earth and the stronger ones
above. The river just below the bank still sang on without
rest, and will till winter gags it; and the fine mountains
held their heads up in the same blue. Around me bloomed
lupins, marguerites, very fine strawberry blossom, potentillas,
roses, with many other flowers peculiar in these parts, and
to me nameless. An old copy of the Record lay among
anemones near by a cluster of tiny bushes with the roses in
bloom. Close by the steep bank of the river yet stood a
clump of young aspens, one leaning over ready to fall when
the next very high water undermines it completely. They
used to throw their grateful shade across my tent, and the
branches are shaking their glittering shields as of old.
" But what is this among the roses ? A little mound five
spans long, a wooden peg driven at each end, and one in the
middle bearing the one word, 'Baby.' When I left the
broad flat in 1898 it was dotted for a mile or more with
miners' tents. I think I saw three women among them,
accompanying their husbands in the quest for gold. Their
names I have forgotten. The solitary graves of adults in
the wilds make one think of long-continuing mothers' tears.
Here, however, was something much more pathetic. Here,
within the few square feet once covered by my tent, was a
baby's grave. Here a young mother's tears fell as her
sorrowful husband made the grave and filled it. Here she
last saw the dearest object of her reverential love laid in its
tiny bed consecrated by love and tears. Shall I tell the
whole truth ? With no one near but God and those melting
thoughts, I knelt again where I had before so often knelt,
and now dropped a tear on the holy ground. My Bethel
was a Baca. Here a mother's love lingers on and will
linger—God bless you, woman—till she passes, let us hope,
where' a  pure  face,  brighter than   all  other to her, may
i-w
i 170
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
revive a love that even heaven cannot spare to complete its
happiness.
" June 9th.—Mr. Palgrave persuaded me against my better
judgment to try to ride to Taltan and there inspect his work.
I longed to do so, and finally found myself on horseback.
The first four miles I greatly enjoyed, but when we reached
the steep places and I had often to dismount, the weariness
began to tell. At the end of thirteen miles I could go no
farther. Mr. Palgrave seemed as fresh after six hours'
walking as at the start. He is tireless. We had come to an
empty log cabin. He slept in one corner and I in the other
—at least, there I lay all night, but could not sleep, and
often almost fainted from exhaustion.
June 10th.—Next morning he saw I was ill, and, standing
over me, he felt my pulse and started off, without my hearing
where he was going. About midnight, I think, but am not
sure, he returned after walking to the fishing camps of the^
Indians, sixteen miles distant, and asking as many as he
met to come to me next day (Sunday). At first they
demurred at such Sabbath journeying, but he removed their
scruples by suggesting that Monday should be kept as
Sunday. This walk of more than thirty miles seemed to
this earnest soul as nothing for one day.
" I am writing this in bed, and wondering how I shall be
able to get back out of this forest to my tent at Glenora. I
got up and took a service this morning for a company of
forty-three whites on their way to the mines at Cassiar.
Lay down again until the Indians began to drop in. The
children soon lay on the floor, weary, like the dogs, after the
long tramp.    Poor little things, I pitied them.
" I proceeded to examine the catechumens, tired as they
were; first an old medicine-man, then his much more
attractive old wife. He was a man of few words, but of
deep thought. She treated him with much respect. Her
face was a finer one than could have been expected among
these people, and a contrast to the deeply-lined visage of the
man.    Next came a widow of about forty-five years of age,
1/ 1/ C_J       ' First-fruits from the Stikine River.
171
whom Mr. Palgrave regards as a saintly heroine. For years
she slaved for a husband with an injured spine and an idiot
son. The father died a Christian, and even the idiot showed
more intelligence in religious thought than in any other
thing. According to the pagan customs, she must mourn
long for the dead.
" To me the most interesting was a young woman whom
I doctored some years ago when she was very ill.
" June 11th.—I heard the torrent roaring through the
gorge all night, and the deeper bass of the beautiful falls
about a hundred yards lower down. Nearer, the mosquitoes
sang round my head and wakened my dull ears. I have
had a busy day, and walked one and a half miles to Telegraph
Creek for services.
The catechumens came again for further examination this
morning, and I was surprised at the progress made. It
testified to the successful toil of the missionary during his
three years spent among rude barbarians.
" The difficulties are unusually great. The trail leading
to the mines passes near by Taltan, and the miners, after
the season's work is done, decoy from their homes the young
women, and provide them with the tawdry finery dear to
their hearts. Telegraph Creek is their winter quarters, and
there drunkenness and debauchery are so established by
long
usage that no one seems to see the sin of it.    Young
Indian men ape the manners of the whites. The only sober
and grave Indians are those who refuse to associate with the
wicked crowd. It is among these separated ones Mr.
Palgrave has been successful.
" The Eoman Catholics have been hindering his work, and
will do so. The day-school teaching is the chief barrier
against such machinations. The Eomans do not, so far as I
have seen, educate their Indians, and therefore the Heathen
eventually see the difference and value our efforts the more.
They have good boarding-schools in Canada, but not in these
parts. I have never met a Eoman convert who could read
and write.    It is the rare exception when ours cannot. 172
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
" In the afternoon I baptized the adults, and the children
at Telegraph Creek in the evening, eight in all. Other
catechumens of much promise were kept back for further
instruction.
" The youngest woman I began to write about had a son
named Kaiser, about whom I wrote in 1898.* Her first
husband, a Heathen Indian, died while she was but a mere
girl. Her second she got in this way. A canoe was capsized in the rapids and its living freight swept past and
drowned, excepting a young half-breed. She, seeing his
peril, waded as far out as she dared where she thought he
would drift past, and rescued him. ' What could I do after
that but take her to wife ?' he asked, when telling me the story.
She had two sons by him, and when they died he deserted
her in her grief. Instead of falling into evil courses among
the vicious whites, she put herself under religious instruction
and has developed a character of unusual strength. She is
a pleasant and intelligent woman, who has behaved beautifully ever since her bereavements, and has shown as much
aptitude in teaching others as in learning. Yesterday she
acted as my interpreter, and did so with uncommon grace,
and, Mr. Palgrave says, ability.
" The log-cabin was the scene of interesting events. Like
an Oriental she sat cross-legged opposite the person examined, and the lifting up of her eyes to heaven—such lustrous
eyes—when interpreting a prayer, was a sight that reminded
me of the Magdalene at the cross, one of Scheffer's lovely
pictures in the Dresden Gallery. When Christ revealed to
her His love, it filled her with devotion, lighting up her
countenance with the beautiful glow that made one praise
the grace that works such wonders. I am surprised at the
man deserting her.    Perhaps he felt her too good for him.
" Just before I rose to baptize them Matilda asked if she
might put on the white dress she had made for the occasion.
There was no one to suggest such a thing. It was an innate
piece of refinement.
l&&*
* See page 131. "Mr. Palgrave
had not his surplice
with him, so I put
on my chimere and
lent him my rochet.
'Twas a novel vesting in a curious
vestry—a small log-
cabin in the forest
at the edge of a
mountain torrent.
" The old medicine-man pledged
himself to ever
abstain from offering for the dead
and pot-laching,
and ordered that at
his death no one
should make an
offering to promote
his happiness after
death, because' Jesu
Chreest would see
to that.' Mr. Palgrave teaches them
to pronounce the
holy Name thus, in
order to differentiate
it from the common
way of saying it in
its general blasphemous use among
whites.
" The font was a
common basin so
wreathed with wil- x74
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
lows and flowers as to disguise the homeliness of the utensil.
The old man held his head over it as I thrice poured
water over him in baptism, and he prayed all the time.
His name is Istadaga Degulli. His wife's Stagulthet
Kahalti. Her head was oval, unlike the Mongolian type of
which the Indian is a variety. Her nose was aquiline,
brow broad and lofty, surmounting fine black and gentle
eyes. Her mouth was slightly sensuous, with rows of teeth
so regular that among whites they would be attributed to
the arts, of the dentist. It was a noble head to delight an
artist.
" When Matilda, the interpreter, came forward she took a
second name, Ayediga, and behaved as if ladyhood had
developed into saintliness. The natural dignity of these
people, coupled with a frank manner that is at once brave
and simple, leaves nothing to be desired. These children of
the forest grow into fine types of humanity until animalized
by contact with lustful whites, who disgrace their Christianity and degrade the barbarian.
I As soon as the baptisms were performed I proceeded
with confirmation. That completed, Ayediga took off her
white dress and sat down to li sten to my instruction in the
matter I wanted her to interpret at another service.
" Because the old man Istadaga was suffering a good deal
from influenza he could not walk to Telegraph Creek, where
the next two services were to be held. I therefore had a
special service in the log-cabin which he could attend.
'' That over, Ayediga walked off in her green skirt under
a check bodice, her thick and long black hair hanging in a
plaited tress behind her, and tied up at the end with a bit
of red ribbon. I wonder whether she knew her dark skin
harmonized with her simple dress. She was innocent of hat
or bonnet. Away they went, the tottering old man leading
and Ayediga bringing up the rear, her precious bundle containing the white dress under her arm, to be ready for wear
at the next services. The old man soon rested under a tree.
He is much more be-whiskered than most Indians, and age
HHHMI First-fruits from the Stikine River.
175
has silvered his wiry locks. Eound his head he wore a black
band before baptism, but I did not see him resume it. Perhaps it was an official badge that he put off for ever. He
had sacrificed his gains as a medicine-man. Little can we
enter into the tremendous trial of discarding a position of
tribal importance, of profit and honour—all for the sake
of the Gospel. Some of the evil whites, as if to justify
their conduct, try to undermine the missionaries' influence
by telling the Indians they are paid for converts so much
per capita.
" One of the good signs of progress was the coming on
foot to me of the fine old chief of these Indians and his wife
from their fishery sixteen miles distant. It is no small sacrifice during the salmon fishery to cease fishing for nearly a
week. Like most of the elderly people, his behaviour is
dignified in contrast with that of the young men, who think
the rude whites are the pink of perfection, and imitate them.
This chief, named Nannook, is a man of medium height,
and, though I think over sixty years of age, is straight as
an arrow. His head, like the medicine-man wife's, is oval
rather than round, which is the Mongolian type. His long
black hair hangs over his ears, but is cut short and nearly
straight across a forehead so broad and lofty as to indicate
much power behind it. Beneath his side locks gold earrings
dangled as he moved his head in gesticulation that marked
the orator. I could, from the natural grace of the movement, often read the meaning of the words rippling or racing
from a voice remarkably sweet and rich in tone. The rather
thin lips, close pressed when at rest, bespoke resolution true
to the man and honourable to the chief. Between deep-set
and yet capacious eyes arched forward a powerful nose that
told the same tale as the lips, and the man's history has exhibited the quality. His long oval nails, cresting delicate
fingers, were like tongues, speaking their own language
to the eye, and only needed music to appeal to the ear.
I had before me a courtly gentleman, to refinement
Nature's heir.
?a
m
i
.___ 176
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
"How do you account for this? He lives a nomadic
life. So did Abram, my noblest type of gentleman. Though
his shadow never darkened Porch or Academy, yet no
Alcibiades could behave with more grace than my vis-a-vis.
He has nothing to learn as to deportment, tone or gesture.
I admire and envy these fine qualities, and can no more
regard myself as his superior than as the equal of royalty.
There is not a single sign of the barbarian or savage,
yet we call him one or the other because he dresses
without a looking-glass or goes well-nigh undressed, till
winter as his valet suggests a blanket or fur in which to
meet King Frost.
" My hour's interview with him through Ayediga as interpreter was a singular pleasure and entertainment. He
spoke to me as if he credited me with power to understand
him, and not to the interpreter—yet he paused for her as
gracefully as he spoke. His eyes sparkled with confidences,
and his finger-tips played his thoughts from the instruments
of silence.
" I was so charmed with the man that I could hardly take
my eyes off him to jot down his words, as I often do in
meeting with strange Indians. My memory, a poor one,
might eke out my notes, but it is safer to record only what
I noted:—' You have come with good words from the
west [coast]. A voice from the east [Eoman Catholic] bids
us—but too late now that we are awake—to face the sun-
rising for light. But we find the sun does not set in the
west—it shines on high and conquers night. Let the day
shine on. Darkness is before light, and we slept. The sun
is not rising, but has risen. We want no more night. The
light you sent awoke us. The words from the east made
the heart sick. Now it is strong because I see your face.
Let it shine always and not set. Our youths began to build
a school-house. Some stopped. Let them finish it to prove
their obedience. From my father I learnt much of the past,
of which part was true wisdom : " To the woman whom
thou choosest be not wrathful but kind, and she will serve m
'**_
First-fruits from the Stikine River.
thee and make thee happy. Eemember when I am dead
that I prayed and made offerings, because I wished to live
in the great home of heaven's good Chief." Yes, my father
prayed and danced moderately before the sacred fire. He
sang hymns known to the ancients but not to us. But
though we know not the meaning of the words, the great
Chief [God] knows and likes to hear them. My last word
to thee, my chief, is this : We now know a new thing. It
is this: for all chiefs and all their people in all the world
there is but one God.'
"After this came, in the vernacular, a service of prayer
and praise in the cabin. I could not understand it, yet I
enjoyed and shared in it. It was a solemnizing thing to
watch this company of about thirty souls worshipping in
their tongue our glorious God. His light, apart from
Nature's, had not reached them three years ago. They
stand facing the same way, chanting the Te Deum and other
canticles; they sing, ' Nearer, my God, to Thee,' and
' Gentle Jesus, look on me,' both so slowly and solemnly
that a new meaning supervened, adding more than ever
a heavenly force and spirit to human productions.
1 After the others had filed out, Ayediga waited a brief
space to thank me for saving her body from the grave
(alluding to my medicine), and then sending God's man to
teach her things to save her soul. ' He taught me much
before I was baptized ; tell him to teach me much more now
that I am within His family, that I may know how to please
Him. I want to know.more of God's Son, Jesu Chreest.
When I know what is right I shall not do the wrong. Now
I am not afraid to die.    God's Son makes all safe and sure.'
'' That evening I went to Telegraph Creek and held a
service in a trader's store, where I baptized five Indian
children whose parents are catechumens. The youngest, an
infant, about a year old, I baptized first, and called her Jane
Ezyuta, after the name of her to whose dear memory this
Stikine Mission is dedicated. If she can see the cause of
Christ's joy over these converts, she shares it.    The other
N
a
i
■__V
r
k
:__*] 178
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
children ranged from six to nine years of age, and were presented to me by their parents, whom I hope to baptize if
spared till next year. They, as catechumens, learn the
Creed and Lord's Prayer, but are not taught to use them
publicly in the services. Of course they learn many other
things, and publicly join in other parts of the services.
I have never seen this plan used before. It originated with
Mr. Palgrave, and has much that can be said in its favour.
" Finally came a feast in my honour given by Mr. Palgrave, and speeches followed. I have already written more
than I meant to, and therefore will not give further details.
When all was over Mr. Palgrave and I retired to the upper
room of the store among furs, blankets, bale on bale,
with other articles of mechandise. He was soon audibly
asleep, and, after many hours of rather distressing heart
irregularity caused by the day's strain, I, too, slept and
recovered strength for further, journeying.
" Instead of attempting to ride back, I meant to hire a team
and drive in the springless waggon over the eighteen miles
of rough road that winds between the mountains, far from
the horse trail that is often at the edge of fearful precipices. Then someone said, " Why not go down in a
canoe ?" Happy thought! In ninety minutes I ran
through the rapids, and returned to Glenora to await
the arrival of the steamer from the coast. Mr. Palgrave
came down here with me, and we spent all the time we
had together in discussing the terms to be used in translating certain religious ideas. All at once he asked what
time it was. His watch had been stopped for two years.
On hearing the time he started up, saying, \ I must go
at once.' ' Stay/ said I, 'to dinner.' 'I cannot." Off he
was going, when I said, ' Take some food for your twenty-six
mile walk.' He cut off a two-inch hunch from the mouldy
loaf, stuffed it into the one pocket of his Cardigan, and glided
off; but not until he asked for my blessing, and received
it on his knees.    God bless him ! " The Bishop's Sailing-boat off Metlakatla—the Bishop Steering
MOEE PEEILS IN THE SEA.
" I learnt
That fears by flames of love are burnt."
ONE more letter, and the series must close. It tells of
perhaps greater peril than any the Bishop had yet
encountered in his constant journeyings, but its concluding
sentence, " God keeps watch and ward," recognizes the
protecting Hand that for more than twenty years guided him
safely through them all. The occasion of this voyage was a
visit to Kincolith to consecrate a new church, erected there
by Archdeacon Collison and to hold a confirmation
":|K: "Sept. 29th, 1900..
'' Whom to thank, from Mamertus to Cranmer, for that
suffrage in the Litany, ' That it may please Thee to preserve
all that travel by land or by water,' I know not. It ought to
find a place in the prayers of all who pray for us. 'Tis hard
to say who travel over a wider area, or in more varied ways.
Others  walk   through   African  forests,   are  carried  along i8o
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
Asiatic paths, sail in Polynesia; but out here we are
amphibians. During the summer I was afoot or on horseback threading the forests ; sometimes on the lovely lakes
or rivers. Now in the autumn I am on the high seas, or
penetrating the fiords or estuaries of this magnificent coast.
" I have my Polynesia-islands by the hundred stretching
row beside row along the indented coast. They form a
labyrinth of very deep salt-water channels, along which the
tides race furiously, especially in the winding narrows.
Again they expand into sounds from five to fifteen miles
wide, and perhaps sixty miles long; long enough to suffer
the gales to run riot and madden the waves. Then more
islands, and the countless islets, all pine clad, have each
a beauty of their own, which is often overlooked because so
common.
"The tides are less puzzling than the wayward winds
that bend and glance from height to height in the crooked
channels, till maddened they dash as a whirlwind on some
doomed spot and twist the trees out from the soil and leave
a wreck. In this wray the latest church was lifted this
winter, carried from its foundations and dropped, no longer
pointing heavenwards, as churches ought. Jackscrews and
rollers must put it back again. Behind the church on the
mountain slope there is not a tree standing. The ruin looks
like a battle-field of Nature. In the face of these terrible
gusts no human skill can ensure safety; but an old hand
generally knows how to meet the ordinary perils of the sea.
Eisks he must take, or stay at home with his slippers
polishing the fender, and pitying the poor things travelling
by land or by water.
"The last twenty-one years have been overwhelming me
with merciful providences, so comforting to look back on and
thank God for.
" The night before last, Beptember 27th, another enriched
my experience, and afterwards sweetened life. Until this
voyage I have used for the autumnal itineration of 1900
an  open  centre-board  boat,   25 feet  by  7  feet,  schooner More Perils in the Sea.
181
rigged
In calms such a craft can be rowed and so time
saved; but with the equinoctial gales impending I got ready
my forty footer, a pretty and fast cutter. She has good
accommodation, is well equipped with new sails, good
running gear, and very heavy ground tackle.
"My crew consists of one good Indian sailor, his son, a
dull fellow of about sixteen years, and a lanky lad of fourteen
full of the spirit of adventure. He is lent to me by Miss
West. None of them ever before sailed in a decked vessel,
and know nothing of her management, but they are good
boatmen. On Wednesday last we embarked at Metlakatla
for Kincolith, and slept on board, so as to get out of the
harbour with the ebb tide should it be calm. So it happened.
We rowed for the sake of getting steering way, and drifted
for three miles till we reached the open sea, when a gentle
south wind began to ripple the ocean. Then more wind,
and more, until we took in a single reef. Ah! that is the
trim I like, with the lee scuppers under water, the foam
bending over from the flare, and a smooth lane of creamy
water swiftly left astern. I wish you could have been there.
So we sailed all day till evening approached, when the wind
failed us, so that we could not get into a safe anchorage,
and were glad to get into seven fathoms outside the bar
rather than drift all night as an alternative.
"The barometer was rising rather too fast to be trusted.
It was calm, but the sky seemed congested and looked
unpropitious as darkness fell. After turning in I rose and
paid out more cable, letting go a second anchor. Then I
couldn't sleep, though my crew did. The swell increased,
and played upon pots, pans, and crockery, music not found
even in Wagner's erratic compositions. Again I went on
deck and paid out more chain, and crawling back to my
cabin, half-dressed before I turned in. Then arose a furious
din on deck. The pitching and rolling loosened the water-
cask's lashings, and I found it a ticklish thing to capture in
the darkness which the masthead light only seemed to
thicken.
r*
3r l82
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
" Then came gusts of wind. I called up the crew and
went below to put on dry clothing and overalls to be ready
for contingencies. To leeward we could hear the sea breaking on the uncovered bar. Then came the hurricane. We
had done all we could, and felt sure that He Who has been
our Eefuge before would watch over us now. Hour after
hour the tumult waxed wilder in the gloom. I was wearing
long rubber boots and holding on abaft the companion. The
seas often swept the deck. My boots filled, so I dragged
them of. You can't swim in them. The cutter struggled
with the waves like a terrier in battle. The water-cask had
crushed a finger. The greasy blood made it a little more
difficult to hold on to rope or spar, but the mental tension
kept the pain out of my consciousness.
" Archdeacon Collison had recognized the cutter, and as
his house rocked so much in the hurricane that he felt it
safer to be up than in bed, he watched my masthead light
most anxiously; partly because of the height of the waves
and the pitching of the vessel he sometimes lost sight of it,
and thought we had foundered. Finally he saw it reappear
in another place, and thought we had dragged our anchors
over the bar, but the speed of its movements soon revealed
the truth. About 4 a.m. a star shone through a rift and
carried its gleam into my heart. Then more rifts and more
stars, but the gale still roared. We could now see the
broken water around us. The straining sprang a leak. God
saw it all; and we saw His stars that lent light enough to
make the frowning mountains guarding the estuary to
leeward visible. We had furled our sails with a single reef
in, so we had to close reef her and get all ready to hoist
before we weighed anchors. Sailors will understand the
difficulty of this under the circumstances.
" As soon as I felt assured there was water deep enough
to cross the bar, we made sail. ' Up jib, a mere handkerchief : peak halliards, be smart! Away we go. Ease off the
main sheet a bit. Make fast.' With the wind on our starboard quarter we crossed the bar in the midst of flying foam. More Perils in the Sea.
183-
If in the trough of the sea we had struck we must have
perished.    That peril left behind, I breathed again.
"How we swept along! I was at the wheel, the adult
Indian handling the main sheet, his son pumping for dear
life (because the fluke of the swinging anchor started a new
leak in the bow), and my lanky lad standing by the jib sheet.
Under these lofty and precipitous mountains, one has to be
prepared for a sudden shift of wind. I knew of a little harbour
about seven miles from the mouth of the estuary, and headed
for it. As we got to its entrance we found the high land
diverted the wind, which now met us in heavy gusts. However, we beat in, and dropped anchor into smooth water.
We first patched the leak in the bow, then warmed up and
ate some oatmeal porridge, and turned in. My crew snored
and finger throbbed, but we were safe and in peace. It was
the past peril that sweetened peace : so will our calm future
be indebted to our present liability to pain and peril for some
of its joys. What a contrast between Thursday's fury and
Friday's serenity! To-day, Saturday, the waves sparkle,
every ripple borrowing its living glory from its fount in
heaven.
"I love the sea, and have no choice between its rocking
me in my long sleep and the readiness of mother earth to
cover me with flowers. Both will be ready to yield their
treasures in the day of reunion. Two days ago the glaciers
wore their summer robes of glistening blue, or green, as
they appear under varying circumstances ; but now they are
white—so white in their frame of heavenly azure under the
bright sun, that one learns what mean those words, ' whiter
than snow'—God's light on His robe, covering earth's
stains.
" The tempest that shook its terrors over the sea brought
a beauty to the mountains less transient than autumnal
flowers, and there it remains to brace faith for seeing charms
in October and glory in midwinter. So passes life. My
summer past; the bronze of autumn's trials is powdered by
December.    Who would dye the snows of life's approaching 184
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
winter? Eather would I rejoice in the greyness that grows
whiter at each recurring storm as a prelude to the glory
every tempest and trial brings nearer, till the last, the
most blessed and friendly of all, shall burst and issue in
endless day.
"In the meantime each rift in the storm-cloud is to
be welcomed as God's eye seeking and finding a path for
its light over the mountain barriers of sin into the hearts of
the weather-beaten. We struggle on, but how much
longer? Long enough to do what God appoints to each,
and to learn that He does it all with or without us by His
all-sufficient grace. In the very nature of things to some
of us the shades are near when we shall hear God's voice
at close of evensong breathing softly words of loving
welcome home.
." Last night I was delighted to sleep in the Archdeacon's
spare room. Sleep? Yes, but not in a hurry. I was
hardly ensconced among the blankets at 8.30 p.m., when
an excellent brass band began to serenade me. I could
have excused this courtesy. Fifty hours of wakefulness
made the downy pillow my friend. At daybreak came first
the bugle call to wake everybody for the prayer-meeting,
and then more music. I showed myself, and again pressed
the pillow. Before I was | dressed the cannon boomed as
if our beloved Queen had arrived, rather than one of her
humble and faithful subjects and some Indians. Canoes
full of visitors from up river were welcomed with due
ceremony. Then I heard the gruesome howling of a
steamer's siren. It must have alarmed the bears and
wolves in the dense surrounding forests. It was the
Mocking Bird, the sternwheel steamer with Mr. McCullagh
and his candidates for confirmation from Aivansh on board.
" The spiritual side of his remarkable mission does not
seem to suffer from the development of the secular. I have
seen one great big scheme wreck a great work and a much
greater reputation, but I trust Mr. McCullagh's judgment and
sincere devotion to our Master, who faithfully blesses talents More Perils in the Sea.
i8<
faithfully used. Industrial missions in the charge of agents
who profit by their commercial success spell spiritual ruin to
their promoters. Mr. McCullagh rightly courts publicity,
and is most scrupulous in never letting it serve his private
interest. I can therefore confidently commend his sensible
but enterprising schemes for benefiting his Indians
materially as well as spiritually.
" To-day I have discussed with him his road-making and
farm-stocking projects. Here I used to see savagery ; now,
civilization growing out of Gospel teaching. He built the
saw-mill, the Indians own and work it; he bought the
steamer, the Indians subscribing for shares ; as soon as she
is paid for—(let friends subscribe!)—the Indians will own
and work her. So it is with everything. The missionary
initiates and directs, and then hands over the whole to his
people who share his enthusiasm. He will share no profit
that is likely to accrue. But I must prepare for to-morrow's
functions.
" Later.
" Saturday was a day for entertaining strangers. These
Indians are go-a-head! they fetched four fat steers from
Massett, a distance by sea of 139 miles, to feed their visitors
gratuitously with fresh beef. They tax themselves to cover
the cost of these great festivities. In the evening the Town
Hall was crowded by a prayer-meeting. Next morning at
7 o'clock a bugle-call to another prayer-meeting which again
filled the hall. Then the public breakfast, which, being
cleared away, the workers prepared dinner in good time to
be present at the church consecration. Even the children
were in the spirit of it. The girls wore bright bows in their
swarthy hair, and the boys showed each other the pockets in
their new clothes. The oldest men and women, who had
reached middle age as pagans, now slowly move about
as in a dream, muttering thanks to God as if they belonged
to another world. And so they do. As I accost them they
look up and say, ' God, God.'
" The tissue of their thought is wholly changed.    God is i86
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
more consciously in it than with us who inherit a creed. I
do not mean that they are more consecrated in life, but more
godly in attitude of mind. Our standard is not quite theirs,
but they live nearer to it. What they know is less, but it
is, I fancy, more real and definite, and held with a child's
sweet simplicity. This is less obvious among the younger
and better instructed Indians, because they look out upon a
much larger circumference of knowledge, but their self-
sacrifice and greater self-control prove that they are not less
Christlike.    I, too, point up and say, ' God, God.'
*___■ -__• -___■
-7T Tt* *f^
#
#
#
" The consecration service began at 10 a.m. In the meantime the sun shone brightly, and flags fluttered from every
mast and pole. Bunting and earnest faces everywhere. As
we clergy emerged from the parsonage, we were charmed
by a beautiful sight—not the snow-clad mountains, or rippling sea reflecting heaven's blue, but many hundreds of
bright yet solemn faces, that formed the avenue we
marched through to reach the new and really beautiful
church. Headed by the chiefs was the band in bright
home-made uniform; then the choir, the churchwardens
and clergy, the female members of the choir, and a stream
of men marshalled by stewards bearing wands tipped by
tiny flags. Ancient silk chimney-pot hats that only see
the light on festivals adorned many a head, and coloured
scarves were worn by others according to their social standing. The oldest nobility in Europe is not more exclusive
than that among Indians, and money is no factor. Then
came the ' Church Army Corps,' with a rather pronounced
military bearing. The band accompanied the choir, and the
general public joined in the hymns, which were magnificently rendered.
" The square in front of the west end of the church was
crowded with a sea of faces intensely interested. The principal chief handed the petition of consecration to a young
man who read it fairly well. The phraseology, I dare say,
puzzled all.    Then an anthem burst forth, ' Open ye the More Perils in the Sea.
i87
gates,' and as the last words died away the western doors
were flung open, and we marched in singing, ' Onward,
Christian Soldiers.' Music held a large place in the service.
What a delight it was ; and how solemn. Only the singing
was in English. It was the brightest day in the people's
lives. They were proud of their church; they had built
it with their own hands, and 90 per cent, at their own cost.
After my sermon the offertory was made, which eventually
reached about £40. I saw silver bracelets, a watch and
chain, rings, and a handkerchief, which a woman redeemed
with five dollars—one pound sterling! I seemed to see a
soul in everything.
" If the consecration of the building stirred the greater
interest, especially among the pagans present by special invitation, the confirmation on Monday morning was the more
solemn. I forget the exact number of candidates, about
sixty, of whom thirteen were from Aiyansh, and all adults.
Some were aged, and they the most awed by the renewal of
their baptismal pledge.
"A few of the Christian visitors were from the only
Methodist mission among the Nishgas. They wondered why
they could not come for a blessing too, seeing it was
apostolic and, as they said, they revered the Apostles. It
is obvious that our liturgical forms appeal more successfully
to the Indian's instincts than any other.
" Two years ago I was benighted on the river and intended
to camp at the first suitable place, but the kind Methodist
missionary I called on insisted on my accepting his hospitality. It was Saturday night. Before going to bed I said I
should be glad to take a class in his Sunday-school. \ I
haven't got any,' he replied; ' but with you here I don't
mean to take any service. You must do it, and there are to
be three baptisms and a wedding.' ' If I were to do so I
should use no other than the Anglican form of prayers.'
\ Certainly ! ' ' But it would be a shock to your people.'
' I hope so.' ' But what will your circuit superintendent
say ?    There is his daughter.'    ' Oh, I don't mind what he i88
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
says ; I want my people to have the benefit of your visit.'
' Very well, then; I pronounce this to be a Church Mission
till Monday morning, and you are my curate for the nonce.
He smiled : I don't think I did. So for the first time these
Methodist Indians assisted at services in the vernacular
(they don't understand English, and I married, baptized, and
ministered according to our Church rites and ceremonies.
The upshot of it was a general clamour that I would stay
and continue to help them to a more full knowledge of
Divine things. The confirmation they now witnessed
renewed that desire.
' \ Eecently the Methodists appointed an inspector of their
missions, and I found him a charming and cultured companion on a voyage we took together. He owned that he
greatly admired our literary successes in the vernacular, and
resolved to urge on his ministerial brethren the duty of
copying it.    I feel flattered.
" In 1881 I started Indian boarding-schools, then got a
nurse, a doctor, and a hospital; they followed suit with
much larger expenditure, and their Medical Missions are
now an easy first. I wish them all success, but do not like
the second place in any department. I feel sore, but it may
do good to suffer in one's conceit.
" Archdeacon Collison's new and noble church is not only
handsome but storm-proof in its sturdy strength. The
S.P.C.K. has made a grant we feel very grateful for. She
deserves the heartiest thanks of Colonial branches of the
Anglican Church, and the cordial sympathy of Churchmen
everywhere. Besides this grant and the small sums we
missionaries can afford to give, the churches and church
halls are built and maintained entirely by the great liberality
of Indians. So, too, what is called church expenses and
Church Army operations. The C.M.S. does not give aught
to such things. A fortnight since two of our Metlakatla
Indians induced me to sanction their itineration among the
Kwagutl pagans, three hundred miles distant. All the help
they got was five dollars from me to pay part of their steam-
WmW* More Perils in the Sea.
189
boat fare to Alert Bay. At this moment they are diligently
going from tribe to tribe to tell of God's dear love in Christ
Jesus. For the new church, a woman who earns her living
by filling tins with salmon in a cannery went on saving until
she had £20, with which she bought a brass lectern. Somebody else gave the pulpit; a family gave a stained glass
memorial window for the chancel. Their gifts exceed in
value any I know, if measured by the labour and self-
sacrifice enabling the donors to offer them.
"These Indians are proud, but their pride often runs in
veins where God, I believe, sees much fine gold. They are
entirely self-supporting. Fire half-destroyed their town
three years ago. They rebuilt it better than ever, not only
their private houses—which are better both inside and out
than the average working man's on the coast—but also the
present fine church, the new town hall, band room, firemen's
hall, and Church Army hall. They work as well as white
men, and hunt much better. Public spirit is a passion with
them, so that they readily tax themselves for all public purposes. The Government of the province does absolutely
nothing for them.
" Music is also a power for good. In competition with
whites their bands excel. The money they spend, say £100
on instruments and music, another £100 for a band room,
besides the cost of light and fuel, is well spent in providing
an amusement of a pure and elevating kind. When their
bands meet for competition, their transcribed music is
handed to the judges, who require each band to play from
the scores of the other without knowing what it is until they
so receive it. Therefore it is competition of the most trying
kind, playing strange music at sight.
" This spread of musical knowledge started from my first
Indian boarding-school, when she who loved them began to
teach them the rudiments of this lovely art. It has spread
now even among the pagans, who will pay our young and
skilful performers as much as £5 a month, with board and
lodging for a whole winter, to instruct the ambitious youth. 190
Snapshots from the North Pacific.
This devotion to harmony is very wonderful. What a blessing the C.M.S. has been in every way to these manly and
interesting people! . . . .
"But I must tell how I got back to my house. On
Monday morning it was clear and calm. Coming out of
church and seeing that the wind was fair and strpng, I
announced my determination to get away as soon as possible.
The Indians vainly pointed to the white horses outside. We
embarked, and at 3 p.m. weighed anchor. At 7 p.m. we
anchored thirty-six miles nearer Metlakatla in a sheltered
nook. That is over eight knots an hour. We flew forward
under a reefed main-sail before the wind. Before daylight
on Tuesday we started off with the gentlest of catspaws which
took us six miles, and then rather than drift back we
anchored in a perfect calm. Later in the day a puff encouraged us to proceed, and at sunset we were again becalmed, only seven miles from our destination, so we towed
the cutter into what my mate said he knew was good
anchorage. It became pitch dark before we anchored in
five fathoms. The swell from the ocean was heavy, but as
smooth as glass. I could see no sign of the shore, but
Indian sight is more catlike than mine, and the mate felt
sure we were in a good place. After hoisting our anchor
light we all turned in. To my horror, about midnight, we
struck heavily on rocks. We all rushed on deck in night
attire, shortened the cable, launched the boat, up anchor,
and towed into deeper water.
■ ■ When the day dawned we saw we had not been able to
locate the exact whereabouts of the mouth of a small stream
the mate knew of well, and had chanced on a berth too near
the rocks that stretch out on either side into the sea with
about the same depth of water from side to side. With the
turn of the tide we had swung round on the rocks. This
might have ended in disaster, but God keeps watch and
ward; so we got safely back at last, very thankful."
*
*
#
*
#
#
-#
After writing the above letter the Bishop paid, in 1901, an
unexpected visit to   England, brought home by a disaster More Perils in the Sea.
191
which roused the sympathy of all interested in missionary
work. He was at Victoria, about to start for the Atlin gold-
fields, when he received the appalling news of a terrible fire
at Metlakatla on July 22nd. He returned at once to the
spot, and found smouldering ruins where he had left a
happy and prosperous Mission Station—church, schools and
his own home all gone. He wrote the following particulars
three days after the conflagration :—
" At this season the whole population outside our missionary institutions is away at the salmon fishery on the Skeena
Eiver, so there was no one to use the fire engine. As fast
as the children were sheltered in one building the fire chased
them to another until no place remained to go to. The
buildings destroyed are the great church, the two day-
schools, the boys' industrial j school, the Indian girls' home,
the white home (Miss West's), the Church Army Hall, the
Guest House, the chapel, and my own house, as well as
many outbuildings, among them the boat-houses, containing
.all our boats, including my schooner. Nothing of it is
saved.    Only a few Indian houses were burnt.
"All the buildings were of cedar, hence the frightful
rapidity of the great conflagrations. The loss is not less
than £7,000 worth. § |||: 1
" I mourn for my library, all my manuscripts—the work
of many years on subjects that are peculiarly my own—
translations of Scripture, folk-lore, poems, two grammars—
one very complete, my best work—and material for a book
on the origin, habits, traditions, and religions of Indians.
'Tis, I think, a real loss to literature, seeing that I cannot
live long enough, and have not the energy to try to
reproduce even some of it. It is my second great bereavement."
Through God's blessing on the Bishop's untiring efforts,
he returned to his diocese with the necessary £7,000, but of
course no money could restore the valuable MSS. nor the
little treasured mementoes that become more dear each year,
as they recall those who have gone before. 192
' Snapshots from the North Pacific.
This " second great bereavement," as the Bishop called it,
and the strain of work which it entailed, finally broke down
his health, and after returning to Metlakatla with the contributions of generous friends in England, he felt obliged finally
to sever his connection with a diocese where the name of the
first of its Bishops will always remain as a household word,
to be loved and revered through succeeding generations.
But, though workers change, fruit is still being gathered
in those far-off regions, to the glory and praise of God.
These letters, we must remember, do not tell the story
of finished work, and it is hoped that their collection and
republication will awaken fresh interest in that portion of
the great harvest-field, so that more earnest prayer may arise
that the Indians of the Far West may be among those who
shall come to " sit down in the Kingdom of God," and that
voices once raised in the wild revelry of the heathen pot-
lach may join with the multitude of all nations, and kindreds
and peoples, and tongues in the glad acclaim: "Salvation
to our God which sitteth upon the throne, and unto
the Lamb."
I
New Girls' Home, Rebuilt since the Fire.
Gilbkrt & R-vihgton, Ltd., Printers. St, John's House, Clerkenw*    

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