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Inasmuch; sketches of the beginnings of the Church of England in Canada in relation to the Indian and… Gould, Sydney, 1869-1938 1917

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Array         HANDBOOK No. 1
INASMUCH
SKETCHES OF THE BEGINNINGS
OF THE
CHURCH OF ENGLAND IN CANADA
IN RELATION TO THE
INDIAN AND ESKIMO RACES
BY
S. GOULD
General Secretary of the Missionary Society of the
Church of England in Canada, and Honorary
Canon of the St. George's Collegiate
Church, Jerusalem
The happiest man is he
Who is most diligently employed
About his Master's business.
Bishop Horden
TORONTO
1917 
To the honoured memory
Of the faithful men and women
Who first preached the Gospel
To the Canadian Indians and Eskimo
This Handbook is inscribed. CONTENTS
CHAPTER PAGE
I   The New Land and the New Race.   3
II   Atlantic Shore to Watershed.  32
III Pro and Con.  61
IV Pioneer Journals—Rev. John West, 1820-4  83
V Pioneer Journals—Bishop G. J. Mountain, 1844 99
VI Red River to Arctic Circle...-  117
VII Pacific Coast and Islands  151
VIII The Northwest Passage  187
IX The Innuit  213
X The School of the Apostles   243
APPENDIX
1 Questions on Chapters I-X  273
2 Bibliography  283 _  INTRODUCTION
In the preparation of this Handbook an effort
has been made to allow those who did the work to
describe, as far as possible, in their own language
the work they did. It is therefore, save in the
last chapter, a compilation rather than an original
production. To avoid overloading the volume
with footnotes, full acknowledgement of the
material used is made in the Bibliography.
The Handbook has been compiled with a threefold purpose:
To combine, and present in one volume, certain information and considerations concerning
the beginnings of the Church of England in
Canada, in relation to the Indian and Eskimo
Races.
To provide a text book for use in the work
of Summer Schools and Mission Study Classes.
In this connection, it is recommended that
Chapters II, III, VI, VII, IX, X, be used as
the basis of instruction, and I, IV, V, VIII as
Chapters of reference.
To present certain aspects of the missionary
situation now confronting the Church in relation to the Native races, as outlined in the
following paragraphs:
"Other men laboured," said our Lord to His
disciples, "and ye are entered into their labours.''
These words of the Master set forth a universal
A Threefold
Purpose
A Universal
Principle VIII
Introduction
A Local
Responsibility
Inheritors.
Stewards,
Trustees
John   iv:39-41
John iii:23
principle of the Christian faith, and illustrate a
local coincidence of responsibility.
Of the duties and privileges of the Christian
Church it is pre-eminently true, that its members
are:
Inheritors, in Christ, of all that is good, heroic,
and noble in the past. Stewards, through Christ,
of the duties and responsibilities of the present.
Trustees for Christ, of the principles and standards
of life and conduct, which are to stimulate and
direct those who shall come after.
What the precise "local coincidence of responsibility" was, to which our Lord made reference, we have no clear record. Some have
thought, with apparent reason, that the marked
readiness of the Samaritans to believe on Him
"because of the word of the Woman," and because of His own word," may be traced to the
work and preparation of John the Baptist;
particularly when, moving up the stream of the
Jordan, he "was baptizing in Aenon near to
Salim."
The "universal principle of the faith," like the
fundamental basis of Christian missionary effort,
is inherent in the nature of the life which "is hid
with Christ in God." It is that which gives con-
tinuit}'' to the expression of the mind and will of
God through His people; it is that which, amid
the loosing of the "silver cords" and the breaking
of the "golden bowls" of succeeding generations,
carries forward and makes perfect the feeble
life-work of each believer; it is the supreme note Introduction
of the "Everlasting Kingdoni," the unbreakable
link bmding the Church Militant to the Church
Triumphant. "One soweth and another reap-
eth"; "that he that soweth and he that reapeth
may rejoice together."
In the case and drcunistances of the Church of
England in Canada no uncertainty exists. The
application of the "universal principle," and of
the "local coincidence" of responsibility, is clear
and unmistakable.
In this Handbook it is our purpose to trace,
mainly in the bonds and fellowship of two great
societies—the S. P. G. and the C. M. S.—the
footsteps of devoted men and women who, "first
gave their own selves to the Lord," and then
thought it but a small thing that they should give
all else—life, strength, service—to the work of
winning the Indian and the Esldmo to "the
light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the
face of Jesus Christ."
We shall see, coincident with the tracing
of the footsteps of the pioneers of the Cross, the
slow, and still imperfect, awakening of the conscience of the white men with regard to their
responsibilities towards the native races; whose
land they have occupied, and whose patrimony,
of forest, lake, and river, they possess and enjoy.
As members of the Church of England in Canada, in relation to the native races, we lie under
the obligation of a double debt:
1. The debt due to the right which they
possessed to the country in which we live, to the
John  iv:36-37
A Double
Relationship Introduction
very air which we breathe, and, above all, the
debt due to the right which they have to a joint
share and heritage in "the faith once delivered
unto the Saints."
2. The incalculable debt of reparation due to
the two English Societies—the S. P. G. and the
C. M. S.,—which entered Canada, the one largely
and the other entirely, as Missions to its Indians
and Eskimos, and which have, directly or indirectly, been the main instruments in God's
hands for the founding of that Canadian Church
whose members we are and whose privileges we
possess and enjoy.
In any comparison of the work in Canada of the
two Societies, the S. P. G. and the C. M. S., an
important distinction must be borne in mind. It
is this, that while the S. P. G., received its first
appeal from Eastern Canada on behalf of the
Indians, and has done much for those of the West
also, its efforts and abundant generosity have, in
the main, been concentrated, and poured out,
upon the work for the benefit of white settlers.
The C. M. S., on the other hand, is by its con*
stitution limited to the initiation and carrying on
of work among heathen peoples and of converts
gathered out from among them. Therefore all
the benefit (and who shall adequately estimate or
describe it?) which the Church of England in
Canada has received through the operations of
the C. M. S. must be ascribed, solely, to the effect
of the recognition, by the Church in England, of Cavil
Introduction xi
the claim of the native races of the Dominion
upon its sympathy and assistance.
Out of many possible facts which illustrate and
support this statement let the mention of one
only, suffice:
Beginning with Moosonee, excluding Algoma,
and going through to the Pacific, we have fifteen
dioceses. Of these the founding of nine was due
to the initiative and in most cases the liberal, or
total, financial support of the C. M. S. In the
establishment of most of the others the S. P. G.
was concerned to a like extent.
To the possible cavil that if the Church of a Possible
England had not entered the country in the way
described it would have entered it in some other
way, and that, therefore, we should not be influenced unduly by the argument from history; it is sufficient to reply, that history is a "record of events "
as they occurred and not an'' invention of fancies''
concerning the course they might have followed
under other conceivable contingencies. We are
the heirs of the past as that past, by the finger of
God and the actions of our forefathers, has been
written for all time. A knowledge of things "as
they were" is an essential element in a just comprehension of things "as they are."
Things "as they are," in inrmediate financial Thee. m. s.
relation to our subject, go back to a series of
resolutions adopted by the C. M. S. Committee
in the year 1903.
These resolutions recite that:
"In view of the urgency of the calls for ex-
Withdrawal XII
Introduction
The Page of
the Future
tension of the Missions in the densely populated
portions of the Heathen World, and of the
difficulty of providing men and means for such
extension, and even for the natural development
of existing work, the Committee feel it incumbent on them to take definite steps for the reduction of the Missions to the small populations of North-West Canada, the larger part of
which is now professedly Christian."
The practical effect of these resolutions was
to reduce the sum given in 1904—£10,023, or
$48,777—by annually decreasing amounts; with
the intention that "after December 31st, 1920,
all the grants-in-aid shall cease."
The past record of the Church of England in
Canada, in relation to the Indian and Eskimo, is
one glorious with the Christian virtues of self-
abnegation and service. The present situation
is marked by both "lights and shadows; in some
places no monument in "living souls" exists of
the labours of our early Missionaries; over the
work 6f others "Ichabod"—the glory has departed—is written only too plainly; while across
the portals of many stations lowers the decision
of the C. M. S. Committee, "after December
jist, IQ20, all the grants-in-aid shall cease."
What of the future?
The page of the future can be written by one
hand, and by one hand only. The hand of the
Church of England in Canada. *' Other men have
laboured, and we have entered into their labours."
That' I entrance'' spells '' responsibility, j'   Action Introduction xm.
from any other direction, if possible and available,
must in its nature be palliative and temporary.
The responsibility lies at the door of the Church
of England in Canada, and must be dealt with
through the official channel of expression of its
missionary life and zeal; the Missionary Society,
acting through its Board of Management, and its
Woman's Auxiliary. The members of both will
require great wisdom, faith, courage.
The sky of our "entrance" into the responsibility was darkened, suddenly, by the fierce clouds
of the War. In Canada's response to the War
the sons of the red men are bearing a full and
worthy part. Nearly every mission station has
its representatives at the front, and most of them,
when the conflict is over, will have their " Honour
Rolls" inscribed with the names of the men who,
in the supreme struggle for Empire and right,
"counted not their lives dear unto themselves."
In these respects they are strengthening the
loudest and clearest note of our recitation of "the
beginnings of the Church of England in Canada in
relation to the Indian and Eskimo races." To
all their claims of soil, of air, of natural resources,
of joint heritage in the faith "once delivered to
the saints," the. Indians of Canada have added
the distinction of Zebulon and Napthali, in the
days of Deborah and Barak, the son of Abinoam,
in that they "jeoparded their lives unto the death
in the high places of the field."
The Missions to the Indians and Eskimo enter, conclusion
in a peculiar manner, into the very fibre of the XIV
Introduction
Canadian Church. Their story is one of the most
thrilling in the whole history of Christian Missionary effort. If, therefore, the Church of England
in Canada should, by any means, allow them to
die, or fall into other hands, through a failure in
recognizing the "hour of its entrance," and in
coming adequately to their support; it will suffer
a loss in the continuity and fullness of its life for
which activity in no other sphere will be able to
compensate. INASMUCH  CHAPTER I.
The New Land and the New Race
WHEN Columbus and his companions set
out across the unknown western ocean to
find a pathway to the far East, they discovered
a new continent inhabited by a new race. Of
both these facts they were, at the time, ignorant.
The lands found, they considered must be the far
outposts of India, and therefore the people inhabiting them must be "Indians," and as Indians
they have been known, and described, from that
day to this.
An ancient register of a parish Church at
Gravesend contains this entry: *"March 2j,
Rebecca Wrothe, wyff of Thomas Wrothe, gent,
a Virginian lady born, here was buried in ye
Chauncel."
In Rebecca the wife of Thomas Wrothe,
"Virginian lady bora," buried in the "Ye
Chauncel" we have, it is supposed, none other
than Pocahontas, the daughter of Powhatan
and the saviour of Captain John Smith, one of
the company of adventurers, who, under the
protection of a royal charter, landed on Virginian
soil, in Chesapeake Bay, and founded Jamestown
at the mouth of James' River.
Pocahontas, betrayed for a copper kettle, was
* For all quotations see Bibliography, page 283.
An Ancient
Record
April 25th,
1607 Inasmuch
Derivation of
"Canada"
detained as a hostage in Jamestown, adopted the
manners and dress of the women of the colony, was
baptised as Rebecca, married a colonist of an old
Norfolk family, went with her little son to England, was made much of by those who knew her
story, was slowly poisoned by the stench of
London, died on board the ship George on the
eve of her proposed return to Virginia, and was
buried in "Ye Chauncel" of a Parish Church
of Gravesend. Thus one of the most romantic
characters of the Red Race, one of the first to
be admitted by baptism into the Christian
Church, found her last resting place in consecrated English soil, and illustrated that connection
which it is our privilege to trace from Jamestown
to Nova Scotia, from Nova Scotia to Ontario,
from Ontario to Rupert's Land, from Rupert's
Land to the islands of the Pacific Ocean and the
coasts of the Arctic seas.
A word first, with regard to the origin of the
name of the great country, Canada, into the
far spaces of which it is our purpose, in ancient
fashion, by canoe and dog-train, to make our way.
Of two or three suggested derivations, the following, as the most probable, seems to be commanding fairly general acceptance. An old and quaint
author, from whose writings we shall quote rather
freely, says: "From a Canadian (Indian) vocabulary, annexed to the original edition of the second
voyage of Jacques Carrier, Paris, 1545, it appears
that an assemblage of houses or habitations, i.e.,
a  town,   was  by  the  natives  called  Canada. The New Land and the New Race
Carrier says: "lis appellent une ville—Canada."
Mr. Hechewelder is of much the same opinion as
Charlevoix and Forster. He says, that in. a
prayer-book, in the Mohawk tongue, he read,
"Ne Kanada-gongh Konwayatsh Nazareth,"
which is a translation of "in a City called Nazareth ." As additional evidence we may note that
three of the larger Seneca towns, were named:
Canadasaga, Canadaigua, and Caneadea. In
any case let us keep the charming and suggestive
association, of the old Mohawk prayer book, in
mind as we advance along the Indian Mission
Trail, into the wide areas destined to become an
"assemblage of houses or habitations."
"Even as early as the reigns of Elizabeth and aSdCharte?s8
James I., zeal for conquest, discovery and colonization was frequently associated with a strong
desire to extend the Kingdom of God."
For instance, in 1589, Sir Walter Raleigh gave
the sum of £100 "in special regard and zeal in
planting the Christian religion in those dark
countries" of America.
Heriot, the friend and Secretary of Raleigh,
says that "many times and in every town,
according as he was able, he made a declaration
of the contents of the Bible to the people."
Charles I., when granting a charter to colonize
Massachusettes, expressed the wish that the
colonists might be "so religiously governed as
their good life may win and incite the natives of
the country to the knowledge and obedience of
the only true God and Saviour of mankind."
First Missionary Contribution
Massachusetts' Charter, 1628 Inasmuch
Plantation of t     ___.     1  _._.
Virginia m trie letters patent granted by James I. in
1606 for the plantation of Virginia, it is.said,
"So noble a work may by the providence of God,
tend to the glory of His Divine Majesty, in
propagating the Christian religion to such people
as yet live in darkness and miserable ignorance
of the true knowledge and worship of God."
Three years afterward a new charter was
granted, and a few months before the expedition
sailed, William Crashaw, preacher at the Temple,
in a noble sermon said, among other things, to
the Virginian Council, "Remember the end of
this voyage is the end of the devil's kingdom,
and the propagation of the Gospel." Turning to
Lord De La Warr, the Captain-General of the
Expedition, and his subordinates, he said, "Look
not at the gain, the wealth, the honour, the advancement of thy house; but look at those
high and better ends, that concern the Kingdom
of God. Remember thou art a general of Christian men, therefore, principally look to religion.
You go to commend it toward the heathen, then
practise it yourselves." One of the first things
done in the colony was the erection of a college
at Henrico, "for the training and educating the
children of the natives in the knowledge of the
true God." Letters were written by James and
the two Archbishops, inviting the members of
the Church throughout the Kingdom, to contribute "as well for the enlarging of our dominions, as for the propagation of the Gospel among
the infidels, wherein there is good progress made." The New Land and the New Race
This was the first general collection made for
missions in England, and the people generously
responded  by  contributing  the  large  sum  of
£4,000.
The first Protestant missionary to preach to John Eliot,
-,   -. 1• 1      r °ct- 28th»
the aborigines, and the first to earn the title ot 1646
"apostle to the North American Redmen," was
John Eliot, one of the non-conforming ministers
who left England at the time of Archbishop
Laud. The New England Puritans set forth
many curious opinions to account for the origin
of the natives. One of their most famous preachers declared: "the natives of the country now
possessed by the New Englanders, had been
forlorn and wretched heathen ever since their
first landing here, and though we know not or
how these Indians first became inhabitants of
this mighty continent yet we may guess that
probably the Devil decoyed those miserable
savages hither, in hopes that the Gospel of the
Lord Jesus Christ might never come here to
destroy or disturb his absolute empire over them.
But our Eliot was in such ill terms with the Devil,
as to alarm him with sounding the silver trumpets
of Heaven in his territories, and make some
noble and zealous attempts towards outing him
of ancient possessions here."
In general, "the Indian regarded the colonist
as an interloper who had come to despoil him of
the land of his fathers, while the Virginian Puritan
considered himself as the salt of the earth and the
Indian as a heathen or ' Ishmaelite' sent by the Inasmuch
Reservation
powers of darkness for his discomfiture, whom it
was an act of both religion and policy to destroy."
Eliot's zeal on their behalf was quickened by
his belief that he saw in them the descendents of
the lost ten tribes of Israel. His efforts for the
relief of their condition revealed the supreme evil
already afflicting them, and were curiously promt's Indian phetic of the political method adopted, later, for
preserving the race. He applied to the General
Court of Massachusetts and received a grant of
land, the first "Indian reservation," where the
Indians might settle and learn the arts of civilized
life, "and he persuaded them to conform to a
code of simple laws drawn upon the basis of the
Ten Commandments. One of these aimed at
the suppression of the liquor traffic which had
already begun to ruin and degrade the character
of the natives." In the form of a "pennyworth
of wampum on the end of a straw" thrust into
his hand by a "poor creature," Eliot received
the first recorded Christian contribution from a
member of the Red Race. Wars between the
colonists and the natives wrecked Eliot's work
and saddened the last years of his life. Shortly
before his death he wrote* "I am drawing home,
the shadows are lengthening around. I beseech
you to suppress the title of Indian Evangelist;
give not glory to me for what is done."
The evangelistic zeal and labours of "John
Eliot" were destined to set in motion, in the
ancient and established Church of England,
those streams of missionary vigor whose course
First Indian
Contribution
Eliot died,
1690, aged 86 The New Land and the New Race 9
it is our privilege to trace to the far West and
North of the New World.
The author of an early history of mis- WeiFsPianm~
sions, and clearly by no means an ao_mirer of
the "Lord Protector," delivers himself thus:
"To the usurper, Cromwell, belongs the credit
of having first planned a mission from the
Reformed Churches to the less favoured parts of
the world. His project, as Bishop Burnet remarks, was certainly a noble one. He resolved
to set up a council for the Protestant religion, in
opposition to the congregation, de Propaganda
Fide at Rome. He intended it should consist
of seven Councillors and four Secretaries for
different Provinces. These were the first: France,
Switzerland, and the Valleys; the Palatine and
the other Calvinists were the second; Germany,
the North, and Tujrkey were the third; and the
East and West Indies were the fourth." These
general aspirations took form in the organization
of the oldest existing missionary society, one which
is still carrying on effective work for the Canadian
Indians.
The Long Parliament passed an Ordinance tend^om?12"
which recited that "the Commons in England, in pany
Parliament assembled, had received certain
intelligence that divers heathen natives of New
England had, through the blessing of God, forsaken their accustomed charms, sorceries, and
other satanical delusions, were now calling upon
the name of the Lord, and that the propagation
of Jesus Christ among these poor heathen could 10
Inasmuch
First Bible
Published in
America, 16G4
Movement in
the National
Church
not be prosecuted with that expedition and further success as was desired, unless fit instruments
were encouraged and maintained to pursue it,"
and established "a Corporation for the Promoting
and Propagation of the Gospel of Jesus Christ
in New England." This corporation provided
most of the funds for the support of Eliot's work,
and bore the chief expense connected with the
publication of his translation of the Bible into
Mohican. Richard Baxter said of a copy of the
latter sent to Charles II.: "Such a work and fruit
of a plantation was never before presented unto a
King." "Of this Bible Cotton Mather wrote:
Behold Ye Americans, the greatest honour that
ever ye were partakers of,—the Bible printed here
at our Cambridge; and it is the only Bible that
ever was printed in all America, from the foundation of the world." "The longest word in it is in
Mark I, 40. Wutappesittukqussunnookweh-
tunkquoh (kneeling down to him)." On the
restoration of the Monarchy the Corporation
became defunct, but was revived by a charter of
Charles II., under the title of "The Company for
the Propagation of the Gospel in New England
and'the parts adjacent in America." and limited
to forty-five members, consisting of Churchmen
and Dissenters. It is now known as the New
England Company.
About twelve years later the state of irreligion
in England stirred certain members of the
National Church to band themselves together
into Societies "that so by their united zeal and The New Land and the New Race        11
endeavours they might .... fortify both themselves and others against the attempts of those
sons of darkness, who make it their business to
root out (if possible) the very notions of Divine
things and all differences of good and evil."    One
of the leaders of this Movement, which spread
widely, was Dr. Thomas Bray, who received the
Bishop of London's appointment as his Com- Dr. Thomas
missary for Maryland.    Dr.  Bray's efforts re- Bray' 1696
suited in the establishment of the "Society for
Promoting    Christian   Knowledge,"    for    "the s. p. c. k.,
fixing   Parochial   Libraries   throughout   the 1697
Plantations (especially on the Continent of North
America)."
The adage that "God removes His workers,
but carries on His work " was demonstrated in the
case of Eliot's efforts on behalf of the Indians. erd!idBornin"
David Brainerd, "gave up himself entirely to his A*n§1D_ed',
work, abandoning everything for it.    While he 0ct* 9th' 1747
himself underwent  all sorts  of privations,  he
surrendered his own private property without
reserve to educate others."    The introduction to 20*be,di?3C4*
the life of Brainerd, written at Watton Rectory,
by Edward Bickersteth, contains this statement:
"Missionary  biography since the days of the
Apostles is comparatively of recent origin.    The
life of Eliot was published in 1691, by Cotton
Mather.    The success attending his labours and TnCe0rpor*a?ed
those of Mayhew and Sheppard who laboured at 1701
the same period, gave rise, (Dean Pearson has
remarked) to the Society for the Propagation of
the Gospel in. Foreign parts."   What the grounds 12
Inasmuch
Carrier's
First Voyage,
1534
June 10th
were for "Dean Pearson's remark," the writer
has no means of judging, but we may rest assured
that Dean Pearson was not a man accustomed to
pass remarks of the kind without good and sufficient reason. This much, at any rate is plain,
from the zeal and labours of John Eliot, "the
Apostle to the North American Red Man " sprang,
directly or indirectly, two of the great Societies,
the S. P. C. K. and the S. P. G. * which have been
the channels of untold blessing to the people,
both Red and White, of the vast areas now included within the boundaries of Canada.
The S. P. G. is the only Society which still
enjoys the distinction of an honorific form of address, it is frequently styled the "Venerable
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel." An
outline of its activities, together with those of the
New England Company on behalf of the red
men, will carry us from the shores of Nova
Scotia to the height of land between Lake
Superior and Hudson Bay.
Before setting out upon this long journey it is
advisable that we should obtain some general
conception of the distribution and characteristics
of the original inhabitants of the country.
Our earliest information of Canada and its
people is derived from the accounts of the voyages
of Jacques Carrier. Beating his way through the
Straits of Belle Isle, on his first voyage, he cast
anchor in the harbour of Brest on the Coast of
Labrador. His rambles on shore caused the
unflattering remark, "In all the north-land, I
•The Charter of the S. P. G. was granted by William III. on "the
humble petition of Thomas Bray. D.D.," with the co-operation Of the
Committee of the S. P. C. K. The New Land and the New Race
13
did not see a cart-load of good earth. To be
short, I believe that this is the land that God
allotted to Cain."
The natives sighted were painted " with certain Indian,
red colours"; so the adjective "Red" was attached to the mistaken term of Columbus, "Indian,"
and "Red Indian" was the result.
"They are men," wrote Carrier "of an indifferent good stature and bigness, but wild and unruly.
They wear their hair tied on the top like a wreath
of hay and put a wooden pin within it, or any
other such thing instead of a nail, and with them
they bind certain bird's feathers. They are
clothed with beasts' skins as well the men as
women, but that the women go somewhat
straighter and closer in their garments than the
men do, with their waists girded. They paint
themselves with certain roan colours. Their
boats are made with the bark of birch trees, with
the which they fish and take great stores of
seals, and, as far as we could understand since
our coming thither, that is not their habitation,
but they come from the mainland out of hotter
countries to catch the said seals and other
necessaries for their living."
Carrier, on his second voyage, penetrated up carrier's
the Gulf of St. Lawrence and reached Stada- ||e^53_ui536
cona, the Indian town near the foot of the rock
of Quebec. Meanwhile, needless to say, his ideas
concerning the country "that God allotted to
Cain" had undergone very serious modification;
he now speaks of a "goodly and fertile spot cover- 14
Inasmuch
Donnacona,
Chief of
Stadacona
The Indians'
Stratagem
ed with fine trees"; while the Island of Orleans
was so densely wooded, with "wild grapes hanging to the rivers edge" that he called it the "Isle
of Bacchus," changing the name later to that
which it now bears. When returning to France,
on his first voyage, from the Bay of Gaspe,
Carrier invited two sons of the chief to accompany him; these gladly complied and were
now bis guides and interpreters.
Donnacona, the Chief of Stadacona, an able
and wily savage, did all in his power to keep for
himself the benefits of acquaintance with the
strangers, and resorted to the terrors of magic
and pantomime to deter them from ascending the
river to Hochelaga. "The next day, the eighteenth, in order to prevent us going to Hochelaga,
they thought out a grand scheme as follows:
'They dressed up three men as devils With horns
as long as the arm, and they were covered with
the skins of black and white dogs. Their faces
were painted black as coal, and they were placed
in a concealed canoe. The band came to us as
usual, the others waiting in the woods without
appearing for about two hours for the time and
tide for the arrival of the above canoe; at which
time they all came out of the forest and showed
themselves before our ships without approaching
any nearer. According to their plan, Taignoagny
saluted our Captain, who asked if he wanted our
boat; the former replied not for the present, but
that by-and-by he would come on board, and
immediately the canoe, with the three disguised The New Land and the New Race
15
as devils with long horns on their heads arrived,
and the one in the centre made a strange speech
as they approached. They passed along by our
ships in their canoe without turning their eyes
upon us, and continued till they struck hard upon
the shore with their canoe; then irnmediately
Donnacona and his people took the canoe and the
three men who lay in the canoe as if dead and
carried all into the woods, about a stone's throw
distant, and not a single savage was left in front
of our ships. From within the woods they began
a talking and a preaching which we could hear
on the ships.'"
About half an hour later one of Carrier's interpreters came out of the woods with a doleful
countenance, and all the outward marks of the
reluctant bearer of evil tidings. He informed
Carrier that the great god "Cudragny" had sent
the three spirits to tell him that he could not go
up to Hochelaga, "because there was so much ice
and snow in that country that whoever went
there would die." Carrier calmly dismissed this
solemn warning with the remark that "their god,
Cudragny, must be a fool and a noodle, and that,
as for the cold, Christ would protect his followers
from that, if they would but believe in Him."
The passage up the River enslaved the imagin-
tion of the already converted explorer, "as goodly
a country," he declared "as possibly can with eye
be seen, and all replenished with very goodly
trees." On landing on the shores of the Island
of Montreal, the strangers were welcomed by a
Hochelaga,
Oct. 2nd, 1535 16
Inasmuch
Description of
Hochelaga
crowd of a thousand savages who offered them
"great quantities of fish and of the bread which
they baked from the ripened corn, and brought
little children in their arms making signs for
Carrier and his companions to touch them."
On the morrow, at daybreak, they set out to
visit the town, situated just below the present
site, and grounds of McGill University. Travelling along a beaten pathway, under lordly oaks,
Carrier says, "After we had gone about four or
five miles we met by the way one of the chiefest
lords of the city, accompanied with many more,
who, as soon as he saw us, beckoned and made
signs upon us, that we must rest in that place
where they had made a great fire, and so we did.
After that we had rested ourselves there awhile,
the said lord began, to make a long discourse,
even as we have said above they are accustomed
to do in sign of mirth and friendship, showing our
captain and all his company a joyful countenance
and good will, who gave him two hatchets, a pair
of knives and a cross he had made him to kiss,
and then put it about his neck, for which he gave
our captain hearty thanks. This done, we went
along, and about a mile and a half farther, we
began to find goodly and large fields full of such
corn as the country yieldeth. It is even as the
millet of Brazil as great and somewhat bigger than
small peason (peas), wherewith they live as we
do with ours.
"In the midst of those fields is the city of
Hochelaga, placed near and, as it were, joined to The New Land and the New Race
17
a very great mountain, that is tilled round about,
very fertile, on the top of which you may see very
far. We named it Mount Royal. The City of
Hochelaga is round compassed about with timber,
with three courses of rampires (stockades), one
within another, framed like a sharp spire, but
laid across above. The middle most of them is
made and built as a direct line, but perpendicular.
The rampires are framed and fashioned with
pieces of timber laid along on the ground, very
well and cunningly joined together after their
fashion. This enclosure is in height about two
rods. It hath but one gate of entry thereat,
which is shut with piles, stakes, and bars. Over
it and also in many places of the wall there be
places to run along and ladders to get up, all full
of stones for the defense of it.
"There are in the town about fifty houses,
about fifty paces long, and twelve or fifteen broad,
built all of wood, covered over with the bark of
the wood as broad as any board, very finely and
cunningly joined together. Within the said
houses there are many rooms, lodgings and
chambers. In the midst of every one there is a
great court in the middle whereof the}'' make their
fire."
The races whose representatives tendered this Linguistic
delightful reception to the first white men who thT___M_____?f
ascended Canada's noblest river, were divided, Race
linguistically,  into ten or a dozen stems.    Of
these we are concerned with nine.
The Iroquois included a number of tribes— 18
Inasmuch
The Iroquo-
ian Stock
Six Nation
Territory
Derivation
"Iroquois"
such as the Huron, Susquehannocks, and others
—in addition to those which constituted the
Five Nation Confederacy. The latter was formed
about the fifteenth century and comprised the
Senecas, Cayugas, Onondagas, Oneidas and
Mohawks. At a later date the Tuscaroras, driven
from North Carolina, sought the protection of the
Five Nations, as being of common origin, and
were admitted into the Confederacy, which then
became the "Six Nations."
Their territory extended, in a general way, from
Niagara Falls to Albany and the River St. Lawrence. Carrier's description, of the towns and
inhabitants of Stadacona and Hochelaga makes it
evident that the people of both these places were,
at that time, of the Iroquoian stock. This extension of the race, never, apparently, included
in the Confederacy, was exterminated by the
Algonquins on the one side, and by the Mohawks
on the other. From that time Lake Champlain
became the eastern boundary of the famity.
Their name, Iroquois, was given them by the
Algonquins, and signified, it is supposed "real
adders," that is "bitter enemies."
Their chiefs were of three grades. First,
Counsellors, or the civil heads of the tribe. This
office was, and is, hereditary through the female
line. On the death of such a chief the matrons
of the tribe nominated his successor, the selection
being confirmed by the tribal and federal councils.
Second, War chiefs, selected for their natural
qualities  of  fortitude   and  bravery,   often   de- The New Land and the New Race
19
scribed as "Pine tree" chiefs; of these the most
famous example is Thayendanegea, or Joseph
Brant.    Third, Chiefs by adoption.
The   Dutch,   after   the   foundation   of   New ?„__?a^cov-
Amsterdam, or New York, were the first to come enant cham"
into contact with the Six Nations, and formed
with them a "Covenant Chain" or compact to
maintain friendly relations.    When the English The English
superseded the Dutch they assumed the obliga- DutchS,ei664 e
tions of the '' Covenant Chain.''   The Six Nations
became in this way, next to the Portugese, the
oldest continuous allies of the English people.
Of the six members, the Mohawks were the Migration to
firmest in their allegiance to the "Covenant ana a
Chain" and the Oneidas the most divided. In
the War of Independence the Oneidas adopted
a position of neutrality with the result that they
were attacked by the other members of the Confederacy and forced to • take refuge with the
Americans, where they remained until the close
of the War. The American, and greater part of
the tribe, was settled on Reserves in New York
State and at Green Bay, Wisconsin, with a composite remnant in Oklahoma. About seven
hundred, refusing the transfer to Green Bay,
crossed into Canada and were located on the banks
of the Thames near Strathroy. A part of the
Onondagas also remained in New York State.
The others, with the loyal portion of the Oneidas,
"rather than swerve from their allegiance chose
to abandon their dwellings and property." A
majority under Captain Joseph Brant fled to 20
In a s m u c h
The Algonquin Stock
The Athapascan Stock
The Kolus-
chan Stock
The
Skittegatan
Canada by way of Niagara and formed eventually
the well-known settlement on the Grande River.
The remainder, under Captain John Deserontyon,
escaped to Lower Canada, and, after a sojourn of
about six years at Lachine, some of them joined
the Niagara Contingent but the majority settled
on the Bay of Quinte Reserve.
The area included within the Dominion of
Canada was, at the time of the arrival of the
white man, occupied by eight other great linguistic
families of the native race.
The first of these, the Algonquins, adjoined
the territory of the Iroquois and extended north
to the Hudson Bay and west-ward to the foothills of the Rockies, including such tribes as the
Ojibways, the Crees and the Blackfeet.
The second, the Athapascan stock, "extended
in a broad band across the Continent, from the
Pacific to James' Bay and the Southern shore of
Hudson Bay, northward to the MacKenzie
Delta, and southward, by cognate tribes, as far as
the plains of Mexico." It is the most widely
distributed of all, and includes such divisions as
the Tinneh "dwelling near the Rockies, in the
interior of Alaska, and in the mountain fastnesses
of British America"; the Pacific Division in
Oregon and Northern Calfiornia; and the Southern Division, as the Apaches, Navahos and
Lipans.
The third, the Koluschan, includes the Tlingit
of the borders of Alaska.
The fourth, the Skittegetan, the Haidas of the
Queen Charlotte Islands. The New Land and the New Race
21
IS   The Waka-
shan Stock
The Salishan
The fifth,  Chimmesyan, is made up of the The
Tsimshian, the Gitksan, and the Niska of the Chimmesyan
Skeena and Naas rivers.
The sixth, the Wakashan. The name
derived from "waukash," good; which Captain
Cook heard at Friendly Cove, and supposed to be
the name of a tribe. The family includes the
Kwakiutl and the Nootka; and is distributed
along part of the coast of British Columbia, with
the North and West portions of Vancouver
Island.
The seventh, the Salishan, occupying the
south-east part of Vancouver Island, and the
South Mainland of British Columbia; with the
exception of that portion held by in the Kutenai.
The eighth, the Kutenai, inhabiting the South The Kutenai
East corner of British Columbia, and parts of
North Montana and Idaho.
Improvident and unstable the Indian tribes conditions of
gravitated between times of rude plenty, when
they gorged themselves into a state of lethargic
indolence, and periods of dire famine wherein
they were reduced to the greatest distress.
"All these people," wrote Champlain, "sometimes
endure so great extremity, that they are almost
constrained to eat one another, through the great
colds and snows: for the beasts and fowls whereof
they live, retire themselves into more hot
climates." One band, he described, arrived on
the river, opposite Quebec, in such a state of
desperation that, though the river was filled with
drifting ice, they lauched their canoe and attempt-
Indian Life 22
Inasmuch
ed the crossing. When in mid-stream the canoe,
heavily overladen, was crushed between the
floes; scrambling out upon a large cake they
drifted rapidly down stream with the good
fortune that the piece upon which they had taken
refuge was struck forcibly by a large mass and
driven on shore; when they landed they fell upon
and devoured the putrid and rotten carcass of an
animal which had been thrown outside the fort.
The Red-men will ever be associated with the
torments and atrocious cruelties they inflicted
upon their prisoners of war. Champlain wrote of
the torture of an Iroquois captive: "They commanded him to sing if he had any courage: which
he did, but it was a sorry song to hear. Meanwhile our men lighted a fire, and when it was
blazing well, each one took a brand and burned
this poor wretch little by little, to make him suffer
greater torment. Sometimes they stopped and
threw water on his back. Then they tore out his
nails and put the fire on the ends of his fingers.
Afterwards they flayed the top of his head and
dripped on top of it a kind of gum all hot; then
they pierced his arms near the wrists and with
sticks pulled the sinews, and when they saw
that they could not get them, they cut them.
The poor wretch uttered strange cries, and I
pitied him when I saw him treated in this way;
and yet he showed such endurance that one
would have said that, at times, he did not feel
any pain. They strongly urged me to take some
fire and do as they were doing, but I explained The New Land and the New Race
23
to them that we did not use such cruelties at all,
and that we killed them at once, and that if they
wished me to fire a musket shot at him I would do
it gladly. They said 'no,' and that he would not
feel any pain. I went away from them distressed
to see so much cruelty as they were practising
upon this body. When they saw that I was not
pleased at it, they called me and told me to
fire a musket shot at him; which I did without his
seeing it at all."
The Indian was, equally, famous for his power PoWer of
of physical endurance. Endurance
Of Cartier's first visit to Stadacona, speaking
of the natives, it is said: "All—men, women and
children—endure cold better even than the wild
animals; for in the greatest cold we experienced,
which was very severe, the majority of them came
naked over the snow and ice daily to the ships,
which we would hardly have believed if we had
not seen it."
"The Shawano Indians," says Drake, "captured a warrior of the Anantoocah nation, and
put him to the stake, according to their usual
cruel solemnities. Having unconcernedly suffered
much torture, he told them, with scorn, they did
not know how to punish a noted enemy; therefore
he was willing to teach them, and would confirm
the truth of his assertion if they allowed him the
opportunity. Accordingly he requested of them
a pipe and some tobacco, which was given him;
as soon as he had lighted it, he sat down, naked as
he was, on the women's burning torches, that 24
Inasmuch
The Feast of
the Dead
were within his circle, and continued smoking his
pipe without the least discomposure. On this
a head warrior leaped up and said, they saw
plain enough he was a warrior and not afraid of
dying, nor should he have died, only that he was
both spoiled by the fire, and devoted to it by
their laws; however, though he was a very dangerous enemy, and his nation a treacherous people,
it should be seen that they paid a great regard
to bravery, even in one who was marked with
war streaks at the cost of the lives of many of
their beloved kindred; and then by way of favour,
he with his friendly tomahawk instantly put an
end to all his pains."
Of the Indian customs none was more remarkable than the "feast of the dead," practised by
the Huron branch of the Iroquois family. Cham-
plain says, "When any one dies, they wrap the
body in furs and cover it very neatly with the
bark of trees; then they place it high up on four
posts in a little cabin, which is covered with bark
and is justfthe length of the body. These
bodies are buried in these places only a certain
length of time, say eight or ten years, when those
of the village recommend the place where their
ceremonies should be held, or rather a general
council, which all the people of the country attend. This done, each one returns to his own
village, and then takes all the bones of the dead,
which they clean and make very smooth, and
guard carefully. Then all the relatives and
friends take them, with their necklaces, furs, The New Land and the New Race
25
axes, kettles and other things of value, with a
great many provisions which they bring to the
prescribed place. When all are gathered there,
they put the provisions where the people of that
village direct; and then have feasts and dances
without interruption for ten days—the length of
time that the festival lasts—during which other
tribes gather there from all parts to see the
ceremonies which are taking place. By means
of these ceremonies they form new ties of friendship, saying that the bones of their relatives and
friends are to be all put together, as a symbol
that, as they are all together in one place, so
ought they, too, to be united in friendship and
harmony, like relatives and friends, without being
able to part from one another. These bones being
thus niingled, they make many speeches on the
subject; then, after some grimaces or acting, they
dig a big grave, into which they throw the bones,
with the necklaces, belts of wampum, axes,
kettles, sword-blades, knives and other trifles,
which they prize highly. Then they cover the
whole with earth and with many logs of wood.
Then they enclose it with stakes, on which they
place a covering. Some of them believe in the
immortality of the soul, saying that after death
they go to a place where they sing like crows."
For the rest, the Indian character has been
described so variously, that we select three pro-
trayals of the same, each concerriing a distinct
linguistic family, from the "Handbook of Indians
of Canada"; published as an appendix to the
Indian
Character 26
Inasmuch
Character of
the Six
Nations
tenth report of the Geographic Board of Canada.
Of the Iroquois it says: "The Northern
Iroquois tribes, especially the Five Nations, so
called, were second to no other Indian people
north of Mexico in political organization, statecraft and military prowess. Their leaders were
astute diplomats, as the wily French and English
Statesmen with whom they treated, soon discovered. In war they practiced ferocious cruelty
towards their prisoners, burning even their unadopted women and infant prisoners; but, far
from being a race of rude and savage warriors,
they were a kindly and affectionate people, full
of keen sympathy for friends in distress, kind and
deferential to their women, exceedingly fond of
their children, anxiously striving for peace and
good will among men, and profoundly imbued
with a just reverence for the constitution of their
commonwealth and for its founders. Their wars
were waged primarily to secure and perpetuate
their political life and independence. The fundamental principals of their confederation, persistently maintained for centuries by force of arms
and by compacts with other peoples, were based
primarily on blood relationship, and they shaped
and directed their foreign and internal polity in
consonance with these principles. The underlying motive for the institution of the Iroquois
league was to secure universal peace and welfare
among men by the recognition and enforcement
of the forms of civil government through the
direction and regulation of personal and public The New Land and the New Race
27
conduct and thought in accordance with beneficent customs and council degrees, by the stopping of bloodshed in the blood-feud through the
tender of the prescribed price for the killing of a
co-tribesman; by abstaining from eating human
flesh; and, lastly, through the maintenance and
necessary exercise of power, not only military,
but also magic power believed to be embodied in
the forms of their ceremonial activities. The
tender by the homicide and his family for the
murder or killing by accident of a co-tribesman
was twenty strings of wampum—ten for the
dead person, and ten for the forfeited life of the
homicide."
To this it may be added that the constitution
of the Six Nation Confederacy is supposed, by
many, to have served as a model for the federal
union of the American colonies when they asserted
and secured their independence.
Of the tribes on the Pacific Coast the Hand
book says: "The Haida, Tlingit, and Tsimshian
seem to show greater adaptability to civilization
and to display less religious conservatism than
the tribes farther south. They are generally
regarded as superior to them by the white settlers,
and they certainly showed themselves such in
war and in the arts. Of all peoples on the north
west coast the Haida were the best carvers, painters, and canoe and house-builders, and they still
earn considerable money by selling carved
objects of wood and slate to traders and tourists.
Standing in the tribe depended more on the
Their
Constitution
a Model
Character of
the   Haida,
Tlingit,
Tsimshian 28
Inasmuch
Character of
the Sekani
possession of property than on ability in war, so
that considerable interchange of goods took place
and the people became sharp traders. The
morals of the people were, however, very loose."
The same authority describes the Sekani, a
small tribe of Athapascan stock, thus: "These
people are very barbarous and licentious. Their
complete isolation in the Rocky Mountains, and
their reputation for merciless and cold-blooded
savagery cause them to be dreaded by other
tribes. Their manner of life is miserable. They
do without tents, sleeping in brush huts open to
the weather. Their only clothing consists of
coats and breeches of mountain-goat or bighorn
skins, the hair turned outside or next to the skin
according to the season. They cover themselves
at night with goat-skins sewed together, which
communicate to them a strong odour, though less
pungent than the Chipewyan receive from their
smoked elk-skins. Petitot pronounces them the
least frank and the most sullen of all the Tinneh.
They are entirely nomadic, following the moose,
caribou, bear, lynx, rabbits, marmots, and
beaver, on which they subsist. They eat no
fish and look on fishing as an unmanly occupation.
Their society is founded on father-right. They
have no chiefs but accept the council of the oldest
and most influential in each band as regards
hunting, camping, and travelling. When a man
dies they pull down his brush hut over the remains
and proceed on their journey. If in camp, or in
the event of the deceased being a person of con- The New Land and the New Race
29
sequence, they make a rough coffin of limbs and
erect a scaffolding for it to rest on, covering it
usually with his birch-bark canoe inverted; or,
on the death of an influential member of the
tribe, a spruce log may be hollowed out for a
coffin and the remains suspended therein on
the branches of trees. Sometimes they hide the
corpse in an erect position in a tree hollowed out
for the purpose. They keep up the old practise
of burning or casting into a river or leaving
suspended on trees, the weapons and clothing of
the dead person. When a member of the band
was believed to be stricken with death they left
with him what provisions they could spare and
adandoned him to his fate when the camp broke
up.    They are absolutely honest."  CHAPTER II.
Atlantic Shore to Watershed
It is worthy of note that the Society for the
Propagation oj the Gospel, which has ever been
the generous benefactor of the work among the
white settlers of the Dominion, received its first teethe sjp.g.,
appeal from Canada in the interests of the Indians. Jan"' 17n
Colonel Nicholson laid before the Society an
address "From the gentlemen that compose the
Council of War at Annapolis Royal in Nova
Scotia praying that ministers may be sent over
to convert the Indians in the said country."
The only recorded result occurred sixteen years 1727 R* atts'
later, when the Reverend Richard Watts, then
about to go to Annapolis as a Chaplain to the
forces, "was granted £10 a year which was
doubled in 1731," as "an allowance for teaching
the poor children there."
The    Indian   population    of   the    Maritime Maritime
Provinces and Quebec passed, early in the history Provinces
of New France, under the influence of the Roman Nova scotia
Catholic Church, and in faithful allegiance to
that Communion they have, with few exceptions,
remained.    Even in the early days, now under
review, those of Nova Scotia were described as
"Bigoted papists and under the absolute dominion
of  their priests."    Recent  government returns
show that out of a total Indian population of Inasmuch
2,018 for Nova Scotia, of 1,920 for New Brunswick, of 12,842 for Quebec; only 116, in all, describe themselves as Anglicans, and 522 as members of other non-roman Communions. This
fact, while eliciting our mead of praise for the
missionary spirit and persistency of the Roman
Catholic Church, should not be allowed to hide
the course of the stream we are tracing, or lessen
our appreciation of the efforts, on behalf of the
Indians, of the early S. P. G. missionaries; sent
out, be it remembered, to minister to the needs of
the white settlers.
For our purpose a brief reference to the work
of two of these must suffice.    The Reverend J. B.
Moreau,  an ex-priest  of the Roman  Catholic
Church, arrived at Lunenberg with a great company of French and Germans.   That missionary
interests were not the only ones which marked the
relations of the natives and the new arrivals is
shown by the fact that the register of burials
contains the following entry:
August 27th—Joseph Stye—Scalped
August 27th—Conrad Haltz—Scalped
August 27th—Rosina, his wife—Scalped
"Buried  by  Rev.  Jean Baptiste Moreau"—
Mr. Moreau, nevertheless, informs the S. P. G.
that he had baptised several Indian children, and
that   they   themselves   behaved   with   "great
decency in all religious ceremonies."   The next
year he stated that "He had baptized 12 Indians
and married one couple, but the Roman priests
were evidently trying to prevent the conversion Atlantic Shore to Watershed
33
of the Indians from their former faith, for the
report speaks of their having shown Moreau a
copy of a letter, which they were told was written
by Jesus Christ to the Bishop of Lucon in France,
to be sent to them. It is signed by two persons,
who say they have received it from the said
Bishop to be distributed among the savages.
Each of them have a copy of it, which they wear
next their heart. The letter is filled with the
grossest absurdities imaginable. They are there
threatened with eternal damnation, if they fail
in any point of the Romish religion, and are
promised endless happiness if they separate from
those of a different opinion. They are never to
die a sudden death or be drowned, nor perish in war,
so long as they have their letter next their heart."
The Reverend T. Wood, appointed to the
charge of Annapolis Royal, stated "that as soon Rev. t. wood,
as he is settled to his new mission, he designs to ^"<}J 30th'
devote three or four hours every morning to
learn the savage Micmac, which is the principal
Indian language throughout this Province, and
when he is capable of it, to translate the Common
Prayer and send it so translated to the Society
to be printed in three columns; Micmac in the
middle and English and French on each side. He
also intends as soon as he has acquired the pronunciation, to perform Divine Service and preach
to the Indians in their own language." Mr.
Wood carried out his intention with such zest
and success that he was able to officiate in Micmac; which he did, publicly, in St. Paul's, Halifax, 34
Inasmuch
July, 1767
New Brunswick, 1760
in the presence of the governor, most of the
army and navy officers, and the inhabitants. On
this occasion the Indians sang an anthem before
and after service. Before the service began, an
Indian Chief came forward from the rest, and
kneeling down .... prayed that the Almighty
God would bless his Majesty King George the
Third, their lawful King and Governor, and all
the Royal Family."
In New Brunswick the first baptism recorded
by an agent of the Society, or indeed, I think, of
the Church, is that of an Indian. "In the
summer, the Reverend T. Wood visited the settlements on the St. John's River, reaching St.
John's Harbour on July 1st. On the next day,
Sunday, he performed Divine Service and preach-
there in English in the forenoon and in Indian in
the afternoon to thirteen Indian men and women
.... after service he told them to sing and anthem,
which they performed very harmoniously. . . .
an Indian girl was then baptised." The Bishop
of Nova Scotia reporting in 1792, a visit to New
Brunswick, stated that he had examined two out
of three Indian Schools established in the Province, and said, "The Indian children behaved
well and learned as fast as the white, and were
fond of associating with them."
The New England Company, forced to relinquish it's work, in the American colonies, on the
outbreak of the War of Independence, transferred its activities to New Brunswick, and from
there to other parts of British America. Atlantic Shore to Watershed
35
In the Province of Quebec, the Reverend John Quebec
Ogilvie, a missionary of the S. P. G. to the Indians wel'i^o gl"
in what is now the State of New York, came to
Montreal "in the capacity of Chaplain to the
British troops and to their Mohawk allies."
The Indians in the neighbourhood for some thirty
miles distant were "extremely attached to the
ceremonials of the (Roman Catholic) Church,"
and had been "taught to believe the English
have no knowledge of the mystery of man's
redemption by Jesus Christ." As these Indians
spoke the Mohawk language Mr. Ogilvie "endeavoured to remove their prejudices, and by
showing them the Liturgy of our Church in their
mother tongue," he "convinced many of them
that we were their fellow-Christians." The
Reverend John Stuart after various trials and Rev. j.
distresses "as a loyalist in New York Province,
escaped to Canada. For some years his headquarters were in Montreal, whence he visited the
Mohawks in that neighbourhood (La Chine) and
in Upper Canada."
Ontario, with 19,640, ranks next to British Ontario
Columbia in the number of its Indians. Of the
total, those in the eastern and southern parts of
the province are among the most interesting
historically, the most advanced socially, and the
most prosperous of the whole Dominion.
To follow the course of the stream of the
"Spirit of Missions" in their midst, we must retrace our steps to pre-revolutionary days, and 36
I n a s-m u c h
Mr. Elias
Neau
The Six
Nations
return across the border into the State of New
York.
"The instruction of the Negro and Indian
slaves was a primary charge (oft repeated) to
* every missionary .... and to ail schoolmasters'
of the Society in America." In this connection,
as so frequently happens in the history of the
Church, God brought His own agent from a
different and unexpected quarter. Mr. Elias
Neau a native of France, "whose confession of
the Protestant Faith had there brought him
several years corifinement in prison, followed
by seven years in 'the gallies,' emigrated, after
his release, and settled in New York. He drew
the Society's attention to the great number in
that city who were without God in the world,
and of whose souls there was no manner of care
taken" and proposed the appointment of a Cate-
chist among them. The Society prevailed upon
him to undertake the post, and he received a
license from the Governor "to catechise the
negroes and Indians and children of the town."
He carried out his commission with such faithfulness that "the Governor, the Council, Mayor,
the Recorder of New York, and the two Chief
Justices, informed the Society, that Mr. Neau had
performed his work 'to the great advancement
of religion in general and the particular benefit
of the free Indians, negro slaves, and other
heathens in those parts.' "
The western, middle, and northerly parts of
the State, were occupied by the fiercest, the most Atlantic Shore to Watershed
37
renowned, and the most loyal to British allegiance,
of ail the native races. Its members constituted
the Confederacy of the Six Nations; consisting, as
already described, of the Senecas, Cayugas,
Onondagas, Oneidas, Tuscaroras and Mohawks.
Their territory, Niagara to Lake Champlain,
"constituted the theoretical Kanonsionni, or
'Long House,' in which the several nations were
regarded as dwelling. The typical abode of the
Iroquois was a house, or lodge, of frame, walled
and covered with bark, built in sections, each of
which was the separate dwelling of a family, with
a long central passage in common. A house so
built was readily enlarged to admit new families,
by the extension of one end; and this was the
theory of the Confederacy,—a long house occupied by five families, and so constituted as to
allow of the admission of others. The theoretical
Long House was considered as extending from
west to east, the door being at the west, about
south or sourth-west of Niagara Falls. Here
dwelt the first family, the Senecas, who were the
door-keepers; next to them the second family, the
Cayugas, and, successively, the Onondagas as the
third family, and the Oneidas the fourth family;
and originally the Mohawks, the fifth family;
but this order was changed when the Tuscaroras
were admitted, and, occupying a district south of
the Oneidas, became fifth family, the Mohawks
being then the sixth, occupying the east end of the
'House,' near a line drawn from Montreal to
Albany.   The Onondagas, being in the central 38
Inasmuch
Functions   of
Onondagas
position where the common fire in an actual
common dwelling would be found, were the fire-
keepers, and here was very appropriately the
place of the Great Council meetings of the Confederacy. The Tuscaroras and adopted people
were said to be frame poles added to the framework of the Long House."
"The functions of the Onondaga tribe" in
council are in many respects similar to those of
the judge holding court with a jury. The question
before the council is discussed respectively by
the Mohawk and Seneca tribes on the one side,
and then by the Oneida, the Cayuga, and latterly,
the Tuscarora tribes on the other, within their
own circles. When these two have independently
reached the same or a differing opinion, it is then
submitted to the Onondagas for confirmation or
rejection. The confirmation of a common opinion or of one of two differing opinions makes that
the decree of the council. In refusing to confirm
an opinion the Onondaga must show that it is
in conflict with established custom or with public
policy; when two differing opinions are rejected
the Onondaga may suggest to the two sides a
course by which they may be able to reach a
common opinion; but the Onondaga may confirm one of two differing opinions submitted to it.
Each chieftain has the right to discuss and argue
the question before the council either for or against
its adoption by the council, in a speech or speeches
addressed to the entire body of councillors and
to the public." Atlantic Shore to Watershed
39
On the arrival of Champlain, the part of Ontario
between the Great Lakes was occupied, chiefly,
by tribes of the Iroquois stock. These were:
the Hurons or Wyandots, occupying the north
shore of Lake Simcoe and the district thence to
the Georgian Bay; westward of the Hurons
"dwelt the Tionnontates, known to the French as
the Petuns or the Tobacco nation, from the large
quantities of tobacco raised by them for their
own consumption and for trade with neighbouring tribes; south of a line drawn from the present
City of Toronto to Goderich was the country of
the Attiwandarons, known to the French as the
Neutral nation, because in the wars between the
Iroquois and the Hurons it endeavoured to remain neutral; west of the Neutrals, in the region
of Lake St. Clair, were the Mascoutins, known to
the French as the'Nation of Fire.' In addition
to these were two nations of Algonquin stock;
the Nipissings around the lake of that name, and
the Missisauga living along the north shore of
the north channel of Lake Huron, and on the
adjacent Manitoulin Island."
Into the midst of these nations came the
Missionaries of the Roman Catholic Church.
The origin of the work is described in these words:
" In 1605 some of the French Franciscans, believing that relaxation threatened the membership in
France, formed within the Order a con-imunity
known as the ' Recollets or Fathers of the Strict
Observance.' When Champlain returned to
France from his voyage to Canada in 1608, he
1616
The Recollet
Missions 40
Inasmuch
April 24th,
1615
The Jesuit
Missions
June 19th,
1625
waited upon Bernard du Verger, the superior of
the Recollets, and asked for missionaries for the
roving hordes of savages that filled the forests
of Canada from Quebec to the shores of the
'Chinese Sea.' "
Four members of the Order accompanied
Champlain on his return to New France. Of
these, two, Fathers Le Caron and D'olbeau set
out on the journey "of seven hundred miles to the
shores of the Great Lake of the Hurons." The
Recollect Fathers continued, intermittently,
their efforts for about nine years, when Le Caron
returned to France.
The work was then taken up by the Jesuits,
the first arrivals including the famous Jean de
Brebeuf and Charles Lalemant. Of these Bre-
beuf was selected for the Huron Mission. Of the
perils and hardships of the journey one of the
Fathers wrote: "Easy as the journey may appear,
it will, however, present difficulties of a formidable nature to the heart that is not strengthened
by self-denial and mortification. The activity of
his Indian companions will neither shorten the
portages, make smooth the rocks, nor banish
danger. The voyage will take at least three or
four weeks, with companions whom he perhaps
never before met; he will be corifined within the
limit of a bark canoe, and in a position so painful
and inconvenient that he will not be free to change
it without exposing the canoe to the danger of
being capsized, or injured on the rocks. During
the day the sun will scorch him, and at night the Atlantic Shore to Watershed
41
mosquitoes will allow him no repose. After
ascending six or seven rapids his only meal will be
of Indian corn steeped in water, his bed will be the
earth, or a jagged or uneven rock. At times the
stars will be his blanket, and around him, night
and day, perpetual silence."
Twenty-three years later, "the Jesuits beheld
with pardonable gratification the approacHng
realization of their hopes and ample reward
for their great sacrifices. Flourishing missions
were established and chapels built in what are
now the townships of Sunnidale, Tiny, Medonte,
Tay, Matchedash and North Orillia." Then the
fury of the Iroquois burst upon them, and all was
swept away in one mad rush of fire, hate, and
torture. The Nipissings, the Hurons, the To- Soquois
bacco nation, and finally the Neutrals, were all **
destroyed, their towns burnt, and the remnants
of the tribes driven into exile, or carried into
captivity; followed by death by torture, adoption
into the tribes of their conquerors, or an existence
on sufferance as their clients.
In the meanwhile the Neturals had destroyed
the Mascoutins, or Fire Nation. Thus of ail the
nations, inhabiting the great region described,
one tribe only, the Missisauga remained. These
retained the goodwill of the Iroquois, and were
permitted by them to occupy some of the conquered lands of the Hurons, in this way they
moved southward as far as the north shore of
Lake Ontario. It is interesting to note that the
land now occupied by the Six Nation Indians on 42
Inasmuch
Origin of
Church
Mission
Work
1700
the Grand River Reserve was purchased from the
Missisauga.
A remnant of the Huron Nation made its
escape, finally, to Quebec. The majority of the
survivors, however, were carried away captive
into the Iroquois country. A Jesuit Father
mentions meeting, among the Iroquois, with
about one thousand Hurons, many of whom were
still practising the rites of their Christian faith.
A prominent Huron chief, John Baptist, was
baptized at Onondaga having been adopted by
that tribe.
After the destruction of the Hurons, the
Iroquois made peace with the French and invited
missionaries to take up their residence among
them. Three years later the work was abandoned, the Jesuits maldng their escape through a
stratagem. Their converts, known as the "praying Indians of Canada," are, in their descendants,
to be seen to-day in the Iroquois of Caughnawaga
near Montreal.
These heroic and self-sacrificing efforts of the
Jesuits on behalf of the Indians were the indirect
cause of the establishment of Church of England
mission work amongst the Six Nations. A considerable number had been drawn over to Canada
and settled in two communities near Mount
Royal. One of the Chiefs of these " Praying
Indians of Canada" addressed the Government
Commissioners at Albany, N.Y., and said, "We
are now come to trade and not to speak of religion;
only this much I must say, all the while before I Atlantic Shore to Watershed
went to Canada, I never heard anything talked
of religion, or the least mention made of converting us to 4he Christian Faith; and we shall be
glad to hear if at last you are so piously inclined
to take some pains to instruct your Indians in
the Christian Religion: I will not say but it may
induce some to return to their native country."
The result was, that the " Commissioners of
Trade and Plantations" addressed Archbishop
Tenison and Queen Anne on the subject, with the April 3rd,
further result that an Order in Council was
passed, which among other things, recited "that
as to the five nations of Indians bordering upon
New York, lest the intrigues of the French in
Canada, and the influence their priests who
frequently converse and sometimes inhabit those
Indians, should debauch them from Her Mat's,
(Majesty's) Allegiance, their Lordships are
humbly of opinion that besides the usual method
of engaging the said Indians by presents, another
means to prevent the influence of the French upon
them, and thereby more effectually to secure their
fidelity, would be, that two Protestant ministers
be appointed with a competent allowance amongst
them in order to instruct them in the true religion
and confirm them in their duty to Her Majesty;
It is ordered by Her Majesty in Council, that it is
hereby referred to His Grace, the Lord Archbishop of Canterbury, to take care therein as may
most effectually answer this service."
Unworthy or mixed motives in this instance
gave birth to very excellent and lasting results. 44
Inasmuch
The Five
Sachems
Rev. Thor-
oughgood
Moore   Arrived New York,
1704
The representations were followed up by both
sides. Five sachems told Lord Cornbury in an
interview at Albany, "they admired that we
should have 'a squaw sachem' or 'woman king;'
but hoped she would be a good mother and send
them some to teach them religion and establish
traffic among them, that they might be able to
purchase a coat and not to go to Church in bear
skins;" and so they sent the Queen a present,
to wit "ten beaver skins to make her fine and
one fur muff to keep her warm."
The Archbishop of Canterbury placed the need
before the S. P. G. and eventually the Reverend
Thoroughgood Moore, undertook "with a firm
courage and resolution to answer the excellent
designs of the Society."
At this point our historic, and apparently
immortal, friend "Charity begins at home"
appeared upon the scene. The clergy of the
province represented to the Society that "it is
most true the converting heathen is a work laudable, honourable, and glorious, and we doubt not
but God will prosper it in the hands of our good
brother, Mr. Thoroughgood Moore .... but after
all with submission we humbly supplicate that
the children first be satisfied, and the lost sheep
recovered who have gone astray among heretics
.... who have denied the faith and are worse
than infidels and Indians that never knew it."
Mr. Thoroughgood Moore also made a discovery,
and reported "to begin with the Indians is preposterous; for it is from the behaviour of the Atlantic Shore to Watershed
45
Christians here, that they have had, and still
have, their notions of Christianity, which God
knows hath been generally such that it hath
made the Indians to hate our religion; the
Christians selling the Indians so much rum, is a
sufficient bar, if there were no other, against
their embracing Christianity."
Mr. Thoroughgood Moore having thus proved,
in spite of his announced "firm courage and
resolution," that he was unequal to the "excellent
designs of the Society," retired eastward to more
congenial surroundings, and returriing to England
was lost with all on board. He was succeeded
by men who evidenced all the qualities required
in a missionary; one of whom, the Rev. John steuart°hn
Stuart, was destined to be the founder of the
Church of England in the Province of Ontario.
The. labours of the missionaries were on behalf,
mainly, of the Mohawks, but some converts
were made from among the Oneidas and Tuscaroras. Then the storm of the Revolutionary War £on5yVwar
broke, with all its fury, over the infant Church,
and drove, in the end, both missionaries and
converts across the boundary into Canada.
The circumstances under which a clergyman Rev. j. ogilvie
of the Church of England first visited the bound- at Niagara
aries of Ontario, are set out by the Reverend
John Ogilvie, who, in a letter said: "Last summer St!^«fb'
I attended the Royal American Regiment upon
the Expedition to Niagara; and, indeed, there
was no other chaplain upon that department,
though there were three regular regiments and the 46
Inasmuch
Six Nations
Migrate to
Canada
Visit of Rev.
J. Stuart,
1784
Provincial Regiment of New York. The Mohawks were all upon this service, and almost all
the Six Nations .... I officiated regularly to the
Mohawks and the Oneidas, who regularly attended Divine Service The Oneidas met us
at the lake near their castle and as they were
acquainted with my coming, they brought ten
children to receive baptism, and young women
who had been previously instructed."
Throughout the contest these Indians, the
Mohawks in particular, were the firm supporters
of the Mother Country, and "rather than swerve
from their allegiance chose rather to abandon
their dwellings and property, and cross, as described, into Canada." They were soon followed
by their former missionary, the Reverend John
Stuart, who had laboured among them in New
York State. On June 2nd "Mr. Stuart set out
from Montreal, visiting on his way all the new
settlements of Loyalists on the river and lake,
and on the 18th arrived at Niagara. On the
following Sunday he preached in the garrison,
and in the afternoon to satisfy the eager expectations of the Mohawks, he proceeded on horseback to their village .... and officiated in their
Church. After a short intermission he returned
to the Church, "when he baptised 78 infants and
5 adults, the latter having been instructed by
the Indian clerk," a man "of very sober and exemplary life who regularly read prayers on a
Sunday." "It was very affecting" we are told,
"to Mr. Stuart, to see those affectionate people, Atlantic Shore to Watershed
47
Reserve
from whom he had been separated more than
seven years, assembled together in a decent and
commodious church, erected principally by themselves, with the greatest seeming devotion and a
becoming gravity.'' In July, Mr. Stuart removed
his headquarters to Cataraqui (Kingston),
"chiefly on account of its vicinity to the Mohawks," and thus founded the Church of England
in the Province of Ontario.
The Niagara Contingent of the Five Nations Grand River
under the leadership of the famous War Chief
"Thayendanegea" or Joseph Brant, was settled,
permanently, in their present, and splendid,
position on the banks of the Grand River.
Joseph Brant made two visits to England. On
the second occasion the S. P. G. enlisted his help
in the translation of the Prayer Book, the book of
Psalms, and the Gospel of St. Mark. These
were issued as one book. "The book was a work
of art, well printed and with some fine engravings.
The frontispiece depicted the inside of a chapel,
in which the king and queen were standing with
a bishop on each side of them. The monarch
and his consort were handing sacred books to the
Indians, who were clustered about in an expectant
attitude."
One of the first activities of the cornmunity was
the erection of a suitable place of worship.
"This building which was reared in the depths of
the forest about two miles from the centre of what
is now the city of Brantford went by the name
of "The Old Mohawk Church."    On a petition
The Old Mohawk Church 48
Inasmuch
Gift of
Queen Anne,
1712
The Muncey
Indians
Published,
1852
to King Edward, it was given the title of "His
Majesty's Chapel of the Mohawks." The first
Bible used was the gift of Queen Anne, who also
gave a set of Communion plate, of burnished
silver, engraved with the Royal Coat of Arms.
This plate was divided with those who settled on
the banks of the Bay of Quinte. "In all the
wide region later known as the province of Upper
Canada, as yet no other Protestant Sanctuary
had opened its doors for the use of Christian
believers. With the erection of this temple of
the Mohawks begins the history of the Protestant
churches in one of the fairest sections of the
Dominion of Canada. It was a sweet and solemn
bell that pealed out its message when service was
. held on those Sabbaths in pioneer days. Into
the solitudes it rang, wakening the stillness,
echoing to hill-top ,and throbbing down to distant
valley. Up and along the river stole the gladsome strain, the first call to prayer ever heard
in this scarcely broken wilderness. From among
the trees emerged the exiled people of the Long
House. They mingled together; they entered
the courts of the Great Spirit, silent and full of
awe. There they listened to the Gospel story
and burst forth into many happy songs of thanksgiving and of love."
West of London, Ontario, on the banks of the
Thames, is the Muncey Reserve. The author of
an old volume, entitled "Missions and Missionaries," gives a curious piece of information concerning a nephew of Tecumseh, that other famous Atlantic Shore to Watershed
49
Indian ally of the British. He states, "I have
the happiness of knowing some of the Society's
missionaries^ From one of these (my dear
brother in the Lord, the Rev. Richard Flood,
Delaware), the following particulars concerning
his mission were sent to this country some years
back. They will illustrate the labours, perils,
and consolations of a true missionary.
"Four d-ifferent tribes of Indians are comprised
in my mission, besides the European settlers: the
Oneidas, the Munceys, the Chippeways, and the
Potwatamies who are very few in number	
For two whole years, after I had commenced my
labours among these savage tribes, there appeared
'no fruit.' At the end of those years of trial and
perplexity, it pleased the Most High to open the
heart of their principal chief (called Captain snake111
Snake), nephew of a celebrated warrior called
Tecumseth, who then sought admission into the
Church by baptism. Many of the tribe, after
preparatory instruction, immediately followed his
example."
The Reverend Richard Flood visited England
and on his return Captain Snake addressed him,
in part, as follows: "We feel happy in having the
Gospel preached by the minister whom the Queen
has been pleased to send to us. We believe if we
walk according to the truth of that Gospel we shall
be happy in this world, and happy forever with
Jesus Christ in Heaven. We wish, by God's
help, to repent us truly for all sins, to forsake the
foolish and wicked ways of our fathers, to put 50
Inasmuch
Walpole Island Mission,
1843
Sit John Col-
borne Establishes the
Sault
Mission,   1832
away from us the fire-water which has destroyed
so many of our people before you crossed the
Great Lake (Atlantic) to preach Christ the Saviour
to us; and we all now, thanks be to God, desire
to walk in the way that leads to eternal life."
Mr. Flood, accompanied by the Reverend J.
Carey, visited Walpole Island, where they were
met by "the chiefs of the Walpole, Sable, and
Port Sarnia Indians, with most of their war
chiefs," to the number of eighty. Mr. Flood
addressed them on our Lord's Commission to the
Apostles to preach the Gospel "The Indians
listened with deep interest" and when it was proposed to rent a house for the missionary the chief
said " I want no rent but I want the missionary to
be near me and to teach me what is the good
way."
The late Archdeacon McMurray described the
beginning of the work in Algoma in these words:
"I was sent for by the Governor, Sir John Col-
borne, and informed that it was his intention to
establish missions to the Indians on the north
shores of Lakes Superior and Huron, that I had
been selected for the work, and that my headquarters were to be Sault Ste. Marie. I remonstrated and told His Excellency that I was only
twenty-two years of age, not old enough for
Orders; and, further, that I had never heard of
Sault Ste. Marie. After a careful examination
of the then surveys of all the region north of
York (Toronto) the place could not be found.
I returned to His Excellency and stated the place Atlantic Shore to Watershed
51
could not be found. He informed me that I was
to proceed to Buffalo, thence to Detroit, and I
would be able to ascertain the locality of my
future residence. Following these instructions
I left York, as if going to the North Pole, on the
20th of September, and reached Sault Ste. Marie
on the 20th of October following, just one month
on the passage."
The Mission on Manitoulin Island arose out of
a plan proposed by Captain Anderson—"A
gentleman who has," said the Reverend F. A.
O'Meara, "grown old in the Indian cause, and in
whose mind their civilization has ever been inseparably connected with their reception of the
Gospel,"—to collect all the Indians of the Georgian Bay District, and the Canadian shores of
eastern Lake Superior, and form with them a
missionary settlement on one of the large islands.
The plan being approved by Sir John Colborne,
Captain Anderson and the Rev. Adam Eliot
made a tour from Penetanguishene to the Sault
Ste. Marie, when four hundred Indians promised
to join the proposed settlement.
"With these prospects of success, the above
mentioned gentlemen, with Mr. Orr, as schoolmaster, arrived to take up their abode permanently; and having cleared a few feet of land,
in the midst of the thick forest that then occupied
the place of the present estabfishment, planted
the standard of the Gospel and of civilization at
the door of the wigwam which, for some time,
formed their only shelter."   In August of the
Manitoulin
Settlement
Proposed
June, 1835
The Mission
Established
May 28th,
1836 52
Inasmuch
The Mission
Re-established
same year, their hopes were dashed to the ground
through an order of Sir F. B. Head, the successor
of Sir John Colborne, that the plan should be
abandoned.
Captain Anderson, however, held on heroically
to his project, and secured permission to complete
the buildings. The next year, Sir. F. B. Head
being superseded, meanwhile, by Sir George
Arthur, the mission was again proposed, and,
heartily supported by Archdeacon Strachan,
received the Governor's warm approval.
Captain Anderson's daughter, many years
later, wrote: " In the autumn, my father, who was
an officer in the Indian Department, was ordered
to an entirely new field of labour, and late as it
was our home at Coldwater was broken up, and
arrangements made for a long and dangerous
journey by water to Manitoulin Island, a distance of some two hundred miles. A large batteau
was engaged and on the 8th of October, Captain
Anderson, with the other officers employed by
the Indian Department, their wives, children
and servants, besides mechanics, employed to
teach the Indians different trades, embarked from
Coldwater. The batteau was heavily laden with
necessary provision for a long, cold journey—
tents, beds, and bedding—besides its precious
freight of thirty-four souls, i.e., the missionary,
the Rev. C. C. Brough, afterwards Archdeacon
of London, Ontario, Mrs. Brough, four children,
and two servants, Dr. Paul Darling and his
wife, one infant six weeks old, a nurse, the school- Atlantic Shore to Watershed
53
master, Mr. Bailey, Mrs. Bailey and three children, the Captain, his wife, four children, two
young friends, one servant, the oarsmen, a pet
cat and a dog. The days were short and very
cold, the lake rough, and the water freezing on
the oars as the men raised them for every fresh
stroke. The females of the party were not such
as one usually finds in those out-of-the-way places,
but were highly educated, refined and delicate,
heretofore shielded from every storm. From
there being so many women and children on
board, it was necessary to encamp early in the
afternoons, in order to get well under canvas
before nightfall, and on account of the number of
children to dress and feed, beds, etc., to pack,
tents to strike, and boat to be loaded, the mornings were far spent ere we were enabled to proceed on our way. Some days we had only two or
three hours in which to travel; for instance, if
we arrived at a good camping ground, it was
advisable to go ashore for the night, as daylight
might fail before reacMng another. The nights
soon became very cold, and the ice had to be cut
away in the morning in order to get the batteau
from her moorings. One day we were lost in the
channels, and our supplies were well nigh exhausted. After a consultation, and some hard
tack (ship biscuit) the Captain and some of the
men went ashore to look about, and hearing a
crow cawing fancied it was tame. My father
said to one of the men, 'follow that crow and it
will take you to an Indian camp.'   He did as 54
Inasmuch
desired, and, strange to say, the crow would fly
a short distance, then stop, as if waiting for the
men, then off again till at last they arrived at a
lodge. The poor Indians gave of such as they
had, and came to pilot us through the maze of
islands. Our Evangeline had no deck or shelter.
All were exposed to the fury of the biting winds,
snow, and rain, and the freezing spray which
frequently dashed over the edge of the boat.
It is a marvel how any escaped death. After
three weeks of terrible suffering we at last came
in sight of the 'Establishment,' so-called, but
alas! for us, one of the three houses was in flames,
and by the time we had reached the landing-
place was reduced to a heap of ashes. Notwithstanding this great misfortune, all hearts
were raised in gratitude to that kind Providence
which had brought us through so many dangers
to our journey's end, and all who were able set
to work with a will, to make the very best of so
trying a situation. My father, who never seemed
to be at a loss, soon had all comfortably housed
for that night, and glad we were to lay our benumbed and weary bodies down on the floor of
our log house, with roaring fires in the chimneys,
luxuries we had not enjoyed for three weeks."
Rev. f. a. The Rev.  F. A.  O'Meara succeeded to the
o'Meara, 1841 c]aarge 0f -j^e work. His untiring labours and
great linguistic ability were signally blessed.
He translated much of the Prayer Book and the
Bible into O jib way. Within two years the
Indians had "acquired more correct ideas con- Atlantic Shore to Watershed
55
cerriing marriage—a strong desire to have their
children educated like the whites—a disposition
to raise the condition of their women—to abjure
idoltry, their prophets, and the medicine bag,—
and a growing sense of the sinfulness of murder,
drunkenness, implacable enmity and revenge."
Mr. O'Meara described the following curious curious Prac-
practice of the Ojibways: "When their young waySof°jlb~
people reach the age of eleven or twelve, they are
directed, by their parents, to blacken their faces
and fast, until they obtain from their guardian
spirit some dream or vision. Their frame being
reduced to a very weak state by abstinence, their
minds are very easily wrought on, and they invariably imagine that they have the desired dream
or vision; and, according to what they think they
then see, so is their destiny; and from that time,
they make to themselves representations of what
they have seen, and keep them by them; and on
these pieces of wood they place their trust for
deliverance from sickness and death."
The Bishop of Toronto reporting upon his Bishop of
first visit to the Mission, was much impressed viSt^ia---
by the daily worship of his Indian canoemen.
"There was," he said, "something indescribably
touching in the service to God upon those
inhospitable rocks; the stillness, wildness and
darkness, combined with the sweet and plaintive
voices, all contributed to add to the solemn and
deep interest of the scene."
North  of  Lake  Superior lies Lake  Nepigon The Nepigon
a magnificent sheet of  pellucid  water  flowing Mlsslon 56
I n a s m u c.h
Rev. R. Reni-
son, 1880
through^a world-famed trout stream into the
north-eastern area of Lake Superior. It is right
on the height of land between Superior and Hudson Bay. The Indians on this lake were the
purest Ojibways. Bishop Fauquier while crossing
the lake with the Reverend E. F. Wilson on a
voyage of missionary exploration was accosted
one evening by a flotilla of canoes under the
command of chief Manetooshaus (the son of the
Great Spirit) who told him that for forty years
they had waited for a messenger who should
tell them of the religion of the Queen. The
Bishop promised to provide them a teacher and
sent the appeal to England. It was answered
by a young Irishman, Rev. Robert Renison, a
graduate of Trinity College, Dublin. He came to
Nepigon with his wife and three young children.
The Indians wore feather headdresses, painted
their naked skins with clay and red ochre, and
the first night celebrated his arrival in a white-
dog feast. For many years Mr. Renison lived
among them alone with his family. His younger
clnldren spoke Indian before their native tongue.
Through God's blessing he baptised hundreds
of Ojibways with his own hands. His wife was
his devoted helpmeet, the mother of every Indian
in the East district. She lies buried beside the
little Church of St. Mary, Nepigon which was
built in her memory.
We have now reached the height of land, and
it is fitting that we should hear there, the echoes
of the voice of one of the noblest, saintliest, and Atlantic Shore to Watershed
57
most eloquent of Canadian Churchmen. The
late Bishop Sullivan said: "The Indians number
from 8,000 to 10,000, all belonging to the Ojibway
tribe; speaking therefore only one language.
Since my consecration I have had a great many
means and opportunities of measuring the need
and capacity of social and religious improvement.
I have preached to them, prayed with them, sung
the songs of Zion with them round the camp fire,
sat with them at their tables, rowed and paddled
with them in their canoes, listened to their
speeches at several pow-wows, and, as a result of
it all, I herewith avow myself the Indians' friend
and stand ready to do what in me lies for their
social and religious elevation."
Bishop  Sullivan, 1882 . The frequent suggestions one hears from those who
know little and care less about this subject are: "Why do
people want to bother about the Indians?" "Why try
to educate and civilize them?" "Why not leave them
alone?" "You cannot raise them to the level of white
men and women and they would be much better left as
they are!" Overlooking the fact all the time that to leave
the Indians alone is just the very thing that the White
Man has consistently refused to do. Many the heartbroken Indian in this North country would raise his voice
in thankfulness to Almighty God were the way made
possible by which he could get his family back to the
environment of but a few years ago; but, no matter how
he may long for it or how earnestly he may pray for it,
that happy condition is gone and gone'forever, and gone
because the White Man has willed that it must go.
The marvel of it, is not that the Indians have failed
to profit by their association with the White Man, but that
there is one clean, honest Indian left, and remember there
are plenty of them. I have the privilege of numbering
among my personal acquaintances Indian men and
Indian women whose esteem and friendship I prize most
highly. Who for probity and stability of character, and
simple strength of faith are an example well worth following.
G. B. Nicholson. CHAPTER III.
Pro and Con
The rugged and wild height of land, dividing
the waters flowing southward into Lake Superior
from those which make their way northward into
Hudson Bay, forms a good vantage point whence,
before setting out on our journey to the Arctic
and the Pacific, we may survey the way we have
travelled, and note some of the influences which
were particularly prominent in the contact of
the Indian with the white man, as the latter
penetrated intp the unknown regions of the
New World.
The Pilgrim Fathers left England under the
authority of a Charter granted by James I.
The knowledge of its contents was, perhaps considerately, withheld from them until they had
set out upon their voyage. In it the King said,
in part, "that he had been given certainly to know,
that within these late years there hath, by God's
visitation, reigned a wonderful plague, together
with many horrible slaughters and murders,
committed amongst the savages and brutish
people there heretofore inhabiting in a manner
to the utter destruction, devastation, and depopulation, of that whole territory, so there is
not left for many leagues together, in a manner,
any that do claim or challenge any kind of interests therein." 60
Inasmuch
The Great
Plague
Count   Number One
Pilgrim
Fathers Arrived Nov.
9th, 1620,
Landed Dec.
11th.
What this "woriderful plague" was, precisely,
we do not know. It is probable that it was- the
plague which ravaged England at a little later
period, and that it was introduced among the
Indians by one of the vessels visiting the Coast
from a Spanish or Mediterranean port. Our
author says, "The extent of its ravages, as near
as we can judge, was from Narraganset Bay to
Kennebec, or perhaps, Penobscot, and was supposed to have commenced about 1617, and the
length of its duration seems to have between two
and three years, as it was nearly abated in 1619.
The Indians gave a frightful account of it, saying
that they died so fast that the living were not
able to bury the dead. When the English arrived
in the country, their bones were thick upon the
ground in many places. This they looked upon
as a great providence inasmuch at it had destroyed multitudes of the barbarous heathen to
make way for the chosen people of God."
Whether the white man can, or cannot, be rightly
convicted on this statement makes but little
difference; putting the plague out of the count
he has still to answer for the "destruction, devastation and depopulation," caused by the intro-
tion of measles, smallpox, together with those
loathsome and satanic diseases which defile and
destroy the very sources and issued of life.
The Pilgrim Fathers arrived in the Mayflower,
forty-one strong. "One of the first things they
found it necessary to do, to preserve order among
themselves, was to form a kind of constitution or Pro and Con
61
outline of government." The drawing up and
signing of this important document took two days.
When accomplished, several of them ranged
about the woods near by to see what they contained . Having wandered farther than th ey were
apprised, in their endeavour to return, they say,
"We were shrewdly puzzled and lost our way.
As we wandered, we came to a tree, where a young
sprit was bowed down over a bow, and some
acorns strewed underneath. Stephen Hopkins
said it had been to catch some deer. So, as we
were looking at it, William Bradford being in the
rear, when he came looking also upon it, and as
he went about, it gave a sudden jerk up and he
was immediately caught up by his legs." William
Bradford, Puritan and Mayflower Pilgrim, caught
in an Indian snare, and dangling, head-downward,
in the air! I wonder whether his companions
possessed a grain of the saving sense of humour?
Apparently not. "It was (they continue) a very
pretty device, made with a rope of their own
making, (of bark or some ldnd of roots, probably),
and having a noose as artfully made as any
roper in England can make, and as like ours as
can be, which we brought away."
Count number two, O white man, even though
a Pilgrim Father, is found against thee! You
were first caught in the Indian's snare and then
stole it. Two counts in fact, in one. You first, in
the eyes of the Indian, disgraced yourself through
your ignorance of woodcraft, and then destroyed
his confidence in you by tMeving his property.
Count   Number Two 62
Inasmuch
Samoset
March 16th,
1621
Count   Number Three
"It was on Friday, that Samoset suddenly
appeared at Plymouth, and," says Mount, "He
very boldly came all alone, and along the houses,
straight to the rendezvous, where we intercepted
him, not suffering him to go in, as undoubtedly
he would, out of his boldness." "He had, say
they, learned some broken English amongst the
Englishmen that came to fish at Monhiggon, and
knew by name most of the captains, commanders,
and masters." "He discoursed of the whole
country and of every province, and of their
sagamores, and their number of men and
strength." "He had a bow and two arrows, the
one headed, and the other unheaded. He was a
tall straight man,, the hair of his head black, long
behind only short before; none on his face at all.
He asked some beer, but we gave him strong
water, and biscuit, and butter, and cheese and
pudding, and a piece of mallard, all of which he
liked well."
Count number three, 0 Pilgrim Father, "you
gave him strong waters." By so doing you
robbed him of his health and wealth, his women
of their honour, and his children of their inheritance. There was more caustic humour than
savage simplicity in the verdict of the first,
recorded, Indian Jury. Summoned to consider
the case of an Indian found frozen to death
they reported. " Death from the freezing of a great
quantity of water inside of him, which they were
of opinion he had drunken for rum."
Captain John Smith, let us hear what he has Pro and Con
63
to say: "After stating that they at Monhiggon in captain John
April, spent a long time in trying to catch whales, Smith' 1614
without success; and as 'for gold, it was rather
the Master's device that projected it'; that for
trifles they got near 11,000 beaver sldns,  100
martin, and as many others, the most of them
within twenty leagues."
Count number four; for trifles they got the count Num-
riches of the New World.    The evils of an un- ber Four
restrained and Godless commerce.
"The other ship stayed to fit herself for Spain
with the dry fish, which was sold at Malaga at four
rials the quintal, each hundred-weight two quintals and a half; but one, Thomas Hunt, the Master
of the ship, (when I was gone) thinking to prevent
that intent I had to make there a plantation,
thereby to keep this abounding country still in
obscurity, that only he and some few merchants
more might enjoy wholly the benefit of the trade,
and profit of this country, betrayed four-and-
twenty of those poor savages aboard his ship, and
most dishonestly and inhumanly, for their kind
usage of me and all our men, carried them with
him to Malaga; and there for a little, sold those
silly savages for rials of eight; but this vile act
kept him ever after from any more employment
to those parts."
Double count number —? O white race! But
why endeavour to pour more into an already
overflowing cup of iniquity and wrong?
Lest we should imagine, vainly, that these
things were true only of early days, and took
Double
Count? m*
64
Inasmuch
Testimony of place only, on other than Canadian soil, let us
Canadian Fur  _. . 5 _
Traders listen, to the naive confessions of a trader of one
of the great Canadian Companies, at the time
when the competition between them "drove
their agents to all lengths to get furs, and drunkenness amongst the Indians was at its worst."
"Sunday, January 1st, 1801. I gave my men
some high wine, flour, and sugar; the Indians
purchased liquor, and by sunrise every soul of
them was raving drunk even the children."
"April 30th, 1804. Indians having asked for
liquor, and having promised to decamp and hunt
well all summer, I gave them some. Grande
Gueule stabbed Capot Rouge, Le Boeuf stabbed
his young wife in the arm. Little Shell almost
beat his mother's brains out with a club, and there
was terrible fighting among them. I sowed
garden seeds."
Hear the testimony of the Reverend John
West, the first clergyman at the Red River.
"The Indians have been greatly corrupted in
their simple and barbarous manners by their
intercourse with Europeans, many of whom have
scarcely any other mark of the Christian character than the name; and who have not only fallen
into the habits of an Indian life, but have frequently exceeded the savage in their savage
customs."
If we should think that even the time of the
Reverend John West is a long way off. and that
nothing of the sort could possibly take place in
our day, let us listen, lastly, to a present-day
Rev. J.
1820
Present Day
Testimony Pro and Con
65
testimony. A business man who has spent his
life on the frontiers wrote, recently: "If the
Indian is depraved, dishonest, deceitful or immoral, his depravity, dishonesty, deceitfulness
and immorality have been learned from the white
man. Look around in any part of this country
and you will find ever-increasing examples of
the degrading influence of the white man upon
the Indian. Drunkenness and the worst forms
of vice and immorality have been introduced and
practised to a degree that is nothing less than
appalling and brings us face to face with a condition that if permitted to continue will not only
mean the complete ruin of the Indian; but the
introduction into the very life of the people of
this new country of a cancerous disease that if
not stamped out will prove a menace of hideous
proportions to coming generations."
All this gives one a good deal of sympathy An in
with the Indian, who, being addressed by a white Reply
man, as "brother"—inquired how they came to
be brothers, and receiving the white man's reply
—"Oh, by way of Adam, I suppose"—answered,
"Me thank him Great Spirit we no nearer
brothers."
Well! my disgusted white reader what do you
think of it all? I imagine, in the first place that,
I hear you answer; "Oh, but after all is said
these acts, hideous and atrocious as they were
and are, represent the deeds of individuals and
groups beyond the control of custom and law."
"Very well! but surely it is the first duty of or-
May, 1916
Summary 66
Inasmuch
The other
side of the
Question
ganized Christian authority to protect, under all
conditions, the ignorant and innocent from the
devices and contamination of the depraved and
devilish." I imagine, in the second place, that
I hear you take refuge in the complaint: "why
did you lead us all the way from the coast of
Virginia to the Height of Land, only to poison
the breath of our nostrils by a recital of all the
infamy suffered by the aborigines at the hands
of the white intruders?" The reply is, "I have
led you here to the pure air of the heart of the
Indian's country in order that, breathing deeply
of its vigour you might be strengthened to hear
and bear the whole story of evil; be inspired to
dare and to do all that in you lies for the reparation of boundless wrong; and be filled with the
determination to labour for the redemption of the
descendants of a great race possessing many
free and valuable qualities."
But we came, after all, to the height of land to
look not in one direction only, or to listen to but
one side of a story. Our outlook is both East
and West, and our desire is to know the good
as well as the bad record of our race. Let us,
therefore, "hear the other side."
Even the question of trade, apart from the
traffic in fire-water for which not one good word
can be said, is not a record of unmitigated evil.
The Charters of the first plantations contained,
as we have seen, pious and righteous expressions
of desire for the good of thenative.peoples. The*
Hudson Bay Company brought the first mission- Pro and Con
67
ary into Western Canada with instructions "to
meliorate the condition of the native Indians."
The remark of an officer of the Company to the
Reverend John West, is indicative of much "I
must confess" he observed "that I am anxious
to see the first little Christian Church and
steeple of wood, slowly rising among the wilds,
to hear the sound of the first Sabbath bell that
has tolled here since the creation." Individual
members or employees have given gifts or made
provision, like the Finlayson bequest, for a similar purpose; or the Leith bequest of £12,000,
which formed the endowment of the See of
Ruperts' Land. This is not the time or the place
to discuss the contest between the rival fur
companies; it is the writer's conviction, however,
that the final supremacy of the "Company of
Gentlemen Adventurers trading into Hudson
Bay" was for the lasting good of the people of
the Great Lone Land. In ways too numerous to
mention, the Hudson Bay Company has been,
and is, sympathetic and helpful in all efforts "to
meliorate the condition of the Indian "; on the sole
and proper condition that the messengers of the
Gospel of Peace shall not forget the claims of their
High Calling, and meddle with barter and trade.
The essential factors of the situation—that the
country was destined to be the country of the
white man, and education must be invoked to fit
the Indian for his new conditions and duties—■
were recognized at an early date. 68
Inasmuch
John Eliot, the "Apostle of the North American
MntOT/MuSs Redman" wrote to the Hon. Robert Boyle, concerning the printing of the second edition of his
famous Indian Bible: \ 'I desire to see it done before
I die, and I am so deep in years, that I cannot
expect to live long; besides we have but one man,
viz., the Indian Printer that is able, to compose
the sheets, and correct the press with understanding. '' The Indian Printer, or James Printer,
or James-the-Printer—for his name or title appears in all three forms—the son of Naoas, was
instructed at the Indian Charity School at Cam-
1659 bridge, and "was put apprentice to Samuel Green,
to learn the printers business."    This child of the
forest remained in the musty printers den of
1675 Samuel Green for sixteen years and then ran
away. Of this incident an old writer remarks,
"He had attained some skill in printing, and
might have attained more, had he not, like a
false villain, ran away from his master before his
time was out."
At a congress held at Lancaster, between the
Government of Virginia and the Five Nations,
the Indians were told that, if they would send
some of their young men to Virginia, the English
would give them an education at their college.
A tribal orator replied as follows: "We know that
you highly esteem the kind of learning taught in
those colleges, and that the maintenance of our
young men, while with you, would be very expensive to you. We are convinced, therefore,
that you mean to do us good by your proposal,
Congress at
Lancaster,
1744 Pro and Con
69
and we thank you heartily. But you who are
wise must know, that different nations have
different conceptions of things; and you will not
therefore take it amiss, if our ideas of this kind
of education happen not to be the same as yours.
We have had some experience of it; several of our
young people were formerly brought up at the
colleges of the Northern Provinces; they were
instructed in all your sciences; but when they
came back to us, they were bad runners; ignorant
of every means of living in the woods; unable
to bear cold or hunger; knew neither how to build
a cabin, take a deer, or kill an enemy; spoke our
language imperfectly; were therefore neither fit
for hunters, warriors, or counsellors; they were
totally good-for-nothing. We are, however, not
the less obliged for your kind offer, though we
decline accepting it; and to. show our grateful
sense of it, if the gentlemen of Virginia will send
us a dozen of their sons we will take great care of
their education, instruct them in all we know,
and make men of them."
The educators of the Indians, often in the face
of serious obstacles, have achieved magnificent
results. The last return of the Department of
Indian Affairs enumerates 345 schools. The fact,
however, that of the total 59 are returned as
boarding, 2 as institutes, 16 as industrial, only 1
as an ex-pupils colony, would seem to indicate
that the philosophy of education contained in the
above reply of the Five Nations might still repay
careful scrutiny and consideration. 70
Inasmuch
Indian Right
in the Land
Carrier at
Bay of Gaspe
A Chief's
Declaration
The Indian, in spite of his roving instincts, has
always displayed a keen sense of proprietary
right in the land.
"Before leaving the Bay of Gaspe," on his
first voyage, "Carrier planted a great wooden
cross at the entrance of the harbour. The cross
stood thirty feet high, and at the centre of it he
hung a shield with three fleur-de-lis. At the top
was carved in ancient lettering, "Vive Le Roy
de France." A large concourse of savages stood
about the French explorers as they raised the
cross to its place. "So soon as it was up"
writes Cartier "we kneeled down before them,
with our hands towards heaven yielding God
thanks; and we made signs unto them, showing
them the heavens, and that all our salvation
depended only on Him which in them dwelleth;
whereat they showed a great admiration looking
first at one another and then at the cross."
Notwithstanding the pious intention of Cartier
and the "great admiration" of the savages; the
latter saw in the cross a symbol of usurped
possession. On the return of the French to their
ships, the Chief, accompanied by his sons went
out to them; made a long speech and by means
of signs, conveyed, clearly, his meaning, "that
the country belonged to him and his people."
"No Greek or Roman orator ever spoke, perhaps with more strength and sublimity than
one of their Chiefs when asked to remove with his
tribe to a distance. '' We were born, [' said he " on
this ground, our fathers lie buried in it, shall we Pro and Con
say to the bones of our fathers, "arise, and come
with us into a foreign land?"
At the pow-wow connected with the making of
the North West Angle Treaty one of the Chiefs
said: "My terms I am going to lay down before
you; the decision of our Chiefs; ever since we came
to a decision you push it back. The sound o) the
rustling of gold is under my feet where I stand.
We have a rich country; it is the Great Spirit who
gave us this; where we stand upon is the Indian's
property and belongs to them. If you grant us
our requests you will not go back without making
the treaty."
Dekanisora, a famous chief of the Onondagas,
was one of six ambassadors—representing the
Senecas, the Onondagas, and the Cayugas—who
made at Albany an agreement with the English;
the conditions of which were that they should
surrender ail their hunting-grounds into the hands
of Coorakhoo, as they called the King of England, "to be defended by his said majesty, his
heirs and successors, to and for use of us, our
heirs, and the said three Nations."
The question of the Indian's continued title to
the land was closely connected with that of the
density of the Indian population. It was
perfectly evident, from the earliest days, that
the sparseness of the latter must result in the
modification or extinction of the former. It
is probably, a mistake to imagine that, as
far as the interior of the northern half of
North America is concerned, the Indian popula-
Agreement of
Trusteeship,
Sept. 14th,
1726
Density of
Population 72
Inasmuch
New
Arrivals,
New
Conditions
tion was ever greatly in excess of its numbers at
the present time. The chief concentrations, of the
native races, were found along the coast lines,.
both east and west. In these regions contact
with the white race was abrupt, demoralizing,
and terribly destructive; reducing the aborigines,
it is estimated, by at least one half of their
numbers. "The destruction by disease and dissipation has been greatest along the Pacific
Coast, where also the original population was
most numerous." A squaw, the last of her race,
died a few years ago in Newfoundland. Along
the coasts of New England, and farther south,
whole tribes have disappeared. Eliot's Bible is
now a literary curiosity; of the people for whom it
was prepared not one representative remains
alive.
In several respects, however, the new arrivals
only created a new set of conditions which continued an old state of affairs. Tribal wars and
child mortality always operated to keep the native
population very low. Shortly before the arrival
of the white man the Iroquois had exterminated
the Eries, and shortly after his arrival they destroyed the Hurons, the Tobacco nation, the
Nipissings, and the Neutrals. It is probable,
also, that if all the sections of the Six Nations,
Canadian and American, were assembled they
could, to-day, place in the field as large a force
of warriors as their forebears could command
when the Dutch formed with them the first
'' Covenant Chain.''   The crime of the white man Pro and Con
73
A "Bargain"
over wide areas consists, largely, in the fact that
for the high death rate due to the hardships and
atrocities of savage life, he substituted and continued an equally high death rate due to the
ravages of fire-water, measles, small-pox and the
diseases associated with immorality and vice.
Under the organized protection of a Christian
community, and with the organized help of the
Christian Church, the Indian tribes ought to have
doubled in number; whereas, they have either
decreased or held their own with the greatest
(Hfficulty.
The earlier efforts to adjust or extinguish the
Indian title to the land contains some weird
notions of comparative values. The record of
the transfer of about two-thirds of the county of
York, including the site of the city of Toronto,
is as follows:
Mississauga—August 1st, 1805; confirming
surrender of September 23rd, 1785, for 10 s, "and
divers good and valuable considerations .given
on September 23rd, 1787."
On the whole, however, this important matter
has been conducted in an orderly manner, with a
due regard for the equities of the stituation. The
Indians who have entered into treaty relations
with the Government are, to-day, in a vastly
better position than those who have refused
treaty.
The first treaty was made, with the Indians of Selkirk's
the Red River, by the Earl of Selkirk who gave fli? Treaty'
"each tribe one hundred pounds of tobacco with mm
74
Inasmuch
General
Terms of the
Treaties
N. W. Angle
"Pow-pow"
a promise of one hundred pounds annually as long
as he kept the territory."
Since then the tribes from Ontario to the
Rockies, have been met and treaties arranged by
duly accredited representatives of the Government. The general terms may be illustrated by
the treaties made for the extinction of the Indian
title in Manitoba: "A present of $12.00 for each
man, woman and child, and an annuity of $5.00
per head, the chiefs to receive $25.00 and the
councillors $15.00, and every three years a uniform befitting their rank. Reserves were granted
of about 640 acres for each family of five, or 128
acres for each man, woman and child; an annual
'allowance of ammunition, twine, seed grain,
agricultural implements, cattle and carpenter's
tools was to be provided. Schools were also to
be established on the Reserves, the Indians promising to conduct themselves as good, loyal subjects, maintaining peace and obeying the laws.
The Sioux, who are refugees frorn the United
States, were not given annuities, because they had
no rights to the lands of the country. They were
given reserves, and a little help to start farming,
and they are now self-supporting and very industrious."
As an example of the subjects discussed, at the
interminable pow-wows, which preceded the
"Making of treaty," we quote the conclusion
of the four days discussion which marked the
making of the North West Angle Treaty at
Fort Francis: Pro and Con
Chief—"As regards the fire-water, I do not
like it and I do not wish any house to be built
to have it sold. Perhaps at times if I should be
unwell I might take a drop just for medicine; and
shall any one insist on bringing it where we are,
I should break the treaty."
Governor—"I meant to have spoken of that
myself, I meant to put it in the treaty. He
speaks good about it. The Queen and her
Parliament in Ottawa have passed a law prohibiting the use of it in this territory, and if any
shall be brought in for your use as medicine
it can only come in by my permission."
Chief—"Why we keep you so long is that it is
our wish that everything should be properly
understood between us."
Governor—"That is why I am here. It is my
pleasure, and I want when we once shake hands
that it should be forever."
Chief—"That is the principal article. If it
was in my midst the fire-water would have spoiled
my happiness, and I wish it to be left far away
from where I am. All the promises that you have
made me, the little promises and the money you
have promised, when it comes to me year after
year—should I see that there is anything wanting,
through the negligence of the people who have to
see after these things, I trust it will be in my
power to put them in prison."
Governor—"The ear of the Queen's Government
will always be open to hear the complaints of her 76
Inasmuch
Indian people, and she will deal with her servants
that do not do their duty in a proper manner."
Chief—"Now you have promised to give us all
your names. I want a copy of the treaty that
will not be rubbed off, on parchment."
Governor—"In the meantime I will give you a
copy on paper, and as soon as I get back I will
get you a copy on parchment."
Chief—" I do not wish to be treated as they were
at Red River—that provisions should be stopped
as it is there. Whenever we meet and have a
council I wish that provisions should be given to
us.    We cannot speak without eating."
Governor—"You are mistaken. When they
are brought together at Red River for their payments they get provisions."
Chief—"We wish the provisions to come from
Red River."
Governor—"If the Great Spirit sends the grasshopper, and there is no wheat grown in Red River,
we cannot give it to you."
Chief—"You have come before us with a
smiling face, you have shown us great charity—
you have promised the good things; you have
given us your best compliments and wishes, not
only for once, but forever; let there now forever
be peace and friendship between us. It is the
wish of all that where our reserves are peace
should reign, that nothing shall be there that will
disturb peace. Now, I will want nothing to be
there that will disturb peace, and will put every
one that carries arms—such as murderers and Pro and Con
77
thieves—outside, so that nothing will be there
to disturb our peace."
Governor—"The Queen will have policemen to
preserve order, and murderers and men guilty of
crime will be punished in this country just the
same as she punishes them herself."
Chief—"I will tell you one thing. You understand me now, that I have taken your hand firmly
and in friendship. I repeat twice that you have
done so, that these promises that you have made,
and the treaty to be concluded, let it be as you
promise, as long as the sun rises over our head
and as long as the water runs. One thing I find,
that deranges a little my kettle. In this river,
where food used to be plentiful for our subsistence,
I perceive it is getting scarce. We wish that the
River should be left as it was formed from the
beginning—that nothing be broken.
Governor—"This is a subject that I cannot
promise."
Mr. Dawson—"Anything that we are likely to
do at present will not interfere with the fishing,
but no one can tell what the future may require,
and we cannot enter into any engagement."
Chief—"We wish the Government would assist
us in getting a few boards for some of us who are
intending to put up houses this fall, from the mill
at Fort Francis."
Governor—"The mill is a private enterprise,
and we have no power to give you boards from
that."
Chief—'' I will now show you a medal that was 78
Inasmuch
Speech of
Acceptance
given to those who made a treaty at Red River
by the Commissioner. He said it was silver, but
I do not think it is. I should be ashamed to
carry it on my breast over my heart. I think it
would disgrace the Queen, my mother, to wear
her image on so base a metal as this. (Here the
chief held up the medal and struck it with the
back of his knife. The result was anything but
the 'true ring,' and made every man ashamed of
the petty meanness that had been practised).
Let the medals you give us be of silver—medals
that shall be worthy of the high position our
Mother, the Queen occupies."
Governor—"I will tell them at Ottawa what
you have said, and how you have said it."
Chief—"I wish you to understand you owe the
treaty much to the half-breeds."
Governor—"I know it. I sent some of them to
talk with you, and I am proud that all the half-
breeds from Manitoba, who are here, gave the
Governor their cordial support."
The business of the treaty having now been
completed, the Chief, Mawedopenais, who, with
Powhassan, had with such wonderful tact carried
on the negotiations, stepped up to the Governor
and said:
11 Now you see me stand before you all; what
has been done here to-day has been done openly
before the Great Spirit, and before the nation
and I hope that I may never hear anyone say thai
this treaty has been done secretly; and now, in
closing this council, I take off my glove, and in Pro and Con
79
giving you my hand, I deliver over my birthright
and lands; and in taking your hand, I hold fast
all the promises you have made, and I hope
that will last as long as the sun goes round and the
water flows, as you have said."
The Governor then took his hand and said:
"I accept your hand and with it the lands, and
will keep all my promises, in the firm belief that
the treaty now to be signed will bind the red
man and the white together as friends forever."
The virile piety of Jacques Cartier is apparent
in the story of his voyages. Of his first
visit to Hochelaga the narrator adds: "That done,
they brought before him divers diseased men,
some blind, some crippled, some lame, and some
so old that the hair of their eyelids came down and
covered their cheeks, and laid them all along
before our captain to the end that they might of
him be touched. For it seemed unto them that
God was descended and come down from heaven
to heal them. Our captain seeing the misery and
devotion of these poor people, recited the Gospel
of St. John, that is to say, 'In the beginning was
the Word,' touching every one that were diseased,
praying to God that it would please him to open
the hearts of the poor people and to make them
know His Holy Word, and that they might receive baptism and Christendom. That done, he
took a service book in his hand, and with a loud
voice read all the passion of Christ, word by word,
that all the standers-by might hear him; all which
while this poor people kept silence and were
Cartier at
Hochelaga,
Sept.   30th,
1535 80
Inasmuch
The Noble
Army of
Witnesses
marvellously  attentive,   looking up  to  heaven
and imitating us in gestures."
How beautiful that scene in Hochelaga of old,
when the wondering savages of the fierce Iroquois
race, thought that they were entertaining not
angels but gods, and heard for the first time,
though in a strange tongue, the announcement of
Him who was at once the Eternal Word of the
Father, the Glorious One who tabernacled for a
while among men, and the Great Shepherd who
said: "And other sheep I have which are not of
this fold; them also I must bring and they shall
hear My Voice; and they shall become one flock,
under one Shepherd."
How goodly the company, how splendid the
banners, of that noble army of witnesses, confessors, and martyrs who by service in lowliness,
by fellowship with need, counted not their lives
dear unto themselves if only they might save
some. Of others, Jesuit or Protestant, space
forbids that we should make mention; from the
deeds of the living we refrain; of the blessed dead
—of our own body and communion in Christ—
who yet live and by their works wrought in the
flesh praise the God of our fathers, we must
speak:
Stewart, the Apostle of the Six Nations, with
all the meek and lowly followers of Jesus whose
deeds are unrecorded among men but whose names
are written in Heaven; the goodly company of
faithful women who published the tidings;
John  West,   the  first  missionary  to   Rupert's Pro and Con
81
Land, who wrote: " I have no higher wish than to
spend and be spent in the service of Christ, for
the salvation of the North American Indians";
Cockran, who rendered "a finished course of
forty years," with Cowley, Hunter, MacLean and
Young; Horden, the pioneer of the Cross in the
regions of Hudson Bay; Small and Ridley the
servants of Jesus Christ for the Indians of the
Pacific Coast; MacDonald, the man of simple faith
and single purpose; and, towering above all,
William Bompas, the "Pine-tree Chief," who
knew no other allegiance save that to Christ and
who poured out "his soul unto death" in devotion
to the Red race, to whose memory the highest
tribute ever written of son of man may justly be
paid, "he walked with God, and he was not for
God took him."
Therefore, my white companions on the Height
of Land, be not unduly discouraged by the recital
of the sordid story of white rapacity, vice and
wrong; but be ye encouraged by the tracing of
the footsteps of the men of God who "rest from
their labours" while "their works do follow
them." Take, before we leave our vantage
point, one more look into the East, see the
square tower of the "Old Mohawk Church"
rising by the Grand River, amid the primeval
forests, and read again its message "a light to
lighten the* Gentiles and the glory of Thy people
Israel;" then turning towards the setting sun,
behold rising above the horizon, the splendid
mountains crowned with gfistening and untrod-
St. Luke ii:32 Inasmuch
den purity, see their peaks, fit foundations for the
City of God, radiant with a splendour such as
never was on sea or land, and lean upon the promise, "And the Lord thy God shall come, and all
the saints with Him, and it shall come to pass in
that day, that the light shall not be with brightness and with gloom; but it shall be one day which
is known to the Lord, not day and not night; but
it shall come to pass that at evening time there
shall be light. And it shall come to pass in that
day, that living waters shall go out from Jerusalem, half of them toward the Eastern sea, and
half of them toward the Western sea, in summer
and winter shall it be and the Lord shall be King
over all the earth; in that day shall the Lord be
One, and His Name One." CHAPTER IV.
Pioneer Journals—The Rev. John West
From the height of land, north and west, we Formation of
journey chiefly in the company of the other great 1799°*M's*
English Society which has done so much for the
aboriginal peoples of the Dominion. The Church
Missionary Society for Africa and the East was
established in 1799, its founders saying: "As the
S. P. C. K. and the S. P. G. confine their labours
to the British Plantations in America and the
West Indies, there seems to be still wanting in the
established Church a Society for sending missionaries to the Continent of Africa and other parts
of the Eastern World." The Society founded
under this title was destined to send some of its
most heroic agents to the Western Continent
and to win therein some of its most signal victories
of the Cross.
A proposal was made to the Society, by a
member of the North West Fur Company, to MisSSJ
establish a mission among the Indians beyond the
Rocky Mountains. The Committee "undertook
to procure further information" but with what
result does not appear as the matter is not again
referred to.
Another proposal led to more definite results.
Under the Earl of Selkirk an agricultural settlement was formed on the banks of the Red River.
When   Governor   Semple  was   sent   out  from
First Proposal
to Establish a
1819 84
Inasmuch
Governor
Semple, 1815
Appointment
of Rev. J.
West, 1820
Journal Pub*
lished, 1824
England, he was required to ascertain if any trace
existed of either temple of worship, or idol, and
whether it would be practicable to gather the
children together for education and industrial
training. In his report he said: "I have trodden
the burnt ruins of houses, barns, a mill, a fort,
and sharpened stockades; but none of a place of
worship, even upon the smallest scale. I blush,
to say that over the whole extent of the Hudson's
Bay Territories no such building exists." "The
Hudson's Bay Company, nevertheless, were not
entirely unmindful of their religious duties; the
chief factor at each post being required to read
the Church Service to their employees every Sunday, and they sent out the Reverend J. West, as
Chaplain to the Red River Settlement. Desirous of
benefiting the heathen also he offered his services to
the Church Missionary Society, with the view of
establishing schools for the Indians, and that
Society provided him with £100 to make a trial."
In this manner at one rime, and in the person of
one man, the "Church" and "Indian Missions"
entered formally and officially the Prairie and
North Western Provinces of Canada.
Mr. West kept a journal of his experiences in the
settlement. On the first page he says: "In my
appointment as Chaplain to the company, my
instructions were, to reside at the Red River
Settlement, and under the encouragement and
aid of the Church Missionary Society. I was to
seek the instruction, and endeavour to meliorate
the condition of the native Indians."    He sailed Pioneer Journals—1820-4
85
The Swampy
Crees
from Gravesend on the 27th of May, and arrived Rev. j. west,
in due time at York Factory, Hudson Bay. Of 8aile* 1820
his first impressions of the Indians he says, "The
swampy Crees presented a way-worn countenance,
which depicted suffering without comfort while
they sunk without hope. The contrast was
striking, and forcibly impressed my mind with the
idea, that Indians who knew not the corrupt influence and barter of spirituous liquors at a
Trading Post, were far happier than the wretched-
looking group around me. The duty devolved upon
me, to seek to meliorate their sad condition, as
degraded and emaciated, wandering in ignorance,
and wearing away a short existence in one continued succession of hardships in procuring food.
I was told of difficulties, and some spoke of impossibilities in the way of teaching them Christianity or the first rudiments of settled and civilized life; but with a combination of opposing circumstances, I determined not to be intimidated,
nor to 'confer with flesh and blood,' but to put
my hand at once to the plough, in the attempt to
break in upon this heathen wilderness."
He conceived immediately the idea of obtaining Two Boys for
a number of children who should be removed ichooidms
from their heathern surroundings and trained in a
boarding school. With this in mind he says:
"with the aid of an interpreter, I spoke to an
Indian, called Withaweecapo, about taking two
of his boys to the Red River Colony with me to
educate and maintain. He yielded to my request
and I shall never forget the affectionate manner 86
Inasmuch
John West
Arrives at Red
River, Oct.
14th, 1820
in which he brought the eldest boy in his arms and
placed him in the canoe on the morning of my
departure." In this way originated in Western
Canada the Boarding System for Indian children.
Mr. West described his first acquaintance with
the Indians of the Red River. "Many Indian
families came frequently to the Fort, and as is
common, I believe, to all the aborigines, were of
a copper colour complexion, with black coarse
hair. Whenever they dressed for any particular
occasion, they annointed themselves all over
with charcoal and grease, and painted their eyebrows, lips and forehead, or cheeks, with Vermillion. Some had their noses perforated through
the cartilage, in which was fixed part of a goose-
quill, or a piece of tin, worn as an ornament,
while others strutted with the skin of a raven
ingeniously folded as a head-dress, to present
the beak over the forehead, and the tail spreading
over the back of the neck. Their clothing consisted principally of a blanket, a buffalo skin and
leggins, with a cap, which hung down their back
and was fastened to a belt round the waist.
Scoutaywaubo, or fire-water, (rum) was their
principal request; to obtain which they appeared
ready to barter anything, or everything they
possessed. The children ran about almost naked,
and were treated by their parents with all the instinctive fondness of animals. They know of no
restraint, and as they grow up into life, they are
left at full liberty to be absolute masters of their
own actions. Pioneer Journals—1820-4
87
"The River," he says, "appears to me a most
desirable—spot for a missionary establishment,
and the formation of schools, from whence
Christianity may arise and be propagated among
the numerous tribes of the North."
During the winter months, Mr. West undertook his first prairie journey to Brandon House
and Fort Qu'Appelle. Of his arrival and experiences at the latter place he writes: "January
27th, soon after midnight we were disturbed by
the buffaloes passing close to our encampment:
we rose early, and arrived at Qu'Appelle about
three o'clock. Nearly about the same time a
large band of Indians came to the fort from the
plains with provisions. Many of them rode
good horses, caparisoned with a saddle or pad of
dressed sldn, stuffed with buffalo wool, from which
were suspended wooden stirrups; and a leathern
thong, tied at both ends to the under jaw of the
animal, formed the bridle. When they had
delivered their loads, they paraded the fort with
an air of independence. It was not long, however,
before they became clamorous for spirituous
liquors; and the evening presented such a bac-
chanalia, including the women and the children,
as I never before witnessed.
"The weather is extremely hot, the thermometer
more than 90° above zero. Vegetation is making
an astonishingly rapid progress, and the grain in
its luxuriant growth upon a rich soil, presents to
the eye the fairest prospects of a good harvest.
But the locust, an insect very like the large grass-
Suitable
Centre for
Missions
First Prairie
Journey
Plague of
Locusts at
Red River Inasmuch
Wrecked on
Lake Winnipeg
hopper, is beginning to make sad ravages, by
destroying the crops, as it has done for the last
three years, at the Settlement. These insects
multiply so rapidly, that they soon overspread
the land, or rather the whole country; and had,
not a wise Providence limited their existence to a
year, they would no doubt (if permitted to increase) soon destroy the whole vegetative produce of the world. They seem to devour, not so
much from a ravenous appetite, as from the rage
of destroying every vegetable substance that lies
in the way; and their work of destruction is
frequently so regular in a field of corn, as to have
the appearance of being cut with a scythe. Where
they are bred, from eggs that are deposited in
the earth the autumn before, they stop during
the months of April, May and June; towards the
latter end of July, they get strong and have wings,
when they rise together, sometimes so numerous
as to form a black cloud, which darkens the rays
of the sun. Their first direction is against the
wind, but afterwards they appear to be driven by
its course, and fall, as a scourge, as they become
exhausted by flight. 'The land may be as the
garden of Eden before them, but behind them it is
a desolate wilderness.'
"In crossing Winnipeg Lake, one of the boats
was wrecked, but providentially no lives were lost.
This accident, however, detained us in an encampment for six or seven days; and having
scarcely any other subsistence than a little boiled
barley, I experienced at times the most pressing Pioneer Journals—1820-4
89
hunger. Every one rambled in pursuit of game,
but generally returned unsuccessful. One evening, a servant brought in from his day's hunt a
large horned owl, which was immediately cooked,
and eagerly despatched. The next day, I was
walking along the shore with my gun, when the
waves cast at my feet a dead jack-fish; I took it
up, and felt, from the keenness of my appetite for
animal food, as though I could have immediately
devoured it, notwithstanding it bore the marks
of having been dead a considerable time. At
this moment I heard the croaking of a raven, and
placing the fish upon the bank, as a bait, I shot
it from behind a willow, where I had concealed
myself, as it lighted upon the ground; and the
success afforded me a welcome repast at night.
"The Sioux are truly barbarous, like the
Indians in general, towards their captive enemies.
The following circumstance as related to me by
an Indian woman, whom I married to one of the
principal settlers, and who was a near relation of
one of the women who was tomahawked by a
war party of Sioux Indians, some time ago, is
calculated to fill the mind with horror. They
fell upon four lodges belonging to the Saulteaux,
who had encamped near Fond du Lac, Lake
Superior, and which contained the wives and
children of about twelve men, who were at that
time absent a-hunting; and immediately killed
and scalped the whole party, except one woman
and two or three of the children. With the most
wanton and savage cruelty they proceeded to put Inasmuch
The Aged
Abandoned
one of these little ones to death, by first turriing
him for a short time close before a fire, when they
cut off one of his arms, and told him to run; and
afterwards cruelly tortured him, with the other
children, till he died.
"It is almost incredible the torture to which
they will sometimes put their prisoners; and the
adult captives will endure it without a tear or a
groan. In spite of all their sufferings which the
love of cruelty and revenge can invent and inflict upon them, they continue to chaunt their
death song with a firm voice; considering that to
die like a man, courting pain rather than flinching
from it, is the noblest triumph of the warrior.
In going to war, some time ago, a Sioux chief cut
a piece of flesh from his thigh, and holding it up
with a view to animate and encourage the party
who were to accompany him to the ferocious
conflict, told them to see how little he regarded
pain, and that, despising torture and the scalping
knife and tomahawk of their enemies, they should
rush upon them, and pursue them till they were
exterminated; and thereby console the spirits of
the dead whom they bad slain.
'' Sometimes the aged and infirm are abandoned
or destroyed; and, however, shocldng it may be
to those sentiments of tenderness and affection,
which in civilized life we regard as inherent in
our common nature, it is practised by savages
in their hardships and extreme a_ifficutly of pro-
airing subsistence for the parties who suffer,
without being considered as an act of cruelty, Pioneer Journals—1820-4
91
but as a deed of mercy. This shocldng custom,
however, is seldom heard of among the Indians
of this neighbourhood; but is said to prevail with
the Chipewyan or Northern Indians, who are no
sooner burdened with their relations, broken with
years and infirmities, and incapable of following
the camp, than they leave them to their fate.
Instead of repining they are reconciled to this
dreadful termination of their existence, from the
known custom of their nation, and being conscious that they can no longer endure the various
distresses and fatigue of savage life, or assist
in hunting for provisions. A little meat, with an
axe, and a small portion of tobacco, are generally
left with them by their nearest relations, who in
taking leave of them, say, that it is time for them
to go into the other world, which they suppose
lies just beyond the spot where the sun goes down,
where they will be better taken care of than with
them, and then they walk away weeping. On the
banks of the Saskashawan, an aged woman prevailed on her son to shoot her through the head,
instead of adopting this sad extremity. She
addressed him in a most pathetic manner, reminding him of the care and toil with which she bore
him on her back from camp to camp in his infancy; with what incessant labour she brought
1-im up till he could use the bow and the gun;
and having seen him a great warrior, she requested
that he would show her Irindness, and give a
proof of his courage, in shooting her, that she
might go home to her relations.     'I have seen Creation
92 Inasmuch
many winters,' she added, 'and am now become a
burden, in not being able to assist in getting
provisions; and dragging me through the country,
as I am unable to walk, is a toil, and brings much
distress; take your gun.' She then drew her
blanket over her head, and her son immediately
deprived her of life; in the apparent consciousness
of having done an act of filial duty and of mercy."
Tradition of Sir Alexander Mackenzie, in speaking of the
Chipewyan or Northern Indians, who traverse
an immense track of country, to the north of the
Athabasca Lake, says, "that the notions which
these people entertain of the creation are of a
singular nature. They believe that the globe was
at first one vast and entire ocean, inhabited by
no living creature except a mighty bird, whose
eyes were fire, whose glances were lightning and
the clapping of whose wings was thunder. On
his descending to the ocean, and touching it, the
earth instantly arose, and remained on the surface of the waters. They have also a tradition
amongst them, that they • originally came from
another country, inhabited by very wicked people,
and had traversed a great lake, where they suffered much misery, it being always winter, with ice
and deep snow. At the Coppermine River,
where they made the first land, the ground was
covered with copper. They believe also that in
ancient times their ancestors lived till their feet
were worn out with walking and their throats with
eating. They describe a deluge, when the waters
spread over the whole earth, except the highest Pioneer Journals—1820-4
93
mountains, on the tops of which they preserved
themselves.
"When the flood came and destroyed the world,
they say that a very great man, called Waesack-
oochack, made a large raft, and embarked with
otters, beavers, deer, and other kinds of animals.
After it had floated upon the waters for some
time, he put out an otter, with a long piece of
shagganappy or leathern cord tied to its leg,
and it dived very deep without finding any
bottom, and was drowned. He then put out a
beaver, which was equally unsuccessful, and
shared the same fate. At length he threw out a
musk-rat, that dived and brought up a little mud
in its mouth, which Waesackoochack took, and
placing it in the palm of his hand, he blew upon
it, till it greatly enlarged itself, and formed a good
piece of the earth. He then turned out a deer that
soon returned, which led him to suppose that the
earth was not large enough, and blowing upon it
again, its size was greatly increased, so that a loon
which he sent out never returned. The new
earth being now of a sufficient size, he turned
adrift all the animals that he had preserved. He
is supposed still to have some intercourse with
and power over them as well as over the Indians,
who pray to him to protect them and keep them
alive."
The Journal, entrancing in its interest, of the
first Missionary to the Red River, is in danger of
delaying us too long in our journey to the far
west.    Let us before leaving it, select two or
Tradition of
the Flood 94
Inasmuch
three short extracts of a different character:
I. The hieroglyphics, by which an Indian, on
Mr. West's journey to Fort Churchill, informed
his absent sons that he had gone forward with the
stranger.
1. To intimate that the family has gone forward.
2. That there was a chief of the party.
3. That he was accompanied by a European
servant.
4. And also by an Indian.
5. That there were two Indians in company.
6. That they should follow.
II. Examples of parental affection:
"One of the men appeared to be reduced to the
last stage of existence, and upon giving him a
fish and a few cooked potatoes, such was his
natural affection for his children, that, instead
of voraciously devouring the small portion of
food, he divided it into morsels, and gave it to
them in the most affectionate manner." And
again—"It is very affecting occasionally to hear
the plaintive and mournful lamentations of the
mother at the grave of her child, uttering in pitiful
accents, cAh! my child, why did you leave me!
why go out of my sight so early! who will nurse Pioneer Journals—1820-4
95
you and feed you in the long journey you have
undertaken!' The strength of natural affection
will sometimes lead them to commit suicide, under
the idea that they shall accompany the spirit
and nurse their departed child in the other
world."
III. An Indian idea of the Aurora Borealis.
"Many of the Indians .... believe the northern
lights to be the spirits of their departed friends
dancing in the clouds, and when they are remarkably bright, at which rime they vary most in
form and situation, they say that their deceased
friends are making merry."
IV. Progress in the Mission.
"The ringing of the Sabbath bell now collects an
encouraging congregation; and some of us, I trust,
could experimentally adopt the language of the
Psalmist, in saying, ' I was glad when they said
unto us, let us go into the House of the Lord'—
My earnest prayer to God is, that I may exercise
a spiritual ministry; and faithfully preach those
truths which give no hope to fallen man, but
that which is founded on God's mercy in Christ."
V. Love of the Scriptures.
"Let me then prize the Scriptures more, which
"have, God for their Author, truth unniingled
with error for their subject, and salvation for
their end. They are the fountains of interminable happiness, where he who hungers and
t__rirsts after righteousness may be satisfied; and
when received in principle and in love, are a 96
Inasmuch
sure and unerring guide, through a wilderness of
toil and suffering, to the habitations of the blessed,
'not made with hands, eternal in the heavens.' "
VI. The first Missionary's plan.
"In the attempt, however, to spread the
knowledge of Christianity among the natives,
it appears that the least expensive mode of proceeding and of ensuring the most extensive success
for the Missionary is, to visit those parts of the
country where they are stationary, and live in
villages during the greater part of the year. He
should direct his way and persevering attention
towards the Rocky Mountains, and the Columbia." .... "In following the track towards the
North Pacific Ocean, the climate is much milder
than to the East of the mountains, and a vast
encouragement would be found in seeking to
benefit the natives, from their being strangers
to the intoxicating draught of spirituous liquors,
in barter for their articles of trade. So little
acquainted with the effects of intoxication are
. some of the Indians in this quarter,- that the
following circumstance was related to me by an
officer from the mouth of the Columbia. A
Chief who had traded but little with the Europeans came to the Fort with two of his sons, and
two young men of his tribe. During their stay
the servants made one of his sons drunk. When
the old man saw him foaming at the mouth,
uttering the most incoherent expressions, and
staggering under the power of the intoxicating Pioneer Journals—1820-4
draught, he immediately concluded that he was
mad, and exclaimed, 'Let him be shot.' It was
some time before he could be pacified, which was
only affected in a measure by his being assured,
that he would see his son recovered from the
disorder of his faculties. And when the aged
Chief saw him again restored to his right mind,
and found him capable of conversing, he manifested the greatest joy."
VII. The first Missionary's vision.
"Thousands are involved in worse than
Egyptian darkness around me, wandering in
ignorance and perishing through lack of knowledge. When will this wide waste howling
wilderness blossom as the rose, and the desert
become as a fruitful field! Generations may
first pass away; and the seed of instruction that is
now sown, may lie buried, waiting for the early
and the latter rain, yet, the sure word of Prophecy will ever animate Christian liberality and
exertion, in the bright prospect of that glorious
period when Christianity shall burst upon the
gloomy scene of heathenism, and dispel every
cloud of ignorance and superstition, till the very
ends of the earth shall see the salvation of the Lord."  CHAPTER V.
Pioneer  Journals—The  Right  Rev.   G.  J.
Mountain
From the journal of the Rev. John West we
pass over into that of the Right Rev. G. J.
Mountain, third Bishop of Quebec, who while
still holding the title of coadjutor Bishop of
Montreal, was the first Bishop to visit the regions
West of the Great Lakes.
A few words are necessary to connect the departure of Mr. West with the arrival of Bishop
Mountain. The former on his return to England
left his successor, Mr. David Jones, alone at the
Red River. The next arrival was the Rev.
William Cockran. He never went back to his
native land and completed what has been well
called "a finished course of forty years." The
Indians learned to value their "praying fathers"
and when Mr. Jones returned to England they
sent by his hand, an appeal, to the C. M. S.
which read in part: "We now like the Word of
God, and we have left off all our sins: we have
cast away our rattles, our drums and our idols,
and all our bad heathen ways. But what are we
to do our friends? Mr. Jones is going to leave
us; Mr. Cockran talks of it; must we turn to our
idols and gods again, or must we turn to the
French praying fathers? We see three French
praying fathers come to the river, and not one
1844
Bishop
Mountain's
Visit. Left La
Chine, May
13th Arrived
Fort Garry,
June 23rd
1823
Interim Occurrences
Rev. W.
Cockran, 1825 100
I n a s m u •
Rev. J.
Smithurst,
1839
Rev. Abraham Cowley.
1841
Henry Budd
Cumberland
opened, 1840
for us; What is this our friends? The word of
God says that one soul is worth more than all the
World; surely then, our friends, three hundred
souls are worth one praying father! It is not
once or twice a week teaching that is enough to
make us wise; we have a bad heart, and we hate
our bad hearts and all our evil ways, and we wish
to cast them all away, and we hope in time, by the
help of God, to be able to do it. But have patience, our friends; we hope our children will do
better, and will learn to read God's Book, so as
to go forth to their country people to tell them
the word of life."
This appeal was followed by two important
results. First the reinforcing of the missions
by two new men. The Rev. J. Smithurst, who
took charge of the Red River Mission, and the
Rev. Abraham Cowley who was sent to Manitoba
Lake, "and there founded a station among the
Soto or Salteaux Indians, calling it Fairford after
his birthpalce." Second, the visit of Bishop
Mountain undertaken at the request, be it noted,
of the C. M. S.
One other interim occurrence should be mentioned. John West, as we have described made,
on landing at York Factory, immediate efforts
to carry out his instructions concerning the
natives. On the way up from York Factory "he
picked up two young Indian boys, and took them
with him. They were the first of their nation
to be baptised, by the names of Henry Budd and
John Hope.    Both, became excellent assistants; Pioneer Journals—1844
101
and Budd was sent five hundred miles off, up the
great Saskatchewan River, to open a new station
in the Cumberland District, which he did at a
placed called the Pas."
Bishop Mountain describes his outfit: "By
direction of Sir George Simpson the Governor of
the Company's Territory, who was at La Chine at
the time. A new birch-bark canoe was provided,
of the largest class, such as is called a "canot de
maitre," having fourteen paddles, and being of the
length of thirty-six feet. The crew were picked
men, and most of them were, more or less, experienced voyageurs. One had accompanied
Sir John Franklin to the Arctic regions in 1825.
Eight of them were French Canadians; six of
them were Iroquois Indians, from the village of
Caughnawaga. Our guide, a functionary who,
in a manner, controls the whole enterprise, was
an Iroquois, and a man of very first reputation in
his line: the steersmen—of whom there are two,
on account of the practice of exchanging the large
canoe for two smaller ones, and dividing the crew
at the upper end of Lake Superior—were Canadians. The other eleven men are called middlemen. One of them, however, who acted as our
cook and had charge of our provisions and all
the apparatus connected with our culinary department had certain privileges above the rest.
The Indians all spoke French sufficiently for the
common purposes of the day. We were thus
seventeen persons in the canoe. Our baggage,
bedding and provisions, with the equipments of 102
Inasmuch
Rules in
Travelling
the canoe and the tent, were estimated, I think,
at the weight of a ton and a half."
With this equipment the pioneer Bishop set
out upon his long journey of nearly two thousand
miles; up the Ottawa, over into Lake Nipissing,
down the French River into Georgian Bay, by
the Sault and the whole length of Lake Superior
to Fort William, thence by the Kamenistiquoia,
the Rainy and Wood Lakes, the Winnipeg River
and Lake, to the Red River and its Settlement.
On his return the Bishop wrote to the C. M. S.
an account of his experiences. Let us listen to a
few of his descriptions:
"The rules in travelling, observed with more or
less straightness according to circumstances, but
without any material deviation, are to rise about
three o'clock; hastily throwing on your clothes, to
jump into the canoe, and push your way on till
eight, when you go ashore, and an hour is allowed
for breakfast. It was our practice, while breakfast was in preparation, to make our toilet,
going a little apart behind a tree, and hanging a
traveller's looking-glass upon one of the branches;
and it was in these operations, although often
abridged by the omission of the process of shaving,
that the mosquitoes and smaller flies of two different kinds, were most annoying. Another stop is
made about two o'clock for dinner; but this is
usually cold, and only half an hour is allowed for
it. We then keep going commonly till a little
after sunset sometimes a little earlier where the
places suitable for camping are rare, as in Lake Pioneer Journals—1844
103
Superior, and we happen to reach one of them
before the day has wholly declined—often considerably later when the nights are fine, and the
way without difficulty. Upon two or three
occasions, when we found that we could sail,
and it was a great point to take advantage of our
wind, we ran the whole night. I may here observe, that we are not in the least cramped in the
canoe; but can lounge in any posture that we
like, or lie at length, if needful, covered over with
our blankets, and, in case of rain, a tarpaulin
for a quilt, which may be drawn over head and
all.
,,As soon as we go ashore at night, the tent is The Night
mounted for the passengers—myself and the Halts
Rev. P. J. Maning, who accompanied me as
Chaplain. My servant also slept within the tent.
The three beds, consisting of blankets and a
stout green rug, with cloth pillows, of which
articles I had rather more than my share; but
without sheets or mattresses, are spread upon
pieces of tarpaulin, and, with the chests, etc.,
between, precisely fill the whole interior of the
tent. Two huge fires are lighted, composed of
drift-wood, or fallen trees; or, in some places, of
trees felled upon the spot. One of these is close
to the tent—and thankful we were, on many
a cold or wet evening, to get over it—that for
the canoe-men is at some little distance, and then
the kettles are set boiling, and the cooking operations begin. In wet weather the men sleep under
the canoe, which is always drawn ashore and in- 104
Inasmuch
Vast Solitudes
verted at night; they lie two and two together,
and the smallest men occupy the places under the
bow and the stern. In general they sleep beneath the canopy of heaven. Each man has one
blanket. The canoe is examined by experienced
hands, while some day-light remains, to ascertain
whether any rents have been made in the bark by
scraping against the rocks in passing through
rapids, or otherwise; and the gum which is over
the seams is spread, as required, by the application of burning brands. If there has been reason
to apprehend more serious injury, some fuller
opportunity of day-light is taken, and recourse is
had to the keg of resinous gum which is always
carried in the canoe, and, perhaps, to spare pieces
of bark, of which a supply is also taken.
"The longest space of time which we passed
without seeing a single human being, was five
days and a half. This was after we left the mountain portage at the Kakabeka Falls, where there
was a small encampment of Indians, and passed
up the Kamenistiquoia into the chain of streams
and lakes beyond, before reaching the Rainy
Lake. We fell in with straggling Indians, generally at wide intervals, all the length of the route;
sometimes in their little canoes, sometimes sojourning in a solitary tent of bark, or in little
parties which occupied two or three such habitations. They almost always come alongside of
us to barter fresh or dried fish, generally sturgeon,
of a very large size, for tobacco, pemmican, or
fragments of biscuits.    They were all Sauteux, Pioneer Journals—1844
105
so-called from the Sault Ste. Marie, one of the
great stations of this extensively-ramified tribe;
but by their own Indian name, Ogibways, till
lately called and written, corruptly, Chippawas
by the English, who have give the permanent
name of Chippawa to a village near the Falls
of Niagara.
"Nothing can be more pitiable, in my estim-
tion, than the condition of these poor heathens:
nothing more calculated to excite an interest in
favour of all rightly-conducted efforts for their
conversion. They are sometimes regarded with
a sort of admiration, as the unsophisticated children of nature; and, still more, as exhibiting the
very impersonation of a high-toned independence,
and an unshackled manliness of spirit. Children
of nature they are; and what kind of moral nurse
is mother nature, a Christian has no need to ask.
They are physically a fine race of men, and they
are perfectly susceptible of moral and intellectual,
and spiritual culture; but their actual condition
presents a most degrading picture of humanity.
Some of them came up to us in dirty blankets, or
dirtier dresses of worn and tattered hare-skins:
others were totally naked, except the waist-
cloth, their heads, with scarcely an exception, protected only by an enormous mass of long black
hair. Others, in the encampments, who appeared to be persons of some distinction, and whose
attire was in better order, were tricked out more
like Bedlamites than rational beings; a silly and
undiscriminating passion for ornament prompt-
Heathen Conditions 106
Inasmuch
ing them to turn to this account whatever
frippery they can become possessed of; so that the
thimbles, for example, which they procure from
the company are seen dangling at the end of
long thin braids of hair which hang from the men's
foreheads: some have feathers stuck into their
hair, and these, perhaps, bent into an imitation
of horns, with others appended to resemble the
ears of an animal. Many have their faces painted,
all the lower part of the visage being perfectly
black, and the eyes encircled with bright Vermillion: but it would be impossible to describe
the varieties of their costume, or their fantastic
decorations; and there they sit, or rather squat,
smoking and basking in the sun the live-long day,
sunk in an indolence from which nothing seems to
rouse them; but the excitement of war, or of the
chase. Every species of labour and drudgery, in
the meantime, is thrown entirely upon the women,
and if an Indian travels on foot with his family,
all the load which is to be carried is consigned to
the back of his wife or wives; for he does not
always content himself with one. We were particularly struck with the appearance of one
savage, who, squatting, with his whole figure
in a heap, upon the point of a projecting rock
which overhung the river, perfectly naked and
perfectly motionless, staring down upon us out of
the hair which buried his head and covered his
shoulders, looked like some hideous idol of the
East.
" It was Saturday.   If it could only be possible Pioneer Journals—1844
107
to reach the first Church of the Settlement during Arrival at Red
the night, it might, besides preventing, as it SKST'ifiJ10
were, the dead loss of another Sabbath, save us
a whole week; for I knew that less than three
Sundays would not suffice for my duties among
the churches, and I judged that, by diligently
improving the time of my sojourn, I might properly accomplish them without remaining for a
fourth. This I represented to the guide, and the
other men, and they cheerfully undertook to
carry me on, calculating that we should reach
our destination about midnight, or one in the
morning. We went ashore for supper on a flat
islet in the lake, of sand and shingle, and there
witnessed a sunset of unequalled glory; the
gorgeous splendour of the descending orb through
a blaze of gold among empurpled clouds, contrasted with a remarkable depth and massiveness
of gloom which covered the whole face of the
adjacent heavens, where a thunder-storm was
, collecting itself, while a long stream of golden
light was playing upon the waves up to the very
spot where we stood. We got our tea, and re-
embarked without rain; but then the storm began, and the lightning was vivid and brilliant.
The moon showed herself afterward by fitful
glances between the clouds; but before long she
sunk, and was lost to us. The rain now came
down without interruption, and the night grew
exceedingly dark. The whole shore is level,
and even in daylight the mouth of the river is
not always easily found, so that persons have 108
Inasmuch
been known to enter Pike or Jack River—Riviere
aux brochets—by mistake, intending to go to the
Red River Settlement. Our guide, however,
knew what he was about, and cautiously groped
his way along the reedy shore, in one place jumping
into the water and walking about to ascertain—
as a help to his judgment of the locality, and
its accordance with his own memory—the nature
of the bottom with his feet. This mode of proceeding, however, was necessarily very slow;
and the day broke upon us disclosing a bed, on
either side, of green reeds or rushes extending for
miles together, out of which arose countless multitudes of wild-fowl, with no object in the distance
which looked liked a Church. The men in the
meantime, in both canoes, wet and weary as they
were, preserved an unfailing patience, good-
humour and cheerfulness; and such, in fact, was
their deportment from first to last. They had
now been paddling, with the exception of our
stay for breakfast at Fort Alexander, which was
rather unusually prolonged, and half an hour's
sailing on Lake Winnipeg, added to the stop made
for supper—dinner we did not take on account
of a late breakfast—they had been paddling, with
these exceptions, since a little after three on
Saturday morning, and it was nine on the Sunday
morning when we reached the Church and
Mission-house of the Indian Settlement, distinctively so called. What we saw there, and
what contrast it exhibited with things which we . Pioneer Journals—1844
109
had seen on the way, I must tell you, if it please
God, another time."
"After travelling for upward of a month
through an inhospitable wilderness, and casually
encountering, at intervals, such specimens of the
heathen savage as I have described, we came at
once, and without any intermediate gradation
in the aspect of things, upon the establishment
formed upon the low margin of the river, for the
same race of people in their Christian state; and
there, on the morning of the Lord's own blessed
day, we saw them gathering already around
their pastor, who was before his door; their children collecting in the same manner, with their
books in their hands, all decently clothed from
head to foot: a repose and steadiness in their
deportment, at least the seeming indications of a
high and controlling influence upon their characters and hearts. Around were their humble
dwellings, with the commencement of farms, and
cattle grazing in the meadow; the neat modest
Parsonage, or Mission-house with its garden
attached to it; and the simple but decent Church,
with the School-house as its appendage, forming
the leading objects in the picture, and carrying
upon the face of them, the promise of blessing.
We were amply rewarded for all the toils and
exposure of the night.
"Nor was it an unpleasing or worthless testimony that was rendered by one of our old voyageurs to the actual merits of the Mission, when,
addressing * this man, he said, 'There are your
First Impressions
An Unsolicited Testimony 110
Inasmuch
The First
Service
The Sunday
School
Johnxxirll
Christian Indians'—the speaker being a French
Canadian Roman Catholic— 'it would be very
well if all the whites were as good as they are.'
"We proceeded to the Church, There were
perhaps 250 Indians present, composing the whole
congregation. Nothing can be more reverential
and solemn than the demeanour and bearing of
these people in public worship. Their costume
has a hybrid kind of character, partly European
partly Indian, the former predominating among
the men. The women, for the most part, still
wear the blanket, or else a piece of dark cloth,
thrown over the head, with the hair parted
smoothly in front, and leggings from the knee
downward. They all wear moccasins; which indeed are worn by the missionaries, and almost all
the European population of the Colony. The
morning service is performed in English; but the
lessons are rendered into the Indian tongue by the
interpreter, a half-breed school-master, who stands
beneath the clergyman.
"The singing is conducted chiefly by the
children of the school. I visited the Sunday-
School, held in the School-house, and found a large
attendance. The number of children on the list
is 153; it will possibly appear fanciful, but I could
not help thinking of the precise correspondence
of the number which these fishers of men had
here gathered in, with that o_ the miraculous
draft of fishes, when the net was cast by the
command of  Christ.'' Pioneer Journals—1844
111
The Christian Indians presented the following
address to the Bishop:
To our Chief Praying Father from Montreal:—
We, the Cree and Ogibway Indians, members of
the Church of England, wish to say a few words
to our Chief Praying Father.
We thank you, Father, for having come this
long way to visit us. Our Praying Father told
us that you intended to come two years since;
but that you were taken very sick, and could not.
Our hearts are very glad that you have come at
last, and we thank God for sending you. We
shall, with the assistance of the Holy Spirit, try
to do what you tell us. We thank the English
people in English country, across the great
water, for sending us a Praying Father, and for
paying a teacher to teach our children. You see,
Father, that nearly all our young people can read
the Word of God. We now live very comfortably, and we owe all this to the good people in
English country. If they had not pitied us, we
should have been still heathens. We pray every
day for our great Mother, the Lady Chief,
Victoria, and for her relations and also for our Chief
Praying Fathers, and for our Praying Fathers.
We hope God will take you safely back to your
own home; and we pray Him to bless you for
the sake of Jesus Christ our Lord.
Signed, on behalf of the Indians, by me,
Henry Prince,
Acting for my Father Pigwys, Chief of the
Red-River Indians. 112
Inasmuch
The Mission
Farm
Confirmations
Churches
Filled
"We walked, in the course of this day, over the
Mission Farm, which constitutes, in fact, a branch
of the Society's Establishment for the Indians,
since it is the model for their own agricultural
operations; and for this reason, as again in the
case of Mr. Cockran at the Rapids, has been an
object upon which the missionary has bestowed
some closeness of personal attention. In all
respects it is truly gratifying to observe how the
condition and the habits of the Indian are bettered
by the exertions made, under the auspices of the
Society, in his behalf.
"At the Lower Church, there were two confirmations held on the Sunday, on account of its
contracted dimensions. In the morning, 192
women and girls were confirmed; in the evening,
150 men and youths. This last was again the
precise number of persons confirmed at the Middle
Church, when both sexes were admitted together.
And it was very remarkable that this was also
the exact number confirmed on the day following
at the Upper Church. Two hundred, and something over, were corLfirmed at the Indian Church
on my return to it. I find that the total of the
confirmations is noted to have been 846 persons
in the Red River Colony. It would have been
about a thousand but for the unavoidable absence of some of the subjects for the rite, either
in the buffalo-hunting in the prairies or with the
boats sent to Hudson's Bay.
"It was truly a very interesting spectacle to
behold the churches filled, on all the different Pioneer Journals—1844
113
occasions connected with the confirmations, as
well as at the public services on other days, by a
people brought under the yoke of the Gospel,
many of whom had been originally heathens, and
the great body of whom had Indian blood in their
veins, and the effect was indescribably heightened
by the deep attention with which they listened
and the devout reverence with which they knelt
to receive the imposition of hands—the comfortable hope shedding its ray over the solemnity,
that they did in sincerity dedicate themselves to
Christ.
"The last act of devotion in which we united
with the Indians had been on the evening of the
day before, in the School-house, after the confirmation held in the morning in the Church.
They attend Mr. Smithurst every week-day evening in this way, to receive religious instruction of
a familiar kind, in conjunction with which some
prayers from the Liturgy are offered, and Psalms
are sung. He never opens his Church except for
full and regular service. These people, with
whose aged Chief and his wife, I had had a special
interview by their own desire, now gathered
around us, in front of the little Parsonage, by
the river side, men and women and children,
to bid us adieu at the moment of our embarkation. One woman, with the peculiar
„ modesty of manner which I have before described,
presented me, just as I was stepping into the
canoe, with a simple bark basket of her own
workmanship.    Another was  present who had 114
Inasmuch
Henry Budd's
Work
Description of
Station
recently become a convert, and had been baptized,
on the evening before her Confirmation."
Bishop Mountain expressed his regret that,
through lack of time, it was not possible for him
to visit the work at the Pas, established by the
native catechist, Henry Budd. Mr. Smithurst
was the first European Missionary to visit the
station. The journey occupied 26 days and Mr.
Smithurst's joy may be imagined when the guide
at last said, "Mr. Budd's place is just behind
that point of wood.'' A few minutes brought him
within sight of the infant Mission establishment,
which he thus described:
"The Schoolhouse in the centre, Mr. Budd's
house on the south side, and the children's house
on the north, appeared respectable buildings, and
struck me as reflecting very great credit upon Mr.
Budd's industry. A gentle slope from the houses
toward the river appeared to have been cleared,
but not fenced, and in the rear a neat square
field was fenced in and under cultivation.
"Our boat was soon observed, and the school
children flocked down to the beach to welcome
our arrival. The appearance was highly satisfactory, considering the short time which had
intervened since they were taken from their
native woods. Notwithstanding the unfavourable
circumstances under which we arrived, amid a
deluge of rain, the first impression upon my mind
was so pleasing, that I quite forgot the tediousness
of 26 days' travelling through a solitary wilder- Pioneer Journals—1844
115
"In the afternoon, a whole fleet of canoes made
their appearance, and formed a most pleasing
scene. The party, consisting of from sixty to
seventy persons, pitched their tents alongside
the Mission Establishment, in order to attend
the services of the Lord's day. This was indeed
one of the most cheering sights I ever witnessed;
and called forth feelings of the deepest gratitude
to God, that He should have inclined the hearts
of so many to seek after the way of salvation."
Mr. David Jones, on his return to England,
carried, in addition to the appeal quoted a
double message, both counts of which we may
hear to-day with profit:
"After service at the Indian Church, on the
9th of August, the old Chief Pigwys came to Mr.
Jones, and said, 'I send by you a letter to the
Missionary men in England: tell them not to
forget me: I want the Word of Life to be always
spoken in my land.'
"Another Indian, who appeared to take the lead
among the Muscaigoes, sent a similar message,
adding with much vehemence of gesture: 'Tell
them to make haste; time is short, and death is
snatching away our friends and relations very
fast; tell them to make haste.' "
Indian Appeal
to C. M. S.  CHAPTER VI
Red River to Arctic Circle
Bishop Mountain brought his journal to a
close on the lines of the vision of the Reverend
John West; that the Red River ought to be the
base and centre of a great missionary establishment "from whence Christianity may arise and
be propagated among the numerous tribes of the
North."
"The Church," he said "in the early days of Primitive
Christianity, was planted in new regions by seat- 0r2amzatlon
ing, at a central point, the Bishop with his
Cathedral and his College of Presbyters, who
ranged the country here and there under his
direction. And this, or the nearest approach to
this of which the times are susceptible, is what is
wanted now. It is wanted in Prince Rupert's
Land. The effect of my own flying visit, and imperfect ministrations, sufficiently demonstrates
the existence of the want. Most cheerfully, most
gladly, would I repeat the journey, under the
same arrangement, every four or five years, if
that would serve the purpose, so long as I may
be spared in health and strength, and provided
I could afford to steal the time from the yearly-
increasing duties of my own charge. But the
fact is, that the fruits of such a visit as mine, instead of sufficing for the exigencies which exist,
serve rather to set in strong relief the real char- 118
Inasmuch
Bishoprick
Proposed
Consecration
Bishop Anderson, May
29th, 1849
acter of those exigencies as demanding, imperiously, an established provision for the exercise of the Episcopal functions upon the spot."
The Bishop's final words were "Let her
(i.e., the Church) do her own duty, and commit
the issue to God above. I cannot, for one,
withhold the expression of my feelings in the
cause. While I have been musing of these things,
my heart was hot within me: the fire kindled, and
I have spoken with my tongue. And I may speak,
if so permitted, yet again, though in a different
way. It is for others to carry the work into
effect—to deliberate, to plan, and to execute.
But a move should be made at once—an earnest,
determined move, with the eye of faith turned up
to God, the heart lifted in the fervency of prayer,
and the hand put to the work without looking
back."
Our next step takes us to a notable and historic
occasion even for the historic and notable Cathedral of Canterbury:
"On Whitsunday, Canterbury Cathedral witnessed the consecration of a Bishop for the first
time since the days of Queen Elizabeth. Of
two Bishops, indeed; and both for Mission Fields
of the Church Missionary Society. One was to go
to the Far East, and the other to the Far West;
one to the countless millions of China, and the
other to the scattered tribes of the Hudson's
Bay Territories. George Smith and David
Anderson were consecrated together, the first Red River to Arctic Circle
119
Bishop of Victoria, (Hong-Kong) and the first
Bishop of Rupert's Land. Rupert's Land
was not one of the new Dioceses projected when
the Colonial Bishoprics Fund was started, eight
years before. But the Church Missionary Society
had long desired its establishment; and when at
length that desire was fulfilled, they expressed
their 'unfeigned satisfaction' that 'after many
years of expectation a Bishop had been appointed.' To the endowment provided by a
bequest of Mr. Leith, a Chief Factor of the
Hudson's Bay Company, the Society added a
yearly grant of £300."
Bishop Anderson, accompanied by Robert Arrival at
Hunt, formerly one of Captain Allen Gardiner's ^%k Factory'
companions in Patagonia, arrived at York
Factory on the 16th of August. " It was a bright
and beautiful day," wrote the Bishop. "Before
landing I asked the Captain to allow us to sing
the Doxology once more together; when he at
once assembled all hands on deck, and we sang,
under the open canopy of Heaven, 'Praise God
from Whom all Blessings Flow' after which I
offered up a few words of prayer, and pronounced
the Benediction."
The Bishop's first Sunday at Red River was
October 7th; when he preached from the text,
"We are come as far as to you also in preaching
the Gospel of Christ," II Cor. X:14, and administered the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper
to 167 Cornmunicants. The happiest event,
we are told, in the Bishop's earliest years, was the 120
Inasmuch
Henry Budd
Ordained,
Dec. 22nd,
1850
Lae LaRonge
Mission
The Islington
Station
ordination of Henry Budd, one of the two boys
taken to Red River by the Reverend John West
on his arrival at York Factory, and the founder
of the Cumberland Mission. Eleven hundred
people were present at the service and over three
hundred partook of the Holy Communion.
The most notable extensions of a rapidly growing work were north-westward to Lac La Ronge;
north-eastward to Islington about one hundred
miles up the Winnipeg River, and thence to the
shores of James Bay.
Of Mr. and Mrs. Hunt's departure to the former
station we read: "When they started on their
nine hundred miles journey from Red River, the
large boat which was to take them across Lake
Winnipeg was loaded with provisions for fifteen
months, flour, pemmican, etc., with tools, locks,
hinges, window frames, glass, etc., and with
blankets and warm clothing. The St. Andrews'
congregation presented them with 50 hundredweight of flour to give to the destitute Indians;
and the gifts of individuals were very touching,
one poor woman bringing two dozen eggs, another a pair of fowls, and one man a basket of
salt. The journey occupied seven weeks; and on
arriving at Lac La Ronge they found nothing
to be seen but rocks and water, except that here
and there a little soil had drifted into the chasms,
and afforded a precarious nourishment to a few
trees."
"The White Dog Station received the name of
Islington, from a curious  circumstance,  an  old Red River to Arctic Circle
121
lady from Bath, Mrs. Landon, was staying at
the Church Missionary College"—at Islington—
"on a visit to Mr. Childe, and had the misfortune to fall downstairs. She was picked up
by Tamihana, the Maori Chieftain from New
Zealand, who was then in the College; and, though
somewhat hurt, she recovered after a fortnight
in bed. On leaving for her home, she put a
cheque for £1000 into Mr. Childe's hands as a
thank offering, desiring that it should be used to
establish a new station in Rupert's Land to be
called Islington."
The shores and regions bounding and adjoining JOhn Horde
James and Hudson Bay will be forever associated Born, 1828
with the name of John Horden.    Born in Devonshire, the country of Drake and the home land of
other great voyagers and adventurers,  Horden
early devoted himself to the cause of Missions.
One of the few missionary books of the period
came into his hands, "and decided his career in
life.    He would be a missionary,  a missionary
to India, a bearer of the Glad Tidings to those who
lay in the grasp of the cruel superstitions described."    The Lord of the Vineyard, however,
had another sphere to which he would direct the
way of his young and devoted servant.    While Appointed
continuing his work as a school master, Horden Jiff 10th'
received a letter "telling him that he was appointed to a new station on the shores of Hudson's Bay; that he must start within a month;
and that it was desirable that he should go out
married."    The marriage took place fifteen days Inasmuch
afterwards. "Three days later they went to
London, and on June 8th they sailed in the usual
annual ship for Moose Factory."
Occasional notices please and surprise the reader
by revealing brief glimpses of the manner in
which the Gospel had already laid its hold upon
many of the natives. Bishop Anderson, on his
first arrival at York Factory, met five or six
members of Sir John Richardson's unsuccessful
expedition in search of Sir John Frariklin. Their
boatmen consisted of fifteen baptized Indians.
"The voluntary and explicit testimony of these
men was to the effect that they had never seen a
better behaved or a happier boat's crew than were
these Indians; they never omitted singing and
prayer morning and evening, and they were in
every respect examples of good moral conduct."
The Wesleyans were the first to occupy Moose
Factory but they had withdrawn prior to Hor-
den's arrival. In his first letter he described his
impressions: "On reaching the Fort, which stands
on a rather large island, wigwams, houses, and
inhabitants began to present themselves. We
saw first three Indian boys, dressed in flannel
coats, playing on the beach, then a house, then
many Indian wigwams, and the old factory and
stores. Some way beyond, on the same side of
the river, stood a neat little church with a suitable tower, while still farther on were a few Indian
tents. After dinner we visited almost every one
on the island, mduding nearly 150 Indians, all
of whom were very glad to see us.   Most of their Red River to Arctic Circle
123
tents were of a poor description, but some are
superior, in the form of marquees. Most of
them were dirty. The general clothing of the
men is a flannel coat bordered with red with
trousers of the same material; some, however,
have decent cloth coats and trousers. A part of
the women wore gowns, others a petticoat with
a blanket thrown over their shoulders."
The new-comers were fortunate in the fact
that with the "neat little church" they found a
small band of fellow Christians. The Hudson
Bay Company's officer gave them a warm welcome, and, under the teaching 01 the Wesleyan
missionary who preceded them, a few of the
Indians had become earnest believers. Although, as Horden put it, they were '' buried in the
interminable wilderness, the door of their grave
being opened but seldom," he was able to add:
"I doubt there being many happier cornmunities
t than the one to be found where the hand of God
has placed me; the wheels of our little Society
move smoothly; and with God in our midst we
envy none the advantages they possess, and are
contented with our 6_iminutive world."
When Horden left England it was the intention change of
that he should proceed to Red River to be pre- Phm
pared for ordination under the direction of the
Bishop. Such, however, was Horden's application to the study of Cree that in eight months he
preached his first sermon in that language.
Like most missionaries he attained to comparative
perfection by treading, fearlessly, the pathway 124
Inasmuch
Language
Study
His First
Journey
of annoying and ludicrous mistakes. Once, for
example, while explaining to a class of young men
the story of the Creation, he became confused
between the words for "rib" and "pipe," and
gravely informed them that "God created Eve
out of one of Adam's pipes." On the Bishop's
visit, eleven months after Horden's arrival, he
was so impressed with the latter's progress that
he decided to examine and ordain him at once,
leaving him in charge of the district.
The young missionary, and his wife, attacked
their colossal task with great courage and faith.
In one of his early letters he described his first
journey with dog-sled and snowshoes: " I started,''
he wrote, "from Moose on January 5th, 1852, in
a sleigh drawn by five dogs and accompanied by
two Indians. After riding eight or nine miles,
I walked for a time, but found myself unable to
keep pace with the dogs. We were obliged to
walk about two miles through thickly-set willows,
in snowshoes, sinking at every step a full foot in
the snow. Being unaccustomed to this kind of
marching I found it very fatiguing, and, having
never before placed snowshoes on my feet, had
two or three falls, and, the snow being so deep,
was unable to rise without assistance. Could
you have seen me then in full armour, with a
flannel and fur cap on my head, pilot-coat, scarf,
mittens, and snowshoes, I little think you would
have recognized in me the young man sitting
before you in your study, whom you asked
whether he wished to come to this country." Red River to Arctic Circle
125
Since the remainder of this chapter will be The
concerned with a country where for the most part
in winter, travel, cartage, and many of the means
of existence, are dependent upon the dog, we may
with profit, read Horden's account of the dogs of
the Hudson Territory: "These dogs of pure
Eskimo breed are invaluable in winter, and large
teams of them are kept at Albany, Rupert's
House, Whale River, York and Churchill. The
Albany team was a particularly fine one, great
care having been taken of late years in the selection of animals for breeding. They were well
taken care of, were very tractable, and the pride
of their famous driver Harvey, who loved them
almost as much as he did his children, and
treated them most mercifully, an undeserved
blow being never inflicted, and who, when on a
journey, saw that every evening they were well
fed, and, what is equally necessary, well bedded.
In summer they do nothing, and are then voted
a great nuisance, as they are very dangerous to the
calves, and require to be heavily blocked which
by no means improves their temper, and gives
them a sadly hang-dog look. In winter they do
no work at Albany itself, but the whole season
ply between Moose and Albany, bringing from
there quantities of provisions, and taking back
sledge loads of drygoods. The Rupert's House
team is used in a similar manner; Moose from the
large number of inhabitants, receiving all the food
the neighbouring posts can spare, and being the
depot of the country, supplying all the goods
Dogs of
the North 126
Inasmuch
Language
Efficiency
required for use and trade. At Whale River,
where no cattle are kept, dogs haul all the firewood consumed at the station, and as the wood is
cut seven miles distant from the place, and the
consumption is very great they are kept very
busy, and I think work much harder than at the
more southern stations. A very large team,
or indeed several teams, are kept at York Factory,
and are employed in hauling venison, the principal
food of the station, from the various places where
the hunters have succeeded in killing it. The
Churchill team, too, is a splendid one, and the
principal driver, George Oman is almost as excellent in his way as Harvey, of Albany. I have
seen these dogs as playful and gentle as kittens,
and as fierce and cruel as a pack of wolves; sometimes they are playing with and fondling each
other and persons of their acquaintance, although
there is perhaps less personal attachment in the
Eskimo dog than in any other; and, again, I have
seen Eskimo dogs lying dead, killed by their
companions in their terrible battles. As a rule,
they are not dangerous to people, but they do
occasionally attack them, and commit great
outrages."
An indefatigable worker, Horden learned'' Cree,
Ojibway, and Eskimo, for the benefit of the natives; Norwegian, for some of the company's
staff; and Hebrew, that he might be the better
able to translate the Old Testament." In his
journeyings he was equally untiring; the Eskimo
at Whale River on the east coast of the Bay, Red River to Arctic Circle
127
and at Churchill on the west, heard from his lips
the Gospel of the Grace of God.
Epidemics of measles, whooping-cough, influenza, and periods of famine devastated his
■flock. Of influenza he wrote "the epidemic
threatened to sweep off the whole population, and
was especially fatal to the young men. There
were five funerals in one day, as many as for the
most part occurred in a year." In one outbreak of whooping cough; of the small community at Albany forty-four died, "and at Moose
the disease was scarcely less fatal."
On one of his visits to Rupert's House, Horden
found his people decimated: "Now," he wrote
in his annual letter, "I looked around and inquired 'Where is this Indian? where that? what
became of this child's father? where is this child's
mother ?'
"And the answer came: 'He died of starvation
four winters ago; he was starved to death three
years since; she, and ail the rest of her children
were cut off two years ago.'
'"And what losses were sustained by you, last
winter? And I am told—four men, three women, and nineteen children; they were all baptized Christians.'"
Bishop Machray, successor to Bishop Anderson, on his first visit to Moose said of Horden:
"He is a man and a missionary after my own
heart."
It was to be expected, after such a declaration,
that when the vast area of Rupert's Land came
Epidemics 128
Inasmuch
Consecrated
Dec.  15th,
1872
Horden Died,
Jan. 12th,
1893
The Final
Scene
to be divided, Bishop Machray would recommend
Horden as the Overseer for the new diocese of
Moosonee. The consecration took place in
Westminster Abbey; "One of the prelates who
laid their hands on him being that very Bishop
Anderson who, just twenty 37-ears before, had
ordained him at Moose."
Horden continued as Bishop, the Apostolic
labours which had distinguished him as a simple
missionary. To Mm was given the supreme joy
of finding a large district inhabited by tribes almost totally heathen, and of leaving a large
diocese inhabited almost solely by Christian
people; of finding pagans without God, without
hope, without literature, and of leaving organized
commtinities of Christian men and women, able
to read, with instructed teachers, possessing the
Word of God and the Book of Common Prayer
in their own tongue, guided and supported,
during life, by Christian teaching and Sacrament,
sustained in death, by the Christian's "living
hope" of immortality and "an inheritance among
them which are sanctified."
John Horden's last written words were—"I
need not trouble myself about this; I can trust
all to the hand of God; He will provide that
which He deems sufficient for my case."
The final scene of all is thus described by a
young Indian, whom the Bishop had for some
years been teaching:
Saturday, January 21st. "We had the funeral.
The coffin was closed in the presence of four clergy. Red River to Arctic Circle
129
It was a lovely afternoon, almost spring-like,
when the beautiful Burial Service was read, and
the first Bishop of Moosonee's body was committed to the grave before his bereaved people.
The whole adult population went to the Church
and to the grave. There he was laid amongst
his flock, as he had said he wished to be. While
still lying in the Church, young and old came to
take the last farewell of the face they loved so
well, and who went in and out of their homes,
over forty years, as a rnissionary, pastor, friend,
and bishop."
To resume our journey into the far West and journey into
North, it is necessary that we should follow the Resumed'
steps of any one of the early missionaries and
return from the Bay to the Red River Settlement.
It is still the time of the first Bishop of Rupert's
Land, but there are, gleamings visible of the
coming days of extension; the "trail-makers"
of the Cross have penetrated, already, into
the far recesses of the country.
In his first charge to the clergy, Bishop Ander- Bishop Anson said !' Beyond us there is but one clergyman,  Firs^charge,
on the other side of the mountains."    And again,  18 l
"Look around, and compare the circumstances of
the Red River now with what they were thirty
years ago.    We can scarcely imagine the country
without a minister to comfort and encourage the
enquirer, to  cheer and gladden the sick by his
visit, and raise the eye of the dying to a better
land." "And passing from the settlement, what is
the  effect  elsewhere  as  regards  the  scattered 130
Inasmuch
His Second
Charge, 1854
Indians? To judge of this you must see (as I
have seen) the houses around Christ Church,
Cumberland, and the canoes conveying the worshippers to it each Sunday morning; or must
pass beyond, and see the little band, enjoying
this winter, the ministrations of a clergyman
at Lac La Ronge. Great already is the influence
of the Gospel in those quarters, and very hopeful
the prospect as regards the Indian mind."
In his second charge, the Bishop said: "Five
was, as you may remember, the number of
God's ministering servants when I first came
among you. Ten was, if I mistake not, the number at my last visitation; and now we are in all
fifteen." Of Confirmations he said "Of these,
the largest was at Moose, where 130 were Confirmed, 105 of these being Indians."
On the nature of the work the Bishop commented "Its unity strikes my own mind in a
manner which you can scarcely realize. I can
thus call up before me, Indians, with whom I
conversed familiarly, from Rupert's House and
Fort George, and place by their side others, with
whom I have travelled for days together, from
the English River, and they have the same
essential features. I see what others around them
are, who are still in darkness; but when they
have cast away the bonds of superstition, and are
now clothed and in their right mind, they exhibit
a softness of heart, they are not insensible to
kindness, and manifest an affectionate attachment
to their benefactors.    In examining them for Red River to Arctic Circle
131
corLfirmation, and questioning them one by one
on their immortal interests, there is the same
working of grace;—the answers at the one place
might almost have been given at the other. I
find that the same translations of the Bible and
of the Prayer Book are understood in both
quarters. Now this gives me the lively confidence, that, if we could advance, the same effects
would, through God's mercy, be witnessed. The
accounts we receive of the Chipewyans represent them as equally accessible to the Gospel,
and our own impression of them would confirm His wide
this character; could we carry the Gospel to the
Arctic Sea, the Indians of the Mackenzie River
would, we think, present little obstacle, but that
of language to be overcome, while, in penetrating
as far as the Rocky Mountains on the Saskatchewan, there would not even be this. And,
brethren, to this unity our own system gives
great power; to think that the same prayers
extend over more than two thousand miles, and
may yet penetrate farther, this would animate
us in carrying forward the work, to think that
these become their companions in solitude, their
manual for the worship of the Sabbath, and their
comfort when stretched on the bed of death."
On a similar, but subsequent occasion, the jan. 6th, i860
Bishop referred to the return of Archdeacon
Hunter from the first missionary journey down
the Mackenzie River, when he travelled as far as
Fort Good Hope near the Arctic Circle. "In
the winter," said he "the proposal came from one
Hunter yisits
Mackenzie
River 132
Inasmuch
Bishop Anderson's Last
Charge
Bishop Anderson Resigned, 1864
among, you; a plan for a very long and distant
enterprise, to plant the Cross in a new territory
and penetrate towards the Arctic Sea. He came,
not sketching a plan for others, but willing to
start himself, wanting but an answer to his offer,
'Here am I, send me.' We have surely reason
to thank him to-day for the commencement of a
good work there, and however difficult its continuance may be, ours will be in great measure
the blame, should the station be abandoned and
the citadel thus gained be given up."
Bishop Anderson delivered his last charge to
the clergy shortly before his final departure for
England.' One or two brief extracts must suffice
to complete the links binding his episcopate with
the arrival of his great successor in office. "We
are," he said "at the present moment twenty-
three." "The number Confirmed has been 307
on nine different occasions, giving an average of
34 in each. The largest number, as is very
pleasant to notice, in such a diocese as our own,
was at the Indian Settlement where 79 were
presented."
His summing up of the extensions made, must
suffice for large areas in connection with which the
brevity of our space forbids that we should enter
into detail:—"Of stations opened since we met,
we tMnk with very peculiar pleasure of that most
distant point now gained and occupied, Fort
Youcon, on the Russian frontier, where one
from the Red River, who may therefore feel himself entitled to the character of a missionary, is Red River to Arctic Circle
133
labouring, and from whom the accounts of the
docility of the Indians around continue very
favourable. To it I would add the mention of
the Station of Claremont, at Touchwood Hills,
which, I regret to say, I have not yet seen, but of
which even those uninterested give pleasing
reports; where our Catechist, Mr. Charles Pratt,
is, I hope, doing good service. A second permanent station has been taken up by the Society
for the Propagation of the Gospel, that of Fort
Ellice, and is likely to prove a spot of growing
importance, as it must almost of necessity remain
ever on the highway of the West."
The next summer the Reverend W. W. Kirkby,
accompanied by his wife and family, proceeded
to the Mackenzie River and took up his residence
at Fort Simpson. "By him the Gospel was carried for the first time within the Arctic Circle."
He descended the Mackenzie to Peel River,
ascended the latter to Fort MacPherson and
thence crossed the Rocky Mountains to La
Pierre's House. "At this remote station he was
in the midst of the interesting Tukudh, or Louch-
eux, or Kutchin Indians, who received him with a
warmth that was unexpected, for their reputation
was not good. The Chief medicine man renounced his 'curious arts' in the presence of
all; and murder, infanticide, polygamy, were
publicly confessed and solemnly abandoned."
From La Pierre's House, Kirkby continued his
journey by the West Rat and Porcupine Rivers,
past Rampart House, to Fort Yukon within the
W. W. Kirkby
at Fort Simpson
Visits Peel
River and the
Upper Yukon
July 6th, 1861 134
Inasmuch
1864
Robert Mach-
ray Consecrated June
24th, 1865
Died March
9th, 1904
Alaskan borders. On his return to Fort Simpson
he found a colleague in the person of the Reverend
Robert McDonald, who proceeded as soon as
possible into the far North.
Bishop Anderson's resignation brought two
men to the Canadian West, the influence of
whose lives and works will endure until the end of
Canadian Church history.
The first of these was his successor-in-office,
Robert Machray, second Bishop of Rupert's
Land, first Archbishop of Rupert's Land, and
first Primate of the Church of England in all
Canada. He found his charge a vast unorganized
area, stretching from the Ontario height of land
to Hudson Bay, the Arctic Ocean, the International Boundary, the Rocky Mountains, and the
borders of Alaska; he left it organized into nine
dioceses. He created synodical government
within his diocese and within his ecclesiastical
province. He was instrumental, largely, in the
formation of the General Synod for the Church of
England in Canada. He was the faithful Shepherd of his flock, both white and Indian, the
true ' Father in God' of his clergy, the kind but
strict educator of youth, the trusted adviser of
the civil power, the Joshua of the Church in the
Great Lone Land; his mortal remains rest in Red
River soil, and on his memorial cross a grateful,
loving, and sorrowing people placed the fitting inscription ' He fed them with a faithful and true heart,
and ruled them prudently with all his power."
The more intimate relation of the life and Red River to Arctic Circle
135
labours of Robert Machray concerns the story
of the "Church and the White Settler."
The second of the two was the immediate product of a sermon preached by Bishop Anderson,
at the C. M. S. Anniversary service in St. Bride's
Church. From the pulpit he read a letter saying
that Robert McDonald missionary to the Louch-
eux Indians was "sinking in rapid decline."
"Shall no one," said the Bishop "come forward
to take up the standard of the Lord as it drops
from his hands and occupy the ground?" William
Carpenter Bompas, after the service, walked into
the vestry and offered to go at once.
On June 25th, the day after his consecration,
Robert Machray performed his first episcopal act
by ordaining, in St. Paul's, Covent Garden, to the
priesthood, William Carpenter Bompas. The
latter started in the next month, on his long
journey and reached Fort Simpson on Christmas
Eve. He reported the fact in these words:—"As
I had especially wished to arrive by Christmas, I
could not but acknowledge a remarkable token
that our lives are indeed in God's hand. It is
hardly necessary to say how warm a welcome I
received from Mr. Kirkby. When I heard what
a trying time he had passed through last fail in
consequence of the epidemic sickness among the
Indians, I felt very glad that I had persevered to
reach him this winter."
William. Carpenter Bompas entered then upon
a life-work which will remain as a standard example  and  inspiration  of  self-effacement  and
May 1st, 1865
William Carpenter Bompas Inasmuch
missionary devotion. With equal humility, he
might, at the end of his life, have adopted and
localized St. Paul's words and said "To the
Indian became I as an Indian—In weariness and
painfulness, in watchings often, in hunger and
thirst, in fastings often, in cold and nakedness.
Besides those things that are without, that which
cometh upon me daily, the care of all the
Churches."
The narrow space of this hand book will not
permit us to follow Bompas in all his travels,
work, and success on behalf of the tribes of the
Mackenzie River Basin. His course was, however, followed from Red River by the watchful
eye and brooding brain of Robert Machray, with
the result that eight years later, we find him on
his way back to that Settlement. On arrival at
the Bishop's House, he was, we are told, mistaken by the servant for a tramp and discovered
in the kitchen calmly eating a plate of soup.
"I enjoyed," he said "the kind hospitality of the
Bishop of Rupert's Land and Archdeacon Cowley,
and was much interested in seeing the progress
of the Mission work in the colony. I reached, by
God's Providence, the first houses of the Settle-
Dec. 3ist, 1873 nient on the last evening of the Old Year, and after
nearly six months travel in the wilds I awoke on
New Year's morning to a new life of civilization
and society."
consecration The next scene, placed in Lambeth Parish
mLambeth Church, marks the further sub-division of the
_fr^i874May Diocese of Rupert's Land; two bishops, Bompas Red River to Arctic Circle
137
for Athabasca and McLean for Saskatchewan, are
being consecrated; Bishop Anderson is the fitting
preacher, and refers to the two new dioceses:—
"To-day the noble plan will be consummated by
the consecreation of two more bishops. One
will preside over the Church in the western portion of the land, labouring among the Indians of
the Plains, and along the valley of that river whose
source is in the Rocky Mountains—the River
Saskatchewan; whose name, in its sound and
meaning, would remind us of those surging rapids
down which it sends its waters into the inland
sea of Winnipeg. The other will have the
northern diocese as his own, along yet mightier
lakes, and with rivers which roll down an immense
volume, and discharge themselves into the Arctic
Ocean. Such is the four-fold sub-division of that
vast territory, completing and carrying out ideas
which as day dreams may have flitted across my
mind, but which have to-day reality and shape,
and a definite existence."
Of the three Bishops, Horden, Bompas and
McLean—the two first were C. M. S. Missionaries, and, since their future work would be wholly
among Indians, that Society undertook their
support; for the maintenance of the third an
endowment for the See was raised, towards which
the S. P. G. gave £2,000 and the S. P. C. K.
£1,750.
The Diocese of Saskatchewan, with its centre
at Prince Albert, stretched eastward to the
western   boundary of the Cumberland mission,
Saskatchewan Endowment 138
Inasmuch
Qu'Appelle
1883
Calgary, 1887
lop
Mi
pas' Marriage
northward to the watershed, southwestward to
the International Boundary and the Rockies, and
westward past Edmonton to the Rockies in that
direction.
The diocese was subdivided first, by the formation out of Rupert's Land and Saskatchewan, of the
Diocese of Qu'Appelle; with the Hon. and Rev.
A. J. R. Anson as Bishop, and later by the separation of the Diocese of Calgary. At the same time
the eastern boundary of Saskatchewan was extended to include the lower reaches of the river,
with the mission stations of Devon and Cumberland, to the shores of Lake Winnipeg. For
several years Bishop Pinkham, who had succeeded
McLean, presided over both Saskatchewan and
Calgary. On the missionary side, John Hines
occupied the White Fish Lake District, and J. A.
Mackay became Principal of Emmanuel College,
Prince Albert; while Messrs. Tims, Stocken and
Swainson opened up work in the regions, explored more than a decade before by James Settee
and W. Stag, south and west of Calgary.
William Carpenter Bompas, consecrated on
May 3rd, married on May 7th, Charlotte Selina
Cox, a worthy helpmeet in all his endurance of
hardships; and our example of the faithful women
who have been not one whit behind their husbands, or other male fellow-workers, in the
diligence and self-sacrifice with which they have
given themselves to the cause and service of
the aboriginal races of Canada.
Of the tedious and trying journey from Winni- Red River to Arctic Circle
139
peg, Mrs. Bompas wrote: "I had come prepared journey from
for intense cold, and we were destined to endure inmPes
tropical heat. Ail up the Saskatchewan, Stanley,
and English Rivers the banks slope down like a
funnel, and the July and August sun scorches with
vertical rays the heads of the travellers. We
were seated in open boats, each with a crew of ten
or twelve men, who spread our sails when the
wind was fair, and took them in when the wind
failed -us. Eighty-six was, some of those days,
our average temperature, and I had come provided with the thickest of serge dresses, as none
of my friends had realized the possibility of anything but frost and cold in these northern regions.
Besides this, we had to encounter swarms of mosquitoes, crowding thick around us, penetrating our
boots and stockings, and invading our Robabou
soup and pemmican, etc. I remember the bliss
it was in those days in camping time to escape
from the rest of the party, and, getting rid of
boots and stockings, to sit with my feet and legs
in the cool water of the river, to soothe the intolerable irritation of the mosquito-bites."
The bishop's biographer says: "An incident
happened on this trip which serves to show the
Bishop's forgetfulness of self when others were
to be considered. A young Indian lost his hat
overboard, and, being unable to obtain it, suffered
much from the heat as he toiled at the oar.
The bishop, seeing his discomfort, at once placed
his own hat upon the Indian's head, and insisted
that he should wear it.    The sight of the native 140
Inasmuch
The Bishop's
Description of
His Diocese
His First
Synod, 1874
with the flat, broad-brimmed episcopal headgear caused great amusement to the entire company."
Of the large territory over which, with his devoted wife, he now assumed charge, he wrote: " To represent the length and tediousness of travel in
this diocese, it may be compared to a voyage, in
a row-boat, from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to
Fort William, on Lake Superior, or a European
may compare it to a voyage in a canal barge from
England to Turkey. Both the length and breadth
of this diocese equal the distance from London
to Constantinople.
"If all the populations between London to
Constantinople were to disappear, except a few
bands of Indians or Gypsies, and all the cities
and towns were obliterated, except a few log
huts on the sites of the capital cities—such is the
solitary desolation of this land. Again, if all
the diversity of landscape and variety of harvest-
field and meadow were exchanged for a broken
line of willow and pine trees—such is this
country."
On arriving, at Fort Simpson, the Bishop began
at once to organize his forces. "They were
scanty enough: When on September 4th, 1876,
he held his first Diocesan Synod, and delivered
his Primary Charge, his clergy numbered exactly
three, viz., Archdeacon R. McDonald and A.
Garrioch, country-born men, and W. D. Reeve,
his single English comrade. In addition he had
four or five country-born schoolmasters.   Yet he Red River to Arctic Circle
141
proceeded to divide his diocese into four great
divisions, viz., (1) the Tukudh Mission, under
McDonald; (2) the Mackenzie River Mission,
under Reeve; (3) the Great Slave Lake Mission,
under schoolmasters; (4) the Athabasca Mission,
comprising the southern districts and the Peace
River, to which latter sphere he sent Garrioch.
He himself travelled during the summer, in the
winter he settled at one or other of the posts,
generally choosing one where there was no other
mission agent.
"Gradually and steadily the work advanced; Nine
and the Bishop could report that he had nine stations' 1882
stations, viz., Fort Chipewyan on Athabasca
Lake; Vermillion and Dunvegan, on Peace River;
Forts Rae and Resolution, on Great Slave Lake;
Forts Simpson and Norman, on Mackenzie River;
Fort MacPherson, on Peel River; and Rampart
House on Porcupine River, in the Yukon Basin."
Five years later he "estimated the whole population of the diocese at 10,000, of whom one half
were more or less under Romanist influence, while
of the other half the Church of England had won
3,000, and 2,000 were still unreached."
The immense area of the diocese was subdivided, later, by the separation of the Dioceses
of Athabasca and of Selkirk, now Yukon. In each Yukon, 1891
case Bompas reserved for himself the more
northerly and isolated region; the Rev. R. Young,
being consecrated Bishop of Athabasca, and the
Rev. W. D. Reeve Bishop of Mackenzie   River.
For a brief description of the inhabitants and
Athabasca,
1884 142
Inasmuch
Inhabitants
Described
trading posts of the diocese we quote again from
the Bishop: "The only usual residents in the
Mackenzie River Diocese, besides the native
Indians and Eskimaux and the missionaries, are
the officers and employes of the Hudson's Bay
Company, who are engaged in the fur trade.
For the purposes of this commercial undertaking
twelve trading posts in the diocese are occupied
which are mostly called Forts, though of late
years entirely destitute of defences. These
trading posts consist each of about half a dozen
log buildings, used as residences for the clerk in
charge and employes, and for fur store and
trading shop. The posts are situate from 100 to
300 miles apart, and are mostly along the courses
of the rivers and lakes. About 100 families of
Indians, more or less, trade at each post. These
five in their leather lodges or tents, and hunt
the surrounding country for provisions and furs,
with which they trade at the post nearest to them
about twice in the year. They generally, in visiting the post, remain only a couple of nights, except in the spring time, when they often bring
families and tents, and remain encamped in the
neighbourhood of the post for some weeks.
"In early days of the trade, when spirits were
dealt out to the Indians, these visits were scenes
of riots and debauchery; but for many years the
trade in intoxicating liquors has been abandoned,
and the Indians are now free from all turbulence
in their visits to the trading estabfishments.
"The situation of the trading posts is as follows: Red River to Arctic Circle
143
On Great Slave Lake are two forts name Rae and Trading Posts
Resolution, placed on the north and south sides of
the lake respectively.    On the Mackenzie River
are five posts.   Fort Providence is about thirty
miles from Great Slave Lake, adjoining which
post are the headquarters of the French Roman
Catholic Mission.   Fort Simpson, situate about
150 miles further down the river, combines the
headquarters of the fur trade, and of the Church
of England Missions.*   Fort Wrigley is about 100
miles further north, and about 200 miles beyond
this is Fort Norman, in the neighbourhood of
Great Bear Lake.    Beyond this again is the most
northern trading post on the Mackenzie River,
namely, Fort Good Hope, situate almost precisely
at the Arctic Circle.
"Three trading posts have their position within
the Arctic Circle, namely, one Fort MacPherson,
on Peel River, for trading with Loucheux Indians
and Esquimaux; one, named La Pierre's House,
on Rat River; and the Rampart House on Porcupine River. The remaining trading posts are
two lying towards the south of the diocese, and
situate on the Liard River. These are named
Forts Liard and Nelson."
The Indians are divided into two main families.
One, the Tenni inhabiting the Mackenzie River pa-Sii
Basin speaking different dialects and including
such tribes as the Chipewyans, Yellow Knives,
Dog Ribs, Big River Indians, Slave Indians, and
Nahanny or Mountain Indians. Two, the
Tukudh, inhabiting the regions of the Upper
♦By a change of boundries Fort Chipewyan is now included in the
Mackenzie River Diocese, and is the headquarters of the Mission.
Indians, Two
Main
Families
The Tukudh 144
Inasmuch
Occupation
of Natives
Yukon and the territory thence to Fort Mac-
Pherson. They are of various tribes as the
River, Lake, Mountain, or Valley Indians, "but
their dialects do not differ so much as among the
Tenni."
TheTenni "The Tenni tribes," says the Bishop,  "are
rather course-featured, with thick lips and
prominent cheek-bones. They are at present inoffensive and submissive in temper, though a
century since, before the introduction of European
trade, the tribes waged a predatory war on one
another, and among the distant bands on the
Rocky Mountains this is hardly yet extinct.
"The occupation of all the natives of the diocese
is wholly confined to the chase or fishery. The
Tenni tribes pursue for their sustenance, the
moose, deer, reindeer, bear, and beaver, and for
their skins, the fox, wolf, marten, wolverine and
other small animals. The hunting is now carried
on chiefly with firearms, the bows and arrows
being mostly left to the boys; but snares and traps
are used for all the above animals, at times, and
for killing the wolves and foxes poison is occasionally employed.
Tenni Lodges "The Tenni tribes live in conical tents or lodges,
with a frame of poles and covered with dressed
deer or moose skin. In spring they make canoes
of birch bark for water travel and chase. In the
fall of the year they make birch wood snowshoes
for winter voyaging. Their tents are floored with
a litter of pine branches, and warmed with a
pine-log fire in the centre.   Their dress is of Red River to Arctic Circle
145
Qualities
moose or deer-skin, trimmed more or less with
beads or dyed porcupine quills, except so far as
they may be able to purchase clotloing of European
manufacture	
"The Tenni Tribes are not quick at learning Tenni
when adults, but if children are taken from the
tents and placed at school along with the children
of Europeans the Indian children may keep pace
with the others in their learning or even outstrip them. They are also docile and easily
managed.
"The whole of the Tenni race seem to be of a
sickly habit, and rather dwindling in numbers.
They do not seem to be much addicted to ardent
spirits, nor are these now supplied to them; but
they have an inveterate propensity to gamble.
Though almost wholly free from crimes of violence, and not much inclined to thieve, yet
heathen habits of impurity cling, alas, still too
closely to them, and they exhibit the usual Indian
deficiency in a want of stability and firmness of
character. This Indian race seems to have been
free from idolatry before the arrival of Europeans
among them, and they had some knowledge of a
good and evil spirit, and of rewards and punishments after death.
"The Tukudh race are rather more sharp featured and more lively and intelligent, as well as
more cordial and affectionate than the Tenni.
Their eyes are mclined to be small and pointed,
rather as the Chinese. From this circumstance,
probably, they obtained from the French the
Tukudh
Qualities 146
Inasmuch
Tukudh
Lodges
Eager for Instruction
Tukudh Food
soubriquet of the Loucheux or Squint-eyed, for
they are not really affected with squint.
"The Tukudh make their tents in the shape of
a beehive, with bent poles for the frame, and the
tent covering is formed of deer-sldns with the
hair on and turned inside, the skins being softened
by scraping. Their camps become thus nearly
as warm as a log house and quite comfortable.
Their dress in winter consists also of deer-sldns
with the hair on, and in cold weather the hair
is turned inside. Their country lies mostly
north of the Arctic Circle, but these deer-skin
dresses are almost impervious to cold.
"These Indians receive instruction with avidity,
whether in religion or other subjects; and they
have taught one another to read the Gospels
printed in their own language, though the words
are of forbidding length. They had some
national dances and songs of their own, and were
fond of making harangues at the feasts, which it
was their custom to make for one another. On
such occasions a distribution of property took
place somewhat as is usual with the tribes on the
Pacific Coast. Before Christianity was intro-1
duced among this tribe they were much under the
power of their medicine men or conjurors, who
deceived them with their charms, and sometimes
even frightened them to death.
"The food of the Tukudh Indians is almost exclusively the reindeer, with salmon taken in the
Youcon River. The deer are mostly killed by
being driven into grounds of enclosures hedged Red River to Arctic Circle
147
with felled trees. The salmon are taken in
weirs or traps—made with willows in the bend of
the river. The salmon are dried in the sun or
over the camp fire for winter store. The flesh
of the reindeer is also dried and sometimes pounded for preservation. The reindeer tongues are
considered the most delicate part. In summertime the reindeer migrate to the coast to escape
among the sea-breezes of the barren grounds
from the flies and mosquitoes which torment them
at that season in the woods. In winter the deer
return to the more southern forests to avoid the
too-piercing cold and exposure of the extreme
north.
"The Tukudh Indians do not make any canoes,
but travel on the rivers in surnmer mostly on
rafts, which they construct and manage with a
good deal of skill. Their snow-shoes are distinguished from those of the Tenni tribe by being
round instead of pointed in front."
From the hour of his arrival at Fort Simpson,
on Christmas Eve, 1863, to the hour of his death
on the evening of Saturday, June 9th, 1906,
William Carpenter Bompas gave himself body and
soul to the cause of the Indians of the Tenni and
Tukudh, not forgetting, as will be told in due
course the Esldmo of the Arctic Coast. Preaching
—on one of his rare visits,—in Holy Trinity
Church, Winnipeg, he told of a visit to one sick
Indian "which took five weeks of time and involved a walk of 320 miles." It seems both
superfluous and incongruous, in connection with
Visit to Sick
Indian 148
Inasmuch
The Warrior's
End
a man of such devotion, to speak of separation, of
hunger, travel or weariness; he gave himself
through his Lord to the Indian, from the consequence of that "giving" he neither swerved
nor faltered.
His fitting end came in a fitting place, on the
far side of the crest of the Northern Rockies.
"This was Saturday, June 9th," says the writer
of the story of his life, "a day calm and bright,
as our summer days in the far north mostly are.
The bishop was as active as ever on that day.
Twice he had walked across the long railway
bridge, and his quick elastic step had been commented on as that of a young man. Later on
he had been up to the Indian School, and up to
the Indian Camp to visit some sick Indians.
Then he went home, and remained for some time
in conversation with Bishop Stringer, into whose
hands he had already committed all the affairs
of the diocese. Then the mission party dined
together, and at eight o'clock they all re-assembled
for prayers. After prayers the Bishop retired to
his study and shut the door.
"Was there, we wonder, any intimation of the
coming rest in the breast of that stalwart warrior >
whose end of life was now so near as to be reckoned, not by hours but by minutes only. Was
there any consciousness of having fought a good
fight, and finished his course? We know not.
Sitting on a box, as was his custom, he began the
sermon which proved to be his last. Presently
the pen stopped; the hand that so often had Red River to Arctic Circle
149
guided it was to do so no more. Near him was
one of his flock, an Indian girl, who needed some
attention, and as he arose he leaned his elbow on
a pile of boxes. And while standing there the great
call came: the Hand of God touched him, and
the body which had endured so much fell forward.
When Bishop Stringer reached his side a few
minutes later the Indian girl was holding his
head in her lap. Nothing could be done, and
without a struggle, without one word of farewell,
the brave soul passed forth to a higher life."
"0 good grey head which all men knew,
0 voice from which their omens all men drew,
0 iron nerve to true occasion, true:
0 fallen at length that tower of strength,
Which stood four-square to all the winds that blew,
Such was he whom we deplore.
The long self-sacrifice of life is o'er." The goal of history is the redemption of the world.
The consummation of all missionary endeavour will be
when the knowledge of Jesus Christ has become universal.
Hence, the aim of missions is to make Jesus Christ known
to every creature, so that he may have an intelligent
opportunity to accept him as his Saviour.
J. Ross Stevenson.
In the mission field abroad, as in fact at home, too,
character counts for more than learning, for more than j
skill.    Character,  humanly speaking,  is  almost everything.
Eugene Stock. CHAPTER VII.
The Pacific Coast and Islands
Crossing the "Great Divide" we find the same
two Societies, the S. P. G. and the C. M. S. responding to the needs of the native tribes, and
laying deeply in that strata of society, the foundations of the Church of England in Canada.
A member of the North West Fur Company,
"A highly-respectable Canadian merchant," was
the first to interest himself in the spiritual welfare
of the West Coast natives, and appealed to the 1319
Church Missionary Society "to establish a
Mission among the Indians beyond the Rocky
Mountains."
In response to applications by the Rev. Mr. 1854
Bayley and the Bishop of Rupert's Land, the
S.  P.  G.  "set   apart funds for establishing a 185T
Mission to the heathen" in Vancouver Island. Rev. r. Dow-
Its first Missionary was the Rev. R. Dowson, Feb'. 2^d!°i859
who on arrival, found "Victoria a strange assemblage of wooden houses, with a mixed population
of every nation numbering about 1,500."    Near
the town was one small village of Indians, the
men of which were  "idle and diseased."    He
therefore started "on a voyage of discovery to
the north of the Island, and so on to Fort Simpson
upon  the mainland."    His  description  of  the
state of affairs at Fort Rupert indicates the con- port Simpson
ditions then prevailing on the coast.    He says: 152
Inasmuch
Work Near
Victoria
"There were about six whites, employes of the
Hudons Bay Company. Outside the Fort were
encamped about a thousand Ouachoils, the most
bloodthirsty of all the Indian tribes on the North-
West Coast. Plenty of heads and other human
remains lay on the beach, one body of a woman
fastened to a tree partly in the water and ....
eaten away by the fish. A short time before
some canoes came in from a war expedition and
landed a prisoner, 'when all the other Indians
rushed down in a flock from their houses and ate
the poor wretch alive.'
"Onhis return from his expedition to the North
Mr. Dowson took up his quarters temporarily
'in a little dilapidated school-house belonging to
the colony,' about four miles from Victoria, and
made preparations for establishing himself in one
of the Indian villages. He tried in vain to find
any European who was both able and willing to
teach him anything of the native language. As a
rule the only means of communication between the
Indians and whites was Chinhook—a jargon of
'little use except as a trading language: it consists nearly altogether of substantives, and has
no words to express thoughts except the most
material and animal wants.' Chinhook acquired,
the Missionary began the study of Cowitchin by
having a native to live with him. The first he
tried, soon went away without notice, and a few
days afterwards was glorying 'in all his original
dignity of paint and feathers.' A greater
discouragement than this was the 'utter indiffer- Pacific Coast and Islands
153
ence, if not something worse, of the white settlers
towards the welfare of the natives.' Personal
kindness Mr. Dowson received abundantly, but it
was 'to the English stranger and not to the
Indian Missionary.' Almost everyone laughed
at the 'idea' of his 'teacliing Indians,' saying
there was 'no good in them and no gratitude';
and frequently it was remarked 'they ought to be
rooted out like tree-stumps.'
"Owing to the illness of his wife the first
Missionary was obliged to return to England, but
during his short stay Mr. Dowson had succeeded
in gaining the confidence of the Indians around
him, and proving that they were capable of receiving good as well as bad impressions. 'You
teach savage good, savage's heart good to you,'
was the expression of an Indian on experiencing,
probably for the first time in his life, Christian
sympathy and love. A knowledge of medicine
was of great assistance to the Missionary, and his
reputation for doing good reached the Saanechs,
whose three principal chiefs came to invite him to
live among them, promising to give gratis,
'plenty of. good land to build a house upon, and
that not one of them would steal or do any
wrong.' "
The proclamation establishing British Columbia as a Crown Colony, was followed immediately
by its formation into a diocese with an endowment given by the late Baroness Burdett-Coutts.
The earlier reports of Bishop Hills describe conditions, as he found them, among the Indians.
Rev. R. Dowson Returns
to England,
1860
British Columbia, Crown
Colony and
Diocese
Bishop Hills 154
Inasmuch
Rev. A. C
Garret, 1860
His later reports contain cheering and lengthy
accounts of his visits to progressive Indian Missions.
In his first report to the S. P. G. he wrote: "I
saw an Indian running round and round in a
circle. He was intoxicated and almost a maniac.
I listened to the sounds he was shouting. They
were the words of a blasphemous and obscene
oath in English! It is a common thing for Indians, even children, to utter oaths in English.
Thus far they have come in close contact only with
our vices. We have yet to bring amongst them
the leavening blessing of the Gospel of Christ."
The Rev. A. C. Garret took up Mr. Dowson's
task. "His greatest difficulty was the contaminating influence of the white men, who carried on a traffic "in poisonous compounds under
the name of whisky," whereby the Indians died
in numbers and the survivors fought "like things
•irihuman." Now and then a vendor was caught
and "fined or caged," but another filled his place
and the trade proceeded. At times the camp was
"so completely saturated with this stuff that a
sober Indian was a rare exception." The women
were worse than the men, and girls from ten to
fourteen little better than their elder sisters.
The Mission comprised a small resident tribe
(about 200) of "Songes or Tsau-miss, belonging
to the great family of the Cowitchins." These
Indians were a "most besotted, wretched race."
Their language was soon acquired, but besides
these  there  Were   "Bill   Bellas,"   "Cogholds," Pacific Coast and Islands
155
"Hydahs," "Tsimsheans," and "Stickeens" constantly coming and going for the purposes of
trade and work; and as six 6_iffefe_it languages
were spoken the Missionary was obliged to use
Chinhook, into which he translated portions of
the Liturgy. Mr. Garret's labours at this station
were successful beyond expectation. In one year
nearly 600 Indians, men and children, received
some instruction in his school. He also founded
a Mission in the Cowichan district both among
the whites and Indians. The Indians there were
ready to receive the Church "with open arms."
"They prayed, they entreated," Mr. Garret
"to come at once .... and build a house on their
land."
Of Nanaimo, where the Rev. J. B. Good was
stationed, the Bishop reported in January, 1863:
"there is now a church, parsonage and school for
the whole population and a school-chapel for the
Indians, through his zealous exertions. I have,
several times been present at interesting services
at the latter, and have reason to think that a
deep impression has been made upon the Indian
mind."
Mr. Good was then transferred to the mainland at Yale, on the Fraser River, where he had Transferred
charge of a small white mission and the neighbour- Yale*1866
ing Indians.    The next year  "he received an 1867
invitation from the Thompson River Indians, a
tribe numbering 1,500.    They had, after applying
in vain for teachers of our Church, received
occasional   visits   from   Romish   Missionaries.
Rev. J. B.
Good, Nanaimo, 1863
Mr. Good 156
Inasmuch
Bishop Hills
at Yale, 1868
But "though they conformed outwardly to some
of the rites of Roman Christianity," they "had
a superstitious dread" of the Priests, and "were,
for the most part, heathens at heart." Many of
them had visited Yale and had become interested
in the Society's Mission there. One afternoon
in the winter of 1867 a large body of them was
seen approaching from the Lytton Road. "On
they came, walking in single file, according to
their custom, headed by Sashiatan, a chief of
great repute and influence—once a warrior noted
for his prowess and cruelty." The deputation
was followed by two others of similar character.
Mr. Good thus gained some acquaintance with
their language, and with the aid of an interpreter
he translated a portion of the Litany into Nitiaka-
pamuk and chanted it to them, telling them also
of the love of God to Man. While Mr. Good
was awaiting the arrival of an assistant, Mr.
Holmes, to leave at Yale, the Indians sent him a
message by telegraph urging him to "Make haste
and come." A few days after he met 600 of them
at Lytton, who besought him "to come amongst
them and to be their father, teacher and guide."
"In May, 1868, the Bishop visited the Indians.
At Yale he preached to 380, under the care of
Mr. Holmes, who already had obtained a surprising influence over them. On the way to
Lytton where Mr. Good had removed, the Bishop
was met by the Missionary and sixty mounted
Indians, 'representatives of many tribes and all
catechumens in the Mission. . . .   The chiefs were Pacific Coast and Islands
157
decked in every colour and grotesque array.'
To some of them the Bishop had often in former
times spoken about God and the Saviour; but he
'never hoped to behold this scene, for its remarkable feature was that they had all now accepted
the teaching of the Minister of Christ and had
put away the prominent sins of heathenism.
Men whose histories were written in blood and
sorceries had become humble and teachable
disciples of the Lord Jesus.' On entering Lytton
the Bishop had to shake hands with 700 Indians,
'who were all adherents of the Mission and many
had come .... even 100 miles' to meet him.
The Church was thronged by hundreds, old and
young. After one of the services four catechumens were received, one of whom had been 'a
notorious sorcerer steeped in crimes. He was
grey-headed, and on his knees, in the presence of
the people, 'he confessed his deeds, renounced
his errors and expressed penitence.,"
During two episcopal visits to Lytton, 245 Indians (of whom 206 were adults) received baptism,
most of them at the hands of the Bishop. On the
second occasion 116 were corifirmed.
Meanwhile "the mainland of the province had Dioceses New
been divided into two new dioceses—New West- c^^lSa**'
minster in the South, and Caledonia in the North 1879
—and the original See of British Columbia limited
to Vancouver Island and the adjacent isles."
The "story of the begirinings of the Church c. m. s. in
among the aborigines of the mainland and islands Caledoma
of the northern half of British Columbia is the
Bishop Hills
at Lytton,
1873-4 158
Inasmuch.
story of the zeal, labours and success of the faithful men and women sent out by the Church
Missionary Society; a great record marked, but
not marred, by a grievious but unavoidable
schism.
The appeal of the "highly-respectable Canadian
Merchant" on behalf of the Indians of the Pacific
Coast, though unresponded to at the time, "did
not entirely fade away from the Society's memory.
In 1830, seven Indian boys belonging to the tribes
beyond the Rockies were being taught by Cockran
at Red River."
Twenty-six years later, Captain James C.
Prevost, R. N., who had just returned from the
North Pacific, made a strong and direct appeal
which resulted in the foundation of the Mission.
In an article published in the C. M. S. Intelligencer, Captain Prevost spoke of the fact that
"although during the last forty years a tnost
lucrative trade had been carried on among them
by our fellow countrymen, this vast number
(60,000) of our fellow subjects have remained in a
state of heathen darkness and complete barbarism." "We would most earnestly call upon all
who have themselves learned to value the blessings
of the Gospel, to assist 'in rolling away' this
reproach. The field is a most promising one.
Some naval officers, who, in the discharge of their
professional duties, have lately visited these
regions, have been most favourably impressed
with  the  highly  intelligent   character   of  the Ill
Pacific Coast and Islands
159
natives; and, struck by their manly bearing, and
a physical appearance fully equal to that of the
English, whom they also resemble in the fairness
of their complexion, and having also their compassion excited by their total destitution of
Christian and moral instruction, they felt it to be
their duty to endeavour to introduce among them
the knowledge of the Gospel of Christ, under the
conviction that it would prove the surest and
most fruitful source of social improvement and
civilization, as well as of spiritual blessings infinitely more valuable, and would be found the
only effectual antidote to the contaminating
vices which a rapidly-increasing trade, especially
with California and Oregon, is bringing in its
train."
Ordered, unexpectedly, back to the North
Pacific, in command of H.M.S. Satellite, Captain
Prevost offered a free passage to a missionary and
his wife stating that "he would himself introduce
them to their new station, and do everything in
his power to support them as long as he should
be in that neighbourhood." "The man sent" had
been one of the half-dozen people attending a
village missionary meeting in Yorkshire on. a
drenching wet night when Charles Hodgson, who
was the deputation, insisted on going on with the
meeting in spite of the Vicar's proposal to abandon
it, and the speech that night to those half-dozen
listeners resulted in the offer to the Society of
William Duncan. At the dismissal meeting wimam Dun-
Captain Prevost was present, and a speaker de- can 160
Inasmuch
Duncan at
Fort Simpson, Oct. 1st,
1857
Murder of
Slave Woman
scribed the new station "we are about to occupy
in North-West America as immediately opposite
to Shanghai, so that we now complete the girdle
of missionary stations around the globe." The
Satellite sailed on December 23rd, from Plymouth, doubled Cape Horn and came to an anchor
on the 23rd of June, in Esquimault Harbour.
Mr. Duncan was still five hundred miles short
of his destination, and strong objections were made
against him going there, "He might get to Fort
Simpson," he was told, "but then he could only
go outside at the risk of his life, and the Indians
would not be permitted to come inside: what
work, then, could he do? After waiting for three
months, he secured a passage and, arrived at his
station on the first of October. 'Like other
Hudson's Bay trading posts, Fort Simpson consisted of a few houses, stores and workshops, surrounded by a palisade twenty feet high. The
inmates consisted of about twenty white men or
half-breeds, with the wives and children of some
of them.' 'Outside the fort was a large village
of Tsimshean Indians, comprising some 250
wooden houses. In the next few months Duncan
visited every house and counted the inmates,
finding 637 men, 756 women, and 763 children,
2,156 in all; and about 400 men were stated to be
absent at the time.'"
Among Duncan's early experiences was the
sight of a slave woman done to death on the seashore, and of two nude medicine men rushing upon
the body tearing it apart with teeth and claws, and Pacific Coast and Islands
161
then disappearing into the forest each carrying
as much of the corpse as he had been able to
secure.
The missionary applied himself to the study of
the language with such care and seclusion that
the Indians wondered whether he had retired to
hibernate like the bears. He gave his first
written address after eight months, and made his
first attempt to address the people extemporaneously on the following Christmas Day. On the
former occasion the address was repeated in the
houses of the leading chiefs. Mr. Duncan wrote
"they were all remarkably attentive. At the
conclusion I desired them to kneel down. They
immediately complied, and I offered up prayer
for them in English. They preserved great silence, all being done I bade them goodbye. They
all responded with seeming thanHulness.'' From
this point, the work went steadily forward, both
adults and children attending daily school and
.receiving instruction in the faith. "On April
6th, 1859, the head chief Legale, who had distinguished himself by his violence and murderous
threats, appeared at school and sat down to
learn with the rest."
In the following year the first ordained missionary, the Rev. L. S. Tugwell, arrived; by liim "the
first converts were baptized, fourteen men, five
women and four children." Here, as in so many
other instances, while native degradation and
customs yielded to the power of the preaching of
the Cross of Christ, the more deadly influences
Duncan's
First Address
Rev. L. S.
Tugwell, 1860
First Baptisms, July
26th, 1861 162
Inasmuch
Metlakahtla
Established,
1862
were found to arise from the contamination of
ungodly and utterly immoral white men, many of
whom controlled the "whiskey schooners" which
plied their deadly trade up and down the coasts.
To escape these perils, and also to be in a position to restrain the Indians from maldng equally
deadly visits to the cities in the South, Duncan
decided to establish a Christian Indian and model
settlement. "The Indians themselves pointed
out the locality for such a settlement, a place
called Metlakahtla," the former place of residence
of the tribe. "On May 27th, Duncan and fifty
Indians left Fort Simpson for Metlakahtla; and,
although many had shrunk back when the
moment of departure came, fearing the strick rules
to be enforced at the new settlement, within a few
days they thought better of it, and on June 6th
a fleet of thirty canoes brought 300 more people
from Fort Simpson, others quickly followed; and
very soon a flourishing village was in full working
order."
"Not only was Duncan the lay pastor and
missionary—for Tugwell had been invalided •
home before the removal to Metlakahtla,—not
only was he treasurer of the settlement, clerk of
the works, head schoolmaster, and counsellor in
general to the people; the Colonial Government
also appointed him a magistrate, in order that he
might have legal power to dispense justice, not
only within the settlement, but along the whole
coast, wherever his influence extended. The
social and moral influence of Metlakahtla was Pacific Coast and Islands
163
accompanied by unmistakable spiritual results.
The Bishop of Columbia himself twice took the Bishop Hills
five hundred miles voyage to receive the converts' Metlakahtla
into the congregation of Christ's flock.' In
1863 he baptized fifty-nine adults and some
children, and in 1866 sixty-five adults; besides
whom, during nearly the same period, 135 adults
and thirty-one children were baptized by two
other clergymen from Victoria, maldng a total—
with one other—within ten years of Duncan's
first arrival on the coast, of 278 baptisms of adult
converts and about fifty of the children of Christian parents."
Among the baptisms was that of Quthray, one Quthray
of the two naked Shamans, or medicine men, who aptlze
had devoured the body of the slave woman on
the beach in front of Fort Simpson. He had long
and earnestly desired baptism, and Duncan, in
the absence of a clergyman, administered the rite
on his deathbed. "I found," said Duncan "the
sufferer apparently on the very verge of eternity,
but quite sensible, supported by his wife on one
side, and another woman on the other, in a sitting
posture on his lowly couch spread upon the
ground. I addressed him at once, remmding him
of the promise I had made to him, and why. I
also spoke some words of advice to him, to which
he paid most earnest attention, though his cough
would scarcely permit him to have a moment's
rest. A person near expressed a fear that he did
not understand what I said, being so weak and
near death; but he quickly, and with great em- 164
Inasmuch
Chief Legaic
Baptized. 1863
phasis, exclaimed, 'I hear: I understand.' While
I was praying his expression of countenance was
most lovely. With his face turned upward, he
seemed to be deeply engaged in prayer. I baptized him, and gave him the name of Philip
Atkinson. I earnestly besought the Lord to
ratify in Heaven what He had permitted me to do
in His name, and to receive the soul of the poor
dying penitent before Him. He had the same
resignation and peace which he had evinced
throughout his sickness, weeping for his sins,
depending all upon the Saviour, confident of
pardon, and rejoicing in hope."
"Among the converts baptized by Bishop Hills
on his first visit was the head chief Legaic himself,—a still more remarkable triumph of Divine
Grace than even the case of Quthray, for Legaic
was no dying man, but still a vigorous and powerful leader of his people. He had given Duncan
much anxiety. After he appeared tamed, his
old ferocity and love of sin had got the mastery
again and again. On one occasion he gathered the
Indians together and bade them farewell, saying
he could bear the restraints of Metlakahtla no
longer, and he must go, even if it meant eternal
perdition. He got into his canoe, and paddled
away alone, to the grief of the Christians he was
leaving. Next day he reappeared. 'A hundred
deaths,' he said, 'would not equal the sufferings
of that night.' And now the 'blasphemer and
persecutor' was baptized by the name of Paul.
In him indeed  did Jesus   Christ   show  forth Pacific Coast and Islands 165
all longsuffering, for a pattern to them who
should hereafter believe on Him and life everlasting! For Legaic's story has been told over
and over again all round the world, and who
shall say what miracles of grace the Lord has
wrought by its means? For six years the once-
dreaded savage lived a quiet and consistent life at
Metlakahtla as a carpenter, and then died while
on a journey, 'very happy,' he said, 'not afraid to
meet God,' 'Always remembering the words of
the Lord Jesus Christ.'"
"The Governor of British Columbia, Mr. Governor of
Trutch, went up the coast with two ships-of-war, l^a-Sia, *872
to inquire into an act of savagery committed by
6_runken white miners; and while on a visit to
Metlakahtla he laid the first stone of the celebrated church. Laying the stone, indeed, was
one thing; building the church was another.
The Governor and the naval officers saw lying
on the ground huge timbers to be used in its
erection; but how these were to be reared up was
not apparent. Very ldndly they gave Duncan
a quantity of ropes, blocks, pulleys, etc., but even
then they sailed away in considerable scepticism
as to the possibility of unskilled red men raising
a large and lofty church. Nevertheless, after
two years' labour, it was completed, through
God's goodness, without a single accident, and
was opened for Christian services on Christmas church
Day, 700 Indians being present. 'Could it be,' °Pened1874
wrote Duncan, 'that this concourse of well-
dressed people in their new and beautiful church, 166
Inasmuch
Chiefs Sebasha and
Shakes
Giat-kahtla
Tribe
engaged in thrilling songs of praise to God, made
up, but a few years ago, the fiendish assemblage at
Fort Simpson.'"
Other notable accessions were those of two
chiefs, Sebasha and .Shakes. The latter came to
the opening of the church "in a monster canoe,
accompanied by nearly one hundred of his tribe
.... a large Bible was presented to him, one of a
number which had been given by the Society to be
presented to such as might be considered worthy of
the gift. It lay long in his treasure-chest before
he learnt to appreciate its value, but at length the
true light illumined his dark heart, and he renounced heathenism, and was baptized into the
Church of Christ."
"The heathenism of the Giat-kahtla tribe, of
which both Sebasha and Shakes were chiefs in
succession, was of the darkest and fiercest character. A native teacher, who was a half-breed,
had been sent to this tribe, but he returned shortly
after and informed us that he could not remain
there longer, owing to the vile practices which
were carried on nightly in the camp. The flesh
of dogs and corpses was torn and devoured by the
medicine men in a cannibalisitc manner, and even
mouthfuls of flesh torn from the arms and
shoulders of men and women when passing
through the camp. The overbearing character
of the Giat-kahtla chiefs is illustrated by an
incident recorded of one of Sebasha's predecessors.
This chief was seated in front of his lodge one day
in the early spring, when food was scarce.    One of Pacific Coast and Islands 167
the tribe was out fishing for halibut a short
distance off shore, in front of the village. At
length he succeeded in hauling up a fine fish.
On seeing this, the chief immediately called to a
slave to launch a small canoe, and to row him out
to the successful fisherman. When the latter
saw him approaching, he realized at once that his
object was to seize the fish. Irritated by the
memory of many such acts, he at once resolved
to rid himself and his tribe of such an oppressor
once for all. So, seizing the bark rope to the end
of which a stone was attached, which he had been
using as an anchor, he tied it round his waist,
and as the chief laid hold of the halibut to transfer
it to his own canoe, he seized him securely round
the neck and jumped overboard, dragging the
chief with him. Unable to free himself from such
a death grip, he never rose to the surface again,
and thus the oppressed and oppressor died
together."
The fair and promising settlement of Metla- Friction,
kahtla was destined to be the scene of one of the au8es
most pitiful secessions and schisms in the history
of missions. The causes arose from two sources,
defects in the character of the founder of the
mission, and consequent defects in his methods.
William Duncan, a man of dominating temper and
unyielding spirit, ruled the coirrmunity with a
rod of iron. The Scriptures were not translated
into the native tongue, attendance at Church was
compulsory under police supervision, and the
worshippers were given such instructions as their 1§^^
168
Inasmuch
C M. S.
Message
Bishop Ridley
leader thought fit. Among the essential things
he thought unfitting was the Sacrament of the
Holy Communion; which Duncan considered
the Indians might turn into a fetish.
The distressing state of affairs which followed
was approached, by Bishop Hills, and the C. M. S.
Committee, in a spirit of great patience and conciliation. The former went so far as to arrange
with the C. M. S. for a visit to be paid to the
mission by Bishop Bompas. The spirit of the
C. M. S. Committee cannot be better expressed,
than in the message prepared for their anniversary meeting:
"They commit," it said "Metlakahtla and all
its people to His care unto whom all hearts are
open, all desires known, praising Him for the
manifestations of His quickening and converting
grace in the past,—especially for the converts
who have departed this life in His faith and fear,
and thus were taken away from the evil to come,—
and praying that He will enable all the Indian
Christians, if not to resume their outward union,
yet to keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond of
peace."
"On the formation of the Diocese of Caledonia,
the Society undertook, at Bishop Hills request, to
nominate the Bishop and find the stipend, and
the scheme was most happily consummated by
the selection of the Rev. William Ridley, Vicar
of St. Paul's, Huddersfield.'' The latter on arrival
was much impressed with the material prosperity
of the Mission, but found himself confronted with Pacific Coast and Islands
169
the solution of the grave problems described.
"The Sunday ^services, under police supervision,
were practically the only religious ordinance;
and the people were entirely absorbed in their
fast-increasing worldly possessions."
The crisis came through an ultimatum of the crigi8 and
C. M. S. to Mr. Duncan requiring him "either SeceS8k>»
(1) to come to England at once for conference,
or (2) to facilitate the Bishop's plans for the
religious instruction of the people, or (3) to hand
over the mission wholly to the Bishop and leave
the place." The irrimediate result was the local
secession of Duncan and 900 of his followers
with the establishment of a boycott against the
loyal remnant of about 100; the final result came
in an unexpected way. "The Colonial Government, at last, took decisive measures, sending
up a ship-of-war and arresting eight Indians
who had been ringleaders in an outrage on Mrs.
Ridley during the Bishop's absence. Thereupon
Mr. Duncan went off to New York and Washington, enlisted the sympathy of American friends
who knew nothing of the circumstances, and
appealed for protection to the President of the
United States. In his petition he, in the name of
500 Indians, renounced their allegiance to the
Queen, and solemnly promised never again to
come under the British flag. The result was a
a grant to Mm of land on American territory, at
the extreme south end of Alaska, just beyond the
British boundary, and only seventy miles from
Metlakahtla;  and  thither,  in the  summer  of 170
Inasmuch
Reorganization
1887, he removed the majority of the Tsimshean
Christians. Before departing they partially destroyed their houses, and the church, leaving the
village a wreck. Bishop Ridley wrote: 'It is
natural to lift up our heads at the close of our
seven years of persecution, when we taste at
last the sweetness of religious liberty. We have
now to try to forget our past miseries, and to
lose no time in restoring what is necessary for the
advancement of Christ's cause."
With the departure of the seceders reorganization, upon the basis of full Christian ordinances
and complete church order, proceeded apace.
Confirmations were held and the Sacrament of
the Lord's Supper duly and properly administered.
The translation of hymns, the Apostles Creed, and
the Lord's Prayer, was followed by the publication in Tsimshean of St. Matthew's Gospel.
When the latter was first read to the Indians one
of them said, "We had some links; now we have
the chain"; and another added, "We saw through
a narrow slit now the door is wide open." After
three years of peace, the Bishop wrote: "We
have now a boys' boarding-school, another for
girls, a mixed day school of girls and small boys,
and a day school for big boys; a Sunday School
for children, another for adults. We have an
average of more than sixty at our daily meeting
of prayer. This is the only community of
Indians I know that has a natural increase of the
population. Crime is almost unknown; the
standard of moral conduct is higher than that of Pacific Coast and Islands
171
any other place I ever lived at. Purity of life
leads to health, and that to happy homes full of
chubby children. Such is the actual condition of
Metlakahtla, and it has a hopeful future."
Among the early ordained reinforcements,
the first I think to hold his ground, was the Rev.
W. H. Collison, now Archdeacon, to whose
reminiscences we are indebted for some of our
further descriptions of the missions.
On his way up the coast to Metlakahtla the
small trading steamer called at all the posts.
"At one encampment to the North of Vancouver's Island a French Roman Catholic Mission had been established for some time, and as
our steamer anchored at the village the missionary came on board. Having been introduced by
the captain, I inquired from the good father as
to what measure of success he had achieved in his
mission. ' Success!' he exclaimed. ' Why, I can
do nothing amongst them. Only yesterday they
stole the blankets off my bed. I have laboured
amongst several tribes of Indians in the interior,
but I have never found any so bad as these.
'And,' he said, 'we are about to abandon the
•Mission.' This they did shortly after, and in
1877 the Church Missionary Society entered on
the field amongst the Quagulth tribes, the Rev.
A. J. Hall first occupying Fort Rupert as his
headquarters, and afterwards Alert Bay." This
is interesting as the second example of a successful work being established upon ground, where
the Roman Catholics had failed to make head-
Rev. W. H.
Collison
Rev. A. J.
Hall, Fort
Rupert, Alert
Bay 172
Inasmuch
Kitkatla, 1879
way. The other instance being, it will be remembered, among the Indians of the Thompson
River.
The story of Kitkatla carries us back to the
real founder of the work—Captain, later Admiral,
Prevost; who, travelling in a canoe, was the first
to preach the Gospel to the Indians living there.
"Three years later, the Bishop sent a teacher,
and within a few months, twenty-seven converts
were brought in canoes to Metlakahtla to be
baptized. Then the heathen Indians, stirred up
by the disloyal 'Christians' of Metlakahtla,
rose up, destroyed and burnt the little church
they had built, and tore up the Bibles and Prayer-
books. Two days later, wrote the Bishop,—
'A crew of drenched Kitkatlas sat before me in
my study burdened with so great a grief that they
could not find utterance for some time. Then
one of them named Luke, rising to his feet, began
his tale of woe.
"The devil has won; God's house is in ashes;
they spit at the name of Jesus; they have torn
up the Bibles; the devil has won the victory."
"No, never," said I, "the battle has just
begun; Jesus Christ will win. You are not
burnt. The devil has laughed before. God will
laugh at him, and you will laugh.    Be strong!"
But better things still were coming. At
Kitkatla itself, the Bishop baptized the man who
set fire to the church. Of this man the Bishop
wrote:
"An Indian of mark was holding the loop-end Pacific Coast and Islands 173
of a tape measure, and I the other end. We had
measured off the choicest section of land belonging to the tribe, on which to build a new church—
the third in succession—the second being too
small. As I wound up the tape, he dropped the
loop, but held up his hand, and said with deep
emotion, 'Bishop, do you know that hand set
fire to the first house of God here?' This hand
and this heart trembled as I thought of it, until
years afterwards I said to Gaium Twaga, the
senior Christian, ' Do you think God can forgive
me?' 'Yes, if you truly repent.' 'How do you
know?' 'The blood of Jesus Christ cleanseth
from all sin.' 'Many, like me,' continued he,
'for years, whether on the sea or on the mountains, feared God would sink their canoe or cast
them down some precipice. But when I knew I
could be forgiven, I had peace, and now I love
God."
"Most remarkable of all, perhaps," says the Aiyansh
historian of the C. M. S., "is Mr. McCullagh's
station at Aiyansh on the Nass River, with his
Christian Kitiksheans, their Red Cross and White
Cross Bands of male and female evangelists, their
Parish Council, their Fire Brigade and Insurance
Company, their printing press, their saw-mill,
their building and road making operations; a
smaller Metlakahtla, in fact, and the secular and
spiritual in their right places. One member
of the Red Cross Band (virtually a branch of the
Church Army), a chief named Abraham, said,
'We have not much knowledge; we may not be 174
Inasmuch
able to show a great light; but if we can only
strike a match in the darkness, it may show the
path of salvation to one of the lost.' To this
chief was allotted the duty of seeing that family
prayers were held regularly in every house; 'not
owing to any unwillingness on the part of the
people, but that in the domestic hurry incidental
to their mode of living there was a temptation
to set the sacred duty aside.' When their, new
church was opened, the offertory in silver weighed
eighty pounds, and Mr. McCullagh could not
• lift it on to the Communion Table—£280 sterling
given by 300 Indians!''
The Haidas When Captain Prevost made his first visit to
Fort Rupert, he was surprised "to see the heads
and decapitated bodies of Indians scattered along
the shore in front of the camp, and being washed
up by the waves of the rising tide. On enquiry
he was informed that a fleet of Haidas on their
way south had attacked the camp and, having
slain those who resisted, had carried off a number
of captives to enslave them."
This incident affords a fitting introduction to
the corsairs and freebooters of the Northern
Pacific. Inhabiting the Queen Charlotte Islands,
the Haidas were master canoe builders and
seamen. They were the terror of the adjoining
regions, and ranged the mainland and both
coasts of Vancouver Island as far south as
Victoria. On one occasion the Governor found
it necessary to call upon the crew of a warship
to ward off a threatened attack upon the Capital. Pacific Coast and Islands
175
Archdeacon Collison describes his first view
of a Haida fleet. "In the month of June, for the
first time, I vritnessed a Haida fleet approaching
the shores of the mainland from the ocean, and it
left an impression on my mind not yet effaced.
It consisted of some forty large canoes, each with
two snow white sails spread like immense birds
or butterflies, with white wings outspread,
flying shorewards. Before a fresh westerly
breeze they glided swiftly onward over the rolling
waves, which appeared to chase each other in
sport as they reflected the gleams of the summer's sun. These were the northern Haidas, who
were famed for their fine war canoes. They have
always been the canoe builders of the northern
coast. As they neared the shore the sails were
furled, and as soon as the canoes touched the
beach the young men sprang out, and amid a
babel of voices hastened to carry up their freight
and effects above the high-water mark. These
then were the fierce Haidas whose name had been
the terror of all the surrounding tribes. And
truly their appearance tended to justify the
report. Many of the men were of fine physique,
being six feet in stature; whilst those whose faces
were not painted were much fairer in complexion
than the Indians of the mainland. Some of their
women wore nose-rings, and not a few of them
were adorned also with anklets, whilst all the
women wore silver bracelets, those of rank having
several pairs, all carved with the peculiar devices
of their respective crests."
Haida Fleet,
1874 176
Inasmuch
Crests, The
Potlatch
Totems
Four Crests
The Potlatch
Described
The "crests" of the Haidas introduce us to
three of the most remarkable customs of the
Indian race; the use of "crests" a custom common to the race, the "potlatch" and the erection
of "totem poles" and the use of "swan's and
eagle down" customs distinctive of the North
Pacific tribes.
"There are four leading crests found among
all the Indians on the north-west coast, including
the Haidas, Tsimsheans, Nishkas, Kitikshans,
Klingit, and other tribes. These are the eagle,
the bear, the wolf, and the finback whale. With
each of these, other animals, birds, fishes, and
emblems are grouped and associated. Thus,
with the eagle the beaver is joined; with the wolf
the heron is associated; with the bear, the sun,
the rainbow, and the owl are connected; whilst
with the finback whale, the frog and the raven are
represented. These four crests are known by
special terms in the various languages of the
tribes. Amongst the Haidas, the bear and the
eagle clans were the most numerous. This
crestal system may be designated as a kind of
Indian freemasonry. It is even more comprehensive in its influence and power, as by it the
chieftainships are divided and allotted, marriages
are arranged and controlled, and distribution of
property decided. Indeed the entire social life
of the Indians is controlled and regulated by
this system."
The Handbook of Canadian Indians describes
the  potlatch  as  follows:    "The  great  winter Pacific Coast and Islands
177
ceremonial among the tribes of the North Pacific
coast from Oregon to Alaska. The word has
passed into popular speech along the north-west
coast from the Chinook jargon, into which it
was adopted from the Nootka word patshatl,
'giving,' or 'a gift.' Although varying considerably in different parts of the coast, these pot-
latches were mainly marked, as the name implies,
by the giving away of quantities of goods, commonly blankets. The giver sometimes went
so far as to strip lirmself of nearly every possession except his house, but he obtained an
abundant reward, in his own estimation, in the
respect with which his fellow-townsmen afterward
regarded him, and when others 'potlatched' he, in
turn, received a share of their property with interest, so that potentially he was richer than before."
The erection of totem poles usually took place Erection of
at a "potlatch"; for the description of the scene
we quote again from Archdeacon Collison:
"The first item in the programme of this great
'potlatch' to which these visitors had been invited was the erection of a great totem or crest
pole. Amongst all the tribes on the coast,
none surpassed the Haidas in the construction
and erection of these totems. In this, and in the
designing and finishing of their large war canoes,
the Haida Indians excelled all the coast tribes,
whether in British Columbia or on the Alaskan
coast. They had one natural advantage, in the
very fine cedar trees which were to be found on
their islands."
Totem Poles 178
Inasmuch
Tattooing
"In the carving of a totem pole very often a
legend or tradition in which the ancestors of the
chief and his crest were the chief actors is selected,
and thus the totem is but an illustration of the
legend. In some villages may be seen totems
surmounted by figures resembling men wearing
tall hats. This indicates that the owner's ancestors first saw the white men who are here represented. Standing by a sldlled carver on one
occasion who had been engaged in carving a very
elaborate totem. I was surprised at the apparently
reckless manner in which he cut and hewed away
with a large axe as though regardless of consequence. "Where-is your plan?" I enquired.
'' Are you not afraid to spoil your tree ?" " No,''
he replied; "the white man, when about to make
anything, first traces it on paper, but the Indian
has all his plans here," as he significantly pointed
to his forehead.
"But there were yet other customs amongst
the Haidas connected with the potlatch. One
of these was tattooing. I had occasion to enter
a lodge one morning shortly before a potlatch
took place, and was not a little surprised to see
all around the lodge men in every attitude undergoing this painful operation, some on the chest,
some on the back, and others on the arms, all
being tattooed with the figures peculiar to their
own crest, which in this instance was the eagle
and the beaver, as they belonged to the eagle
crest.
"Not a few of the Haidas had their faces tat- Pacific Coast and Islands
179
tooed when I first went amongst them, and these
reminded me strongly of the Maories of New
Zealand, but a few of these who now remain are
ashamed of the disfigurement, especially on
embracing Christianity. When the potlatch
took place these men who had been thus tattooed
were rewarded by receiving blankets or other
property proportionate to the honour which they
had thus rendered to the chief. But yet worse
practices were sometimes resorted to in the
erection of the totem at a great potlatch.
It was not uncommon formerly, when the
opening had been dug out in which the totem
was to be erected, to bind one or more slaves,
either males or females, and cast them alive
into the opening. Then, amidst shouting and
clamour which drowned the cries of the victims,
the great totem was hoisted up into position by
hundreds of helpers and the opening around it
filled in with stones and earth firmly beaten
down."
The use of "swan's down" as a symbol and swan's Down
pledge of goodwill and friendship is, I believe,
limited to the Indians of the Pacific Coast.   Our
author says:
'' A great feast had been prepared for the visitors
in the houses of the leading chiefs, and to this
they led, preceded by the dancers. On entering,
great fires of logs piled several feet in height,
diffused a glow of heat around, and the blaze was
intensified by slaves pouring seal-oil and olachan
grease in large quantities upon the fires.   The 180
Inasmuch
Mr. Collison
Visits the
Queen Charlotte Islands
visitors having been seated according to rank,
their entertainers entered arrayed in their dancing
costume, of which the most attractive objects
were the dudjung, or dancing head-dress, and the
shikeed, or dancing robe. The crowned-shaped
receptacle on the top of each of the dancing headdresses was well filled with the swan and eagle's
down, and, as they danced in and around before
their guests, they bowed before each, causing
a shower of the down to fall on each guest, a most
significant mark of both peace and honour. The
dance was accompanied by the music of the chant
and drum, whilst the words of the chant expressed
their pleasure and the rank and record of their
guests. When the Ithadanua, or down, had thus
been scattered, their feasting began."
Into the midst of this liberty loving, piratic,
and murderous people, we are to trace—as our
last illustration of the triumphs of the Gospel on
the Pacific coast—the footsteps of the first
bearer of the Good News.
The invitation to Mr. Collison came through a
young chief Seegay, whom he had met on one of
the Haida expeditions to the mainland, and who,
stricken with tuberculosis, was now on his death
bed.
"On Tuesday, 6th June, I embarked," he says,
"in a Haida built canoe, with a Tsimshean crew,
to make my first journey of some 100 miles to
Massett, the principal Haida encampment, situate
on the north of Graham Island, which is the most
northerly of the Queen Charlotte Islands.    My Pacific Coast and Islands
181
steersman was an old fur-seal hunter, inured to
the dangers of the ocean, my bowman a young
hunter, the son-in-law of the former, and a skilful
canoe sailor, whilst the remainder were lads of some
eighteen years, well trained in the use of the
paddle, but unaccustomed to the open ocean."
In this way, and after an adventurous voyage
"the first messenger of the Cross" responded to
the appeal of the sick Haida Chief. "We landed
in front of the large lodge of the chief Weah,
who was the head of the bear clan at Massett.
This numbered amongst its members the majority
of the Massett tribe. The entrance to this lodge
was a small oval doorway cut through the base of
a large totem pole, which compelled those entering to bend in order to pass through it. On
entering we found ourselves on a tier or gallery of
some five or six feet in width, which formed the
uppermost of several similar platforms rising
one above the other from the ground floor below,
and running all round the house. A stairway
led down from this upper platform to the basement or floor. This was the plan on which all
the Haida houses were built, the object being
defence in case of attack. The small oval doorway cut through the base of the totem prevented
a surprise or rush of an enemy, whilst when
bullets were flying and crashing through the
walls from without, those within remained in
safety in the excavated space on the ground
floor, in the centre of which was the fire-place."
The missionary's first address, and the reply to
Haida House
Described 182
Inasmuch
Collison's
Address
The Chief '«
Reply
to the same, must also be given in the words of the
chief actor: "I addressed them in the Tsimshean, which was interpreted by one of them.
'Chiefs and friends,' I began, 'I am not quite
a stranger to many of you. You have met me
on the mainland, where I have also seen you. I
have heard much of you from the Tsimshean
chiefs who have received the message of peace.
They have heard the word of the Great Chief
above who is trie Father of all. They have scattered the swan and eagles' down over their foes
and have left the war-path for ever. Your
friend and fellow-tribesman Seegay is sick.
He longed to know the word of the Great Chief
before he dies. I heard his cry. It came to me
across the waves, and I have come at his call. I
have brought to him the good word of the Son
of the Great Chief of Heaven. It has made his
heart strong. He of whom I spoke to him is the
Way of life. He only is the Truth. He is the
Life for ever. He has come down from the Great
Father to seek us. He has given us His word.
He has sent me to you with His message. I am
ready to obey. I desire to learn your tongue
to make the message clear. I shall be ready to
come when the first snow falls on the mountain
tops, and the wild fowl are returning southward.
When the fire canoe makes her last trip, I will
come. These are my words to you, chiefs and
wise men.    I have spoken.'
"When I sat down there was silence for several
minutes.   Then there arose a low, murmuring Pacific Coast and Islands
183
consultation from all sides which gradually increased in volume, during which the chief was in
close consultation with his leading advisers. At
length the loud tap of a stick by one of these
caused silence, and the chief arose to speak.
'Your words are good,' he replied. 'They are
wise words. We have heard of the white man's
wisdom. We have heard that he possesses the
secret of life. He has heard the words of the
Chief above. We have seen the change in the
Tsimsheans. But why did you not come before?
Why did the iron people (white men) not send us
the news when it was sent to the Tsimsheans?
The smallpox which came upon us many years
ago killed many of our people. It came first
from the north land, from the iron people who
came from the land where the sun sets (Russia,
from whence it was brought to Alaska). Again
it came not many years ago, when I was a young
man. It came then from the land of the iron
people where the sun rises (Canada and the
United States). Our people are brave in warfare
and never turn their backs on their foes, but this
foe we could not see and we could not fight.
Our medicine men are wise, but they could not
drive away the evil spirit, and why? because
it was the- sickness of the iron people. It came
from them. You have visited our camps, and
you have seen many of the lodges empty. In
them the camp fires once burned brightly, and
around them the hunters and warriors told their
deeds in the past.   Now the fires have gone out 184
In asmuch
Collison's
House
and the brave men have fallen, before the iron
man's sickness. You have come too late for
them.'
"He paused, and again his adviser prompted
him in low tones, after which he resumed: 'And
now another enemy has arisen. It is the spirit
of the fire-water. Our people have learned how
to make it, and it has turned friend to foe. This
also has come from the land where the sun rises.
It is bad medicine of the 'Yetz haada' (iron
people). It has weakened the hands of our
hunters. They cannot shoot as their fathers
did. Their eyes are not clear. Our fathers'
eyes were like the eagle's. The fire-water has
dimmed our sight. It came from your people. If
your people had the good news of the Great
Chief, the Good Spirit, why did they not send
it to us first and not these evil spirits ? You have
come too late.'   With these words he sat down."
The space at our disposal will not permit us to
follow, at length, Collison on his return to the
Islands, accompanied by his brave wife and their
little son. His first residence, however, must be
mentioned: '' The morning following our arrival,''
he says, "I found a small log hut in which the
skins of fur and hair seals had been stored and
salted, but which was now empty. This I cleaned
out, and in it erected a small stove which I had
brought with me from the mainland, and here we
were indeed glad to find shelter. It was only
10 by 12 feet, but I succeeded in partitioning off Pacific Coast and Islands
185
one end of it as a bedroom. The worst feature of
our hut was its position, which I found was within
a few yards of a broken-down dead-house which
had been formed of bark. This was filled with
dead bodies. In bark mats, in dirty blankets,
and in old grease boxes the dead were heaped;
and when the wind blew from that direction, our
position became very trying. But this was not
all. The Haidas, many of whom had never seen
a white woman, crowded into our little shanty
in their paint and feathers, and squatted down
on the floor, so closely packed together that there
was not room to move. Had it not been for the
open door we must have been stifled, as the
peculiar odour arising from their hunting and
fishing garb was overwhelming. The only window—a half one at the end of the hut—was
darkened by an array of faces besmeared with
black and red paint, so that both light and air
were scarce. Not knowing their language, I
could not convey to them our desire, or, had I
attempted to drive them out, I might have been
ejected in turn, or subjected to even rougher
treatment. I concluded, therefore, that what
could not be helped must be endured. Day after
day this continued, so that it was impossible to
get near the stove or to prepare any food."
The contrast was presented when at Christmas, contrast
a few years later, "The Hydahs from outlying
settlements came in canoes to the chief trading
post, Massett, to engage, as they expected, in the
usual wild dances, with painted faces and black- 186
Inasmuch
1878
Kucheng
Massacre.
Indian's
Prayer
Admiral Prevost* s Testament, 1891
ened naked bodies," they were met to their as-
tonishment, by a choir of one hundred of their
own nation, chanting the anthem "How beautiful
upon the mountains."
Two brief, further, quotations must bring this
stimulating record to a close.
The first is the Indian's prayer on hearing of
the massacre of the Stuart Band of Missionaries
at Kucheng, China. "Say again, dear Jesus,
'Father forgive them, for they know not what
they do.' O gracious Spirit, Thou art not
quenched by blood. Let it make Thy garden
soil strong to grow Chinese believers in."
The second concerns the honoured founder of
the North Pacific Mission—A6-rniral Prevost.
"He died beloved and respected by all who knew
him. Only a few months before died the Hydah
Chief Gowhoe, to whom, thirty years previously,
he had given a Testament with this inscription
on the fly-leaf: From Capt. Prevost, H.M.S.
Satellite, trusting that the bread cast upon the
waters may be found after many days." CHAPTER VIII
The Northwest Passage
If the identification of the newly-discovered
lands as the outposts of farther Asia, and the
naming of their irmabitatrts "Indians" were
correct, it followed that there must be a way
round either by the South or by the North, to the
delightful and golden lands "Cathay" or "Cat-
aya." It followed further, since the Continent of
Asia lay to the North of the Equator, that given
a way round, the one to the North or Northwest
would be, by far, the shorter and therefore the
more desirable and satisfactory. Hence, the
search for the Northwest Passage. This
practical reason was reinforced by the facts that
Spain laid claim to central and most of South
America, and Portugal to the passage by the
Cape of Good Hope; thus barring in great measure,
at least, both routes to the English.
It may be asked, what has the search for the
Northwest Passage to do with the missionary beginnings of the Church of England in Canada?
The answer is that it has a great deal to do with
those beginnings. For the reasons; first, that the
voyages in search of the Northwest Passage discovered the wild shores and islands of the Arctic
Seas destined to be occupied, in due time, as the
frontier line of the missionary efforts of the Church
of England in Canada; and, second, that the first Posidonius
135-51 B.C.
Eratosthenes
188
Inasmuch
missionary of the Cross, of any title or religious
persuasion whatsoever, to leave home and friends
11 for the only care he had to save souls" was, as
will be seen in our next chapter, a beneficed
clergyman of the Church of England, who accompanied the second expedition of Sir Martin
Frobisher.
For the earliest surmisings concerning a
western passage to the Far East we must go back
of Columbus, and anterior, even, to the time of
Christ. More than one of the ancient geographers, in attempting to solve the mystery of the
world, came to the conclusion that the earth
must be surrounded by the waters of an unbroken
sea. It seemed to follow that if a ship continued
sailing, straight ahead, long enough and far
enough it must return to its starting point, or
reach the farthest land, on the same latitude,
in the direction opposite to its course. Posidonius
of Apamea in Syria, who lived almost a century
and a half before Christ, thought that the ocean
surrounded the "Oecumene," or habitable world,
continuously; "for its waves were not confined by
any fetters of land." "A ship sailing," he considered "with an east wind from the Pillars of
Hercules must reach India after traversing 70,000
stadia, which he thought was half the circumference of the earth along the latitude of Rhodes."
Eratosthenes, who lived one thousand seven
hundred years before Columbus, said, "if the
great extent of the Atlantic Ocean did not make
it impossible, we should be able to make the The Northwest Passage
189
voyage from Iberia (Spain) to India along the
same latitude."
The people of the middle ages lived, we are
told by Captain Nansen, to a great extent on
remnants of the geographical knowledge of the
Greeks. The Isles of the Blest, the fabled
Continent of Atlantis, Antillia, and the Me of
the seven cities of the Arabs, all were to be found,
by following across the western seas the glowing
pathway of the setting sun.
Those fabled isles constituted, in large part,
the magnet which drew the bluff prows of Columbus into the depths of the unknown ocean.
With the reported discovery of land, the fables
and phantasies began to take on more definite
shape; one result being that a marvellous island Fabled Brazil
known as Brazil was placed in the seas at varying
distances West of Ireland. "It was the Irish
fortunate isle Hy Breasail of which it is sung:
"On the ocean that hollows the rocks where ye
dwell,
A shadowy land has appeared, as they tell;
Men thought it a region of sunshine and rest,
And they called it O'Brazil—the isle of the blest.
From year unto year, on the ocean's blue rim,
The beautiful spectre showed lovely and dim;
The golden clouds curtained the deep where it lay,
And it looked like an Eden, away, far away."
(Gerald Griffin) 190
Inasmuch
John Cabot
About 1490
August 23rd,
1497
Portuguese
Voyages,
May 12th, 1500
Greenland
Discovered
About the end of the fifteenth century John
Cabot came to England and settled in Bristol.
A few years later the Spanish Minister in London,
wrote to Ferdinand and Isabella "For the last
seven years the Bristol people have equipped
every year, two, three, or four caravels to go in
search of the islands of Brazil and of the Seven
Cities following the imagination of this Genoese."
Lorenzo Pasqualigo wrote to his two brothers in
Venice: "Our Venetian, who set out with a little
ship from Bristol to find new islands, has returned,
and says that he has discovered 700 leagues away
the mainland of the Kingdom of the Great Khan
(China), and that he sailed three hundred leagues
along its coast and landed, but saw no people;
but he brought here to the King some snares
that were set up to catch game, and a needle
for maldng nets, and he found some trees with
cuts in them, from which he concluded that there
were inhabitants."
Certain Portuguese navigators were the next
to take up the pursuit; under the authority of
letters patent, granted by King Manuel, to
Gaspar Corte-Real "to search for and find certain islands and mainland." One result was the
discovery of Greenland. To record this feat the
Duke of Ferrara had a map made, having a remarkably good representation of southern Greenland, with the note attached:
"This country which was discovered by the
command of the most highly renowned Prince
Dom Manuel, King of Portugal, is a point of The Northwest Passage
191
Asia.   Those who made the discovery did not
land but saw the land, and could see nothing
but  precipitous  mountains.    Therefore  it  is
assumed,   according   to   the opinions of the
cosmographers, to be a point of Asia."
The Venetian Minister, Pasqualigo, reported
the return of one of the two caravels, of the first
expedition, and said: "they have brought seven
men,  women,  and  children from the  country
discovered, which is north-west and west, 1,800
miglia from here.    These men resemble gypsies
in appearance, build and stature.   They have
their faces marked in different places, some with
more, others with fewer figures.    They are clad
in the sldns of various animals, but chiefly of
otter.    Their speech is entirely different from
any other that has ever been heard in this kingdom, and no one understands it.   Their limbs are
very shapely and they have very gentle faces,
but their manners and gestures are bestial, and
like those of savage men."
The aim of the English voyages is set forth English Voy-
in the opening words of "The Letters patents of age8,
the Queenes Majestie granted to Master Adrian Feb. 6th, 1584
Gilbert and others ":
"Elizabeth by the Grace of God of England,
France and Ireland, Queen, defender of the
faith, etc. To all, to whom these presents
shall come, greeting; Forasmuch as our trusty
and well-beloved Adrian Gylbert of Sandridge
in the County of Devon, Gentleman, to his great
costs and charges, hath greatly and earnestly 192
Inasmuch
The Muscovy
Company
Captain
Frobisher
travelled and sought, and yet doth travel and
seek, and by divers means endeavoureth and
laboureth, that the Passage into China and the
Isles of the Moluccas, by the Northwestward,
Northeastward, or Northward, into which part
or parts of the world, none of our loyal subjects
have hitherto had any traffic or trade, may be
discovered,   known   and   frequented   by   the
subjects of this our Realm."
An early English attempt was made by the
Northeastward,   around  the  North  Cape  and
thence along the coasts of Russia and Siberia.
The result, and the only result, was the opening
up of trade with Northern Russia, and the formation   of   the   Muscovy   Company   of   London.
Having found a good thing, the Muscovy Company determined to keep the benefit thereof to
themselves, and opposed all further attempts in
that direction.
The men, however, of the times of "Good
Queen Bess" were unaccustomed to allow either
the greed of vested interests or the terrors of unknown regions to block untravelled pathways.
"Our General Captain Frobisher," says the
old chronicler, "as well for that he is thoroughly
furnished of the knowledge of the sphere and all
other sldils appertaining to the art of navigation,
as also for the corifirmation he hath of the same
by many years experience both by sea and land,
and being persuaded of a new and nearer passage
to Cataya than by Capo de buona Speranca,
(Cape of Good Hope,) which the Portugals yearly The Northwest Passage
193
use: he began first with himself to devise, and
then with his friends to confer, and laid a plain
plan unto them that that voyage was not only
possible by the Northwest but also he could prove
easy to be performed. And further, he determined and resolved with himself to go make full
proof thereof, and to accomplish or bring true
certificate of the truth, or else never to return
again, knowing this to be the only thing of the
world that was left undone, whereby a notable
mind might be made famous and fortunate."
Martin Frobisher's first expedition consisted
of two small barks, of twenty and twenty-five
tons burden, named the Gabriel and the Michael,
and one pinnace of ten tons burden. The combined crews numbered twenty-five; and the vessels
were provisioned for twelve months. With |hese
"he departed upon the said voyage from Blacke-
wall the 15th of June Anno Domini 1576."
Twenty-six days later, on July 11th and during
a great storm, high pinnacle land was sighted.
Frobisher's first contact with the New World was
unfortunate, the pinnace foundered and her crew
of four men was lost, while those of "the other
bark named the Michael mistrusting the master,
conveyed themselves privily away from him, and
returned home." Weakened in this way by disaster and desertion, with the mast of his own
vessel sprung and his top mast blown overboard,
he continued his voyage towards the Northwest. On the 20th of the month Frobisher discovered a high cape to the southward, "with a
First Expedition 194
Inasmuch
Frobisher's
Bay
First Natives
great gut, bay, or passage, dividing as it were two
mainlands or continents asunder. The land upon
his right hand as he sailed westward he judged
to be the Continent of Asia, and there to be divided from the mainland of America, which lieth
upon the left hand over against the same."
Under this delusion, with the conviction that the
desired Northwest Passage was before him;
Frobisher—in imitation of Magellan at the other
extremity of the continent—called the "great
gut, bay, or passage, Frobisher's Straits." On
the return of the second expedition Queen Elizabeth it may be remembered, named the territory
Meta Incognita; it is the Baffin Land of our present maps, and "Frobisher's Strait" is Frobisher's Bay.
The accounts of the dealings with the natives
of the early voyagers in search of the Northwest passage, afford refreshing reading; the
story of the first contact of the white man with
the red Indian is reversed. The strangers were,
on the whole, kind, unright, and just; while the
natives were cunning, double-dealing, and treach-
"In this place," says the writer "he saw and
perceived sundry tokens of the peoples resorting
thither. And being ashore upon the top of a hill,
he perceived a number of small things floating
in the sea afar off, which he supposed to be porpoises or seals, or some kind of strange fish; but
coming nearer, he discovered them to be men in
small boats made of leather.   And before he could The Northwest .Passage
195
descend down from the hill, certain of those
people had almost cut off his boat from him,
having stolen secretly behind the rocks for that
purpose, where he speedily hasted to his boat,
and bent himself to his halberd, and narrowly
escaped the danger, and saved his boat. Afterwards he had sundry conferences with them, and
they came aboard his ship, and brought him salmon and raw flesh and fish, and greedily devoured
the same before our men's faces. And to show
their agility, they tried many masteries upon the
ropes of the ship after our mariners fashion, and
appeared to be very strong of their arms, and
nimble of their bodies. They exchanged coats
of seals and bears skins, and such like, with our
men; and received bells, looldng-glasses and other
toys, in recompense thereof again. After great
courtesy and many meetings, our mariners, contrary to their Captain's direction, began more
easily to trust them; and five of our men going
ashore were by them intercepted with their boat,
and were never since heard of to this day again;
so that the Captain being destitute of boat, bark,
and all company, had scarcely sufficient number
to conduct back his bark again. He could now
neither convey himself ashore to rescue his men
(if he had been able) for want of a boat; and again
the subtle traitors were so wary, as they would
after that never come within our men's danger.
The Captain, notwithstanding, desirous to bring
some token from thence of his being there, was
greatly  discontented  that  he  had  not  before
Five Seamen
Captured 196
Inasmuch
Return to
England, Oct.
2nd, 1576
apprehended some of them: and therefore to
deceive the deceivers he wrought a pretty policy;
for knowing well how they greatly delighted in
our toys, and especially in bells, he rang a pretty
lowbell, maldng signs that he would give him the
same that would come and fetch it. And because
they would not come within his danger for fear,
he flung one bell unto them, which of purpose he
threw short, that it might fall into the sea and be
lost. And to make them more greedy of the
matter he rang a louder bell, so that in the end one
of them came near the ship's side to receive the
bell; which when he thought to take at the Captain's hand, he was thereby taken himself: for the
Captain being readily provided, let the bell fall,
and caught the man fast, and plucked him with
main force boat and all into his bark out of the
sea. Whereupon, when he found himself in
captivity, for very choler and disdain he bit his
tongue in twain within his mouth: notwithstanding, he died not thereof, but lived until
he came in England, and then he died of cold
which he had taken at sea.
"Now with this new prey (which was a sufficient
witness of the Captain's far and tedious travel
towards the unknown parts of the world, as did
well appear by this strange infidel, whose like was
never seen, read, or heard of before, and whose
language was neither known or understood of any)
the said Captain Frobisher returned homeward,
and arrived in England in Harwich the 2nd of
October following, and thence came to London, The Northwest Passage
197
where he was highly commended of all men for
his great and notable attempt, but specially
famous for the great hope he brought of the passage to Cataya."
In addition to the first Esldmo to visit England
and the "great hope of the passage to Cataya,"
some of Frobisher's Company "brought flowers,
some green grass; and one brought a piece of black
stone much like to a sea coal in colour, which by
the weight seemed to be some kind of metal or
mineral." The friends and acquaintances of
travellers in Frobisher's days, responded to the
marks of their modern descendents, "for being
demanded of sundry his friends what thing he had
brought them home out of that country, he had
notl-ing left to present them withal but a piece of
this black stone." "And it fortuned a gentlewoman one of the adventurers' wives to have a
piece thereof, which by chance she threw and
burned in the fire, so long, that at the length being
taken forth, and quenched in a little vinegar, it
glistered with a bright marquesset of gold.
Whereupon the matter being called in some
question, it was brought to certain GDlolfiners in
London to make assay thereof, who gave out that
it held gold, and that very richly for the quantity."
In this way "the lure of gold" was drawn
across the pathway of the first and, perhaps, the
most promising of the would-be Discoverers of*
the  Northwest  Passage.
Frobisher's second expedition with three ships,
and his third expedition with fifteen ships, were
Supposed
Gold Ore
Frobisher's
Second
Expedition 198
Inasmuch
The Third
Expedition
The Gulf
Stream
Described
fitted out with the primary purpose of returning
to Frobisher's Bay and loading cargoes of the
black stone, supposed to "hold gold and that very
richly for the quantity." On the second expedition diligent and unavailing search was made for
the five men of the first expedition captured by the
natives. The third expedition carried the framework of a fort and residence, with supplies
sufficient to maintain, throughout the winter
months, a proposed colony of one hundred men.
The loss of one of the smaller vessels with certain
parts of the framework, the destruction of other
parts when used to ward off the blows of masses
of ice, and the damage or loss of much of the provisions, caused the project to be abandoned. By
the return of this expedition the worthlessness of
the supposed gold ore had, apparently, been
demonstrated; in any case the enterprise was
abandoned.
As an example of the knowledge and reasoning
of the period, the following description of the
Gulf Stream is worth quoting:
_ "And after this good deed done, and having a
large wind, we kept our course upon our said
voyage without staying for the taldng-in of fresh
water or any other provisions, whereof many of
the fleet were not thoroughly furnished: and sailing towards the northwest parts from Ireland,
we met with a great current from out of the southwest, which carried us (by our reckoning) one
point to the northeastwards of our said course,
which current seemed to us to continue itself The Northwest Passage
199
towards Norway, and other the northeast parts
of the world, whereby we may be induced to
believe, that this is the same which the Portugals
meet at Capo De Buena Speranza, (Cape of Good
Hope) where striking over from thence to the
Straits of Magellan, and finding no passage there
for the narrowness of the said Straits, runneth
along into the great Bay of Mexico, where also
having a lot of land, it is forced to strike back
again towards the northeast, as we not only here,
but in another place also, further to the northwards, by good experience this year have found,
as shall be hereafter in his place more at large
declared."
The subject is resumed in connection with the
strong and conflicting currents encountered near
the entrance of Hudson Straits: "Also we suppose these great indrafts do grow and are made by
the reverberation and reflection of that same current, which at our coming by Ireland, met and
crossed us, of which in the first part of this discourse I spake, which coming from the Bay of
Mexico, passing by and washing the southwest
parts of Ireland, reboundeth over to the northeast parts of the world, as Norway, Iceland, etc.,
where not finding any passage to an open sea,
but rather being there increased by a new access,
and another current meeting with it from the
Scythian Sea, passing the Bay of Saint Nicholas
westward, it dQth once again rebound back, by
the coasts of Greenland, and from thence upon
Frobisher's Straits being to the southwestwards of 200
Inasmuch
the same. And if that principle of philosophy be
true, that Inferiora corpora reguntur a superiori-
bus, that is, if inferior bodies be governed, ruled,
and carried after the manner and course of the
superiors, then the water being an inferior element must need be governed after the superior
heaven, and so follow the course of Primum mobile East to West.''
The organizers of the next attempt, could not
forbear a sly hit at the "black-stone" which had
aroused the cupidity and wasted the time and
strength of Frobisher's expeditions. They described themselves as "moved with the desire to
advance God's glory and to seek the good of their
native country, consulting together of the likelihood of the Northwest Passage which heretofore
had been attempted, but unhappily given over
by accidents unlooked for, which turned the enterprisers from their principle purpose, resolved
after good deliberation, to put down their adventures to provide for necessary shipping and
a fit man to be chief conductor of this so hard an
enterprise."
John Davis' A "fit man" was found in the person of Mr.
1585* Voyagc'' John Davis, who made three voyages, exploring
the regions and coastline of Davis Straits. From
the accounts of his voyages we must content
ourselves with two brief extracts: the first describing his experiences at the hands of the natives,
and the second giving his conclusions concerning
the Northwest Passage:
"The ninth of this month we came to our
Second,   1586;
Third, 1587 The Northwest Passage
201
ships where we found the people desirous in their
fashion, of friendship and barter: our mariners
complained heavily against the people, and said
that my leniency and friendly using of them gave
them stomach to mischief: for they have stolen
an anchor from us, they have cut our cable very
dangerously, they have cut our boats from our
stern, and now, since your departure, with slings
they spare us not with stones of half a pound
weight: and will you still endure these injuries?
It is a shame to bear them! I desired them to
be content, and said, I doubted not but all should
be well. The tenth of this month, I went to the
shore, the people following me in their canoes: I
invited them on shore, and used them with much
courtesy, and then departed aboard, they following me, and my company. I gave some of them
bracelets, and caused seven or eight of them to
come aboard, which they did willingly, and some
of them went into the top of the ship: and thus
courteously using them, I let them depart: the
Sun was no sooner down than they began to
practise their devilish nature, and with slings
threw stones very fiercely into the 'MoonHght,'
and struck one of her men then boatswain, that
he overthrew withal; whereat being moved, I
changed my courtesy and grew to hatred, myself
in my own boat well manned with shot, and the
bark's boat likewise pursued them, and gave
them divers shot, but to small purpose, by reason
of their swift rowing: so smally content we returned." 202
Inasmuch
Davis Returns
From Second
Voyage, 1587
George Weymouth, 1602
Captain
Knight, 1606
Henry Hudson, 1610
On his return from the second voyage, Davis
reported: "I have now so much experience of
much of the Northwest part of the world, and
have brought the passage to that likelihood as;
that I am assured it must be in one of four places,^
or else not at all." On the fifteenth of September
he landed '' all weary'' from his third attempt, and
wrote, "With God's great mercy I have made
my safe return in health, with all my company,
and have sailed three score leagues further than
my determination at my departure     The
passage is most probable, the execution easy, as
at my coming you shall fully know."
George Weymouth, the next adventurer, was
fitted out by the Muscovy Company. He sailed?
in the ship "Discovery" into Frobisher and
Cumberland bays and penetrated a short distance
into Hudson Straits
Then came Captain John Knight in the Hopewell. Knight, his mate, and three of his crew,
were surprised and slain by the natives, bringing
the voyage to an early and disastrous end.
These were succeeded by the navigator, whose
efforts and pathetic end, gave his name to three
great waters of the North American Continent:
Hudson River, Hudson Straits and Hudson Bay.
Henry Hudson, in the Discovery of fifty tons,
sighted the South coasts of Greenland, entered
the "mistaken Straits" of Martin Frobisher,
passed into Ungava Bay, and continuing his
course westward was the first to sail the waters
of the great inland sea which now bears his name. The Northwest Passage
203
| Hudson's Journal ends on the 3rd of August and,
the remainder of the melancholy story is told by
Abacuk Pricket, who states that they were frozen
in, on the 10th November, in the south-east part
of the bay, after sailing three months through
a labyrinth of islands. Dissensions had early
sprung up among the crew, and in the June
following a mutiny broke out headed by Robert
Juet and Henry Greene. On the 21st, Hudson
was seized by the conspirators, and, with his
young son, forced into a small boat. The carpenter, John King, accompanied him voluntarily,
while six sick men were also forced into the boat,
which was cut adrift, never to be heard of again.
On the way home Juet and others of the leading
mutineers were killed by the Eskimos at Cape
Diggs, and the remainder only reached England
after great sufferings from famine and other hardships."
Sir John Button, came next, and sailing through sir John
the channel between Cape Chidley and the
Button Islands, gave his name to the latter. He
passed through Hudson Straits, crossed the Bay
and reaching land north of Chesterfield Inlet, he,
in his disappointment, called it "Hopes Checked."
He then turned southward, discovered the Nelson
River, and was the first to winter with a ship's
crew in those regions.
James Hall and William Baffin, who gave his
name to Baffin Land, followed. Baffin sailed
through Hudson Strait, and returning explored
Davis Strait sailing up the West Coast of Green-
Button, 1612
Hall and
Baffin, 1615 204
Inasmuch
Jens Munck
Radisson and
land as far as "Horn Sound in latitude 74° before
being greatly embarrassed by ice." "In his
report he drew attention to the importance of
the whale fishery, which soon after was begun and
lasts to the present day."
A Danish expedition under Jens Munck
entered Hudson Bay, and attempting to winter
at Churchill, only Munck and two others survived the savages of scurvy. He was followed by
a second expedition fitted out by the Muscovy
Company, under Captain Fox, and a rival attempt under Captain James. Nothing, worth
mention, was accomplished by either.
Two notable French Canadian Fur Traders,
chouart, 1659 named «Radissori) and Chouart dit Groseilliers"
now appear upon the scene. They visited Hudson Bay and on their return to Quebec endeavoured to form a company to establish permanent posts
on the Bay. Disappointed in their efforts, they
journeyed to Paris, and failed there also. The
British Ambassador, however, hearing of the
scheme, sent them to London, where Prince
Rupert became interested: a small ship was outfitted under Zachariah Giilam, a New England
Captain, and a voyage made to the mouth of
Rupert River in Hudson Bay. On the return
of Giilam, Prince Rupert and his associates applied to Charles II. for a charter. This was
granted on the second of May "to {he Governor
and Company of Adventurers trading from England to Hudson Bay," and so was founded the
Hudson Bay Company.
Zachariah
Giilam, 1669
Hudson Bay
Co., 1670 The Northwest Passage
205
Urged on by keen and increasing competition captain
with French trading and missionary efforts, the m9ghan'
Hudson Bay Company fitted out a frigate "commanded by Captain Vaughan, and a sloop by
Captain Barlow, the chief command being entrusted to Captain James Knight, who had been
governor of a number of the forts, but who was
eighty years of age." The instructions were to
follow the West shore, of Hudson Bay, northwards in search of the mythical "Anian Strait."
"Hopes were long entertained that Knight had
made his way to the Pacific, and it was not until
1767 that the fate of the expedition became
known. That year the Company started a whale
fishery at Marble island, and one of the boats
engaged accidently discovered a harbour near
,the east end of the island; at its head, guns,
anchors, cables and many other articles were
found. The wrecks of the ships lay in five
fathoms of water, and the remains of the house
were still in existence, with two skulls on the
ground near by. Hearne learned from the
Eskimos that the ships arrived late in the summer,
4that the larger one received much damage entering the harbour, that soon after arriving the house
was built and that the white men numbered about
fifty. When the natives again visited them,
during the following summer, their number was
greatly reduced, and the remainder were unhealthy. The carpenters were then at work on
a boat. By the beginning of winter the number
was reduced to twenty, and in the following sum- 206
Inasmuch
Captain Middleton, 1741
Arthur Dobb
Samuel
Hearne,
The Alarm
Bird
mer only five remained alive, all of whom died
within a few days after the arrival of the natives."
Captain Middleton with two small ships represented the next attempt of the Hudson Bay
Company, he wintered at Churchill, discovered,
the following summer, Wager Inlet and Repulse
Bay, and then returned to England. The supposed unsatisfactory character of his report led
to the passage of an Act of Parliament, "Offering
a reward of £20,000 for the discovery of a Northwest Passage." This result was brought about
through the efforts, chiefly, of Arthur Dobbs a
zealous advocate of the passage. The latter
succeeded also in raising money to equip two
ships, whose captains apparently, "agreed to
disagree" upon every practical point of importance and returned, in consequence, as empty as
they went.
Then comes the first of the overland journeys:
"Samuel Hearne, a clerk in the service of the
Hudson Bay Company, started with a party of
Chipewyan Indians, and travelled overland on
foot to the mouth of the Coppermine River. On
his return journey he passed Great Slave Lake,
and reached Fort Churchill in safety after one of
the most remarkable journeys ever accomplished."
"The most unpleasant part of Mr. Hearne's
story," says Bishop Bompas, "is that the party
of Indians with whom he travelled, entirely without his sanction, made an unprovoked attack on
a number of Esquimaux encamped on the Copper- The Northwest Passage
207
mine River, and, in the night, barbarously massacred the whole body of men, women, and children, and spoiled their tents. The site of the
massacre became known afterwards as the
Bloody Falls.
"It is remarkable that there is a bird in those
parts which the Indians there call the alarm
bird, or bird of warning, a sort of owl, which
hovers over the heads of strangers, and precedes
them in the direction they go. If these birds
see other moving objects they flit alternately
from one party to the other with a screaming
noise, so that the Indians place great confidence
in the alarm bird, to apprise them of the approach
of strangers, or to conduct them to herds of deer
or musk oxen. Mr. Hearne remarks that all the
time the Indians lay in ambush, preparatory to
the above-mentioned horrid massacre, a large
flock of these birds were continually flying about
and hovering alternately over the Indian and the
Esquimaux tents, maldng a noise sufficient to
wake any man out of the soundest sleep. The
Esquimaux, unhappily, have a great objection to
be disturbed from sleep, and will not be awakened
—an obstinacy which seems to have cost that
band their lives."
The Napoleonic Wars, and the American War
of Independence, turned, for the next half century,
the minds of men in other directions.    No sooner
were these struggles over than the old magnet Rossand
reasserted its power.    The expeditions of Ross o_he?saii8i7
and Parry in the Isabella and Alexander; of Parry 1819-22
208 Inasmuch
1819 and Liddon, in the Hecla and Griper; of Parry
182i and Lyon, in the Fury and Hecla; of Parry on his
fourth   attempt;   combined   to   enlarge   experience and knowledge of Arctic lands, seas, and
conditions, but left the long-sought passage still
the object of speculation and desire.
Franklin's During the same period Franklin made his two
journeys, overland journeys. The first started from Hudson Bay to explore the Arctic Coasts in the vicinity
of the Coppermine River. At York Factory,
Franklin met fur traders from the Mackenzie
River, encouraged by their reports he set out by
the Saskatchewan route to Fort Chipewyan on
Athabasca Lake. Thence he proceeded to Fort
Enterprise on the edge of the Barren Lands, from
which the distance is 334 miles to the mouth of
the Coppermine River. The shores of Bathurst
Inlet and Coronation Gulf were surveyed as far
as Point Turnagain. On the way back disaster
almost overwhelmed the party. With game
scarce and provisions exhausted, half of its
number died of cold and starvation. The survivors, succoured by Indians, finally reached the
Hudson Bay post on Great Slave Lake.
For his second overland effort, Franklin,
profiting by his experiences, made careful and
sufficient preparation. The route chosen was
by the Mackenzie River to its mouth; and the
Coast was surveyed Westward to Return reef,
beyond the Northern end of the Rocky Mountains. At the same time, a section of the expedition, under Dr. Richardson and Lieutenant The Northwest Passage
209
Kendall, was engaged in "exploring the coast
between the mouths of the Mackenzie and
Coppermine Rivers."
Captain Ross, in the Victory, now resumed his captain Ross,
attempt. The ship becoming fast in the ice, was 1829
finally abandoned, and the crew having spent
four winters in the Arctic was saved from starvation by a cache of food left by Parry. They
were at last picked up by a whaler in Lancaster
Sound. Valuable work was done in surveying the
Gulf of Boothia and the shores of King William
Island.
The gaps left in the above surveys of the coast Simpson,
of the mainland were completed by the Hudson l837t39Rae,
Bay Company's expedition under the direction 1345-47
of Peter Warren Dease and Thomas Simpson,
and that led by Dr. John Rae.
Two more attempts by sea, Captain Lyon in
the Griper, and Captain Back in the Terror;
preceded the epic and final tragedy of the long
and heroic search—the Sir John Franklin Ex- sir John
pedition. With two ships, the Erebus and Terror,
provisioned for three years, with crews amounting
to "one hundred and thirty-four persons, of
whom five were sent home from Greenland" the
ill-fated expedition sailed away from the shores
of England. It was seen for the last time in
Lancaster Sound. Thirty-five ships and five
overland expeditions searched vainly for tidings;
"before M'Clintock discovered undoubted proof
of the complete loss of the ships and the death of
the entire crews."    In brief, the sad story may
Lyon and
Back, 1824-36
Franklin, 1845 210
Inasmuch
M'Clintock's
Find, 1859
be told as follows: the ships passed through
Lancaster Sound to Wellington Channel, and
wintered at Beechey Island on the West side of
Cornwallis Island. "Many traces of a winter
residence were found there, including sites of
workshops, forge and observatory. Over 700
empty meat cans, all labelled " Goldner's Patent,"
were found piled in regular mounds. A large
quantity of similar tins supplied to the navy had
been found to be putrid, and were condemned.
This had probably happened to the tins left at
Beechey Island, and helped to hasten the starvation of the unfortunate crews two winters later.
Three seamen died during the first winter, and
were buried on the island.
The next information was found by M'Clintock
on King William Island in the form of a brief
record, deposited on May 24th, 1847; with an
addition, made on April 25th, 1848. The record
noted the position in which the expedition wintered, and concluded "All Well." The addition
stated "Sir John Franklin died on the 11th of
June, 1847, and the total loss by deaths in the
expedition has been to this date nine officers and
fifteen men. F. R. M. Crozier, Captain and
Senior Officer, and start on to-morrow 26th
for Back's Fish River. James Fitzjames, Captain
H.M.S. Erebus."
The end is known with a fair degree of certainty.
"The distance to the mouth of the Fish River,
from the spot where the ships were abandoned, is
about 250 miles_   They started from the ships The Northwest Passage
211
dragging heavy boats on sleds. M'Clintock
found one of the boats on the west side of King
William Island with two skeletons inside it; and
the Eskimos told him that the men dropped down
and died in the drag ropes. The Eskimos living
at the mouth of Fish River said that about forty
white men reached the mouth of the river, and
dragged a boat as far as Montreal Island in the
estuary, where the natives found it and broke
it up. The last of the survivors died shortly
after the arrival of the summer birds. It is exceedingly doubtful, if their strength had lasted,
whether they could have travelled over the
thousand miles of barrens separating the mouth
of the river from the nearest trading post on
Great Slave Lake, but at least a trial would have
been made."
Captain Amundsen, the discoverer of the
South Pole, in a little vessel the Gjoa and in a
voyage of three years, finally made the Northwest Passage; but the search for it, as a way to
fabled Atlantis, to the mystic islands of the Seven
Cities, to the golden lands of Cathay, or as a
prosaic and practical route to the Pacific, died
and was buried with Sir John Franklin.
Captain
Amundsen,
1903-7 "Cold is the clime, the winds are bleak,
And wastes of trackless snow,
Ye friends of our incarnate God!
Obscure the paths ye go.
"But hearts more cold, and lusts more fierce,
And wider wastes of sin,
Ye preachers of redeeming love!
Obscure the soul within.
"Yet go: and though both poles combine,
To freeze the sinner's soul,
The sinner's soul shall yield to grace,
For grace can melt the pole.
"Then blow ye winds, and roll ye waves,
Your task assigned perform:
The God of grace is nature's God,
And rides upon the storm.
"Nature and -providence obey
The dictates of his grace;
Go! for each drop subserves his cause
Each atom has its place."
Rev. John West, 1824. CHAPTER IX
The Innuit
Irmuit or "people" is the native name for a
linguistic stock which includes the Eskimo and the
Aleut. It was distributed from the northern shores
of the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the north end
of Newfoundland, by the Labrador, along all the
Arctic coasts and islands to Alaska, the Aleutian
Islands, and the eastern coast of Siberia. "At
the present time they have receded from this
extreme range, and in the south have abandoned
the North shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, the
North end of Newfoundland, James Bay, and the
South shores of Hudson Bay. There is evidence
to show that the spread of the race was from East
to West, that is from Labrador to Eastern Siberia,
and not, as is generally supposed, in the contrary
direction.
While they call themselves Innuit or "people,"
they are generally known as Eskimo. A name
which was probably first hurled at them in derision
by the Indians, and which means "eaters of raw
flesh." This custom of eating raw flesh was
naturally the first to impress a visitor. On
Frobisher's first contact with them we are told
they "brought him a salmon and raw flesh and
fish, and greedily devoured the same before our
men's faces."
The "People"
Eaters of Raw
Flesh 214
Inasmuch
Social
Organization
Eskimo
Beliefs
For an estimate of the Esldmo character and
habits we must consider the extracts given in the
preceding chapter, in connection with what is now
to be said concerning their response to the teach-<
ing and demands of the Christian faith.
"The Esldrnauan social organization is exceedingly loose. In general the village is the
largest unit, although persons inhabiting a certain geographical area have sometimes taken the;
name of that area as a more general designation,
and it is often convenient for the ethnographer'
to make a more extended use of this native custom. In matters of Government each settlement
is entirely independent, and the same might
almost be said for each family, although there
are customs and precedents, especially with regard
to hunting and fishing, which define the relations
existing between them. Although hardly deserving the name of chief, there is usually some
advisory head in each settlement, whose dictum
in certain matters, particularly as to the change
of village sites, has much weight, but he has no
power to enforce his opinions."
"The Esldmo believe in spirits inhabiting
animals and inanimate objects. Their chief
deity, however, is an old woman who resides in :
the ocean, and may cause storms or withhold
seals and other marine ariimals if any of her
tabus are infringed. Her power over these ^
animals arises from the fact that they are sections
of her fingers cut off by her father at the time
when she first took up her abode in the seas. The Innuit
215
The chief duty of Angakoks, or Shamans, is to find
out who has infringed the tabus and thus brought
down the wrath of the supernatural beings, and
to compel the offender to make atonement by
public confession, or confession to the Angakok.
The Central Esldmo suppose two spirits to reside
in a man's body, one of which stays with it when
it dies and may temporarily enter the body of
some child, who is then named after the departed,
while the other goes to one of several lands of
the souls. Some of the lands of the souls lie
above the earth's surface, some beneath, and the
latter are generally more desirable."
The coasts of Greenland were occupied by the
Norsemen, during the tenth and eleventh centuries ; and the Esldmo were in, consequence, the
first aborigines of the Western Continent to come
into contact with the white race.
The history of Missions in connection with them
begins with the third expedition of Sir Martin
Frobisher. On more than one occasion landing
parties ascended the highest hill in the neighbourhood "where they also made many crosses of
stone in token that Christians had been there."
Again, when two sections of the expedition, which
had given each other up for lost, were reunited,
we are told:
"Here every man greatly rejoiced of their
happy meeting, and welcomed one another after
the sea manner with their Great Ordinance, and
when each party had ripped up their sundry
fortunes and perils past, they highly  praised
The Norsemen
Frobisher's
Expedition,
1578 Inasmuch
The First
*'Celebration"
God, and altogether upon their knees gave
Him due, humble, and hearty thanks, and
Master Wolfall a learned man, appointed by Her
Majesty's Council to be their Minister and
Preacher, made unto them a godly sermon,
exhorting them especially to be thankful to God
for their strange and miraculous deliverance in
those so dangerous places, and putting them in
mind of the uncertainty of man's life, willed them
to make themselves always ready as resolute men
to enjoy and accept thankfully whatsoever adventure his divine Providence should appoint.
This master Wolfall being well seated and settled
at home in his own country, with a good and
honest woman to wife, and very towardly children,
being of good reputation among the best, refused
not to take in hand this painful voyage for the
only care he had to save souls, and to reform those
Infidels if it were possible to Christianity, and also
partly for the great desire he had that this notable
voyage so well begun might be brought to perfection: and therefore he was contented to stay
there the whole year if occasion had served, being
in every necessary action as forward as the
resolutest man of all. Wherefore in this behalf he
may rightly be called a true Pastor and Minister
of God's Word, which for the profit of his flock
spared not to venture his own life."
The last corporate act of the members of the
Expedition was worthy of their general attitude
of sobriety and self-restraint:
"Master Wolfall on Winters Fornace preach- The Innuit
217
ed a godly sermon, which being ended he
celebrated also a CQmmunion upon the land,
at the partaking whereof was the Captain of
the Anne Francis, and many other Gentlemen
and Soldiers, Mariners, and Miners with him.
The celebration of the divine mystery was the
first sign, seal, and confirmation of Christ's
name, death, and passion ever known in these
quarters."
For the next recorded effort on behalf of the
spiritual welfare of the Esldmo we must pass over
nearly two centuries and a half; but, in the
Reverend John West, Master Wolfall found a
worthy successor. On his annual visit to York
Factory he wrote: "In landing at the Factory Rev. John
I had the pleasure of meeting Captain Frariklin, West*1822
and the gentlemen of the Northern Land Expedition, recently returned from their arduous
journey to the mouth of the Coppermine River,
and waiting for the return of the Company's ship
to England. An Esquimaux Indian, who accompanied the expedition as one of the guides,
named Augustus, and who survived the supposed
fate of his companion, Junius, often came to my
room and interested me with his conversation in ,
English, which was tolerably well understood by
him from the instructions he had received during
his travels, He belongs to a tribe which annually
visits Churchill Factory, from the northward;
and often assures me, that 'Esquimaux want
white man to come and teach them'; and tells
me, that they would  'make snow house, good, 218
Inasmuch
Visit to
Churchill
Meeting with
Eskimo
properly, for him in winter; and bring plenty of
musk oxen and deer for him to eat.' Captain
Fran__din expressed much interest for this harmless
race of Indians and having spoken to the Governor
of this Northern district, I have resolved upon
visiting Churchill, next July, in the hope of
meeting the tribe on their visit to that Factory,
and to obtain information, as to the practicability
of sending a schoolmaster amongst them, or
forming a school for the education of their
children."
The purpose then formed was carried out as
West's last journey before his return to England.
The trip from York Factory was long and trying:
"In the evening," he says, "one of the Chipewyan
Indians, sent me some dried venison; and the
next morning, early, we arrived at Churchill.
The Esquimaux , Augustus, who accompanied
Captain Franklin to the shores of the Polar Sea;
came out to meet us, and expressed much delight
at my coming to see his tribe, who were expected
to arrive at the Factory any day. He had not
seen his countrymen since he acted as one of the
guides in that arduous expedition, and intended
to return with them to his wife and children, laden
with presents and rewards for his tried and faithful services."
After waiting some days for the arrival of the
Esldmo, Mr. West describes his visit to the first
family: "The next morning I accompanied him
to the Esquimaux tent, with an interpreter, under
the idea that I might obtain some interesting
* Old form of "Eskimo". The Innuit
219
information; and was much pleased to find the
family living in the apparent exercise of social
affection. The Esldmo treated his wife with
kindness; she was seated in the circle who were
smoking the pipe, and there was a constant smile
upon her countenance, so opposite to that oppressed dejected look of the Indian women in
general. I asked the Eskimo of his country:
he said it was good, though there was plenty of
cold and snow; but that there was plenty of musk
oxen and deer; and the corpulency of the party
suggested the idea that there was seldom a want
of food amongst them. I told him that mine was
better as growing what made the biscuit, of which
they were very fond, and that there was much
less cold, and that we saw the water much longer
than they did. Observing that the woman was
tattooed, I asked him when these marks were
made, on the chin, particularly, and on the hands.
His reply was that when the girls were marriageable, and espoused to their husbands; who had
generally but one wife, though good hunters had
sometimes two. Wishing to know whether they
ever abandoned the aged and infirm to perish like
the northern Indians, he said, never; assuring me
that they always dragged them on sledges with
them in winter to the different points where they
had laid up provisions in the autumn, ' en cache';
and that they took them in their canoes in
summer till they died. Knowing that some
Indians west of the Rocky Mountains, burn
their dead, I asked him if this custom prevailed 220 Inasmuch
with the Esquimaux, he said no; and that they
always buried theirs. The name of this Esquimaux was Achshannook, and as Augustus could
write a little, which he had been taught during
the time he was with the expedition, I gave him
my pencil, that the others might see what I
wished to teach the Esquimaux children, as well as
to read White man's book, which told us true of
the Great Spirit, whom the Esquimaux did not
know, and how they were to live and die happy.
The woman immediately caught up her little girl
about five years of age, and holding her towards
me manifested the greatest delight, with Achshannook, at the wish I had expressed of having
the Esquimaux children taught to write and read
the book."
The main party reached Churchill on the second
of August. "Some of them came over the rocks
with the canoes upon their heads, as being a much
nearer way to the Company's Post from the spot
where they left the Bay, than following the course
of the River. Their number, with a small party,
that came soon afterwards, was forty-two men."
The Message "The next day, they gathered around me, and
with Augustus and an Interpreter, I was enabled
to make the object of my visit to them well understood. I told them that I came very far across
the great lake, because I loved the Esquimaux;
that there were very many in my country who
loved them also, and would be very pleased to
hear that I had seen them. I spoke true. I did
not come to their country, thinking it was better
Given The Innuit
221
than mine, nor to make house and trade with
them, but to enquire, and they must speak true,
if they would like white man to make house and
live amongst them, to teach their children white
man's knowledge, and of the great and good
Spirit Who made the world. The sun was then
shining in his glory, and the scenery in the full
tide of the water before us was striking and
beautiful; when I asked them if they knew who
made the heavens, the waters, and the earth,
and all things that surrounded us, so pleasing to
our sight? their reply was, 'We do not know
whether the Person Who made these things is dead
or alive.' On assuring them that I knew, and
that it was my real wish that they and their
children should know also the Divine Being,
Who was the Creator of all things; and on repeating the question, whether they wished that white
man should come and give them this knowledge,
they all simultaneously expressed a great desire
that he should, laughing and shouting, 'heigh!
heigh! heigh! augh! augh!' One of them afterwards gave me a map of the coast which they
traversed, including Chesterfield Inlet, and which
he drew with a pencil that I lent him with great
accuracy, pointing out to me the particular rivers
where the women speared salmon in the rapids
in summer, while the men were employed in killing
the deer, as they crossed in the water some points
of the Inlet; or were hunting on the coast, catching seals."
"It is said," Mr. West adds, "that the word, ^m
111
Inasmuch
The Word
"Difficulty"
John Horden
Whale River,
1862
difficulty, is not known in the English Military
Dictionary, and surely ought not to be found in
that of the Missionary; and a mission undertaken
to the Esquimaux, upon the plan suggested, conducted with prudence, intrepidity, and perseverance, can leave little doubt as to its ultimate
success. It is true that they live in a country,
as those do on the Labrador Coast, of hopeless
barrenness, and endure almost a perpetual
winter's blast; but the success of the faithful devoted Moravian missionaries on the coast of
Labrador, and on that of Greenland, in their
labours, privations, and perseverance, to impart
the knowledge of Christianity, which has been
blessed of God to the salvation of the Esquimaux,
holds out every encouragement to the intrepid
missionary, in bis attempts to benefit, with
Christian instruction, those on the shores of
Hudson Bay."
John Horden, is the next in the apostolic succession. With Esldmo northward of him on both
shores of the Bay, it was evident that he could
not rest at Moose Factory without maldng an
attempt to carry to them the Gospel of Glad
Tidings.
His first visit was to the Whale River district
of the eastern shore. He was fortunate in having
with him a young Esldmo who could supplement
his meagre knowledge of the language by acting
as interpreter. "That interpreter," says the
Bishop's biographer, "is an interesting example
of the way in which one mission helps another. The Innuit
223
For the young Esldmo who served Horden had
formerly lived on the Coast of Labrador. Whilst
there he had come under the instruction of the
Moravian missionaries, and had carried to Whale
River, on the shores of Hudson's Bay, some knowledge of their teaching. He could speak a little
English, knew some texts, and remembered some
hymns well. Thus the Moravians, in far-off
Labrador had, all unknown to themselves, prepared the way of the Gospel in another land.
"The journey to Whale River was trying, but
the missionary felt well repaid. He wrote home
in the following year that ' those eight days were
indeed blessed ones, and will not soon be forgotten
by me, for they were amongst the most successful
missionary days I have had since I have been in
the country.'
"Horden was greatly drawn to these Esldmo of
Whale River; they seemed so gentle, so contented
under many hardships, so ready to learn, so sincere
in their new faith. Three were baptized during
this visit, two of whom afterwards became man
and wife. This little church was soon sorely
tried, for the young interpreter was drowned, and
the Christian wife died."
A few years later Mr. E. J. Peck arrived and
was placed in charge of the work at Whale River;
some years later he was ordained by the Bishop.
The subsequent story of the extension of the work
among the Eskimo in the Eastern half of their
habitat is largely the story of the life and labours
of the Reverend E. J. Peck.
Rev. E. J.
Peck, 1878 224
Inasmuch
Rev. J. Loft-
house
Horden's Last
Visit
The same authority says of the occupation of
the corresponding station on the West coast:
"Churchill is not a place which any European
would choose as home if duty did not call him
there." "Constant and regular attendance,"
writes the missionary the Rev. J. Lofthouse,
"at all services, is some proof of a desire to serve
Christ at Churchill, for I am quite sure that there
are many real Christians in England whose place
in the House of God would often be vacant if
they had such a Church as we had last winter.
It was no uncommon thing to see minister and congregation covered with snow, and often have I gone
through the full service with the thermometer
a long way below freezing point, yet all were as
reverent and devout as if in a comfortable English
Church. Thank God, we have now got our new
Church opened and in use, so that I hope we may
escape rain and storm, though to get the Church
fairly warm, with the thermometer 50° below
zero, requires good fires and good wood; the
latter is an impossibility to get at Churchill."
The days when "the strong men shall bow
themselves" were drawing on for John Horden.
"They tell me," he wrote, "that for the future,
winter travelling must not be indulged in."
And then he adds: "we must bow to the inevitable; we cannot always be young; the halting
step and the grey head will come, why should we
dread their approach, when we know that if the
earthly house of our tabernacle be dissolved, we The Innuit
have a building from God, a house not made with
hands, eternal in the heavens ?"
In the following May he was able to reach
the last word of his translation of the Bible into
Cree, and then he set out at once on his final
visit to his beloved Esldmo at Whale River. How
great the change! '! You see before you,'' he wrote,
"a goodly number of clean, intelligent-looking
people, short and stout; you see that they have
books in their hands, and notice that they readily
find out the places required; they sing very nicely.''
After six years service among the Esldmo of Attempt
the east coast of Hudson Bay, the Rev. E. J.
Peck was about to leave for a well-earned visit to
England, but postponed his departure because,
as he reported, "we were anxious to see some
heathen Eskimos living at Ungava Bay, and not
being able to push on, on account of very severe
weather, we were obliged to give up the journey.
Th-Lnking then that there might be a more favourable opportunity the following year; I determined
to remain and make another trial."
The next year "another trial" was made, "we
started again," wrote Mr. Peck, "but could not
force our way along the coast on account of the
vast piles of ice which lay in our path." During
the following winter a further trial was made by
dogs, and sleds overland. For eleven days the
party struggled on over the frozen waste, but, in
the absence of every trace of ariimal life, was
"obliged with heavy heart to retrace their steps
or perish of starvation." 226
Inasmuch
Ungava
Visited, 1884
Blacklead
Island, 1894
The last, and successful, attempt was made by
Mr. Peck, and four Indians, in a canoe.    After
an arduous and adventurous journey of twenty-
five days, with many portages, they arrived at
Fort Chimo on Ungava Bay.    Here three weeks
were spent in instructing the natives.    Was it
worth while ?   Three fruitless attempts, and a
final journey of twenty-five days, to preach the
Gospel for three weeks to a small company of
Eskimo?    Five   years   later   the   Head   of   the
Moravian Mission on the Labrador Coast reported the visit of one of his missionaries to i
Ungava Bay, and wrote to Mr. Peck, "that there j
was a real awakening and that it is to be traced
to the Divine Blessing on your own work at j
Ungava.    From thence it has spread northward ;
to Kangiva, the Island of Alipatok, and even to j
the other side of Hudson Straits.     It was soon
plain to him—and he says it would be plain to
every one—that the work is of God.    No doubt
some of the Esldmos are going with the stream,
but its flow is towards Christianity."
Ten years later came the next extension.    On
July 9th, the whaling brig "Alert" sailed from :
Aberdeen, bearing Mr. Peck and Mr. J. C. Parker j
to the desolate Blacklead Island in Cumberland I
Sound.    "The Island, as its name indicates, contains the mineral blacklead.    It is a small, h'gh,
barren rock.   It is a two-hours' walk around it on |
the frozen sea.    Its vegetation is very meagre.'
Every   single   thing   required,   mcluding   both j
wood and coal for fuel, had to be brought from I The Innuit
227
Scotland, with the consequence that the maintenance of the Mission presented unusual and
serious problems.
'' On the arrival of the two missionaries a hut Arrival
belonging to a Mr. Noble was lent them. It consisted of two rooms, each about ten feet square.
One was used as kitchen and schoolroom, the
other as bed-sittingroom and study combined.
Mr. Parker wrote that their first work was the
repairing, fitting up, and arrangement of this
abode." "Our aim," he adds, "has been to
make it throughout as bright and homelike as
possible. The newly-fallen snow lies on all the
surrounding hills—sweet emblem of purity and
of the sin-cleansed soul through the blood of the
Lamb. So now we are looking for God's blessing
to rest on us as we begin this real Arctic Mission
to these "other sheep" who belong to Jesus in
this cold, lone land. Brethern, pray for us, that
our faith fail not."
The work was carried forward with dogged The church
faith and invincible patience. Daily school was Devoured
held for the children, with house-to-house instruction of the adults. As soon as possible a
Church building was erected; a wooden frame
covered with seal skins. This proved excellent
for the purposes for which it was built, but was
not proof against the omnivorous appetite and
famishing winter hunger of the Esldmo dogs;
the result being that the latter made a raid upon
it and devoured most of the roof. On the recital
of the incident to a class of Scotch girls, one of Inasmuch
Lake Harbour
them said: "Now that we have heard of a kirk
being eaten by dogs, it is not hard to believe that
a whale could have swallowed Jonah." The only
fatal meal for an Eskimo dog, of which the writer
can find any record, occurred on the Labrador
Coast, where one swallowed an old dish* cloth
in haste, and repented at leisure.
The daily routine of toil, privation and loneliness, was broken by one very sad event. With a
party of seven men, whalers and others, Mr.
Parker set off upon an excursion. A day or two
later, an Eskimo found a water-logged boat, with
the body of a Captain Clisby, one of the party,
cast upon the shore; of the others, nothing was
ever heard. In this tragic manner ended the
brief but fruitful service of one of the two pioneers
into the far north of the eastern habitat of the
Eskimo.
The work was slow and 6_ifficult in the extreme.
Six years after the Mission was founded, the
Missionary could write "Some of the men came
to both morning and evening services. The
evening service was very hearty and the people
listened with evident attention." One month
later, after an address concerning baptism "No
less than two men and twenty-four women came
.... wishing to be enrolled," and on May 4th,
the first convert, a girl on her death-bed, was
ao_mitted into the visible Church of Christ.
From Blacklead Island a station was opened at
Lake Harbour, on the north side   of   Hudson The Innuit
229
Straits. From this centre by the Reverend
A. L. Fleming, and others, the Gospel has been
preached to the natives living along the south
shore of Baffin Land.
The Rev. H. A. Cody's life of Bishop Bompas,
furnishes us with the major part of our material
concerning that great missionary's visit to the
Esldmo, of the Arctic Coasts of the Mackenzie
River basin.
The motives, which carried him to such distant
and difficult people, he described as follows:
"At the funeral of the great Duke of Wellington, it was considered to be a mark of solemn
respect that the obsequies should be attended by
one soldier from every part and regiment of the
British army; and it is a part of the Saviour's
glory that one jewel be gathered to His crown from
every tribe of the lost human race. It is an
honour to seek to secure for our Lord one such
jewel from even the remotest tribe."
Fort MacPherson on Peel River is the real
base for all the work along the western half of
the Arctic shores. From there Mr. Bompas set
out with an Esldmo lad for a guide, and continued
his journey in the face of a message from the
Esldmo chief that the natives "were starving and
quarreling, and one had just been stabbed and
killed in a dispute about some tobacco."
Hard on the heels of this message, sufficient
to discourage and turn back any ordinary man,
came an attack of the terror of the North: snow-
blindness.    His Eskimo boy leading him by the
Bishop Bompas
Visit to Eskimo April
18th, 1870
Snow Blindness Snow House
230 Inasmuch
hand, Mr. Bompas stumbled onward for three
days further until at length he reached the first
snow-house. Of snow-blindness, caused by the
glare of the sun upon unbroken wastes of snow,
he wrote, "The effect of this is to produce, after
a time, acute inflammation of the eyes. These,
in the end, may be so entirely closed as to involve
a temporary blindness, accompanied by much
smarting pain  The voyager feels very helpless during the acute stage of snow-blindness, and,
like Elymas the sorcerer, or St. Paul himself, he
' seeks some one to lead him by the hand.'"
Erection of To a man of his sympathetic spirit and acute
observation, every detail in his new surroundings
was of the greatest interest. The erection of a
snow-house he could "compare to nothing but
the skill of the bee in maldng its honeycomb	
The snowy material is so beautiful that the work
proceeds as if by magic. The blocks of frozen
snow are cut out of the mass with large knives,
and built into solid masonry, which freezes together as the work proceeds, without the aid of
mortar. Being arched over, a dome-shaped
house is formed, with a piece of clear ice for a
window, and a hole, through which you creep on
all-fours, for a door or entrance. One-half of
the interior is raised about two feet, and strewn
with deer-sldns as beds and sofas, on which the
long nights are passed in sleep, for which an
Esldmo seems to have an insatiable capability
and relish." The Innuit
231
Like the Esldmo of Churchill, on the visit
of the Rev. J. West, they expressed their willingness to be taught. "They have received the
little instruction I have been able to give them
with great thankfulness. At the same time, their
ignorance and carelessness are so great that they
seem quite unable at present to apprehend the
solemnities of religion. The chief idea they
have in seeing my books is to wish that they could
be metamorphosed into tobacco, and, indeed,
at present smoking seems to be the sole object of
their lives."
His experiences in general were set out in a
letter to a friend in England: "It would be easy
for you to realize, and even experience, the whole
thing if so minded. First go and sleep a night
in the first gipsy camp you can find along some
roadside, and that is precisely like life with the
Indians. From thence go to the nearest well-to-
do farmer and spend a night in his pig-sty (with
the pigs, of course), and this is exactly life with the
Eskimo. As this comprises the whole thing in a
nutshell, I think I need give you no further description. The difficulty you would have in
crawling or wriggling into the sty through a hole
only large enough for a pig was exactly my case
with the Eskimo houses. As to the habits of
your companions, the advantage would be probably on the side if the pigs, and the safety of the
position decidedly so. As you will not believe
in the truth of this little simile, how much less
would you believe if I gave you all particulars!
Response to
Instruction
Experiences 232
Inasmuch
Opposition
So I prefer silence to exposing myself to your
incredulity; but if I had to visit them again, I
should liken it rather to taking lodgings in the
den of a polar bear. The first time, in God's
good providence, he did riot show his claws.
"Harness yourself to a wheelbarrow or a garden-roller, and then, having blindfolded yourself,
you will be able to fancy me arriving, snow-blind
and hauling my sledge, at the Eskimo camp,
which is a white beehive about six feet across,
with the way a little larger than that for the
bees. ... As to one's costume, you cannot manage
that, except that a blanket is always a good cloak
for us; but take a large butcher's knife in your
hand, and that of itself will make you an Esldmo
without further additions.
"If you will swallow a chimneyful of smoke,
or take a few whiffs of the fumes of charcoal,
you will know something of the Eskimo's mode
of intoxicating themselves with tobacco, and a
tanyard will give you an idea of the sweetness of
their camps. Fat, raw bacon, you will find,
tastes much like whale blubber, and lamp oil,
sweetened somewhat, might pass for seal fat.
Rats you will doubtless find equally good to
eat at home as here, though without the musk
flavour; but you must get somevraw fish, a little
rotten, to enjoy a good Esldmo dinner."
One of the first effects of the preaching of the
Gospel has ever been the the arousal of the forces
of evil in opposition. The Angakoks, or medicine
men, finding their "craft in danger," charged the The Innuit
233
white stranger with the introduction of evil
spirits into the camp. With the result that he
was, more than once, in grave danger of death.
On his return to Fort MacPherson, on the
eighteenth of June, he received a warm welcome
from the Hudson Bay Factor, Mr. Andrew Flett,
of whom he wrote: "His influence over the
Esldmo, as well as the Indians, has been very
beneficial, for the whole time of his residence
among them—now nearly ten years—and by
consistent and honourable conduct, as well as by
his attention to the duties of religion, he has done
much to assist the work of the missionary. Of
his personal kindness to myself I have had much
experience during the past twelve months."
Following the anniversary of 1880, the C. M. S.
put forward an "Extension and Enlargement
Fund," and, among other gifts, received from
"four friends £1,000 each, one definitely for Mid-
Japan, one for the Niger, one for Afghanistan,
and one for the Eskimo of the Mackenzie River."
With the latter sum the Rev. T. H. Canham was
sent out to join Bishop Bompas. "Both the
Rev. Mr. Canham and myself," wrote the latter,
"often showed the Esldmo the Illustrated London
News, when, on meeting with an elephant, they
would recognize it, apparently by its trunk,
exclaiming 'Kaleh!' as an exclamation of surprise. The interpreter, an Eskimo, who speaks
English well, told me that they knew the animal,
because, though not now alive in their country,
they thought it was not long since it was so from
Rev. T. H.
Canham ^mm
234
Inasmuch
Bishop Reeve.
1892
Rev. I. O.
Stringer, 1894
Mr. C. E.
Whittaker
Herschell
Island, 1897
Years of
Waiting
finding its body or skeleton. As elephant bodies
are known to have been found on the Siberian
coasts, it is still less strange that they should be
found near the Mackenzie, for the current sets
eastward from Behring's Strait."
On the division of his huge diocese, Bishop
Bompas assumed charge of the northern part:
Selkirk now the Diocese of the Yukon. He was
succeeded in the Mackenzie River by the Right
Rev. W. D. Reeve. The latter paid a visit to the
Eskimo on the Arctic Coast eastward of the
Mackenzie delta.
One of the writer's clearest memories of his
student days, is the personal appeal of Bishop
Reeve on behalf of the Eskimo. The result of
that appeal is now known throughout the length
and breadth of the Anglican Communion; it was
the enlistment of the Rev. I. O. Stringer and the.
founding of the Herschell Island Mission. Three
years later he was joined by Mr. C. E. Whittaker;
and together, with Mrs. Stringer, they went to
live upon the Island; "the most northerly inhabited spot, in the British Dominions, and
perhaps the most inaccessible; a bleak, desolate,
treeless island, icebound for nine months in the
year, and surrounded by floating masses of it
during the short summer." The Captains of the
American whaling vessels, wintering there, subscribed six hundred dollars towards the founding
of the Mission.
Here, as elsewhere, among the Eskimo the
missionaries seemed confronted with the maxi- The Innuit
mum difficulties, physical, moral, spiritual. Ten
long years, and more, passed without a single
baptism.
The Rev. C. E. Whittaker writing from Fort Results
MacPherson, in 1910, could say of the Esldmo:
"They visit here in well-kept and well-managed
sailing boats, pitch their trim tents and keep
them clean, dress tidily and tastefully, behave
themselves modestly, indoors and out, buy what
they need, and go to their hunting grounds again.
Many of them are speaking a lot of English.
While here they look freely about the house and
are interested in everything, but in ten years we
have never lost an article by them. Many of
them have sewing machines, all have good kits of
tools. One man has a steam launch with an
Esldmo engineer and they are beginning to carry
thermos bottles in their travels. Books, paper
and pencils are among the things most in demand.
"Their eagerness for knowledge is wonderful.
A geography or book of illustrations they will
study with interest. Almost all are able to read
and those too old to learn the art have memorized
the whole of the hymns and prayers from hearing.
Literally, 'their own mothers would not know
them."
The re-discovery of the Esldmo of the neighbourhood of Coronation Gulf, is now an old story;
and so, to many, is the story of the band of
Christian Esldmo who, at their own charges,
volunteered to accompany Mr. Fry on his
hazardous   expedition,   but   Bishop   Stringer's
Eskimo
Volunteers 236
Inasmuch
The first
expedition
description of the event is more than worth repeating. He depicts the manner in which the
facts were set before the Christian Eskimo, and
continues:
"It was accordingly arranged that Mr. Fry
should go to the East. But he could not go alone,
and yet who was to go with him? We thought a
few of the more earnest Christian Eskimos might
be willing and so we asked for volunteers. We
reminded them of the example of the Disciples,
who were sent out here and there to the regions
beyond. We told them ' Now you are Christians,
and your first duty is to teach others those
truths that have made such a difference in your
lives.    If it has helped you it will help others.'
"Then we told them of the conditions and
difficulties. The new field was one thousand
miles east of Herschel Island. The people were
strange and might be troublesome, like they
themselves were a few years ago. The country
would be new to them, and they would have to
trap and hunt for their living. We had no funds
for their outfit. They would have to go at their
own expense, and on a two years' expedition. It
was a severe test, and yet we felt a few might be
willing. The Church was packed, when volunteers were asked for, and it was at first a little
disappointing, as no one responded at once.
Then a leading Eskimo said: \ Tell us who is to
go? We are all willing, but if we volunteered,
some of us might not be suitable for the work.
Name the persons you think best fitted.'    It was The Innuit
237
a challenge, and we wondered how much it really
implied, but we answered, ' Very well, to-morrow
morning we shall tell you the names.' That
night we prayerfully considered the question,
and selected ten—five couples. The next morning, all assembled in the big tent eager and expectant. As I read out the names, I noticed how
pleased were those who were selected, while others
who were not chosen, showed their disappointment on their faces. I am sure we could have
had scores of suitable volunteers for the work,
but we added only two more to the number—two
young fellows who were relatives of some of the
others already selected. After the names were
chosen, I asked the question:' Now are you willing
to go?' They seemed surprised at the question,
and replied: 'We asked you to tell us who was to
go. You have told us and we are going.' But
I said: 'It may be inconvenient for some. If so,
tell us now. We do not want anyone to turn
back later.' The brief answer was: 'But we
shall not turn back.' And the answer was
characteristic and I believe prophetic. I have
never felt so such an extent the presence of the
Holy Spirit, as during those last days together.
"We met in Church for our last service, soon to
separate for our different fields of work. More
baptisms, more marriages, and then the words
of admonition and council and prayer joined in so
heartily by all—prayer especially for those going
to the regions beyond. There was no apparent
excitement, but a tense earnestness, and a quiet Inasmuch
Rev. H. Girling, 1915
determination to carry out the work allotted to
each. As Mr. Whittaker and I stood together in
the chancel, the same thought came to each of us,
and was whispered one to the other: 'This is a
modern miracle.' 'Yes, think of a few years
ago.' 'And these are the same people.' 'Laus
deo."
That expedition poorly and hastily equipped
suffered many hardships, and was compelled, to
escape starvation, to turn back.
At the same time at Collingwood, Ontario, was
being built a power-schooner; especially constructed to withstand the rough usage of the
Arctic Sea. When ready she was fittingly named
the "Atkoon" or "Light-bearer," and transported by land and water to the mouth of the
Mackenzie River.
We now pass to extracts from the account of
the Rev. H. Girling, leader of the second expedition to the Eskimo of the Coronation Gulf region:
"On August 21st, at 8.30 p.m., with three
merry hoots from the syren of our boat, we glided
out of the harbour (at Herschel Island) to a fanfare of answering salutes from the whaling and
trading boats, and the waving of many hands.
Our little craft is a ten ton auxiliary schooner
appropriately named the '^tkoon,' which in
Esldmo means'light bearer.' She carried fore,
main, and jib sails, and in addition a 24-h.p.
Buffalo marine engine. The crew were as
follows: Rev. H. Girling, Messrs. W. H. B. Hoare
and  G.   E.   Merritt,   assisted  permanently  by The Innuit
239
Paochina, a Point Barrow native. As we left
the harbour the Archdeacon, in whose fertile
brain the Atkoon was planned, anxiously watched
his baby schooner disappear."
With varying fortunes the Atkoon made her
way far to the eastward, what happened then
must be told in the words of the journal:
4' Again we needed engine repairs and unknowingly had passed a splendid harbour at Pierce
Point in the dark. About 1.30 a.m. our anchor
dragged, so we started eastwards, scanning the
coast diligently all the day for a harbour; two
small shelters were seen, but would not permit
the engine being put out of running as the wind
might suddenly change. With a fair wind we
ran well, keeping the coast in view until at 4 p.m.
our old enemy the fog returned. In the distance
we sighted the "El Sueno" and contemplated
approaching her when everything was blotted
from view. The position was not any too comfortable, compass erratic, home-made so-_mcfing
line useless, dense fog and lastly a blizzard
blowing. To anchor off shore was out of the
question as our anchor would drag and the swell
was on shore. A strict watch was kept by two
men at the bow whilst the native steered. But a.
short time elapsed when breakers were heard and
the order was given to run out to sea; again
breakers were heard, the conclusion being that
we had entered a small bay. About 9.30 p.m.
the cry again was 'land close,' and in the scurry
the foresail halliard jammed with the anchor
The Atkoon
Beached 240
Inasmuch
Camp
Necessity
cable and in a few minutes we were beached high
and solid with breakers and gravel washing over
our decks. From Cape Lyons to Clifton Point
the coastline is composed chiefly of low sloping
hills from the Melville Mountains to the coast.
There are numerous rocky points running out to
sea with small bays between. During our run
in the dark we had continually feared these dangerous points, but Divine Providence had cast
us ashore on the sand and gravel beach. Having
secured our boat to a one hundred gallon gasolene
cask sunk in the sand, we prepared to unload.
The reader will need no assurance from me that
we thoroughly enjoyed unloading a two-year outfit
in the pitch darkness on an unknown shore with
snow falling heavily and cold breakers drenching
us."
"As the ground was freezing, winter fast coming
on, we unanimously decided on the 16th of
September that our best course would be to prepare for wintering and arrange for the safety of
our boat. A house was planned after the Mackenzie native fashion, as follows:
"Four posts let in the ground, with cross pieces
joining the tops, these forming a square of six
feet by six feet high.
"Leaning posts at the four corners and midway to form sloping sides, the recesses inside to
accommodate the bunks from the ship. The
spaces between leaning posts filled in with small
split sticks laid on.
"A window laid flat on the flat box board roof. The Innuit
241
"All to be covered with the large torn tent and
then banked to the top with sand, the bank being
six feet wide at the bottom.
"A tent-like porch and store on end of house
with a snow porch at its extremity, porch made of
one of our large sails. I am glad to say this house
has since proved very comfortable and warm,
requiring very little wood for heating purposes;
upon rising in the morning one has never felt
chilly. After due discussion our settlement was
called 'Camp Necessity.'
"From Camp Necessity a small party, led by overland
Mr. Girling, set out overland.    The achievement
of their great objective must be stated in his own
words:
"The following day, Sunday, October 10th,
stands out as the one great day of the writer's
life. After a four-mile walk eastwards, we sighted
on the banks of a small inland lake a group of
tepee-shaped skin tents; at last the long-sought-
for people were before us. It is customary upon
approaching to give the following signs of friendly
intentions. First, the hunting laiife is held
horizontally between the hands, at arm's length
above the head; then the knees are bent forward
until a sitting posture is adopted, the crouching
and straightening postures are repeated for a few
times. But upon this occasion we were spared
this performance, as we reached the tents unobserved. Upon entering the native greeting
word ' ilaganactunga' was used and immediately
came uproarious cries of approval.   Any attempt
Expedition
Eskimo
Reached, 242
Inasmuch
at describing my feelings would be inadequate;
one's soul rose in thankfulness to God. The past
experiences, beaching and storms all were forgotten, for here before us were the people whom
for three years or more our Church had striven
to reach; the first part of our great task was completed, but the greater work was now begun.
What a peculiar synchronism lay here, in the
outside world a terrible modern war raging with
all the latest methods of destruction employed,
whilst here lived a healthy, happy people dressed
completely in skins and using bows and arrows
and stone implements."
There, in the midst of the welcome of the
"other sheep," on the uttermost border of "the
Oecumene," the habitable world, we must leave
the record of those who, for us and as our representatives, have proclaimed "the Glad tidings of
great joy" to the native races of Canada.
"Shall he who sows dream of the ears already,
Or grasp at once his summer's fruitful prime?
God's harvest waits for those of purpose steady,
All in His own good time." CHAPTER X.
The School of the Apostles
Two facts about Jesus Christ impressed those
who came into earthly contact with Him. The
first, which concerned His message, was based
in the second, which concerned Himself.
* "What is this?" they said, "A new teach- Mark i:27
ing!"
"The multitude   was   astonished   at  His Mark : 22
teaching; for He taught as one having authority."
Of all those who, submitting to His authority, The Twelve
received His teaching; "He appointed twelve that APP°inted
they might be with Him, and that He might send
them forth to preach." Mark ui:i4
These were "the twelve apostles of the Lamb." Rev. xxi:i4
They were selected to be the special disciples of
His teaching during His earthly life, the embodiment of His spirit after His Ascension, and the
"chosen vessels" for the extension of His authority unto the ends of the world.
For these purposes they companied with Him
during His ministry, they associated with Him
after His resurrection, and they were endued with
power from on high on the day of Pentecost.
The final aim of their training was expressed to a
band of Gentile Christians, by one who was him- Ephes. iv:i3
self miraculously added to their number, "till
we all attain unto the unity of the faith, and of
•All quotations from the Revised Version. 244
Inasmuch
Sources of Information
Spheres of
Zeal
the knowledge of the Son of God, unto a full-
grown man unto the measure of the stature of
the fullness of Christ." That was "the school of
the Apostles." It is to the same school that we
now make our way in order that with them, and
through them, we may learn of the mind and will
of Jesus Christ concerning that humanity '' Whose
nature He took upon Him."
Our sources of information are:
1. The Gospels.
2. The Acts.
3. The Revelation.
The teaching derived from these three sources
corresponds to the three spheres of missionary
zeal.
1. The Gospels—the school of missionary
instruction.
2. The Acts—the school of the missionary
message.
*3. The Revelation—the school of missionary
vision.
Or, once more and to state our subject in a
slightly different way:
1. The training of the missionary as described
in the Gospels.
2. The application of that training: In the
winning of converts as portrayed in the Book of
Acts.
3. The vision of the end, as seen in the gathering of the nations into that city, whose light is
the glory of God, and the lamp whereof is the
Lamb.
*It is *unneccssary, for our present purpose, to deal with the Epistles;
which are the analysis, amplification and application of the
Missionary Message. The School of the Apostles
245
Two Methods
With such a subject it is evident that we can
deal, onryy with its general features and broad
outlines; our object being to suggest thoughts and
lines for personal and independent pursuit and
investigation.
Our general approach to the subject may be
made in one or two ways, or by a combination of
the two.    Those two ways are:
First—by moving from Christ up to the
Apostles, that is, by asking and endeavouring to
answer the question: "What missionary conception of the Church did Jesus Christ intend to
plant in the minds of His Apostles, and how far
did they succeed, first in apprehending that conception, and, second in carrying it out into
practice ?
Second—by moving from the Apostles back to
their Master; thus trying to understand, in what
and how far the Missionary spirit and practice
of the Apostles corresponded to, and realized, the
teachings and conceptions set forward by Christ ?
1. Source one—the Gospels—corresponding to source one,
sphere one, Missionary Instruction.    This is the The Goseel*
first of our two methods of procedure: what missionary conceptions of His Church did our Lord
intend to implant within the minds and convictions of His Apostles?
At this point a subsidiary consideration presents itself; about two-thirds of the Book of Acts,
and at least as much of the Epistles, concern the
missionary activities and the missionary administration of a man, who, as far as we know,
A Subsidiary
Consideration 246
Inasmuch
never came under the direct earthly and personal
influence and teaching of Jesus Christ.
The Book of Acts, in the 58th verse of the
vii chapter, says, in connection with the death of
the proto-martyr, Stephen: "But they cried out
with a loud voice, and stopped their ears, and
rushed upon him with one accord; and they cast
him out of the city, and stoned him; and the
witnesses laid down their garments at the feet of
a young man named Saul." Then the account
continues "and there arose on that day a great
persecution against the Church," "and devout
men buried Stephen, and made great lamentation
over him, but Saul laid waste the Church."
From that hour, when the witnesses laid down
their clothes at the feet of Saul, and a great persecution, in which Saul was evidently a main
mover and instigator, broke out against the
Church; during which "Saul laid waste the
Church;" the main impetus and flow of the
Book of Acts concern the conversion and missionary practice of the same young man, Saul, who
became "Paul the bond servant of Christ Jesus."
Turning to the Epistles, we find a like remarkable fact is true. Of the 118 chapters into which
the Epistles are divided, 100 including Hebrews
or 87 excluding Hebrews, were written by the
young man, Saul, who "laid waste the Church";
the one Apostle, as he himself expressed it, "born
out of due time ": as against a total of 18, or 31,
chapters for all the others. The School of the Apostles 247
These facts, and they are remarkable facts, Additional
show that personal contact with Christ,  and Forces
direct earthly and personal knowledge of the
mind and will of Christ, were not the only sources
of, nor the only forces forming, the Apostolic
conception of the Church from the missionary
standpoint.    The additional elements were the
Person, the teaching, the force, of the "Illumina- The
tor" of Whom the Saviour said: "I will pray the      um> !
Father, and He shall give you another Comforter,
that He may be with you for ever, even the
Spirit of truth."    "He shall glorify Me: for He
shall take of Mine, and shall declare it unto you."
This, be it remembered, is the self-same Spirit,
who divideth to each one, individually, "even as
He will."
We thus see that, while general divisions into use of Gen-
sources and spheres are useful for purposes of investigation, they are only general divisions, and
to some extent artificial. The Spirit like the
wind, "bloweth where it listeth, and thou
hearest the voice thereof, but knowest not whence
it cometh, and whither it goeth." We are dealing, in other words, with principles of life, not
with methods of mechanics.
From the Gospels we must read forward
through Acts and Epistles into Revelation; from
Revelation we must pass backward through
Epistles and Acts to the Gospels. It is the same
Lord who speaketh in Gospels, Acts, Epistles, or
Revelation; and it is the same Spirit who interprets, energiseth, and ordereth, in Gospels the 248
Inasmuch
Three Ways
1. Practical,
The Example
of Christ
school of instruction, in Acts the school of preaching, and in Revelation the school of vision.
From this digression, we turn back to source
one—the Gospels, the school of missionary instruction—to find out how our Lord's mind is
declared, and how His purpose is revealed.
Here we must apply the law of living energy
we have just spoken of, as against any method of
division or mechanics. For our present purpose,
the Gospels, the school of missionary instruction,
end not with the last verse of St. John, but with
the thirteenth verse of the second chapter of the
Book of Acts; when "Peter standing up with
the eleven, lifted up his voice, and spake forth
unto them." The Apostles passed then, and not till
then did they pass, from the school of missionary
instruction into that of the missionary message.
Our Lord's spirit and intention are revealed,
in the Gospels, in three ways, and in an ascending
order.
1. In a practical way—through His example.
2. In a mandatory way—through His com
mands.
3. In an inexorable way—through the law of
His life.
Practical: through the example of Christ.
Every chapter of the Gospels, the school of
instruction, illustrates the missionary example of
Christ. In subjection to His earthly parents, in
limitation to His earthly conditions, in association with the frailties, sufferings, and longings of
His fellow human beings, in preaching the Word The School of the Apostles
249
of Life, in healing the sick, in feeding the hungry,
in raising the dead, in comforting the bereaved,
in spending whole nights in intercessory prayer
and whole days in patient teaching, the entire
life of Christ upon earth was a pathway of missionary example.
St. Mark's, the earliest record, may be described as the Gospel of "Straightway," The
current of his description, of the early hours of
the ministry of his Master, sweeps on with
Niagara force. "Jesus came into Galilee preaching the Gospel of God." "And passing along by
the Sea of Galilee, He saw Simon and Andrew."
"And Jesus said unto them, Come ye after me and
I will make you to become fishers of men. And
straightway they left their nets and followed
Him." "Going a little further He saw James,
the son of Zebedee, and John his brother .... and
straightway He called them; and they left their
father Zebedee and went after Him." " And they
go into Capernaum; and straightway He entered
into the synagogue and taught," "and straightway
there was in their synagogue a man with an unclean spirit .... And the unclean spirit, tearing
him and crying with a loud voice, came out of him.
And .... they were all amazed, saying, What is
this? a new teaching! And the report of Him
went out straightway everywhere. And straightway . . . they went into the house of Simon|and
Andrew .... and Simon's wife's mother lay sick
of a fever, and straightway they tell Him offher;
and He came and took her by the hand, and raised
The Gospel of
"Straightway,"
Mark i: 14-35 250
Inasmuch
2. Mandatory,
The Commands of
Christ
The Primary
Command
her up, and she ministered unto them. And at
even, when the sun did set, they brought unto
Him all that were sick, and them that were possessed with devils .... and He healed many that
were sick, and cast out many devils .... and in
the morning, a great while before day, He rose up
and went out, and departed into a desert place,
and there prayed."
Having read this, we can surely paraphrase the
words of the High Priest and say "What need
have we of witnessess, ye have heard the testimony: What think ye?"
The busy days, the prayerful nights, the
triumphant Cross and the empty tomb, proclaim
the attraction of a new message and the authority
of a new life; in the conscious freedom of which the
children of every race and tongue of men become
the sons and daughters of the Lord God Almighty.
Mandatory: through the commands of Christ.
The mandatory basis of Christian missionary
effort is found, chiefly, in four direct pronouncements of Jesus Christ; linked together, in a progressive and cumulative order.
These may be described as:
1. The Primary Command.
2. The Intermediate Statement.
3. The Great Cornmission.
4. The Final Instruction.
The Primary Command, is found in the 5th
and 6th verses of the tenth chapter of St. Matthew, the first sending-forth of the Twelve.
"Go not into any way of the Gentiles, and enter The School of the Apostles
251
not into any city of the Samaritans; but go
rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel."
The Intermediate Statement is found in the
tenth chapter of St. John and the sixteenth
verse: "and other sheep I have, which are not of
this fold; them also I must bring, and they shall
hear My voice; and they shall become one flock,
one shepherd."
The Great Commission, it seems superfluous to
state it, in St. Matthew xxviii:19-20: "All
authority hath been given unto Me in heaven and
on earth. Go ye therefore and make disciples of
all the nations, baptizing them into the name of
the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost;
teaching them to observe all things whatsoever
I commanded you, and, lo, I am with you alway,
even unto the end of the world."
The Final Instruction, is found in Acts i:8:
"Ye shall be my witnesses both in Jerusalem, and
in all Judea and Samaria, and unto the uttermost
part of the earth."
In these four pronouncements the progress of
purpose in the will of the Teacher, and the development of understanding in the minds of the
learners, are clear and convincing.
In connection with each many profitable reflections arise.
The limitation attached to the first is implied,
also, in the sending-forth of the Seventy in St.
Luke x:l; where it is said: "The Lord appointed
seventy others, and sent them two and two before
His face into every city and place whither He
The Intermediate
Statement
The Great
Commission
The Final Instruction
Profitable
Reflections
Home Mission
Basis 252
I n a s mill clh
Relation of
Foreign and
Home
Conditions
Attached to
Primary
Command
Himself was about to come." It is, apart from
any special and primary claim of the Jewish
nation upon the Messiah, the emphatic command
and basis of Home Missions. The man, therefore,
who says, "Charity begins at home," is stating
an undoubted elementary Christian principle.
The error and evil in the phrase, "Charity begins
at home," appears when he who utters it does
nothing at home; or when by it the man who does
much at home is prevented, in sympathy and
spirit, from moving from the Primary Command,
through the Intermediate Statement, to the Great
Commission and Final Instruction of His Master.
This error and evil is expressed in the retort
"Charity begins at home, but does not end
there." The foreign missionary who forgets the
claims of home missions is lopsided, the home
missionary who ignores the claim of the great
world, to its uttermost borders, is a stunted and
undeveloped disciple of the Redeemer and Master
of souls. A true home-mission interest in those
immediately about us, bears its legitimate blossom
in a mental and spiritual concern for those dwelling on the circumference of wider circles, and its
proper fruitage in a consuming desire to carry
the complete Gospel to the whole world.
Further, our Lord Himself attached very serious
conditions to the Primary Command "The harvest is plenteous, but the labourers are few, pray
ye therefore the Lord of the Harvest that he
send forth labourers into His harvest." A foreshadowing  surely of the  shout  of the Angel The School of the Apostles
253
coming out of the temple and crying: "Send forth Rev. XiV:15
thy sickle and reap: for the hour to reap is come;
for the harvest of the earth is over-ripe." Then
the stern injunctions, against too long delay in
one place: "Go not from house to house,"
"But into whatsoever city ye shall enter and they
receive you not, go out into the streets thereof
and say, even the dust of your city, that cleaveth Luke x:ii
to our feet, we do wipe off against you; howbeit
know this, that the Kingdom of God is come
nigh." . These are grave and weighty words
which we dare interpret only in the light, and by
the guidance, of the Holy Spirit as He reveals unto
us the promised treasures of the perfect mind of
Christ; but this at least we may say, our Lord
exhibited, on more than one occasion, a keen
sensitiveness, coupled with a divine dignity and
reserve, towards those who repeatedly and
insultingly rejected His claims and message. Lukex:i6
"He that heareth you," he said, "heareth Me;
and he that rejecteth you rejecteth Me; and he
that rejecteth Me rejecteth Him that sent Me."
The second, the Intermediate Statement, is the The inter-
climax of the teaching of the parable of the Good statement
Shepherd. Note the gradation; the thief climb-
eth into the fold that he may kill and destroy;
the hireling entereth by the door, but he is nevertheless an hireling whose interest is centred in his
hire and not in the flock; the Shepherd careth for
the sheep; but the Good Shepherd giveth for them
His life. He layeth it down, and He taketh it
again.    Hisjjjlaying it down represents His ere- 254
Inasmuch
The Great
Commission
and the Final
Instruction
Four Notes of
the Great
Commission
John iv:35
dentials as the Good Shepherd; His taking it
again represents His power, as the Chief Shepherd,
to preserve and keep His flock unto that kingdom
which is the good pleasure and gift of the Father.
The third and fourth—the Great Commission
and the Final Instruction—are so closely related
in time and purpose that they may be said to
represent two phases of one command.
The Great Commission is marked by four
notes: it is imperative in its form, "Go"; it is
universal in its scope, "all the nations"; it is
guaranteed in its resources and direction "all
authority hath been given unto Me. . . . Lo, I
am with you alway "; it is continuous in its obligation "unto the end of the world." The Great
Commission, closes the Gospel of St. Matthew.
St. Mark evidently has it in mind when he brings
his record to an end with the words: "and they
went forth, and preached everywhere, the Lord
working with them, and confirming the word by
the signs that followed." The Gospel according
to St. John was, on any theory of its date, written
after the Great Commission had been acted upon,
and the'Church planted in many lands; but that
Evangelist reports, as we have seen, the Intermediate Statement, and emphasizes the command
"Lift up your eyes and look on the fields, that
they are white already unto harvest." St. Luke,
while noting certain elements of the world-wide
message as, "repentance and remission of sins";
'' in His Name"; " ye are witnesses of these things''
—ends his Gospel with the Apostles, filled with The School of the Apostles
255
the emotions of a great joy, praising and blessing
God, but within the narrow borders of the Jewish
Temple. Why? because the Gospel of St. Luke,
moving in the liberty of the Spirit of God, does
not end with the fifty-third verse of its twenty-
fourth chapter, but goes straight forward into the
book of Acts, records the words of the Final
Instruction, and clothes the infant Church with
the power promised from on high.
Before we pass with St. Luke from the school Elements of
_. _    "v. . . _ ii/..,       First Three in
of Apostolic Instruction into the school of the Fourth
Apostolic Message, read once more the four
pronouncements of their Lord and Master—the
Primary Command, the Intermediate Statement,
the Great Commission, and the Final Instruction.
Having done that, note how the essential elements
of the first three are combined, co-ordinated, and
re-emphasized, in the fourth.
"Ye shall be my witnesses"—the vital element first; a witness must speak from personal
knowledge.
"In Jerusalem, and in all Judea." Home
Missions, in one's own city and country.
"And Samaria." The country and people
next to one's own. In the light of the conversation at Jacob's well, and of the churlish refusal of the Samaritian villagers to "receive Lukeix:53
Him" may we not see here a reference to the
"other sheep" of the Intermediate Statement,
with the peculiar stress upon the word "must."
"Them also I must bring."    Even the despised 256
Inasmuch
3. Inexorable,
The Law of
Christ's Life
Christ's Definition of
His Mission
John x:10
Samaritian is necessary to complete the perfect
flock of the Good Shepherd.
"And unto the uttermost part of the earth."
The fullness of the Great Commission and the
full glory of the risen Christ, independent of
time a£id space; whose kingdom comprises all
people and tongues, and yet is not of this
world.
Inexorable—the law of Christ's life.
The obligation of Christian missionary effort is
inexorable because it was the law of the life of
Christ; as such it is a constituent and indispensable quality in the lives of His followers; whether
as individuals or as Churches. As such again,
the Inexorable Law of the life of Christ, may be
said to be greater than the Example or the Command of Christ. The Example of Christ, if it
stood alone, might be neglected as too high for
mortal and frail men to attain unto; the Commands of Christ, if they stood alone, might be
ignored as sporadic announcements of glorious,
but impracticable desire; but when both the
Example and the Commands of Christ are recognized as the normal and continuous expression
of the Inexorable Law of the life of Christ, then
we have a cumulative principle of obligation
which is conclusive and irresistible.      |
Jesus Christ defined His own mission in the
words: " I came that they may have life." Clear
in sense, brief in statement, positive in form, these
words respond to all the requirements of a definition.   The accompanying words "and may have
~ The School of the Apostles
257
of Expression
it abundantly," are not, essentially, a part of the
definition, they are the amplification of it.
No greater delusion and lie was ever generated
by the father of delusions and lies, than the very
common one that a general conformity to the
conventions of Christianity is, for the average run
of Christians, a sufficient approximation to the
demands of the law of the life of Christ. The
law being inexorable, its demands cannot be
subject to discount.
The essential principles of the law of Christ's Essential
life, follow the essential principles of the law of PnnciPles
all life.    For our present purpose, those principles
are:
The principle of expression. The first principle The Principle
of life is, that life must find expression or cease
to be life, that is die. The " Mummy Wheat" of
the Egyptian tombs, shut up, with darkness and
death, for long centuries and retaining still the
power of germination, is not an exception sufficient
to discredit the principle. It is an example of the
surviving power of life in the midst of death, and
supports rather than disproves the statement that
life, in the conditions of life, must find expression
for its vital forces or die. At this point the amplifying qualification of Christ's definition comes to
bear; our Lord both brings life and guarantees the
conditions of life. '' That they may have life, and
that they may have it abundantly." Such life is
no hidden seed buried in darkness with the dead
corpse of a dead past, it is the full power of the
risen life which is hid with Christ in God. 258
Inasmuch
Mai. ii:5
John x:10
Romans viii:2
The Principle
of Expansion
The Christian
Paradox
John xii:24
"The Holy
Waters"
Ezek. xlvii
"My covenant," said God of Levi, "was with
him of life." "I came, said Christ "that they
may have life, and may have it abundantly."
"Who hath been made," writes the author of
Hebrews, "not after the law of a carnal commandment, but after the power of an endless (indissoluble) life." "For the law of the
Spirit of life in Christ Jesus, made me free,"
says St. Paul, "from the law of sin and death."
That an individual can share, in any proper way,
a principle of "life abundant" of this nature and
not express it in his own life, is just as unthinkable as that the sun should rise and fail to give
light.
The principle of expansion: Expansion as a principle of life, follows, or proceeds with, expression
as a principle of life, as certainly as light accompanies the rising of the sun. Expansion is,
indeed, the first sure evidence of germination.
Here, however, "the law of the spirit of life in
Christ Jesus," demonstrates and holds a clear
supremacy over all the ordinary laws of life. The
latter live by living, they expand by assimilation;
the former (it is the Christian paradox) lives by
dying, it expands by giving. "Except a corn
of wheat," said Christ, "fall into the earth and
die, it abideth by itself alone: but if it die, it
beareth much fruit."
Turn to the forty-seventh chapter of the
Prophet Ezeldel and read the vision of the
'' Holy Waters.'' From one '' abundant'' source,
at the "south side of the altar," they issue under The School of the Apostles
259
the threshold of the house eastward, and proceed
by way of the burning bed of the valley, which the
Arabs call "Wady-en-Nar" or valley of Fire, to
their destiny in the Salt, or Dead Sea. One
source, a course by the valley of fire; no affluents;
yet, behold! without the threshold of the house
they are "to the ankles," a thousand cubits on
their way, and they are "to the knees," again a
thousand and they are "to the loins," once more
a thousand cubits are measured, and "it was a
river that I could not pass through; for the
waters were risen, waters to swim in, a river that
could not be passed through." Behold! further;
"every living creature which swarmeth, in every
place the rivers come shall live, and there shall be
a very great multitude of fish .... and the waters
of the sea shall be healed, and everything shall
live whithersoever the river cometh, and fishers
shall stand by it, and by the river upon the bank
thereof, on this side and on that side, shall grow
every tree for meat, whose leaf shall not wither,
neither shall the fruit thereof fail; it shall bring
forth new fruit every month, because the waters
thereof issue out of the sanctuary; and the fruit
thereof shall be for meat, and the leaf thereof
for healing."
The Holy Waters were a type of the law of
expansion of the Christ Life.
The principle of expulsion.
We formerly heard much of the "struggle for
existence," and "the survival of the fittest" as
laws of life.    Now the emphasis is placed upon
The Principle
of Expulsion 260
Inasmuch
The School of
the Apostolic
Message
the capacities of the principle of life itself, and we
hear of "the response to environment," and so
on. In any case, and however worded, the expressions indicate the existence of the fact that
higher and more vigorous forms of life exhibit
a constant and unvarying tendency to subdue
and displace those of lower vitality. The "law
of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus," once more,
follows, while surpassing, the natural order; but
in surpassing the natural, the spiritual divides
itself off from it in a radical and decisive manner.
The natural works blindly, subduing and displacing everything that is weaker and in the way; the
spiritual exercises, as it were, a faculty of moral
discrimination, subduing and displacing that, no
matter how strong which is evil, strengthening
and developing that, no matter how weak, which
is morally sound and good. This is the Christian
principle of expulsion.
These three, therefore, the principle of expression, the principle of expansion, and the
principle of expulsion, being essential elements
of the inexorable law of the Christ life; are, of
necessity, of fundamental obligation upon His
followers, as individual Christians; as sharers in
the corporate privileges and responsibilities of
His body the Church; as those who are the partakers of, and therefore the trustees for, the
abundant life which He brought into the world.
When the Apostles passed from the School of
Instruction into that of the Apostolic Message
they were lacking in two respects: The School of the Apostles
261
1. In the completeness of their number; twelve.
2. In the "promise of the Father."
Their first acts, therefore, were related to their
need in both directions.
By prayer, and the lot, they selected Matthias,
whom God had chosen, "to take the place in this
ministry and Apostleship, from which Judas fell
away."
By continuing with one accord "steadfastly in
prayer," they were, "when the day of Pentecost
was now come .... all together in one place
.... and suddenly there came from Heaven a
sound as of a rushing mighty wind .... and they
were all filled with the Holy Spirit."
Complete in their number, and endued with the
promised power, they straightway set about the
witnessing to which their Lord had called them;
for "Peter, standing up with the eleven, lifted
up his voice and spake forth unto them saying,
Ye men of Judea, and all ye that dwell at Jerusalem, be this known unto you, and give ear unto
my words."
But it was a far cry from "Jerusalem unto the
uttermost part of the earth," and there was a
great gulf fixed between Christ's teaching of His
Kingdom and anything the men of Jerusalem
and Judea could yet understand. We must now
limit ourselves, in the wealth of our subject, to
seeing how the Apostles were lead by the Spirit
to make their way from "Jerusalem unto the
uttermost part of the earth," in their conception
Initial
Deficiences
The Message
Proclaimed 262
Inasmuch
Stages in
Accomplishment
First: a Fact
Emphasized
Acts i:22
Acts ii:22
Acts iv:33,
(also v:30; vii;
56)
Central
Theme of
Message
Acts ii:41
of their mission and in their teaching concerning
their Master's Kingdom.
It was accomplished:
First—by the emphasis placed upon the fact of
the resurrection of Jesus Christ.
Matthias was chosen, in the place of Judas, to
"become a witness with us of His resurrection."
"Whom God raised up, having loosed the pains
of death," is the subject of Peter's address on
the Day of Pentecost. The priests, the Captain
of the Temple, and the Sadducees, were "sore
troubled because they taught the people, and
proclaimed in Jesus, the Resurrection from the
dead." Peter made his defence "in the Name
of Jesus of Nazareth, Whom ye crucified, Whom
God raised from the dead." The Apostles, with
great power "gave their witness of the resurrection of the Lord Jesus."
It is clear, therefore, that the central theme of
the Apostles' message was the "resurrection of
Jesus Christ." Such a fact granted, it followed,
on the one hand, that it must have been the sequel
of a life and death of extraordinary meaning and
importance; it followed, on the other hand, that
no subsequent development could be so colossal
as to be out of keeping with such a world-centreing
event.
Whether we are, or are not, able to prove,
absolutely, as an historical fact, the resurrection
of Jesus Christ; one thing we can so prove. It
is: that the proclamation of such an event converted on the Day of Pentecost "about three The School of the Apostles
263
thousand souls"; "that a great company of
priests" the arch-enemies of Christ, "were
obedient to the faith"; that the "multitude of"
Samaria, the hereditary foes of everything Jewish,
"gave heed with one accord unto the things that
were spoken by Philip"; that the Ethiopian
Eunuch listened, believed, and was baptized;
that companies of believers were gathered out,
in Antioch, the moral sewer of the Roman Empire;
in Alexandria, the pride of Egypt; in Derbe,
Lystra, Smyrna, Ephesus, cities of Asia Minor;
in Phiilippi, and other centres of Macedonia; in
Corinth and other homes of Greek intellect and
learning; in Rome, the imperial seat of the Caesar,
the concourse and resort of all the "rich fools"
who thought of nothing so much as the business
of pulling down their barns in order that they
might build greater, and of saying to their souls,
"Soul, thou hast much goods laid up for many
years; take thine ease, eat, drink, and be merry."
Facts, great or small, require adequate explanations. What is the explanation for such a
series of similar facts, springing up in the midst
of such diverse and varied conditions?
Two explanations, only, are possible; the first
concerns a lie, the second concerns the truth.
The first is—the Apostles invented a lie, and
then proclaimed it with such assumed sincerity
that others beHeved it; or that they fell victims to
a soul-possessing delusion, and the like results
followed.
The second is—that they believed a fact, and
Acts vi:7
Luke xii: 16-21
Two Explanations, Only 264
Inasmuch
that the truth of the fact, maldng them free, gave
them such power and boldness that they convinced and converted the multitude, the archenemy, the far-away alien, the acute-minded
tliinker, the hopeless slave, and the members of
Caesar's household.
Which wais it: a lie or the truth? a fact or an
invention? a well-grounded conviction or a soul-
shattering delusion?
Between a lie and a truth there are certain radical differences. A lie, like the father of lies himself, hateth the light and cannot thrive in public.
In this respect the father and all his progeny are
alike. Some lies have tried to demonstrate the
opposite, with the certain sequel, sooner or later,
of exposure and destruction with a great crash.
Of delusions, which are only contumacious and.
chronic forms of the lie, it is a remarkable fact
that while they hold their victims in bondage,
others are keenly alive to their real character,
and in consequence reject them with marked
repugnance. The lie, again, is utterly bereft of
emancipating power. Imagine anyone making
proclamation of a lie, "Ye shall know a lie, and
the lie shall make you free!"
Which was it; the truth or a lie ?
What tMnk ye?
The man who, rejecting the truth of the resurrection, thinks that the Christian Church can be
explained by a lie, is straining at a gnat and
swallowing a camel.
Any attempt to deprive Jesus Christ of the The School of the Apostles
265
miraculous in His birth, His life, His death, His
resurrection; and to retain Him as the ethical
exponent of the mind of God, as the founder and
head of the Christian Church, is unscriptural,
illogical, and historically immoral. "If we
know anything for certain," says Gwatkin,
"about Jesus of Nazareth, it is that He steadily
claimed to be the Son of God, the Redeemer of
marikind, and the ruler of the world to come,
and by that claim the Gospel stands or falls."
Further, far from being conscious, or unconscious, participants in a lie, an invention, or a
delusion, the Apostles were themselves "converted" men. "The belief in the resurrection,"
writes Bishop Westcott, "was produced in spite
of the most complete unreadiness, on the part of
the disciples to accept it."
Listen to their own testimony:
St. Matthew—"Some doubted."
Mark—"Disbelieved."   "Neither believed
they them."    "He upbraided them with
their unbelief and hardness of heart, be- Mark xvi_9-i6
cause they believed no£ them which had
seen Him after He was risen."
Luke—"These  words  appeared in  their
sight as idle talk; and they disbelieved
them."
St.  John—"For as yet  they knew not the JOhnxx:9
scripture, that He must rise again from
the dead."
The Apostles were, be it repeated, converted
St.
St.
Mat xxvii:17
Luke xxivrll 266
Inasmuch
men; they knew whereof they witnessed, and
therefore their witness was with power.
To quote Gwatkin once more: "Somehow or
other modern history radiates as visibly from
Jesus of Nazareth, as ancient history converges.
on Him." "The systems of men may have their
day, but the majestic course of ages gathers
round that Son of Man who claimed to be Himself
the final truth of earth and heaven."
"He stooped to bless:
And stooping raised us;
And the tenderness
Which looked in pity on a world of sin
Long years ago,
Still waits, in love, to call the nations in;
Till all shall know
How man may rise in Him to holiness,
Because He stooped so low."
Second Stage
Unity of Race
Demonstrated
It was accomplished:
Secondly—by a demonstration of the oneness of
the human race. The resurrection of Jesus Christ
being a fact, it followed that a stupendous fact, of
that nature, must indicate benefit and blessing
for the whole race. The distinction enjoyed by
the Jew resolved itself into a priority of privilege,
not a superiority of nature. This was made clear
in several ways:
i. In a practical way; The assembly on the
Day of Pentecost was made up, of Jews of the
Dispersion "from every nation under Heaven." The School of the Apostles
267
To them Peter interpreted the gift as the fulfillment of Jthat which" was spoken by the prophet
Joel;  "and it shall come to pass in the last
days, saith God, I will pour out my spirit upon Acts ii:i7
all flesh."
2. By the compulsion of persecution; "they
therefore that were scattered went about preach- Acts vui:4
ing the Word."
j. By the impulsion of a living message, "and
Philip went down to the City of Samaria, and Acts vui:5
proclaimed unto them the Christ."
4. By  the  appointment  of a special  agent.
"Saul laid waste the Church But the Lord Acts viii:3
said .... he is a chosen vessel unto Me, to bear Acts ix:is
my name before the Gentiles and kings, and the
children of Israel."
5. By the symbolism of a vision, "and a voice
came unto him (Peter) again the second time, Acts x:is
what God hath cleansed, make not thou com-
6. By the intervention of the  Holy  Spirit.
"The Holy Ghost said, separate me Barnabas and Acts xiii:2
Saul for the work where unto I have called them."
7. By the findings of a judicial investigation—
"that the residue of men may seek after the
Lord, and all the Gentiles, upon whom My name
is called, saith the Lord."   And when the Chris- Acts xv:i7
tians at Antioch read the epistle,  which announced the findings, "they rejoiced for the consolation."
8. By a definite statement to the Jews "Be it Actsxxvui:28
known unto you, that this salvation of God is 268
Inasmuch
The School of
Apostolic
Vision
Is. xxxiii:17
R. V.
Greeting and
Ascription
The Seven
Choric Songs
sent unto the Gentiles: they will also hear."
Thus, by divers portions and in divers manners,
"the twelve Apostles of the Lamb" were led to
the full consciousness of the meaning of "the
redemption which is in Christ Jesus," and to the
full vision of their message to the whole world.
The Christian "with all his earthly dress, shot
through with everlastingness," is, and must be,
a man of vision. Therefore, guided by the Seer
of the Isle of Patmos, we pass into the Apostolic
School of Vision.
For our purpose the book of "The Revelation
of St. John the Divine" has no terrors. It
possesses certain mountain peaks, which furnish
land-marks of progress and vantage points, giving
an outlook into "a far-stretching land."
The first of these is, the greeting:
"From Jesus Christ, Who is the faithful
Witness, the first born of the Dead, and the
Ruler of the Kings of the earth." With its accompanying ascription—"Unto Him that loveth
us, and loosed us from our sins by His Blood; and
He made us to be a Kingdom, to be priests unto
His God and Father; to Him be the glory and the
dominion for ever and ever Amen."
Here we see, the origin, the certitude, the
priority, the strength, of our Lord; with the attraction, the emancipation, the privilege, of His
Kingdom and priestly service.
Then follow each other, like a succession of
snow-clad heights, the seven great choric songs.
I. The song of Creation, the eternal Trisagion; The School of the Apostles
269
"Holy, holy, holy, is the Lord God Almighty ....
for Thou didst create all "tMngs, and because of
Thy will they were, and are created."
The mystery of mankind—"What is man that
Thou art mindful of him, and the son of man that
Thou visitest him?"
II. The New Song. "Worthy art Thou ....
for Thou wast slain and didst purchase unto
God with Thy Blood men of every tribe, and
tongue, and people, and nation."
The song of blood-bought redemption and of
universality.
The song of the solution of the mystery of man.
"For Thou hast made him but a little (or for a
little while) lower than the angels, and crownest
Him with glory and honour."
III. The song of the White-robed. "A great
multitude, which no man could number, and they
cry with a great voice saying, ' Salvation unto our
God which sitteth upon the throne, and unto the
Lamb.'"
It is the song of explanation, and the shout
with which the hosts of the Eternal arrive at
the home-land, "Therefore are they before the
throne of God; and they serve Him day and night
in His Temple; and He that sitteth upon the
throne shall spread His tabernacle over them."
IV. The Song of the triumphant King; "The
lringdom of the world is become the Kingdom of
our Lord and His Christ; and He shall reign for
ever and ever."
1. The Song of
Creation
Rev. iv:8-ll
Ps. viii:4
2. The New
Song
Rev. v:9-10
3. The Song of
the White-
robed
Rev. vii:10-17
4. The Song of
the Triumphant King 270
inasmuch
5. The Song of
the Lamb's
Chosen
Rev. xiv:l-3
6. The Song of
Understanding
Rev. xv:3-4
Rom. viii:28
7. The Song of
Culmination
Rev. xix:l-9
The proclamation that God sitteth in His
Heaven, and all is well with the world. That all
appearances to the contrary, notwithstanding,
truth is upon the throne, not upon the scaffold;
and that God's ways are true and righteous
altogether. Lest we should be faint and weary
in well-doing, the vision is given for the appointed
time, the Temple of God that is in Heaven is
opened, and there is "seen in His Temple, the
Ark of His Covenant."
V. The song "of the Lamb standing on the
Mount Zion." No man could learn the song
save the representative company of the Lamb's
chosen "which were redeemed from the earth."
VI. The Song of understanding. "They sing
the song of Moses the servant of God, and the
song of the Lamb, saying great and marvellous
are Thy works oh Lord God, the Almighty,
righteous and true are Thy ways, Thou King of
the Ages."
There are many things which, while in this
earthly house of our tabernacle, we can neither
know nor understand, but we shall do both; of
one thing we have an ever-present and ever-certain
assurance "that to them that love God, all things
work together for good, even to them that are
called according to His purpose."
VII. The song of culmiiiation. "The voice of a
great multitude, and as the voice of many waters,
and as the voice of mighty thunders, saying,
Hallelujah; for the Lord our God reigneth. Let
us rejoice and be glad, and let us give glory unto The School of the Apostles
271
Him; for the marriage of the Lamb is come	
Write, Blessed are they which are bidden to the
marriage supper of the Lamb."
The crisis of the age-long struggle has been
reached and passed. "Fallen, fallen is Babylon
the Great"; and with the fall thereof, went
down for ever all that Babylon represented and
stood for.
Now, "Faithful and True," the rider upon the
White horse, "on His garment and on His thigh a
name written, King of Kings, and Lord of Lords,"
goes forth to the final overthrow and destruction
of the broken remnants of the armies, which once
in the pride of their strength disputed, fiercely,
with Him his claim and rule over the "Kingdom
of the World."
The Consummation
Rev. xix: 11-21
"And I saw a new Heaven and a new earth,
for the first Heaven and the first earth are passed
away; and the sea is no more. And I saw the
Holy City, new Jerusalem, coming down out of
Heaven from God, made ready as a bride adorned
for her husband. And I heard a great voice out
of the throne saying, Behold, the tabernacle of
God is with men, and He shall dwell with them,
and they shall be His people, and God Himself
shall be with them and be their God. And He
shall wipe away every tear from their eyes; and
death shall be no more, neither shall there be
mouirmng, nor crying, nor pain: the first things
are passed away."
The Final
Vision
Rev. xxi:l-5 272 Inasmuch
Matt. xxv:40    And the King shall answer and say unto them,
Verily I say unto you,
INASMUCH
As ye did it unto one of these My brethren
Even these least,
YE DID IT UNTO ME.
[end] Questions
273
QUESTIONS—CHAPTER I.
1. What is supposed to be the origin of the
word "Canada"?
2. Give the circumstances connected with the
first general collection for Missions made in
England.
3. What gave rise to the formation of the New
England Company?
4. What value has the life and work of John
Eliot been to subsequent generations?
5. What was the "Covenant Chain"?
6. What were the main branches of the Indian
race in Canada when the White man came,
and where was each branch located?
7. What characteristics of the Indians made
them (a) 6_ifficult for Missionaries to influence and (b) easy to influence? 274
Inasmuch
QUESTIONS—CHAPTER II.
1. Relate the circumstances under which the
Church of England began work in Canada.
2. What were some of the principal obstacles
facing the Church in its work among the
Indians in the Maritime Provinces?
3. Describe the original territory of the Six
Nation Indians, and the introduction of
Christianity among them.
4. Describe also the circumstances leading to
the taking up of work by the Church of
England in Ontario.
5. What are the main centres of Indians in
Ontario belonging to the Church of England ?
6. Who were the early Missionaries of the
Church most prominent in Indian Missions,
and where did each work? Questions
275
QUESTIONS—CHAPTER III.
1. What was the condition of the Indians when
the White man first came among them?
2. Was the influence of the White man stronger
for good, or for evil?
3. In what ways did the White man wrong the
Indian?
4. Who was the first Missionary to the Indians
of the farther West? What were the circumstances connected with his coming?
5. What steps were taken by the Government
of Canada to reimburse the Indian for the
loss of his lands ?
6. Discuss the benefits and weaknesses of the
system of reserves and treaty money?
7. Who were the principal pioneers in Missionary work among the Indians of Western
Canada ? 276
Inasmuch
QUESTIONS—CHAPTER IV.
1. Who was the first Church of England Missionary to Western Canada and how did he
come to be sent ?
2. What led to the establishment of the Indian
Boarding School System?
3. Mention some of the main points in the
Indian character as described by the Rev.
John West.
4. Give a brief account of some of the Indian
traditions regarding the creation and the
flood.
5. What was the Indian explanation of the
Aurora Borealis?
6. What encouragement did the early Missionaries find in their work among the Indians ? Questions
277
QUESTIONS—CHAPTER V.
1. What was the name applied to the early
Missionaries by the Indians?
2. Who were the best known of the successors
of the Rev. John West?
3. Who were the best known of the early converts?
4. Who was the first bishop of the Church to
visit Western Canada, and how did he come
to visit it ?
5. What were the main characteristics of the
Indians noted by this bishop ?
6. In what condition did he find the work in
the Missions visited?
7. Describe the visit of the first European
Missionary to the Pas. 278
Inasmuch
QUESTIONS—CHAPTER VI.
1. What recommendation did Bishop Mountain make regarding the work of the Church
in Western Canada ?
2. Who was the first Bishop of Rupert's Land,
and when was he appointed ?
3. Describe the work of the Rev. John Horden.
4. What were the chief means of transportation employed by the early Missionaries?
5. Who were the first Missionaries to visit the
Mackenzie River District?
6. Illustrate the progress of Missionary work
in Western Canada by reference to the
gradually increasing number of bishops and
missionaries.
7. Give a brief outline of the life and work of
Bishop Bompas. Que sti ons
279
QUESTIONS—CHAPTER VII.
1. Who was the first Church of England
Missionary to British Columbia and how did
he come to be sent out ?
2. What were the conditions that he found
there ?
3. Who was the first bishop of the Church in
British Columbia, and how was his appointment made possible?
4. Describe the work of William Duncan in
Northern British Columbia.
5. When were the Dioceses of New Westminster
and Caledonia formed? Who was the first
bishop of each diocese ?
6. Explain potlatch, totem, tattoo, lthdanua.
7. Describe the efforts of Admiral Prevost on
behalf of the Indians on the Pacific Coast.
8. Name some of the other early Missionaries
and give some account of the work of each. 280
Inasmuch
QUESTIONS—CHAPTER VIII.
1. What gave rise to the many efforts made
to find a passage to Asia by North America?
2. What  bearing  has  these  efforts  on  the
Missionary work of the Church?
3. Describe the early dealings of the Europeans
and natives with each other.
4. Contrast the first contact of the White men
with the Indian and Esldmo, respectively.
5. Who were the greatest of the Arctic Explorers?
6. What was the effect of these explorations
on   our   knowledge   of   North   American
Geography?
7. Who was the first, so far as is known, to
actually make the Northwest Passage?  282
Inasmuch
QUESTIONS—CHAPTER X.
1. What are the sources of knowledge regarding
the Missionary obligation of the Church?
2. What arguments from Scripture would you
use in enforcing the obligations of Missionary
effort, (a) At home and (b) Abroad?
3. What arguments (a) from the life of Christ
and (b) from the lives of the Apostles would
you advance in support of Missionary work?
4. What arguments from life as we see it about
us to-day support the teaching of our
Saviour?
5. Relate the vision of the "Holy Waters"
recorded in Ezekiel.
6. What is the great central fact from which all
Christian teaching radiates?
7. What are the early evidences recorded in
Scripture regarding the truth of this fact ? BIBLIOGRAPHY
Limitations of space require that the bibliography be restricted to the sources from which
direct quotations appear in the Handbook, as
indicated by the page numbers under each.
1. Two hundred years of the S. P. G.
2. The History of the C. M. S., Vols. I-IV.
The early history of the Church of England in Canada is largely the record of the
activities of these Societies.
Quotations from the former will be found
in Chapter I and, frequently, in Chapter II,
and the first part of Chapter VII; and from
the latter, in Chapters VI, VII (second
part), and IX.
3. Travels and Adventures of Captain John
Smith, page 3.
4. Protestant Missions in Pagan Lands, Stor-
row, pages 5, 6.
5. Indians of North America, Drake, pages
4, 7, 23, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 67, 69, 70.
6. Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia, page 10.
7. Handbook of Indians of Canada. The
Geographic Board of Canada, pages 26, 27,
28, 38, 72, 214.
8. The Myths of the North American Indians,
Lewis, page 20.
9. The People of the Long House, Chadwick,
page 37.
10. Bicentenary Sketches, Vernon, page 32. 284
Inasmuch
11. Trail Makers of Canada: Champlain, pages
21, 22, 24; Hermon, page 64.
12. Pioneers of the Cross in Canada, Harris,
pages 39, 40, 41.
13. Life of Brainerd, Pratt, page 11.
14. Report of a Mission to the Ottahwahs and
Ojibwas, O'Meara, 1846, page 55.
15. Missions and Missionaries, Kingsmill, pages
9,48,49.
16. Chronicles of Canada, Vols. II, XVI, pages
12, 13, 16, 17, 48, 69, 78.
v 17. Jacques Cartier, Stephens, page 14.
18. Jubilee Volume, Toronto Diocese, page 41.
19. A  Journal  of Visitation,   The  Bishop  of
Toronto, 1842, page 55.
v/20. Treaties of Canada with the Indians, Morris,
pages 71, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79.
f 21. Journal of the Rev. John West, Chapter IV,
pages 217-21.
22. Journal of the Right Rev. G. J. Mountain,
Chapter V.
^/23. The Cruise of the Neptune,  Low,  pages
203, 205, 210.
24. Hakluyts Voyages, pages 191, 192-202, 215.
25. Charges of the Right Rev. David Anderson,
first Bishop of Rupert's Land, pages 129-33.
x/26. Life of Archbishop Machray, page 134.
27. Life of John Horden, Buckland,fpages 120-7.
28. The life of E. J. Peck, Lewis, pages|225-8.
29. The Diocese of Mackenzie River, Bompas,
pages 140-147, 206.
30. The Mission World, page 65, 238-42. Bibliography
285
31. Mists of the North, Nansen, pages, 188-91.
32. On Trail and Rapid, Life of Bishop Bompas,
Cody, pages 139, 148, 149, 229-33.
33. In the Wake of the War Canoe, Collison,
pages 166, 171, 175-85.
N.B.—The two last, with the "Red Indian of
the Plains," Hines, should be considered indispensable to every Sunday School Library of the
Church of England in Canada.        §§||^ V^3?
From JLU^^        _	
Place of Purchase V<
Price.. *..frf_P. _i	 

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