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Ethnographical album of the North Pacific coasts of America and Asia Jesup North Pacific Expedition (1897-1902) 1900

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THE LIBRARY
{lie Uniyersityjff British Columbia
V?
ETHNOGRAPHICAL ALBUM
OF  THE
NORTH  PACIFIC   COASTS   OF   AMERICA   AND   ASIA
Jesup North Pacific Expedition
PART I.
NEW  YORK
AMERICAN  MUSEUM   OF   NATURAL  HISTORY
i9,''oo  ETHNOGRAPHICAL ALBUM
OF.THE
NORTH   PACIFIC   COASTS   OF   AMERICA  AND  ASIA
Jesup North  Pacific Expedition
PART I.
NEW YORK
AMERICAN   MUSEUM  OF  NATURAL  HISTORY
1900  CONTENTS
Thompson Indians .
Thompson Indians .
Thompson Indians .
Thompson Indians .
Thompson Indians
Thompson Indians .
Thompson Indians   •
Thompson Indians
Thompson Indians
Thompson Indians .
Thompson Indian.   Child and Shuswap Indian
Shuswap Indian    .....
Shuswap Indian     .....
Shuswap Indians   .....
Half-blood Shuswap Indians
Thompson River at Spences Bridge
The Coyote Rocks near Spences Bridge
Rock in Nicola Valley
Underground House, Nicola Valley
Ruins of Underground House, Nicola Valley
Framework of Lodge, Thompson Indians
Framework of Lodge, Thompson Indians
Framework of Sweat-Lodge, Thompson Indians
Framework of Sweat-Lodge, Nicola Valley .
Lillooet Indians .
Lillooet Indians .
Lillooet Indians .
Lillooet Indians  .
PLATE
I
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
io
ii
18
'9
28
38515  ETHNOGRAPHICAL ALBUM
OF THE
NORTH PACIFIC COASTS OF AMERICA AND ASIA
Plates i-ii. Thompson Indians. — The Thompson Indians speak a language belonging to the Salishan stock.
They inhabit the southern interior of British Columbia around the confluence of Fraser and Thompson Rivers.
In type they resemble other tribes inhabiting the plateaus of southern British Columbia. They are rather short
of stature.     Their heads are broad, though small.     Their faces are narrow, as compared to those of the Coast
Indians, and the nose is in most cases of a marked Indian type.     Fc
obtained from a series of seventy men and sixty-five women: —
lowing is a list of average measurements
Stature
Length of head .
Breadth of head
Breadth of face .
Height of face  .
MEN
WOMEN
mm.
mm.
.   1634
1540
186
179
■  ■  . 156
I5°
147
'39
120
112
A full description of the customs of these Indians has been published in the " Memoirs of the American
Museum of Natural History," under the title "The Thompson Indians of British Columbia," by James Teit.
The plates are reproduced from negatives taken by Mr.  Harlan I. Smith.
Plates 12-15. Shuswap Indians. — The Shuswap Indians speak a language closely related to that of
the Thompson Indians. It also belongs to the Salishan stock. They inhabit a large portion of the interior of
British Columbia, extending in a general way from the upper course of Thompson River northwestward to the
upper course of Fraser River. They are divided "into a number of bands. The individuals represented on
Plates 12-15 belong to the Kamloops band, who inhabit the region near the confluence of North and South
Thompson Rivers. In type the Shuswap Indians are quite similar to the Thompson Indians. The plates are
reproduced from negatives taken by Mr.  Harlan I. Smith.  ALBUM OF THE NORTH PACIFIC COAST.
Plate 16. Thompson River at Spences Bridge.—Reproduced from a photograph taken by Mr. Harlan
I. Smith.
Plate 17. The Coyote Rocks. — The Thompson Indians, who inhabit the region around Spences
Bridge, have traditions in regard to many rocks and bowlders of remarkable shape found in their country. According to their beliefs, they are transformed beings. The three rocks shown on this plate are believed to be
the Coyote, his wife, and her basket, transformed into stone. Reproduced from a photograph taken by Mr.
Harlan I. Smith.
Plate 18. Rock in Nicola Valley. — The trail up Nicola Valley leads past the foot of the high
cliffs shown on this plate. The Indians were in the habit of shooting arrows toward the top of the cliff to test
their strength.     Reproduced from a negative taken by Mr. Harlan I. Smith.
Plates 19, 20. Underground House, Nicola Valley. — In former times the Thompson Indians
lived in underground houses which were supported by four heavy beams. Access was had through a hole in
the top by means of a ladder. The plate shows the ruins of one of the last houses of this kind in existence.
The details of construction of the house are recognized on Plate 20. Reproduced from negatives taken by Mr.
Harlan I. Smith.
Plates 21, 22. Framework of Lodge, Thompson Indians. — In summer the Thompson Indians
live in lodges covered with mats. Several styles of lodges are in use. Some have a somewhat rectangular
ground plan (Plate 21), while others are conical, like the tents of the Plains Indians (Plate 22). On the tree
to the right in Plate 22 a number of cradles may be seen suspended from the branches. It is customary
among these Indians, after the children have outgrown their cradles, to suspend the latter on branches of trees.
The cradles are never used for more than one child.    Reproduced from negatives taken by Mr. Harlan I. Smith.
Plates 23, 24. Framework of Sweat-Lodge. — The Thompson Indians use the sweat-lodge quite
extensively.     It is generally made of supple wands both ends of  which are stuck into the ground (Plate   23),
4  ALBUM OF THE NORTH PACIFIC COAST.
or sometimes of poles arranged in the form of a small conical tent (Plate 24). The framework is covered
with mats or other material. A fire is lighted outside of the lodge, in which stones are heated. When hot,
these are put into the lodge, which is covered over. The person who wants to take a sweat-bath crawls into
the lodge, and sprinkles water on the hot stones. After he has staid inside for a sufficient length of time, he
takes a plunge in cold water.     Reproduced from negatives taken by Mr.  Harlan I. Smith.
Plates 25-28. Lillooet Indians.—The Lillooet Indians speak a language of the Salishan stock,
which is closely related to the languages of the Thompson and Shuswap Indians. They inhabit a valley extending from Harrison Lake northward to Fraser River. They present a very peculiar type. They are very
short of stature, and their heads differ remarkably from those of the neighboring tribes. The heads are small
and very broad. Their faces also are broader than those of other tribes of the interior. This may be due to
intermixture with Coast tribes.     The plates are reproduced from negatives taken by Mr. Roland B. Dixon.    Album of the North Pacific Coast.
Plate _.
Thompson  Indians.  tS^n§
mi
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mm-
Album of the North Pacific Coast.
Plate 3.
J3S3E_-_E,    i_*_8_¥" mm
Thompson  Indians  Album of the North Pacific C
Plate 4.
Thomp:  Album of the North Pacific Coast.
Plate 5.
Thompson Indians  Thompson  Indians.  Album of the North Pacific? Coast.
Plate 7.
Thompson  Indians.  Album of the North Pacific Coast.
Plate 8.
-*#*"  r'^___
Am. Mua. Nat. Hist.
Thompson Indians. -aa-MB        mmrnmm Album of the North Pacific Coast
Plate 13.
Am. Mu-. Nat. Hist.
Shuswap Indian.  Album of the North Pacific Coast.
Plate 14.
I
Shuswap Indians.  Album of the North Pacific Coast.
Plate is.
Half-blood Shuswap Indians.  Album of the North Pacific Coast.
Plate 16.
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Thompson River at Spences Bridge.  Album of the North Pacific Coast.
Plate 17.
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The Coy<  Album of the North Pacific Coast.
Plate iS.
Rock in Nicola Valley.  Album of the North Pacific Coast.
Plate ig.
Underground House, Nicola Valley.  Album of the North Pacific Coast.
Ruins of Underground House, Nicola Valley.  Album of the North Pacific Coast.
Plate  21.
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Framework of Lodge, Thompson Indians.  Album of the North Pacific Coast.
Plate 22.
Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.
Frame-work of Lodge, Thompson Indians.
SSffi  Album of the North Pacific Coast.
Plate 23.
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Framework of Sweat-Lodge, Thompson Indians.      .-Album of the"North Pacific-.Coast.
Mns. Nat. Hi
; Lillooet India     r*ns book is for use in
Library Building ONLY
and as a
"Reserved" Loan.
mnsmmmm      

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