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A voyage around the world, in the years 1785, 1786, 1787, and 1788: published conformably to the decree… La Pérouse, Jean-François de Galaup, comte de, 1741-1788 1799

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Array       VOYAGE
ROUND THE WORLD,    ■/
IN THE YEARS 1 ?85, 1786, \787, AND 1788,
By J. F. G. DE LA PEROUSE:
'    PUBLISHED. CONFORMABLY TO THE DECREE OF THE
NATIONAL ASSEMBLY,
OF THE 22D OF APRIL,  170,1,
AND   EDITED  BY
M. L. A. MILET-MUREAU,
BRIGADIER   GENERAL   IN   THE   CORPS   OF   ENGINEERS,
DIRECTOR   OF   FORTIFICATIONS,   EX-CONSTITUENT,
AND   MEMBER   OF   SEVERAL   LITERARY   SOCIETIES   AT   PARIS.
IN THREE VOLUMES.
TRANSLATED   FROM   THE   FRENCH.
VOL. I.
SECOND   EDITION.
LONDON:
FEINTED   FOR   J.   JOHNSON,  ST.   PAUL'S   CHURCH  YARD*
1799.
J3  CONTENTS OF THE FIRST VOLUME.
The French Editor s Preface        ~ page i.
Preliminary Difcourfe of the French Editor p. 15*
Decree of the National Affembly, the gth February  1791, for fitting   out the  Ships dcr
jigned to go in Search of La Peroufe     p. 59.
Decree of the National Affembly, the zid April
1791, concerning the printing the Journal*
Accounts, and Charts, fent by La Peroufe,
of his Voyage as far as Botany Bay        p, 61.
Memoir, or Note'of the King, containing par-
ticiclar Lnflructions to M. De La Peroufe,
Captain in the Navy± commanding the Frigates La Boujfole, and JOAflrolabe        p. 62,
Firft Part.    Plan of the Voyage      -        p. 63,
Second Part. Objects relating to Policy and Commerce - - - p. 81,
Third ParL ' Operations relating to AJlronomy,
to Geography, to Navigation, to Natural Phi-
lofophy, and to the different Branches of Natural Hi/lory p. 95.
Fourth Part. Of the Conduct to be obferved
with the Natives of the Countries where the
two Frigates may make a Landing       p. 104.
Fifth Part. Precautions to be taken for preserving the Health of the Crews, p. no.
Extract ■Mill
VIll
CONTENTS.
Extract from M. De La Peroufe's general In~
fiructions - - - p. 117.
I{oles Geographical and Hiforical, to be added
to the King's \ Memoir of particular Inf ruction to M. De La PSroufe, Southern Atlantic
Ocean - p.   118.
Great South Sea - - p. 139.
Great Equatorial Ocean - p. 153.
Great Northern Ocean - \ p. 185.
Letter from M. Le Marechal De Cafries to
M. De Condorcet, perpetual Secretary of the
Academy  of Sciences | p. 221.
Memoir drawn up by the Academy of Sciences,
j or the Ufe and Direction of the Scientific
Perfons embarked under the Orders of 'M. De
Z,a Peroufe
p. 222.
p. 224.
p. 226.
p. 23I.
p. 232.
p.   234.
P- 235-
p. 238.
p. 241.
Quejlions propofed by the Society of Medicine,
to the Gentlemen zvho  are to accompany M.
De La Peroufe on the intended Voyage, read
in the Sitting of the $iftofMay, 1785. p. 249;
§ 1 ft. Anatomy, Phyjiology - ibid.
a § 2d.
Geometry, AJironomy, Mechanics
srnyjtts
Chemiftry -
Anatomy ~
Zoology I *
Mineralogy
Qbfervations of M. Buache
mima CONTENTS.
§ 2d. Hygieine
§ 3d. Of Difeafes
§ 4th. Of the Materia Medic a
§ 5th. Surgery
1*
P- 25S-
p. 258.
p. 261.
p. 264.
Sketch of Experiments to be made for preferving
the Water on Ship-board from Corruption,
communicated to M. Dex La Peroufe by the
Abbe Teffier, of the Academy of Sciences, and
of the Society of Medicuye \ p. 267.
Memoir for directing the Gardener in the Occupations and Duty of his Voyage round the
World, by M. . Thouin, firft Gardener of the
Botanical Garden - -        p. 276.
Inventory of the. Merchandize and Effects erar
barked on board the Ships under the Orders
of M. De  La Peroufe,
and Exchanges.
P-
A Summary Account of Inftruments of Ajlrono-
my, of Navigation, of Natural Philofophy,
of Chemiflry, and others, for the Ufe of the
Scientific Perfons and Artifls employed in the
Voyage of Difcoveries.        -        -        p. 321.
A Catalogue of Books of Voyages, of Aflrono-
my, of Navigation, of Natural Philofophy,
and others, configned to M. De La Peroufe,
for the Ufe of the Officers and Scientific Men
embarked under his Orders - P-'325-
A Lift of the Na?nes of the Officers, Scientific
Men,   Artifls   and Sailors embarked in  the
Frigates ± CONTENDS.
Frigates La" Bovffole and VAftrolahe
der the Orders of M. De La Peroufe.
1785. p.
Narrative of an Interefting Voyage in the
gate the Princefia, from Manilla to San
by F. A. Maurelle p.
Extract from the Narrative of a Voyage
in 1779, by F. A. Maurelle, for difcot
the Weft Coaft of North America       p
Fri-
Blaz,
34°-
made
)ering
. 418.
. CHAPTER   I.
Object of the Armament of the two Frigates—
Stay in the Road of Br eft—Pqffagefrom Br eft
to Madeira and Teneriffe—Stay at thofe two
Iftands—A Journey to the Peak—Arrival at
Trinidada—We put in at the I/land of St.
Catherine upon the Coaft of Br of il       p. 441
CHAPTER    II.
Defcriptiqn of the IJland of St. Catherine—06-
fervations and Events during our Stay—Departure  from   St.   Catherine9s—Arrival  at
Conception - - p. 480,
CHAPTER   III.
Defcription of Conception—Manners and Cuf~
toms of the Inhabitants—DeparturefromTalc-
aguana—Arrival at Eafter Ifland    p. 509.
1 LIST THE FRENCH EDITOR'S PREFACE.
THE public, familiarized with the melancholy
reflection of the lofs of the two fhips in
the unfortunate expedition commanded by La Peroufe, will be furprized at the publication of the
journal of his voyage. The decree of the conr
flituent affembly, which ordered the engraving of
the charts and the printing of the journals fent
home by this navigator, might have announced,
however, that we*were not entirely deprived of
the benefits of his voyage. His forefight made
him not only take advantage of,"but feek for
every opportunity of fending his journals to Europe. It is to" be regretted, that the felf-love of
the fcientific perfons embarked along with him did
not allow them, in like manner, to difpatch to
their country all the fruits of their labours; we
fhould not in that cafe have had to regret the
almoft total lofs of them. La Peroufe, occupied
with the difficult, and numerous details, which
the command pf an expedition, as important as
dangerous, muft neceffarily include, forced at
every ftep to judge and forefee, and confequently
" to modify his ideas according to circumftances9
£ould not collect with order, or arrange with
Vol. I. B method.
^J Mttti
mwmm
'% THE   FRENCH   EDITOR'S   PREFACE.
method, the materials from which he was t«
compofe a hiilory of his voyage. Thefe materials muft neceffarily appear Hill more confufed
•and mifplaced to the view of an editor, who was
perfonally a ftranger to the voyage.
As nothing which may contribute to extenql
the progrefs of the human mind ought to be
neglected in voyages of difcovery, fcientific men
and artifls form an effential part in fuch expeditions : upon their, return, each arranges his own
materials^ and gives to the particular object of
•his ftudy that degree of perfection, of which it is
fufceptible; from the well-underftood connection
of thefe different parts refults a complete relation, whe.e all is contained, and each in its proper place. In this inftance, by an unexampled
fatality, our new argonauts have all perifhed ; and,
it has fallen to my lot, alone, by collecting whatever has efcaped the wreck, to fupply that accu?
rate and forcible reprefentation of the navigators,
who would not have expreffed any thing, but
what they themfelves had experienced.
In giving way, not without reluctance, to the
felicitations, which made me undertake this pain*
ful though honourable tafc, I did not deceive
myfelf with refpect to the difficulties, which ^
muft neceffarily have to encounter in a work, all
the parts of which it was not eafy equally to com?
prife and to adjufL THE   FRENCH   EDITOR 3   PREFACE. 3
■ The public will undoubtedly regret with me,
that the Ex-minifter of marine Fleurieu, at this
time member of tha national inftitute, and of
the board of longitude, inftructed as he is in
fubjects of this nature, of fuch rare and diftin-
guifhed talents, and who would willingly have
taken upon himfelf the editing of this work, was
forced, by circumftances, to relinquish it.
The fame intereft which induced me to mani-
feft, in the tribune of the conftituent affembly, a
ftrong zeal for the publication of this voyage, for
the profit of the much efteemed widow of La
Peroufe, occafioned me to endeavour to direct
the choice of the government to a naval officer,
^capable of fupplying the place of him? who had
been at 'firft appointed to the undertaking. But
prance had already loft moft of her eminent fea
officers, and the reft were either on fervice, or had
voluntarily withdrawn themfelyes: it was only in
the power of the minifter to appoint a man, who
had at leaft applied himfelf to the ftudy of natural hiftory and mathematics, an effential qualification for fuch a work. The choice of a man,
who fhould poffefs in a preferable degree this
kind of knowledge, was, befides? conformable to
the intention of La Peroifft; for he wrote to one
of his friends nearly in thefe words. M If my
journal fhould be printed before my return^ Jet
gare be taken not to entruft it to a man of
8 £ ~ letters,
i mm
mm*m
4 THE   FRENCH   EPITOR S   JPREFACE.
letters, who will facrifice to the turning of #
phrafe the proper word, which may appear harfh
and barbarous to him, but which the feaman and
the man of fcience would prefer, and will look
for in vain; or, perhaps, laying afide all the nautical and aftronomical details, and deiirous of
making of it an interefting romance, he will
commit errours, for want of knowledge which his
education may not have permitted him to acquire, errours which will prove fatal to my fuc-
ceffors; but chopfe an editor verfed in mathematical knowledge, who maybe capable of calculating,
of combining my data with thofe of other navigators, of correcting the errours which rnay have
efcaped me, and not commit others himfelf.
Such an editor will dive to the bottom ; he will
fupprefs nothing effential; he will give the technical details in a rough unpolifhed ftyle, but con-
cifely and like a feaman, and he will perform
his talk well, by publiihing the work as I fhould
have wifhed  to dq it myfelf.'5
This defire having conftantly ferved me as a
rule, I declare to thofe who, in reading, have no
other object than amufeme.nt, that they ought
'not to proceed further; I have not laboured 'for
them, but only for feamen and men of fcience.
It has been my endeavour in a work, the matter of which ;s more important than the form,
mi 1m
ggi   FRENCH   EDITOR S   PREFACE. §
and of which the beft praife will be fidelity in the
relation of facts, and accuracy in expreflion, to be
clear and concife; I have made no facrifice to
grace at the expence of truth: this confeffion is
rny excufe, at the fame time that it befpeaks the
indulgence of the reader.
It is with this view, that I have religioufly re*
fpected the character of ftyle in each author, in
meerly fubjecting their memoirs to the known
rules of language; but when an idea has pre-
fented itfelf to me, which might ferve as a
connection to others, an expreflion which might
render an image more perfect, or more obvious,
or give to a phrafe more harmony without altering
its import, I have confidered rnyfelf at liberty to
employ it.
The work about to be prefented to the reader
would doubtlefs have been more valuable, had
it proceeded from the pen of the ex-minifter
Fleurieu, who might have enriched it by his
profound knowledge : I ought, however, to make
it known, that I have confulted him as often as
I have been at a lofs, and I have always found in
him that complaifance and modefty, which are
the infeparable companions of real talent and
fcience*
If to collect, to difpofe, to arrange methodically all the parts of a work like this, were a difficult enterprize, the particulars relating to its pub-
B 3 lication. wammm
6 -THE   FRENCH   EDtTOR*S   PREFACE.
nation, the toils, the refearches, and inquiries,
which the rhoft active zeal alone could go through,
and unforefeen obftacles, appeared to rendet it
impracticable.
The decree for its being printed was paffed
in the year 1791, and nothing was begun in
1793, the period at which I wras entrufted with
it. A paper money every day decreafing in value, occafioned the bargains and agreements with
the artifts and printers to be broken almoft as foon
as made, or induced them to oppofe my efforts
with a difcouraging inertnefs, founded upon
the hope of better times; public opinion bordering on madnefsj which then forced men to
accommodate to the times, in oppofition to
the truth of hiftory, the appellations and cuf-
toms of other times, compelled me to remain inactive during more than a year j after all
this, a new paper money, and the embarrafsments
of the government when fpecie re-appeared, have
been the phyfical and moral caufes of the hindrance I have met with.
To enable me to reconcile the difficulties of
editing, which arofe out of the circumftances of
the moment, I wastlrongly importuned to write
the voyage in the third perfon. Thus becoming
the hiftorian, and appropriating to myfelf the
materials of this wwk, I fhould, have thrown
1 the THE   FRENCH   EDITOll S   PREFACE. |
{he navigator into the back ground : this pro-
jtofal did not gain upon my felf-love; I facrificed
It to the intereft which is always infpired by a
man who relates his own feelings, who defcribes
the difficulties of his own fituations, and who
makes you a partaker in his pleafures and pains.
If circumftances have furrounded me with obstacles during my labour, the refult will prove,
at leaft, that government has not ceafed to protect the fciences and the arts, during the moil
aftonifhihg of revolutions* which has raifed up
fcgainft it a war as general as burdenfome.
I have explained the nature and difficulties of
my labour i I will now fpeak of the form of the
work* of its diftribution, and of the care taken
in the execution of it.
The title of Voyage roilnd the World, which
I have given it* although ftrictly fpeaking it
could not have been acquired but by the return
of La Peroufe into one of the ports of France*
will neverthelefs not be contefted* becaufe we
may confider & Voyage round the World as
terminated, when, departing from Europe* we
arrive at China, after having doubled Cape Horn,
and croffed the South Sea: befides, the events
that occurred during their year's voyage, after
their arrival- atk China, were more ftriking and
k&zardpus, than a mere return to Europe* .
b4
The I
8 THE   FRENCH   EDITOR^   PREFACE-*
The work, confifting of four volumes in 8v&*
and of an atlas in 4to, is divided in the following
manner.
The firft volume contains all the preliminary
articles relative to the expedition j I have only
added to them the tranflation of a Spanifh voyage, the manufcript of which was tranfmitted
by La Peroufe, and which I thought I could not
place any where elfe, without rendering the volumes too unequal.
A celebrated author refcued from oblivion the
magnanimous conduct of D'Affas, who facrificed
his life to fave the French army, by calling out,
" This zvay, Auvergne, here is the enemy." The
fociety of natural hiftory at Paris, had the merit of fixing the attention% of the reprefentatives
of the nation upon the expedition of La Peroufe, by the petition it prefented the 22d of
January* 1791. The affembly loft no time in
taking it into confideration, though they were
then engaged in very important bufinefs.
The two decrees which paffed in confequence,
as honourable to the affembly as to thofe who
were the object of them, are placed at the head
of the work; they breathe humanity and fen-
fibility, and will forever fay to thofe who are
willing to tread in the fteps of La I Peroufe*
" When you fhall have finifhed your career
through all  furroundine dangers,   though  you
ftouM THE   FRENCH   EDITORS   PREFACE. £
fhould fail in the attempt, you may reft fatisfied,
that a grateful country will honourably confecrate
your name, in the temple of memory."
I have not confined myfelf to the cuftom of
publifhing the names of the officers, and men
of fcience, alone, who make up a part of fuch
expeditions: the publication of an exact lift of
the fhips companies appears to me to be an act-
more comformable to juftice, and to the principles of the French government jj I have thought
sllfo, that fuch a regifter will henceforth be the
only regifter of the dead, acceffible to the families of our unfortunate navigators.
The inftructions and the geographical notes
which follow, written by the ex-minifter of the
marine Fleurieu9 are too precious a model not to
be rendered public : it is, befides, the only an-
fwer  I  choofe  to  make   to  a  note  of Gedree
o
Forfter, mifreprefehting the truly fcientific motives which determined this expedition. I regret,
that a man whom I efteem fhould have expreffbd
himfelf thus, in his Voyage Hiftorique et Pit-
torefque fat le§ rives du Rhin. (Vol. J, page 311,
i of the French translation.)
" At the period, when the interefting and tin-
<c happy La Peroufe (tt off, to open new regions
" to commerce and philofophy, a minifter pre-
I fented to the council a memorial upon the
f incalculable    advantages   of this   enterprize,
t&i " This fO THfi.   FRENCH   EDITOR S   PltEFACi^
<c This memorial, though long, was read with
cc eagernefs, notwithftanding it contained only 8
** fingle idea, it was this : if yoii wifh, Sire,
<fc faid the minifter, to turn ajide the attention of
*c your fubjects from this dangeroiis angioma-
% nia, this pajion for liberty, fo deftructive of
% good order and of peace; amufe them zvitk
*c new ideas, beguile their leifure, bij images
C4 the bewitching variety of which may feed their*
" frivolity. It is better, that they fiwuld em*
" ploy themfelves in contemplating the ivaggifh
*c tricks of Cliinefe monkies, than in following
" the prefentfafhion which leads them to admire
*c the horfes andphilofophers of England."
The fecond and third volumes comprize the
jorrnal of the whole voyage of the two frigates £
together with the refult of the aftronomical and
meteorological obfervations.
It is to the progrefs of aftronomy, that we
owe the means of determining the longitudes at
fea, with much greater exactnefs than formerly I
to announce that the aftronomer Dagelet, member of the academy of fcierices, had taken thef
fuperintendance of this branch upon himfelf, is
to infpire the greateft confidence in its accuracy, as well as in that of the tables and charts
which refult from it.
If the journal do not always agree with the
log-book and the charts, U is becaufe it was no|
poffiys THE   FRENCH   EDITORS   PREFACE. II
poffible to defer printing the journal till their complete examination. Thefe differences, moreover,
are neither frequent, nor confiderable; whea they
occur, the preference ought to be given to the
log, and above all, to the charts which have been
executed under the direction of the firft hydrogr&-
pher of the marine, Buache, member of the national
inftitute, and of the board of longitude. I owe
in this place a particular acknowledgment, for
the pains he has been good enough to take upoa
himfelf, in order to fecond me in this important
part. . k^y
Throughout the whole courfe of the work,,
the longitudes in which the meridian is not ex-
preffed are reckoned from that of Paris*.
I have endeavoured to be very exact in writing
proper names, and names of places; but thefe
laft varying confiderably, according to the native language of their different authors, it has
been neceffary to adopt, in writing thefe words*
the moft generally received orthography.
The fourth volume is compdfed of notes and:
detached pieces, forwarded to government, hf
the men of fcience, employed in the expedition
* The Englifti' reader is doubtlefs aware, that the mexl-
-dian of Paris is fituate 2° 20' eaft of that of London. The
difference confequently of the longitudes mentioned in the
voyage, and expreffed in the Englifh atlafles, will be reconciled by the fubtractkm or addition of thofe z° 20^ Frjw-
J10W-* §f|fj
aiad tl THE.   FRENC&   EDITORS   PREFACE..
and of thofe which I could otherwife collect together. With this view, I made applications both
to the former academy of fciences, and fuch individuals, as I fufpected to have had correfpon-
dence with the affociates of La Peroufe, in order to gather together whatever might have
beta fe-nt: they were, however, fruitlefs; I have
only been able to procure fome fcattered fragments, which were found in the Journal dePhy-
' jfique, and I loft no time in putting them together in this volume,
I have in the courfe of the work, added motes*
wherever I thought they might be ufeful, diftin-
guifhing them by the initial letters of the words
Fre\
Editor
For the facility of turning to any particular
fubject, I have added an index at the end of the
work.
The number, the fize, and the beauty of the
engravings and charts, determined me to collect
them in a feparate atlas, and of a larger form. I
thought that a national work, executed with fo
much care, merited this precaution for its pre-
fervation. If it be not generally approved of, I
ftiall only obferve, that fuch is the fize of the
fine edition, of Cook's Third Voyage, publifhed
by the order and at the expence of the Englifh
government. «3
Ta THE   FRENCH   EDITOR S   PREFACE. 13
To bring this work at laft to a completion, I
have been obliged to rive out the drawings and
defigns to a greater number of engravers, than
the eminent ones, to whom they were firft en-
trufted : thence has refulted an inevitable want
of uniformity, and of perfection; I have, however, neglected nothing to render it as little perceptible as poffible.
On the whole, if this work be fuch as might
have been expected from the materials which
have been put into my hands, after the unexpected lofs of our circumnavigators, my molt
agreeable recdmpenfe will be to have fulfilled the
views of government, and to have co-operated
|n the monument of gratitude, which it has been,
^e/irous of erecting to their memory.
PRE-  PRELIMINARY DISCOURSE^
FRENCH EDITOK
ALL Europe, by the favourable reception given
to the accounts of modern circumnavigators,
has appeared to teftify its regard for the progrefs of
fcience and natural hiftory; but it muft be con-
feffed, that, among the numerous admirers of
works of this kind, fome have mere amufement in
view, others, by a proud comparifon of our cuf-
toms and manners with thofe of favages, would
eftablifh the fuperiority of civilized nations over the
ruder tribes of ma«fkind. Philofophers alone, the
leaft numerous clafs of fociety, feek in them, and
generally with fuccefs, materials with which to
enlarge the fphere of their knowledge.
The narratives of voyages of difcovery may be
reckoned among the moft interefting books of
modern hiftory: man, naturally the lover of
whatever is new and extraordinary, tranfports
himfelf in thought to diftant regions; he identifies himfelf, as it were, with the navigator; he
jhares in his dangers, his pains, and his pleafures,
and becomes his infeparable companion, by the
^diverfity of the objects which attach him, and gratify his curiofity.
Under mm
mmm
j6 ' PRELIMINARY    DISCOURSE.
Under this latter point of view, there is nq
doubt, but that extracts from voyages, fuch as
Prevoft has given us, difengaged from all .the
wearifome and dry details concerning aftronomy
and navigation, are more agreeable to read'than
the originals; but thefe extracts are not the
fource, whence the mariner and the man of fcience
can expect to draw knowledge, becaufe the materials having thus puffed the crucible of the man
of letters,, come out fparkling, light, and deprived of the folid principle of fcience, which is
deftroyed by being altered.
The authors or tranilators of works of the nature of this we now. offer to the public, have
almoft always given an account of preceding discoveries. They thus prefented to the view a general fketch of the fuceeffiye acquifitions to geography, and at the fame time exhibited a cata?
logue of the works in which they are contained.
I fhall not repeat a detailed enumeration, which
liiay be found elfewhere, but fhall limit myfelf to
the giving a complete chronological lift of the"
navigators,  to whom. we owe. difcoveries in  the.
South Sea. $§£g
Years.
/Magellan, a Portuguefe, In the fervice of Spain, 1519
Garcia de Loaes or Loaysa, ditto, ditto, .1525
Alphomso de Salazar, a Spaniard, 1525
Alvar Savaedra, ditto, 1526
Ferdinand Grijalva, and Alvaredo, ditto, 1537
Gaetan, ditto, 154^
ALVA& vS&ELiMINARY DISCOURSE* 17
Alvar de Mendana, a Spaniard, 1567 ,
Juan Fernandez, ditto, ?57^
Drake, an Englifhman,                              ?m2; x>77
Thomas Cavendish, ditto, 55^P
Sir Richard* Hawkins, ditto, I594
Alvar de Mendana, a Spaniard, 1595
Olivier d£ Noort, a Dutchman, $#M 159^
Pedro Fernandez de Quiros, and Luis
Vaes de Torrez, Spaniards, 1^06
George Spilberg, a Dutchman, 1614
Le Maire and Schouten, Dutchmen, *6i6
L'He&mite, a Dutchman, 1623
Abel Tasman, ditto, 1642
Antoine la Roche, a Frenchman^ 1675
Cowley* an Englifhman,                » *6.8-3
DaMpier, ditto, 1687
Davis, ditto, 1687
John Strong, ditto, 1689
Gemelli Carreri, a Neapolitan, 1693
Beauchene Gouin, a frenchman, 1699
William Funnell, an Englifhman, 1703
Woods Rogers, ditto, 1708
Louis Feuille'e, a Frenchman^ mod
Fre'zier, ditto, 1712
GeNTIL DE LA BAR2INAIS, ditto, 17-fr
John Clipperton and George Shjslvocke,
Englifhmen,
Roggewein, a Dutchman,
Anson, an Englifhman,
Le Hen-Brignqn, a Frenchman^
Byron, an Englifhman,
Wall-is, ditto,
Carteret, ditto,
Vol. I. C
1719
1722.
174-r
' 1747
1766
1766
?AG£S,
I iMamr
mK^mtmm.mmM
1$ PRELIMINARY DISCOURSE*
Page's, a Frenchman, 1766
Bougainville, ditto, 1766
Cook, an Englifhman, J7^9
Surv 1 lle, a Frenchman, I7^9.
Marion and du Clesmeur, Frenchmen, 1771
Cook, an Englifhman, *772
Cook, CLERKE,and Gore, Englifhmen, 1775
The laft voyage of Cook was  fcarcely made
known, by the tragical end of the illuftri^us chief
of the expedition, when France, availing  herfelf
of the leifure afforded by a peace which fhe had
juft concluded, confidered it as a duty annexed to
her rank among the principal maritime powers,
and ftill more to her zeal and abilities for the advancement of fcience, to plan a voyage of discovery, in order to concur in perfecting the knowledge
of the globe, which we have fo long inhabited,    If
our acquaintance with it be this day advanced ; if
the pofition of every one of its known parts be
henceforward  afcertaihed; in fhort, if every ftep
we take bring us nearer to the defired object ;
we owe it to theprogrefs of aftronomy. This affords
us, in the diftance of ftars, the movements of which
are accurately determined, fixed bafes, that enable
us to determine the longitude in the midft of an
immenfe ocean, with a precifion fuflicient for the
fafety of navigation, previous to which we were
obliged to fubftitute an almoft arbitrary approximation, which expofed us to the greateft miftakes.
By thefe eftablifhed aftronomical truths, we are
henceforward P&ELIMINA&Y DlSCbUftSSJ ID,
lieriGdforward affured of the fruits of ouf expedi*
tions, and the future perfection of Geography.
-'If&ere exift means no doubt of haftenihg -this
happy refult, andtfeWfhe proper place to throw
j$$jfc fome ideas ujf&n fo important -an object.—--
r*F§ie means might be agreed upon in a Congrefi
formed by the agents of the principal maritime
powers, willing to participate in the glory of fuch
an enterprize.
The Congrefs, compofed of aftroriorriers, hy-
-drographers, and navigators, fhould begin by
drawing up an account of all the ancient difcoveries, that have ffltherto been left unverified ; an
account of all the parts of the globe where there
are ftill difcoveries to-be made or completed, or
any further particulars to be inquired into; another object of their attention fhould be to obtain
a table of the Yeafons, of the prevailing winds, of
the monfoons, currents, refrefhments, and fuccour
to be hoped for in every latitude of the two he-'
jflftifpheres.    -^
According to this arrangement, general inftruc-
tionsftbuld be draw&Hip for the ufe of the commanders in each expedition; and to prevent the
ufelefs trouble of many projects, tending to the
fame end; the whole of the difcoveries to be
made fhould be divided am4ng the maritime
powers of Europe, regard being had to the pof-
C z feffionja tmmm
?-Rf;LIMI|?ARY DISCOURSE.
. feffions and eflabliiliments, which might refpe<>
tively facilitate the enterprizes of each ijition.
If England, §pgin, Hollajid, Portugal, Ruffia*
the United States of America, and France, would
defray the expence of an expedition every three
years, we might be certain, that in lefs than
twenty years geography would attain i its utmoft
limits.
Undoubtedly France would have continued to
favour the progrefs of geography, if, for fome time
paft, interns of far greater importance, and an
expendve war to fupport thefe interefts, had . not
wholly occupied her, and contracted all her exertions; but peace, by recalling, in a great meafure*
the attention of government to the fciences and
arts, promifes us new expeditions for their benefit, ijpis
When thefe enterprizes are taken up in an
enlarged view-* all the fciences are gainers by them.
Although the philofopher be in a great meafurc
ftationary, the great refults of voyages become
not lefs a part of his domain ; ready in collecting
the obfervations of the navigator, he poffeffes
himfelf of his ideas, unfolds them, and by analyzing and clafiing the fenfations which have given
birth to them, connects them to the general fyftem,
thus communicating new life to every part of
fcience. fe^: PRELIMINARY DISCOURSE, Ifr
If navigation, thus enlarged, may be expected
to contribute powerfully to extend the limits of
the- human underftanding, it is the part of government, with- this view, to excite the exertions of
ability, to reward its fuccefs, to collect and pub-
lifh its difcoveries, to receive and weigh all the
hints, thoughts, and views of genius, and to attract from every quarter all thofe who, by their
merit and their labours, belong to every country
and to every age, without any regard to their opi*
nions upon other fubjects, unconnected with the
great bufinefs in hand.
This plan would naturally involve the examination of fome important queftions in geography,
and efpecially that of an univerfal meridian ; for
there is not a geographer, who has not experienced
the inconvenience-of the variety of meridians. It-
is neceffary to be perpetually on our guard againft
mifekes; the fmalleft comparifon to eftablifh be-*
tween the meridians rendering it neceffary to add
or fubtract. This evil comes from navigators
having each employed, in the formation of
their charts, the meridianadopted by their nation,
and they have often adopted a peculiar one fat
themfelves. On the other hand, fome, to mark).
their longitudes, have taken their departure from
the weft; others from the saft,^ counting to 360.
degrees. The reft, and tliofe the greater, number
#mong the moderns, have divided their longitudes-
C
mtQ. ml
&mmMKBa^-mm*a   imp
ZZ PRELIMINARY DISCOURSE.
into eaft and weft; but the difference between
the obfervatories of Europe being the fame with
the meridians of their antipodes, it follows, that, by
this diyifion between eaft and weft, a longitude
would be, as in our hemifphere, eaft to one, white
it would be weft to the other. Thence many
errours have arifen, which would be avoided^
reckoning- uniformly the longitudes to 360 degrees, and agreeing to take a departure from the
iveft.. The only, objection againft this way of
reckoning is, that it does not give conftantly, by
the progreflion of degrees, an idea of the difiance;
that is to fay, that as far as 18-0 degrees, the meridian of the .antipodes, we are fully fenfible that
the degrees mark the diftance, but going on from
this Ioint, every one does not immediately con*
ceive, that at 200 degrees of longitude he is left
diftant from the meridian whence the reckoning
begaii, than at 180; whereas, in faying 160 degrees of eaft longitude, inftead of 200 degrees of
longitude, he immediately perceives where he is.
It muft be confeffed, that the objection againft
reckoning to. 360 degrees is a very weak one,
confldering at the fame time the merit of a mode
of proceeding fo fimple, and fo little liable to mif-
take; a merit not to be concealed by thofe fev/r
perfons who. will not give themfelves time to
learn or judge of the very little diftance between"*
their own meridiaii and that which, is 3.590 «
diftant PRELIMINARY  piSCX>?RSE. 23
diftant from it. The advantage which refults from
the manner of counting the longitude up to 360.
degrees   is neverthelefs a trifle, compared  witl*
that   of the  adoption  of a common meridian,
which fhould ferve as a bafis to the geography of
Sanations.    It is eafy to conceive, that the felf-
love of every one will, without end, ftruggle to
gain for its own the preference.    Every confide-
ration laid afide, the meridian that would appear
the moft convenient to take, inafmuch as it would
cut very little earth, and would leave the meridians of the maritime powers  of Europe on the
eaft, would be that of the remarkable peak, which
nature feems to have placed in the middle of the
feas, to ferve as a beacon to navigators; I mean
the Peak of Teneriffe.    A pyramid, conftructed
at the expence of the affociated powers, fhould be
raifed to a point through which the meridional
line ought to pars, and a commiffion of aftrono-
mers,   chofen from among ths members of the
prppofed union, fhould determine, by a feries of
operations, the exact difference between this common meridian, and that of the great obfervatorigs
of the two hemifpheres.
Thefe operations, to which the amplitude of
our means might enfure the greatest accuracy^
would remove every uncertainty of calculation
concerning the quantity to be added or fubtracted,
in the comparifons of meridian with meridian;
C 4 tiiey wmmmm
24 PRELIMINARY DISCOURSE.
they would do away the differences produced in
the refults of their comparifons obtained at various
periods, and which might be taken for errours,. if
it were forgotten, that the aftronomers, after
frefh obfervations made "with more care and better
inftruments, have changed the product of diftance
between the meridians of the obfervatories of Paris
and of Greenwich. This difference, which was
reckoned 2019', has been acknowledged to be 2° 20's
if it were aqueftion, indeed, of extreme precifion,
it would be neceffary to carry it to 20 20' 15", or
9 2i' of time, on account of the oblate figure of
the earth, in fuppofing it at is-cr, agreeably to the
obfervations of the aftronpmer Lalande, whofe
merit every one knows, and whofe calculations
unite perfpicuity with precifion in a high degree.
The idea of a common meridian, which I have prefixed to another w?ork, occurred to me by the reflections, which the examination and methodifing
of this fuggefted to me; it may pofiibly not be
well received, but I may bt allowed to exprefs my
wifti for its adoption, until the inconveniences, if
any there be, are demonftrated,     a
This new meridian leaves at le'alt our immenfe
Materials of geography in their full value ; if this
W^re not the cafe, it fhould be rejected, as I reject for
the prefent, though with confiderable regret, that of
the new "divifion of the circle, becaufe it is accompanied with the ferious evil of almoft wholly de-
ftroying
11 ^— preliminary discourse. 23
ftroying them: it may be neceffary to explain this,
which is by no means foreign to my fubject. More
partial than any one to decimal calculation, treated
of with fo much accuracy in the writings of the
ingenious and learned Borda, as well as in thofe of
other members of the temporary commiffidn of
weights and meafures, I cannot however diffemble
the inconveniences of the divifion of the circle
into 400 degrees. They are fuch as can only b@
gotten over in the courfe of many centuries after
the era in which it is univerfally adopted, during.
which it will be neceffary to retain both diviiions*
to- facilitate the labour of comparing our new
charts with thofe of other nations and powers, and
with the old .materials of geography.
If the portion of time Jknown by the name of
a day require the decimal diyifipn, thefun, in his
annual revolution, cannot be included in the plan ;
fince then there is a.limit in nature where decimal
calculation flops, and it cannot divide the period
of a folar revolution, why fhould it be adapted to
the divifion of a circle ?
It will be faid, that this divifion of the circle into
400'degrees conforms perfectly w-ith .that of the
day into 10 hours, the hour into ioo-mi&urtes, and
the minute intargoo feconds, making a" degree
of the circle correipond with twq minutes and a
half of time; it may further be obferved, with
ieafon> that the bafis of all meafures, denominated
mhrc, It
26 PRELIMINARY discourse,
yibtre, being multiples of the ten-?nillionth part
©f the quarter of a meridian, thence there refults
a natural decimal divifion, fince the degree is
found to have a hundred thoufand me^s, or
twenty leagues, of five thoufand metres each :
but thefe advantages, and that of offering in general an uniform fcale in the degree and its fubdi-
vifions, cannot do away the inconveniences that
would refult from the propofed change.
The great defign of bringing about an unif&T^
mity of weights and meafures has given birth to
the fublime idea of difcovering a natural ftandard.
This ftandard is precifely fuch, in fact, as we
fhould find among an enlightened though newly-
difcovered people, if they had made the fame pro-
grefs in the arts and fciences, and if they had, like
us, conceived the projeft of eftablifhing an unifor*
mity of weights and meafures, and taking their
general ftandard. from nature.
What occafion could be . more favourable for
difcufling the advantages and inconveniences in
the adoption of the uniformity of weights j and
meafures, and of the decimal divifion, than that
of a congrefs compofed of reprefentatives of the
moft renowned and learned focieties in the world?
If the various governments agreed to admit this
uniformity in cafes where it fhould be deemed ufe-
ful, its fimultaneous and univerfal admifiioa
would double the benefit; and this would be
the fureft way of overcoming the difficulties arifing
from PRELIMINARY DISCOURSE. 2J
from its application to the divifion of the circle,
and of time.
What "nation better than France could henceforward by her influence, as extended as powerful,
realize the plan of this congrefs ? As great in her
enterprizes as in her conceptions, in her operations
as in her views, fhe had determined, as I havefaid,
to order a voyage of difcovery-; the plan drawn
up was adopted by the government; the preliminary inftructions mil prove, that it was as vaft as
fkilfully conceived in its extent, and in its details.
An able chief was neceffary for commanding the
expedition; La Peroufe was ehofen. His toils
and his conftant fuccefs in the navy had inured
him td every fpecies of danger, and pointed him
out as more proper than any one elfe, to follow the
difficult and dangerous courfe of a long navigation
upon unknown feas, and in the midft of countries inhabited by barbarous people. On this
fobject a few particulars are offered to the reader,
concerning the life of this illuftrious but unfortunate officer.
Jean-Francois Galaup de La Peroufe, chefd*ef-
cadre,w&s born at Albi, in 1741. Entering at
a very early age into the marine fchool, his en-
thufiafm was firft excited by the example of
thofe celebrated navigators, who had done honour
to their cototry, and he took from that time the
r^folution to walk  in their ftepsj   but,   being
only WOSM
PRELIMINARY   DISCOURSE,
only able to advance in this, difficult road by flow
degrees, he prepared himfelf, by preyioufly ftudy-
ing their* works, hereafter to equal them. He united,
at a very early period, experience with theory;
he had been eighteen years at fea when the command of the laft expedition was intrufted to him.
He entered, as midfliipman, the-rjih of November, 1756, and ferved five years at fea,
during that war, the firft four, on board le
Celebre, la PomoriQ, le-,Zephyr, le Cerf, and the
fifth on board le Formidable, .commanded by
Saint-Andre du Verger, Thift-fhip niade one in
the fquadron, under the orders of Marfhal de
Conflans, when it was 'met off Belle Tile by the
Englifli fquadron, Le Magnifique, le Herqs, le
Formidable, compofing the rear-divifion, weira
attacked and furrounded by eight or ten Eflglifh
{hips. The fight began, and- foon became general;
it was fo terrible, that eight men of war, Englifli
or French, were fknk during the action, or ran
upon the French coafts, where they were obliged
to be burnt. Le Formidable, nlqre roughly
handled than the reft, was the only, one taken,
after a vigorous refiftarice. La Peroufe conducted
himfelf with great bravery in this action, in
which he was feverely wounded.
Reftored again to his country, he ferved in the
fame capacity, three years longer, on board le
Robuftc, where he diftinguifhecl himfelf on many
occafions \
if PRELIMINARY* DISCOURSE, tf
accafions; and his growing merit began to draw
upon him the eyes of his fuperior officers.
Tne firft of October, 1764, he was promoted
to the rank  of enfeigne de vaiffeau.    A man of a
lefs active difpofition would have availed himfelf
of the indulgence of the peace, but his ardour
for the profefiion allowed him no repofe.     To
judge of his unwearied aftivity,   it is fufficient
to fketch a flight picture  of his naval life, from
this epoch to 1777.    He ferved
In   1-765, on board the flute F Ad our;
1766, on board the flute le Gave §
176-7, as commander of the,flute 1'Adour;
1768, as commander of la Dorothee;
1769, as commander of le Bugalet;
17 71, on board la Belle-Poule ;
%^ 1772, Ibid.
*773>1
1774s   commanding the flute la Seine & les
17 75' > Deux-Amis, off the coaft of Malabar;
1776,
i?77>
lieutenant from, the 4th of April,
In* the year 1778 the war broke out again between France and England;' hoftilities commenced, the 17th of June, by an engagement
with la Belle-Poule.   . s^lll
In 1779, La Peroufe commanded L'Amazone,
one of the fhips in the fquadron. of D'Eftaing.
Defirous of covering the defcent of the troops, at
the ,        'liiiiiiiai
30 PRELIMINARY   DISCOURSE*.
the Ifland of Grenada, he -anchored within piftd-
fhpt of an Englifh battery. During the battle be*
tween this fquadron and £hat of admiral Byron,
lie was fixed upon to carry the orders of the commander in chief along the line. After this he
took, on the coaft of New England, the Ariel
frigate, and contributed to the capture of the
Experiment.
Being made a captain the 4th of April, 1780, he
commanded the frigate L'Aftree, when, being oft,
a cruize with L'Hermione, commanded by captain
La Touche, he fought an obftinate battle, on the
21 ft of July, with fix Englifh fhips of war, fix
leagues from the North Cape of the Ifle Royale.
Five of thefe fhips, the Allegiance, of twenty-
four guns, the Vernon, of the fame force, the
Charleftown, of twenty-eight, the Jack, of fourteen, and the Vulture, of twenty, formed a line
to receive him; the fixth, the Thompfon, of
eighteen, remained out of gun fliot. The two
frigates bore down together upon the enemy,
under a crowd of fail; it was (even o'clock, in
the evening, whenthey fired the firftfhot. They
ranged along to leeward of the Englifli line, in
order to cut off their-retreat. The Thompfon
remained all the time to windward. The two
frigates manoeuvred with To much fkill, that they
threw the little Englifh fquadron into diforder;
in about half an hour the Charleftown frigate,
2, com- preliminary discourse. gt
toffirftAdore, ' and the Jack, were forced to fur-
tender, and the three other veffels would have
^perienced the fame fate, if the night had not
concealed them from the purfuit of the frigates.
The following year the French government
formed the project of taM&g and deftroying the
^ftaMifhments of the Englifh in Hudfon's Bay.
La Peroufe appeared -a proper officer to accom-
plifri this troublefome million, in a dangerous fea;
he received bis orders to quit Cape Francois the
31ft of May, 1782. Hecommanded the Sceptre,
of 64 guns, and was followed by the two frigates
L'Aftree and L'Engageante, of 36 guns each,
commanded by captains de Langle and La Jaille;
the-land forces on board thefe fhips confifted of
two hundred and fifty infantry, forty artillery men,
four-field pieces, two mortars, and three hundred
bombs.
The 17th of July, he made Refolution Ifland 3
but no fboner had he penetrated twenty-five
leagues into Hudfon's Straits than he found
his fhips entangled with ice, from which he
received confiderable damage.
The 30th, after having ftruggled inceffantly
againft obftacles of every kind, he made Cape
Walfiiigham, fituate in the moft wefterly part
of the Straits. In order to arrive fpeedily at
Prince of Wales's Fort, which he had propofed
fkft to -attack, he had not a moment to lofe, the
rigour I
*?§t ' PH-ELTJfff'KARy   DI SCOUR ST;'
rigour of the feafon obliging all veffels to quit
this fea at the beginning of September j, but ii$
foon'er had they entered Hudfon's Bay, than they
met with thick fogs: and on the 3d of Auguft,
at the firft clearing up of the weather, he fouad
himfelf furrounded with ice as far as he could fee,
which obliged him to lie to. N.everthelefs he over?
came thefe obftacles, and on the Sthj in the even*
.iner, having difcovered the flag on Prince of
Wales's Fort, the French fhips ran by their lead
within a league and a half of it, and anchored in
eighteen fathom water, muddy ground. An
officer, fent to reconnoitre the approaches to the
fort, brought word, that the ihips might bring
up, with their guns to bear on it, at a very
little diftance. La Peroufe, making no doubt,
that the Sceptre alone could eafily reduce the
enemy fhould they refill, prepared for effect*
ing a defcent during the night. Although
counteracted by the tide and the darknefs, th&
boats unoppofed approached within three quarters
of a league of the fort. La Peroufe, feeing no
dip iiricn for defence, although the fort ap*
pea ed to him capable of a vigorous one, (cut a
fummons to the enemy; the gates were opened;
the governor and garrifon furrendered at dif*
cict on.
This part of his orders being executed, he failed
the  nth of Auguft  for Fort-York 1 he experienced PRELIMINARY DISCOURSE. 33
rienced ftill greater difficulties to get there, than
any he had yet met with in this expedition; he ran,
in fix or feven fathom water, along a coaft fcattered
over with rocks. After having run the greater!
rifks, the Sceptre and the two frigates difcovered
the entrance of Nelfon's River, and anchored, the
20th of Auguft, about five leagues from land.
La Peroufe had taken three decked boats at
Prince of Wales's Fort; he fent them with the
Sceptre's yawl to gain information of Hayes's
River, near which Fort York is fituated.
The 21 ft of Auguft, the troops embarked in the
boats; and La Peroufe, having nothing to fear
from the enemy by fea, thought proper to fuper-
intend their debarkation.
Hayes's Ifland, on which flood Fort York, is
fituate at the mouth of a great river, which it
divides into two branches; that which paffes before the fort, is called Hayes's River, and the
other Nelfon's River. The French commander
knew, that all the means of defence were erected upon the firft; there was befides one of
the Hudfon's Bay Company's veffels, carrying
twenty-five nine pounders, anchored at the mouth.
He refolved to pufh up by Nelfon's River,
although his troops had on this fide to march
about four leagues; but he obtained the advantage of rendering the batteries, which were placed
upon Hayes's River, ufelefs.
Vol, I. D They m
34
PR£M?J£«W&Y   DISCOURSE.
They atriYSd the 21 ft, in the evening, at the
mouth of Nelfon's River, with two hundred and
fifty men, with the mortars and guns, and provi-
fion for eight .days, in order not to be compelled to
have recourfe to the fhips, with which it was difficult to communicate. La Peroufe gave orders
for the boats to anchor in three fathom, at the
entrance of the river, and he advanced in his
boat, with De Langle, the fecond in the expedition, Roftaing, the commander of the
troops, and Monneron, the captain of engineers,
in order to found the river, and infpect its
banks, where it was feared the enemy might
have raifed fome works of defence.
They difcovered, that the bank was not of
eafy accefs; the fmalleft boats c$uld only get
within two hundred yards of it, and that the intervening ground was a foft mud. He then
thought it proper to wait for day, and remain at
anchor : but the ebb running out much fafter
than they had expected, the boats were difcovered to be aground at three o'clock in the
morning.
Exafperated rather than difcouraged by this
accident the troops debarked, and, after having
walked near a mile up to the mid-leg in mud,
they arrived in a meadow, where they drew up in
order of battle; thence they marche^lpwards a
wood,  where they expected to find a dry path
which *fU£XlMINARY DISCOURSE. 35
.^U^ft^bt lead $hem tow^^s'the Fort. None
-was found, and the whole day was employed in
Peking for that which did not exift; ;
La Peroufe ordered Monneron, the captain o£
-engineers to trace out one, by the compafs,
through the middle of the wood. This difficult
labour being executed, ferved only to make it
evident, that there were two leagues of marfhy
ground to crofs, in doing which the troops would
often fink up to the knees. A hard gale
of wind coming on, in the night, obliged
the anxious Peroufe to rejoin his fhips. He
reached the fea fide with all hafte; but the
florm continuing, he could not get aboard.
The next morning he took advantage of a lull,
and found means to get on board an hour before
a fecond gale. An officer, who fet off at the fame
time, was wrecked, but, together with the crew,
had the good fortune to get on fhore; yet he
was unable to return on board, in lefs than three
"days, naked and almoft dead with hunger. The
Engageante and the Aftree loft two anchors each
in the: fecond gale.
However, the troops arrived before the fort the
24th in the morning, after a very fatiguing
march, and it furrendered at the firft fuinmons.
La Peroufe caufed the fort to be demdlifhed, and
gave orders to the troops to re-embatku without
delay.
D2
This wmmmm
wmtm
36 PRELIMINARY   DISCOURSE.
This laft order was fruftrated by another ftfong;
gale of wind, which expofed the Engageante to
imminent danger; her third anchor broke, as
well as the tiller, and her long-boat wras loft. The
Sceptre loft alfo her long-boat, yawl, and anchor.
At length the fine weather returned, and the
troops re-embarked. La Peroufe having the governors of Prince of Wales and York Forts on
board, fet fail, in order to quit a coaft abandoned to ice and tempefts, where his military
fuccefs, though unoppofed by the flighteft re-
fiftance, yet neverthelefs had been preceded by fo
many difficulties, fatigues, and dangers.
If La Peroufe, as a military man, were obliged,
in conformity with rigorous orders, to deftroy the
poffeffions of his enemies, he did not forget, at
the fame time, the refpect that was due to misfortune. Having known, that at his approach
the Englifh had fled into the woods* and that his
departure, on accotmt of the deftruction of their
fettlements, would expofe them to die with hunger, or fall defencelefs into the hands of the fa-
vages, he had the humanity to leave them pro-
vifion and arms.
Can there.be, on this fubject, an eulogium
more flattering, than the following fincere declaration of an Englifh feaman, in his account of a
voyage to Botany Bay ?—" We ought to call to
€C mind with gratitude, in England efpepally, this
" humane 1
PRELIMINARY DISCOURSE^ * 37
** humane and generous man, for  his conduct,
" when ordered  to deftroy our eftablifhment in
" Hudfon's Bay, in the courfe of the laft war."
After a teftimony fo juft and  true, and whilft
England has deferved fo well of the friends of
fcience and the arts, by her eagernefs to publiih
the accounts of her voyages of difcovery, fhall we
be compelled to reproach another Englifh officer
for a breach of his engagements with La Peroufe.
Governor Hearne had made ajourney by land,
in 1772, towards the north, commencing it from
Fort  Churchill in Hudfon's Bay,   a journey of
which the particulars are looked for with impatience ;   the manufcript journal of it was found
by La Peroufe among the papers of this governor, who infifted upon their being left in his pof-
feffion as private property. '"This journey having
been neverthelefs undertaken by order of the Hudfon's Bay Company, with the view of acquiring
knowledge in the northern part of America, the
journal might well have been deemed to belong
to this Company, devolving in confequence to the
v;ctor; neverthelefs, La Peroufe gave way to the
intreaties of governor Hearne, and allowed him
to retain the manufcript, but on the exprefs condition, that he fhould have it publifhed as foon as
he returned to England.    This condition appears
not to have been performed even to this moment^.
. * It was publiihed in 1795, though apparently not In £on-
iequence of thifr-prornife.   T.
D 3 Let
%: gl, PRELIMINARY   DISCOURSE.
Let tj-fchope,, that tfei& remark, rendered public,
will poduce the intended effect or urge the go-^
vendor to make it known, whether the Hudfon's
Bay Company, who dread that others fhould interfere in their commerce and affairs, have prevented its publication*.
At the time of the eftablifhment of the peace
with England, in 1783,, this expedition ended.
The indefatigable La Pert&ifer enjoyed not a long
repofe, a more important fervice awaited him;
alas ! it was deftined to be thedaft. J§§ was appointed to command the expedition projected in
17$5* preparations for which were forwarding at
Breft.
£ fhall;no$ conform to a pradfetcfc; tfoat is very
common, in pointing out, beforehand, tfee track of
our navigator^ th€rct)aftsr mid the iflaud^ that he
has explored or vifited in the main ocean, the
difcoveries which he has made: in the Asiatic
feas, and the important benefits he has; rendered
to geography : I make this facrifice to the reader,
whole curiofity would rather be ei&tifed than anticipated, and who would prefer, without doubt,
following; the courfe of the navigator himfelf.    i
So far I have confidered in La Peroufe only
the warrior, and the navigator-: but he deferves
equally to be known for his perfonal qualities;
for he was not lefs calculated to conciliate the
* The above anecdote was- unknown to mW when $ wrote
the note* which will be feen in v<& II, page 161,
men Preliminary discourse. 39
men of fvery country, or to make; himfelf ref-
pected by them, than to forefee, and to conquer
the obftacles, which it is allotted1 ttf human wif-
dom to fui*mount.
Uniting in himfelf the vivacity peculiar to
the inhabitants of warm climates, with an agree-
JBle wit, arid ah equal temper, his mildnefs and
his amiable gaiety made his company always
fought after with eagernefs : on the other hand,
matured by long experience, he joined to uncommon prudence a firmnefs of character, which
is the characteriftic of a ftrong mind, and which,
increafed by the hardfhips of a feaman's life,
rendered hini qualified to attempt, and to conduct the greateft enterprizes with fuccefs.
After the combination of thefe various qualities, the reader, witneffing his patience in cir-
cumftances requiring great labour, the fevere
refolutions that his forefight dictated, the caution
he was obliged to e^ercife towards his people, will
be little aftonifhed at the benevolent and moderate, as well as" circumfpect conduct of La
Peroufe towards them; of the confidence, fome-
times even of the deference he paid to his of-
ficersj and of his paternal care towards his fhips
companies; nothing that could' intereft them,
either by* relieving their hardfhips or contributing
to their happinefs, efcaped his watchfulnefs, and
folicitude* Not willing to make of a mercantile
D 4 fpecu« mm
4© PRELIMINARY discourse.
{peculation, a fcientific enterprize, and, refigning
the whole profits of trade to the failors alone,
he referved to himfelf the fatisfaction of having
been ufeful to his country, and to the fciences.
Perfectly fucceeding in his views, with regard to
the prefervation of their health, no navigator has
ever made fo long a voyage, under fuch inceffant
changes of climate, with crews fo healthy; fince,
at their arrival at New Holland, after thirty
months failing, and a run of more than fix teen
thoufand leagues, they were as well as at leaving
Breft.
Mailer of himfelf, and never fuffering firft
impreffions to carry him away, he was enabled
to practice, efpeeially in this voyage, the precepts
of a philofophical humanity. If I were more dif-
pofed to make his eulogy, neceffarily detached
and incomplete, than to leave the reader the
pleafure of appreciating him by facts, accompanied wTith all their circumftances, and to eftmate
him by the general tendency of his writings, I
could cite a crowd of paffages from his journal,
the turn and character of which I have faithfully preferved, wrhich fhow the man: I could efpeeially point out his attachment to that article
of his inftructions, engraven on his heart, which
ordered him to avoid fhedding a Angle drop of
blood; having followed it conftantly in fo long
a voyage, with a fuecefs becoming his principles,
and PRELIMINARY DISCOURSE. 41
and when, attacked by a barbarous horde of lavages, he had loft his fecond in command, a na-
turalift, and ten men of the two fhips companies,
repreffing the powerful means of vengeance he
had in his hands, and fo many warrantable motives for ufing them, I would fhow him, reftrain-
ing the fury of the crews, and fearing to ftrikc.
one tingle innocent victim, among fo many thou-
fands of criminals.
As equitable and modeft as he was enlightened,
we fhall fee with what refpect he fpoke of the immortal Cook, and how defirous he was to render
juftice to thofe great men, who had run the fams
career.
Equally juft towards all, La Peroufe, iri his
journal, and in his correfpondence, difpenfes with .
equity the praifes, which were due to his affoci-
ates:—he names alfo the flrangers, wrho, in different parts of the world, have favourably received them, and procured them affiftance. If
government, of whofe difpofition, we cannot
entertain a doubt, would fulfil the intentions of
La Peroufe, it would confer upon thefe latter, a
mark of public gratitude.
Juftly prized by the Englifh feamen, who had
an opportunity of becoming acquainted with him,
they have evinced an unequivocal efteem for him,
in their writings. All thofe who were in habits
of intimacy with him,   have given him praifes,
which, mam
i
42 PRELIMINARY  DISCOURSE.
which, though juft,   would be too long to recount.
But to fpeak of his virtues, and of his talents,
is to recollect his misfortunes, and to awaken our
regret: the idea of the former is henceforward in-
parably connected with the remembrance of the
latter, and they raife for ever a monument of
grief and gratitude, in the heart of every friend
to the fciences and to humanity. If I have experienced arty pleafure at the conclufion of the
troublefome labour which this work required,
arid after the care and attention it has coft me
till its publication ; it is, undoubtedly, at this moment, when I am allowed to be the inftrument of
the French Republic, in paying to his memory a
tribute of national gratitude.
La Peroufe, according-to his laft letters from
Botany Bay, was to return to the Ifle de France,
in 1788*. The two following years being expired, even the important events, which occupied
and fixed the attention of all France, were unable
entirely to detach it from an intereft in the fate
which appeared to threaten our navigators. The
firft accents of fear and grief on their accounts
were heard at the bar of the national affembly,
* See inVol. Ill the extracts from two of La Peroufe's letters, dated JBotany Bay, the 7th of February, 1788.
by PRELIMINARY DISCOURSE. 43
fey meanw €$ the members of the? fociety of M-
tural hiftory.
*c During two years," faid they, B$ SWnfee' has
1 in vain expect^ the return of M. De La Pe-
*c rotife; and thofe who irif'&lTt themfelv&s in'
f his perfon, and in his difcoveries, have: M0
8j knowledge-' Of his fate. Alas! their appre-
" henfions are perhaps more frightful than his
<c actual fufferings; and probably he has only
<** efcaped death, to be delivered up to the con-
*4 tinued torments, of a hope, always renewed,
** and always- difappointed ; perhaps he has been
<c call away upon fbme o'tlB of thofe iflands of
**"the South .Sea, whence he ftretches out his arms
a towards his country, and fruitlefsly expects a
<c deliverer.
" It is not for objects frivolous in their nature,
** for his own advantage, that M. De La Peroufe
** has braved dangers of every kind: the gene-
" rous nation, which was to gather the fruit of
" his toils, owes him alfo its intereft and its fuc-
" cour.
" Already have we learned the lofs of feveral
" of his companions, fwallowed up by the waves,
" or maffacred by the favages: cherifh the little
" hope, which remains of gathering together
*c thofe of our brothers, who may have efcaped
§ the fury of the billows, or the rage of can-
C£ nibals; let- them return to our fhores, though
« they UM
44 PRELIMINARY   DISCOURSE.
" they fhould die with joy at feeing their country
* free."
The requeft of the fociety of natural hiftory,
received with the mod lively intereft, was followed
tip by a law, ordering two frigates to be immediately fitted out in fearch of La Peroufe.
The reafons upoi| which the decree was founded, even the wording of the report, evinced what
a tender and affecting concern our navigators had
infpired; and the eagernefswith which, in the de-
fire of recovering them, the firft glimpfe of hope
was entertained, without thinking of the grea£
lacrifices the purfuit required.
" For a long while our ardent wifhes have
€i called for M. De La Peroufe, and the compa-
" mons of his glorious, but too probably unfor-
" tunate voyage.
I The fociety of naturalifts of this capital is
4t come to tear the veil, which you were afraid to
M raife; the grief of which it has given the ex-
*c ample is becorne univerfal, and )^ou appeared
" to receive with tranfport the idea which it fug-
** gefted of fending out veffels in fearch of M. De
" La Peroufe.
" You have ordered your committees of ma-
fC rine, of agriculture, and of commerce, to pre-
tt fent to you their thoughts upon this interefting
tc fubject: the fentiment which appeared to ac-
*' tuate you has alfo dictated our opinion.
"We PRELIMINARY DISCOURSE. 45
f We have hardly the confolation to doubt
: that M. De La Peroufe has experienced fomc
5 great misfortune.
" We cannot reafonably hope, that his veffels
: at this moment plough the furface of the feas :
: either this navigator and his companions are no
: more;  or elfe,   thrown  upon   fome  frightful
; fhore, loft in the immenfity of unknown feas,
: and confined in the extremities of the world,
: they   perhaps   ftruggle   againft   the   climate,
againft wild beafts, againft men, againft nature,
and call their country to their aid, which can
only form  a guefs  concerning   their  mifery-,
Poffibly they have been thrown upon fome unexplored unknown   coaft,   upon   fome  barren
rock; there,   if they  have met  with a   hospitable people, they yet live, and implore your
; afliftance;   or if they have   only met with a
defert,  perhaps  wild fruits, fhell fifh, fuftain
their  exiftence:    fixed   to   the   fhore,   their
looks lofe themfelves in diftance upon the fea,
in endeavouring to difcover  the  happy fails,
which might reftore them to France,  to their
relations, to their friends.
" Compelled  to catch at   an idea, which is
perhaps  only a  confoling error,  you are de-
firous without  doubt as we are to prefer this
conjecture to  the hopelefs idea of their total
lofs: it is that which the fociety of naturalifts mm
r
46 f^E&$MINARY  •DISCOURSK.
*c of Paris came to prefent to you; it is that;
u which M. De Lafiordehad offered to every feel-
tc ing heart, in a memoir to the academy of
*c fciences.
3 But if this idea touch you, if it ftrike
sc you, you cannot henceforward give yourfelves
" up to an impotent regret; humanity demands
cc of us to fly to the affiftance of our brethren.
" Alas I where look for them-? Whom fhall we
i afk concerning their condition ? Can we ex-
cc plore all the coafts of a fea almoft unknown ?
•j Can we touch at all the iflands of thofe im-
<c menfe archipelagoes, which offer fo many dan-
" gers to navigators ? Can all the gulfs be exa-
<c mined, all the bays penetrated ? And even if
" we fhould be fortunate enough to touch at the
" ifland which conceals them, may we not even
" then, perhaps, fail to difcover them ?
*4 Without doubt the difficulties are great, fuc-
u cefs is fcarcely to be expected: but the motive
" for the enterprise is powerful; it is poffible, that
c< our brothers may yet be alive, we may yet re-
" flore them to their country; and hence we are
<c not permitted to reject the temptation of a re-
" fearch, which caiinot but do us honour. It is
" our duty to fhow this concern for m^n, who
<€ have thus devoted themfelves | we owe it to
<c the fciences, which await the fruits of their re-*
*€ fearch; and that which ought to increafe this
& " concern PRELIMINARY DISCOURSE. 47
concern is, .that M. De La jPeroufe was not one
of thofe adventurers, who catch at great enterprizes, whether for the purpofe of advancing
their characters or fortune; he was not-even
ambitious of commanding the expedition en-
trufted to him, he wifhed to have been able to
decline it; and even when he accepted the
command, his friends knew he did but refign
himfelf. Happily we know the courfe, that it
is neceffary to follow in fo painful a refearch ;
happily we can put into the hands of thofe,
who are to be charged with this affecting mif-
fion, the clue of the perilous labyrinth.
I The propofal .of a fearch, which humanity
commands, cannot be brought to this tribune
to be combated by parfimony, or difcuffed by
cool reafon, when it ought to be judged by
fentiment.
" This expedition will be the moil glorious re-
compenfe to M.De La Peroufe, or to his memory, with which you can honour his labours,
his facrifices, or his misfortunes.
M By acts like thefe a nation is illuftrated; and
the fentiments of humanity which prompt them,
will characterize our age. It is no longer for
the purpofe of invafion and ravage, that the
European penetrates into the moft diftant latitudes, but to carry thither enjoyments and benefits ; no longer to ileal away the corrupting
f metals, 45 PRELIMINARY   DISCOURSE.
"metals, but to obtain thofe ufeful vegetables*,
*c which may render the life of man more com-
w fortable and eafy. In fhort, there will be feen,
** and favage nations will not behold it unmoved,
<ff there will be ken, at the extremities of the
x§c world, pious navigators, inquiring with concern
*e about the fate of their brothers, of men and of
" deferts, of caves, of rocks, and even of barren
** fends: there will be ken on the moft treacherous
iC feas,   in the windings of  the moft  dangerous
46 archipelagoes around all thofe iflands peopled by
** cannibals, men wandering in fearch of other
w men to throw themfelves into their arms, to fbcv
<c courand to fave them."
The fhips fent out in fearch of La Peroufe had
foarcely failed, when a rumour was fpread, that
a Dutch captain, paffing by the Admiralty Iflands
to the weft of New Ireland, perceived a canoe,
containing natives of that place, who appeared
to him to be clothed in the uniform of the French
navy-
General d'Entrecafteaux, who commanded this
new expedition, having touchedat the Cape of Good
Hope, had been informed of this report; not-
withftanding the flendernefs of its authenticity
and little likelihood, he did not hefitate a fingle
inftant; he changed the plan of his route to
haften to the fpot. His ardour not having been:
repaid with fuccefs, he recommenced his fearcl^
S fa PRELIMINARY DISCOURSE. 49
in the order prefcribed by his inftructions, and
completely fulfilled them all j without being able to
obtain the fmalleft information, or acquire any .
thing like probability concerning the fate of our
unfortunate navigator;
There were various conjectures in France as to
the caufe of his lofs : fome perfons, unacquainted
with the track he had to follow from Botany
Bay, which is traced in his laft letter, have
advanced, that his fhips had been caught in the
ice, and that La Peroufe, and all his companions, had perifhed by the moft horrible of
deaths; others have given out, that during his
paffage to the Ifle de France, towards the end of
1788, he had been the victim of that violent
hurricane, which proved fo fatal to the Venus frigate, which was never heard of afterwards, and
which totally difmafted the Refolution frigate.
Although we cannot deny the affertion of thefe
laft perfons, we ought not on the other hand to
admit it without proof, If this be not true, La
Peroufe has moft likely perifhed by ftrefs of weather
on one of then umberlefs reefs of rocks, with which
the archipelagoes, that he had ftiil to explore, have
been actually found bjf General d'Entrecafteaux:
to abound. The manner in which the two
frigates have always failed, being conftantly within
hail of each other, would have involved both of
them in the fame fate; they would have experi-
Vol. I. E enced
\ 111
tmmumm
50 PRELIMINARY DISCOURSE OF
enced the misfortune which they fo narrowly efcaped on the 6th of Nov. 1786, and would have
foundered before they could reach any land* The
only hope which could remain would be, that they
had been wrecked upon the coafts of fome uninhabited ifland; in this cafe, perhaps, a few individuals may ftill exift upon one of the innumerable iflands of thefe archipelagoes. At I
diftance from every ufual courfe they might have
been overlooked in the fearch, and might only
be able to fee their country again by the accidental arrival of fome veffel, all means of building one being probably wanting.
We neverthelefs cannot but obferve, that the
favages make very long runs in fimple canoes;
and we may judge, by the infpection of the chart,
that if the fhip had been loft on a defert ifland, or
one inhabited by favages, who had fpared the remainder of the crews, they would have-been able,
in the courfe of nine years, to arrive, by degrees, in
a country, whence fome tidings of them might
have been received ; for it is probable, that they
would have attempted every thing, to get out of
a ftate of anxiety and folitude worfe than death.
If then we be not bereft of all hope, at leaft that
which remains is very feeble. A navigator has
afferted, that he had feen figns of the wreck of La
Peroufe; the reader may judge of the confidence
that he merits, by his clepofition, which I fhall quote
2 literally, PRELIMINARY DISCOURSE. 51
literJI^r, without any other obfervation than com*
i^ing the author with himfelf, and placing his
flbry by the fide of Bougainville's relation.
Extract from the minutes of the juftice of peace
of the town and commune of Morlaix.
1 George Bo wen* captain of the fhip Albemarle,
bound from Bombay to London, and carried into
Morlaix, being examined whether he had had any
information concerning La Peroufe, who failed
from France on a voyage round the world, an-
fwered, that in December/ 179:1, he himfelf perceived, on his return from Port Jackfoii to Bombay,
upon the coaft of New Georgia*, imifhe eaftem
ocean, pieces of the wreck of a fhip floating upon
the w^terf, and which he judged to be of French
conftruction; that he had not been on fhdfe^ but
that.^he natives of the country came on boam;
him ; that he could not uiiferftand^eir lang§age,
but by their figns he had comprehended, that a
* Reconnoitred by Shortland, .lieutenant in the Englifh
navy, in 1788; but partly discovered by Bougainville, captain in the French navy,, 14^768, and Hill more by Surville,
captain of a fhip in the India Company's fervice, who called
it the land of the Arfacides.    (Fr. Ed,J
f Lajg^roufe could onjghave been loll in 1788.    I leave
thofe. who know the efFe-ffcs -of waves of the fea upon a veffel
wrecked, to judge whether thefe pieces of wrecks could be JHdi;-
Hoating upon the water at the end of December, 1791,--**-
(Fr. Ed.)
E % fhip 52 PRELIMINARY DISCOURSE.
fliip had touched on their coafts; that the natives
knew the ufe of many implements of iron, concerning which they were very curious; and that he had
-exchanged with them feveral articles of iron and
glafs ware, for bows; that with refpect to the character of thefe Indians, they appeared to him pacific*, and better informed than the inhabitants of
Otaheite, firice they had a perfect knowledge of
works in iron, and their canoes were built in a
fuperior manner; that when the natives were on
board his fhip, he had not yet difcovered the wreck
in queftion, and that failing along the coaft, he
perceived it by the help of a great fire lighted upon
the land near the middle of the night*f of the 30th
December, 1791; that without1 this fire he had
probably run upon the rocks of Cape Deception.
The deponent declares, that in all this quarter of
the coaft of New Georgia he remarked a great
number of huts or cabins; that thefe Indians
were of a robuft ftature, and of a mild difpofition,
# Thefe Indians, characterized as pacific, attacked the boats
Bougainville had fent on fhore to fetch water, as foon as
they had entered Choifeul Bay.   (Fr.Ed.)
f Jt is undoubtedly furprizing, that the pieces of
wreck ieen by George Bowen3 and affirmed to be part of
La Peroufe's fhip, and of French confiruclion, circumftances
which fuppofe them to have been of confiderable fize, and
examined at no great diftance, fhould only be perceived at
midnight by the flame of a fire kindled on land. (Fr. Ed.)
whence. PRELIMINARY   DISCOURSE. £$
whence he prefumes, that if M. De La Peroufe or
any of his crew be on fhore there, they may flill
be alive*; and that he knows, that all the fhips
which have navigated thefe coafts are thofe of Bougainville—the Alexander—the Friendfhip, of London—M. De La Peroufe—and the deponent; that
in confequence he prefumed the pieces of wreck
to be the remains of M. De La Peroufe's fhip-f;
fince the Alexander foundered in the Straits of
Macaffer, and the Friend fhip arrived fafe in an
Englifh port. On being afked whether he had fe-en
any clothes upon the natives which denoted them
to have had communication with Europeans, he
anfwered, that the people were naked; that the
climate is very hot; and that by their figns he
difcovered, that they had previoufly k^n fhips;
that he perceived in the pofleffion of thefe Indians
fifhing nets, the'threads'.of which, were flax, and
the mefhes of European manufacture;];; that out
* Bougainville, obliged to repel by for-ce *%e attack of
thefe Indians, poffefTed himfelf of two of their canoes, in
which he found, among other.fhings, the jaw of a man half
broiled, an evident proof that they were cannibals. (Fr. Ed.)
f The Englifh captain eeafes to give it as a certainty,
that the pieces of wreck he perceived were the remains of
La Peroufe's fhip.; it now becomes {imply "a py&Umption.'•-•-
(Fr.Ed.) ^0i     ':..:  ^   : ,.-.•    ife? "•• •
X Bougainville found in the canoes; which fell into his
hands, nets with very fine mefhes, fkilfully woven.; it-is probable, that the perfection of their ,co.nftru£iion led captajn
po»ven into a miftake.    (Fr. Ed.)
E i "•'.■
m ma*
£4 PRELIMINARY DISCOURSE OF
of curiofity he took a piece of it, from which i,t
would be eafy to difcover that the materials and
the workmanfhip were European."
Such is at this time the only information we are
in poffeffion of concerning the fate of our navigator. The public indications ftill in exiftence of
the track he followed, and of the places he
examined, are the medals ftruck on occafion of
his voyage, and left or diftributed by La Peroufe
during the courfe of it. He took out with
him about a hundred of filver and bronze, and fix
hundred others of different kinds, As we know
the route which he had ftill to perform, thefe
medals may one day point out to us1 nearly in what
fpot his misfortune interrupted if. ■ •"■'
The medal relative to the voyage, becoming an
hiftorical monument, and being liable to be found
again bile day by other navigators, I cannot refrain
from making it known, though I have not thought
proper to have it engraved; on one fide is the
effigy of the king with the"common infcription;
the reverie bears the following infcription encircled
by two branches' of olive tied together by a ribband:—''     ) I   p a r ^ii% "   ? ;
Les Fregates du roi de France, la Boujfole et VAftrolabe, com-
'   mandks par M.M.De La Pfroufe et De Langle, parties  du
Port de'Jkeft en juin" 17S5;.'" "y>    -' ¥'    * r*>l!*f}$$& l   ' "'
The King of France's Frigates the BoufTole and Aftrolabe,
•   commanded by-De La Peroufe and De Langle, failed from
'the port of.-Brett, in June, 17850      ^'3|S$^R
i ^ »    i     j    \  ■■„- W>M So PRELIMINARY  DISCOURSE. $$
So many precautions taken for the fuccefs of a
great expedition, the expence it occafions, and
the troubles   and  the   evils  it  draws  after   it,
j$iy occafion many prejudiced and fyftematic
perfons to doubt whether thefe pains and
cares be compenfated by the reciprocal utility,
which mankind find^jn voyages of difcovery.—ft
Although I might queftion the utility of introducing domeftic animals, and a few farinaceous plants „
among favages, compared with the evils which
refult to them, from the falfe or fuperficial ;notions
that our principles fuggefl to them, and from the
fudden communication of our manners and our
euftoms; I fay, that after having given them detached notions, which they know not how either to
extend or to apply, vegetables and animals which
they neither preferve nor perpetuate, then to
leave them to themfelves, is to give them the
knowledge and defire of gratifications which they
cannot procure, and thereby to promote their un-
happinefs: but to raife them by degrees with the
view to civilize them, to j make orderly colonies
before we make a polifhed people of them, and i|o|
; to give them new wants and new ways of acting,
without the means of providing for the one, and
beneficially ferving themfelves by the other; is tQ
prepare and to fecure to their pofterity the happy
fruits of the expanfion of the human facujties,
, If we, as well as they, may fuffef fome inconveniences from our communications with them,*
E,4 when k
il
J
1
1   I
1 -atm-L^---
56 PRELIMINARY DISCOURSE.
when our refpective fituations are fo different, yet
the great advantages that the arts and fciences receive from voyages of difcovery, cannot reafonably
be contefted. It is the nature of civilized man to
enlarge the fphere of his knowledge and enjoyments, by the advance of his und^rftanding and
the enlargement of his defires. The navigator, as
he proceeds, difcovers new and ufeful productions ;
determines the fituation of different places, thus
giving fecurity to his own route and that of
others; learns to judge his fellow-creatures by
a greater number of comparifons; and every pro--*
greflive movement he makes is a ftep towards the
knowledge of man and of nature. It is grand, it
is beautiful, to incur expences, and to run rifks,
for the wants of fociety at large, and the growth of
true riches.
If fome philofophers have difapproved of voyages
in general, becaufe expeditions undertaken with
ambitious and interefted views have been followed
by acts of barbarity, it is becaufe thefe have been
confounded with voyages of difcovery, which have
had for their object to carry benefits to our fellow creatures, and to enlarge the field of fcience.
Thefe benefits, we fhall perhaps be told, are tljjT
price of their blood ; becattfe they cannot be kept
within bounds, without employing againft them a
force, which, becoming deftructive to the navigators themfelves, occafions a double crime in the;
eyes of philofophy and of nature. N|l-fl3
3Le$ PRELIMINARY   DISCOURSE. 57
Let us confult the navigators known by their
moderation ; their accounts prove to us, that, by
employing the means which prudence dictates, it
is eafy to reftrain the favages by the mere difplay
of force : quickly attached by benefits to navigators whom they refpect, they are fufceptible of
gratitude, and confequently of every other fentiment.
We muft, however, do juftice to the motive
which has mifled thefe philofophers : this refpec-
table motive is humanity; we ought therefore to
be of one opinion henceforward, from the conduct
of our navigators, feeing their extreme care and.
caution for the life of favages, who deflroy each
other upon the flighteft pretexts; the ferocity
of thefe laft fofterted by civilization ; and the im~
menfe quantity of blood fpared by the abolition
of human facrifices, fo revolting, and fo gene*
rally fpread throughout favage nations*
VOYAGE  VOYAGE
RQUND THE WORLD,
IN THE YEARS
17853 1786, I787, AND I788.
Decree of the National Affembly, of the gth of
February,  17 91.
THE National Affembly, after having heard
its  united  committees  of agriculture,   of
commerce, and of marine, decrees,
That the King be entreated to give orders to all
ambaffadors, refidents, confuls, and national agents,
at the courts of foreign powers, that they may
engage thofe different fovereigns, in the name of
humanity, and of the arts and fciences, to charge
all navigators and agents whatfoever, their fub-
jects, in whatever place they may be, but efpe-
cially in the foutherly part of the South Sea, to
make inquiry after the two French frigates La
Boufole and IJAftrolabe, commanded by M. De
La Peroufe, as well as after their crews, and to obtain every information, which may afcertain their
exiftence or their fhipwreck; fo that in cafe M.De
La Peroufe and his companions fhould be found,
no matter in what place, there be given to them
everyx i
II
f lill
60 LA PEROUSE'S VOYAGE
every affiftance, and all means procured for them,
that they maybe enabled to return to their country
with whatever may belong to them ; th^National
Affembly engaging to indemnify, and even to re-
compenfe, according to the importance of the
fervice, whomfoever fhall lend them fuccour,
obtain news concerning them, or only reftore
to France whatfoever papers and other effects may
have belonged to thefe navigators in their expedition.
It is further decreed, that the King be entreated
to direct, that one or more veffels be equipped,
and feveral learned and experienced perfons, natu-
.ralifts, and draughtfmen embarked therein, to the
commanders of which may be given in charge the
double miffion, to fearch after M. De La Peroufe,
according to the documents, inflructions, and or j
ders, that fhall be given to them, and alfo at the
fame time to make inquiries relative to the fciences
and to commerce, taking every meafure inde-
pendantly of the purfuit after M. De La Peroufe,
and even after having met with him, of obtained
news concerning him, to render this expedition
ufeful and advantageous to navigation, to geography, to commerce, and to the arts and fciences.
Compared with the original, by us Prefident and Secretaries of the National Affembly.
Paris,
(Signed)
February, 1791.
DUPORT,  Prefident.
LIORE, ■) c
BQUSSION,   I secretaries.
Decree ROUND   THE   WORLD. 6l
Decree  of the National AJembly, of the 2id
of April, 1791.
The National Affembly decrees, that the accounts and charts fent by M. De La Peroufe, of
that part of his voyage as far as Botany Bay, fhall
be printed and engraved at the expence of the
nation, and that this expence ihall be defrayed out
of the fund of two millions, ordered by the 14th
article of the decree of the 3d of Auguft, 1790.
Decrees, that as foon as the edition  fhall be
completed,   and that as many copies are taken
from them as the King would like to difpofe of,
the furplus fhall be fent to Mad. De La Peroufe,
with a copy of the Decree, as a teftimony of their
fatisfaction for the exertions of M. De La Peroufe
for the public  welfare,   and for  the increafe of
human knowledge and ufefat discovery.-
iJjUecrees, that M. De La Peroufe fhall remain on
the lift, of naval commiffioned officers until the1
return of the fhips in fearch of him; and that his
pay fhall  continue to be  reeved by  his wife,*
according to the difpofition that he had made before his departure.
Compared with the original, by us Prefident and Secretaries of the National Affembly.
(Signed) REUBELL, Prefident.
GOUPIL-PREFELN, }
MOUGINS-ROQUEFORT, V Secretaries.
ROGER, )
faris, 25th April, 1791.
NOTE t
ill:
6± LA PEROUS'E S VOYAGE
NOTE OF THE KING,
To ferve as a particular inftruction to the Sieuf
De La Peroufe, captain of the navy, commanding the frigates La Boufible and UAftrd-
labe.
(26june^i785.)
HIS Majefty having caufed to be equipped, at
the port of Breft, the frigates La Bouffole, commanded by the Sieur De La Peroufej and L'Af-
trolabe, by the Sieur D Langle* captains of the
navy, to be employed in a voyage of difcovery,
is about to make known to the Sieur De La Peroufe, to whom he has given the command in
chief of thefe two veffels, the fervice he will have
to perform, in the important expedition, which he
has confided tp his care*    j | ph$t&$
The different objects which his Majefty has had
in view in commanding this voyage, have rendered it neceffary, that the prefent inftruction
fhould be divided into feveral parts, in order that-e
it may explain more clearly to the Sieur De La Peroufe the particular intentions of his Majefty, upon -
every one of the objects that will engage his | attention*
The firft part will contain the route or plan of
his voyage, according to the order of the difcoveries it is in contemplation to make or to carry to
perfection; ROUND THE WORLD. 63
perfection; and there will be joined to it a collection of geographical and Mftorical notes, which
may guide him In the-various inquiries, to which
Ife will devote himfeff,'"
The fecond part will-treat of the objects relating
to policy and to commerce.
The third will explain the operations relative to
aftronomy, to geography, to navigation, to natural philofophy, and to the different branches of
natural hiftory, and will regulate the labours of
the aftronomers, natural philofophers, naturalifts,
fcientific perfons, and artifts employed in the expedition.
The fourth-part will prefcribe to the Sieur De La
Peroufe, the conduct it will be neceffary for him
to purfue, with the lavage people and the natives
of the different countries which he will have opportunities1 of difcovering or vifiting.
The fifth and laft will point out to him the precautions he will be required to take, to preferve
the health of his crews.
FIRST PART.
Plan of the  Voyage,
The Sieur De La Peroufe will fail from Brcft -
Road, as foon as every preparation fhall have been
made,
He mmmmma] rv
64 tA perouse's voyage
He will touch fucceffively at Funchal, in the
ifland of-Madeira; and at Praya, in that of St-
Jago* He will provide himfelf with fome cafks
of wine in the firft port, and complete his water
and wood in the laft, where he may alfo procure
himfelf fome refrefhments. He will obferve, however, with regard to Praya, that he ought to
make the fhorteft poffible flay there* becaufe the
climate is very unheakhy at the feafon when he
will reach it.
He will crofs the line in the 29th or 3.0th degree of weft longitude from the meridian of Paris;
and if the wind fhould permit him, he will try
to reconnoitre Pennedo de fan Pedro (fee note 2}
and to afcertain its pofition.
He will examine the ifland of Trinidad, (notes
10 & 11) will anchor there, and may wood and
water, as well as fulfil there a particular object of
his inftructions.
In leaving this ifland he will run into the latitude of Ifte Grande de la Roche (note 19J ; he
will follow the parallels of 440 and 450 to 50 degrees of longitude, in 35 degrees of weft longitude, and he will give up the fearch of this ifland
if he have not met with it when he fhall have
reached that meridian. If he fhould prefer making it from the weftward, he will neverthelefs keep
between the above-mentioned meridians.
He will run afterwards into the latitude of
Terre de la Roche,  called by Cook the Ifland
of ROUND THE WORLD. 6$
of Georgia, in the 54th degree of fouth latitude.
He will make the north weft end of it, and will
particularly examine the fouthern coaft, which
has not yet been vifited.
Thence he will look out for Sandz&ich Land,
(notd 21) in about 57 degrees fouth latitude:
he will obferve, that captain Cook could only in-
fpect fome points on the weft fide of this land,
and that the extent of it towards the eaft and to
the fouth is unknown. He will examine particularly the eaft coaft, in order afterwards to run
down the fouth fide, and double that end of it,
if the ice do not oppofe an invincible obftacle
to his purfuits.
When he is affured of the extent of this land to
the^eaft and the fouth, he will fhape his courfe to
make Staten Land, double Cape Hofn, and anchor in Chriftmas Sound, on the fouth*weft coaft of
Terra del Fuego, where he will provide himfelf
with wood and water; but if he finds it too dif-
cult to beat to the weftward, by reafon of the
winds which ufually prevail in this part, and the
currents which fometimes run ftrong to the eaft-
ward, he will Hand for the coaft of Brazil in the
latitude he can belt make it; run along this land
with variable winds or land breezes, and may even
touch at Falkland's Iflands, which offer refources
of different kinds. He will afterwards pafs Strait
le Maire, or double the eaft end of Staten Land to
Vol I. F reach *mmmasmumm
jS6 la perouse's voyage
reach Chriftmas Sound, which, in any cafe, muft
be the firft rendezvous of his Majefty's fhips in
cafe of feparation. SiriSi
In quitting Chriftmas Sound %/will fhape his
courfe fo as to pafs the meridian of 85 deg. waft,
in the latitude of 57 degrees fouth, and he will
keep in this parallel to 95 degrees of longitude, to
look for Drake's Port and Ifland (note 23).
He wall afterwards crofs the meridian of 105
deg. in the parallel of 38 deg.? in which he will keep
to 115 deg. of longitude, endeavouring to find an
ifland faid to be difcovered by the Spaniards, in
1714 (note z$), in 38 deg. of latitude, between
the 108th and 110th meridian.
After this fearch, he will get into the latitude of
q*i° 5' upon the meridian of 108 degrees weftj to
look in this parallel for Ef$fr Ifland, fituate in
1120 8; of longitude. He will anchor there to
fulfil the particular object, which will be prefcribed
in the fecond part of the prefent inftructions.
From this ifland he will return to the latitude
of 32 deg. on the meridian of 120 deg. weft, and he
will keep in that parallel to 135 deg. of longitude, to find land feen by the Spaniards in 1773
(note 2)).
At this point of 135 deg. of longitude, and 32 of
latitude, the two frigates are to part comp&ny.—
The firft will Hand on to the intermediate parallel between 16 and 17 deg., and will keep in it from
/ the ROUND  THE WORLD. 67
the 135th to the 150th meridian weft from Paris,
whence fhe will fleer for the ifland of Otaheite.
The interval from the 16th to the 17th degree of
latitude, on a fpace of 25 degrees in longitude,
not having been viiited by any modern navigators,
being fcattered over with low iflands, it is poffible
that the fhip which follows the above-mentioned
track ifciil meet with new iflands, which may be inhabited, as are moft of the low iflands in thefe
feas.
At the fame time the fecond frigate, going from-
the fame point of 32 degrees of latitude, and
135 of. longitude, will get into 250 12' fouth
latitude,' and try to keep in this parallel,, beginning in the 131ft or 132d degree of longitude,.
This frigate will-look out for Pitcairn Ifland, difcovered, in 1767, by Carteret, and fituate in 250 12'
of fouth latitude. The* longitude of this ifland
is yet uncertain, becaufe this navigator had no"
means of afcertaining it by obfervation. It is
much to be defired it might be determined* with
jprecifion, becaufe the pofition of this ifland, if
well known, might ferve gradually to rectify t¥at
of other iflands or lands difcovered fubfequently
by Carteret.
In quitting Pitcairn  Ifland, the fecond veffel
will Hand to the weft-ward, and* afterwards to the
north-weft, to look fucceffively for the. iflands of the
Incarnation, of St. John the Baptifl, of St. Elmo, of
F 2 the
1 6S la perouse's voyage
the Quatro Coronadas, of St. Michael, and of the
Converfion of St. Paul, difcovered by Quiros, in
1606,(note 28), which it is fuppofed may be fituate
to the fouth-eaft of Otaheite, and which have not
been feen, or even fought for, by the navigators of
this century. The fecond fhip will thus, by a north-
weft courfe, arrive at 150 degrees weft longitude,
and at 19 degrees of latitude, whence the will
proceed to Otaheite.
It is to be prefumed, that the two frigates may
be there towards the latter end of April. That
ifland will be the fecond rendezvous of the king's
fhips, in cafe of feparation. They will, in the
firft place, anchor in the bay of Oheitepeha, fituate at the north-eaft part of the ifland called
Tiarabou, or Otaheite-ete, which is found to
windward of the bay of Matavai, fituate at the
north point, or Point Venus; and they will afterwards put into this latter place, in order to procure at thofe two different anchorages, with greater
facility, fuch refrefhments as they may fland in
need of.
: The Sieur De La Peroufe will leave Otaheite
after a month's flay. He may, in his way, vifit
Huaheine, Ulietea, Otaha, Bolabola, and others
of the Society Iflands, to procure the remaining fup-
plies of provifion, to provide thefe iflands with European articles, ferviceable to their inhabitants,
and to fow  feeds,  plant vegetables,  trees,   &c.
which ROUND  THE WORLD. 69
which may in time prefent new refources to European navigators croffmg this ocean.
In quitting the Society Iflands, he will fleer a
north-weft courfe to get into the latitude of the
o
Ifland of St. Bernard of Quiros (note 28J, about
the nth degree. He will not proceed in his fearch
for this ifland further than from 158 to 162 degrees
of longitude; and from the latitude of 11 degrees
he will ftand to the north-weft, till he gets into
the 5th degree of fouth latitude, and between the
166th and 167th degrees of longitude; he will
then fhape his courfe to the fouth-weft, to crofs,
in this direction, the part of the fea fituate to
the north of the archipelago of the Friendly Ifles,
where it is probable he will meet, according to
the reports of the natives of thofe iflands, with a
great many others, in all likelihood inhabited,
and which have not yet been vifitedby Europeans.
It would be deiirable if he could again find the
ifland of the Bella Nacion of Quiros, which he
fhould look for between the parallels of 11 and 11 f
degrees from the 169th degree of longitude, up to
the 171ft, and fucceffively the Navigators Iflands
of Bougainville, likewife he will go to the Friendly
Iflands to procure refrefhments.
Upon leaving the Friendly Iflands, he wilf get
into the latitude of the  Ifle of Pines, fituate at"
the fouth-eaft point of New Caledonia (note-2^)-,
and after having made it, he will coaft it wefterly^
F 3 tg If
70 LA PEROUSE S VOYAGE
to afcertain whether this land be all one ifland, or
formed of many iflands.
If, after having run down the fouth-weft coaft
of New Caledonia, he can make Queen Charlotte's
Iflands, he will try to reconnoitre the ifland of
Santa Cruz of Mendana (note 30), and determine
its extent to the fouth.
But if the wind fhould not allow of this courfe,
he will make for the Deliverance Iflands, at the eaft
point of the Terre des Arfacides, difcovered, in
1769, by Surville (note 32); he will run along
the fouth coaft, which neither, this navigator, nor
any other, has examined, and he will fatisfy himfelf whether, as is probable, thefe lands do not
form a group of iflands, which he will try to
particularize. It is to be prefumed, that they are
peopled on the coafts to the fouth, as we know
thofe to the north are; perhaps he may procure
there fome refrefhments.
He will endeavour, in like manner, to examine
an ifland to the north-weft of the Terre des Arfa-
cides, the eaftern coaft of which was feen by
Bougainville in 1768; but he will purfue this re-
fearch no farther than to be able without difficulty
afterwards, to make Cape Deliverance on the
fouth-eaft point of Louifiade (note ^)-, and,
before reaching this cape, he. will examine, if he
the eaft eoafcjdfi
From ROUND THE  WORLD. "7*1
From Cape Deliverance he will fleer a courfe for
Endeavour Straits (note 34), and will, in thefe
TOaits, try to afcertain^vVhether the land of Loui-
fiade be contiguous to that of New Guinea; and
he will examine all this part of the coaft, from
Cape Deliverance to the ifland of St. Bartholomew,
call north-eaft of Cape Walfh, of which we have
xat prefent but a very imperfect knowledge.
It is much to be wifhed that he could infpect
the Gulf of Carpentaria (note $$); but he will
have to obferve, that the north-weft monfoon,
to the fouth of the line, begins about the 15th
of NotfeSifcer, and that the limits of this monfoon
are not fo fixed, that they may not fometimes extend themfelves beyond the 10th degree of fouth
latitude. It is therefore important, that he obferve
the greateft diligence in this part of his furvey,
and that he pay attention to combine the length
of his courfe, and rate of his failing, fo as to have
repaffed the longitude of the fouth-weft point of
the Ifland of Timor, before the 20th of November,
If, contrary to all appearance, it fhould have
been impoffible for him to have procured refrefh-
ments, wood, and water, in the places'he had touched
at after his departure from the Friendly fifes,
which may be fuppofed to have been about the
15th of July, he will flop, at Prince's Iflaha, &t
the entrance of the Straits of Sunda, near the
Wefteth point of the ifland of Java, ^
W* F 4 On ■^mmSSm
72 LA PER0USE S VOYAGE
. On leaving Prince's Ifland, or if he have not been
forced to put in there, in quitting the channel to
the north of New Holland (note 35), he will
direct his courfe fo as to infpect the fouth coaft of
this land, and he will begin this examination as
high up towards the equator as the winds wall
permit him. He will furvey; the weft coaft, and
infpect more particularly the fouthern coaft, of
which the greateft part has never been explored,
and he will approach to the fouth of Van-Diemen's
Land (note 36), at Adventure Bay, or at Frederick
Henry Bay; thence he will make for Cook's Straits,
and anchor at Queen Charlotte's Sound, fituate
in the ftrait between the two iflands which form
New Zealand. This port will be the third rendezvous for the frigates in cafe of feparation. He
will repair his fhips there, and provide himfelf
with refrefhments, wood, and water.
It may be prefumed he can fail from this port
at the beginning of March,  1787.
In going out of Cook's Straits, or New Zealand
Straits, he will Hand for, and remain between, the
parallels of 41 & 42 degrees, as far as the 130th degree of weft longitude. When he fhall have reached
this longitude, he will Hand to the north, in prdej
to get to windward, and into the latitude of the
Marquefas iflands of Mendoza (note 38); to fup-
ply the wants of his fhips, he will put into the
port of Madre de Dios of M^ndana, on the
cM? weftern ROUND  THE WORLD. 73
weftern coaft of the ifle Santa Chriftinia (Cook's
Refolution'sBay); this port will be the fourth rendezvous in cafe of feparation.
It may be prefumed that this paffage will take
up two months, and that he will be ready tp fail
again about the 15th of May.
If, in failing from the Marquefas iflands of Men-
doza, the winds fhould be fufficiently favourable
for him, to make, at leaft, a northerly courfe, he
might reconnoitre fome of the iflands to the eaft
of the group of Sandwich Ifles (note 40): he
will afterwards repair to thefe lafly where he may
take a/ fupply of provifion, but he will not flay
there.
He will fail, as foon as he can, to make the
north-weft coaft of America; and to this effe6t
he will ftand to the northward, as far as 30 degrees,
to get out of the trade winds, and that he may
make the above coaft in 3 6° 20' at Punt a de
Pinos, to the fouth of Port Monterey, of which
thp mountains (ovfiefraj of Santa Lucia, are the
marks.
It is probable, that he may arrive at this coaft
about the 10th or 15th of July (note 41).
He will particularly endeavour to reconnoitre
thofe parts which have not been examined by
captain Cook, and of which the relations of Ruffian and Spanifh navigators have given no idea.
He will observe, with the greateft care, whether,
si 74 ^A PEROUSE S VOYAGE
in thofe parts not yet known, fome river may not
be found, fome confined gulf, which may, by
means of the interior lakes, open a communication with fome part of Hudfon's Bay.
He will pufh his enquiries to Behring's Bay,
and to Mount St. Elias, and will infpect the ports
-Buearelli and LosRemedios, difcovered, in 1775*
by the Spaniards.
Prince William's Sound, and Cook's River, hav-
Ihg been fufficiently explored, he will $ot make a
point of vifiting them; but after maKiiig Mount
St. Elias, he will fleer a courfe for the Shumagin
Iflands, near the p^nkifula of Alafhka.
He will afterwards examine the archipelago of
the Aleutian Iflands (note 42), and fucceffively
the two groups of iflands to the weft of the for*
mer, concerning the true pofition and the number
of which we are uninformed, and which altogether
conftitute, with the coafts of Alia and America,
the great northern bafin or gulf.
When this examination is completed, he will
put into the port of Avatfcha (note 43), or St.
Peter and St. Paul, at the fouth-eaftern extremity
of the peninfula of Kamtfchaikft.
He will try to be there about the 15th or 20th
<$ September; and this port will be the fifth rendezvous in cafe of feparation.
He wiH diligently provide for the wants of his
there, arrcf wtH gain the neceffary information
.-n> .     ROUND THE WORLD. 75
tion fo as to be fure of finding provifion there
when he comes aga%in 1788.
He will fo arrange his operations as to be
ready to fail in the firft ten days of October.
He will coaft along and examine all the Kurile
Iflands (note 44), the north-eaft coaft, the eaft
and the fouth of Japan; and, according as the
feafon advances, and he may find the winds more
or lefs favourable, the feas more or'lefs difficult, he
will extend his refearches to the ifla
>rU
the
eaft and the fouth of Japan, and to the iflands
of Lekeyo, as far as Formofa.
When he fhall have completed this examination,
he will put into Macao and Canton, or Manilla,
according to circumftanc.es.
This port will be the fixth rendezvous in cafe
of feparation.
It is prefumed, that he ought to be there towards
the end of the year 1787.
He will get his Chips- repaired and victualled,
and will wait in port the return of the fouth-
weft monfoon, which commonly fets in about
the beginning of March. Fie may, notwith-
Handing, delay his departure till the firft of
April, if his crews have need of longer reft, and
if, after the information he fhall have gained, he
fcteink the* navigation northward would be too
hazardous before this period.
What
H nHPiinMir
76 LA  PEfrOUSE?S   VOYAGE
Whatever may be the length of his flay, he
will fhape his courfe in quitting this port, to
pafs the ftraits, which feparate the ifland of For-
mofa from the coaft of China, or between this
ifland and thofe which lie to the eaft.
He will examine with care the weft coaft of
Corea, and infpect the gulf of Hoan-hay, taking
care not to Hand in fo far as to prevent him from
weathering the fouth coaft of Corea, with a
fouth-weft, or foutherly wind.
He will afterwards examine the eaftern coaft
of this peninfula, that of Tartary, where the
pearl fifhery is carried on, and that of Japan, on
the other fide. All thefe coafts are abfolutely
unknown to Europeans.
He will pafs the ftraits of TeJJby, and explore
the land known by the name of Jeffo (note 45^,
and that which the Dutch have denominated.
Staten Land, and the Ruffians, Nadezda Ifland,
about which there are at prefent only confu'fed
ideas, from fome ancient accounts which the
Dutch Eaft India Company have fuffered to
tranfpire, but the accuracy of which has not
been afcertaincd.
He will finifh his obfervations upon fuch of the
Kurile Iflands (note 4.4.), as he may not have
been able to vifit in the preceding month of
November, in coming from Avatfcha to Macae.
He ROUND   THE   WORLD. 77
He will pafs between fome of thefe iflands
as near as he can to the foutherly point of
Kamtfchatka; and will anchor in the port of
Avatfcha, the feventh rendezvous in cafe of fe-
paration.
After refitting and victualling, he will go to
fea again, at the beginning of Auguft.
He will come into the latitude of 37 deg. §
north, on the meridian of 180 deg.
He wrill fleer to the weftward, to look out
for land, or an ifland which is faid to have been
difcovered by the Spaniards, in 1610, (note 48^;
he will follow up this fearch to the 165th of eaft
longitude. He will Hand afterwards"fouth-weft,
and fouth-fouth-weft, to examine the difperfed
iflands fituate in this direction, to the north eaft
of the Ladrones, or Marianne Iflands.
He may put in at the ifland of Tinian, but
he will fo contrive to combine the time of his
flay, and his further courfe, with the north-eaft
monfoon, which only begins in October to the
north of the line, fo that on quitting the ifle of
Tinian he may run down and examine the New
Carolinas (note 49J, fituate fouth-weft of the
ifland of Guaham, one of the Mariannes, afidt
to the eaft of Mindanao, one of the Philippines.
He will proceed in this examination as far as the
iflands of St. Andrew.
1^
K 78 LA   PE.ROUSEV VOYAGE
He will aiftefosrards come to an anchor at the
i§$nd of MManao, in the port fituate on the.
fouth fide of the ifland, behind that of Sirangam.
After a flay of a fortnight, taken up in fup-
plying himfelf with refrefhments, he will fet fail
for the Molucca Iflands, and may anchor at
Ternate, to procure what further provifion may
be wanting.
As the north-weft monfoon, which then blows
to the fouth of the line, would not permit him
to pafs the ftraits of Sundd, he will avail himfelf of the variation of the wind near the equator, to fleer between Ceram, and Bourro, pr
between Bourro, and Bout on (note $0) ; and
he will endeavour to ftand out from between
fome of the iflands to the eaft or weft of Timor
(note 51;.
It is probable, that, having then run beyond
the parallel of 10 deg. fouth, he will find himfelf to be out of the north-weft monfoon, and
th&t he may eafHy, with the winds from the
eaft, and fouth-eaft, flretch towards the weft,
and make the Ifle of France, which will be the
eighth rendezvous of the (hips, in cafe of fe-
paration. $&$ll
He will flay at the Ifle of France only fo long
as is abfolutely neceffary to put himfelf in a condition to return to Europe, and will take advantage of the laft months of the fummer, for
f ■. the ROUND   THE   WORLD. 79
the navigation which will remain to be performed
in the feas fouth of the Cape of Good Hope.
On quitting the Ifle of France, he will
ftand into the parallel between 54 and ^ degrees fouth, to look for Cape Circumcifion (note
54^, difcovered by Lozier Bouvet, in 1739.
- He will crofs this latitude at 15 deg. of eaft
longitude, and follow the parallel between 54 and
55 degrees, up to the meridian of Paris, or o of
longitude.
When he arrij^s at thaf; point, he is to quit
the ffureh aft€$;.thiidwd#jj^tla
If at this period he ji|#ge the fhips to be $f$:
fofficiently provided with . proyifion, to make
their return to Europe, he may go into the
Cap.e of Qood Hope, to put them into a condition to continue their voyage; and this port
may be, the ninth rendezvous for the veffels, in
cafe of fepar^tion.
Whatever he may have done in this refgjA^
he w&>. in coining, back to Europe, endeavour
to reconnoitre the iflands of Gou^h (note 1SJ,
d'Alvarez (note 17J, Triftan d'Acunha (note
i6J.y Saxemburgh (note 14.J, and Dos Picos
(note 10J, and if he meet with them, he will
afcertain their pofitions, which remain to this
time uncertain.
He wrill refeurn to the port of Breft, where it is
probable.,he may awve in July, or Auguft, 1789.
AlthouriiS LA   PEROUSE S   VOYAGE
Although the courfe of the Sieur De La Peroufe is thus traced by the prefent inftruction,
and his going into the various ports, and his
flay there are pointed out, his Majefty does not
mean to have it underftood, that he fhould invariably fubject himfelf to this plan. All the
calculations here prefented ought to be governed by the circumftances of his navigation, the
condition of his crews, of his provifion, and his
fhips, as well as by the events of his voyage,
and accidents which it is not poffible to forefee.
All thefe caufes may more or lefs produce a change
in the plan of his operations; and the object of
the prefent inftructions is only to make known
to the Sieur De La Peroufe the difcoveries which
remain to be made, or to be perfected, in the*
different parts of the globe, and the courfe which
appeared convenient to be followed: that he
might proceed with order, in hisvariousrefearches,
in combining his different routes, and the periods
of his going into harbour, with the feafons, with
the predominant or periodical winds, in every
latitude he has to go through. His Majefty,
relying therefore on the experience and judgment
of the Sieur De La Peroufe, authorizes him to
make the changes which may appear to him neceffary, in the cafes which have not been fore**
feem
■ Vftri ROUND   THE   WORLD. 8l
feen, provided he keep as near as poffible to
the plan which is traced out to him; and conform himfelf efpecially to that which will be
prefcribed in the other pafts of thefe inftructions.
SECOND PART.
Objects relating to Policy and Commerce.
HIS Majefty has pointed out in the firft part of
thefe inftructions, to the Sieur De La Peroufe
the courfe which he will have to follow, in the
inquiries and difcoveries which he has to make,
in the greateft part of the terreftrial globe; he
is about to make known to him, in this*, part, th&
objects relating to policy and commerce, which
ought particularly to occupy his attention, at the
different places at which he may touch; fo that the
expedition which his Majefty has ordered, in contributing to perfect geography, and extend navigation, may equally fulfil, under other confidera-
tions, the views that his Majefty propofed to
himfelf, for the intereft of the crown, and the
utility of his fubjects.
i ft. The duration of the flay, that the Sieur
De La Peroufe fhould make at Madeira, and at
St. Jago, will t>e too fhort to enable him to acquire any exact knowledge of thefe Portuguefe
colonies; but he wiU neglect no means of obtaining
Vol. I. G   i|f?| inform-' 82 LA   PEROUSE's   VOfAGE
information, refpecting the forces, that the crowri
of Portugal keeps there, refpecting the commerce
carried on there, by the Englifh, and other nations, and the great objects concerning which it
may be interefting to be informed.
2ndly. He will fatisfy himfelf whether the
Englifh have entirely evacuated the Ifland of Trinidad ; whether the Portuguefe be eftablifhed there-,
and in what confifts the eftablilhment the latter
may have formed there fince the evacuation.
3dly. If he fhould happen to fall in with the
Ifle Grande of la Roche, he will examine whether
it contain any commodious and fafe port, where
wood and yvater are to be procured; what facility
it can offer to form an eftablifhment, in cafe the
whale-fifhery might draw French adventurers into
the Southern Atlantic Ocean; whether there be
any part which might be advantageoufly fortified,
and kept by a fmall number of troops, a poll,
in fhort, convenient for an eftablifhment, fo far
off from fuccour and the protection of the mother country.
4thly. He will examine the Ifland of Georgia,with
the fame views; but it is probable, that this ifland,
being fituate under a higher latitude, holds out
lefs facility than might be expected from the po-
fition of Ifle Grande-, and that the ice, which
obftructs the fea during a part of the year in
the vicinage of Georgia, would throw great ob-
%i:J flacles ROUND   THE   WORLtK B'j
Itacles in the way of ordinary navigation; and
would intimidate the fiihermen from making this
ifland a point of rendezvous and retreat.
5thly. The iflands of the great equatorial
ocean will offer but few obfervations to be made
relative to policy and commerce. Their diftance
feems likely to prohibit the nations of Europe
from forming eftablifhments there: arid Spain
only could have any intereft in occupying iflands*
which* being feated at nearly an equal diftance
from her poffeffions in America and Afia, might
become places of fhelter and refrefhment, for her
trading fhips which traverfe the great ocean,
However that may be, the Sieur De La Peroufe
will principally attend to the climate and the
productions of every kind, in the different iflands
of this ocean, where he may land, to learn the
manners and cuftoms of the natives, their religion, the form of their government, their manner of making war, their weapons, their veflels,
the diftinctive character of each tribe, whatever
they may have in common with other favage nations, as well as with civilized people, and principally for what each in particular is remarkable.
Of thofe iflands where the Europeans have already been he will endeavour to learn* whether
the natives of the country have diftinguifhed
the different nations which have vifited them,
and he will try to get out of them what opv-
G z nion 1
IfongfiS
******
84 LA   PEROUSE's   VOYAGE
nion they may have of each of them in particular. He will inquire what ufe they have
made of the different merchandize, of the metals,
the tools, the fluffs, and the other things, which
the Europeans have carried them. He will inform himfelf whether the cattle and other arii-
1 mals, which captain Cook left upon fome of the
iflands, have multiplied, what grain,, what herbs
from Europe have belt fucceeded, what method
the iflanders have practifed for their cultivation,
and to what ufe they have turned their produce.
Every where in fhort, he will examine what has
been related by fuch navigators as have publifhed
accounts of thofe iflands, and he will principally
endeavour to remark what may have efcaped the
refearches of his predeceffors.
During his flay at Eafter Ifland, he will fatisfy
himfelf, whether the population decreafe there, as
there is room to prefume, after the obfervations
and the opinion of captain Cook.
On pafiing to the ifland of Huaheine, he will
flrive to make acquaintance with Omai, that
iflander whom the Englifh navigator eftablifhed
there on his third voyage; he will learn from
him what treatment he met with from his countrymen, after the departure of the Englifh, and
what ufe he has himfelf made of the lights and
knowledge which he muft neceffarily have acquired
during his flay in Europe, for the fervice, benefit,
and melioration of his country,
fithly^ If ROUND   THE   WORLD. 8jJ
6thly. If during the infpe&ion and examination
he will make of the iflands of the great equatorial ocean, and the coafls of the continents, he
fhould meet with any fhip at fea, belonging
to fome other power, he will conduct himfelf
towards the commander of fuch fhip, with all
the politenefs eftablifhed and agreed upon, between polifhed and friendly nations; and if he
meet with fuch in fome port belonging to a people'
confidered as favage, he will concert meafures with
the captain of the ftrange veffel, for effectually preventing all manner of difpute, all altercation between the crews of the two nations, which might
be aftifcre together, and to lend each other mutual
affiftance, in cafe either might be attacked by the
iflanders or favages.
7thly. In the vifit he will make to New Caledonia, Queen Charlotte's Iflands, and the Land
of the Arfacides, and that of Louifiade, he will
carefully examine the productions of thefe countries, which, being fituate under the torrid zone,
and in the fame latitudes as Peru, may open a
new field of fpeculation in commerce; and, without giving way to the reports, undoubtedly exaggerated, which the ancient Spanifh navigators
have made of the fertility, and the riches of fome
of the iflands, which they difcovered in this
part of the world, he will only obferve, that
the reconciliation of various accounts, founded
G 3 upoi mm*ammm
S6 la perouse's vqyaoji
upon geographical combinations, and upon the
knowledge and information which modern,voyages have procured, give room to think, that
the land difcovered, in the ope part, in_i768, by
Bougainville, and in the other, in 1769, by
Surville, may be the iflands difcovered in 1567,
by Mendana, and known fince by the name
qf Salomon's Iflands s which name was given them
in after-times, by the idea whether true or falfe
that was entertained of their riches.
He will examine with fimilar attention the
northern and weftern coafts of New Holland,
and, particularly, that part of thofe coafts which,
lying under the torrid zone, may participate in
the productions common to places in the farne;
latitudes.
8thly. He will not have the fame inquiries to
make at the iflands of New Zealand, which the
accounts of Englifh navigators have very fully
made known. But during his flay in Queen
Charlotte's Spund? he will endeavour to discover, whether England have formed, or projected any eftablifhments upon thefe iflands;
and in cafe he fhould learn that any has been,
formed, he will endeavour to vifit them and obtain
informatiqn of the ftate of it, and of the ftrength
and object of fuch eftablifhment.
9thly. If, in the refearches he will make in the
lorth-weft coaft of America
he meet with, in
fome I StOU^'6 VHE   WOllLBa &J
fome poii#thereof,--felts or factories, belonging
to his Catholic M*$gft^ he will feduloufly avoid
every thing which may give umbrage to the
governors of thofe eftablifhments; and he will
make ufe of the ties of blood and friendfhip,
HWch unite the two fovereigns fo clofely, in order to procure, by thefe means, all the affiftance
and refrefhments of which he may Hand in need,
and with which the country may be in a condition to furnifl^him.
It appears, that Spain has had the intention of
extending its title of poffeffion as far as the Port
de los Remedios, about the 57th degree and a
quarter of latk&de; but there "is nothing which
gi^s -£ffurance, that, in ordering it *$q. be in-
fpected in the year 1775, ffi©?,has formed any
eftablifhment there, any more than at the Port of
JBucarellij fituate about two degrees lefs north-
ward. As far as it is poffible to judge by the
defcriptions of this country, which have made
their way into France, the actual poffeffion of
Spain r does not extend beyond St. Diego, and?
Monterey, where flie has raifed little forts, and
guarded them by detachments drawn from California, or New Mexico.
The Sieur De La Peroufe wijfo endeavour to
obtain" the  knowledge  of  the   condition,   the
ftrength, the objeft of thefe eftablifhments, and
$0 apprize himfelf,   whether thefe be  the  only
G $ Qn^s 88 la perouse's voyage
ones that Spain has formed upon thefe coafts.
He will examine, in like manner, at what latitude
plight be begun the procuring of furs and fluns*
what quantity the American Indians cotd4
furnith; what merchandize, what objects would
be the moft eligible for the traffic of peltry ; what
conveniences might be found for forming an
eftablifhment upon this coaft, in cafe of this
new commerce prele&tlag fufficient advantage to
the French merchants, to induce them to engage
themfelves in it, in the hope of exporting thefe
furs to China,, where we are aflfured they find a
ready fale.
He will, in like manner, endeavour to gain a
knowledge of what kind of fkins may be pur-
chafed, and if thofe of the otter* which bear the
higheft value in Afiaf where they are much
fought after, be the moft common in America*
He will take care to bring to France fpecimens of
all the different furs, which he may have been able
to procure: and as he will have occafion in the
courfe of his voyage to put into China, and
perhaps to touch at Japan, what fpecies of ikins
in thefe two empires have the moft eafy, moft
certain, and moft lucrative fale, and what benefit France might promife itfelf from this branch
of -Commerce, In fhort, he will try, during his
day on the coafts of America, to difcover whether the Hudfon's Bay eftablifhments, the forts
or ROUND   THE   WORLI^ 89
or factories of the interior, or any province of
the United States, have opened, by the medium
of the wandering favages, any communication of
commerce or barter, with the people x>f the weft
coaft.
iothly. It is probable, that in vifiting the A leu*
tian iflands, and the other groupes fituate to the
fouth of the large northern Archipelago, he will
meet with fome Ruffian eftabliihments olfactories.
He will endeavour to learn their conftitution, their
ftrength, their object; what is the navigation of
the Ruffians in thefe feas, what fhips, what men
they employ there; how far they extend their commerce, as alfo whether there be any of thefe iflands
#nich acknowledge the dominion of Ruffia, or
all be independent; in fine, whether the Ruffians have not by fmall degrees ftretched themselves to the very continent of America.
He will profit by his ftay in the port of Avatfcha,
to increafe the knowledge to be acquired in
thefe particulars, and to procure for himfelf at
the fame time, if it be poflible, whatever information he may need refpecting the Kurile Ifles,
the land of Jeffo, and the empire of Japan.
nthly. He will make his examinations of the
Kurile Ifles, and of the land of Jeffo, with pru>
dence and circumfpection, as much in confidera-
tion of that which concerns his navigation in a
fea $0 LA   PEROUSE S   VOYAGE
fea which is not known to Europeans, and which
paffes for tempeftuous, as in the communication
which he may have with the inhabitants of thefe
iflands and lands, whofe character and manners
muft neceffarily have fome conformity with thofe
of the Japanefe, who may have fubjugated part
of them, and hold communication with the others.
He will fee by the geographical and hiftorical
notes joined to the prefent inftruction, that Ruflia
does not extend her dominion further than to
thofe of the Kurile Ifles, the negreft to Kamrt>
fchatka; and he will examine, whether, in the
number of foutherly and independent ifles, there
be not one remaining, upon which, in the fuppo-
iition of a commerce in fkins and furs to;|^
opened with France, it would be poffible to form
an eftablifhment, or factory, which might be r^^
dered fecure from any infult on the part of thq
iflanders.
12thly. With regard to Japan, he will endeavour to reconnoitre and infpect the north eaft,
and the eaft coaft, and go on fhore in fome one of
its ports, in order to fatisfy himfelf whether its
government in reality oppofe any invincibly ob^
itacle to every eftablifhment, to every introduction
of commerce or barter with Europeans, and whe«?
ther by the enticement of furs,which are an object
of utility and luxury to the Japanefe^ it would
not be poffible to prevail on the ports of the eaft ROUND   THE   WORLD. m
•pr north-eaft ^oaft, to admit fhips, which fhould
|?i$ng furs, and receive in exchange teas, filks,
and other productions of their foil, and the
works of their manufacture; perhaps the prohibitory laws of this empire, which all the accounts
of this country fpeak of as fo fevere, are not in
force on the coafts to the north-eaft arid eaft,
with fo much rigour as at Nangafaki and the
fputh coaft, places too near the capital to expect
any relaxation in them.
i3thly. During the time the Sieur De La Peroufe is $t Macao, he will take the neceffary
meafures to obtain the convenience of wintering at
Canton. He will addrefs himfelf for this purpofe
to the Sieur Vieillard, his Majefty's conful at
China, and he will charge him to take fuch
meafures with the Chinefe government, as will
be proper to fucceed therein. He will take advantage of his flay in this port, to inform
himfelf exactly and in detail of the prefent ftate
pf the commerce of the European nations at*
Canton -, and he will inquire into this important
object, under all the points of view, in which
it may be interfiling to be informed.
He will gain every information which may be
ufeful to him in his future navigation in the
feas to the north of China, upon the coafts of
Corea, and of Eaftern Tartary, and of all the lands
pr iflands which remain to be infpected in thefe
parts. ■MMfiMM
II
92 LA   PEROUSE S   VOYAGE
parts. He will not neglect, if it be poffible, to
procure a Chinefe and Japanefe interpreter, and a
Ruffian interpreter for his fecond call at Avatfcha;
he will bargain with them for the time he may
keep them in the fervice of the fhip, and on
his return, will land them at Mindanao, or at the
Moluccas.
i4thly. It is neceffary he be informed, that the
Japanefe pirates are fometimes very numerous in
the fea comprifed between Japan, Corea, and
Tartary. Their weaknefs requires no other precaution on his part, than being on his guard
during the night, to prevent a furprife on theirs;
but it will not be ufelefs, that he fhould endeavour
to fpeak to one of them, and engage him by pre-
fents and promifes of recompence, to pilot his
Majefty's fhips, in his furvey of Jeffo, of which it
is believed one part is under the dominion of
Japan; in the paffage through the Straits of *ifteffoy,
which the Japanefe muft neceffarily know; and
in the exploring of fuch of the Kurile Ifles, as
they may be in the habit of frequenting. This
fame pilot may be equally ferviceable in vifiting
fome port on the weft coaft. of Japan, in cafe cir»
cumftances fhould not have allowed a landing at
any point of the eaft or north-eaft coaft. But
whatever ufe the Sieur De La Peroufe may make
of the faid pilot, he muft not give up to his advice'and fuggeftions, but with the moft cautious
referve. ROUND   THE   WORLD. 93
referve. It is proper alfo, that he fhould engage,
if he can, fome fifhermen of the Kurile Ifles, to
ferve him as pilots for fuch of thofe iflands as
border on Kamtfchatka.
The Sieur De La Peroufe will thus, in Handing
again to the northward, endeavour to complete his
knowledge of the iflands, which he could not make
in coming from Avatfcha to Macao, and to corn-
pen fate on the weft coaft of Japan, for what he
he had not been able to effect upon the eaft and
north-eaft coaft.
The reconnoitring of the coafts of Corea and of
Chinefe Tartary ought to be made with much
prudence and circumfpection. The Sieur De La
Peroufe is not ignorant, that the Chinefe government is very diftruftful: he fhould in confequence
avoid hoiftinghis colours, or making himfelf known,
nor fhould he permit any thing to be done, which
might excite upon thefe coafts the inquietude of
that government, left the effects of it fhould be
felt by the French fhips which trade to Canton,
I5thly. In exploring the Caroline Iflands, which
are fcarcely knowrn but by name to moft of the nations of Europe, the Sieur De La Peroufe will endeavour to learn whether the Spaniards, as they
have frequently projected, have tyet formed any
eftablifhment there.
He will obtain the knowledge of the productions of thefe iflands, and of all thofe which he
may £4 LA   PEROUSE'S   VOYAGE
may have been able to difcover to the north-eaff;,
and to the weft-fouth-weft of the Marian, or
Ladrbrie Iflands.
i6thly. In the flay which he will make at Tinian, one of the Marian Iflands, he will obtain information concerning the eftablifhments, the
forces, and the commerce of the Spaniards in
that archipelago and its environs,
He will make the fame inquiries at Mindanao,
in order to know, as much as he can, the political,
military, and commercial flate of this nation in
the Philippines.
17thly. During the ftay he will make at the
Moluccas, he will neglect nothing with refpect to
the information to be obtained concerning the
iituation and the commerce of the Dutch in thefe
iflands. He will ftudy particularly to learn the
advantages which the Englifh derive in their commerce from the liberty this power has obtained*
by its laft treaty of peace with Holland, of navigating and trafficking in the whole extent of the
Afiatic feas, and he will endeavour to learn what
ufe England has made of this liberty, and whe-<
ther fhe have already gone to far as to open by
this way any new branch of commerce in this patt
of the world,
i8thly. If the Sieur De La Peroufe put into the
Cape of Good Hope, he will obtain precife information concerning the prefent fituation of that
colony, ROUND   THE   WORLD,  j 55
colony, the forces that Holland or the Dutch
Eaft India Company keep there fince the peace,
and the ftate of the new and old fortifications
which defend the town, and protect the anchorage.
I9thly. Generally in all the iflands, and in all the
ports of the continent, occupied or frequented by
the Europeans, where he may land, he will with prudence, as much as the time he flays, and circum-
ftances will permit, make every inquiry whicl^
may enable him to communicate in detail the
nature and the extent of the commerce of each
nation,- the forces both by land and by fea that
each keeps in them, the connections of intereft or
friendfhip which may exift between each and the
chiefs or natives of the country where they have
their eftablifhments, and generally all that can
intereft either policy or commerce,
THIRD PART.
Operations relating to Aftronomy, to Geography^
to Navigation, to Natural Philofophy, and to
the different Branches of Natural Hiftory.
ift. HIS Majefty having appointed two aftrq*
nomers to be employed under the orders of the
Sieur De La Peroufe, in the expedition which he
has confided to hur^ and his two frigates being,
provided 96 LA   PEROUSE's   VOYAGE
provided with all the inftruments of aftronomy
and navigation, of which ufe can be made either by feasor land, he will take care in the courfe
of the voyage, that one or other of them makes
all the aftronomical obfervations which may appear to him of any utility.
The object of the greateft importance to the
fafety of navigation is, to fix with precifion the
latitudes and longitudes of the places where he
may land, and of thofe within fight of which he
may pafs. With this view he will recommend to
the aftronomer employed on board each frigate, to
obferve with the greateft exactnefs the movement
of the time-keepers, and take advantage of every
favourable circumftance for verifying, on fhore,
whether they have kept good time during the
run, and to confirm by obfervation the change
which may have happened in their daily movement, in order to keep an account of the change,
fo as to determine, with greater precifion, the
'longitude of the iflands, the capes, or other remarkable points, which he may have obferved
and laid down in the interval of the two verifications.
4s often as the ftate of the iky will permit
him, he will order lunar obfervations to be
taken, with the inftruments for that purpofe, to
determine the longitude of the fhip, and to
compare  it with  that which  the   time-keepers*
indicate ROUND   THE   WORLD. 97
fridicate at the fame point of time: he will take
care to multiply the obfervations of each kind,
fo that the mean refult between different operations may procure a more precife determination.
Whenever he paffes within fight of any ifland
of land, at which he does not propofe to go on
fliore, he will be fure to keep himfelf as riiuch as
poffible on its parallel at the time when obfervations are made of the meridian height of
the fun, or of any ftar, from which to calculate
the latitude of the fhip; and he will keep under
the fame meridian while obfervations are making
to determine the longitude. Thus he will avoid all
error of pofition, and reckoning, which may injure
the exact nefs of the "determination. He will caufe
daily obfervations to be made, when the weather
will permit, of the variation and dip of the
magnetic needle.
As foon as he arrives in any port, he will make
choice of a commodious fpot of ground to pitch
his tents, arid fet up his portable obfervatory, with
which he is provided, and he fhould place a guard
over it.
Independently of the obfervations relative to
the determination of latitudes and longitudes,
for which there will be employed every kind of
method known or practifed, and of thofe for
knowing the variation of the compafs, he will not
fail to obferve every celeftial phenomenon which
Vol, I, H ma? mm
98 ; IA PEROUSe's VOYAGfi
may be perceived; and on all occafions he will -
obtain for the two aftronomers all the affiflance-
Which may affure the fuccefs of their operations.
His Majefty is perfuaded, that the officers and
the naval cadets, employed in the two frigates,
will zealoufly endeavour to make, in concert
tvith the aftronomers* every obfervation which
may have any lifeful connection with navigation ;
and that thefe laft perfons, on their part, will be
eager to communicate on the earlieft occafions
the fruits of their ftudies, and that theoretical
knowledge, which may contribute to carry the
nautical art to perfection^
The Sieur De La Peroufe muft caufe a double
journal to be kept on board eachfrigate, in which
muft be entered, day by day, as well by fea as by
land, the aftronomical obfervations* thofe relative to the employment of the time pieces and all
others,, Thefe obfervations will be inferted in
the rough in the log-book, that is to fay, in it
will be. limply written the quantity of degrees*
minutes, &c. given by the inftrument at the.
moment of obfervation, without any calculation,
and in pointing out only the known error of the
inftrument, of which ufe will be made, if it have
jbeen afcertained by the accuftomed verifications.
Each of the aftronomers fhould keep one of
thefe journals, and the other fhould remain in
the hands of each captain,
The \ ROUND   THE   WORLD, $t)
The aftronomer willhefides keep a'fecond journal, wherein he fhould in like manner infert, day bjr
day, all the obfervations which he may have made*
to which he will join for every operation* all the
calculations w^hich neceffarily lead to the la'ft refult.
At the end of the voyage the Siettf De La Peroufe fhould have the two journals depofited in
his hands, which fhall have been kept by the
aftronomers, after they have beep certified as
true, and figned;
2ndly. When the Sieur De La Peroufe fhall land*
at thofe ports* which it may be interfiling to be
acquainted with, in a military point of view, he
will obtain that knowledge through the chief
engineer, who will give him a circumftantial
report of the remarks he may have made, and of
the plans which it may have been in his power ta
lay down.
The Sieur De La Peroufe is to order exact
charts to be drawn of all the coafts and iflands
he fhall have infpected; and if they have been
previoufly known he muft verify the exactnefs of
the defcription arid of the charts, which other
navigators fhall have given of them.
To this effect* whenever he navigates along a
coaft, or in fight of iflands* he muft caufe them
. to be furveyed very exactly with a quadrant, or
with an  azimuth compafs;  and he fhould ob*
ferve, that the furveys,   on which the moft re-
H 2 liance IP
i
100 LA FERGUSES VOYAGE
liance may be had for the conftru&kn of charts^
*re thofe by which a cape or any, remarkable
object can be laid down by means of another.
He will employ the officers of. the two frigates*,
and the geographic engineer, to lay down, with
care, the plans of coafts, bays, ports, and anchorages, which he fhall be within reach of exploring ; and to each plan he muft add an inftruction,
containing every thing relative to the appearance
and bearings of the land, the marks for failing in*
and out of the harbours, the proper births for
anchoring, or mooring, and the beft place for
watering; the foundings, the quality of the
bottom, the dangers, rocks, and fhoals, the predominant winds, the trade winds, the monfoons,
the time they laft, and the period of their changing ; in fhort, all the nautical details which it
may be ufeful to make known to navigators.
All the plans of countries, of coafts, and of
ports, muft be made in duplicates; one of them
muft be depofited in the hands of each captain ;
and at the end of the voyage the Sieur De La
Peroufe fhould take into his poffeffion all the
charts and plans, and the inftructions relating to
them.
His Majefty leaves it to him to fix the period
at which he will order the decked boats to be
put together, which are embarked in pieces on
board   each frigate;   he   will perhaps do  this
during ROUND THE WORLD. " IOI
during his flay at Otaheite. Thefe boats may
be employed very ufefully in following the frigates, whether in vifiting the archipelagoes,
fituate in the great equatorial ocean, or for exploring in detail the parts of a coaft, and in founding the bays, the ports, the paffages, and, in
ihort, for facilitating every fearch or inquiry,,
which requires a veffel drawing but little water,
and capable of carrying a few days pro virion- for
its crew. $&fk
jdly. The naturalifts appointed to make, during their voyage, obfervations peculiar to their
fludies, will be employed each of them in thofe
departments of natural hiftory, with which they
are beft acquainted.
The Sieur De La Peroufe fhould, in confequence,
prefcribe to them the refearches which they will
have to make, and fhould diflribute to them the
inftruments and apparatus appropriate thereto.
He fhould be attentive, in the diftribution of
the bufinefs, not to employ any individual on two
different fubjects, fo that the zeal and the intelligence of every one of the learned perfons on
board, may have their entire effect in promoting
the general fuccefs of the expedition.
He fhould communicate to them the memorial
of the academy of fciences, in which this fociety points out the particular obfervations, to which
i| would defire the profeffors of natural philofo-
Hz
Pay gas*
ffii'iiifriMiiifi
102, 1A PEROUSE S VOYAGE
phy and natural hiftory attend to during the
voyage; and he fhould recommend them to
concur, every one in what may concern him, and
according to circuniftances, in fulfilling the ob-?
jects pointed out in this memorial.
He muft in like manner communicate to the
furgeon  of   each   frigate the   memorial   of. the
.   fociety  of medicine,   in order  that   both  may
make fuch obfervations as will fulfil the wifhes of
this fociety.
The Sieur De La Peroufe, in the courfe of his
voyages, and his flay in port, muft caufe a journal
to be kept on board each fhip, of all the obfervations relative to the wind and weather, the
currents, the variations of the atmofphere, and
all that concerns meteorology.
During his flay in harbour, he fhould caufe obfervations to be made on the genius, the cha**
racter, the manners, the cuftoms, the temperament, the language, the government, and the num-t
ber of the inhabitants.
He fhould have the foil and the productions
of the different countries examined, and every
thing which relates t,o mineralogy.
He fhould have the natural curiofities collected,
as well terreftrial as marine; he will have them
claffed in their order, and have a defcriptive catalogue for each fpecies?  in which ought  to be
v!R£&p Hound the world, to^
mentioned the places where they have been found,
the ufe which the natives of the country make of
them, and, if they be plants, of the virtues which
they attribute to them.
He fhould in like manner collect and clafs the
clothes, the arms, the ornaments, the pieces of furniture, the implements, the mufical inftruments, and
all the effects ufed by the different people he may
vifit; and each object ought to have a ticket or
label on it, with a number corresponding witft
that of the catalogue.
He will get drawn, by the draughtfmen embarked in the two frigates, all the views of the
land, and the remarkable fituations, portraits of
the natives of the different countries, their manner of drefs, their ceremonies, their paftimes, their
edifices, their veffels, and all the productions of,
the earth and of the fea, if the drawings of thefe
different objects fhould appear to him of any ufe,
in facilitating the comprehenfion of the defcrip-
tions the fcientific men have made of them. AH
the drawings which fhall have been made in the
voyage, all the cafes containing the natural curio-
Cities, as well as their defcriptions, and the collection of aftronomical obfervations, fhould be put
into the-hands of the Sieur De La Peroufe, at the
end of the voyage, and no one of the men of
fc*ence> or artifts, will be allowed to referve for
H 4 himfelf X04 ££ PEROUSE'S VOYAGE
himfelf, or for another, any of the fpecimens of
natural hiftory, or other objects, which the Sieur
De La Peroufe fhall have deemed deferring to be
comprized in the collection deftined for his Majefty.
4thly. Before his return to the port of Breft, at
the end of the voyage, or before his' arrival at the
Cape of Good Hope, in cafe he fhould put in
there, the Sieur De La Peroufe fhall caufe to be
put into his hands all the journals of «lhe voyage
which fhall have been kept on board the two fri- .
gates by the officers and' marine cadets, by the
aftronomers, fc.ientific men, and artifts, by the
pilots, and by all other perfons. He muft enjoin
them to keep a ftrid): iilence relative to the object
of the voyage, and the difcoveries which may have-
been made, and he muft demand a promife of
them to this effect; he muft affure them, moreover, that their journals and papers will be re,*
ftored to them.
FOURTH PART.
Of the Conduct to be obferved with the Natives
of the Countries, where the two Frigates may
make a Landing.
THE accounts of all the voyagers, who have
preceded tfie Sieur De La Peroufe in the feas
which ROUND THE VOYAGE. I05
which he is about to traverfe, have informed him
beforehand of the character and manners of part
of the different people with whom he may havb-
-to communicate, as well in the iflands of the
great ocean, as upon the coafts of the north-weft
of America.
His Majefty doubts not but that, improved by
the reading of fuch authors, he will make a point
.of imitating the good conduct of fome of thofe
navigators, and of avoiding the faults of others
who have preceded him.
Upon his arrival in any country, he fhould feek
to conciliate the chiefs or principal men, as well
by marks of good will as by prefents; and he muft
affure hiritfelf of the refources which be may find
upon |he  fpot for iupplying the wants of his
|hips.     £49$
Pe fhould ernploy all honourable means to
form connections with the natives of the coun-
fty-
He fhould feek to difcoyer what are the merchandizes or objects of Europe to wrhich they appear to attach the greateft value, and he ought
to compofe an affortment which will be agreeable
to them, and which may invite thena to make
exchanges.
I He will.feel the neceffity of putting in ufe all
the precautions which prudence may fuggeft, to;
maintain his fuperjojity over the multitude, with?
out I
•iOO LA  PEROUSE S VOYAGE
out feeing obliged to employ force; and whatever
•fluttering reception he may meet with from the
favages, it is important that he fhould always fliew
.himfelf in a ftate of defence, becaufe it would be
to be feared, that his fecurity might engage them
to furprife him.
Upon no occafion muft he fend a boat afhore,
tinlefs it be furnifhed with its fwivels, firelocks,
(words,* pikes, and a fufficient quantity of ammunition ; it muft alfo be commanded by an officer,
who fhould be ordered never to lofe fight of the
boat committed to his care, and always to leave
fome.men in it for its protection.
He muft permit no perfon either among the
officers or crew to fleep afhore upon any account
but that of fervice; and thofe whofe functions
oblige them fo to do, muft retire before night into
the tents pitched afhore, which ferve as obferva-
tories or magazines. He muft place a guard
there, where an officer ought alwrays to fleep, to
maintain good order among the failors and foldiers
attached to that duty, and to prevent, by an active and continued watchfulnefs, any attack or
enterprize of the favages.
He will take care to anchor his Majefty's frigates
within reach to protect the eftablifhment; and he
fhould give orders to the officer, who may be on
.guard, concerning the fignals which the latter will
have to make in cafe of alarm. ROUND THE WORLD. loy
Asfoon as thefe difpofitions are made, he fhould
employ himfelf in providing for the fubfiftence of
his crews and the other wants of the fhips; and
after having made a choice as to quantity of his
commodities, implements, and goods of every
kind, with which the two frigates are furnifhed*
he fhould form a magazine afhore, under the protection of a guard; but, as he is informed, that
in general the iflanders of the great ocean have an
irrefiftible inclination to theft, he muft take care
not to tempt them by the fight of too great a
number of objects collected together in one place,
but to carry every day on fhore only the effects
which may be employed in. exchange during the
courfe of that day.
He will regulate the value of thefe exchanges,
and he will never allow any one to furpafs the
price which fhall be fixed on each article of trade,
left by agreeing, in the commencement of their
dealings, to too high a price for the articles which
he would procure, the natives might refufe to
fell more afterwards at a fmaller price.
He muft eftablifh only one magazine for the
two frigates; and to preferve good order there and
prevent all abufes, he muft fpecially charge an
pfficer to treat with the fayages, and fingle out
the petty officers or other perfons who will be required to perform, under his orders, the fervice of
the magazine,
H '  No ioS LA perouse's VOYAGE
; No officer, or other perfon of the ftaff; or of the
crews, can be allowed, under any pretence whatever,; to barter any thing, if the Sieur De La
Peroufe have not given him ' exprefs. permiffion,
and have not regulated the rate of exchange.
If any oi\q of the people of either crew fhould
conceal any article belonging to the fhips, or
:any part of the merchandize intended for exchange, the Sieur De La Peroufe rnuft order him
to be punifhed according to the feverity of the
laws; and he fhould punifh ftill more feyerely
thofe who, being in the fervice of the magazine,
fhall have abufed his confidence, and have fecreted
•effects to traffic with, fraudulently.
He .will recommend to every perfon among the
crews, to live in a good underftanding with the
natives, to endeavour to conciliate their friend-
fhip by a proper way of acting and refpect; and
he'muft forbid them, under pain of the moft rigorous punifhments, ever to employ force for
taking from the inhabitants what they may not
be willing to part with.
The Sieur De La Peroufe, on eyery occafion,
will act with great mildnefs and humanity towards
the different people he may have any intercourfe
with during his voyage.
^He will apply himfelf zealoufly and with inte-
teft about all the means which may meliorate their
condition, in procuring their country vegetables,
fruity ROUND THE  WORLD* ItfgF.
fruits, and trees, ufeful in Europe; in teaching
them how to fow and cultivate them; in acquainting them with the ufe they ought to make
of- thefe prefents, the object of which is to multiply upon their foil the productions neceffary to
a people who draw almoft all their food from the
earth.
If imperious circumftancea, which it is prudent
to forefee in fo long an expedition, fhould ever
oblige the Sieur De La Peroufe to avail himfelf
of the fuperiority of his weapons over thofe of a
favage people, in order to obtain the neceffaries of
life, in fpite of their oppofition, fuch as fubfift*
ence, water, and wood, he ought not to ufe force
but with the greateft moderation, and fhould punifh thofe of his people with extreme rigour who
go beyond thefe orders. In all other cafes, if he
cannot obtain the good will of the favages by a
kind treatment, he fhould endeavour to conftrain
them by fear and threats, and fhould not have
recourfe to arms but in the laft extremity, only
for defence, and in cafes where moderation might
decidedly rifk the fafety of the fhips, and the lives
of French, whofe prefervation is committed to his
care.
His Majefty will look upon it as one of the
moft fuccefsful parts of the expedition, that it
may be terminated without coiling the life., of a
lingl.e man.
FIFTH lid
LA PEROUSE S VOYA6&
FIFTH PART.
Precautions to be taken for preferring the Medtht
of the Crews.
THE Sieur De La Peroufe knowing the; intention of his Majefty with regard to the conctect he
fhould obferve towards the favage nations, and ]
the wifh his Majefty has, that the vifit of Frenchmen, far from being a misfortune to thefe people,
may, on the contrary* procure them advantages
of which they are deprived, will certainly forefee*-
what particular care he otight to pay to the pre-
fervation of the crews employed in the expedition
which his Majafty has trufted to his conduct.
The fhips under his orders are abundantly provided with every aid which can prevent the dif-
cafes of the fea, orarreft their progrefs, as we'llra#'
with thofe which are intended as fubftitutes for
ordinary diet, and to correct its bad effect. He
will keep a watchful eye, that thofe various helps*
and fuccours are ufed properly, and in due rnea-
fure; and will be extremely vigilakt concerning,
the various refources* which the different ports into
which he puts may offer him, for procuring re-
frefhments and whokfome aliments for his crews,*
in order to repair the effects of a long ufe of fait(
meats.
His PvOUNDTHE WORLD.|   - 111.
.His.Majefty-confides inj the prudence of the
'Sieur De La Peroufe as to the form which may appear to him. the moft convenient to be eftablifhed
on board the two frigates for the ftowage of the
fhip's provifion in the hold.
He fhould take care to infpect and air, while
he remains in port, fuch parts of the fhip's floret
as evince a tendency to decay, the progrefs of
which may be flopped by this precaution.
He will neglect no opportunity to procure frefh
fifh for his crews, and to renew his falted provifion by the means which have been put within
his power, and in making ufe of the method which
has been, practifed with fuccefs by the navigators
of later times who have traverfed the great ocean.
The SieurDe LaPeroufe is not uninformed, that
one of the precautions, which contribute the moft
efficaciouily to preferve the health of the feamen,
is the: continual attention to keep the fhips and
crews extremely clean.
He will make ufe to this effect of all the known .
means, fuch as ventilators, fumigations, and per-*
fumes, to renew and purify the air of the holds )
and between decks.    He.will everyday, if it can |
be done, have the hammocks and the clothes of
the crews expofed to the open air; and in order
that the failors and other perfons on board xmfi
not  neglect the cleanlinefs of their perfons, he
fhould divide them into fqttads, the inflection
and ii^iSSHii
iHH
i:
. jB* LA 'PEROUSEf& VOYAGE
and care of whofe conduct he will diftribute arhoiig'
the officers of the two frigates
Each of the officers ought to render an account
every week, to the captain, of the ftate of the clothing and of the wants of the fquad which* has been
committed to his care; and upon the order of the
Sieur De La Peroufe, the clothing for fupplying
fuch deficiencies, which his Majefty has ordered
to be embarked, will be given out to the crews
of the two Ihips, according to the diftribution
which" fhall have been regulated by the coriirriand-
ing officer, and in the circumftances where he'
fhail judge this affiftance neceffary.
The Sieur De La Peroufe fhould eftablifh the *
moft exact difcipline among the crews of the two
frigates, and he will carefully keep a ftrict hand to
prevent any relaxation in this refped; but this
feverity, feafonable in every part of fervice, and
absolutely neceffary in a voyage of feveral years,
will be tempered Ipy the conftant effect of thofe
paternal cares which he will owe to the companions of his fatigues; and his Majefty, knowing the
fentiments with which he is animated, is affured,
that he will be conftantly occupied in obtaining
for his crews all the accommodation, and all the '
indulgence he can grant to them, without injury
to the interefts of the fervice and the object of the
expedition. ROUND   THE   WORLD,
'*x#
Mis ;Mfejefty could not give to the Sieur De La
jperoufe a more diftiriguifhed mark of the confidence he has in his zeal, his ability, and his prudence, than in committing to him one of the moft
extenfive enterprizes which has ever been projected. Some of the navigators* who have preceded
him in the career of difcoveries, have left him
great leffons and great examples; but his Majefty
is perfuaded, that, equally ambitious of glory*
equally zealous for the increafe of human knowledge, equally perfevering as his models, he will
one day deferve to be ccnfidered One himfelf for
thofe, who, ftimulated by the fame courage, are
defirous of contending for the fame celebrity.
NO TE.
In drawing up a plan of navigation for the
Voyage of difcovery, the conducting of which is
confided to M. De La Peroufe, the object has
been for him to follow, in the different feas,
tracks which have not been followed by any of
the navigators who have preceded him; this flep
has appeared to be the moft fure of multiplying
difcoveries, and of confiderably advancing in this
Voyage the great work of the complete defcfip-
tion of the terreftrial globe.
There has neverthelefs been a neceffity for pointing out iflands already known, as ports where there
is a certainty that M. De La Peroufe may pro*
cure fubfiftence by means of barter and exchange,
for which the  means are  furnifhed him by the?
Vol. L I quantity i&SmjjBSELtm
||4 LA   PEkOtt&'E S   VOYAGE
quantity of meffihahdize of evety kind which com-
pofes the affortment, accommodated to the fancy
of the ifland.ers, with whom he will have occafion
'to trade. But in communicating to the French
tommander the places for refrefhmerit and repofe
that have already been frequented, attention is
had to direct him to arrive there by tracks, which
have not hitherto been followed; and in the number of merchandizes* with which he has been fur-
hifhed, it has not been neglected to put up
many of kinds which are not yet known in
the iflands he may touch at, in order that the
natives of the -country may know, that the nation
which brings them, is a new nation to them, and
one by which they have not yet been vifited.
Different elements of calculation have been
employed to eftimate the duration of time in performing the different runs. In the common failing in open feas, it is fuppofed that the fhips with
trade winds might run thirty leagues in 24 hours;
twenty-five leagues only have been allowed to the
fame fpace of time, for thofe parts where prudence requires the fhips fhould lie to a part of
+1-1
night; twenty leagues only where the fhips
in this laft cafe, a cer-
ftfe1 on dxfcbvery: arid
tain number of days are added for the time which
is loft in reconnoitring and infpecting a coaft. It
is from thefe data, that the time neceffary for making the runs, and remaining in port, has been
eftimated ; but all thefe calculations may be influenced by the circumftances of the fhips, the
events of the voyage, and unforefeen accidents.
The total duration of the voyage will neceffarily exceed four years; it would be impoffible
in a fmaller fpace of time to fulfil all the objects
his Majefty
ias in view.
The
dical
returns
m
the different monfoons
the fame time, to
the ROUNt)   fKE   W0KL8*
til
the north and   fouth of the line, are  data  to
which1 the   courfe  is  neceffarily  fubjected,   and
which   infinitely oppofe   the   navigation   in  the
neighbouring feas   of the arcfcipelagoes,  and of
the continent of Afia, by the obligation the navigator finds   himfelf under of going  into each
tract of fea, only when the winds are favourable-
This confiderafciori of the monfoons  has required
different    combinations*   to   accommodate   the
courfes   to it,   without   greatly augmenting the
total duration of the voyage, fo that each particular run fhould not exceed the limits prefcribed
by the  quantity of wood and water, which each
fhip can carry for her complement'# men.    Further, his Majefty's fhips are furnifbed -with flores
of every kind, more than fufficient to laft a four
years voyage, in adding the accidental refources
which the accounts of modern navigators  have
pointed out, and which the forefight and activity
of M. De La Peroufe will inftruct him how to procure, at the different places where he may put in*
The laft voyage of captain Cook lafted fouryeaglj
two months, and twenty-two days ; and his vef-
fels were not provided as tBofe of his Majefty
will be.
If, as there is reafon to expeibifrorn the zeat
and capacity of the commander of the expedition*
all the objects pointed out in his iriftructions fhall
have been fulfilled, the voyage of M. De La Peroufe will leave hereafter to navigators, who would
attempt difcoveries, only the merit of giving to
the world more circumftantial details of fome portions of the globe.
There remains to be made known the  fteps
which have been followed in the conftruction  of
the hydrographic charts, which will be put into
I 2 the wm
LA   PEROUSE's   VOYAGE
the hands of the commanders of the fhips* after
his Majefty fhall have approved of them.
Firft a chart of the fouthern ocean has been"
prepared, upon which are traced, from the journals
of navigators, the courfes which have led them to
difcoveries; and thofe are pointed out which yet
remain to be made or verified. This chart has
been conftructed from the beft French, Spanifh,
Englifh, and Dutch charts; and it has been fub-
jected to aftronomical obfervations, by which the
pofitions of the principal points of the continents
tod iflands have been determined.
The extent of the great ocean, commonly
called the South Sea, or Pacific Ocean, has ne-
ceffitated the divifion of it into three bands or
zones, of which the firft contains the Auftral
Ocean, or the fp^ce contained between the an-*
tarctic circle,   and the tropic  of Capricorn.
The fecond, the great Equatorial Ocean, or interval comprized between the two tropics.
The third and laft* the great Boreal Ocean, or
the feas enclofed between the tropic of Cancer,
and the  arctic circle.
As the courfes of M. De La Peroufe will not
carry him beyond the fixtieth parallel of north
and fouth latitude, it has been thought ufelefs to
trace, on the charts prepared for his voyage, either
the great Polar Boreal Ocean, or the great Polar
Auftral Ocean.
To accomplifh the laying down the chart of
the Great Ocean* the journals of all the navigators of this century, and of thofe of anterior periods, who have navigated this fea, have been
confulted. The plans of the details which they
have given have been confulted, and by reducing
their fcale, they have been made to enter into this
general ROUND   THE   WORLD*
11
I
general chart. The known tracks of all navigators, ancient and modern, are traced thereon, in
order to place under one point of view, the recent difcoveries, with thofe,of former periods, and
to prove in certain cafes, their identity.
This general chart of the Great Ocean is. the
refult of all that navigators and geographers have
produced up to this time. It will not be endeavoured to reprefent here in detail the various
materials, which have been examined, and employed ; the mere enumeration would require a
volume. All that remains to be done is, to
join to the King's inftructions to M. De La
Peroufe a few geographical and hiftorical notes,
upon fome parts which require to be more particularized, and there will be added to the two charts of
the Southern Atlantic Ocean and Great Ocean,
a collection of thirty-feven other charts, or original manufcript plans, of the leaft frequented
parts of thofe feas.
Extract from M. De La Peroufe's general Inftructions.
26th June, 1785,
HIS Majefty" authorizes the Sieur De La Peroufe to grant fome months pay to the crews
as a bounty, the quantity of which he will regulate according to circumftances : he will only
obferve, that the furn of fuch bounties, during
the whole voyage, muft not exceed one year's
pay.   Befides thefe bounties, which he will grant
I
according I
1
tii
LA PEUOUSE S VOYAGE
according to merit to the petty officers, failors,
"aftd foldiers, he will give the two crews to under-?
fland, that it is the intention of his Majefty, that
the pay of thofe who fhould die during the
voyage, reckoning from the day of their deceafe,
fhould be thrown into a mafs, to be diftributed
in gratification to the people compofing that
crew, of whom the deceafed man made one ; and
that the pay acquired unto the day of his death
be accounted for to his family, as well as the value of his clothes, if they fhould have been diftributed, Mm
NOTE    S,
GEOGRAPHICAL AND HISTORICAL,
To be added to theKing's Memoir, ferving as a parr
ticular inftruction to MonfteurDe La Peroufe,
Captain in the Navy, commanding the Frigates
La Boujfole, and EAftrolabe.
Southern Altantic Oce^n.
Note i. The three funken rocks, fituate to
the fouth-fouth-weft of the ifland of St. Jago3
©ne of the Cape de Verd iflands, as well as the
French Beacon, and the breakers feen by the
Casfar, in 1730, to the fouth-fouth-eaft of the
fame ifland, are laid down after the Englifh chart ROUSfD THF WORLD. il<j
bf the Atlantic ocean, publifhed at London, in
1777, in four fheets *.
2. Pennedo de San Pedro. Its latitude, o°55r
north, is conformable to that which Monfieur
Dapres affirms to have obferved in 1750, in the
fhip Le Rouille. See Le Difcours du Neptune
Oriental of Monfieur Dapres.
. He fixes its longitude at 290 o' wreft of
Paris, and he deduces it from the difference of
longitpde known between the ifland of Afcenfion
and Pennedo, which he fixes at 120 40'.
But Monf. Dapres then calculated from an obfervation made in 1754 by the Abbe De La Caille,
that the ifland of Afcenfion was in 15° 19' weft
longitude; and as this longitude, verified and fixed
by >the obfervations of captain Cook, is 160. 54^
(fecond Voyage, vol. 2, page 276 of the original)
it thence refults, that in admitting the difference
of meridians, fuch as Monf. Dapres gives, between
Pennedo de S. Pedro and the Ifland of Afcenfion,
the longitude of Pennedo ought to be 290 34'
wrefl of Paris, and is that which has been adopted
in the chart put into the hands of Monf. De La
Peroufe,
* This chart, for the part comprifed between the 14th and
47th degree of north.latitude, is the copy and translation of
that which was drawn up and publifhed by Fleurieu, and
which] is added to his Voyage a different** parties du monde»
etc. Paris, imprjmerie royale, 1773* 2 vol, (juarto.    (Fr.Ed.)
1 4
A de- SMifli
mmwm
|Sd LA PEROUSE 5 VOYAGE
A defcription of Pennedo is found in Monf,
-Dapres's Difcours du Neptune Oriental, p. 189,
3. Theflioals and banks near the Line are
placed after the inftruction of the Neptune Orieri*
tal, page 9.
The little Ifle de Sable, or Ifland of St. Paid,
which was feen in the fame track, in 1761, by the
•fhip le Vaillant, commanded by M. Bouvet, is laid
down from Sailing Directions for the Eaft Indies,
London, 1781, page 7. This pofition is conformable, as to latitude, to that which has been
given it upon the general chart, which is joined
to the relation of the third voyage of captain
Cook, o° 25' fouth, -but it differs in 35* as to
longitude.
Its longitude weft from Paris would be 210 25',
according to the Sailing Directions, which give it
after the journal of M. Bouvet, but it is carried
to 200 45', in order that it may agree with the correction of Pennedo.    See note 2.
5. Ifland of Fernando de Noronha. This ifland
is laid down conformably to the latitude and the
longitude determined by captain Cook.
Latitude -    -    -      30 53'    o/; fouth,
Longitude - -   -    34   53   59  weft of Paris.
See Cook's fecond Voyage, vol. II, pages 278 and
2.79 of the original.
The diftance of this ifland from the nearefl part
q{ the coaft of Brazil being fixed between fixty HOUND THE WORLD. 121
and feventy leagues, according to the Portuguefe
journals and the Spanifh chart of South America,
publifhed by Cruz Cano y Olmedilla, in eight
fheets, in 1775, the longitude of the coaft of
Brazil may be confidered as determined; and It
has been made to conform to that of the Ifland of
Jblbronha, by giving it 2 deg. § of difference to the
weft.
6. The Ifland of St. Matthew was reeognifed In
1725 by Garcia de Loaes or Loayfa, a Portuguefe
captain, but it had been difcovered 87 years before that period. (Tratado dos Defcitbrimentos,
8(c. de Galvao, Lifbon, 1731, page 66.) It is
placed according to the general chart of Cook's
third Voyage. The pofition is uncertain, and that
celebrated navigator has regretted not having it
in his power to determine it.—See Cook's fecond
Voyage, vol. II, page 276 of the original.
7. The latitudes and the longitudes of the Ifland
of Fernando Po, Prince's Ifland, St. Thomas, and
Annobon, are fixed, according to the obfervations
made in 1779, by Don Varella, an officer \n the
Spanifh navy, as follows:
Ifland of Fernando Po, C Latitude 30
St. Charles's Road,     \ Long.     6
Prince's Ifland, at the \ Latitude r
port -    -    -    -     I Longit.   5
St. Thomas's Ifland,   C Latitude o
at the port   -    -    1 Longit.   4
^nnobon Ifland, at the C Latitude 1
|*orth cpaft   -    -    t Longit.   3
28' north,
30 weft of Paris.
39 north.            f
2 weft.
20 north.
34 well.
25 fouth.
25 weft.
1 Accordi
ng
_JL—•* mmmmssm^
■a*
322 LA PEROUSE S VOYAGE
'According to thefe longitudes, thofe of Cap%
Verd, of Sierra Leona, the Ifles de Los, and of
the Cape of Good Hope, where obfervations have
in like manner been made, the pofitions of the
different points have been regulated from the weft
coaft of Africa.
8, Afcenfion Ifland, is laid down from the obfervations of Captain Cook:
™-jjt     r v.   •/■    j  \ Latitude,    8°  o'
Middle of the ifland < _       .        , „    _ 2   J
C Lpfigit.    16   50 weft of Pans.
(Cook'sfecond voyage, vol. II, page 276 of the
original.) vSSht
According to the Abbe De La Caille, the latitude would be only 70 57', and the longitude,
deduced from an emerfion of the firft fatellite of
Jupiter, 16° 17', (fee Memoires de P Academic
•des Sciences for the year 1754, page 129) but it
has been thought neceffary to adhere to the determinations of Cook, which are the refults of a
great number of obfervations. There is to be
found in the account of the fecond voyage (loco
filato) a very particular defcription of Afcenfion
ifland.
9. The Ifland of St. Helena is alfo placed after
the obfervations of Cook and thofe of Halley.
"Latitude 160 o' fouth, according to Halley;
At Fort James    < Longit.    8. 11 weft of Paris, according to
r Latitude 160
4 Longit. 8.
l    Cook.
(Cook's fecond Voyage, vol, II, page 270 of the
original.)
4 According "'■ttOUND THE WORLD. 'I23
. According to Mr. Mafkelyne, aftronomer-royal
at Greenwich, the latitude of the ifland of St.
Helena is 150 55', audits longitude, deduced from
an obfervation made by him of the firft fatel-
lite of Jupiter, would be 8° 9'.—(Britifh Mariner's
Guide, 1763, in quarto.)
10. Ifland of Trinidad.    This ifland is placed,
from  its diftance to Cape Frio, on  he coaft of
Brazil,   fuch  as  it  is  given  by Monf. Dapres,
(Difcours du Neptune Oriented,  page 10) from
which it refults;
n    C Latitude 200 25'fouth.
North coaft,  \ r       . f>       A   c 1    .
£ Luftglt.   32   15 welt ot Fans.
Ifle dos Picos  is laid down according to the
Dutch charts, fubjecting its pofition to that of
Trinidad.
11. Iflands of Martin-Vas. Thefe are three
rocks which lie refpectively to each other north and
fouth, except the moft northerly, which is a little
more to the weftward; they do not occupy more
-than a mile in extent.—(Extract from the Original
Journal of Halley,   printed   in the Collection of
Voyages in the Southern Atlantic Ocean, by A.
Dalrymple, London,  1775, in quarto, page 53.)
In the Journal de M. Lozier Bouvet,  (printed
in French, ibid, page 7 of this journal) it is faid,
that the fmall iflands of Martin Vas are at eight
leagues diftance, and bear eaft 1 north of the Ifland
of Trinidad.    Their latitude is the fame as that
of this ifland.
11. The
^j 1^4 LA  PEROUSE S VOYAGE
12. The Ifland of Afcencaon, on the coaft of Brazil, is placed according to the notes of M. Dapr£s,
page 9 of Difcours du Neptune Oriental;
Latitude - -        20° 25' fouth
Longitude        - - 38      o weft of Paris*
This pofition fuppofes,  that its diftance from
Cape Frio is  120 leagues,   as  M. Dapres  fhews
(ibid page 9).
13. Rock difcovered in 1692, andfunken rock in
1701. Thefe dangers are placed after Mr. Dal-
rymple's chart of the South Sea, which is to be
found at the end of the work cited in the 1 ith note.
14. Ifland Saxenburgh. This ifland was difcovered in 1670 by John Lindeftz Lindeman,a Dutch-
man, in 30°! of fouth latitude, and about 22 degrees of weft longitude from Paris, being aware of the
change made in the pofition of the other iflands in
the fame track of fea, with which navigators wete
led to place it by the bearings and diftances of their
reckonings.—See Navigations aux Terres Auf-
trales, by the Prefident De Brofles, vol. 11^
page 48.
15. Kattendyke is laid down according to Dal-
rymple's chart belonging to the work cited in the
11 th note, and from the general chart of Cook's
third Voyage.
"16. Iflands of Triftan d'Acunha. The rule followed for laying down thefe iflands is from the
inftruction of M. Dapres (page 10 of Neptune
Oriental) which fixes the latitude of them between
If Hound Tits world.
37° 10' and 37° 45' fouth, and their, longitude at
16° 30'or 17 degrees weft of Paris, from a mean
refult between the different courfes of feveral fhips,
Which point out 34 degrees for the difference of
longitude between thefe iflands and the Cape of
Good Hope, which is 16° 3' 45" eaft of Paris.
Halley fays, in his journal, that he has determined the latitude of the moft foutherly of
thefe iflands to be 370 25'fouth.—See page 41 of
his journal in the work of Mr. Dalrymple, cited in
note ii.
A defcription of thefe iflands is to be found
fufficiently particularized in the inftructions of
Neptune Oriental, by M. Dapres, page 10.
Befide the anchorage'of the north of the principal of the iflands of Triftan d'Acunha, marked;
in the chart put into the hands of M. De La Peroufe, it is further known (from the report of a
navigator worthy of credit, whence the following particulars are learnt) that there is a kind of
port or haven to the eaft of the fouthern poirft:
this port is not vifible in running down the coaft,
becaufe it is concealed from the view by great
canes or reeds, which being thrown down and
lying upon the furface of the water, crofs each
other by certain winds, and totally mafk the entrance of the port; it may be half a mile in breadth
by three quarters of a mile in length ; its figure is
very nearly that of a horfe fhoe. The water is found
to *mmmm
126 LA PEROUSE's VOYAGE*
to be twenty-eight fathoms in the middle of the
entrance, and fourteen near the fhore ; the depth
of water is alfo fourteen fathom in the middle
of the length, and ten fathom only at the head
of the harbour; the bottom is a black fand, and
good holding ground.
It is neceffary to obferve, that the fouthern point,
that is to fay, that of the fouth weft of the ifland?
is terminated by fome rocks or breakers, which
run out near a quarter of a mile; they are not laid
down uponthe chart delivered to M. De La Peroufe,
becaufe it is a copy, without the leaft alteration, of
the only plan known of thefe iflands, upoivwhich
thefe breakers are not laid down.
17. Ifland of Diego d'Aioarez. It is laid down
after the general chart of Cook's Third Voyage,
and by the iflands of Triftan d'Acunha, preferving
the bearing and diftance which this chart gives it
from thefe laft iflands.
v  Latitude - - 38° 53' fouth.
Longitude - - 130  weft of Paris.
18. Gough's Ifland. So called from the name of
an Englifh Eaft India Captain, who difcovered it
in 1715. In the New Directory for the Eaft
Indies, by W. Herbert, W. Nicholfon, apd others,,
(5th edition, 1780, pages 371 and 372) it appears, that Gough Ifland is a high land, fituate ir*
400 15' fouth latitude
Greenwich, or 40 1 7'
and ic
57
to the
of
to the, weft of Paris. Cap-,
tain 'ROUND THE WORLD. f±J
fern Vincent, commanding the Ofterley, a fhip belonging to the fame Company, alfo made Gough
Ifland in 1758^ in the latitude pointed out by him
who difco^red it; but he believes, according to
hi$ reckoning, that in pla&ng it in i° 57' weft of
Greenwich, it is carried a few degrees too far to
the eaftv'lftl
cITifis-iiland is not known to French navigators^
but, as it may be fallen in with by fhips, which,
willing to go directly to the Indies or to China,early
in the fedfon, without touching- at the Capedf
Good-Hope, might keep in laugher latitudes, in
order afterwards to make the iflands of Saint Paul
&&d Amfterdam, it will, without doubt, appefcr-hite'-■
telling to determine its true pofition, and it is*
to be wifhed,that M. De La Peroufe, who has the
means of doing it, may be'near enough to give it
his attention.
19. Ifle Grande of La Roche. This ifland^ is
only to be placed by conjecture from the following
account, vfhich has been extracted and translated
from the Spanifh work entitled Defcripcion- geo-
gmphica y derrotero de la Region auftral Ma-
gallanico, etc. por el Capitan don Francifco de
Seixasy Lovera; en Madrid, 1690 in 4to; fol. 29.
" In the month of May^ 1675, Anthony De La
R Roche, a Frenchman by birth*, then in the fer-
" vice
' * It is furely by miftake that captain Cook, in the gene-
fcfel intuodu&ion to his fecond Voyage, jpage xv. of the original, :^«**a
WrflMH
::12& LA PEROUSE's VOYAGt
*c vice of the Englifh, returning from the Mlariti
€g of Chiloe, on the coaft of Chili, having doubled
*c Cape Horn, and wiihing to enter into the South
ic Atlantic Ocean by the Straits of le Maire,(itwas
*c not known then that there wTas a channel to the
" eaft of Stat en-Land) met with ftrong wefterly
*6 winds and rapid currents, which carried him fo
KC far to the eaft ward, that it was impoffible for;
"■ him to get hold of the land which forms the*
*c Strait of Magellan. The month of May was
*c already far advanced ; the winter was beginning
€* in thefe climates, and la Roche began to de-*
*c fpair with regard to his voyage. His uneafinefs
ic grew greater ftill when he faw unknown land
<c before him to the eaftward* * he did all he could
K to approach and furvey it, and he fucceeded in
cc fetching a bay, in which he anchored near a
" cape or a point of land, which ftretched fp the
*c fouth-eaft. Here he found twenty-eight, thirty,
" and forty fathom water, fandy and rocky bot-
ff torn: he diftinguifhed on the land, not far from
*c the coaft, fome mountains covered with fnow j
" he was expofed to very  fqually weather, and
nal, in fpeaking of Anthony La Roche, reprefents him as an
Englijk Merchant.
* This land, as will be ken in the following note, is the'
fame that M. Duclos Guyot made in 1756, and that captain
Cook, when he infpe&ed the north-eaft coaft, denominated
Georgia ljtand*
« ftaid ROUND  THE WORLD. 1&9
gf-} ftayed there fourteen days. The weather at
kc laft cleared up; he then found out that he had
" anchored at one of the extremities of this land,
f and he difcovered, to the fouth-eaft and to the
6 fouth, other high lands covered with fnow.—
*c A little breeze from the fouth-eaft enabled him
H to get under way, and, while making fail, the
" coaft of the faid ifland* bore weft, and the
" foutherly lands fouth and fouth eaft: it ap-
*c peared to him, that the channel between the
H ifland and the main was about ten leagues
cc in breadth ; the currents drifted him with vaft
u fwiftnefs to the north-eaft| and in fleering
" to the eaft-north-eaft, he found himfelf, in an
I hour and a half, out of the paffage, w7hich he
" faid was very fhort, becaufe the new ifland,
16 which forms tHs^^anel, with the land to the
u fouth eaft, is very.fmall-f-.
" In quitting this iflandj, he ran for twenty-
* This fuppofes what is not expreffed in the narrative, that
he had anchored at the point of a main land which had an
ifland to the weft or to the north weft.
f ft appears that La Roche paffed, as well as Cook, be-
-Steer* the iflands called by the latter Willis Ifland and Bird
IJland, but that he judged ill concerning the fize of the
channel.    ■
| La Roche, in fpeaking of the variation of the com-
pafs near the eaft coaft of his ftraits, fays, that it was 19 degrees. [Antonio de la Roche, en fu Derrotero, fol. 22 8c 23,—-
See Sekcas y Letter a, fol. 47.)
Vol. I. K "four 13° LA PEROUSE S VOYAGE.
ft four hours to the north-weft, then he was over-
cc taken by fo violent a foutherly gale, that it
" obliged him to run for'three days northward, as
" far as the forty-fixth degree of fouth latitude.
Sf The wind moderated, and La Roche, then
" thinking himfelf out of danger, flood for All-
" Saints Bay, and in the latitude of 45 degrees
■■" met with an ifland which he reported to be
" very large, agreeable to the view, and having
" a good harbour in the eaftern part, in which
" he found water, wood, and fifh; but he faw
" no inhabitants during the fix days he paffed
" there.
■" From   this harbour he went  to ■ All-Saints
« Bay." ■   f$)^|
1111 laying down Ifte Grande, the pofition of the
firft land that La Roche difcovered to the eaftward
of Staten Ifland, and which has been found
again in thefe latter times (the Georgia Ifland of
Cook) has ferved as a guide. In confequence
the fouth coaft of Ifte Grande is laid down in 45
degrees of latitude, according to the indication
of-La Roche, and at about thirty leagues more
weftward than the firft land he difcovered, becaufe
it has been obferved that in quitting this he ran
twenty-four hours to the north-weft; and that it is
probable that the gale from the fouth, by which he
was overtaken, partook a little of the fouth-eaft
wind which had- blown to that.time ; and, in fhort,
\**$18S that ROUND THE WORLD. I3I
that after the gale of wind ceafed, until the difco-v
very of Ifle Grande, in 45 degrees of latitude, he
had conftantly made northing, which was his courfe
to the Bay of All-Saints.,. j£g|. •. ■'•■\|Sr §j|
Every thing leads to a belief, that the Ifte Grande
of La Roche h the'fame.land that Americas Vef-
pucius difcovered in his third voyage in 1502.—
The geographers of the laft two centuries have
affigned different pofitions to this land of Vefpu-
cius, becaufe they were unacquainted with the
original journal of that ancient navigator; and becaufe it has not been found .fince the period of
its difcovery, modern geographers have effaced
it from their charts. However, in confulting
the original letters of Americus Yefpucius, in
which he gives an account of his voyages*, it
appears that it is not impoffible to fix, very yearly,
the pofition of the land which he difcovered in
1502. He fays, in the journal of his third voyage
(page 54 of his letters) that having gone out of a
harbour from the coaft. of Brazil, fituate in 32
degrees of fouth latitude, (this may be the harbour
called San Pedro) he ran fouth-eaft as far as 52^
degrees of latitude, where he no longer faw the flars
of the Leffer Bear, or thofe of the Greater.   It is
* Vita e Lettera di Amerigo Vefpucci raccolte ed illuffrate dall'
Mate Angelo-Maria Band\ni. Firenze, 174$, X vol./* 4*0.
See alfo Now Orbit:   Bafilese, 1555,   in fol. page 226 and
following. jjIKP
K a neceffary fpl . La pekouse s voyage    '
fieceffary to olMerve, that Vefpucius, in fpeafeing
of his courfe, paid no attention to the variation of
the compafs, which, at the time of his voyage,
muft needs have been, in thefe feas, from 19 to
20 degrees eaft, and therefore this, which he calls a
fouth-eaft coaft, ought to be confidered as having
been in fact nearly a fouth-fouth-eaft courfe : con-
fequently, on departing from the coaft of Brazil, in 32® o' of latitude, to crofs the parallel of
520 o'by a fouth-fouth-eafl courfe, the point of
fettion is found at about 440 o' to the weft of
Paris, that is to fay a little to the weft of the
meridian, under which Ifle Grande is fuppofed to
lie, and 140 leagues, or thereabouts, fouth, a little
weftward of this ifland. Vefpucius, being in this
pofition, the third of April, was overtaken by a
gale of wind, which obliged him to furl under bare
poles; he continued to run in this way till the 7th,
when he fell in with new land, which he coafted
for the fpace of twenty leagues; it appeared to
him to be of difficult accefs, without harbour and
without inhabitants. Seamen will agree, without
any ftretch of imagination, on the probability, that
during the four days that Vefpucius was driven to
the northward by a violent fouth-weft wind, he
paight run, though under bare poles, thirty-five
Jeagues hi every twentyrfour hours; and that he
tnight confequently be driven as far as 450 o'
of latitude,  having fet  out at   520 o'.    What
may ROUND THE WORLD. I33
may give to this opinion confiderable weight is,
that Vefpucius faid, that in quitting the Iftew land
he judged himfelf to be thirteen, hundred leagues
from the coaft  of Ethiopia (from Sierra Leoha)
where he landed the tenth of May following, and
that to arrive there he conftantly fleered between
a north and north-eaft  courfe, therefore, Sierra
Leona lies north-north-eaft two or three degrees
eaft of Ifle Grande, (according to its pofition in;
the chart  given  to M. De La Peroufe) and  at
twelve or thirteen hundred leagues diftance. Aftefc
all, no ifland is known at this diftance from the
coaft of Ethiopia, and in the direction of north-
north-eaft and fouth-fouth-weft, which can prefent
an uninterrupted continuance of twenty leagues of
coaft; and as the veracity of Vefpucius, upojr aJ
fact of this nature, cannot be fttfpected, his teftr-'
mony ought to be regarded as an ancient proof of
the exiftence  of Ifle Grande, confirmed  by the
more recent accounts of Anthony De La Roche. ^
20. Terre or Ifland of La Roche, hy Cook denominated Georgia Ifland.   The preceding note has
fhewn the epoch and the circumftances of the difcovery of this ifland by Anthony De La Roche; but
the relation that Sei^ashas left us does not poin¥
out the latitude;   we only know that, to com^
from this land to Ifle Grande, which La Roche felt.
in with in 450 o', he ran twenty-four hours to the
north-weft, and that a ftrong foutherly wind had
K 3 blown 134 '  LA PEROUSE S VOYAGE
blown him for three days to the northward; but
it cannot be doubted, that the firft ifland or
land which he difcovered was to the eaftward of
Staten Ifland, and that this fame ifland had been
fe-difcovered,in 1756, by M. Duclos Guyot, before
captain Cook noticed it in 1775, and had deter-'
mined its pofition.
M. Duclos Guyot, of St. Malo, commanded
the Spanifh veffei the Lion, returning from Lima.
He doubled Cape Horn, entered the Southern
Atlantic Ocean and found himfelf to the eaftward
of Staten Ifland.
% The 28th of June, 1756," fays M. Duclos
Guyot, " at nine o'clock in the morning, wre
1 thought we faw land ahead, though very dif-
" tant, appearing like clouds, and of an extraordi-
*' nary height; at that time we were Handing
" to the north-north-eaft. The hazinefs of the
% weather did not allow us to convince ourfelves of
u it; moreover, not fufpecting we could be nearer
" any land than the Malouines, which, accord-
u ing to our reckoning, bore weft-north-weft,
" diftant 135 leagues, and finding ourfelves at
" noon to be in 550 10' latitude by obfervation,
u and in 520 10' longitude, weft of Paris, by our
9 reckoning, we continued our courfe without
<c regard to land. The 29th at noon having gotten
u fight of a little ifland before us, we put about,
** and founded three hundred fathom, no ground.
"At ROUND THE WORLD.
lJ>
At nine o'clock we difcovered a continent of
about twenty-five leagues in length, lying north-
eaft and fouth-weft, full of fleep mountains, of
a frightful afpect, and of fo extraordinary a
^efght, that we could fcarcely fee their fummits,
though at more than fix leagues diftance; the
quantity of fnow which covered them hindered
ins from obferving whether they were wooded."
The obfervations upon which we can beft rely,
and which we were able to make (being then
three leagues from the little ifland, which was
at an equal diftance from the great land), are,
that there is a very deep creek in this continent,
lying about eight leagues eaft and weft from the
faid ifland; it was the only place which appeared
to us proper to be inhabited; we might have
been ten or eleven leagues off. It appeared to
us to be of great extent as well in length as in
breadth; there is on the larboard hand, at its
entrance, to the north-northnveft of us, a low
point, the only one we could fee from its mouth;
it appeared to us detached from the main land;
we even thought that it was an ifland, or that,"
if it joined the land, it muft have been by an
ifthmus,
" The 30th at break of da^, we might have
been at ten leagues from this new land; in this
pofition we obferved no current, and we found
no bottom; we always faw plenty of birds and,
fea wolves.
K 4 f At •MtHi
MS
S30 LA PER0USE S VOYAGE
u At noon, the land prefented the fame afpect,
*f except the fummits of the mountains, which
" were covered with clouds; the calm and very
<c fine weather enabled us to take a good obferva-*
" tion, and at noon we found the latitude 540 50*,
" our longitude, by reckoning, was 510 32'weft.
" The firft of July, at day break, thinking our-
" felves far enough from land, we fleered eaft-
*c ward, to obferve if the figd land extended itfelf
<c further in this direction. At eight o'clock in
" the morning we faw its moft eafterly point, bear-
€C north 5 degrees eaft*, diftant about twelve
" leagues; at noon, continuing the fame courfe,
*c we were in 550 23' latitude by account, and
f 510 o' weft longitude.
jf The 2d, light breezes from wreft- fouth -weft
i€ to weft-north-weft, hazy wreather, abundance
" of fnow; courfe eaft-north-eaft, Endeavouring.
u to difcoyer the length of the land on this fide,
<c at the break of day, there being a fettled calm,
€£ we found ourfelves furrounded by pieces of ice
u of different forms, many of them being at leafl;
€i thirty-five fathom elevated above the water, and
% more than a mile and a half in extent; we re-
*c marked alfo, that there was a ftrong current, and
* The 28th of June, £t night, the eve of the difcovery,,
the variation of the compafs was obferVed thirteen degrees
and a half eaft; and the fourth of July it was thirteen de~
^ .we ROUND THE WORLD. $37
*? we law many more birds than ufual, efpeqially a
cs great quantity of entirely white pigeons, like
" thofe of the coafts of Patagojaia, and alfo many
" whales; from all thefe remarks we thought, that
" we might be upon a bank, g Jn confequence we
% founded, but without finding any bottom ^ we
% were then out of fight of land; latitude by ac-^
Ci count s$° 28', longitude 490 40' weft."
After that day M. Duclos Guyot never faw the
new land more, to which he gave the name of Ifle
De Saint Pierre.
On his landing at St. Jago, one of the Cape de
Verd Iflands, he difcovered (as he had imagined,
by the variation of the compafs, which he had
found to be 13°! and 13 degrees, inftead of 19,
that which ought to have been expected by the longitude he reckoned himfelf in when in fight of
the Ifland of St. Pierre) that the currents, after he
had doubled Cape Horn, had carried him 109 56"
eaftward of his reckoning, g Confequently (fays
|j M. Duclos Guyot) the pofition of the l^nd, that
u we difcovered the 29th of June, may be deter-
^ mined; | being ten leagues to the foufcfcward,
" when we had the beft fight of it, (the 30th) our
*' latitude by obferyatjbn was 540 50', and our
*c longitude  by reckoning 510 32' weft."    De-^
ffel
was
driv
en
ducting the io° 56' wrhich the
eaftward, there remains for the longitude of the
. ifland 400 36' weft of Paris, which  M. Duclos,
Guyot
I
-^— Sn
■MM
mmssar^mmmm
138 la perouse's voyage
Guyot reduces to 400 w for the moft eafterl/
part he faw ; and he fixes the latitude of the moft
foutherly part at 540 20'.
Captain Cook lays down the Ifle de Saint Pierre
(or Georgia as he calls it) between 530 57' and
540 57' of latitude, and between 400 33" and
370 54'longitude weft from Paris. (Cook's fecond
voyage, vol. 11, page 218 of the original) It may
be feens that the pofition which M.Duclos Guyot
affigned to this- fame land is not very defective,
although he was unprovided with the neceffary
means for determining the longitude with precifion ; his error arifes from the length of the ifland
only from eaft to weft, and there is no navigator
who ought not to meet with it after the pofition
he has given to it, efpecially if it be fought on the
weft fide; his error confifted in laving it down
about 30 leagues too much to the weftward,
M. Duclos Guyot, in terminating what concerns his Ifle de Saint Pierre, fays, " thefe are
our bell authenticated remarks, and we do not
doubt, although we cannot affert it pofitively,
that there is other land to the eaftward of thai
which we have feen : every thing demonftrates it \
fea-weeds, ice, fifties, trees, and birds."—It was
in the year 1756, that he expreffed himfelf in
this manner.
a 1.' Sandwich Land, difcovered in 1775.   It is
placed on the chart from the journal and the calculation ROUND   THE   WORLD. I39
eulation of captain Cook.   See his fecond voyagle,
vol. 11, page 222 and following, in the original.
This land calls to recollection the Gulf of San
Sebaftiano, and the land marked upon the ancient
chart, fouth and fouth-eaft of the Terre De La
Roche.
22. Chriftmas Sound, upon the fouth-weft-coaii
of Terra del Fuego. See the chart and the journal of Cook's fecond voyage, vol. n, pages 177
and 198 of the original.
GREAT SOUTH SEA.     j
23. Drake's Ifland and Harbour, placed by
geographers at a hundred and eighty, or two
hundred leagues weft-fouth-weft of Cape Horn.
There have. been many accounts of Sir Francis
Drake's voyage round the world, publifhed. in
England: they differ effentially, one from the
other, refpecting the pofition of the lands difcovered by this celebrated navigator, after hisr
paffage through the Straits of Magellan.
According to the molt ancient of thefe accounts (that of Hackluyt, publifhed in his collection of voyages by Englifiimen* jj after Drake's
fquadron was out  of  the Straits  of   Magellan,
* The principal navigations, voyages, traffiques, and
difcoveries of the Englifh nation, &c. London, 1598, 99,
16001 in fol. Vol. Ill, page 744.
and 140 LA   PEROUSES   VOYAGE
and had paffed into the South Sea, the 6th of Sep*
tember, 1578, his fhips flood to the north-weft,
for three days, after which the wind blew from
the north-eaft with fo much violence, that they
could only make a weft-fouth-weft courfe ; they
continued this courfe for the fpace of ten or
twelve days, not having been able to carry much
canvafs; the heavinefs of the gale then obliged
t-hem to furl all, and they lay to under bare poles
till the 24th of September. The fame day one
of the fhips of the fleet parted company, the
wind, which became more moderate, allowed the
others to carry a little fail; they flood to the
north eaft feven days. They then difcovered
fome iflands, towards which they flood in order
to come to an anchor; but the weather fruftrated
their purpofe: the wind fhifted to the north-weft,
and-they made a weft-fouth-weft courfe. The day
following, the 1 ft of October, the weather being
very bad, a fecond fhip parted from the fleet,
&iid the admiral was left alone. Drake ran then
to 57 deg. of latitude, where he anchored, in
the harbour of an ifland, within eunfliot of the
fhore, in twenty fathom water,
He flaid there three or four days; and  the
^dnd having flown round to the fouth, he weighed
anchor, and flood to the northward, for the fpace
of two days.    He then difcovered a little ifland,
nder which  he lay to,   in order to ^
Iiound the world.
i&i
fend a boat off, which returned with a great
many birds, feals, &c. ^^
Another account publifhed by Purchas, in his
Hackluytus pofthumus*, is thus expreffed.
The 7th of September, 1578, Drake wrasovertaken by a tempeft, which drove him from the
weft entrance of the Straits of Magellan, more
than two hundred leagues in longitude, and car--
ried him a degree to the fouth of the ftraits.
Thence he ran to the 57th degree of fouth latitude, where he met with a number of iflands,
among which he anchored, and which furnifhed
him with very good water, and excellent herbs.
He difcovered another bay, where he found
naked inhabitants, wrho ufed canoes* and held
communications from one ifland to another; he
made feveral exchanges with them.
At length* quitting this bay,and Handing to the
northward, he, on the 3d of October^, met with
three iflands, of which one was remarkable for
the prodigious quantity of birds he found there,
and which furpafs, fays the narrator, whatever
can be conceived, &c.
* Hackluytus fofthumm, or Purchas his Pilgrims, &c. London, 1625, in fol. Vol. 1, page 50, of the Circum-naviga-
tions of the Globe.
\ f This date is evidently falfe : It is probable that it is a
fault in the printing of the original; and that it is neceftarjf
to read the 30th, inftead of the 3d.
\i 14* LA   PEROUSE S   VOYAGE
The third relation is that of Francis Fletcher*,
employed in the expedition, and aboard the
fame fhip with Drake, in quality of chaplain.
This is conformable but in a fmall degree with
tire two former; but it is the account of an eye
witnefs, of a man who ought not to be devoid
of inftruction; on the other hand we are ignorant as to the authority on which the others
are founded ; and as an ocular witnefs, Fletcher
appeared to us to deferve moft belief: befides,
we find in his recital a "concordance as to facts,
a narrative regularly followed up by the events of
Drake's voyage, which are not met with in the
two other accounts.
According to Fletcher, in the beginning of
September, 1578, Drake was near the opening
of the Straits of Magellan, in the South Sea:
arrived at this point, he faw nothing but iflands,
among which it was impoffible for him to dif-
tingujfh the real channel. He anchored at one
of the iflands on the fouth fide; he went himfelf, in a boat for difcovery, and he fatisfied himfelf, that the paffage was. open to the north.
After having vifited this ifland, and converfed
with the inhabitants, he put to fea again, and
on the 6th of  September he was clear of the
. * The world encompajfed by Sir Francis Drake, collided itu^
(ff the Notes of Mr. Francis Fletcher, preacher in this employment,
and others, &c. London, Nic. Bourne, 1652, in 4to.
land. 8 !*1
ROUND   THE   WORLD. 143
fend. He much regretted not having been able;
to land at the laft of the points which he difcovered in entering into the South Sea; herds*
fired to leave a teftimony there of his having
taken poffeffion of it; but he faw no place proper to difembark at, and the wind did not allow
him to wait.
The 7th he was overtaken by a violent temped, which occafioned him to be drifted to the
ibuth, as far as 57 degrees of latitude, without
his being able to difcover any land: here one of
the fhips parted from the fleet.
The weather afterwards allowed him to ftand
to the northward, and, the 7th of October he
.anchored in a bay, a little to the north of this
fame point (which muft be Cape Pillar,) where,
the 7th of September, he regretted not being able
to leave fome proof that he had taken poffeffion
©f the fpot.
A fecond gale of wind drove him from this
anchorage, where he left his anchors; at this time
the rear admiral parted company in the gale, reentered the ftraits, and getting again into the Atlantic Ocean, arrived in England the 2nd of June
following: this circumftance occafioned him to
give to the anchorage ground, wrhich he quitted,
the name of Bay of the Separation of Friends.
Drake drifted, this fecond time, as far as 55 de-:
grees of latitude; and, in this parallel, he found
1 himfelf, -   •
tfati
MM
I44 tA   PEROUSfi's   VOYAGE
himfelf, fo fays the account, among the iflands
fituate to the fouth of America, of which mention had been made as foon as he entered into
the Great Sea* and which form, with the continent, the outlet of the ftraits. He anchored at
thefe iflands, and got two days reft: he filled
water, and found herbs, the ufe of which was
highly falutary to his crew.
A third gale forced him to fea : it was impof-
fible he could carry any fail* and the coaft, to
leeward, prefented nothing but rocks and dan-
Happily, at fome leagues to the fouthward of
the former anchorage, he fucceeded fo far as to
find another* ftill among the fame iflands. It
was here that he faw the natives of thefe places
failing from one ifland to another, with their
wives and children ; and he made fome exchanges
by way of traffic with them.
After three days* a fourth gale furprized him
at anchor, and forced him to cut the cable. He
gave himfelf up to the fea again, until at laft, fays
Fletcher, the 28th of October* " we reached the
** moft foutherly parts of thefe iflands, and thus
u difcovered the extremity of America, the near-
cc eft to the pole." This extremity* adds he, is
fituate near to the 56th degree of latitude, (it
is Cape Horn): beyond it there exiils no con-*
tinent, no ifland; here the two feas meet.
a Drake ilOUND   THE   WORLD; *4j
, Drake gave all the iflands which he had feen
lifter his paffage through the ftraits, even to the
moft foutherly, the name of Elizabethides Iflands,
Fletcher obferves, that, at this laft ifland, there
Wete only two hours night* and as the fun was
then feven degrees from the tropic of Capricorn*
it may be concluded* fays he* that the day that
this luminary paffes the tropical circle, there
ought to be no night. This conclufion proves,
that Fletcher was very ignorant of aftronomy:
all the world knows* that, to have no night,
the day of the folftice, it is neceffary to be fituate
tinder the polar circle, that is to fay, at 66°
32'; and Fletcher has juft faid, that he was
only at 56 degrees of latitude. It is notwithstanding from this error, that fome geographers
have been led, to place the land, thus difcovered
by Drake, under the antarctic circle.
Drake, after being two days at this laft anchorage, made fail directly to the north-weft;
and, the following day, he met with two iflands
very abundant in birds i he flopped there a little
time; and the ift of November he purfued his
Courfe to the north-weft, &c.
After having examined* with attention, the
facts which Fletcher's narrative furnifhes, it is
impoffible to do otherwife than conclude, that
the land, which geographers have called Drake's
Land, is only the wefterly part of the TerfU
- Vol. L L  " del Mfitf
mmmm
t46 LA  PEROUSE'S VOYAGE
del Fuego; that, the 28 th of O&ober, Drake
arrived at the iflands of Cape Horn; and that,
the next day, Handing again to the north-
weft, he met with fome of thofe numberlefs
iflands, which compofe the archipelago of the
Te?^ra del Fuego.
Although it may thus appear to be proved*
that the pretended Drake's Land does not exifl,
there has been an unwillingnefs, notwithftanding,
to efface it from the charts: almoft all the geographers, except thofe who have carried it either
to 60 degrees of latitude, or under the polar
circle, have placed it about a hundred and
eighty leagues to the weft-fouth-weft of Cape
Horn, or 10 degrees to the weft of the longitude
of the mouth of the ftrait, and in the 57th deg,
of fouth latitude.
It is not to be doubted, but that, if the weather fhould favour M. De La Peroufe, he will
one day furnifh a verification, which will be
ufeful in deftroying a geographic error without
its recurring again. Cook, in 1769, and Fur-
neaux, in 1775, followed tracks, which, if this
Drake's Land exifted at the place Which geographers have affigned it* would have put it in the
power of thefe navigators, if not of feeing it,
at leaft of obferving fome fign, fome indication
of land; and it is wrell known, that neither one
nor the other perceived any.
24. Terre ROUND THE WORLD. I47
24. Terre de Theodore Gerard. Theodore
Gerard* one of the firft Dutch navigators* who
have made a voyage in the Great Ocean, was
carried by a ftorm* in 1599, as far as 64 degrees
of fouth latitude, where he difcovered a moun
tainous land* covered with
InOw,
the afpect of
which appeared to him the fame as that of Norway* : it is placed 16 degrees to the weft of the
meridian of Cape Horn.
2$i Land faid to have been feen by the Spa*
niards* in 1714.
To prove the exiftence, and pretty nearly fix
the pofition of this land, the annexed account
has been followed, taken from a " Memoire pour
la France, fervant a la Decouverte des Terres Au'f-
trales," by a feaman of Saint Malo* named Bernard De La Harpe -}-.
u In 1714, the captain of a Spanifh brigan-
" tine left Callao to go to the ifland of Chiloe*
" and being in 38 degrees of fouth latitude, and
" at five hundred and fifty leagues (Spanifh, 17$
" to a degree) to the weft of Chili, difcovered
" an elevated land that he coafted a whole day;
* Dalrymple* s Hifiorical Colledion of Voyages, and Difcoveries
London,  1770, in 4to, vol. I, page 94.
f Printed at Rennes, chez Vatar, 15 pages in 4to. See
alfo the Memoire de Pingre, fur le choix et Petat de lieux pour
le pajfage de Venus du^Juin 1769; Paris, Cavelier, 1767^
4to. ■*fl
LA    PEROUSES   VOYAGE.
e judged by the fires he obferved during the
*c night, that it muft be inhabited. Contrary
*c winds having obliged him to put in at Concep-
" tion, he found there a fhip called the Fran-
" cais, commanded by M. Du Frefne-Mariorr,
" who affirms he has feert the journal of the Spa-
t nifh captain, and has read the fact which has
" juft been related."   j
Thefe iflands are placed on the chart of the
Great South Sea, in 38 degrees of fouth latitude,
and between 108 and 109 degrees of weft lorf-
gitude. This pofition agrees with the opinion
of captain Cook. See his fecond voyage, vol.
II, page 274, of the original.
Thefe iflands call to recollection the difcovery attributed to Juan Fernandez, a Spanifh
pilot, under the name of Terres De luaft Fernandez, which the charts lay down to the weft
of Chili. This navigator died without having
pointed out the latitude and longitude of his
difcovery : it is only known, that, *about the year
1576, he ran 40 deg. to the weft of the coafts
of Chili, having fleered weft, and fouth-we ft,
and after a month and half of navigation, he
reached aland, which he defcribed as being a vaft
continent. This diftance of 40 degrees of longitude, to the weft of the coafts of Chili, is not
far removed from that, where the land faid to
have been difcovered by the Spaniards, in 1714,
is ROUND   THE   WORLD. 149
h placed. See, for the land feen by Juan Fernandez, Dalrymple's Hiftorical Collection of
Voyages and Difcoveries, vol. I, page 53; and
the Voyages tranflated from Dalrymple by M.
De Freville, page 125.
26. Ifle De Paque, or Eafter Ifland. This
ifland, difcovered in 1722, by Roggewein, a
Dutchman, was feen and vifited, in 1774, by
captain Cook, who determined the pofition of
it. See his fecond voyage, vol. I, page 276,
of the original.
The Spaniards touched at Eafter Ifland, the
16th of November, 1770, and called it San
Carlos, or Saint Charles. There is added to the
collection of charts, with which M. De La Peroufe is furnifhed, the plan which the Spanifh
(hips had taken of this ifland, round which their
boats made a tour. They place it in 2 70 6' fouth
latitude, and 268° 19' from the meridian of Tene-
riffe, or 11 o° 41' weft of Paris; that is to fay,
they have carried it too far to the eaft, by about
one degree and half.
The variation of the compafs there, according
to the Spaniards, in 1770, was 20 30'eaft,
27. Iflands faid to have been feen by the Spaniards* in 1773, in 32 degrees of fouth latitude,
and 130 degrees^weft of Paris.
This pofition is the fame which is given from
the account of M. Croizet, captain of a French
U 3 fhip s > I
I 40
LA  PEROUSE S VOYAGE
fhip; and is that which captain Cook had adopt*
ed. See his fecond voyage, vol. II, page 267,
of the original.    \
It appears, however, that this pofition may be
difputed; and upon the following grounds:
It was at their return from Otaheite, in 1773,
that the Spanifh fhips difcovered the iflands fituate in 32 degrees of latitude;   and it is highly
probable,   that   the longitude   they affigned  to
thefe iflands, (with  which   M. Croizet   had been
acquainted)    is   affected  with  the   fame    error
they made as to the longitude they affigned to
Otaheite.    By the extract of their voyage to this
ifland,   communicated to  one of M.   Surville's
officers,  during their flay at Lima,   it may be
feen, that the Spaniards have placed the ifland of
Otaheite,   which they called  Ifla D'Amat*,   in
170 29' latitude,   and in  2330 32' of  longitude
eaft from the meridian of Teneriffe,   which an-
fwers to   1450 28' of longitude   weft  of Paris.
Now the longitude of this ifland has been determined, by the numerous obfervations of captain
Cook and the Englifh aftronomers, at 1510 52'
weft of Paris :   the pofition given by the Spa-,
niards   is thus an  error of 6°   24' towards the
eaft.
* From the name of the Vice-roy of Peru, who ordered
tlie expedition.
K . If ROUND THE WORLD. 1^1
If the longitude of the iflands difcovered, at
32 degrees of latitude, be affected by the fame
miftake, they ought to be laid down in 1360 24'
weft of Paris, inftead of 130 degrees, very nearly under the fame meridian that Pitcairn Ifland
is placed.
It is obfervable, neverthelefs, that captain
Cook has followed this meridian in his fecond
voyage, without perceiving any thing; he perceived nothing in his firft voyage in crofting the
parallels of 128 and 129 degrees of longitude:
but there is ftill between thefe two courfes a
(pace of eight degrees, from eaft to weft, not
failed through, in which it is to be hoped the
iflands difcovered by the Spaniards, in 1773, in 32
degrees of latitude, may be again feen.
A general remark may be made, that all the
ancient difcoveries of the Spaniards, and which
there have been opportunities to verify, have been
found fituate much farther to the weft than
they had reprefented them to be; and up to the
prefent time their modern difcoveries in the
Great Ocean appear affected by an error on the
fame fide.
Captain Cook being in the latitude of thefe
iflands, and very near under the meridian they
are wont to be placed on after the correction
above pointed out, that is to fay, 32030' lati
tude,   and   1'
40
weft  of the  meridian   of
L4 mmm^mmM
m^k.
i
%■$% LA   PEROUSE S   VOYAGE
Greenwich, or 136° weft of Paris, makes an ob*.
fervation deferving mention.
I This day, fays he, (22d July, 1773,) was
*c remarkable, by our not feeing a-Angle bird.
** Not one had paffed fince we left the land,
" (New Zealand) without feeing fome of the fol-
cc lowing birds, viz. albatroffes, fheerwaters, pin-
i tadoes, blue petrels, and Port Egmont hens.
" But thefe frequent every part of the Southern
s< Ocean in the higher latitudes; not a bird, nor
fl any other thing was feen, that could induce us
" to think that we had ever been in the neigh-
i bourhood of any land." (Cook's fecond voyage,
vol. I, page 135, of the original.)
This obfervation might induce a belief, that
there is but little hope to find the iflands or land
feen by the Spaniards in 32 degrees of latitude,
in looking for them, in the* longitude of 136
degrees weft of Paris^ fince captain Cook being
binder this meridian, and nearly in the fuppofed
parallel of thefe iflands, faw not a bird, not $
fign of land. There is no foundation, however,
for calling their exiflence in quef^ion; and after
having given the reafons which leave a great uncertainty upon their true pofition, there remains
only to rely on M. De X^a Peroufe for taking
thefe reafons into cqnfideratio.n,, in the refearch
he will make after them. It muft be qbferyed,
in concluding this article, that it is very probable
they ROUND   THE  WORLD. 153
they are more weftward than 1360 c weft of
Paris, fince the Spaniards fell in with them in
coming from Otaheite to Peru: and it would
have been neceffary, that they fhould make more
than a good fouth-eaft courfe, with the trade
winds fouth of the line, in order that they
fhould run down 220 o' of eaft longitude, while
making only 14I- degrees of latitude.
GREAT EQUATORIAL OCEAN.
28. Iflands of the South Sea, or .of the Great
Equatorial Ocean, between the 26th, and the
1 oth degree of fouth latitude, and the fpace com-
prifed between the 130th degree of longitude,
weft, and the 170th eaft of Paris.
For all the iflands contained within thefe limits there is occafion only to refer M. De La
Peroufe to the accounts of the voyages of Byron, Bougainville* Carteret, Wallis, Furneaux,
and Cook; he will find in them all the geographical, phyfical, and hiftorical details, which
may be ufeful to hirn in fearching for fome df
thefe iflands, and in the flay that he may be dif-
r>ofed to make there. With regard to the an-
ciently difcovered iflands in the fame feas, by
Mendana, in 1567, and 1595, Quiros and Tor-
rez, in 1606, Le Maire and Schouten, in 1616,
Abel Tafman, in 1642, and Roggewein, in 1722,
they I|4 LA  PEROUSE S   VOYAGE
they have all been inferted in the chart of the
Great Equatorial Ocean, which has been delivered
to M. De La Peroufe for his voyage, conformably to the indications which may be drawn from
the original narratives publifhed concerning the
difcoveries of thefe navigators. The petitions
given to them on the chart differ much, however, from thofe which had been affigned from
thofe very narratives j but the proved identity
of fome of thefe iflands with thofe which have
been recognized by modern navigators, having
contributed to rectify many of the ancient determinations, ufe has been made of fome of
thefe rectified points, as foundations to correct
one after another, and, at leaft in part, the
pofitions of fome other anciently difcovered
iflands, which have not yet been again found :
there are however, many refpecting which great
uncertainty remains, becaufe the journals of ancient navigators are fo devoid of obfervations
and of dates, fo flerile in nautical facts, that
there can often be drawn from them only un-
fatisfactory conjectures; their filence about the
moft interefting circumftances of the voyage fome-
times deprives the geographer of all means of
combination, of all comparifon writh other journals, whence lights might be drawn as a guidance
through the obfeurity. ROUND THE WORLD, 155
The courfes indicated, and the difcoveries made
by thefe ancient navigators, will here be fumma-
rily traced, as far as they can be deduced from
the relations which have appeared to merit the moft
confidence. It is much to be defired, that chance
•and happy combinations may enable his Ma-
jefty's fhips to meet fome of the iflands thus loft
to navigation; which, while offering them, in
the courfe of their difcoveries, refources in the
neceffaries of life and refrefhments, may alfo
contribute to the extenfion of human knowledge.
1. The Voyage of Magellan*,(1519,) From the
flrait to which this navigator gave his name,
he flood weft-north-weft as far as the equator,
which he croffed at 9858 miles from the flrait,
and near the 170th degree of longitude eaft from
Paris; in this long run he difcovered only two
little defert iflands, at the diftance of 200 leagues
from each other, viz. San Pedro, in 18 or 19
degrees of fouth latitude; de los Tiburons, in
14 or 15 degrees of fouth latitude.
Thefe iflands which Magellan called by a general
name Unhappy Iflands, are ftill unknown; and they
are not marked upon the chart of theGreat Equatorial
* See the voyage and navigation from the Molucca
Hands, by the Spaniards, defcribed by Anthony Pigaphet-.
ta ; Ramufio's Colleclion^ -Decadas da AJta,—de Barros
e. Couto;—-—Navigations aux terres aufrales, by De Broffes;—*
J)alrymple?s Hiftorical Colle-fUon, and others.
I Ocean. -MM
I$6 , LA   PEROUSE's   VOYAGE
Ocean, becaufe their pofition is not pointed but
in a manner fufficiently precife. Of all the iflands
difcovered fince Magellan, there is only Cook's.
Savage Iftand, and Bougainville's Enfant Perdu,
■which can reprefent to us the two Unhappy Iflands:
they are 200 leagues from each other, like
thefe, and nearly in their latitude; Savage Ifland
is in 190 1' latitude, and 1720 30' weft longitude
from the meridian of Paris: L'Enfant Perdu, in
140 6' of latitude, and 1790 2' eaft longitudef
2. The Voyage of Mendana*, (1567.) £rom
Callao, a port of Lima, 'Mendana flood to the
weftward, and made a run of 1450 leagues, (Spanifh of j 7! to a degree) without finding land.
He difcovered then $
Jefus Ifland, a fmall one, inhabited, latitude
fouth, 6° 15'.
Candlemas Shoals, a reef of rocks with many
little iflands; the middle in 6° 15' of fouth latitude, and 170 leagues from Jefus Ifland,
Ifabella Ifland, 95 leagues in length, and 20
in breadth, of which the fouth-eaft point is in
90 o' of latitude, and the north-weft in 70 30'.
They anchored in a- harbour which is on the north
* Geographia Indiana de Herrera.-r--~r////?^r7<2 de las Indias,
Lopes Vas.        Navigations aux ierres auftrales, by De Broffes.
#- Dalrymple's Hiftorical Collection.—-?Decowvertes dans.le
pier du Sud, etc. round the world.' 157
fide, and a brigantine, which was fent thence oa
difcovery, found the iflands following:
Malaita, thus called by the Indians, a large
ifland, fourteen leagues eaftward of a great bay,
in 8 degrees of latitude.
La Galera, a little ifland of five leagues cir*
cu inference, fur rounded by reefs.
Buona-Villa, twelve leagues in circumference,
in 90 30' of latitude. %1r?
La Florida, twenty-five leagues in circumference, in 90 30' of latitude.
San Dimas, ^ forming a chain which ex-
Saint Germain, vtends eaft and weft with Flo-
La Guadelupa,Jrida.
Sefarga, in <f 30' of latitude, a round ifland,
of eight leagues circumference, with a volcano in
the middle.
Guadalcanar, a very extenfive land, with a
good harbour.
-Saint George, near Ifabella Ifland, from which
it is feparated only by a channel; a good harbour, and pearls were found there.
Saint Chriftopher, a narrow and mountainous
ifland, with a good harbour, in 11 degrees of
latitude.
"} two little iflands to the
Saint Catherine, f eaft of St. Chriftopher, three
Saint Anne, (leagues  diftant from   each
Jother.
There* mm
2$3 LA   PEROUSE S   VOYAGE
There is a good harbour on the eaftern flioifc
of the latter.
Befide thefe iflands, cited in the relation of
Chriftopher Suarez De Figueroa, many others
are to be found* named in the defcriptions of
Herrera, and De Bvf, and which may be feen
alfo upon ancient charts; fuch as Saint Nico^s*
Arrecifes, Saint Mark, Saint Jerome, &c.
All thefe iflands, fince known under the name
of Solomon's Iflands, appear to be the Terreti
Des Arfacides,. difcovered by Surville* commanding the fhip Saint-Jean-Baptifte, in 1769*
3d. Mendana's fecond voyage*, (anno 1596.)
From Payta* on the coaft of Peru, he fleered
weft, as far as 1000 leagues from the coaft,
without feeing land. Difcovery was then made,
as follows: |gg|
The Marquefas of Mendoca, between nine and
ten degrees of fouth latitude, four iflands which
were called La Magdalena, San Pedro, La Do-
tninica, and Santa Chriftina j in the weftern
part of this laft was found a good harbour, which
was called Madre de Dios. (They have been
again found in 1774 by capt. Cook.)
The iflands of San Bernardo in io° 45' latitude*
and 1400 leagues from Lima, four little low iflands,
Navigations aux terres auflraleJ.-
-Decouvertes dans le Mer du Sud.
-Hiflorieal Collection^
fandy* ROUND   THE   WORLD. 1^9
fimdy, and defended by a reef of rocks. The
circuit round all of them may be eight leagues.
(It appears that thefe are the lame iflands which
v/ere feen in 1765 by commodore Byron, who denominated them Iflands of Danger -, and it is after
the reckoning of his courfe that they have been
laid down in the chart in io° 51' of latitude, and
1690 30'of weft longitude from Paris.)
La Solitaria, in io° 40' of latitude, and 1535
leagues from Lima, a little round ifland, a league.
in circuit.—(It has not been ittn fince, but its
pofition, deduced from its diftance from the iflands
of San Bernardo and Santa Cruz, appears fufficiently
.0' latitude, and 17 8° 20' weft
exact; it is in 10'
longitude.)
The ifland of Santa Cruz, a large ifland, with a good
harbour for anchoring, in io° 20' of latitude, and
at 1850 leagues from Lima. It was again feen in
1768 by captain Carteret, who called it Egmont
Ifland, making a part of Queen Charlotte's Iflands;
and it is according to the track of this navigator,
that it has been laid down in the chart in eleven
degrees of latitude, and 1610 35' of eaft longitude.
4th. Voyage of Quiros andTorrez, (anno 1606.)
From Callao, they fleered fouth-weft and weft
as far as a thoufand leagues from the coaft of Peru,
without feeing land. They difcovered afterwards
as follow 1
Encar- i-66 lA perouse's voyage
Encarftacion, in 250 of fouth latitude, and at a
thoufand leagues from Peru, a little ifland foul?
leagues rdund, and fo low, that it is fcarcely per*
ceptible above the watef.
San Juan Baptifta, an ifland twelve leagued
in circumference, very high land, two days and
a half fail from Encarnacion Ifland, to the weft-
ward.
San Elmo, fix days fail from San Juan Bap-*
tifta; an ifland thirty leagues in circumference,
furrounded by a reef of coral; the middle of the
ifland  is covered ^y the fea.
Las Quatro Coronas. Four inacceflible iflands*.
a day's fail from San Elmo.
San Miguel, at four leagues diftance from
Quatro Coronas, to the weft-north-weft; it is
ten leagues in circumference, and lies north and
fouth.
La Converfion de San Paulo, to the wreft«
norr.h-we.ft of San Miguel, half a day's fail.
La Dezana, four days fail from Converfion de
San Paulo ; about the latitude of 180 40'
' La Sagataria, one day's fail from Dezana; I
large ifland, the north-weft point of which is
in 170 40' of latitude. Information wras gained at
this ifland, that there Was other land to the weft-
Ward.
There is great reafon to believe, that the Saea-
taria of Quiros is the fame ifland as Otaheite I
I the &0UND   THE   WORLDS l6l
the latitude, the bearing of the coaft, that was
run down the land fpoken of* to the weft of the
Sagataria, perfectly agree with the ifland ' of'
Otaheite. La Dezana* of Quiros, will, in confe-
quence, be the ifland of Ofnaburg of Wallis,
the Boudoir of Bougainville, the Ifland Maitea
of Cook, eaft-fouth-eaft* of Otaheite.
For the other iflands which precede La Dezana, it appears, that they have not yet been
known. Cook thinks that Pitcairn Ifland, difcovered by Carteret, is the Ifland of San Juan
Baptifta* of Quiros; but the difference of fize
does not permit the adoption of that opinion.
San Juan Baptifta is twelve leagues in circumference, and Pitcairn is only three:■ befides, the
diftance of a thoufand leagues, from the Encar-
* It may  be feen by thefe difcoveries of Quiros,  that
there muft be a chain of coniiderable iflands fouth-fouth-eaft,
and fouth-eaft of Otaheite, which may ftretch much further
to the fouthward, even to the gzd degree, where we know
the Spaniards faw iflands in 1773.    If very ancient charts
might be cited at this time, and regard paid to them, a
belief might be  entertained that the continent which they
reprefent to have been difcovered by Fernand Gallego,  and
extending itfelf to the weft-north-weft, and north-weft from
Cape Horn, to New Guinea ; is nothing elfe than this chain
of iflands, which extend further in the fouth-eaft, than the
point where the difcoveries of Quiros commenced : it would '
be found further weft, than the firft track of captain Cook,
in a fpace of fea which has not been vifited in thefe latter
times.
Vol. L M nacion Lt>2 .LA   PEROUSE S   VOYAGE
nacion of Quiros to the coafts of Peru, would
place this ifland to the weft of Pitcairn, by fome
degrees, and fo much more the Ifland of San
Juan Baptifta; which is two days fail to the weft
of Encarnacion, as before fhown. It is to be ob-
ferved, that the Marquefas of Mendoca, which
are placed at 6° o' to the weft of Pitcairn, were
pointed out by Mendana as at iooo leagues
from the coaft of Peru.
According to Dalrymple (Hiftorical Collection,
vol. I, page 5,) the Ifland of San Juan Baptifta, would be in 260 o' of latitude, and that
of San Elmo, in 28° o'. However it may be,
it is in the fouth-eaft of Otaheite, that the ancient iflands of Quiros muft be looked for.
Taking his departure from Sagataria, and continuing his courfe to the weft, Quiros difcovered
the following iflands.
La Fugitive, two days, or two days and half
fail from Sagataria. It was perceived in the north-
eaft; but being too far to leeward, they could
not land there.
El Peregrino, ont day's fail from LaFugitiva.
Here alfo they did not land on account of the
wind.
(It is not very eafy to know where to place
thefe two iflands, unlefs they are fuppofed to be
fome of the Society Iflands, or others yet unknown, north-eafLof thofe). ROUND   THE   WORLD. 163
San Bernardo, fix days fail from the Ifland of
Peregrino, and in io° 30'fouth latitude; a level
ifland, fix leagues in circumference, and of which
a fait water lake, or the fea, occupies the centre.
(This ifland muft not be confounded with'
thofe of San Bernardo, difcovered by Mendana,
and which were four in number. Moreover,
Quiros, in a memorial prefented to Philip the
Third, King of Spain, makes no mention of the
Ifland of San Bernardo, and he cites Nueftra
Sejidra Del Socorro, as the name of the Ifland
which immediately follows Peregrino: it appeared uninhabitable).
Gente Hermofa, or Handfome Nation, fevtn
days fail from the Ifland of San Bernardo, and
in the fame latitude as Mendana's Ifland of
Santa Cruz, viz. in 11° o' fouth latitude: fix
leagues in circumference, on which the inhabitants were the faireft and handfomeft to be {ten
in thofe feas; the women in particular were of
rare beauty, and clothed in a light covering.
(In the above cited memorial of Quiros, the
name of Gente Hermofa is not to be found,
but inftead of it, that of Monterey, who was
viceroy of Mexico).
Taumago,   at thirty-three days fail from the
Ifland of the Handfome Nation, and almoft in the
parallel   of  the Ifland of Santa   Cru^:   it is a
confiderably large ifland, where were found wood,
M 2 water, 164 tA   PEROUSE's   VOYAGE
water, and refrefhments, with very peaceable
inhabitants. (There it was learnt, as well as
from an Indian, who was taken from the place
and carried to Mexico, that there were many
iflands furrounding it, fuch as Chicayana,* Guay-
topo, Mecarailay, Fonofono, Filen, Naupau, &c.
which have not been feen fince by any naviga
tor. It is remarked that, in the run from the
Ifland of the Handfome Nation to Taumago,
there were almoft always prefages of land, fuch as a
reat quantity. of p&m-ice ftone,- and numerous
flocks of birds),
Tucopia, fix days fail from Taumago* and in
3 2° o' of fouth latitude : in coafting along this
ifland, w^here they could not go afhore, it was
learnt from the inhabitants, that there was much
land to the fouth* fail was made accordingly to
that quarter to look for it.
Nueftra Sendra De La Luz, a high land, at
14° 30' fouth latitude. (This ifland appears to
be the peak of L'Etoile, to the north of the
great Cyclades' of M. De Bougainville).
Tierra Del Efpiritu Santo, and Harbour of
La Vera Cruz. This land, which was the extremity of the voyage of Quiros, has been fince
found by M. De Bougainville, who called it Les
Grandes Cyclades,, and afterwards by captain
Cook, who named it the New Hebrides. This
laft has preferved in the north, the name of Tierra ROUND THE WORLD. l6j£
Del Efpiritu Santo. On leaving this land, Quiros
made fail for New Spain, or Mexico, where he
arrived without making any other interefting
difcoveries: but Torrez, who was feparated from
the fleet, flood to the weftward, and paffed between New Holland and New Guinea,, in the
fame manner as captain Cook has fince done in
the Endeavour.
5th. Voyage ofLc Maire and Schouten^ (anno
1616). From the Ifle of Juan Fernandez, where
thefe navigators went on fhore, after having dif-
covered.the Straits of Le Make, and been the firft
to double Cape Horn, they flood to the wefl-north-
weft 925 leagues from the coaft of Peru, without
feeing land ; then were difcovered as follows:
Hond Eiland, or Ifland of Dogs, in 150 12*
fouth latitude, and at 925 Dutch leagues (15 to a
degree) from the coaft of Peru, a little ifland about
three leagues in circumference, but fo flat that it
is in part overflowed at high water.
Sondre-grond, or Bottomlefs Ifland, in 150
15' of latitude, and at 100 leagues weft of the
Ifland  of Dogs,   inhabited,   and of 20 leagues
■circumference.    According to the relatic
Le
Maire, its latitude would   be
inifead of
150 15 , whicn the relation of Schouten gives.
* Diarium vel Defcriptio Itineris facli a Guilt. Schcutenio,«—•
Miroir oofl et <wefl-indical, etc.—~Speculum orientalis_ occidentalif-
que Navigat. etc.—Navigations aux Terres Juftrales.—Hiftorktaj^
Collection, &Q.'~DecoMvertes dans la Mer du Sud, etc.
M 3 Water- "t-66 la perouse's voyage
Water land', in latitude 140 46', and 15 leagues
from Bottomlefs Ifland. Water was found there,
and a fpecies.of crefles, but it did not appear to be
inhabited.
Ulyegen, or the Ifland of Flies, in 150 30' of latitude, and 20 leagues from Waterland ; a low ifland,
inhabited, where the vifitors were affailed by,a prodigious number of flies.
The Ifland of Cocoas, in latitude 160 10' fouth,
twenty-three days fail from the Ifland of Flies; a
high ifland, appearing like a folitary mountain,
well peopled, and covered with cocoa nut trees.
The Ifland of Traitors, in 16° 5' of latitude, and
two leagues to the fouthward of the Ifland of Cocoas;
the land flat and inhabited. Thefe laft two iflands
were feen again in 1767, by captain Wallis, who
gave the name of Bofcawen to the Ifland of Cocoas,
and that of Keppel to the Ifland of Traitors ; he
found the firft in 150 50' fouth latitude, and the
fecond in 150 55', which makes a difference only
of 15 minutes from the latitude given by Le Maire
and Schouten.
It is remarked, that, on the evening preceding
their arrival at thefe iflands, Le Maire and Schouten met with a canoe filled with Indians, failing to
the fouthward, a circumftance which indicates,
that there are other iflands in that direction.
Goede-Hoop, or the Ifland of Good Hope, in the
fame parallel as the Ifland of Cocoas, and thirty
\  , leagues ■
ROUND THE WORLD. 167
leagues to the weftward: an inhabited ifland, about
two leagues in length from north to fouth.
Hoorn Eilands, in latitude 140 56', and about
1550 leagues from the coaft of Peru ; two iflands
fituate within gun fhot of each other, and inhabited ; wkh a good haven at the fouthern extremity of the larger one: every fort of refrefh-
ment was found there.
At a hundred and fifty-five leagues from the
Hoorn Iflands, thirteen days after having quitted
them, and in 4 degrees of fouth latitude, figns of
land were obferved.     Then
Four fmall iflands, furrounded by fand banks
and fhoals, and inhabited, in 40 30', and five days
before making that part of New Guinea which is
now called New Ireland,  .
Twelve or thirteen iflands occupying about
half a, league from fouth-eaft to north-weft, three
days before reaching New Guinea.
Three low iflands, covered with trees, and named
in confequence GroenEilands, (Green Iflands) one
day before reaching New Guinea.
Sight of the Ifland of St. John.
New Guinea, or eaftern coaft of New Ireland,
diftant, by dead reckoning, 1840 Dutch leagues
from the coaft of Peru.
N. B, Of all the iflands feen in this voyage,
none have been fince found out, except thofe of
Cocoas and Traitors, which have been vifited by
M4 Wallis^ wmm
168 £a perouse's voyage
Wallis; they are laid down Upon the chart frotik
the journal of this navigator, and the diftance of
all the others regulated from that of thefe two
iflands.
6th. Voyage of AbelTafman,*fanno 1642). From
Batavia, Tafman touched at the Ifle of France,
then called Mauritius: thence fleering to the
fouthward, as far as 40 or 41 degrees of fouth
latitude, and afterwards to the eaftward, as far
as the 163d degree of longitude from the meridian
of Teneriffe, or 1440 eaft of the meridian of Paris,
the meridian of Teneriffe being 19° o' weft of the
former5 he difcovered as follows:
The land which was called Van Diemen's, in
42° 25' fouth latitude and 1630 o' of longitude
from the meridian of Teneriffe. He anchored in a.
bay which received the name of Frederic Henry^
in 430 io' of latitude, and 1670 55' of longitude.
Another high and mountainous land, which
was called New Zealand, in 420 io' latitude,.
and 18 8° 28' longitude, he anchored in a great
bay, fituate in 40p 49' latitude* and 1910 41'
longitude j the conduct of the natives of the
country gave occafion to call it Affaffms Bay.
A groupe of iflands, called the Three Kings, in
340 gp fouth latitude, and 1900 40" longitude,
* Oudennieuvo ooftlndien, etc. door F.Valentyn^r-Navigations-
mix Terres Auf rales,-?~IIift.QXKdl QQ\Udion,*^Dkoutvertes danz
h'Mer du $udk/	
They HOUND   THE   WORLD,. 169
They were found at the end and to the weftward
of a length of coaft, which was run down from
Affaffms Bay,
The Ifland of Pylftaarts, or Wild Ducks, in latitude 220 35', and longitude 2040 1$'; a high and
fleep ifland, of two or three leagues in circuit.
Amfterdam Ifland, in latitude 21° 20', and longitude 2250 9'; alow and flat ifland, the inhabitants
of which were hofpitable and benevolent. (This is
the Tongataboo Ifland of captain Cook, one of
the Friendly Ifles).
Ifland of Middleburg, & high and inhabited
ifland to the S, E, of Amfterdam, It is the Eooa
of Cook,
Uitardam% Namokoki, and Rotterdam, inhabited and cultivated iflands, in 2©0 15' of latitude, and 2060 19' of longitude. (The natives
give to the latter ifland the name of Annamookat
which captain Cook has retained).
Prince William's Iflands, and the Shallows of
Heemfkirck, in 170 19' of latitude, and2oi° 35^
of longitude : thefe are eighteen or twenty
little iflands furrounded by fhoals and reefs of
rocks.
The Iflands ofOntongJava, in latitude 50 i\ and,
by dead reckoning, 90 Dutch leagues from the
part of New Guinea called at prefent new Ireland |
it is a clufter of twenty-two little iflands.
The Iflands of Marck. Three days fail from the
-.Avr/asir*- pre** I 70 LA   PEROUSE S   VOYAGE
preceding. Another clufter of fourteen or fifteen
little inhabited ifles, and which had before been
feen by Le Maire and Schouten.
The Greexi Iflands. Four days fail from the
preceding, and one day's fail before arriving at
St. John's Ifland
The Ifland of St. John.
St. Mary's Cape. On the eaflern coaft of New
Guinea (now New Ireland)'in latitude 40 30', and
longitude 1710; thence Handing to the north-
weft along the coaft of New Ireland, palling the
Iflands of Anthony Cave, of Garet Dennis, &c.
then to the fouthward and weftward along the
northern coaft of New Guinea.
All the lands and all the iflands feen in this
voyage have been feen again in our times, and
found in the pofition which Tafman had affigned
them ; they are laid down in the chart according
to the tracks and obfervations of modern navi-
tors.
• 7. Voyage of Roggewein* (anno 1722). From
the Ifland of Juan Fernandez, Roggewein failed to
the weft-north-weft, with the intention of making
Davis's Land, which he did not find. He
difcovered
Eafter Iftand. In 270 4 of fouth latitude, and
265* 42' of eaft longitude from the meridan of
* Expedition de trots Vaiffeaux, Sec.~—Vies des gouverneurs
de Batayia—Navigations aux Terres Auftrales.—Hijiorical
Colleaion.—Decouvertes dans la Mer du Sud.
Teneriffe, ROUND   THE   WORLD. 171
Teneriffe, according to the author of Vies des
Gouverneurs de Batavia ; which anfwers to long.
1130 18' weft of the meridian of Paris; an inhabited ifland, 16 Dutch leagues in circumference,
and remarkable for the flatues or coloffal figures
raifed in great numbers upon the coaft. (It was
vifited by captain Cook, who found it in latitude
270 5', and longitude 112° 6'weft of Paris; and
who called it Eafter Ifland. It was alfo feen, in
1770, by the Spaniards, who lay it down in latitude 270 6', and longitude 2680 1 9' from the rue -
ridian of Teneriffe, which anfwers to 1100 41'
longitude weft of Paris; thefe laft navigators have
given it the name of San Carlos).
Carls-hof, or Charles's Court, in 150 45'
fouth latitude, and after a run of eight hundred
leagues from Eafter Ifland. According to the
French relation of this voyage, it is a little flat
ifland with a kind of lake in the middle. Roggewein
believed it was the Ifland of Dogs of Le Maire and
Schouten, and the Dutch account affigns neither
latitude nor longitude to it: it has been laid
down, in the chart, relatively to its diftance from
the Mifchievous Iflands, which are about twelve
leagues to the weftward, and the pofition of
which is now known.
_ Mifchievous Iflands, in 140 41' fouth latitude,
and 12 Daren leagues to the weftward of Charls-
hof:   thefe are four low and inhabited iflands,
which MM.
I72   .        .     LA   PER0USE S   VOYAGE
which are from four to ttn leagues in circumference. (Roggewein loft a veffel there, a cir-
cumftance which occafioned him to give the title
of Mifchievous to one of thefe iflands : two others
were called the Two Brothers, and another the
Sifter: five men of the crew remained there, who
deferted and were left behind. There is reafon to
believe, that thefe iflands are the fame as thofe of
Pallifer, difcovered by Cook in his fecond voyage,
and the Englifh navigator is of the fame opinion.
See Cook's fecond voyage, vol. I, page 315, and
following).
\ Aurora Ifland, eight leagues weft of the Mifchievous Iflands"s a little ifland of four leagues in
circumference, which has not yet been recognized.
Vefper Ifland, a low ifland, twelve leagues in
circumference, difcovered the fame day as Aurora
Ifland, and which is equally unknown at prefent.
The Labyrinth, a group of iflands, to the
number of fix, of a charming appearance, which
are together of about thirty leagues extent $
they are twenty-five leagues to the weftward
of Mifchievous. The Dutch narrative of the
voyage makes no mention of the Labyrinth,
but an inacceffible ifland, which it lays down in
150 17' fouth latitude. There is reafon to believe, that thefe are the iflands feen fince by commodore Byron, and which he has named Prince
of Wales's Iflands).
-&*S| Recreatiojiy rn
ROUND   THE   WORLD.
Recreation, in i5°47' fouth latitude, according to the Dutch account, or 16° o' according to
the French account; an inhabited ifland, twelve
leagues in circumference, high above the fea, and
covered with great trees: refrefhments were
found there. (It is laid down, in the chart, in longitude 1550 20'weft of Paris, by taking the medium of the differences of longitude between this
ifland, Eafter Ifland, and New Britain, or New
Ireland, fuch as refult from the chart which
accompanies the Dutch edition of this voyage.
This ifland has not yet been feen again).
Bauman's Iflands, in 150 o' fouth latitude*
according to the Dutch chart above mentioned,
and 120 o' according to the French: thefe are
numerous iflands of ten, fifteen, and twenty
leagues in circumference, and have excellent anchorages, and mild pacific inhabitants. (They are
laid down, in the chart, in 150 of latitude, conformably to the Dutch chart, and nearly in longitude 1730 weft of Paris, from the difference of
longitude that the fame Dutch chart gives between thefe iflands and New Britain).
Solitary Ifland, called Single Ifland in the
Englifh charts, in latitude 130 41' 'according to the
Dutch account, and a day and a half's fail to
the weft from Baufnan's Iflands, or about thirty
leagues. (It appears like two iflands, and it might
. be conjectured to be the Iflands of Cocoas and
5 pll   Traitors I
I74 tA   PEROUSE S   VOYAGE
Traitors of Le Maire and Schouten. But the
difference of latitude forbids the adopting this
opinion).
Tienhoven and Groningen, two confiderable
iflands, feen fome days after having quitted Single
Ifland. Tienhoven was coafted along during an
(Mitire day without feeing its termination ; it appeared to extend itfelf in a femi-circle towards,
Groningen. Neither the Dutch account nor its
chart make mention of thefe two iflands ; and the
French account, which fpeaks of them, points out
neither their latitude, nor their diftance from any
other land, fo that it is not poffible to affign
them any place in the chart.
29. New Caledonia. It does not appear, that the
ancient navigators had any knowledge of this
ifland. M. De La Peroufe is referred to the particulars given of it by capt. Cook* who difcovered
it in his fecond voyage. See his fecond voyage,
vol. II, page ioq, and following, of the original,
and the chart which relates to his difcovery.
30. The Ifland of Santa Cruz, an ifland difcovered by him, in his fecond voyage, in 1595, or
Egmont and Queen Charlotte's Iflands, vifited by
Carteret in 1767. Seethe Navigations aux Terres
Aajlrales of the prefident de Broffes, vol. 1,
page 249, and following; Dalrymple's Hiftorical
Collection, vol. I, page 57, and following, and
page 185;   Dccouvertes dans  la Mer du Sudi
Hawkef* ROUND   THE   WORLD. 1J$
-Mawkefworth's   Collection,    Carteret's   Voyage,
vol. I, page 568, and following.
31. Tierra del Efpiritu-Santo, of Quiros, difcovered in 1606, or Great Cyclades of Bougainville,
in 1768, and New Hebrides of Cook, in 1774. See
Navigations aux Terres Auftrales, by de Broffes,
vol. I, page 306, and following; vol. II, page
243, and page 348 and following—An Hiftorical
Collection, by Dairymple, vol. I, page 95, and
following, and page 203, and page 1 of the
T)3itsL'--Decouvertes dans la Mer du Sud, page
201, and following, and page 42 7—Voyage de
Bougainville, page 242, and following;---Cook's
fecond voyage, vol. II, page 23, and following,
of the original, and the chart of the New Hebrides,
vol. II, page 25, ibid. All this part has been
laid down on the chart of the Great Equatorial
Ocean* from the journal and obfervations of
captain Cook.
32. Terre des Arfacides, difcovered by Surville
in 1769.
Surville* had the firft fight of this land the 7th
of October, 1769; it appeared to him very high
and woody. At the time of the difcovery the latitude of the fhip was 6° 57' fouth, and its longitude by account 1520 28' eaft of Paris: but this
longitude, corrected by that of New Zealand,
determined  by captain   Cook,   where   Surville
* Extracted from the manufcript journal of M. De Surville.
touched, $7§ IA   t>EROUSE*S   VOYAGE
touched, ought to be 1530 45" at the place of
his land-fall, which is a few leagues only north-
weft.of his Port Praflin.
He failed along the coaft in the direction of
eaft-fouth-eaft, and found a harbour formed by
an aflemblage of iflands, where he anchored, to
which he gave the name of Port Praflin. In his.
Way to this harbour, after he had difcovered land,
he met with a great number of little iflands,
which appeared, at firft fight, to make part of
the continent, but he found them afterwards to be
little iflands at three leagues diftance from the
main land*; Friday, the 13th, he anchored in
Port Praflin, of which he has given a plan -f* : the
iflands which form it were covered with trees,
and at high water were partly inundated.
The natives of the country fhewed great diftruft;
and after having given the French to underftand,
by figns, that water might be had at a certain
place, which they pointed out at the bottom of
the harbour, they drew them thither that they
might fall into an ambufcade.    A brifk engage-
O DO
ment enfued, when Su'rville's people re-embarked
I The different views of thefe coafts, fuch as they were
taken from the lhip's detfk, and the complete Journal of
Surville, may be feen in the Decouvertes des Francais en 1768
tf I/69, dans le Sud-Eft & la Nouvelle Guwe, &£*■. Paris,-
imprimerie royale^ 1790,
I Ibid,
In Round the world." 177
in their boats, many of them  being wounded,
and thirty or forty of the favages killed.
The people who inhabit thefe countries are in •
general of the negro fpecies; they have woolly
black hair, flat nofes, and thick lips* They
powder their heads with lime, which* without
doubt, burns their hair* arid makes it appear red.
The cuftom of thus powdering thernfelves has
been remarked, by M. de Bougainville, of the
people who inhabit Baie de Choifeul, on the
north-weftern part of this continent. They have
bracelets of fhells for ornaments, and they wear
intire fhells round their necks* and girdles of
human teeth (without doubt thofe of their enemies whom they have made prifoners of war) * the
greater part have a large hole bored in their ears,
and through the cartilage of the nofe, from whick
are fufpended bunches of flowers, Their weapons
are lances from eight to nine feet in length* clubs,
or bludgeons, of the fame materials* bows and
reed arrows of forty or forty-four inches in length,
the points of which ate tipped with a fharp bone;
they carry a fhield made of rufhes and the bark
of a tree, two or three feet long and one broad.
Their canoes are very light, and are from fifteen,
or twenty-five, to fixty-five feet in length. The
feams are covered with a kind of cement, which
renders them impenetrable to the water.
Surville could obtain no  fupplies from thefe
Vol. I.
N
people; 170 LA< PEROUSE's   VOYAGE
people.   He only got poffeffion of a young favagey
of thirteen or fourteen years old,   whom he de-
figned  to   make ufe of as an interpreter, in the-
profecution of his difcoveries.
He left Port Praflin the twenty-firft of October, and continued to ftretch along the land towards the eaft-fouth-eaft, and afterwards towards
the fouth-eaft. In many places he loft fight of
the coaft, and could perceive no land in thefe
intervals; he thence concludes, with reafon, that
the chafms, or openings, are bays, very deep
gulfs, or channels* which, dividing the land
into many iflands, form an archipelago. In his
Way many canoes came off from the fhore, and
went on board him/ He made numerous pre-
fents to the favages, but every where obferved
jrnarks of the greateft diftruft. Thefe people are
great thieves, like all the inhabitants in the iflands
of the Great Equatorial Ocean,
Surville obferved^ that the young Indian, whom
he had brought from Port Praflin, could not make
himfelf underftood by the inhabitants of the coaft,
and that he was in great fear of them, a circum-*
fiance which induced Surville to believe that this
land was of great extent, and that the people of
the different iflands in this archipelago have no
communication  with   each other but   to make
war.
When * he had reached the
ifland,   which   he
called round the World. 179
tailed De La Contrariete, fituate about 4 degrees and half to the eaftward, and 2 degrees to
the fouthward of Port Praflin* he found a people
refembling thofe of that harbour; robuft men, in-
tirely naked, of the height of five feet and five feet
and a half (French) having woolly hair, and powdering it with lime, wearing the fame ornaments,
and ufing the fame arms. Thefe went on board
his fhips with the greateft boldnefs, accepted all
that was given them* and endeavoured to Ileal that
which was not given them. The country in this
part wore a pleafing afpect; the odour of the
aromatic plants, which reached the very fhips,
occafioned Surville to regret, that he could not
land in a gulf* which he fuppofed to exift to the
weftward of the iflands* which he called The
Three Sifters.
When he had arrived at 11° 7' fouth latitude,
and 159° to the eaft of Paris, he perceived a large
cape, with two little iflands before it; and from this
point he faw the land ftretching away to the
Weft and fouth-wefl. As he perceived no other
beyond this cape, and was in hafte to get a clear
offing* he called the iflands, which he law, Ifles
de la Delivrance, and the cape, Cap Oriental
des Arfacides. The 8th of November he loft all
fight of the land.
Such is the epitome of Surville's Difcovery, to
which is connected   land feen   by Bougainville,
Vfchich is the north-weft part of the Terre des
N 2 Arfacides, iBd lA perOuse's voyage
Arfacides.     See  his   voyage,    page   264,   and
following.
It will be proper alfo to confult the account that
Figueroa has given * us of Mendana's Difcoveries,
in his firft voyage, in 1567. There is every reafon to believe, after numerous combinations and
comparifons, that Solomon's Iflands, difcovered at
that period by Mendana, are the fame which have
been fince found by Surville* in 1769.
M. De La Peroufe, in the collection of manufcript charts, committed to his care and ufe,
will find one relating to the modern difcoveries in
this part, upon which the difcoveries of Mendana
have been endeavoured to be reprefented, as well
as they could be laid down, after the defcriptions
given by Figueroa, Herrera, and other Spanifh
hiftorians, who do not agree upon the particular
extent of the different iflands, or on their
relative pofitions; but it was fufficient to fhew
the prefumed identity of the difcoveries of Mendana and of thofe of Surville; and it is certain,
that the refearches which M. De La Peroufe is
expected to make will eftablifh that which is here
only prefented as a probability,
* See Echos de D. Garcia Hurtado de Mendoza, quarto Mar-
quez de Cannete, by Chriftoval Suarez de Figueroa ; Madrid,    1613 Hiflorical Collection,   by   D'alrymple,   vol.   I,
page 176—Decouvertes dans la Mer du Sud, tranflated front
the Englifh by Freville,. page 89*
%%. Terres HHM
ROUND   THE   WORLD. ijjl.r
33. Terres De La Louifiade, difcovered, in
1768, by M. de Bougainville.
Thefe lands were unknown before this period.
There was only an imperfect and confufed relation of a difcovery, in 1705, of the northern
coaft by the Dutch yacht, the Geelvinck.
For Louifiade, fee Voyage de M. De Bougainville, page 255, and following: and for the journal
of the Geelvinck * the Navigations Auftrales, of
the prefident de Broffes, vol. II, page 444.
34. Endeavour Straits, between New Holland
and New Guinea.
See Hawkefworth's Collection of Voyages round
the World, vol. Ill, p. 610, and following
(Cook's firft Voyage).
It appears that Torrez, who commanded one
of the fhips of Quiros's fleet* in 1606, is the
firft navigator who paffed between New Holland
and New Guinea.
See the relation of Quiros's voyages in the
authors cited in thefe notes.
35. North and weft coafts of New Holland.
There is nothing to be offered, which can be
* It is now proved, that the pofition firft given to Geel-
vinck's Land is not the true one. See Decouvertes des Frantais
en 1768 et 1769, dans lefud eft de la vouvelle Guinee, page xiv
qf the preface,    (Fr. Ed.)
N
deemed l8a la perouse s voyage
deemed authentic, or fufficiently detailed, concerning this part of the greateft ifland in the world.
M. De La Peroufe is referred to the Voyages
de Dampler, for the northern coaft, fome parts of
which this exact navigator has reconnoitred; and
to Navigations aux Terres Auftrales, by the prefident de Broffes, vol. II, page 438, for the
north and weftern coaft, and vol. I, page 426,
and following, for the difcoveries of the Dutch in
New Holland.
There is added to the collection of manufcript
charts, put into M. De La Peroufe's hanjds, a copy;
of that which is referred to by the prefident de
Broffes, and which contains, the examinations and
difcoveries the Dutch made of part of the weftern
coaft. The foundings too are added, and particulars extracted from the journals of the Englifli
navigators, who have been there more recently.
36. South of Van Diemens Land, a part of the
fouth of New Holland.
See, in the hiftory of captain Cook's fecond
voyage, what has been faid by captain Furneaux,
who was there in the month of February, 1773,
(vol. I, page 107, and following, of the original).
See alfo captain Cook's third voyage, vol. I,
page 91 of the original.
3 7. Ifland of New Zealand. . This land was difcovered, in 164.2, by Abel Tafman* a Dutchman 1
is giyen  are in no
refpect
but as the details which h ROUND   THE   WORLD.
181
refpect circumftantial, it would be ufefefs to repeat them, and Captain Cook's voyages leave
nothing wanting oiithis head : See Hawkefworth's
Collection, vol. II, page 281, and following, of
the original (Cook's Voyage); Captain Cook's
fecond voyage, vol. I, page 69 of the original*
ibid, page 225, and following, vol. II, page 146,
and following; Cook's third voyage, vol. I, page
118, and following, of the original.
In thefe works are to be found,: independently
of defcriptions and aflronomical and nautical obfervations, all the charts and particular plans
which have been conftructed by the Englifh navigators.
38. Marquis of Mendaza's Iflands, difcovered,
in 1595, by Alvar Mendana, a Spaniard: See in
note 28 Mendana's fecond voyage.
Thefe iflands were again difcovered in. 1774,
by captain Cook, and nothing better can be
done, than to refer to his account for all that
concerns their defcription and their geographical pofition, (Cook's fecond voyage, voLft
page 297, and following, of the original).
39. Ifles of Nublada, Rocca-PafUda, and
others, on the eaft-fouth-eaft of Sandwich
Iflands. tBjff
It is believed that Juan Gaetano, a Spaniard,
is the firft navigator, who had a knowledge of
thefe iflands, in 1542.
N 4 : He iitfta
t84 LA   PEROUSE'S   VOYAGE
He left Porto-Santo, near Port Nativity, on th§
coaft of Mexico, about 200 of north latitude.
He difcovered fucceflively the iflands Nublada,
Rocca-Partida, and 200 leagues weftward of this
laft, a bank, in 13 or 14 degrees north latitude,
upon which he found but feven fathoms water.
Continuing his courfe to the weftward, he met
with fome other iflands lying to the weft of the
Sandwich Ifles. {Raccolte di Navigationi e
Viaggi da Ramufio, vol. I, page 375).
The iflands difcovered by Gaetano have been
laid down on the chart of the Great Equatorial
Ocean, with which M. De La Peroufe is fur-
nifhed, according to that of Anfon's voyage,
which Anfon had copied from one he found
on board the Manilla galleon when he captured
it.
40. Sandzvich Iflands, difcovered by captain
Cook, in his third voyage, in 1778.
Although the courfes of the Spanifh galleons
-would readily enable thefe veffels to examine
iflands fituate between the 19th and 20th north
parallels, yet it does not appear, that, in any
period, the Spaniards have had a knowledge of
them. They offer an excellent port for their fhips,
which trade from Afia to America over the Great
Equatorial Ocean; and it is not likely, that they
would have neglefted forming an eftablifhment
to ROUND   THE   WORLD. iSjJ
on iflands fo advantageoufly fituated for communication between the two continents. We
owe all the particulars that we poffefs concerning
thefe iflands to captain Cook and captain King.
See Cook's third voyage, vol, II, page 190, and
following, 525 and following, and page the xft,
$nd following, of the 3d vol. in the original,
GREAT NORTHERN   OCEAN.
41.   North weft coaft  of America, from Port
Monterey, fituate in about 36° 42' of north
latitude, to the Aleutian Ifles.
In 1769 and 1770 the Spaniards ordered Port
Monterey to be examined, as well as that of San
Diego, which is more to the fouthward; they
raifed little forts there, and formed a kind of eftablifhment* fearing that fome foreign power might
extend its views to coafts which, though in the
neighbourhood of the poffeffions of the Crown of
Spain, appeared not to belong to it.
The expedition was ordered by the marquis de
Croix, viceroy of New Spain, prepared by Don
Jofeph de Galvez, intendant of the army, vifitor
general of the kingdom, and executed by Gafpar
de Portola, captain of dragoons, commander of
the troops, and by the packet-boats the San-
-garlos and the San-Antonio, commanded by Don
Vicente
11
w^bSl 11, loo
Vicente Vila, pilot of the royal navy, and Don
Juan Perez, pilot for the navigation of the Philippines.
The journal of this voyage has been printed in
Spanifh, at the printing-office of the government
of New Spain.
It is.faid in this work, that the conftancy of
the north and north-weft winds, which predominate to the northward of California almoft all the
year, oppofes great difficulties to all fhips which
would run to the' north-weft coafts of America. -
The country to the north of the .peninfula of
California is, from the fame authority, tolerably
fertile, and the natives very tractable. 4§jg|
The Spaniards fpent more than :a year,in finding again the port of Monterey, although they
ought to have been well acquainted with its pofition, fince it had been difcovered, in 1602, by
the general Vifcaino, commandant of a fquadron,
which Philip the Third ordered to be fitted out
for the difcovery and reconnoitring of the coafts
to the north of California. After great fatigues,
and long refearches by fea and by land, they fuc-
ceeded at length i