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One hundred years of Canadian Methodist missions, 1824-1924 Stephenson, Annie D. 1925

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   in /Methodist Missions
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This book is a
0-fefen and
Tfiiti-p l One Hundred Years
Canadian Methodist
The Missionary Society of the Methodist Church
The Young People's Forward Movement
F. C. STEPHENSON, Secretary Copyright, Canada, 1925, by
Frederick Clarke Stephenson
OF THE NEW DAY One generation shall praise thy works
to another, and shall declare thy
mighty acts.—Psalms 145:4.
Which we have heard and known, and
our fathers have told us. We will not
hide them from their children, shewing
to the generation to come the praises
of the Lord, and His strength, and
His wonderful works that He hath
wrought.—Psalms 78: 3, 4. A FOREWORD
I cannot too strongly express my gratitude to Mrs. F. C.
Stephenson for having undertaken the arduous task of writing a
history of the Missionary Society of the Methodist Church,
Her long association with the Young People's Forward Movement for Missions, of which her husband was the first promoter
and Secretary, and her life-long interest in Missions qualified her
in a peculiar way for the task which, after much labour, she has
brought to such a successful issue in these volumes. I read the
manuscript with much interest and found it most absorbing. It
is not only well written from a literary standpoint, but it pulsates
with that element which writers can only give to their productions
when the subject of which they write is of living interest to them.
Mrs. Stephenson has always had the missionary spirit and
since her marriage, at least, has lived in a missionary atmosphere.
There is no living woman in the Canadian Methodist Church
who, for so many years, has had such wide and intimate contacts
with missionaries in both the Home and Foreign Fields as she has
had. The writing of this history has been a labour of love to
her and this fact has given tone and colour to every page. She
has put in very readable English a great wealth of material which
was not before available in such convenient and attractive form.
It was most fitting that such a history should have been written
this last year of the existence of the Methodist Church in Canada
as a separate organization. Before the book is off the press the
Methodist Church will have become part of the United Church
of Canada. This fact will make us prize all the more Mrs.
Stephenson's history of our Missionary Society.
I have great pleasure in commending it to all who wish to be
well informed relative to the work of our fathers and of the Missionary Society of our Church in laying the foundations of National
greatness in this country, and in Japan and China, our foreign
mission fields.
C. E. Manning,
General Secretary of the Missionary Society of
the Methodist Church, Home Department.
In this book Mrs. F. C. Stephenson's fruitful pen has produced
another valuable contribution to the knowledge of Canadian
Methodist Missions. Mrs. Stephenson has the necessary enthusiasm for this task to lead her to study the period described with
great care, and to sift the evidence for the statements she makes.
The book will be found to be full of human interest, and at times is
replete with thrilling adventure, as any truthful delineation of the
missionary work of our Church must be.
The comprehensive nature of her task makes it impossible to do
complete justice to important phases of our missionary enterprises,
but she has opened a mine in which will be found an abundance of
literary and spiritual treasure that will thrill the hearts of erstwhile
Methodists with pardonable pride.
It is specially appropriate that a study of this sort should be
given to the public on the eve of Church Union. Speaking for the
Methodist people, I can assure the other denominations with us
' entering into Union, that we fully appreciate the similar service
which has just been rendered by Presbyterian and Congregational
writers in regard to the mission work of their respective Boards.
Together they will lead to a larger mutual knowledge of the missionary achievements and programme of the uniting Churches,
and as we know each other better, we shall love each other more.
I need scarcely say to those who know her, that to Mrs. Stephenson this gift to Methodism and the United Church has been a
labour of love.
Heartily yours,
S. D. Chown.
General Superintendent
The Methodist Church, Canada.  ^
This story of the wonderful century of Canadian Methodist
Missions is written for the young people.
When urged to write the book I consented, although I knew
that patience, perseverance and hard work would be necessary to
ensure accuracy, and that information must be gathered from many
widely scattered sources.
Out of the wealth of accumulated information, it has been
very difficult to decide what to omit, for space was limited.
A full history would require several volumes in order to do justice
to the work accomplished through the missionaries and to fully
record the influence of Methodism throughout our Dominion; its
contribution to the religious, social, educational, political and industrial development in our nation building, and to tell of its work
in Newfoundland, Bermuda, Japan and China. Such a history has
yet to be written.
In writing the story there has come to me a deeper appreciation
of the sacrifice and work of the pioneers, of those who through the
century have made Methodism a missionary force, and of their
successors who to-day are paralleling the best efforts of the missionary leaders of the past.
In gathering the material I have been brought into delightful
association with those who, although retired from the active
work, are still missionary enthusiasts; to these I am indebted for
valuable information regarding the days that are gone. I wish,
also to acknowledge my indebtedness to all who have supplied
information and lent me rare old books, letters and manuscripts.
The letters of commendation received from those who have
read the manuscript are greatly appreciated.
One Hundred Years of Canadian Methodist Missions challenges the young people to go forward and with a wider vision
accept responsibility in the greater tasks and opportunities for '
Kingdom service which await us in The United Church of Canada.
Annie D. Stephenson.
Toronto, June 10th, 1925. PUBLISHER'S NOTE
By action of the General Board of Missions I was commissioned to prepare
or have prepared a manuscript on the story of the Missionary Work of the Methodist Church, suitable for young people.
To find some one with the necessary knowledge and appreciation of the missionary achievements of our forefathers and conversant with the magnitude and
self-sacrificing work being carried on to-day by our missionaries in the Home
and Foreign field, was very difficult, especially as money was not available to
pay for the work.
In my perplexity, as I had often done before, I consulted my wife. We agreed
that in order that the young people might carry into the United Church the
missionary spirit that has made Methodism, such a book should be written.
Since the beginning of the Forward Movement, Mrs. Stephenson has assisted
in publishing all our missionary text-books, edited The Missionary Bulletin
and prepared programmes for the Sunday schools and Young People's Societies-
She has travelled several times across Canada, visited Newfoundland and all our
foreign work. As she knew the work, I was conscientious in persuading her to
undertake the work, which she has done as a free-will offering.
F. C. Stephenson,
Secretary Young People's Forward Movement.
October 3,1924.
Your Committee wishes to express its great satisfaction and pleasure in the
production of the book entitled "One Hundred Years of Canadian Methodist
Missions," written by Mrs. Stephenson, which provides an excellent study book
on this important period of Methodist history for our people. We would recommend to all our churches the use of such a text-book by Pastors, Missionary
Committees, Young People's Societies and Sunday schools, and would urge
upon our Ministers, Superintendents of Sunday schools and Presidents of Young
People's Leagues that they bring this book to the attention of the various
I   Pioneers   and
Volunteers :   The
II   Beginnings in Newfoundland and Bermuda -      - 5
III Beginnings in the Maritime  Provinces:  Nova
Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island 13
IV Beginnings in Quebec   ------ 29
V   Beginnings in Upper Canada                ... 37
VI   The Missionary Society Organized 48
VII   Indian Missions in Upper Canada 54
VIII    Indian Missions in the Canadian West 83
IX   Indian Missions in the Canadian West (Continued) 111
X   Indian Missions in Quebec  131
XI   The Beginning of Indian Missions in British
Columbia  136
XII   How the Gospel was Carried to the Indians of
Northern British Columbia   -       -       -       - 157
XIII Indian Missions in British Columbia: Institu
tional and Medical Work       -       -       -       - 190
XIV Indian   Missions   in   British   Columbia:    The
Development of Northern Missions      -      - 212
XV   Indian    Missions   in   British   Columbia:   The
Development of Southern Missions      -      - 227
XVI   Indians, Government and Church - 242
Analytical Index  257 VOLUME II
The Japan Mission
The West China Mission
Home Missions
Missions to the French-Canadians
Missions to the Orientals in Canada
Missions to New Canadians
Methodism and Great Missionary Move: One Hundred Years of Canadian
Methodist Missions
We cannot study the work of the Missionary Society Founda-
during the past hundred years without going back to t'onla>**ng-
find out how the work began which led to its organization.
The story of "beginnings" is a story of great adventure,
• of hardship and sacrifice, of faith and work, of discouragement and rejoicing, and of the laying of the foundation
of the heritage of missionary responsibility which is
ours to-day.
Volunteer service laid the foundation of Canadian  Volunteer
Methodism, led to the organization of the Missionary  service-
Society, made possible the carrying on of the work and
continues to be, in this day of unprecedented opportunity and responsibility, the greatest missionary asset
of the Church.
Canadian    Methodism   now   extends   beyond    the  The
boundaries of our Dominion and to lands not within the  expansion
British Empire.     Newfoundland, at the entrance to the  fieid.
Gulf of St. Lawrence, and the Bermuda Islands, in the
Atlantic, are its eastern boundaries.    Its western limits
take us across the Pacific to Japan and to far West
China—our two foreign mission fields.   Throughout our
Dominion, from the sea gates on the Atlantic to those
on the Pacific, and from the international boundary between the United States and Canada to the far stretches
of our great north lands, Methodism is a vital force in
Kingdom service. Early
Our churches with their many organizations; i
universities, colleges and schools; our hospitals and
community centres; missions to the newest Canadians—
our non-English-speaking settlers; missions to the oldest
Canadians—the Indians; missions in new communities;
missions in old communities; missions to the Orientals
in Canada; missions to the French in Quebec; missions I
to the miners and lumbermen; missions in our cities;
missions on the waterways; and our missions in China
and Japan, are evidences of the growth of Methodism
and of the spiritual foundation laid by Methodist
pioneers over a hundred years ago.
The introduction of Methodism into Canada and the
Maritime provinces came largely as a result of emigration following the successful efforts of the governors of
Nova Scotia in securing British settlers, the American
Revolution (1776-1783), the war between England and
France (1793-1815) and the Irish Rebellion (1798).
During the American Revolution many in the New
England colonies had remained loyal to Britain. Their
loyalty had cost them much suffering, and life had become
intolerable under conditions imposed upon them in the
new Republic. They longed for the protection and
security of the British flag. About 28,000 of these
Loyalists, mostly from the New England States, settled in
the Maritime Provinces; numbers made new homes in what
we now call the Eastern Townships; others settled along
the banks of the St. Lawrence River and about 5,000
took up land along the Bay of Quinte or in the Niagara
Peninsula. While a few New Englanders settled in what -:
is now Ontario, the majority came from New York, New
Jersey and Pennsylvania. It is estimated the total
number of Loyalists was 40,000. Most of them were
poor. In many cases their lands and homes had been
lost in the war and they faced hardship and loneliness
as they turned their steps toward the new land of which
they knew almost nothing excepting that grants of land,
Government help and the protection of a British colony
Among those who went into the then western part of The corn-
Canada were the Mohawk Indians, who, under their »Jgh k
leader, Joseph Brant (Thayendanegea), had been allies
of the British during the war. When peace came they
feared the Americans whom they had fought with
merciless cruelty and reckless bravery. They were
granted 700,000 acres of land along the Grand River.
To this splendid hunting ground almost the whole tribe
moved. It was here that Methodism began its work
among the Indians; the first mission work of a missionary
A second emigration from the United States took Immi-
place after the stressful years of 1812-16.   As an induce- frant?h
ment to settle in Canada, the Government gave grants United
of land to the officers and soldiers of the regiments which States,
were disbanded when peace was restored.    Among the
soldiers and  early  immigrants were  Methodists who
brought into the new land the same spirit of evangelism
which had made Methodism a force in their old-home
All classes were represented in this early immigration
—fishermen and farmers; dwellers from the cities of the
old world; men and women of culture whose fortunes
had been swept away through war conditions; sturdy
labourers; merchants who came from the trade centres of
Great Britain to promote trade with French Canada;
and mechanics whose handicraft was being superseded
by machinery in the mills of Britain.
Among these pioneers were those who held that an Metho-
hereditary nobility and a Government-endowed  Pro- djsmtne
testant Church would safeguard the foundation-laying civil and
of the new colony.   These were staunch adherents of the religious
established  traditions  of  State  and  Church in Great 1,bertv-
Britain, and had come prepared to establish in the
new colonies an aristocracy and a state church.   They
soon discovered that hereditary nobility had no place in
pioneer conditions, and their efforts to establish a state
church were defeated through Methodism becoming the
pioneer and  promoter of  civil  and  religious  liberty.
The long, hard struggle resulted in equal privileges for
all—the very foundation of national freedom.
Method- During the fifty years before that  memorable con-
ism before   ference held at Hallowell (near Picton) in 1824, at which
the organ:-    ,     --.   . _    . v k   •.».,.,     ,
zation of the Missionary bociety was organized, Methodism had
been established from Newfoundland to the western
limits of what was then Upper Canada. From the first
Methodism meant missions—bringing men and women
to God, and then enlisting them to win others. Any one
who cared for the salvation of others could begin work
for the Kingdom. Here and there throughout the
settlements in the new land, there arose men, who, out
of the fulness of their joy, preached and persuaded men
and women to give up sin and serve God. Lives and
communities were changed. Little groups gathered in
many a log house for prayer and praise. The way was
being prepared for the ordained preacher.
the Missionary
In reviewing the beginnings of Methodism we begin Laurence
with His Majesty's oldest colony, Newfoundland, where, Coughlan
in 1765, Laurence Coughlan commenced work. From i}^6 '
1755 to 1765 he had been an itinerant preacher in Ireland
under Wesley, and the friendship there begun was lifelong.
What led him to leave the Old Land and come to Newfoundland is not known. He came as a volunteer worker
into conditions which demanded heroic sacrifice. Around
Conception Bay, where he landed, there was a population
of more than 5,000 persons, with no one to care for their
bodies, minds or souls. No respect was paid to the
, Sabbath; there was no one to perform the marriage
ceremony, and marriage was very lightly regarded; profanity, drinking, dancing, gambling, with low moral
standards, prevailed everywhere. Coughlan said, "As to
the Gospel, they had no knowledge of it." The people
were poor. Nearly the whole population depended on
the fisheries for a livelihood. The men who controlled
the marketing of the harvests of the sea came only about
once a year to the Island. Their attitude was one of
oppression; they had little regard for the welfare of the
people, most of whom had come to Newfoundland on
account of poverty, and poverty forced them to remain.
" Coughlan's ability and zeal were recognized on all Coughlan
hands. His services were so far welcomed that in 1767 a ordained,
petition came from the inhabitants of Harbor Grace and
Carbonear, addressed to the Society for the Propagation
of the Gospel, that he should be appointed to their ministry. Their request was granted and the Bishop of
London, at the instance of the society, and on the
recommendation of Wesley and Lady Huntington, con-
5 Populatior
of Newfoundland,
sented to ordain him. Coughlan visited England for
this purpose in 1767, and in September of that year returned to his post with his credentials as a missionary
clergyman of the Church of England; but he continued,
without reserve, faithful to his former convictions.
'I am,' he wrote Wesley from Newfoundland, 'and do
confess myself, a Methodist—the name I love and hope
I ever shall.' Evidently Coughlan was a thorough
'Church Methodist'."
The settled population at this time was about 7,000,
while it was estimated 5,000 more came to the coast for
the summer fishing. No people were in greater need of
the Gospel. It is said that "many had not seen a minister since coming to the Island, while those born there
had never seen one in their lives."
Three years of hard work spent in preaching, in
visiting from house to house, and in personal work brought
so little apparent result that Coughlan had almost
given up in despair, when a revival broke out around
Conception Bay. So great was the change in the lives
of the people, that it was reported far and near throughout the Island that "madness had seized the inhabitants of Harbor Grace and Carbonear." During the
following year the number of communicants was doubled.
Coughlan formed weekly classes and a Methodist
Society was established. This was the beginning of
Methodism in Newfoundland.
For several years Coughlan held his ground, but his
preaching against conditions in the Island stirred up
persecution by the merchants, who were the traders and
people of wealth and station in the settlements. The
business of the colony passed through their hands, and
local fishermen were under their control. Subscriptions
were withheld, accusations laid against him with the
Governor of the Island, every means used to intimidate
him, and a charge of madness made against him and
against some of the converts. The continued efforts of
the Anglican Church to banish Methodism from the
Island, the hardships he endured in journeys over the
rough country, and his aversion to the sea, on which he
was   obliged   to  travel   in   visiting   the   settlements,
"made   his   life   a   martyrdom."    Coughlan's   health
broke down under the strain and he returned to England
in 1773.    Although disheartened as he struggled against Coughlan
the hard conditions under which he worked, Coughlan returns to
had been successful in changing the standard of living frff"16'
among the fisher folk of Conception Bay, and in leaving
behind him men who carried on the work until another
ordained missionary came.
Among Coughlan's converts were Arthur Thomey, a No
merchant, and Thomas Pottle, a merchant's clerk. Minister,
These two men and John Stretton, an Irish Methodist ^orkere"
from Limerick, were leaders raised up in the emergency
when Coughlan's withdrawal left the work without a
preacher. During the winter months, when there was
practically no business demanding their attention, these
volunteer workers preached around Conception Bay and
went as far as Trinity Bay to the north and St. John's to
the south. Pottle rallied the Methodists of Carbonear to a
love feast on Christmas Day, 1775. This prepared the
way for the preaching he began in the district the following year. In the absence of a minister, the Anglicans
placed a clergyman at Carbonear, who carried on the
policy of opposition which had caused Coughlan so much
bitter suffering.'
Coughlan's work had a far-reaching influence and was Coughlan's
greater than he knew.    Through his preaching, LeSueur, converts
a young man from Jersey (Channel Islands), who had Ii||lPf
business   interests   in   Newfoundland,   was   converted,  in Channel
Returning  home,  he  and  another  young  convert  of Islands.
Coughlan's met for prayer and Bible study, and within a
few weeks were the means of the conversion of twelve of
their friends.    LeSueur accepted invitations to preach in
other parts of the  Islands.    A detachment  of troops,
some of whom had been converted under Captain Webb,
arrived in Jersey in 1783, and were a welcome addition
to the little company of Methodists.    LeSueur, the soldiers and the new converts, appealed to Wesley for a
preacher. In response Robert Brackenbury was sent
from England. He organized classes and Methodism
was gradually established in the Channel Islands. Later
it was carried from the Islands into France, and as the
years went on brought an abiding blessing to many far
from Newfoundland.
John An unexpected helper came in 1775, in the person of
Hoskins      j0hn Hoskins, a Methodist school teacher, fifty-six years
S 1775 of age. who had left 01d EnSland for New EnSland .in"
tending to teach school and preach in some outlying
district where both teachers and preachers were needed.
Not having sufficient money to take him all the way to
New England, he landed at Trinity Bay, to work until
he had earned enough to continue his journey. His
poverty brought spiritual riches to Newfoundland. He
was directed to Old Perlican at the head of the inlet, where
the people welcomed him, as there was no school for the
fifty children in the settlement. He visited the homes
and soon gathered little groups to whom on Sundays he
read prayers and Wesley's sermons. He won his way
into the hearts of the people and on Easter Day, 1778, a
blessed revival began, resulting in many conversions.
Hoskins visited England in 1778-1779 and the people at
Old Perlican, desiring him to remain permanently with
. them, wrote to Wesley asking him to have their teacher-
preacher ordained, as Coughlan had been eleven years
before. This request the Bishop of London refused to
grant, influenced by the attitude of the Anglicans of the
Island, and Hoskins returned to Newfoundland as he had
left—a volunteer worker. During his absence the Old
Perlican Society "had a visitation of the Spirit of God
which moved the whole neighborhood." Hoskins' own
son had been converted and was carrying on the work.
Hoskins Upon his return he visited Trinity, the chief settlement
established on the bay 0f the same name. There was a rough,
TrSty reckless element among the people. Some sailors, whose
Bay. boat was at anchor in the bay, tarred Hoskins; and the
captain, when told, only laughed and said had they asked
him he would have supplied the feathers.   Hoskins was McGeary;
so roughly used that he was glad to escape with his life.
The people were terrified and afraid to open their homes
for services, but Hoskins was not a coward. He believed
God had called him to the work, and of one thing he was
certain—that the people who had used him so disgracefully needed the Gospel. The next summer he returned
to Trinity, gathered the members together, secured a
preaching place and the work in Trinity Bay was established.
In 1785 Wesley fulfilled his promise to Hoskins and The Rev.
sent the Rev. John McGeary to Newfoundland. Three J?""
years later McGeary returned to England, but when n^'
William Black, who was Superintendent of the Eastern
work, visited Newfoundland in 1791, he found McGeary
again in the Island. Black's visit resulted in the conversion of over two hundred, the organization of the societies in accordance with the Methodist Discipline, and a
satisfactory settlement of church property. Between
McGeary and the pioneer volunteer workers there had
not been the utmost harmony. He became discouraged,
and in 1792 left, never to return. In 1804 there were
three Methodist preachers in Newfoundland and a
membership of about 500.
The dearth of workers for this hard and needy field Newfound-
gave   the   Roman   Catholics   their  opportunity,   and |and
whole districts,  settled  with  children  of  Protestants, nSsion*
became Catholic.     At the British Conference of 1813, field of
340 church members and four missionaries were reported. En5hsh
The organization of the Missionary Society in British dism,
Methodism in this year made it possible to send rein- 1815.'
forcements.    In   1815   James   and   Thomas   Hickson
arrived and, with their coming, Newfoundland became a
mission field of the British Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society, to the immediate and permanent advantage
of the work.    It was at once made a district separate
from Nova Scotia.
Through fifty long years the workers had either provided for themselves or depended upon the good will and
support of the people among whom they labored.   Now ONE HUNDRED YEARS OF
the Missionary Society assumed the support of all
workers. There are few records of volunteer service
more heroic than that given by the men in His Majesty's
oldest colony, who counted it a joy to endure hardship,
isolation and persecution that men might be brought to
The Rev.
In 1799 the Rev. John Stephenson, an Irish preacher,
volunteered to go to Bermuda. He was not the first of
the Methodist group to preach in the "Beautiful Islands,''
as Whitefield had spent some time there in 1748. Stephenson was outspoken against sin and the debasing
conditions which existed, for he had gone to Bermuda to
preach a gospel of righteousness and offer salvation to all
who would accept it. No man ever had a harder field.
He found it very difficult, on account of the attitude of
the Anglican Church, to secure a place in which to hold
services although he possessed all the official credentials
which were required to premit him to preach.
There were many slaves without the gospel in the
Islands. On one occasion he preached to some of these
gathered in the house of a mulatto and it was reported
that Stephenson had been known to shake hands with
the Negroes. These acts gave an excuse for persecution
and he was brought before the magistrate. His appeal
to the Governor, who at first had been friendly, was
without avail, and finally he was thrust into prison.
While there he cut in the cedar floor of his cell the
following inscription:
John Stephenson,
A Methodist Missionary,
Was imprisoned in this jail six months,
And fined £50,
For preaching the Gospel of Jesus Christ to Africans,
Blacks and Captive Negroes.
St. George's, Bermuda,
June, 1801.
He returned to Ireland in 1802, the victim of an
unjust law, which not only prevented him from preaching,
but also made it impossible. for local preachers, those
indispensable volunteer workers of the early days, to
hold services even in private houses. When Stephenson
left there was a membership of a hundred, thirty of whom
were Negroes.
The climate of Bermuda was so delightful that it was
recommended by American Methodism as a place
where tired ministers might rest and enjoy a holiday.
No one ever took advantage of the climate—there were
other conditions which the early Methodist ministers
could not enjoy, even though rest such as fell to Stephenson's lot might be theirs.
William Black wished to work in Bermuda, but Joshua
never had the opportunity. In 1808 Dr. Coke sent Jgo"den'
Joshua Marsden from Nova Scotia to this mission field,
which had been without a pastor for eight years. When
Marsden heard of his appointment he said, "It came
like vinegar to my teeth and smoke to my eyes; however,
by the blessing of God I resolved to go."
At Marsden's first service their were only ten persons,
five white, his fellow-passengers, and five Negroes, servants in the house in which he boarded. Marsden's
bravery and work were soon recognized, and he gradually
overcame some of the difficulties. In 1810 he preached
from the pulpit of the church he built—the first Methodist church in Bermuda. His congregations now numbered from four to five hundred, and classes for both
whites and blacks were held. The congregation was
called the " Negro club " and Marsden the " Negro parson."
The white people sacrificed in being Methodists. When Emancipa-
Marsden left in 1812 the attitude toward the Negroes was Aug. 1gt'h|
changing. People Were beginning to admit that they 1834.
had souls worth saving. Marsden prepared the way for
emancipation, and when the Act became law, August 18th,
1834, more than four thousand slaves in Bermuda became
For some years the mission was part of the Antigua
District of the West Indies. In 1851 it became a part of
the Nova Scotia Conference.
An evidence of the place that Methodism continues to
hold in Bermuda is the beautiful new church, "The
Marsden Memorial," costing $10,000, which was
dedicated free of debt in October, 1923. Chapter HI
With the founding of the city of Halifax in 1749, the Anglican
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign clergymen
Parts began to plan to send clergymen of the Church of 1749.
England into the Province.    The "Lords of Trade and
Plantations" notified the Society that in each one of the
townships formed in Nova Scotia, four hundred acres
would be granted in perpetuity to a minister and his
successors, and a particular spot would be set aside for
gjpilding a church.    St.  Paul's   Church,   Halifax,   in
1750, and St. John's Church, Lunenburg, in 1754, were
built   at   the   expense   of   the   Government.    Clergymen were at once sent by the Society for the Propagation
of the Gospel to these churches, and to other settlements
as time went on.
The Acadians who were expelled from Nova Scotia in Acadians
1755 were naturally simple and peaceable persons who *"3*lled>
"paid the penalty of the political and religious fanaticism of their leaders."   They refused to take even a
modified oath of allegiance to the British Crown.   Their
fertile fields and comfortable homes remained untilled
and untenanted.   Governor  Lawrence,   in 1758, held
out inducements to New Englanders to settle on the land
of which the Acadians had been dispossessed. They refused
to consider the enticing offer, unless assured of religious
liberty.   At   the   first   Legislative   Assembly in   1758
one of the acts passed was entitled "An Act for the
Establishment of Religious Public Worship in the Province, and for Suppressing Popery."   The Act provided Protestant
that "the church established by the law of England shall j*ehgious
be deemed the fixed form of worship," and until 1851  1758. '
the Church of England was the established Church in
J Several
Nova Scotia. The act further provided, however, that
"all dissenting Protestant denominations shall have
liberty of conscience, the right to build meeting houses
for public worship, elect ministers for the carrying on of
divine service and administration of the Sacrament."
When Governor Lawrence's second proclamation was
issued he was able to assure the New Englanders that full
liberty of conscience and worship was secured to Protestants of all denominations. The following year New
Englanders began to arrive and settle on Acadian farms.
The majority of the settlers from New England were
Congregationalists, and New England has always been
a source of supply for their ministers. They had sent
their first representative in 1750. Thirteen Baptists
emigrated from Massachusetts in 1763 and settled in
Sackville; they brought a minister with them. In 1764
the first Presbyterian minister came from New Jersey,
and in 1766 the first of many of this denomination arrived
from Scotland. In 1817 the Presbyterians began Home
Mission work in the Province, which they have ever since
carried on. The Lutherans of Pennsylvania sent their
first minister in 1772; he began work at Lunenburg.
Yorkshire Owing to the disturbed state of Europe, hard times
M^*h°dists in Great Britain, and the advantageous opportunity
for securing land, many emigrants found their way
to Nova Scotia. Among these there arrived in 1772-
1775 Yorkshire Methodists who settled in Cumberland
county and laid the foundations of a Methodism that
became an important factor in the life and development
of the Maritime Provinces. "From a political point of
view, these settlers proved a great acquisition to the
province. Coming directly from England, they brought
with them an attachment to British institutions, which
was of peculiar value in view of the state of American
politics, and at a time when many, even in Nova Scotia,
were quiet from fear rather than from choice.''
The only clergyman in this county was the Rev. John
Eagleson, who had been sent out in 1769 by the Society
for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts.   Of
the Yorkshire immigrants Mr. Eagleson said, "They
are a peaceful, industrious people and lovers of the constitution under which they were born." The Methodists met in the homes for prayer and praise services
as there was no church nor minister. A revival came in
1779, and at a meeting held in the home of Mr. Oxley,
William Black, a young man nineteen years of age, was
converted. He made a vow of consecration to God, at
once went to work and members of his own family were
his first converts. At twenty-one he left his father's
home to begin his life-work. He had no promise of
support; no assigned circuit; no one had appointed him
to preach; but he had consecrated his life to God's
service and went from neighborhood to neighborhood
asking the people to give their hearts to God and obtain
the joy and peace that were his. He preached in barns,
under trees, in houses, and in orchards—anywhere and
everywhere. Sometimes he used a stump by the wayside for a pulpit, occasionally he was invited to preach
in a Baptist church.
In 1781, along the present boundary between Nova
Scotia and New Brunswick, were groups of settlements. Several families from the north of Ireland, who
were soon joined by New Englanders, had begun the
settlement of Amherst; Germans from Halifax had settled
in Lunenburg; Huguenots from Switzerland occupied
some of the old Acadian farms, and over a hundred
Acadian families returned, took the oath of allegiance
and settled near Annapolis and Halifax. At this time
the population of the province was about 12,000.
Methodism in New York before the Revolution, was
represented by the little church in John Street, in which
there were enrolled 200 members. When peace was restored in 1783 there were only sixty to respond to the roll
call. Over a score of those who had left were among
the Loyalists who found their way to Shelburne.
In connection with the beginning of the work at
Shelburne and other places on the south-west coast of
Nova Scotia, the name of Robert Barry is held in grateful
from New
York settle
remembrance. His father's shop at Portsmouth, England, was often visited by officers of the navy, some of,
whom became friendly with Robert. He was invited to
go on a short cruise on a man-of-war which was then in
the harbour. While off the coast, orders were received to
proceed at once to America, and Barry found himself
unexpectedly bound for New York. In the days of
the Revolution he would not take up arms against
Britain, so left the business he had succeeded in establishing and the friends he had made in the church, and
with thousands of others found a new home in the British colony of Nova Scotia.
Black visited Shelburne in 1783 and there for the
first time met Barry. At the time of his visit a clearing
had been made and the people were living in military
tents provided by the Government; only a month earlier
the forest had reached to the water's edge. Black was
accompanied by a Captain Dean. Barry was delighted to
welcome them and his hospitality was heroic. He gave
up his tent to the visitors while he sat up all night outside. What did it matter that the rain came down in
torrents ? Black had arrived and he would preach! The
preaching place was a clearing in front of his tent and a
table served as a platform. The Sunday services were
well attended and orderly. The following is a description of the Monday afternoon meeting. "An attempt to
hold a service on the afternoon of Monday was attended
with serious disturbance. A commissariat officer, who,
had dined with some friends and had tarried too
long at the wine, declared the preacher to be an impostor, and threatened, with oaths, to knock him down.
After a short absence he returned with two others,
determined to accomplish his purpose. This he was prevented from doing by the congregation, who crowded
around the table on which the preacher stood. One
of the three, swearing that he could preach as well as
the preacher, then mounted the stump of a tree and
poured forth a flood of oaths. A few well-aimed words
from the preacher made an impression upon the blas-
phemer who, hardening his heart to utter a few more
oaths, walked off with his companions and left the
preacher to finish his discourse. A large stone was thrown
with great force from the outskirts of the congregation
xluring the sermon, but Black eluded it and escaped
serious injury. This opposition served to attract attention and some gave indications of concern respecting
their personal salvation." These were the first services
in Shelburne. When Barry's little log house was
finished he used it as a school room, led a class on Sunday
and read a sermon to any who would come to listen.
In the autumn others, who had been members of the John and
church in New York, arrived, much to the joy of the ]^mes     .
little company of Methodists in the settlement.    One of Charles
these, John Mann, was a local preacher, and another, White.
Charles White, had been a trustee of the John Street
chapel.    James Mann, John's brother, who came with
him, was converted soon after reaching the   Colony.
These and other volunteers carried on the work until the
appointment of an ordained minister.
There was a great dearth of spiritual leaders, and In quest of
Black had a wide field in which to plant the evangelistic Preachers
spirit of Methodism.    He travelled over a great part of attends
Nova Scotia, but the work soon grew beyond what he Baltimore
could do and he wrote to Wesley for helpers.    Failing Conference,
to secure ministers from England, Black attended the
Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, held in
Baltimore in December, 1784.    Before the Conference
began Black had the pleasure of meeting Dr. Coke, the
presiding officer, who in England had been Wesley's
right-hand man and whom he appointed as Superintendent in America.    Black's urgent appeal to the Conference stirred Dr. Coke's heart and he became an enthusiastic advocate of the mission field, the needs of which
Black had so vividly presented.    In response to Black's Garrettson
appeal  for  workers,   Freeborn Garrettson and  James !i,nd      ..
Oliver Cromwell  volunteered, were ordained as elders 1785.
and arrived in Nova Scotia in 1785.  A collection of $150,
taken at the Conference, was given to the work in Nova
Scotia, to which was added the proceeds of the sale of
Dr. Coke's Conference missionary sermon. After the
Conference was over Dr. Coke spent several weeks in
New York preaching, and securing funds for Nova Scotia.
He returned to England in 1786, but the Nova Scotia
mission field was not forgotten. He decided to visit it,
and the same year left England with three ministers, two
of whom were appointed to Newfoundland and the third
to Nova Scotia. The first conference of the Halifax
district had been arranged in anticipation of Dr. Coke's
coming, but a storm drove the vessel out of her course
and she drifted to the West Indies. This led to
Methodist missions being established there, for the three
ministers intended for the northern mission fields began
work in the Islands, and Dr. Coke never reached Nova
Scotia, in which he had become so much interested.
The growing work in the United States made it almost
impossible for the American Conference to send workers,
and when Garrettson and Cromwell returned to the
United States in 1787, Nova Scotia was left without an
ordained preacher. Black and his workers struggled
on as best they could.
Black The Baltimore Conference of 1788 appointed the Rev.
ordained     William Jessop to Nova Scotia, where he began work at
appointed   Shelburne, and in the same year the Rev. James Wray,
Superin-      0f the British Wesleyan Conference, was appointed by
en en .      wesiey t0 superintend the work, but not understanding
the conditions of the colony he did not get on happily
with the workers, and in 1789 went to the West Indies.
In May of the same year, Black, James and John Mann
were ordained by Asbury and Coke, at the Philadelphia Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church of
the United States, and Black was immediately appointed
superintendent of New Brunswick,  Nova Scotia and
„, Newfoundland.
Negroes When the Loyalists came from the United States, a
leave Nova number of Negroes, slaves and refugees accompanied
lierr'a ^   them; of these two nundrecl were members of the Metho-
Leone.        dist Church.    At Shelburne,  Burchtown and  Preston
there were large classes; nearly the whole membership
I at Digby and a few members at Halifax and in St. John,
were coloured. An Act was passed by the British Parliament in 1791 to incorporate the Sierra Leone Company, of
which Wilberforce, the advocate of the abolition of
slavery, was a director. Its purpose, "to open trade
with Africa and in a practical way disprove arguments
in favor of the slave trade," appealed to the Negroes in
Nova Scotia who were dissatisfied regarding the Government grants of land and found the climate too cold.
They sent a delegate to England to obtain full information regarding the proposed colony. The reports he
brought back being favourable, arrangements were completed  for emigration,  and  in   1792  fifteen ships left
I Halifax carrying 1,196 Negroes and their possessions.
They arrived safely in Sierra Leone, where Boston King,
who had been a successful class-leader in Nova Scotia,
; organized a Methodist centre. In 1796 he was sent to
England and spent two years at Kingswood, a training
school for Wesleyan ministers, then returned to Sierra
Leone and the work there. In 1811 George Warren, the
first Wesleyan Methodist from England, arrived in
Sierra Leone to take charge of the work which for many
■ years had been carried on by the Negro Methodists from
Nova Scotia.
Another outstanding volunteer in Nova Scotia was Stephen
Stephen Bamford, a young soldier of the Worcestershire ?7agmford'
regiment.    He arrived in Halifax in 1792, and it is said
he preached his first sermon on the evening of his arrival.
I Later, friends secured his discharge from the army and
he entered the ministry in 1806.
There were six preachers in Nova Scotia in 1791, and First
in 1792 the first Methodist Church in Halifax was opened.  £h)JfCh in
•In 1799 the last of the missionaries from the United 1792.   '
States returned home.    It was evident that workers
could not be supplied from the United States and that
, the Wesleyan Conference of England must henceforth be
the source of help. After the organization of the Wesleyan
Missionary Society of the British Conference, in 1813,
the Maritime Provinces became one of its mission fields,
and all ministers in these provinces, including those
received on probation, were missionaries of the Society.
New The formation of the county of Sunbury, then part of
m4SWick Nova Scotia' as the Province of New Brunswick, in 1784,
Methodist was largely determined by the arrival of large numbers of
Loyalists. Loyalists who settled in St. John, Sheffield and other
centres. Among the Loyalists were several Methodists
who had been members of the Methodist Society in New
England. The majority, however, were Anglican, including several clergymen; these were loyal not only to
the British flag, but also to the established Church of
England, and did not welcome the establishment of
Methodism in the new colony.
Among the Loyalists who landed on the wooded shores
of St. John on that memorable morning of May 18th, 1783,
was Stephen Humbert, one of the grantees of the new
town who became a member of the first House of
Assembly when the province was organized in 1784.
Humbert had been identified with the Methodists of
New York previous to coming to New Brunswick. In
the new settlement he became a man of influence, holding
many prominent offices. Methodism in New Brunswick
was not popular, but Humbert was ever ready to use the
influence his official position gave him in establishing the
Church of his choice in the new province. He appealed,
without success, to New York for help as the people in
many settlements were without spiritual guidance.
The Nova Scotians had asked the British Conference
for a worker to be sent to the French people of the colony,
Bishop at   an(j tne Rev- jonn Bishop, a native of the Channel
._~.J0 n'    Islands, volunteered his services.    He arrived in Halifax
in August, 1791.   As the way was not open to begin
work at once among the French, he accepted an invitation
from the Methodists in St.  John to come to them.
Bishop reached there on September 24th, 1791, the first
Methodist minister in that great province.    Up to this
time Black had not visited the province, but had supervision of the work. Bishop was "a man filled with the
spirit of Christ, ardent yet sober, solemn and tender in
appeal; he saw many souls awakened." In April, 1792,
he reported "a membership of eighty in St. John, a
church already provided with pulpit and gallery, and the
. people continued to attend diligently." This building
I was known as the "City Hall," or "Court Hall." It had
been used by the Episcopalians and was purchased by the
Methodists when Trinity Anglican Church was built
in 1791. One of Bishop's outstanding characteristics was
his ability for hard work. His field soon extended
beyond St. John to other parts of the district. Everywhere he went he carried the flame of revival.
Dr. Coke, the missionary enthusiast of the British Bishop
Conference, hearing of Bishop's many personal gifts and ^lt t0
the success of his work, coveted him for the French work indies
in the West Indies.    Against the advice of his friends died, 179.
Bishop thought it his duty to comply with Coke's request.
On account of his health and the extreme climate, his
doctor warned him not to go.    He did not heed the
warnings, left New Brunswick and arrived in Grenada
in January, 1793; in June of the same year he died of
yellow  fever.    Bishop  had  established  Methodism in
New Brunswick, and that province, as well as Nova
Scotia, became a mission field of British Methodism.
"At Point de Bute, New Brunswick, a site for a chapel
and burying ground was secured, and deeded to John
Wesley and his successors, on the 18th of September,
1788. The name of James Wray, missionary, is on the
deed. A stone chapel was built on that site in the
same year. It has the honor of being the first Methodist
chapel in New Brunswick; the first also in what is now
the Dominion of Canada. In the summer of 1790, at
Sackville, James Mann opened the second Methodist
chapel in New Brunswick."
One of the most interesting of the early Methodist
workers  in  New  Brunswick was  Duncan  McColl,  a ^c9_olj"
soldier of the 74th Argyleshire Regiment, which in 1778
was ordered to Halifax. During the American Revolution McColl was transferred to New York, and at the
close of the war tried, unsuccessfully, to obtain a commission. With Scotch stick-to-it-iveness he determined to
go to England, where the General had promised to use
his influence. In order to secure the interest of another ■
officer then in Nova Scotia he sailed for Halifax;but the I
vessel encountered a heavy storm and was driven to
St George's, Bermuda, where the threehundred passengers •
were compelled to spend the winter. McColl had recently
been converted, and felt self-condemnation that he
was keeping silent in the company of so many who were
not Christians. He resolved to speak to his fellow-passengers, and this he did notwithstanding the opposition of
the ship's officers. At first no one listened, but before
the winter was over several decided to become Christians,
and the opposition of the officers had ceased. In after
years he met several who became Christians through his
work in Bermuda.
During the long winter, from a young lady among the
passengers, who had been connected with Methodism in
;    Philadelphia and New York, he learned much about
Methodism which was entirely new to him.    He also I
learned to love the young lady, who later became his wife.
McColl's whole life plan was changed.    In the spring he
came to New Brunswick and settled, first at St. Andrews,
and later at St. Stephen.   The godless state of the people
distressed him—"I found them a mixed multitude from
Great Britain, Ireland, and the United States; partly 1
disbanded soldiers and refugees."    He was a prosperous j
business man, but after he had been the means of the
conversion of six of his neighbours, a conviction came to
him that his duty was to preach.     He went aside, read,
prayed and fasted.    As he read Jeremiah 20:8-11 he
accepted it as his call to the ministry.    He then gathered I
together all the believers in the neighbourhood and orga- •
nized them into a class.   The magistrate threatened I
to suppress the meetings; but McColl did not stop.    He
had received his commission—not the military one he had
so eagerly coveted—and it was his part to obey.   He
gave up business and then spent a short time in the
J State of Maine, itinerating with one of the American
ministers. "At the close of one of the services they were
the guests of a retired American officer. The conversation turned on the subject of general providence, and
the officer related this incident: At the siege of Penobscot, while the British were retreating, this officer was
I following with his men. As they reached the fort they
saw a man, sword in hand, proceed from out its gates.
The order was given to fire on him, as he was evidently
executing some design unfavorable  to the besiegers.
I When a third volley left the man neither killed or wounded
the officer, commanding the fire to cease, said, 'God
has some work for that man to perform upon earth; let
| him alone.' The man who had thus marvellously escaped
was McColl himself, who had been sent out to bring up
another party of troops. His discretion may be seen to
have been equal to his former bravery, for he kept silence—
though his companion, who knew the story, urged him to
make himself known—fearing the knowledge that he had
I been in arms against the Americans might interfere with
his usefulness.    McColl's conversion was the result of
| a self-examination occasioned by the dangers in which
he had stood, and his remarkable escape from death."
Upon his return to New Brunswick, McColl kept on McColl's
the move.   Although he made St. Stephen his head- *tmerat-
I quarters, he journeyed about the country, going as far as church ;
St. John and up the river, visiting the settlements in St.
which Bishop had worked.    In writing of conditions he jy|^ en'
■ said, "I had to provide a house, seats, and fire for the
people in the winter, for no one took it into their heads
,to help me. My own property is blest as by a miracle."
His home became a religious centre in which services
were held until the congregations grew so large that no
private house in St. Stephen could accommodate them,
| and in 1790 a church was built under McColl's direction.
In the autumn of 1791 he journeyed to Halifax to see
Black, but he was in Newfoundland, and McColl met
Regan, the first Methodist preacher with whom he
became acquainted in the Maritime Provinces. While
in Halifax he was given a present of "a good suit of
broadcloth." That, with three cheese carried on his
back for seven miles, and $3.50 in cash, was his worldly
remuneration for seven years of work.
The next year Black visited McColl, who fell into line
with the Methodist itinerants of the Maritime Provinces, :
although not until 1793 was he recognized as one of them.
While he was ordained by Bishop Asbury in 1795, he
depended upon the voluntary contributions of his
hearers and the income from his own property under
the management of his wife, until 1819. At her death
he passed over all his property to the Church, accepting
in lieu thereof a small annuity.
McColl was a whole-hearted volunteer worker, consecrating all he had to the Lord's work. He was the
champion of religious liberty in New Brunswick, fearing
neither threats nor abuse, and was successful in convincing the authorities that Methodists had the right, as
British subjects, to worship without molestation. McColl's forty years of service in New Brunswick hold an
important place in the pioneer days of Methodism.
When, in 1799, the last of the ministers of the Methodist Episcopal Church of the United States left the Maritime Provinces, there were only six ordained preachers,
wentShome a membership of about 800, and the estimated number
1799. of adherents about 3,000.    William Grandin, who had
given so much self-sacrificing service, was one of the
men driven "to leave the work by the utterly insufficient
provision for the support of themselves and their families.
Not many men, like McColl, were free from financial
struggle. How could they be, with the princely salary
of $64 a year !
' Benjamin        In 1767 the British Government gave the island of
Chappell.    st j0hn, now Prince Edward Island, to a number of persons in reward for military and other services.    It was 1791.
a separate province with Charlottetown as the capital.
In 1775 Benjamin Chappell and his wife, who had been
associated with Wesley in the Old Foundry Church in
London, sailed for Quebec, but a storm wrecked the
ship off the island of St. John and the 250 souls, including
the crew and passengers, barely escaped with their lives.
When they had reached the shore in safety, Chappell
conducted a thanksgiving service.
A visitor to the Island in 1782 reported that he "found Black
only three Christians and the people very dark and visits the
profane."  In 1783 William Black visited the Island and JJiSf-
preached several times at St. Peter's and Charlottetown.
Although he spent two weeks preaching, he could find
no encouraging results.    "The ignorance which everywhere prevailed made him heart-sick."
There was no one to follow up Black's work, and some Grandin
years went by before a preacher again visited the Island.
In 1791 the Rev. William Grandin was working throughout the Cumberland circuit in Nova Scotia. During the
winter he travelled through forty miles of forest to visit
the Loyalists settled at Wallace, on the north-east coast,
who for several years had not seen a minister. "The
revival which began proved both powerful and permanent and changed the character of the district." Gran-
din's heart went out to the people of Prince Edward
Island, the long, low coast-line of which he could see
across the ice-bound Northumberland Strait. He longed
to visit them, and in the spring of 1792 his opportunity
came, as he found he could leave his work at St. John
in care of Mr. McColl. Arriving at the Island, he began
preaching at Tryon, where a revival took place. Among
those whose lives were changed were Nathaniel Wright
and his wife, and the large dance-room in their home became a place of worship. A society was organized and
Mr. and Mrs. Wright were left in charge of the work.
Joshua Newton, who had been converted at Halifax Joshua
through Black's preaching, was appointed collector of ^^onj,
customs for the Island.    He was heartily welcomed by
Mr.  Chappell and his little company.    Mr.  Newton
25 Black's '
visit, 1794.
preached wherever and whenever he could, both in
Charlottetown and in other parts of the Island. When
Black visited the Island again, in 1794, he saw some of
the results of Grandin's and Newton's work, for he found
Methodism established in Charlottetown and in Tryon.
Regarding his reception in Charlottetown, Black writes
in his diary: "I waited on the Governor, Colonel Fanning,
who received me kindly, expressed himself in terms of
commendation respecting Mr. Wesley and his people,
and gave me the use of the church. The Governor's
secretary and the Attorney-General attended preaching
in the evening. Sunday, the 12th of October, I again
preached twice in the church to a large congregation. At
11 o'clock I had the pleasure of hearing the Rev. Mr.
Desbrisay, the clergyman of the town. He delivered
a plain, honest discourse, but did not appear to me to
have a clear conception of the nature of regeneration.
On the 13th I had a friendly visit from Mr. Desbrisay.
It is my desire to cultivate a Christian friendship and
all proper union with the ministers of the Church of
England. I waited on His Excellency to present my
acknowledgments for the use of the church. I spent
nearly an hour with him very agreeably; we conversed
freely on the advantages of religion to individuals, and
society in general. He expressed much friendship, and
offered to assist us if we will erect a chapel in Charlottetown."
Black, who was superintendent of the work in the
Island, could find no preacher to supply its need, but,
in 1801, the small group of Methodists were cheered by
the arrival of Thomas Dawson, an Irishman, who when a
young man had fought under Cornwallis in the American
Revolution. He, with his family, had come to settle in
the colony, and was so distressed at the religious destitution of the people, that he planned preaching tours
which included all the Island. Roads were rough and
bridges few, but Dawson walked the roughest roads and
swam the rivers when there were no bridges. He wore
himself out in the service and died in March, 1805.
26 ; of
The story of Dawson's work and death so stirred the Joseph
heart of Joseph Avard, of Guernsey, Channel Islands, Avafd 2nd
.  that he organized a party of emigrants to form a Methodist from°
colony in Prince Edward Island.   Avard was a local Channel
preacher and had the gift of organization.   The work Islands-
soon grew beyond the strength of the volunteer workers,
for the whole Island was now aroused and asking for
Methodist preaching.    Dr. Coke and the Rev. Adam
Clark had both been  friends of Avard  in  England.
He wrote to them, making a strong appeal for workers.
In reply the Rev. James Bulpit, who had spent some time First
in Newfoundland, was sent to take charge of the work, minister
From the year 1807 Prince Edward Island appears in the B-ulpit
Minutes of the British Conference.    Avard continued to 1807.
give invaluable volunteer service and had much to do
in establishing Methodism in "The  Island cradled in
the Gulf."
About the time Black began his volunteer itinerancy in 1
Nova Scotia, the New Light Movement, of which Henry \
Alline was the leader, had touched many of the settlements of the province. Alline's preaching was emotional
and in strong contrast to the usual preaching of his time;
the people were affected by it and many were shaken in
their faith. No one doubted Alline's sincerity, but his
teaching provoked the bitterest controversies; families
were divided; neighbours became opposed to each other;
pastors preached against the doctrines Alline taught,
but did not stem the tide of the movement. Into these
conditions Black brought the evangelistic Christianity
taught by Wesley and his preachers. The warm-hearted
Yorkshire Methodists with whom he met in prayer and
class-meeting, his constant study of the Scriptures and
his clear assurance of God's call guided Black in his
work of evangelism and in the wise leadership he gave
to both volunteer and ordained workers.
The pioneers of Methodism in the Maritime Provinces
endured hardship, suffered persecution, and sacrificed
as they preached the truth which makes men free and
the righteousness that exalteth a nation.
In 1855 the districts of New Brunswick, Prince Edward
Island, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland, were organized
into a Wesleyan Conference, affiliated with the British
Conference, under the name,"The Conference of Eastern
British America." When that Conference was created
there were 70 circuits and missions; 88 ministers; 102
local preachers; 222 chapels; 393 other preaching places;
1,162 day scholars; 91,114 Sunday-school scholars;
11,136 members, and an estimated attendance of
65,690 at public worship.
The Conference of Eastern British America remained
affiliated with the British Conference until 1874, when
it was merged into the comprehensive organization
known as the Methodist Church of Canada, and divided
organized. £Qr administrative purposes into three Annual Conferences, namely, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and
Prince Edward Island, and Newfoundland.
There Is good authority for stating that, as early as Methodists
1759, the Gospel was preached in Quebec by lay Metho- m Wolfe's
dist preachers of General Wolfe's army, in which there 1759/
was a society of Methodists.    It is not improbable that
Captain Webb, the pioneer preacher of American Methodism, was influenced by this society, as he fought under
Wolfe at the siege of Quebec.
The next record we have of Methodist preaching was Tuffy a
by Tuffy, an Irishman and a local preacher, who with soldie£
,. . ,      ... .-.    ,       •    . H^r.      f-. preacher,
his regiment, the 44th, came to Quebec m 1780. boon 1780.
after his arrival he began preaching to the neglected and
careless English immigrants in the city, and to the godless
soldiers in the barracks. After the American Revolution,
when peace was proclaimed in 1783, the 44th, with other
regiments, was disbanded and Tuffy returned home.
Although no permanent work was established, among
the officers and men of the disbanded regiments who
remained in Canada were Methodists of the Old Land
and those whose lives had been influenced for good
through Tuffy's life and preaching. In after years many
of these were the first in the scattered settlements to
open their log cabins to the Methodist preachers.
The population of Canada in 1783 wasaboui*120,000, Lorenzo I
of whom 10,000 were west of the Ottawa river. ^ow.
In 1799 Lorenzo Dow, who had several times been re- Town-
fused as a probationer by the New York Conference be- ships,
cause of his eccentricities, was finally left in the hands of
the presiding elder, who sent him to work on the border of
Lower Canada and Vermont, on the " Essex circuit,"
a circuit in name only. The Canadian townships of
Dunham and Sutton, part of what is now known as
the Eastern Townships, Dow included in his circuit.
While the population of these townships was largely
29 Lorenzo
City, 1800.
A discouraging
United Empire Loyalists, others of the circuit were
described as "the offscouring of the earth, some having
run here from debt, others to avoid prosecution for crimes
and a third character to accumulate money." At the
next Annual Conference the Essex circuit, which existed
on paper only when Dow began work, reported a membership of 274. Dow "loved to do good, but his way of
doing it was like the course of the comets, which come
and go and no one knows when they will come again."
He suddenly left the circuit, believing the Lord had
called him to Ireland. He reached Quebec, where he had
to wait for a few days until a ship sailed and found that
a regiment in which there was a Methodist society of
twenty-six soldiers, had sailed for Halifax the week before. He had no difficulty in discovering a number of
English and the place where the Methodist meetings had
been held. The first evening, in response to his invitation, about a dozen came, to whom he preached; during
the few days the congregation grew to 150, twenty persons were converted, and the people begged him to remain.
He was without money and was not prepared for a sea
voyage. The gratitude of the people to whom he had
been preaching was expressed by gifts of money, food,
and clothing for the voyage. The man the Church so
often rejected the Lord used and blessed. The chief
complaint of the people against Dow was that he never
stayed with them long enough. This eccentric, earnest,
godly young man, then only twenty-one years of age,-
was the first Methodist preacher in Lower Canada.
In 1802 Joseph Sawyer, from the Niagara district,
visited Lower Canada in order to ascertain the prospects
of extending the work. In Montreal he found a few
persons who, before the Revolutionary War, had belonged to the Methodist society in the city of New York.
These received him cordially and assisted him in procuring a schoolroom for preaching.
"An incident very little known, but related by Mr.
Sawyer himself, occurred in connection with his first
entrance into Montreal. It shows how Methodist preachers
were regarded in certain quarters and the difficulties
Ithrough which they had often to make their way. Mr.
Sawyer, who was very apostolic in his appearance and
spirit, and very urbane and polite in his manners, thought
it might be well to call on and endeavour to conciliate the
minister of what is called ' Church of England' in the city.
Hedidcall;and when he came into the minister's presence,
making a polite bow, he addressed him to the following
effect: 'Sir, I am a Methodist minister, sent to labour in
this city and vicinity by Bishop Asbury; and as yourself and I are the only Protestant clergymen in the place,
I have made bold to call on you with the desire to have
some conversation with you relating to the interests
of religion in the country.' Clergyman (with a mingled
look of surprise and displeasure): 'You, indeed! I
would much rather encourage the Roman Catholics
than such as you, Dissenters. No! Get out of my sight.'
While these words were being uttered he was sidling
towards the corner of the room, where stood his trusty
staff, which he reached to grasp with the design of driving
the lowly missionary from his house. Mr. Sawyer,
finding himself in 'the wrong box,' expressed his 'regret
for the intrusion,' said he ' meant no offence' and keeping
a cautious eye on the cane, 'bowed himself out' backwards, as deputations do out of the presence of royalty,
till he got beyond the precincts of the parsonage, when
he beat a hasty retreat from the scene of his unsuccessful
In 1803 Samuel Merwin, and in 1804 Martin Ruter, Lower
were sent to Montreal.    "In 1806 a new district was ^*lad^;
founded, called the Lower Canada District, which in- formed
eluded Montreal, Quebec and Ottawa.   At the New York 1806.
Conference of 1806 Nathan Bangs, who had spent several CoTte^
years in Upper  Canada, offered himself for work in elder.'
Quebec, 'or any accessible part of Lower Canada'."    He
knew nothing of the conditions of his new field excepting
that he would have the opportunity of establishing work
in which he might possibly be helped by some to whom
Dow had preached seven years before.   On the way to
31 Nathan
Quebec he spent a few weeks preaching in Montreal until
the arrival of Samuel Coate who had been appointed
presiding elder of the Lower Canada District. Leaving
his wife in Montreal, after a four days' sail down the St.
Lawrence, Bangs reached Quebec. "Having a few
letters of introduction he delivered them and preached
his first sermon on the Sabbath morning following. The
majority of the people in Quebec were French Roman
Catholics, bigotedly attached to all their peculiarities
and, of course, opposed to all Protestant innovations.
The next in numbers and influence were the members
of the Church of England and next to them the Church
of Scotland—all manifesting a deadly opposition to
Methodism. He found, however, a few who received
him cordially, though with much timidity. Among
others, he called on a Scotch missionary by the name of
Dick, who had succeeded in collecting a small congregation and was treated by him with much affection and
respect." After he had preached a few times he was
so encouraged that he rented two rooms, one to be
used for services and the other for a home, and sent
for his wife. He soon discovered that most of those
who attended the meetings had come out of curiosity.
Eighty dollars, all the money he had, melted away,
and during the three months he worked in Quebec
he had many experiences which tested his faith and
dependence on God. The weekly collections of the congregations amounted to about $1.00; this was all he
had to depend upon for support. He says, "When God
had sufficiently humbled me to depend entirely upon
Him, He sent me help in a way I little expected. I suppose that by some means information of our reduced
condition was given to some individuals who now ministered to my necessity, and that in a manner which kept
their liberality from all ostentation, and made their gifts
the more welcome. A servant would arrive with the
kind respects of unknown persons, with valuable presents
of sugar, tea, and sometimes money, and these from
strangers   with   whom   I   never   became   acquainted.   '
I These instances of kindness so overcame me that I
could not refrain from tears, and I would retire in secret
and pour out my thanksgiving to God and pray for my
benefactors." Notwithstanding the hardships he endured, he succeeded in preparing the way for Coate,
with whom he exchanged places for the remainder of the
year. Coate's arrival was the beginning of permanent Coate
work in Quebec. The charm of his personality and his permanent
persuasive eloquence helped him to gain a foothold in work,
• the old French city, in which he remained until the
Conference of 1807, when that body gave him permission
to travel through England and the United States to
obtain funds for a church in Montreal which was completed in 1809, the first in the city. Joseph Sawyer
then took over Coate's work.
Two outstanding Methodists in the city of Quebec Jacob
were Jacob Heck, the second son of Paul and Barbara Heck and
Heck, and Peter Langlois, who had recently arrived Langlois.
from the Channel Islands.    Langlois, who could speak
both   French   and   English   fluently,   became   a  local
', preacher, a class-leader, and later a trustee of the church
in which he gave sixty years of service.
In 1809 there were only five preachers stationed on
the   Lower   Canada   District,   which   extended   from
I Ottawa to Quebec: that year Three Rivers had been
added as a station. The total membership was 192.
The ministers must have found it hard to live on the
I support which so small a membership was able to give.
Ministers were  appointed  to  the work during the Sergeant
year 1812, by the Methodist Episcopal Church, but on Webster
r   , , .       , m Quebec.
- account of the war they were not permitted to enter or
to remain in the country.    Upon the arrival of the 103rd
regiment in Quebec City, Sergeant Webster preached to
the Methodists in the army as well as to the forty mem-
\ bers in the city.    He was asked to take charge of the
I Sunday services,  also the prayer-meeting during the
I week.   The  congregations  steadily  increased,  and  it
33 British
was with deep regret that Webster's removal to Upper
Canada deprived the little company in Quebec of his
services. In the meantime Peter Langlois took charge
of the work and continued to preach once every Sunday
until the arrival of the minister from the British Conference.
During the war years, 1812-1815, the work in Canada
suffered by the withdrawal of the American ministers.
In response to an appeal to the Wesleyan Missionary
Society for help, workers were sent to Montreal. The
first to arrive was John Bass Strong, who reached Montreal in June, 1814. A year later Richard Williams, the
second worker, arrived. The British Conference of
1816 sent on four more ministers.
The action of the British Conference in sending
missionaries did not meet with the approval of the American Conference, which was unwilling to relinquish the
Canadian work they had pioneered. In the list of sta- .
tions of the British Conference for 1817, in the district
named "The Canadas," there were seven circuits with
nine preachers.
In 1818 the first Missionary Society, auxiliary to the
Wesleyan Missionary Society in London, was organized
in Montreal by the Rev. R. L. Lusher, a public missionary meeting being held and great interest aroused.
This was the first Methodist missionary meeting in
An agreement in 1820 between the British and American Conferences resulted in Upper Canada remaining
under the superintendency of the American Conference
and Lower Canada under the superintendency of the
British Conference. Lower Canada became the Eastern
District of the British Conference. In 1854 the Eastern
District united with the Canada Conference of the
Wesleyan Church (Upper Canada) and the districts
thus united became the Conference of the Wesleyan
Methodist Church in Canada, with a total membership
of 36,333 and 238 ministers.
In 1791 the Province of Quebec, which extended from The
the Gulf to Detroit, was divided into the two provinces ^ST*11?6
of Upper and Lower Canada, Upper Canada becoming divided 6°
English and Protestant and Lower Canada remaining into Upper
predominately French and Roman Catholic.    As a pro- ji.nd Lower
. test against the division the merchants of Montreal and 1791.   '
Quebec sent Mr. Lymburner, a merchant of Quebec, to
London.    The following extract from his speech before
the  British  House  of  Commons  shows  the  state  of
Upper Canada at that time:
"The new province will be entirely cut off from all upper
communication with Great Britain; and as from their Canada m
situation they cannot carry on any foreign commerce
but by the intervention and assistance of the merchants
of Quebec and Montreal, they will therefore have little
reason to correspond with Great Britain and few opportunities of mixing in the society of Britons. I beg leave
to bring to the recollection of this honourable house that
the distance from Quebec to Niagara is about 500 miles,
and that Niagara may be considered as the utmost
extent westward of the cultivable part of the province.
For although there is a small settlement at Detroit,
which is and must be considered of great importance
as a post of trade with the Indians, yet it must appear
to this honourable house, from its situation it can never
become of any great importance as a settlement; the
Falls of Niagara are an insuperable bar to the transportation of such rude materials as the produce of the
land. As the farmers about Detroit, therefore, will
have only their own settlement for the consumption
of their produce, such a confined market must greatly
impede the progress of settlement and cultivation for
ages to come. There are, sir, between three and four
thousand Loyalists settled upon the banks of the River
Cataraqui and the north side of Lake Ontario, in detached settlements, many of them at a great distance
from the others, besides those on Lake Erie and at Detroit.
Civil government cannot have much influence over
a country so thinly inhabited, and where the people are
35 The
so much dispersed. During the twenty years that I
have resided in that province I do not recollect a single
instance of highway robbery; and the farmers consider
themselves so secure that they often go to sleep without
bolting their doors. It is evident from these facts that
a criminal judge will have very little to do in these
upper districts where there are no towns, and a stranger
must at all times be a desirable sight."
The population of Upper and Lower Canada in 1791
of was 150,000, 20,000 being in Upper Canada. The
following notice regarding mail service shows the isolation of the Upper Canada settlers: "In 1792 the mail
between Quebec and New York was monthly, but not
always regularly so. In the Quebec Gazette of the 10th
November, 1792, it is stated that the latest news from
Philadelphia and New York was to the 8th of October.
In 1796 we learn that 'a weekly conveyance by post
has lately been established between Montreal and
Burlington, in the State of Vermont' and 'a mail for
the upper countries comprehending Niagara and Detroit,
will be closed at this office on Monday, the 30th instant,
at four o'clock in the evening, to be forwarded from
Montreal by the annual winter express, on Thursday,
3rd of February next.' The Quebec Gazette of the 8th of
March states that 'by this day's Burlington mail we
have received New York papers of the 16th ultimo; they
contain the European intelligence to the 15th of December inclusive.' " BEGINNINGS IN UPPER CANADA
In 1774 as the revolutionary storm was threatening
to break in the New England colonies, Paul and Barbara
Heck, with their sons, John, Jacob and Samuel, John
Lawrence who later married the widow of Philip Embury,
and David Embury, with other Irish Palatines, emigrated to Canada and settled near Montreal. They did
not like the locality; so, in 1778, when Paul Heck, who
had joined the Royal Army, received his discharge, the
whole company went farther up the St. Lawrence and
settled at Augusta, a little west of the present town of
Prescott. The Hecks and the Emburys had laid the
foundation of Methodism in the United States when in
1766 they gathered a group of friends to listen to Philip
Embury preach, and now in the new settlement they
became leaders and workers. A class was formed among
these friends, probably the first in Upper Canada, with
Samuel Embury, a son of Philip, as leader. Mr. and
Mrs. Lawrence opened their home as a place of worship,
and Methodism made a beginning in the wilderness of
Upper Canada.
For ten years these earnest Christians met together
without a pastor or local preacher and conducted their
home services as best they could. David Embury, with
several of his friends, subsequently settled along the
Bay of Quinte, where they were a welcome addition to
the Methodists in that settlement.
In the old Blue Church burying ground between
Prescott and Maitland, on the St. Lawrence, may be
seen the graves of Paul and Barbara Heck. Paul died
in 1792 and Barbara in 1804. These pioneers of Metho-
Kdism in two countries were simple, faithful Christians
who "did what they could" and their doing was abundantly blessed.
The old
Death of
Paul and
In 1788 a young school teacher by the name of Lyons,
a Loyalist from New York State, began teaching in
' Adolphustown in the Bay of Quinte settlement where
there was no public worship nor any who could conduct
it. Lyons was distressed by the ignorance, the low
moral standards and the evidences of sin he saw everywhere. While the schoolroom afforded him the opportunity of placing Christian ideals before his scholars,
he felt this influence would be lost without better home
conditions, so he began to visit the parents. He prayed
with the families he visited and in a short time he was
able to gather the people together on Sundays for services.
, From a beginning in one he extended his work to several
settlements. As a result there were many conversions
and the way was prepared for the ordained preacher.
James McCarty, an Irishman, crossed over from the
United States into Canada at Kingston and came to
Eraestown about the same time that Lyons arrived at
Adolphustown. McCarty had been converted through
Whitefield's preaching and had caught something of the
spirit of the great evangelist. He soon became acquainted with some of the Methodist settlers, who encouraged him to preach. Homes were opened for
services and McCarty won many warm friends, among
others Mr. Robert Perry, an influential man in the
neighbourhood. McCarty was eloquent and his sermons
were carefully prepared. He was the first preacher
many of the settlers had heard since coming to Canada.
Large numbers attended the services and many found
the better way of life. As he did not belong to the
Church of England, he was thought to be a Methodist
and as such was opposed by those who declared that
"Methodists should not be allowed to preach and that
they would have no religion but the Church of England."
The governor had passed a law that "any persons
d wandering about the country might be banished as
vagabonds."   Under  this  law  McCarty  was  arrested
one Sunday7as he wasjfpreaching in the home of Mr.
Perry. The congregation opposed his arrest, and upon
Mr. Perry agreeing to go bail and McCarty promising
' to appear in Kingston the next day, the men who had
placed him under arrest accepted this arrangement.
Mr. Perry went with Mr. McCarty to Kingston, as
agreed, and appeared before the sheriff, who refused to
have anything to do with the case. McCarty returned
home, but his enemies were determined that he should
not preach again in the neighbourhood. They had him
seized and, it is said, taken by four ruffians to one of the
islands in the St. Lawrence. What happened to him
has remained a mystery.
William Losee, an itinerant preacher of the Methodist
Episcopal Church, had been appointed in 1789 to the
Lake Champlain circuit; one of the numerous circuits
which existed on paper in the early days of American
Methodism. He seemed to have failed in forming a
circuit, for in 1790 he was given permission by the presiding elder to preach wherever he could find an opening
in the new northern country. Crossing the St. Lawrence
at St. Regis, he came to Canada, stopping at Matilda,
Augusta and Elizabethtown, then travelled on up
through Kingston to Adolphustown on the Bay of
Quinte where his friends and acquaintances lived.
He was welcome in many of the homes, one of the first
in which he preached being Paul Huff's on Hay Bay.
A Methodist preacher was a curiosity in those days
and all were anxious to see what he was like. Many
descriptions of this first preacher in Upper Canada have
been given. Some said "he was a splendid horseman
and rode his journeys on the gallop." Others described
him as "a man of very solemn aspect, with straight
hair, long countenance, a grave voice and only one arm
that he could use." "So interested were the inhabitants
in the religious services of Losee that they travelled
miles through the woods, even carrying their children
in their arms or upon their backs, in order that they
might listen to the Word of Life."
curiosity. teered for
church in
Bishop Richardson, who entered the work in 1825,
told the following story about Losee: " I recall a conversation nearly forty years since with an aged sister, Mrs.
VanCamp, who was among the first friends of Methodism
in Canada. She told me she had her residence once in
the township of Cornwall and in the winter of 1790 she
saw through her window one extremely severe day—a
storm was then raging—a man on horseback ride through
the tempest. He knocked at her door and asked the
rites of hospitality. Although a stranger she took him
in. He was suffering from cold and hunger, but his good
hostess soon made him comfortable in both respects.
He told her in the meantime that he was a Methodist
preacher, that his name was Losee, and that he would
preach if he could procure a congregation. Though a
stranger to the Methodists, Mrs. VanCamp cheerfully
consented to the proposition and sent her boys out to
notify the people of the neighbourhood that the Methodist
preacher was at her house and that he would preach
that evening. Thus was Methodism introduced into
those parts and Mrs. VanCamp and some others became
happy converts to the faith of the Gospel of Christ."
During the few months Losee spent among his
friends, he endeared himself to the people to whom he
preached. They were anxious to have him remain, but
he returned to the United States to attend the New
York Conference, held in October, 1790, taking with
him an earnest request and a numerously-signed petition
from the people he had visited that an ordained preacher
be sent to them. He described the primitive conditions
of life in the colony and after making a strong appeal for
a minister, asked the Conference to appoint him to the
work. He had no difficulty in having his request
granted by Bishop Asbury. In 1791 he returned, the
first ordained minister in Upper Canada, which became
a mission field of the Methodist Episcopal Church of the
United States. Early in 1792 Losee built the first
church in Upper Canada on a lot given by Paul Huff,
on Hay Bay at Adolphustown (near Picton).
At the New York Conference of 1792 Mr. Losee again
appealed for workers. The Niagara District, the settlements at Augusta and on the Bay of Quinte, were all
anxious to have ministers sent to them. At the close
of the Conference two missionaries, the Rev. Wm.
Losee and the Rev. Darius Dunham, set out for Canada.
The Canadian work was then divided into two circuits:
the one east of Kingston, extending along the St.
Lawrence, was placed under Mr. Losee, and the other
westward up the Bay of Quinte, under Mr. Dunham.
At Ernestown (near Bath) services were held in Mr.
Parrott's barn, where in 1792 Elder Dunham celebrated
the Lord's Supper, the first Communion Service among
the Methodists of Upper Canada. The second church
was built here later in the same year, the congregations
having grown beyond the capacity of the barn.
The Niagara District was one of the first in Upper
Canada to receive Methodist preaching. The preacher
was a soldier volunteer, Major George Neal, who had
served with the British forces in Georgia and in North
and South Carolina during the American Revolution.
At the close of the war Neal taught school in Georgia,
where he was converted. He at once enlisted in the
active service of the King of Kings. His call to preach
came through a dream in which he thought he saw a
two-edged glittering sword on which was emblazoned
the word "Wesley." He was received as a probationer
and sent to the Pee Dee River, Georgia, where his earnest,
faithful work resulted in many conversions.
One night Neal was overheard talking in his sleep,
giving commands to his soldiers which betrayed that
he was not in sympathy with the revolutionists. While,
he had many friends in the new Republic, his loyalty
to Britain made him decide to go to Canada and preach
under the British flag. He started for Nova Scotia,
but missing the boat he journeyed overland through
the wilderness of New York State and after many days
of hard travelling, crossed into Canada at Queenston,
October 7, 1786.
held first
Neal in
1786. Neal
Finding the scattered settlers without religious
services, he at once began visiting the people, and when
possible holding services. Although he had honours
well earned in many a battle and had left the United
States to come to the wilds of Canada in proof of his
loyalty to the British Crown, yet when he attempted to.
preach the Gospel to the new settlers, he was brought
before the British officer in command at Queenston,
who forbade him to hold any more meetings as he said
"none but the clergy of the Established Church were
permitted to preach in the colonies." Although persecuted, Neal was faithful to his vow and continued to
preach and denounce sin and wickedness. Neither
ridicule nor persecution turned him aside from his purpose and work. The commanding officer, indignant that
he was not obeyed, ordered Neal to leave the country
within a given time. The sudden death of the officer before the time expired left the brave soldier unmolested and
he continued preaching throughout the Niagara District.
Neal was greatly helped in his work by Conrad Cope,
a Methodist local preacher and an old soldier who had
come to Canada in 1783 or 1784. One of Neal's converts was Sergeant Christian Warner, who had settled
at Stamford on land granted by the Government in
return for military service. It was not long before
some of Warner's neighbours were "brought to the
Lord." Neal gathered these converts into a class in 1788
and appointed"Warner as leader; he continued in this
office until his death in 1833. This was the first class in
the Niagara District, although its organization was irregular, as none but an ordained minister was authorized
to appoint class leaders. When Losee visited the district
in 1791 he officially appointed Warner. For thirteen
years, until the "Warner" church was built in 1801,
the class, which was the nucleus of the church, met in
The first    the Warner home.    This church was the first west of
.2estCo"f Hay Bay* The late Rev* R> 1 Warner> M-A-> DD> for
Hay Bay, many years Principal of Alma College, St. Thomas,
1801. Ontario, was a great-grandson of Christian Warner.
Major Neal was ordained deacon by Bishop Asbury at
the first session of the Genesee Conference of the Metho-
dist Episcopal Church of the United States, assembled
at Lyons, on July 23rd, 1810. The Rev. George Neal
Hazen, B.A., D.D., of the London Conference, and the
Rev. C. A. Procunier, M.A., of Revelstoke, B.C., are
great-grandsons of Major Neal, the first preacher in
Upper Canada.
The first ordained minister appointed to the Niagara First or-
;: District was the Rev. Darius Dunham, who came in ^^terin
1795 and found a membership of sixty-five.   The first Niagara
preacher in Lower Canada, Tuffy, and the first preacher ^trict-
in Upper Canada, Neal, were both soldiers in the British    '   '
army and also loyal soldiers of the King of Kings.
Nathan Bangs, when only twenty years of age, full of Nathan
adventure, came to Canada in 1799 with his sister and survey'or,
her husband.    He brought his surveying instruments converted,
with him, thinking that he would easily find work.  180°-
Though opposed to Methodism, he was converted under
Joseph Sawyer in 1800, and in 1801 began preaching
under  him,   in   his  own  neighbourhood  of  Niagara.
He lived in Mr. Warner's home and was a member of
his class.    In 1804 he was ordained at the Conference
held in New York.    Some time before this he had received a letter from a man in one of the settlements of
the  River Thames,  about sixty miles  from  Detroit.
The writer's appeal for a preacher "where there was no
religious instruction of any kind" was to Bangs a Macedonian call.
While the Conference was still in session he obtained Bangs
a private interview with Bishop Asbury and volunteered Wo?kSin
to go as a missionary to the out-of-the-way settlements Thames
of the  River Thames,   "in  the  far-off wilderness of *j£*
^Canada." His request was granted by the Conference,
and on June 15th he left New York for his mission field,
which he reached after two months' travelling. It is interesting to read the following story of how Bangs began
work among the immigrants from many lands who had
almost forgotten God in their new and isolated homes:
43 Bangs
"He went into Upper Canada by the way of Kingston,
then up the country along the north-western shore of
Lake Ontario, to the Long Point circuit, and thence
on through Oxford to the town of Delaware on the River
Thames, which he reached August 9th. Here he lodged
for the night in the last log hut in the settlement. The
next morning, as the day began to dawn, he arose, took
his departure and after travelling forty-five miles through
a wilderness, guided only by marked trees, he arrived
at a solitary log house about sunset, weary, hungry
and thirsty, where he was entertained with the best the
house could afford, which was some Indian pudding and
milk for his supper and a bundle of straw for his bed.
"The next day, about twelve o'clock, he arrived at an
Indian village on the north bank of the River Thames,
the inhabitants of which were under the instruction of
two Moravian missionaries. While there the Indians
were called together for worship, which was performed
in a very simple manner by reading a short discourse
and singing a few verses of a hymn. The missionaries
and Indians treated him with great respect and affection
and seemed to rejoice in the prospect of having the
Gospel preached to the white settlements on the banks
of the river below.
"About three o'clock in the afternoon he arrived at
the first house in the settlement, when the following
conversation "took place between the missionary and a
man whom he saw in the yard before the house. After
the introductory salutation,  the missionary inquired:
" 'Do you want the Gospel preached here?'
"After some deliberation it was answered, 'Yes, that
we do.    Do you preach the Gospel?'
" 'That is my occupation.'
" 'Alight from your horse, then, and come in, will you?'
" T have come a great distance to preach the Gospel
to the people here, and it is now Saturday afternoon.
To-morrow is the Sabbath, and I must have a house to
preach in before I get off from my horse.'
"After a few minutes' consideration the man replied,
'I have a house for you to preach in, provender for your
I horse and  food and lodging  for  yourself;  and  you
shall be welcome to them all if you will dismount and
come in.'
"Thanking him for the offer the missionary dismounted and entered the hospitable mansion in the
name of the Lord, saying, 'Peace be to this house.'
A young man mounted his horse and rode ten miles
down the river inviting the people to attend meeting at
that house the next morning at ten o'clock.
"At the time appointed the house was filled. When 1
the missionary rose up he told the people that whenever '
a stranger makes his appearance in a place the people j
are generally anxious to know who he is, whence he came,
where he is going and what his errand is among them. s
'In these things,' said he, T will satisfy you in a few
words.' He then gave them a short account of his
birth and education, of his conversion and call to the
ministry, and the motives which induced him to come
among them, and concluded in the following manner:
T am a Methodist preacher and my manner of worship
is to stand up to sing, and kneel in prayer; then I stand
up and take a text and preach while the people sit on
. their seats. As many of you as see fit to join in this
method you can do so; but if not you can choose your
own method.' When he gave out the hymn they all
arose—every man, woman and child. When he kneeled
in prayer they all, without exception, kneeled down.
They then took their seats and he stood up and gave
out his text, 'Repent ye, therefore, and be converted,
that your sins may be blotted out when the times of
refreshing shall come from the presence of the Lord,'
and he preached, as he thought, with the Holy Ghost
sent down from heaven. Having concluded his discourse, he explained to his audience his manner of
preaching by itinerating through the country, his doctrine, how supported, etc. He then said, 'All you who
wish to hear any more such preaching, rise up.'    Every morals,
man, woman and child stood up.    He then told them
they might expect preaching there again in two weeks.
A "Such a commencement in a strange place he con-
rehgiously   sidled a token for good.    He then sent on appoint-
district.       ments through the settlements along down the river,
which he filled in a manner similar to the above, and
was  everywhere  received  with   great  cordiality.    He
proceeded down the shore of Lake St.  Clair, visited
Sandwich on the Canada side of the outlet of the lake,
crossed over to Detroit and preached in the Council
House, thence to Fort Maiden, and down the shore
of Lake Erie in a settlement made up of Americans,
English, Scotch, Irish and Dutch emigrants.   The people
everywhere flocked together to hear the Word.
"A more destitute place he had never found.    Young
people had arrived at the age of sixteen who had never
heard a  Gospel sermon,  and  he found a  Methodist
hospitable, family who had lived in that country seven years without
hearing a sermon preached.    But although the people
were extremely ignorant of spiritual things, and very
loose in their morals, they seemed ripe for the Gospel
and received and treated God's messenger with great
attention  and  kindness.    He  continued  among them
The end of about three months, when he left them for Niagara
"T1le circuit, intending to return again soon, but was pre-
nings."       vented." Bangs' missionary work in south-west Upper
Canada (Ontario) was the last of "the beginnings" of
the Methodism of the pioneer days.
In every centre where Methodism had been established,
with the exception of the Thames settlements and
Bermuda, volunteer workers from among the settlers
had made a "beginning" and prepared the way for the
ordained missionary, who in many districts found a
membership awaiting him. These pioneer volunteers
had no special training for the work; they simply did
what they could in the best way they knew or could
devise. They had no distinctive name other than
Christian, but this laid upon them the obligation to bring
others into the Kingdom. They did not know that they :
were a Laymen's Missionary Movement of far-reaching
influence; that they were creating a constituency which
ensured religious and civil liberty; nor did they realize
the importance of their contribution in laying the
foundation of a Canada which is still in the making. The
of the
During the twenty years which intervened between
Bangs' missionary work in the settlements on the
Thames River in 1804, and the organization of the
Missionary Society in 1824, events took place which
affected British and American Methodism in both
Upper and Lower Canada, led to Lower Canada becoming the Eastern District of the British Wesleyan Conference, and in Upper Canada to the organization of the
Canada Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church
in the United States, and later to its union with the
British Wesleyans.
The needless, cruel, border-raid war of 1812-15, between the United States and Canada, resulted not only
in the British Wesleyan Conference sending missionaries
to Canada, but created a spirit of distrust toward the
ministers of the Methodist Episcopal Church of the
United States, of which Methodism in both Upper and
Lower Canada had been so long a part and to which it
owed so much. This distrust increased as the Genesee
Conference again took control of the work in Canada,
at the close of the war.
Notwithstanding the difficulties of adjusting the work,
and the jealousies and bitter controversies growing
out of the incoming of the British Wesleyan missionaries
into Upper Canada, on the one hand, and the organization of the Canadian work separate from that of the
United States, on the other hand, the work throughout
the settlements grew, camp-meetings were introduced
and were well attended, while an outstanding event
during these years was the beginning of work among the
Indians scattered throughout Upper Canada. CANADIAN METHODIST MISSIONS
The Genesee Conference, the first held in Canada, met First
at  Elizabethtown,  on   the  Augusta  circuit,  in   1817. S^ence
It was called the Conference of the Great Revival, as Canada,
the work begun there resulted in the conversion of over 1817.
fourteen hundred.
In  1819 the  Missionary Society of the  Methodist Missionary
Episcopal Church of the United States was organized. S?ci^y
The Genesee Conference adopted the "Mite," or "One Methodist
Cent a Member," plan.    The income from this source Episcopal
was $350, part of which was used to send to Canada the  organized
first two missionaries of the recently formed Missionary  1819.
Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church.    Their field
was the settlements from York (now Toronto) north to
Lake Simcoe.    The work in Lower Canada came under
the jurisdiction of the British Wesleyan Conference in
1820, while the work in Upper Canada was continued
as  part  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church  of  the
United States.
At the General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal
Church, in 1820, it was suggested that a Canada Conference be formed; but, after discussion, in the judgment
of the Conference it was thought that the time had
not come for this step. During the General Conference
held in Baltimore, in 1824, a request from the Methodists
of Canada was presented by their representatives,
asking that a separate Conference be formed in Canada.
This was granted, with the agreement that the work
should be under the superintendency of the American
The first Canada Conference was held at Hallowell First
(now Picton), on August 25th of the same year, presided Canada
over by two American bishops, and the Rev. William ence, 1824.
Case was elected secretary.    During the Conference a
"Memorial for Independence" was prepared, the objective of which was the independence of the work in
Canada, not later than 1828.    Among the reasons given
for the severing of the Canadian work from that in the
United States were the following:
"Those who wished to establish a State Church in
Canada charged the Methodists with disloyalty, of
which an outstanding evidence was the retaining of the
American ministers.
"The difficulties of superintending so vast a territory
by a non-resident bishop.
"The danger of division among the ministers in
"The attitude of the British Wesleyans in regard to the
work in Upper Canada and toward the ministers of the
Methodist Episcopal Church.
"The advantages of a Church separate from the
United States in the event of war.
"The right of ministers to solemnize marriage and to
provide for legal security of church property (both
essential for the progress of the work), urging that these
privileges would be more favourably considered by the I
Government if the Church in Canada were a separate
The On August 28th, 1824, while the Conference was still
Missionary jn sess;orij a Missionary Society was organized which
organized, became "The Canada Conference Missionary Society"
Aug. 28th, (auxiliary to the Missionary Society of the Methodist
Episcopal Church), "to evangelize the country, Christianize the Indian tribes, and extend the pure Gospel
and Gospel privileges to the remotest bounds of new
settlements." The following officers were elected:
The Rev. Thomas Whitehead, President; the Rev.
Thomas Madden, Vice-President; the'Rev. John Ryerson, I
The men who organized the Missionary Society and
undertook  the   work  were   ready   to   attempt  great ^
things for God, for in 1824, in Upper Canada, there were
only two Districts, thirty-three preachers, and a total  ;
membership of 6,155, fifty-six being Indians.
The organization of the Missionary Society was the ■
result, and not the beginning, of missionary work in
Upper Canada.   Auxiliaries of the Missionary Society -
of the Methodist Episcopal Church, organized in 1819,
had been formed,  and these now became auxiliaries
of the Canada Conference Missionary Society.
Elder Case, who had included the Indians in his work The first
as presiding elder, brought to the Conference subscrip- ^"^
tions of local auxiliaries, and reported: "For the en- $144.00.
couragement and support of this good work, several
Branch Societies have forwarded the amount of their
collections, which have been received and accounted
for as follows:
Ancaster Branch Missionary Society $22 00
Lyons' Creek (amount omitted in last
report)    5 00
Trafalgar Branch Society  10 00
Thorold Branch Society     5 00
Smithville Branch Society  9 25
Saltfleet Branch (fifty missionary collectors)  22 00
Bertie Branch Society     7 50
Lyons' Creek Branch Society.     7 62
Beverly Branch Society.     5 00
Long Point Branch Society    4 00
Stamford Branch Society  23 00
John Keagey, a donation of $13.25; $5
appropriated towards the Indian
School Room, leaving for further missionary purposes     8 25
Amount received from the preachers of
the Canada Conference  15 38
$144 00
"In   sending  in   their   subscriptions,   the  Ancaster T1?e
Branch wrote:  'We assure you that we esteem it a g\vlngg
privilege to contribute to the support of an institution
whose object is so noble and whose missionaries in this
country have been so laborious and successful.'
"A letter from the Niagara circuit shows an appreciation of the work done among the white settlers: 'In
adverting to an event so laudable, and so expedient, as
the formation of the Missionary Auxiliaries in Upper
51 The debt
Canada, we cannot but express our delight in the
promptitude and zeal which have been manifested
by the people in this part for the promotion of the
missionary cause. So that if the inhabitants more than
thirty years ago were first in petitioning (for preachers),
so they are not the last to come forward to aid them in
their labours, which have been rendered so essentially
Since 1791 ministers from the American Church had
guided the growth of Methodism in Upper Canada.
They had come as volunteer workers into what was
called "The wilderness of Upper Canada"—a two
months' journey from New York—when so little was
known of this great mission field that they were commissioned "To go and form circuits." These men were
missionaries in the truest sense of the word; they shared
with the settlers the hardships of pioneer days; fearless
in denouncing sin, drunkenness and low standards of
living, they preached the Gospel and saw men and
women brought to God; they travelled long, blazed
trails to tell the "good news of the Gospel" to the few
gathered in log houses; they preached to hundreds at
camp-meetings; they saw the first churches built and
Sunday-school work begun; and from a few scattered
members of the early days, after thirty-three years of
work, rejoiced in a membership of over six thousand
whose spiritual life was now finding expression in the
organization of a Missionary Society.
The Canadian Church will ever owe these ministers
of the pioneer days a debt of gratitude. Separating
the work in Canada from that in the United States
was accomplished in the spirit of brotherly kindness and
in the highest interests of the work. Friendships remained unbroken and the Canada Conference, with its
newly organized Missionary Society, entered upon the
responsibilities of its work, with the prayers and good
wishes of the Church which for so many years had
provided leadership and financial aid. The Missionary
Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church continued
few years to help financially with the Indian
Canadian Methodism dates its missionary work from
the organization of the Missionary Society at the first
Canada Conference, in 1824. INDIAN MISSIONS IN UPPER CANADA
Urgency More than twenty years before the organization of
thegGospel our Missionary Society, missionaries from the United
to  the       States who had responded to the call of  the  settlers
red men.     found in the Indian camps a second mission field.    With
the knowledge of what had been accomplished through
missions for the Indians in the United States, and in
contrast the misery, strife and bloodshed that resulted
from indifference and neglect of their spiritual welfare,
these pioneers recognized the urgency of giving the Gospel
to the red men.
Men of Traders who profited by the ignorance of the Indians
vision.311 protested that it was useless to try to make a Christian
out of a pagan Indian. "First educate and civilize, and
then, perhaps, they may be reached by the Gospel," was
the advice generously given by others. Such men as
Joseph Sawyer, Alvin Tony, Elder Case, Edmund
Stoney, Seth Crawford, John Carey and Nathan
Bangs heeded neither opinion nor advice. They believed
God could save to the uttermost, and to their faith they
added works. Indians who still lived in wigwams, their
food and clothing unchanged, and who could neither
read nor write, were brought to God. When they became Christians they asked for schools for1 their children
and their old way of living did not satisfy.
The work began through neighbourly friendliness.
Its development became the inspiration of the Church "
and was for fifty years its only mission field apart from
the white work. From old Canada to the Great Lakes,
far to the north around Lake Winnipeg, across the
prairies to the foothills of the Rockies and beyond to the
great province facing the Pacific, the Gospel has been
taken to the Indians by men and women—great adventurers and heroes of the Kingdom.
.   The Rev. Joseph Sawyer visited and preached to the Sawyer
Indians of the Credit River as he rode to and from his p^ac^tT
preaching appointments in the scattered settlements.  Indians,
Here, in 1801, he baptized an Indian boy, to whom he 1801-1803.
gave his own name and who in after years became Chief
Sawyer of the Credit, and a Methodist local preacher.
Nathan Bangs, in 1803, also preached to the Delaware
Indians as he travelled through Western Upper Canada.
Elder Case, who earned the title of "Father of Indian
Missions,"   never missed an opportunity of preaching,
meeting the chiefs and visiting the encampments.    A
friendliness was thus established which during a long
century has never been broken.
It will be remembered that with the settlers who came The M°-
' to Canada after the American Revolution were Mohawks hw1 the"
of the Six Nations, under their chief, Joseph Brant. British, 6
Their lands in the Mohawk Valley were within the settle on
boundary of the territory ceded by Great Britain to the ^ve?.*"*1
Republic.    In concluding the treaty of peace with the
United   States,   the   commissioners   of  Great   Britain
had forgotten to make reservation of land for these
Indian allies.    Chief Brant interviewed the Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs at Montreal, and General
Haldimand at Quebec, with the result that the land
question was happily settled by granting a reserve on
the Grand River.
"About the close of the year  1785  Brant visited Chief
England,  where he  appears to  have been  very well ^enpth
received.    When introduced at Court he proudly de- visits
clined the honour of kissing the king's hand, but remarked England-
that he would gladly kiss that of the queen. 1785'
" During his stay in London an amusing circumstance
occurred. Having been invited to a grand masquerade,
or fancy ball, he went richly dressed in the costume of
his nation, wearing no mask, but painting one half of his
face. 'His plumes nodded as proudly in his cap as
though the blood of a hundred Percys coursed through
his veins, and his tomahawk glittered in his girdle like
burnished silver.' Among the guests was a Turk of
55 The
Charter of
the Massachusetts
Rev. John
rank, whose attention was particularly attracted by the
grotesque appearance of the chief's singular and, as he
supposed, fantastic attire. He scrutinized the chief
very closely, and mistaking his complexion for a painted
visor, took the liberty of attempting to handle his nose.
Brant, who had noticed the observation he excited, was
in the humour for a little sport. No sooner, therefore,
did the fingers of the Turk touch his nasal organ, than
he raised the war-whoop and snatching his tomahawk
from his girdle, whirled it round the head of his astonished
assailant. Such a piercing and frightful cry had never
before rung through the halls of fashion, and breaking
suddenly and with startling wildness upon the ears of the
merry throng, produced a strange sensation. The Turk
himself trembled with terror, while the lady guests
shrieked, screamed and scattered themselves in every
direction. The jest, however, was soon explained, and
all was right again, though it is doubtful if the Turk
sufficiently recovered his mental equilibrium to enjoy
the latter part of the evening as much as he had the
The Indians in the New England colonies were the
first heathen who had become British subjects. As
early as 1621 an appeal was made to England for these
"poor heathen," and their evangelization was an important part of the programme of the Pilgrim Fathers.
The chief clause in the Charter of the Massachusetts
Company, granted in 1628, was "to incite the natives
of the country to a knowledge and obedience of ,the only
true God and Saviour of mankind, and Christian faith."
The seal of the Charter pictured an Indian saying,
"Come Over and Help Us!"
The Rev. John Eliot, a Cambridge scholar, arrived in
Boston in 1630. Ten years later he began his life-work
among a tribe of the Iroquois Indians. It is said he had
the three gifts of grace, learning and toil. He translated
the Bible into Mohican, the first Bible printed on the
American continent (1661-63); founded a college at
Cambridge, Massachusetts, to train natives as pastors
and   teachers;  developed   a   Christian   community  of
3,600   Indians  and  established several churches with
native pastors.    He wrote as a postscript to his Indian
grammar, "Prayer and  pains,  through  Jesus  Christ,
will   do   anything."    His work  strired  England  and
under the enthusiastic leadership of Oliver Cromwell
a    large    sum    was    collected.    An    ordinance    was
passed   in   1649   creating   "The   Corporation   for   the
Propagation of the Gospel in New England." This later New
became the New England Company, from the endowment Company
of which the Mohawk Institute near Brantford, On- still helps
tario,  and  the  Lytton   Indian   Residential  School  in C?snJdnan
British Columbia still receive help.
The missionaries who worked among the Mohawks
in New England had translated portions of the Scriptures,
Morning and Evening Prayers, and the Prayer Book and
Liturgy of the Church of England. The Mohawks
settling on the Grand River, having lost most of their
books during the war, were provided with a new supply
through the generosity of General Haldimand who, in
1780, had the books reprinted at Quebec.
In  1710 four chiefs of the Six Nations had visited Mohawk
England, one of whom was the grandfather of Chief ^g5 first
Joseph Brant.    They were presented by Queen Anne with Anglican
a beaten-silver   communion  service  bearing the date "J Upper
1711, which is now in the Mohawk Church near Brantford, Ontario.    This little Indian church, built in 1785,
where Brant was a communicant, was the first Anglican
church in Upper Canada.
"The Indians on the Grand River numbered about
2,000. All were pagan but the Mohawks. The Cayugas
and Onandagas were the most moral and orderly of all
the   Indians."
As in the work among the white settlers, so in the work Edmund
among the Indians, there were volunteer workers who begmY
prepared the way.    Occasionally a few Indians in the work at
white congregations heard the Gospel, and itinerating Grand
preachers sometimes addressed them in small groups.
One of the first to take an interest in their spiritual
57 Seth
welfare was Edmund Stoney, a poor shoemaker, living
near the Mohawks on the Grand River. Their deplorable
state aroused his sympathy, and he began holding
meetings in the house of Davis, the Mohawk chief.
As a result of hfe preaching and personal work several
Indians were converted. Chief Davis was very favourable to Christian work; in his own home every morning
he gathered his people for prayers, which he read in the
Mohawk tongue.
Another volunteer worker was Seth Crawford, who
came to the Grand River early in the spring of 1823, to
devote his life to the evangelization of the Indians.
He told the people that he would live among them,
learn their language, and teach their children. His offer
to teach opened the way to hearts and homes. He lived
with an Indian family, fared as they fared and thus grew
familiar with their standards of life and spiritual
In the spring of 1822 Elder Case, who was a member
of the Conference Committee for the Indian work,
appointed Alvin Torry to the settlement on the Grand
River, with the further charge to do what he could
among the Indians.
Camp-meetings had been introduced from the United
States and were found to be a means of great blessing;
they were social as well as religious gatherings. To
these meetings the settlers invited the Indians, and made
special provision for their comfort. At one held at
Ancaster, in 1823, many of the Indians of the Grand
River attended; among others, Peter Jones and his
sister Polly. They were both converted. When Elder
Case saw Peter Jones stand up to acknowledge his conversion, he exclaimed, "Glory to God! There stands
the son of Augustus Jones, of Grand River, among the
converts. Now is the door open for the work of con- .
version among his nation." Peter had been influenced
by Seth Crawford, and soon decided to become a missionary to his own people.
In the spring of 1824 the first Indian Methodist
church in Canada was built by Indian converts, under
the superintendency of Seth Crawford and Peter Jones,
at Davisville, a Mohawk village on the Grand River
reserve. It was used for a day school, Sabbath school
and preaching services. Before the church was built,
the school and services had been held in the house of
Chief Davis, who left his comfortable home and with
his family lived in a small log cabin in the woods. When
Elder Case publicly thanked the Chief for the temporary
use of his house, he replied, " I am fully repaid for what
I have done. I have prayed for two years for religion
to take place among my people. The Lord has answered
prayer and has blessed me and my people with the gift
of His Spirit."
The Gospel first came to the Muncey Indians in the John
Thames Valley through the volunteer service of John h^s
Carey, a teacher whose school in Westminster was ad- work
jacent   to   Delaware.    The   Muncey   Indians  were   a |^0nnc|
remnant of the Delawares, who in 1792 had come from 1792      j
the United States for refuge in the British colony.   They
constantly  passed  Carey's  school  and  often  camped
near it.   The young Christian teacher became deeply
interested   in   them—their   poverty,    ignorance   and
heathen customs were all an appeal for help—and he
decided to visit their encampment, seven miles distant.
Taking a friend with him, one December day in 1824,
they followed the trail through the woods, only to find,
upon reaching the camp, that Chief Turkey and most of
the Indians were away hunting; but the family of the
chief   received   them   kindly.    Carey   thought   "they
appeared capable of improvement," and was encouraged
to repeat his visit.    It was not until he had gone four
times, however, that he was successful in finding the
Indians at home.    He interviewed Chief Turkey and Careyj
offered to teach the children at his own expense.    To though
consider this offer, a council meeting was called without °PP°^d,
delay.    After talking for two hours, Chief Westbrook scj,ooL
reported that while he and a few others wanted the
Torryand   school, there were many who objected, as they wished
Jones visit their children to follow the customs of their fathers.
Indians.      Carey decided to open a school even though few attended;
work with the children always made a good beginning.
He wrote Alvin Torry to come to Muncey and bring
Peter Jones as interpreter. He explained that "the
Muncey system of morality is very dark and sensual—
a mixture of paganism, Roman Catholicism and some
correct notions—remains of the teaching of David
Brainerd, who eighty years ago worked among the
Delawares in New England." Torry needed no second
invitation; after the wonderful results of work among
the Mohawks and Mississaugas, he was very anxious
to visit the tribes in the Thames Valley. When Torry
and Peter Jones reached Muncey, late in May, they
found Carey with a school of eight children. After
spending five days in explaining Christianity, and discussing plans for preaching and schools, Torry felt the
way would open for establishing a mission. Five days
with very little food, almost no sleep—hard boards in
wigwams made sleep impossible—and sixty miles on
foot were but part of the effort in introducing Chris-
e tianity to these Indians who insisted that the Great
of the Spirit liked  their way of worship,  although he also
Indians       accepted that of the Hats (white people).    When Torry
Qn-is- explained the injurious results of whiskey, they said,
tianity. "Whiskey comes from the white man. When we have
anything to sell, whiskey is the first thing the white
man offers." Torry told them that "bad white men
tempted with whiskey; good men, never." The -chiefs
objected to accepting Christianity, saying "Many years
ago the Moravians preached to the Indians on the other
side of Lake Erie, when numbers had become Christians.
The Moravians contrived to have these Indians confined in a house where they were all murdered or burnt
up. | Torry went very carefully into the history of the .
disgraceful massacre of the Indians near Sandusky in
1782, and convinced the chiefs that the missionaries
had no part in the plot and that wicked white men
alone were responsible for the crime. When the missionaries told the chiefs that they had been sent by the
Great Spirit to teach the Indians the way of salvation,
the ready reply was that the Great Spirit had sent them
prophets who said they "must live as their fathers had
done." Torry then told them about the Bible, the
Book of the Great Spirit, which He had given to the
white- men. They were deeply interested; no Book had
been given to them. The white men had, after all,
something more than the Indians! They had nothing
to parallel the story of the Book. They promised to
consider Christianity and the missionaries promised to
visit them again soon.
Torry returned in August, taking with him a volunteer Volunteer
band of six young Christian Indians, one of whom was j?*?.** of
Peter Jones.    They found the  Indians very friendly
and  eighteen scholars in  Carey's school.    They next
visited  Chief Tumeoko's camp,  a few miles distant.
While the old chief received them kindly and told them
he liked the religion of the Hats, his people were all so
busy preparing for a great pow-wow and a feast and
offerings to their gods, that they refused to consider the
offer of preaching and schools.    At Lower Muncey the Lower and
men were about to start on a hunting trip, in preparation V?per
for a great feast, so nothing could be done there.    Two Thechurch
of the band visited a tribe of the Chippewas at the head- built,
waters of the River Aux Sable, with the result that the
chief promised some of the young men should go to the
Grand River to study Christianity and to learn to pray.
The band then went to Upper Muncey, to Chief Turkey's
camp, and to their great delight found that he and his
family had decided to become Christian and desired
to be taught.   Through the gifts of the neighbouring
white people, and with the help of the Indians, a building
was at once put up which served for both church and
school.    Chief Westbrook, who from the first had been
favourable to preaching and teaching, paddled to Detroit,
a distance of one hundred and twenty miles, for nails
for the building.   While there was nothing exciting in
How the     introducing Christianity to the Muncey Indians, it was
Gospel        typical of the way the Gospel was brought to many of the
Indians in Old Ontario, and a tribute to the untiring
volunteer service given in the name of Him who came to
seek and to save.
The Mis-        Many of the Mississauga, or Chippewa, tribes of the
sissaugas     Ojibway nation, wandering about the shores of Lake On-
theGospel, tario during the winter of 1823-24, hearing of the changes
1823-1824.  which were taking place among their kindred at the
Grand River, visited the reserve to prove the truth of
the report.    Here,  for the first time, they heard the
Gospel   preached  and  Christianity  explained.    Many
decided to become Christians.
The camp-meeting held in 1825 at Mount Pleasant,
a few miles from the Grand River, was attended by about
one hundred Mississauga Indians, half of whom were
Christians. Peter Jones and Chief Davis addressed the
Indians in their own language, Peter telling of his own
conversion at a camp-meeting two years before, of the
sixty Mohawks who had become Christians and knew
that their sins were forgiven, and of others now overcoming the desire for strong drink and being freed from
the degrading influence of heathenism. He asked the
white people to pray for the Indians and thanked them,
especially the Methodists, for sending the Gospel to
the natives. This camp-meeting marked the beginning
of work among the Mississaugas, for several were converted, and numbers so impressed during the services
that after the meeting closed they were easily won from
paganism. They had the reputation of being "wholly
pagan in all respects, and the most beastly, drunken,
dirty natives in the country, the very lowest among
The bad tne iow Among their sacrifices are dogs; their offerings
of the are made to the sun and moon; and when influenced by
pagan apprehensions of danger, they have been known to pay
saueas"        their worship to the evil spirit, in order to induce him
to do them no harm.    They appear to be entirely without
God and without hope in the world.    They are everywhere at home, seldom long in one place, never erecting
•any permanent habitations; but residing in temporary
huts, covered with matted flags, or with bark from the
trunks of trees." When converted they proved the
power of the Gospel to change lives.
The converted Mississaugas were inclined to give
up roving about the country and numbers camped about
the church and school at the Grand River. The Mohawk
chief allowed them the use of land, and Peter Jones
instructed them how to clear the land and put in a crop
of potatoes and corn. This was the first attempt at
farming and a settled life by these Indians who loved to
roam the country, hunting and fishing.
The Mississaugas received notice from the Indian A notable
Agent, Colonel Givens, to assemble July 8th, 1825, at the tr^mt
Credit River to receive their annual payments and
presents. Peter Jones accompanied those from the.
Grand River, and on Sunday held services at the Credit,
which were attended by both whites and Indians. A
letter came to the Credit from the Indian agent, instructing the Indians to proceed to the Humber, where the
payments would be made. The heathen Mississaugas
from around Lake Ontario, as well as the Christians
from the Grand River, assembled as instructed and
Peter Jones seized the opportunity to preach, using a
pile of stones as a pulpit. Some mocked and ridiculed,
while others received the Truth.
Colonel Givens, accompanied by military officers, Services
came from York in the morning, and later in the day the |* *^e
Rev. Dr. Strachan, Archdeacon of York, and Mrs.
Strachan, with several friends, arrived to see the Christian Indians. The children sang hymns, recited catechism and Scripture, and read out of their school books;
all this greatly delighted Dr. Strachan, who in his
persistent efforts to establish the Church of England as
the State Church in Canada, coveted the control of the
Indians. Jealous of the success of Methodist missions,
he strenuously opposed them and tried to induce the
Christian Indians to become Anglicans, advising them
to settle at the Credit, a noted salmon fishery, where he
63 The
refused  t
The first
said he thought the Government would build them a
village. He believed his influence with the Government
would assure his success with the Indians, and that he
would become the medium of favours. On this occasion
the usual supply of whiskey for distribution to the
Indians was returned to Toronto with the kegs unopened,
as the Christians, influenced by Peter Jones, decided not
to accept the firewater. This was the last time the
Government offered whiskey to the Christian Indians.
During the encampment at the Humber many had
become interested in Christianity, impressed by the
great change in their friends. When the gathering
dispersed, those who wished to know more about
Christianity accompanied the Christian Indians to the
Grand River. During the three days' homeward
journey, prayer meetings were held and many questions
answered about Christianity. After spending a week
at Grand River, forty-five gave themselves to the Lord
and His Church, and were baptized at the Sunday service.
With these new converts there were now one hundred
and one baptized Christians at the Grand River and
sixty children in the Sunday School.
The work among the Indians had its effect upon the
white people. They beheld miracles. Drunken, lazy,
dirty Indians became sober, industrious and clean;
instead of cheerless, smoky wigwams there were comfortable log houses; pagan worship, magic dances and
debasing witchcraft ceased to influence changed lives;
Mohawks and Chippewas, whose enmity was age-old
and deep-rooted, now worshipped in the same church,
their children attended the same school, and the Mohawks
shared the fertile fields with their one-time enemies.
But the greatest miracle of all was that among the
converted Indians were some who straightway became
missionaries to their own people, leading many out of
their old life into the transforming new.
Elder Case, in the first Annual Report of the Missionary Society, 1825, states that "Mississaugas, or
Chippewas, had camped near the Mohawks that the
children might attend school. During the year sixty
of this tribe were converted." He refers to the school
opened for the Muncey Indians and the help the Indians,
gave in erecting a building. "The women made baskets
and bead work for sale, the proceeds of which they gave
to missions. A lady, hearing of the gifts of the Indians
brought as a missionary offering a gold piece which had
been given her; a farmer near the Indian settlement
was so impressed with the changed conditions that he
set apart an acre of ground to be sown with wheat, the
proceeds of which he gave to the Indian work."
He reported as ready for the press the translation into Transla-
Mohawk of the Gospels and a good selection of hymns, ^n^ in*°
by Dr. A. Hill, a Mohawk chief, and the Acts of the Mohawk-
Apostles, by the grand-daughter of Joseph Brant.    It
was hoped to complete the New Testament in the near
future.    Reference was made to the help the native
Christians gave in the work among the pagan Indians.
While several pages of this first Missionary Report
were taken up with the Indian work, Elder Case did not
neglect to report the work among the settlers, especially
in the new townships in the rear of the old settlements
into which "are thronging thousands from Europe and
the older parts of America." The membership was 6,100,
including fifty-six Indians and twenty-two Negroes.
A Missionary Report would not be complete without
a statement of "Income and Expenditure." In giving
this, Elder Case prefaced it with this warning: "We
must not forebear to mention that the probable expenditures for the ensuing year will exceed the amount
received." The missionary income for the year was
£159: 19: 3; the amount spent, £203: 1: 3. The Missionary Society of the Canada Conference was an
auxiliary of the Methodist Episcopal Missionary Society
of the United States, which supplied the deficit.
In several respects this first Annual Report is strangely Men and
like the Report ninety-nine years later.    The income less money
than the expenditure; the work calling for men and
money;   the   wholesome   warning   that   the   probable and Chief
:t Bay
of Quinte
expenditure would for the next year exceed the amount ■
received, are familiar to us.
Faith of our fathers!   Nothing staggered them; out of
their poverty they gave, and the Church of the Living I
God was established.    To-day the limit of our missionary
opportunity is the measure of our faith and our sacrifice.
The Bay of Quinte District, to which the Rev. William
Case was appointed Presiding Elder in 1824, extended |
from Smith's Creek, near Port Hope, to Ottawa.    In l\
addition to the work in the settlements, Case found an I
unlimited field among the Indians, all of whom, with the |
exception of a few nominal Christians on the Mohawk 1
Reserve, near Belleville, were pagan.    The marvellous
results of taking the Gospel to the Indians of the Grand
River had brought to Elder Case the vision of all the |
tribes in Upper Canada becoming Christian: to realize J
this became the controlling purpose of his life.    He had
constant opportunities of meeting the Indians, but not
knowing their language all he could do was to give them |
evidences of his  friendliness.   This was not enough; I
they needed the Gospel.    Case sent for Peter Jones, who I
brought with him John Crane, a converted Mohawk %
chief of the Grand River, and together they campaigned "
the district in February, 1826.    During the tour, which ex-^
tended beyond Kingston,   Indians were visited in camps
and homes and Peter Jones preached to many white congregations—the first time an Indian had been known to
entreat white men to forsake their sins and turn to God.
In May of the same year Jones again visited the Bay -
of Quinte, and with fifty Indians, crossing the Bay in
canoes, attended a quarterly meeting at Hallowell, at
which John Sunday and William Beaver were converted.
Returning to Belleville Jones and others continued the
work among the Indians. On May 31st twenty-two:
of these new converts were baptized by Elder Case;
these were formed into classes under the care of John
Sunday and William Beaver. Elder Case had discovered the value of putting the new Indian converts
to work for others.
The camp-meeting held at Adolphustown in June was
attended by many of the Indians who had come under
Peter Jones' influence, the Christians bringing their
heathen friends. It is said that before the camp-
meeting closed all the adults decided to accept and study
Christianity. The congregations on Saturday and Sunday numbered almost 4,000, and were addressed by Peter
Jones, Peter Jacobs, Chief Beaver and John Sunday.
A camp-meeting at Cramahe followed that at Adolphustown. Many of the Mississaugas who had attended
the Adolphustown meeting came to Cramahe. At the
close of this camp-meeting Conference was held at
Cobourg, about twelve miles distant. Nearly one
hundred Indians, half of whom were pagan, came on to
Conference and camped near the church. Again the
natives had the opportunity of teaching and preaching.
A company of heathen Indians from Rice Lake, accompanied by their chief, presented themselves to the
Conference. When asked why they came, Chief Paudash
said, " I have heard of the great work going on among my
people and I came down to hear, see, and examine for
myself." This was the beginning of work among the
Indians at Rice Lake. Forty were baptized during the
Indian speakers took part in the Conferences and were
eloquent in their own way; their theme was usually the
story of their conversion. Sometimes, however, they
chose another subject, as the following address by
Peter Jacobs testifies:
"You white people have the Gospel great many years.
You have the Bible too; suppose you read it sometimes—
but you very wicked. Suppose some very good people:
but great many wicked. You get drunk—you tell lies—
you break the Sabbath." Then, pointing to his brethren,
he added, "But these Indians, they hear the Word only
a little while—they can't read the Bible—but they
become good right away. They no more get drunk—
no more tell lies—they keep the Sabbath day. To us
Indians seems very strange that you have missionary
Peter pointed
to Indians.
so many years and you so many rogues yet. The Indians
have missionary only little while, and we all turn
This speech, from an Indian who had been a Christian
for only one year, was a genuine surprise to a white
congregation and especially to Mr. Demorest, who had
invited him to speak.
The annual gatherings of the Indians at which they
received payments and presents from the Government,
afforded opportunities for introducing Christianity.
Elder Case and his volunteer workers took full advantage of these gatherings and many Indians for the
first time heard the Gospel story.
The first appointed missionary of Canadian Methodism
was Egerton Ryerson, who later fought to a successful
issue the long, hard struggle for equal civil and religious
liberty for all, founded the world-famous public-school
system of Ontario, and became one of Canada's most
distinguished citizens. In 1826 he was appointed to the
Credit Mission, where the Mississaugas from the Grand
River were establishing a Christian village. Cottages
had been built by the Government and each home had a
garden plot. As no church or school had been provided,
Ryerson engaged the carpenter who had built the
cottages, and with the aid of the Indians, who contributed both time and money, a building to be used
for church and school was completed in six weeks. Unscrupulous traders were hostile to this mission. One
said: "Before the Indians became Christian a salmon
could be purchased for a gill of whiskey, but now we
have to pay three York shillings (37>£c.) for a fish and
the Indians since they became Methodists never touch
a drop of whiskey."
Before the cottages were built, the chiefs and some
of the principal men of the tribe were summoned to
York by Colonel Givens, the Indian Agent, and brought
before the commanding officer of the garrison, who gave
them a message from the Governor. He told them the
Governor   was   very   much   opposed  to   the   Indians CANADIAN METHODIST MISSIONS
attending camp-meetings, and if they persisted they
would lose his friendship and all help would be withheld.
They were not, however, required to give up being
Methodists. The chiefs, afraid their village plan
would become impossible, agreed not to attend camp-
meetings. These Indians did not understand denominational differences, nor did they know anything regarding
the influence of Bishop Strachan in the Executive
Council of Upper Canada, nor that "he coveted Upper
Canada as the spiritual inheritance of the Church of
England, as it was the temporal possession of Great
Britain." They were also ignorant of his attitude toward
Methodists and did not suspect that he might have
represented to the Governor the undesirability of camp-
meetings for Indians. The chiefs may have stayed
away from these gatherings they loved, but the Indians
flocked to them in larger numbers than ever. The
Bishop's offer of large salaries to Peter Jones and his
brother John met with refusal. When John Sunday
heard of the probable withdrawal of the Governor's
help, he said, in a tone of contempt, "We have hitherto
made out to live from year to year, even when we were
sinners, and shall not the Great Spirit, whom we now
serve, take care of us and preserve us from all harm?"
That Egerton Ryerson, the newly-appointed missionary
at the Credit, was the champion of religious liberty,
did not lessen the Bishop's efforts to secure spiritual
control of the Indians.
The success of the Credit village was only the begin- The
ning of organized work.    Indians came from far and Christian
near, not only to see the village, but to hear more about the Credit,
the Christian teaching to which they had listened at
"Treaty   Payment"   or   camp-meeting.    As   they   returned home, they talked over what they had heard and
seen.    It was  all  so  wonderful—the  schools  for the
children; the chiefs who had become Christians; the
Mississaugas  proud  of  their  Christian  village;  those
who  were  giving  up  drinking the  "fire-water;"  the
Christians who were so happy that they wanted every
69 Work
with Lake
Island and
Rice Lake
one to know about God and His Son, who came to save
Indians as well as white people; the Indians who
were preaching at the meetings; the four Rice Lake
Indians who had paddled to Lake Simcoe to tell their
friends of the wonderful changes taking place among
their people, three hundred of whom had become
Christians—Christianity was working miracles!
Work was begun with the Lake Simcoe Indians who
were placed under the care of Newmarket, and among
the Scugog Indians, who were cared for by Whitby.
Grape Island, in the Bay of Quinte, opposite Belleville,
was secured in 1826 as a Christian Indian settlement,
which Elder Case, encouraged by the work at the Credit,
hoped to develop into an industrial mission. Peter
Jones, who had pioneered the Credit settlement and was
now a missionary at large to the native tribes, helped
the Indians of Grape Island plough the land and begin
building their homes and a school and meeting-house.
Though lacking sufficient men and money, Elder
Case never faltered, for he said, "Thousands are calling
and they must be provided with missionaries and
teachers." For three missionaries, seven schools, stationery, translation of hymns and Scripture, only
§1,000.00 for the year was available. Elder Case
planned schools for boys and girls at Rice Lake, a girls'
school at Grape Island, and another at the Credit. In
addition he was responsible for obtaining $200.00 with
which to complete the houses on Grape Island. There
was little money in Canada; so he went to the United
States and secured, not only money, but what was more
important, three missionaries—Mr. Benham, and the
Misses Barnes and Hubbard.
It was a great venture, this first industrial work among
the Indians; but Elder Case realized that their conversion
was only the beginning. They must be taught how to
live. Mr. Benham, as manager and teacher, instructed
the Indians and helped them in their first attempts at
agriculture. Miss Barnes, in addition to the ordinary
school work, taught sewing, knitting, straw-hat making,
and cooking. The mothers were assisted in their home
making and housekeeping as they changed from life
in the wigwams to the possible comforts of settled
living. They received valuable instruction regarding
the care of children and the general health of the family.
Houses with their well-kept gardens; comfort and joy
in their homes; the absence of the Indians' greatest
temptation—intoxicating liquors; and the change in the
general appearance of the people, made Grape Island
famous. Pagan Indians came to see for themselves if
the stories they heard could possibly be true and many
returned to their encampments free from the darkness
they had always known and with a glimpse of Christian
home life. Miss Hubbard carried on the same work at
Rice Lake as Miss Barnes was engaged in at Grape
In 1828 the work in Upper Canada, with a membership Indian
of 9,678 and fifty preachers, became independent of the Hiff10118'
Methodist Episcopal Church of the United States, but
the $700.00 a year which its Missionary Society continued
to give to the Indian work in Canada was gratefully
received. At the Annual Missionary Meeting held
during the Conference of 1828 the report of the Indian
work gave ten missions, twelve schools, 300 scholars
and 915 members. William Case was appointed General
Superintendent of the new Canadian Church, and the
Indian work continued under his supervision.
The responsibility of carrying on the work among the
Indians and in the ever-increasing new settlements in
Upper Canada was a gigantic undertaking for the Missionary Society which, with the independence of the
Canadian Church, ceased to be an auxiliary of the
Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church
in the United States.
Elder Case knew that the best evidence of the success Case
of the work among the Indians was the Indians them- collects
selves; so he frequently took school boys and Indian states for
preachers with him when invited to missionary anniver- work,
saries and conferences in the United States, where he
71 Rev. Geo.
and Peter
always received liberal gifts for the work. On one occasion, after the boys sang and recited, "The Female
Missionary Society" in New York gave $200.00, and
at a meeting in the same city twenty wedding rings were
placed upon the collection plate.
While there were about 1,000 Indian communicants
in 1828, there were probably five times that number
under the influence of the Methodist missionaries.
The schools increased so rapidly that Mr. Case said,
"If we did not know it was the work of the Lord, we
should tremble at our expenditure." There were several
sources of income: gifts of goods, such as building
material, books, cattle, tools, farm implements, seeds,
etc.; contributions from the Indians and from the income
of the tribes through the annual grants and payments
by the Government; grants from the Missionary Society;
and gifts of money secured by Elder Case as he travelled
through Upper Canada and the United States. The
greatest contribution to the work, and that which made
its expansion possible, was the volunteer service given
by the Indians and the sacrifices they made in order to
build schools and churches.
At the Conference of 1828 a committee was appointed
to correspond with the British Conference, in order
"to establish a friendly relation and intercourse between
the two connexions." This led to a union in 1833 of the
Methodist Episcopal Church in Canada with the
British Wesleyan Conference, and Methodism in Upper
Canada changed its name to the Wesleyan Methodist
Church in Canada.
In 1831, when the Rev. George Ryerson was sent to
England as the Canadian representative of the "International Committee of Religious Liberty," lately formed
in Canada, the Canadian Conference sent Peter Jones
with him to secure funds for the rapidly-growing Indian
missions and to superintend the printing of his translation of the Scriptures into Chippewa. When the Canadians called at the Wesleyan Mission House in London,
an unforeseen difficulty arose. The missionary sec-
retaries needed money for their own work and did not
feel justified in allowing appeals for Canada to be made
in their churches and at their missionary meetings.
They agreed, however, to give £300 to the Canadian
missions on condition that Peter Jones placed his whole
time at their disposal during his stay in England. This
offer was accepted, and the eloquent Indian won the
hearts of British Methodism. "He was the first convert
from a heathen people who had appeared before the
Methodist public in England." Up and down the country he travelled, telling his wonderful story at missionary
gatherings, church services and missionary anniversaries. His native dignity, his simple earnestness, and
the spiritual message which was never lacking in his
addresses, made an irresistible appeal. British Methodism was stirred to action. Gifts and generous offers
of support for the Indian work in Canada were received
by the Missionary Society, while a deeper interest was
aroused in the missionary work of British Methodism.
British missionary leaders caught a vision of the wonderful opportunity in a new field in the great colony of
which they knew so little. They were confident that
the resources of Canadian Methodism were inadequate
for the work—the appeal to England for funds was an
acknowledgment of this. While as a result of Peter Some
Jones' work the British Society received generous gifts results of
of money and many promises of support for the work in jones'
Canada, and the secretaries were willing to help, they work in
decided that financial support could not be given aside England-
from "powers of control." The transfer of Indian
missions and their incorporation into the work of the
British Missionary Society took place when Canadian
and British Methodism united in 1833.
While in England, Peter Jones made many friends and Gifts for
received invitations to make another visit. He was India"„o
delighted with the fine missionary spirit which he found
everywhere. The success of his work is indicated by
the following entry in his journal: "With great thankfulness and satisfaction I have succeeded in the object
of my mission in this country in collecting the follow:
amounts for the Canada Indian missions, namely:
"Grants from the Wesleyan Missionary Society     £300:   0:0
From benevolent persons   557: 19: 0
From the Quakers   174:   1: 6
£1,032:   0:6"
In  addition  he received  a  quantity of goods,  tools,
clothing, etc., and through the generosity of the British
and Foreign Bible Society a supply of his translation
of the Gospel of St. John, in Chippewa.
Upon his return to Canada he attended Conference
and favoured the proposed union of Canadian and British
Methodism, as he thought it would be of great benefit
to the Indian missions. When this union was effected
in 1833, the Indian missions of the Canadian Church
were Lake Simcoe, Rice Lake, Muncey, Credit, Grape
Island, Coldwater, Amherstburg (Wyandotte), Mohawk
of the Bay of Quinte, Scugog, Saugeen, Grand River.
The Rev. Joseph Stinson was appointed Superintendent
of Missions by the British Conference, his duties including
the general supervision of the work in the new settlements, as well as the Indian missions; the Rev. William
Case was made General Missionary of the Indian tribes
and given supervision of the Indian schools; the Rev.
Peter Jones and John Sunday were appointed evangelists
to the Indian tribes. As there were at this time only
four resident white missionaries appointed to the Indian
work, much of it was carried on by Indian volunteers
and by ministers in near-by circuits. Many of the
Indians had become efficient workers under Elder
Case, who was a discoverer not only of the needs of the
Indians, but also of men and women who could lead
them out of paganism and teach them how to live.
Among those who came under Case's guidance and
inspiration were: James Evans, the inventor of the Cree
Syllabic, and translator of Ojibway; Henry Steinhauer,
translator, missionary and patriot; George McDougall,
of the Great West, missionary, statesman and hero;
Peter Jones, who did pioneer work throughout Upper
Canada, translated hymns, catechism and Scriptures,
moved great audiences by his eloquence, and was a living
epistle which could be read even by the Indians;
John Sunday, whose droll wit, irresistible humour, gift John
of apt illustration, earnestness and passion for souls, Sunday,
made him a popular speaker at missionary meetings and preacher,
anniversaries. Once an abandoned, drunken, lazy
Indian, two months after his conversion Sunday was an
evangelist proclaiming that the religion of the "Black
Coats" was especially adapted to the red men; chiefs
put aside their tomahawks and became leaders of peace;
medicine men abandoned their incantations, rattles
and drums; and Indian tribes who had never heard the
Gospel story listened spell bound. A new day dawned
because Christ's love touched their hearts. While on
a visit to England, in addressing a congregation, Sunday
said, "I understand that many of you are disappointed
because I have not brought my Indian dress with me.
Perhaps if I had it on you would be afraid of me. Do
you wish to know how I was dressed when I was a pagan
I Indian? I will tell you—my face was covered with red
paint, I stuck feathers in my hair, I wore leggings and a
blanket, I had silver ornaments on my breast, a rifle on
my shoulder and a tomahawk and scalping knife in my
belt—that was my dress then. Now do you wish to
know why I wear it no longer? You will find the cause
in 2 Corinthians 5: 17—'Therefore if any man be in '
Christ he is a new creature: old things have passed away;
behold all things are become new.' When I became a
Christian, feathers and paint passed away. I gave my
silver ornaments to the mission cause." Holding up a
copy of the Ten Commandments in the Ojibway language,
he said: "That my tomahawk now! Blanket done
away!    Behold all things are become new!" Grape
Grape Island, opposite Belleville, the first "teaching"  Island
mission, proved too small for the work and too far from ™*^ t0
many of the tribes to become an effective industrial Rice Lake.
75 Alderville
home of
along the
St. Clair
mission, so in 1836-37 it was sold to the Government
and 4,000 acres of land on the south side of Rice Lake,
Northumberland County, were secured. This new
settlement was named Alderville, in honour of Dr. Alder,
the British Wesleyan secretary. Farms of fifty acres
each with a good frame cottage were provided and
an orchard planted on every farm. The teaching and
supervision begun at Grape Island were continued with
ample scope for development. From this time Alderville became the home of William Case, where he
successfully worked out his plan of an industrial mission
in connection with which the first boarding school was
established and manual training was introduced. The
buildings were destroyed by fire in 1862, and were not
rebuilt at this time.
Along the St. Clair River and in the neighbourhood of
what is now the beautiful city of Sarnia, there were
bands of Ojibway Indians in whom the Lieutenant-
Governor became deeply interested. His many efforts
to help them rise above the conditions of their pagan
life failed, owing to their nomadic habits and the readiness with which they adopted so many of the vices of
unscrupulous traders and godless white men of the
adjacent settlements. Perhaps His Excellency followed
the advice of those who said, "First civilize and then
Christianize." If so, he changed the plan, for through
the Colonial Governor the British Wesleyan Missionary
authorities were asked to undertake work among these
Indians as yet unreached by the Gospel. In response
to the request, Dr. Alder, one of the Secretaries of the
British Wesleyan Missionary Society, who in 1832 was
attending the annual meeting of the Eastern District
(Lower Canada which became part of the British
Wesleyan work in 1820), appointed the Rev. Thomas
Turner, of St. Armand, Lower Canada, to the St. Clair
mission. Mr. Turner's appointment marked the
entrance of the British Wesleyans into the Indian work
in Upper Canada. The newly-appointed missionary
knew nothing of the life and customs of the Indians,
nor of the hardships of pioneer life. He found the work
hard and discouraging and did not achieve the success
for which he prayed and faithfully worked. In 1834
he was succeeded by James Evans, whose experience
on other Indian missions and whose knowledge of the
language prepared him for this hard field, where he won
the Indians from pagan to Christian living.
In 1834 the British Conference sent out five missionaries for the Indian work, but after a short time all, with
one exception, entered the white work.
The union of 1833 between the Canada Conference and Union
the British Wesleyan Conference was dissolved in 1840. ge*Wgun
This affected the Indian missions to the extent that ;
many of them, Alderville among others, continued to be Canadian
•     • r      , t.   •   •   i      ttt     , tit-      • o      • Metho-
missions of the British Wesleyan Missionary bociety, dists
while those remaining under the Canada Conference dj>^ved'
were superintended by the Chairmen of the Districts
in which they were situated.    The principal cause for the
separation grew out of the old struggle against Clergy
Reserves, the British Wesleyans demanding "that the
continuation of the Government grant to the British
Wesleyan Missionary Society be cordially assented to
and supported by our Upper Canada brethren, even if its
payment should be ultimately transferred to the Clergy
' Reserve fund in that province."  "The Canada Conference was therefore left without a missionary treasury
and nearly all the missionaries adhering to it without their
half-year's salary, some of them bordering on starvation.
A treasury had to be created.    Travelling to and fro,  .
to hold missionary and revival meetings, became the
order of the day throughout the coming winter.    Money
poured into the coffers of the Church and souls were won
to Christ." Notwithstanding the invasion by British Civil and
Methodism into that of Upper Canada, the Canada [^t°US
Conference stood firm for equal civil and religious rights.
At the end of the year it was found that their missions
were supplied and that the increase in their membership
was 663.
77 Changing
of Indian
goes to
funds for
The work in Upper Canada had gradually extended to
Manitoulin Island, Sault Ste. Marie, Fort William and
along the south shore of Lake Superior where, in 1832,
John Sunday had travelled throughout a district of
240 miles. James Evans, who had been so successful in
his work in Upper Canada; Thomas Hurlburt, who the
Indians said was "an Indian in a white man's skin,"
for he dreamed, thought and taught Chippewan; and
Peter Jacobs and his wife, both Chippewans, were all
working in the wilderness district of Lake Superior in
1838. Far and near the news of the missionaries and
of the Gospel story was carried into hunting camps and
along the lonely trails, and Indians came asking that
missionaries be sent to them, some travelling several
hundred miles to make the request.
It was said in regard to the Indians "the first work
which succeeds is the spiritual. ... It often requires less time and pains to induce a roving Indian to
repent of his sins and believe in a Saviour, than to induce
him to build a house, cultivate a field or read a book.
Religion may be considered a solemn duty; civilization
a matter of choice." While this may be true, the tribes
that decided to accept Christianity began almost immediately the long process of civilization which grew
more difficult as hunting grounds became farms, towns
grew into cities and the Indian reserves were surrounded
by white settlements which usually added their evils
to those of the Indians.
The need of an industrial school for girls and boys, in
the western part of Upper Canada, so impressed Peter
Jones that he appealed to the Annual Conference of'
1844, with the result that he was commissioned to go to
England to obtain funds for the building. The Ojibway
Indians at Muncey town and at the New Credit sent
letters with him to England pledging their support and
co-operation; the Missionary Committee presented him
with a testimonial as to his work and integrity and commending him and his plan for the manual training
school, to Methodism of the Old Land. He had also
the hearty sympathy of the Governor-General of
Canada, who sent him a testimonial accompanied by a
substantial subscription. Before he left Canada the
Ojibway chiefs offered a free deed of 200 acres and
the Indians subscribed liberally toward the building fund.
It was proposed to build two schools, one for the boys The
and the other for the girls, each to accommodate one school pro-
hundred  pupils.    In  addition  to  a  common  English gramme-
education, the boys were to be taught farming and
useful trades, the girls sewing, housekeeping, knitting and
spinning, so that they would be fitted to become good
wives and home-makers.    It was hoped the schools would
prepare students to become preachers,  teachers,  and
leaders in their own communities where the adjustment
to settled living demanded new means of livelihood.
While in England Peter Jones lectured on the manners, England'
customs and religions of the Indians of Canada.    He was Corner-6
heartily welcomed in the homes and pulpits of British stone of
Methodism, as well as in the pulpits of other Protestant Muncey
Churches.    The response to his appeal for the residential i^d'islo.
school enabled him, upon his return to Canada, to pass
over to the Building Committee £1,313: 14: 3.   For the
equipment of the school he brought home an abundant
supply of hardware, cooking utensils, bedding and household linen, crockery, etc., given by friends whose generosity and thoughtfulness were not fully known until the
many cases were opened.    The corner-stone of the new
building was laid on July 17th, 1849.    The ceremony was
attended by many distinguished guests, including Lord
Elgin,   then   Governor-General  of  Upper  and   Lower
Canada.    With the opening of this school provision was
made for giving girls and boys training which the day
schools could not supply.
Indian missions of Upper Canada were the training
school of many of the missionaries who later went as
pioneers west of the Great Lakes. To tell the story
of how the Gospel reached the Indians of Upper Canada,
as it should be told, would require volumes instead of
pages. Down through the century we have built on the
foundation laid by Elder Case and his fellow workers.
The Indians in Ontario now (1924) number 26,411; of Indians
these 4,543 are registered as Methodists.   There are still and.
about 3,000 pagans scattered through the province, and of 1924.
these over 900 live on the Grand River reserve, where we
have two missions, namely—The New Credit, transferred
from the Credit River, Six Nations and Grand River.
To-day throughout the beautiful Grand River Reserve, 5,000
where there is a population of over 5,000 and where our Indians
work for the Indians began, there are good roads, fertile River
and well-tilled farms, attractive and comfortable homes, Reserve,
modern  and  well-built  schools  and   churches—indis-
pensable factors in real progress; all an evidence of
development, culture and Christianity.    It seems almost
incredible that here, within a half-hour's drive from the
city of Brantiord, pagan feasts and disgusting heathen
ceremonies, including the eating of "The White Dog,"
are still observed by nearly 1,000 Indians.    When they 1,000
gather for great annual festivals in their Long Houses Pa|an
or halls, pagan friends from the United States are wel- Grand
corned to help in services for the revival of old customs River,
and heathen beliefs.    In strange contrast to the "Long        •
House," and all that it implies, are the well-dressed
Indians, many of whom drive in their automobiles to
attend the ceremonies.
While there are pagan Indians still in Ontario, and in Indian
the   very   neighbourhood   in   which   Methodism   first Missions
established work, there are thousands whose lives are a Canada.
blessing  in   the  home,   church   and   community.    In
Eastern Canada (Ontario and Quebec) we have twenty-
one missions, seventeen missionaries and twenty-three
j school teachers. The most easterly missions are the
two in the Montreal Conference: one at Oka on the Ottawa River, where in the days gone by the Christian
Indians suffered persecution; the other on  Cornwall
I Island in the St. Lawrence, opposite the town of Cornwall, Ontario.   One of our most interesting missions,
piustorically, is that at Moraviantown, near Chatham,
Ontario, which was established by Moravian mission-
aries 135 years ago, and taken over by the Methodist I
Church about twenty years ago; its baptismal register
dates back to 1800.
In addition to these we have missions in Ontario at
Alderville and Hiawatha on Rice Lake, Chemong,
Scugog, Rama, Georgina Island, Christian Island, Gibson
Reserve, Parry Island, Cape Croker, Saugeen, Muncey,
Oneida, Stony and Kettle Points, St. Clair, and Walpole
Mt. Elgin The Mt. Elgin Residential School—the only Indian
Industrial boarding school in Ontario under the Methodist Church
ns i u e. —j^g i3een able, with the aid of the Government grant, to
meet its expenses for the last fourteen years. The large,
well-managed farm, fine stock with an enviable record
in prize-taking, well-built, commodious school and farm
buildings, and an efficient staff, combine to make an
institution of which the Church is justly proud, and
which the Dominion Government registers "Grade A."
The results of the work of the school can never be
gathered, for who is able to estimate the influence of the
girls and boys who through their training are prepared
to do their share of the world's work? Last year the
enrolment was 165. During the Great War eighty Mt.
Elgin boys went overseas, some never to return; of those
who came back a number are farming under the Soldiers'
Settlement Act. After leaving the school the boys find
employment as railway engineers, firemen, brakemen,
blacksmiths, farmers, workers in flax mills and factories,
and as day labourers; a few become school teachers, while
a number gladly go home to help their fathers. Many
of the girls marry; some are engaged in housework or I
other suitable employment. Both boys and girls I
contribute in establishing better home and community
The co-operation of the Government, the Church and
the Indian girls and boys has made possible the results
obtained in the school. Upon these three factors working
together depends the solution of many of the problems
which are so perplexing in our Indian work to-day.
82 v 4>2 Chapter VIII
In 1840 the British Wesleyans opened a mission in the British
Hudson Bay Territory, the announcement of which ap- We?leyans
peared in the British Wesleyan Magazine for March, as Joric in
follows: , Hudson
"North America—Hudson Bay Territory:The Revs, ferritor
G. Barnley, W. Mason, and R. T. Rundle embarked at
Liverpool by The Sheridan for New York, on March
16th, on their way to the territory of the honourable
Hudson's Bay Company, to commence missionary operations among the settlers and native tribes of that vast
region of North America, under the protection and
chiefly at the expense of the Company, whose proposals
to the Society have been of the most honourable
The Hudson's Bay Company discouraged the opening The
of Roman Catholic missions in the Far North, but were liberality
anxious to have Methodist missions established through- Hudson's
out their territory, owing to the wonderful results of Bay
Methodism in Upper Canada.   The Company was very ComPany>
liberal in the financial provision it made for the first
missionaries sent out.    It undertook to bear the ordinary
expenses of maintenance and travelling, and subscribed
£100 towards the outfit and travelling expenses from
England, of each missionary.   James Evans was put in
charge of the new venture and made Chairman of the
District, with headquarters at Norway House; George
Barnley was stationed at Moose Factory and Abitibi;
William Mason at Rainy Lake; and Robert Rundle at
Edmonton and Rocky Mountain House.   Peter Jacobs,
" who had lately worked among the  Indians of Lake
Superior,  and  Henry  Steinhauer,  a  clever,   educated
Ojibway, were appointed assistants to William Mason
at Rainy Lake and Fort Alexander.
83 Travelling
to  Lake
The missionaries arranged to travel from Montreal
with the Hudson's Bay Company's brigade, James
Evans, Steinhauer, and Jacobs going from Upper Canada
to join them. Evans missed the train and when he
arrived at Montreal he found only one of the missionaries
from England, the others having left with the brigade
on their long journey to the north. The missionaries
left behind were fortunate in being able to travel by
steamer to Lake Superior, but from that point the
journey was by canoe. Arriving at Norway House the
first week in August, Evans was welcomed not only
by the kindly officials of the Hudson's Bay Company,
but also by Robert Rundle, who had arrived on June
5th. While making arrangements to continue his
journey to Edmonton, 1,000 miles away, Rundle had
begun his missionary work, and in the seventy-nine
Indians he had baptized Evans found the nucleus of a
The district was almost a continent in extent, stretching from Lake Superior to Northern Alberta. According
to the report of the British Wesleyan Missionary Society,
"Evans at Norway House was at the centre of his
1,500-mile circuit, over which the only means of travelling
was by canoe, dog train and snowshoe." It was estimated
that there were at least 100,000 Indians between Hudson
Bay and the foothills of the Rockies: the work was as
extensive as the territory.
The Hudson's Bay Company supplied the missionaries
with provisions, canoes and houses and gave them letters
of introduction to the factors in charge of their forts
or trading posts, at which they were always welcomed,'
protected, and afforded an opportunity of meeting the
Norway House held a strategic position in relation to
the West. The brigades of canoes from York Factory
and the Red River on their way to and from Athabaska
and the Mackenzie Rivers, passed by this old-established
post. Evans began his work in high spirits. He accepted the invitation of Donald Ross, the Hudson's
Bay factor, to live in the fort until he had decided
upon the location of the mission. There he spent the
winter instructing the people and studying the language.
In the spring he chose an island in Playgreen Lake, about
two miles from Norway House, as the best location for
the mission. A warm friendship had been formed between the enthusiastic missionary and the hospitable
factor; in his honour the new mission was called Rossville.
Evans realized the opportunity Norway House afforded
of reaching many widely-scattered tribes throughout
the great North, for their representatives were found in
every brigade of canoes. The Indians were principally
Crees, a tribe of Algonquin stock, allied to the Micmacs,
Bloods, Ojibways, Piegans and Blackfeet.
With the help of the Indians, Evans built a church, Mission
school, mission house,  and twenty homes for Indian buildings
families.    A Christian village was soon established at
Rossville.    In the school the three R's were taught with
good results, but the chief joy of the children was singing
the hymns translated by the missionary.
In 1836, when in Upper Canada, Evans was occupied Evans
with the translation of Scriptures and hymns into Perfects
Ojibway. He had invented a syllabic system which Syllabic,
would have given the Scriptures to the Indians in very
simple form, but the Bible Society refused it, and
published the translation in Roman letters. In his new
field, where the people were without a written language,
he determined to apply the principles of his syllabic
system in producing one. Ten months after his arrival
he had the unspeakable joy of discovering that in his
syllabic characters he had provided a written language
simple and adequate. Men, women and children readily
learned to read, some in a few days, others in as many
weeks. At first great sheets of birch bark, on which
the wonderful characters were drawn, were used in
teaching the eager and astonished scholars. Evans
saw in the- simple syllabic characters a great evangelistic
agency, for he knew the Scriptures and hymns could be
taken into far-off camps and to distant tribes which the
85 The
Bible in
missionary could not reach. Where could type be made?
How could he get ink? England was a long way off,
and the Hudson's Bay Company did not approve of
printing presses coming into their territory. But the
man who invented the wonderful "birch-bark talk"
always found a way, or made one. He whittled type
from blocks of wood with his pocket knife, made ink of
soot and fish oil, and printed his first translations on
birch bark. Later he made moulds and from tea lead
and old bullets cast his first lead type. During the
summer of 1841, with this ingenious equipment and the
aid of an old jack press which had been used for packing
furs, he printed 5,000 leaflets and 100 copies of a sixteen-
page volume of hymns, the leaves of which were birch
bark and the covers deer skin—the first books published
in the North-west Territory. Evans wrote to the London
office of the Hudson's Bay Company, in 1841, asking
them to supply a printing press and type. This they
did, upon condition that it would be used for no other
purpose than printing religious literature.
Although it is over eighty years since Evans gave to
the Indians throughout the West their written language,
no one has been able to improve its form or find anything better. During the few years he spent in the
Hudson Bay District, he carried on the work of transla- I
tion. Steinhauer, who was a Greek and Hebrew
scholar, was transferred from Rainy Lake to assist
Evans. He translated the Old Testament, from Job
to Malachi, inclusive, and the New Testament from
Acts to Revelation, inclusive. John Sinclair, an educated native at Norway House, translated the other'
books of the Old and New Testaments.
In 1861 the British and Foreign Bible Society published the first edition of the complete Bible in Cree,
although for years portions of Scripture and hymns
had been printed and widely distributed. This literature proved a wonderful preparation for other missionaries who, as they began their work, found in many a
camp some one who had learned of the Gospel through CANADIAN METHODIST MISSIONS
the songs sung around camp-fires, on the lonely trails,
or by canoe men as they swung their paddles to the
rhythm of the music. The Bible stories had a strange
fascination for the Indians; they were their only literature. Those who could read gathered groups to listen^^
and the Gospel truth reached many hearts.
Rundle arrived at the Hudson's Bay fort at Edmonton Rundle
on September 18th, 1840, and visited Rocky Mountain £dFoi^tol
House in 1841. He was cordially welcomed by the
factors of the Company, and made their forts his headquarters. He preached to the employees of the forts,
and as they came to trade had an opportunity of meeting
bands of Sarcees, Crees, Stonies, Blackfeet and Piegan
Indians. Each band was a challenge, and Rundle accepted invitations which took him to distant camps and
among Indians renowned as treacherous warriors. On
one occasion he was accorded a great reception by the
chief of the Blackfeet, who escorted and welcomed
him to his camp and entertained him in his own lodge.
While Rundle could not erect mission  buildings nor Rundle's
establish a mission centre, he faithfully carried out his P^nof
commission  to  preach  the  Gospel, and  in  his quest
for  souls  was  successful.    Among  his  converts  were
Maskepeton (Broken Arm), the great peace chief of the Chief
Blood Crees, and many of his people; Ben Sinclair, a Broken
native who laid the foundation of the mission at White
Fish Lake; Pakan, the chief whose loyalty during the
rebellion of 1885 was acknowledged by the Government
(his widow still lives at White Fish Lake); Peter Erasmus,
translator and  interpreter,  now in his  ninety-second
year,  still   hale and  hearty  and  drives six miles   to
church every Sunday.    While these men are outstanding,  hundreds of others whose names will never be
known were made free from their superstitions and the
power of the medicine man.
Rundle returned to England in 1849, broken in health
from years of strenuous work and  many hardships.
One of the most beautiful peaks in the Canadian Rockies
87 Re-union
of Canadian and
Bay Dis-
bears his name, a fitting memorial to the first Protestant
missionary of the Far West.
Some of the leaders in Canadian Methodism had felt
keenly the rivalries and jealousies arising out of the
strained relations between British and Canadian Methodism, which, although comparatively free from bitterness, were a serious hindrance to the work and the cause
of much unnecessary expenditure of missionary funds.
Within a couple of years after the separation of 1840,
steps were taken towards reunion. The Canadian
Conference of 1846 announced its readiness for reunion
upon the same terms as the union of 1833. This was
consummated in 1847, and the Rev. Enoch Wood was
made Superintendent of Missions, acting in this capacity
for the British Missionary Society and the Canadian
Conference jointly. There was great rejoicing over the
reunion and all looked forward to the immediate expansion of the work.
In addition to the missionary money contributed by
the Missionary Society of the Canada Conference, or
what was received from other sources, the parent
Society in England made an annual grant of £1,000
to Indian missions and £600 to the work in new and
destitute settlements.
After the reunion interest increased throughout Upper
Canada in the work in Hudson Bay District. Rundle
was still winning the Indians in the Edmonton and
Rocky Mountain mission; Peter Jacobs was at Rainy
Lake; William Mason, who had gone to Norway House
in 1843 as assistant to James Evans and Henry Steinhauer, was school teacher, interpreter and translator. .
These were the men left to carry on the work when
Evans returned to England in 1846.
With a view to transferring these missions to the care
of the Canada Conference, in 1851 they were placed by
the British Wesleyans under the superintendency of
Dr. Wood. At the Conference of 1853 the Hudson Bay
District was taken over from the British Missionary
Society and amalgamated, much to its advantage, with CANADIAN METHODIST MISSIONS
the Indian work of Canadian Methodism. Among the
reasons given in the British Wesleyan report for the
transfer were: "The comparative nearness of the
Hudson Bay to Canada," "The supply of labourers
available,"and "The heartiness of Canadian support of
Wesleyan missions." There were at this time 32,364
members in Upper Canada—a supporting constituency
ready to sacrifice in promoting the important work of
While the work in the Hudson Bay District was
entirely separate from Canadian Methodism, from its
beginning in 1840 until 1853, when it came under the
Canada Conference, Rundle's work in what is now the
Province of Alberta, Steinhauer's translations, Evans'
work at Norway House, his inestimable gift of the Cree
Syllabic and his pioneering from Norway House across
half a continent to Lake Athabasca, laid the foundation
of Canadian Indian missions throughout that vast
About this time the Canadian Legislature was winding
up the business of the Clergy Reserve Fund. One of the
disbursements to be adjusted was £700 paid annually
to the British Wesleyan Missionary Society for work
in Canada, and to which the Canada Conference was
not favourable. However, a settlement was negotiated
by the British Wesleyans and £10,000 obtained on the
principle of commutation; this sum was invested for the
benefit of Canadian missions. At last the question of
Clergy Reserves was settled for all time.
In 1854 the Rev. John Ryerson was sent to the
Hudson Bay Territory to reorganize the missions of the
district on which the British Wesleyan Missionary Society
had spent about $44,000 since sending out its first missionaries in 1840. Mr. Ryerson was accompanied by
the Rev. Robert Brooking, who was appointed to Oxford
House; the Rev. Allan Salt, who settled at Rainy Lake;
and the Rev. Thomas Hurlburt, appointed Chairman of
the District with headquarters at Norway House.
Clergy Steinhauer
in the field,
The work was in rather a discouraging condition.
The mission had suffered from the withholding of support from England resulting in the dwindling of the
staff to one man, the difficulties of great distances and
the climate, which, according to the British Wesleyan
Report "was the bitterest on the face of the earth."
Rundle had left Edmonton in 1848, and no one had
taken his place. Barnley, on account of ill health, had
been compelled to return home. Mason had united
with the Church Missionary Society. Rainy Lake had
been without a missionary for four years. After fourteen
years all that remained of the mission when Hurlburt
began to rebuild was 120 members at Norway House,
Henry Steinhauer representing the missionary force, and
the Christian Indians scattered throughout the West
without any one to shepherd them.
With the coming of the new missionaries and the
readjustment of the field, the expansion of Indian
missions throughout the West began. Through an
interpreter Hurlburt at once commenced preaching.
As an Ojibway scholar he had few equals. Now he was
confronted by the Cree language and the people clamouring for books. He began to study Cree with a determination which conquered. He talked with the people,
worked at translating, studied the Syllabic and at the
end of three months used it in reading the Scriptures
in church services.
As Norway House was the central depot for the trade
of the interior, the news that a missionary had arrived
was soon carried to the camps throughout the West.
The Indians came from near and far, some 800 miles,
to hear the Gospel. A few families moved from Fort
Churchill, near the Eskimo country, to find a new home
at Norway House. While the population at the mission
was about 350, during the spring and summer 1,500
lodges, with a population of probably 12,000, tented on
the plains.
Hurlburt soon realized that the demand for books
must be met. In the printing office which Evans had
used, he found the old printing press given by the
Hudson's Bay Company, a supply of paper donated
by the British and Foreign Bible Society, and type,
which the children had handled, so mixed that he almost
despaired of using it. With a courage equal to the need,
he began the work and kept at it day and night, until
in 1856 he had printed, with the aid of an Eskimo, 1,000
copies of St. John's Gospel and 2,000 copies of three
Epistles. These were precious books, sewn and bound
by Miss Adams, the school teacher, and some of her
scholars. Hurlburt almost forgot the fatigue he had
endured in making type during long nights in the old
kitchen, with the temperature at forty degrees below
zero, so that the type setting could go on next day, and
that he had counted four hundred pieces of the crude
hand mould as a satisfactory night's work. What did
it all matter? The books were finished! His task
was to reorganize the mission and he began by giving
the people the Scriptures. When the complete New
Testament was published Indians sat up all night and
by the light of their camp-fires read the story of Jesus
and studied His teachings. From the day that Hurlburt
and Brooking entered the work it has gone forward.
Ryerson, accompanied by Henry Steinhauer, who had
been for three years at Oxford House, in 1854 went to
England, travelling from York Factory in one of the
Hudson's Bay Company's boats. The next year he
wrote an account of his trip in a little volume, "Hudson's
Bay, or a Missionary Tour in the Territory of the Hudson's Bay Company," the first missionary book published
by the Methodist Book Room. Among other interesting
records which it contains, are the following:
"There are only eighteen Protestant missionaries in
the North-west Territories: thirteen Anglicans, six of
whom are in the Red River settlement, four Methodists
and one Presbyterian."
"The Anglicans have seven places of worship. £10,000
sterling has been received as a present from the Chief
Factor of the Hudson's Bay Company.
"The work is under one missionary of the Church
Missionary Society; one missionary of the Society for the
Propagation of the Gospel; and one missionary under the
Colonial Church and School."
" In the Red River settlement there is a public library
which is widely used."
"The Presbyterians have a good stone church about
five miles from Upper Fort Garry. The Rev. John
Black is the minister. The church cost £1,000 sterling.
In Upper Canada it would cost about £500. This settlement was begun by Lord Selkirk. The first settlers
were Highlanders who arrived in 1812."
"At Fort Garry there is a Roman Catholic church
which will hold 800 or 1,000 persons, a convent and a
"Mr. Hunter, Anglican missionary, said that one
day one of his people came to him and with great
gravity and seriousness said, T know that Christianity
is true, that it is the great, the best religion, much
better, very much better than the pagan—my old religion.
Now, when I was a pagan and followed my old ways—the
religion of my fathers—I could eat eight rabbits for my
dinner, and then was not satisfied, but since I have
become a Christian and follow the new way, six rabbits
at a time are plenty for me; I don't want any more!' "
"Mr. Ballantyne says, 'There is no music in the soul
of a Cree.' This may be, and probably is true of the
soul of a pagan Cree; but it is not true of a Christian
Cree, or any other Christian Indian. Paganism has no
music in it anywhere, or with any people; it is a monotonous system of unkindness, gloom and sorrow, from
the beginning to the end; but Christianity, the constraining love of Christ—the sweet music of the Saviour's
name—puts music into the soul of the heathen, even
of the pagan Cree, and brings out the music also in
fervent aspirations after Christ and in melodious songs
of praise to the honour of His Name. When I was at
York depot, there were encamped outside of the fort
some dozen families of the Cree Indians; three or four
of the camps were inhabited by Christians, a number of
whom were excellent singers. I seldom passed the
camps without hearing them singing, and the melodiousness and the correctness of it I have seldom heard „*»»
equalled." The singing which Ryerson so often heard
was a tribute to the musical talent and consecration of
James Evans, who through the great hymns of the
Church had taught the Indians to sing the Gospel.
When  Steinhauer  returned  from   England  he  and Steinhauer
another   young   missionary,   Thomas   Woolsey,   were ™d.
ordained at the Conference of 1855 at London, Ontario, ordained.
Together these two went to their far-off field, Edmonton
and Rocky Mountain House, where Rundle had worked
from 1840 to 1848.
During-- the three years Hurlburt spent at Norway
House, wonderful changes had taken place. The people
had become more industrious and provident. Farming,
fur hunting and employment with the Hudson's Bay
Company furnished the means of securing an abundant
supply of good food, a better class of house, and needed
comforts. Stoves and cows, modern, comfortable clothing instead of the old native costume, better health,
reverence in public worship, and honest living, were
outward signs of Christian progress.
When Hurlburt, on account of his wife's health, re- Hurlburt
turned in 1856 to the Indian work in Upper Canada, ind ,.
Brooking, who had spent three years at Oxford House, return to
took his place.    Three years later he too, and for the Ontario.
same reason, found it necessary to return to Upper
Canada, and as Hurlburt had done, again took charge
of an Indian mission.
"Edmonton and the Rocky Mountains," the mission Steinhauer
to which Steinhauer and Woolsey were appointed in ?^d .    ,
1855, included all west of Manitoba and Keewatin, as mission
far as the foothills of the Rockies.    In this extensive field.
field Woolsey and Steinhauer were the only missionaries ONE HUNDRED YEARS OF
until 1859, when the first missionary of the Church of
England went into the Mackenzie River District.
The officers of the Hudson's Bay Company welcomed
our missionaries, as they had Rundle fifteen years before,
and offered them residence in the fort. While it became
Woolsey's headquarters, the chief work of the missionaries was out on the plains following the Indians from
camp to camp, preaching in their lodges and teaching
little groups of children.
Steinhauer opened a mission at Lac-le-Biche, 150
miles north-east of Edmonton, and from this centre
made long journeys through the district, hunting out
roving bands of Indians. The smoke of a wigwam
signalled opportunity. As he spoke their language, the
Indians welcomed him and gladly listened to his message.
Lac-le-Biche was five days' journey from the nearest
Hudson's Bay post where provisions were obtainable,
and a great distance from the plains where the buffalo
were hunted. Probably Steinhauer chose Lac-le-Biche
as it was out of the reach of the enemy—the murderous
Blackfeet—but as access to it was difficult, at the end
of four years he decided to move the mission to White
Fish Lake, where there was good land, abundance of
fish and where he could build church, school and homes
for permanent work. When the plan to establish a
settlement was submitted to the Indians, many of
whom had become Christians, they readily agreed,
thankful for the prospect of a school for their children,
settled homes for their families and the protection of a
mission centre. To Steinhauer's surprise and joy, when
he arrived at the new location he found Benjamin
Sinclair, a sincere Christian and one of Rundle's converts, who had preached to his friends and people during
the seven years there had been no missionary. He at
once volunteered to help Steinhauer, and through long
years they worked together at White Fish Lake.
Woolsey did not put up buildings at Edmonton, as he
made the fort his headquarters.   When there he preached
to its community of one hundred and fifty, and to the
Indians as they came to trade. While a guest at the
fort he succeeded in establishing a friendliness with the
Blackfeet, the Crees and the Stonies and on one occasion witnessed the making of a peace treaty between
the Crees and the Blackfeet, who were dreaded as
ruthless warriors. In 1857 he opened a mission at
Pigeon Lake, where he hoped to reach these Indians,
away from the fort and the influence of the American
whiskey traders. Later, he began work at Smoking
Lake, but when George McDougall, the Chairman of the
District, visited the Saskatchewan country in 1862,
Victoria (now Pakan) on the Saskatchewan was decided
upon as the better site and Smoking Lake was abandoned.
Woolsey felt keenly the disadvantage of not being An
able to speak the language, and made a strong plea that aPPeal 'or
time be given the missionaries for language study.    The study,
following is an extract from a letter he wrote to the
Missionary Secretary:  "The  essential  preliminary  to
the entrance of a missionary to his work is the acquisition of the language spoken by the people among whom
he is called to labour.    Every missionary ought, at the
very outset, to determine that by the help of God he
will preach to the people in their tongue as well as if he
were a native." He continually expressed regret that
he had to depend upon an interpreter, although he could
read and write the Cree Syllabic and was able to teach
others to use it.
Woolsey left a heritage of Kingdom service in the men Indians
he had taught and led to Christ.    Among others was Woolsey
Maskepeton (Broken Arm), a Cree warrior famous for paganism,
his courage and when a pagan dreaded by his enemies.
His first contact with Christianity was when he came
under the influence of Rundle. Woolsey taught him to
read the Cree Syllabic and gave him a Bible which he
greatly prized.   After he became a Christian he worked
for   peace among the tribes and preached "love your
enemies."   One day,  while travelling with  the missionaries, they met an old man with whom the missionaries shook hands.    For a minute or two Maskepeton
turned aside, then offered his hand to the old man—
the murderer of his son.    In the old days this meeting
would have ended in bloodshed.    It was hard for this
Christian warrior to overcome the spirit of revenge, but
he  conquered  through  the  love  which  had  changed
his life.    Red Bank, who when baptized was given the
'    name Thomas Woolsey, also became a peacemaker and
local preacher.   Another was Chief Lapatack, who never
failed to call his people together night and morning for
prayer.    Such men as these became leaders of their
people and fellow-workers with the mission-builders for
whom Rundle and Woolsey had laid the foundation of
the work.
George jn 1 g60 George McDougall, who had worked for nine
at Norway years among the Indians of Upper Canada, was stationed
House,        at  Norway House,  and  appointed  Chairman  of  the
Hudson Bay District.    Under his energetic leadership
the mission took on new life.    A number of young
natives  were  enlisted  for  volunteer  service  as  they
travelled with the Hudson's Bay freighters across the
continent or lived in the hunting camps.
McDougall      After  spending  two  years  in  the  Lake  Winnipeg
by*the       district,  George McDougall, accompanied  by his son
West. John, visited the western section of his extensive and
almost  unknown  field.    During  the  long  journey  of
1,200 miles the missionary preached in the Hudson's
Bay forts, in the Indian camps and along the trails.
As he travelled from Fort Garry to Edmonton McDougall
was captured by the needs and opportunities of the
boundless  Saskatchewan  country.    He  heard  its call
for to-day and to-morrow, and in 1863 answered the
challenge by moving his family and settling at Victoria,
the new mission he had located the year before.    The
Indians soon learned to trust this strong, sturdy, manly
Christian who always welcomed them at his mission
on the transcontinental highway of the Saskatchewan..
He never failed them, and earned the name they called
him, "the man of one word."
The missions at Victoria and White Fish Lake were
one thousand miles from a hardware store or sawmill, i
yet as a result of hard work and with the aid of the ;
Indians, buildings of hand-sawn lumber were put up.
At both missions, George McDougall established schools,
the first Protestant mission schools west of Portage la
The missionaries were notified that the Hudson's
Bay Company could no longer carry their supplies nor
sell them goods, sixty dollars a barrel for flour being
refused; so the long trip to Fort Garry, taking from
April to August, was necessary to obtain winter supplies.
The principal food upon which the missionaries 1
depended was buffalo meat. This was procured by s
accompanying the Indians on their hunts and preserving the meat for use through the winter. The winter
supply of fish for themselves and dogs was secured
early in the fall: Jack Frost kept this fresh in his free
cold storage of the north land.
In the wide horizon of the prairies—their wealth still
undiscovered and their miles of fertile land, ready for ]
the plough, still untilled—McDougall saw the future
homes of millions. "The men who founded the missions
were not in quest of farming locations; their object was
to save souls, and the missions were chosen to reach the
people." This was true, but when McDougall saw the
prairies he thought of the missions in the Lake Winnipeg
District, where granite rocks and swamps abounded,
and urged bringing the Indians of that region farther
south where they could, by cultivating the land, be
saved from starvation when fishing and hunting failed.
McDougall appealed again and again for men and ]
money.   There were thousands of Indians, he said, near ]
Edmonton, without a missionary.    The whole country \
south and west of Edmonton was utterly devoid of settle- i
ment.    South of the Saskatchewan River there was not
even   a   trading  post;   twenty-five   years   earlier   the
Hudson's Bay Company had established one at  Bow
River (Calgary), but discontinued it on account of the
97 Upper
for help.
hostility of the Indians. Now, these same tribes were
continually warring among themselves and distrusted
all white men on account of their bitter experiences with
the American whiskey-traders. Into their camps the
missionaries ventured and sometimes found Christians;
out on the trails they followed the hunters, often risking
their lives; at the missions they sheltered those in
distress; gradually trust took the place of suspicion.
The buffalo became scarce and the people suffered
during the winter of 1867-68. The medicine man said,
" It is the presence of the white people." A large meteorite
which was feared and worshipped by the Indians, George
McDougall had removed and sent to Victoria College,
Toronto, where it may be seen in the main hall. The
medicine men predicted calamities when it was taken :
away, and when the hunt failed some of the Indians
thought the predictions had come true.
Itinerating over the vast territory, often accompanied
by Broken Arm (Maskepeton), Peter Erasmus, and
other Christian Indians, the missionaries gathered little
groups of Christians. The urgent need of both men and
money must be met. McDougall felt that the written
cry for help, with only two mails a year, lost its emphasis long before it reached Missionary Headquarters.
He decided to go back to Upper Canada, appeal for
workers for the Indian work, urge the establishment of a
mission to the settlers in the Red River district, and
help the people of older Methodism to realize the
continent of opportunity and responsibility which lay -
between the Great Lakes and the Mountains.
At this time, 1867, John McDougall was stationed at
Edmonton and the Rocky Mountains; Henry Steinhauer at White Fish Lake; George McDougall at Victoria
(Pakan); Charles Stringfellow at Norway House; John
Sinclair at Oxford House. The membership of the
district was nine whites and 642 Indians. A number of
the Indians, for the first time included in the membership, had been led out of paganism by Woolsey, who
left the field in 1864. CANADIAN METHODIST MISSIONS
George McDougall's visit in 1868 to the newly-formed George
Dominion is one of the historical milestones of Canadian ~ c"
Methodism.    Up and down throughout the East he told returned
the story of the West, appealed to the people, and the with
Church was roused to action.   He returned with the j^iic1011"
Rev. George Young for work among the white people
in Fort Garry and vicinity, the Rev. Egerton Ryerson
Young for Norway House, the Rev. Peter Campbell
for the Saskatchewan country, and Ira Snyder and his
brother to teach Indian schools.
With the founding of the Dominion of Canada, in
1867, her statesmen were looking forward to the West
. joining Confederation. The Indians and the Hudson's
Bay Company were two important factors for consideration. Settlement on a financial basis could be easily
arranged with the latter, but with the Indians and half-
breeds it would be more difficult.
Conditions were causing the missionaries much Blackfeet
anxiety. The Blackfeet were warring with the Crees; warnng
food was scarce, as the buffalo had gone south; some of Crees.
the Indians were restless and had threatened to destroy
the missions, but superstition and fear prevented; the
Hudson's Bay Company's forts had been disturbed
and brigades plundered. Maskepeton, the Christian
Cree chief, had gone to a Blackfeet camp for the purpose
of arranging a peace among the tribes, carrying in one
hand a Bible, and in the other a white flag of peace.
He was treacherously shot, his body cut into pieces,
tied to the tails of horses and dragged through the camp.
The Blackfeet then murdered most of the old chief's
family, besides seven Christian Crees. The murderous
onslaught, it is thought, was to revenge the death of
the chief-elect of the Blackfeet, who had been shot
and scalped by a Cree, near Edmonton, a few years
The death of Maskepeton was a national loss to both Death of
whites and Indians. He was a staunch Protestant and a Maske-
faithful friend of the missionaries and white men from national
the days he had interpreted for Rundle.   East of the loss.
mountains his influence was greater than any other
chief. Throughout the whole country he was known
by both friend and foe as a Christian and a peacemaker. In an attempt to make peace he was a martyr
to revenge—the only law the pagan Indian knows.
The winter of 1868-69 was one of bitter experience
to the missionaries, as the following extract from a letter
of George McDougall, dated May 9th, shows: "Your
missionaries in the Saskatchewan will have no opportunity of corresponding with you for some time. Scarcity of food compels us to take our families with us to the
plains, and we shall not be able to return before July.
This has been the hardest winter I have ever witnessed
in the Western country. With scarcely any snow, the
hunter has found it next to impossible to kill animals,
but notwithstanding our sufferings in temporal things,
a blessed influence has rested upon our labours. Pray
for us. We are often deeply conscious that the Lord
reigns. We shall never be discouraged." Writing again
in August, Mr. McDougall says, "Our spring hunt was
a success. In a camp of one thousand, five thousand
buffalo were slaughtered, and 120,000 pounds of dried
meat was secured. All felt that if our crops were as
abundant as in years past there would be no starvation."
The several tribes which gathered in the great hunt
afforded the missionary the opportunity of preaching
every evening.
On the way home McDougall was told that the crops
at Victoria were a failure, the seed having dried in the
ground. There was no hope of reaching the Red River,
and Benton in the United States, where supplies could
be obtained, was shut off by the Blackfeet. "There was
but one course open," writes the missionary, "and
that was to strike for the buffalo country. For months
past we have lived on flesh and fowl, and for eighteen
months to come we have no prospect of a change.
Pemmican has been the staple dish on our table, yet I
must confess I have little relish for tallow and pounded
meat. My wife says it is better not to think of bread
which we cannot have, but the sight of a four-pound
loaf would produce in my heart the profoundest
During the months following the murder of Maskepeton, the Crees killed over one hundred of the
Blackfeet. In retaliation the Blackfeet determined to
carry the war into the Cree country and while the missionary was absent procuring food they made a raid
on Victoria and many of the people suffered. The following entries in George McDougall's journal, of
August 26th and September 1st, 1869, reveal conditions
under which he heroically carried on the work:
"Hard times. All order has fled. Men, women, and
children are seen running in every direction in search
of berries and roots—anything that will satisfy the cravings of hunger. For days they have had scarcely any
food, and the great camp which so recently passed over
this trail left nothing for us; but how true, 'Man's extremity is God's opportunity.' Earnestly have we
prayed for help and now it comes. One of our hunters
signals from a hill that buffalo are in sight. Hurrah!
Hurrah! In a moment all the sufferings of the past are
forgotten. The runner mounts his horse and dashes
off in the direction indicated. From a rising ground
we witness the charge. In less than ten minutes ten
fat beeves are on the ground. Exclamations of joy are
shouted by the women. These buffalo will be baked,
boiled and roasted for supper."
"The great camps, the Edmonton, the Victoria, and
the Blackfeet, numbering more than 10,000 souls, are
all within a short ride of each other. The plain Crees,
driven in by the Blackfeet, have fled to us for protection. The Edmonton people have had- a skirmish
with the enemy, and blood was shed. Last evening
the Blackfeet sent us word that they would fight us
to-day at noon, and three hundred men are anxiously
awaiting them. I have ventured to say they will not
come. A long experience amongst red men has satisfied
me that when they threaten they seldom strike."
Geo. McDougall's
Prayers Besides hunting with the Indians the missionary had I
hunting      other duties.    He took advantage of the hunting camps
camps.        to bring peace.    Night and morning he gathered for
prayers as many as would come; he visited the sick,
and his tent was a refuge for the aged and the afflicted.
Above all he was the medium between bitter enemies.
Small- A scourge of smallpox, in 1870, carried off thousands
D°eaths in °^ Indians, and the mission house did not escape. Three
the of George McDougall's daughters and the young wife of
house11 Jonn McDougall died of the loathsome disease. The
missionaries tried to isolate the Indians exposed to
infection, but this was impossible. When the epidemic
was almost over the arrival of a medical health officer
from Fort Garry assisted the missionaries in their .
efforts to prevent further infection and wipe out the
Riel From the Red  River District came reports of an
uprising. uprising led by Louis Riel, a French half-breed. Not
Mc- knowing how this might affect the missions,  George
Dougall's McDougall, after hiding away his family from their
exposed position on the river highway, went at once
to Fort Garry, where he offered to be one of twenty men
to attack the fort, but the other nineteen did not respond
to the offer of the missionary who thirty-three years
before had seen volunteer service with Her Majesty's
troops in Upper Canada, during the rebellion of 1837.
George Returning from Fort Garry, George McDougall was
and John requested by the Government to visit the camps in the
Dougall interest of peace. Meanwhile, John McDougall had
in been going from camp to camp encouraging and corn-
Govern-, forting the Indians and assuring them that the Govern-
service. ment and the Hudson's Bay Company would guard
their interests. Now he, also, was commissioned to
explain the Government's proclamation of good-will
and to promise that all their dealings with the Indians
would be fair and honourable. The Hudson's Bay
Company at the same time asked him to convey to the
chiefs expressions of their friendship.
George McDougall sent to Governor Macdougall a Methodists
statement regarding the state of the country and Joyalto
urging the importance of sending commissioners to melt™"
arrange treaties and make peaceful settlement with the
tribes. He also advised that no surveyors or other
white men come into the country until conditions were
more settled. The Indians, at the suggestion of the
missionaries, sent a signed petition for help and protection. "A conference of missionaries and Hudson's
Bay factors was held at Edmonton and the Roman
Catholic priests asked to declare their intentions. They
were informed, come what would, it was our (Methodist
missionaries) determination not to take the oath prescribed by Riel. For the sake of the Indians, the.
priests agreed to join us in securing ammunition and a
guard of one hundred men for Edmonton." As a letter
was received from Fort Garry bearing the news that the
trouble was practically over, no action was taken.
The Government, the Indians, and our Church
recognized the value of the services of the missionaries
during the anxious days of adjustment preparatory to
taking over the country from the Hudson's Bay Company. In the interests of its trade the Company had
always been careful to withhold information regarding
the wonderful land it had so long controlled. The transfer to the Canadian Government was made in 1870.
Requests for civil law, protection, and the suppression North-
of the liquor traffic, resulted in the immediate appoint- Y^st .
ment of two magistrates, and in 1874 in the organization p0°jcete
of the North-west Mounted Police. With their coming
law and order were established. Through all the
troubles and disturbances our missionaries held their
ground with the Indians and when conditions became
normal from many camps came requests for missionaries.
In 1873 John McDougall opened a mission in the foot- Morley
hills of the Rockies, on the Bow River, a few miles west miss>on
of the present city of Calgary.    In honour of Dr. Morley °^e '
Punshon the mission was called Morleyville.    While this
mission was opened for the Mountain Stonies, it afforded
103 Dougall's
an opportunity of reaching the Plain Crees and the
Blackfeet. It needed the courage John McDougall
possessed and the faith he had in the care and protection
of God, to be the first white man to settle permanently
in a territory where the Crees and Blackfeet were at
war. No one knew the Indians better than this pioneer
missionary, nor was there another man who could preach
to the several tribes in their own languages.
In speaking of the Indians, George McDougall said,
"One hardly knows how to apologize for the misstatements of intelligent tourists who travel these plains.
Their descriptions of the 'noble, virtuous, honest Indians'
are all from the ideal point of view. Let them come
down to real work, study the language and lives of the
people, live among them as your missionaries do, and
then will they be able to appreciate the wonderful
changes wrought by the Gospel." These pioneer missionaries saw lives changed; Christian communities take
the place of heathen camps; peace reign where once
hatred destroyed; Christian Indians die for the faith;
volunteer native workers make the extension of the work
After sixteen years of service for the Great West, in
1876, George McDougall—missionary-statesman, mission-builder, nation-builder and peacemaker—died on
the plains he knew so well. Returning home from securing food, he missed his way during a storm. A few
days later they found his body still in death, beneath a
snowy mantle. We cannot measure the influence of
his life; we only know he gave his all, fearlessly, gladly.
Faithful unto death, he gained his Crown of Life.
John McDougall's appeal for help for the destitute
children in the neighbourhood of Morley resulted in
establishing, in 1882, the McDougall Memorial Orphanage, the first institutional work in the West, and a fitting
tribute to the memory of its great missionary.
In 1865 Steinhauer revised the Hymn Book in Cree
and translated Wood  Cree and  Plain  Cree dialects;
this was done in addition to the general work of the
mission at White Fish Lake, where he had seen many Mission at
changes. In the old heathen days the women were Wh,ff b
chattels and slaves. Now a community of farms and
comfortable homes marked the progress of Christian
civilization. There were four hundred church members,
two day schools, five classes led by faithful workers
and a Sunday school well attended. Again and again
traders had been refused permission to establish posts
near the mission.
During an epidemic of influenza in 1884, Henry Stein- Deaths of
hauer died at White Fish Lake, aged sixty-four, having ?e*3rv
r    .    r r     •    • . . Steinhauer
given lorty-tour years of missionary service.    As trans- and
later he served the Cree Indians throughout the West; Benjamin
as leader, preacher, counsellor and friend, he was beloved
by the people among whom he worked and held in highest
esteem by his fellow-missionaries. Two sons are to-day
honoured missionaries to the Indians. Within a few
hours of his death, Benjamin Sinclair, his friend and
fellow-worker through many years, also passed to his
reward. Missionary and friend were buried in the
same grave on New Year's Day, 1885.
John Maclean was appointed in 1880 to work among j0hn
the Blackfeet in the neighbourhood of Fort Macleod, the Maclean
headquarters of the North-west Mounted Police. The gj^f tJie
location of the reserve, which would also be the mission
centre, had not been chosen when he arrived and the
Indians were away hunting. While awaiting their
return and information regarding the reserve, he held
preaching services and opened a night school and reading room, working among the white settlers, the half-
breeds and the Mounted Police. Although after several
years of service among the Blood Indians he resigned and
returned to the regular pastorate, he still -continued to
serve the Indians by his pen. He is the author of many
biographies of Indian missionaries and of several standard
works dealing with Indian life and customs, and is an
acknowledged authority regarding the Indians of North
105 Indians.
broke the
of the
During the second Riel rebellion,in 1885, the Methodist Indians remained loyal. Not one member or adherent signed up with the hostile Indians and half-breeds.
Chief Pakan, a convert of Rundle's, shot a man who
came into his camp to induce the Indians to j oin the rebels.
He then went to the general commanding the forces
and gave himself up, as he thought, to death. Instead
of condemning his action, the general thanked him for
his loyalty. It was generally acknowledged that the
unswerving loyalty of Chief Pakan and his people at
White Fish Lake contributed more than any other
circumstance to preventing a general uprising of the Cree
nation. In 1886 Chief Pakan, with Chiefs Jonas and
Sampson, who also had stood loyally by the Government,
accompanied John McDougall to Ontario. They were
received at the General Conference of that year and
publicly thanked for their loyalty and leadership. The I
addresses given by the chiefs were eloquent appeals for
the Indians, while they themselves were living testimonies of the transforming power of the Gospel.
Work among the Indians of the North-west was now
past the initial stage although many opportunities
still existed of beginning work under conditions similar
to those in which Rundle, Steinhauer, Woolsey, the Mc-
Dougalls, Henry Manning, and Campbell won their first
converts. The North-west of the pioneers was rapidly
changing. It was no longer the exclusive hunting ground
of the Indians. The relationship that had existed for
two hundred years between the Indians and the Hudson's Bay Company ceased when the right to the land
and control of the West passed to the Canadian Government and the lords of the plains became the wards of
the Government. One of the makers of Canada—the
Canadian Pacific Railway—had broken the isolation
of the prairies from the province on the Pacific in establishing an ocean to ocean service across the Dominion.
Settlers were making homes where once the buffalo
were hunted. The missionaries must now follow the
Indians and establish missions on or near the reserves.
Old problems of the work did not vanish with new conditions and others arose out of adjustment of life on
the reserve and in the new mission centres.
Through Government treaties with the Indians, every Treatie
man, woman and child receives an annual present;
plan of reserves was introduced on the basis of 640 acres
for each family of five, or 128 acres for each individual;
rations were supplied for the aged and sick poor; seed
grain, carpenter's tools, farm implements and cattle were
provided, and schools were to be opened on each reserve.
The Indians on their part promised to maintain peace
and obey the law. While the terms of the treaties were
made to protect the Indians, compensate them for the
loss of all the West as their hunting ground and help
them through the transition period of adjusting themselves to changing conditions, some of them began to
think that the Government was under obligation to
provide for all their needs. Those who took this attitude
lost their spirit of independence and created a problem
for every missionary. Others, appreciating the co-operation of the Government, applied themselves to making
their farms produce a living.
As the Indians settled on the land, the education of Red Deer
the boys and girls presented a serious problem. If the Jn!0titute'
boys were to become farmers, they must be trained; if the
girls were to become intelligent home-makers, they must
be taught. The day schools on the reserves did not
supply the training and while the missionaries did the
best they could in helping the Indians as they began
farming, in many instances, with both missionary and
Indian, it was a case of learn by doing. Encouraged by
the success of the Mount Elgin Institute and with the
aid of the Government, an institute was opened at Red
Deer in 1893, with boys and girls from the North-west
and Lake Winnipeg district in attendance.
A study of the latest (1924) Government Report of Alberta
the Indian Department reveals some interesting statistics Indians,
showing the progress the Indian has made since the day
he ceased to depend entirely upon hunting.    In the pro-
vince of Alberta there are 8,990 Indians, of whom 1,371
are Methodists, 1,355 Anglicans, 5,733 Roman Catholics; I
the remainder are clinging to their aboriginal beliefs.
The average income of each Indian, young and old, is
$125.00, in addition to the Government annuity. The
principal occupation of many is now stock-raising and
farming. On the reserves where this is carried on extensively there are good modern homes and farm buildings.
In far Northern Alberta hunting continues to be the
chief source of livelihood and the Indians live in tents and
tepees the greater part of the year. The steamers on the
Peace and Athabaska Rivers and the railroads have
deprived them of employment with trading companies.
The conditions under which our mission work is done
have changed and while many of the Indians contribute
to the mission funds none of the missions in Alberta have
become self-supporting. The Methodist Church has now
the following five missions:
Morley: This mission, established by John McDougall
in 1873 among the Stony Indians, is about forty miles
west of Calgary. The main line of the Canadian Pacific
Railway runs through the reserve, on which the Indians
~ now number about 700. Hunting for several months in
the year, and cutting and selling cordwood when at home,
are their chief means of livelihood. Although this
reserve is in one of the best ranching districts in Alberta,
the Indians have never settled down to stock-raising.
Their nomadic life makes missionary work among them
difficult and day schools unsatisfactory. The McDougall orphanage was closed several years ago, but last
year in the small old hospital building a boarding school
was opened. It is hoped this will develop into a larger
system of education. Other buildings in connection with
the mission are a church and a mission house. The
missionary has under his care sixty families and the
church membership is 224. The sum of $35 was given
to missions last year.
Battle River mission on the Hobbema Reserve in the
Wetaskiwin  district  represents  our  work  in   Central
Alberta. On the reserve there is a mission house and a
.church which also serves as a day school. The population is 350, the church membership 116. Last year they
gave $110 for missions.
Duffield   mission,   formerly   known   as   the   White Duffield.
Whale Lake, is only one mile from Duffield station on
the Canadian National Railway. There are about 90
Indians n this band; the church membership is sixty-
three and the missionary givings last year $50.
Saddle Lake mission is in the Lamont district with Saddle
the railway twelve miles distant and midway between Lake-
Saddle Lake and Good Fish Lake.   There are about
200 Indians under our care, fifty-five of whom are church
members.    The sum of $30 was given last year for missions.
Good Fish      Good Fish Lake is a continuation of the work Henry |
a e' Steinhauer carried on at White Fish Lake, a few miles dis
tant.    The Indians at this mission are the most progres- J
sive of any in connection with our missions in Alberta.
There are 300 for whom our Church is responsible. Here I
we have a fine, commodious church and a good mission
house.    A  mile away  the  Government has a school-
house and a teacher's residence.   There are fifty-nine
church members;   the missionary givings last year were
Indian The Indian Institute, with its large farm, near Edmon-
E'dmon-6'    ton> was opened in 1924 and is a continuation of the Red 1
ton. Deer Institute which had become inadequate for the
requirements of the work. The pupils will be drawn
from all our missions in Northern Alberta. The Institute provides the same training as the Brandon Institute in Manitoba and the Mount Elgin at Muncey,
Romance While the work has changed and the romance and
days"gone. adventure of the early days have gone, there is still
work to do and consecrated men and women are doing
it. The environment of the Indian has changed, his life
has changed, but sin is still sin and the remedy is the
same to-day as yesterday.
When George McDougall left Norway House, in 1863, The
to   re-establish   the  work   in   Saskatchewan,   he was Hudson
chairman of the Hudson Bay District, which included  District
Norway House and Oxford House near Lake Winnipeg,  1863.
Edmonton, and Rocky Mountain House.    That the district was "a land that was very far off" to the people
of Upper and Lower Canada is evident from the fact
that it was one of the three "Foreign Mission Districts"
of the Wesleyan Methodist Church in Canada.
Charles Stringfellow, who had been seven years at
Oxford House, took McDougall's place at Norway House,
and John Sinclair, a native who had been trained under
James Evans, went to Oxford House. Stringfellow has
the honour of recording, in 1866, the first gift to missions from Norway House. With one hundred and
seventy members, $24.06 was given to the mission funds.
In 1868 two districts were formed out of the Hudson First
Bay District.   The western section became the " Foreign Missionary
District of Saskatchewan " with four mission stations and gettlersln
George McDougall chairman.    Red River (Fort Garry West,
and vicinity), Norway House and Oxford House missions
became "The Red River  District,"   also a   "Foreign
District,"   with  the  Rev.   George Young,   chairman,
stationed at Fort Garry.
When Egerton Ryerson Young arrived. at Norway Egerton
House on July 29th, 1868, after a long and tedious journey v°u.nS'
from Hamilton, Ontario, which he left May 11th, Mr.
Stringfellow, who had spent eleven years in Lake Winnipeg district, left with his family for Ontario.    Mr.
Young reports Norway House as "a Christian village in jj°fWey
pagan surroundings."    He immediately began holding 1868. '
Sunday services in the Hudson's Bay fort, where the factor had a room fitted up as a chapel. All the officials of
the Company, and about fifty others who understood
English, attended. The Missionary Secretary, the Rev.
Enoch Wood, had asked Mr. Young to visit Oxford House
as soon as he could. This he did in September, a few
weeks after reaching the field, making the journey of two
hundred miles by canoe, in six days. The mission was
a surprise: several comfortable homes had been built by
the Indians during the year; potatoes, turnips, cabbages,
etc., equalled any the missionary had seen anywhere in
the best parts of Canada; Mr. Sinclair expected to have
over two hundred bushels of potatoes. The mission
house was well built, but the church was so badly in
need of repair that it was in danger of collapsing. A
company of Indians, having heard that a missionary had
gone to Oxford House, travelled a long distance and
camped on one of the headlands of the lake awaiting
his return. Mr. Young gladly stopped off at their camp
and after he had preached through an interpreter, an old
man of the company, as he asked for some one to teach
his people said, "One hundred families stretch out their
hands. | When Mr. Young told him that he would send
to Toronto for help, the old man replied, "Ah! I have
asked other missionaries and they have said the same
thing, but no one has come and our hearts have melted
with long waiting. | The whole North Land was calling
for missionaries and the Church could not meet the need.
Mr. Young's field was an extensive one, for in addition
to the work at Norway House he tried to respond to the
many calls which came to him from camps as far distant
as the shores of Hudson Bay. With the aid of volunteer
natives—class-leaders, local preachers, and men whose
Christian experience made them eloquent—he travelled
throughout the long stretch of country to the east of
Lake Winnipeg and as far north as Nelson House, six
days away—the first missionary to visit the Nelson
House Indians.
While our missionary force in the district was Egerton
Young and John Sinclair, the native preacher, it must
not be forgotten that for over two hundred years the
Indians had been more or less in contact with the Hudson's Bay Company's employees, and that some of these
regularly conducted services for the employees at the
A noted visitor to Norway House was Chief Berens, Chief
of Berens River, who came to prove for himself the truth Berens
of what he had heard from his people.    He returned Norway
home satisfied, and to tell his people  of a Heavenly House.
Father's love, the superstitions of paganism gone forever.
Another visitor was a woman who walked two hundred
and fifty miles to ask the "praying man" more about
Jesus, of whom she had heard.   She was baptized before
she left for her home.    A young couple brought their
baby two hundred miles to have it baptized.    Again
and  again  deputations  which  came  from  far-distant
camps with requests for missionaries, received Christian
teaching while they remained at Norway House, and
carried back to their people the story of God's love.
In 1870 news came to Mr. Young of the starving con- Norway
dition of the people in the Saskatchewan district, and of j^ans
the awful epidemic of smallpox.   The Indians, as well help
as the missionary and his family,  at Norway House, ^skat"
knew what it meant to be almost without food and to sufferers,
share what they had while all suffered.   What could
be done  for  the  Saskatchewan  people?—the  hunt  a
failure, fish scarce, and thousands dying of smallpox.
The missionary suggested sending help.    A meeting was
called and the plan of sending food from Norway House
was talked over.   Who would volunteer to go?   Everyone dreaded the smallpox; but would Christian Indians
allow others to starve?   It was a testing time and the
Indians stood the test.   One hundred and sixty were
chosen  from  among  the  volunteers.   Twenty  of  the
largest freighters, packed to capacity, each manned by
eight men, left Norway House with instructions not to
113 Egerton
in East.
land, but to keep in the middle of the river when unloading supplies. Through the generosity of the Hudson's
Bay Company, added to what the people gave and the :
bravery of the Indians, relief reached the Saskatchewan
sufferers. After ten weeks the brigade returned to Norway House and reported all well excepting Samuel
Papanakis, who had not only commanded the relief expedition, but had organized the volunteers. The strain
proved too much for his strength. He gave his life
that others might live.
After five years Egerton Young returned east
and throughout Ontario and Quebec told in his own
graphic way of the work in Lake Winnipeg district.
His special appeal was for funds for the new mission at
Berens River and for repairing the mission buildings
which had been erected at Oxford House and Norway
House by the British Wesleyans. Returning to the field
he opened Berens River mission on the east side of
Lake Winnipeg, about midway between the mouth of
the Red River and Norway House. When the Rev.
John Ryerson visited the mission in 1854, he strongly
recommended that work be opened at Berens River.
Almost twenty years later (1872) his recommendation
was carried out. Mr. Young was disappointed that
the Indians who migrated from Norway House did not
settle at Berens River instead of going farther south.
Timothy Bear, a native leader from Norway House,
carried on the work for a year, until, in 1873, Mr. Young
arrived to take charge.
In 1875 Mrs. Young's health compelled Mr. Young
to return to the pastorate in Ontario. During the six
years he spent on the field he succeeded in obtaining an
intimate knowledge of the life and customs of the Indians
of the Lake Winnipeg district and in gathering folk-lore,
stories and incidents of the work, to which he added his
own experiences and used all in making the work known
through lectures and his popular stories of the North
Nelson House mission was opened in 1874 by the Nelson
Rev.  J.  Semmens.    Beginning  the  work  in  this  far m°Ssion
^northern field, almost seven hundred miles north of begins,
^Winnipeg and three hundred miles by boat route north  *8^-
of Norway House, demanded heroic sacrifice and physical endurance.   The following extracts are taken from
Mr. Semmens* report, published in the Annual Report
of the Missionary Society, 1873-1874:
"From Norway House we resumed our journey in
a bark canoe, and then began a series of experiences
wholly new to me and wilder and more dangerous than
anything I had seen previously. We crossed heaving
lakes and rippling ponds. We paddled our way along
I small creeks and over mighty rivers, and ran wild,
I rushing, foaming, whirling rapids. We made short portages around mighty, roaring falls, and long portages
across pathless forests—from lake to lake or river to
river. We climbed high hills, carrying our earthly possessions upon our backs, and waded through deep
swamps, sinking beneath our burdens. We had good
food and poor—little and much—sometimes clean and
sometimes not remarkably so. We were caught in
windstorms, rainstorms, snowstorms and thunderstorms.
We slept on the grass, on moss, on the rocks and underneath the trees. We were in dangers manifold, seen
and unseen, on land and water. We suffered from
"weariness and sleeplessness, sandflies and mosquitoes.
Thirteen days of this brought us in sight of the trading
post known as Nelson River. Here are four houses,
the property of the Hon. Hudson's Bay Company, the
only civilized habitations, I suppose, within a circuit
of three hundred miles. Here I found Mr. Alex Sinclair,
the gentleman in charge of the post, who bade me welcome and made me comfortable in his dwn quarters.
This gentleman is my only companion, and ten days
of travel would hardly take me to my nearest neighbour.
"The Indians are gathering and I meet them from
time to time.   They are a peculiar race of mortals—sad ONE HUNDRED YEARS OF
looking  specimens  of  humanity—poor,  neglected,  ig- I
norant, heathens.   Among themselves they are suspect- I
ing, dishonest, revengeful. In their habits they are filthy,
and in their dealings brutal.   They are slaves of debasing
superstitions, worshippers of inanimate deities, believers 1
in tokens and charms.    They are conjurers, medicine- I
men, gamblers, poisoners.   The majority of them are  \
bigamists, and treat their wives as slaves or dogs.   They I
have no marriage system, hence the slaves often change |
hands.    In a word, they have no moral law, and every
one does that which is right in his own eyes, and the |
consequence is the country is corrupt before God and 3
full of violence.   To such a people, to such a country, has I
your missionary come, distrusting his own power to I
bring about any good change, but firmly believing in the
enlightening, the emancipating, the transforming, the
saving power of the Grace of God."
During the year the missionary faced starvation and I
was without furniture or cooking utensils on account of
the non-arrival of supplies, including hardware, which
had been ordered the year before. An officer of the Hudson's Bay Company forwarded a little salt beef and some
flour. This provided food for the missionary as he
travelled to Norway House, where he obtained 500
pounds of supplies.
In 1876 Mr. Semmens left Nelson House to take charge
of the new mission at Berens River. Mr. Ruttan, of
Norway House, took charge of Nelson House until the
native assistant who had been appointed to the work
arrived. In 1880 Nelson House returned a membership
of forty-two, and gave $243.33 to the missionary fund.
Miracles? Yes—forty-two of them, plus the missionary
For many years the work at Nelson House was carried
on by native assistants and visited by the missionary
resident at Norway House. In 1891 the Rev. S. D.
Gaudin left Norway Nouse, where he had charge of
the school, and began his fifteen years of service at this
outpost. For four years he carried on the work alone;
then Mrs. Gaudin came, a bride, and the only trained
nurse in all the country north of Winnipeg. As there
was not a doctor throughout this district, she soon found
I her own particular mission field extended several hundred miles, for the Indians were not long in discovering
what her skillful and unselfish services meant in time
of sickness. For eleven years, in the isolation of that
North Land, Mrs. Gaudin did not see the face of a white
woman, but, with her husband, saw lives transformed,
the old days of paganism becoming a fading memory
and the people giving liberally to missions.
The strong ties of friendship between these missionaries The
and their people were strengthened when the first baby mlsflon
came to the mission house. A few hours after her arrival baby
the chief sent runners to tell the good news to the Indians adoptee
who were at their hunting camps. Then he, with his Qhvf
councillors, went to the mission house and demanded
the baby. "Dare I trust her to them?" was the thought
of the mother. There was no time to debate the
question. The baby was taken by her father to the
Chief, who took her in his arms; then, after a peep at
her, began the ceremony of adoption, and the first white
baby born at Nelson House became a member of the
tribe, with the status of a daughter of the chief. To her
father and mother were extended the same protection
and sworn friendship that the ceremony had bestowed
upon the baby during the few minutes she was in the
Chief's arms. After each councillor had taken a peep,
as their Chief had done, the baby, returned to her mother,
slept all unconscious of the honour that had been bestowed
upon her and of the significance of her new relationship.
To ensure quietness and protection for both mother and
baby, the Chief placed a guard over the mission house
for ten days. Could congratulations and kindness have
been more courteously expressed? Were these the same
Indians of whom Mr. Semmens wrote? How the Gospel
While mission stations were opened and camps visited,
the work was much the same everywhere—preaching
and teaching,  building mission houses,  churches and I
schools, breaking down superstition and heathen practices,
establishing the sacredness of marriage, helping in house I
building and home-making, besides doing many things I
apart from the regular programme.
In 1875 the Hudson's Bay Company introduced steam
navigation on Lake Winnipeg,, and changed the route
of traffic for their inland trade from York Factory to
Winnipeg. The first steamer arrived at Norway House
in September, 1875, having on board a distinguished
passenger, the Hon. Alexander Morris, Lieutenant-
Governor of Manitoba. and the North-west Territory.
His visit was in response to an appeal from the missionaries regarding the pressing need of two hundred or
more Norway House Indians, thrown out of employment
when the York Factory route was discontinued.
Indians About thirty families, with at least sixty children of
:ompelled school age, moved to the Grassy Narrows on Lake Winni-
xiigrate. Peg>DUt as this location had already been granted to Icelanders by the Government, the Indians could not remain I
permanently. A reserve was opened at Fisher River,
chosen as the most desirable spot on Lake Winnipeg
by a deputation of Indians from Norway House, who I
reported that there was plenty of lumber for building,
a good farming country, a climate warmer and summers
longer than at Norway House, an abundance of fish and
game, and good hunting grounds—" It was so good they
could not tell how good it was." As a result of this .
glowing report the Indians moved from Grassy Narrows
and about four hundred Indians, to whom Fisher River
became a promised land, left Norway House. Many of
these were Christians, while all had been more or less
under the influence of the mission. Fisher River became another Christian centre. The number of families
to be settled on the reserve was limited to ninety, and
the emigration from Norway House had to take place
during the three years following 1875, after which no
more would be admitted to the reserve. In writing of
the opening, Mr. Semmens, who had taken Mr. Young's
place at Berens River and under whom Fisher River
became an out-station, pays tribute to the Government
and the Lieutenant-Governor for their promptness in
responding to the request of the missionaries for help
for the people.
Norway   House,   from   being   the   most   important The
centre of the Hudson's Bay Company's business, now be- lessened
,. . , , . important
came a mere trading post with two or three minor 0f
branches, and instead of from sixty to eighty white men  Norway
being employed, a few Indians were able to meet all the House-
requirements of the post.   In consequence of this great
change,  Norway House  missionaries could  no longer
send the Gospel to the outposts, as they had done when
the Indians freighted supplies north, south and west.
In 1876 we find the Rev. A. W. Ross at Berens River, Chief
where steady progress had been made notwithstanding Berens'
the prediction that nothing could be done with the
Saulteaux (Soto), the Indians of the reserve. From this
point he visited Fisher River about four times a year,
where later it became necessary for the missionary to
live. This left Berens River unsupplied. Chief Berens,
who strenuously opposed the change, walked all the way
to Winnipeg to beg the Chairman of the District to send
a missionary to his people, as he was afraid they would
go back to their old pagan customs.
From 1888 to 1893 the Rev. W. P. and Mrs. McHaffie,
a trained nurse, were the missionaries at Fisher River,
where their self-sacrificing and untiring efforts laid a
foundation upon which others have successfully built.
For several years the number of missions in the district Native
remained the same. This does not indicate, however, workers,
that there was no progress. Outposts were visited,
volunteer workers and native assistants, encouraged
and their work supervised. Comparing conditions when
James Evans began work at Norway House- in 1840,
with conditions to-day, we are able to measure the
results of his work carried on through the years by ordained missionaries and native assistants. Outstanding
among the Indians are John Sinclair—translator, teacher
E. R.
Hart of
and preacher. Edward Papanakis, whose father had
been brought out of paganism by James Evans, was
• converted under Egerton Ryerson Young. He taught
school and gave invaluable service in opening up new
centres of work for many years before he was ordained.
His native eloquence, the earnestness of his message
and the life he lived, won many of his people to accept
Christ. The Rev. E. R. Steinhauer, whose father
was an associate of James Evans, has served in Alberta,
in Lake Winnipeg district, and is now in charge of
an important mission in Ontario. The Rev. Fred
Apategum, another fine type of evangelistic worker,
after twenty-four years of efficient service, died in 1919.
Sandy Hart lived at Nelson House. When about
fourteen he had been hurt by the bursting of a gun and as
there was no doctor the bones were not set nor the wound
properly dressed. His father, the Chief, decided the
best thing to do was to despatch his boy to the Happy
Hunting Grounds. The boy was suffering; he would be
out of pain, he would cease to be an expense—so reasoned
the proud Chief at Nelson House on the Burnt Wood
River. Egerton Ryerson Young visited Nelson House
about this time and, hearing of the Chief's intention,
volunteered to take the boy into his own home at Norway
House, educate him and help him regain his health. The
Chief made no objection, and while he saw no advantage
in the education offered, he was glad to escape the responsibility of either killing or caring for the boy. In
the missionary's home at first he longed for the old life,
old pleasures and old friends, but as he studied he became
more contented. When the great peace that passeth all
understanding came into his heart, to prepare himself so
that he might become a teacher to his own people was
his one desire. When the first resident missionary went
to Nelson House, Sandy returned with him as his assistant. He taught the Nelson House Indians to pray, to
read the Cree Syllabic; became schoolmaster, and early
and late taught either the children or their parents.
Through the years he was the faithful helper of the
missionaries as they led the people out of paganism.
Another man must be mentioned in connection with
Nelson House—William Isbister, whose father was a William
Scotchman and mother a native at Norway House. Isbister.
He was educated in the Red River district, and upon
leaving school entered the employment of the Hudson's
Bay Company. When Mr. Semmens and Sandy Hart
arrived at Nelson House, Mr. Isbister gave them a cordial
welcome. He was a good singer and a very competent
interpreter, but while the missionary found him invaluable as an interpreter, his Sunday duties and his weekday life were so out of harmony that his influence was
a hindrance to the work. During the first year while
in close association with the missionary, he became a
changed man. Out of his heart he led the singing, and
as he interpreted he made the message his own. His
life now accorded with his earnest words, and his influence
was felt from fort to wigwam. During the absence of
the missionary he conducted the Sunday services, visited
the sick and gathered the children into Sunday school.
The volunteer service of the Indians as teachers and
class-leaders has been a permanent asset. The progress
of the work has been greater than could reasonably
have been expected, considering the few missionaries on
the field at any one time, and that the missionary funds
were often distressingly inadequate to the requirements
of the work.
Does the Church know of the abomination of heathen- Does the
ism from which the Indians themselves ask to be freed? Church
Why do not the people of our Church in older Canada
help us? Are the people willing the Indians should
suffer almost to the point of starvation, both physically
and spiritually? Do they know the extent of the task
they have entrusted to us as their representatives?
These were questions that the missionaries must have
asked themselves over and over again, for Lake Winnipeg
"fpMrrct, from the days of Evans and Steinhauer, has
never failed to provide almost overwhelming opportunities for self sacrifice on the part of the missionaries, who,
in leading the Indians out of paganism, began the long
process of helping them live the teachings they accepted.
This process still continues.
The missionaries realized that the permanency of the
work depended upon the training of the children. As
fishing and hunting were the chief means of livelihood
the people were obliged to spend several months of the
year away from home, making successful day schools
impossible. To meet the need, a residential school for
boys and girls of Lake Winnipeg district was opened
in 1895, at Brandon, Manitoba, with the Rev. J. Semmens
as its first principal. In 1899 the Rev. Thompson
Ferrier, the1 present principal, took charge of the school,
which provides, in addition to the public-school course,
training for the boys in all departments of farm work and
for the girls practical instruction in the essentials of
good housekeeping. The Brandon Indian Institute is
justly proud of its fine farm, where up-to-date methods
produce results, of its good stock, of its splendid buildings
and equipment, of the boys who have gone out of the
school competent to manage farms of their own, and of
the girls well trained as housekeepers.
To some of the Indians at Norway House and farther
north, Brandon Institute seemed a long distance away,
and while they were willing to have their children educated, they asked why they must go to Brandon, especially as there were no' extensive farm lands in many
parts of Lake Winnipeg district. Again the need of the
Indians was met, when, in 1900, a boarding school
was opened at Norway House, of which the Rev. J. A.
Lousley for many years was principal. In 1913 this
school was burned. The Government immediately built
a fine three-storey frame building, in which ninety-six
children can be accommodated. The boys are taught
farming, gardening, taking care of stock, electric wiring,
managing steam and electric engines, plumbing and
cobbling; the girls are taught gardening, housework,
sewing, etc. This school has proved to be a great blessing
to both parents and children.
For many years Mrs. Gaudin, with her nurse's training Apprecia-
and wide experience, represented the only medical help l).on of
throughput the extensive district.    About fifteen years ment
ago the Government opened a hospital at Norway House hospital
and provided a doctor and a nurse.   This institution, jjorwav
was destroyed by fire in January, 1922, and rebuilt by the House.
Department of Indian Affairs during the summer of 1924.
The   new hospital  is  a  modern   up-to-date building.
As it serves our Methodist community we use it as a
valuable part of our equipment for missionary service.
The   Rev.   Arthur   Barner,   our   Superintendent   of Indians
Indian Evangelism, estimates that there are now about ^.Lake
3,000 Indians throughout the district under the care of district,
the Methodist Church, of whom 1,514 are church members.   While the Government Report shows 1,370 pagan
Indians in Manitoba, there are few, if any, in our mission
district who now admit that they are pagan, or retain
their aboriginal beliefs,  although many,  as  in other
communities, are only nominal Christians.
The mission stations, with the exception of Fisher Fisher
River and Nelson House, are all east or north-east of Siverpnj
Lake Winnipeg. Most of the travelling is still done by Stevens.
canoe in summer and by dog train in winter. A railway
is now within twenty-seven miles of Fisher River, from
which point the journey is completed by stage. The
missionary in charge commends the training the girls
and boys receive at Brandon Institute, the results of
which are seen in the homes, the gardens, business transactions and in their general efficiency above those
who have remained on the reserve. The population
of Fisher River is about 400. The Rev. F. G. Stevens,
through long years of efficient service, has made Fisher
River a mission which might serve as a model. While
this alone is an evidence of faithful, hard work, when
possible he has responded to the calls of the lonely camps
and visited isolated centres, work entailing canoe trips
of hundreds of miles, tramping over hard portages and
for weeks living amid conditions which through his
unselfish service he is helping to change.
I River.
J. W.
Deer Lake.
Berens River, where there is a population of 290, is a
port of call for the Norway House steamers. That the
work has been carried on continuously at this station,
credit must be given to the class-leaders and native
school teachers, as for many years an ordained missionary
was not available. The Rev. J. W. Niddrie now has
charge of this work and also oversight of Deer Lake,
Little Grand Rapids and Pekangecum, which form a
group of stations or centres that for some years have
been visited from Fisher and Berens Rivers. Although
they have never had a resident missionary, they contribute liberally to mission funds. The trip from Berens
River entails 600 miles of canoe travelling and over
one hundred portages. Deer Lake and Pekangecum are
in the extreme north-west of Ontario, near to the borderline of Manitoba. In these three places there are 500
Indians. Conditions are primitive and the people
are making a hard fight against superstition.
As early as 1897 the Rev. F. G. Stevens, then stationed
at Oxford House, heard of the Crane Indians at Sandy
Lake, but it was not until the winter of 1899-1900 that
he was able to meet a number of the band at the Hudson's
Bay trading post on the Severn River. Some were too
weak to journey to the trading post as they were suffering from lack of food; later many died of starvation.
In the spring of 1901 Mr. Stevens visited Sandy Lake,
the home of the Cranes, who as a tribe then accepted
The Suckers, at this time living north-east of Deer
Lake, refused to give up their pagan beliefs and customs.
Sowanas, their Chief, was also chief medicine man
and conjurer; when there was sickness he was consulted
and his advice followed. There was a belief among the
Suckers that the delirium of fever, insanity, and the
forgetfulness of old age were unmistakable symptoms
that the persons so affected were about to become
"wodigo," that is, possessed of an evil spirit whose
power could destroy whole bands of Indians while the
persons possessed became invulnerable. What could be
done but put to death those who might endanger hun-
dreds of lives? To save many, the few were destroyed
by Chief Sowanas and his assistant. Without a thought
of murder in their hearts, they carried out a time-
| honoured custom for the safety of their people, but the
called it murder aud the Royal North-west Mounted
;e arrested the two chiefs. Both men were sentenced
; hanged the following January. One hanged him-
it Norway House, the other was removed to Stoney
ntain. Mr. Lousley and Mr. Ferris took up his case
125 The
with the Minister of Justice, and his sentence was commuted. The following summer they requested his
discharge, which was granted, and the man returned
to his own  people.
The appeal was based on the following: 1. He was
tried by a law that was written in a language that neither
State nor the Church had taught the people. 2. They
were simply carrying out a custom of dealing with the
insane or the childishness of old age, and were no more
to be classed as murderers than our sheriff. 3. The
State or the Church had never taught these people the
wrong of taldng human life.
In 1908 the Suckers had "taken treaty" and located
at Deer Lake. In 1913 Mr. Stevens again visited them,
and listened to their pitiful story. They told him their
leaders had been taken away charged with murdering
eight persons in six years, and that they now realized
how much trouble their pagan beliefs had caused, so had
decided to become Christian. Adam Fidler, a son of
Sowanas—the old pagan chief and medicine man—had
taken a Christian wife from Island Lake, where he had
spent a few summers and learned something about
Christianity. He now undertook to lead his people. It
was almost a case of " the blind leading the blind.'' They
built a church, hoping the missionary would come; they
sent canoes to Little Grand Rapids, where they heard
a missionary was visiting, but were disappointed; the
missionary had gone. They were almost ready to give
up in despair, for a "long tent," which stood for pagan
practices and beliefs, had been put up alongside the
church. The constant booming of the conjurer's drum
echoed and re-echoed from the tent, until it seemed to
mock the people gathered in the little church. In their
deep need the unexpected visit of Mr. Stevens, who had
been praying for them, brought great rejoicing and was
made an occasion of preaching, prayer and study.
The following June Mr. Stevens took Adam Fidler and
his nephew, neither of whom had been beyond Berens
River, to the Conference held in Winnipeg.   Not under-
I standing English, all they could do at the Conference was
to sing in Cree while others sang in English the hymns
with familiar tunes. "Seeing things" proved too much
for the Indians; they grew restless and lonely,and Fidler
I became ill with the. confusion and strangeness of everything. After a few days' stay Mr. Stevens put them on
the boat for home, promising to visit them the next year.
A few years later, when Mr. Barner and Mr. Stevens
visited the band, they found all the adults nominal
At Norway House, where James Evans began work, Norway
his name is almost unknown to the Indians to-day, House
the last man who knew him having died a few years ago
at the age of one hundred and fifteen. While Evans
may be forgotten, his wonderful Cree Syllabic still
carries the Gospel message. In other days Norway
House had a population of over 1,000; now it is only about
500. The missionary givings of $750 last year are an
indication of the progress the Indians are making. The
church, Sunday school, day school and boarding school,
with the advantages afforded by the Government
hospital, make this one of the best equipped missions
in the district. The Rev. S. D. Gaudin, who began his
continuous missionary service in this district as teacher
at Norway House, thirty years ago, is now the missionary.
Nelson House, our most northern and at one time our Nelson
most inaccessible mission, is now eighty-five miles by "ouse-
dog train and 150 miles by water route distant from
Mile 137 of the Hudson Bay Railway. Here there are
about 480 Indians, of whom 150 are children of school
age, and 181 are church members. While the Nelson
House Indians gave $500 for missions last year, this
is noted as $200 less than the year before. If all Methodism gave as liberally and at the same rate' of sacrifice as
these Indians, deficits in missionary funds would be
unknown and the Mission Board would be able to meet
the pressing needs of the work, respond to the calls for
equipment and workers, and plan for aggressive expansion. The Rev. W. E. W. Hutty is the missionary at
this station.    Our Woman's Missionary Society also has  !
a missionary nurse, working especially with the women
and girls.   Her mission house is always a shelter for girls,
who often need the help she unsparingly gives.
Cross Lake is about sixty miles north of Norway House. :
For sixteen years Mr. and Mrs. Gaudin did heroic work I
in this hard field. Our constituency is about 260, of
whom eighty are members of the Methodist Church.
There is a Government school with an enrolment of
thirty-two and an average attendance of twelve. These
figures are significant of the difficulty of carrying on
successful day schools among the nomadic Indians. A
fine boarding school, with a capacity of ninety-two
resident pupils, is conducted by the Roman Catholic
Church. Notwithstanding all the difficulties of the
work at Cross Lake, the people gave $123 for missions
last year.
Oxford House, the second mission opened in the
district, is 180 miles north-east from Norway House, and
is reached by canoe or York boat. The church, school
and mission house are all on the north shore of Oxford
Lake. The day school teacher is employed by the
Government. The population is about 400, the church
membership 147, and the missionary givings last year
$300. For the past five years the Rev. Levi and Mrs.
Atkinson have given self-sacrificing service in making
Oxford House a centre of Christian activities.
At Poplar River, about forty miles north of Berens
River, there is a band of 160 Indians who live by hunting
and fishing, and are consequently frequently away from
home. There is a Government day school, more or less
attended. A missionary teacher has charge of the work.
Our mission buildings consist of a church and mission
house. There are thirty-one church members, and the
missionary givings last year were $91, an increase over
the previous year of $34.
Island Lake, almost directly east of Norway House, is
reached by a canoe journey of 250 miles and many hard
and difficult portages.    These Island Lakers, of whom
there are 540, are probably the most primitive in all the
district. The people hunt over an extensive territory
and know very little of the outside world.   The mission
I house and the church, which also serves as a day school,
are the social centre. Most of the people still live in
unsanitary conditions in wigwams and tents. The first
resident missionary began work here in 1903. There are
now 287 church members and the missionary givings
last year were $629. The Rev. Roscoe T. and Mrs.
Chapin are doing heroic work in this isolated spot.
God's Lake is the headquarters of a band of 240 Indians God's
who have built a number of comfortable log houses. Lake-
This mission has been an outstation of Island Lake
although it is ninety miles distant.    The church membership is 136 and the missionary givings for last year
were $280.
There is no mission field in Canadian Methodism A hard
comparable in hardship and isolation to the Lake Win- mi]Sjlon
nipeg district, Transportation is expensive and travel
dangerous and exhausting. In getting in supplies the
freight rates vary from $1.00 to $17.00 a hundred
pounds. The prices at some of the missions inland from
the lake ports make the common necessities of life luxuries—flour, $25 a hundred; bacon, $1 a pound;lard,$1 a
pound; butter, $1.50 a pound; syrup, $1 a pound, etc.
For months at a time, at many of the missions, no mail
is received. With these conditions, some of the missionaries face problems other than those of the Indian work,
which of itself supplies problems sufficient to keep any
missionary busy.
Of the self-sacrifice of the missionaries comparatively The
little is known, even by the best supporters of our work. self".fi
Day by day men and women are giving their lives for 0{ the
■ the uplift of the Indian as surely as did the Rev. Edward mission-
Eves, and the Rev. J. A. McLachlin, whose deaths by anes-
drowning deprived the work of missionaries beloved
by the Indians and by their fellow-workers. Notwithstanding isolation, hardship and discouragement, the
missionaries have been successful in breaking the power
129 r
of the superstitions of paganism and in leading many of
the Indians into the joy of Christian experience.
The hope       This, and much more, has prepared the way for the |
of the        greater task which now faces the Church, that of up-  "
new  ay.     aiding w}th the Indians a Christian environment in
which the Indians themselves will be the dominating and
permanent factor in its maintenance and development, I
and in which they may find ample scope for the intelligent
growth of their spiritual life and opportunity for material
progress.   The hope of the new day is the boys and girls. I
Is the Church training them for the share they must take I
in this task? Chapter X
In the Province of Quebec we have one mission with
two appointments, one at Caughnawaga, where the membership is eighteen, and another at Oka, on the reserve of Ottawa
the same name, on the Ottawa River, in the seigniory of River.
Two Mountains. This reserve has an interesting history. The land, nine miles square (afterwards doubled
in area), was secured in 1718 by Sulpicians as trustees for
the Indians who were to have possession "until they left
or died out." The Indians, chiefly Mohawks brought
to Lower Canada by the early French missionaries and
settled at Montreal and Sault-au-Recollect, were moved
to this delightful spot.
The   famous   Trappist   monastery,   with   its   silent Oka
brotherhood of white-robed monks,  the assertion by 'amous-
the Indians of tiieir right to the land and the long and
bitter struggle with the monks for its possession, have
brought Oka into the history of our country.
In travelling the Indians had met with others of their The
nation from Ontario, who gave them copies of the New Testament
Testament in Mohawk. These the Oka Indians gladly secretary,
brought home and distributed among their friends; but
the priest forbade the Indians to read them, gathered
up the books and threw them into a box in his office.
The secretary employed by the Seminary of St. Sulpice
and the parish priest was Joseph Onesakenarat, an educated Indian who was born in 1845, a few miles from Oka.
As his parents were devout Roman Catholics he had been
carefully trained in their faith. Being bright and attractive, one of the priests, discovering his native ability,
sent him to school and later to college in Montreal to be
trained for the priesthood. In his position he had constant opportunity of meeting the Indians and becoming
familiar with their lives. He was also brought into
close contact with the authorities of the Roman Catholic
Church, but Joseph did not forget that he belonged to
a proud race and that his loyalty was first to his own
The box of Testaments in his office attracted the
attention of the young scholar; he took one out and began
reading. He thought what he read was so good that he
re-distributed every book among his people. As he
continued to read, he found new truths and his faith in
the doctrinal teachings of his Church lessened. At last
he felt compelled to leave the Roman Catholic Church
and his position as a secretary of the Sulpicians must be
given up, for he could no longer give his heart to their
While still secretary his people had asked him if he
would accept the position of Chief if elected to the office.
Although willing to serve, he could not accept office
without the consent of the priests, who at first objected,
but later, to please the Indians, gave their consent,
at the same time urging Joseph not to interfere in the
dispute nor appeal to the Government regarding the
land question. When, in 1868, he was elected one of the
chiefs, almost the first thing he did was to consult the
Superintendent of Indian Affairs regarding the ownership of the land. The encouragement he received led
to a deputation of four chiefs waiting upon the Superintendent, who assured them that justice would be done.
This was the beginning of open disagreement between the
Indians and the Seminary.
As the Indians were in need of advice in their difficulties, a deputation was sent to Montreal to secure assistance in establishing their claims. They were recommended to consult Mr. J. A. Mathewson, a prominent
Methodist layman and a staunch supporter of the mission
at Caughnawaga. In response to the deputation,
Mr. Mathewson was instrumental in having the Rev.
Xavier Rivet sent to Oka in 1869, the first Methodist
missionary. Although Mr. Rivet spent only one year
at Oka, he succeeded in building a church and establishing
a permanent place of worship. At first services were held
in a house purchased from an Indian—this little building
also served as a schoolhouse—but in a few months it
became too small and a church was built.
The second missionary was the Rev. Armand Parent, Armahd
who for some years had been a pastor in the French Parent.
work. At the end of the year when he returned to the
French work, he reported a membership at Oka of 110.
The Rev. Abraham Sickles, a native of the Oneida tribe,
succeeded Mr. Parent. During the three years of Mr.
Sickles' ministry his work brought great blessing to the
Indians, and the membership increased to 209. Mr.
Parent returned to Oka in 1874, with Chief Joseph as
his assistant. After two years at Oka, Chief Joseph was
transferred to the work at Caughnawaga, where he spent
four years. He was ordained in 1880, at the Montreal
The story of the persecution, turmoil and strife at Oka The
. need not be told, but owing to the distressing conditions migration
many of the Protestants moved to Muskoka, Ontario, Muskoka
in 1881, where the Government set apart a reserve for 1881.
them in Gibson township.    These Indians were reported
as of high Christian character and excellent social qualities.    Thirty-nine partook of the Lord's Supper at the
first Sacramental service held on the reserve.
While this emigration seemed for a time to end the Chief
strife which had been so bitter, the Protestant Indians Joseph in
remaining at Oka continued to claim their right to the
land. Again trouble began, and many suffered. Chief
Joseph was put in jail eight times. He said the only
thing of which he and his fellow-prisoners were guilty was
that they informed the priests that the Iroquois no longer
wished to receive instruction from them. Many of the
Indians had lost faith in those who one time had been
their spiritual advisers and had broken away from
the Sulpicians.
During his imprisonments Chief Joseph, who had be- Chief
come a great scholar with a remarkable command of Gratis- S
Iroquois, French and English, translated from French lation.
into Iroquois (similar to the Mohawk used in Ontario) a
large number of hymns, the four Gospels, the Acts, the
First Epistle to the Corinthians, and hoped to finish the
New Testament by June, 1881. Of his translations the
Upper Canada Bible Society, in its report of 1880, states:
"The Directors have ascertained that there are several
thousand of this tribe in Ontario and Quebec, and that
Onesakenarat (Chief Joseph) of Oka, the translator, is
competent to give a good, useful version to his people."
Sir Daniel Wilson, in a paper on "The Huron-Iroquois."
referring to the work of translation, said of Chief Joseph,
"His translations must be accepted as the work of an educated Iroquois. A comparison between his translation
and the old Mohawk prayer book is full of interest."
In February, 1881, this great scholar and greater Christian died, with his hope for his people unfulfilled and the
completion of his New Testament translation unrealized.
Oka Mission is chiefly the result of Bible reading.
Chief Sahanatien, when a young man, studying for the
priesthood, came into possession of some Bibles which had
been taken away from the lumbermen after they returned
home from work in the shanties. He became an eager
and interested reader of the forbidden book, and its teachings finally led him away from the Church of Rome.
He fearlessly faced what he believed to be right. He
suffered for the sake of the Truth which made him free.
His first of many imprisonments was for reading the
Bible. His strength of character, mental alertness, and
sympathy with his people, made him a leader, and when
he left the Roman Church fifty families followed him. For
fifty-four years he was a faithful member of the Methodist Church and an influence for good wherever he went.
During the last few years of his life he lived in Muskoka.
While on a visit to Oka, where some of his fellow-workers
of the pioneer days still live, he died at the home of his
grand-daughter, in September, 1922.
The Rev. J. Dorion, who was the missionary from
1879-1886, tried to persuade the Indians remaining at
Oka to join those who had found new homes on the Gib-
:, but as the Iroquois were not naturally rovers,
many refused to leave their little homes, and the mission
The Rev. J. J. Oke spent from 1894-99 at Oka and is
now in the ninth year of his second term.
The only Protestants at Oka are Indians, and they
find it hard to make a living on their little farms, while
employment on the reserve or in the neighbourhood
is difficult to obtain. These conditions force many to
work away from home for a part of the year. There are
about 450 Indians under the care of the Methodist
Church, at two centres—one in Oka village and the
other in the country—and at each there is a church and
a school. The church membership is 117. Last year,
although $105 was given to missions and $405 for current
expenses and other funds, their greatest contribution
was not in money—one of their young people went as a
, missionary to the Indians at Kitamaat, B.C., and
four others volunteered for Christian service. The
Ladies' Aid is an important support in every department of the work. Some of the children attend industrial institutes; the Indians themselves support
several of these children. In the Province of Quebec
there are 13,191 Indians, who are classified in the
Government Report (1924): Methodists, 441; Anglicans, 101; Presbyterians, 6; Roman Catholics, 9,067;
other Christian beliefs, 20. Of the remaining thousands
no record is given. On the Oka reserve there still are
pagans who wish to live as their fathers did before the
white men came, independent of both Church and
On Cornwall Island, Ontario, opposite the town of
Cornwall, we have a small mission of twelve families.
Here there is no regular missionary and the work is
under the care of the minister at Moulinette.
While the work may seem monotonous and progress
apparently slow, those closest to its difficulties know
how much has been accomplished through the years
for the Oka Indians.
Indians o
Quebec. kenzie's
When Alexander Mackenzie, the first white man to
cross the Canadian Rockies, reached the Pacific Coast
through Bella Coola, he painted on a rock, in large
red letters,
action- "Alexander Mackenzie,
From Canada by land,
22nd July, 1793."
He published, in 1801, a graphic account of his long
and hazardous journey from Fort Chipewyan, on Lake
Athabaska, to the Pacific Coast. A copy of the book was
given by Lady Franklin to Captain Sutherland, of
Hamilton, who having in early life spent some time in
the northern seas, became deeply interested in the Indians
as he saw their appalling need. He gave his copy of
"Mackenzie's Travels" to Dr. Enoch Wood, the General
Secretary of Missions, who, while fascinated with the
story of the country, felt the conditions described as
existing among the Indians were almost unbelievable.
Captain Sutherland called his attention to the fact
that nothing had been done to improve conditions since
the book was written, over fifty years before. Dr. Wood
was so strongly impressed that immediate action should
be taken, that he began correspondence with the Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society, in England,
urging the opening of a mission to the Indians of the
Pacific Coast.
Twelve Before any plan was decided upon, the country was
volunteers   taken over from the Hudson's Bay Company, and the
British       colonies of Vancouver Island and British Columbia were
Columbia,   formed by the British Government;   these united later
and became the Province of British Columbia.    Upon
the formation of the colonies, the Wesleyan Methodist
Church in Canada decided to open a mission, for thousands of prospectors, miners, and settlers were pouring
into the country to share in the riches of the newly discovered "gold diggings." Twelve ministers volunteered
for the work. The Rev. Ephraim Evans, D.D.,brother of
James Evans, the inventor of the Cree Syllabic; the Rev.
Edward White, the father of Dr. J. H. White for many
years Superintendent of Missions in British Columbia;
the Rev. Ebenezer Robson,and the Rev. Arthur Browning, were chosen from among the volunteers to open
the mission. They arrived in British Columbia on
February 10th, 1859. Dr. Wood's correspondence with
the British Wesleyans resulted in their generous gift
of £500 for the new work.
In British Columbia, as in old Ontario, work among Mr.
the Indians was begun by missionaries to the white R°kson
settlers.    Mr. Robson's first mission field was Hope and work
Yale—mining centres up the Fraser about one hundred among the
miles from its mouth.    At Hope, which he made the p^"s in
centre of his work, he found about 400 Flathead Indians Valley,
(so called from their custom of flattening their heads
from the tip of the nose to the crown), and was so distressed at their condition that he determined to do something for them.   He fitted up the best room in the little
parsonage as a schoolroom, and, with the help of his
bride, "tried to teach the rudiments of English and tell
the Indians about God and His Son, Jesus  Christ."
A few children attended the school, and while Mr. Robson
felt it was rather a feeble beginning, the immediate
result was the friendliness of the Indians and the opening
of Canadian Methodist mission work among the Indians
of British Columbia.
The next year Mr. Robson moved to Nanaimo to work The
among the coal miners from England.  Here again he beginning
found many Flatheads and conditions similar to those Nanaimo.
which had compelled him to   begin   work  at   Hope.
While his work among the miners and settlers was enough
to tax his strength, he again determined to do something
137 Lewis and
and the
"Book of
of "The
for the Indians—for what but the Gospel could save
them from the debauching influences of whiskey traders,
unprincipled rogues gathered from all the world,
and hardened adventurers regardless of the value of life?
In addition to the influences coming from outside, the
Indians were steeped in ignorance and pagan superstition.
Mr. Robson called a meeting of the Chiefs at Nanaimo,
and with their approval fitted up a large shed at the rear
of the parsonage in which he began a school, with twenty
children, and preached to the Indians every Sunday.
Next year a chapel was built close to the Indian quarters
—the first Indian church in connection with British
Columbia Methodism.
In 1804-06 Lewis and Clarke, fearless and successful
explorers, left the trading post of St. Louis, travelled over
the mountains and down the Columbia River to the
coast, into the country of the Chinooks and the Cayuse
branches of the great Flathead family. It was evident,
from stories told by the old chiefs, that Clarke had in
some way impressed the Indians that he was in possession
of a power unknown to them.
The Indians of the Columbia River, in their councils, on
the trail, as they journeyed along the trade routes, and at
the fishing camps, discussed the strange stories the trappers told of a Book about God and immortality, and
of the presence and power of a Great Spirit. What was
the power? Did the Book make the white man wise? If
it were good for the white man, was it not good also for
the Indian? Where could the Book be obtained?
These questions were talked over and over until, in
1832, a council meeting was held at which four chiefs
were chosen to go in search of "The Book of Heaven,"
which the Indians decided they could do without no
longer, if the stories the trappers and the old people
told were true.
An old chief who remembered having met Clarke, and
three stalwart young chiefs, were commissioned to find
the Book and bring its "strong words" back to the
great Flathead people.    Over mountain and plain the
four chiefs travelled, until they reached St. Louis, still a
trading post and gathering place for Indians, trappers
and traders. Surely here they would find the treasure
that would bring to their people wisdom and power!
They sought out General Clarke, who had been in their
hunting grounds near the western ocean, but in this
Roman Catholic outpost no trace of the Book, nor any
one who could satisfy them in regard to it, could be found.
Though bitterly disappointed, they stayed for a time at Failure,
the trading post, hoping to take back "good words about o110. I
the Great Spirit." While they waited two of their
little company died, and the other two chiefs, sad at
heart, decided to return home over the long trail of many
moons. General Clarke gave them a ceremonial farewell,
but the Indians who came a thousand miles for a Book,
notwithstanding the kindness shown them, felt they had
failed—two of their number were dead and they had no
message to take back to their people. Of the two chiefs
who left St. Louis, only one lived to tell the pitiful story
of the failure of the journey and of the braves who would
never return.
The pathetic and appealing story was published by The
Dr. Fisk in the Christian Advocate. Dr. Nathan Bangs, ^ul^ch
one-time missionary in Canada, also became a champion
of these Pacific Coast Indians, with the result that the
j Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church
of the United States decided to establish "a mission
among the Indians west of the Rocky Mountains."
"Who will go?" was asked. "I know but one man—
Jason Lee," was the reply of Dr. Fisk, Dr. Bangs' associate. Jason Lee, six feet three, a splendid type of
manhood, was a Canadian, born in Stanstead, Quebec, just
the kind of man needed for opening a mission among
primitive people.   He met every requirement of the Jason Lee
Mission Board.   Lee, his nephew, Daniel Lee, and two
, . , ,   . , . . missionary
laymen, with an escort of sixty armed men, made up the to the
party which in 1834 mounted their horses and followed Indians.
the Oregon trail, the first missionaries to the Indians of Coast    °
the  Pacific  Coast.    Jason  Lee  was  a  preacher  who
139 The revival of
possessed the power the Indians had sought, and God
used him in the conversion of both whites and Indians.
Among the converts was the wife of Dr. John McLaughlin, Chief Factor of the Hudson's Bay Company. The
Gospel transformed the Indians west of the Rockies, as
well as in Upper Canada, where Dr. Bangs had witnessed
the wonderful work among them. In speaking to Jason
Lee, Dr. McLaughlin said, "Before you came into the
country we could not send a boat past the Dalles without
an armed guard of sixty men; now we go up singly and
no one robs us."
In 1839-41 a great tide of revival swept across the
United States, reaching the pagan tribes on the Pacific,
especially the Chinooks of the Columbia river, under
Jason Lee.    The news of the revival was carried along
the trade routes of the Hudson's Bay Company—up
through the Okanagan valley, to the upper waters of
the Fraser, and away across the mountains through the
land of the Crees to the shores of the Hudson Bay.
The An- The Ankonemums, among whom Mr. Robson began
k??h*nUmS work at Hope, were a part of the Flathead family,
Flathead     every branch of which seemed to have a language of its
tribe. own—some branches boasted of several dialects; but all
understood the Chinook or trade jargon.    These Salish,
or Flathead, Indians were found in the district now known
as Northern Oregon, Washington and Southern British
Columbia.   The Ankonemum branch lived in the Fraser
Valley as far inland as Yale; around the shores of Puget
Sound as far as Olympia, and southward to the Columbia
River; on the south-west coast of Vancouver Island; and
on the shores of the Strait of Georgia.
There must have been something of the same longing
in the hearts of the Indians Mr. Robson gathered to
listen to the Gospel as there was in the hearts of the
Flatheads whose representatives had long ago so earnestly
The sought something better than they knew.
The condition of the Indians at this time is almost
indescribable.   There were those who boasted of having
stood ankle deep in the blood of their enemies; others
of Indians
,who had seen almost whole bands either killed or taken
captive; medicine men who held in terror all with whom
they came in contact; dog-feasts where dogs were eaten
and where human corpses were devoured; slavery and
witchcraft with their cruelty and torture; helpless old
'people left to starve and die on lonely islands or in
deserted camps; wars that either killed or made captive
all the enemy; whiskey drinking by men, women and
children with death following every debauch; no privacy
of home life; women held as chattels to be sold or bartered; potlatching and debasing ceremonies; nothing in
: Paul's description of heathenism was omitted in the
practices of the Coast Indians. It was little wonder that
strong appeals were made for missionaries and for Christians who would go to British Columbia to help the
Indians to a better life through the Gospel.    Other
.ways had been tried and failed. Men-of-war might
suppress, but their cannon could not change standards;
reform must come through changed lives.
An appeal for missionaries, by a Christian sea captain, The
was made after he had seen on the shore at Port Simp- Christian
son scores of heads and decapitated bodies—all that captain's
was left after the warlike Hydahs had visited the coast appeal,
and  had  been  resisted  by  the  Tsimpsheans.    Those
they did  not  kill  were  taken  captive.    In  response
to the captain's appeal, William Duncan came from
Yorkshire to British Columbia and, against the protest
of many in Victoria, went to Port Simpson, in 1858, as
a school teacher.
But amid existing conditions there were those who, Prayers t
although in darkness, were groping toward the light. wnom?
Among these were the grandparents of a boy in Port
Simpson, the son of their dead daughter. Every
morning as his grandmother lighted the fire, if the smoke
ascended, she prayed to the Great Spirit. When the
wind blew the smoke about, the prayers were omitted,
and the boy asked why? His grandmother replied,
"There is no use praying when it is so windy that the
smoke does not go straight up; the prayers would be
141 Port
and the
W. H.
lost."    The boy imagined the Great Spirit was in the
mountains or in  the  air,  and  his  grandmother's  explanation seemed reasonable.    In the evening, when all I
was quiet, his grandfather gathered boys together and
told them the legends of their tribe, of the bravery of I
their warriors, and of the days to come when they would
take their places in the councils.     He always warned
them against bad company and laziness, and impressed
upon them that they should be hard workers and good
boys.    One day his grandfather took the boy to Mr.
Duncan, who for protection lived in the Hudson's Bay
fort.    This visit was the beginning of the preparation I
of William  Henry  Pierce  for  the  missionary service
which has meant so much to Canadian Methodism.
When Mr. Duncan opened his school, William Pierce
was one of his pupils. The dog-eater and man-eater
dancers did everything they could to drive out Mr.
Duncan; they even attempted to take his life. One
day a powerful Indian, crazed with drink, rushed into
the schoolroom and, brandishing a scalping knife, said
to Mr. Duncan, " I have killed twenty-six men and you'll
be the twenty-seventh." Other Indians crowded in
until the place was full, but Mr. Duncan never flinched.
He said, "If you kill me, three more missionaries will
take my place." Just as the fatal blow was about to fall,
Clah, a sober young Indian, came into the room armed
with a revolver, and soon cleared out the drunken rabble.
Although his grandfather desired the boy to attend
school, at the command of the Tsimpshean chief, young
Pierce was taken out just as he was beginning to make
good progress. With a number of other boys, he was
chosen to be trained as a man-eater and dog-eater dancer.
These boys were kept apart from other members of the
tribe in preparation for the initiation ceremonies; but
Pierce never graduated. One day Captain Lewis, of The
Otter, the second steamer to run up and down the coast,
saw young Pierce on the beach and asked if he would
like to go with him as cabin boy at $12 a month. It did
not take Pierce long to decide, and during the two and
a half years he was on The Otter Captain Lewis gave him
lessons daily, in anticipation of his becoming a clerk in
the Hudson's Bay Company; but God was preparing
this Indian boy for His own service.
Down in old Ontario a boy had given his heart to God, Thomas
and when the appeal for workers came from the Metho- Crosby
dist missionaries in British Columbia, Thomas Crosby, thTcalf
although only 22 years old, decided to go if the way
opened. The way "opened" in an unexpected and businesslike manner. Mr. Barraclough, his brother-in-law,
loaned him the money, and it was not long before Crosby
was ready to begin his long journey of 7,000 miles to
the far-off colony on the Pacific. He left Woodstock on
February 25th, and arrived in Victoria, B. C, on April
11th, 1862, having travelled via New York, the Isthmus
of Panama and by boat up the Pacific. For eleven
months he worked at anything he could get to do,
including rough carpentering, clearing the bush, on
Government roads, on the wharves and in the lumber
camps. Then his release for mission work came, for
he was able to repay the money with interest.
Crosby's first Sunday in church, after his arrival, was Crosby's
such a joy to him that his "Amens," "Hallelujahs," and ^
"Praise the Lord!" made one of the men ask, "Who is work,
the strange boy in homespun clothes who has the audacity to disturb the quiet of the service?"    Dr. Evans
welcomed the "strange boy," who took the minister into
his confidence.   When Crosby was ready for work in
March, 1863, Dr. Evans asked him to become the teacher
of the school at Nanaimo.    Crosby said,  "Doctor, I
should like to go, but I don't know the language."  "Go
and learn the language.    My brother James learned three
Indian languages."    This challenge put determination
into Crosby, who said to himself,     "If your brother
mastered three languages, so can I, by the help of God."
Leaving Victoria on a little sloop which carried Her
Majesty's mail,  in eight days he reached  Nanaimo,
a distance of seventy-five miles.    Here he began his
wonderful missionary service by teaching school and
1 r——
learning the language as best he could. How he learned I
it is another story, but he mastered the Ankonemum and%
refused to speak or listen to the Chinook jargon which ?ij
was inadequate for much else than business transactions I
and simple trading. Crosby helped in the services I
among the white people, preached to the Indians, and
acted as interpreter, in addition to his school work.
Charles M. While Mr. Pierce was still with Captain Lewis on the J
Tate's S. S. Otter, and Crosby busy with his school, evangelistic I
venture ano^ socia^ service work (although he did not call it by
1870. ' that name), Charles M. Tate, in the North of England,
was dreaming of the wealth that awaited him in the •;
far-famed gold fields of British Columbia. His father
was a vessel owner and sea captain, and many an enjoyable voyage had young Tate taken until at seventeen, I
captivated by the sea, he joined his father's vessel as
an ordinary seaman. After two years' sailing, a chum,
who had relatives at the Caribou gold mines, persuaded
Tate to go with him to the land where "gold was everywhere and everyone could be rich." Tate's family con- I
sented to his going on condition that he return at the
end of three years. The two young men left Liverpool on
May 12th and reached Victoria on July 12th, 1870,
going on to Nanaimo on The Emma, which carried the
mail and made the trip from Victoria once a week.
Running into Maple Bay, half way to their destination,
they passed the S. S. Enterprise, which had on board
a great number returning from the camp-meeting at
Maple Bay, where there had been many conversions of
Nanaimo both whites and Indians. Nanaimo then had a popu-
in 1870. lation of about 500 whites and 400 Indians, most of
whom were at the wharf when.the boat arrived, for it was
evening. From the wharf the people rushed to the
post-office, where they stood on the street while the
postmaster distributed the mail by calling out names
and passing letters and papers to those who answered.
Tate's Tate's dream of gold suddenly faded, and he faced
hard the reality of running a donkey engine at the pit-head at
$1.75 a day.    His hard times began when, after ten
weeks, the miners declared a strike and he was out of
work. Many of the men had nothing saved and their
families faced starvation. At a public meeting of the
miners it was decided to collect food from the farmers
along the coast. With five strong men, of whom Tate
was one, and an Indian for a guide, the collecting trip
was undertaken in a great war canoe. Salt Spring
Island was reached on Saturday night, where all were
entertained in the hospitable home of Mr. Griffiths.
Sunday morning the men prepared to continue the trip,
and were angry when Mr. Tate refused to travel on
Sunday. The men tauntingly said they would stay until How
Monday if Mr. Tate would preach! He had never Mr- Tate
preached, nor had he called himself a Christian, although challenge
his home training had kept his life pure and his ideals
high, but he borrowed a Bible and went away into the
woods to try to prepare for what was to him a dreaded
ordeal. At two o'clock on Sunday afternoon neighbours
gathered and filled the largest room in Mr. Griffiths'
house, and in some way Mr. Tate got through the service.
In after years he many times held services in the same
room in which he had met the challenge of the miners.
When the canoe, loaded to the water's edge with the food
freely given by the generous farmers, returned to
• Nanaimo, distribution was made to families only, and
the unmarried men had to fend for themselves. For
seven months the only money Tate had was $1.00 which
a man gave him for building a fence.
Through attending church and Sunday school he
became acquainted with Mr. Crosby, and often helped
him in doing odd jobs around the church and mission
house, and Mr. Crosby's frequent invitations to dinner
were gladly accepted. Through association with Mr.
Crosby Mr. Tate was brought into contapt with many
of the Indians, and wishing to do something to help Tate
them, he opened a night school for young men. begins
In the spring of 1871 the strike ended and Tate ex- teaching
pected to go back to his old job; but only half the number at
of men were taken on, and he found himself without Nanaimo.
employment and in a very hard place.   Although un- I
converted, he now prayed earnestly to God to send him
work if only enough for a bare living.    His prayer was I
answered almost immediately, when he was asked by
Dr. Punshon, President of the Toronto Conference, who
at that time was visiting in British Columbia, to become
teacher in the  Indian  school  at Nanaimo,  with theJj
salary of $300 a year.    For a few weeks he shared the 71
little mission house with Mr. Crosby, and here received
his first missionary training, and a strenuous training 1
it was.    Rising time was four o'clock; about half past
four Crosby started through the village with a bell, and
by five o'clock the whole village was aroused.
Why Crosby had been successful in establishing the school
Crosby       at Nanaimo and acquiring the language, until he spoke
gave up      jt ag wejj ag ^ Indians themselves.    From the very first
Nanaimo    he preached, held prayer-meetings, visited the Indians
school.        jn their great barn-like lodges, the white settlers in their
homes, and the miners in their camps.    He was so successful in evangelistic work that it soon became evident
that another school teacher must be engaged and Crosby
left free for itinerating.   The Rev. Edward White was
in charge of the work at Nanaimo, which included evangelistic tours up and down the coast from Comox to
Victoria.    Crosby often accompanied Mr. White, and
after a time took the trips alternately with him.
Crosby's Crosby decided to give his life as a missionary, and
j}*e. . in 1868 became a probationer for the ministry.    With
easion. ^ j^jp Q£ ^ Tncjians he had built a little church and
mission house at the Indian camp, about one-and-a-half
miles from Nanaimo, and here he made his home.
Numbers of the Indians having accepted Christianity,
and given up their heathen superstitions and ceremonies,
Crosby now felt that part of his work was to give them
the opportunity of Christian living and to teach them to
A be tidy and clean about their homes and persons.    How
heathen      could the Indians ever rise above their heathen environment in the great Indian houses  which  were at  the
best hotbeds of vice!   These houses, sheltering as many
families as space permitted, varied in size from 20x40 to
50x150 feet—great barn-like sheds made of boards
cut from giant cedars, roofed with slabs or bark, which
kept out neither wind nor cold. Without windows,
the only light found its way in through the cracks and
crevices or the one door when it happened to be opened.
The ground served as a floor; the roughly built platform
around the walls, a few feet from the ground, sometimes
divided by low partitions and each division occupied
by a family, was the sleeping quarters. One great fire
burned in the centre of the house, though each family
usually had a fire near its own section, thus having the
benefit of the light and heat; the more fires, the more
smoke, which escaped as best it could through cracks
and through holes in the roof. Under the platform was
just the place to store food supplies; poles suspended
from the roof provided a drying place for fish, seaweed
and berries, on which the dust settled and flies fed.
Cats, dogs, and sometimes chickens, were included in
the family, while rats and mice scurried over the food
and found a hiding-place in the great piles of accumulated
rubbish, which also served as a convenient place upon
which to throw mats, fishing nets, fishing tackle and
other things.
The fire and smoke, rats and cats, dogs and chickens, Whiskey
dirty  food  and  piles  of  rubbish,   created  conditions feasts and
bad enough, but which were among the least harmful that abomina-
the missionary had to combat.    Whiskey feasts, where tions.
the head of a barrel was knocked in or its contents
emptied into a canoe, and every man, woman and child
supplied with a cup helped themselves, were popular.
What followed such feasts, Mr. Crosby said, could not
be told.   Potlatching feasts, which were a bid for power
and to gratify ambition, bringing destruction, poverty
and disgrace, were also held in the big Indian houses;
medicine men, devil dancers, dog-eaters and human
flesh-eaters also gathered in these houses to carry on
their incantations and to observe all the rites and ceremonies of their heathen worship.
147 r—
Building <
of the
The first
church in
Life in such houses became impossible to the Christians,
and Mr. Crosby began a Christian village by clearing
the ground around the mission house and church,
enclosing the property with a picket fence, planting
fruit and other trees and making a garden. This was
an object lesson to the Indians, and any Indian who
wished to build a Christian home was allotted a
piece of ground. With Mr. Crosby's help houses were
built, gardens made, trees planted, and it was not long
before the row of neat little houses, in line with the
mission house and church, became known as Christian
Street, while the big Indian houses facing the beach were
called Heathen Street.
The Indians up the Fraser and in the Chilliwack
Valley, having heard of a missionary at Nanaimo who
could speak their language, of the children attending
school and of the wonderful little homes at the Nanaimo
camp, sent invitations to Mr. Crosby to visit them, but
it was not until 1868 that he was able to respond to
their repeated requests. In a canoe he crossed the Gulf
of Georgia and went up the river to New Westminster,
for there was no steamboat service between Nanaimo
and New Westminster. He arrived in time for the
celebration of the Queen's Birthday (now Victoria Day),
for which thousands of Indians had gathered from many
camps. One evening, in an open space at the intersection
of two streets, he preached to over one thousand, and
for the first time many heard the Gospel in their own
language. Before returning to Nanaimo he went as far
as Langley, preaching to the settlers and making friends
with the Indians. He was received everywhere with
kindness. Before the end of the year he made three
more trips across the strait, and now the Chilliwack
Indians were asking for a church building and a school.
On the last trip, after preaching at Chilliwack to a small
band of Indians, the chief, Atche-la-lah, placed $1.50 on
the table, the first contribution for the first Protestant
church in the valley. "Missionary," said the old man,
"no one ever told us before the good words in our own
148 The
Dr.  Indians
at prayed
language." Before the meeting closed $12.50 lay on the
table—all freewill offerings—and in less than a week
$50 had been contributed. The white people asked
to be allowed to help, and almost immediately $140 was
given^ The church was dedicated in 1869, and for some
years was used by both Indians and whites.
The Indians at Nanaimo were praying for the
version of the heathen and that God would send a re\
In writing to the Missionary Secretary, in 1867,
Evans gave an account of the New Year celebratic	
Nanaimo, telling how the Indians decorated the church
and the settlers provided the good things for the supper
to which seventy Indians and twenty white people sat
down. Among the guests were several chiefs who,
while not Christians, had this season for the first time
kept away from the heathen dances. Amos Cushan,
of Nanaimo, the first Indian convert in British Columbia,
now class-leader and local preacher, addressed the gathering. Warning the young people against the whiskey
sellers, heathen friends and practices, he called their
attention to the clean, warm, comfortable room, free of
smoke, in which they were gathered, and compared it
to the old heathen lodges. Cushan had given up his
right to be a chief when he became a Christian, and
referred to this by saying, "Since God changed my
heart, I am not afraid of any one when I talk about
Jesus; He is my chief. I want to please Him all the time
while I live. It was not always so after I heard God's
servants. Long time I had two hearts, but now only
one Chief. Some of my old friends say I shall never be
a chief. Well, I don't want that; I want your hearts;
I want you to give them to God to be made new; then
you will all be happy too.    God bless you all."
In his report of the work at Nanaimo, where he had Rev.
gone to conduct missionary services among the white ^- E-
settlers, the Rev. A. E. Russ writes; "A visit to our visits
Indian mission affected me more than anything else, Indians.
to see what happy men and women the Gospel had made
out of vile, savage, drunken Indians. After I had
the David
preached on Sunday, a prayer and fellowship meeting
was held, conducted by Brother Crosby, who interpreted
what I said on Matthew 5: 9. Each one prayed and
spoke—it was not a dull meeting, for the power of the
prayers and experiences could be felt and enjoyed, though
the language was unknown to me."
Among those who took part in this remarkable meeting
was Sallosalton, a boy of sixteen, who when baptized
had been given the Christian name of David. He was
one of Mr. Crosby's first scholars, living with his parents
in a heathen house. At school he had learned to sing
some of the beautiful Gospel hymns Mr. Crosby taught
the children, and with the faith of a little child he accepted
Jesus as his Friend. One day he came to Mr. Crosby
saying,'' M issionary, I want to live with you." " Why ?''
asked Mr. Crosby, and the boy replied, "My father and
mother are bad. They want me painted up and tattooed,
taught the dances and to hunt and fight. I want to
be good. I think if I live with you I will be good.
I can sweep the house, make fires and cook." Mr.
Crosby's heart was touched and he said, "Well, Sallosalton, you may come along," and thus Sallosalton
began his preparation for the work in which he was so
mightily used of God. He was only ten years of age
when Crosby took him to his heart and home and gave
him easy duties, such as ringing the bell for school and
church. " Do you know that old medicine man Skieyeg? "
David asked Mr. Crosby one day. "Yes; I know him,"
answered the missionary. "He met me on the street and
told me to stop ringing the bell and he says if I don't
stop he will kill me. He said he had the power to kill
me." "Well, my boy, and did you stop ringing?"
asked the missionary. "No," answered Sallosalton;
"me not afraid; me ring bell for Jesus." Brave-hearted,
true-hearted, this little boy defied the medicine man who
the Indians believed had power to punish and also to
will the death of any one he disliked. When he was
about fifteen, David accompanied Mr. Crosby on a long
canoe trip, visiting many heathen tribes along the coast.
As he talked to the people, they listened attentively, and
were astonished at his wisdom and eloquence. The
missionary also was astonished, and felt the Lord had
' given the work a wonderful gift in this Indian lad,
who had declared his intention of spending his life in
missionary service.
During 1869 the revival for which the Nanaimo Indians White
had so earnestly prayed began in the Chilliwack valley. converted
The following extract regarding it is from a letter of
Mr. White to the Missionary Secretary: "The glorious
revival at Chilliwack among the Indians, the immediate
fruit of Mr. Crosby's mission to the Indians there, is
manifestly the work of God. It began so suddenly and
progressed with such quiet but overwhelming power,
that nearly every settler in the district is converted."
Settlers as well as Indians were led into a new life; old
things passed away. Faith in the Gospel that saves to
the uttermost was needed for this work which, humanly
speaking, seemed impossible. After the revival the
people wanted to meet together; so a " bee " was held and
a road made between Sumas and Chilliwack—the first
road in the settlement.
There is a story about Simon Fraser, who made his Was
way from the North-west and landed opposite Chilliwack p'raser the
at the mouth of the Harrison river.    He was the first child of the
white man these Indians had seen, and they rejoiced at Sun *"od?
his coming, welcoming him "as the pure white child of
the sun."   The chiefs carried him about on their backs,
gave him the place of honour in their councils, and for days
after he left danced to the Sun god, in honour of the visit
of his son.    When other white men brought rum and
disease the Indians decided that their visitor could not
have been the child of their Sun god.      ,
When Crosby began to teach the Indians at Chilliwack How the
his translation of some of the old familiar hymns, he was knew'the
surprised that they knew the tunes and asked where they hymn
had learned them.   The Indians explained that before tune8-
the white settlers or the missionaries arrived, an Indian,
whose name was Snaahkul, came from the south to the
Chilliwack Valley and told them that some years before
| white man had come to his people and taught them the
"words of God" out of His own Book, and that many
gave up their old ways and turned to God's way.
Snaahkul taught the Chilliwacks hymns, told them of
God, their Heavenly Father and of Jesus, their Saviour,
and said," Pay no attention to a man dressed likeawoman,
but when a man with a short coat and God's Book comes
to you, listen to him." When Crosby told them the
same Gospel story, the Indians said, "This is the man
that Snaahkul told us to wait for—he speaks our language,
wears a short coat and has God's Book.'' The missionary
who brought the Gospel to Snaahkul's people was undoubtedly Jason Lee, who had reached the coast in 1834
and worked among the Indians of Puget Sound.
The work among the Indians and the settlers was so
closely related that Crosby suggested every minister
should have an Indian service in connection with his
work. He was anxious also that there should be in each
centre a house where the Christian Indians could stay
when away from home, and thus be guarded from the
temptations of drinking, gambling and vice. Another
appeal of Crosby's was for an industrial school for the
girls and boys; but the missionary funds did not permit
of providing a house of entertainment nor for the school
so much needed.
During the scourge of smallpox, in 1868, which carried
ravages of 0ff many Indians, Crosby held services in the Chilliwack
sma pox vaiiey as weu as among the tribes of Vancouver Island
from Nanaimo to Victoria. He secured vaccine from
the Government and after each service spent some time
in vaccinating. Hundreds came to the services to take
advantage of the opportunity of being vaccinated, for
they were without means of either isolation or of nursing
their sick. Seeing the dead unburied and the sick unattended, Crosby longed for the day when medical
missionaries would come to British Columbia. The
Indians who attended the services carried to many a
heathen camp the story of the bravery and kindness of
whites and
the missionary in risking his life to help them. Before
the epidemic abated Crosby had vaccinated many hundreds, all of whom had listened as he told the story of
God's love and of Jesus who came to save the lost. The
Indians were thankful for protection against the disease,
knowing of a former epidemic which had swept the coast,
when about a thousand Hydahs in their great war canoes
came from Queen Charlotte Islands to Victoria, bringing
the disease with them. The authorities compelled them
to leave Victoria immediately, and as they journeyed
homeward, at every camping ground it was necessary to
dispose of their dead, which they did by burning the
bodies. One of their big canoes floated down the Gulf
filled with dead warriors who had been powerless to
fight the disease. Out of the thousand that left Queen
Charlotte Islands for Victoria, only one man returned.
Little wonder that the Indians dreaded the smallpox!
One of the most effective means of reaching the people The first
in the early days was through field gatherings and camp- camp-
meetings.    Maple  Bay,  an old  Indian battle ground meetinB
between Victoria and Nanaimo, where in 1869 the first
of a succession of camp-meetings was held, became historic ground as a spiritual birthplace of many pioneers
of the Kingdom in the Pacific Province.    At this first
camp-meeting,  while Crosby,   Cushan and Sallosalton
had special charge of the Indians, they took part also in
the general services.    David Sallosalton's sermons and
addresses won many to Christ.    Amos Cushan, whose
volunteer work among the tribes of the Fraser and on
the east coast of Vancouver Island gave him the opportunity of meeting the Indians, was also used of God in
helping  many  to   break  with  heathen  bondage.    So
successful was the Maple Bay meeting, that a similar
meeting was held at Chilliwack in September of the
same year.    One of the men converted at the Chilliwack
meeting in 1870, through the preaching of Sallosalton,
was Tsit-see-mit-ston, the warrior chief of the Sumas, The
who was known by the settlers as Old Cap.   In the days ™*[h°T
gone by, when the coast Indians came up the Fraser on Sumas
their slave-raiding expeditions, Old Cap had killed many
a slave hunter. Stalwart, fearless, proud, a fierce fighter
and relentless enemy, he had earned an unenviable
reputation. When he heard people were camping in
the bush he became curious; so, gathering together a
number of his people, he brought them to the camp-
meeting. He heard Indians he knew tell of the change ,
in their lives; he saw one-time enemies who had become
friends, and Indians of his own tribe appealing to the
white people as well as to Indians to give up sin. As he
listened to David Sallosalton, his heart was touched, and
he decided there was something better than the life he
lived. Before the camp-meeting closed a strange new
joy was his; the love of God had entered his heart. In
speaking of his experience at the camp-meeting he said,
" I felt so miserable that I did not know what to do, and
when asked to speak my body trembled and shook It
was not fear, for I had never been afraid of anything,
but what could I say? I could not utter a word, and
when the good people saw how I was they commenced to
pray for me and led me to the foot of the Cross, where I
laid down my burden of sin and God gave me a new
heart. My difficulty in speaking was soon gone, and I
felt that I wanted to talk all the time, telling of the joy
that had come into my soul." He at once began work
among his own people by assembling them for morning
and evening prayers. His camp was fully fifteen miles
from the church, and Old Cap faced the problem of making it possible for all his people to attend. He solved the
difficulty by buying a great number of horses so that
those without might be supplied. The young men volunteered to cut the winter supply of wild hay, while during
the summer the horses were turned out on the prairie.
The missionaries were always welcome at his camp and
their visits were occasions of special enjoyment. As a
result of his faith, work and life, and with the blessing
of God, all adult members of his band publicly acknowledged themselves as Christians.
Mr. Tate had gone quietly on   with   his   work   at Mr. Tate
and the
Nanaimo, teaching school and acquiring the language.
When the announcement of the camp-meeting to be
held at Chilliwack in 1871 reached Nanaimo, some of
the Indians wished to attend; so Mr. Tate decided to
accompany them. The trip was made in two large war
canoes. In writing of the camp-meeting Mr. Tate said,
"While many whites and Indians returned home happy
in the knowledge of sins forgiven, I returned to my lonely
cabin in Nanaimo in the darkness of despair, yet determined never to give up until I had found God and had
the assurance of sins forgiven. I struggled on for three
months without joy or peace. One evening, while
reading my Bible in search of the truth which maketh
free, I read the story of the leper who came to Jesus
with the plea, 'Lord, if Thou wilt Thou canst make me
clean.' I saw my own condition and, with the same
faith as the leper, laid hold of Christ's answer, 'I will,
be thou clean.' and I became a new man in Christ
Jesus." Mr. Tate's first attempt at using the native Tate's
language was at a prayer-meeting David Sallosalton was
conducting. After Tate prayed', David shouted" Hij quo
Tseetsel Sesam, aytch quinnough ta nah-hutsa qua nem
tsahwit ta squell" (Thank God. You have now gotten
' another to help thy work). God was preparing workers;
the work was waiting everywhere.
Tate at once became a local preacher and took regular The
services at both Nanaimo and over week-ends along the dreaded
coast.   On one of these trips Mr. Tate and Mr. Byrant Bellas!
were travelling in a canoe and had just passed Dodds'
Narrows when the canoe began to shake so violently that
Mr. Tate turned to John, the Indian steersman, and
found him grasping the side of the canoe and shaking as
though he had a fierce attack of ague.    In reply to Mr.
Tate's "What's the matter?"    the terrified man said
"Don't you see them?   They'll take our heads!"   The
cause of his terror was a fleet of northern canoes coming
at full speed.   The missionaries continued singing, and
John, though a pagan, now joined heartily in the song,
probably thinking it might hold a charm against the
death of which he felt certain. The first canoe of the
fleet soon overtook the missionaries, who at once saw
the Indians were not friendly. However, they greeted
them kindly and in reply to questioning said they were
God's servants on the way to preach to the Indians
down the coast. One of the Indians shouted to those
in the nearest canoe, and his message was passed along
to the others. To the surprise of the missionaries and
steersman, in a few minutes the fleet went by and the
missionaries, thankful to God for protection, continued
on their way. The Indians said they were Bella Bellas,
Girls and taking their wives and daughters to Victoria and Puget
for sale. Sound to sell them in order to secure funds for a great
potlatch. Little wonder John was frightened when he
saw the fleet, for only recently twelve Nanaimo men in
a canoe had been met by some of these same people, who
beheaded eleven, the twelfth, jumping and swimming
under water for a short distance, managing to escape.
These Indians were the bitterest enemies of the Ankone-
mums. Not in vain had their fathers told the story of ,
the great battle at Maple Bay, where five thousand of
their warriors were slain by the despised Ankonemums,
and that of the two hundred and fifty war canoes,
carrying six thousand men, only twenty-five returned,
bringing home one thousand men, many of whom were
wounded.   Could the defeat ever be avenged?
L Chapter XII
Unlike early conditions in Upper Canada which was Few
settled by families, there were comparatively few homes families
in British Columbia to serve as examples of Christian eax\y
family life.    The majority of the men in the province days.
were either without their families or were bachelors,
and their housekeeping—???   While in Upper Canada
the   missionaries   and   volunteer   workers   introduced
Christianity to the Indians, in British Columbia the
officers of the Hudson's Bay Company were its only
representatives   for   forty   years   before   colonization
began.   About the time of the religious awakening of
the Indians of the North-west, the Jesuits arrived on
the Pacific Coast.
The story of our British Columbia pioneers must
include many great-souled Indians who became messengers of the Cross and those whose voluntary contributions of physical strength made possible the work of
the missionaries as they paddled the waterways or
tramped the trails.
Our missionaries were so few in number that what was Mission
accomplished   was   little   less   than   miraculous.   The aries an
Conference Minutes of 1870 show a membership of 252  j^™ ei
(no Indian members reported), three ordained ministers
in the white work—Amos Russ at Victoria, Edward
White at Nanaimo, Thomas Derrick at Cariboo—while
Thomas Crosby, still a probationer under the superintendence of the Chairman, was appointed to the Indian
Although the ordained men were in charge of the
white work, from the first they voluntarily accepted
responsibility for the evangelization of the Indians and
were afforded many an opportunity of  accommodating
themselves to circumstances. In this exacting accomplishment Crosby excelled. One day he called at the
home of a Christian Indian whose hospitality was unbounded. As soon as he arrived his hostess began to
prepare a meal. A few potatoes were swished around
in a bark pail, dust and dirt were released from a dried
fish by striking it against a pole, then potatoes and fish
were placed in the same pot to boil. "It will be a good
meal after all," thought Crosby, "for the potatoes have
their skins on and the fish has skin on one side; underneath, everything will be clean." A happy thought
evidently came to his hostess while the potatoes and
fish were cooking, for she quickly produced a dirty
cloth containing the treasure of her food supply—some
white flour. This she moistened with the same water
in which she had washed the potatoes, and then began
the process of preparing the dough for cooking. Raising
her blanket, she kneaded the dough on her thigh,which
grew lighter in color as the dough grew darker in streaks.
When the meal was ready, the hostess peeled the potatoes
without the aid of a knife, and the cake, steaming hot,
was given to Mr. Crosby with the remark, "We kept the
white flour as a treat for the missionary." "Did you
eat the cake?" some one asked Mr. Crosby. "Could I
refuse such hospitality?" was the answer of the wise
missionary. The Chairman strongly urged that Crosby
be set apart for the Indian work for which he was so
well adapted.
Indians from Alaska, Queen Charlotte Islands, from
Port Simpson, and from many other northern villages,
came south to sell their furs. They usually camped on
the shores of the harbour at Victoria. From 1828 the
Hudson's Bay Company had refused to sell liquor to the
Indians, but with the gold-rush of 1858 conditions
changed and the Indians as they met the tide of the
white population were again able to obtain "fire-water,"
which transformed almost any Indian into an irresponsible fiend. They traded bales of furs for whiskey, they
disposed of their canoes for whiskey, they sold the
honour of their wives and daughters for whiskey, they
did anything and everything to satisfy their unquenchable thirst for whiskey, which was responsible for many
feuds and murders among the visiting Indians. Men,
women and children were often found insensibly drunk
in the streets and lanes of Victoria, and more dreadful
results were seen in the northern camps when canoe
loads of "fire-water" were used at whiskey feasts.
Those who saw the Indians in Victoria said, "Nothing The old
can be done; they are too vile, too low and too deceit- bar-room
ful"; but William McKay and a few other Christian vfctoria*
workers of Victoria decided that "something must be,
done." A meeting for prayer was called and after that
little gathering in Mr. McKay's home, the Indians were
no longer hopeless to these men and women of faith.
A Sunday school was at once started on the Songees
reserve, a ferry-boat trip from Victoria. While the
school proved successful, it did not accomplish the most
needed work; the disgusting conditions in and about
Victoria remained unchanged. It was therefore decided to close the school and begin work in Victoria,
as the Indians could easily come from the reserve in
their canoes. An old bar-room was rented, the Sunday
school re-opened, and evening services held. The work
was carried on by volunteers, but it soon became evident
that its growth demanded a special worker.
In   1871   Sallosalton was sent to Victoria to work Sallosalton
among the Songees, and at the same time to continue and the
his studies.    In the spring Mr. Crosby visited Victoria    ongees-
and, with David's help, held special meetings.    Songees
and Northern Indians were converted, among others
Amos  Sahalton,   a   Songee and  the  first convert in
Victoria, who brought many of his tribesmen to the
Saviour.    Sallosalton died of tuberculosis in 1872.    He
had been a great strength to the work among the Indians
and his death in his nineteenth year was a serious loss
to the mission.
The Rev. Morley Punshon, D.D., before the British
Conference  of   1873, said  of  Sallosalton, "In  British
Columbia I met an Indian, one of the most eloquent
men I ever heard. If I had not met Sciarelli, I should
have said he is the most eloquent man who ever stood
before an audience.    He was only seventeen years of
age, but a youth who gave great promise of long continued usefulness."
Mr. Crosby's appointment as missionary to the Indian
tribes, was followed by his ordination in 1871, in Pandora CANADIAN METHODIST MISSIONS
Street Church, by Dr. Morley Punshon. Crosby's
field, which extended to the "uttermost" Indians in the
Pacific Province, was so great that he was ignorant
of its territory, conditions and needs. The pioneer
days among the Ankomenums had been only a beginning. What could be done for the Indians of the North
in their own villages? The population of British Columbia at this time was 36,240, of whom 23,000 were Indians
(Census, 1871).
Many of the Northern Indians, who had been converted at the meetings held in Victoria in the spring of
1873, attended the camp meeting at Chilliwack in June.
In reporting this meeting, one of the missionaries wrote
regarding the Indians, "Their experiences were glowing
testimonies of the power of saving grace to raise the
vilest and foulest. Our hearts were thrilled by their
glad witness-bearing for Christ." Hydahs and Tsimp-
sheans, enemies for centuries, acknowledged themselves
brothers in Christ; Bella Bellas and Ankomenums, their
feuds forgotten, together praised God; Northerners and
Southerners ceased to hate one another. Indians and
whites both marvelled at the change. Returning to
Victoria, the Indians attended the services in the barroom, to which they brought their pagan friends as they
came from the North.
Among the converts was William Henry Pierce who,
the night he was converted, went out to find his friend,
George Edgar. Together they prayed and talked until
Edgar, too, gave himself to God. Another of the converts was Diex, a Tsimpshean chiefess of Port Simpson.
In passing the old bar-room during a Sunday-school
service, she heard singing. "May I go in?" she asked a
little girl standing at the door. Being assured that
she would be welcome, she ventured in and was given
a seat in one of the classes. When a teacher led in
prayer, Diex looked around to see the book from which
he was reading, and was astonished to find that he was
not reading, but talking to some one about the needs of
the people; it was more than she could understand. In
at Chilli-
the afternoon she went again, taking some of her friends
with her. When Amos Sahalton prayed in Chinook,
every word of which she understood, an intense longing
came into her heart. Diex willingly agreed that a
prayer meeting should be held in her home during the
following week; when the workers arrived they found
she had prepared for the meeting by inviting her friends.
Diex, herself, was the first convert. She at once began
to work in Victoria, and to plan how she could help her
friends in far-away Port Simpson, where her only son,
Alfred Dudoward, lived. She knew Port Simpson
with its dances, feasts, slavery, witchcraft and all the
abominations of heathenism. It so much needed the
Gospel! There was her great, stalwart son—could he
ever know the peace and joy of sins forgiven? She
began to pray for him, as mothers pray, and asked her
friends to join her. She often spent whole nights in
supplication. Her faith never faltered; she believed
the promise, "If ye shall ask anything in my name,
I will do it." She had tested the power of prayer, for
through prayer many of her friends in Victoria had been
led into the new life.
Three weeks after Diex began to pray for her son
• there was an unusual commotion in the encampment
when canoes, laden with furs, arrived from Port Simpson.
Chief Dudoward, Diex' son, in his handsome war canoe,
was one of the company. Mr. Tate shook hands with
the chief as he stepped ashore, told him what had been
happening and invited him to attend the meetings.
The chief was very angry and replied, "Do you think
that is what I came to Victoria for? Look at those furs!
They are worth $1,000 and I am going to trade them
all for rum. When I get back to Port Simpson we
will have a great feast and the rum will be my share."
Tate replied, "Perhaps the Lord will change your heart
before you leave Victoria."
Diex was delighted to welcome her son and his wife.
Surely her prayers would now be answered!   When she
told of her changed life and of her friends who  had
become Christians, her son listened respectfully, but told
his mother that he was not interested in her religion.
Diex still kept her faith. The next evening, after
returning from prayer meeting, she spent some hours in
prayer for her family. Dudoward ridiculed the change
he found in many of his mother's friends, and in a taunting way tested their sincerity. However, to please
his mother, he and his wife went with her to the meeting Dudoward
the next evening. His wife was converted, and he was His^cargo
troubled as he thought of his wicked life. The following for Port
day he knew no rest, went again to the meeting in the Simpson.
evening, decided to become a Christian, and asked the
prayers of the people. His mother's prayers were
answered! Before breakfast the next morning, the
chief, with some of his people, called on Mr. Tate to
ask him to go back with them to Port Simpson. Tears
were in Dudoward's eyes as he told the missionary that
he must now take the Gospel home to his people. As
it was not possible for Mr. Tate to accept the invitation,
the Indians remained until the autumn. Before they
left for home they had learned some Gospel hymns and
received Bible teaching. Instead of a cargo of rum,
Dudoward's canoe carried a supply of Bibles and hymn
books, and a little company of Christian Indians—
heralds of the Gospel in the North Land.
Mr. Tate had left his school in Nanaimo to help for a BaP*'sm
few weeks with the services in Victoria.    While there Northern
he interpreted  at the baptism of thirty-two  Indians Indians.
from the North.    Returning to Nanaimo he took with
him Pierce who was anxious to receive an education,
although at this time he had no thought of becoming a
The  Indians who returned to  Port Simpson from The
Victoria,   opened   a   Sunday   school,   organized   class at portans
meetings, and met regularly for prayer.    While these Simpson.
meetings aroused the curiosity of the people, so that
many attended, it was the changed conduct of those who
announced themselves Christians that convinced others
of the reality of the power of God.    Many whojhad
163 Mr. Tate
opens Port
been leaders in feasts and dances, who believed in the
power of the medicine man, who had been merciless
in their cruelty to captives and slaves, and who, on
threat of death, had compelled attendance at drunken
orgies, were now denouncing the very things in which
they once gloried. They had sent several deputations
to Victoria asking for a missionary. Letter after letter
containing appeals for help, and almost unbelievable
reports of Christian progress, were received by the
Chairman, the Rev. William Pollard, who responded
by going to Port Simpson, taking Pierce with him as
Twelve years before Mr. Pollard's visit, William
Duncan with the Indians he had won to Christianity,
numbering about 350, had left Port Simpson and gone
sixteen miles south to Metlakahtla, where they established
a Christian village. Port Simpson once more gloried
in its paganism, undisturbed until the Indians converted
in Victoria returned home to make it Christian.
Mr. Pollard was not prepared for what he witnessed
during his visit of a few days. The following is from
his letter regarding the trip: "No fewer than five hundred
attended the means of grace, some of whom are hopefully converted to God. Many families have renounced
paganism and are impatiently awaiting the arrival of a
missionary. I preached three times in four days, visited
105 families, married 7 couples, baptized 125 children
'and 18 adults. The adults had attended classes for
three months, and some had attended our school in
Victoria. Thirty-five others were received on probation.
The last service I held was attended by five hundred.
Alfred Dudoward and his wife, at the request of the
Indians, had opened a school; I counted 212 scholars."
Mrs. Dudoward, from babyhood until her marriage, had
live^ in Victoria, where, through the kindness of a few
ladies, she had attended school regularly.
Mr. Crosby, who was in Eastern Canada, had been
appointed to Port Simpson, but the work was so urgent
that Mr. Pollard left Pierce as interpreter for Mr. Tate
whom he sent to Port Simpson upon returning to
Victoria, while Amos Cushan was given charge of the
work at Nanaimo. Mr. Tate arrived the first week in
April, 1874. As the canoe, to which he had transferred
from the steamer, neared the shore, a number of Indians,
gathering herring spawn, asked him to remain where he
was while they notified the people of his arrival. An
hour later canon at the fort boomed out a long welcome,
flags fluttered and waved in honour of the missionary,
and the whole population was lined up on the beach ready
to shake his hand.
After the Indians had satisfied themselves with a Port
reception that cheered the missionary's heart, the s'mPson
Hudson's Bay Company's factor claimed Mr. Tate
as his guest. Mr. Morrison remarked as they walked
towards the fort, "If you had come a few months ago,
you would have found many of the Indians with whom
you have been shaking hands, dancing on the same
beach, almost nude and with a human skull in each
hand; others tearing living dogs limb from limb and
devouring the quivering flesh; while others would be
biting the flesh of each other's bodies in their wild
cannibal dances."
Shortly after Mr. Tate reached the fort, Chief Skag- The
wait called and offered his house for meetings.    At the *ne*1jm?s
service held that evening over seven hundred, seated skagwait's
on the floor, which was covered with the clean sand the big house.
women had cheerfully carried from the beach, filled the
great Indian house to overflowing.    On the platform
were the young chief, Alfred Dudoward, William Henry
Pierce, Clah and many others, besides a number of the
women  who  had  been  converted  in  Victoria.    After
"Come every soul by sin oppressed,
There's mercy with the Lord,"
Mr. Tate led in prayer, in describing which he wrote,
"When all in the house lifted up their voices at the same
time, I stopped my prayer in the midst of the seeming
165 Tate and
visit the
confusion, but when I looked into those dusky faces
and saw the streaming tears, I cried, 'Hallelujah! The
Lord can hear a thousand prayers at one time as well
as He can hear one.'" The bondage of paganism was
broken. Little wonder that the prayers became a
chorus of thanksgiving, compelling Mr. Tate to shout
Port Simpson, a trading post for the Indians of the
Northern Coast, of Queen Charlotte Islands ninety
miles across the Hecate Straits, and of Alaska only
fifteen miles away, now became the centre from which
the Gospel was carried to the tribes of the Northern
Pacific; while many Indians, who in Victoria had become
followers of Jesus Christ, returned to their villages to
tell the wonderful story, suffering persecution, ostracism
and ridicule, as they separated themselves from the old
life and tried to bring their friends into the new.
Requests for teachers constantly reached Port Simpson
from distant villages. Leaving Pierce and Mrs. Dudoward in charge of Port Simpson, and taking a number
of young men with him, Mr. Tate spent two weeks on
the Naas River at the time the tribes from all parts
of Northern British Columbia and Southern Alaska
congregated for oolachan fishing. From the Naas the
Indians carried the Gospel over the "grease trail" to
the villages of the Skeena River.
In 1856 when William Duncan began work in Port
Simpson there were, outside the enclosure of the Hudson's Bay Company's fort, 250 Indian houses, with a
population of 637 men, 756 women, 763 children.
About 400 men were absent at the time. The Dominion
Government now asked Mr. Tate to take a census of
Port Simpson. Armed with a book containing the
usual questions, he did the best he could with a difficult
task, and had good success. He met with some amusing
and witty replies. "How old are you?" he asked Neas-
beans. The old man answered, "Doubtful." To jog
his memory, Mr. Tate said, "Do you remember when
the fort was built?" "When the Hudson's Bay Company
built the fort seventy years ago, my grandchildren were
old men," Neasbeans replied, as he laughed. "Tell me
as nearly as you can," was the next attempt of the
census-taker. Pointing to the mountain behind the
village, the Indian solemnly declared, "You see that
mountain. There was no mountain there when I was
born." Mr. Tate, who enjoyed the old man's humour,
was left to fill in his age as best he could.
The three months Mr. Tate spent in Port Simpson Port
proved a wonderful experience.    Thousands of Indians SimPson
in the district for the first time heard the Gospel; several formed.
tribes  decided   to  accept   Christian   teaching;  others
were clamouring for teachers; a church and a school-
house, rebuilt from large Indian houses, were dedicated
to God's service; the hearty and practical co-operation
of the Hudson's Bay Company's officers was established;
and Port Simpson was making rapid progress in putting
away material evidences of paganism.
While in Eastern Canada, in 1874, Mr. Crosby and The secret
Rev. Egerton Ryerson Young, of the Lake Winnipeg f   «fooo
District,  together spent some months in visiting the for the
churches.    At a meeting in Centenary Church, Hamilton,  Port
Mr. Crosby made a strong appeal for Port Simpson,  j^g^1
When the collection was being taken, Mr. W. E. Sanford
stepped to the platform and asked the chairman's permission to speak.    He announced that when $1,000 was
secured for the new mission at Port Simpson, he would
tell an important secret.    In a few minutes the $1,000
had been subscribed, and the secret was asked for.    He
said, "Miss Douse, one of the teachers in the Ladies
College, who is down in the corner with the college girls,
is my secret.    She is going to marry Mr. Crosby and go
with him to his far-off field in Northern British Columbia." The subscriptions did not stop with the thousand
dollars.   While Mrs. Crosby's work for the Indians of
Port Simpson began through the gifts which came when
her engagement was announced, the greatest gift was
herself through long years of heroic service.
167 L
Tate On June 30th, 1874, Mr. Crosby and his bride arrived
overthe from Ontario to begin their wonderful twenty-three years
work at of service for the Indians of Northern British Columbia.
Bort A few days later when Mr. Tate left for his work among
to Crosby, the tribes of the Fraser, he handed over to Mr. Crosby
a day-school roll of three hundred scholars, half of whom
were adults; a membership of over one hundred new
converts, gathered into four classes, with a leader for
each; prayer meetings for which the class-leaders felt
responsibility; a singing school; two preaching services;
and a Sunday school of 500 scholars,
fi Th  S Though the people were sorry to say good-bye to Mr.
at Port Tate, they welcomed Mr. and Mrs. Crosby as their
si*?Pson> own missionaries. For a few months, until lumber
arrived from Victoria and a mission house was built,
residence in the officers' quarters in the fort was graciously given by the Hudson's Bay Company. Mr. Crosby
began at once to meet the people and investigate conditions. The Indians, over a thousand in Port Simpson
alone, some looking to Crosby for guidance in their
efforts to establish Christianity, and others, opposed
to giving up old customs and beliefs, provided work
Work and enough for a staff of missionaries with adequate equipment. "Christian streets" were needed for Christian
home-making. No church, no school, no sawmill!
These were difficulties enough, but they could be overcome for there was an ample supply of timber and
willing helpers; a good carpenter through the kindness
of the Hudson's Bay Company; plans of buildings
supplied by an architect friend in Victoria; limited
financial help from the Missionary Society; giving by the
Indians on the same scale as that of the woman whose
gift of two mites was greater than all others; and a
missionary who could win the co-operation of the
Indians while he was to them an example of prayer,
faith and hard work. In less than two years a fine
church was dedicated free of debt, and a comfortable
school took the place of the Indian house which Mr.
168 ■■■■
Tate had purchased for temporary use, and in which
Mrs. Crosby had taught school for months.
With a population of many hundreds without a
Justice of the Peace, Crosby realized that provision
must be** made for maintaining order. He called the
chiefs and young men together and suggested a Municipal
Council. They were pleased, especially when Crosby
told them that the village would be organized the same
as white villages and that the strongest men must be
chosen. The chiefs said, "Gamblers, conjurers, man-
eaters and dog-eaters will be elected if the strongest men
are chosen." When the elected Council assembled all
these professions were represented. However, they
were influential men and Crosby worked with them
patiently, until the time came when the Council decided
their village should be entirely Christian. The programme of reform included no whiskey; no medicine
men or conjurers with their drums, deceit and extortion;
Christian instead of heathen marriages; the prohibition
of gambling; keeping the Sabbath holy—canoes not to
land nor depart. These laws, each with the amount of
the fine if broken, were all entered in a big book. The
law against gambling was proposed by a former conjurer. Immediately a gambler proposed a law against
conjuring. To ensure the observance of the laws,
committees were appointed to visit the houses, gather
the gambling pins, and secure the paraphernalia of the
medicine men. Strenuous opposition came^fromf/the
medicine men, conjurers and gamblers; but the people
were accustomed to being governed by their chiefs and
the laws were enforced. The fines were used in making
roads and other improvements. The first municipal
fair, at which prizes were awarded, was. held JnJL875.
Port Simpson was growing in industry.
Although Pierce was anxious to earn money for his
education, he remained six months at Port Simpson,
as interpreter to Mr. Crosby. Returning to Victoria,
he, with many of the Indians from the northern villages,
found work at the sawmill in Port Laidlow, across the
and their
United States boundary, where saloons were open every
day, including Sunday, and liquor was sold to the
Indians without restriction, with the result that there
was fighting all day Sunday and on Monday many were
unfit for work. Pierce saw his opportunity. He secured
the use of a small, seldom-used church, worked hard in
securing attendance for the opening Sunday, and began
evangelistic services and a campaign against intemperance. Both mill owner and manager co-operated,
the manager because he was interested in temperance
reform, the owner on account of the greater output of
:s The results of Pierce's work at Port Laidlow were felt
throughout the North, for among those working at the
)W-j, mill whom he helped to turn from paganism were
George Tait of the Naas, who became the chief support
and counsellor of the missionary; Clah (Philip McKay),
who first carried the Gospel to the Indians of Alaska;
Charlie Amos of Kitamaat, the first to introduce Christianity to his people; and Bella Bella Jack, the first to
tell the Good News to the Bella Bellas. Pierce, himself,
dedicated his life to missionary service. Soon after his
return to Victoria, where he hoped to continue his
studies, he was summoned north by Mr. Crosby and
*on appointed to Port Essington, about fifty miles south of
it Port Simpson, where he arrived in 1877. Mr. Crosby
personally paid Mr. Pierce's salary, and the second
mission station was opened in the north.
Crosby visited Alaska, the Naas, and the villages of
the Coast as far south as Bella Bella, while Indians
came from many villages to be taught and to secure
-st Clah (Philip McKay), who had attended meetings in
nary  Victoria,   with  several  other  young  men,   all   native
s of   Christians,  left Port Simpson for the Cassair Mines,
Alaska, but obtaining work at Wrangel they went no
farther.    Here  Clah began work among the  Indians
and had the honour of being the first to take the Gospel
to the red men of this northern territory of the United
States. An appeal came to Mr. Crosby for a teacher,
which was so urgent that he sent Pierce who had been
for some time at Port Essington. The work in Alaska
was taken over later by the Presbyterian Church of the
United States.
Next to Port Simpson, the Naas was the greatest Pierce
distributing centre for the Gospel message.    Deputa- sent to
tions soon came to Port Simpson asking for a teacher Riv^aas
and a missionary.    The opportunity was unequalled in  Indians,
all the north and in no place was the Gospel more needed.
Beyond teaching some of the great Truths and Gospel
hymns to those who came,  Crosby was helpless,  so
until a missionary could be found, Pierce, who seemed
indispensable in opening up new fields, was transferred
from Alaska to the Naas.
Crosby went to Victoria for the District Meeting,  No missic
full of hope that he would be given help for the tribes funds for
of the Naas.   When the Chairman asked him to tell newwork
of the work of the North, the success of which was al-
' most overwhelming, Crosby told of the Naas and appealed for a missionary.    As he spoke he was interrupted
by the Chairman saying, "Brother, will you pardon me,
but I must say here, word has come from the Missionary
Secretary that the Society is in debt and not one dollar
more can be spent this year for opening up new work."
Man of faith though he was, it was almost more than
Mr. Crosby could bear.   After the meeting he went to
his room and prayed.    Then, to be alone, he went out,  How
and as he walked along a quiet street his thoughts went Crosby
back to the Saturday night prayer meeting at Father ™[
McKay's, through which so much blessing had come to for the
the North; and he remembered that it was again Satur- Naas.
day night.   Thinking the prayer meeting might still
be carried on, he went to Father McKay's, and there he
found a little company, as of old, gathered for prayer.
When the leader asked if anyone would like to speak,
Crosby responded and told about the tribes of the Naas
who were pleading for a missionary and of the message
received from the Missionary Secretary by the Chairman
secured a
of the District, that not one dollar could be spent on
new work, as the Society was already in debt. "Brother
Crosby can't go back without his missionary. I'll
give $2.50," an old coloured man announced. "I'll
give $50," another said. The giving continued until
over $300 was promised. Then came the greatest gift—
a young school teacher, A. E. Green, said, "I'll go as the
missionary." Sherriff McMillan, a member of the
District Meeting, presented the man and the money
at the Monday morning session, and the call of the
Naas was answered, as all calls must be answered, through
prayer, men and money. Victoria friends, in addition
to their regular missionary givings, pledged Mr. Green's
support for two years. Together Crosby and Green
left Victoria, and a third missionary was added to the
northern work.
The Naas offered every advantage for living a life of
constant sacrifice. Through thirteen years of pioneer
service, Green met discouragements, endured privation,
and suffered hardship, until the Naas was changed, and
the Gospel was carried to the villages of the Skeena.
In addition to results through preaching and teaching,
the home life of the missionary was an important factor
in establishing Christian homes; the hospitality of the
mission house was used to the fullest extent. Mr. and
Mrs. Green in caring for boys for whom no one else
cared, soon gathered a family which taxed the capacity
of their home and the purchasing power of the missionary's salary, for this small orphanage was carried on
without help from mission funds. Who can measure the
results of such work? The little paper, The Akah,
published by Mr. Green, not only carried the Gospel
message over a wide area but was also an evidence
of the success of the schools. In 1890 when Mr. and
Mrs. Green left the Naas for their new appointment at
Port Simpson, they reported a church membership of 198. •
Dr.   Osterhout,   now  Superintendent   of   Methodist
Oriental Missions in Canada, and Dr. W. T. Rush, of
Lamont Hospital, began their missionary service on this
When Dr. Ru
sh If
ed by the Re^
. R
of ser
vice, on accoui
to the
pastorate in 0
on thi
s mission was t
ft because of ill-health, he was
A. Spencer, who, after a term
illness in his family, returned
io.    After some years, our work
s taken over by the Anglican Church.
Port Simpson District in the north, and the work Indian
among the tribes of the Fraser in the south, provided volunteer
fields so extensive for Crosby and Tate that they would workers-
have been helpless had it not been for the Indians who
became  self-appointed  evangelists.   The   Gospel  was
taken to most of the missions of the Port Simpson District
by Indians converted in our first Indian missions in the
southern part of the province.
When Jim Star of China Hat was converted in Van- China
couver, he immediately set out in search of a Christian Hat and
wife that they together might be missionaries to his m ar*
people. In the Indian mission at Victoria he found a
fine Christian girl from Kitamaat; they understood the
same language and both were anxious to work for the
Master. Arriving at China Hat, they decided to build
a place of worship. The people opposed their efforts,
but the persecution did not turn Star and his wife from
their purpose. They went to the woods, hewed cedar
slabs, then launched their canoe and paddled two
. hundred miles to Port Simpson for hardware. There
they found something more important to their people
than nails for the church. They studied the Bible,
listened to Crosby's wonderful preaching, just what the
Indians at China Hat needed; learned to sing the Gospel
hymns; and returned home in the spring ready to teach
their people and to tell them of the great changes taking
place at Port Simpson. To their surprise, they found a
number of the young people ready to join them, glad to
escape the horrors of paganism.
Jim Star was delighted when told that Whiskey Jack Bella
and George Blucher of Bella Bella had both been con- 5?Ma.and
verted and had returned home.    The chiefs at Bella jack   y
Bella  strenuously  opposed  Christianity.   They  commanded the men to put on their blankets, paint their
faces and return to the customs of the tribe, adding if
they wished to be white men and Christians they must
go back to Victoria. Blucher was frightened into
obedience, but Jack's open disregard of their commands
enraged the chiefs, who threatened to kill him if he
tried to "preach his religion." The first thing Jack had
done on returning home, was to build a little house for
himself in front of which every Sunday he hoisted a
flag to let the people know it was the Lord's Day. As
he was not allowed to speak in the village, he took his
Bible and spent the day on the mountain side. While
he could not read a word of the Bible which he held in
deepest reverence, he told Mr. Tate that in those hard
days he used to turn the pages and pray, "Father, this
Word has saved me and I know it can save my brother
Indians, but they will not listen to me. Lord, send
the missionary who can read the Book to them, for I
know they will hear him." One day Jack saw a canoe,
with a British flag flying at the stern, coming into
Bella Bella, and he knew the missionary for whom he
prayed had come. He was overjoyed to welcome
Crosby and the band of Christian Indians who accompanied him. As the Bella Bellas listened to Crosby
preach, and heard the Christian Indians tell of the
marvellous changes taking place through the Gospel,
their opposition broke down. At the request of the
young people Pierce remained as teacher.
Mr. Tate made a second trip to Port Simpson in 1879,
shortly after he was ordained. How Port Simpson had
changed in five years! "In 1874 there was scarcely a sign
of civilization or Christianity: all that now remained of
the pagan days were a few old Indian houses and a
solitary totem, erected to the memory of Chief Legaic,
King of the Tsimpsheans."
While on this visit, a ceremony took place in which all
Port Simpson was interested. The beautiful, new church
was not large enough to hold all who wished to witness the
marriage of Miss Knott, their friend and school teacher,
to the Rev. Charles M. Tate, their first missionary.
There was abundant work awaiting Mr. and Mrs. Tate
Tate at Chilliwack, but no mission house nor funds with a05p£1ented
which to build one.   A kindly Indian gave them the use tribes
of his house, furniture was soon made and a mission of the
house  established  in  the   Indian  village.    Mrs.  Tate Fraser*
taught school and  Mr.  Tate   "roamed  the  country,
visiting the scattered tribes and breaking to the hungry
people the Bread of Life."
Representatives   from   the   Skeena   River   villages
came continually to Port Simpson asking for a missionary.
Mr. Crosby brought such a strong appeal to Conference
in 1880 that Mr. Tate was appointed to open the Skeena Tate
mission.    Mr. and Mrs. Tate left at once for their new a03?^mted
field, but on reaching Port Simpson word was received skeena
that the Church Missionary Society was about to open a River,
mission on the Skeena.
Thankful that the field was to be supplied, Mr. Crosby
sent Mr. and Mrs. Tate to Bella Bella, where Pierce
as school teacher was winning his way with the young
people.    Bella Bella mission included China Hat, Bella
Coola and Rivers Inlet.    These outlying villages were
reached only by long, hazardous canoe trips.   While on Mr. and
one of his trips Mr. Tate discovered the salmon at ^rgej5alte
Rivers Inlet which led to it becoming a cannery centre. Bella,
Within two years great changes had come to Bella  1880.
Bella; with Mrs. Tate as teacher, a number of the
young people had learned to read; upwards of a hundred
had been  converted; the  Lord's  Day was observed;
modern houses were built; modern dress had replaced
the blanket; infant betrothal and early marriage were
abolished  (although promises already made must be
kept); the people were prospering and giving liberally
towards church and school buildings.   After four years of
successful work as pioneers at Bella Bella, Mr. and Mrs.
Tate returned to the work among the Tribes of the Fraser.
When Mr. Tate was at Port Simpson in 1874 the The
Hydahs of Queen  Charlotte  Islands, the best canoe Hydahs of
builders of the coast, came to Port Simpson to trade ghaXtte
some fine canoes for oolachan oil.    During the trading islands.
175 for Queer
some unfair dealings were detected and both Hydahs
and Tsimpsheans seized their guns to settle the dispute. Open warfare was prevented by Mr. Tate stepping between the would-be fighters. Addressing the
Hydahs, he said, "Do not forget you are visitors.
There is a better way of settling your difficulties than
by shooting one another." To the Tsimpsheans, he said
"You ought to be ashamed to treat your visitors as
enemies, when you know they came not for war but on a
friendly trading expedition." The following Sunday
Hydahs and Tsimpsheans attended services together.
During the three weeks the Hydahs remained many
decided to give up pagan practices, and the missionary
made an agreement of peace, that has never been
violated, between the two tribes which for centuries
had fought each other to the death.
In 1876 Gedanst, of Queen Charlotte Islands, came
under the influence of Miss Pollard in Victoria, was
converted, and returned to Skidegate with a new name,
Amos Russ, to begin a new life. His whole world was
changed, and his chief concern became the conversion
of his own people who through visiting Port Simpson
already knew something of Christianity; but many,
bound by old customs and ceremonies, opposed him
and he suffered all the ignominy they could heap upon
him—this one-time favorite grandson of the old chief
and a prince among his people.
Amos left the islands and lived for a time at Port
Simpson. When he returned with a Christian wife
the old chief could not resist giving him permission to
bring a missionary teacher to the islands. Immediately
Amos called for volunteers for a November trip across
the ninety miles of rough sea to Port Simpson where he
expected to secure the teacher. An emphatic warning
had been sent to Mr. Crosby that no funds were available
for new work, nor for .the work already begun, and that
the Mission Board must retrench, but the call from Queen
Charlotte Islands was an opportunity to George Robinson, the school teacher at Port Simpson, who volunteered
to return with Russ to help bring the Gospel to the Sunset
Islands of the Pacific. This was in 1883. Amos Russ
still lives at Slddegate.
When Mr. Crosby and his volunteer canoe crew visited Crosby
Kitamaat about 1875, they found a typical Indian village YJ?'ts
in which witchcraft influenced all life, secret societies i87|maa '
held the people in terror, and evidence of the man-eating
dances could be seen in the ugly sores on many of the
people.   The Kitamaat chiefs gloried in their paganism
and were united in opposing Christianity.    There was
only one shingled house in the village and this belonged
to old Frank, a trader, whose chief merchandise was bad
whiskey which he exchanged for good furs, and the
whiskey added its terrible effects upon the Indians to
their own diabolical practices.
Whauksgumalayou of Kitamaat was a rival of old Whauks-
Frank in the whiskey trade and bartered his furs in gumala-
Victoria for "fire-water." In 1876 he went as usual, Kitamaat.
intending, as the Port Simpson chief had done, to bring
home an abundant supply of whiskey. While in
Victoria he met the Rev. William Pollard who told him
of God. Was God the Great Spirit who he thought
lived in the mountains? The changing clouds which
sunrise and sunset made glorious with colour, the water
as it rolled and tossed and sent its waves tumbling against
the rocks or racing to the shore, the wind as it swept
along in its fury of destruction or as it gently swayed the
branches of the trees, the flash of the lightning and the
roar and roll of the thunder, were all unfathomable
mysteries to the Indian whose greatest longing was to
know the source of the power he saw everywhere. As
Mr. Pollard told of the world's Creator, of the marvels
of His power, of His love, of Jesus Christ who came to
reveal the Father and save from sin and death, Whauksgumalayou was led to the Source of all power, and the
new life was his. He returned to Kitamaat with God's
letter (the Bible), a British ensign, and a statement
signed by Mr. Pollard that he had become a Christian
and had been baptized Charlie Amos.
177 First
church at
His first thought was to free his people from the
witchcraft for which they were renowned. When he
told them of Jesus and showed them the Bible, feasts
and dances ceased for a few days, but when he announced that he was a Christian and that the medicine
man had really no power over the people, the leaders
refused to listen and persecution began. Amos had to
"fight the good fight with all his might." He and the
few friends he persuaded to become Christians were
condemned to death by witchcraft, pelted with red-hot
stones, bitten by man-eaters and tormented until they
had to hold their meetings secretly in a cave. The
commands of the chiefs were ignored and in 1877 the
little company that had left paganism built a small,
log church.
A little later Amos, with a canoe load of Christians,
went to Port Simpson for a missionary. They were
heartily welcomed and remained for some time studying
and learning about the new way. When they returned
to Kitamaat early in 1878, George Edgar, a native
teacher, and his family accompanied them. Mr. and
Mrs. Edgar had many hard experiences during the two
years they spent at Kitamaat. Perhaps the most
terrifying was the day the wild man-eaters tried to bite
their little son, who was snatched from death only by
the bravery of his mother. Failing to get the boy, the
man-eaters then made a rush for Charlie Amos' baby,
but Mrs. Amos gave them a demonstration of muscular
Christianity which saved her baby, injured a man-eater
and enlisted about fifty in a fight. After this the
Christians were again in disfavour. A witch doctor
threatened to drive the fish out of the river, while a
chief threatened to kill the boy who rang the church bell.
About this time, Mr. Crosby and his band of workers
from Port Simpson were welcome visitors to the Christians at Kitamaat. While a service was being held,
a conjurer, who had boasted of his power over the
missionary, came to the meeting to create disturbance.
Crosby found it necessary to become a militant preacher,
and then
the streii
come to
Edgar protectic
nan soon realized he had not measured
the paleface. After this, the chiefs
by not to pray that disaster might
romising in turn to desist from per-
istians. Chief Jessea now gave Mr.
and the school became a success.
When this native pioneer missionary left Kitamaat he
was succeeded by Mr. and Mrs. Dudoward who remained
only a short time. Kitamaat was again left without a
Almost from  the beginning there had been thrust A Girls'
upon Mr. and Mrs. Crosby the protection of young girls, Home in
many of whom were being sold by their parents—fifteen Simpson
had been taken from one school—to white men and mission
Indians who cared for neither their souls nor bodies as nouse-
they  carried  on   their  degrading  traffic.    To  escape
being bartered girls came to the mission house for refuge.
One after another was taken in until fifteen to twenty
girls added to the family was a serious problem when the
expense for all came from the same source, the missionary's small salary.
A lady who knew how crowded the mission house had
become, gave Mr. Crosby a $20 gold piece, saying,
"This is all I have saved but if you can build an extension to the mission house, use it." With the help
of the Indians the addition was completed and opened in
1879, but the girls kept on coming until again the
mission house could not provide the necessary accommodation; yet it was heart-breaking to send them
Mr. and Mrs. Crosby spent the winter of 1881-82 in The
the East where they had many opportunities of telling Woman's
of the  work in  their  far-off mission  field.    The or- Sotietyary
ganization of the Woman's Missionary Society in 1881 organized,
proved a source of help'to the work among the girls.  1881-
The first $200 raised by the Hamilton auxiliary was
given to the Crosby Girls' Home, while out of the first
year's income of the Woman's Missionary Society an
appropriation of $500 was made to the home and in 1882
179 work.
Miss Hendrie of Brampton was appointed matron, the
first missionary of the Society.
As a result of Mr. Crosby's visit to the East, four new
workers   were  appointed   to   British   Columbia,   and
G. F. Hopkins, having heard of the great need of missionaries among the Indians, came  from   Chicago  to
begin work as teacher at Bella Bella.
s Rev.        Shortly before Mr. Crosby left for the East, the Rev.
os   uss Amos   Russ,   Chairman   of  Victoria   District,   visited
t Port Simpson.    He was delighted with what he saw
lp^n      and gladly accepted Mr. Crosby's invitation to accompany him on a trip to see the work of the extensive
district.   They travelled by canoe and camped at night
wherever they happened to be.    To Mr. Russ the trip
was a  never-to-be-forgotten  adventure,  providing an
abundance of discomforts almost unendurable.    To Mr.
Crosby it was part of the routine, for "no funds to extend
the work" had compelled him to travel about 3,000
miles by canoe every year in order to keep in touch with
the groups of Christian Indians who, in many scattered
at Russ villages, were struggling out of heathenism. "Crosby,
' °'        you'll kill yourself if you go on like this," was the
/el.        emphatic declaration of Mr. Russ, whose deepest experiences of the trip are not recorded.    In  Ontario,
during the following winter, he waxed eloquent as he
told of Crosby's great waterways circuit, of the discomfort, hard work, risk of life and needless spending of
time and strength in trying to reach the people.    The
response was special gifts for a mission steamer, which
William Oliver, a ship builder of the Clyde, volunteered
ults.      to build.    In November, 1884, with Oliver as engineer
„, ,    and Thomas Crosby as captain, the Glad Tidings left
ings      Victoria for her first trip  to the  northern missions,
iched,    The staunch little steamer was the beginning of what
to-day we call our "Marine Mission," to which Captain
Oliver has contributed skilled workmanship, substantial
gifts of money, and many years of service.
Another new venture in the work at Port Simpson
was the newspaper, The Port Simpson Herald. The first
paper published in the northern district, the initial copy
of which appeared September 27th, 1882.
In the fall of 1883 Mr. Crosby decided to open a
mission at Bella Coola. Accompanied by Pierce and a
volunteer crew, he left Port Simpson by canoe, but on
arriving at Bella Coola the chiefs told him that the
Anglicans intended to open a mission, so Mr. Crosby
immediately withdrew.
On the return trip they called at Bella Bella where
Pierce remained to help Mr. Tate. Shortly before
Christmas Chief Tom of Bella Coola, with his family,
arrived at Bella Bella to spend the holiday season with
friends. Before leaving home Tom had told his people
he would try to bring back a missionary, as the Anglicans
had pot come. If he were successful and it happened
that he arrived home in the night, he was to fire two
shots as a signal that the missionary had come. Pierce
gladly accepted the chief's urgent invitation and returned
with him to Bella Coola. They reached the village
about midnight and Tom fired the shots as he had
promised. Immediately shouts were heard and great
excitement prevailed on both sides of the river.
While in Bella Coola Pierce was the guest of Chief
Tom who gave the use of his house for church services
and day school; it was large enough to accommodate
every one. Without windows or lamps, the great
central fire of blazing logs supplied heat and light.
Chief Tom had a hard time as a result of his kindness
to Pierce, for the other chiefs and older people were
bitterly opposed to Christianity, but the young people
were anxious to attend school and learn the new way.
The persecution seemed to strengthen Tom's resolve
to give up heathen worship and everything pertaining
to it. "What about the idols I have been worshipping
for thirty years?" he asked himself, for he was troubled
because they were still in his possession.
and Chief
One Saturday afternoon he told Pierce he intended to
burn the idols that night after every one had gone to bed,
and invited him to remain up to witness the deed. This
Indian chief, just out of paganism, had the courage to
destroy what his fathers and he had believed to be
possessed of power to heal or kill, and to wield an influence upon life and conduct.
At midnight Tom brought out his heathen treasures,
which had been handed down for several generations
and had been taken from place to place during heathen
dances. The boxes were opened in silence. It was a
tragic hour. The things that had meant so much to
Chief Tom as a pagan could now have no place in his
life. The wonderful five-finger magic whistle which
his grandfather had refused to exchange for a slave;
whistles used at man-eating, dog-eating, and wild
dances; soul traps, drums, masks, aprons, head-dresses,
leggings; everything went into the red-hot fire. Tom
did more than burn the paraphernalia of the conjurer,
of pagan worship, and of witchcraft, in that midnight
sacrifice; he wiped out the traditions of his tribe. By
two o'clock everything had been burned. Then Pierce
and Tom with his family numbering five, knelt in
prayer; and Tom, rejoicing that he had been "delivered
from the bondage of corruption into the glorious liberty
of the children of God," prayed his first audible prayer.
Sunday morning the whole village knew that Chief
Tom and his family had gone over to the "Christian
side." At the evening service his house was crowded.
The heathen chiefs, their faces painted and wearing
blankets, were present. They were dismayed when they
saw Tom and his family arise and heard Tom declare
that they had done with pagan ceremonies for ever.
Chief Tom, their once enthusiastic and devoted leader
of rites and ceremonies! Now he announced himself
as a leader in bringing his people out of paganism.
Pierce remained a year at Bella Coola and it was
thirty-five years before he again had the opportunity
of returning.    One Sunday morning in 1920 he reached
church, comfortable mission house and Christian com-
| mumty, but had no opportunity of meeting old friends
before the service.   From the pulpit he saw a face that
looked strangely familiar and recognized Chief Tom
1 with whom he had held the weird, midnight service
■   th,rty-s'x years before.   What a day it was for the
missionary and the chief!   Through all the long years,
though tempted by potlatches and feasts, by whiskey
I    u- fS a      <"s'10nest traders, and persecuted by pagan
chiefs, Tom had remained faithful through a strength
not his own and which he found never failed under the
Bella Coola to-day, Christian and comfortable, is in
strong contrast to the nearby heathen village where the
people have resisted every effort for their evangelization.
The Kitamaat Indians were determined to have a  Miss
missionary teacher and after several unsuccessful appeals g'a^rence
sent a deputation to Port Simpson in the hope of securing white
one.    Miss Susan Lawrence, the school-teacher, volun- missionary
teered to return with the Indians although the 160-mile Kitamaat.
journey had to be made in a thirty-foot canoe and she
knew some of the difficulties that awaited her.    The
work of this first white woman at Kitamaat was abundantly blest in a revival and when old Frank, the whiskey
trader, was converted, the evangelization of the Kita-
maats was assured.   Charlie Amos continued to be a
self-appointed   evangelist   and   served   his   Lord   and
Master as school-teacher, peacemaker, and as an example
of Christian living.
Indians from the heathen villages of the Upper Skeena Upper
River came every year to the Naas River for oolachan Skeena
fishing    Their stay of two or three weeks gave Mr. {fig
"otreen the opportunity of preaching to them, teaching Gospel.
them hymns and winning some from heathenism.
Others from the Skeena visited Port Simpson where,
as at the Naas, the church, schools, comfortable homes
and the changed community life were in sharp contrast
to conditions in  their heathen  villages,  and  appeals
were made to Mr. Green and Mr. Crosby for teachers
and missionaries. Some of those who had become
Christians, now found life in their own villages intolerable and many returned to the Naas to become a
part of its Christian community.
In May, 1878, Mr. Green, leaving the work at the
Naas with some of the leading members and accompanied by two volunteers, visited the Upper Skeena.
A canoe trip to the head of canoe navigation, then a tramp
of five days over a rough mountain trail, brought them
to the Forks of the Skeena (now Hazelton), 138 miles
the Naas. They were welcomed by the Indians and
the four white traders, one of whom had built a school-
house which he offered to give to the church sending in
the first white missionary or teacher. As village after
village was visited, the chiefs and people listened to the
Gospel and pleaded that teachers be sent. One chief who
a few weeks before had taken about $50 worth of goods
from one of the stores, after hearing Mr. Green preach,
brought the stolen goods to him with the request that
he return them to the owner. It was a hard trip for
Mr. Green and his workers, but it repaid a thousand-fold.
In the same year Mr. Mathieson, who had taught
school at the Naas, went to the Forks of the Skeena.
At the close of the year 120 scholars were reported on
the roll, forty-eight of whom were adults. Mathieson
left the work at the end of the second year.
"ollowing up Mr. Green's work, in the autumn of
1878, Mr. Crosby visited the villages of the Skeena.
Later in the same year, as the guest of the Hudson's
Bay Company's brigade, he again visited the Upper
Skeena. The trip of 225 miles from Port Simpson
to Hazelton was made in sixteen and a half days.
There were forty-four men in the brigade of five canoes
and around the evening camp-fires the missionary had
the opportunity of teaching hymns, telling Bible
stories and winning the men to Christ. On this trip
Mr. Crosby met some of the people from Kishpiax,
who begged him to come to their village. Years before,
when the Port Simpson Church was being built, Blind
Jack, their song singer at heathen feasts and potlatches,
had gone to Port Simpson to hear Christian singing-
As he stayed some time Mr. and Mrs. Crosby taught
him hymns and explained what it meant to be a Chris- -
tian. When he returned home he carried with him a
Bible that his people might see God's Book, a bell to
ring every Sunday in honour of God's Day, and in his
heart the Gospel message, which he proclaimed to his
people. Now they were asking for a missionary; but
"no men and no money" was still the answer of the
Mission Board when a request was made for workers.
The anticipated occupation of this field by the Anglicans,
which had resulted in the withdrawal of the appointed
Methodist missionary, in 1880, had failed of fulfilment.
It was not until 1885 that Mr. Crosby decided that pierce
work must be begun in the villages of the Upper Skeena. begins
_. .... -r    i i   .     i_ work at
Pierce "was willing to go if the way opened to begin Kitzegucla,
work. There was no money for travelling expenses, 1885.
the journey to the Forks of the Skeena would take at
least ten or twelve days by canoe, several men would be
required, as well as provisions for the three weeks' trip;
but letters from the young people convinced Mr.
Crosby and Mr. Pierce that God would open the way,
and their faith was honoured. Early in November six
men volunteered to take them up the river free of
charge, Port Simpson friends gave food, and the missionary expedition set out. As Crosby and Pierce
travelled, they preached and taught. In most of the
villages potlatching and dancing were at their height.
In one place, while Mr. Crosby was preaching a dog-
eater threw a dead dog at him, but this did not stop
the preaching. At Kishpiax the chief welcomed them,
but as the Church of England missionary in a village
four miles distant had promised to build a church and
begin work the next year, our missionaries did not stay.
At Kitzegucla Chief Cooksum offered the use of his
house for services and a day school. Mr. Pierce re-
mained while Mr. Crosby returned home, thankful that
for a second time work was begun on the Skeena.
In the great Indian house, already the home of five
families, school was opened. The young people and
children attended regularly. Many wore only a blanket,
and one little boy came entirely naked, so Mr. Pierce
made him a suit out of the lining of his own overcoat. Judge Graham, of Hazelton, was so delighted with
the changes at Kitzegucla that he supplied provisions
for a Christmas dinner which marked the first observance
of Christmas in the Upper Skeena. In a year's time a
building, used for a mission house, church and school,
was put up by the people, the Missionary Society
supplying some of the material. During the year many
had become Christians and the opening of the building
was part of the celebration of the second Christmas.
After Christmas a band of twenty Kitzegucla Christians, with Mr. Pierce as leader, set out on an evangelistic
tour to the neighbouring villages, all of which were
heathen. Again the Indians were pioneers in carrying
the Gospel to their own people.
During the winter of 1887 an epidemic of measles
broke out at Kitwangah, and spread as the people
journeyed here and there for potlatching, feasts and
dancing. One day Mr. Pierce saw three mothers with
their babies strapped to their backs, lying under some
trees, frozen stiff; they had been too sick to go farther.
At Kishpiax, where every house was crowded with
visitors, so many died that it was impossible to obtain
enough boards for coffins, and the dead were cremated
according to the heathen custom of the tribe. The
Indians blamed the medicine men for using witchcraft
and causing many deaths. Kitwancool Jim, a young
chief, shot and killed the old witch doctor whom Jim's
wife accused of causing the death of their two fine sons.
The Government sent a man-of-war with five hundred
soldiers, in anticipation of trouble, but in three weeks the
man-of-war and the soldiers were withdrawn. In the
autumn, poor Jim, a victim of superstition, was shot
by a special constable. Another distressing occurrence
was the murder of a white trader named Youmans, by
the father of a young Indian who had accidently been
drowned while freighting for the trader.
Jennings, Crosby and Green from time to time had J. C.
visited   the   Upper   Skeena;   and   Sexsmith,   a   native Spencer
teacher, had been sent to Kishpiax.    As the Church wh^mis-
Missionary Society did not extend its work the Indians sionary of
again  urged  that a white  missionary be  sent.   The tjfUpper
Rev. J. C. Spencer, then teaching at Port Simpson,  1888.  '
volunteered to go without promise of support other
than that supplied by friends.    He reached his lonely
and hard field in the autumn of 1888, making Kishpiax
his  headquarters.    Six  years   later   he  married   Miss
Hart, matron of the Crosby Girls' Home at Port Simpson.    After a month's wedding journey by canoe from
Port Simpson, which they left on August 26th, they
reached  Kishpiax,  where  Mrs.  Spencer  continued  to
give herself for the uplift of Indian womanhood.
During the twenty-five years since i Robson first The work
gathered the children into the little mission house at m 188S-
Hope almost unbelievable progress had been made.
Indians had become self-appointed evangelists to their
fellow tribesmen; churches and schools had been built;
industry established; and law and order introduced
into many villages. The fire brigades, brass bands,
municipal councils, modern homes, better standards of
living, and Christian marriages were among the evidences of progress. Crosby, Tate, Green, Pierce and
Spencer had pioneered the work, travelling thousands of
miles by canoe, enduring hardship and laying down their
lives that others might have life more abundantly.
In the Port Simpson district, where there were eleven
missions, the Indians were asking for more missionaries
and teachers: there was evidence of progress everywhere. The whole missionary force, six missionaries
and eleven native helpers, was lamentably small, the
work extensive, and the equipment discouragingly
1 The
The missionaries bravely looked into the future,
although there seemed little prospect of either men or
money. Teachers they must have. Preachers, they
could not do without. Residential schools were a
necessity. Until doctors were part of the missionary
force the power of the medicine men would continue.
Lumber and mining camps and the salmon canneries
were opening up new means of livelihood and ushering
in the day in which the Indians would be forced to adjust
themselves to new environment. The first stage of
the work had been passed.    What of the future?
The work now presented difficulties as hard to overcome as the opposition and conditions of early days.
The Indians must be taught. Simply being good was not
enough; they must be good for something. Mr. Pierce
said the greatest problem was "how to keep them
converted." Many stories similar to the following might
be told, illustrating the difficulty of introducing "better
methods" for the protection of property and showing
the need of education and religious instruction.
"One day we were startled by the clanging of the fire
bell, and rushing out to see what was the matter, we
discovered a little smoke ascending from the roof of
one of the new houses, caused by a spark from the stove
pipe. We asked the owner why he did not throw a little
water on it instead of exciting the whole village. He
replied, 'Why should I put out the fire when we have
firemen to do it?' The firemen were soon at the scene,
a ladder was procured, and a man climbed up the roof,
while another followed with a pail of water and a tin
cup. The cupful of water was handed to the man above,
who filled his mouth again and again and squirted it on
the blaze until the fire was extinguished, when he quietly
descended to receive the applause of the tribe for having
turned himself into a fire engine."
"At Port Simpson the fire brigade was called out to
extinguish a small roof fire. The hook and ladder
company was first on the ground and promptly levelled
the house,  leaving not a stick standing.    Next day, CANADIAN METHODIST MISSIONS
the owner called at the mission house to know who was
going to pay him for the destruction of his house.
"The Indians were proud to possess 'a letter or big
paper' of recommendation, the larger the paper the
more important the owner considered himself. An
Indian who could not read brought his 'paper' to one
of our missionaries: the recommendation was, 'Look
out for this fellow, he is one of the biggest scamps on the
The Rev. Dennis Jennings, who for many years had
charge of the work at Port Essington, was waited upon
by some of-the Indians, who requested that the Mosaic
.Law regarding marriage and wives be adopted as the
standard of the mission. "All right," said the missionary,
"every one get busy to-day and collect stones. Tomorrow we shall begin the stoning." "What do you
mean?" asked the astonished Indians. Mr. Jennings
explained, "All who have committed adultery must be
stoned- to death according to the Mosaic Law." No
more was heard regarding its adoption.
During special services, Mr. Pierce had taught the The half
Indians to sing, "The Half has Never Been Told." nevertold.
He explained that the words used by the Queen of
Sheba when she visited King Solomon and saw the
grandeur of his court, had suggested the words of the
song. "Not half of that city's bright glories to mortals
has ever been told," captured the imagination of the
Indians, and one night after Mr. Pierce had retired he
was aroused by some one shouting, "Missionary come
out. We want you." He dressed hurriedly and went out
to find a number of Indians waiting for him. The spokesman said, "Missionary, we have had a council meeting
and decided we would come and ask you to tell us the
half that has never been told about heaven." Mr. Pierce
said, " I cannot tell you the other half, but I know if you
live up to what you now know, when you are through
with this life you will know the other half." The Indians
went away satisfied. Chapter XIII
The Victoria and New Westminster districts had
been without a missionary for several years. In 1884
Mr. Tate was appointed to the Tribes of the Fraser with
headquarters at Chilliwack. Throughout the district
he found less than a hundred church members. Nanaimo, where Crosby and he began work, had been
abandoned, a coal-mining town had sprung up, and life
for the Indians was filled with the temptations of the
white man's vices.
Mr. Tate went bravely to work. As he compared
present conditions with what might have been had the
Church sacrificed as the missionaries sacrificed, and
given as the Indians gave, he decided to appeal to the
General Board of Missions for assistance. The Board
was helpless. "No funds" that year (1885), translated
into figures, read, "Total income, $172,412. Total
expenditure, $194,142. Deficit, $21,729." Although
Mr. Tate received no financial help, he sympathized
with the Board in its difficult task of trying to stretch
an income distressingly insufficient for the rapidly-
extending work.
With the help of two native assistants, for a second
time Tate began work among the Flatheads. Robert
Pike, a young man from Ontario, who had gone to
British Columbia at his own expense, was teaching
the Indians in the Nicola valley.
Residen- While day schools were always a part of the work, the
tial schools nomadic   habits   of  the   Indians   made   their   success
difficult.   The missionaries longed for residential schools
which would ensure regular attendance, a Christian home
training, and the opportunity of preparing the girls and
boys for the changing conditions, apart from their old
environment and associations.
When Mr. and Mrs. Tate returned to Chilliwack in
1884, for two years they struggled along with the
discouragements of a day school. In 1886 they took
into their home a number of girls and boys—as many
as the building would hold—and a residential school
was begun with Mrs. Tate as teacher, matron and cook,
while to Mr. Tate's work throughout an extensive district, was added some of the burdens of the new venture, especially the financing, for "no funds" still barred
the way to new work. The Woman's Missionary Society
in 1887 made a grant of $400 towards the maintenance
of the school, and a year later built the first Coqualeetza
Home at a cost of $3,500. Help from the Government
solved the problem of financing, while the Woman's
Missionary Society relieved Mrs. Tate's heavy duties
by providing a matron. The school grew until in 1891
its success demanded either discontinuance or enlargement. Mr. Tate went to Toronto and appealed to the
Mission Board for help, but none could be given. While
he was away the school was destroyed by fire. Once
more the mission house became the main building, and
with the addition of a temporary building the school was
carried on.
With valuable assistance from the Government the
second Coqualeetza Institute was opened in March,
1894, with accommodation for 110 pupils.
The Institute began with twenty acres of land, but
when it was taken over by the General Board of Missions in 1900 seventy acres were added. Of the industries now taught the first place is given to -manual training, farming and gardening. During the summer season
the boys are in constant demand by the farmers of the
neighbourhood. The Institute has been successful
in carrying off many prizes at the provincial exhibition.
For several years the Institute has been self-supporting
financially, so far as our Church is concerned.   The old
191 The new
buildings had long outlived their usefulness and the
marvel is that such splendid results were obtained with
such inadequate equipment. The enrolment for 1923-
24 was 165 with an average attendance of 143.
A fine, new building, with accommodation for two
hundred pupils, has been provided by the Government,
and was opened in October, 1924. A technical school
building is now in course of erection. Already there is
a waiting list of over one hundred, a testimony to the
appreciation of the Industrial Residential School by the
Indians, and a tribute to the co-operation of Government
and Church.
In 1914 the Rev. G. H. Raley was appointed principal.
His long experience in the Indian work prepared him
for the heavy duties at Coqualeetza. He is justly proud
of the progress which has been made in the schoolroom,
on the farm, in the workshop and on the athletic field.
The first year of high-school work is being taken up in
the Institute, two students are attending Chilliwack
high school, the entrance class is larger than ever before,
and the manual training department, which ranks among
the best in the province, last year secured a diploma at
the exhibition. The football and basket-ball teams, the
Institute band, and the well-drilled Boy Scouts are
among the recreational activities of the school.
It would be interesting to follow the students after
they leave the Institute. Several have become ministers and others teachers. The training of the Institute
has had a direct effect upon the home life of the Indians
throughout the province, for the pupils go out looking
forward to modern homes. As an indication of the
influence of the Institute, it was found at the last election of the Council in Queen Charlotte Islands that
over fifty per cent, of those elected were ex-members of
While under the Woman's Missionary Society, the
Crosby Girls' Home had become an outstanding factor
in raising the standard of the home life and in preparing the girls as home makers, there were many boys
who needed care and training; several of the smaller
ones had been taken into the Girls' Home until some
better arrangement could be made. To see a need was
to Mr. Crosby a challenge to meet it. An appeal was
made, friends gave money, a temporary building was
put up and the Port Simpson Boys' Home opened in
1891 with a family of twenty. Mrs. Bolton took the
chief supervision of the home until appointed workers
arrived. A grant from the Government and support
from the Missionary Society made it possible to carry
on the work although suitable buildings were never
provided. After twenty years of good work, the school
was closed, as there was no land for farming, and the
buildings and equipment did not meet Goverment
requirements. The boys were transferred to Coqualeetza
Mr. Raley arrived at Kitamaat during the summer of Kitamaat's
1893, the first ordained missionary in that isolated field nrst
forty miles up Douglas Channel.    Mr. and Mrs. Raley ^Sonfry,
faced the problem of securing regular attendance at 1893.
, school.    After much prayer, and with the help of the
school-teacher, they determined to open a home.    Where,
was the question.   The mission house with its three little
rooms was impossible, for besides housing the missionaries it had to serve as a store-room for six months' or a
year's provisions.   The missionaries were determined,
if possible, that the children should remain in Kitamaat
instead of going to camp with their parents.    Rough
lumber was secured and at the end of two weeks a
building had been put up, a part of the schoolroom
partitioned off for the boys' sleeping quarters, and the
home   was   established.    The   children   brought   their Kitamaat
own dishes and bedding, some native food was supplied Home
by the Indians and Mrs. Raley looked after the cooking °Pened
and bread making.    Faith, hard work and sacrifice were
the foundation upon which the far-reaching work of the
Kitamaat   home   was   built.    The   financial   responsibility rested upon the missionaries, and their faith was
193 Mr. Raley
at Pont
In 1895 the Woman's Missionary Society gave a grant |
of $200 and friends sent in bedding and gifts of money.
Two years later the work was taken over by the Woman's
Missionary Society and a new home built.    This was I
destroyed by fire in 1906 and was replaced by a new I
and  better home,  "The  Elizabeth Long Memorial," I
which has continued to contribute an uplifting influence
upon lives, homes and the community.
Through the medium of a little paper Nanakwa {The
Dawn), Mr. Raley made the work at Kitamaat known
to a large constituency. The home is now in the A
Grade, which requires modern equipment and sanitation.
Mr. and Mrs. Raley left Kitamaat in 1906 for Port
Simpson, where they spent eight years in evangelistic
The missionaries of the North had appealed to the
Mission Board for a doctor, the nearest being 550 miles
away; but funds were low and medical work had not I
yet been undertaken by the Missionary Society.
During epidemics of measles, scarlet fever and influenza, the missionaries were almost helpless, while the
death rate was appalling. Missionaries and Indians
had seen their loved ones die without being able to help
them, knowing that many might have been saved had
medical aid been available. While Mr. Crosby was
from home on a trip around the missions, Mrs. Crosby
was called to the help of an Indian mother whose children
had "sore throat," which proved to be diphtheria.
Two of the Indian children died and the infection
carried to the mission house resulted in the death of two
of the Crosby children. They were buried before their
father reached home.
During the years four children of Mr. and Mrs.
Crosby, a little son of Mr. Green's, several children and
the wife of Patrick Russ, and a son of George Edgar
were taken from the family circles of the missionaries,
while there was scarcely a family among the people but
mourned the loss of one or more children. The missionaries and the Indians decided there must be a
doctor secured for the Port Simpson district; all were
willing to help financially. Where could the doctor
be found ? He must be a missionary and of high standing
professionally.   They prayed to God to send the right
Three medical students at Queen's University, Kings- Finding
ton, Ontario, had pledged their lives to missionary a doctor.
service,   through   the   Student  Volunteer   Movement.
| When in Kingston Mr. Crosby met one of these, O. L.
I Kilborn, and urged him to go to British Columbia. Dr.
Kilborn felt he could not do his best work among the
Indians but suggested that his friend, Dr. A. E. Bolton,
who had begun practice in Portland, Ontario, might
consider going. Before locating in Portland, Dr. Bolton
had applied to be sent out as a medical missionary, but
as medical work had not been undertaken by the Methodist Church, the General Secretary of Missions, the
Rev. Alexander Sutherland, D.D., advised him to apply
to a Mission Board of another denomination. After an
interview with Dr. Crosby, followed by correspondence,
Dr. Bolton applied to be sent to British Columbia, but
"no funds" were available and his application was not
accepted. To Dr. Bolton British Columbia was an
open door.    Mr. Crosby assured him support from the
Kmissionaries and the Indians, to the extent of their
ability, and a formal invitation came from the British
Columbia Conference although no financial aid was
promised. The Missionary Secretary strongly advised
Dr. Bolton against going out independently and warned
him that the hospital could not succeed, but this did
not turn him aside, for he had faith that in going to Dr. Bol-
I British Columbia he would enter a field of great use- *Pn>the
I fulness.    Disposing of his practice, he and his wife left medical
Ontario and old friends to take the Gospel of healing to missionary,
the Indians of Northern British Columbia.   They paid arrives at
personally all expenses in reaching Port Simpson, where Simpson,
they arrived November 17th, 1889. 1889.
The success of Dr. Bolton's heroic efforts in establishing
the medical work, including the building of three hospitals, without expense to the Missionary Society,
resulted in medical missions being included in the
missionary programme of the Church. The following
letter written by this first and self-appointed, medical
missionary of Canadian Methodism, after a year in the
field and published in the Christian Guardian, reveals the
opportunity that awaited him:
"My wife and I wish to thank the kind-hearted
friends whose sympathy and prayers upheld us and who
extended a helping hand to us in this work. It has been
a busy year with us. Sometimes I have had more work
on hand than I could well attend to, especially during
the ravages of la grippe in March last.
Dr. "The winter and  spring were spent here in  Port
die^fi'h'1* Simpson, where there is the largest Indian population on
camps. the Coast. Being the chief trading post, it brings me
many visiting patients. During June and July I
made my headquarters at Port Essington, on the Skeena,
and found a great deal to do among the Indians of the
many tribes who gather there during the salmon season.
Part of August I put in on the Naas where the fishing
continued later. During September there were not
many of our people home, but I had a great many
patients from a distance. They come to me from two
hundred miles inland; the same distance from the south;
from Alaska in the north; and from Queen Charlotte
Islands in the west.
Some "Of course there is a great deal of sickness among this
causes of people. Ignorance and uncleanliness are ever accompanied by disease, wnile the travelling and exposure of
their semi-nomadic life add to the liability; but the
larger part of their suffering is caused by hereditary
disease arising from their impure lives and wantonness
A heavy of members of our own race and color,
practice: "Under Providence I hope I have done some good.
Patients      *  have  treated  over  fifty-four  hundred  patients.    A
in a year,    great deal of suffering has been relieved, and perhaps
ome lives saved; but lack of proper means cripples us
a the work. So many surgical cases need anti-septic
jperations and dressing, with warmth and good air;
ither cases need care and food such as they cannot have
ji their homes. In cases of visiting patients, I have had
s many as a dozen here at one time, all lodged in tents
n the beach; or, a little better, roofed in by the guest
ouse of the Hudson's Bay Company.
"While we are thankful for some good results amid Plans for
uch unfavorable circumstances, yet there are so many a hospital
as the above that one cannot but feel deeply Simpson.
the need for a hospital at this place; and we are going
to have one. An interest is awakened among the few
rwhite people in the vicinity; and a petition has been
sent in to the local Government asking for aid and we
have been assured of a grant to help pay running expenses. The Dominion Government should aid through
the Indian Department and I have no doubt will do so
if the matter is properly presented to them; but we can
all haVe a hand in this great work.
"In regard to evangelistic work among the sick,  I The doc
look upon this as one of the most important departments an
of our mission work here.    I would rather have the evanSei
privilege of a few words and prayer with a single, dying
Indian, than to preach to a church crowded by his
white friends who are too full of pride and the enjoyment
of life.    During the epidemic last spring, when I was
^almost worn out in body by overwork and personal
•sickness so that I could scarcely walk from one smoky,
^.ill-smelling house to another to see whole families ill
I together, and when the work was rendered discouraging
-by the many who were weakened by previous disease
succumbing in spite of all my efforts, nothing so cheered
and  encouraged  me  as  the  pleasure  of talking  and
praying with the sick and seeing in some cases the true
repentance and faith which turned their deathbeds into
an entrance of glory.   These privileges of doing good
would be greatly augmented by hospital accommodation,
I where the sick would be constantly under such influences;
and as some might be expected to come to us from
heathen villages, they could be instructed in the Gospel
and perhaps find healing for soul as well as body." (Port
Simpson, November 17th, 1890.)
Dr. Bolton acquired the language and gained the
confidence of the Indians until in a year or two he became not only physician but friend and adviser.
During the salmon fishing the seven canneries at Port
Essington employed many Indians from the villages up
the Skeena. In the spring of 1891, on his way to
attend Conference in Victoria and to complete arrangements for the hospital at Port Simpson, Dr. Bolton
stopped off at Port Essington, intending to spend a
few days, and found an epidemic of grippe raging.
An old Indian house was made to serve as a temporary
hospital and, with Mr. Spencer's assistance, Dr. and
Mrs. Bolton fought the grippe. That summer at
Essington was not soon forgotten. The Indians had
been carrying on a "back to heathenism" revival
and had tried to draw the Christian Indians into heathen
feasts and abominations, to persuade them to keep
the children from school, and to employ medicine men.
Kindness and service overcame prejudice and the
people in many ways showed their gratitude. Mrs.
Bolton and the two teachers who came to help were kept
busy making beef tea and gruel, preparing poultices,
and giving medicines. One day an Indian woman
surprised Mrs. Bolton by giving her $7.50, a gift from
herself and friends, saying, "We see you constantly
giving food to the sick and we want to help." The amount
though small, registered high appreciation from those
who had the reputation of always being more willing
to receive than to give. During the three months Dr.
Bolton recorded 3,400 calls, at most of which medicine
and food were given personally.
In 1892 the hospital at Port Simpson was finished and
Dr. and Mrs. Bolton moved into their first home—a
few rooms in the new building The hospital was
completed and furnished, and drugs and instruments CANADIAN METHODIST MISSIONS
supplied without cost to the Missionary Society.   Grants
I from the Provincial Government, and Dr. Bolton,
assisted by the Indians, provided this great blessing to
the people of the Coast.
The Dominion and Provincial Government grants of
$500 each, the generous assistance of the Woman's
Missionary Society in providing nurses, the support of
' the missionaries out of their meagre salaries, gifts from
the Indians, fees from the Indian and white patients,
and subscriptions from friends in Vancouver and Victoria, were the only financial provision for the expenses
of the hospital. The Church was still not ready to
include medical missions in its programme, so Dr.
Bolton formed a Board of Directors of friends in Vancouver and Victoria. In applying for the incorporation
of the hospital it was provided that the Methodist
Church should control the appointment of the medical
I superintendent.
Dr. Bolton travelled up the Skeena, visited the Naas
River, spent weeks at Essington and Rivers Inlet during
the fishing season, and was in constant demand up and
down the Coast. A branch hospital at Essington became
a necessity; this was completed in 1895. Two years
later another branch hospital was opened at Rivers
Inlet, 265 miles south of Port Simpson. Both hospitals
were completed without expense to the Missionary
Society, which, however, gave a small yearly grant to
Dr. Bolton.    This gradually decreased to $100.
The medical work grew beyond the strength of one
man and in 1897 the General Board of Missions appointed
Dr. J. A. Jackson to Bella Bella, his work including the
Rivers Inlet hospital. Bella Bella, with its old Indian
houses   crowded   together,   unlovely   and   unsanitary,
fDStretched along the beach. There was very little land
where modern homes could be built and none for gardens,
while the location was unsuitable for a hospital. It was
necessary to select a place which would meet the needs
of the Indians and the growth of the work.   To most
| men the difficulties of moving the village out of its old-
opened at
at Bella
time community houses, building a house for each
family, and enlisting the Indians in enthusiastic cooperation would have been an impossible undertaking,
but with Dr. Jackson faith and work were inseparable
and he planned for a long future to be given to the
uplifting of the Bella Bellas. The very foundation of
progress was the opportunity for Christian home life
and surroundings which assured better health conditions.
At the end of a year Dr. Jackson was compelled to
withdraw on account of ill health brought on by overwork
and heart strain from using a heavy row boat in a
rough sea.
His successor was Dr. R. W. Large, who arrived at
Bella Bella in November, 1898, having spent the summer
at Steveston, on the Fraser River, where between
5,000 and 6,000, representing several nationalities,
gathered for the fishing. The Japanese had built a
hospital for the use of the hundreds of Japanese fisher-
As the docfc
going i
charge of 1
I work at
s life -
Bella Bella was moving when he arrived. Two miles
distant from the old, the new village surveyed and
planned by Dr. Jackson was beautifully situated. There
were already a number of modern houses and others
were being built. When church, school, fire hall, mission
house and hospital were completed, Bella Bella was one
of the best villages on the coast and a port of call for
steamers as they went to and from Alaska.
Dr. Large's skill soon became known and his patients
included many brought long distances by canoe and
steamer. A hospital became a necessity. Dr. Large
knew the Indians would co-operate. They had built the
school-house out of fines imposed by the Council for
drunkenness, gambling, fighting and immorality. The
Ladies' Aid, a new organization, had assumed the
responsibility of furnishing the church. The people
were beginning to take a pride in their village and
building the hospital was gladly undertaken. The men
gave about five hundred days of work, the women cooked
for the workers, and when finished all were proud of
"our hospital," although its capacity was only twelve
I beds. The young people of Central District, Toronto,
supporting Dr. Large through the Young People's
Forward Movement, provided bedding, linen, etc.
The $500 Dr. Large had borrowed personally for material
was soon repaid, a tuberculosis cottage built, and the
hospital opened in October, 1902.
Dr. Large enlisted the co-operation of the Indians in Fighting
fighting   one   of   their   worst   enemies—tuberculosis. tu|3ei!"
He lectured on such subjects as ventilation, sanitation,
I cleanliness and food, making generous use of lantern
slides and charts. When the educational method did not
produce all that was expected, Dr. Large, who was
resourceful, frightened the Indians into a strict observance of certain health rules. A set of charts showing
the effects of alcohol on the human body were a startling
revelation and helped in a needed reform, for drinking
- was a temptation hard to withstand. A commodious
wharf and a twenty-foot sidewalk built by themselves
were the pride of the Indians. "No spitting" signs
warned every one that a fine would be the penalty if
any one was found guilty of this method of spreading
tuberculosis. One day three white men came in a
yacht. It was only an Indian village so they paid no
attention to the signs, but to their surprise they were
arrested and brought before the council. The fines
imposed expressed the council's estimate of the offence
and were a substantial addition to the Village Improvement Fund.   '
The medical work was not without its difficulties— The diffi-
witchcraft, Indian medicine, the witch doctor, the whole- ^^^
sale doses of medicine the Indians took on the assump- medical
tion that if one tablespoonful would help surely the work,
contents of a bottle taken at one time would result in
an immediate cure.   The cause and cure of disease by
the native method was bound up in superstition and fear;
.the doctors, man-eaters and dog-eaters received their ,
powers through being possessed by a spirit which
entered them while voluntary wanderers in the forests
or on the mountains where they remained until reduced
to almost a skeleton. The solitude, the nerve strain of
listening for the spirits and communion with their own I
thoughts, brought those enduring initiation almost to the I
maniacal state. It depended upon which of the spirits
possessed him how the newly-empowered doctor acted
when he returned to the people. If a man-eating spirit
were in possession he would attack one of the people;
and no one dare deny him a bite. Many a Bella Bella
could show scars of the horrible heathen practice. The
Indian doctors were accredited with power over the evil
spirits which caused sickness, disaster and death. The
degree to which they exercised this boasted power
depended upon the quantity of blankets, furs, rifles or
money which their patients were willing to give as fees.
The Indians would often try cures recommended by
friends and employ a medicine man while they were
under the doctor's care. The hospital patients, however,
had the advantage of escaping concurrent treatment.
One interesting hospital patient was Jack, the first
Christian in Bella Bella; after a life of devoted service
to Christ he died in 1903. Another patient who came
to Dr. Large was an old medicine man whose remedies
• Port Simpson hospital with its summer branch at
Port Essington, and Bella Bella with its Rivers Inlet
branch, were in 1902 the only hospitals from Vancouver
to Port Simpson.. With the development of the Coast,
by 1909 hospitals had been opened at Rock Bay, Van
Anda, Alert Bay, Bella Coola, Swanson Bay and Prince
Rupert. While Bella Bella and Port Simpson hospitals
represented Methodism, the others, some missionary
and some municipal, were all needed and welcomed.
1 After thirteen years of strenuous work on account of
ill health and to give his children educational advantages,
Dr. Bolton moved to Vancouver where he carried his
missionary  spirit  into  the  large  private  practice  he
. established. His death in 1914 was a great loss to the
Church and to a host of friends in both British Columbia and Eastern Canada.
Dr. W. T. Kergin took up Dr. Bolton's work at Port Dr.
Simpson in 1903 where the new hospital and the doctor's pe^in at
residence were not the only evidence of the efficient Simpson,
work of the pioneer of medical missions in Canadian
Methodism.    Prince  Rupert,  a  few  miles  from  Port
Simpson,  the terminus of the Grand Trunk Pacific,
began to develop.    Dr. Kergin left Port Simpson and
.began private practice in Prince Rupert in 1910.
Dr. Large, with his years of experience among the  Dr. Large
Indians, was asked to become the superintendent of the becomes
Port Simpson medical work.    While reluctant to leave tendent of
Bella Bella where he had spent twelve years, he accepted Port
I the work at Port Simpson where his boys would have the ^P??"
opportunity of attending school.    During the years at  1911.
Bella Bella marvellous changes had taken place.    The
I new town, with its modern, well-furnished houses,
gardens of flowers and vegetables, well-dressed people
guided by the catalogues of the great departmental
stores, baby carriages, sewing machines, bicycles, organs,
gasoline launches built by the Indians and comparing
favourably with those made by professional boat builders,
the steam sawmill owned and operated by the Indians,
and four stores, were all evidences of material progress
and that the Bella Bellas of Campbell Island were no
longer living apart from the rest of the world.
The following is an interesting item regarding the A
wedding of two Christian young people.  "At the ap- Christian
pointed time along came two bands, the Bella Bella * g'
and that from the village to which the young people
were going. 'Soon came the bride and groom and the
marriage took place in our sitting-room. 'The bride was
a very pretty girl and looked charming in a navy blue
travelling suit, with a large velvet hat, and fur trim-
I mings to match.'    After the usual congratulations the
happy couple were escorted by the bands to the hall,
of our staff
ry nice feast i
ng Bella Bella,
r. Large felt disappointed !
idians were still dependent I
uy to guide them.   Thirty
had transformed the Bella
irty years in the long pro- I
aod, and changing a heathen
Dr. C. C. Schlichter followed Dr. Large, finding in
the work the opportunity of spending his life where it I
would count, but after two years, ill health compelled
him to give up the work.
Dr. A. F. Lepper, a fine type of physical manhood,
thoroughly trained professionally and consecrated to
life service for his Master, was appointed to West China
in 1911. When the Chinese Revolution broke out in
the autumn of that year Dr. and Mrs. Lepper were on
their way to Vancouver to sail for the Orient but were
intercepted in Saskatchewan by a telegram. Obtaining
permission, for a few months he took charge of a private
practice. Owing to Dr. Schlichter's failing health Dr.
Lepper was asked to go to Bella Bella until the autumn
of 1912 when it was expected he would proceed to China.
Dr. Lepper gladly responded to the call, but at Rivers
Inlet, the following summer, during an epidemic of
tonsilitis, he died.
Before going to China Dr. A. E. Best supplied for two
years at Bella Bella but it was not until Dr. G. E. Darby,
a Gold Medalist in Medicine of the University of Toronto,
arrived in 1914 that Bella Bella has had a permanent
medical missionary since Dr. Large left. The fine, new
hospital, "The R. W. Large Memorial," built in 1918,
at a cost of about $20,000, of which the General Society
and the Woman's Missionary Society each gave $2,000,
private subscriptions and government grants providing
the remainder of the cost, is already too small for its
growing work. Instead of having to urge the Indians
to enter the hospital they are disappointed if the doctor
thinks they are not ill enough to be admitted. About
two-thirds of the patients are Indians; the other third
includes whites, Japanese and Chinese.
If space permitted it would be interesting to tell
about some of the patients. One man remarked to
Dr. Darby that he believed God was working through
him; otherwise how could he cure as he did? Cases
beyond the doctor's aid, the Indians are still disposed to
ascribe to witchcraft and the old spirit of revenge is
' aroused against the person suspected of causing the
Mrs. Darby, a graduate in Arts of Victoria College, Work
Toronto, finds abundant work to do among the women wm^the
and  girls.    The younger women  have  made marked and girls
progress in their organizations, especially the Mission at Bella
Circle with its programme of world-wide study.    Holi-
' days, such as Empire Day and Dominion Day, are
marked by special patriotic programmes. Christmas
is the outstanding celebration of the year, while at
Thanksgiving its lessons are not overlooked. The
preparation of programmes for these occasions are
heartily entered into by young and old. The hospitality
extended to friends of the patients and to travellers
makes many demands upon Mrs. Darby as hostess, but
."such «vork is gladly done in all the mission houses on
the Coast. .
Medical work was begun at Lakalzap on the Naas Medical
by Dr. W. T. Rush, in 1898, where for the preceding five ™°*£n a(.
years the Rev. S. S. Osterhout had been the missionary, the Naas.
Mr. Crosby, having been appointed to the tribes on the
I east coast of Vancouver Island, Mr. Osterhout was
transferred to Port Simpson and made Chairman of
the District.
After graduation from Trinity College, Toronto, Dr.
Rush entered the Post Graduate College in New York.
He placed himself at the service of the Church and
entered the work in the hard, isolated field of the Naas,
where the people welcomed him as preacher and doctor.
205 Dr. Large
called to
While the village of Lakalzap was headquarters, the I
work   included   the   adjacent   heathen   villages.    Epidemics of measles and whooping cough made the work
heavy during his first winter.    The people appreciated
having a doctor and before spring they had fitted up a I
hospital "which they looked after themselves." Primitive though this hospital was, it was a shelter and better
than having the sick lie out in the open, or in the fishing :
smacks.    While it served temporarily, Dr. Rush looked
forward to one of a decidedly different type.
Mr. Osterhout travelled sixty-five miles by canoe from
Port Simpson to spend Easter at the Naas. Among
the thirty he baptized and received into the Christian I
Church were four leading chiefs, one of them being
"a great man of the river." These converts were won in
a revival shortly after Christmas.
After two years of strenuous, faithful work at the Naas, I
it was with deep regret that Dr. Rush was compelled
to leave on account of ill health; and Lakalzap with
its band of Christian workers, its Epworth League,
church, hall, day school, a few modern houses and the
people leaving the old heathen trail, was left without I
medical help and a missionary. Later, the work on
the Naas was given over to the Church of England.
After ten years of service in the Port Simpson work,
in August, 1920, Dr. Large, beloved and honoured by
all, was called to higher service, and Canadian Methodism lost one of its great-hearted, skilful physicians
who had refused the prospect of the "great possessions"
of his profession to give himself and his gifts as a pioneer
to the Indians of the Pacific Coast.
In all his work Mrs. Large had an important share.
Her musical education, in which she had won high
honours, found an unique opportunity among the music-
loving Indians. Although their native music consisted
chiefly of weird, minor chants, usually accompanied
by the rhythmic beating of a drum, many of the Indians I
had good voices and Mrs. Large, in addition to the
simple, Gospel melodies, taught them selections from
the oratorios and other music of recognized standard.
Dr. Large was also musical and together they enjoyed
preparing the Indians for contests and concerts. The
bands, both at Bella Bella and Port Simpson, were
organized under the chiefs. They paid professional
band instructors from $175 a month to nine dollars a day
• during the winter season for special training. To the
band fees the teachers added those from private tuition.
; Port Simpson band, the best on the Coast, numbered
I thirty-five pieces and was the proud possessor of a set
of bagpipes given to one of their number in 1904 by
Lord Dundonald. The band counted among its honours
the privilege of having played before King George, when,
as the Duke of York, he visited British Columbia. At
a band concert given in Port Simpson the programme
included the overtures from Zampa and Semiramide,
the Tannhauser March, as well as a few popular num-
.; bers. Indian bands carried off rewards at the provincial
.exhibitions, but Dr. Large while always proud of their
success was still more proud of the excellent behaviour
of the men during their absence from home. In Port
Simpson there were a number of pianos and organs, the
girls were taught music in the Crosby Girls' Home and
Mrs. Large gave freely of her talents. In the church a
native now plays the organ and the choir, organized and
trained without the aid of a missionary, is ambitious in
its selections. "The Hallelujah Chorus," "The Gloria,"
"The Heavens are Telling," and many difficult anthems
are given creditable rendering. A few years ago a choir
from Alaska visited Port Simpson and gave the oratorio
of "The Messiah" in its entirety, the Port Simpson choir
joining in the "Hallelujah Chorus." These singers were
the children of the men and women who forty years
before whooped and yelled as they tortured to death
their helpless captives. Surely "The Lord God omni- ^pjfj:61"
potent reigneth." tendentof
Dr. William Sager who had been assistant to Dr. Port
Wrinch at Hazelton and later had charge of medical Hospital,
work and Sunday services at a mining camp at Surf 1920.
207 Spencer
at Bella
Inlet, was appointed superintendent of Port Simpson
Hospital in 1920. Dr. Bolton had brought the hospital
to a self-supporting basis, with the exception of the
salaries of the nurses which were paid by the Woman's
Missionary Society. Drs. Kergin and Large, notwith-S-
standing the increasing demands, continued the hospital on the basis Dr. Bolton established. Dr. Sager
is successfully carrying on the work which has for so
many years been a blessing to the north.
The need for medical missionaries on the Coast was so
great that Rev. J. C. Spencer obtained leave of absence
to take a medical course. Returning to the field he was I
stationed at Bella Coola and there for many years,,
carried on the work.
While  in   1900  medical  missionaries were  working®
among the Indians of the Coast, those in the central
interior were without a doctor.    Witchcraft was still*'
the cause of suffering and the medicine man the acknowl-5
edged heaW of physical ills.    Some of the Indians who
went to the Coast for the fishing returned to tell of the
miracles they saw performed  by the white doctor—I
beyond   anything  attempted   by  even   their   greatest
medicine men.    While through superstition the Indians I
were reluctant to ask for a doctor, the missionaries at
the Coast, as well as those on the Upper Skeena, felt
that in bringing the full  Gospel  to the  Indians the /
medical missionary was indispensable.
The call to missionary service came through his
fiancee to Horace C. Wrinch, a successful young farmer
in Ontario, who added to the honours obtained in schools
in England the highest conferred by a Canadian Agricultural College from which he was graduated as the I
Governor General's gold medalist. Leaving the farm, he
attended Albert College, from which he entered Trinity
Medical College, Toronto. His honour standing
throughout his course secured for him a position in
one of the large city hospitals.
Mrs. Wrinch was equally well prepared; a qualified
teacher, in preparation for mission work, she took a
..nurse's training, graduating as medalist, and for a time
gwas acting superintendent of Grace Hospital, Toronto.
I    With the arrival of Dr. and Mrs. Wrinch at Kishpiax Medical
in 1900, medical work in the central interior of British ™r£ ?'
Columbia had its beginning in the lean-to of an Indian     1S piax'
log house which served as office, dispensary and operating
room.    Hazelton, ten miles distant at the head of navigation on the Skeena, was the chief business centre and
I distributing  point  for  supplies  for  the  country  two
I hundred miles north, south and east.    An Indian office,
I three stores trading chiefly with the Indians, the Anglican
I Church and mission house, represented the business,
Ieducational and religious interests of the community.
There were only forty white people, and hardly an acre
of land was taken up away from the river bank.    Mail
J was received only twice during the winter: the distance
I from the outside world could not be measured by miles.
Dr. Wrinch spent one day a week at Hazelton, where
the equipment was much  the same as at Kishpiax.
A hospital was needed and must be built without delay.
I Dr. Wrinch decided that it should be at Hazelton in order
to afford the fullest service to the Indians, the community, and the people scattered over the wide area of
which Hazelton was at the cross roads.
During the three years following his arrival, land and Medical
government grants for a hospital were secured, a mission work.and
house and dispensary built and the work established at Hazelto^
Hazelton.    Hospital work was begun before the  hospital was built; for what could be done without some
I place to care for the sick who travelled long distances for
^medical aid.   The new mission house was placed at
fetheir service.    The living-room used for the public ward
I and the two bedrooms for private wards, crowded Dr.
and Mrs. Wrinch with their two small boys and the
hospital nurse into close quarters, while there was always danger of infection.
I    The   Hazelton   Hospital  was  opened   in   1904  with Hazelton
-twenty beds.    The  Woman's  Missionary Society  co- 5^^jn
operated by providing the salaries for the nurses, the  1904.
209 velopment
of the
young people in the Leagues and Sunday schools gave
gifts of money, supplies of bedding, etc., and beds were
supported by friends.    From the first the hospital has
been on a business basis under a Board of Directors I
and an Advisory Committee.
The conversion at Kishpiax in 1904 of the chief
medicine man of the district was a distinct help to the ',
medical work, for in becoming a Christian the conjurer
acknowledged his profession a sham. About the same
time the recovery of an Indian after an operation for •
appendicitis and the restoration of his wife to health
after a tumor had been removed, did much to establish
among the Indians confidence in the hospital.
Through the years the hospital has kept pace with the
development of the country, for Hazelton is now a town
on the main line of the Canadian National Railway I
and the hospital, with its additional wards, sun balconies, .
the cottage and Alpine Lamp for tubercular patients,
the summer and winter ambulances, and the well-
equipped operating room, places the institution, with
its training school for nurses, among the best in the
An economic feature of the work has been the farm
from which sufficient vegetables, fruits in season, eggs,
butter and cream, are supplied to the hospital. Dr.
Wrinch has found his knowledge of agriculture a valuable
asset not only to the medical work but also to the
community, for many settlers as well as Indians are
supplied with seeds and cuttings, while the farm serves
as a model of "best methods." Land around the hospital has been cleared for a park which is enjoyed by
the patients while convalescing.
The hospital is a mile distant from Hazelton and the
hospitality of the mission house to friends of the patients
created friendliness and confidence. Through the years
not only in her home but also in the hospital Mrs.
Wrinch's ministry of helpfulness was a strong factor in
the success of the work. She was always ready to help
in an emergency and her work extended from friendly
visits in the wards to canning fruits, meats and vegetables that the hospital might be supplied with food
otherwise not obtainable. Service such as she rendered
cannot adequately be recorded. When she went to
her crowning in March, 1923, the great north country
lost and mourned a friend.
Trappers and Indians, prospectors and miners,
Hudson's Bay employees and travellers are all served
by the hospital. The Indians understand that through
service to all they have the benefit of an equipment
which would be impossible were the hospital dependent
upon their support.
In recognition of Dr. Wrinch's work, Victoria College Church
honoured him with the degree of D.D., while the con- ?nd State
, . ,   , b     ,      . . .   . .      .    ,        honour
stituency which he serves as physician and Inend, has  Dr.
elected him as their representative in the provincial par- Wrinch.
liament.  Dr. Geddes Large, a son of Dr. R. W. Large, is
assistant   physician   at   Hazelton   Hospital,   and   Dr.
Wrinch's eldest son, Leonard, is in college preparing for
medical service.
Dr. and Mrs. Wrinch had looked forward to going to
China, but they willingly responded to the call for medical
work among the Indians in the far country of the Upper
Skeena, and through the long years of a quarter of a
century of pioneer work their ministry never failed in
its objective of bringing to all the healing touch of the
Great Physician. r
to Mr. and
Chapter XIV
the development of northern missions
While we have given an account of the founding and
work of the residential schools and of the medical work,
we must go back to 1897 when Mr. and Mrs. Crosby
left Port Simpson. In that year the district was divided
into the districts of Port Simpson including Queen
Charlotte Islands, the Upper and Lower Skeena, the
missions on the Naas River and Port Simpson; and the
district of Bella Bella extending from Low's Inlet at
the north to Cape Beal and around Vancouver Island,
a coast-line of over one thousand miles. Of this extensive and newly-formed district of Bella Bella, Mr. Crosby
was made chairman and appointed to the work on the
east coast of Vancouver Island.
During his quarter of a century in the North thirty
churches or preaching places, a girls' home, a boys' home,
three hospitals and the mission steamer, The Glad
Tidings, had been built; Sunday schools had been
established; evangelistic volunteer bands had been
formed; about 1,500 members had been gathered in,
and at this time Mr. Crosby estimated that through the
several agencies at work at least 10,000 were being
reached with the Gospel.
It was a hard trial for these pioneers to leave the
people whose joys and sorrows they had shared for so
many years and for whom they had sacrificed and given
their best. The service in the church when nearly the
whole congregation pledged afresh their allegiance to
Jesus Christ; the school children, most of whom Mr.
Crosby had christened, gathered to say good-bye; old
people who had been brought out of paganism parted
I with the missionaries until they would meet again in
their Father's house of many mansions; good wishes
| from every one, many warm handclasps and with a
"God bless you," the promises to care for the four little
•f'graves, were part of the farewells which were not finished
['when the last whistle blew and the Glad Tidings left
for Victoria.
Notwithstanding all the sorrow of parting, it was a The
thanksgiving trip for the missionaries.    They stopped  North in
I at every mission between Port Simpson and Victoria.  m 139"
f'Twenty-five" years before, with the exception of  Mr.
Duncan's mission at New Metlakatla, the whole coast,
including Port Simpson, was heathen.    The demonstra-
- tive  welcomes,   the  delightful  fellowship,   the  happy
%Christian homes in which they visited,  the meetings
in   which  both   people   and   missionaries   were   blest,
were compensation to Mr. and Mrs. Crosby for any
sacrifice they had made and they went on their way with
fresh inspiration for the task that awaited them.
As  Chairman  of  the   Port  Simpson   District,   Mr.  Mr. Oster-
; Osterhout's duties extended over a wide field.    At every ^out at
service in Port Simpson he preached two sermons, one Simpson.
i in English, the other in Tsimpshean, which he mastered
in six months.   When the Indians came from the Naas
they   felt   very   much   at   home,   for   they   said  Mr.
Osterhout spoke the Nishga like one of themselves.
The  membership  at  Port  Simpson  was  over  four
I hundred and at the end of his first year Mr. Osterhout
I reported missionary givings of $355, good support of the
I connexional  funds,  and, aside from the   missionary's
I salary, church expenses met.    The evangelistic bands,
organized  to  visit camps,  the  fisheries  and  heathen
H villages, prepared for their work by study.    Young and
I middle aged men, and others as well as band workers,
met as often as four nights a week.    In 1900 Mr. Osterhout reported, as a result of this study, two licensed
V local preachers, two others preparing for native mis-
213 ) YEARS OF
eight  licensed   exhorters,
* for local preachers,
n Army to Port Simpson f
<li—spiritual, mental and |
aused no little confusion'!
■d effort into a scene of
place for Army effort. "Fields were
white unto
and the harvest perished; while in
Port Simp
son there
was   struggle   and   contention   ove
r   sheaves
The organization of the Epwoii
h  League
in  1900,
with its solemn pledge and the studi*
•s of the M
and Literary departments, new to th
e Indians,
was very
effective in overcoming some of the
and the
membership soon numbered sixty.
The Christian Band of Workers
which Mr
. Crosby
organized and trained and upon wh
Dm the mi
had depended for help in visiting th
promoting  temperance,   holding  st
reet  meet
ngs  and
assisting in all the work of the C
lurch, did
service for many years, but later bee
ame an ind
body, built its own hall, collected
and spent
its own
funds, and secured from the Provir
cial Legis
ature in-
corporation on a club basis.   As tl
le member
s refused
'to unite with the Epworth Leagu
e there gr
ew up a
spirit of rivalry.    To create and ma
ntain "th
'• spirit of
unity in the bond of peace" and e
ill to co-
operate in the work of the Kingd
om, witho
it which
real progress was impossible, require
I wise leac
Port Simpson seemed to be the
mecca of
organizations, for others followed tl
le Salvatk
n Army.
While the Methodist made no claim 1
o church n
yet  three or  four  denominations i
vorking w
lere  one
was sufficient was a waste of the Lore
l's money *
md made
the necessary discipline impossible. CANADIAN METHODIST MISSIONS
In addition to the religious restlessness, suspicion was The
aroused through the arrival of the Government Telegraph coming
■ Construction party, for rumours were circulated that the telegraph
reserves had been sold without the knowledge of the and
Indians.    These rumours seemed to be confirmed when railway-
the surveyors of the Trans-Canada Railway began their
operations in the streets and on the seashore near the
village. "Through the tactfulness and good judgment of
the men in charge of both Telegraph and Survey parties,
and the grace of God  in the hearts of the  Indians,
suspicion gave way to confidence and excitement  to
On account of Mrs. Osterhout's health, in 1903 Mr.  B. C.
, Osterhout was transferred from the North and stationed ^ves*"
in Victoria.    The Rev. B. C. Freeman, who had been Skidegate,
nine years at Skidegate, Q.C.I., was appointed to Port  1903-
Simpson.    In   contrast  with   the  isolation   of   Queen
Charlotte Islands, Port Simpson seemed a stirring town.
A school  for the children, a doctor within call,  the
fellowship of other workers, the frequent mail service
and contact with the outside world, were all appreciated,
yet the missionaries parted with their friends at Skidegate with many regrets.    A fine church with a member-
■ ship of one hundred and thirty-nine, a well-attended
Sunday school, a successful day school, industries
owned and operated by the Indians, and a Christian
community of which any village might be proud, represented some of the work which Mr. Freeman handed
■over to Mr. Bromwich until an ordained missionary
could be secured. Only nine years before, Amos Russ,
the first Hydah to accept Christianity, had been compelled through opposition to the "new way" to leave his
home and people. Material progress was an indication
of the new standard of life which had come through the
Gospel, and the changed lives of the people an evidence
of the life more abundant which was driving out old
beliefs and customs and through which Christian
character and spiritual ideals were being established. Hardy
to Skidegate, 1905.
The steamboat men hated the trip once a month to I
Queen Charlotte Islands,which they called "the end of I
the Empire," but the Rev. Frank and Mrs. Hardy, who I
arrived in 1905, found in Skidegate the beginning of an I
opportunity to help the Hydahs in adjusting themselves I
to a new environment.    The isolation, which had been
so  advantageous  to  the  missionary,  was  broken  by
the development of the mines and timber interests, by I
the settlers, by the transient white population and by the
prospect of a railway terminus on the Coast.    The missionaries at Skidegate had now the same problems to
face as the missionaries on the mainland. "One gets a I
wholly new conception of the Old Testament stories after I
having looked upon some of the home relationships that
still exist among our native peoples.    It was a startling
thought at first that the Carpenter of Nazareth dwelt
among a people despised, and in a home more lowly than
that of a native of the present day, and it gives new ^
value to human worth to realize that among the honest,
simple fishermen of our Hydah congregations there are
natures as impulsive as Peter's and as lovable as John's," I
wrote Mr. Hardy, regarding the Hydahs.
In comparing the Indians with men of our own race, I
he again writes: "We have been born heirs of the ages
with conscience quickened by generations of literature,
history and  strong moral organizations.    The  Indian
has had none of these things.    His ancestors knew only
the sea, the sky, the seasons and a few broken legends :
of   superstition.    If   our   moral   standards,   therefore, I
are not higher than his, he is our superior.    In this
connection we often think of the wise words of good
Captain Warren, who has steamboated the coast for
half a century.    He said, 'It took our own race a long
time to improve.'    And when one thinks of the human
driftwood that still remains in our "improved" race,   '
we fear we find small justification of any excuse we may
offer for those over anxious to pick the mote out of their I
Indian neighbour's eye.    There is hardly a white man I
on this coast of whom it may not scornfully be said,
' 'Thou hypocrite! Behold a beam is in thine own eye." '
When we think of this and of the progress of the Indian
people from savagery to their present condition we face
an amazing fact for which we thank God and take
The following report of the Indian agent at Skidegate,
published in the Report of the Department of Indian
Affairs, 1916, gives a graphic account of the phenomenal
progress made by the Hydahs who fifty years ago were
dreaded from Victoria to Alaska:
"The two large bands of Indians on Queen Charlotte The
Islands are known as the Massetts and Skidegates, and 5fp?rj-of
are located on Graham Island, the largest of the group of Agent.
islands on the shores of Hecate Straits.    Before the
location   of  the  boundary   line   between   the   United
States and Canada, the Hydah Indians crossed over to
Prince of Wales Island, and a number of the same tribe
located there.    We had a visit last year from fifty-five
of the American Hydahs now permanently located at
Hydaburg, Alaska, and had the opportunity to meet
with Indians who live under another form of government,
and an opportunity to compare the Indians of the same
nation who have been granted the privileges of citizenship and who are, practically, independent of government   control.    They  remained  at  Massett  almost  a The
month and my experience with them proved that they visiting
are no further advanced than the Indians of this agency. Hydah&n
A number of them read, write and speak the English
language and they were met by Indians who addressed
them in the same tongue.    They brought three large
launches, flying the American flag.    Our Indians met
them with a uniformed brass band and the Union Jack
was flying before the houses of our prominent Indians
in places where a short time ago the 'totem' poles of the
hereditary chiefs stood. Th
"This year the former so-called 'Head Hunters of the Hydahs
Pacific' met, as they did last year, their former enemies, the most
the Tsimpshean band, and showed the marked improve- Q^fthe06
ment  since  Confederation.    The  chief  councillor  ad- Coast.
217 1
dressed them in English and there was little to show ']
that it was not a gathering of whites, welcoming visitors
to a town, modern in all its surroundings. Fifty years
ago these Indians were the 'terrors of the North'; to-
day they are the most advanced on the whole coast of
North America. The change can only be comprehended
by those who have associated with these Indians for
half a century. It is the most remarkable circumstance
in the history of British Columbia.
"There is much still for the Indian to learn before he
will ta