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A voyage round the world : In the years 1785, 1786, 1787, and 1788. Published conformably to the decree… La Pérouse, Jean-François de Galaup, comte de, 1741-1788 1798

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Array     By§:F. G. DE Jl' PE$pUSE :
PVBwsHEQ'36&iflibU^^'^ to thh^^SbsI^ fife
|§P    ^^^ifE 22^;jOF APRiL^79t5 ■  .
BRIG A^DI^7^f^E^^ft\^i|E   C O R*?*^^BKgM^SJfe
£ND MEMBE^^F^BVy'ERAL  ^^&ifRY  SOCf^lS^&T PARIS
VOL.   L
LONDON:
iPRI'NTED   FDR J.   J0HNSON,   ST.   PAUL'S CHURCH Y  LIST OF THE PLATES IN THE THREE VOLUMES.
VOL. I.
Page.
Portrait of La Peroufe,
to face title,
Chart of the track or Don Maurelle
35*
Chart of the Great Ocean, or South Sea,
44*"
Xhreftes of the inhabitants of La Conception,
518
VOL. IX.
Chart of difcoveries in the Sea of Tartary,
to face title.
View of the anchorage of Mowee,
5*
Chart of the north-welt coaft of America,
67
Views of the north-weft coaft, (plate i)
So
Plan of Port des Francais,
94
Shipwreck of the two Shallops,
114
iView of the fifhery at Port des Francaj^, t
JSIfe\l2o
Blackbird of Port des Francais,
12$
Dreis of the inhabitants of Port des Francais
*38
Views of the north-weft coaft, (plate 2)
170
Echinus Marinus,
17-2
Great ;ea Urchin of the north-weft coaft,
176
Views of the north-weft .coaft, (plate 3)
192                     W$M
Male and female partridge of California,
202
Bee eater of California,
204
View of Macao,
286
Paffage Boat of Manills^ t                            ;..;■'
291
View of Cavite
302
Fifhing raft of Manilla,
322
DrefTes of the inhabitants of Manilla,
33^
Formofan boat                                    %$£$
336
Japanefe boat,
362
Inhabitants of the Baie de Langle,
404                 W$m
DrefTes of the inhabitants of the Baie de Langle
|             404
Plan of the Baie de Caftries,
428
Burying place in the Baie 4e Caftries,
^43
View of Company's Land,
430
VOL. III.
MafTacre of De Langle, Lamanon, &c.
to face title.
Chart of navigators Iflands, Part I. l+^r*^ a  ££           s
Ditto.            S    Ditto.      PirtII.ttofaceeachother   «<S
Plan of the Ifland of Maouna,
128
Map of Eafter Ifland,
188
Inhabitants and monumeiit&of Eafter Ifland,
l9%
Woman of Port des Francais,
202
Infe&s,
224. "'
Manners of the inhabitants of the Baie de Caftries,         240
Terebratulas, or Poulettes,
298
Liane of Chili,
446
5^ The Binder is requefted to place the nautical tables
at the end of the
third volume, and to guard the large plates.
ERRATA. ERRATA.
page   74 line ioth  from bottom, for bairn read bafon.
123 line   3      from bottom, for north read north-eaft*
135 line ii      from bottom, for north-north-weft rea4
weft-north-weft.
136 line   2     from bottom, for half eaft read   half
north-eaft.
149 line 6 from bottom, for 20 30'eaft read 20 5*
"„ north-eaft.
227 bottom line, the letters in the word equator are deranged.
236 line 10     from top, after the word feaadd a comma*
248 line   3      from bottom, for reagents read re-agents.
249 line at top of the page, for reagents read re-agents.'
291 line 11    from top, divide illformed by a hyphen.
345 ^e ? 5      ac*d a comma aftenthe word which.
394 line 11     from bottom, for 5 degrees diftant read
5 leagues diftant.
397 Hne 9    from top, for longitude eaft of Paris rea^
weft of Paris*
THE ADVERTISEMENT
ENGLISH EDITOR.
I HE voyages of our various circumnavigators, efpecially of the immortal Cook, have
excited an almoft univerfal interefl in the
perufal of voyages and travels; and we conceive that the narrative of a fcientific expedition, fitted out-exprefsly for the purpofe
of verifying and completing the difcoveries
of the Englifh, by a nation the fecond in
maritime importance, and inferior to none
In philofophy and the arts, has a very valid
claim to the notice of the Britifh public,
The total lofs of the frigates Boussole
and Astrolabe, together with their able
A 2 com- ( I )
commander La Perouse, and the reft of
the officers and men of fcience that were
aflbciated with him in the hazardous office
of exploring unknown coafts, peceffarily
renders this work lefs perfect than it would
otherwife have been, as well in refpe6t to
matter as arrangement: feveraj curious par-*
ticulars are given in diftinft memoirs, which
might, in the opinion of fome, have appeared to more advantage in a conti~
nued narrative; and relative to other cir-r
cumftances there gre only loofe memoranda, which were probably intended as the
bafis of elaborate differtations, "We did not,
howeyer, think ourfelves at liberty to omit
or abbreviate any thing, or to alter its forni
or place ; in all refpects, therefore, this tranjla*
tion is an exact copy of the original.
If any difference be perceived in theftyle of
the feveral parts of the tranftation, it is partly
to be attributed to the unavoidable necefsity,
occafioned by competition, of bringing the
work (
)
Work before the public with the ieaft pofsible
delay-, in confequence of which, more than
one gentleman has been employed : as, however, in the original work, the narrative and
the various political and fcientific documents, are written by the refpe<5iive perfons
embarked in the expedition who were en-
trufted with the care of the various departments, the variety in the flyle of the
tranflation may be principally afcribed to
the want of uniformity in the Ityle of the
original. A few occafional and immaterial
errors and irregularities may very pofsibly
have efcaped the ftri6teft attention ; but
efpecial care has been taken to enfure the
accuracy of the nautical parts, and of the
fcientific memoirs on fubjeds of natural
hiftory and geography.
With refpe6t to the plates, we have thought
ourfelves fully juftified in the omifsion of a few
which were either duplicates of thofe given,
A 3 or or copies from Englifh voyages, for the pur*
pofes of comparifonor minute amplification,
and by fo doing, we' have been enabled* to
reduce the price of the work, without deducting in any  degrete  from its real   uti-
In regard to Longitude, we have uniformly retained that which is deduced from
the meridian of Paris ; our readers can, if
neceffary, reduce it to longitude from Green-
y ad din?  or  deducting 2° 20' 15",
according as it is eaft or we<ft refpecftively.
We have alfo retained tlie French weights
and meafures; thefe the reader can reduce
to [the Englifh ftandard, the Paris pound
avoirdupoife being to the Englifh as 27 t<?
25; the Paris foot 12*798 of our inches,
and the French toife 6 Paris feet. CONTENTS OF THE FIRST VOLUME,
The French Editor's Preface - Page I*
Preliminary Difcourfe of the French Editor p. 15.
Decree of th$ National Affembly, the gth Fe~
bruary  1791, for fitting  out the  Ships de~
figned to go in Search of La Peroufe     p. 59*
Decree of the National Affembly, the 2id April
1701, concerning the printing the Journal^
Accounts, and Charts, fait by La Peroufe,
of his Voyage as far as Botany Bay        p. 61.*
Memoir, or Note of the King, containing particular Inftructions to M. De La Peroufe*
Qaptain in the Navy, commanding the Frigates La BouJJble, and LAJlrolabe        p. 62.
Firfi Part.    Plan of the Voyage      I        p. 63.
Second Part, Objects relating to Policy and Commerce - - - p. 81. ■
Third Part. Operations relating to Afironomy,
to Geography, to Navigation, to Natural Phi-
lofophy, and to the different Branches of Natural Hijlory - - P- 95*
Fourth Part. Of the Conduct to be obferved
with the Natives of the Countries where the
two Frigates may make a Landing       p. 104.
Fifth Part. Precautions to be taken for pre-
ferving the Health of ihe Creivs. p. no.
Extract viii CONTENTS. !
Extract from M. De La Peroufels general In*
fiructions * - -        p.-117,
Notes Geographical and Hifzorical, to be added
to the King's Memoir of particular Injiruc-
tion to AL De La PSroufe, Southern Atlantic
Ocean - - - p.  n8„
Great+South Sea - - p. 139.
Great Equatorial Ocean * p. 1^3-
Great Northern Ocean       . -    -    -      ■   p« 1&5*
Letter from M. Le Marechal De Caftries to
Mi De Condorcet, perpetual Secretary of the
Academy  of Sciences - p. 221,
Memoir drawn up by the Academy of Sciencesy
for the Ufe and Direction of the Scientific
Perfons embarked under the Orders offAL Ds
La Peroufe j - p* 222*
Geometry, Aftronomy, Mechanics p. 224.
Phyfics - - - p. 226*
Chemiftry *
Anatomy *    £Ki£j -. ■ •%
Zoology - ~
Mineralogy     -
Botany - i
Obfervations of M. Buache
Queftions propofed by the Society of Medicine,,
p-
231.
p.
232.
p-
234.
p-
z35-
p-
238.
IAJ.
to the Gentlemen who  are to accompany AL
De La Peroufe on the intended Voyage, read
in the Sitting of the 3 if ofMay, 1785. p. 249.
§ 1 ft.'Anatomy, Phyfiology • ibid.
% \ § ^
■MB IX
CONTENTS.
§ 2d. Hygieine - - p. 255,
§ 3d. Of Difeafes p. 258.
§ 4th, Of the Alateria Aledica        -        p. 261.
§ 5th. Surgery        - -   i       -        p. 264.
Sketch of Experiments to be made for preferving
the Water on Ship-board from Corruption,
communicated to M. De La Peroufe by the
Abbe Teffier, of the Academy of Sciences, and
of the Society of' Medicine - p. 267.
Memoir for directing the Gardener in the Oc^
cupations and Duty- of his Voyage round the
World, by M. TJiouin, firjl. Gardener of the
Botanical Garden . - p. 276.
inventory of the Alerchandize and. Effects embarked on board the Ships under the Orders
of AL De La Peroufe, for making Prefejits
and Exchanges. ? - - p. 315.
A Summary Account of hijtruments of Aftrono-
my, of Navigation, of Natural Philofophy,
of Chemiftry, and others, for the life of the
Scientific Perfons and Aertifs employed in the
Voyage of Difcoveries.        -        -        p. 321.
A Catalogue\of Books of Voyages, of Aftrano-
my, of Navigation, of Natural Philofopliy,
and others, confgned to AL De La Peroufe,
for the Ufe, of the Officers and Scientific Mm
embarked under his Orders - p. 325.
A Lift cf ihe Names of the Officers, Scientific
Men,   Artifts   and Sailors embarked, in  the
Frigates x CONTENTS.
Frigates La Bouffole and VAftrolabe, under the Orders of AL De La Peroufe. July
1785. - - \ p. 33°-
Narrative of an Jnterefting Voyage in the. Frigate the Princeffa, from Alanilla to San Blaz,
by F. A. Alaurelle       - - p. 34°-
Extract from the Narrative of a Voyage made
in 1779, by F. A. Maurelie, for dijcovering
the Weft Coaft of North America       p. 418.
CHAPTER   I.
Object of the Armament of the txoo Frigates—
Stay in the Road ofBreJl—Paffagefrom Breft
to Aladeira and Teneriffe—Stay at thofe two
IJlands—A Journey to the Peak—-Arrival at
Trinidada—We put in at the Ifland of St.
Catherine upon the Coaft of Brafd       p. 441
CHAPTER
Defcription of the Ifland of St. Catherines-Ob-
fervations (tnd Events during our Stay—De-
parture  from   St.   Catherine's—Arrival  at
Conception - - - p. 480,
Defcription  of Conception*—Manners and Cuf-
toms of the Inhabitants—Departure from Talc-
Arrival at Eafter Ifland    p. 509.
LIST [TIE FRENCH EDITOR'S PREFACE.
THE public, familiarized wijth the melancholy
reflection of the lofs of the two (hips in
the unfortunate expedition commanded by La Peroufe, will be furprized at the publicatipn of the
journal of his voyage. The decree of the con-
ftituent affembly, which ordered the engraving of
the charts and the printing of the journals fent
home by this navigator, might have announced,
however, that we were not entirely deprived of
the benefits of his voyage. His forefight made
him not only take advantage of, but feek fof
every opportunity of fending his journals to Europe. It is to be regretted, that the felf-love of
the fcientific perfons embarked along with hjm did
not allow them, in like manner, to difpatch to
their country all the fruits of their labours; w,e
fhould not in that cafe have had to regret the
almoft total lofs of them. La Peroufe, occupied
with the difficult and numerous details, which
the command of an expedition, as important as
dangerous, muft neceflarilv include, forced a,t
every ftep to judge and forefee, and confequently
to modify his ideas according to circumftances,
could not collect with order, or arrange with
Y°*<- !• B method* % THE   FRENCH   EDITORS   PREFACE.
method, the materials from which he was to
compofe a hiftory of his voyage. Thefe materials muft neceffarily appear ftill more confufed
and mifplaced to the view of an editor, who was
perfonally a ftranger to the voyage.
As nothing which may contribute to extend
the  progrefs of the human mind ought to, be
neglected in voyages of difcovery, fcientific men
and artifts form an efTential part in fuch  expeditions : upon their return, each arranges his own
materials, and gives to the particular object of
his fludy that degree of perfection, of which I is
fufceptible', from the well-underftood connection
of thefe   different parts refults a complete relation, where all is contained, and each in its proper place.    In this inftance, by an unexampled
fatality, our new argonauts have all perifhed; and,
it has fallen to my lot, alone, by collecting whatever has efcaped, the wreck, to fupply that accurate and forcible reprefentation of the navigators,
who would not have expreffed any thing,  but
what they themfelves had experienced.
In giving way, not without reluctance, to the
felicitations, which made me undertake this pain -
ful though honourable tafk, I did not deceive
myfelf with refpect to the difficulties, which I
muft neceffarily have to encounter in a work, all
the parts of which it was not eafy equally to com-
prife and to adjuft.
The THE   FRENCH   EDITOR S   PREFACE. J
The public will undoubtedly regret with me,
that the Ex-minifter of marine Fleurieu, at this
time member of the national inftitute, and of
the board of longitude, inftructed as he is in
fubjects of this nature, of fuch rare and diftin-
guifhed talents, and who would willingly have
taken upon himfelf the editing of this work, wm
forced, by circumftances, to relinquifh it.
The fame intereft which induced me to mani-
feft, in the tribune of the conftituent aflembly, a
ftrong zeal for the publication of this voyage, for
the profit of the much efteemed widow of La
Peroufe, occafioned me to endeavour to direct
the choice of the government to a naval officer,
capable of fupplying the place of him, who had
been at 6#ft appointed to the undertaking. But
France had already loft moil of her eminent lea
officers, and the reft were either on fervice, or had
voluntarily withdrawn thernfelves: it was only in
the power of the minifter to appoint a man, who
had at leaft applied himfelf to the ftudy of natural hiftdry and mathematics, an efTential qualification for fuch a work. The choice of a man,
who fhould pofTefs in a preferable degree this
kind of knowledge, was, befides, conformable to
the intention of La Peroufe -, for he wrote to one
of his friends nearly in thefe words. " If my
journal fhould be printed before my return, let
care be taken not to entruft it to a man of
B z letters. 4 THE   FRENCH   EDITORS   PREFACE,
letters, who will facrifice to the turning of |
phrafe the proper word, which may appear harfl}.
and barbarous to him, but which the feaman and
the man of fcience would prefer, and W$k l°°k
for in vain; or, perhaps, laying afide all the nautical and aftronornical details, and defirpus of
making of it an interesting , romance, he will
commit errours, for want of knowledge which his
education may not have permitted him to acquire, errours which will prove fatal to my fuc-
ce'flbrs; but choofe an editor verfed in mathematical knowledge, who maybe capable of calculating,
of combining my data with thofe of other navigators, of correcting the errours which may have
efcaped me, and not commit others himfelf.
Such an editor will dive to the bottom; he will
iupprefs nothing elTential; he wjil give the technical details in a rough unpplifhed ftyle, but con-
ciiciy and like a feaman./ and he will perform
his tafk well, by pubiilhing the work as I fhould
have with eel  to  do it..myiclf."
This defire having constantly ferved me as a
rule, I declare to thofe who, in reading, have no
other object than amufement, that they ought
<not to proceed further; I have not Jabouj^/or
them, but only for feamen and men of fcience.'
£t has been rny endeavour in a work, the mat-
ipr of which is more important than the form?
and THE   FRENCH   EDITOR S   PREFACE. §
2nd of which the beft praife will be fidelity in the
relation of facts, and accuracy inexpreffion, to be
clear and concife; I have made no facrifice to
grace at the expence of truth : this confeffion is
my excufe, at the-fame time that it befpeaks the
indulgence of the reader.
It is with this view^ that I have religioufly re-
fpected the character of ftyle in each author, in
meerly fubjecting their memoirs to the known
rules of language ; but when an idea-dias pre-
fented itfelf to me, which might ferve as a
connection to others, an expreffion which might
render an image more perfect, or more obvious,
or give to a phrafe more harmony without altering
its import, I have confidered myfelf at liberty to
employ it.
The work about to be prefented to the reader
would doubtlefs have been more valuable, had
it proceeded from the pen of the ex-minifter
Fleurleu, who might have enriched it by his
profound knowledge : I ought, however, to make
it known, that I have confulted him as often as
I have been at a lofs, and I have always found in
him that complaifance and modefty, which are
the infeparable companions of real talent and
fcience.
If to collect, to difpoie, to  arrange methodically all the parts of a work like this, were a difficult enterprize, the particulars relating to its pub-
B 3 lication, 6 THE   FRENCH   EDITOR^   PREFACE.
lication, the toils, the refearches, and inquiries,
which the moft active zeal alone could go through,
and unforefeen obftacles, appeared to render it
impracticable.
The decree for its being printed was paffed
in the year 1791, and nothing was begun in
1793, the period at which I was entrufted with
it. A paper money every day decreafing in value, occafioned the bargains and agreements with
the artifts and printers to be broken almoft as foon
as made, or induced them to oppofe my efforts
with a difcouraging inertnefs, founded upon
the hope of better times; public opinion bordering on madnefs, which then forced men to
accommodate to the times, in oppofition to
the truth of hiftory, the appellations and cuf*
toms of other times, compelled me' to remain inactive during more than a year; after all
this, a new paper money, and the embarrafsments
of the government when fpecie re-appeared, have
been the phyfical and moral caufes of the hindrance I have met with.
To enable me to reconcile the difficulties of
editing, which arofe out of the circumftances of
the moment, I was ftrongly importuned to write
the voyage in the third perfon. Thus becoming
the hiftorian, and appropriating to myfelf the
materials of this work, I fhould have thrown
1 the
^P^^^^^^^^^^BB^^H THE   FRENCH   EDITOR S   PREFACE. f
the navigator into the back ground: this pro-
pofal did not. gain upon my felf-love ; I facrificed
it to the intereft which is always infpired by a
man who relates his own feelings, who defcribes
the difficulties of his own fituations, and who
makes you a partaker in his pleafures and pains.
If circumftances have furrounded me with ob~
ftacles during my labour, the refult will prove,
at leaft, that government has not ceafed to protect the fciences and the arts, during the mofl
aftonifhing of revolutions, which has raifed up
againft it a war as general as burdenfome.
I have explained the nature and difficulties of
my labour; I will now fpeak of the form of the
work, of its diftribution, and of the care taken
in the execution of it.
The title of Voyage round the World, which
I have given it, although ftrictly fpeaking it
could not have been acquired but by the return
of La Peroufe into one of the ports of France*,
will neverthelefs not be contefted, becaufe we
may confider a Voyage round the World as
terminated, when, departing from Europe, we
arrive at China, after having doubled Cape Horn,
and crofted the South Sea: befides, the events
that occurred during their year's voyage, after
their arrival at China, were more ftriking and
hazardous, than a mere return to Europe.
The 8 THE   QUENCH   EDITOR^   PREFACE,
The work, confifting of four volumes in 8vd«j
and of an atlas in 4to, is divided in the following
manner.
The firft volume contains all the preliminary
articles relative to the expedition;1 I have only
added to them the tranflation of a Spaniih voyage, the manufcript of which was transmitted
by La Peroufe, and which I thought I could not
place any where elfe, without rendering the volumes too unequal.
A celebrated author refcued from oblivion the
magnanimous conduct of D'Affas, who facrificed
his life to fave the French army, by calling out,
" This way, Auvergne, here is the enemy." The
fociety of natural hiftory at Paris, had the merit of fixing the attention of the reprefentatives
of the nation upon the expedition of La Peroufe, by the petition it prefen'ted. tife 2 2d of
January, 1791. The affembly loft no time in
taking it into confideration,* though they were
then engaged in very important bufmefs.
The two decrees which pafled in confequence,
as honourable to the affembly as to thofe who
were the object of them, are placed at the head
of the work; they breathe humanity and fen-
fibility, and will for ever fay to thofe who arc
willing to tread in the fteps of La Peroufe,
" When you fhall have finifhed your career
through all  furrounding  dangers,   though  you
fhould THE   FRENCH   EDITOR S   PREFACE. £
fhould fail in the attempt, you may reft fatisfied,
that a grateful country wilf honourably coofecrate
your name, in the temple of memory."
I have not confined myfelf to the cuftom of
publifhing the names of the officers, and roea
of fcience, alone, who make up a part of fuch
expeditions: the publication of an exact lift of
the (hips companies appears to me to be an act;
more comformable to juftice, and to the principles of the French government; I have thought
alfo, that fuch a regifter will henceforth be the
only regifter of the dead, acceffible to the families cf our unfortunate navigators.
The inftructions and the geographical notes
which follow, written by the ex-minifter of the
marine Fieurieu, are too precious a model not to
be rendered public; it is, betides, the only am-
fwer I choofe to make to a note of George
Forfter, mifreprefenting the tru^y fcientific motives which determined this expedition. I regret,
vthat a man whom I efteem ftiould have expreffed
himfelf thus, in his Voyage Hiftorique et Pi$-
torefque jur les rives du Rhin. (Vol. I, page WW^
of the French tranflation.) *
" At the period, when the interefting and un--
" happy La Peroufe fet off, to open new regions
" to commerce and philofophy, a minifter pv&-
K fented to the council a memorial upon the
M incalculable    advantages'   of this    enterprizej
"This. 10 THE   FRENCH   EDITOR S   PREFACE.
" This memorial, though long, was read with
€C eagernefs, notwithstanding it contained only a
** fingle idea, it was this : if you wifh, Sire,:
<c faid the minifter, to turn afide the attention of
% your fubjects from this dangerous angioma-
" nia, this paffion for liberty, fo deftructive of
<c good order and of peace j amufe them zoith
" new ideas, beguile their leifure, by images
f* the bewitching variety of which may feed their
" frivolity. It is better, that they fhould em-
" ploy themfelves in contemplating the waggifh
*c tricks of Chinefe monkies, than in folloiving
*c the prefentfajhion which leads them to admire
" the horfes and phi I of op hers of England."
The fecond and third volumes comprize the
journal of the whole voyage of the two frigates;
together with the refult of the aftronomical and
meteorological obfervations.
It is to the progrefs of aftronomy, that we
owe the means of determining the longitudes at
fea, with much greater exactnefs than formerly:
to announce that the aftronomer Dagelet, member of the academy of fciences, had taken the
fuperintendance of this branch upon himfelf, is
to infpire the greateft confidence in its accuracy, as well as in thai^of the tables and charts
which refult from it.
If the journal do not always agree with the
log-book and the charts, it is becaufe it was not
poffible THE   FRENCH   EDITOR $  PREFACE. II
poflible to defer printing the journal till their complete examination. Thefe differences, moreover,
are neither frequent, nor confiderable; when they
occur, the preference ought to be given to the
log, and above all, to the charts which have been
executed under the direction of the firft hydrogra-
pher of the marine, Buache, member of the national
inftitute, and of the board of longitude. I owe
in this place a particular acknowledgment, for
the pains he has been good enough to take upon
himfelf, in order to fecond me in this important
part.
Throughout the whole courfe of the workj,
the longitudes in which the meridian is not ex-
preffed are reckoned from that of Paris*.
I have endeavoured to be very exact in writing
proper names, and names of places; but thefe
laft varying confiderably, according to the native language of their different authors, it has
been neceffary to adopt, in writing thefe words,
. the moft generally received orthography.
The fourth volume is compofed of notes and
detached pieces, forwarded to government, by
the men of fcience, employed in the expedition*
* The Englilh reader is doubtlefs aware, that the meridian of Paris is lituate 2° 20' eaft of that of London. The
difference confequently of the longitudes mentioned m the
voyage, and expreffed in the Englifh atlaffes, will be reconciled by the fubtraction or addition of thofe z° zq\ Fran-
Jlaior%
fliS and m$L_
12 THE   FRENCH   EDITORS'   PREFACE.
and of thofe which I could otherwife collect together. With this view, I made applications both
to the former academy of fciences, and fuch individuals, as I fufpected to have- had correfpon->
dence with the aflbciates of La Peroufe, in order to gather together whatever might have
been fent: they were, however, fruitlefs; I have
only been able to procure fome fcattered fragments, which were found in the Journal dePhy-
fique, and I loft no time in putting them together in this volume.
I have in the courfe of the work, added notes
wherever I thought they might be ufeful, diftin-
guifiling them by the initial letters of the words
French Editor.
For the facility of turning to any particular
fubject, I have added an index at the end of the
work.
The number, the fize, and the beauty of the
engravings and charts, determined me to collect
' them in a feparate atlas, and of a larger form. I
thought that a national work, executed with fo
much care, merited this precaution for its pre-
fervation. If it be not generally approved of, I
(hall only obferve, that fuch is the fize of the
fine edition, of Cook's Third Voyage, publifhed
by the order and at the expence of the Englifli
government.
To THE   FRENCH   EDITORS   PREFACE. I|
To bring this work at laft to a completion, I
have been obliged to give out the drawings and
defigns to a greater number of engravers, than
the eminent ones, to whom they were firft en-
trufted.: thence has refulted an inevitable want
of uniformity and of perfection; I have, however, neglected nothing to render it as little perceptible as poffible.
On the whole, if this work be fuch as might
have been expected from the materials which
have been put into my hands, after the unexpected lofs of our circumnavigators, my moft
Agreeable recompenfe will be to have fulfilled the
views of government, and to have co-operated
p .the monument of gratitude, which it has been
defirous of erecting to their memory.
PRE I PRELIMINARY DISCOURSE
FRENCH EDITOR.
ALL Europe, by the favourable reception given
to the accounts of modern circumnavigators,
has appeared to teftify its regard for the progrefs of
fcience and natural hiftory; but it muft be con-
feffed, that, among the numerous admirers, of
works of this kind, fome have mere amufement in
view, others, by a proud comp'arifon tafcour customs and manners ~with thofe of favages, would
eftablifh the fuperiority of civilized nations over the
ruder tribes pf fnankind. Philofophers alone^ the
leaft numerous clafs of 'fociety, feek in themj and
generally with fuccefs, materials with which to
enlarge the fphere of their knowledge. •
The narratives of voyages of difcovery may be
reckoned among the moil interefting books of
modern hiftory: man, naturally the lover of
whatever is new and extraordinary, tranfports
himfelf in thought to diftant regions; he identifies himfelf, as it were, with the navigator; he
fhares in his dangers, his pains, and his pleafures,
and becomes his infeparable companion, by the
diverfity of the objects which attach him, and gratify his curiofity.
Under iourc(
can e
l6 PRELIMINARY    DISCOURSE.
Under this latter point of view, there U no
doubt, but that extracts from voyages, fuch as
Prevoft has given us, difengaged from ^all the
wearifome and dry details concerning aftronomy
and navigation, are more agreeable to read than
the originals;   but   thefe   extracts   are   not   the
ice the mariner and the man of fcience
o draw knowledge, becaufe the ma
terials having thus paffed the crucible of the man
of letters, come out fparkling, light, and deprived of the folid principle of fcience, which is
deftroyed by being altered.
The authors or tranflacors of works of the nature of this we-now offer to the public, have
altnoft always given an account of preceding dif-
*2&veries. They thus prefented to the view a general fketch of the fucceffive acquisitions to geography, and at the fame time exhibited a catalogue of the works in which they are contained^
I'ir^aH not repeat a detailed enumeration, which
may. be found eyhwhere,,? but mall limit myfelf to
the.giving a complete chronological lift of the
navigators,  to whom we owe difeoveries in  the
Magellan-, a rortugueie, in the iervice or
Garcia de Loaes br Loaysa, ditto, ditto,
Alphonso de Salaz,
Spaniard,
Years.
§ *5*9
1525
1525
1526
Ferdinand Grijalva, and AlvarEdq, ditto, 1537
Gaetan, ditto, 1542
Alvar
AEDRA,   ditto,-. PRELIMINARY DISCOURSE;
Alvar de Mendana, a Spaniard^
Juan Fernandez, ditto,
Drake, an Englifhman,
Thomas Cavendish, ditto,
Sir Richard Hawkins* ditto,
Alvar de Mendana, a Spaniard,
Olivier de Nqort, a Dutchman,        *&'^>?
Pedro Fernandez de Quiros, and Luis
Vaes de Torrez, Spaniards,
GeorPe Spilberg, a Dutchman,.
Le Maire and Schouten, Dutchmen,
L'HermiT.E, a Dutchman,
Abel Tasman, ditto,
Antoine la Roche, a Frenchman^
Cowley, an Englifhman^
Dampier, ditto,
Davis, ditto^
John Strong, ditto,
Gemelli Carreri, a Neapolitan,
Beauchep Gouin, a Frenchman,
WilliAm Funnell, an Englifhmanj
Woods Rogers, ditto,
Louts Feuille'e, a Frenchman,
Fre'zier, ditto,
Gentil de la Barbinais, ditto^
John Glipperton and George Shelvocke
Englifhmen, *
Roggewein, a Dutchman,
Anson, an Englifhman, -vw-•.,-..;;
Le Hen-Brignon, a Frenchman^
Byron, an Englifhman,
Wall is, ditto,
Carteret, ditto,
■  Vol. I, C p
t7
1567
1576
1577
1586
1594
1595
1598
1606
1614
16.16
1623
1642
1675
1683
1687
1687
1689
1693
1699
1703
1708
1708
171a'
X715
1719
1722
1741
J747
1764
1766
176& l8 PRELIMINARY DISCOURSE,
Page's, a Frenchman, 1766
Bougainville, ditto, j   176&
CoPk, an Englifhman, 1769
SuRville, a Frenchman* 1769
Marion and du Clesmeur, Frenchmen, 1771
Cook, an Englifhman, 1772
Cook, CLERKE,and Gore, Englifhmen, 1775
The laft voyage of Cook was fcarcely made
known, by the tragical end of the illuftmus' chief
of the expedition, when France, availing herfelf
of the leifure afforded by a peace which fhe had
juft concluded, confidered it as a duty annexed to
her rank among the principal maritime powers,
and ftiil more to her zeal and abilities for the advancement of fcience, to plan a voyage of difcove-
ry, in order to concur in perfecting the knowledge
of the globe, which we have fo long inhabited, If
our acquaintance with it be this day advanced ; if
the pofition of every one of its known parts be
henceforward afcertahied; in fhort, if every ftep
we take bring us nearer to the delired object;
we owe it to theprogrefs of aftronomy. This affords
us, in the diftance of ftars, the movements of which
are accurately determined, fixed bafes, that enatfe
us to determine the longitude in the midft of an
immenfe ocean, with a precifion fufficient for the
fafety of navigation, previous to which we were
obliged to fubftitute an almoft arbitrary approximation, which expofed us to the greateft miftakes.
By thefe eftablifhed aftronomical truths, we are
henceforward PRELlMINASlf DISCOURSE. *9
jienceforward affured of the fruits of our expedi-
tions, and the futpjpe perfection of .©eography.
There exift pi^fts no dc/ubt of haftening this
happy refult, and tl^is is the proper place to throw
£>ut fom$ ideas upon fo important an object.—
The me4n§ jnight be agreed upon in a Congrefs
formed by the ag§nt§ of the principal maritime
powers, willing to participate in the glory pf fuch
efi enterpr*g§.
The Congrefs, compofed of aftronomers, h^
^rog^phers, and navigators, fhould begin .by
drawing up an account of all the- ancient difco-
veries, that have hitherto been left unverified ; an
{$&PU&t of all the parts of the globe where there
are ftill xlifcoveries to be made or completed, or
any further particulars to be inquired into; ano^
iher object of their attention fhould be to obtain
$ table of the feafons, of the prevailing winds, of
4&P monfoons, currents, refreihments, and fuccour
to be hoped for in every latitude of the two hemispheres,    'i^m^^
According to this arrangement, general inftruc-
tions fhoulfl be drawn up for the ufe of the com^
manders in each expedition; and to prevent the
ufelefs trouble of many projects, tending to the
fame end; the whole of the difcoveries to bo
made fhould be divided among the maritime
, powers of Europe, regard being had to the pof-
C z feffion^ 20 PRELIMINARY  DISCOURSE.
feffions and eftablifhments, which might refpec*
tively facilitate the enterprizes of each nation.
If England, Spain, Holland, Portugal, Ruflia,
the United States of America, and France, would
defray the expence of an expedition every three
years, we might be certain, that in lefs than
twenty years geography would attain its utmoft
limits.
Undoubtedly France would have continued to
favour the progrefs of geography, if, for fome time
paft, intere Its of far greater importance, and an
tsxpenlive war to fupport thefe interefts, had not
wholly occupied her, and contracted all her exertions ; but peace, by recalling, in a great meafure,
the attention of government to the fciences and
arts, promifes us new expeditions for their benefit.
When thefe enterprizes are taken up in an
enlarged view, all the fciences are gainers by them.
Although the philofopher be in a great meafure
ftationary, the great refults of voyages become
not lefs a part of his domain ; ready in collecting
the obfervations of the navigator, he polTeffes
himfelf of his ideas, unfolds them, and by analyzing and clafling the fenfations which have given
birth to them, connects them to the general fyftem,
thus communicating new life to every part of
fcience.
If
mm ' PRELIMINARY DISC©.T;R.Srf» &t
If navigation, thus enlarged, may be expected
to contribute powerfully to extend the limits erf
^ttee human underftanding, it is the part of government, with this view, to excite the exertions of
ability, to reward its fuccefs, to collect and publish its difcoveries, to receive and weigh all the
hints, thoughts, and views of genius, and to at-
.tract from every quarter all thofe who, by their
merit and their l&bpurs, belong to every country
and to every age, without any regard to their opinions upon other fubje£ts, unconnected with the
great bufinefs in hand.
. This plan would naturally involve the examination of fome important queftions in geography,
$tnd especially that of an univerfal meridian ; ;fo-r
there is not a geographer, who has not experienced
the inconvenience of the variety of meridians. It
is neceffary to be perpetually on our guard again fl
miftakes; the fraalleft comparifon to eftablifh between the meridians rendering it neceffary to add
or fubtract. This evil comes from navigators
having each employed, in the formation of
their charts, the meridian adopted by their nation,
and they have often adopted a peculiar one for
themfelves. On the other hand, fome, to mark
their longitudes, have taken their departure from
the weft; others from the eaft, count n5 to 360
degrees. The reft, and thofe the greater number
among the moderns, have divided their longitudes
C 3 intq m PRELIMINARY DISCOURSE.
iMo eaft and;"weft;   but the difference between
the obfervatorifes of Europe being the fame with
the meridians of their antipodes, it follows, th&t, by
this diviSto between eaft and weft, a longitudfe
would be, as in our hemifphere, eaft to One, while
it would be weft to  the other.    Thence many
errours have arifen,  which would be avoided in
reckoning uniformly the longitudes•• to 360 de*
grees, and agreeing to take a departure from the
weft.    The  only  objection againft this way  of
t^ckoning is, that it does not give conftantly, by
the progrefiion of degrees, an idea of the diftance j
that is to fay, that as far as 180 degrees, the meridian of the antipodes, we are fully fenlible that
the degrees tnatk the diftance, but going on front
this point, every one does not immediately con*
ceive, that at 200 degrees of longtMde he is left
diftant from the meridian whence the reckoning
began, than at 180; whereas, in faying   160 d*e*
grees of eaft longitude, inftead of 20© degrees of
lPngitude* .he immediately peifi^iVes where he i$P"
It muft be confeffed, that the objection againft
reckPning  to  360  degrees is  a very weak one,
confidering at the fame time the merit of a mode
of proceeding fp iimple, and fo little liable tomif-
take; a merit not to be concealed by thofe few
perfons  who   will  not give  themfelves time to
learn or judge of the very little diftance betwreen
their own meridian and that which is 3590 59'
diftant PRELIMINARY  DISCOURSE. 2J
diftant from it. The advantage whidfc refults from
the manner of counting the longitude up to 360
degrees   is neverthelefs  a trifle, compared  with
that   of the  adoption  of a common meridian,.
which fhould ferve as a bafis to the geography of
all nations.    It is eafy to corioeive, that the/fi&K
love of every one will, without end, ftruggle to
gain for its own the preference.    Every ctoffites
ration laid afide, the rfreridian that would appear
the moft convenient to tafaej inafmuch as it would
cut very little earth, and would leave the meridians of the maritime powers  of Europe on the
opft,' would be that of the remarkable peak, which
nature feems to have placed in the middle of th$
feas, to ferve as a beacon to navigators; I mean
the Peak of Teneriffe.    A pyramid, conftructed
at the expence of the afibciated powers, fhould be.
raifed to a point through wfeich-the meridional
line ought to pafs, and a commiffion of aftrono-
mers,   chofen from among the .members of the
propofed union, fhould determine, by a feries of
operations, tii0$3£a*9: difference between this common meridian, and that of the great obfervatoriss/
of the two hemifpheres.
Thefe operations, to which the amplitude xrf
our means might enfure the greateft accuracy,
would remove every uncertainty of calculation
concerning the quantity to be added or fubtraeted,
in the comparifcris of meridian with meridian;
C 4 tney 24 PRELIMINARY DISCOURSE.
they would do away the differences produced in
the refults of their comparifons obtained at various
periods, and which might be taken for errours, if
it were forgotten, that the aftronomers, after
frefh obfervations made with more care and better
inftruments, have changed the product,of diftance
between the meridians of the obfervatories of Paris
and of. Greenwich. This difference, which was
reckoned z° i9', has been acknowledged to be z°. 20';
Hi it were aqueftion, indeed, of extreme precifen;
it would be neceffary to carry it to 20 20' if, or
9/ Zi' of time, on account of the oblate figure of
fhe earth, in fuppofing it at 3I-5, agreeably to the
.obfervations of the aftronomer Lalande, whofe
merit every one knows, and whofe calculations
- .unite perfpicuity with precifion in a high degree.
The idea of a common meridian, which I have pre-
;fixed to another work, occurred to me by the reflections, which the examination and methodifing
of this fuggefted to me ; it may poffibly not be
'•.well received, but I may he allowed to exprefs my
-with for its adoption, until the inconveniences^ if
any there be, are demonstrated.
This new meridian leaves at leaft our immenfe
^materials of geography in their full value; if this
were not the cafe, it fhould be rejected, as I reject for
the prefent, though with considerable regret, that of
the new divifibn of the circle, becaufe it is accompanied with the ferious-evil of almoft wholly de
ft
royim PRELIMINARY DISCOURSE.
il
ftroying them: it may be neceflary to explain this,
which is by no means foreign to my fubject. More
partial than any one- to decimal calculation, treated
of with fo much accuracy in the writings of the
ingenious and learned Borda, as well as in thofe of
other members of the temporary commiffion of
weights and meafures, I cannot however diflembk
.the; inconveniences of the divifion of the circle
into 400 degrees. They are fuch as can -only bs
gotten over in the courfe of many centuries after
the era in which it is univerfally adopted, during
which it will be neceffary to retain both divilions,
to facilitate the labour of comparing our nevf
charts with thofe of other nations and powers, and
with the old materials of geography.
If the portion of time known by the name of
a day require the decimal divifion, the fun, in his
annual revolution, cannot be included in. the plan 5
fince then there is a.limit in nature where- decimal
^Culation ft&ps^ and Itl cannot divide the period
§f a folar revolution, why fhould it be adapted i#
the divifion of a circle ?
It will be faid, that this divifion of the circle into
400 degrees conforms perfectly with that of the
day into 10 hours, the hour into 1.0.0 minutes, and
the minute into 100 feconds, making a degree
of the circle correfpond with two minutes and a
half of time; it may further be obferved, with
jeafon, that the bafis of all meafures^ denominated
metre3 fc6 PRELIMINARY  DISCOURSE.
inttre, being multiples of the ten-mfflfenth part
of the quarter of a meridian, thence there refute
a natural decimal divifioit, fince the degree is
found to have a hundred thoufand metres, or
twenty leagues, of five thoufand metres each :
but thefe advantages, and that of offering in general an uniform fcale in the degree and its fubdi-
vifions, cannot do away the inconveniences that
would refult from the propofed change.
The great defign of bringing about an unifor-
ISUty of weights and meafures has given birth to
the fublim?e idea of difcovering a natural ftandard.
This ftandard is precifely fuch, in fecit, as we
fhould find among an enlightened though newly-,
difcovered people, if they had made the fame pro-
fgrgk in the arts and fciences, and if they had, like
us, conceived the project of eftabliihing an uniformity of weights and meafures, and taking their
general ftandard from nature.
What occafion could be more favourable for
difcuffing the advantages and inconveniences in
the adoption of the uniformity of weights and
meafures, and of the decimal divifion, than that
of a congrefs compofed of reprefentatives of the
moft renowned and leatlifcd focieties in the worMf?;
If the Various governments agreed to admit thfe
uniformity in cafes where it fhould be deemed ufe-
ful, its fimultaneous and univerfal admiflion
would double  the benefit;   and this would be
the fure
01 O1
'ercoming the difficulties arifing
from PRELlMtifi\RY DISCOlftlSE. 2J
$fotn its $$^S5&tion to the divifion of the circle,
and of time.
What nation better than France could henceforward by Kef influence, as extended as powerful,
IPe&lize the plan of this congrefs ? As great in her
enterprizes as in her conceptions, in her operations
as in her Views, the had determined, as I have find,
to order a Voyage Ppffifcoveiy; the plan drawfi
Up Was ad6pted by the gcfifefnment; the prelimi-
$&ky inftructions'Mll prove, that it was as vaft as
'ffiil&lfy conceived in its extent, and in its details.
An able chief was neceffary for commanding the
expedition; La Peitkrfe was chofen. His toils
and his conftant fucctfs in the navy had inured
liim to every fpecies of danger, and pointed him
out as more proper than any one elfe, to follow the
difficult and dangerous courfe of a lon£ navigation
O DO
upon unknown ffeas, and in the midft of countries inhabited by barbarous people. On this
fubject a few particulars are offered to the reader,
concerning the life of this illuftrrous but unfortunate officer.
Jean-Francois Galaup de La Peroufe, chefd'ef-
cadre, was born at Albi, in 1741. Entering at
a very early age into the marine fchool, his en-
thufiafm was firft excited by the example of
thofe celebrated navigators, who had done honour''
to their country, and he took from that time the
refolution to walk  in their fteps;   but,   being
only £& PRELIMINARY   DISCOURSE.
only able to advance in this difficult road by flow
degrees, he prepared himfelf by previoufly ftudyv
ing their works, hereafter toequal them. He united,
at a very early period, experience with theory;
lie had been eighteen years, at fea when the command of the iaft expedition was intrufted to him.
He entered as midlhipman, the 19th of November, 1756, and ferved five years at fea,
during that. war, the firft four on board le
Celebre, la Pompne, le Zephyr, le Cerf, and the
fifth on board le Formidable, commanded by
Saint-Andre du Verger. This fhip made one in
the fquadron, under the orders of Marfhaf de
Comlans, when it was met off Belle Ifle'by the
Englifh fquadron. Le Magnifique, le Heros, le
Formidable, compofing the rear-divifion,...were
attacked and furrounded by eight or ten Englifh
(hips. The fight began, and foon became general;
jt was fo terrible, that eight men of war, Englifh
or French, were funk during the action, or ran
upon the French coafts, where they were obliged
to be burnt, Le Formidable, more roughly
handled than the - reft, was the only one taken,
, after a vigorous refiftance. La Peroufe conducted
himfelf with great bravery in this action, in
which he was feverely wounded.
Reftored again to his country, he ferved in the
fame capacity, three years longer, on board le
Robufte, where he diftinguifhed himfelf on many
occafions $
mm PRELIMINARY DISCOURSE, 29
occafions; and his growing merit began to draw
upon him the eyes of his fuperior officers.
, - The firft of October,  1764, he was promoted
to the rank  of enfeigne de vaiffeau.    A man of d
lefs active difpofition would hate availed himfelf
of the indulgence of the peace, but his ardour
for the profeffion allowed him no repofe.     To
judge of his unwearied activity,   it is fufficien't
to fketch a flight picture   of his naval life, from
this epoch to 1777.    He ferved
In   1765, on board the flute TAdour; ' • v
1766, on board the flute le Gave;
1767, as commander of the flute TAdour;
1768, as commander of la Dorothee;
2769, as commander of le Bugalet;
1771, on board la Belle-Poule;
1772, Ibid.
* 7 74' commanding the flute la Seine &■ les
1775' >Deux-Amis, off the coaft of Malabar;
2776,   lieutenant from the 4th of April, 1777.
1777*;
In the year 1778 the war br "
tween   France   and   England;
menced, the   17th of June, fr
with la Belle-Foule.
In 1779, La Peroufe commanded L'Amazone,
one of the fhips in the fquadron of D'Eftaing,
Defirous of covering the defcent of the troops, at
£B0£>\ . the
ce out
again be^
hoftili
ties   com-
an er
lgagement JO £££l.tl£INARY   DISCOURSE.
the Iflaadof Granada, he anchored witjiiii^piftol-
fhot of .ah Englifh battery* Duringcthe battte.be*
twcen this fquadron and that of admiral Byron,
Hie was fixed upon to carry the orctei$ of the commander in chie£ along the* line. After this he
took, on the coaft of New England, the Ariel
frigate, and contributed to the C$pt*ire of the
Experiment.  ■   <: \
u Being made a captain the 4th of April, 1780, he
commanded the frigate L'Aftree, when, being on
a cruize with L'Hermioae, commanded by captain
La Touche, he fought an obftinate battle, on the
2ift of July, with fix Englifh fhips of war, fix
leagues from the North Cape of the Ifle Royale.
Five of t|iefe fhips, the Allegiance, of twenty-
four guns, the Vernon, of the fame force, the
Charleftown, of twenty-eight, the Jack, of fourteen, and the Vulture, of twenty, formed a line
to receive him; the fixth, the Thompfon, of
eighteen, reniained out of gun fhot. The two
frigates bore down together upon the enemy,
under "a crowd of fail; it was feven o'clock, in
the evening, when they fired the firft fhot. They
ranged along to leeward of the Englifh line, in
owjer to cut off their retreat. The Thompfon
remained all the time to windward. The two
frigates manoeuvred with fo much ikill, that they
threw the little Englifli fquadron into difbrder;
in about half an hour the Charleftown frigate;,
2 com- PRELIMINARY DISCOURSE* t 0
Commodore, and the Jack, were forced to fur-
raidsr* and the three other veffeis would have
experienced the fame fate, if the night had not
concealed them from the purfiiit of the frigates*-
The following year the French government
formed the project: of taking and deftroying the
eftablifhments of the Englifh in Hudfon's Bay.
La Peroufe appeared a proper officer to accom-
plifh this troublefome miffion, in a dangerous fea;
he received his orders to quit Cape Francois the
31 ft of May, 1782. He commanded the Sceptre,
of 64 guns, and was followed by the two frigates
L'Aftree and L'Engageante, of 36 guns each,
commanded by captains de Langle and La Jaille;
the land forces on board thefe fhips confifted of
two hundred and fifty infantry, forty artillery men,
four field pieces, two mortars, and three hundred
bombs.
The 17th of July, he made Refolution Ifland 1
but no fooner had he penetrated twenty-five
leagues into Hudfon's Straits than he found
his fhips entangled with ice, from which he
received confiderable damage.
The 30th, after having ftruggled inceffantly
againft obftacles of every kind, he made Cape
Walfingham, fituate in the moft wefterly pa#t
of the Straits. In order to arrive fpeedily at
Frince of Wales's Fort, which he had propofed
firft to attackjfiie had not a moment to lofe, the
rigour ■$Z 3>RE£XMINARY  DISCOURSE.
rigour of the feafon obliging all veffels to qt^fe
this fea at the beginning of September; but no
fooner had they entered Hudfon's Bay, than they
met with thick fogs; and on the 3d of Auguft>
ait the firft clearing up of the weather* he found
himfelf furrounded with ice as far as he could fee,
which obliged him to lie to.. Neverthelefs he overcame thefe obftacles, and on the 8th* in the>even-
ing, having difcovered the flag on Prince of
Wales's Fort, the French fhips ran by their lead
within a league and a half of it, and anchored in
eighteen fathom water, muddy ground. An
officer, fent to reconnoitre the approaches to the
fort, brought word, that the ihips might' bring
up, with their guns to bear on it, at a very
little diftance. La Peroufe, making no doubt,
that the Sceptre alone could eafily reduce the
enemy fhould they refift, prepared for effecting a defcent during the night* Although
counteracted by the tide and tbe darknefs, the
boats unoppofed approached within three quarters
of a league of the fort. La'Peroufe, feeing no
difpofition for defence, although the fort appeared to him capable of a vigorous one, fent a
fummons to the enemy; the gates were opened;
the governor and garrifon furrendered at dif-
cret on. Mm
This part of his orders being executed, he failed
the  nth of Auguft  for Fort-York; he experienced M;-ELIMXNA-RY DIS-COURSE. 33
rienced ftill greater difficulties to get there, than
any he had yet met with in this expedition; he ran,
in fix or feven fathom water, a1 :>ng a coaft fcattered
over with rocks. After having run the greateft
rifks, the Sceptre and the two frigates difcovered
the entrance of Nelfon's River, and anchored, the
2othof Auguft, about five leagues from land.
La Peroufe had taken three decked boats at
Prince of Wales's Fort; he fent them with the
Sceptre's yawl to gain information of Hayes's
River, near which Fort York is fituated.
The 21 ft of Auguft, the troops embarked in the
Eoats; and La Peroufe, having nothing to feat
from the enemy by fea, thought-proper to fuper-
intend their debarkation.
Hayes's Ifland* on which flood Fort York, is
Situate -at the mouth of a great river, which it
divides into two branches; that which paffes be-„
fore the fort* is called Hayes's River, and the
other Nelfon's River. The French commander
Jfeilew, that all the means of defence were erected upon the firft; there was befides one of
the Hudfon's Bay Company's veffels, carrying
twenty-five nine pounders^ anchored at the mouth.
He refolved to pufh up by Nelfon's Riverj,
although his troops had on this fide to march
about four leagues; but he obtained the advantage of rendering the batteries, which were placed
4tel>n Hayes's River, ufekfs.
Vol. I. D Thev 34 PRELIMINARY   DISCOURSE.
They arrived the 21ft, in the evening, at the
mouth of Nelfon's River, with two hundred and
fifty men, with the mortars and guns, and provi-
iion for eight days, in order not to be compelled to
have recourfe to the fhips, with which it was difficult to communicate.. La Peroufe gave orders
for the boats to anchor in three fathom, at the
entrance of the river, and he advanced'in his
boat, with De Langle, the fecond in the expedition, Roftaing, the commander of the
troops, and Monneron, the captain of engineers,
in order to found the river, and infpect its
banks, where it was feared the enemy might
have raifed fome works of defence.
They difcovered, that the bank was not of
eafy accefs; the fmalleft boats could only get
within two hundred yards of it, and that the intervening ground was a foft mud. He then
thought it proper to wait for day, and remain at
anchor : but the ebb running out much fafter
than they had expected, the boats were difcovered to be aground at three o'clock in the
morning.
Exafperated rather than difcouraged by this
accident the troops debarked, and, after having
walked near a mile up to the mid-leg in mud,
they arrived in a meadow, where they drew up in
order of battle; thence they marched towards a
wood,  where they expected to find a dry path
which- PRELIMINARY  DISCOURSE. 35
which might lead them towards the Fort.    Noner
was found, and the whole day was employed in
feeking for that which did not exift.
La Peroufe ordered Monneron, the captain of
engineers to trace out one, by the compafs,
through the middle of the wood. This difficult
labour being executed, ferved only to make it
evident, that there were two leagues of marfhy
ground to crofs, in doing which the troops would
often fink up to the knees. A hard gale
of wind coming on, in the night, obliged
the anxious Peroufe to rejoin his fhips. He
reached the fea fide with all hafte; but the
ftorm continuins;, he could not get aboard.
The next morning he took advantage of a lull,
and found means to get on board an hour before
a fecond gale. An officer, who fet off at the fame
time, was wrecked, but, together with the crew,
had the good fortune to get on fhore; yet he
was unable to return on board in lefs than three
days, naked and almoft dead with hunger. The
Engageante and the Aftree loft two anchors each
in the fecond gale.
However, the troops arrived before the fort the
24th in the morning, after a very fatiguing
march, and it furrendered at the firft fummons.
La Peroufe caufed the fort to be demolifhed, and
gave orders to the troops to re-embark without
delay.
D2 This $6 PRELlklNARf   DISC0UR§8.
This laft order was fruftrated by another ftron^
gale of wind, which expofed the Engageante to
imminent danger; her third anchor broke, is
well as the tiller* and her long-boat was loft. Th6
Sceptre loft alfo her long-boat, yawl, and anchor.
At length the fine weather returned, and the
troops re-embarked. La Peroufe having the governors of Prince of Wales and York Forts on
board, fet fail, in Order to quit a coaft aban-
dpned to ice and tempefts, where his military
fuccefs, though unoppofed by the flighteft re-
fiftance, yet neverthelefs had been preceded by fo
many difficulties, fatigues, and dangers.
If La Peroufe, as a military man, were obliged,
in conformity with rigorous orders, to deftroy the
poffeffions of his enemies, he did not forget, at
the fame time, the refpect. that was due to misfortune, Having known, that at his approach
the Englifh had fled into the woods, and that his
departure, on account of the deftruction of their
fettlements, would expofe them to die with hunger, or fall defenceless into the hands of the fa-
vages, he had the humanity to leave them pro-
vifion and arms.
•Can there be, on this iubject, an eulogium
more flattering, than the following fincere declaration of an Englifh feaman, in his account of a
voyage to Botany Bay?—" We ought to call to
J    O J J o
" mind with gratitude, in England efpecially, this
tSp& " humane
mmm PRELIMINARY  DISCOURSE. 37
*x humane and generous man, for his conduct,
H when ordered to deftroy our eftablifhment in
" Hudfon's Bay, in the courfe of the laft war."
After a -teftimony fo juft and true, and whilft
England has deferved fo well of the friends of
fcience and the arts, by her pagernefs to publifh
the accounts of her voyages of difcovery, fhall we
be compelled to reproach another Englifh officer
for a breach of his engagements with La Peroufe.
Governor Hearne had made a journey by land,
in 1772, towards the north, commencing it from
Fort Churchill in Hudfon's Bay, a journey of
which the particulars are looked for with impatience; the manufcript journal of it was found
by La Peroufe among the papers of this governor, who infilled upon their being left in his pof-
feflion as private property. This journey haying
been neverthelefs undertaken by order of the Hud-
Con's Bay Company, with the view of acquiring
knowledge in^jbe northern part of America, the
journal might well have been deemed to belong
to this Company, devolving in confequence to the
victor; neverthelefs, La Peroufe gave way to the
intreaties of governor Hearne, and allowed him
to retain the manufcript, butjoli the exprefs condition, that he fhpuld have it publifhed as foon as
he returned to England. This condition appears
not to have been performed even to this moment*.
* It was publiihed in 1795, though apparently not in confequence of this promife.    T.
D 3 Let 38 PRELIMINARY   DISCOURSE.
Let us hope, that this remark, rendered public,
will produce the intended effect, or urge the governor to make it known, whether the Hudfon's
Bay Company, who dread that others fhould interfere in their commerce and affairs, have prevented its publication*.
At the time of the eftablifhment of the peace
with England, in 1783, this expedition ended.
The indefatigable La Peroufe enjoyed not a long
repofe, a more important fervice awaited him \
alas! it was deftined to be the laft. He was appointed to command the expedition projected in
1785, preparations for whHi were forwarding at
Breft.
I fhall not conform to a practice that is very
common, in pointing out, beforehand, the track of
our navigator, the coafts and the iflands that he
has explored or vifited in the main ocean, the
difcoveries which he has made in the Afiatic
feas, and the important benefits he has rendered
to geography : I make this facrifice to the reader,
whofe curiofity would rather be excited than anticipated, and who would prefer, without doubt^
following!; the courfe of the navigator himfelf.
So far I have confidefed in La Peroufe only
the warrior, arid the navigator : but he deferves
equally to be known for his perfonal qualities";'
for he was not lefs calculated  to conciliate the
* The above anecdote was unknown to me, when I wrote
the note which will be feen in voi. II, page 16^
mea
mm
wm PRELIMINARY  DISCOURSE.. 39
men of every country, or to make himfelf ref-
peded by them, than to forefee, and to conquer
the obftacles, which it is allotted to human wif-
dom to furmount.
Uniting in himfelf the vivacity peculiar to
the inhabitants of warm climates, with an agreeable wit, and an equal temper, his mildnefs and
his amiable gaiety made his company always,
fought after with eagernefs: on the other hand,
matured by long experience, he joined to uncommon prudence a firmnefs of character, which
is the characteriftic of a ftrong mind, and which,
increafed by the hardfhips of a feaman's life,
rendered him qualified to attempt, and to conduct the greateft enterprizes with fuccefs.
After the combination of thefe various qualities, the reader, witnefling his patience in cir-
cumftances 'requiring great labour, the fevere
refolutions that his forefight dictated, the caution,
he was obliged to exercife towards his people, will
be little aftonifhed at the benevolent and moderate, as well as circumfpect conduct of La
Peroufe towards them; of the confidence, fome-
times even of the deference he paid to his officers, and of his paternal care towards his fhips
companies; nothing that could intereft them,
cither by relieving their hardfhips or contributing
to their happinefs, efcaped his watchfulnefs, and
folicitude. Not willing to make of a mercantile
D 4 fpecu. 4® PRELIMINARY   DISCOURSE.
(peculation, a fcientific enterprize, and, refignirig
the whole profits of trade to the failors alone,
he referved to himfelf the farisfection of having
been ufeful to his country, and to the fciences.
Perfectly fu-cceeding in his views, with regard to
the prefervation of their health, no navigator has
. ever made fo long a voyage, under fuch inceffant
changes of climate, with crews fo healthy yfmce,
at their arrival at New Holland, after thirty
months failing, and a run of more than fifteen
thoufand leagues, they were as well as at leaving
Breft.
Matter  of himfelf,   and   never  fuffering firft
impreffions to carry him away, he was enabl$#
to practice, efpecially in this voyage, the precept
of a philofophical humanity. If I were more dif- t
pofed to make his  eulogy, neceffarily detached
and incomplete,   than to  leave the reader   the
pleafure of appreciating  him by facts,   accompanied with all their circumftances, and to eftmate
him by the general tendency of his writings,   I
could cite a crowd of paffages from his journal,
the turn and character of which   I have faithfully preferved, which fhow the man: I could especially point out his attachment to that article
of his inftructions, engraven on his heart,   which
prdered him to avoid (bedding a fingle drop pf
blood; having followed it conftantly in fo long
a voyage, "with a fuccefs becoming his principles,
and 3R1 EX tW$W-A&¥ DISCO U KSafo-S 41
atid When, attacked by a barbarous horde of fa-
vages, he had loft his fecond in command, a na-
turalift, and ten men of the tv/ofhips companies,
repreffing the powerful raeauns of vengeance he
had $f¥-his hands, and fo many warrantable motives for ufing them, I would fhow him, rdftcain-
ilfg the fury of the crews, and fearing to ftrike
one fiftgteinnocent victim, among fo many thou-
fands of criminals.
As equitable and modeft as he was enlightened,
w^fhiait fee with what refpect he fpoke of the immortal Cook, and how defirous he was to render
jtiftice to thofe- great men, who had run the fame
Career. |& I
Equally juft towards all, La Peroufe, imliBj
journal, and in his correfpondenkre, difpenfes:;wiilbj
equity the praifes, which were due to his affoci-
ates:—he ag&ijfcs-alfo the ftrangers, who,~inf sUfe
fcrent parts of the world, have favourably received theisiy and- procured them afSfiance. If
government, of whofe difpsfedkm we camiofc
entertain a doubt, would fulfil the infeentionsis&fe
La Peroufe, it wotald confer &pon thefe latter, a
maik of public  gratitude.
Juftly prized by the Englifh feamen, who had
an opportunity of becoming acquainted with him,
they have evinced an unequivocal efteem for him,
in their writings. All thofe who were in habits
of intimacy with him,   have given him praifes,
whiclV 4^ PRELIMINARY   DISCOURSE.
which, though juft,   would be too long* to recount. i|j&
But to fpeak of his virtues, and of his talents,
is to recollect his misfortunes, and to awaken our
regret : the idea of the former is henceforward in-
parably connected with the remembrance of the
latter, and they raife for ever a monument of
grief and gratitude, in the heart of every friend
to the fciences and to humanity. If I have experienced any pleafure at the conclufion of the
troublefome labour which this work required,-
and after the care and attention it has coft me
till, its publication ; it is, undoubtedly, at this moment, when I am allowed to be the inftrunient of
the French Republic, in paying to his memory a
tribute of national gratitude.
La Peroufe, according to his laft letters from
Botany Bay, was to return to the Ifte de France, ■
in 1788*. The two following years being ex?V
pired, even the important events, which occupied
and fixed the attention of all France, were unable *
entirely to detach it from an intereft in the fate
\fchich appeared to threaten our navigators. The
firft accents of fear and grief on their accourits
were heard at the bar of the national affembly,
* See inVol. Ill the extracts from two of La Peroufe's letters, dated Botany Bay, the 7th of February/ 1788.
by PRELIMINARY DISCOURSE. 43
by means of the members of the fociety of natural hiftory.
*' During two years," faid they, " France has
" in vain expected the return of M. De La Pe-
** roufe; and thofe who intereft themfelves in
*i his perfon, and in his difcoveries, have no
" knowledge of his fate. Alas! their appre-
" henfions are perhaps more frightful than his
** actual fufferings; and probably he has only
<c efcaped death, to be delivered up to the con-
" tinued torments, of a hope, always renewed,
" and always difappointed ; perhaps he has been
i eaft away upon fome one of thofe iflands of
I the South Sea, whence he ftretches out his arms
" towards his country, and fruitlefsly expects a
** deliverer.
V It is not for objects frivolous in their nature,
<*Tbr his own advantage, that M. De La Peroufe
" has braved dangers of every kind: the gene-
<c rous nation^ which was to gather the fruit of
" his toils, owes him alfo its intereft and its fmc-
** cour.
" Already have we learned the lofs of feveral
*c of his companions* fwallowed up by the waves,
" or maffacred by the favages: cherifh the little
" hope, which remains of gathering together
f< thofe of our brothers, who may have efcaped
* the fury of the billows, or the rage of can-
3j nibals; let  them return to our fhores, though
*< they • 44 PRELIMINARY   £ IS COURSE.
*c>they jf^ould die w7ith joy at feeing their countiy
*c free/' "
The requeit of the fociety of natural hiftory,.
received with the moft lively intereft, was followed
Bp by a law, ordering two frigates to be immediately fitted out in fearch of La Peroufe.
. The reafons ivpo^ which the decree was founded, even, thejjprding of the report, evinced w&afc
4 tender and affecting concern our navigators had
i$$j>$red ; and the eagernefs with which, in the de-
ffe °f r§€p$p$if£g them, the firff ghmpfe of hope
was entertain^, without thinking of the grea£
$^rifif|<§s the purfu^t required.
" For a lone while our ardent wifhes have
*c ca%d for M. De La Peroufe, and the coi£j>a»
cc nions of his glorious, but too probably un&us*
^Ipnate voyage.
, "The fociety of naturalifts of this capital &
*c come to tear the veil, which you were afraid ta
*c raife the grieOfcf which it has given the ex-s
Sample is become univerfal, and you appeared
ftc to. receive with tranfport the idea which it fiag-
<£ gefted of fending out yeflels in fearch ofVLDe
**' La Peroufe.
" You have ordered your committees of.jma-
" rine, of agriculture, and of commerce, to pre-
iC fent to you their thoughts upon this interefting
u fubject: the fentiment which appeared to ac-
*' tuate you has alfo dictated our opinion.
« We ' Preliminary discourse. -45
*c We have hardly the confotation to doubt
" that M. De La Peroufe has experienced foriie
*c great misfortune.
** We cannot reafonably hope, that his veflels
<c at this moment" plough thefurface of ihfc feas :
" either this navigator and his cor^anionsotre no
"more; or elfe, thrown upon fome -fiightiul
u fhore, loft in the immenfity of unknown fea§,
iC and confined in the extremities of the world,
*c they perhaps ftruggle againft the climate,
" againft wild-feeafts, againft men, agaibft nature*
" and call their country to their aid, which caii
I only form a guefs concerning their mifei^
* Poffibly they have been thrown upon fome un*
Xi explored uhkntjfita coaft, upon fome banren
** rock; ther£$   if they   have met   with  a   h
*' pitSfete people, they yet live, and implore your
" affiftance; or if they have only met with a
*! ctefert, perhaps wild fruits, fhell fifh, fuftain
*c their exiftence: fixed to the fhore, their
H looks lofe themfelves in diftance upon the fea*
H in endeavouring to difcover the happy fails,
" which might reftore them to France, to their
H relations, to their friends;
" Compelled to catch at an idea, which is
*c perhaps only a confoling error, you are de*
u firous without doubt as we are to prefer this
N conjecture to the hopldefijftjjifiea of their total
**l&f§; it is that which the fociety of naturalifb Eft
4(3    j       preliminary discourse.
" of Paris   came  to   prefent   to you; it is that
" which M. De LaBordehad offered to every feel-
" ing heart,  in a memoir   to the   academy of
" fciences.
" But if  this idea  touch   you,    if it   ftrike
" you, you cannot henceforward give yourfelves
<c up to an impotent regret; humanity demands
." of us to fly to the affiftance of our brethren.
i " Alas ! where look for them ? Whom fhall we
*c afk concerning their condition ? Can we ex-
" plore all the coafts of a fea almoft unknown ?
" Can we touch at all the iflands of thofe im~
" menfe archipelagoes, which offer fo many dan-
li gers to navigators ? Can all the,gulfs be exa-
M mined, all the bays penetrated ? And even if
ft we fhould be fortunate enough to touch at the
B ifland which conceals them, may we not even
*c then, perhaps, fail to difcover them ?
u Without doubt the difficulties are great, fuo
iC cefs is fcarcely to be expected : but the motive
<c for the enterprize is powerful; it is poffible, that
<c our brothers may yet be alive, we may yet re-
" ftore them to their country; and hence we are
<c'not permitted to reject the temptation of a re-
" fearch, which cannot but do us honour. It is
<c our duty to fhow this concern for men, who
" have thus devoted themfelves; we owe it to
<c the fciences, which await the fruit^of their re-
4i fearch 5 and that which ought to ift^reafe this
2 *c concern preliminary discourse. 47
concern is, that M. De La Peroufe was not one
of thofe adventurers, who catch at great enterprizes, whether for the purpofe -of advancing
their characters or fortune; he was not even
ambitious of commanding the expedition en-
trufted to him, he wifhed to have been able to
decline it; and even when he accepted the
command, his friends knew he did but refign
himfelf. Happily we know the courfe, that it
is neceffary to follow in fo painful a refearch ;
happily we can put into the hands of thofe,
who are to be charged with this affecting mif-
fion, the clue of the perilous labyrinth.
" The propofal of a fearch, which humanity
commands, cannot be brought to this tribune
to be combated by pariimony, or difcuffed by
cool reafon, when it ought to be judged by
fentiment.
" This expedition will be the moft glorious re-
compenfe to M. De La Peroufe, or to his memory, with which you can honour his labours,
his facrifices, or his misfortunes.
" By acts like thefe a nation is illuftrated; and
the fentiments of humanity which prompt them,
will characterize our aee. It is no longer for
the purpofe of invafion and ravage, that the
European penetrates into the moft diftant latitudes, but to carry thither enjoyments and benefits ; no longer to fteal away the corrupting
«' metals, 48 PRELIMINARY   DISCPURSE.
f| metals, but to obtain thofe uieful vegetables*
4S which may render the life of man more com-
g fortable and eafy. In fhort, there will befeen,
4C and favage nations, will /not behold it unmoved,
iC there will be feen, at the extremities of the
cc world, pious navigators, inquiring with concern
f| about the fate of their brothers, of men and of
" deferts, of caves, of rocks, and even of barren
fcC lands -.there will be feen on the moft treacherous
Gi feas, in the windings of the moft dangerous
" archipelagoes around all thofe iflands peopled by
" cannibals, men wandering in fearch of othef
£C men to throw themfelves into their arms, to fuc-
&c cour and to fave them."
The fhips fent out in fearch of La Peroufe had
fcafcely failed, when a rumour was fpread, that:
a Dutch captain, pafling by the Admiralty Iflands
to the weft of New Ireland, perceived a canoe,
containing natives pf that  place, who   appeared
navy.
General d'Entrecafteaux, who commanded this
iiew expedition, having touched at the Cape of Good
Hope, had been informed of this report; not-*
..withftanding the flendernefs of its authenticity
and little likelihood, he did not hefitate a finele
inftant;
changed   the plan  of his route to
haften to the fpot.    His ardour not having been
.repaid with fuccefs, he recommenced his fearcK
5 in PRELIMINARY  DISCOURSE. 4Q
In the order prefcribed by his in'ftru&io'ns, and.
completely fulfilled theni all, without beinguble to
obtain the fmalleft information, or acquire any
thing like probability concerning the fate of our
Unfortunate navigator. ulp$
There were various conjectures in France as to
the caufe of his lofs : forne perfons; unacquainted
with the track he had to follow from Botany
Bay, which is traced in his laft letter,- have
advanced, that his fhips had been caught in the
ice, and that La Peroufe, arid all his companions, had perifhed by the moft horrible % of
deaths; others have given out* that during his
paffage to the Ifte de France; towafds the end of
1788; he had been the victim of that violent
hurricane,* which proved fo fatal to the Venus frigate, which was never heard of afterwvards,> and
which totally difmafted the fefolution frigate.
Although we cannot deny the affertion of thefe
laft perfons, we ought not on the other hand to
admit li wdthout proof. If this be not true, La
Peroufe has moft likely perifhed by ftrefs of weather
on one of then umberlefs reefs of foc&s, with which
the archipelagoes,* that he had ftill to explore, have
been actually found by General d'Ehtrecafteaux
to abound. The manner in which the two
frigates have always failed, being conftantiy within
hail of each other, would have .involved t>oth of
them in the fame fate; they would have experi-
Vol. t. E ©iced
nr .■•:.■:■;■
50 PRELIMINARY DISCOURSE OF
enced the misfortune which they fo narrowly efcaped on the 6th of Nov. 1786, and would have
foundered before they could reach any land. The
only hope which could remain would be, that they
had been wrecked upon the coafis of fome uninhabited ifland; in this cafe, perhaps, a few individuals may ftill exift upon one of the innumerable iflands of thefe archipelagoes. At a
diftance from every ufual courfe they might have
been overlooked in the fearch, and might o'rit^'
be able to fee. their country again by the accidental arrival of fome veffel, all means of building one being probably wanting.
We neverthelefs cannot but obferve, that the
lavages make very long runs in fimple canoes;
and we may judge, by the infpection of the chart,
that if the fhip had been loft on a defert ifland, or
one inhabited by favages, who had fpared the remainder of the crews, they would have been able,
in the courfe of nine years, to arrive, by degrees, in
a country, whence fome tidings of them might
have been received ; for it is probable, that they
would have attempted every thing, to get out of
a ftate of anxiety and folitude worfe than death.
If then we be not bereft of all hope, at leaft that
which remains is very feeble. A navigator has *
after ted, that he had feen figns of the wreck of La
Peroufe; the reader may judge of the confidence
that he merits, by his depofition, which I fhall quote
2 literally, PRELIMINARY DISCOURSE. 51
literally, without any other obfervation than comparing the author with himfelf, and placing his
ftory by the fide of Bougainville's relation.
Extract from the minutes of the juftice of peace
of the town and commune of Mortaix.
" George Bowen, captain of the fhip Albemarle,
bound from Bombay to London, and carried into
Morlaix, being examined whether he had had any
information concerning La Peroufe, who failed
from France on a voyage round the world, an-
fwered, that in December, 1791, he himfelf perceived, on his return from Port Jackfon to Bombay,
upon the coaft of New Georgia*, in the eaftern
ocean, pieces of the wreck of a fhip floating upon
the waterf-, and which he judged to be of French
conftruction; that he had not been on fhore, but
that the natives of the country came on board
him ; that he could not underftand their language,
but by their figns he had comprehended, that a
* Reconnoitred by Shortland, lieutenant in the Englifh
navy, in 1788; but partly difcovered by Bougainville, captain in the French navy, in 1768, and Hill rribre by Surville,
captain of a fhip in the India Company's fervice, who called
it the land of the Arfacides.    (Fr. Ed.)
f La Peroufe could only have been loll in 1788. I leave
thofe who know the effects of waves of the fea upon a veffel
wrecked, to judge whether thefe pieces of wreck could be Hill
floating upon the water, at the end of December, 1791.—■
(Fr. Ed)
E 2 fhip 52 PRELIMINARY DISCOURSE.
fhip had touched on their coafts; that the natives
knew the ufe of many implements of iron, concerning which they were very curious; and that he had
exchanged with them feveral articles of iron and
glafs ware, for bows; that with refpect to the character of thefe Indians, they appeared to him pacific*, and better informed than the inhabitants of
Otaheite, fince they had a perfect knowledge of
works In iron, and their canoes were built in a
fuperior manner; that when the natives were on
board his fhip, he had not yet difcovered the wreck
ih queftion, and that failing along the coaft, he
perceived it by the help of a great fire lighted upon
the land near the middle of the night-}* of the 30th
December, 1791; that without this fire he had
probably run Upon the rocks of Cape Deception.
The deponent declares, that in all this quarter of
the coaft of New Georgia he remarked a great
number of huts or cabins; that thefe Indians
were of a robuft ftature, and of a mild difpofition,
* Thefe Indians, characterized as pacific, attacked the boats
Bougainville had fent on fhore to fetch water, as foon as
they had entered Choifeul Bay.   (Fr. Ed.)
f It is undoubtedly furprizing, that the pieces of
wteck feen by George Bowen, and affirmed to be part of
La Peroufe's fhip, and of French conftru&ion, circumflances
which fuppofe them to have been of confiderable fize, and
examined at no great diftance, fhould only be perceived at
midnight by the flame of a me kindled on land. (Fr. Ed.)
whence PRELIMINARY   DISCOURSE. 53
whence he prefumes, that if M. De La Peroufe or
any of his crew be on fhore there, they may flill
be alive* j and that he knows, that all the fhips
which have navigated thefe coafts are thofe of Bou-<
gainville—the Alexander—the Friendfhip, of London—M.De La Peroufe—and the deponent; that
in confequence he prefumed the pieces of wreck
to be the remains of M. De La Peroufe's fhipf-;
. fince the Alexander foundered in the Straits of
Macaffer, and the Friendfhip arrived fafe in an
Englifh port. On being afked whether he had feen
any clothes upon the natives which denoted them
to have had communication with Europeans, he
anfwered, that the people were naked; that the
climate is very hot; and that by their figns he
difcovered, that they had previoufly feen fhips.;
that he perceived in the pofleflion of thefe Indians
fifhing nets, the threads of which were flax, and
the mefhes of European manufacture! ; that cut
* Bougainville, obliged to repel by force the attack of
thefe Indians, pofMed himfelf of two of their canoes, in
which he found, among other things, the jaw of a man half
broiled, an evident proof that they were cannibals. (Fr. Ed.)
f The Englifh captain ceafes to give it as a certainty,
that the pieces of wreck he perceived were the remains of
La Peroufe's fhip; it now becomes limply a prefumption.—r
(Fr. Ed.)
X Bougainville found in the canoes, which fell into his
hands, nets with very fine mefhes, fkilfully woven ; it is probable, that the perfection of their ccnflrufHon led captain
$owen into a miflake.    (Fr. Ed.)
E 3 .# 54 PRELIMINARY DISCOURSE OF
of curiofity he took a piece of it, from which it
would be eafy to difcover that the materials and
the workmanfhip were European."
Such is at this time the only information we are
in poffeffion of concerning the fate of our navigator. The public indications ftill in exiftence of
the track he followed, and of the places he
examined, are the medals ftruck on occafion of
his vbyage, and left or diftributed by La Peroufe
during the courfe of it. He took out with
him about I hundred of filver and bronze, and fix
hundred others of different kinds. As we know
the route which he had ftill to perform, thefe
medals may one day point out to us nearly in what
fpot his misfortune interrupted it.
The medal relative to the voyage, becoming an
hiftorical monument, and being liable to be found
'again one day by other navigators, I cannot refrain
from making it known, though I have not thought
proper to have it engraved; on one fide is the
effigy of the king with the common infcription;
the reverfe bears the following infcription encircled
by two branches of olive tied together by a ribband :—
Les Fregates du roi de France, la Boujfole et V Aftrolabe, commandoes par M. M. De La Peroufe et De Langle, parties du
Pott de Brefi en Juin 1785.
The King of France's frigates the BoufTole and Aftrolabe,
commanded by De La Peroufe andDe Langle, failed from
the port of ErefiVin June, 1785.
So
ni ■'
PRELIMINARY DISCOURSE. gjl
So ma#y precautions taken for the fuccefs of a
great expedition,  the expence it occafions,  and
the troubles   and  the   evils  it  draws  after   it,
wijl occafion many   prejudiced   and   fyftematic
perfons    to   doubt   whether    thefe    pains    and
cares be compenfated   by the reciprocal utility,
^gMch   mankind   find in  voyages of difcovery.-—-
Although I might.quefti.Qri the utility of intrpduc-
-ing-.domeftic;s animals, and a few farinaceous plants
among favages, ^compared with the evils which
refult^o them, from the falfe. or fuperficial notions
that ..qur principles fuggeft to them, and from the
Xaddenrcommunicatio.n of our manners and our
jgu^ioms; I fay, that after having given them detached notions, which they know not how either to
$£&§$& or t?;8?Pty> vegetables and animals which
they   neither preferve   nor perpetuate,   then   to
gjjMye-.them to themfelyes,  is.fiCf give  them the
xf§f#W^?dge and defire of gratifications which they
03W^tfl¥9Wre» W*A thereby to promote their un-
ifeiHRWSff: ^ut to B$& them by degrees with the
d^fl^fftShl^v^^  them,   to ngaik^ orderly colonies
4>gfore we make a polifhed people of them, and not
to give them new wants and new ways of acting,
.^jgt^i|f^e means of providing for the one, and
-Aj^eficially ferving themfelves by the. other; is tp
•prepare and to fecure to their pofterity the hamgy
fruits of the expanfion of the human faculties,
If we, as well as they, may fuffer fome inconveniences from our communications with th^rn*
Si'*. E 4 wlfen. 56 PRELIMINARY DISCOURSE.
when our refpectiye fituations are ffl- different, yet
the great advantages that the arts and fciences receive from voyages of difcovery, cannoffeafonalJijP
be cSfttefted. It is the nature of civilized man to'
enlarge the Iphere of his knowledge and enjoyments, by the advance of his undcrftanding and
the enlargement of his defires* The navigator, as
he proceeds, difcovers new and ufeful productions ;
determines the fituation of different places, tMts
giving fecurity to his own route and that'flF
others; learns to judge his fellow-creatures by
a greater number of comparifons; and every pro-
grefliye movement he makes is a ftep towaSlfe; the
knowledge of man and of nature. It is grand, it
is beautiful, to incur expences, and tp rulppSfiJj
for the wants of fociety at large, and the grptffth of
true riches.
If fome philofophers have difapproved of^teyages
in general, becaufe expeditions underSd^^jSfev
ambitious and interefted views have been followed
by acts of barbarity? it is becaufe thefe hav$$ji£6ij
confounded with voyages of difibyery? which have
had for their object to carry benefits to our fellow creatures, and to enlarge the field of fcience.
Thefe benefits, we fhall perhaps be told, are the
price of their blood ; becaufe they cannot be kept
Within bounds, without employing againft thei#&
force, which, becoming deftructive to the navigators themfelves, occafions a double crime in the
eyes of philofophy and of nature. PRELIMINARY    DISCOURSE. $J
JLet us confult the navigators known by thei*
jnQderatipn; (their accounts prove to us, that, by
employing the means which prudence dictates, it
fs eafy to reftrain the favages by the mere difplay
of force : quickly attached by benefits to navigators whom they refpect, they are fufceptible of
gratitude, and confequently of every other fenti-
ment.
We muft, however, do juftice to the motive
which has milled thefe philofophers: this resectable motive is humanity; we ought therefore to
be of one opinion henceforward, from the conduct
of our navigators, feeing their extreme care and
caution for the life of favages, who deftroy each
other upon the flighteft pretexts; the ferocity
pf thefe laft foftened by civilization ; and the im-
menfe quantity of blppd fpared by the abolition
of human facrifices, fo revolting, and fo generally fpread throughout favage nations.
VOYAGE  VOYAGE
1
ROUND  THE WORLD,
IN THE YEARS
1785,   1786,   1787,  AND   1788.
Decree of the National Affembly, of the gth of
February, 1791.
T
HE National Affembly, after having heard
its   united  committees  of agriculture,   of
commerce, and of marine, decrees,
That the King be entreated to give orders to all
ambaitadors, refidents, confuls, and national agents,
at the courts of foreign powers, that they may
engage thofe different fovereigns, in the name of
humanity, and of the arts and fciences, to charge
all navigators a^id agents whatsoever, their fub~
jects, in whatever place they may be, but efpe-
cially in the foutherly part of the South Sea, to*
make inquiry after the two French frigates La
Bouffole and LAftrolabe, commanded by M. De
La Peroufe, as well as after their crews, and to obtain every information, which may afcertain their
exiftence or their fhipwreck; fo that in cafe M. De
La Peroufe and his companions fhould be found,
no.matter in what place, there be given to them
cverr 60 LA PEROUSE's VOYAGE
every affiftanqe, and all means procured for them^
that they maybe enabled to return to their "country
with whatever may belong to them ; the National
^Affembly engaging to indemnify, and even to re-
compenfe, according to the importance of the
fervice, whomfoever fhall lend them fuccour,
obtain news concerning them, or only reftore
to France whatfoever papers and other effects may
have belonged tP thefe navigators in their expedition.
It is further decreed, that the King be entreated
to direct, that one or more veffels be equipped,
and feveral learned and experienced perfons, natu-
ralifts, and draughtfmen embarked therein, to the
commander of which may be given in charge the
double miflion, to fearch after M. De La PerPufe,
according to the documents, inftructions, and orders, that fhall be given to them, and alfo at the
fame time to make inquiries relative to the fciences
and to commerce, taking every meafure inde-
pendantly of the purfuit after M. De La Peroufe,
and even after having met with him, or obtained
news concerning him, to render this expedition
ufeful and advantageous to navigation, to geography, to commerce, and to the arts and fciences.
Compared with the original, by us Prefident and Secretaries of the National AfTembly.
(Signed)
Paris, 24th February, 1791.
DUPORT, Prefident.
LIORE, 7C .
BOUSSION,   j Sectaries.
Decree ROUND   THE   WORLD.
6i
Decree of the National Affemblyr, of the nd
of April, 1791;
The National Affembly decrees, that the accounts and charts fent by M. De La Peroufe, of
that part of his voyage as far as Botany Bay, fhall
be printed and engraved at the expence of the
nation, and that this expence fhall be defrayed out
of the fund of two millions, ordered by the 14th
article of the decree of the 3d of Auguft, 1790.
Decrees, that as foon as the edition fhall be
completed, and that as many copies are taken
from them as the King would like to difpofe of,
the furplus fhall be fent to Mad. De La Peroufe^
with a copy of the Decree, as a teftimony of their
fatisfaction for the exertions of M. De La Peroufe
for the public welfare, and for the increafe of
human knowledge and ufeful difcovery.
Decrees, that M. De La Peroufe fhall remain on
the lift of naval commiflioned officers until the
return of the fhips in fearch of him; and that his
pay fhall continue to be received by his wife,
according to the difpofition that he had made before his departure.
Compared with the Original, by us Prefident and Secret
taries of the National Affembly.
(Signed) REUBELL, Prefident,
Paris
.   GOUPIL-PREFELN,
MOTOINS-ROQUEFORT,
ROGER,
215th April, *79i.-
Secretaries,
roTE dz
LA PEROUSE SVOYAGE
NOTE OF THE KING,
To ferve as a particular instruction to the Sieur
De La Peroufe, captain of the navy, com-
manding the frigates La Bouffole and VAjlro-
labe.
(26 june, 1785.)
HIS Majefty having caufed to be equipped, at
the port of Breft, the frigates La Bouffole, commanded by the Sieur De La Peroufe, and L'Af*
trolabe, by the Sieur D Langle, captains of the
navy, to be employed in a voyage of difcovery,
is about to make known to the Sieur De-La Peroufe, to whom he has given the command in
chief of thefe two veffels, the fervice he will have
to perform, in the important expedition, which he
has confided to his care.
The different objects which his Majefty has had
in view in commanding this voyage, have rendered it neceffary, that the prefent inftruction
fhould be divided into feveral parts, in order that
it may explain more clearly to the Sieur De La Peroufe the particular intentions of his Majefty, upon
every one of the objects tha{ will engage his attention.
The firft part will contain the route or plan of
his voyage, according to the order of the difcove-
ries it is in contemplation to make or to carry to
perfection; ROUND THE WORLD. 63
pferfb<Sfeion; and there will be joihed to it a collection of geographical and hiftorical notes, which
may guide him in the various inquiries, to which
he will devote himfelf.
The fecond part will treat of the objects relating
to policy and to commerce.
The third will ^kplain the operations relative to
aftronomy, to geography, to navigation, to natural philofophy, and to the different branches of
natural hiftory, and will regulate the labours of
the aftronomers, natural philofophers, naturalifts,
fcientific perfons, and artifts employed in the expedition.
The fc^fli^art will prefcribe to the Sieur De La
Peroufe, the conduct it will be neceffary for him
to p$rfue, wilfo the favage people &ad the natives
of the different countries which he will have.opportunities of diftdivering or vifiting.
The fifth and laft will point out to him the precautions he will be required to take, to preferve
the health of his crews.
FIRST PART.
Plan of the   Voyage.
The Sieur De La Peroufe will fail from Breft
Road, as foon as every preparation fhall have been
made. ig|:
He 64 la perouse's voyage
He will touch fucceflively at Funchal, in the
ifland of Madeira; and atPraya, m^jj&jfc of St:
Jago. He will provide himfelf with fome cafks
of wine in the firft port, an&dtomplet&his water
and wood in the laft,* where he may alfo $ipcure
himfelf fome refrefhnients. He will obferve, however, with regard to Praya, that he ought to
make the fhorteft poflible flay there,- becaufe the
climate is very unhealthy at the feafon when lie
will reach it.
He will crofs the line in the 29th or 30th de-
gree of wreft longitude from the meridian of Paris;
and if the wind fhould permit him, he will try
to reconnoitre Pennedo de fan Pedro (fee note z)
and to afcertain its petition. !$g|| i^^itil
He will examine the ifland ofTriiaJ$ad, (?iotes:
20 & n) will anchor there, and may wood ap.^
water, as well as fulfil there a particular object of
his inftructions.
In leaving this ifland he will run into the latitude of Ijle Grande de la Roche (note i$J ; he:
will follow the parallels of 440 and 450 to 50 degrees of longitude, in 35 degrees of weft longitude, and he will give up the fearch of this iffand
if he have not met Willi it when he fhall have'
reached that meridian. If he fhould prefer making it from the weftward, he will neverthelefs keep*
between the above-mentioned meridians.
He will run afterwards into the latitude of
Terre  de la  Roche,  called by Gook the Ifland
of round the 'world. 6$
tf Georgia, in the 54th degree of fouth latitude.
He will make the north weft end of it, and will
particularly examine the fduthern coaft, which
has not yet been vifited.
Thence he will look out for Sandzvich Land*
(note 21) in about 57 degrees fouth latitude:
he will obferve, that captain Cook could only in-
fpeft fome points on the weft fide of this land,
and that the extent of it towards the eaft and to
the fouth is unknown. He will examine parties
larly the eaft coaft, in order afterwards to run
down the fouth fide, and double that end of it,
if the ice do not oppofe an invincible obftacle
to his purfuits.
When he is affured of the extent of this land to
the eaft and the fouth, he will fhape his courfe to
make Staten Land, double Cape Horn, and anchor in Chriftmas Sound, on the fouth-weft coaft of
Terra del Fuego, where he will provide himfelf
with wood and water; but if he finds it too dif^
cult to beat to the weftward, by reafon of the
winds which ufually prevail in this part, and the
currents which fometimes run ftrong to the eaft-
ward, he will ftand for the coaft of Brazil in the
latitude he can belt make it; run along this land
with variable winds or land breezes, and may even
touch at Falkland's Iflands, which offer refources
of different kinds. He will afterwards pafs Strait
le Alaire, or double the eaft end of Staten Land to
Vol I. F
react 66 la perouse's voyage
reach Chriftmas Sound, which, in any cafe, muft
be the firft rendezvous of his Majefty's fhips in
cafe of feparation.
In quitting Chriftmas Sound be will fhape his
courfe fo as to pafs the meridian of 85 deg. weft,
in the latitude of 57 degrees fouth, and he will
keep in this parallel to 95 degrees of longitude, to
look for Drake's Port and Ifland (note zij.
He will afterwards crofs the meridian of 105
deg. in the parallel of 3 8 deg., in which he will keep
to 115 deg. of longitude, endeavouring to find an
ifland faid to be difcovered by the Spaniards, in
1714 (note z$J, in 38 deg. of latitude, between
the-108th and 110th meridian.
After this fearch, he will get into the latitude of
~7° $' upon the meridian of 108 degrees weft, to
look in this parallel for Eafter Ifland, fituate in
ii2Q 8'of longitude. He will anchor there to
fulfil the particular object, which will be prefcribed
in the fecond part of the prefent inftructions.
From this ifland he will return to the latitude
of 32 deg. on the meridian of 120 deg. weft, and he
will keep in that parallel to 135 deg. of longitude, to find land feen by the Spaniards in 1773
(note z*]).
At this point of 135 deg. of longitude, and 32 of
•latitude, the two frigates are to part company.—
The firft will fland on to the intermediate parallel between 16 and 17 deg., and will keep in it from
:iW^: the Round the world. 67
the 135th to the 150th meridian weft from-Paris*
whence fhe will fleer for the ifland of Otaheite*
The interval from the 16th to the 17 th degree of
latitude, on a fpace of 25 degrees in longitude,
not having been vifited by any modern navigators,
being fcattered over with low iflands, it is poffible
that the fhip which follows the above-mentioned
track will meet with new iflands, which may be in-. B
habited, as are moft of the low iflands in thefe
feas.
At the fame time the fecond frigate, going from
the fame point of 32 degrees of latitude, and
135 of longitude, will get into 250 12' fouth
latitude, and try to keep in this parallel, beginning in the 131ft or 13 2d degree of longitude.
This frigate will look out for Pitcairn Ifland, difcovered, in 1767, by Carteret, and fituate in 250 12'
of fouth latitude. The longitude of this ifland
is yet uncertain, becaufe this navigator had no
means of afcertaining it by obfervation. It is
much to be defired it might be determined with .
precifion, becaufe the pofition of this ifland, if
well known, might ferve gradually to rectify that
of other iflands or lands difcovered fubfequestiy
by Carteret. £&£
In quitting Pitcairn Ifland, the fecond veffei
will Hand to the weftward, and afterwards to the
north-weft, to look fucceflively for the iflands of the
Incarnation, of St. John the Baptift, of St. Elmo, of
F 2 the 63 la perouse's voyage
the Quatro Coronadas, of St. Michael, and of the
Conversion of St. Paul, difcovered by Quiros, in
i6o6,(?iote 28), which it is fuppofed may be fituate
to the fouth-eaft of Otaheite, and which have not
been feen, or even fought for, by the navigators of
this century. The fecond fhip will thus, by a north-
weft courfe, arrive at 150 degrees weft longitude,
and at 19 degrees of latitude, whence fhe will
proceed to Otaheite.
It is to be prefumed, that the two frigates may
be there towards the latter end of April. That
ifland will be the fecond rendezvous of the king's
fhips, in cafe of feparation. They will, in the i
firft place, anchor in the bay of Oheitepeha, fituate at the north-eaft part of the ifland called
Tiarabou, or Otaheite-ete, which is found to
windward of the bay of Matavai, fituate at the
north point, or Point Venus; and they will afterwards put into this latter place, in order to procure at thofe two different anchorages, with greater
facility, fuch refrefhments as they may ftand in
need of. f^ft
The Sieur De La Peroufe will leave Otaheite
after a month's flay. He may, in his way, vifit
Huaheine, Ulietea, Otaha, Bolabola, and others.
of the Society Iflands, to procure the remaining fup-
plies of provifion, to provide thefe iflands with European articles, ferviceable to their inhabitants, .
and to fow  feeds, plant vegetables,  trees,   &c.
which round the world. 69
which may in time pre fent new refources to European navigators crofling this ocean.
In quitting the Society Iflands, he will fleer a
north-weft courfe to get into the latitude of the
Ifland of St. Bernard of Quiros (note 28], about
the 1 ith degree. He will not proceed in his fearch
for this ifland further than from 158 to 162 degrees
of longitude; and from the latitude of 11 degrees
he will fland to the north-weft, till he gets into
the 5th degree of fouth latitude, and between the
166th and 167th degrees of longitude; he will
then fhape his courfe to the fouth-weft, to crofs,
in this direction, the part of the fea fituate to
the north of the archipelago of the Friendly Ifles,
where it is probable lie will meet, according to
the reports of the natives of thofe iflands, with a
great many others, in all likelihood inhabited,
and which have not yet been vifited by Europeans.
It would be defirable if he could 4gain find the
ifland of the Bella Nacion of Quiros, which he
fhould look for between the parallels of 11 and 1 ji
degrees from the 169th degree of longitude, up to
the 171ft, and fucceffiyely the Navigators Iflands
of Bougainville, likewife he will go to the Friendly
Iflands to procure refrefhments.
Upon leaving the Friendly Iflands, he will get
. into the latitude of the  Me pf Pines, fituate at
the fouth-eaft point of New Caledonia (note 29);
and after having made it, he will coaft it wefteriy,
F 3 to 70 la perouse's voyage
to afc&rtain whether this land be all one ifland, or
formed of many iflands.
I£ after having run down the fouth-weft coaft
of New Caledonia, he can make Queen Charlotte's
Iflands, he will try to reconnoitre the 'ifland of
Santa Cruz of Mendana (note 30), and determine
its extent to the fouth.
But if the wind fhould not allow of this courfe,
he will make for the Deliverance Iflands, at the eaft
\ point of the Terre des Arfacides, difcovered, in
1769, by Surville (note 32); he will run along
the fouth coaft, which neither this navigator, nor
any other, has examined, and he will fatisfy himfelf whether, as is probable, thefe lands do not
form a group of iflands, which he will try to
particularize, It is to be prefumed, that they are
peopled on the coafts to the fouth, as we know
thofe to the north are; perhaps he may procure
there fome refrefhments.
He will endeavour, in like manner, to examine
an ifland to the north-weft of the Terre des Arfa~
doles, the eaftern coaft of which was feen by
Bougainville in 1768; but he will purfue this research no farther than to be able without difficulty
afterwards, to make Cape Deliverance on the
fouth-eaft point oiLouifiade (note 33); and,
before reaching this cape, he will examine, if he
can, the: eaft coaft of this land.
From RQt^D  THE  WORLD. - 71
From Cape Deliverance he will fleer a courfe for
Endeavour Straits (note 34), and will, in thefe
,Ilraits, try to afcer^ain whether the land of Loui-
fiade be contiguous to that of New Guinea; and
he will examine al^ this part of the coaft, from
Cape Deliverance to the ifland of St. Bartholomew,
eaft north-eaft of Cape Walfh, of which we have
lit prefent but a very imperfect knowledge.
It is much to be wifhed that he could infpect
the Gulf of Carpentaria (note 35); but he will
have to obferve, that the north-weft monfoon,
to the fouth of the line, begins about the 15th
of November, and that the limits of this monfoon
are not fo fixed, that they may not fometimes extend themfelves beyond the 10th degree of fouth
^atitude. It is therefore important, that he obferve
the greateft diligence in this part of his furvey,
and that he pay attention to combine the length
of his courfe, and rate of his failing, -fo as to have
repaffed the longitude of the fouth-weft point of
the Ifland of Timor, before the 20th of November.
If, contrary to all appearance, it fhould have
been impoflible for him to have procured refrefh-
rnents, wood, and water, in the places he had touched
at after his departure from the Friendly Ifles,
which may be fuppofed to have been about the
15th of July, he will flop at Prince's Ifland, at
the entrance of the Straits of Sunda, near the
weftern point of the ifland of Java.
F 4 On *jl la perouse s voyaqe
On leaving Prince's Ifland, or if he have not been
forced to put in there, in quitting the channel to
the north of New Holland (note 35), he will
direct his courfe fo as to infpect the fouth coaft of
this land, and he will begin? this examination as
high up towards the equator as the winds will
permit him. He will furvey the weft coaft, and •
infpect more particularly the fouthern coaft, of
which the greateft part has never been explored,
and he will approach to the fouth of Van-Diemen's
Land (note 36), at Adventure Bay, or at Frederick
Henry Bay; thence he will make for Cook's Straits,
and anchor at Queen Charlotte's Sound, fituate
in the ftrait between the two iflands which form
New Zealand. This port will be the third ren^
dezvous for the frigates in cafe of feparation. He
will repair his fhips there, and provide himfelf
with refrefhments, wood, and water.
It may be prefumed he can fail from this port
at the beginning of March, 1787.
In going out of Cook's Straits, or New Zealand
Straits, he will ftand for, and remain between, the
parallels of 41 & 42 degrees, as far as the 130th degree pf weft longitude. When he fhall have reached
this longitude, he will ftand to the north, in order
to get to windward, and into the latitude of the
Marquefas iflands of Mendoza (note 38); tp fup-
ply the wants of his fhips, he will put into the
port of  Madre de Dios of AIe?tdana,   on  the
weftern j«p^
ROUND THE WORLD. 73
weftern coaft of the ifle Santa Chriftinia (Cook's
Refolution'sBay); this port will be the fourth rendezvous in cafe of feparation.
It may be prefumed that this paffage will take
up two months, and that he will be ready to fail
again about the 15th of May.
If, in failing from the Marquefas iflands of Men-
doza, the winds fhould be fufficiently favourable
f for him, to make, at leaft, a northerly courfe, he
might reconnoitre fome of the iflands to the eaft
of the group of Sandwich Ifles ^0/^40): he
will afterwards repair to thefe laft, where he may
take a fupply of provifion, but he will not flay
there.
He will fail, as foon as he can, to make the
north-weft coaft of America; and to this effect:
he wall ftand to the northward, as far as 30 degrees,
to get out of the trade winds, and that he may
make the above coaft in 360 20' at Punta de
Pinos, to the fouth of Port Monterey, of which
the mountains (or Jierra) of Santa Lucia, are the
marks.
It is probable, that he may arrive at this coaft .
about the 10th or 15th of July (note 4.1).
He will particularly endeavour to reconnoitre
thofe parts which have not been examined by
captain Cook, and of which the relations of Ruffian and Spanifh navigators haye given no idea.
He will obferve^ with the greateft care, whether,
in
^ 74 LA PEROUSE S VOYAGE
in thofe parts not yet known, fome river may not
be found, fome confined gulf, which may, by
means of the interior lakes, open a communication with fome part of Hudfon's Bay.
He will pufh his enquiries to Behring's Bay,
and to Mount St. plias, and will infpect the ports
Bucarelli and Los Remedios, difcovered, in 1775*
by the Spaniards.
■ Prince William's Sound, and Cook's River, having been fufficiently explored, he will not make a
.point of vifiting them; but after making Mount
St. Elias, he will fleer a courfe for the Shumagin
Iflands, near the peninfula of Alafhka.
He will afterwards examine the archipelago of
the Aleutian Iflands (note 42), and fucceffively
the two groups of iflands to the weft of the former, concerning the true pofition and the number
of which we are uninformed, and which altogether
confjityte, with the coafts of Afia and America,
the great northern ba&n or gulf.
When this examination is completed, he will
put into the port of Avatfcha (note 43), or St.
Peter and St. Paul, at the fouth-eaftern extremity
of the peninfula of Kamtfchatka.
He will try to be there about the 15th or 20th
of September; and this port will be the fifth rendezvous in cafe of feparation,
He will diligently provide for the wants of his
fhips there, and will-gain the neceffary informa-
tion ROUND  TKEWORLD. 75
tion fo as to be lure of finding provifion there
when he comes again in 1788.
•He will fo arrange 'his operations as to be
ready to fail in the firft ten days of October.
He will coaft along and examine all the Kurile
Iflands (note 44.), the north-eaft coaft, the eaft
and the fouth of Japan; and, according as the
feafon advances, and he may find the winds more
or lefs favourable, the feas more or lefs difficult, he
will extend his refearches to the iflands on the
eaft and the fouth of Japan, and to the iflands
of Lekeyo, as far as FoJsrnofa.
When he fhalJ have completed this examination,
he will put into Macao and Canton, or Manilla,
according to circumftances.
This port .will be the fixth rendezvous in cafe
of feparation.
It is prefumed, that he ought to be there towrards
the end of the year 1787.
He will get his fhips repaired and victualled,
and will wait in port the return of the fouth-
weft monfoon, which commonly fets in about
the beginning of March. He may, notwith^
Handing, delay his departure till the firft of
April, if his crews have need of longer reft, and
if, after the information he fhall have gained, he
think the navigation northward would be too
hazardous before this period.
What.
% LA PEROUSE S   VOYAGE
Whatever may be the length of his flay, he
will fhape his courfe in quitting this port, to
pafs the ftraits, which feparate the ifland of For-
mofar from the coaft of China, or between this
ifland and thofe which lie to the eaft.
He will examine with care the weft coaft of
Corea, and infped* the gulf of Hoan-hay, taking
care not to ftand in fo far as to prevent him from
weathering the fouth coaft of Corea, with a
fouth-weft, or foutherly wind.
He will afterwards examine the eaftern coaft
of this peninfula, that of Tartary, where the
pearl fifhery is carried on, and that of Japan, on
the other fide. All thefe coafts are abfolutely
unknown to Europeans.
He will pafs the ftraits of Teffoy, and explore
the land known by the name of Jeffo (note l\$),
and that which the Dutch have denominated.
Staten Land, and the Ruffians, Nadezda Ifland,
about which there are at prefent only confufed
•ideas, from fome ancient accounts which the
.Dutch Eaft India Company have fuffered to
tranfpire, but the accuracy of which has not
been afcertained.
He will finifh his obfervations upon fuch of the
Kurile Iflands (note ^4), as he may not have
\>een able to .vifit in the preceding - month of
November, in coming from Avatfcha to Macao.
He ROUND   THE   WORLD. 77
He will pafs between fome of thefe iflands
as near as he can to the foutherly point of
Kamtfchatka; and will anchor in the port of
Avatfcha, the feventh rendezvous in cafe of fe-
paration.
After refitting and victualling, he will go to
fea again,- at the beginning of Auguft.
He will come into the latitude of 37 deg. §•
north, on the meridian of 180 deg.
He will fleer to the weftward, to look out
for land, or an ifland which is faid to have been
difcovered by the Spaniards, in 1610, (note 48^;
he will follow up this fearch to the 165th of eaft
longitude. He will ftand afterwards fouth-weft,.
and fouth-fouth-weft, to examine the difperfed
iflands fituate in this direction, to the north eaft
of the Ladrones, or Marianne Iflands.  .
He may put in at the ifland of Tinian, but
he will fo contrive to combine the time of his
flay, and his further courfe, with the north-eaft
monfoon, which only begins in October.to the
north of the line, fo that on quitting the ifle of
Tinian he may run down and examine the New
Carolinas (note 40J, fituate fouth-weft of the
ifland of Guaham, one of the Mariannes, and
to the eaft of Mindanao, one of the Philippines.
He will proceed in this examination as far as the
iflands of St. Andrew. y&
i J& LA   PEROUSE S   VOYAGE
He will afterwards come to an anchor at the
ifland of Mindanao,, in the port fituate on the
fouth fide of the ifland, behind that of Sirangam.
After a flay of a fortnight, taken up in fup-
plying himfelf with refrefhments, he will let fail
for the Molucca Iflands, and may anchor at
Ternate, to procure what further provifion may
be wanting.
•As the north-weft monfoon, which then'blowrs
to the fouth of the line, would not permit him'
to pafs the ftraits of Sunda, he will avail him-,
felf of the variation of the wind near the equator, to fleer between Ceram, and Bourro, or
between- Bourro, and Bouton (note $o) ; and
he will endeavour to ftand out from between
fome of the iflands to the eaft or weft of Timor
(note $ij.
It is probable, that, having then run beyond
the parallel of 10 deg. fouth, he will find himfelf to be out of the. north-weft monfoon, and
that he may eafily, with the winds from the
eaft, and fouth-eaft, ftretch towards the weft,
and make the Ifte of France, which will be the
eighth rendezvous of the fhips, in cafe of fe-
pferation.
He will flay at the Ifle of France only fo long
as is abfolutely neceffary to put himfelf in a condition to return to Europe, and wall take advantage of the laft months of the fummer, for
?
the ROUND   THE   WORLD.   +*}" J$
the navigation which will remain to be performed
in the feas fouth of the Cape of Good Hope.
On   quitting   the Ifle  of   FrMce,    he    will
ftlnd into the parallel between 54 and  ^ de- i
grees fouth, to look for Cape Circumcifion (note
54^, difcovered by-Lozier Bouvet, in 1739.
He wlfl' crofs this lafimide at 15 deg. of eaft
longitude, and follow the parallel between 54 and
55 degrees, up to the meridian of Paris, or o of
longitude.
When he arrives at that point,-he is to quit
the fearch after this land. **^p
If at this period he judge the ffeips to be not
fufficiently provided with jirWifion, to make
their rettfrnlito]-JSirope, he may go into the
Cape of Good Hope, to put them into a condition to continufe Htheir voyag§-; and this port
may beflxe ninth rerfdezvouS^rthe fulfills, in
cafe of fepafStrbri.
5*WiStfever he may have done in this refpe&v
he will,^mhtoming back to Europe,-endeavour,
to reconnoitre the iflands of &oU0i (note 18),.
d'Alvatez (note ijj, Triftan d'Acunha (note
16J, Saxemburgh (note 14^, and Dos PlcDs;
(note 10J9 and 'if he me6E with them, he wilt*
afcertain their politions, whifcKPiSfffi&in to tMm
time uncertain. |
He' will return to the port of Breft, where it improbable he may arrive in July, or Auguft, 1789.
Althougkr- 5,0
LA   PEROUSE S   VOYAGE
mm i
Although the courfe of the Sieur De La Peroufe is thus traced by the prefent inftruction,
and his going into the various ports, and his
ftay there are pointed out, his Majefty does not
mean to have It underftood, that he fhould invariably fubject himfelf to this plan. All the
calculations here prefented ought to be governed by the circumftances of his navigation, the
condition of his crews, of his provifion, andJiis
fhips, a^ well as by the events of his voyage,
and accidents which it is not poflible to forefee.
All thefe caufes may more or lefs produce a change
in the plan of his operations; and the object of
the prefent inftructions is only to make known
to the Sieur De La Peroufe the difcov^ries which
remain to be made, or to be perfected, in the
different parts of the globe, and the courfe which
appeared convenient to be followed,: th&t he
might proceed with order, in his various refearches*
in combining his different routes, and the periods
of his going into harbour, with the feafons, with
the predominant or periodical winds, in every
latitude he has to go through. His Majefty,
relying therefore on the experience and judgment
of the Sieur De La Peroufe, authorizes him to
make the changes which may appear tp him neceffary, in the cafes which have not been fore-
* feen,
hhmmim ROUND   THE   WORLD. 2i
feen, provided he keep as near as poflible to
the plan which is traced out to him 5 and conform himfelf efpecially to that which will be
prefcribed in the other parts of thefe inftructipns.
SECOND PART.
Objects relating to Policy and Commerce.
HIS Majefty has pointed out in the firft part of
thefe inftructions, to the Sieur De La Peroufe
the courfe which he will have to follow, in the
inquiries and difcoveries which he has to make3
in the greateft part of the terreftrial globe; he
is about to make known to him, in this part, the
objects relating to policy and commerce, which
ought particularly to occupy his attention, at the
different places at which he may touch; fo that the
expedition which his Majefty has ordered, in contributing to perfect geography, and extend naviga*
tion, may equally fulfil, under other confidera-
tions, the views that his Majefty propofed to
himfelf, for the intereft of the crown, and the
utility of his fubjects.
1 ft. The duration of the flay, that the Sieur
De La Peroufe fhould make at Madeira* -and at
St. Jago, will be too fhort to enable hkb to acquire any exact knowledge of thefe Poituguefe
colonies; but he will neglect no means of obtaining
Vol. I. G infonife*
ii .82 LA   PEROUSE's   VOYAGE
information, refpecting the forces, that the crown
of Portugal keeps there, refpecting the commerce
carried on there, by the Englifh, and other nations, and the great objects concerning which it
may be interefting to be informed.
2ndly. He will fatisfy himfelf whether the
Englifh have entirely evacuated the Ifland of Trinidad ; whether the Portuguefe be eftablifhed^there;
and in what confifts the eftablifhment the latter
may have formed there fince the evacuation.
3dly. If he fhould happen to fall in with the
Ifle Grande of la Roche, he will examine whether
it contain any commodious and fafe port, where
wood and water are to be procured; what -facility
it can offer to form an eftablifhment, in cafe the
whale-fifhery might draw French adventurers into
the Southern Atlantic Ocean ; whether there be
any part which might be advantageoufly fortified,
and kept by a fmall number of troops, a poft,
in fhort, convenient for an eftablifhment, fo far
off from fuccour and the protection of the mother country.
4thly. He will examine the Ifland of Georgia,with
the fame views; but it is probable, that this ifland,
being fituate under a higher latitude, holds out
lefs facility than might be expected from the po-
fition of Ifle Grande; and that the ice, which
obftructs the fea during a part of the year in
the vicinage-of Georgia, would throw great ob-
ftacles ROUND   THE   WORLD. #3
ftacles in the way of ordinary navigation; and
would intimidate the fifhermen from making this
ifland a point of rendezvous and retreat.
5thly. The iflands of the great equatorial
ocean will offer but few pbferyations to be made
relative to policy and commerce. Their diftance
feems likely to prohibit the nations of Europe
from forming eftablifhments there: and Spain
only could have any intereft in occupying iflands,
which, being feated at nearly an equal diftance
from her poffeflions in America and Afia, might
become places of fhelter and refrefhment, for her
trading fhips which traverfe the great ocean.
However that may be, the Sieur De La Peroufe
will principally attend to the climate and the
productions of every kind, in the different iflands
of this ocean, where he may land, to learn the
manners and cuftoms of the natives, their reli-'
gion, the form of their government, their manner of making war, their weapons, their veffels,
the diftinctive character of each tribe, whatever
they may have in common with other lavage nations, as well as with civilized people, and principally for what each in particular is remarkable.
Of thofe iflands where the Europeans have already been he will endeavour to learn, whether
the natives of the country have diftinguifhed
the different nations which have vifited them,
and he will try to get out of them what opi*
G 2 nion $4 ^A  TEROUSE'S   VOYAGE
nion they may have of each of them in particular. He will inquire what ufe they have
made of the different merchandize, of the metals,
the tools, the fluffs, and the other things, which
the Europeans have carried them. He will inform himfelf whether the cattle and other animals, which captain Cook left upon fome of the
iflands, have multiplied, what grain, what herbs
from Europe have bell fucceeded, what method
the iflanders have practifed for their cultivation,
and to what ufe. they have turned their produce.
Every where in fhort, he will examine what has
been related by fuch navigators as have publilhed
accounts of thofe iflands, and he will principally
endeavour to remark what may have efcaped the
refearches of his predeceffors.
During his flay at Eafter Ifland, he will fatisfy
himfelf, whether the population decreafe there, as
there is room to prefume, after the obfervations
and the opinion of captain Cook.
On pafling to the ifland of Huaheine, he will
ftrive to make acquaintance with Omai, that
iflander whom the Englifh navigator eftablifhed
there on his third voyage; he will learn from
him what treatment fie met with from his countrymen, after^ the departure of the Englifh, and
what ufe he has himfelf made of the lights and
knowledge which he muft neceffarily have acquired
during his ftay in Europe, for the fervice, benefit,
and melioration of hi* country.
6thly. If ROUND   THE   WORLD. 85
6thly. If during the infpection and examination
he will make of the iflands of the great equatorial ocean, and the coafts of the continents, he
fhould meet with any fhip at fea, belonging
to fome other power, he will conduct himfelf
towards the commander of fuch fhip, with all
the politenefs eftablifhed and agreed upon, between polifhed and friendly nations; and if he
meet with fuch in fome port belonging to a people
confidered as lavage, he will concert meafures with
the captain of the ftrange veffel, for effectually preventing all manner of difpute, all altercation between the crews of the two nations, which might
be afhore together, and to lend each other mutual
afliftance, in cafe either might be attacked by the
iflanders or favages.
7thly. In the vifit he will make to New Caledonia, Queen Charlotte's Iflands, and the Land
of the Arfacides, and that of Louifiade, he will
carefully examine the productions of thefe countries, which, being fituate under the torrid zone,
and in the fame latitudes as Peru, may open a
new field of fpeculation in commerce; and, without gifing way to the reports, undoubtedly exaggerated, which the ancient Spanilh navigators
have made of the fertility, and the riches of fome
of the iflands, which they difcovered in this
part of the world, he will only obferve, that
the reconciliation of various accounts, founded
G 3 upon * -
86 LA   PEROU$E5S   VOYAGE
upon geographical combinations, and upon the
knowledge and information which modern voyages have procured, give room to think, that
the land difcovered, in the one part, in 1768, by
Bougainville, and in the other, in 1769, by
Surville, may be the iflands difcovered in 1567,
by Mendana, and known fince. by the name
of Solomon's Iflands j which name wras given them
in after-times, by the idea whether true or falfe
that was entertained of their riches.
He will examine with fimilar attention the
northern and weftern coafts of New Holland,
and, particularly, that part of thofe coafts which,
lying under the torrid zone, may participate in
the productions common to places in the fame
latitudes.
8thly. He will not have the fame inquiries to
make at the iflands of New Zealand, which the
accounts of Englifh navigators have very fully
made known. But during his flay in Queen
Charlotte's Sound, he will endeavour to dif-
cover, whether England have formed, or projected any eftablifhments upon thefe iflands;
and in cafe he fhould learn that any has been
formed, he will endeavour to yifit them and obtain
information of the ftate of it, and of the ftrength
and object of fuch eftablifhment.
9thly. If, in the refearches he will make in the
north-weft coaft of America,   he meet with, in
fome
piiiiiiim ROUND   THE   WORLD. bj
fome points thereof, forjfc/ or factories, belonging
to his Catholic Majefty, he will feduloufly avoid
every thing which may give umbrage to the
governors of thofe eftablifhments; and he will
make ufe of the ties of blood and friendfhip,
which unite the two fovereigns fo clofely, in order to procure, by thefe means, all the afliftance
and refrefhments of which he may ftand in need,
and with which the country may be in a condition to furnifh him.
It appears, that Spain has had the intention of
extending its title of poffeflion as far as the Port
de los Remedios, about the 57 th degree and a
quarter of latitude; but there is nothing which
gives aflurance, that, in ordering it to be in-
fpected in the year 1775, fhe has formed any
eftablifhment there, any more than at the Port of
Bucarelli, fituate about two degrees lefs northward. As far as it is poffible to judge by the
defcriptions of this country, which have made
their way into France, the actual poffeflion of
Spain does not extend beyond St. Diego, and
Monterey, where fhe has raifed little forts, and
guarded them by detachments drawn from California, or New Mexico.
The Sieur De La Peroufe will endeavour to
obtain    the  knowledge   of   the   condition,    the.
ftrength, the object of thefe eftablifhments, and
to apprize himfelf,   whether thefe be  the  only
G 4 ones \ammmm
mmm
IP
§& LA   PEROUSE'S  VOYAGE
ones that Spain has formed upon thefe coafts.
He will examine, in like manner, at what latitude
might be begun the procuring of furs and fkirisi
what quantity the American Indians could
furnifh; what merchandize, what objects would
be the moft eligible for the traffic of peltry ; what
conveniences might be found for fMwfe&j^- ari
eftablifhment upon tttts coaft, In cafe of this
new commerce preferi|iig fufficient advantage to
the French merchants, to induce them to eng^p .
themfelves in it, in the hope of exporting thefe
furs to China, where we are affureft they find a
ready fale.
He will, in like manner, endeavour to gain a
knowledge of what kind of fkins may be pur-
chafed, ajid if thofe of the otter, which bear the
higheft value in Afia, where they are much
fought after, be the mofl common in America.
He will take care to bring to France fpecimens of
all the different furs, which he may have been able
to procure: and as he will have occafion in the
courfe of his Voyage to put into China, and
perhaps to touch |tv Japan, what fpecies of fkins
in thefe two empires have th§ moft eafy, m&lt
certain, and moft lucrative fale, and wha^^P^
jiefit France might prpmife itfelf from this branch
of commerce. In fhort, he will try, during his
flay on the coafts pf America, to difcover whether the Hudfon's Bay eftablifhments, the forts ROUND   THE   WORLD. 89
or factories of the interior, or any province of
the United States, have opened, by the medium
of the wandering favages, any communication of
commerce or barter, with the people of the weft
coaft.
iothly. It is probable, that in vifiting the Aleutian -iflands, and the other groupes fituate to the
fouth of the large northern Archipelago, he will
meet with fome Ruffian eftablifhments or factories.
He will endeavour to learn their conftitution, their
flrength, their object; what is the navigation of
the Ruffians in thefe feas, what fhips, what men
they employ there; how far they extend their commerce, as alfo whether there be any of thefe iflands
which acknowledge the dominion of Ruflia, or
all be independent $ in fine, whether the Ruffians have not by fmall degrees ftretched them-
felves to the very continent of America.
He will profit by his flay in the port of Avatfcha,
to increafe the knowledge to be acquired in
thefe particulars, and to procure for himfelf at
the fame time, if it be poffible, whatever information he may need refpecting the Kurile Ifles,
the land of Jeffo, and the empire of Japan.
11 thly. He will make his examinations of the
Kurile Ifles, and of the land of Jeffo, with prudence and circumfpection, as much in confidera-
iion of that which concerns his navigation in a
fea $0 LA   PEROUSE S   VOYAGE
fea which is not known to Europeans, and which
paffes for tempeftuous, as in the communication
which he may have with the inhabitants of thefe
iflands and lands3 whofe character and manners
muft neceffarily have fome conformity with thofe
of the Japanefe, who may have fubjugated part
of them, and hold communication with the others.
He will fee by the geographical and hiftoricat
notes joined to the prefent inflruction, that Ruffia
does not extend her dominion further than to
thofe of the Kurile Ifles, the neareft to Kamt-
fchatka; and he will examine, whether, in the
number of foutherly and independent ifles, there
be not one remaining, upon which, in the fuppo-
fition of a commerce in fkins and furs to be
opened with France, it would be poflible to form
an eftablifhment, or factory, which might be rendered fecure from any infult on the part of the
iflanders.
i2thly. With regard to Japan, he will endeavour to reconnoitre and infpect the north eaft,
and the eaft coaft, and go on fhore in fome one of
its ports, in order to fatisfy himfelf whether its
government in reality oppofe any invincible ob-
flacle to every eftablifhment, to every introduction
of commerce or barter with Europeans, and whether by the enticement of furs, which are-an object
of utility and luxury to the Japanefe, it would
not be poflible to prevail on the ports of the eaft
or ROUND   THE   WORLD. 91
or north-eaft coaft, to admit fhips, which fhould
bring furs, and receive in exchange teas, filks*
and other productions of their foil, and the
works of their manufacture; perhaps the prohibitory laws of this empire, wrhich all the accounts
of this country fpeak of as fo fevere, are not hi
force on the coafts to the north-eaft and eaft,
with fo much rigour as at Nangafaki and the
fouth coaft, places too near the capital to expect
any relaxation in them.
13thly. During the time the Sieur De La Peroufe is at Macao, he will take the neceffary
meafures to obtain the convenience of wintering at
Canton. He will addrefs himfelf for this purpofe
to the Si.ur Vieillard, his Majefty's conful at
China, and he will charge him to take fuch
meafures with the Chinefe government, as will
be proper to fucceed therein. He will take advantage of his flay in this port, to inform-
himfelf exactly and in detail of the prefent flate
of the commerce of the European nations at
Canton ; and he will inquire into this important
object, under all the points of view, in which
it maybe interfiling to be informed.
He will gain every information which may be
ufeful to him in his future navigation in the
feas to the north cf China, upon the coafts of
Corea, and of Eaftern Tartary, and of all the lands
or iflands which remain to be infpected in thefe
parts. fi .
92 LA   PEROUSE S   VOYAGE
parts. He will not neglect, if it be poflible, to
procure a Chinefe and Japanefe interpreter, and a'
Ruffian interpreter for his fecond call at Avatfcha;
he will bargain with them for the time he may
keep them in the fervice of the fhip, and on
his return, will land them at Mindanao, or at the
Moluccas.
i4thly. It is neceffary he be informed, that the
Japanefe pirates are fometimes very numerous in
the fea comprifed between Japan, Corea, and
Tartary. Their weaknefs requires no other precaution on his part, than being on his guard
during the night, to prevent a furprife on theirs;
but it will not be ufelefs, that he fhould endeavour
to fpeak to one of them, and engage him by pre-
fents and promifes of recompence, to pilot his
Majefty Vfhips, in his furvey of Jeffo, pf which it
is believed one part is under the dominion of
Japan; in the paffage through the Straits of Teffoy,
which the Japanefe muft neceffarily know; and
in the exploring of fuch of the Kurile Ifles, as
they may be in the habit of frequenting. This
fame pilot may be equally ferviceable in vifiting
fpme port on the weft coaft of Japan, in cafe cir*
cumftances fhould not have allowed a landing at
any point of the eaft or north-eaft coaft. But
whatever ufe the Sieur De La Peroufe may make
of the faid pilot, he muft not give up to his advice and fuggeftions, but with the moft cautious
referv§, ROUND   THE   WORLD. 93
referve. It is proper alfo, that he fhould engage,
if he can, fome fifhermen of the Kurile Ifles, to
ferve him as pilots for fuch of thofe iflands as
border on Kamtfchatka.
The Sieur De La Peroufe will thus, in Handing
again to the northward, endeavour to complete his
knowledge of the iflands, which he could not make
in coming from Avatfcha to Macao, and to com-
penfate on the weft coaft of Japan, for what he
he had not been able to effect upon the eaft and
north-eaft coaft.
The reconnoitring of the coafts of Corea and of
Chinefe Tartary ought to be made with much
prudence and circumfpection. The Sieur De La
Peroufe is not ignorant, that the Chinefe government is very diftruftful: he fhould in confequence
avoid hoiftinghis colours, or making him felf known,
nor fhould he permit any thing to be done, which
might excite upon thefe coafts the inquietude of
that government, left the effects of it fhould be
felt by the French fhips which trade to Canton.
i5thly. In exploring the Caroline Iflands, which
are fcarcely known but by name to moft of the nations of Europe, the Sieur De La Peroufe will endeavour to learn whether the Spaniards, as they
have frequently projected, have yet formed any
eftablifhment there.
He will obtain the knowledge of the productions of thefe iflands, and of all thofe which he
may 11
94 LA   PEROUSE S   VOYAGE
may have been able to difcover to the north-eaft,
and to the we ft-fouth-weft of the Marian, or
Ladrone Iflands.
i6thly. In the flay which he will make at Tinian, one of the Marian Iflands, he will obtain information concerning the eftablifhments, the
forces, and the commerce of the Spaniards in
that archipelago and its environs.
He will make the fame inquiries at Mindanao,
in order to know, as much as he can, the political,
military, and commercial flate of this nation in
the Philippines.
17thly. During the flay he will make at the
Moluccas, he will neglect nothing with refpect to
the information to be obtained concerning the
fituation and the commerce of the Dutch in thefe
iflands. He will ftudy particularly to learn the
advantages which the Englifh derive in their commerce from the liberty this power has obtained,
by its lait treaty of peace with Holland, of navigating and trafficking in the whole extentjg^the
Afiatic feas, and he will endeavour to learn what
ufe England has made of this liberty, and whether fhe. have already gone fo far as to open by
this way any new branch of commerce in this part
of the world.
18thly. If the Sieur De La Peroufe put into the
Cape of Good Hope, he will obtain precife information concerning the prefent fituation of that
colony, ROUND   THE   WORLD. 95
colony, the forces that Holland or the Dutch
Eaft India Company keep there fince the peace,
and the flate of the new and old fortifications
which defend the town, and protect the anchorage.
i9thly. Generally in all the iflands, and in all the
ports of the continent, occupied or frequented by
-the Europeans, where he may land, he will with prudence, as much as the. time he flays, and circum-
flances will permit, make every inquiry wrhich
may enable him to communicate in detail the
nature and the extent of the commerce of each
nation, the forces both by land and by fea. that
each keeps in them, the connections of intereft or
friendfhip which may exift between each and the
chiefs or natives of the country where they have
their eftablifhments, and generally all that can
intereft either policy or commerce.
THIRD PART.
Operations relating to Aflronomy, to Geography,
to Navigation, to Natural Philofophy, and to
the different Branches of Natural Hijtory,
1 ft. HIS Majefty having appointed two aftro-
nomers to be employed under the orders of the
Sieur De La Peroufe, in the expedition which he
has confided to him, and his two frigates being
provided 96 LA   PEROUSE's   VOYAGE
provided with all the inftruments of aftronomy
and navigation, of which ufe can be made either by fea or land, he will take care in the courfe
of the voyage, that one or other of them makes
all the aftronomical obfervations which may ap*
pear to him of any utility.
The object of the greateft importance to the
fafety of navigation is, to fix with precifion the
latitudes and longitudes of the places where he
may land, and of thofe within fight of which he
may pafs. With this view he.will recommend to
the aftronomer employed on board each frigate, to ,
obferve with the greateft exactnefs the movement
of the time-keepers, and take advantage of every
favourable circumftance for verifying, on fhore,
whether they have kept good time during the
run, and to confirm by obfervation the change
which may have happened in their daily movement, in order to keep an account of the change,
fo as to determine, with greater precifion, the
longitude of the iflands, the capes, or other remarkable points, which he may have obferv^
and laid down in the interval of the two verifications.
As often as the ftate of the fky will permit
him, he will order lunar obfervations to be
taken, with the inftruments for that purpofe, to
determine the longitude of the fhip, and to
compare   it with  that which  the   time-keepers
indicate ROUND   THE   WORLD. 97
indicate ai: the fame point of tim^&he will take
care to multiply the obfervations of each kind,
fo that the mean refult between different operations may procure a more precife determination.
Whenever he paffes within fight of any ifland
or land, at which he does not^propofe to go on
fhore, he will be fure to keep himfelf as much as
poflible on its parallel at the time when obfervations are made of the meridian height of
the fun, or of any flar, from which to calculate
the latitude of the fhip; and he will keep under
the fame meridian while obfervations are making
to determine the longitude. Thus he will avoid all
error of pofition, and reckoning, which may injure
the exadtnefs of the determination. He will caufe
daily obfervations to be made, when the weather
will permit, of ths variation and dip of the
magnetic needle.
As foon as he arrives in any port, he will make
choice of a commodious foot' of ground to pitch
•his tents, and fet up his portable obfervatory, with
which he is provided, and he fhould place a guard
over it.
Independently of the obfervations relative to
the determination of latitudes and longitudes,
for which there will be employed every kind of
method known or practifed, and of thofe
knowing the variation of th
fail to obferve ever
Vol. I.
e com pal:
y celeitial phei
H
he will not
enon which *A
9'f LA PEROUSE's VOYAGE
may be perceived; and on all occafions he will
obtain for the two aftronomers all the affiftancc
which may affure the fuccefs of their operations.
His Majefty is perfuaded, that the officers and
ihe naval cadets, employed in the two frigates,
will zealoufly endeavour to make, in concert
with the aftronomers j every obfervation which
may have any ufeful connection with navigation;
and that thefe laft perfons, on their part, will^be
eager to communicate on the earlieft occafions
the fruits of their ftudies, and that theoretical
knowledge, which may contribute to carry the
nautical art to perfection.
The Sieur De La Peroufe muft caufe a double
journal to be kept onboard each frigate* in which
muft be entered, day by day, as well by fea as by
land, the aftronomical obfervations, thofe relative to the employment of the time pieces -and all
others. Thefe obfervations will be inferted in
the rough in the log-book, that is to fay, in it
will be fimply written the quantity of degrees,
minutes, &c. given by the inftrument at the
moment of obfervation,. without any calculation,
and in pointing out only the known error of the
inftrument, of which ufe will be made, if it have
been afcertained by the accuftomed verifications.
Each of the aftronomers fhould keep one of
thefe journals, and the other fhould' remain in
the hands of each captain.
The ROUND   THE   WORLD. ;pp
The aftronomer will befides keep a fecond journal, wherein he fhould in like manner infert, day by
day, all the obfervations which he may have made*
to which he will join for every operation, all the
calculations which neceffarily lead to the laft refult.
At the end of the voyage the Sieur De La Peroufe fhould have the two journals depofited in
his hands, which fhall have been kept by the
aftronomers, after they have been certified as
true, and figned*
2ndly. When the Sieur De La Peroufe fhall land
at thofe ports* which it may be interefting to be
acquainted with, in a military point of view, he
will obtain that knowledge through the chief
engineer, who will give him a circumftantial
report of the remarks he may have made, and of
the plans which it may have been in his power to
lay down*
The Sieur De La Peroufe is to order exact
charts to be drawn of all the coafts and iflands
he fhall have infpect ed; and if they have been
previoufly known he muft verify the exactnefs of
the defcription and of the charts, which other
navigators fhall have given of them.
To this effect, whenever he navigates along a
coaft, or in fight of iflands* he muft caufe them
to be furveyed very exactly with a quadrant, or
with an azimuth compafs« and he fhould obferve, that the furveys, on which the moft re-
H 2 fiance lOO LA PEROUSE S VOYAGE
liance may be had for the conftruction of chart %
Ire thofe by which a cape or any remarkable
object can be laid down by means of another.
He will employ the officers of the two frigates,
and the geographic engineer, to lay down, with
care, the plans of coafts, bays, ports, and an-*
chorages, which he fhall be within reach of exploring ; and to each plan he muft add an inftruction,
containing every, thing relative to the appearance
and bearings of the land, the marks for failing in
find out of the harbours, the proper births for
anchoring, or mooring, and the beft place for
watering; the foundings, the quality of the
bottom, the dangers, rocks, and fhoals, the predominant winds, the trade winds, the monfoons,
the time they laft, and the period of their changing ; in fhort, all the nautical details which it
may be ufeful to make known to navigators.
of countries, of coafts, and of
ports, muft be made in duplicates; one of them
muft be depofited in the hands of each captain;
and at the end of the voyage the Sieur De La
Peroufe fhould take into his poffeflion all the
and the inftructions relating to
it te
to fix the period
ich he will order the decked boats to be
jgether, which^are embarked in pieces on
each  frigate:   he   will  perhaps  do   this
during: ROUND  THE WORLD. IO.X '
during his flay at Otaheite. Thefe boats may
be employed very ufefully in following .the frigates, whether .' in vifiting ? the archipelagoes,
fituate in the great equatorial ocean, or for exploring in detail the parts of a coaft, and in founding the bays, the ports, the paffages, and, in
fhort, for facilitating every fearch or inquiry,
which requires a veffel drawingjHit little water,
and capable of carrying a few days provifion for
X „ O j x
its crew,
3dly. The naturalifts appointed .to make, during their voyage, obfervations peculiar to their
fludies, will be employed each of them in thofe
departments of natural hiftory, with which they
are beft acquainted.
The Sieur De La Peroufe fhould, in confequence,
prefcribe to them the refearches which they will
have to make, and fhould diftribute to them the
inftruments and apparatus appropriate thereto.
He fhould be attentive, in the distribution of
the bufinefs, not to employ any individual on two
different fubjects, fo that the zeal and the intelligence of every one of the learned perfons on
board, may have their entire effect in promoting
the
leral fuccefs of the expedition.
He fhould communicate to them the memorial
of the academy of fciences, in which this fociety points out the particular obfervations, to which
|| would defire the profeffors of natural philofo-
H3 - pny If
lOt LA PEROUSE S VOYAGE
phy and natural hiftory attend to during the
voyage; and he fhould recommend them to
concur, every one in what may concern him, and
according to circumftances, in fulfilling the ob^
jects pointed out in this memorial.
He muft in like manner communicate to the
furgeoh of each frigate the memorial of the
fociety of medicine, in order that both may
make fuch obfervations as will fulfil the withes of
this fociety.
The Sieur De La Petoufe, in the courfe of his
voyages, and his flay in port, muft caufe a journal
to be *kept on board each fhip, of all the obfervations relative to the wind and Weather, the
currents, the variations of the atmofphere, and
all that concerns meteorology.
During his flay in harbour, he fhould caufe obfervations to be made on the genius, the character, the manners, the cuftoms, the temperament, the language, the government, and the number of the inhabitants.
He fhould have the foil and the productions
of the different countries examined, and every
thing which relates to mineralogy. ^
He lhould have the natural curiofities collected,
as well terreftrial as marine; he will have them
claffed in their order, and have a defcriptive catalogue  for each fpecies^  in which ought   to be
men -
mm* ROUND THE WORLD. IOJ
mentioned the places where they have been found,
the ufe which the natives of the country make of
them, and, if they be plants, of the virtues which
they attribute to them. .
He fhould in like manner collect: and clafs the
clothes, the arms, the ornaments, the pieces of furniture, the implements, the mufical inftruments, and
all the effects ufed by the different people he may
vifit; and each object ought to have a ticket or
label on it, with a number correfponding with
that of the catalogue.
He will get drawn, by the draughtfmen embarked in the two frigates, all the views of the
land, and the remarkable fituations, portraits of
the natives of the different countries, their manner of drefs, their ceremonies, their paftimes, their
edifices, their veffels, and all the productions of
the earth and of the fea, if the drawings of thefe
different objects fhould appear to him of any ufe,
in facilitating the comprehenfion of the defcrip-
tions the fcientific men have made of them. All
the drawings which fhall have been made in the
voyage, all the cafes containing the natural curiosities, as well as their defcriptions, and the collection of aftronomical obfervations, fhould be put
into the hands of the Sieur De La Peroufe, at the
end of the voyage, and no one of the men of
fcience, or artifts, will be allowed  to refa
fnr
H4
himfelf 104 LA PEROUSE's V0YA6E jM
himfelf, or for another, any of the fpecimens of
natural hiftory, or other objects, which the Sieur
De La Peroufe fhall have deemed deferving to be
comprized in the collection deftined for his Ma-
je%.
4thly. Before his return to the port of Breft, at
the end of the voyage, or before his arrival at the
Cape of Good Hope, in cafe he fhould put in
there, the Sieur De La Peroufe fhall caufe to be
put into his hands all the journals of the voyage
which fhall have been kept on board the two frigates by the officers and marine cadets, by the
aftronomers, fcientific men, and artifts, by the
pilots, and by all other perfons. He muft enjoin
"them to keep a ftrict filence relative to the object
of the voyage, and the difcoveries which may have
^een made, and he muft demand a promife of
them to this effect; he muft affure them, moreover, that their journals and papers will be're*
ftored to them.
FOURTH PART.
Of the Conduct to be obferved with the Natives
of the Countries, where the two Frigates may
-     make a Landing.
accounts of all the voyagers, who have
the Sieur De La Peroufe' in the  feas
which HOUND THE VOYAGE. I©5.
which he is abQut to traverfe, have informed him
beforehand of the character and manners of part
of the different people with whom he may have
to communicate, as well in the iflands of the
great ocean, as upon the coafts of the north-weft
of America.
His Majefty doubts not but that, improved by
the reading of fuch authors, he will make a point
of imitating, the good conduct of fome of thofe
navigators, and of avoiding the -faults of others
who have preceded him.
Upon his arrival in any country, he fhould feek
to conciliate the chiefs or principal men, as weU
by marks of good will as by prefents ^ and he muft
affure himfelf of the refources which he may find
upon the fpat for fupplying the wants of his
fhips.
He fhould employ all honourable means to
form connections with the natives of the coun-*
try.
He fhould feek to difcover what are the merchandizes or objects of Europe to which they ap*
pear to attach the greateft value, and he ought
to compofe an affortment which will be agreeable
to them, and which may invite them to make
exchanges.
He will feel the neceflity of putting in ufe all
the precautions which prudence may fuggeft, to
maintain his fuper
nty over the multiftde, with-- m
II
, ic6 la perouse's voyage
out being obliged to employ force j and whatever
flattering reception he may meet with from the
favages, it is important that he fhould always fhew
himfelf in a ftate of defence, becaufe it would be
to be feared, that his fecurity might engage them
to furprife him.
Upon no occafion muft he fend a boat afhore,
unlefs it 'be furnifhed with its fwivels, firelocks,
fwords, pikes, and a fufficieht quantity of ammunition ; it muft afc be commanded by an officer,
who fhould be ordered never to lofe fight of the
boat committed to his care, and always to leave
feme men in it for its protection.
He muft permit no perfon either among the
officers or crew to fleep. afhore upon any account
.but that of., fe&ice ;•■ and. thofe whole functions
oblige them fo to do, muft retire before night into
the tents pitched afhore, which ferve as obferva-
tories or magazines. He muft place a guard
there, where an officer ought always to fleep, to
maintain good order among the failors and foldiers
attached to that duty, and to prevent, by an active and continued watchfulnefs, any attack or
enterprise of the favages.
He will take care to anchor his Majefty's frigates
within reach to protect the eftablifhment; and he
fhould give orders to the offioar, who may be on
.guard, concerning the fignals which the latter will
have to make in cafe of alarm.
4
As HOUND THE WORLD. loy
As foon as thefe difpofitions are made, he fhoujyL
employ himfelf in providing for the fubfiftence of
his crews and the other wants of the fhips; and
after having made a choice as to quantity of his
commodities, implements, and goods of every
kind, with which the two frigates are furnifhed,
he fhould form a magazine afhore, under the protection of a guard; but, as he is informed, that
in general the iflanders of the great ocean have an
irrefiftible inclination to theft, he muft take care
not to tempt them by the fight of too great a
number of objects collected together in one place,
but to carry every day on fhore only the effects
which may be.employed in exchange during the
courfe of that day.
He will regulate the value of thefe exchanges,
and he will never allow any one to furpafs the
price which fhall be fixed on each article of trade,
left by agreeing, in the commencement of their
dealings, to too high a price for the articles which
- he would procure, the natives might refufe to
fell more afterwards at a fmaller price.
He muft eftablifh only one magazine for the
two frigates; and to preferve good order there and
prevept all abufes, he muft fpecially charge an
officer to treat with the favages, and fingle out
the petty officers or other perfons who will be required to perform, under his orders, the fervice of
the magazine,
No ii .
1-0$ LA PEROUSE's VOYAGE
No officer, or other perfon of the ftaff, or of the
%B6*v can be allowed, under any pretence whatever, to barter any thing, if the Sieur De La
Peroufe have not given him exprefs permiffion,
and have not regulated the rate of exchange.
If any one of the^people of either crew' fhould
conceal any article belonging to the fhips, or
any part of the merchandize intended for ex-
•change, the Sieur De La Peroufe muft order him
to be punifhed according to the feverity of the
Jaws; and he fhould punifli ftill more feverely
thofe who, being in the fervice of the magazine,
fhall have abufed his confidence, and have fecreted
effects tp traffic with, fraudulently.
He will recommend to every perfon among tke
crews, to live in a good uncldrftanding with the
natives, to endeavour to conciliate their friendship by a proper way of acting and refpect; and
he muft. forbid them, .-under pain of the moft rigorous punifhments, "ever to employ force for
taking from the inhabitants what they may not
be willing to part with.
The Sieur De La Peroufe, on every occafion,
will act with great mildnefs and humanity towards
the different people he may have any intercourfs
with during his voyage.
He .will apply himfelf zealoufly and with inte^
reft about all the means which may meliorate their
condition, in procuring their country vegetables,
fruits* ROUND THE   WORLD. . l&f
fruits,' and trees, ufeful in Europe; in teaching
them how to fow and cultivate them; in^ac-
quainting them with the ufe they ought to make
tof thefe prefents, the object: of which is to multiply upon their foil the productions neceffary to
a people who draw almoft all their food from the
earth.
If imperious circumftances, which it is prudent
to forefee in fo long an expedition, fhould ever
oblige the Sieur De La Peroufe to avail "himfelf
of the fuperiority of his weapons over thofe of a
favage people, in order to obtain the neceffaries of
life, in fpite of their opposition, fuch as' fubfift-
ence, water, and wood, he'ought not to ufe force
but with the greateft moderation, and fhould pu-
nifh thofe of his people with extreme rigour who
go beyond thefe orders. In all other cafes, if he
cannot obtain the good will of the favages by a
kind treatment, he fhould endeavour to eonftrain
them by fear and threats, and fhould not have
recourfe to arms but in the laft extremity, only
for defence, and in cafes where moderation might
decidedly rifk the fafety" of the fhips, and the lives-
of French, whofe prefervation is committed to his
care.
His Majefty will look upon it as one of the
moft fuccefsful parts of the expedition, that it
may be terminated without coiling the life of a
fingle man. !I&
-A perouse's voyage
FIFTH PART.
Precautions to be taken for preferring the Ileatih
of the Crews.
THE Sieur De La-Peroufe knowing the intention of his Majefty with regard to the conduct he
fhould obferve towards the favage nations* and
the wifh his Majefty has, that the vifit of Frenchmen, far from being a misfortune to thefe people,
may, on the contrary, procure them advantages
of which they are deprived, will certainly forefee
what particular care he ought to pay to the pre-
fervation of the crews employed in the expedition
which his Majefty has trufted to his conduct.
The fhips under his orders are abundantly provided with every aid which can prevent the dif-
cafes of the fea, or arreft their progrefs, as well as
with thofe which are intended as fubftitutes for
ordinary diet, and to correct its bad effect. He
will keep a watchful eye, that thofe various helps
and fuccours are ufed properly, and in due mea-
fure; and wall be extremely vigilant concerning
the various refources, which the different ports into
which he puts may offer him, for procuring re-
frefhments and wholefome aliments for his crews,
in order to repair the effects of a long ufe of fait
meats.
His &OUND THE WORLD. Ill
His Majefty confides in the prudence of the
Sieur De La Peroufe as to the form which may appear to him the moft convenient to be eftablifhed
on board the two frigates for the ftowage.of the
fliip's provifion in the hold.
He fhould take care to infpect and air, while
he remains in port, fuch parts of the fhip's floras
as evince* a tendency to decay,- the progrefs of
which may be flopped by this precaution.
He will neglect no opportunity to procure frefh.
fifh for his crews, and to renew his falted provifion by the means which have been put within
his power, and in making ufe of the method which
has been practifed with fuccefs by the navigators
of later times who have traverfed the great ocean.
The Sieur De La Peroufe is not uninformed, that
one of the precautions, which contribute the moft
efficacioufly to preferve the health of the feamen,
is the continual attention to keep the fhips and
crews extremely clean.
He will mal
to this effect of all the known
means* fuch as ventilators, fumigations, and perfumes, to renew and purify the air of the holds
and between decks. He will every day, if it can
be done, have the hammocks and the clothes of
the crews expofed to the open air; and in order
that the failors and other perfons on board may
not  neglect the cleanlinefs of their perfons, he
:  inflection
and
fhould divide them into fquads,
y 112 LA PEkOUSE*S VOYAGS   |
and care of whole conduct he will diftribute ahidng
the officers of the two frigates*
Each of the officers ought to render an account
every week, to the captain, of the flate of the; clothe
Ing and of the wants of the fquad which has been
committed to his care-; and upon the order of the
Sieur De La Peroufe, the clothing for fupplying
fuch deficiencies, which his Majefty has ordered
to be embarked, will be given out to the crews
of the two fhips, according to the diftribution
which mail have been regulated by the command^
ing officer, and in the circumftances where he
fhall judge this affiftance neceffary.
The Sieur De La Peroufe fhould eftablifh the
mot? exact difcipline among the crews of the two
frigates, and he will carefully, keep a ftrict hand to
prevent any relaxation in this refped; but this
feverity, feafonable in every part of fervice, and
abfolutely neceffary in a voyage of feveral years,
will be tempered by the conftant effect of thofe
paternal cares which he will owe to the companions of his fatigues; and his Majefty, knowing the
fentiments with which he is animated, is aflured,
that he will be conftantly occupied in obtaining
for his crews all the accommodation, and all the
indulgence he can grant to them, without injury
to the interefts of the fervice and the object of the
expedition.
a His ROUND   THE   WORLD.
11'.
Mis Majefty could not give to the Sieur De La
Peroufe a more diftinguifhed mark of the conh>
dence he has in his Zeal, his ability, and his prudence, than in committing to him one of the moft
extenfive enterprizes which has ever been project:*
ed. Some of the navigators* who have preceded
him in the career of difcoveries, have left him
great leffons and great examples; but his Majefty
is perfuaded, that, equally ambitious of glory,
equally zealous for the increafe of human knowledge* equally perfevering as his models, he will
b$e day deferve to be coiifidered one himfelf for.
thofe, who, flimulated by the fame courage, are
defirous of contending for the fame celebrity.
NO TE.
In drawing up a plan of navigation for the
Voyage of difcovery, tlv* conducting of which is
Confided to M. De La Peroufe* the object has
been for him to follow, in the different feas,
tracks which have not been followed by any of
the navigators who have preceded him; this ftep
has appeared to be the moft fure of multiplying
difcoverie;s* t and of confiderably advancing in this
voyage the great work of the complete defcription of the terreftrial globe.
There has neverthelefs been a neceffity for pointing out iflands already known, as ports where there
is a certainty that M. De La Peroufe may procure fubfiftence by means of barter and exchange,
for which the  means are  furnifhed him by the
Vol. I, I quantity ffl
ttn&tsn 5 VOYA<££
Quantity of merchandize of every kind which cornV
pofes the affortment, accommodated to the fancy
of the iflanders, with whom he will have occafion
to trade.. But in communicating to the French
Commander the places for refreshment and repofe
■that have already been frequented, attention is
had to direct him to arrive there by tracks, which
have not hitherto been fallowed; and in the num~
Iber of merchandizes, with which he has been fur-
nifhed, it has not been neglected to put up
.many of kinds which are not yet known in
,-ihe iflands he may touch at, in order that the
natives of the country may know, that the nation
which brings them, is a new nation to them, and
©ne by which they have not yet been vifited.
Different elements of calculation have been
employed to eftimate the duration of time in performing the different runs. In the common failing in open feas, it is fuppofed that the fhips with
trade winds might run thirty leagues in 24 hours;
twenty-five leagues only have been allowed to the
fame fpace-of time, for thofe parts where prudence requires the fhips fhould lie to a part of
the night; twenty leagues only where the fhips
are on difcovery: and in this laft cafe, a certain number of days are added for the time which
is loft in reconnoitring and infpecting a coaft. It
is from thefe data, that the time neceffary for making the runs, and remaining in port, has been
"eftimated; but all thefe calculations may be influenced by the circumfta'hces of the fhips, the
"events of the voyage,   and unforefeen accidents.
The total duration of the voyage will necef-
farily exceed four years; it would be impoffible
in a fmaller fpace of time to fulfil all the objects
his Majefty has in view. The periodical returns
©f the-different monfoons in the fame time, to
the
mmmmmm ROUND   Tl
WORLD*
Il£
years voyage
which the
the north and   fouth of the line, are  data  to
which the   courfe  is  neceflarily  fubjected,   and
which  infinitely oppofe   the   navigation   in the
neighbouring feas   of the archipelagoes,  and of
the continent of Afia, by the obligation the navigator finds   himfelf under of going  into each
tract of lea, only when the winds are favourable.
This confideration of the monfoons  has required
different    combinations,   to   accommodate   the
courfes   to it,  without   greatly augmenting the
total duration of the voyage, fo that each particular run fhould not exceed the limits prefcribed
by the quantity of woPd and water, which each
fhip can carry for her complement of men:    Further, his Majefty's fhips are furnifhed with ftores
of every kind, more than fufficient to laft a four
in adding the accidental refources
accounts of modern navigators  have
pointed out, and which the forefight and activity
of M. De La Peroufe will inftruct him how to procure, at the different places where he may put in*
The laft voyage of captain Cook lafted four years,
two months, and twenty-two days ; and his vef~
fels were not provided as  thofe of his Majefty
will be.
If, as there is reafon to expect from'the zeal
and capacity of the commander of the expedition,
all the objects pointed out in his inftruct ions fhall
have been fulfilled, the voyage of M. De La Peroufe will leave hereafter to navigators, who would
attempt difcoveries, only the merit of giving to
the world more circumftantial details of fome por*
tions of the globe.
There remains to be made known the fleps
which have been followed in the construction  of
the hydrographic charts, which will be put into
I 2 the till
II(
LA   PEROUSE S   VOYASg
ill
lair
the hands of the commanders of the fhips, aftef
his Majefty fhall have approved of them.
Firft a chart of the fouthern ocean has been
prepared, upon which are traced, from the journals
of navigators* the courfes which have led them to
difcoVeries ; and thofe are pointed out which yet
remain to be made or verified. This chart has
been conftructed from the beft French, Spanifh,'
Englifh, and Dutch charts; and it has been fub-
jected tp aftronomical obfervations, by which the
pofitions of the principal points of the continents
and iflands have been determined.
The extent of the great ocean, commonly
called the South Sea, or Pacific Ocean, has ne-
ceffitated the divifion of it into three bands or
zones, of which the firft contains the Auftral
Ocean, or the fpace contained between the antarctic circle,   and the tropic of Capricorn.
The fecorid,^the great Equatorial Ocean, or interval comprized between the two tropics.
The third and laft, the great Boreal Ocean, or
the feas enclofed between the tropic of Cancer,
and the  arctic circle.
As the courfes of M. De La Peroufe will not
carry him beyond the fixtieth parallel of north
and fouth latitude, it has been thought ufelefs to
trace, on the charts prepared for his voyage, either
the great Polar Boreal Ocean, or the great Polar
Auftral Ocean.
To accomplifh the laying down the chart of
the Great Ocean, the journals of all the ^navigators of this century, and of thofe of anterior periods, who have, navigated this fea, have been
confulted. The plans of the details which they
have given have been confulted, and by reducing
their fcale, they have been made to enter into this
general- ROUND   THE   WORLD."
try
general chart. The known tracks of all navigators, ancient and modern, are traced thereon, in
order to place under one point of view, the recent difcoveries, with thofe of former periods, and
to prove in certain cafes, their identity.
This general chart of the Great Ocean is the
refult of all that navigators and geographers have
produced up to this time. It will not be endeavoured to reprefent here in detail the various
materials, which have been examined, and employed; the mere enumeration would require a
volume. All that remains to be done is, to
join to the King's inftructions to M. De La
Peroufe a few geographical and hiftorical notes,
upon feme parts which require to be more particularized, and there will be added to the two charts of
the Southern Atlantic Ocean and Great Ocectn^
a collection of thirty-feven other charts, or original manufcript plans, of the leaft frequented
parts of thofe feas. '2L&
Extract from AL De La Peroufe's general In*
ftruc tions*
z6th June, 1785,
HIS Majefty authorizes the Sieur De La Peroufe to grant fome months pay to the crews
as a bounty, the quantity of which he will regulate according to circumftances; he will only
obferve, that the fum of fuch bounties, during
the whole voyage, muft not exceed one year's
pay. ! Befides thefe bounties, which he will grant
I 3 according HIM
f 18 LA perouse's voyage
according to merit to the petty officers, failorsr
and foldiers, he will give the two crews to under-*
ftand, that it is the intention of his Majefty, that
the pay of thofe who fhould die during thf
voyage, reckoning from the day of their deceafe,
fhould be thrown into a mafs, to be diftributed
in gratification to the people compofing that
crew, of whom the deceafed man made one ; and
that the pay acquired unto the day of his death
be accounted for to his family, as well as the value of his clothes, if they fhould have been diftri-
buted.
NOTE    S,
GEOGRAPHICAL AND HISTORICAL,
To be adde d to theKing* s Memoir, ferving as a par-
titular infraction to Monfieur De La Peroufe^
Captain in the Navy, commanding the Frigates
La Bouffole, and LAftrolabe.
Southern Altantic Ocean.
"Note i.    The three funken rocks,   fituate   to
the  fouth-fouth-weft  of the ifland of St. Jago,
bne of the Cape de Verd iflands, as well as the
-'-4. j ..
French Beacon, and the breakers feen by the
Caffar, in 1730, to the fouth-fouth-eaft of the
fa/me ifland', are laid down after the Englifh chart
pf ROUND THF WORLD. 11^
pf the Atlantic ocean, publifhed at London,, in
1777, in four flieets *.
2. Pennedo de San Pedro. Its latitude, 0*55'
north, is conformable to that which Monfieur
Dapres affirms to have obferved in 1750, in thq
/hip Le Rouille. See Le Difcours du Neptune
Oriental of Monfieur Dapres.
He fixes its longitude at 290 o' weft of
Paris, and he deduces it from the difference of
longitude known between the ifland of Afcenfion
and Pennedo, which h£ fixes at 1 z° 40'.
But Monf. Dapres then calculated from an obfervation made in 1754 by the Abbe De La Caille,
that the ifland of Afcenfion was in 150 19' weft
longitude; and as this longitude, verified and fixed
by the obfervations of captain Cook, is 16° 54$,
(fecond Voyage, vol. 2, page 276 of the original)
it thence refults, that in admitting the difference
of meridians, fuch as Monf. Dapres gives, between
Pennedo de S. Pedro and the Ifland of Afcenfion,
the longitude of Pennedo ought to be 290 34'
weft of Paris, and is that which has been adopted
in the chart put into the hands of Monf De La
Peroufe.
* This chart, for the part comprifed between the 14th and
47th degree of north latitude, is the copy and translation of
that which was drawn up and publifhed by Fleurieu, and
which] is added to his Voyage a differentes parties du monde,..
etc. Paris, imprimerie royak, 1773s 2 vol. quarto.    (Fr. Ed.)
I 4
Ade« 'tz6 IA PEROUS^l's VOYAGE
4   A defcription of Pennedo is found in MonlV
Dapres's Difcours du Neptune Oriental, p. 189^
3. The flioals and banks near the Line are
placed after the inftruction of the Neptune Orien*
tal, page 9.
The little Ifle de Sable, or Ifland of St. Paul,
which was feen in the fame track, in 1761, by the
Ihip le Vaillant, commanded by M. Bouvet, is laid
down from Saili?ig Directionsfor the Eaft Indies,
London, 1781, page 7. This pofition is conformable, as to latitude, to that which has been
given it upon the general chart, which is joined
to the relation of the third voyage of captain
Cook, o° 25' fouth, but it differs in 35' as to
longitude.
Its longitude weft from Paris would be 210 25',
according to the Sailhig Directions, which give it
after the journal of M. Bouvet, but it is carried
to 200 45', in order that it may agree with the correction of Pennedo.    See note 2.
5. Ifland of Fernando de Noronha. This ifland
is laid dowrn conformably to the  latitude and the
longitude determined by captain Cook.
Latitude -    -    -   \ 30 53'   o" fouth,
Longitude - -   -    54   53   50  well of Paris.
See Cook's fecond Voyage, vol. II, pages 278 and
&79 of the original.
The diftance of this ifland from the neareft part
gf the coaft of Brazil' being fixed  between fixty
anc|
iwmmiu HOUND THE WORLD. 121
4Uid feventy leagues, according to the Portuguefe
journals and the Sg&fuiifh chart of South America,
publifhed by Cruz Cano y Olmedilla, in eight
fheets, in 1775, the longitude of the coaft of
Brazil may be confidered as determined; and it
has been made to conform to that of the Ifland of
Moronha, by giving it 2 deg. f of difference to the
weft.
6. The Ifland of St. Matthew was recognifed in
1725 by Garcia de Loaes or Loayfa, a Portuguefe
captain, but it had been difcovered 87 years before that period. (Tratado dos Defcubrime?itos9
#V. de Galvao, Lifbon, 1731, page 66.) It is
placed according to the general chart of Cook's
third Voyage. The pofition is uncertain, and that
celebrated navigator has regretted not having it
in his power to determine it.—See Cook's fecond
Voyage, vol. II, page 276 of the original.
7. The latitudes and the longitudes of the Ifland
of Fernando Po, Prince's Ifland, St. Thomas, and
: Annobon, are fixed, according to the obfervations
made in 1779, by Don Varella, an officer in the
Spanifh navy, as follows :
Ifland of Fernando Po, C Latitude 30 28' north,
Prince's Ifland, at the J Latitude 1
port -    1    -    -     \ Longit.   5
jSt. Thomas's Ifland, C Latitude o
at the port    -    -    \ Longit.   4
^nnobon Ifland, at the C Latitude 1
north coaft   |    ,    \ Longit.   3
30
weft 0
fParis.
39
north.
2
weft.
20
north*.
U
weft.
25
fouth.
2S
weft.
Jt
^ccordh
5 Or if
|2§ LA  PEROUSE S VOYAGE
According to thefe 'longitudes, thofe of Capi
Verd, of Sierra Leona, the Ifles de Los, and of
the Cape of Good Hope, where obfervations have
in like manner been made, the pofitioris of the
different points have been regulated from the weft
coaft of Africa.
8. Afcenfion Ifland, is laid down from the obfervations of Captain Cook:
', ,,     r I    .-     I  C Latitude    8°  o
Middle of the ifland <   -      .        J 1    rn   .
t Longit.    16   50 welt or Pans.
(Cook's fecond voyage, vol. II, page 276 of the
original.)
According to the Abbe De La Caille, the latitude would be only 70 57', and thelongitude,
deduced from an emerfion of the firft fatellite of
Jupiter, 16° 17', (fee Memoires de l'Academie
des Sciences for the year 1754, page 129) but it
has been thought neceffary to adhere to the determinations of Cook, which are the refults of a
great number of obfervations. There is to be
found in the account of the fecond voyage (loco
citato) a very particular defcription of Afcenfion
ifland.
9. The Ifland of St. Helena is alfo placed after
the obfervations of Cook and thofe of Halley.
r Latitude 160 o' fouth, according to Halley:
At Fort James    < Longit.    8. 11 weft of Paris, according to
L    Cook.
(Cook's fecond Voyage, vol. 11, page 270 of the
original.)
\ 4 According HOUND THE WORLD. I2J
Al&<ftding to Mr. Mafkelyne, aftronomer-royal
#t Greenwich, the latitude of tha ifland of St
Helena is 150 55', and its longitude, deduced from
an obfervation made by him of the firft fatel-
lite of Jupiter, would be 8^ 9'.—(Britifh Mariner's
Guide, 1763, in quarto.)
10. Ifland of Trinidad. This ifland is placed,
from its diftance to Cape Frio, on he coaft of
Brazil, fuch as it is given by Monf. Dapres,
(Difcours du Neptune Oriental, page 10) from
which it refults:
,        1    C Latitude 200 2 5' fouth.
North coaft, |T J       L   cry   .
I Longit.   32   15 well or Pans. W^t,
Ifle dos Picos  is laid down according to the
Dutch charts, fubjecting its  pofition to that of
Trinidad.
11. Iflands of Martin-Vas. Thefe are three
rocks which lie refpectively to each other north and
fouth, except the moft northerly, which is a little
more to the weftward; they do not occupy more
than a mile in extent.—(Extract from the Original
Journal of Halley, printed in the Collection of
Voyages in the Southern Atlantic Ocean, by A.
-Dalrymple, London,  1775, in quarto, page 53.)
' In the Journal de AL Lozier Bouvet, (printed
|n French, ibid, page 7 of this journal) it is faid,
that the fmall iflands of Martin Vas are at eight
leagues diftance, and bear eaft | north'ol the Ifland
of Trinidad. Their latitude is the fame as that
pf this ifland,
leotjf
The 124 LA PEROUSE S VOYAGE
12. The Ifland ofAfcencaon, on the coaft of Brazil, is placed according to the notes of M. Dapres*
page 9 of Difcours du Neptune Oriental:
Latitude - -        200 25' fouth
Longitude       *■ *• 38      o weft of Paris.
This pofition fuppofes, that its diftance from
Cape Frio is  120 leagues,   as  M. Dapres  fhews
(ibid page 9).
13. Rock difcovered in 1692, andfunken rock in
1701. Thefe dangers are placed after Mr. Dal-
rymple's chart of the South Sea, which is to be
found at the end of the work cited in the nth note,
14. Ifland Saxenhurgh, This ifland was difcovered in 1670 by John Lindeftz Lindeman,a Dutchman, in 30°! of fouth latitude, "and about 22 degrees of weft longitude from Paris, being aware of the
change made in the pofition of the other iflands in
the fame track of fea, with which navigators were
led to place it by the bearings and diftances of their
reckonings.—See Navigations aux Terres Auf-
trales, by the Prefident De Broffes, vol. II,
page 48.
15. Kattendyke is laid down according to Dal-
rymple's chart belonging to the work cited in the
nth note, and from the general chart of Cook's
third Voyage.
16. Iflands of Triftan d'Acunha. The rule followed for laying down thefe iflands is from the
inftruction of M. Dapres (page 10 of Neptune
Oriental) which fixes the latitude of them between
37°'
IHMWUlll 1R.0UND   THE   WORLD.
IZi
•57° io' and 370 45' fouth, and their longitude at
16° 30' or 17 degrees weft of Paris* from a mean
refult between the different courfes of feveral fhips,
which point out 34 degrees for the difference of
longitude.between thefe iflands and the Cape of
Good Hope, which is 169 3' 45" eaft of Paris.
Halley fays, in his journal, that he has determined the latitude of the moft foutherly of
thefe iflands to be 370 25' fouth.—See page 41 of
his journal in the work of Mr. Dalrymple, cited in
note 11.
A defcription of thefe iflands is to be found
fufficiently particularized in the inftructions of
Neptune Oriental, by M. Dapres, page 10.
Befide the anchorage of the north of the principal of the iflands of Triftan d'Acunha, marked; -
in the chart put into- the hands of M. De La Peroufe, it is further known (from the report of a
navigator worthy of credit, whence the following particulars are learnt) that there is a kind of
port or haven to the eaft of the fouthern point:
this port is not vifible in running down the coaft,
becaufe it is concealed from the view by great
casnes or reeds, which being thrown down and
lying upon the furface of the water, crofs each
other by certain winds, and totally mafk the entrance of the port; it may be half a mile in breadth
by three quarters of a mile in length ; its figure is
very nearly that of a horfe fhoe. The water is found
to 126 LA PEROUSE S VOYAGE^
to be twenty-eight fathoms in the middle of ih&
entrance, and fourteen near the fhore jj the depth
of water is alfo fourteen fathom in the middle
of the length, and ten fathom only at the head
of the harbour; the bottom is a black fand, and
good holding ground.
It is neceffary to obfefve,.that the fouthern point,
that is to fay, that of the fouth Weft of the ifland, .
is terminated by fome rocks or breakers, which
run out near a quarter of a mile; they are not laid
down uponthe chart delivered to M. De La Peroufe,
becaufe it is a copy, without the leaft alteration, of
the only plan known of thefe iflands, upon which
thefe breakers are not laid down.
17. Ifland of 'Diego dAlvarez. It is laid down
after the general chart of Cook's Third Voyage?
and by the iflands of Triftan d'Acunha, preferving
the bearing and diftance which this chart gives it
from thefe laft iflands.
Latitude - - 38° 53' fouth.
Longitude - - 13     o weft of Paris.
18. Gough's Ifland. So called from the name of
an Englifh Eaft India Captain, who difcovered it
in 1715. In the New Directory for the Eaft
Indies, by W. Herbert, W. Nicholfon, and others,.
(5th edition, 1780, pages 371 and 372) it appears, that Gough Ifland is a high land, fituate in
400 15' fouth latitude, and i° 57' to the weft of
Greenwich, or 40 17' to the weft of Paris. Cap-'
tain .HOUND THE WORLD.. tzj
tain-Vincent, commanding the Ofterley, a fliip belonging to the fame Company, alfo made Gough
Ifland in 1758, in the latitude pointed out by him
who difcovered it; but he believes, according to
his reckoning, that in placing it in i° 57' weft of
Greenwich, it is carried a few degrees too far to
the eaft.
This ifland is not known to French navigators,
but, as it may be fallen in with by fhips, which,
willing to go directly to the Indies or to China, early
in the feafon, without touching at the Cape of
Good Hope, might keep in higher latitudes, in
order afterwards to make the iflands of Saint Paul-
and Amfterdam, it will, without doubt, appear inte-
re fling to determine its true pofition, and it is
to be wifhed, that M. De La Peroufe, who has the
means of doing it, may be near enough to give it
his attention.
19. Ifle Grande of La Roche. This ifland is
only to be placed by conjecture from the following-
account, which has been extracted and tranflated
from the Spanifh work entitled Defcription geo-
graphica y derrotero de ia Region auftral Ala-
gallanico, etc. por el Capitan don Francifcb de
Seixasy Lovera; en Madrid, 1690 in 4to; foL 29.
" In the month of May, 1675, Anthony De La
If Roche, a Frenchman by birth*, then in the fer-
" vice
* It is furely by miftake that captain Cook,, in the general introduction to his fecond Voyage, page xv. of the original 12§ LA FERGUSES VOYAG$
^rfice of the Englifh, returning from the iflar&i
<£ of Chiloe, on the coaft of Chili, having doubled
H Cape Horn, and wifhirig tP enter into the South
IpAtlantic Ocean by the Straits of le Maire, (it was
*c not known then that there was a channel to the
" eaft of Staten-Land) met with ftrong wefterly
" winds and rapid currents, which carried him {o
<c far to the eaftward, that it was impoffible for
" him to get hold of the land which forms th<$
«' Strait of Magellan. The month of May was
*c already far advanced ; the winter was beginning
** in thefe climates, and la Roche began to de-*
H fpair with regard to his voyage. His uneafinefs
Sj grew greater ftill when he faw unknown land
*c before him to the eaftward*; he did all he could
" to approactfand furvey it, and he fucceeded in
cc fetching a bay, in which he anchored near a
cc cape or a point of land, which ftretched to the
*€ fouth-eaft. Here he found twenty-eight, thirty,
" and forty fathom water, fandy and rocky hot's torn: he diftinguifhed on the land, not far from
46 the coaft, fome mountains covered with fnow %
S$ he was expofed to very fqually weather, and
nal, in fpeaking of AntKony La Roche,, reprefents him as aft
Englifi Merchant.   .
* This land, as will be feen in the following note, h th*"
fame that M. DuclosGuyot made in 1756, and that captain
Cook, when he infpe£ted the north-eaft coaft, denominated?
Georgia IJIand*
0M 6C ftaid
mm Round the world. 129
." flayed there fourteen days. The weather at
I laft cleared up; he then found out that he had
|g anchored at one of the extremities of this land,
" and he difcovered, to tljgj fouth -eaft and to the
" fouth, other high lands covered with fnow.—
" A little breeze from the fouth-eaft enabled him
" to get under way, and* while making fail, the
" coaft of the faid ifland* bore weft, and the
u foutherly lands fouth and fouth eaft i it ap-
" peared to him* that the channel between the
" ifland and the main was about ten leagues
" in breadth ; the currents drifted him with vaft
I fwiftnefs to the north-eaft; and in fleering
" to the eaft-north-eaft, he found himfelf* in an
" hour and a half, out of the paffage, which he
" faid was very fhort, becaufe the new ifland,
U which forms this channel, with the land to the
'U fouth eaft, is very finally.
"In quitting this ifland j, he ran for twenty-
* This fuppofes what is not exprefted in the narrative, that
ne had anchored at the point of a main land which had an
ifland to the weft or to the north weft.
f It appears .that La Roche pafTed, as well as Cook, between the i$ftids called by the latter Willis IJland and Bird
JJland, but that he judged ill concerning the lize ef the
channel.
X La Roche, in  fpeaking of the variation of the com-
pafs near the eaft coaft of his ftraits, fays, that it was 19 de*
grees.    {^Antonio de la Roche, en fu Derrotero, fol. 22 & 23 **•-?*
§ee Seims y Leigm* fol. 47.)
..Vol. I. K "four S'30 LA PEROUSE S VOYAGE.
" fpur hours to the north-weft, then he was over-
" taken by fo violent a foutherly gale, that it
" obliged him to run for three days northward, as
" far as the forty-fixth degree of fouth latitude.
" The wind moderated, and La Roche, then
" thinking himfelf out of danger, flood for All-
" Saints Bay, and in the latitude of 45 degrees
" met with an ifland which he reported to be
" very large, agreeable to the view, and having
P a good harbour in the eaftern part, in which
" he found water, wood, and fifh; but he faw
" no inhabitants during the fix days he paffed
" there.
" From this harbour he went to All-Saints
I Bay." |pg
In laying down Ifte Grande, the pofition of the
firft land that La Roche difcovered to the eaftward
of Staten Ifland, and which has been found
again in thefe latter times (the Georgia Ifland of
Cook) has ferved as a guide. In confequenqe
the fouth coaft of Ifle Grande is laid down in 4^
decrees of latitude, according to the indiofttion
of La Roche, and at about thirty leagues more
weftward than the firft land he difcovered, becaufe
it has been obferved that in quitting this he ran
twenty-four hours to the north-weft; and that it is
probable that the gale from the fouth, by which he
•was overtaken, partook a little of the fouth-eaft
:lwind which had blown to that time ; and, in fhort,.
that ROUND THE WORLD. -fH
that after the gale of wind ceafed, until the difco-
Tery of Ifle Grande, in 45 degrees of latitude, he
had conftantly made northing, which was his courfe
to the Bay of All-Saints.
Every thing leads to a belief, that the Ifle Grande '
of La Roche is the fame land that Americus Vef-
pucius difcovered in his third voyage in 1502.—j
The geographers of the laft two centuries have
affigned different pofitions to this land of Vefpu-
cius, becaufe they were unacquainted with the
original journal of that ancient navigator; and becaufe it has not been found fince the period of
its difcovery, modern geographers" have effaced
it from their charts. However, in confulting
the original letters of Americus Vefpucius, in
which he gives an account of his voyages*, it
appears that it is not impoffible to fix, very nearly,
the pofition of the land which he difcovered in
1502. He fays, in the journal of his third voyage
{page 54 of his letters) that having gone out of a
harbour from the coaft of Brazil, fituate in 32
degrees of fouth latitude, (this may be the harbour
called San Pedro) he ran fouth-eaft as far as 52
degrees of latitude, where he no longer faw the liars
of the LefferBear, or thofe of the Greater.   It is
* Vita e Letter a di Amerigo Vefpucci raccolte ed illujlrate dall*
ablate Angelo-Maria Bandini. Firenze, 1745, I vol. z> 4to.
See alfo Novis Orhisi Bafileae, 155 5» in fol. page 226 and
following. \
K 2 neeeffary **
l|i LA £frROUSE*-S VOYAGE
neeefiary to obferve, that Vefpueius, in fpeaking
of his ce&ife, paid no attention to the variation of
the eompafs, which, at the time of his voyage,
muft needs have been, in thefe feas, from 19 to
20 degrees eaft, akd therefore this,*wfeieh he calls a
feuth-eaft coaft, ought to be considered as having
been in fell nearly a fefcath-fouth-eaft courfe : con-
fequently, on departing from thfe ooaft of Brazil, in 32'0 ©' ©f latitude^tb crofs the paraflel of
120 o' by a fouth -^feuth-eaft courfe, the point of
feftkm is found at about 440 o' to the weft of
Paris* that is to fay a little to the weft of the
meridian, under which Ifle Grande is fuppofed t&
lie, and 140 leagues, or thereabouts, fouth, a little
\veftward of this ifland. Vefpueius, being in this
pofition* the third of April, was overtaken by a
gale of wind, which obliged him to run tinder bare
poles; he continued to run in this way till the 7th,
when he fell in with new land, which he coafted
for the fpace of twenty leagues; it appealed to
him to be of difficult accefs, without ha#>our and
without inhabitants. Seamen will agree, without
any ftretch of imagination, on the probability, that
during the four daysthat Vefpueius was driven to
the northward by a v46ient fouth-weft wind, he
might run, though under bare poles, thirty-five
leagues in every twenty-four hours; and that he
might confequently be driven as far as 450 o/
of latitude,   having fet  out at   520 o'.    What ROUND THE WORLD.
l«
may give to this opinion considerable weight is,
that Vefpueius faid, that in quitting the new land
he judged himfelf to be thirteen hundred leagues
from the coaft  of Ethiopia (from:. Sierra Leona)
inhere he landed the tenth of May following, and
that to arrive there he conftantly fleet®! betwe#HP
a north and north-eaft  courfe, therefore, ffterra
Leona lies nprlfc-north-eaft two or three degrees
eaft of Ifle Grande, (according to its pofition in
the chart  giveft  to M. De La Peroufe) and  at
twelve or thirteen' fkmdred leagues diftance. After
all, no ifland is known at this diftance from the
coaft of Ethiopia, and in the direction of north-
north-eaft and feuth-fouth-weft, which can prefent
an uninterrupted continuance of twenty leagues of
coaft; and as the veracity of Vefpueius, upon  a
fact of this nature, cannot be fufpected, his tefti -
mony ought to be regarded as an ancient proof of
the exiften.ee  of Ifle Grande, confirmed   by the
more recent accounts of Anthony De La Roche.
20. Terre or Ifland of LaRoch$yby Cook denominated Georgia Ifland. The preceding nof& has
fhewn the epoch and. the circumftances of the dif-
covery of this Wand by Anthony De La Roche; but
the- rektion that Seixas has left us does not point
out the latitude; we only know that, to come
from this land to Ifle Grande, which La Roche fell
in with in 450 o', he ran twenty-four hours to the
north-weft, and that a ftrong foutherly-wind had
K
blown Il':
♦
134 LA  PEROUSE S VOYAGE
blown him for three days to the northward; but
it cannot be doubted, that the firft ifland or
land which he difcovered was to the eaftward of
Staten Ifland, and that this fame ifland had been
rej-difcovered^n 1756, by M. Duclos Guyot, before
captain Cook noticed it in 1775, and had determined its pofition.
M. Duclos Guyot, of St. Malo, commanded
the Spanifh veffel the Lion, returning from Lima.
He doubled Cape Horn, entered the Southern
Atlantic Ocean and found himfelf to the eaftward
of Staten Ifland.
" The 28th of June, 1756," fays M. Duclos
Guyot, " at nine o'clock in the morning, we'
" thought we faw land ahead, though very dif-
% tant, appearing like clouds, and of an extraordi-
" nary height; at that time we were Handing
g\ to the north-north-eaft. The hazinefs of the
" weather did not allow us to convince ourfelves of
1 it; moreover, not fufpecting we could be nearer
" any land than the Malouines, which, accord-
" ingj to our reckoning, bore weft-north-weft,
" diftant 135 leagues, and finding ourfelves at
" noon to be in yf io' latitude by obfervation,
" and in 520 iof longitude, weft of Paris, by our
1 reckoning, we continued our courfe without
" regard to land. The 29th at noon having gotten
" fight of a little ifland before us, we put about,
* and founded three hundred fathom, no ground.
"At ROUND THE  WORLD. 12£
At" nine o'clock we difcovered a continent of
about twenty-five leagues in length* lying north-
eaft and fouth-weft, full of fleep mountains, of
a frightful afpect, and of fo extraordinary a1
height, that we could fcarcely fee their fummits,
though at more than fix leagues diftance; the
quantity of fnow which covered them hindered
us from obfeping whether they were wooded.
The obfervations upon which we can beft rely,
and which we were able to make (being then
three leagues from the little ifland, which was
at an equal diftance from the great land), are,
that there is a very deep creek in this continent,
lying about eight leagues eaft and weft from the
faid ifland; it was the only place which appeared
to us proper to be inhabited; we might have
been ten or eleven leagues off. It appeared to
us to be of great extent as well in length as in
breadth; there is on the larboard hand, at its
entrance, to the north-north-weft of us, a low
point, the only one we could fee from its mouth;
it appeared to us detached from the main land;
we even thought that it was an ifland, or that,
if it joined the land, it muft have been by an
ifthmus,
" The 30th at break of day, we might have
been at ten leagues from this new land; in this
pofition we obferved no current, and we found
no bottom; we always faw plenty of birds and,
fea wolves.
K 4 "At I30 LA PEROUSE S VOYAGE
€& At noon, the land prefeft&d the fame afpect,
" except the fummits of the mountains, which
" were covered with clouds; the calm and very
" fine weather enabled us to take a good obferva-
" tion, and at noon w^fbund the latitude 540 50',
" our longitude, by reckoning, was 510 32" weft.
" The firft of July, at day break, thinking our-
ic felves far enough from land* we fleered eaft-
" ward, to obferve if the faid land extended itfelf
" further in this direction. At eight o'clock in
" the morning we faw its moft eafterly point, bear-
" north 5 degrees eaft** diftant about twelve
" leagues; at noon, continuing the fame courts^
*' we were in $$° 23' latitude by account, and
# 510 o' weft longitude.
" The 2d, light breezes from weft-fouth-wefi
" to weft-north-weft, hazy weather, abundance
" of fnow; courfe eaft-nprth-eaft. Endeavouring
iC to difcover the length of the land on this fide,
" at the break of day, there being a fettled calm,
** we found ourfelves furrounded by pieces of ice
" of different forms, many of them being at leaft
v thirty-five fathom elevated above the water, and
" more than a mile and a half in extent; we re-
" marked alfo, that there was a ftrong current, and
* The 28th of June, at night, the eve of the difcoverVj,
the variation of the compafs was obferve.d thirteen degrees
&n$ a half eaft; and the fourth of July it was thirteen de-
gm*t
Wv ROUND THE WORLD. I37
** we law many moie birds than ufual, efpecially a
" great quantity of entirely white pigeons,- like
" thofe of the coafts of Patagonia, and alfo many
" whales; from all thefe remarks we thought, that
" we might be upon a bank. In confequence we
" founded, but without finding any bottom ; we
" were then out of fight of land; latitude by ac-
** count 5$° 28', longitude 490 40' weft."
After that day M. Duclos Guyot never faw the
new land more, to which he gave the name of Ifle
De Saint Pierre.
On his landing at St. Jago, one of the Cape de
Verd Iflands, he difcovered (as he had. imagined,*
by the variation of the compafs, which he had
found to be 13°! and 13 degrees, inftead of 19,
that which ought to have been expected by the longitude he reckoned himfelf in when in fight of
the Ifland of St. Pierre) that the currents, after he
had doubled Cape Horn, had carried him io° 56*
eaftward of his reckoning. " Confequ^ntly (fay$:
" M. Duclos Guyot) the pofition of the land, that
" we difcovered the 29th of June, may be deter-
" mined; being ten leagues to the fouthward,
" when we had the beft fight of it, (the 30th) our
" latitude by obfervation was 540 50', and our
" longitude by reckoning 510 32' weft." Deducting the io° 56' which the, veffd was driven,
eaftward, there remains for the longitude of th$
ifland' 400 36' weft of Paris, which  M. Duclos
Guyot I38 LA.PEROUSE'S VOYAGE
Guyot reduces to 400 30' for the moft eafterly
part he faw ; and he fixes the latitude of the moft
foutherly part at 540 20'.
Captain Cook lays down the Ifle de Saint Pierre
(or Georgia as he calls it) between 530 57' and
540 57' of latitude, and between 400 33' and
370 54' longitude weft from Paris. (Cook's fecond
voyage, vol. 11, page 218 of the original) It may
be feen, that the pofition which M.Duclos Guyot
affigned to this fame land is not very defective,
although he was unprovided with the neceffary
means for determining the longitude with precifion ; his error arifes from the length of the ifland
only from eaft to weft, and there is no navigator
who ought not to meet with it after the pofition
he has given to it, efpecially if it be fought on the
weft fide;-his error cPnfifted in laying it down
about 30 leagues too much to the weftward,
M. Duclos Guyot, in terminating what concerns his Ifle de Saint Pierre, fays, " thefe are
our beft authenticated remarks, and we do not
doubt, although we cannot affert it pofitively,
that there is other land to the eaftward of that
which we have feen: every thing demonstrates it;
fea-weeds, ice, fifties, trees, and birds."—It was
in the year 1756, that he expreffed himfelf in
this manner.
21. Sandwich Land, difcovered in 1775.   It is
placed on the chart from the journal and the cal-.
i$y& culation
II ROUND   THE   WORLD. I39
culation of captain Cook. See his fecond voyage,
vol. 11, page 222 and following, in the original.
This land calls to recollection the Gulf of San
Sebaftiano, and the land marked upon the ancient
chart, fouth and fouth-eaft of the Terre De La
Roche.
22. Chriftmas Sound, upon the fouth-wTeft-coalt
of Terra del Fuego. See the chart and the journal of Cook's fecond voyage, vol. n, pages 177
and 198 of the original.
GREAT SOUTH SEA.
23. Drake's Ifland and Harbour, placed by
geographers at a hundred and eighty, or two
hundred leagues weft-fouth-weft of Cape Horn.
There have been many accounts of Sir Francis
Drake's voyage round the world, publifhed in
England: they differ effentially, one from the
other, refpecting the pofition of the lands difcovered by this celebrated navigator, after his
paffage through the Straits of Magellan.
According to the moft ancient,of thefe accounts (that of Hackluyt, publifhed in his collection of voyages by Englifllimen* jj after Drake's
fquadron was out  of  the Straits  of   Magellan,
J* The principal navigations, voyages, traffiques, and
difcoveries of the Englilh nation, &«. London, 1598, 99,
16005 in fol. Vol. Ill, page 744.
and K A
14O LA   PEROUSE'S   VOYAGE
and had paffed into the South Sea, the 6th of Sep-*
tember, 1578, his fhips flood to the north-weft,
for three days, after which the wind blew from
the north-eaft with fo much violence, that they
could only make a weft-fouth-weft courfe; they
continued this courfe for the fpace of ten or
twelve days, not having been able to carry much
canvafs; the heavinefs of the gale then obliged
them to furl all, and they lay to under bare poks
till the 24th of September. The fame day one
of the fhips of the flee parted company, the
wind, which became more moderate* allowed the
others to carry a little fail; they flood to the
north eaft (even days. They then difcovered
fome iflands, towards which they flood in order
to come to an an$lor; but the weather fruftrated
their purpofe: th£%ind fhifted to the north-weft,
and they made a weft-fouth-weft courfe. The day
following, the 1 ft of October, the weather being
Very bad, a fecond fhip parted from the fleet,
and the admiral was'left alone. Drake ran then
to 57 deg. of latitude* where he anchored, in
the harbour of an ifland, within gunfhot of the
fhore, in twenty fathom water.
He ftaid there three or four days;- and the
wind having -flown round to the fouth, he weighed
anchor, and flood to the northward, for the fpacs
of two days. He then difcovered alittle ifland,
inhabited, under which  he lay to,   in order tc*
*Tend ROU"ND   THE   WOkLD. $4*
fend a boat off, which returned with a great
many birds, feals, &;c.
Another account publifhed by Purchas, in 7nis
Haekluytus p&fthumus*, is thus expreffed.
The 7th of September, 1578, Drake was overtaken by a tempeft, which drove hint from the
weft entrance of the Straits of Magellan, more
than two hundred leagues in longitude, and carried him a degree to the fouth of the ftraits.
Thence he ran to the 1:7th degree of foutn lati-
tude* where he met with a number of iflands,
among which he anchored, and which fumifhed
him with very good water, and excellent herBjL
He difcovered another bay, where he found
Baked inhabitants, who ufed canoes, and held
Communications from one ifland to another; he
tnade feveral exchanges with them.
At length, quitting this bay,and ftanding to the
tjorthward, he, on the 3d of Octoberf, met with
three iflands, of which one was remarkable for
the prodigious quantity of birds he found there,
and which furpafs, fays the narrator, whatever
can be conceived, he.
* Hackk@tyspofiku?pis, or Purchas his Pilgrims, Sec. London, 1625, *n ^°1* Vol. I, page 50, of the Cir c urn- na viga~
tions of the Globe.
f This date is evidently falfe : it is probable that it is a
fault in the printing of the original; and that it is neceffary
10 read the 30th, inftead of .the 3d.
ISM* The 14$ LA   PERPUSE'S   VOYAGE
The third relation is that of Francis Fletcher*,
employed in the expedition, and aboard the
iame fhip with Drake, in quality of chaplain.
This is conformable but in a fmall degree with
the two former; but it is, the account of an eye
witnefs, of a man who ought not to be devoid
of inftruction; on the other hand we are ignorant as to the authority on which the others
are founded ; and as an ocular witnefs, Fletcher
appeared to us to deferve moft belief: befides,
we find in his recital a 'concordance as to facts,
a narrative regularly followed up by the events of
Drake's voyage, which are not met with in the
two other accounts.
According to Fletcher, in the beginning of
September, 1578, Drake was near the opening
of the Straits of Magellan, in the South Sea:
arrived at this point, he faw nothing but iflands,
among which it was impoffible for him to dif-
tinguifh the real channel. He anchored at one
of the iflands on the fouth fide; he went himfelf, in a boat for difcovery, and he fatisfied himfelf, that the paffage was open to the north.
After having vifited this ifland, and converfed
with the inhabitants, he put to fea again, and
on the 6th of  September he was clear of the
* The world encompajfec^ by Sir Francis Drake, colleeled out
#f the Notes of Mr. Francis Fletcher, preacher in this employment,
andMhers, &c. London, Nic. Bourne, 1652, in 4-to.
land. ROUND   THE   WORLD. 143
land. He much regretted not having been able
to land at the laft of the points which he difcovered in entering into the South Sea; he de-
fired to leave a teftimony there of his having
taken poffeflion of it; but he faw no place proper to difembark at, and the wind did not allow
him to wait.
The 7 th he was overtaken by a violent temped, which occafioned him to be drifted to the
fouth, as far as 57 degrees of latitude, without
his being able to difcover any land: here one of
the fhips parted from the fleet.
The weather afterwards allowed him to ftand
to the northward, and, the 7th of October he
anchored in a bay, a little to the north of this
fame point (which muft be Cape Pillar,) where,
the 7th of September, he regretted not being able
to leave fome proof that he had taken poffeflion
©f the fpot.
A fecond gale of wind drove him from this
anchorage, where he left his anchors; at this time
the rear admiral parted company in the gale, reentered the ftraits, and getting again into the Atlantic Ocean, arrived in England the 2nd of June
following: this circumftance occafioned him to
give to the anchorage ground, which he quitted,
the name of Bay of the Separation of Friends.
Drake drifted, this fecond time, as far as 55 degrees cf latitude; and, in this parallel, he found
1 himfelf. 144 t,A. *EitGt/SE*4   VOYA&t
himfelf fo fays the account^ among the iilahds
fituate to the fouth of America, of which mention had been made as foon as he entered into
the Great Sea, and which form$ with the conti-
; nent, the outlet of the ftraits^ He anchored at
thefe iflands, and got* two days reft: he filled
water, and found herbs, the ufe of which wras
highly falutary. to his crew, j
A third gale forced him to fea : it was impof-
Able he ,cduld carry any fail, and the coaft, to
leeward, prefented nothing but rocks and dangers; fig*
. Happily, at fome leagues to the fouthward of
the former anchorage, lie fucceeded fo far as to
find another, ftill among the fame iflands. It
was here that he faw the natives of thefe places
failing from one ifland to another, with their
wives and children; and he made fome exchanges
by way of traffic with them.
After three days, a fourth gale furprized him
at anchor, and forced him to cut the cable. He
gave himfelf up to the fea again, until §£ laft, lays
Fletcher, the 28th of October, " we r^ched the
if moft fputherly parts of thefe iflands, and thus
" difcovered the extremity of America, the near-
" eft to the pole." This extremity, adds he, is
fituate near to the 56th degree of latitude, (it
is Cape Horn): beyond it there exifts no co^i
tinent, no ifland 5 here the two feas meet.
4 Drake &OUND   THE   W€>r£bI I45
Drake gave all the iflands which he had ken
after his paffage through the ftraits, even to the
moft foutherly-, the name pf ElizabetkidesIflands*
Fletcher obferves* that, at this laft ifland, there
were only two hours night; and as the fun was
then fev&i degrees from the tropic of Capricorn,
it may be concluded* fays he, that the day that
this luminary paffes the tropical circle, there
ought to be no night. This conclufion proves,
that Fletcher was very ignorant of aftronomy:
all the world knows, that* to have no night,
the day of the folftice, it is neceffary to be fituate ,
under the polar circle, that is to fay, at 66°
32'; and Fletcher has juft faid, that he was
only at 56 degrees of latitude. It is notwith-^
Handing from this error, that fome geographers
o 7 O       O      x
have been led, to place the land, thus difcovered
by Drake, under the antarctic circle.
Drake, after being
days at this laft
anchorage, made fail directly to the north-weft;
and, the following day, he met with two iflands
very abundant in birds : he flopped there a little
time; and the ift of November he purfued his
courfe to the north-weft, &c.
After having examined* with attention, the
facts which Fletcher's narrative furnifhes, it is
impoflible to do otKerwife than conclude, that
the land, which geographers have called Drake's
Land,   is  only the wefterly part  of the Terra
Vol. I. L del I46 LA   PEROUSE'S VOYAGE
del Fuego; that, the 28th of October, Drake
arrived at the iflands of Cape Horn; and that,
the next day, Handing again to the north-
weft, he met with fome of thofe numberlefs
iflands, which compofe the archipelago of the
Terra del Fuego.
Although it may thus appear to be proved,
that the pretended Drake's Land does not exift,
there has been an unwillingnefs, notwithftanding,
to efface it from the charts: almoft all'the geographers, except thofe who have carried it either
to 60 degrees of latitude, or under the polar
circle, have placed it about a hundred and
eighty leagues to the weft-fouth-weft of Cape
Horn, or 10 degrees to the weft of the longitude
of the mouth of the ftrait, and in the 57 th deg.
of fouth latitude.
It is not to be doubted, but that, if the weather fhould favour M. De La Peroufe, he will
one day furnifh a verification, which will be
ufeful in deftroying a geographic error without
its recurring again. Cook, in 1769, and Fur-
neaux, in 17755 followed tracks, which, if this
Drake's Land exifted at the place which geographers have afligned it, would have put it in the
power of thefe navigators, if not of feeing it,
at leaft of obferving fome fign, fome indication
of land; and it is well known, that neither one
nor the other perceived any.
24. Terre ROUtfD THE WORLD. I47
24. Terre de Theodore Gerard. Theodore
Gerard, one of the firft Dutch navigators, who
have made a voyage in the Great Ocean, was
carried by a ftorm, in 1599* as far as 64 degrees
of fouth latitude, where he difcovered a mountainous land* covered with fnow, the afpect of
which appeared to him the fame as that of Norway* : it is placed 16 degrees to the weft of the
meridian of Cape Horn.
25. Land faid to have been feen by the Spaniards, in 1714.
To prove the exiftence; and pretty nearly fix
the pofition of this land, the annexed account
has been followed, taken from a " Memoire pour
la France, fervant a la Decouverte des Terres Auf-
trales," by a feaman of Saint Malo, named Bernard De La Harpe \.
" In 1714, the captain of a Spanifh brigan^
" tine left Callao to go to the ifland of Chiloe,
" and being in 38 degrees of fouth latitude* and
" at five hundred and fifty leagues (Spanifh, 171.
I to a degree) to the weft of Chili, difcovered
% an elevated land that he coafted a whole day;
* Dalrymptts Hiftorical ColleBion of Voyages, and D if cover its
London,  1770, in 4-to, vol. I, page 94.
f Printed at Rennes, chez Vatar, 15 pages in 4*0. See
alfo the Memoire de Pingre, fur le choix et V'etat de lieux pour
le paffdgede Venus duijuin 1769; Paris, Cavelier, 1767,
4to*
L 2 " he i-48 la   perouse's VOYAGE
" he judged by the fires he obferved during the
" night, that it muft be inhabited. Contrary
" winds havirtg obliged him to put in at Concep-
" tion, he found there a fhip called the Fran-
" cais, commanded by M. Du Frefne-Marion,
" who affirms he has feen the journal of the Spa-
" nifli captain, and has read the fact which has
" juft been related."
Thefe iflands ate placed on the chart of the
"Great South Sea, in 38 degrees of fouth latitude,
and between 108 and 109 degrees of weft longitude. This pofition agrees with the opinion
of captain Cook. See his fecond voyage, vol.
II, page 274, of the original.
Thefe iflands call to recollection the dif-
covery attributed to Juan Fernandez, a Spanifh
pilot, under the name of Terres De Juan Fer-
hich the charts lay down to the weft
nandez, w
of Chili. This navigator died without having
pointed out the latitude and longitude of his
difcovery : it is only known, that, about the year
-1576, he ran 40 deg. to the weft of the coafts
of Chili, having fleered weft, and fouth-weft,
and after a month and half of navigation, he
reached a land, which he defcribed as being a vaft
.continent. This diftance of 40 degrees, of longitude, to the weft of the coafts of Chili, is not
far removed from that,'where the land faid to
have been difcovered by ,the Spaniards, in 1714,
is ROUND   THE   WORLD. I49
is placed. See, for the land feen by Juan Fernandez, Dalrymple's Hiftorical Collection of
Voyages and Difcoveries, vol. I, page 53; and
the Voyages tranflated from Dalrymple'by M.
De Freville, page 125.
26. Ifle De Paque, or Eafter Ifland. This
ifland, difcovered in 1.722, by Roggewein, a
Dutchman, was feen and vifited, in 1774, by
captain Cook, who determined the pofition of
it. See his fecond voyage, vol. I, page 276,
of the original.
The Spaniards touched at Eafter Ifland, the
16th of November, 1770, and called it San
Carlos, or Saint Charles. There is added to the
collection of charts, with which M. De La Peroufe is furniflied, the plan which the Spanifh
fhips had taken of this ifland, round which their
boats .made a tour. They place it in 2 70 6' fouth
latitude, and268° 19'from the meridian of Tene-
riffe, or no° 41'weft of Paris; that is to fay,'
they have carried it too far to the eaft, by about
one degree and half.
The variation of the compafs there, according
to the Spaniards, in 1770, was z° 30' eaft.
27. Iflands faid to have been feen by the Spaniards, in 1773, in 32 degrees of fouth latitude,
and 130 degrees weft of Paris.
This  pofition is the fame which is given from
the account of M. Croizet, captain of a French
liS L 2 fhio •
fM   $ "lip , §|§ LA PER0USEsS VOYAGE
fhip; and is that which captain Cook had adopt«
ed. See his fecond voyage, vol. II, page 267,
of the original.
It appears, however, that this pofition may be
difputed; and upon the following grounds :
It was at their return from Otaheite, in 1773,
that the Spanifh fhips difcovered the iflands fituate in 32 degrees of latitude;   and it is highly
probable,   that   the longitude   they  affigned  to
thefe iflands, (with which   M. Croizet  had been
acquainted)    is   affected  with  the   fame    error
they made as to the longitude they affigned to
Otaheite.    By the extract of their voyage to this
ifland,   communicated to  one of M.   Surville's
officers,  during their flay at Lima,   it may be
feen, that the Spaniards have placed the ifland of
Otaheite,   which they called  I/la D'Amatm,   in
170 29' latitude,   and in  2330 32' of  longitude
eaft from the meridian of Teneriffe,   which an-
fwers to   1450 .28' of longitude   weft  of Paris.
Now the longitude of this ifland has been determined, by the numerous obfervations of captain
Cook and the Englifh aftronomers, at 1510 52*
weft of Paris :   the pofition given by the Spaniards   is thus an  error of 6°  24' towards the
eaft.
* From the name of the Vice-roy of Peru, who ordered
fhe expedition.
if ROUND THE WORLD. t$t
If the longitude of the iflands difcovered, at
32 degrees of latitude, be affected by the fame
miftake, they ought to be laid down in 1360 24'
weft of Paris, inftead of 130 degrees, very nearly under the fame meridian that Pitcairn Ifland
is placed.
It is obfervable, neverthelefs, that captain
Cook has followed this meridian in his fecond
voyage, without perceiving any thing; he perceived nothing in-his firft voyage in croffing the
parallels of 128 and 129 degrees of longitude:
but there is ftill between thefe two courfes a
fpace of eight degrees, from eaft to wreft, not
failed through, in which it is to be hoped the
iflands difcovered by the Spaniards, in 1773, in3z
degrees of latitude, may be again feen.
A general remark may be made, that all the
ancient difcoveries of the Spaniards, and which
there have been opportunities to verify, have been
found fituate much farther to the weft than
they had reprefented them to be; and up to the
prefent time their modern difcoveries in the
Great Ocean appear affected by an error on the
fame fide.
Captain Cook being in the latitude of thefe
iflands, and very near under the meridian they
are wont to be placed on after the correction
above pointed out, that is to fay, 320 30' latitude, and 1330 40' weft of the meridian of
L 4 Greenwich, tt .
II
S$Z LA   PEROUSE S   VOYAGE
Greenwich, or 13 6° weft of Paris, makes an ob«*
fervation deferving mention.
" This day, fays he, (22d July, 1773,) was
" remarkable, by our not feeing a fingle bird.
" Not one had paffed fince we left the land,
" (New Zealand) without feeing fome of the fol-
" lowing birds, viz. ^albatrofles, fheerwaters, pin-
" tadoes, blue petrels, and Port Egmont hens.
" But thefe frequent every part of the Southern
" Ocean in the higher latitudes; not a bird, nor
" any other thing was feen, that could induce us
" to think that we had ever been in the neigh-
" bourhood of any land." (Cook's fecond voyage,
vol. I, page 135, of the original.)
This obfervation might induce a belief, that
there is but little hope to find the iflands or land
feen by the Spaniards in 32 degrees of latitude,
in looking for them in the longitude of 136
degrees weft of Paris, fince. captain Cook being
under this meridian, and nearly in the fuppofed
parallel of thefe iflands, faw not a bird, not a
fign of land. There is no foundation, however,
for calling their exiftence in queftion; and after
having given the reafons which leave a great uncertainty upon their true pofition, there remains
only to rely on M. De La Peroufe for taking
thefe reafons into confideration, in the refearch
he will inake after them. It muft be obferved,
in cpncluding this article, that it is very probable
thsy HOUND   THE   WORLD, I53
they are more weftward than 13 6° or weft of
Paris, fince the Spaniards fell in with them in
coming from Otaheite to Peru: and it would
have been neceffary, that they fhould make more
than a good fouth-eaft courfe, with the trade
winds fouth of the line, in order that they
fhould run down 220 o' of eaft longitude, whjite
making only 14I degrees of latitude*
GREAT EQUATORIAL OCEAN.
28. Iflands of the South Sea, or of the Great
Equatorial Ocean, between the 26th, and the
1 oth degree of fouth latitude, and the fpace com-
prifed between the 130th degree of longitude,
weft, and the 170th eaft of Paris.
For all the iflands contained within thefe limits there is occafion only to refer M. De La
Peroufe to the accounts of the voyages of Byron, Bougainville, Carteret, Wallis, Furneauxv
and Cook; he will find in them all the geographical, phyfical, and hiftorical details, which
may be ufeful to him in fearching   for  fome of
thefe iflands,
ind.in the flay that he may b
e ail-
pofed to make there. With regard to the anciently difcovered iflands in the fame feas, by
Jvlendana, in 1567, and 1595, Quiros and Tor*
rez, in 1606, Le Maire and Schouten, in 1616,
Abel Tafman, in 1642, and Roggewein, in 1722,
they I s4-
LA PEROUSE S   VOYAGI
they have all been inferted in the chart of the
Great Equatorial Ocean, which has been delivered
to M. De La Peroufe for his voyage, conformably to the indications which may be drawn from
the original narratives publifhed concerning the
difcoveries of thefe navigators. The pofitions
given to them on the chart differ much,- how-'
ever, from thofe which had been affigned from
thofe very narratives; but the proved identity
of fome. of thefe iflands with thofe which have
been recognized by modern navigators, having
contributed to rectify many of the ancient determinations, ufe has been made of fome of
thefe rectified points, as foundations to correct
one after another, and, at leaft in part, the
pofitions of fome other anciently difcovered
iflands, which have not yet been again found :
there are however, many refpecting which * great
uncertainty remains, becaufe the journals of ancient navigators are fo devoid of obfervations
and of dates, fo fterile in nautical facts, that
there can often be drawn from them only unsatisfactory conjectures; their filence about the
moft interefting circumftances of the voyage fome-
times deprives the geographer of all means of
combination, of ail comparison with other journals, whence lights might be drawn as a guidance
through the obfcuiitye
The* HOUND THE WORLD. X$$
The courfes indicated, and the difcoveries madfc
by thefe ancient navigators, will here be fumma-
rily traced, as far as they can be deduced from
the relations which have appeared to merit the moft
confidence. It is much to be defired, that chance
and happy combinations may enable his Ma-
jefty's fhips to meet fome of the iflands thus loft
to navigation; which, white offering them, in
the courfe of their difcoveries, refources in the
neceffaries of life and refrefhments, may alio
contribute to the extenfion of human knowledge.
1. The Voyage of'Afagellan*,{i519.) From the
ftrait to which this navigator gave his name,
he flood weft-north-weft as far as the equator,
which he croffed at 9858 miles from the ftrait,
and near the 170th degree of longitude eaft from
Paris; in this long run he difcovered only two
little defert iflands, at the diftance of 200 leagues
from each other, viz. San Pedro, in 18 or 19
degrees of fouth latitude; de los Tiburons, m
14 or 15 degrees of fouth latitude.
Thefe iflands which Magellan called by a general
name Unhappy Iflands, are ftill unknown; and they
are not marked upon the chart of theGreat Equatorial
* See the voyage and navigation from the Molucca
Iflands, by the Spaniards, defcribed by Anthony Pigaphet-
ta ; -Ramufio's Collection, Decadas da Afia,—de Bdrras
e Couto; Navigations aux terres aujlrale's, ,by De Brojfes;—~
Palrymple's Hiftorical Collection, and others. *56
LA   PEROUSE S   VOYAGE
Ocean, becaufe their pofition is not pointed out
in a manner fufficiently precife. Of all the iflands
difcovered fince Magellan, there is only Cook's
Savage Ifland, and Bougainville's Enfant Perdu,
which can reprefent to us the two Unhappy Iflands:
they are 200 leagues from each other, like
thefe, and nearly in their latitude; Savage Ifland
is in 190 \' latitude, and i72p 30' weft longitude
from the meridian,of Paris: LEnfant Perdu, in
*4° 6' of latitude, and 1790 z' eaft longitude.
2. The Voyage of Mendana*, (1567.) From
Callao, a port of Lima, Mendana flood to the
weftward, and made a run of 1450 leagues, (Spanifh of 1 yi to a degree) without finding land.
He difcovered then :
Jefus Ifland, a fmall one, inhabited, latitude
fouth, 6° 15'.
. Candlemas Shoals, a reef of rocks with many
little iflands; the middle in 6° 15' of fouth latitude, and 170^ leagues from Jefus Ifland.
Ifabella Ifland, 95 leagues.in length, and 20
in breadth, of which the fouth-eaft point is in
90 o' of latitude, and the north-weft in 70 36'.
They anchored in a harbour which is on the north
# Geographia Indiana de Herrera..——^rHi/loria de las Indias,
Lopes Vas. Navigations aux ierres aufrales, by De Broflbs.
i Dalrymple's Hiftorical Collection.—Decouvertes dans le
■msf du Sud, etc- kPUND   THE   WORLD. t$f
fide, and a brigantine, which was fent thence on
difcovery, found the iflands following:
Malaita, thus called by the Indians, a large
ifland, fourteen leagues eaftwrard of a great bay,
in 8 degrees of latitude.
La Galera, a little ifland of five leagues circumference, furrounded by reefs.
Buona-Vifta, twelve leagues in circumference,
in 90 30' of latitude.
La Florida, twenty-five leagues in circumference, in 90 30' of latitude.
San Dimas, V forming a chain which ex-
Saint Germain, vtends eaft and weft with Flo-
La Guadelupa,Jrida.
Sefarga, in 90 30' of latitude, a round ifland,
of eight leagues circumference, with a volcano in
the middle.
Guadalcanar, a very extenfive land, with a
good harbour.
Saint George, near Ifabella Ifland, from which
it is feparated only by a channel; a good harbour, and pearls were found there.
Saint Chriftopher, a narrow and mountainous
ifland, with a good harbour, in 11 degrees of
■latitude.
two little iflands to the
' eaft of St. Chriftopher, three
.leagues  diftant from   each
Saint Catherine,
Saint Anne,
other.
Tha *5&
LA   PEROUSE S   VOYAGE
There- is a good harbour on the eaftern fhof$
of the latter.
Befide thefe iflands* cited in the relation of
Chriftopher Suarez De FiguerPa, many others
are to be found, named in the defcriptions of
JHerrera, and De Bry, and which may be (een
alfo upon ancient charts; fuch as Saint Nicolas*
Arrecifes* Saint Mark, Saint Jerome, &c.
All thefe iflands, fince known under the name'
of Solomon's Iflands, appear to be the Terres
Des Arfacides, difcovered by Survillc, commanding the fhip Saint-Jean-Baptifte* in 1769*
3d. Maidana'sfecond'voyage*, (anno 1596.)
From Payta, on the coaft of Peru, he fleered
weft, as far as 1000 leagues from the coaft,
without feeing land. Difcovery was then made*
as, follows:
The Marquefas of Me-iidoca^ between nine and
ten degrees of fouth latitude, four iflands which
were called La Magdalena, San Pedro, La Do-
piinica, and Santa Chriftinu s in the wefteni
part of this laft was found a good harbour, which
was called Aiadre de Dios. (They have been
•again found in 1774 by capt. Cook.)
The iflands of San Bernardo in io° 45' latitude,
k#nd 1400 leagues from Lima, four little low iflands*
* Navigations aux terres auftrales.^
——Decouvertes dans le Mer du Sud.
-Hiflorieal Collection*
fandyf ROUND   THE   WORLD. jjt)
fendy, and defended by a reef of rocks. The
circuit round all of them may be eight leagues.
{It appears that thefe are the fame iflands which
were feen in 1765 by commodore Byron, who denominated them Iflands of Danger; and it is after
laid down in the chart in io° 51'
1690 30' of weft longitude from Paris.)
LaSolitaria, in io° 40' of latitude, and 1535
leagues from Lima, a little round ifland, a league
in circuit.—(It has not been feen fince, but its
pofition, deduced from its diftance from the iflands
of San Bernardo and Santa Cruz, appears fufficiently
exact; it is in io° 40' latitude, and. 178° 20' weft
longitude.)
The ifland of Santa.Cruz, a large ifland, with a good
harbour for anchoring, in xo°' 20' of latitude, and
at 1850 leagues from Lima. It was again feen in
1768 by captain Carteret, who called it Egmont
Ifland, making a part of Queen Charlotte's Iflands;
and it is according to the track of this navigator,
that it has been laid down in the chart in eleven
degrees of latitude, and 1610 %$' of eaft longitude.
4th. Voyage of Quiros andTorrez, (anno 1606.)
From Callao, they fleered fouth-weft and weft
as far as a thoufand leagues from the coaft of Peru,
without feeing land. They difcovered afterwards
as follow:
Encar- l6d LA   PER0USE*S   VOYAGE
Encarnacion, in 2 50 of fouth latitude, and at |
thoufand leagues from Peru, a little ifland {out
leagues round, and fo low, that it is fcarcely per*
ceptible above the water.
San Juan Baptifta, an ifland twelve leagues
in circumference, very high land, two days and
a half fail from Encarnacion Ifland, to the weftward.
San Elmo, fix days fail from San Juan Baptifta ; an ifland thirty leagues in circumference,
furrounded by a reef of coral; the middle of the
ifland  is covered by the fea.
Las Quatro Coronas. Four inacceffible iflands*.
a day's fail from San Elmo.
San Miguel, at four leagues diftance from
Quatro Coronas, to the weft-north-weft; it is
ten leagues in circumference, and lies north and
fouth.
La Converjion de San Paulo, to the weft*
north-weft of San Miguel, half a day's fail.
La Dezana, four days fail from Converfion de
San Paulo ; about the latitude of 18°. 40'
La Saga tarid, one day's fail from Dezana; a
large ifland, the north-weft point of which is
in 170 40'of latitude. Information was gained at
this ifland, that there was other land to the weftward.
There is great reafon to believe, that the Saga-
taria of Quiros is the fame ifland as Otaheite:
c the ItoUND   THE   WORLD. l6t
$k& latitude, the bearing of the coaft, that was
tun down the land fpoken of, to the weft of the
Sagataria, perfectly agree vftt-h the ifland of
Otaheite. La Dezana, of Quiros* will, in confe-
quence, be the ifland of Ofnaburg of Wall is,
the Boudoir of Bougainville, the Ifland Maitea
of Cook, eaft-fouth-eaft* of Otaheite.
For the other iflands which precede La Dezana, it appears, that they have not yet been
known. Cook thinks that Pitcairn Ifland, difcovered by Carteret,, is the Ifland of San Juan
Baptifta, of Quiros; but the difference of fize
does not permit the adoption of that opinion.
San Juan Baptifta is twelve leagues in circumference, and Pitcairn is only three: befides, the
diftance of a thoufand leagues, from the Encar-
* It may be feeri by thefe difcoveries of Quiros, that
there mull be a chain of confiderable iflands fouth-fouth-eafl,
and fouth-eait, of Otaheite, which may ftretch much further
to the fouthward, even to the 3zd degree, where we know
the Spaniards faw iflands in 1773. If very ancient charts
might be cited at this time, and regard paid to them, a
belief might be entertained that the continent which they
reprefent to have been difcovered by Fernand Gallego, and
extending itfelf to the weit-north-weft> and north-well from
Cape Horn, tp New Guinea ; is nothing elfe than this chain
of iflands, which extend further in the jbuth-eaft, than the
point where the difcoveries of Quiros commenced : it would
be found further welt, than the firft'track'of captain Cook,
in a fpace of fea which has not been vifited in thefe latter
times. S4Jt3^jg§*
ISj&'VoL. I, M jiacion 102
LA   PEROUSE S   VOYAGE
nacion of Quiros to the coafts of Peru, would
place this ifland to the weft of Pitcairn, by fome
degrees, and fo mudi more the Ifland of San
Juan Baptifta; which is two days fail to the weft
of Encarnacion, as before fhown. It is to be ob-
ferved, that ! the Marquefas of Mendoca, which
are placed at 6° o' to the weft of Pitcairn, were
pointed out by Mendana as at iooo leagues
from the coaft of Peru.
According to Dalrymple [Iliftorical Collection,
vol. I, page 5,) the Ifland of San Juan Baptifta, would be in 26° o' of latitude, and that
of San Elmo, in 28° o'. However it may be,
it is in the fouth-eaft of Otaheite, that the ancient iflands of Quiros muft be looked for.
Taking his departure from Sagataria, and continuing his cPurfe to the weft, Quiros difcovered
the following iflands.
La Fugitiva, two days, or two days and half
fail from Sagataria. It was perceived in the north-
eaft; but being too far to leeward, they could
not land there.
El Peregrin*, one day's fail from La Fugitiva,.
Here alfo they did not land on account of the
wind.
(It is not very eafy to know where to placea
thefe two iflands, unlefs they are ftlppofed to be
fome of the Society Iflands,   or others; yet unknown, north-eaft of thofe).
San ROUND   THE   WORLD.  . j    163
San Bernardo, fix days fail from the Ifland of
Peregrino, and in io° 30'fouth latitude; a level
ifland, fix leagues in circumference, and of which
a fait water lake, or the fea, occupies the centre.
(This ifland muft not be confounded with
thofe of San Bernardo, difcovered by Mendana,
and which were four in number. Moreover,
Quiros, in a memorial prefented to Philip thb
Third, King of Spain, makes no mention of the
Ifland of San Bernardo, and he cites Nueftra
Sendra Del Socorro, as the name of the Ifland
which immediately follows Peregrino: it appeared uninhabitable).
Gente Hermofa, or Handfome Nation, {even
days fail from the Ifland of San Bernardo, and
in the fame latitude as Mendana's Ifland of
Santa Cruz, viz. in 11° o' fouth latitude: fix
leagues in circumference, on which the inhabitants wrere the faireft and handfomeft to be feen
in thofe feas; the women in particular were of
. rare beauty, and clothed in a light covering.
(In the above cited memorial of Quiros, the
name of Gente Hermofa is not to be found,
but inftead of it,- that of Monterey, who was
viceroy of Mexico).
Tanmago,   at thirty-three days fail from the
Ifland of the Handfome Nation, and almoft in the
parallel ^of . the Ifland of Santa  Cruz:   it is a
confiderably large ifland, where wrere found wood,
M 2 water. fp4 LA   PEROUSES   VOYAGS
Water, and refrefhments, with very peaceable
inhabitants. (There it was learnt, as well a£
from an Indian, who was taken from the place
and carried to Mexico, that there were many
iflands furrounding it, fuch as Chicayana, Guay-
topo, Mecarailay, Fonofono, Pilen, Naupau, &c,
which have not been feen.fince by any navigator. It is remarked that, in the run from the
Ifland of the Handfome Nation to Taumago,
there were almoft always prefages of land, fuch as a
great quantity of pumice ftane, and numerous
flocks of birds). '    '
Tucopia, fix days fail from Taumago, and in
12° o' of fouth latitude :' in coafting along this
ifland, where they could not go afhore, it was
learnt from the inhabitants, that there was much
land to the fouth, fail was made accordingly to
that quarter to look for \t-.
- Nueftra Sendra De La Laiz, a high land, at
14° 30' fouth latitude. (This ifland appears to
be the peak of L'Etoite, to the north of. the
great Cyclades of M. De Bougainville).
- Tierra Del Efpiritu Santo, aad' Harbour of
La Vera Cruz. This land, which was the extremity of the voyage of Quiros, has been fince
found by M. De Bougainville, who called it L,cs
Gra?ides • Cyclades, and afterwards by captain
Cook,- who named it the Neiv Hebrides. This
laft has preferved in the north,-the name of Tiehr&.
Del ROUND  THE WORLD. lOjf
Del Efpiritu Santo. On leaving this land, Quiros
made fail for New Spain, or Mexico, where he
arrived without making any other, interefting
difcoveries: but Torrez, who was feparated from,
the fleet, flood to,the weftward, and paffed between New Holland and New Guinea, in the
fame manner as captain Cook has fince done in
the Endeavour.
5th. Voyage ofLe Alaire and Schouten* (anno
i6\6\. From the Ifle of Juan Fernandez, where f
thefe navigators went on fhore, after having difcovered the Straits of Le Maire, and been the firft
to double Cape Horn, they flood to the weft-north-
weft 9t25*leagues from the coaft of Peru, without
feeing land ; then were difcovered as follows ;
HondEiland, or Ifland of Dogs, in 1 ;° 12'
fouth latitude, and at 925 Dutch leagues (15 to a
degree) from the coaft of Peru, a little ifland .about
three leagues in circumference, but fo flat that it
is in part overflowed at high water,
Sondre-grond, or Bottomlefs Ifland, in 150
15' of latitude, and at 100 leagues weft of the
Ifland of Pogs, inhabited, and of 20 leagues
circumference. According to the relation of Le
Maire, its latitude would be 140 35', inftead of
15° 15> which the relation of Schouten gives,
* Diarium vel Defcriptio Itineris facli a. GuilL Scfaoutmio.—*
Miroir foji^ et nveft-indical, etc.—Speculum orientalis cccidentalif-
que Navigat. etc.—Navigations aux Terres Auftrales.—-HiHorical
£olle£ion, &c.—Decouvertes duns la Mer du Sud, etc. m m
l66 LA  PEROUSE's VOYAGE
Waterland, in latitude 140 46', and 15 leagues
from Bottomlefs Ifland. Water was found there,
and a fpecies of creffes, but it did not appear to be
inhabited.
Ulyegen, or the Ifland of Flies, in 150 30' of latitude, and 20 leagues from Waterland ; a low ifland,
inhabited, where the vifitors were affailed by a prodigious number of flies.
The Ifland of Cocoas, in latitude 160 10' fouth,
twenty-three days, fail from the Ifland of Flies; a
high ifland, appearing like a folitary mountain,
well peopled, and covered with cocoa nut trees.
The Ifland of Traitors, in 16° c/ of latitude, and
two leagues to the fouthward of the Ifland of Cocoas;
the land fiat and inhabited. Thefe laft two iflands
were feen again in 1767, by captain Wallis, who
gave the name of Bofcawen to the Ifland of Cocoas,
and that of Keppel to the Ifland of Traitors ; he
found the firft in 150 50' fouth latitude, and the
fecond in 150 55', which makes a difference only
of 15 minutes from the latitude given by Le Maire
and Schouten.
It is remarked, that, on the evening preceding
their arrival at thefe iflands, Le Maire and Schouten met with a canoe filled with Indians, failing to
the fouthward, a circumftance which indicates,
that there are other iflands in that direction.
Goede-Hoop, or the Ifland of Good Hope, in the
fame parallel as the Ifland of Cocoas, and thirty
leagues. ROUND THE  WORLD. •       167
, leagues to the weftward: an inhabited ifland, about
two leagues in length from north to fouth.
Ho orn Eilands, in lattude 140 56', and about
1550 leagues from the coaft of Peru ; two iflands
fituate within gun fhot of each other, and inhabited; with a good haven at the fouthern extremity of the larger one: every fort of refrefh-
ment was found there.
At a hundred and fifty-five leagues from the
Hoorn Iflands, thirteen days after having quitted
them, and in 4 degrees of fouth latitude, figns of
land were oblerved.     Then
Four fmall iflands, furrounded by fand banks
and flioals, and inhabited, in 40 30', and five days
.before making that part of New Guinea which is
now called New Ireland.
Twelve or thirteen iflands occupying about
half a league from fouth-eaft to north-weft, three
,days before reaching New Guinea.
Three low iflands, covered with trees, and named
in confequence GroenEilands, (Green Iflands) one
day before reaching New Guinea,
Sight of the Ifland of St. John.
New Guinea, or eaftern coaft of New Ireland,
diftant, by dead reckoning, 1840 Dutch leagues
from the coaft of Peru.
N. B. Of all the iflands {een in this voyage,
none have been fince found out, except thofe of
Cocoas and Traitors, which have, been vifited by
M4 Wallisi l68 LA   PEROUSE"S   VOYAGE
Wallls; they are laid down upon the chart from
the journal of this navigator, and the diftance of
all the others regulated from that of thefe twq
iflands.
6th. Voyage ofAbelTafman,* ('a"nno 1642). From
Batavia, Tafman touched at the Ifle of France,
then called Mauritius: thence fleering to the
fouthward, as far as 40 or 41 degrees of fouth-
latitude, and afterwards to the eaftward, as far
as the 163d degree of longitude from the meridian
of Teneriffe, or 1440 eaft of the meridian of Paris,
the meridian of Teneriffe being 190 o' weft of the
former, he difcovered as follows s
The land which was called  Van Diemen's, in
420   2.5' fouth latitude and 1639 o7 of longitude
from the meridian of Teneriffe.  He anchored xin a
bay which received the name of Frederic Henry,
10' of latitude, and 167^ §t/ of longitude.
Another high and mountainous land, which-
was called New Zealand, in 420 io' latitude,
188° 28' longitude, he anchored in a great
bay, fituate in 400 49' latitude, and 1910 41'
longitude : the conduct of the natives of the
country gave occafion to call it Affaffins Bay.
A groupe of iflands, called the Three Kings, in
fouth latitude, and 1900 40' longitude.
* Oudei
aux Terres Aufirt
to Mer du Slid,
w poft Jndien, etc. door F. Valentyn-rl
ales.—HJftorical Colledtion.»—#«■*«
Tkf ROUTsTD   THE   WORLD. 169
They were found at the end and to the weftward
of a length of coaft, which was run down from
Affaffms Bay.
The Ifland of Py lftaaris,ox Wild Ducks, in latitude 220 35', and longitude 2040 15'; a high and
fteep ifland, of two or three leagues in circuit.
Amfterdam Ifland, in latitude 21° 20', and longitude 2250 9 ; alow and flat ifland, the inhabitants
of which were hofpitable and benevolent. (This is
'the Tongataboo Ifland of captain Coo]£, one of
the Friendly Ifles).
Ifland of Middleburg, a high and inhabited
Ifland to the S. E. of Amfterdam, It is the Eooa
of Cook.
Uitardam, Namokoki, and Rotterdam, inhabited and cultivated iflands, in 200 15' of latitude, and 206°  19' of longitude.    (The natives
which captain Cook has retained).
Prince William's Iflands, and the Shallows of
Heemfkirck, in 17° 19' of latitude, and 201°' 35*
of longitude :   thefe   are   eighteen   or   twenty '
little iflands furrounded by ihpals  and reefs of
rocks.
The Iflands ofOntongJava, in latitude cf zr, and,
by dead reckoning, 90 Dutch leagues from the
part of New Guinea called at prefent new Ireland:
\t is a clufterof twenty-two little iflands.
The Iflands of Alar ck. Three days fail from the
pre- 17° LA   PEROUSE S   VOYAGE
preceding. Another duller of fourteen or fifteen
little inhabited ifles, and which had before been
{een by Le Maire and Schouten.
The Green Iflands. Four days fail from the
preceding, and one day's fail before arriving at
St. John's Ifland
The Ifland of St. John,
St. Mary's Cape. On the eaftern coaft of New
Guinea (now New Ireland) in latitude 40 30', and
longitude 1710; thence ftanding to the north-
weft along the coaft of New Ireland, pafling the
Iflands of Anthony Cave, of Garet Dennis, &c,
then to the fouthward and weftward along the^
northern coaft of New Guinea.
All the lands and all the iflands feen in this
voyage have been feen again in our times, and
found in the pofition which Tafman had affigned
them; they are laid down in the chart according
to the tracks and obfervations of modern navi-*
tors.
7. Voyage of Roggewein* (anno 1722). From
the Ifland of Juan Fernandez, Roggewein failed to
the weft-north-weft, with the intention of making
Davis's   Land,   which  he did   not   find.    He
difcovered
Eafter Ifland.   In 2 70 4' of fouth latitude,  and
2 6 50 42' of eaft longitude from the meridan of
* Expedition de trois Vaiffeaux, Sec .-—Vies des gouverneurs-
de Ba^avia—Navigations aux Terres Auf rales.—Hiforical
Colleclion.-—Decouvertes dans la Mer du"Sud.
Teneriffe* ROUND   Til
WORLD.
Teneriffe,  according
to the author of Vies des
Gouverneurs de Batavia ; which anfwers to long.
113° 18" weft of the meridian of Paris; an inhabited ifland, 16 Dutch leagues in circumference,
and'remarkable for the ftatues or coloffal figures
raifed in great numbers upon the^coaft. (It was
vifited by captain Cook, who found it in latitude
270 5', and longitude 1120 6' weft of Paris; and
who called it Eafter Ifland. It was alfo feen, in
1770, by the Spaniards, who lay it down in latitude 270 6", and longitude 2680 1 9' from the meridian of Teneriffe, which anfwers to no° 42/
longitude weft of Paris ; thefe laft navigators have
given it the name of San Carlos).
Carls-hof, or Charles's Court, in 150 45'
fouth latitude, and after a run of eight hundred
leagues from Eafter Ifland. According to the
French relation of this voyage, it is a little flat
ifland with a kind of lake in the middle. Roggewein
believed it was the Ifland of Dogs of Le Maire and
Schouten, and the Dutch account afligns neither
latitude nor longitude to it: it has been laid
down, in the chart, relatively to its diftance from
the Mifchievous Iflands, which are about twelve
leagues to the weftward, and the pofition of
which is now known.
Mifchievous Iflands, in 140 41' fouth latitude*
and 12 Dutch leagues to the wreftward of Charls-
hof;   thefe are faux low and iflhajbited iflands,
which kial
£*JZ LA   PEROUSE S   VOYAGE
which are from four to ten leagues in circuni*
ference. (Roggewein loft a veffel there, a cir*
cumftance which occafioned him to give the title
of Mifchievous to one of thefe iflands: two others
were called the Two Brothers, and another the
Sifter: five men of the crew remained there, who
deferted and were left behind. There is reafon to
believe, that ^hefe iflands are the fame as thofe of.
Pallifer, difcovered by Cook in his fecond voyage;
and the Englifh navigator is of the fame opinion.
:See Cook's fecond voyage, vol. I, page 315, and
following).
.. Aurora Ifland, eight leagues weft of the Alifl
chievous Iflands; a little ifland of four leagues in
circumference, which has not yet been recognized.-,
Vefpcr Ifland, a low ifland, twelve leagues in
circumference, difcovered the fame day as Aurora
Ifland, and which is equally unknown at prefent.
The Labyrinth, & group of iflands, to the
number of fix, of a charming appearance, which
are together of about thirty leagues extent;
they are twenty^five leagues to the weftward
of Mifchievous. The Dutch narrative of the
voyage makes no mention of the Labyrinth,
but an inacceflible ifland, which it lays down in
150 17' fouth latitude. There is reafon to believe, that thefe are the iflands feen lince by commodore Byron, and which he has named Prince*
of Wales's Iflands). ^
Recreation.
li ROUND   THE   WORLD. 173
"Recreation, in 1cf 47' fouth latitude, according to the Dutch account, or 160 d according ta
the French account; an inhabited ifland, twelve
leagues in circumference, high above the fea, and
covered with great trees: refrefhments were
'found there. (It is laid down, in the chart, in longitude 1550 20'weft of Paris, by taking thg medium of the differences of longitucle between this
ifland, Eafter Ifland, and New Britain, or New
Ireland, fuch as refult from the chart which
accompanies fhe Dutch edition  of this voyage*
x J    O
This ifland has not yet been feen again).
Baumaiis Iflands, in 150 o' fouth latitude,
according to the Dutch chart above mentioned,
and 120 d according to the French: thefe are
numerous iflands of ten, fifteen, and twenty
leagues in circumference, and have excellent anchorages, and mild pacific inhabitants. (They are
laid down, in the chart, in 1cf of latitude, conformably to the Dutch chart, and nearly in longitude 1730 weft of Paris, from the difference of
longitude that the fame Dutch chart gives between thefe iflands and New Britain).
Solitary Ifland, called Single Ifland in the
Englifh charts, in latitude 130 41" according to the
Dutch account, and a day and a half's fail to
the weft from Bauman's Iflands, or about thirty
leagues.  (It appears like two ifla:
be conjectured to   be the If
nds, and it might
:f CoGoas.and
U *74
LA   PEROUSES   VOYAGE
difference   of latitude forbids the adopting this
opinion).
Tienhoven and Groningen, two considerable
iflands, feen fome days after having quitted Single
Ifland. Tienhoven was coafted along; during an
entire day without feeing its termination ; it appeared to extend itfelf in a femi-circle towards
Groningen. Neither the Dutch account nor its
chart make mention of thefe two iflands; and the
French account, which fpeaks of them, points out
neither their latitude, nor their diftance from any
other land, fo that it is not poflible to aflign
them any place in the chart.
29. Netc Caledonia. It does not appear, that the
ancient navigators had any knowledge of this
ifland. M. De La Peroufe is xeferred to the particulars given of it by capt. Cook, who difcovered
it in his fecond voyage. See his fecond voyage,
vol. II, page 103, and following, of the original,
and the chart which relates to his difcovery.
30. The Ifland of Santa Cruz, an ifland difcovered by him, in his fecond voyage, in 1595, or
Egmont and Queen Charlotte's Iflands, vifited by
Carteret in 1767. See the Navigations aux Terres
Auflrales of the prefident de Broffes, vol. I,
page 249, and following; Dalrymple's Hiftorical
Collection, vol. I, page 57, and following, and
page 185;   Decouvertes dans  la Aler die Sud;
Hawkef- ROUND   THE   WORLD. ijS
Hawkefworth's   Colle&ion,    Carteret's   Voyage,
vol. I, page 568, and following.
31. Tierra del Efpiritu-Santo, of Quiros, difcovered in 1606, or Great Cyclades of Bougainville,
in 1768, and New Hebrides of Cook, in 1774. See
Navigations aux TerreS Auftrales, by de Broffes,
vol. I, page 306, and following; vol. II, page
243, and page 348 and following—An Hiftorical
Collection, by Dalrymple, vol. I, page 95, and
following, and page 203, and page 1 of the
Data—^Decouvertes dans la Aler du Sud, page
201, and following, and page 427—Voyage de
Bougainville, page 242, and following;—Cook's
fecond voyage, vol. II, page 23, and following*
of the original, and the chart of the New Hebrides,
vol. II, page 25, ibid. All this part has been
laid down on the chart of the Great Equatorial
Ocean, from the journal and obfervations of
captain Cook.
32. Terre des Arfacides, difcovered by Surville
in 1769.
Surville* had the firft fight of this land the 7 th
of October, 1769; it appeared to him very high
and woody. At the time of the difcovery the latitude of the fhip was 6° 57' fouth, and its longitude by account 1520 28' eaft of Paris: but this
longitude, corrected by that of New Zealand,
determined  by captain   Cook,    where   Surville
% Sxtra&ed from the manufcript journal of M* De Surville.
touched, m. „
if& ti PEioUS'E S  VOYAG&
touched, ought to be 1530 45' at the place Of
his land-fall, which is a few leagues only north-
weft of his Port Praflin.
He failed along the coaft ill the direction of
eaft-fouth-eaft, and found a harbour formed by
&n affemblage of iflands, where he anchored, ta
which he gave th