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Fauna boreali-americana; or, The zoology of the northern parts of British America; containing descriptions… Richardson, John, Sir, 1787-1865 1829

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Array       If-       I FAUNA
JL
BOREALI-AMERICANA
OR THE
ZOOLOGY
OF   THE
NORTHERN   PARTS
BRITISH   AMERICA
CONTAINING DESCRIPTIONS OF THE OBJECTS OF NATURAL HISTORY COLLECTED ON THE LATE NORTHERN LAND
EXPEDITIONS, UNDER COMMAND OF CAPTAIN SIR JOHN FRANKLIN, H.N.
BY
JOHN RICHARDSON, M.D., F.R.S., F.L.S.
MH.MJ'KR  OF THE  WERNER IAN NATURAL  HISTORY SOCIETY OF BDINBOKGH, AND
FOREIGN   MKMbER  OF  THB  GEOGRAPHICAL   SOCIETY  OF   PARIS,
SURGEON AND NATURALIST TO THE EXPEDITIONS.
ASSISTED   BY
WILLIAM  SWAINSON,  Esq.,  F.R.S.,  F.L.S.,  &c.
The Reverend WILLIAM KIRBY,  M.A, F.R.S., F.L.S., &c.
ILLUSTRATED BY NUMEROUS PLATES.
PUBLISHED UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF THE RIGHT HONOURABLE THE SECRETARY OF
STATE FOR COLONIAL AFFAIRS.
LONDON:
JOHN   MURRAY,  ALBEMARLE-STREET.
MDCCCXXIX. LONDON:
PRINTED BY WILLAM CLOWES,
STAMFORD~STRBET. TO
THE  RIGHT. HONOURABLE
LORD  VISCOUNT  GODERICH,
THE FOLLOWING  WORK,
UNDERTAKEN UNDER THE PATRONAGE OF HIS LORDSHIP,
BY PERMISSION,
INSCRIBED WITH THE UTMOST RESPECT,
HIS MOST OBEDIENT SERVANT,
JOHN   RICHARDSON. mnwwwnwwiwwwwwiwmwwwwuiiiiiiiimm
MMRNH " V'jM&M*?--.
FAUNA
BOREALI-AMERICANA,
BY
Dr.   RICHARDSON.  DIRECTIONS FOR PLACING THE PLATES.
Plate Page
1. Ursus ferox, to face  24
1. B.    Scull of Ursus ferox          ......... 26
2. Meles Labradoria          ........... 37
3. Canis Lupus, var. nubilus             ......... 69
4. Canis latrans  73
5. Canis familiaris, var. lagopus      ......... 78
6. Canis (Vulpes) fulvus     ........... 91
7. Meriones Labradorius         .......... 144
8. Neotoma Drummondii     ........... 137
9. Arctomys empetra      ........... 147
10. Arctomys (Spermophilus) Parryi          .        .        .        .        .        .        . 158
11. Arctomys (Spermophilus) Richardsonii    ....... 164
12. Arctomys (Spermophilus) Franklinii    ........ 168
12. B.    Arctomys (Spermophilus) Beecheyi   ....... 170
13. Arctomys (Spermophilus) lateralis     ...        ..... 174
14. Arctomys (Spermophilus) Hoodii       ........ 177
15. Sciurus (Tamias) Lysteri      .        .        .        .        .        .                 .        .        • 181
16. Sciurus (Tamias) quadrivittatus         ........ 184
17. Sciurus Hudsonius          .        .        .        .        .        .        .        .        •        .        . 187
18. Pteromys Sabrinus, var. /3. Alpinus             .                 ..... 195
18. B.    Diplostoma bulbivorum (named by mistake in the plate D. Douglasii)        . 206
18. C.    Sculls of Geomys and Aplodontia      .        .                 .        .        .        . 211
19. Lepus (Lagomys) princeps               ......... 227
20. Cervus macrotis         .        .        ......... 254
21. Antilope furcifer ,,       ..........       ■ 261
22. Capra Americana  268
23. OviS MONTANA             ............. 271
24. Condylura macroura          .                           284 ERRATA.
Page xxvi. line 17, for " duo," read " duse."
  xxxviii. line 10, for " en," read " ou."
  xxxviii. line 3d from the bottom, for " Geoffrey," read " Geoffroy.
Plate 18, B., page 206, for " Dotjglasii," read " SUL-JTrvoHUM."
rmmwHvmn INTRODUCTION.
The objects of Natural History collected by the last Overland
Expedition to the Polar Sea, under the command of Captain Sir
John Franklin, to which I was attached as Surgeon and Naturalist,
being too numerous for a detailed account of them to be comprised
within the ordinary limits of an Appendix to the narrative of the
proceedings of the journey, I was desirous of making them known
to the world in a separate work. As it was necessary, however, in
order to render such a publication useful, that many of the subjects,
particularly in the Ornithological and Botanical parts, should be illustrated by figures, the expense would have been an insurmountable
difficulty, had not His Majesty's Government, actuated by a most
laudable desire of encouraging science, lent a liberal aid to the undertaking. On an application, which had the approval of the Secretary of
State for Colonial Affairs, the Treasury granted one thousand pounds,
to be applied solely towards defraying the expense of the engravings.
A moiety of that sum has been allotted to the illustration of the
Quadrupeds and Birds, and the remainder to the Fishes, Insects, and
Plants ; and care has been taken, by employing only the first artists,
to render the plates worthy of the high patronage the work has
received; while their number will demonstrate the rigid economy
with which the funds for their execution have been distributed*.
* There are twenty-eight plates in this part; and fifty admirable coloured ones, of birds,
have also been executed. The botanical plates will likewise be numerous, and many of them
are already finished.
b xu
INTRODUCTION.
those animals mentioned by preceding writers, which did not come
under the notice of the Expedition; always carefully acknowledging
the source of my quotations.
Sir John Franklin's narratives of his two journeys contain full
information respecting the districts through which the Expedition
travelled; but, to save reference, and to enable the reader of this work
the more readily to discover the particular habitats, and to trace the
geographical distribution of the species described in it, I have thought
it proper to give a summary account of our route, followed by some
compendious topographical notices.
The First of the two Northern Land Expeditions disembarked in
the month of August, 1819, at York Factory, in Hudson's Bay, which
is 90° of longitude east of the meridian of Greenwich. From
thence, travelling between the 57th and 53d parallels of latitude, by
Hayes Eiver, Lake Winipeg, and the Saskatchewan, it proceeded
to Cumberland-house, situated beyond the 102d meridian, where it
arrived towards the end of October. Early in January, 1820, the
Commanding Officer, accompanied by Mr. (now Captain) Back, set out,
to travel on snow-shoes up the Saskatchewan, nearly west-south-west
to Carlton-house, in the 106th degree of longitude; and from thence,
on a northerly and somewhat westerly course, by Green Lake, the
Beaver River, Isle a la Crosse, and Buffalo lakes, across the Methy
portage, and down the Elk River, to Fort Chepewyan, on the Atha-
pescow or Athabascow Lake, or Lake of the Hills, as it is named by Sir
Alexander Mackenzie. The other two officers of the Expedition
(Lieutenant Hood and myself) stayed, during the remainder of the
winter, at Cumberland-house; and after I had paid a visit in May to
the plains of Carlton, and collected all the specimens of plants and
animals I could procure at that season, set out in the month of June,
to travel in canoe to Fort Chepewyan by the route of Beaver Lake,
Missinippi or English River, Black-bear Island Lake, Isle a la Crosse,
Buffalo Lake and Elk River. Having rejoined our companions, the
whole party left Fort Chepewyan on the 18th of July,  1820; and,
vwwummrm
wmm INTRODUCTION. xH*-
descending the Slave River, crossed Great Slave Lake, and ascended
the Yellow-knife River,  to the banks of Winter Lake, situated in
latitude 64^°, and in the 113th degree of longitude, which it reached
on the 19th day of August.    A winter of nine months' duration was,
spent at this place in a log building, which was named Fort Enterprise; and in the beginning of June, 1821, while the snow was still
lying on the ground, and the ice covering the river, the Expedition
resumed its march.    After the baggage and canoes had been dragged
over ice and snow for one hundred and twenty miles to the north
end of Point Lake, we embarked on the Coppermine River on the 1st
of July, and on the 21st of the same month reached the Arctic Sea,
when, turning  to  the  eastward,  we  performed  a  coasting voyage
of six hundred and  twenty-six statute miles, to  Point Turnagain,
which  is, owing  to the deep  indentations  of the  coast,   only six
degrees and a half of longitude to the eastward of the mouth of the
Coppermine River.    The rapid approach of winter now rendered it
necessary to abandon the further pursuit of the enterprise; and on
the 22d of August we retraced our course as far as Hood's River,
which we ascended for a short way, and then set out to'travel overland
to Point Lake, on our way back to Fort Enterprise.    Winter, clothed
with all the terrors of an arctic climate, overtook the party early in
September:  it   suffered   dreadfully  from   famine,  no supplies   were
obtained   at  Fort  Enterprise,  the  majority  of the party perished,,
and   the   survivors   were   on   the verge   of the  grave,  when   the
Indians brought supplies of provision, and conducted them to Fort
Providence, the nearest of the Hudson Bay Company's posts.    The
want of the means of carriage, even at the most flattering periods of
this disastrous journey, prevented us from attempting to preserve any
bulky objects of natural history ; but all the plants gathered previous
to our reaching the mouth of the Coppermine  River were saved,
having been given in charge to five of the party who were sent back
from thence.    Those collected on the sea-coast, after having been
carried for many days through the snow, were  at length, on  our"
strength being completely exhausted, reluctantly  abandoned.     The XIV
INTRODUCTION.
winter of 1821-22 was passed at Fort Resolution, on the south side of
Great Slave Lake ; and the summer of 1822 was consumed in returning
by the route we had before travelled to York Factory, where we
embarked for England in the month of September. The most
interesting of the quadrupeds and birds collected on this Expedition were described by Joseph Sabine, Esq., in the Appendix to
Sir John Frankliia's narrative, and I published a list of the plants in
the same work.
The Second or Last Northern Land Expedition commenced, as far.
as regards the objects of natural history described in this work, at Pene-
tanguishene, on St. George's day, the 23d of April, 1825, and having
performed a coasting voyage along the northern sides of Lakes Huron
and Superior, arrived at Fort William, a post of the Hudson's Bay
Company, situated in Thunder Bay of the last-mentioned lake. From
thence it ascended the Kamenistiguia to Dog Lake, and crossing a
height of land of no great elevation at the source of the Dog River,
and only between twenty and thirty miles from the shores of Lake
Superior, it descended by a series of rocky rivers, interrupted by
numerous cascades and portages, to Rainy Lake, the Lake of the
Woods, and Lake Winipeg. On entering the Saskatchewan River,
which falls into the last-mentioned lake, on its east side, the Second
Expedition came upon the route of the first one already described,
which it kept till its arrival at Fort Resolution, on Great Slave Lake.
At Cumberland-house, Mr. Drummond, the Assistant Naturalist, was
detached up the Saskatchewan to examine the plains of Carlton, and
the eastern declivity of the Rocky Mountains, near the sources of
the Peace River. Flis labours will be more particularly mentioned
hereafter: at present 1 proceed to trace the progress of the Expedition,
which, on its arrival at Fort Resolution, instead of directing its course
across Great Slave Lake, as on the first journey, turned to the westward, along the south shore of the lake, and entered the Mackenzie,
by far the largest of all the American rivers which fall into the Polar
Sea, and which originating in the same elevated part of the Rocky
mm
IIWHH
MM —-
INTRODUCTION'. XV
Mountain chain with the Columbia, the Missouri, and the Saskatehe»
wan, or Nelson Rivers, flows under the names of Elk, Slave, or
Mackenzie River, on a north-north-west general course, through
fifteen degrees of latitude, until it discharges itself into the sea by a
mouth extending from the 133d to the 137th degree of longitude.
When the Expedition reached the 65th degree of latitude in its
descent of the Mackenzie, it turned to the eastward for seventy miles
up a river to Great Bear Lake, where a winter residence was erected,
on which the appellation of Fort Franklin was bestowed. Excursions
were made down the Mackenzie and along Bear Lake while the
navigation continued open, but the whole party were assembled at
their winter-quarters on the 5th of September. The extent of country
examined this first season may be judged of by the length of the route
of the Expedition, from its leaving Penetanguishene in the month of
April till its assembling at Great Bear Lake in September, which,
jjacluding Mr. Drummond's journey to the Rocky Mountains, Sir
John Franklin's voyage down the Mackenzie to the sea, and a voyage
round Great Bear Lake by myself, exceeded six thousand miles.
Towards the end of the month of June 1826, the Expedition left its
winter-quarters, and proceeded down the Mackenzie to the sea ;
and the Commanding Officer, turning to the westward, sailed
along the coast until he attained the 70^° of latitude, and nearly
the 150th degree of longitude, when the lateness of the season
prohibiting a further advance, he retraced his way to Great Bear
Lake. In the mean time, a detachment under my charge had sailed
from the mouth of the Mackenzie eastward, round Cape Bathurst, in
latitude 71° 36' north, to the mouth of the Coppermine River, whence
it travelled on foot to the north-east end of Great Bear Lake, and
from thence, in a canoe, to Fort Franklin. The extent of sea-coas5t
•examined by the two branches of the Expedition exceeded twelve
hundred miles, and the whole distance travelled by them from the
time of their departure from Fort Franklin till their return to it again,
was upwards of four thousand miles. A collection of plants formed
by Captain Back, who accompanied Sir John Franklin, is peculiarly interesting, as having been made principally on a coast skirting the
northern termination of the Rocky Mountains. The Expedition
returned to England the following summer; one division of it by
way of Canada and New York, and the other by Hudson's Bay. I
passed the early part of the winter at Great Slave Lake, where I
obtained specimens of all the fur-bearing animals of that quarter, and
afterwards travelled on the snow to Carlton-house on the Saskatche*
wan, where, with the assistance of Mr. Drummond, who joined, me
there, specimens of the greatest part of the birds frequenting that
district were procured in the spring. I met Sir John Franklin at
Cumberland-house in June, 1827, and accompanied him to Canada by
the same route by which we came out, except that we went by the
east side of Lake Winipeg, thus completing the circuit of that lake,
and that instead of crossing Lake Ontario, on our way to New York,
we gained the Uttawas from Lake Huron, by the route of the French
River, and descended it to Montreal, whence we travelled to New
York by way of Lake Champlain.
Having thus given in detail the routes of the other branches of the
Expedition, it remains that I should mention the one pursued by
Mr. Drummond, the Assistant Naturalist, to whose unrivalled skill in
collecting, and indefatigable zeal, we are indebted for most of .the
insects, the greater part of the specimens of plants, and a considerable
number of the quadrupeds and birds. This gentleman remained at
Cumberland-house in the year 1825, after the rest of the party had
gone to the north, collecting plants during the month of July, and
then ascended the Saskatchewan for six hundred and sixty miles, to
Edmonton-house, performing much of the journey on foot, and
amassing objects of natural history by the way. Leaving Edmonton-
house on the 22d of September, he crossed a swampy and thickly
wooded country to Red Deer River, one of the branches of the Elk or
Athapescow River, and along whose banks he travelled until he reached
the Rocky Mountains, the ground being then covered with snow.
Having explored the portage-road across the mountains to the
Columbia River, for fifty miles, he hired an Indian hunter, with whom
. —
INTRODUCTION.
XVU.
he returned to the head of the Elk River, on which he passed the
winter making collections, under privations which would have
effectually quenched the zeal of a less hardy naturalist. In the
month of April, 1826, he revisited the Columbia portage-road, and
remained in that neighbourhood until the 1 Oth of August, when he
made a journey to the head waters of the Peace River, during which
he suffered severely from famine. Nothing daunted, however, he
hastened back as soon as he obtained a supply of provisions, to the
Columbia portage, with the view of crossing to that river, and
botanizing for a season on its banks. He had reached the west end
of the portage, when he was overtaken by letters from Sir John
Franklin, acquainting him that it was necessary to be at York Factory
in 1827. This rendered it necessary for him speedily to commence
his return, which he did with great regret, for the view of
the Columbia, whose banks are rich in natural productions, had
stimulated his desire to explore them, and he remarks,—§ The snow
covered the ground too deeply to permit me to add much to my
collections in this hasty trip over the mountains; but it was impossible
to avoid noticing the great superiority of the climate on the western
side of that lofty range. From the instant the descent towards the
Pacific commences, there is a visible improvement in the growth of
timber, and the variety of forest trees greatly increases. The few
mosses that I gleaned in the excursion were so fine, that I could not
but deeply regret that I was unable to pass a season or two in that
interesting region." He now bade adieu to the mountains and
returned to Edmonton-house, where he stayed some time, and then
joined me at Carlton-house, as has been already mentioned. His
collections on the mountains and plains of the Saskatchewan amounted
to about " fifteen hundred species of plants, one hundred and fifty
birds, fifty quadrupeds, and a considerable number of insects." He
remained for six weeks at Carlton-house after I left that place, and
then descended to Cumberland-house, where he met Captain Back,
whom he accompanied to York Factory; but he had previously the
pleasure of seeing Mr. David Douglas, who, after collecting specimens XVlrl
introduction;
of plants for the Horticultural Society, for three years, on the banks of
the Columbia and in North California, crossed the Rocky Mountains
at the head of the Elk River, by the same portage-road that Mr.
Drummond had previously travelled, and having spent a short time ins
visiting the Red River of Lake Winipeg, returned to England witk
that gentleman by way of Hudson's Bay.    Thus, a zone of at least
two degrees of latitude in width, and reaching entirely across the coa-
tinent, from the mouth of the Columbia to that of the Nelson River
of Hudson's Bay, has been explored by two of the ablest and most
zealous collectors that England has ever sent forth; while a zone of
similar width, extending at right angles with the other from Canada to
the Polar Sea, has been more cursorily examined by the Expeditions.
Through the liberality of the Horticultural Society, and the influence of their learned Secretary, Joseph Sabine, Esq., ever readily
exerted for the advancement of science, I have been permitted to
examine and describe the specimens of quadrupeds collected by Mr,
Douglas, and this gentleman, with a readiness to communicate the
information he has acquired, that does him great credit, has kindly
furnished me with some valuable notices of the habits of the animals
which have been incorporated in this work. I have also had an
opportunity of inspecting the specimens of quadrupeds obtained on
the American coast of Behring's Straits^ by Captain Beechey, on his
late voyage in the Blossom; and the notes respecting them, made on
the spot by Mr. Collie, Surgeon of that ship, by whom principally they
were collected, have been submitted to my perusal. Previous to our
setting out on the Second Expedition, Sir John Franklin addressed
letters to many of the resident chief factors and traders of the Hudson's Bay Company, requesting their co-operation with our endeavours
to procure specimens of Natural History, and their ready acquiescence
with his desire was productive of much advantage to us. Not only
were great facilities for the advancement of our pursuits afforded to us
by Mr. John Haldane, Mr. James Leith, Mr. Alexander Stewart, Mr.
John Prudens, Mr. Robert M'Vicar, and other gentlemen, whose posts
lay on our line of route; but a collection of birds and quadrupeds.
i**» introduction. xix
of much'interest, made at Fort Nelson on the River of the Mountains,
a branch of the Mackenzie, was forwarded to us by Mr. Macphersoa*
together with some valuable specimens obtained in the same quarter
■by Mr. Smith, chief factor of that district. Mr. Isbister also had the
Mndness to prepare for us a copious collection of birds at Cumberland-
house. These were not, however, the only channels through which the
specimens described in the following pages were obtained. I have had
ample opportunities for studying the specimens brought home by Snr
Edward Parry, on his several expeditions; and much information was
likewise derived from frequent visits to the museum of the Hudson's
Bay Company, and from repeated examinations of the specimens.imported by that Company from their posts on James's Bay, on the
Columbia, and hi New Caledonia, and presented by them to the
Zoological Society and British Museum.
After this brief exposition of the various sources from whence the
specimens were derived, I proceed to give a concise general view of the
nature of the different tracts of the country, whose ferine inhabitants
form the subject of the following pages. The most remarkable phy-»
sical feature of the northern parts of America, is the great Mountain
Bidge, which is continued under the appellation of the Rocky Mountains*, in a north-north-west direction from New Mexico, to the 70th.
degree of latitude, where it terminates within view of the Arctic Sea,
to the westward of the mouth of the Mackenzie River. The course ©£
this chain is tolerably straight, and its altitude, though various in
different places, is everywhere far superior to that of any other mountains existing in the same parallel of the American continent. Like
the Andes, of which they seem to be a prolongation, the Rocky Mountains he much nearer to the Pacific coast than to the eastern shore of
America, and they give rise to several very large rivers. Over an
elevated portion of the chain, extending from the 40th to the 55thi
degree of latitude, are spread the upper branches and sources of the
Columbia, which falls into the Pacific in the 46th parallel. If the
principal arms of this river had not a very circuitous course, the nar-
* Pennant names them the " Shining Mountains/
cfc introduction.
rowness of the stripe of country which intervenes between the summit
of the ridge and the coast would have caused it to be little better than
a mountain torrent. As it is, its arms spread far and wi#e, and it
carries a great body of water to the sea. The head waters of the
Missouri interlock with those of the southern branches of the
Columbia ; but that river, precipitating itself down the eastern declivity of the mountains, takes a devious course to the south-east*
receiving in its way several great tributaries, and joining the Mississippi, which rises at the west end of Lake Superior, in a comparatively
low, but hilly country. Their united streams traverse the whole of
Louisiana, and fall into the Gulf of Mexico, after a course of four
thousand and five hundred miles, reckoned from the head of the
Missouri. The Saskatchewan is the third great river which issuea
from the same elevated part of the mountains, its feeding streams
spreading from the 47th to the 54th parallel of latitude, and the more
southern ones being interposed betwixt the head waters of the two
preceding rivers. The upper streams of the Saskatchewan, after
descending from the mountains, form two principal arms, which flow
through comparatively naked, sandy plains, under the names of the
North and South Branches, and then unite a short way below Carlton-
house. From thence the river, continuing its course through a welL
wooded country, passes by Cumberland-house, where it receives a
considerable tributary that originates on the immediate banks of the
Missinippi, a parallel river, and afterwards, flowing through Lake
Winipeg, changes its name to Nelson River, and falls into Hudson's
Bay, near Cape Tatnam. The whole course of the Saskatchewan or
Nelson River, from the mountains to the sea, may be estimated,
windings inclusive, at one thousand six hundred miles. Lake
Winipeg, besides other large streams, receives the River Winipeg,
which rises on a ridge of land bordering closely on Lake Superior, and
also the Red River, whose eastern branch has its sources on the same
heights with the Mississippi, and whose western branch originates close
to the banks of the Missouri, some distance above where that river
begins to turn to the southward. By means of short portages, then,
one may pass from the respective branches  of the Nelson, by the
■ ■mnmiii ,,,,
HMM
RHH introduction. xxi
Columbia, to the Pacific; by the Missouri or Mississippi to the Gulf of
Mexico; by the St. Lawrence to the Atlantic, and also by the Elk or
Mackenzie River, whose upper streams approach the north branches of
the Saskatchewan to the Arctic Sea. The fourth great river which
takes its rise from the same quarter of the Rocky Mountain range is
the one just mentioned,—the Mackenzie, which is the third of the
North American rivers in respect of size, being inferior only to the
Missouri and St. Lawrence. The two principal arms of the Mackenzie
are the Elk and Peace rivers. One of the main streams of the former,
the Red Deer River, issues from the vicinity of the northern sources of
the Columbia and Saskatchewan, whilst other feeders interlock with
the head waters of the Beaver, Missinippi, or Churchill river. Having
passed through the Athapescow Lake, the Elk River is joined by the
Peace River, which, originating somewhat further north in the mountains within three hundred yards of the source of the Tacootchtesse or
Frazer's River, affords a canoe route to all parts of New Caledonia.
Y It is a singular fact, that the Peace River actually rises on the west /
side of the Rocky Mountain ridge, and is a large stream navigable for
boats at the place where it makes its way through a narrow gorge
bounded by lofty mountains, which are covered with eternal snows.
Nearer the source of the river, and between it and the Tacootchtesse,
the mountains are less lofty and more distant, and the country has
there much of the character of elevated table-land. After its union
with the Peace River the Elk River assumes the name of Slave River,
which, on passing through Great Slave Lake, becomes the Mackenzie.
At a considerable distance below the last-mentioned lake, and where
the Mackenzie makes its first near approach to the Rocky Mountains,
it is joined by a large stream, which rising a little to the northward of
the Peace River, flows along the eastern base of the mountains. It
obtained the name of the River of the Mountains from Sir Alexander
Mackenzie ; but its magnitude has since gained it the appellation of
the South branch of the Mackenzie from the traders. The Mackenzie
receives several other large streams on its way to the sea, and among
others Great Bear Lake River, whose head-waters rise on the banks of XXH
INTRODUCTION.
the Coppermine River and Peel's River, which issues from the Rocky
Mountains, in latitude 67°. Immediately after the junction of Peel's
River the Mackenzie separates into numerous branches, which flow to
the sea through a great delta, composed of alluvial mud. Here from
the richness of the soil, and from the river bursting its icy chains,
comparatively very early in the season, and irrigating the low delta
with the warmer waters brought from countries ten or twelve degrees
further to the southward, trees flourish, and a more luxuriant vegetation exists than in any place in the same parallel on the American
continent. In latitude 68° there are many groves of handsome white
spruce firs, and in latitude 69°, on the shores of the sea, lofty and dense
willow-thickets cover the flat islands ; while currants and gooseberries
grow on the drier hummocks, accompanied by some showy epilobiums
and perennial lupins. The moose-deer, American hare, and beaver,
accompany this display of vegetation to its limits. The whole course
of the Mackenzie from the source of the Elk River to the sea, is about
two thousand miles in length.
These are the principal rivers of the fur countries, but there are
three others of shorter course, upon which some part of the collections
of specimens were obtained, viz. Hayes River, which rises near Lake
Winipeg, and holding an almost parallel course to Nelson's River,, falls
into the same part of Hudson's Bay. York Factory, which will be
often mentioned in the following pages, stands on the low alluvial
point that separates the mouths of these two rivers. The next river
which I have to mention is the Missimppi, or, as it is occasionally
named, the English River, which falls into Hudson's Bay at ChurchilL
Its upper stream, named the Beaver River, rises in a small ridge of
hills, which separates the north branch of the Saskatchewan from a
bend of the Elk River. The Coppermine is the last river which
requires a particular notice. It has its origin not far from the east
end of Great Slave Lake, and, taking a northerly course, flows through,
the Barren-grounds to the Arctic Sea. It is a stream of no great
magnitude in comparison with some of the branches of the Mackenzie :.
there are few alluvial deposits on its banks, and there is not, conse
nsu INTRODUCTION. XxiU
quently, that richness of vegetation, which on the Mackenzie attracts
certain quadrupeds to very high latitudes.
The Rocky Mountains have been crossed in four several places.
First, by Sir Alexander Mackenzie, in the year 1793, at the head of the
Peace River, between latitudes 55° and 56°. His route was followed,
in 1806, by a party of the North-west Company, sent to make a settlement in New Caledonia, and is still occasionally used by the Hudson's
Bay Company. Lewis and Clark, in the year 1805, crossed the
Mountains in latitude 47°, at the head of the Missouri, in their way to
the mouth of the Columbia River. For several years subsequent to
that period, the North-west Company were in the habit of crossing in
latitude 52h°, at the head of the North branch of the Saskatchewan,
between which and one of the feeding streams of the Columbia there
is a short portage; but of late years, owing to the hostility of the
Indians, that route has been deserted, and the Hudson's Bay Company,
who now have the whole of the Fur Trade of that country, use a
portage of considerable length between the northern branch of the
Columbia and the Red Deer River, one of the branches of the Elk or
Mackenzie River. Some attempts have very recently been made
to effect a passage in the 62nd parallel of latitude; but although
several ridges of the mountains were crossed, it does not appear that
any stream flowing towards the Pacific was reached.
The whole of the country lying to the eastward of the Rocky
Mountains, and north of the Missouri and Great Lakes, is settled,
or more or less frequently visited by the Hudson Bay Company's
traders, and is well known to them, with the exception of the vicinity
of the Polar Sea, and a corner bounded to the westward by the Coppermine River, Great Slave, Athapescow, Wollaston, and Deer Lakes,
to the southward by the Churchill or Missinippi River, and to the
northward and eastward by the sea. This north-eastern corner of the
American continent is often mentioned in the following pages by the
appellation of the Barren-grounds, which it has obtained from the
traders on account of its being destitute of wood, except on the banks
of some of the larger rivers that traverse it.    The prevailing rocks in XXIV
INTRODUCTION.
the district are primitive, and in one or two places only do they rise so
as to deserve the name of a mountain-ridge, their general form being
that of an assemblage of low hills with rounded summits, and more or
less precipitous sides separated by narrow valleys. The soil of the latter
is sometimes an imperfect peat earth, and in that case it nourishes a
few stunted willows, glandular dwarf-birches, black spruce-trees, or
larches; but more generally the soil consists of the debris of the rocks,
which is a dry coarse quartzose sand, unfit to support any thing but
lichens. All the larger valleys have a lake of very transparent water,
often of great depth in their centre, and occasionally these lakes are
perfectly land-locked, though they all contain fish. More generally one
lake discharges its waters into another, through a narrow gorge, by a
rapid and turbulent stream, and most of the rivers which flow through
the Barren-grounds are little more than a chain of narrow lakes connected in this manner. The small caribou or rein-deer, and the musk-
ox, are the principal and characteristic inhabitants of these lands, and
the description by Linnaeus, of the Lapland deserts frequented by the
rein-deer, applies with perfect accuracy to this corner of America.
I Nullum vegetabile in tota Lapponia tanta in copia reperitur ac haec
Lichenis species, (Cenomyce rangiferina) et quidem primario in sylvis,
ubi campi steriles arenosi vel glareosi, paucis Pinis consiti; ibi enim
non modo videbis campos per spatium unius horae, sed saspe duorum
triumve milliarium*, nivis instar albos, solo fere hocce lichene ob-
ductos." 1 Hi Lichene obsiti campi, quos terram damnatam diceret
peregrinus, hi sunt Lapponum agri, haec prata eorum fertilissima, adeo
ut felicem se praedicet possessor provincial talis sterilissimae, atque
lichene obsitae." Being destitute of fur-bearing animals, no settlements have been formed within the Barren-grounds by the traders,
and a few wretched families of Chepewyans, termed, from their mode
of subsistence, | Caribou eaters," are the only human beings who
reside constantly upon them. Were any one to penetrate into their
lands, they might address him with propriety in the words used by the
* The Swedish mile is 5| English miles.
■ ■ ■..■■•v*v*w*VVVVVq
<mmm _
INTRODUCTION.
XXV*
Lapland woman to Linnaeus, when he reached her hut, exhausted by
hunger and the fatigue of travelling through interminable marshes.
" O thou poor man, what hard destiny can have brought thee hither,
to a place never visited by any one before ! This is the first time I
ever beheld a stranger. Thou miserable creature ! how didst thou
come, and whither wilt thou go* ?" Parties of Indians occasionally
cross these wilds in going from the Athapescow to Fort Churchill, but
they almost always experience great privations, and very often lose
some of their number by famine. Hearne, in his first and second
journeys, traversed them in two directions ; Sir John Franklin, in his
first journey, travelled within their western limits ; and Sir Edward
Parry, in his second voyage, obtained specimens of the animals of
Melville peninsula, which forms the North-east corner of the Barren-
grounds. The Chepewyans, Copper Indians, Dog-ribs, Hare-Indians,
and Esquimaux visit them annually for a short period of the summer
season, in quest of caribou.
The following quadrupeds are known to inhabit the Barren-grounds:
Ursus arctos ? Americanus.
„    maritimus.
Gulo luscus.
Mustela (Putorius) erminea.
„ „        vison.
Lutra Canadensis.
Canis lupus, et varietates ejus variae.
„    (Vulpes) lagopus.
„ „ „       var. fuliginoi
Fiber zibethicus.
Arvicola xanthognathus.
Pennsylvanicus.
borealis.
(Georychus) trimucronatus.
Hudsonius.
Grcenlandicus.
Arctomys (Spermophilus) Parryi.
»
More or less carnivorous
or piscivorous.    They
. prey much on the animals in the following
section.
'herbivorous.
* Laohesis Lapponica, p. 145. Principal food the dwarf-birch.
Graminivorous, or more commonly
lichenivorous.
A belt of low primitive rocks extends from the Barren-grounds to
the northern shores of Lake Superior. It is about two hundred miles
wide, and as it becomes more southerly, it recedes from the Rocky
Mountains, and differs from the Barren-grounds, principally in being
clothed with wood. It is bounded to the eastward by a narrow stripe
of limestone, and beyond that there is a flat, swampy, partly alluvial
district, which forms the western shores of Hudson's Bay. As far as
regards the distribution of animals, the whole tract, from the western
border of the low primitive rocks to the coast of Hudson's Bay, may
be considered as one district, with the exception that the sea-bear
seldom goes further inland than the swampy land which skirts the
coast. The whole may be named the Eastern district, and the following animals inhabit it:—
Vespertiliones, species duo vel tres ignotse.
Sorex palustris.
„    Forsteri.
Scalops, species ignota.
Ursus Americanus.
„      maritimUS. {    (Dotslnot go further from-.the sea-
3' I shore than one hundred miles.)
Meles ?
Gulo luscus.
Mustela (Putorius) vulgaris.
„ „ erminea.
„ „ vison.
}}
martes.
„      Canadensis.
Mephitis Americana, var. Hudsonica.
Lutra Canadensis.
Canis lupus, varietates varise.
„    (Vulpes) lagopus.
» ,,       fulvus.
» » >,       var. decussata,
» » „ I   argentata.
Felis Canadensis.
***••*■ INTRODUCTION.
XXVll
Castor fiber, Americanus et ejus varietates.
Fiber zibethicus et ejus varietates.
Arvicola xanthognathus.
„      Pennsylvanicus.
„      (Georychus) Hudsonius.
Mus leucopus. «
Meriones Labradorius.
Arctomys empetra.
Sciurus (Tamias) Lysteri.
„ Hudsonius.
Pteromys Sabrinus.
Lepus Americanus.
Cervus alces.
„     tarandus, var. sylvestris.
The district just mentioned is bounded to the westward by a very
flat limestone deposit, and the line of junction of the two formations
is marked by a remarkable chain of rivers and lakes, among which are
the Lake of the Woods, Lake Winipeg, Beaver Lake, and the middle
portion of the Churchill or Missinippi River, all to the southward of
the Methy portage ; and the Elk River, Athapescow Lake, Slave River,
Great Slave Lake, and Martin Lake, to the northward of it. The
whole of this district is well wooded ; it yields the fur-bearing animals
most abundantly; and a variety of the bison, termed from the circumstance the wood bison, comes within its western border, in the more
northern quarter. This animal has even extended its range to a particular corner, named Slave Point, on the north side of Great Slave
Lake, which is also composed of limestone. The following animals
may be found in the limestone tract;—
Vespertilio pruinosus.
Sorex palustris.
„     Forsteri.
Condylura longicaudata. (southern parts only.)
Ursus Americanus.
Gttlo luscus.
Mastela (Putorius) vulgaris,
erminea.
vison.
»
d2
y INTRODUCTION.
Mustela martes. $M&
Canadensis.
Mephitis Americana, Hudsonica.
Lutra Canadensis.
Canis lupus occidentalis, var. grisea.
,,        „ ,, atra.
„        „ „ nubila.
|       „ „ Sticte.
,,    (Vulpes) fulvus.
„        ,, ,,      var. decussata.
I argentata.
Felis Canadensis.
Castor fiber, Americanus et varietates ejus nigrse, variae, et albae.
Fiber zibethicus, colore interdum varians.
Arvicola xanthognathus.
,,       Pennsylvanicus.
Mus leucopus.
Meriones Labradorius.
Arctomys empetra.
„ (Spermophilus)  Hoodii (in the south-western limits.of the district.)
SciurUS (Tamias) Lysteri (in the southern part of the district.)
,, ,, quadrivittatUS (middle parts of the district.)
„       Hudsonius.
„ nigei" (southern border of the district.)
Hystrix pilosus.
Lepus Americanus.
Cervus alces.
,,     tarandus, sylvestris (only in a few spots.)
Bos Americanus.
Between this • limestone district and the foot of the Rocky
Mountains, there is an extensive tract of what is termed Prairie land.
It is in general level, the slight inequalities of surface being imperceptible when viewed from a distance, and the traveller in crossing it
must direct his course by the compass or the heavenly bodies, in the
same way as if he were journeying over the deserts of Arabia. The
soil is mostly dry and sandy, but tolerably fertile, and it supports a
pretty thick sward of grass, which furnishes food to immense herds of
the bison. Plains of a similar character, but still, more extensive, have
been described by the American writers as" existing on the Arkansaw INTRODUCTION*
XXIX-
and Missouri Rivers. They gradually become narrower to the northward, and in the southern part of the fur countries they occupy about
fifteen degrees of longitude, extending from Maneetobaw or Maneeto-
woopoo, and Winepegoos Lakes to the foot of the Rocky Mountains.
They are partially intersected by some low ridges of hills, and also by
several streams, the banks of which are wooded, and towards the
outskirts of the plain there are many detached clumps of wood and
picturesque pieces of water, disposed in so pleasing a manner as to
give the country the appearance of a highly cultivated English park.
In the central parts of the plains, however, there is so little wood that
the hunters are under the necessity of taking fuel with them on their
journeys, or in dry weather of making their fires of the dung of the
bison. To the northward of the Saskatchewan, the country is more
broken, and intersected by woody hills; and on the banks of the Peace
River, the plains are of comparatively small extent, and are detached
from each other by woody tracts ; they terminate altogether in the
angle between the River of the Mountains and Great Slave Lake.
The abundance of pasture renders these plains the favourite resort of
various ruminating animals. They are frequented throughout their
whole extent by buffalo and wapiti. The prong-horned antilope is
common on the Assinaboyn or Red River, and south branch of the
Saskatchewan, and extends its range in the summer to the north
branch of the latter river. The black-tailed deer, the long-tailed deer,
and the grisly bear, are also inhabitants of the plains, but do not
wander further to the eastward.
The following list will shew the peculiarity of the group of ferine
animals which frequent the district:—
V
Ursus
ferox.
Canis latrans.
»
(Vulpes)
cinereo-argentatus.
Arctomys (Spermophilus
?) Ludovicianus.
)>
»
Richardsonii.
»
»
Franklinii.
»
}}
Hoodii. Geomys ? talpoides,
Diplostoma ?
Lepus Virginianus.
Equus caballus.
Cervus alces.
„    strOngyloceros.
macrotis.
„ leucurus.
Antilope furcifer.
Bos Americanus.
The fur-bearing animals also exist in the belts of wood which skirt
the rivers that flow through the plains; and the wolverene wanders
over them as it does through every part of the northern extremity of
America. The mephitis Americana Hudsonica breeds freely there;
and the raccoon is found on the banks of the Red River, which is its
most northern limit.
The following animals are found on the Rocky Mountains :—
Vespertilio subulatus.
Sorex palustris.
Ursus Americanus.
„     ferox.
Gulo luscus.
Mustela (Putorius) erminea.
vison.
martes.
„      Canadensis.
Mephitis ?
Lutra Canadensis.
Canis lupus et ejus varietates.
I   (Vulpes) fulvus et ejus varietates.
Felis Canadensis.
Castor fiber, Americanus.
Fiber zibethicus.
Arvicola riparius.
xanthognathus.
Novoboracensis.
„      (Georychus) helvolus.
Neotoma Drummondii.
Mus leucopus. INTRODUCTION.
XXXI
»
Arctomys empetra.
? pruinosus.
(Spermophilus) Parryi, var. erythrogluteia.
„ phaeognatha.
guttatus ?
lateralis.
Sciurus (Tamias) quadrivittatus.
„     Hudsonius.
Pteromys Sabrinus, var. alpina.
Hystrix pilosus.
Lepus Americanus.
„     glacialis.
Lepus (Lagomys) princeps.
Cervus alces.
C   (A large kind of caribou is said tofrecruent the moun-
„        tarandus ?   < tains, but I have seen no specimens either of the animal
(orof itshoms.)
„      macrotis.
Capra Americana (on the highest ridges.)
Ovis montana (on the eastern side of the ridge.)
Bos Americanus (in particular passes only.)
The country lying between the Rocky Mountains and the Pacific
is in general more hilly than that to the eastward; but there are some
wide plains on the upper arms of the Columbia which have much of
the character of the plains of the Missouri and Saskatchewan, and are
inhabited by the same kind of animals. In particular the ursus ferox,
canis latrans, canis cinereo-argentatus, the braro (perhaps meles Labra-
doria), cervus macrotis var. /3. Columbiana, cervus leucurus, and
aplodontia leporina, are enumerated by Lewis and Clark. Mr*
Douglas also observed the condylura macroura, and several species of
Felis and of Geomys and Diplostoma in that quarter. The sea-coast
at the mouth of the Columbia is frequented by a species of fox very
like the European one, or the red-fox of the Atlantic states of America.
The Arctomys brachyurus and the Arctomys Douglasii also inhabit
the banks of the Columbia; and the Arctomys Beecheyi, a species
nearly allied to the latter, is found in the adjoining parts of California.
The bison are supposed to have found their way across the mountains
only very recently, and they are still comparatively few in numbers,
and confined to certain spots. \
XXX11
INTRODUCTION;
The following brief description of New Caledonia, another district
on the west of the Rocky Mountains, is extracted from Mr. Harmon's
journal:—
| New Caledonia was first settled by the North-West Fur Company in 1806, and may extend from north to south about five hundred
miles, and from east to west, three hundred and fifty or four hundred.
The post at Stuart's Lake is nearly in the centre of it, and lies in
54i° north latitude, and 125° west longitude. In this large extent of
country, there are not more than five thousand Indians, including
men, women,, and children. It is mountainous, but between its
elevated parts there are pretty extensive valleys, along which pass
innumerable small rivers and brooks. It contains a great number of
lakes, one of which, Stuart's Lake, is about four hundred miles in
circumference; and another, Nateotain Lake, is nearly twice as large.
I am of opinion that about one-sixth part of New Caledonia is covered
with water. There are but two large rivers. One of these, Frazer's
River, is sixty or seventy rods wide, rises in the Rocky Mountains
within a short distance of the source of the Peace River, and is the
river which Sir Alexander Mackenzie followed for a considerable
distance when he went to the Pacific Ocean in 1793, and which he
took to be the Columbia. The other large river of New Caledonia is
Simpson's River, which takes its origin in Webster's or Bear Lake,
and, after passing through several considerable lakes, falls into
Observatory Inlet. The mountains of New Caledonia are not to be
compared, in point of elevation, with those that skirt the Peace River
between Finlay's Branch and the Rocky Mountain portage, though
there are some which are pretty lofty, and on the summits of one in
particular, which is visible from Stuart's Lake, the snow lies during the
whole year.
I The weather is not severely cold, except for a few days in the
winter, when the mercury is sometimes as low as 32° below zero of
Fahrenheit's thermometer. The remainder of the season is much
milder than it is on the other side of the mountains in the same
mvnwfTcn
nn •Introduction. xkxiii
latitude. The summer is never very warm in the day-time; and the
nights are generally cool. In every month in the year, there are
frosts. Snow generally falls about the 15th of November, and is
all dissolved by the 15 th of May. About M'Leod's Lake the snow
is sometimes five feet deep, and I imagine that this is the reason
that none of the large animals, except a few solitary ones, are to be
met with.
" There are a few moose; and the natives occasionally kill a black
bear. Caribou are also found at some seasons. Smaller animals likewise occur, though they are not numerous. They consist of beavers*
otters, lynxes, fishers, martins, minks, wolverines, foxes of different
kinds, badgers, polecats, hares, and a few wolves. The fowls are, swans,
bustards (anas Canadensis), geese, cranes, ducks of several kinds, partridges, &c. All the lakes and rivers are well furnished with excellent
fish. They are, sturgeon, white-fish, trout, sucker, and many of a
smaller kind. Salmon also visit the streams in very considerable numbers in autumn. The natives of New Caledonia we denominate
Carriers; but they call themselves Ta-cullies, which signifies people
who go upon water."
Captain Cook, in his third voyage, saw raccoons, foxes, martins, and
squirrels, alive, on the coast of New Caledonia, and obtained skins of
the following animals:—
Black-bear, brown-bear, glutton, grey wolf, arctic or stone fox, black
fox, foxes of a yellow colour with a black tip to the tail, foxes of a deep
reddish yellow intermixed with black, raccoon, land-otter, sea-otter,
ermine, martins of three kinds: the common one, the pine-martin, and
a larger one with coarser hair (mustela Canadensis?'), lynx, spotted
marmot, hares, and skin of an animal named wanshee by the natives.
In addition to this list, Meares mentions moose-deer skins, and the
skin of a very small species of deer, as among the articles of trade in
possession of the natives at Nootka Sound.
To the north of New Caledonia there is a large projecting corner,
which belongs to Russia, and has been traversed by the servants of the
e XXXIV
INTRODUCTION.
(
T
Eur Company of that nation ; but of which no account has been given
to the world, except of the coast, respecting which some information
may be obtained from the narratives of Captain Cook, Kotzebue, and
other voyagers. The few Indians of Mackenzie River, who have
crossed the Rocky Mountains, report that, on their western side, there
is a tract of barren grounds frequented by caribou and musk oxen; and
the furs procured by the Russian Company indicate that woody regions,
similar to those to the eastward of the mountains, also exist there.
Langsdorff gives the following list of skins contained in the principal
magazine of the Russian Fur Company, on the island of Kodiak, most
of them collected on the peninsula of Alaska, Cook's River, and other
parts of thecontinent.
Brown and red bears, black bears, foxes black and silver-gray, (the
stone fox, canis lagopus, is not found to the southward of Oonalaska),
glutton, sea, river, and marsh otters, lynx, beaver, zizel marmot, common marmot, hairy hedge-hog (erinaceus ecaudatus), rein-deer, American
wool-bearing animal.
The quadrupeds which inhabit the shores of the Polar Sea, are the
same that are comprised in the list of the animals of the Barren
Grounds. On the remote North Georgian Islands, in latitude 75°, there
are nine different species of mammiferous animals, of which five are
carnivorous, and four herbivorous. The following is Captain Sabine's
list of them :—
Ursus maritimus.
Gulo luscus.
Mustela erminea.
Canis lupus.
Canis lagopus.
Lemmus Hudsonius.
Lepus glacialis.
Bos moschatus
Cervus Tarandus
/•These two animals are only summer visitors.
J They arrive on Melville Island towards the
j middle of May, and quit it on their return
I   to the South in the end of September.
I have not enumerated the seals, moose, or whales, in any of the
fists ; nor have I attempted to give a description of any of them in the
text, because my opportunities of examining them were too limited to
iiiiiww INTRODUCTION.
XXXV
enable me to record any new facts; neither had I the means of correctly ascertaining the species.
I have, in the text, described the different species of animals, from
Mature, as correctly as I could; and I have chosen rather to subject
myself to the charge of proxffify than to become obscure by aiming at
too great conciseness, because, in the course of my researches, I have
feit the difficulty of ascertaining the species, from the brief characters
assigned to them by the old writers.   I have for the same reason in
many instances repeated some of the generic characters in the account
of a species, particularly in cases where any doubt respecting the genus
or sub-division of the genus existed.    In the account of the manners
of the animals, I have borrowed freely from preceding writers; and
from none more frequently or more copiously than from Captain Lyons,
whose " Private Journal" contains a great fund of information respecting the northern animals.   I wish it to be understood, however, that
in all cases, unless where a doubt is actually expressed, or where I state
that I have had no opportunity of personal observation, the remarks I
have quoted are sanctioned by the information I collected on the spot.
The nomenclature  of colours, made use of in the description, is a
modification of Werner's, contained in Mr. Syme's useful little work*.
Before closing this introductory chapter, I have to discharge the
agreeable duty of expressing my obligations to many gentlemen who
have fostered the progress of the work.    To the Right Honourable
Lord Viscount Goderich my gratitude is especially due.     To  his
attachment to the sciences I am indebted for that patronage and aid,
which his high situation in his Majesty's Government enabled him to
bestow, and without whieh this work could not have appeared.    To
the Right Honourable Thomas Frankland Lewis, also, I am under great
obligations for the interest he has shewn in the advancement of the
work, and for his kindness in forwarding my views.   My gratitude is
not less owing to the present Treasury Board, for the readiness with
which they made the grant of money available ; and to the late and
* Werner's Nomenclature of Colours, with Additions.   By Patrick Symb, Flower Painter.
Edinburgh, 1821.
e 2 present Secretaries of State for Colonial Affairs, for their kindness in
forwarding my applications through their department. I have next to
express my best thanks to the Governor and Committee of the Hudson's Bay Company, for granting me free access to their museum, and
to the manuscript accounts of the Fur Countries, in their possession,
and for the strong recommendations they transmitted to the resident
Chief Factors and Chief Traders, to forward the views of the Expedition, with respect to Natural History. To Mr. Garry, the Deputy
Governor of that Company, I have to offer my thanks in an especial
manner, not only for his general kindness and good offices, but for the
free use of his valuable library, particularly rich in the works of the
early travellers in America. I have also to mention my deep sense of
the kindness of the Council of the Horticultural Society, and of Joseph
Sabine, Esq., Secretary to that Institution, for the opportunity of
examining and describing Mr. Douglas's specimens. To Charles
Koenig, Esq., of the British Museum, I am under much obligation, for
the facility he afforded me of examining the specimens in that collection ; and I am equally indebted to N. A. Vigors, Esq., of the Zoological
Society, for his aid in the consultation of the museum under his charge.
I have, lastly, to express my gratitude to Sir John Franklin, and to the
Officers associated with me under his command. To the former, for the
kindness with which he embraced every opportunity during the progress of the Expedition, of forwarding my views with respect to that
branch of its objects, which was more particularly intrusted to me;
and to Captain Back, Lieutenant Kendall, and Mr. Dease, for their
active assistance in the collection of specimens. Indeed, I may, with
propriety, embrace this opportunity of saying, that I had the happiness of being placed under an Officer, who was endowed with the rare
union of devoted attention to the duties of his profession, and of the
most sincere attachment to the interests of general science,—and that,
in him, and in the Officers under his command, I met with kind friends,
whose agreeable society beguiled the tedium of a lengthened residence
in the Arctic wilds. EXPLANATION
OF THE
REFERENCES   TO   AUTHORS.
Barton    ......   Medical and Physical Journal, edited by Professor Barton, Philadelphia.   (This
work is quoted after M. Say.)
Bewick Bewick's History of Quadrupeds.   1st and 2nd editions, with woodcuts.
Billings Expedition to the Northern Parts of Russia, by Commodore Joseph Billings, 1785
to 1794 ; narrated by Martin Sauer.   London, 1802. •
Blainville Bulletin des Sciences par la Socifitd Philomatique, 1791 et seq.   Paris.
Brisson Le Regne Animal Divis6 en ix. Classes.   1vol. in4to.   Paris, 1756.
Buefon Histoire Naturelle, Generate et Particuliere, avec la Description du Cabinet du
Roi.   Paris, 1749.    36 vols, in 4to.
Cartwright    ....   Journal of Sixteen Years' Residence in Labrador, by G-. Cartwright.   1 vol. 8vo.
London.
Carver Travels in North America, by J. Carver, Esq., in the Years 1766? 1767 and 1768.
London, 1778.
Catesby The Natural History of Carolina, Florida, and the Bahama Islands, by Mark
Catesby.   2 vols. fol. with App.   London, 1731 and 1743.
C. Hamilton Smith .   .   Vide Smith.
Champlain Voyages du Sieur de Champlain Xaintongeois.   1613.
Charlevoix    ....   Histoire de la Nouvelle Prance, avec le Journal d'un Voyage dans l'Amerique,
Septentrionale, par le P. Pierre Francois Xavier de Charlevoix, a Paris an
1777.   12mo. torn. 5.
Clerk of the Caxifornia Vide Smith and Drage. V*~
Clinton Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New York, instituted.
in the Year 1814.  Introductory Discourse bythe Hon.De Witt Clinton, LL.D.,
&c.   4to.   New York, 1815.
Cook «/. Voyage to the Pacific Ocean, in 1776—1780, performed under the Direction of
Captain Cook.   London, 1784.   4to. 3 vols.
Coxe  f Account of Russian Discoveries between Asia and America, by William Coxe,
A.M.,F,RS.   London, 1787. xxxvm
EXPLANATION  OF THE
Cuvier, or CtrviBB, Baron. Tableau Elementaire de l'Histoire Naturelle des Animaux.   1 vol. in 8vo.   Paris,
I       1798. Legons d'Anatomie Comparee, Recueilles et Publics, par MM. Dumeril
.et Duvernay.   5 vols, in 8vo.   Paris, 1803—1805.
I I „      Recherches sur les Ossemens Fossiles de Quadrupedes. 4 vols, in 4to. Paris, 1812.
„ „ „      Le Regne Animal Distribue d'apres sur Organisation, par M. Le Chf. Cuvier.
4 vols. 8vo.   Paris, 1817.
Cuvier, Fred.     .   .   .   Histoire Naturelles des MammifSres.   En folio.
De Monts Vide Monts.
Denys Histoire de l'Amerique. (Quoted from Pennant.)
Desmarest Mammalogie en Description des Especes des Mammiferes, par M. A. G. Des-
marest.   4to.   Paris, 1820.
Dixon ^<T A Voyage round the World, in the Years 1785, 1786, 1787, and 1788, by Captain
George Dixon.   London, 1789.
Dobbs An Account of Hudson's Bay, by Arthur Dobbs, Esq. .London, 1744
Drage C Vide Smith and Clerk of the California.
Dudley    Philosophical Transactions, January, 1727.   Of the Moose-deer in America, fff
Paul Dudley, Esq.
Du Pratz    .....    Vide Pratz.
Edwards ......   Natural History of Birds and otherrare undescribed Animate, by George Edwaards.
7 vote. 4to.   London, 1743.
Ellis   .>......   Voyage to Hudsotfs Bay in the Dobbs and California, by Henry Ellis, in the
year 1746 and 1747.   London, 1748.   8vo.
Erxlebein Systema Regni Animalis.   8vo.   Leipzick, 1777.
Fabricius    .....   Fauna Groenlandica Othonis Fabricii.   1 vol 8vo. Hafhiae et Lipsiae, 1780.
Fernandez Historia Animalium,  auctore Francisco Fernandez, Phillippi Secundi Primario
Medico.   1 vol. 4to.   An. 1651, Roma.
Fleming The Philosophy of Zoology, by John Fleming, D.D. 2 vols. 8vo. Edinburgh, 1822.
Forster Philosophical Transactions, vol. 62.   An. 1777.   Descriptions of Specimens of
Animals brought from Hudson's Bay, by J. Reinhold Forster.
Franklin    .....   Narrative of an Expedition to the Shores of the Polar Sea, in the Years 1819,182,0*
and 1821, by John Franklin, Capt. Royal Navy.   1 vol. 4to.   London, 1822.
»»      V Narrative of a Second Expedition to the Shores of the Polar Sea in the Years
1825, 1826, and 1827, by John Franklin, F.R.S., Captain Royal Navy.   1 vot
4to.   London, 1828.
Gass Journal of the Travels of a Corps of Discovery under Captain Lewis and Captain
Clarke to the Pacific Ocean, in the Years 1804, 1805, and 1806.   8vo.   By
Patrick Gass.   1 vol. 8vo.   London, 1808.
Geoffrey Geoffroy St. Hilaire, Annates du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris.  20 vols.
.in 4to.   De 1822 a 1823.
Gmelin    Systema Naturae Linneir ed. 13.   An. 1790,   J. F. Gmelin. REFERENCES TO  AUTHORS.
XXXIX
Godman   .   .
Graham  .   .
Grieve    .   .
American Natural History, by John D. Godman, MD.   3 vols. Svo.   Philadelphia, 1826.
' Vide Hutchins.
History of Kamskatcha, translated from the Russian of Krascheninikoff, by James
Grieve, M.D.   Gloucester, 1764. ....
Griffith      .   ....   The Animal Kingdom, by Baron Cuvier, translated by Edward Griffith, and
Others.   8vo.   London, An. 1827 •et seq. •
Guldensted    ....   Novi Commentarii PetropoEtam, 1749—1775.   20 vols.  •   •   •   •
Hamilton Smith     .   .    Vide Smith.'
Harlan Fauna Americana, "being a Description of the Mammnerbus Animals inhabiting
North America, by Richard Harlan, M.D.   8vo.   Philadelphia, 1825.
Harmon A Journal of Voyages and Travels in the Interior of North America, between the
47th and 58th Degrees of Latitude, by Daniel William Harmon, a Partner in
the North West Company.   Andover, 1820.
Hearne tx Journey to the Northern Ocean, by Samuel Hearne, in the Years 1769, 1770,
1771, and 1772.   London, 1807.
Hennepin Nouvelle Decouverte d'un Tres grand Pays situS dans l'Amerique, 'par R. P.
Louis de Hennepin.   Amsterdam, 1698.
Henry Travels and Adventures in Canada and the Indian Territories, by Alexander
Henry, in the Years 1760—1776.   New York, 1809.   ,        ....
Heriot Travels through Canada, by George Heriot, Esq.   London, 1807.
Httrnandez Rerum Medicarom Novae Hispaniae Thesaurus Francisci Hernandez, Reecho
Editore.   Roma, 1651.
Histoire dei'Ameriqtte. Histoire derAmerique Septentrionale. Tom. 2,12mo.   Amsterdam, 1723.
Hontan Vide Lahontan.
Hutchins MS. Account of Hudson's Bay, written about the year 1780.   Mr. Hutchins
■ furnished much intelligence to Pennant respecting the Zoology of Hudson's
Bay. In a few first sheets of this work Mr. Graham te through mistake quoted
as the author of these manuscript notices,
James The dangerous Voyage of Captain Thomas James, for the Discoyery of a Nortb-
West Passage.   London, 1633, reprinted 1740.
James Expedition to the Rocky Mountains, under the Command of Major Lbng,"by Edwin
James. 3 vols. London, 1823. The American edition-is-also quoted «o-
%&&■    casioBaMy.
Jaheson .   .   .   .   .   .   Transactions of ihe Wemerian Society of Edinburgh, vol. iiL.p. 3 06.   Account of
toe Rocky Mountain Sheep, by Professor Jameson.
Jeremie .   .   .....   Voyage au Nord.   (Quoted from Pennant.)
Joselyn New England.       (Quoted from Pennant.)
Joutel Voyage to Mexico, by Mr. Joutel, translated from the Frencli.   London, 1719.
Kalm Peter Kalm's Travels in North America, translated by J. R.Fosfer.' The abridgement in Pmkertotfs collection of voyages "is also quoted < JX EXPLANATION  OF  THE
Klein Isaac Theodore Klein, Quadrupedum Dispositio.   4to.Lipsiae, 1751..
Krasheninikoff .   .   .    Vide Grieve.
Lahontan Voyages dans l'Amerique de M. La Baron de la Hontan.   Vol. 2 en 12mo.   A la
Haye, 1703. ,*
Langsdorff    ....   Voyages and Travels to various Parts of the World, in the Years 1803, 1804,
1805, 1806, and 1807, by G. H. von Langsdorff.   2 vols.   London, 1813.
Lawson History of Carolina.   (Quoted from Pennant.)
Leach     .,,,..   Leach, W. Elford.   Zoological Miscellany.
„ „ „        Appendix to Ross's Voyage to Baffin's Bay.   1819.
Lesson     ......   Manuel de Mammalogie, par Rene Primeverre Lesson. 12mo.   Paris, 1827.
Lewis and Clarke   ,   .   Travels to the Pacific Ocean in 1804, 1805, and 1806, by Captains Lewis and
Clarke.   3 vols. 8vo.   London, 1807.
Lichtenstein .   ...   Voyage a Boukhara, par M. Le Baron Georges de Meyendorff, en 1820.   Paris,
1826.   Description, par M. Lichtenstein  des Animaux Recueilles dans le
Voyage, par M. Eversman.
Linn    .   Systema Naturae, Carolo a Linne.    Ed. xii. 1766.
„ „ „        Fauna Suecica.   8vo.   1746.
Linn. Gmelin ....   Systema Naturae Linnei.   Ed. xiii.   Cura Gmelini, Leipsig, 1788.
Long's Journey .   ,   .   Vide James.
Lyon   , Vj, ,   .   .   .   .   Private Journal of Captain G. F. Lyon during a Voyage of Discovery under
Captain Parry.   8vo,   London, 1824.
Mc Gillivray .   .   I   .   New York Medical Repository, vol. vi. p. 238.  Account of the Mountain Ram,
by William Mc Gillivray.   1803.
Mackenzie (Sir Alex.)   Travels to the Polar Sea and to the Pacific Ocean, in the Years 1789—1791, by
Alexander Mackenzie.   London,
Mackenzie (Sir George) Travels in Iceland.
Marten Voyage to Spitzbergen and Greenland, by F. Marten.   8vo.   London, 1711.
Mears    U- Voyages to the North-West Coast of America in 1788 and 1789, by JohnMeares,
Esq.   4to.   London, 1790.
Meyendorff   >   .   .   .    Vide Lichtenstein.
Mitchill    .....   Medical Repository of New York.   An. 1821.   (Quoted from M. Say.)
Monts, De Nova Francia.   The three last voyages of Monsieur de Monts, of M. Pontgrave,
and of M. De Poutrincourt, into La Cadia,   London.
Ord  Guthrie's Geography, American Edition.   Philadelphia, (Quoted from Harlan.) .
  JournaTof the Academy of Sciences of Philadelphia   Vol. iv. p. 305.
Palisot de Beauvais . Bulletin des Sciences par la Soci6te Philomatique depute, 1791.   Paris.
Pallas  Novae Species Quadrupedum e Glirium Ordine. Erlang.   In 4to."
..   Spicelegia Zoologica.   Berolini, 1767—1780.
»  Voyage dans Plusieurs Provinces de l'Empire de Russie.   8 vols, in 8vo.   Paris.'
	 REFERENCES  TO  AUTHORS.
xli
Parry .^ Voyage for the Discovery of a North- West Passage," performed in- the Years 1819,
1820, in His Majesty's Ships the Hecla and Griper, by William Edward Parry,
R.N., F.R.S.   4to. London, 1821.
.."V* Second Voyage for the Discovery of a North-West Passage in the Years 1821,
1822, 1823, in the Fury and Hecla, by Captain William Edward Parry, R.N.
F.R.S.   London, 1824. ...
Pennants/" History of Quadrupeds.   3d Edition.   2 vols. 4to.   London, 1793.
»         Arctic Zoology.   2 vols. 4to. 1784.
Pike Travels on the Missouri and Arkansaw, by Lieutenant Pike, in 1805 and 1806.
EditedbyT. Rees, Esq.   London, 1811.
Pratz, Du Voyage de Louisiana   (Quoted from Pennant.)
Rafinesque, or l _
_ „ {Annals of Nature. (Quoted from Desmarest.)
Rafinesque-Smaltz.      J
„ „ American Monthly Magazine, (Ditto).
„ „ Precis, les Decouvertes Somiologiques.   En 18mo.   Palerme, 1814.
Ray Raii Synopsis Methodica Animalium.   8vo.   Londini, 1693.
Richardson .\X   .   .   .   Appendix to Captain Parry's Second Voyage.   London, 1824.
„  Zoological Journal.   1828, 1829.   London.
Sabine, (Joseph) .   .   .   Franklin's First Journey.   Zool. Appendix.   London, 1822.
„ „ ...   Linnean Transactions, vol. xiii.
Sabine, (Capt. Edward)   Supplement to the Appendix of Captain Parry's First Voyage in 1819, 20.
London, 1824.
Sagard-Theodat     .   .    Vide Theodat.
Sauer ,   .    Vide Billings.
Say His Zoological Notices, in the Notes to Long's Expedition to the Rocky Mountains,
are quoted.    Vide James.
Schoolcraft  ....   Travelsto the Sources of the Mississippi River, byH. R.Schoolcraft. Albany, 1821.
Schreber Histoire des MammifSres.   In 4to.   Erlangen, 1775, etsuiv.
Shaw General   Zoology,  by George   Shaw, M.D., F.R.S.   16 vols. 8vo.   London,
1800—1812.
Smith, (Captain) /.   .   Voyage by Hudson's Straights, in the California, by Captain Francis Smith; by
the Clerk of the California, in 1746 and 1747.   (The Clerk's name was Drage.
Ellis, the Agent for the Proprietors in the Dobbs, the consort of the California,
gives another account of the voyage, but less full on points of Natural History.)
Vide Ellis.
Smith, (C. H.) .   .   .   .   His papers in the Linnean Transactions, and in Griffith's Translation of Cuvier,
are quoted.
Steller Acta Petropolitana.
Temminck Monographies de Mammalogie et Tableau Methodique des Mammiferes.   4(o.
Paris, 1827. xlii EXPLANATION   OF  THE  REFERENCES TO  AUTHORS.
Theodat ...... Histoire du Canada, par le F. Gabriel Sagard-Theodat   12mp.. Paris,. 44r£(&
Traill    ....... Voyage to Greenland, by J. Scoresby.   Appendix.
Umfreville    .... Present State of Hudson's Bay, by Edward Umfreville.   London, 1790.   8vo.
Ulloa     ...... Voyage.   (Quoted from Pennant.)
Warden ...... Account of the United States of North America   Edinburgh, 1819.
Voyage de l'Amerique Voyage de l'Amerique dans le Vaisseau Pelican.   En 1697.   Amsterdam,^?^?. SYSTEMATIC LIST  OF  THE  SPECIES.
1. Ve'spertilio pruinosus.    The Hoary Bat
2. „ subulatus.    Say's Bat
3. Sorex pajlustris.    The American Marsh-Shrew .
4. „      Forsteri.    Forster's Shrew-Mouse   .
5. „     parvus.   The Small Shrew-Mouse
6. Scalops Canadensis.   The Shrew-Mole
7. Condyltjra longicaudata.    The Long-tailed Star-nose
83. „ macro ura ....
8. Ursus Americanus.    The American Black Bear
9. „     arctos ? Americanus.    The Barren-ground Bear
10. „     ferox.    The Grisly Bear
10Ms    „     maritimus.'   The Polar or Sea Bear
11. Pr'ocyon lotor.    The Raccoon
12. Meles'LabradorIta.   The American Badger
13. GtJLO luscus*.   The Wolverene
14. MusteLa (Putor*ius) vulgaris.   The" Common Weasel
* „ erminea.   The Ermine, or Stoat
„ visoN".    The Vison-Weasel
ma'rtes.    The Pine-Marten   .
Canadensis.    The Pekan or Fisher
var. alba.    White Pekan.
19. Mephitis Americana, Hudsonica.    Hudson's Bay Skunk
20. Lu*tra Canadensis.    The Canada Otter
21. „     '(Enhydea) Marina.   The Sea Otter
15.
53
16.
»
17.
»
18.
»
»
1
3
5
6
8
9
13
284
14
21
24
30
36
37
41
45
46
48
51
52
54
55
57
59
f2 xliv
SYSTEMATIC  LIST  OF  THE  SPECIES.
22.
Canis lupus, occidentalis.    The American Wolf
var. A. Lupus griseus.    The Common Gray Wolf
B. „     albus.    The White Wolf    ,
C. 1     Sticte.    The Pied Wolf
D. „     nubilus.    The Dusky Wolf ,
E.
ater.    The Black American Wolf
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
Canis Latrans.    The Prairie Wolf . .
„     familiaris.    The Domestic Dog
var. A. borealis.   The Esquimaux Dog
B. lagopus.    The Hare-Indian Dog
C Canadensis.    The North American Dog
D. NoviE Caledonia.    The Carrier Indian Dog
Canis (Vulpes) lagopus.    The Arctic Fox
var. /3. fulginosa.    The Sooty Fox
Canis (Vulpes) fulvus.    The American Fox
var. /3. decussata.    The American Cross Fox
y. argentata.    The Black or Silver Fox
Canis (Vulpes) Virginianus.    The Gray Fox    .
„     (Vulpes vulgaris,) vulpes ?    The Fox
Canis (Vulpes) cinereo-argentatus.    The Kit Fox
Felis Canadensis.    The Canada Lynx
„      rufa.    The Bay Lynx
„      fasciata.    The Banded Lynx
Castor fiber, Americanus.   The American Beaver
var. B.      „     nigra.    The Black Beaver
C. „     varia.    The Spotted Beaver
D. „     alba.    The White Beaver
Fiber zibethicus.    The Musquash
var. B.     „     nigra.    The Black Musquash
C. „     maculosa.    The Pied Musquash  .
D. „     alba.    The White Musquash ,
Arvicola riparius.    The Bank Meadow-Mouse
„       xanthognathus.   The Yellow-cheeked Meadow-Mouse
PAGE
V
60
•               V
.  66
i
68
»       «
.  68
69
.       p
.  70
73
•       •
.  75
75
•       •
.  78
80
t
.  82
83
.
.  89
91
•       •
.  93
94
*
.  96
97
•
.  98
101
!
. 103
104
*               *
. 105
113
*               *
, 114
114
|
. 115
119
•               *
. 119
•              1
,    119
f               *
. 120
Mouse
122 SYSTEMATIC  LIST OF  THE   SPECIES.
xlv
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
j.
T-
I
I
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
t-
J.
T-
50.
»
»
ArviccJla pennsyYvanicus.    Wilson's Meadow-Mouse
„       NdvoBORACENsis.    The Sharp-nosed Meadow-Mouse    .
„       BoreaAs.   The Northern Meadow-Mouse
(Georychus) helvolus.    The Tawny Lemming
„ ° trimucronatus.    Back's Lemming
„ * Hudsonius.    The Hudson's Bay Lemming
„ Groenlandicus.   The Greenland Lemming
Neotoma DrummondiI.    The Rocky Mountain Neotoma
Mus rattus.    The Black Rat ....
„    jdecumanus.    The Brown Rat
,,    musculus.    The Common Mouse ...
„    leucopus.    The American Field-Mouse
Mbriones Labradorius.    The Labrador Jumping-Mouse   .
Arctomys empetra.    The Quebec Marmot
? pruinosus.    The Whistler
brachyurus.    The Short-tailed Marmot
monax.    The Wood-Chuck
(Spermophilus ?) Ltjdovicianus.   The Wistonwish   .
„ Parryi.    Parry's Marmot     . .  .
Var. /3. erythrogluteta
)}     y.  PH^OGNATHA ....
Arctomys (Spermophilus) guttatds ?   The American Souslik
„ "Richardsonii.    The Tawny Marmot
„ Franklinii.    Franklin's Marmot
„ Beecheyi.    Beechey's Marmot
? Douglasii.    Douglas's Marmot
lateralis.    Say's Marmot
Hoodii.    The Leopard Marmot
Sciurus (Tamias) Lysteri.    The Hackee
„ QuAdrivittatus.    The Four-banded Pouched-Squirrel
Hudsonius.    The Chickaree . • «
Var. /3.    The Columbian Pine-Squirrel
niger.   The Black Squirrel f •
51.
Arct
52.
»
53.
»
+•
)>
54.
»
55.
3J
56.
J»
57.
Sciui
58.
»
59.
>■>
y>
60.
»
»
FAOC
124
126
127
128
130
132
134
137
140
141
141
142
144
147
150
151
153
154
158
161
161
162
164
168
170
172
174
177
181
184
187
190
191 xlvi
SYSTEMATIC  LIST OF THE  SPECIES.
61. Pteromys Sabrinus.   The Severn River Flying Squirrel
Var. |3. alpina.   The Rocky-Mountain Flying-Squirrel
Geomys.   Generic characters .
62. „       Douglasii.   The Columbia Sand-Rat
-j-.       „       umbrinus.    Leadbeater's Sand-Rat »
63. „    ?  bursarius.   The Canada Pouched-Rat
64. ,.    ? talpoides.   The Mole-shaped Sand-Rat
65. Diplostoma bulbivorum.    The Camas-Rat
Aplodontia.    Generic characters . •
66. Aplodontia leporina.   The Sewellel
67. Hystrix pilosus.    The Canada Porcupine .
68. Lepus Americanus.   The American Hare .
69. ,,      glacialis.   The Polar Hare . .
70. ,,      Virginianus.    The Prairie Hare
71. ,,      (Lagomys) princeps.    The Little-Chief Hare
f. Lipura Hudsonia.   The Tail-less Marmot
72. Equus caballus.    The Horse
73. Cervus alces.    The Moose-Deer .
74. ,,      tarandus.    The Caribou
Var. a.,    arctica
„   /3.    sylvestris
75. „      strongyloceros.    The Wapiti
76. ,,     macrotis.    The Black-tailed Deer
Var. /3.    Columbiana
77.
leucurus.   The Long-tailed Deer
78. Antilope furcifer.    The Prong-Horned Antilope
79. Capra Americana.   The Rocky Mountain Goat
80. Ovis Montana.    The Rocky Mountain Sheep
81. Ovibos moschatus.    The Musk-Ox
82. Bos Americanus.    The American Bison
PAGE
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250
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275
. 279
 iiiiiiiiM
IIIIIIUIM NORTHERN   ZOOLOGY.  NORTHERN  ZOOLOGY.
PART I.
MAMMALIA.
rg
1. Vespertilio Pruinosus.    (Say.)    Hoary Bat.
Genus.   Vespertilio.    Linn.    Sub-genus.  Vespertilio, Geoffroy.
V. Pruinosus.   Say.   Long's Exped., vol. i. p. 167. American edition, (vol. i. p. 331, Engl, ed.)
Harlan.   Fauna Amer. p. 21.
Hoary Bat.   Godman.    Nat. Hist. vol. i. p. 68, and Jig. t. No. 3.
This species of Bat was first noticed by Mr. Nuttall, at Council Bluffs, on the
Missouri; and Mr. Say, in Long's Expedition, describes an individual captured
in the same neighbourhood. Dr. Godman states, that it has been taken near
Philadelphia. The specimen I have described below was caught at Cumberland-
house on the Saskatchewan, in latitude 54°, and presented to me by Mr. Isbister,
resident clerk at that post. This individual is larger than Mr. Say's, but there
seems to be no other difference. Godman's figure does not represent the tail
forming a small obtuse point to the interfemoral membrane, such as it exists in
my specimen. After a minute examination, I could find no traces of more than
two incisors in the upper jaw. Mr. Say found the same number; but it is possible, that some cutting-teeth may have dropped out in both specimens. The
number of teeth would bring this species of Bat into the genus Nycticeius of
Rafinesque; but the whole habit of the animal shews that it is properly classed
in Geoffroy's genus Vespertilio, a subdivision of the great Linnsean genus.
description.
Dental formula, incisors f, canines }-Ei, grinders ^ = 34.
The superior incisors are conical and sharp pointed, separated from each other by a wide
naked space, and closely adjoining to the canine tooth on their respective sides.   They are
B 2
NORTHERN   ZOOLOGY.
slightly dilated exteriorly at their bases, but can scarcely be termed tuberculated. In height,
they equal the molar teeth. The inferior incisors are arranged in contact with each other in a
convex line, and are very short. They have obtuse, slightly two-lobed crowns, which expand
laterally beyond their roots. The upper canine teeth are conical, obscurely three-sided and
sharp pointed. They stand twice as high as the molar teeth. The inferior canine teeth are
of the same size with the superior ones, and have each a minute and rather obtuse lobe at
the base on the inner side.    The molar teeth have high, sharp,*pyramidal points.
The nostrils are two lines apart, turned a little outwards, and have a raised obtuse, naked
margin. There is a depression between the nostrils superiorly, but no furrow on the
margin of the lip, which is hoary within and without. The eyes are surrounded by fur,
but situated clear of the ear and its tragus. The ears "are shorter than the head, nearly
.circular, entirely covered with fur behind, except a small lobe, which projects anteriorly,
and is overlapped by the tragus. On the inside there are some detached patches of hair.
The margins are entire, and the folds around the auditory opening have a resemblance to
those of the human ear. The tragus is scalene-triangular, fixed by one of its angles, and
is well characterised by Mr. Say as very obtuse at the tip, and arquated. It is thinly
hairy exteriorly. The margin of the mouth and the chin are black and hairy; and the
crown of the head and throat are yellowish-brown. The occiput, and the rest of the superior
parts, are covered with a long and very fine fur, which is blackish-brown at the base, then
shining yellowish-brown, followed by very dark umber-brown, and, lastly, tipped with white,
producing a hoary and almost silvery colour on the back. The fur of the under parts is also
hoary, but has less lustre. The interfemoral membrane is triangular, and at its apex there is a
very slight smooth projection of the tail. It isliairy above; its fur, towards the middle, being
coloured like that of the back; but, near its margins, and particularly towards the apex, a
reddish-brown tint prevails. The wing-membrane presents some small hairy patches above
the elbow-joint, and at the roots of the metacarpal-bones. Underneath, it has a close coat of
yellowish-brown fur on each side of the humerus; also a hairy patch beneath the bracbial-
bone, and others beneath the metacarpal-bones at their origin. The first finder has one
joint; the second, three; and the others, two each. The thumb has one phalanx, which
is much longer than its metacarpal-bone, and is armed with a short but strong, curved, black
claw. The hind-feet are covered with hoary fur above, and have short, curved claws, which
are excavated underneath.
Dimensions.
Length of the head and body
„      ' tail
Spread of the wings      .       .
Length of head .
Space betwixt the nostrils nearly
Inches.
4
Lines.
0
0
0
1
Space betwixt the upper canine teeth
,, lower canine teeth
„ ears
Length of thumb and claw
Diameter of the ear, (every way,) about
nclies.
* Line
0
3*
0
2*
0
7
0
6
0
6 MAMMALIA.
[2.]
2. Vespertilio Subulatus.    (Say.)    Say's Bat.
Vespertilio Subulatus.   Say.    Long's Exped. vol. 5i. p. 65. (or vol. ii. p. 253, Eng. ed.)
.Subulate Bat.   Godman.   Nat. Hist. vol. i. p. 71.
DESCRIPTION.
Dental formula, incisors *=?, canines §|| grinders fEg = 38.
The upper incisors are short, and are.arranged in two distant pairs, each pair being
close to the canine tooth of the same side. Each tooth has a small interior pointed
lobe. The lower incisors are very short, and have two obtuse lobes. The canine teeth are
jsl little longer than the grinders, nearly straight, subulate, and sharp pointed*. The two
anterior grinders on each side, both above and below, are small, short, conical, and sharp
pointed. The one adjoining to them, also simply conical, is higher than the three posterior grinders of each side, which, in the lower jaw, have a double row of acute points;
and, in the upper jaw, a triple row ; the inner row of the latter being much lower than the
outer ones.
The head is short, broad, and flat: the nose blunt, with a small, flat, naked muzzle. The
nostrils, situated at the two anterior comers of the muzzle, are small, roundish, naked, and
scarcely one line apart. The tip of the lower jaw is rounded, and naked. Eyes concealed
by the fur, and situated near the ears, but not covered by them. Ears about the length of the
head, or a little longer, thin, membranous, ovate, obtuse; slightly undulated, but not notched
posteriorly, and curving forwards at the base ; slightly ventricose anteriorly, without folds.
The ear is hairy at the base behind, and there are a very few scattered hairs on its inner
surface. The tragus is thin, broadly subulate below, tapering to a point upwards, and ending
in a small obtuse tip ; it is attached by one corner at the base, is about two-thirds of the
height of the ear, and is not curved or falciform.
The back has a shining yellowish-brown colour ; the belly a yellowish-gray. The fur, soft
and fine, is longest on the back (three lines), and both above and below is blackish at the roots.
With the exception of the small naked space behind the nostrils, the head is covered with fur,
but a litde shorter than that on the back ; towards the mouth it assumes a blackish colour j
it is rather coarser on the lips, and there are a few longer hairs or whiskers, but they are not
stiff nor very conspicuous.
The interfemoral membrane is broad, and tapers to a point along the tail, which it envelopes.
It is thinly clothed at the base with fur similar to that on the back in colour, but shorter. It
is also fringed with a few scattered hairs on its posterior, free margin, which is not undulated.
The bifid point of one of the canine teeth in Mr. Say's specimen seems to have been an accidental circumstance.
B 2 NORTHERN   ZOOLOGY.
The tail projects about a line beyond the membrane. The toes of the hind-feet are rather
long, and have white, slender claws, not greatly curved, with a few long hairs projecting over
them. The wing-membrane is naked, and the joints of the fingers correspond with those
of the vespertilio pruinosus, and the rest of the genus, as restricted by Geoffroy. The
thumb is about two lines and a half long, including its slender claw, which rather exceeds half
a line.
Dimensions. '
Length'of body and head .
„ tail .
„ head        .       .      .
Height of ear   ...
Breadth of ditto near the middle
It is broader at the base.
Inches. lanes.                                                                                          Ineho:
1 10 Height of the tragus     ....       0
1 6 Spread of wings from tip of the middle
0 9        finger of the right wing to the tip of
0 8         the   corresponding   finger of the  left
0 4         wing              .           .           .           .10
Lines.
42
This Bat is the most common species near the eastern base of the Rocky Moun<-
tains on the upper branches of the Saskatchewan and Peace Rivers. Mr. Say's
specimen was obtained near the head of the Arkansas, within sight of the mountains ; and the description he gives of it corresponds so nearly with my specimens,
that I have no hesitation in considering them to be the same. Say's Bat has a
general resemblance to the Vespertilio pipistrellus of the British isles; but the
latter has one grinder of a side fewer, weaker canine teeth, a smaller ear, and a
shorter thumb and claw. Its fur is likewise shorter, and its back and belly do not
exhibit such distinct shades of colour. It seems to approach near to the VespertiliQ
emarginatus of Geoffroy, as Mr. Say has remarked; but I have not been able to
obtain a specimen of the latter with which I might compare it. The Carolina
Bat differs in the shape of the tragus, which is semi-cordiform, but resembles this
one nearly in the colour of the fur and iri general form.
rwwwvmm MAMMALIA.
[3.]     1. Sorex Palustris.  (Richardson.)  American Marsh-Shrew.
Genus.   Sorex.   Linn.
Sorex palustris.. Richabdson.    Zoological Journal, No. xii.   April, 1828.
S. (palustris) caudd corpus longitudine etecedenti, auricutts suivestitis vellere latentibus, corpore cinerascenii-nigro ;
subter cinereo.
Shrew, with the tail longer than the body, short hairy ears concealed by the fur, back somewhat hoary-black, belly
ash
•gray.
DESCRIPTION.
The dimensions of this animal are nearly the same with those of the Musaraigne de
Daubenton, or Water Shrew of Pennant, and are considerably greater than those of the
S. constrictus, with which it seems to have some relations.
Dental formula ; intermediary incisors •§-, lateral incisors jEa grinders £e§ = 30.
The two posterior lateral incisors are smaller than the two anterior ones on the same side,
and the latter are a little longer than the posterior lobes of the intermediary incisors. All the
lateral incisors have small lobes on their inner sides. The tips of the teeth have a shining
chestnut-brown colour.
Form.—The muzzle is shorter in proportion and broader than that of the Sorex parvus.
The whole upper lip is bordered with whiskers, and the tips of the posterior ones, which are
the longest, reach behind the ears. The extremity of the muzzle is naked and two-lobed.
The eyes are visible. The ear is shorter than the fur ; its inferior margin is folded m; there is
a heart-shaped lobe covering the auditory opening, and a transverse fold above it. The ears,
particularly the superior margins, are clothed with thick tufts of fur, like that on the rest of
the head. The tail appears to be rounded, or slightly four-sided from its base, to near the
tip, where it is compressed and terminated by a small pencil of hairs. It is covered by a close
coat of short hair. The feet are clothed with rather coarse, short, adpressed hairs, those on
the sides of the toes being arranged somewhat in a parallel manner, but not very distinctly.
The fur resembles that of the mole in softness, closeness, and lustre. On the superior
or dorsal aspect it is black, with a slightly hoary appearance when turned to the light. On
the ventral aspect it is ash-coloured. At the roots it is bluish-gray. The outside of the
thighs and upper surface of the tail correspond in colour with the back, the under surface of
the tail and inside of the thighs with the belly. The feet are paler than the back and a little
hoary.    The nails are whitish*
Dimensions..
Length from nose to origin of tail
„     of tail ,
„     of head       .       . .
„    from nose to eye
Inches. Lines. Inches. Lines.
3 6 Length of nose, from upper incisors, scarcely   0           2
2 7 Height of ear     ».»»■••   0           3
1 2 Length of hind-foot from heel to end of the
0 7        nails 0          9 NORTHERN   ZOOLOGY.
This animal agrees with the S. constrictus in having two lateral incisors more
in the upper jaw than some other species of the genus, but the Sorex brevicaudus
of Say is described by Dr. Harlan as having five lateral incisors (" minute false
molars ") on each side, and' the same thing occurs in the following species.
When compared with a specimen of the water-shrew in the British Museum, the
colour of its fur appeared different, the points of the teeth darker, the ears smaller,
and the tail longer than in the water-shrew. Several specimens of this animal
were obtained, but the descriptions were drawn up from the prepared skins, and
some uncertainty consequently exists as to the true shape of the tail. The
S. palustris most probably lives in the summer on similar food with the water-
shrew ; but I am at a loss to imagine how it procures a subsistence during the
six months of the year in which'the countries it inhabits are covered with snow.
It frequents borders of lakes, and Hearne tells us that it often takes up its abode
in beaver houses.
[4.]     2. Sorex Forsteri.  (Richardson.)   Forster's Shrew-Mouse.
Shrew, No. 20.   Forsteh.   Phil. Trans.yol. lxii, p. 381.
Sorex Forsteri.   Richaiidson.    Zool. Journ. No. 12, April, 1828.
Sorex (Forsteri) cauda tetragona longitudine corporis, uuriculis brevibus vcslitis, dorso xerampelino, venire tmaino.
Forster's   Shrew-mouse, with a square tail as long as the body, short furry ears, back of a clove-brown colour,
belly pale yellowish-brown.
This little animal is common throughout the whole of the fur countries to the
67th degree of latitude, and its minute foot-prints are seen every where in the
winter, when the snow is sufficiently fine to retain the impression. I have often
traced its pathway to a stalk of grass, by which it appears to descend from the
surface'of the snow, but a search for its habitation by removing the snow was
invariably fruitless. I was unable to procure a recent specimen, and the following
description is drawn up from one prepared by Mr. Drummond. It is the
smallest quadruped the Indians are acquainted with, and they preserve skins
of it in their conjuring bags. The power of generating' heat must be very great
in this diminutive creature to preserve its slender limbs from freezing when MAMMALIA.,
£
the temperature sinks 40 or 50 degrees below zero. The Sorex Forsteri approaches the S. tetragonurus of Desmarest in dimensions, and agrees with it in
some other points.
DESCRIPTION.
Dental formula, interm. incisors |, lateral incisors |Ejj, grinders sEs* = 32.
The teeth are white, brightly tinged with chestnut brown on the points. The upper
intermediary incisors have each a posterior obtuse lobe. The lateral incisors of the upper
jaw are crowded and somewhat tiled; the four anterior ones of a side are broad and obtusely
conical, the fifth is flattish on the crown. The first grinder is smaller than either of the two
which succeed it; and the fourth is the smallest of all. In the lower jaw the intermediary
incisors have two distinct obtuse posterior lobes, and a slight undulation producing the rudiment of a lobe towards their points : the lateral incisors have a central mammillary point j
and the anterior grinder is a little larger than the other two. The muzzle is very slender,
and has a naked and a deeply lobed tip. The whiskers reach to the occiput, and are
composed of a few white hairs, intermixed with many black ones. The ear is as long
as the fur of the head, and is clothed within and without, but particularly on its
margins, and folds, with hairs of the same colour arid length of those on the crown of
the head. It is rounded, but from a small fold of its upper margin appears pointed. Its
circumference is ample for the size of the animal. There is a semicircular lobe projecting
from the inferior margin of the ear, and covering the auditory opening, and above it there is a
transverse fold. The ear is not perceptible until the fur is blown aside. The fur forms a
fine, short, close coat, which on the dorsal aspect of the animal has a grayish-brown or clove-
brown colour, and on the ventral aspect a dull yellowish-brown. The tail is four-sided
and tapers gradually from the root to its extremity, which is terminated by a pencil of
hairs. It is covered with dark-brown hair above, and pale, yellowish-brown hair beneath.
The feet are five-toed, and are clothed with short, adpressed, pale yellowish-brown hairs.
The nails are slender and white.
Dimensions.
Length of head and body
,,    of tail    .
,,     of head
Inches.
2
1
0
Lines.
3
3
9*
Length from upper incisors to nostrils
Height of the ear ...
Inches.   Linef."
0 2
0 2
ill
i NORTHERN   ZOOLOGY.
3. Sorex Parvus.    (Say ?)    Small Shrew-Mouse.
Sorex parvus.   Sat.   Long's Expedition, vol. i, p. 163 ?
Sorex, No. 89.   Museum or the Zoological Society.
Hi
There is a specimen of a shrew-mouse in the Museum of the Zoological Society,
which answers nearly to the description of the Sorex parvus by Say, except that
its tail is considerably longer. Not to add unnecessarily to the number of specific
names, I have adopted Mr. Say's, until a comparison of authentic specimens shall
determine whether it belongs to the same or a different species. Forster, in the
Philosophical Transactions, mentions the Sorex araneus as an inhabitant of
Hudson's Bay. The large naked ears of that species would distinguish it at once
from the S. parvus.
Description of the specimen in the Zoological Museum.
Form.—Ears very short, and indicated only by a brownish tuft of hair, shorter than the rest of
the fur. Muzzle more slender than that of S. palustris, but not so much so as that of S. Forsteri. The tail is apparently cylindrical the greater part of its length, pointed and perhaps
slightly compressed at the tip. The fur, from its root to near the tip, has a dark blackish-gray
colour, but from its closeness only the tips are seen, and on the back they have a brownish-
black colour, on the head and sides brownish-gray, and on the belly ash-gray. The feet
have a brownish tinge.    The points of the teeth are dark reddish-brown.
Dimension's.
Length of head and body           t              ,
Inches.
2
Lines.
9
5,       tail   ....
,           ,
i
9
„       from nostrils to incisors
*
0
li
Mr. Collie, surgeon of his Majesty's ship Blossom, caught a Shrew-mouse on
the shores of Behring's Straits, which he describes as having a dark brownish-
gray colour above, and a gray tint beneath. It measured, from the tip of the snout
to the root of the tail, two inches and four lines, and its tail was one inch lono-.
This specimen agrees still more nearly with Mr. Say's description than the one in
the Zoological Museum does, and if it is allowed to be of the same species, it gives
to the Sorex parvus a range of twenty-three degrees of latitude. MAMMALIA.
9
[6.]
1.   Scalops Canadensis.    (Cuvier.)    Shrew-Mole."
Genus.   Scalops.   Cuvier.
Brown Mole.    Pennant.   Arctic Zool., vol. i. p. 141.
Sorex aquaticus.    Lin. Syst.
Musaraigne-taupe.    Cuvier.    Tab. Elem.
Scalope de Canada.   Cuvier.   Regne An., vol. i. p. 134.
Shrew-Mole.    Godman.   Nat. Hist., vol. i. p. 84, t. v. fig. 3.
Mole.    Lewis and Clarke.   Journey, Qc, vol. iii. p. 42.
DESCRIPTION.
Dental formula, incisors f, grinders J°^ = 44.
. The two upper incisors have an exact resemblance, in shape and position, to the two middle
incisors of man. They occupy the end of the jaw, and are twice as broad, and somewhat
higher than the grinders which immediately follow. The four first grinders of a side are
conical, and obscurely three-sided. The fifth is a little compressed, and has a minute projection at its base posteriorly. The sixth is still more compressed, and has a larger posterior
projection. These six anterior grinders (termed conical teeth or false grinders by some
authors) are nearly equal to each other in height, and occupy the whole jaw between the
incisors and posterior higher grinders. They stand at equal but small distances from each
other, and from the incisors, not exceeding the quarter of the breadth of a single tooth. The
four posterior grinders are larger, and rather exceed the incisors in height. The first of them,
or seventh grinder, does not differ much from the preceding one; it is compressed, has
an acute lobe posteriorly, and a minute one on the inside anteriorly. The two next grinders
are composed of two exterior triangular folds of enamel, and one interior one, producing,
besides some subordinate points, three conspicuous sharp ones, of which the interior one is
lower than the other two. The tenth or last grinder is smaller than the two which precede it.
In the lower jaw, there are two incisors, shaped like the upper ones, but much smaller and
lower than the closely adjoining grinders. They are succeeded on each side by seven small
conical but rather obtuse grinders, which are flat on the inside.