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An ethnological survey of Canada. - Second report of the committee, consisting of Dr. G.M. Dawson (Chairman… British Association for the Advancement of Science 1898

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696 report—1898.
An Ethnological Survey of Canada.—Second Report cf the Committee
consisting of Dr. G. M. Dawson (Chairman and Secretary), Professor D. P. Penhallow (Vice-Chairman), Mr. E. W. Brabrook,
Professor A. C. Haddon, Mr. E. S. Hartland, Sir John G.
Bourixot, Abbé Cuoq, Mr. B. Sulte, Abbé Tanguay, Mr. C,
Hill-Tout, Mr. David Boyle, Rev. Dr. Scadding, Rev. Dr. J.
Maclean, Dr. Merée Beauchemin, Rev. Dr. G. Patterson.
Mr. C. N. Bell, Hon. G. W. Ross, Professor J. Mavor, and
Mr. A. F. Hunter.
I. Baida Stories and Beliefs.   By C. Hill-Tout 700
IL Customs and Habits of Earliest Settlers rf Canada.   By Benjamin Sultb     709
At a meeting of the Committee held on August 20 last in Toronto
the resignation of the Chairman from that office was accepted, and Professor Penhallow was nominated as Chairman ; but through a misunderstanding this proposal was not brought before the General Committee.
Professor Penhallow has since consented to act as Vice-Chairman.
Since the presentation of the first report of this Committee at the
Toronto meeting some progress has been made in the further organisation
of the work, and some results of interest have been obtained ; but the
field of work in Canada is so vast and so varied that it bas thus far been
found possible only to attack limited problems where special opportunities
have occurred of enlisting competent observers. As pointed out in connection with the first report, the investigation presents two main branches : .
(1) That dealing with the white races, and (2) that dealing with th©
aborigines or Indians. These, however, are not entirely distinct, for a
particularly interesting line of inquiry is that relating to the Métis or
* half-breeds,' resulting from the intermixture of the whites and Indians.
Nothing has yet been accomplished in the last-named field of work, but it
is anticipated that some observers may soon be enlisted for it.
The efforts of the Committee were to some extent handicapped in tho
first year of its existence by the want of any fund to be employed in the
furtherance of its work ; but with the grant made by the Association at
its last meeting the definite organisation of this work became possible.
As a preliminary the Committee issued a general circular, together with
Schedules relating to physical types.
Copies of these have been distributed to each member of the Committee, while large numbers of Schedule B, with proportionate numbers of
Schedule A, have been placed in the hands of those who are undertaking
special work. So far the Committee has distributed about 700 copies
of these papers. The Schedules are, with slight modifications, the same
as those issued by the Committee for Great Britain, and have been adopted
tentatively until their actual use should indicate the special directions in
which changes are required. It was found almost immediately that
several alterations will be required in the future, the number of facial
types in particular being quite inadequate to the requirements of such
studies on this continent.'
Three sets of anthropometric instruments have been purchased. These
have been distributed to Mr. Charles Hill-Tout^ of Vancouver, who has ON THE ETHNOLOGICAL SURVEY OF CANADA.        697
already accomplished much good work among the coast tribes of Indians,
and who proposes to continue his studies during the present summer ; 'to
Mr. A. F. Hunter, of Barrie, Ontario, who has associated with him Dr. F„ -
Tracey, of Toronto, and to Dr. A. C. Hebbert, of Montreal, who propose»
to make liberal use of the material to be found in the various military
organisations of the city, public institutions, and also, probably, the
students of the universities.  ■
The Committee has also purchased a camera specially adapted to it»
work in the field. This has been placed in the hands of Jlr. Hill-Tout,
who hopes to secure a large number of negatives during the present
summer.    These negatives remain the property of the Committee..
Communication with the Committee appointed by the American
Association for the Advancement of Science for an Ethnographic Survey
of the United States has been opened through its chairman, Dr. Franz
Boas, and it is hoped that such co-operation may be secured as will lead
to results of mutual advantage.
In pursuance of a resolution of the Committee at the meeting of
August 20 in Toronto, communications were opened with the several
provincial governments of Canada for the purpose of obtaining, if possible,
grants in aid of photographic and other registration involved in the woijfcff
of the Committee. Nothing has, however, so far resulted from the com- I
munications referred to in the way of material aid, although some of the
replies received indicate the possibility that such aid may be forthcoming
in the future.
Mr. David Boyle, having been commissioned by the Government of
Ontario to obtain photographs of some of the Indians of the province i^r-i
connection with his investigations of Iroquois religious rites, has, however^
expressed his intention of conducting this work as far as possible in conformity with the requirements of the Committee's schedule.
At the meeting above referred to a resolution was also passed concerning the desirability of taking steps for the preservation of the Serpent
Mound in Otonabee township, Ontario ; and in October last letters were?'
addressed on the subject to the clerk of the township and to the clerk of
Peterborough County Council. At a later date the former replied that
his Council considered the work of preserving the mound a provincial one,
while the latter stated that the County Council had sent a memorial to;:;
the Ontario Government on the subject. Further representations have
since been made to the Government, and it is probable that the mound
may be acquired next year.
Proceeding upon the lines of investigation adopted by Mr. B. Suite in
regard to the province of Quebec, a preliminary account of which was
appended to the last report, a similar inquiry has been undertaken by I
Mr. A. F. Hunter in regard to the composition of the population of the
several counties of the province of Ontario.   This is not as yet sufficiently
complete for publication, but some idea of its character, and the great
interest likely to attach to such a record of the foundation of the people »
of this province, consisting of the most varied elements, may be gathered I
from the subjoined preliminary analyses referring to two counties only
out of the forty-two for which partial information has already been   .
obtained.    These are quoted with Mr. Hunter's permission, and with the 1
object, largely, of inducing a similar analysis of the equally interesting
elements brought together in the peopling of New  Brunswick, Nova
Scotia, and Prince Edward Island. 698                                                 REPOBl
Simcoe Co.
Townships where settled
Sutherland shire Scots .       .       .
West Gwillimbury.
2    North of England (small)    .
Penetang Road, W. Gwillimbury.
3 1 French Canadians
Tiny.   ,
4 I Negroes (now chiefly gone) .
Oro (20 families), Sunnidale.
Ulster Protestants (extensive)
j 1830
Teenmseth, Essa, Innisfil.
Irish Catholic (smaller)
Adjala, Vespra, Flos, and Medonte
Argyleshire Scots....
! 1832
Nottawasaga, Oro.
Lanarkshire   and    Renfrewshire
Scots                        ^U0\
Innisfil, Essa.
Germans (small) «...
Nottawasaga. .
Londonderry       ....
Border District Scots (small)
Indians (Chippewas) (population,
Beausoleil and Christian Islands.
h Co.
Townships where settled
Germans (Berczy's 60 families)   .
!   o
French Royalists (20 families)
Yonge St. (King and Whitchurch).
Da vï dit es (?) (from New York)   .
East Gwillimbury.
Eskdale (Dumfriesshire Scots)
Scarboro.                          /
Quakers (from Pennsylvania)
King and Whitchurch.
* •- H
English (West of England) .
Richmond   Hill   (Vaughan and
Pennsylvania Dutch    .
York and Vaughan.
Mennoni sts or Tankers
Yonge St. (Whitchnrch).
'"** ;T*w
Highland Scots    ....
Vaughan, King.
Annandale (Dumfriesshire) Scots
Vaughan and King.
Indians (Chippewas) (population,
Georgina and Snake Islands.
In British Columbia the immigrant population is so newly established,
and has occurred so largely by individual accretions from sources already
most heterogeneous in character, that it seems scarcely possible to pursue
* with profit a similar method of study. The native races, however, there
afford, whether from an ethnological or an archaeological point of view, a
field of inquiry still wide, although daily narrowing and requiring prompt
and efficient action if much is to be placed on record for posterity.
Mr. C. Hill-Tout has been able to accomplish some work in this
province, in the record of such facts as have come to his notice, and these
are presented in Appendix I. of this report. Mr. Hill-Tout writes as
follows :—
*I send in some notes on the folklore of this district, which 1
have sought to record whenever possible on the lines suggested by th6
English Committee, and trust they will be found useful. I also enclose &
set of (3) photographs in duplicate of a rock-painting found on a cliff
about twenty miles from Vancouver. The Indians of the neighbourhood
know nothing of it or of its meaning. I venture no opinion upon it
myself. In my next report I hope to have more to communicate. I have
in hand the following :— OX THE ETHNOLOGICAL SURVEY OF CANADA. C99
« 1. Report on the Archaeology of Lytton and its neighbourhood.
4 2. Folklore stories from same area.
« 3. Vocabulary and Grammar notes on the Ntlakapamuq. .
c -L Vocabulary and Grammar notes on the Squamish and Matsqui
Yale, and other divisions of the Salish.
15. Ancient tribal divisions and place-names.
* 6. An account of a great confederacy of tribes in the Salish region of
* I re^rd the collection of vocabularies and grammar notes from every
dialect and sub-dialect as imperatively necessary for linguistic comparison
The lack of these has caused me the loss of much valuable time and
retarded my own labours in this field. The work on these lines already
done, though excellent on the whole as far as it goes, is altogether too
limited and inadequate. If we are ever to be in a position to formulate
a law of permutation of letters for the languages of this region it is
absolutely necessary that specimens of dialectal difference from every
division of a stock be collected. It is not a simple undertaking, and will j
require considerable time to accomplish, but its importance cannot be
1 In this connection it gives me pleasure to inform the Committee that
several of the leading anthropologists of Australasia have accepted the
evidence of Oceanic affinities of the Kwakiutl-Nootka and Salish .stocks i
as set forth by me in a paper presented at the recent meeting of the
Royal Society of Canada. Dr. Carroll, the editor of the " Australasian
Anthropological Journal," in particular regards the evidence as practically I
* The photographic and anthropometric work of the Survey I hope to
begin next month, the camera and instruments for which have just come
to hand.
'Iq concluding this report. I desire to call the attention of the
Committee to the fact that much important archaeological work is awaiting
development here for lack of funds to carry it on ; the necessity for
energetically prosecuting which, without further delay if it is to be done
at all, I cannot impress too strongly upon all who are interested in this
work of the Survey. Every month sees valuable records defaced and
obliterated, either by relic hunters or by the progress of civilisation, and
the day is not far distant when all trace of the past life and conditions of
the aborigines such as are contained in the middens and mounds will be
entirely swept away.9
Pending a more complete analysis of the early immigrants from France
to Quebec, which it is hoped may take eventually a tabular and numerical
form, Mr. B. Suite has extended the inquiry communicated to your
Committee last year by following up the indications of the habits and
mode of life of the early colonists by means of such contemporary records
as still exist. It is not too much to hope that eventually we may possess
a very complete picture of this unique occupation of a part of the North
American continent from Old France, and of the formative stages
of a new French-speaking people, in all its aspects. The paper forms !
Appendix II. of this report.
In conclusion the Committee has to report that of the grant entrusted
to it at the Toronto meeting a balance of 35Z. 17s. remains. The Comn
m it tee asks to be reappointed and to be permitted to expend the above- 700 retort—-1898.
mentioned amount ; also that a further grant of 507. may be accorded to
it in aid of its investigations, which promise to be of increased importance
and value during the ensuing year.
Haida Stories and Beliefs.    By C. Hill-Tout.
Cosmogonical Myth and Story of the Origin of the Haida People.
In the remote past Slia-lânà ruled in his kingdom in the grey clouds that
overshadowed the vast deep. All below was a dark and watery waste.
At this time YetltJ^ the Raven, was the chief servant of Sha-lànà. One
day Yetlth ventured to interfere with the conduct of affairs in Cloudland,
and was cast forth into the outer world. The Haven flew back and fore
over the deep until he became weary. He grew angry at finding no place
where he could rest, and beat the water with his wings till it flew up into
the clouds on either side of him ; and when it fell back again it was
transformed into rocks, upon which he rested himself. These rocks grew
and extended themselves on every side until they reached from North
Island to Cape St. James. Later these rocks became changed into sand,
upon which a few trees eventually sprang up and grew, and thus were the
Queen Charlotte Islands brought into existence. The Raven now desired
someone to assist him in his kingdom, so one day he piled up on the
beach two large heaps of clam-shells near by the present site of Sisk, and
then transformed them into human beings, whom he made his slaves.
They were both of the same sex and female. In a short time these two
slaves became dissatisfied with their condition, and complained to their
creator, the Raven, that he had mismanaged affairs in making them both
of the same sex. The Raven listened in anger to thair complaints, but
finally altered their condition notwithstanding, and changed one of them
into a man, by casting limpet-shells at her. Thus were the progenitors of
the Haidas created. The Raven, growing weary of his lonely life, took the
woman for his wife, but as she bore him no children he wearied of her and
sent her and the man to a spot now called Skidegate. Wearying of his
loneliness once more, he determined to revisit his former home in Cloud-
land and secure, if possible, a beautiful wife from among the daughters of
the heavenly chiefs. One bright summer morning he started off on his
long journey. He soared upward over the lonely sea until the land he
had created appeared to him to be a small mosquito. At last he came to
the walls of heaven. He concealed himself until the evening, and then,
assuming the form of a bear, scratched a hole in the wall, and thus made !
his entrance into his former home. The place had greatly changed since
he had been an inhabitant there, and consequently he took time to consider everything that he saw, so as to form a similar kingdom on his return
to earth. There he found that everyone was considered a god or chief,
and all were submissive to the Chief of Light, who still held supreme
power as of old. He also found that the Great Chief had divided his
kingdom into villages and towns, into lands and seas, and had created
a moon and stars, and made a great luminary to rule over all, which
was called Jine the Sun. At last he was caught by the hunters of the
King and brought into his presence.     As the Raven appeared to be a ïjftffftgfesfer'-r ^rWifiiffl
beautiful and tame bear, he was kept as a playmate for the King's
youngest son. He now spent three years in intimate relationship with
the royal family, and had sufficient time to make careful and necessary
observation prior to his descent to the lower world. Tt was customary
for the children in the Land of Light to disguise and transform themselves
into bears, seals, and birds. Now it so happened that the Raven, under
his disguise of bear, was strolling on the beach one evening, looking for his
supper of clams, when he espied three other bears approaching him. He
knew at once they were children of a great chief, and, instantly transform-
in» himself into a large eagle, stole the sun, which happened to be setting
at the time, also the fire-stick that was used to kindle the fires, and flew
over the walls of heaven with one under each wing, together with one of
the three children. When the people found that the sun had been stolen, \
they reported the matter at once to the King. He then ordered his land
to be searched, and if they found the thief to throw him down to Ilet-gwau- .
lana, the chief or ruler of the lower regions. But a messenger arriving,
who stated that he had seen a large bird flying over the walls of their
city with the sun under his wing, at once all gave chase, and the Raven
was followed. In his flight from his pursuers he dropped the child, who
fell down through the clouds into the sea close to the Raven's kingdom.
The Raven also descended, bearing with him the sun and the fire-stick in
safety to the earth. When the child fell into the sea he cried aloud for
assistance, and immediately the little fishes came in a great shoal to his
aid and carried him on their backs safely to the shore. These fish are
very numerous around Rose-spit at the present day, and their forms, say
the Haida, have remained dinted in the blue clay of that district from the
day when they bore the heaven-born child ashore until now. The great
chief was a lover of peace, and consequently did not allow his followers to
pursue the Raven down to the earth, as Chief Het-gwau-lana might then
be tempted to enter heaven and give them perpetual trouble. So the
Raven was unmolested, and another sun was created in heaven by the
Great Ruler, who loved light and hated darkness.
Now the Raven thought that he had secured a chiefs daughter, but,
the child turned out to be a chiefs son. The Raven loved him exceedingly, and built a house at Rose-spit especially for the accommodation of
the child and the sun. The child grew to be very powerful, and had
command over all animals, fish, and birds. Whenever he called to the
fish they would at once appear and bear him out to sea. Whenever he
wished to fly through the air he would call to the birds. They would at
once come to bear him wherever he wished to go on'their wings. The
bears and other animals attended to his daily wants, and supplied him
with salmon and berries. The animals, birds, and fish were created by
the Raven for the sole benefit of this heaven-born child. The Raven also
kept the sun and £ re-stick in a very strong and secure room, as he was
afraid that his two former slaves would return and steal them. Presently
the slave-wife of the Raven returned, and begged to be re-admitted into
the Raven's society. The request was granted, and she became once
more the mistress of the Raven's household. She took a great interest in
the child, and attended to his every wish. In course of time the child
grew to be a handsome young man, and began to love the woman. She
returned his love, and at last resolved to become his wife. The Raven
soonfound that they were living as man and wife, and he became very
angry, and threatened to kill the woman.    This treatment caused the X
702 retort—1898.
pair to escape from the house and hide themselves in the bush.   When
they fled from the Raven's house they carried with them a lar^e cedar
box, in which the sun and the fire-stick were placed.    Day after day and
month after month, they wandered southward without proper nourishment, and in great fear of the Raven.    They also carried with them the
box containing the sun and the fire-stick.    One evening, faint and weary
they sat down near a little creek, and the woman, being very hungry '
wept bitterly.    Her husband walked a little distance up the stream and
at last found a dead land otter, but they could not eat it, as they had no
fire withf which to cook it.    On the following morning they remembered
that they had the fire-stick in the box they were carrying.    They at once
determined to see if they could produce a fire with it.    They were
successful, and soon had a good fire, with which they cooked the otter.
Having made a hearty meal, they proceeded on their way.    When they
reached Cape Ball they were hungry again, whereupon the youth be.^an
to sing one of the songs taught him in heaven, and the sea receded four
miles from the shore, leaving a great whale stranded on the beach.    The
youth surrounded the whale with a circle of stones and rocks so that it
should not escape.   This circle of boulders is said to exist to-day.   The
runaway couple lived on whale flesh until they  reached  the channel
which divides Graham and Moresby Islands, where they settled and built
a house.    On this spot the village of Skidegate afterwards sprang up.
Here they lived for several years in peace and prosperity, and a daughter
was born to them, which caused them great joy.    In course of time the
daughter grew to womanhood, and was an exceedingly beautiful woman,
and they would have all been perfectly happy but tnat there was no
prospect of a husband for the maiden.
Year after year passed by, and they had given up all hopes of a
husband for their daughter, when one day there camt> from the North
Island, around the west coast, the Raven's male-slave, whom he had
made on the beach at Sisk. This forlorn creature now desired the
parents to give him their daughter to wife. The father indignantly
refused his request, and became very angry at what he considered a great
piece of impudence on the part of a clam-shell-made man. How could
such a being as he look to wed with the daughter of a heaven-born chief !
But the slave was not to be so easily repulsed. He betook himself to the
woods surrounding the house, and whenever the father was away would
go and talk with the mother. She regarded him as her brother, seeing
that they had been created together, and told him all her secrets, and
even went so far as to tell him where her husband kept the chest containing the sun which he had stolen from the Raven's house at Rose-spit.
This treasure was stored away in a strongly built house in the woods,
where the heaven-born man would frequently go to pray to the gods in
the Kingdom of light. The woman was not wise in thus divulging the
whereabouts of her husband's precious treasure ; for the slave, on asking»
a second time for the maiden, and receiving a good kicking from her
father,1 went away in great wrath, vowing that he would be revenged.
As soon as night fell, having watched the chief retire to rest, he betook
1 It is   interesting to note in this  connection that   the  heaven-born roan V[
ihoagLt m thing of taking the slave for his wife, hut was much incensed at the idea
of hiE daugl 1er becoming the wife of a slave. We see that the game notions prevailed amor.g the Haidas generally, for although a chief could many any of his
icxnale slaves, no slave could many a free-born woman under pain of death.
himself to the treasure-house, and easily entered it through the smoke-
hole. He then seized a club that he found on the floor, and smashed the
box to pieces, taking care not to injure the sun. When he had wrought
this havoc he began to ponder upon his miserable lot in life, and presently,
becoming enraged at his ill-fortune^ threw down the sun and kicked it to
pieces. But the broken parts, instead of falling to the ground, leaped
up into the sky, the largest piece becoming a sun, the next biggest a
moon, and the other pieces stars. Thus were created the Haida sun and
moon and stars, according to the traditions of the ancients.
When the wretched slave became calm once more he speedily realised
the danger he now stood in at the hands of the heaven-born man. So>
before dawn of the following morning he was well on his way to his former
abode at North Island. He travelled only by night, hiding himself in the
forest during the day, thus avoiding the keen eyes of the Raven and a
meeting with his sister's husband. At last he reached home, and for days
he sat brooding over his cruel lot until the happy thought struck him that he
should do as the Raven had done and go and seek a wife for himself from
among the daughters of heaven. Eut the difficulty was how to get there*
This he overcame in the following manner. Taking his bow and arrows
in his hand one moonlight night he shot an arrow at the moon, which
embedded itself in that luminary's face ; he then shot another into the
notch of the first and another into the notch of this again, and so on until
he had. a line of arrows reaching from the moon to the earth. But all
this was not accomplished in one night. According to one tradition he
took 364 nights over his task, which later were lengthened into 364 days
and nights, which number just makes up the Haida year of 13 months of
28 days each. They account for the discrepancy between their year of
364 days and ours of 365 by saying that the «lave occupied one day in
climbing the arrow ladder, which has been left out of their reckoning.
When the slave had completed the ladder he lost no time in climbing up
it into heaven. He arrived there early in the morning, and the first thing
that he saw was a beautiful woman swimming in a lake of crystal. He
stealthily approached the side where she seemed likely to step ashore
after her swim to await her. She presently swam in his direction, and no
sooner had she put her foot upon the beach than he seized and dropped
with her through the clouds into the sea close by the shore of North
Island. As they descended the Raven happened to be flying near the
spot, and perceiving something unusual in the air above him watched t6
see what it was. At first he thought it to be a pair of large eagles, but
presently discovered it to be his slave and a beautiful heaven-born woman.
No sooner had the slave led his prize into the house than the Raven
appeared and demanded that the woman should be given over to him»
The slave declining to comply with the request, the Raven became angry,
seized the woman, and transformed the man into an invisible spirit and
drove him away from his presence for ever. Furthermore, he cursed him
and bade him wander over the land and take upon himself the task of
caring for the growth and development of every living thing the Raven
had created.
Thus the Wanderer, as the slave is now termed by the Haidas, is
always busily engaged causing the berries and roots to grow for the
support of the people. Every plant, flower, and tree is under his control,
and thus it is that Haida-land produces the finest trees for canoes throughout the whole northern   region.      At   the   present time the   Haidas
/ 704 report—1898.
believe that he is fulfilling his destiny, and they think of him with
gratitude and offer him sacrifices of berries, roots, salmon, and bear-grease.
These they place in hollow trees that he may eat when he feels hungry.
They believe that he wanders upon the earth night and day, and will
continue to do so until the end of time, when the Raven will recall him.
But woe to the Haidas when this takes place ; for the trees and plants,
the fish and animals, the fowls of the air, and even the very land itself
will pass away and cease to be, and then will their own end come.
Haida Moon Stories. . '
In early times the Haida moon met with several misadventures, but
as every tribe had a tribal moon of its own the consequences were not so
serious as they would otherwise have been.    When the Raven was in the
* Land of Light ' he saw that each tribe there had a separate moon, and
he adopted die same plan for the Haidas. The principal moon of the
race is that derived from the large splinter kicked off the sun by the
* clam-shell ' man in his anger at being refused the hand of the heaven-
born man's daughter for wife, as related in the cosmogonical lore of the
Haidas. The beaver once ate up.the moon of the Masset tribe, and
the Raven had to supply another. The sun once chased the moon up the
Naas River into the interior of the mainland, where she could find no food.
About spring-time, being desperately hungry, she demanded food from her
worshippers, who produced the ' candle-fish,' or ulakan, which were made
to run up the river in great numbers for the purpose. To offset this the
sun's worshippers produced the salmon to eat up the ulakans, and it was
only at the intervention of the ? Wanderer,' who fought the salmon, that
the little fish were rescued.
The moon is not to be insulted with, impunity. Once a naughty boy
was sent to gather sticks for the fire, but did not want to go, urging that
it was dark. His father made him go, telling him that the moon would
presently rise and there would be plenty of light. The lad went and
stood on the seashore to wait for the moon to rise. As it appeared above
the horizon he mocked it by putting his fingers to his nose. Presently a
giant came down from the moon and snatched up the boy, and he may
now be seen on clear nights in the moon with a bundle of sticks over
his shoulder.
Xtlakapamvq Moon Story.—With the above may be compared the
belief of the Thompson Indians.
Once there was an old woman who was very meddlesome and interfering. She was perpetually making mischief in the village. The people
endured her as long as they could, but at last determined they could
stand her no longer. They agreed to seek a new settlement and leave
her behind. So each family got out their canoes, and loaded them with
all their belongings and paddled away. As each left, the old woman
begged to be taken on board, but was told that the canoe was too full
already, that the next boat would be best for her. They all made the
same excuse, and presently the last canoe passed her and she was left
behind. As she sat bewailing her lot the moon rose, and she called to it
to have compassion on her. The moon came down almost to the ground
to see what the old woman was wailing about, and she, seizing the
opportunity, leaped up into it and was carried up into the sky. In her
hand as she leaped she held a little birch-bark bucket, and on clear nights
she can still be seen in the moon with her little bucket in her hand.
I saura
Haida Beliefs, éc*
Frog.—Among the Haidas the frog is regarded as the embodiment of
wisdom, whence the medicine-man obtains gifts from his favourite spirits.
Marriage Customs.—When a man fancied a girl for his wife he went
to her uncle, the brother of her mother (who alone has any voice in the
matter), and make overtures to him by means of presents. The uncle
being willing, the man then makes known his wishes to the young
woman. She thereupon procures the assistance of her companions and
prepares for the ceremony. When she is ready the man goes to her
dwelling, a great feast is then made to which friends of both parties are
invited, and during the course of the feast he rises and claims her as his
wife in the presence of all assembled. On the following day she and her
friends go to his house, when a second feast is made, after which they are
regarded as man and wife.
Weasel Belief.
The weasel causes great alarm and fear among the Haidas. He is the
heart-eater and man-slayer. He is supposed to enter the dwellings
stealthily at night and pass into the man's interior through the fundament.*
The weasel then feeds upon the man's heart and he shortly dies. This
happens to those who do not honour the Raven by doffing their caps when
a bird of this species flies over heads.
The Myth of Tou; or, the Little Mountain and the Spider. ,
On the shores of Masset Inlet a long time ago lived two little
mountains. One was a good mountain and the other was not. The good
mountain was satisfied with his lot, with his food of hair-seal and halibut,
was blessed with a good digestion, and an even temper. The bad brother
Tou wanted dog-fish, and grumbled and growled all the time because the
chief of the waters would not let him have his sister's rations as well as
his own. At last he determined to change his place of abode, and one
moonlight night he set out on his journey.. He travelled fifty miles,
tearing up the ground and making a dreadful noise as he went, and finally
pulled up on the Northern Coast near Rose-spit, where the dog-fish
abound. Here he stayed, and his walls of black basalt now tower 200 or*-
3Ô0 feet above the shore. He now gets all the dogfish he desires, but
still he is not satisfied. A large spider lives in the clouds over his head,
which makes itself very disagreeable to him by pulling his hair and
screaming and howling in his ears.
This spider caused much disquietude among the Haidas themselves
also. Xo one would venture to go to sleep near its abode. But once a
Haida warrior determined to seek out the spider and fight with it. So he
took a barbed spear, a wooden drum, and a big whistle and went to seek
the enemy. He made such a din with his drum and whistle that the
spider came down to see what was the matter. When the spider perceived
the man he came at him open-mouthed, screaming and growling the while*
The warrior thrust his spear into the terrible creature's jaws, which
stopped its noise and prevented it from closing its mouth-. To the spear
was attached a long cord, with which the man now tethered the spider to a
tree so that it could not get away. The spider finding itself fast grew
terribly angry, and began to break up the mountain, and hurled large
masses of it at the warrior, who had much ado to avoid them.   At last
1898. zz 706 report—1898.
the spider succumbed to hunger and died ; and its body was then cut into
extremely small pieces by the female relatives of the warrior. But though
the spider no longer troubles Tou, he has not ceased to grumble yet.
Tidal Wave Myths.
The tidal waves are believed by the Haidas to be caused by three
sisters who dwell on the West Coast. When they are annoyed in any
way they revenge themselves by raising these great waves ana smashing
the canoes cf the Haidas and drowning their occupants. The devil-doctor
is the only intermediary between the sisters and the people, and his
services must be well paid for before he acts.
Tschimose Myth.
The Haidas belief in the existence of a fearful man-eating monster,
who lives half in and half out of the sea. This dreadful being is seen
once in about fifteen years, and his appearance presages a time of famine
or pestilence and sickness.
The Killer-whale Myth.
When a Haida is drowned it is believed that his spirit is translated to
the body of a Killer-whale. These whales were therefore formerly much
honoured, and never killed by the Haidas. The appearance of one of
them off the shore in front of an Indian's dwelling is always regarded as a
I call ' to some member of the household, who will shortly meet with his
death by drowning. -
Land-otter Myth.
The Haidas believe that the land-otter has the power to enchant men.
He meets hunters and wanderers in the forest in the guise of a beautiful
maiden, who says to the victim, ' Come and sit down with me.' The wise
man is able to detect the enchantress by the pronunciation of the words
she uses, and so escapes her charms. The unwary, yielding to her wiles,
become her slaves, or are found wandering in the woods bereft of their
senses. She is also supposed sometimes to place certain leaves which have
magical qualities in the springs frequented by the people. Hence, before
taking a drink the Haida first throws a little water over the right
shoulder, saying at the same time, * Land-otter, land-otter, go from me 1
The Thunder-eagle Myth»
This widespread myth is found also among the Haidas. They regard
the thunder-eagle as their deadliest foe. They suppose thathe dwells as
a lonely god among the most awful recesses of the mountains, and that
when he is hungry he robes himself in eagle form and swoops down upon
the land, darkening it with the shadow of his widespread wings, whose
motions give rise to the thunder. The lightning is supposed to' come
from the tongue of a fish which the thunder-eagle carries under his
pinions. f^3#^
The Mouse Myth.
This myth of the mouse is one of the most firmly implanted in the
minds of the Haidas.   It enters very intimately into their lives., The
younger members are beginning to laugh at the notions connected with it
new, but their elders still firmly believe in them.   To them the harmless ox the ethnological SURVEY OF CANADA. 707
little rodent is a veritable demon. They believe that its home is the
stomach of human beings, and that every person has one or more of them
in his stomach. If a person is bad-tempered, immoral, passionate, a liar,
thief, «fee., they attribute these qualities in him to the mice-demons in his
stomach. Again, if a person is taken ill, his father turns all his goods and
belongings out of doors ; he next proceeds to catch a mouse. Having
secured one, he puts it into a small box and gives it plenty of grease to
eat. He abstains himself from all food for three days. Each morning he
takes the box and mouse down to the sea and drinks about a quart of salt
water He then returns and throws himself on his bed, places the box
containing the mouse under his pillow, and goes to sleep. He sleeps
throughout the day and following night, sentinels being placed about the
house to prevent anyone from disturbing him or making a noise. In the
morning he rises, goes down to the beach, drinks his quart of salt water,
and returns to sleep till the following morning. He keeps this up foir
three successive days. If during this while he imagines or dreams that
a person or spirit from the invisible world has appeared and revealed to
him the name of the individual responsible for his son's illness, he straightway rises and goes to this individual and charges him with the act, and
demands his reasons for attacking his son in this manner. If, however,
no vision or dream comes to him, after the third day has passed he takes
the mouse in his hand and goes into every house in the place, and holds
the mouse in front of each person until he is satisfied that he has found
the individual guilty of the offence. If the. mouse nods its head twice
before anyone, it is to the Haidas plain proof that the culprit is revealed.
In the older days this person would be found dead in the woods a little
while after.
If one of these harmless little creatures has scampered over any food
the Haidas would never think of eating it. They believe it is then impregnated with poison.   It is all thrown into a fire and consumed.
Cloud Myth.
When the clouds hang low the Haidas believe that a soul is being
snatched away, and expect to see one of their number shortly die.
Transmigration of Soul,
The Haidas believe in the transmigration of souls in this way : If, when
a person dies, the nearest female relative of the deceased is about to be
delivered of a child, the soul of the deceased will pass into the body of the
new-born infant and live again. ;
Specimens of Songs of the Haider |
Berry Sony.
Whit sqùate, squate, whit squate squate
A la whit, a la whit : >><iTv
Kalunga oltlië, kalunga olthe
Siamzi whê, siamzi whe whit.
The above is an invocation to a bird called the c whit,' which is supposed to ripen the berries.    It is besought to bring many large and nicely
coloured ones.
VL 708 report—1898. *"
jRidicule Sony, .
Yelthgowasu kingung        $;$&$im
Laou wangung, laou shugung • ■ •
Laou iching, laou idling
Laou kanga ? laou kanga ?
Yelthgowasu kingun.
Translation.—Note.—Yelthgowasu is a man's name.
Yelthgowas sees it*
He does it, he says it* £?|Hf
He it is, he it is ;
Did he see it ? did he see it f
Yelthgowas saw it.
Devil Doctor's Sony to the Spirit of the North Wind.
Ada adda di whi silthliga adi gwudakoustloga '
Dikwun kwul dungalthdagang alskid ada hi hi hi e.
Ditto to the Hast Wind.
Oh, hi a a, oh hi a a ohi a a a a
Kalke kona kish a a a
A skidje a dung a thu kagwalgudied
Kalke kona kish a a a ho.
Note.—• Skidje ' is the daughter of the mist and east wind, but has now
become a diver on account of her poverty. She and her father, the east
wind, are invoked to cause fair weather and keep off snow and ice.
I Wind Sony. ».
Di whiskada gwe he he
Di whiskada gwe he he
Hangi kwungust, di whiskada agwi.
Translation of above^
The wind is whistling to me,
The wind is whistling to me,
The wind is blowing boisterously in my face.
Specimen of Haida Syntax.
Itil kwogada daha itil Aunguans,   .
(Us love you our Father great ;)
Altsulth heth il istaiang kit unga,
(Therefore down he sent son his ;)'
Jesus Christ nung alth etil kaginsh is,
(Jesus Christ he our Saviour is ;)
Altsulth Jesus itil hagunan kwotalang,
(Therefore Jesus us for died.) (£S£$
I am indebted to the Rev. Mr. Harrison for information on the Haidas. OX THE ETHNOLOGICAL SURVEY OF CANADA.        ;709
Customs and Habits of Earliest Settlers of Canada*
By Benjamin Sulte.
It is intended in this ' paper to explain the mode of living of the
explorers, and afterwards of the first settlers on the shores of the
St. Lawrence, as well as the modifications they introduced in their customs,
habits, «fee., in order to conform themselves to the requirements of the new I
•country. There are two phases to be examined in connection with this :
from 1535 to 1631, and from 1632 to 1660 or thereabout.
Let us follow, first, the explorers of Eastern Canada, and see who
they were, how they acted in regard to climate, dress, and food. Thé men
of Cartier and Roberval (1535-44) were all Bretons and unaccustomed
to residence elsewhere than at home in Brittany. The result was that
most of them perished by the effect of cold, bad nourishment, disease, and 1
despair, whilst the present French Canadian would not experience any
hardship were he to iind himself in the same situation.
When Champlain (1604-30) describes the miseries of life in Acadia
and the lower St. Lawrence, he merely states for our information that his
men and himself had acquired very little knowledge in that sense above 1
that of previous explorers.    They still persisted in depending upon the
provisions brought from France—salt pork, beans, flour, mostly affected
by the influence of weather, time, «fcc, and not always abundant enough '
to cover the period at the end of which a fresh supply would be sent.   It
was considered good fortune when one or two of the men could handle a I
gun and shoot some game."   As for the art of fishing, nobody seems to
have known anything of it, and these people starved alongside of a world
of plenty, since they had the rivers, and lakes, and the forests lying all
around their miserable camps.
The only superiority of the Champlain men over the crew of Cartier
. consisted in the building of a house or two, but even at this they showed
a rather poor conception of comfort. Chauvin, in 1599, went to Tadoussac
, and left there sixteen of his followers to winter, without the elementary
precautions of providing them with eatables and warm quarters. In the
spring of 1600 the place was found empty, and none of the men are men*
tioned afterwards. The Indians had always been friendly to them, but
•could not take such inexperienced folks to the woods. The same thing
happened to De Monts (1604-5) in Acadia, when nearly all his party died
of scorbutic disease and want of food during the rough season. Champlain, who knew these facts recorded from the years of Cartier, did not
succeed any better in 1608, when he lost twenty men out of twenty^eight.
This was repeated yearly afterwards, but in smaller proportions.
Even as late as 1627 the 'winter residents' of Quebec were ignorant'
of the advantage of cutting trees during the summer in order to prepare
dry fuel for the October-April season. It was Pontgravé who advised
them to do so, and no doubt they recognised it was a great forethought.
They used to pick up whatever the wind would blow down of branches in
the forest, and if that material proved insufficient on extremely cold days,
then they tried their hands at felling some trees near by and supplying
them in blocks to the steward's room. No wonder that the writings of
the period in question so often complained of the evil of smoke and the
small quantity of heat produced by the burning of such green wood.
Stoves being unknown to the hivernants in Canada, a caboose supplied 710 5?*Sï REPORT—1898.
the place ôf that indispensable adjustment, and the men, unoccupied most
of the time, slept around it, starved there, got sick and died on the spot,
one after the other, as a matter of course. Father Biard, evidently ahead
of his generation, once made the remark that an iron box (a stove) such
as used in Germany was preferable by far to the poisonous system of
caboose. The improvement made by Champlain in his house at Quebec
consisted in substituting an ordinary chimney for the open fireplace above
alluded to. It is likely that Louis Hébert in 1617, and Guillaume Couil-
lard about 1620, built similar smoke-escapes in their homes;.they also
had the good sense to fit door and window sashes so as both to close hermetically and open easily when required. These marvels were not to be
surpassed for a long while after that.
The equipment provided for the men of Cartier, Roberval, Chauvin,
x De Monts, and Champlain was. not generally suitable in Canada. Slouch
felt hats are not equal to fur caps in winter ; boots and shoes of European
fabrics could not compete with the moccasins ; and as for overcoats, it
may be said they were not fit for the climate. Gloves, trousers, and underclothes adapted to the exigencies of 30° below zero constituted a puzzle
for these people. Snowshoes and mitts were doubtless adopted at an
early date from the Indians.
It was well known throughout France that Canada was a purgatory
for civilised people, and would never be settled by Christians.
Building houses was not customary in Quebec until 1632, because the
men (all without families) were located for the winter in what was called
the fort. As it was not intended to increase the colony, no carpenter was
needed for other purposes than to keep the ships in repair.
This awkward situation remained the same during twenty-six years.
What was the cause of it ? Simply this : the men for Canada were
recruited from the working classes (if not of the worst), through the
suburbs of large cities and towns, the very individuals who were the least fit
for the trials to be met in a wild country. For instance, a shoemaker is
not called upon to find his daily bread and meat by sowing wheat, planting vegetables, or hunting and fishing. Those men do not know how to
manufacture clothing or to dress themselves appropriately ; neither can
they prepare beaver or other skins to make a soft and warm garment»
Their € coaling ' power was also limited, for the wood standing in the
forest was for them a foreign product, accustomed as they were to receive
their fuel all cut up and dry at the door of their homes. Necessity, it is
said, is the mother of invention ; but this only applies to people who
already live by inventions, such as poor country folks—not the * citizens '
who depend upon the shops in their street. Furthermore, those who
came to Canada «took no stock' in the future of the country, and they
returned to France (when not buried here) in haste, without having had
time to learn much. The fur companies did not ask them to become
I Canadians. They had no reason to turn a new leaf and Revise a means
of life so completely different from their habits and aspirations.
Now we will close this unfortunate period by saying that about twelve
or fifteen of the youngest men, still employed in the neighbourhood of •       j
Quebec in 1631, were merged into the subsequent immigration and
became equally competent with that new formation, i.e., the actual \
settlers. This little squad, strange to say, was all from Normandy, and
every one of them educated far more than ordinary people : this was the
only good result of a century of wrong management in the affairs of
Canada. p
Coming to the second phase, we have to introduce farmers of Perehey I
Beau ce, Normandy, and Picardy, numbering forty-five, from 1632 to 1640,
besides twenty-six from Champagne, Lorraine, Brie, Poitou, Maine, during
the same nine years.   This period gives an average of eight settlers per year
only, which may be considered the proportion for twenty years afterwards.
The group of Perche took the lead from 1632 and kept it for ever.
They came married, bringing their farm implements, cattle, àc., and in
less than two years after their arrival conquered the soil, learned how to
face the climate, and made themselves literally at home, where their predecessors had miserably perished by scores during many years.
The typical Percherons knew the way to clear the forest, because their-
country was covered (especially in those days) with trees. They produced
all sorts of grain, poultry, cattle, pigs, &c, and so they did in Canada from
the outset. Every woman had a trade of her own—the men also. Take
Beauport, near Quebec, as an example : the first ten or twelve agricultural
families located there were composed of a stonemason, a carpenter, a
tiler, slater or thatcher, a blacksmith (often called armourer), a miller, a
shoemaker, a ropemaker, a leather-dresser, and two or three weavers.
Before the clothes brought from Prance were worn out the 'Canadian*
manufacture supplied the little colony with fresh woollen stuff of various*
fabrics from serge and camlet to much thicker cloths, as well as linen
made of their culture of flax. It soon became a saying that the * habitant '
(so named by contrast with the roving fur-trader) needs no help from
France, except in the line of iron and steel tools and firelocks. From'
head to feet they could provide for themselves ; their table was well supplied, their houses comfortable ; in fact they lived in luxury. The
culinary art had many adepts amongst them, and this has been transmitted through generations.
The hygienic aspect of the situation must have been well understood
by those early settlers, because not even the children were affected by the
influence of the new climate and habits of life. Scorbutic diseases disappeared from 1632—that is to say, never prevailed amongst actual
settlers or habitants, but continued to follow the men sent to the advanced
posts for a winter or two in the pursuit of the fur trade.
Boots and shoes brought from France soon became known as bottes
et souliers français, to be used indoors on special occasions only. Bottes
et souliers sauvages served all other purposes at every season. The long
overcoat, or capot, made of coarse woollen cloth with a nap on one side
(frieze) called bure in French, is a remarkable instance of their
ingenuity. This coat has a hood attached to the collar and dropping
behind : it is buttoned up and down, double-breast, and made tight around
the body by a wide and long woollen sash of bright colours, altogether an
immense improvement over the * caban9 or dreadnought-coat of the
mariners, well known in England and France. Their mode of colonisation
also differed from that which could have been expected, considering that
in France the country people are centralised in villages somewhat away
from the fields they cultivate. The first attempt made in Canada to lay
out farms (1632) consisted in having them in a row facing the river and
distant from one another about four arpents : each lot of land measured
forty arpents deep, making one hundred and sixty square arpents for a
farm. This system was adopted by the whole of the colony as it gradually got settled—notwithstanding the authorities who were in favour of
the formation of villages in preference to what they styled a c dispersed
order.'   The advantage of such an arrangement is to bring the house a 712 report—1898. :|fà*
few steps from the river ; to permit easy access to the public road situate
between the house and the river ; to keep social intercourse as close as
possible by the vicinity of neighbours addicted to the same profession. In
a case where twenty habitants so covered eighty to one hundred arpents
on a line following the water's edge, they did nothing else but open a
street, and so they could visit each other with facility at all times. Four
feet deep of snow in the winter was beaten down within two hours by the
passage of forty or fifty horses and men. This of course was at first
done on snowshoes until horses were introduced (1665), and then this
arrangement worked to perfection. That was the time that the French
carriole—on wheels—was dismounted, put on runners, and became the
comfortable family vehicle so popular in Canada East during the snowy >
Anyone who will peruse the numerous works containing letters and
documents relative to the years 1632-70 in this colony may obtain more
information on this subject. In conclusion I may mention inventories
(existing in original) of household effects, which afford a fair idea of
the contents of the early residences, such as furniture and utensils,
from 1640 to 1670. The kitchen has a special fireplace where the cooking was done. Two or three chimneys (brick or stone) heated the main
part of the house. Wooden floors everywhere, smooth, clean, covered
with rug-carpets. Sleeping rooms upstairs. Double doors and windows
for the winter. A large and well-lighted cellar, with a compartment for
ice to be used during the summer months. The four walls of the building
made of thick lumber placed flat one over the other in a horizontal position. Xo chairs, but forms for two, four, or six persons. No wine, but
cider and beer sometimes, also guildive, a second-class brandy, and rum.
Flannel, serge, heavy cloth, linens of various descriptions, all home-made,
and of which the farmer's wife felt proud, were stored in cupboards or
closets. The population came altogether from that part of France where
-cider and beer were most in use; they immediately started a brewery
and a plantation of apples on arriving in Canada. Guildive and rum
came from France.
The evident superiority of the men who came immediately* after 1631
over those who had previously tried to reside here is the object I wish
to impress upon the mind of the reader. The manner in which they
practised agriculture, their habits, customs, dresses, all things belonging
to them, were afterwards adopted by all the new comers. Such is the
evidence very clearly shown by our archives.
Elkn&gxavhical Survey of the United Kingdom.—Sixth Report of
the Chtmittee, consisting of Mr. E. W. Brabrook (Chairman),
Dr. Francis^&^xon, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. A. C. Haddon, Dr.
Joseph Anderson^Mîv^L Bomilly Allen, Dr. J. Beddoe, Mr.
W. Crooke, Professor DT^tV^Junningham, Professor W. Boyd
Dawkins, Mr. Arthur J. EvAXsT^frJ^- Hilton Price, Sir H.
Howorth, Professor E. Meldola, Gëfras^PiTT-EivERS, Mr.
E. G. Eavenstein, Dr. H. O. Forbes, and MtTE^idney Hart-
1 land (Secretary).   (Drawn up by the Secretary.)
1. As in previous years, the Committee has had the advantage of the
co-operation of several gentlemen, not members of the Association, but
delegates of various learned bodies interested in the Survey. i
Mr. George Payne, one of the delegates of the Society of Antiquaries ;
Mr. jE. Clodd, Mr. G. L. Gomme, and Mr. Joseph Jacobs, representing the
Folklore Society ; Sir C. M. Kennedy, K.C.M.G., representing the Eoyal
Statistical Society ; Mr. Edward Laws, the Venerable Archdeacon Thomas,
3Ir. S. wL Williams, and Professor John Ehys, representing the Cambrian
Archaeological Association ; and Dr. C. E. Browne, a representative of the
Eoyal Insk Academy, have continued their valuable services. Other
members of the Committee are delegated by the Anthropological Institute.
2. Havingslast year, in its Fifth Eeport, recapitulated the steps taken
towards the fulfilment of the duty entrusted to the Committee, it is
unnecessary to do more here than make a brief record of its further
3. At the time erf the last report the Committee had appointed the
Eev. H. M. B. Eeid to carry on the work in Galloway initiated by the
late Rev. Dr. Gregok and the Eev. Elias Owen, F.S.A., and Dr. EL
Colley March as special observers in North "Wales and Dorsetshire
4. No complete reporthas yet been received from the two former
gentlemen ; but the Eev. H. M. B. Eeid has sent some notes of customs, in
anticipation of a fuller report. Dr. Colley March devoted some weeks of
the autumn of last year to inquiries and observations in Dorsetshire. His
preliminary report on the folÈlore of the district has been received. In
addition to this, he measured anft took photographs of a number of typical
inhabitants. Dr. March has kindly undertaken to proceed with his
inquiries, and it is hoped that, jf the Committee be re-appointed, a
further and fuller report may be made next year. Meanwhile, the
physical measurements and photographs are postponed, to be dealt with
when his. inquiries in the district are\ completed. Dr. March has also
forwarded a sketch and photographs of me famous Giant of Cerne Abbas.
5. The Committee is indebted to Captain Bryan J. Jones for a report
of some interesting traditions and superstitions collected by him at
Kilcurry, co. Louth, Ireland, together withNa careful sketch-map of the
village, showing the spots believed to be haunted and the route traditionally assigned to the * Dead Coach.9
6. The Committee has also to acknowledge communications from Mr.
John Fielder Child, of observations at Farnborough, Hants ; Mr. Adam
Xander, of observations in Boss-shire, Scotland ; and the Bight Eev. the.
Lord Bishop of Barrow-in-Furness of observations at Churt, Surrey.
7. The Committee has received, by the kindness of Mrs. ana Miss
Gregor, a wooden mould for making horn spoons, obtained by the late
Eev. Dr. Gregor in Galloway. This interesting relic of the domestic
arrangements of the past has been handed to the Folklore Society,
and deposited by them in their case in the Cambridge University
Museum. *
8. Early in the present year the Committee, by the courtesy of the
Anthropological Institute, the Eoyal Archaeological Institute, and the
Folklore Society, distributed to the members of those bodiesNa circular
calling attention to the objects and methods of the Committee's inquiries,
and asking for assistance. Several replies were received, but, with the
exception of Captain. Jones's report on the traditions of Kilcurry, the
Committee regrets to be unable as yet to record any definite result.
9. In view of this the Committee desires to call attention to paragraphs
18-26 of its last year's Eeport, and to emphasise the fact that, while the
U^ë^::$fâ  c^ 3j   'v.z   t&yâ


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