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Church work in British Columbia : Being a memoir of the episcopate of Acton Windeyer Sillitoe, D.D.,… Gowen, Herbert H. (Herbert Henry), 1864-1960 1899

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I
CHURCH  WORK   IN   BRITISH
COLUMBIA    ^T-JTT
RCH   WORK
BRI"
riSH   COLUMBIA
ERBERT H.  GOWEN,  F.R.G.S.
1ANS,   GREEN,   AND  GJj^J
TERNOSTER ROW,  LONDON
NEW YORK AND BOMBAY  CHURCH   WORK
IN
BRITISH   COLUMBIA
BEING   A   MEMOIR   OF  THE   EPISCOPATE
Acton Windeyer Sillitoe, d.d., d.cl.
FIRST BISHOP OF NEW WESTMINSTER
REV.  HERBERT  H.  GOWEN,  F.R.G.S.
LONGMANS,   GREEN,   AND   CO.
39 PATERNOSTER  ROW,  LONDON
NEW YORK AND BOMBAY  ACTON  WINDEYER SILLITOE.
1840-1894.
Once for the least of children of Manasses
God had a mission and a deed to do,
Wherefore the welcome that all speech surpasses
Called him and hailed "him greater than he knew ;
Asked him no more, but took him as he found him,
Filled him with valour, slung him with a sword,
Bade him go on until the tribes around him
Mingled his name with naming of the Lord.
F. W. H. Myers.    *
(Saint Paul.)  PREFACE
OUR only qualification for writing this short
preface to Mr. Gowen's excellent work is that
we loved, and still warmly love, our old Bishop.
He was to us, for years, not Bishop only, but
father, brother, guide, and friend.
Perhaps some apology is needed for our rashness,
for we are not men of great reputation or position,
either in the Church or the world.
Nor can we lay claim to the possession of what
are called "literary" gifts or experience, for we
have seldom seen ourselves in print Love makes
us bold.
When others, greater and better "men, and in
every way more fitted for the task than ourselves,
• were, for various reasons, unable to take it in hand,
it was given to us by those we could not, if we
would, refuse. This must be our plea for the
kind indulgence of our friends.
For ourselves, and those who were closely bound
to Acton Windeyer Sillitoe by ties of kindred and
friendship, we gratefully thank Mr. Gowen for
giving us this memoir, and for all the valuable
time and work he has so generously and lovingly
expended upon its production. It was necessary to curtail and slightly revise it
before finally sending the manuscript to press, and
with Mr. Gowen's kind permission, one of us (Mr.
Edwardes) undertook that somewhat delicate duty.
Separated from the author by some six thousand
miles, it was impossible to confer together. If
faults there are, then they must not be attributed
to Mr. Gowen.
To one ever engaged in  good work on behalf
of  the  Diocese  of  New   Westminster,  we  must '
express our gratitude for the kindest and most
patient help in revising the book, and in making
arrangements for its publication.
Our thanks are also due to Messrs. Alfred Ellis
and Walery, of Baker Street, W. ; Messrs. Notman
and  Son,  of  Montreal ;   and   Mr.  Thompson,   of
Vancouver, B.C., for their kindly expressed permis-  .
sion to copy photographs taken by them.
This little memoir has been compiled mainly
from Bishop Sillitoe's own diaries, from old
numbers of the New Westminster Diocesan Gazette,
and from Mrs. Sillitoe's and the Bishop's letters
written to various missionary publications.
The author does not pretend for a moment to
give an exhaustive biography of the Bishop's life,
nor to do more than give, from the matter placed
at his disposal, a graphic summary of the life and
work and difficulties of the first Bishop of New
Westminster, during the fourteen years he occupied
the see.
If a more adequate appreciation of the man, PREFACE. x
and his varied gifts and splendid character, especially his spiritual gifts, is looked for, it must be
remembered that his letters and diaries did not
lay bare his inner self, and that even if they had
done so, death does not prohibit reticence. With
all his lovable qualities and gifts of sympathy, he
was not one who wore his soul outside. There
was about him a reserve and dignity in spiritual
matters which men understood and respected, as
they always do.
He was full of wise, honest, practical common
sense, both in the affairs of his Master, and in
dealing with the men and women about him.
But his spiritual power and gifts were discovered
by all who came in close personal contact with
him. If any went to him in spiritual trouble or
difficulty, a wonderful depth of sympathy and
wisdom, and a rare combination of the knowledge
of the Lord Jesus Christ, and human nature, were
at once at their service.
And that was exactly the man needed for such
a country as British Columbia, and to influence
for good the lives of those adventurous spirits who,
in rough days, had left the old country to begin
life afresh in the far West, under new conditions
and with new prospects.
Many a man in British Columbia could testify
to faults and vices struggled with, and possibly
overcome, through the Bishop's quiet personal
influence, appeal, and sympathy.
He did not frighten  men with talk too pious
J x PREFACE.
and conventional, but quietly, in familiar intercourse, and with a few kindly, direct, homely
words to begin with, the way was opened up to
higher and holier things—sometimes to God's
grace and pardon and strength. But such things
were not talked of, or written about, and for that
very reason men trusted him. He understood
before many words were said.
It was his constant endeavour, even when
harassed by trials and difficulties himself, to cheer ■
and encourage his clergy in their work ; to keep
their tone high, and their sacred duty to the
Church and their flocks ever before them.
He realized the great spiritual dangers to which
they were exposed in isolation and loneliness,
and the lax moral atmosphere in which they
sometimes had to live and work. One by one
they were called down to New Westminster for a
spell of refreshing, bracing change and intercourse,
till they could return to their distant posts with
' renewed zeal and vigour, both of body and soul.
As often as possible, too, he called the clergy
together for a synod, or a short retreat, that,
together with their Bishop, they might spend a
few days apart with God, for the deepening of
their spiritual life and the interchange of mind
with mind.
Hospitality was with Bishop Sillitoe a sacred
duty. His house was always open, and all kinds
of guests were ever welcome, from Her Royal
Highness the Princess Louise, and the Marquis of PREFACE. xi
Lome, to very humble folk. He allowed nothing
to stand in the way of the fulfilment of this part
of a Bishop's duty—not even failing health, and
the daily struggle to stretch a small income to
meet the many demands made upon it
Every one who received his hospitality found
alike a kind, courteous, unselfish, considerate
gentleman in their host.
Of his wide influence and his great ability it is
unnecessary to speak. It was recognized throughout the broad Dominion of Canada, in the western
states of America, and widely at home in England.
Some may think that financial troubles and
worries have been treated of at too great length ;
but it is well that the truth should be told.
Those who knew the Bishop most intimately
during the closing years of his life were only too
| well aware that constant anxiety in these matters
hastened his death. The anxiety was never for
himself—for he was unselfish to the core—but it
was his earnest desire and care to see his diocese
well equipped, the Church spreading out her
branches and occupying new ground as the population increased, and the clergy receiving to the
full, however straitened his own resources, the
small stipends due to them, too frequently in
heavy arrears.
His English committee, a body of his most
trusted and honoured friends, did their very best
to supply the needs of the diocese and to lessen
his anxiety, but latterly their kind efforts could not well be supported in British Columbia itself.
A wave of commercial depression was passing over
the country, and one disaster after another left the
settlers less and less able adequately to help themselves in providing for the needs of their Church.
Bishop Sillitoe would not approve of all we
have written. He would have wished us to say
nothing of him, but to say a few prayers for him,
that God would grant him peace and refreshment
and growth where the faithful departed wait, and
eternal joy and rest hereafter.
His memory is still warmly cherished in his old
diocese, and in the hearts of those for whom he
laboured.
Many loving, gentle hands still carefully tend
the grave at Sapperton, where his tired body
awaits the resurrection day, though none of his
own kindred are there to show their love and
reverence in this last way.
In the face of great difficulties the good Bishop
spent, and was spent, in the service of his Lord,
and laid well the foundations of the Church in his
Western diocese.
His name will ever be bound up with the
history of the Church in the Dominion of Canada,
and is worthy of honourable mention among those
who have gone forth in Christ's holy Name, and
at His call, and have given themselves a willing
sacrifice for their God, His Truth, His Church, and
the precious souls of men.
Trusting to the kind and indulgent judgment PREFACE. xiii
of friends, this little book is sent out as a slight
contribution to the missionary annals of our
Church, and in memory of a true and faithful
servant of God and pastor of men.
We would conclude with one word of the
country in which he laboured ; but it is too
beautiful to describe. At this moment its subtle
charm and its westerly breezes find their way into
the street of the Cornish city, whence we write.
There is no country on earth to equal it for
grandeur of scenery and healthy, vigorous life.
There, are mighty, snow-capped, fir-clad mountains,
whose summits pierce the clouds ; impenetrable
forests of kingly trees ; great rivers, and turbulent,
brawling streams, rushing on their hasty way to
the great waters of the blue Pacific ; quiet lakes
of emerald and opal hue ; fertile valleys for the
use of man ; and over all the fair blue sky.
Who ever lived and worked in British Columbia
and did not love it ? It is a country in which one
learns to thank God for His wisdom and His good-
• ness in creation—a country of such exquisite beauty
and healthy climate as to make life at once worth
living, and God to be thanked for His manifold gifts.
It is easy to predict a great future for such a
country, for, added to its beauty, there is untold
wealth of gold and other minerals, inexhaustible
forests of valuable timber, vast salmon fisheries,
abundant and as yet undeveloped coal-fields, and
splendid opportunities and attractions for farming,
ranching, and fruit culture. xiv PREFACE.
Already, young as the country is, the Great
Canadian Pacific Railway, the Imperial highway
from east to west, passing as it does through some
of the grandest and weirdest scenery in the world,
is bearing an ever-increasing flow of population westward. Year by year towns and cities are springing
up ; places, which a few years ago did not exist,
are now numbering their inhabitants by thousands.
Vancouver, the beautifully situated terminus of
the Canadian Pacific, can rival even now in.
prosperity, and the appliances of modern civilization, many an older Western city.
The country, which began its modern history and
development half a century ago, on passing from
the hands of the Hudson Bay Company to the
position of a Crown colony, is now an integral
confederated province of the Canadian Dominion.
Its people are loyal, zealous, devoted, as is the
whole of Canada, to our Queen and Empire. British
Columbia is yet in her infancy, but will rise in the
future to a proud and prosperous position.
The Indians, the original inhabitants of British
Columbia, are gradually dying out before the white
man and certain sad consequences of his civilization.
The remnant are a more industrious people than
their fathers. Many are at regular work upon the
Canadian Pacific Railway, others have their little
ranches and fertile farms, while others work the
banks of the Fraser and Thompson Rivers for gold.
Bishop Sillitoe loved them well, and spared no
efforts  for their temporal   and   spiritual welfare. PREFACE. xv
Missionary work has been blessed among them,
and many an Indian has lived and died in the
faith of Christ, and the fear of God.
None can tell of their origin, or speak for certain
of their past ; but we are told by those who understand such things that, at least three thousand
years ago, they were in British Columbia. Many
a strange and beautiful legend has been told to
the writers of this preface by the Indians, as they
have travelled amongst them—legends of the Indian
version of the creation of the animal world, and
others which seemed to give a glimmering of some
dim and ancient knowledge, even of the truth of
the Ever Blessed Trinity.
Once simple, happy, healthy, free, it is sad and
pathetic to think of them as a fast dying race,
R the victims of our sins, our vices, and diseases.
Yet it is a comfort to know that, in spite of the
white man's poor representation of Christianity,
the power and the love of Christ have won their
way into hundreds of Indian souls. His Blessed
Name is honoured, and His saving Truth held
fast.
HENRY EDWARDES,
RICHARD SMALL,
con of Yale, and the Indian Mi
Truro,
June 30, 1899,  CONTENTS
CHAPTER I.
THE  FORMATION OF THE SEE.
The Colonial sentiment—The Church's interest in her
children—The Diocese of Columbia founded, 1859
—Efforts at subdivision, 1878 —Bishop Hill's
efforts in England—Success—Formation of the
Dioceses of Caledonia and New Westni'
CHAPTER  II.
EARLY LIFE, AND CALL TO THE EPISCOPATE.
1840-1879.
Birth and early years—A kind father—Education—
Ordination —Work at Brierley Hill—Wolverhampton — Ellenbrook— Geneva— Darmstadt —
Offer of the Bishopric—Consecration—Letter to
Archdeacon Woods—Farewell to England      .    .
CHAPTER III.
FIRST GLIMPSES OF THE NEW LIFE.
Voyage out, April, 1880—Quebec—Montreal—Toronto
—San Francisco—Victoria—New Westminster,
June 14th—First impressions—Holy Trinity
Church—First services—S.  Mary's, Sapperton— ii CONTENTS.
Ladner's Landing—Confirmation—Visit to ;
logging camp—Burrard Inlet and Moodyville—
First visit to Yale—Railway works—An Indiai
service—Agassiz and Chilliwhack—Return to Nev
Westminster	
CHAPTER  IV.
A TRIP  INTO THE OSOYOOS COUNTRY.
September-October, 1880.
Work at. home—Hope—Preparations for journey—The
cavalcade—Camping out—Mrs. Sillitoe's account
—Similkameen—Five-Mile Creek—Osoyoos Lake
—Penticton—Crossing the lake—A cackling hen—
On board the Lady Dufferin—Kamloops—Savona's
^v^Fjsny—Ashcroft—A pack of foxhounds—A landslip
—Cook's Ferry—Lytton—Return home—Bishop's
letter to English friends 20
CHAPTER V.
A WINTER JOURNEY.
October, 1880-February, 1881.
Retreat at Sapperton—"A live missionary"—On
board the Gem — Close quarters — By sleigh to
Chilliwhack — A rough drive — Murderer's Bar
Bluff—Oham'l —Yale—Round the Bluff— Chilliwack again—A Social—The Gem again—Cutting
through the ice—A leak—Safe home at Sapperton     28
CHAPTER VI.
SPRING WORK IN  1881.
Missionary drudgery—Lenten work—Night school—
Ordination—Letters from Mrs. Sillitoe—Work at
Chilliwhack—An alarm of fire—A canoe-voyage
to Maple Ridge—A visit to Trenant—Mud Bay—
An amateur fire brigade—Dedication of S. James'
Church, Granville—The North Arm—A visit to
Similano—Cnltus fiotlatcli 37 CONTENTS.
CHAPTER VII.
SUMMER CAMP AT YALE.
June-July, 1881.
Condition of Yale—By steamer to Maple Ridge—
Chilliwhack—Whalem, a case of proselytizing—A
picnic to Cultus Lake—Hyas cumtax—Tying up
—A bed of fir-twigs—First night in camp—A
persistent thief—Camp at Yale—The Yale road—
A narrow path—The dangers of blasting—The
railway camps—Supper at Camp 13—Crossing
the river—A big tunnel—Service at the camp—
An exciting adventure—In the rapids—Opportunities at Yale—Letter from the Bishop   .    .    .
CHAPTER VIII.
A  VISIT TO CARIBOO.
August, 1881.
Amateur coaching—Farewells—Through the Fraser
Cafion—Salmon in incredible numbers—One cent
apiece—A road not for the nervous—China Bluff
and Jackass Mount — A rencontre of teams—
Wanted a Bible—Primitive administration—Dry
and dreary Lytton—The Thompson River—Indian
work — An intelligent Indian — Clinton — The
" Chasm "—" Green Timber "—Service at Soda
Creek—Quesnelle Mouth—An elevated spot—
Richfield—First radishes in August—S. Saviour's,
Barkerville—A strange town—Services at Barker-
ville—The Brothers—A specimen nugget—Service
and entertainment—The homeward journey—By
Stage—Two accidents—Arrival at Yale     .    .    .
CHAPTER  IX.
THE CHURCH CONFERENCE AT NEW WESTMINSTER.
September, 1881.
"Hotel  Sillitoe"—The
The Bishop's addresi
rst Diocesai
-A prophet Religious education — Diocesan endowment—
General work of the Diocese—Ember work at
Sapperton—Ordinations—The Bishop's sermon—
A steamboat fire	
CHAPTER X.
October-December, 1881.
Kamloops — Cache Creek—A reception by Teetle-
neetsah—An Indian home—Specimens of Indian
letters—Synod Committee—Church and State—
Mother Church and Daughter Church—Draft
constitution—The Bishop and temperance work
— The Bishop and music — An interesting
presentation to Holy Trinity Church—The old
Westminster and the new	
CHAPTER XL
FINANCIAL ANXIETY.
1882.
Absence of missionary journeys this year—Causes—
Pressure of parochial and Diocesan work at New
Westminster—Calls on a Bishop's purse—The
Bishop's statement	
CHAPTER XII.
REVIEW OF THE YEAR'S WORK.
General work at home—Visits to English Bay, Chilliwhack, and Yale—Opening of St. John's Church at
Maple Ridge—Trip to Victoria—Visit to Bishop
Paddock—The Bishop entertains the Marquis of
Lome and Princess Louise—The Annual Report—
Financial position—Educational developments—
Parochial progress—New fields ready for the
harvest—The Indian Mission	 CONTENTS.
CHAPTER XIII.
rOUR IN THE INTERIOR.
Summary of home work in 1883—Ordinations—Synod
—The start from Sapperton—Nicola—An old
Indian chief—Spence's Bridge—Ashcroft—Choosing a watchman—An Indian wedding—A long
drive to Lac la Hache—Barkerville—Progress in
Cariboo—Forest fires—150-Mile House—Through
fire and smoke to Ashcroft—Indian confirmation
—Cache Creek—The Bishop describes an up-
country drive — Salmon River Valley—Account
by Mrs. Sillitoe—Penticton—Osoyoos—A service
in the States — Mission — Coldstream — Back at
Yale—Home again—Resume of the journey
CHAPTER XIV.
WORK AMONG THE INDIANS.
Mr. Ditcham's tour of inspection—Terrible ravages of
drink—Mr. Horloclr/s visit to Spuzzum—Recruits
for the Indian Mission—A visit to Boston Bar—
The Indians desire a school—Description by the
Bishop of the Indian Mission—Lack of Buildings
—The relation between funds and success—Plans
for the future—Industrial education—Prospect of
Sisterhood work	
CHAPTER XV.
PROGRESS OF DIOCESAN ORGANIZATION.
The Home Committee—Appointment of a permanent
deputation in England—A mission boat—The
Daystar—The Bishop's visits—Laying the foundation stone of Christ Church, Surrey—A new mission
district—Kamloops and Spallumcheen—Arrival of
new workers — The Diocese insolvent — Letter
from the Bishop to Mr. Mogg—Appeal within
the Diocese from Archdeacon Woods—The annual
meeting of Synod	 CONTENTS.
CHAPTER XVI.
THE INDIAN  GATHERING AT LYTTON.
June, 1884.
The Bishop's letter to the Mission Field—Appointment
of Mr. Small to the Lytton Mission—Arrival at
Pootanie—Reception by the Indians—The camp
—Examining the credentials of Indian communicants—A memorable Whit-Sunday—The Bishop's
account — An Indian council on education — A
court of inquiry—An obstinate medicine man—
An Indian account of the gathering      ....
CHAPTER XVII.
THE  REPORT   FOR  1884.
A note of disappointment—Synod—Remarks by the
Bishop—Church schools—Decrease of offerings in
the Diocese and in England—Causes and cine—
Report by Mr. Pelly on the financial condition of
the Diocese—Statement in the Quarterly Paper—
Letter from the Bishop to Mr. Mogg—Starvation
of Colonial Churches—The other side of the shield
CHAPTER XVIII.
FROM   KAMLOOPS TO  THE COLUMBIA.
irrative by Mrs. Sillitoe—Farwell, a new city—
Forest fires—Clearing the road—Griffin Lake—
Three Valley Lake—Summit Lake—The Columbia
river—A dangerous crossing—Service at Farwell—
Fighting the fires—Farwell in flames—Home again
through the fires	
CHAPTER XIX
GENERAL SURVEY,
A 900 miles' drive in the Cariboo country—Consecration of the Indian Church at Lytton—Mr Small's CONTENTS.
account—The Bishop's report for 1885—Departure
of Mr. Pelly—The work of the Home Committee
—The burning of Vancouver—Appeal for the
Diocesan Fund—New needs at Donald—Diocesan
statistics for 1886—The Eirene—A week's confirmation tour—Meetings of the Diocesan Synod—
Departure of the Bishop for England—Work
along the road—In England—Anniversary meeting—The Queen's Jubilee	
CHAPTER XX.
ilETURN TO THE DIOCKSK.
Welcome home—Diocesan v
11 return—Once
CHAPTER  XXI.
STEADY PROGRESS.
Another visit to England—The Lambeth Conference
—Return home—The tenth year of the Bishop's
episcopate—Ordinations and new churches—extension of work in Vancouver—A visit to the
Okanagan country—Meeting of Synod—The
Bishop becomes Rector of Holy Trinity Church,
New Westminster—The tenth anniversary of consecration     	
e new See House-
Leonard's   Hall—Exl
Westminster—The W
CHAPTER XXII
PAROCHIAL WORK.
1890.
iuildin
of
t End Mis CONTENTS.
CHAPTER XXIII.
WORK IN THE INDIAN MISSIONS.
e Bishop's anxiety regarding the Indian work—
Opening of a new wing of the Yale Indian school
—Appeal for Lytton—Mr. Small to return—
Letter from the Bishop—An incident of missionary
life—Letter from the Bishop to Mr. Mogg—The
Indian camp—Mrs. Sillitoe's account of the Indian
gathering—The camp at Pakyst—Rattlesnakes—
N'chakup camp—Mr. Pitman's impressions of
mission work in British Columbia	
CHAPTER XXIV.
ILLNESS AND STRUGGLE.
The Bishop's illness—Diocesan visitations—The visits
to Nelson—Indian gathering at Hope—Bishop
Hills and Mr. Good present—Ordinations—
Mission work to the Chinese—S. Barnabas'
Church, New Westminster—Another educational
venture—The cathedral constituted—The deed of
constitution—Meeting of Synod 188
CHAPTER  XXV.
TOUR IN  EASTERN CANADA, AND  GENERAL SYNOD.
I893.
The Bishop's enthronement—The visit to Eastern
Canada—Description of the tour by Mrs. Sillitoe
—Unaccustomed weather—The trip interrupted by
illness—Return—Visit to Kootenay—Opening of
I the Indian hospital at Lytton—Visit to the
General Convention at Toronto—Letters from the
Bishop and Mrs. Sillitoe—Work on the way back
—The Bishop's   influence at   the   Convention— CONTENTS.
Testimony of the Archbishop of Rupertsland and
Bishop Courtney—Confirmations at Penticton and
Vernon—Meeting of Synod—The Bishop presides
from a sick-bed	
CHAPTER XXVI.
IN HARNESS TO THE LAST.
1894.
Over-hopeful—The Bishop refuses to take a rest—
Officiates at Bishop Paddock's funeral—Confirmations at Kamloops and Vancouver—Compelled to
give up—Removal to Lytton—Mr. Edwardes'
account of the Bishop's condition—Resigns the .
Rectory of Holy Trinity—The last confirmations—
Return to Lytton—The Bishop's last celebration-
Removal to Yale—The deepening of the shadows
—The floods—Brought down to New Westminster
—The last days—A circle of prayer—Asleep—
Expressions of sympathy—An Indian letter to
Mrs. Sillitoe	
CHAPTER XXVII.
ing in state in the See House—The funeral—Watch
service and choral celebration—The funeral
procession—At the grave—Pulpit comments—The
testimony of friends—Letter from Mr. Edwardes
—The Bishop of Nova Scotia on Bishop Sillitoe—
Conclusion	  LIST   OF   ILLUSTRATIONS
Portrait of Bishop Siixitoe     ....   Frontispiece
S. Mary's, Sapperton	
New Westminster	
In the Jaws of Death : Thompson Canyon     .    .    .
Sailor-bar Bluff, below Spuzzum	
Trutch Suspension Bridge on Old Cariboo Road   .
Hope Parsonage, and Indians	
Another View of Indian Gathering	
Nelson, in the Kootenay District	
Kamloops	
Kicking-horse Pass, near Golden	
Vancouver, looking over to Burrard's Inlet and
moodyville	
The Bishop's Household	
Yale	
All Hallows' School, Yale	
Lytton      	
S. Paul's Mission House and Indian Hospital, Lytton
A Later Portrait op the Bishop	  *^   Gfc^A-   P£>~
CHAPTER I.
THE  FORMATION OF THE SEE.
1879.
The wisest, ablest, and most statesmanlike of
England's sons are at one in the value they
attach to the Colonial dependencies of their
wonderful Empire. They realize that the welfare
of the children is the welfare of the mother, and
that no policy is so futile and inane, even for the
mother's sake, as that which fails in sympathy
with the career of the children.
And England rightly gives all the honour at
her command to the brave pioneers who open up
her Colonial estates to her Imperial commerce.
The Church at home is sometimes less wise,
and the time has yet to come when the whole
Church, from its leaders to its humblest members,
shall rightly know the glory of its own Colonial
inheritance, and shall take to her bosom with
enthusiasm the children given to her beyond the
sea.
Yet, as in a national so in a religious sense, the
welfare of the children is the welfare of the
mother, the strength of the branches the strength
of the tree. Interest in and enthusiasm for the
Church abroad, so far from weakening the
Church's power of maintenance  and   defence at 2 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
home, will react in increasing depth and breadth
of knowledge, and in enlarged capacity of loving
and helping.
And this interest will find both its source and
its object in knowledge of the lives of those who
have been pioneers, builders, and directors—the
Bishops of the Colonial Church.
As contributing to this end, the following
memoir is given of one who is truly representative
of the noble band of makers of Church history in
modern times.
Bishop Sillitoe was one of the last to wish a
biography of himself written, and the writer has
no intention of attempting any such task. The
man must survive on earth in the memory of
those who loved him, but the man's work is a
legacy to the Church—a legacy not only to the
far distant West, where he sowed and planted in
faith and hope, but to the whole Church, which
values catholicity and believes in the Communion
of Saints.
There will be no attempt made to put into
strong relief the adventurous or the romantic. The
sketches given may seem even monotonous in
their record, but if so, the reader will remember
that the work was monotonous too, performed often
in weariness and painfulness, but in patience and
love by one sustained solely by devotion to the
Lord Who had called him to labour in His
Vineyard.
The diocese of New Westminster, of which
Acton Windeyer Sillitoe was the first Bishop, is
situated on the Pacific coast of the great
Dominion of Canada, and forms part of the
Province of British Columbia, which sprang into
a colony in 1858, owing to the discovery of gold. NEW  WESTMINSTER. 3
Numbers of people were then attracted to its
shores, but previously it was known as a profitable
ground for fur traders, who occupied various
stations, and did a good business with the various
Indian tribes scattered here and there.
The C.M.S. had commenced work in the
province in 1856, when Mr. Duncan began his
remarkable career among the Indians. A year
after the S.P.G. entered the field with two clergy,
and in 1859 the venerable Bishop, George Hills,
was consecrated first Bishop of Columbia.
It seemed as though the new diocese was
destined to great prosperity, but the hopes at first
entertained were perhaps over-sanguine, for, owing
to commercial crises, a rough population, an unsettled country, and enormous districts to cover,
the Bishop had for many years the maximum of
hardship with an altogether disproportionate
amount of success.
Yet, in spite of all discouragements, the diocese,
both on Vancouver Island and on lie mainland,
was gradually opened up to the Church's
ministrations. To mention only work accomplished on the mainland—in Cariboo we are told
that the labours of Mr. Reynard were more full
of romance than the wildest fiction ; the present
Indian Missions at Yale and Lytton were begun
and carried on successfully by the Rev. J. B. Good ;
and in the city of New Westminster a handsome
stone church and a well-equipped parish testified
to the work of the Rev. John Sheepshanks, the
present Bishop of Norwich.
But it was early seen that the diocese was too
huge for any one man's supervision, and owing to
the Bishop's occasional absence in England for the
purpose of raising money, large numbers of people
remained altogether untouched   by the  Church's MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP   OF
system, and in consequence deserted her for other
religious organizations, or else drifted into a state
of absolute indifference to religion.
So in 1878 Bishop Hills made the following
announcement to his synod :—
S Cariboo, Kamloops, Nicola, Chilliwhack, the Lower
Fraser Valley, and Cassiar are needing the ministrations
of the Church, but we send them no supply. We seem
to neglect them altogether. Yet could faithful ministers
of God be sent, the blessing as elsewhere would follow,
and great good be done. What is the cause, and is
there a remedy ? "
It was subsequently moved by Archdeacon
Wright and carried—
I That this synod considers the great spiritual destitution of the vast mainland portion of this diocese, as
regards clergy, church-buildings, etc., calls for the
earnest and immediate attention of the Church, and
that a committee be appointed to obtain statistics and
all other information that may in any way tend to the
relief of such destitution."
At the same synod the real solution of the
difficulty was suggested in the following important
resolution :—
I That this synod is of opinion that a division of the
diocese into three separate dioceses, viz. (1) Vancouver Island, (2) New Westminster, (3) Caledonia,
with a view to forming a provincial organization for
British Columbia, is very desirable, and that this synod
cordially supports the endeavour of the Lord Bishop to
carry out the scheme when in England."
From this it will appear that the Bishop had
already had the idea of division under consideration. It was his belief that it was clearly impossible to keep in touch with one another different NEW  WESTMINSTER. 5
parts of the diocese which were one thousand
miles apart, and that subdivision would not only
render the ecclesiastical province more easy to
work, but would bring increase of clergy and
support to each division.
To this end Bishop Hills worked indefatigably
during his subsequent visit to England, and the
result is shown in the announcement he was able
to make to his next synod, as follows :—
"During my visit to England my time was largely
occupied in carrying out the resolution agreed to in the
last session of the synod of the undivided diocese with
respect to a subdivision into three separate dioceses.
" I laid the resolution before the Archbishop of Canterbury, and received his cordial support ; and after many
months of hard work in raising endowment funds, I had
the happiness of a successful result."
Generous help towards the endowment of the
two new sees was given both by private individuals and by the two great missionary societies
of the Church, and on July 25, 1879, the first of
the two new Bishops, Dr. Ridley, was consecrated
to the see of Caledonia.
Shortly afterwards the announcement was made
that the Rev. Acton Windeyer Sillitoe, chaplain K
/to the British Legation at Darmstadt and to the/
: Princess Alice, had been selected to fill the see
of New Westminster. MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
CHAPTER   II.
EARLY LIFE AND CALL TO THE EPISCOPATE.
1840-1879.
ACTON WlNDEYER SILLITOE was born in Sydney,
New South Wales, in 1840, and remained in the
colony, to which he was ever loyal, till he was
fourteen years old.
It is not the purpose of this memoir to do more
than allude to the facts of the Bishop's life prior
to his episcopate, but one little incident of his
almost baby life, told by his own lips to a near
friend and relative, illustrates beautifully the
tender love which sheltered his early years.
The Bishop's father, who was always spoken of
with most reverent affection, had a high degree
of sympathy with childish fears very rare in the
sterner sex, and this must, one would think, have
been combined with some of that quiet sense of
humour which was in after years a most helpful
constituent in his son's mental character.
Sea-bathing had been recommended to the little
boy, and the close vicinity of his parents' house to
the Bay of Sydney made the carrying out of this
prescription easy of attainment.
But the boy objected to contact with the waves
on account of the cold,  and therefore as father NEW  WESTMINSTER. 7
and son went hand in hand each day to the bay
for the bath, the father's free hand carried a small
pitcher of hot water, which was emptied into the
sea in the sight of the boy. He then no longer
feared the cold, and was soon enabled to enjoy
his prescription even without the jugful of
warmth, which to his childish sense tempered the
chill of the great ocean.
He returned to England with his parents in
1854, and proceeded first of all to King's College
School, London, and subsequently to Pembroke
College, Cambridge. Here he took his degree of
B.A. in 1862, and in 1866 proceeded to that of
M.A. In later years the degree of D.D. was
given him by his University in recognition of his
elevation to the episcopate ; and a year before his
death the University of Toronto awarded him
that of D.C.L., in recognition of his services in
the consolidation of the Church in Canada.
In 1869 Mr. Sillitoe was ordained deacon, and
the following year priest, by the great missionary
Bishop, Selwyn of Lichfield. He served his first
curacy at Brierley Hill, Staffordshire, where he
remained till 1871. For the next two years he
laboured as curate in charge of All Saints',
Wolverhampton, and then from 1873 to 1876 held
the curacy of Ellenbrook, under the Earl of
Mulgrave (the present Marquis of Normanby),
who became his lifelong friend.
In 1876 he left England and became British I
chaplain at Geneva, which he left in 1877 for the\
chaplaincy of the British Legation at Darmstadt.
Here—one of the happiest periods of his life—he
stayed for two years, combining with his chaplaincy
to the Legation the position of chaplain to the i
late Princess Alice.
The duties of this double post he left at last to 8 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
obey the call to the episcopate given him from the
far distant West.
Of this episode in the Bishop's life, one high in
influence in the Church of England writes—
I I knew nothing of Bishop Sillitoe until he was nominated as chaplain at Geneva, where he had a good many
troubles. His work at Darmstadt was signalized by his
great influence over the Princess Alice and her children,
especially her daughters. . . . He was undoubtedly the
means, under God, of bringing the Princess back from
Strauss and unbelief to the happiness of the Faith.
When the diocese was formed, Bishop Hills asked me if
I could suggest a good man, and I at once recommended
Mr. Sillitoe. ... I well recollect his coming to me and
saying he wished I had let him alone, that he was by no
means the man I took him to be, that he was very
human. . . . The result has proved that my estimate of
him was truer than his own."
But although the offer of the Bishopric of New
Westminster seemed to upset all his plans and to
make a radical change in the whole outlook of his
life, Mr. Sillitoe felt it would be wrong to refuse
so evident a call to harder duty in the distant
dependencies of the Empire.
He was consecrated on All Saints' Day, 1879,
in the parish church of Croydon, by Archbishop
Tait of Canterbury, assisted by Bishop Jackson of
London, Bishop Thorold of Rochester, Bishop
Hills of Columbia, Bishop Jackson of Antigua, and
Bishop Tufnell.
The sermon was preached by the Bishop's old
friend and former rector, the Earl of Mulgrave, who
continued to be his commissary till the close of
his arduous episcopate.
That the service was never forgotten by him will
have been evident to all who have been privileged -1
1:
NEW  WESTMINSTER. 9
to share in the beautiful services the Bishop always
arranged for All Saints' Day, as that festival and
anniversary came round in the course of the
Church's year. Stronger and more solemn to the
end seemed to grow the impression of the responsibility of his office, and it certainly could
not have been fresher or truer on All Saints' Day,
1879, than it was on All Saints' Day, 1893.
The Bishop then addressed his first letter to
the diocese through its representative, Archdeacon
Woods. Writing on November 13, 1879, he
says—
"My dear Archdeacon,
"Yours of the 12th reached me yesterday. I
heard also from Mr. Good, and am very thankful that
you have been remembering me at the Throne of Grace.
God has blessed me with a very real faith in the efficacy
of intercessory prayer, and has so often allowed me to
see it abundantly answered, that I feel a happy assurance
that we shall not have asked in vain in this instance.
My consecration was full of blessing to me personally,
and especially in the full satisfaction of those who have
known me best and longest, and I enter on my holy
office in the full conviction that He Who hath called me
will be with me to further my weak endeavours, and to
supply all my defects. May one of the first benefits be
to fill all of us whom He has appointed to be His fellow-
labourers in His field with the spirit of godly union and
concord in and through His Son Jesus Christ. Please
convey a loving greeting to Mr. Ditcham and Mr. Baskett,
and publicly to the congregations of Holy Trinity and
S. Mary's, Sapperton. . . .
" I have had a letter from Archdeacon Wright, and a
copy of a report on the spiritual destitution of the mainland The letter is a gloomy one, but it has not made
me gloomy. I am prepared for trials and for disappointments, but I don't believe we shall overcome them any
the easier by magnifying them or dwelling too much io MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
upon them. The bitter has pretty well mingled with the
sweet in my life already, but nevertheless I find I get
on very fairly by remembering the sweet and forgetting
the bitter as much as I can.
" Let us take courage and go forward. God bless you
and your house.
" Faithfully yours in our Lord Jesus Christ,
"A. W. New Westminster."
To a correspondent he wrote at this time what
proved to be indeed the guiding principle of all
his dealings with his clergy to the end of his life.
"I hope to be in a most real sense a 'father' to my
clergy, and though they may differ as widely as the
wide comprehensiveness of our Church permits, I shall
never as Bishop lean more to one way of thinking than
another. I shall claim the right to hold my own views
and to express them, and to place them in the most
favourable light I can, but I shall never regard a fellow-
worker with less affection because he fails to see things
from my standpoint ; and my clergy will, I hope, honour
my fairness in this respect by equal confidence in one
another."
With this wise resolution in his heart, he took
his farewell of old friends in England on Thursday,
April 29, 1880, at a celebration of Holy Communion in the church of S. Margaret's, Anfield.
The rector here, the Rev. John Sheepshanks (now
Bishop of Norwich), was bound by ties of long
and devoted work to the Diocese of New Westminster, having held for many years the position of
Rector of Holy Trinity Church, New Westminster.
For this church the Bishop carried out with him
a present from the Abbey Church of Old Westminster, an altar cross presented by Dean Stanley,
and the altar pedestals, which will be referred to
later on. NEW   WESTMINSTER. n
Then in the blessed consciousness of that Communion of Saints which annihilates the barriers of
time and space and binds together the whole
family of God in earth and heaven, the new
Bishop and his wife said adieu to the shores of
England, to carry with them the gospel of glad
tidings to a people in spiritual darkness and
destitution.
The old Church at home will never suffer as
long as she thus gives of her light to those who
are far off in a land of darkness. God forbid that
the time should ever come when her thoughts are
only for herself. As England's empire extends
year by year over the continents and across the
seas, the appeal comes to her with ever-increasing
force—
" Oh, let the thought within thee stir
Of thy lost children, Island Mother !
They hear no more, when Sundays come,
The old bells ring in village towers,
A message from the angels' home
To this poor work-day world of ours.
For them no calm, chance words are said
By pastoral lips in love and meekness,
Like breathings from a violet-bed,
That touch the common air with sweetness.
Therefore lift up thine arm this day,
Bid the Church meet them, Island Mother.
Lest they forget her as they stray,
And falsely deem they find another."
1 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
CHAPTER   III.
FIRST GLIMPSES OF THE NEW LIFE.
AT 2 p.m. on Thursday, April 29, 1880, the
Sarmatian put out from Liverpool with the
Bishop's party on board. The voyage across
the Atlantic was not devoid of peril from the
quantity of ice encountered, "hundreds of acres
of it, ten and fifteen feet thick," and " icebergs—
some little ones with smooth round tops, like
hillocks ; others, enormous ones with straight-up,
cliff-like sides. One was fully two miles long, and
at least two hundred feet high. Struggling and
crashing and frequently obliged to lie to, in
company with four other big steamers and a
perfect fleet of sailing-boats, the good ship
ploughed her way through a hundred and forty
miles of ice, nearly half of it fully twenty feet
thick."
The Bishop conducted several services on board
during the voyage, both for the emigrants and for
the saloon passengers, and gained some little experience of the various classes of people on their
way to settle down in the great Dominion.
The landing was made at Quebec on May, the
12th, and thence the Bishop journeyed by short
stages to  Montreal and Toronto,  keeping  Whit NEW  WESTMINSTER. 13
Sunday at the former place, and Trinity Sunday
at the latter. Then, as there was no C.P.R. in
those days, the journey had to be made to San
Francisco, which was reached on June 8th. Thence
by boat the Bishop journeyed to Victoria, arriving
on June 14th ; and, leaving Victoria on the 18th, he
reached New Westminster, the first point in his
own diocese, on the same day.
The first impression of New Westminster is thus
given—
" This is really a very lovely place, though of course
we have the advantage of the first fresh brilliancy of
summer to heighten its natural beauty, but the whole
situation is well chosen and picturesque. The ground
rises suddenly from the river'on both banks, so that in
the town the houses stand one above another ; every one
has a view, and indeed a view more or less panoramic,
since abundance of space has given nearly every house
a garden. The opposite bank of the stream is covered
with pine forest, rising suddenly to about a hundred
feet above the stream, and over this ridge, from the
higher parts of the town, is seen the snowy summit of
Mount Baker, nearly seventy miles away to the south-east.
Down the river, to our right, about a mile distant, two .
fir-clad islands divide the stream into three great arms,
' and form a basin just above them fully two miles wide,
across which we look over to the mountains of Vancouver Island ; while upstream, to our left, the view is
bounded by the mountains of the Cascade Range, thirty
miles off, and still, at midsummer, largely covered with
But lovelier even than the scenery it was to
enter into the sanctuary which was henceforth to
be in a very real sense a home. A special service
was held in Holy Trinity Church, the cathedral
designate, at which Litany was said and the Te
Deum sung. i4 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
The next morning (Saturday) there was a
celebration of Holy Communion at eight, and
the following day the Bishop preached morning
and evening to large congregations of his new
flock. In a very short time he had fallen in love
with his see-town and its churches. Upon the
architectural demerits of the cathedral he was
indeed (and not unjustly) severe, but with the
work going on there he was much pleased.
Sapperton, a village a mile and a half from
New Westminster, now included in the city limits,
he selected for his residence, as there was the old
Archdeaconry House ready to hand and a beautiful
little church.    The latter he thus describes—
"S. Mary's Church stands in the grounds of the
Archdeaconry House, and is a model of wbat all wooden
churches might be and ought to be. It was designed
and built by the sappers, who came out on the original
survey expedition under Colonel Moody. It was the
' fashionable church ' of those days. Government House
stood near; officials and their staff had their residences
round about ; an English tone pervaded the little society ;
and they took pride in the church they had built for
themselves, and in its services."
Getting down to business without delay, Bishop
Sillitoe at once began to find out for himself the
work before him. After a day or two spent in
New Westminster organizing an S.P.G. committee
and other work, he went down the river with Mr.
Baskett to visit Ladner's Landing. Here he made
his first acquaintance with the salmon canneries,
then as now the life of the riverside districts.
Here, after the good folks had astonished him
with the processes of can-making and the farming,
with land producing twenty-four tons of onions
per  acre,   and  cabbages  twenty-four  pounds  in J  NEW  WESTMINSTER. 15
weight, the Bishop in his turn brought forth the
good things he had come to bring.
There was a large congregation at the service
held, and the Bishop writes—
" It was very cheering and a little pathetic to see the
people turning up as the hour approached by all manner
of conveyances, some by boat on the river, some in
waggons, some on horseback, and of course many on foot
. . . After the service we had a meeting. ... I told
them I thought they could raise £%o if they tried, and
that if they did, I would undertake to provide an equal
sum and find them a clergyman. I have since heard
that that ;£8o has been promised and that probably
more will be forthcoming; and that they are also prepared to undertake by degrees the erection of church
and parsonage, for which they offer sites."
Back in New Westminster, and preaching at
Sapperton and elsewhere during the week, the
Bishop held his first Confirmation on the Sunday
following at Holy Trinity Church, when thirty-
five candidates were presented by Archdeacon
Woods. During the week thus inaugurated a
great Congregational Meeting was held in the
Drill Shed, at which the Bishop established a
formal acquaintance with the citizens of New
Westminster, and the next day went down by
steamer to the North Arm to make the acquaintance of some of the logging camps.
" We called first," the Bishop writes, " at a logging
camp, where we were hospitably entertained. About
thirty men, all whites, are employed. The work consists
in felling timber up in the forest, which, being stripped
of its bark, and sawn into lengths of about twenty-five
feet, is dragged by mules or oxen down a specially constructed road to the river, where a number of logs are
roped together in the form of a raft, technically called i6 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
a boom, and towed away to a saw-mill. The road
consists of logs laid crossways about three paces apart,
called skids, with smaller ones between to form what is
termed bridging. In the centre of the skids a hollow is
scooped out, in which the log is dragged along, a boy
preceding the train with a can of oil to keep the way
greased. This oil presents irresistible attractions to
bears, who watch the passage of a team, and then
regale themselves on what the friction has left of the
savoury delicacy. The oil is extracted from a fish
called the oolachan, which abounds in these waters, and
is of such an oleaginous character as to burn like a
candle after being dried in the sun."
A service was held in the camp, at which about
fifty were present, although a small proportion
consisted of Church people. The Bishop was from
this day forth quite at home in the logging camps,
where all men admired his frank and manly spirit.
The same week found the Bishop on his way by
stage to Burrard Inlet and Moodyville to visit the
large saw-mills and logging camps there. Granville, as the settlement was then called, impressed
the Bishop as likely to become an important place,
and his impression was justified, for the Granville
of 1880 is the Vancouver of to-day, the busy
terminus of Canada's transcontinental highway.
It would be wearisome to give an account of all
the work done by the Bishop during these first
few days, so we set down here only a few
instances of its wonderful variety, leaving the
reader to imagine the days not spoken of as
not idle, but filled with a multiplicity of engagements such as speedily rob bishops of any hope
of leisure time.
A new scene was reached on July 7th, when a
visit was paid to Yale, the centre of the Rev. J.
B. Good's earnest and successful work among the NEW  WESTMINSTER. 17
Indians. At this time, however, the railway works
had brought a large increase of population. It
had now risen to the number of two thousand,
including the Chinese labourers. As a consequence, the town gained an unenviable notoriety
for rowdiness and license, and the work among
the Indians was terribly hampered by the intercourse of the aborigines with vicious and unprincipled white men.
Several days were spent at Yale, during which
the Bishop inspected Mr. Good's work, appointed
Silas Nalee as catechist, worked hard with his
usual devotion in training the choir, married an
Indian girl to a Chinaman, and had his first
experience of British Columbia rain. As a consequence of exposure to the latter, he spent the
Sunday in bed.
We have here the report of a correspondent to a
Canadian paper, describing the railway works, to
help us in our glimpses of the Bishop's work at
Yale.
" A few days ago," he says, " we drove to the engineer's
camp about five miles from here. The drive was beyond
description beautiful—huge mountains on all sides, and
the river foaming below. The waggon-road runs high
above the river. One is thankful to have a steady horse
and a careful driver ; for a shy or a swerve on the part of
the horse, and we should be sent hundreds of feet down
into the river, running in places at the rate of twenty
miles an hour. The water is now fifty feet above what
it is sometimes, and in the canons it rises one hundred feet
during the freshets. The windings of the road are such
that at times there seems to be no outlet, but mountains
in front and around, and in some places the mountain
quite overhangs the road. The air was heavy with the
scent of meadowsweet and syringa, and the ferns were
quite beyond description. ... At the engineer's camp, MEMOIR  OF  THE BISHOP  OF
at the special request of the employes, the Bishop of New
Westminster held a service, at which every one was present.
... I attended an Indian service this afternoon at
which representatives of two different tribes were present.
It was a curious sight; some of the women were in
fashionable dresses, and others almost in rags. The first
prayer was sung beautifully—it was like monks chanting
a Latin psalm; but the hymns were pitched too high,
and were dreadful. The Bishop preached, and one
gentleman interpreted to the Yale Indians, while another
translated for the edification of the Spuzzum Indians. . . .
It was very amusing to see the Bishop gesticulating and
pointing, and then to hear one interpreter in a deep voice
repeating the sentence in the Yale tongue, dropping his
voice at the end of each sentence ; while the other, in
highly pitched tones and elevating his voice as he proceeded, gave it in the Spuzzum tongue."
After this, the journey was renewed by canoe to
Hope, fifteen miles being made by the two Indian
paddlers in an hour and a half. Then Yale was
once again reached, and the Bishop shared in the
excitement of a big fire. The church and mission
house had a very narrow escape, taking fire twice,
and being under a rain of cinders ; but strenuous
efforts succeeded in saving the property. Others
were not so fortunate, and, worse than all, two
men were so severely burned that they died the
next day. The Bishop buried them, and on the
same day that he laid them to rest received five
members into the Church by baptism.
Agassiz and Chilliwhack are the next places to
appear in the Bishop's itinerary, and once more
Yale was revisited, and an arduous day was spent
by the Bishop in examining and preparing the
adult Indian candidates for baptism. An open-air
service was held in the evening, and on the
Thursday   the   baptisms    were   held,   also   five NEW  WESTMINSTER.
marriages. These latter convinced the Bishop
that, in the case of Indian weddings, a rehearsal
was absolutely necessary, unless the officiant had
unlimited time at his disposal.
The Bishop returned to New Westminster on
August 6th, having fairly tasted of the work
before him, at least, in the lower country. MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
CHAPTER   IV.
A TRIP INTO THE OSOYOOS COUNTRY.
September-October, 1880.
THE month that followed the visitation of the
Yale country was spent at home in necessary but
prosaic duties, and in establishing some sort of
diocesan organization — one day a committee
meeting to discuss the condition of the beautiful
peal of bells presented by the Baroness Burdett-
Coutts for the cathedral ; another day arranging
for and conducting a service at the Provincial
Penitentiary, writing reports for S.P.G., arranging
for school-building, rowing up and down the river
to take services at the logging camps—at some of
which, by-the-by, no one turned up—and so on,
ad libitum.
Work of this kind filled up the time till the
beginning of September, when a very interesting
visitation was made of the Osoyoos country, which
may well be described in detail.
The Bishop left New Westminster on September
8th by steamer, accompanied by Mrs. Sillitoe,
George the Indian, and "Punch" of the genus
Equus.
At Hope a landing was made, and an agreement with the Indians for Antoine and five horses
at $4.50 a day, and Susap and one horse at $1.50 NEW  WESTMINSTER. 21
a day. In spite of rain the stay at Hope was
busily occupied in buying stores, paying visits,
administering baptism, and recovering strayed
horses.
On Friday the cavalcade started at 7.45 a.m.,
the Bishop, Mrs. Sillitoe, George, Antoine, and
Susap riding, and accompanying them three pack-
horses carrying luggage. Twenty-four miles were
accomplished during the day—a good distance
considering the rain and soft roads. Then came
camping out The night was cold and frosty, and
the beds hard to those inexperienced in their use.
They are made of twigs of fir or cedar, in the
spreading of which the Indians are adepts. If
skilfully laid, they form a very easy, springy bed,
but woe betide the unfortunate traveller who tries
to sleep on a brush bed when not scientifically
spread.
Next day, Saturday, Mrs. Sillitoe describes the
journey thus—
" Our way was a narrow trail round the mountain side,
and there were some frightful places to cross. ' Punch '
jumped beautifully with me over a tree lying across the
road fully three feet in diameter. It was amusing to see
.the pack-horses get over. They managed by jumping
to get their forelegs over, and were then quite at fault ;
finally, with their hind legs they scrambled over like
cats."
Groves of young fir trees, through which rippled
beautiful trout streams, tracts of burnt timber,
forests full of grouse, and, moreover, infested with
myriads of caterpillars—then the open country at
2 p.m. After this came the descent through a
bleached forest full of grasshoppers, and at last
the halt at Powder Camp, where the night's camp
was made.
J 22 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
On Sunday, after a hunt for the horses and a
bath in the creek, service was held in camp, and
the day's rest was a welcome preparation for the
toil yet to come.
Next day for several hours a very rough country
was experienced, but the labour received its recompense when the party entered upon a beautiful
open and undulating country like an English park,
with this difference, that white pines took the place
• of the ancestral oaks. In the middle a great herd
of cattle was encountered.
Similkameen came in sight during the afternoon
from a high bluff overlooking the river, and, after
one hour's descent, the river was reached, only to
find the bridge broken. Camp was made on the
level plateau at 5 p.m.
On Tuesday twenty-six miles were traversed by
Five Mile Creek, through the canon, past Indian
ranches, over the fork of the stream to a camping-
place 2200 feet above the sea. Wednesday's
experience was a similar one, ending in a breezy
night, during which the would-be sleepers could
only watch the straining cords of the tent and wait
for the day. On Thursday two divides were crossed,
and the first sight was obtained of Osoyoos Lake
(790 feet above the sea). Here a welcome rest
awaited the travellers, and a hearty reception. On
the following Sunday everybody in Osoyoos
attended the services.
The Bishop observes that the soil here was
apparently barren, but with sufficient irrigation
it seemed capable of producing anything. Potatoes
were seen weighing three and four pounds each,
and garden turnips twenty-seven inches round,
while melons and tomatoes ripened freely in the
open air.
On Wednesday, September 22nd, Osoyoos was NEW  WESTMINSTER. 23
left behind for Penticton, along a good trail across
the mountains, with^ copses in the hollows of the
hills, and small lakes full of wild fowl. Rain fell
all day, and after twenty-two miles' travelling, even
a bad camp, wet, hard, and without brush as it
was, proved very welcome.
The Bishop reached Penticton on Thursday,
September 23rd, a promising settlement on low
land separating Okanagan Lake from Dog Lake.
The approach was through a marsh, where the
horses sank to their knees in mud. Once arrived,
however, troubles were for a while at an end, and
the Indian train was dismissed and sent back to
Hope.
Leaving Penticton on horses borrowed for the
occasion, twenty miles more were accomplished^
and a point of the lake reached opposite Mission.
No soul was then living within many miles of the
house in which the Bishop was staying, and the
four younger children of the household had only
twice before seen white people other than members
of their own family. The Bishop baptized the
children, and then proceeded with his journey.
The first attempt to cross the lake was unsuccessful
owing to the coming on of the darkness, but a
second attempt was made soon after, and the
Lequines' house reached after some wanderings.
On Saturday a further stage brought the Bishop
to Mr. Forbes Vernon's farm in the Mission
Valley, where services were held on Sunday in
the barn. About twenty men were present, and
everything went well with one exception, described
by Mrs. Sillitoe—
" A small contretemps occurred during afternoon service
in the shape of a hen who, having laid an egg, flew upon
some hay to announce the fact, and so persistently and 24 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
loudly that the Bishop could not proceed with his sermon
till she had been turned out. Among other unbidden
visitors at the same time were'^the little chipmunks
running lightly and gracefully along the rafters—little
animals in size between a rat and a mouse, but in
appearance more like squirrels, having long bushy tails."
Mr. Vernon's was left behind on Monday, and
Lake Head was reached after a journey of twenty-
three miles. The Bishop describes the scenery as
being very beautiful, especially near Otter Lake,
in which there was a wonderful reflection of the
surrounding mountains. Calls were made all
along the road as usual.
On Tuesday the Bishop rowed down to the
landing, and took passage on the Lady Dufferin
down the river to Eagle Pass, and up another long
arm to "Cape Horn" through the narrows. All
day long the only people seen were one Indian
family in a canoe. The Bishop's party had, like
the Apostles of old, " forgotten to take bread," and
as the boat was scantily provisioned, they suffered
some inconvenience, but managed to appease their
hunger by sharing some bread and beef with the
crew.
Next day at 8 a.m. they entered a small lake,
and thence passed into the Thompson River,
where they came across an Indian fishing-camp,
and witnessed the spearing of hundreds of salmon,
although the fish were at this time out of season.
One baptism was administered en route.
At 5 p.m. Kamloops, one of the largest towns
in the upper country, was reached, and, with a
eeling of being once again within the borders of
civilization, the party put up at Spelman's Hotel.
Kamloops boasted an hotel, a store, a flour-
mill, and a saw-mill ; but the Bishop did not stay NEW WESTMINSTER. 25
at this time, taking a drive of forty miles on the
Friday to Grand Prairie.
On Saturday the return journey was made to
Kamloops, and here on Sunday there was a full
day's round of services. The Court House was
used as a church, and this in the evening was
filled to overflowing. Next day was occupied in
visiting, and the Bishop began to give practical
attention to the calls he had heard everywhere for
a Church school. Large families, he found, were
growing up without education for the want of
some centrally placed boarding-school conducted
on Church lines. A Roman convent school had
just been started in Kamloops, but parents
naturally objected to send their children there.
The Bishop went over this, and he also tried to
find some suitable premises which might be converted into a school—with what amount of success
we shall see by-and-by.
On Tuesday the journey was resumed by
steamer as far as Savona's Ferry, where the
Bishop stayed for service, and also looked up
candidates for confirmation.
The next point was Ashcroft—a very English
settlement, for two of the farmers were found
keeping a pack of foxhounds with which to hunt
the coyotes.
An incident occurred during the stay here which
we give in Mrs. Sillitoe's own words—
"Whilst we were sitting in the drawing-room one
evening during our stay at Ashcroft, an extraordinary
noise was heard. Some supposed it to be an earthquake,
but we finally came to the conclusion that it was nothing
more than the moving of some chairs or tables overhead. The next morning, however, we heard that the
sound had been caused by a tremendous landslip three 26 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP   OF
miles distant from where we were, and which had
dammed up the river until it should have forced its.
way through this immense dam. However, in company
with our hosts, we drove to the river to judge for ourselves. We found that the dam was half a mile long
and eighty feet high. The river above had already
risen forty feet over its usual level, and was almost dry
below. As it had still forty feet to rise before it could
break through, and as it would then almost certainly
cany away the only bridge by which we could cross, we
decided on continuing our journey to Cook's Ferry, where
we were able to cross safely. It was painful to see the
salmon—some floundering in shallow pools, others lying
dead in the dry bed of the river."
From Cook's Ferry the journey was resumed to
Nicomen, where there were many Indians mining in
the river-bed rocks, and from thence to Lytton,
the well-known Indian Mission Station, like Yale,
under the charge of the Rev. J. B. Good.
Returning, New Westminster was reached on
October 25th, after an almost continuous journey
of six weeks, and covering nearly eight hundred
miles.
The next day the Bishop wrote to England—
I We returned yesterday from our journey through the
interior of the diocese ; we travelled a distance of over
seven hundred miles, through a country very rarely
travelled by ladies, and into a portion of which no
Church of England clergyman has ever before penetrated. I don't say this to exalt our performance, for
in truth the ' hardships ' we underwent were rather of a
pleasant and exciting character than otherwise ; but I
want you in England to feel that we do not call upon
you for earnestness we do not ourselves endeavour to
feel in practice. We do not intend to j sit at home at
ease,' and send you lively reports of wants derived
second-hand from the complaints of others, but to go NEW  WESTMINSTER. 27
and see for ourselves, and force no demands on your
faith and charity beyond what we can make ourselves
personally responsible for."
The visitation must have brought cheer to many
a lonely settler. Everywhere the Bishop found
himself able to supply touch with home. Here
he would come across a schoolmaster acquainted
with friends in England ; here a postman who was
an old Woolwich cadet ; here a University man, now
the solitary inhabitant of a log hut, whose only
other occupants were a cat and some chickens ;
here a blacksmith from a familiar parish in
England ; and here a Yorkshireman with mutual
friends and acquaintances—all ready to give and
receive a friendly greeting.
It was a journey, too, which helped to make the
Bishop familiar with no inconsiderable portion of
his huge and bewildering diocese. MEMOIR OF THE BISHOP OF
CHAPTER   V.
A WINTER JOURNEY.
October, i88o-February, 1881.
When one kind of work was impossible it was
the Bishop's happy faculty to turn straightway to
that which was possible ; and so, when the end of
summer made it impossible to do much in the
way of up-country travelling, the time had fortunately arrived when it was possible to do most in
the cities on the coast.
So, although for the two or three months which
closed the year 1880, the Bishop did not go far
from New Westminster, yet he had anything but
an idle time.
It was a time, too, which was marked by much
deepening of the spiritual life in and around him.
He knew too well that the only result of activity
sometimes is to be "busy, but not for God," and
he feared " the barrenness of a busy life " as much
as idleness itself. To escape this, it was his constant practice year by year to have a short retreat
for himself and his clergy in which they could
gather up their spiritual force and gain closer
touch with the Source of all power.
This year the retreat was held at Sapperton,
commencing on October 30th, and so including the
first anniversary of the Bishop's consecration.     It h*.
NEW  WESTMINSTER. 29
was a time deeply appreciated by the wearied
workers—one of those times when the human
tenderness of our Master is felt, as He says,
" Come ye apart and rest awhile."
The Sunday following the Bishop held his first
ordination.
It is needless to dwell much on the work of
this time, but we may mention that it included
the opening of a girls' school, in accordance with
the Bishop's earnest desire to establish an educational institution on Church lines, and the taking
of the first steps towards the publication of a
diocesan magazine.
Beyond this he was hard at work, preaching,
organizing, and working everywhere in the neighbourhood, sometimes riding over to Granville, a
journey so slippery that many hours were consumed
where now we glide over in electric cars in less
than one. The snow came on November 30th,
but still by stage, canoe, sleigh, or on foot the
Bishop accomplished his work.
With the winter well advanced and the engagements in the neighbourhood of the cathedral city
fulfilled, the Bishop's desire grew to undertake a
winter visit to some of the remoter parishes, and
at the beginning of February he started out.
With regard to this trip a local newspaper made
the following significant comment :—
" A Live Missionary.—The Bishop of New Westminster, accompanied by his wife, paid Yale a missionary
visit last week, and held services in S. John's Church.
Even hardy pioneers shrank from making the trip at
such a season."
But as the reader may like to have some fuller 30 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
account of this adventurous journey, we cannot do
better than quote Mrs. Sillitoe's own description.
"The Bishop had been since Christmas wishing to
go to Yale, as Mr. Good was in Victoria with his family,
and the place, therefore, was left without a priest, Mr.
Blanchard being only in deacon's orders. But the
river being frozen, no steamboats were running. Now,
to travel the whole distance by road is costly, and
occupies a good deal of time. He determined, therefore,
to wait till the river should be open, at least as far as
Chilliwhack, whence we might get on overland At
last a thaw having set in, with almost incessant rain
lasting for nearly a week, the Gem, one of the smallest
of the steamers, arrived from above, where she had been
for some time frozen in. George, our Indian, was
sent into New Westminster, and late in the evening
brought us word that the Gem Avould start next morning
for Chilliwhack. It was not till after night-school—which
lasts from 7.30 to 9—that we thus learned for certain
that we should be able to go. We had consequently
not much time to make arrangements for our absence,
or to pack up ; but packing up is a simple process when
one does not take more baggage than is absolutely
necessary.
" The Gem did not get off as early as was expected,
and it was nearly nine o'clock on Wednesday, February
9th, before she called for us at the Sapperton wharf.
Our three dogs very much wished to accompany us.
The day was fine but the wind cold. The Gem is not
a passenger boat, and has, therefore, no proper accommodation for passengers, but two chairs were provided for
us near the boiler, and the officers did all in their power
to make us comfortable, whilst they were profuse ; in
their apologies that the accommodation was no better.
We had not long started before the tiller-rope broke,
and the boat swung in, and threatened to go ashore.
The accident was soon remedied, and we steamed on
again.     Towards one o'clock, feeling very hungry, we NEW  WESTMINSTER. 31
began to speculate on the probability of getting dinner,
and as we could discover no place resembling either
kitchen or dining-room, we considered our chances
small. However, at one o'clock dinner was announced,
and we followed our guide over bales and boxes of
goods, till we reached a small place partitioned off
from the engine-room. It could not have exceeded
six feet in width, and of this two feet at least was
taken up by two bunks, in one of which a man slumbered
peacefully. A long narrow slab against the partition
was our dining table, and between that and the bunks
there was scarcely room to slip in. The Bishop sat on
a flour-barrel at the end of the table, and as the
machinery was working close behind him, he had to be
careful lest his coat-tails should be caught.
" We thoroughly enjoyed our dinner, and soon left to
make room for other hungry people, as only five could
sit down at once, and there were several other passengers
as well as the crew. As our chairs had been taken for
the dining-room, I had to ensconce myself on a big case
with a bale at my back, and so managed to make myself
very comfortable, amused also listening to our very
loquacious fireman talking to the Bishop. He was an
American, and spoke with great scorn of British Columbia
farmers, saying they would stop the boat to send off
eleven eggs, and ask if the boat would wait whilst the
hen laid another to make up the dozen ! I give this
' only as a good story,, not that I would have anything so
libellous believed of our farmers. From all accounts
they are doing very well "now, and if there has been
formerly lack of energy, it was for want of a market.
We arrived at Chilliwhack at 6 p.m., and found Mr.
Baskett on the landing-place awaiting us. A sleigh was
soon got ready to take us to Chilliwhack proper, about a
mile from where we landed. The mail sleigh left for
Yale at eleven the same night, but we had arranged to
remain the whole of the next day at Chilliwhack We
spent most of the day on Thursday trudging about
in the snow, and visiting whites and Indians.    The 32 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
Chilliwhack Indians want a little \ Church house ' of their
own, and there was a great deal of talk as to where it
should be built and about the cost. The Bishop
promised on his next visit to look at the site they
propose.
S Our driver wished to start at seven the next morning
(Friday), but we objected so strongly that he consented
to make it eight o'clock if we would be punctual. He it
was, however, who kept us waiting, and it was 8.30 before
we made a start Our conveyance was a very primitive
one, a long shallow box on runners, a plank laid across
as a seat, and, for my comfort, some hay behind to lean
against. The day was very fine, not very cold, and the
sun shining brightly. The road not being used except
for a short time in winter, when the river is closed by
ice, is not kept in repair, and a nice shaking we had,
scrunching over stones, through the rocky beds of
streams, and over other almost impossible places.
There are dips in the road as deep as a ditch, and into
these the sleigh goes, standing up on the front end, and
then on the back. We had to keep in as best we could,
since there was nothing to hold on by. At one place
one runner was on the rock, and the other on the
ground ; the Bishop was on the lower side, and out he
was thrown with one foot only left in the sleigh. I
followed helplessly, and then came the hay. Happily,
we were going slowly, and the driver noticed us, and
pulled up. A yard further and we must have been
deposited in the bed of a stream, which, although not
deep, would have given us an unpleasant wetting.
" Our driver told us there was one [ bad ' place, where
the road goes round the face of j Murderer's Bar Bluff.'
A few nights before he was driving some of the mail
passengers, and seeing they were quietly asleep, intended
to drive round without waking them. One man, however, started up just as they were coming to the place,
and seeing the character of the road, without a moment's
hesitation rolled out at the back of the sleigh. It so
happens that just at this part of the road there is no NEW  WESTMINSTER. 33
snow, but a smooth sheet of ice, with nothing to prevent
the sleigh slipping off the road down into the river
below. The sleigh got round safely, but the efforts of
the passenger to get around on foot seemed hopeless.
So slippery was the ice that he could not even stand,
and at last had to take off his boots and follow barefooted till he succeeded in reaching the sleigh. Our
autumn trip had made us callous to such places, and we
were driven safely round. At three o'clock we reached the
Indian village of Oham'l, and there stopped about an
hour to rest the horses and get dinner, which was
prepared for us by an Indian woman. There were not
many people on the road, but we met one picturesque-
looking Indian, with gun slung at his back, moccasins on
his feet, snowshoes in his hand, and surrounded by five
dogs. About 6.30 we reached Hope, the last part of our
drive being in bright moonlight. We were tired, stiff,
and very cold, but had thoroughly enjoyed our drive.
Dock and Boundary, our two steeds, were as pleased as
we were to have reached the end of their day's journey.
" The Bishop had arranged that a team should meet
us on the other side of the river on the following morning,
Saturday, to take us on to Yale, and at half-past ten
Captain Bristol, the mail-guard, came to say that a
canoe was waiting to take us across. We started on
foot over the hard snow, down the steep bank of the
river, and then paddled across, landing on the ice on
the other side about half a mile higher up. The ice
was so slippery and the wind so strong, that had I been
left to myself, I should have been reduced to take the
same measures as the gentleman going round the Bluff.
Happily, there was no necessity for this, as Captain
Bristol had provided a small hand-sleigh, on which the
Bishop and I seated ourselves, and we were drawn, or
rather, the wind blew Us, across the ice to the shore.
The sleigh which awaited us was of the same description
as that we had had the day before, only now it was nearly
filled with goods, and we had nothing against which to
rest our backs.    Twice we had to get out when the 34 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
sleigh went through streams, the bridges over which had
been burned. It was thought more than probable that if
we remained in the sleigh we should be overturned into
the water. The snow on this side of the river was much
deeper than on the other, and for about eight miles we
could hardly advance beyond a walking pace. Nearer
Yale there had been more traffic, and we progressed
more rapidly. We found Mr. Whiteway and Mr.
Blanchard at the door of the Mission House to welcome
us on our arrival, and very soon we felt ourselves quite
at home again. Many Indians came to the Mission
House in the course of the afternoon and evening to
see the Bishop.
"The following day, Sunday, Holy Communion was
celebrated, and other services held for both whites and
Indians.
"On Monday the Bishop was occupied the whole
day arranging business matters and seeing people. On
Tuesday morning we started homewards, the morning
being fine and bright, though the East wind was very
cold. During the night the thermometer had been as
low as io° Fahr. Thanks partly to the numerous wraps
with which our sleigh was provided at Yale, we were
warm enough, and the road being in better condition
than it had been on Saturday, we managed our fifteen-
mile drive comfortably. Soon after leaving Yale, two
deer crossed the road a few yards in front of us. At the
river, after being again drawn over the ice in a hand-
sleigh to the open water, we found the canoe awaiting
us, and were paddled across by two Indians. It was
no easy matter to climb the steep, slippery path on the
other side; but that accomplished, we soon reached the
inn, where as usual we received a hearty welcome.
" On Wednesday morning at 7.30 we took our places
in the sleigh, this time seated on the bottom, and without any hay for our backs. The bare boards seemed
very hard, and every jolt shook us severely. The cold
was intense, and we watched the sun rise, first over one
mountain and then over another, longing for it to reach NEW  WESTMINSTER. 35
and warm us too a little. We had intended to get out
and trust to our own legs going round the Bluff, thinking
it safer, as one of our horses had lost a shoe. Our driver,
however, never stopped, thinking that he could take us
safely round. My heart seemed to stop beating as I
felt the sleigh sliding, sliding, till one corner where I
sat was off the road overhanging the river. The chain
which forms a drag round one of the runners turned the
hinder part of the sleigh outwards. Happily, the horses
kept a firm hold of the ice, and we were soon on safer
ground. The road round the Bluff is not more than
fifteen feet above the level of the river, but it is directly
below, and runs, as at all the bars, very swiftly. The road
certainly was worse than when we came up, but on the
whole we felt little disposed to quarrel with our jolting.
" We reached Chilliwhack about four o'clock, and found
the place in great excitement over a ' Social ' that was
to take place that night, and at which I had promised
to sing. I was very tired, and it was kindly arranged
that both my songs should be in the second part, so that
we might remain quietly in the hotel during the first half.
"Much to our relief, the Gem arrived that very
evening. Ice had formed on the river during the last
few cold nights to such an extent that there had been
grave doubts whether she would be able to get up. We
embarked about nine on Thursday morning, and were
soon on our way down the river. There was much floating ice, and, for the protection of the boat, rough planks
had been nailed on to the bows. The ice, however, made
short work of these. Then they tried lashing two trees
at a sharp angle before the bows, but the ice soon cut the
lashings through. At Langley there is a small loop of
the river, into which the captain tried to go to land the
mails, but it was so blocked with ice that this was
found to be impossible, and it was a difficult matter to
get out again. It took a whole hour to get out where
we had been but a few minutes getting in.
" The Gem is not a boat in which one can feel much
security.    The ice here was but a few inches thick, while 36 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
that we passed through last year in the Gulf of S. Lawrence was some feet, yet we were in more danger in the
Gem than we had been in the Sarmatian. After
getting out of our difficulty, and proceeding a short distance down the river, we encountered a fresh obstacle.
The ice was closely packed across its entire width. The
captain determined to try to get through, but soon found
he must back out, and quickly, too, if the Gem was
not to be fast shut in, as large masses of ice were coming
down from above. When, after hard work, we were clear,
it was decided to make fast to the shore and wait till the
ice broke up. The ice had done some damage, which
the crew set to work to repair. We were in sight of
Maple Ridge, a settlement where we should have been
hospitably received, and should have found comfortable
quarters. We made for it, but, alas ! there were no
means of crossing the slough which lay between us and
the wished-for goal, so we had to return to the steamboat, and spend.the night on board. The weather had
been warm all day, and rain seemed imminent. The
captain and the engineer gave up to our use a small
cabin on deck, their own sleeping quarters, and into this
five persons were crowded. Sleep was out of the
question, and at midnight (it was snowing hard), when
looking out, I heard a curious roaring sound down the
river. The captain came soon after, and explained that
it was the tide coming up, lifting and breaking the ice,
which by morning would be floated out to sea. He
proved to be right, and at 6.30 on Friday morning we
made a fresh start.
■ The engineer told us that during the night, finding
that the boat was making more water than he could
account for, he took a light and went round to examine,
and found that one of the main planks had been started
by the ice, and that but for a coating of ice she would
have filled still faster.
" By 9 a.m. we were landed at Sapperton, heartily glad
to be at home again, after a trip which, in spite of its
roughness, had been on the whole thoroughly enjoyed." NEW  WESTMINSTER.
CHAPTER   VI.
SPRING WORK IN   l88l.
It is not to be expected that a Bishop's work,
any more than any other man's, can be always
interesting. There are those who fancy that the
life of a missionary in foreign parts, and particularly
that of a missionary Bishop, must be one long
series of exciting and thrilling adventures. Unless
these are forthcoming, the idea gains ground that
there is not much in his work after all. It is
difficult to see why more should be expected of
the daily life of a colonial missionary than of a
clergyman at home, except in so far as he may
move among new and unexplored surroundings.
Drudgery comes alike to all, and no novelty of
environment, no romantic scenery, no peril of
travel, can save a biography from being for the
most part a record of duties performed over and
over again, till every charm is gone from them,
except that which belongs inherently to duty done
for duty's sake.
So the spring of 1881 passed quickly with
Bishop Sillitoe, in routine work of that uninteresting but necessary kind by which, more than by
any brilliant exploits, the foundations of dioceses
are well and truly laid. There was abundant
parochial work, both at Sapperton among his own
special flock, and at New Westminster, where he 38 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
was an ever-welcome assistant to the Archdeacon.
The arrangement of Lenten work afforded employment dear to the Bishop's heart, for in that which
concerned the deepening and strengthening of
spiritual life in the hearts of earnest and sincere
believers, he ever found a peculiar joy. Mission
work was dear to him too, but he did not allow
it to blind him to the needs of the growing
Christian, nor did he ever permit his public work
to distract his attention from that which must be
done more or less in private in dealing with
individual souls.
A night school at Sapperton, at which there
was an average attendance of about twenty,
occupied the Bishop and Mrs. Sillitoe several
evenings a week, and then there was the rowing
here and there, up or down or across the river, to
visit lonely settlers, hold services wherever such
could be arranged, and consult with fellow-workers
as to the extension of the work.
On Sunday, March 13th, the second ordination
was held at New Westminster, when Mr. Bell was
ordained deacon, and the Rev. G. Ditcham raised
to the priesthood. During the preceding Ember
week, the whole clerical staff of the diocese,
supplemented by Mr. Bell and Mr. Whiteway,
assembled at S. Mary's Mount. The early days
of the week were spent in the examination, conducted by the Archdeacon of Columbia ; Thursday
was devoted to the reading and discussion of the
Epistle to the Philippians ; and Friday was observed
as a day of retreat and devotion, addresses being
given at intervals by the Archdeacon and the
Bishop.
The two newly ordained clergy went out at
once to their work, and the Bishop, after making
arrangements for a conference of Church people to NEW  WESTMINSTER. 39
be held in the autumn, quickly followed on a round
of spring visitations. The following extracts from
letters of Mrs. Sillitoe's will give some idea of
the general character of these visits. The picture
of the Bishop in the kitchen blacking boots, as
given in the first extract, and that of his helping
to put out a fire in the third, will afford to the
uninitiated some valuable glimpses into the daily
life of a colonial diocesan.
However, we will let the letters tell their own
story.
" April 27,rd.—We left Sapperton last Saturday, and
the steamer landed us at Chilliwhack the same afternoon. Mr. Baskett was at the landing, and we were
driven to the parsonage by the chief farmer of the settlement You may like to picture us in our morning's
occupation at the parsonage. The Bishop is in the
kitchen blacking boots ; Mr. Baskett also there washing
up the breakfast things ; I am sweeping out the dining-
room and doing our bedroom. We were driven on
Tuesday to a farm to inspect a cow we were thinking of
purchasing, but she proved too expensive. As we were,
returning, a lynx or panther ran across the road in front
of us, and then doubled back again behind the waggon
and into the woods. We unfortunately had no gun
.with us. In the evening, whilst we were taking part in
an entertainment held at the school towards providing
funds for completing the parsonage, there was an alarm
that the parsonage itself was on fire. Off we rushed,
splashing through the deep puddles in the school-yard,
through a hole in the fence, only to find it was a false
alarm. On Wednesday we left in a canoe for Maple
Ridge. The Bishop's throat was still so bad that we
should have postponed our visit there, only that he had
been obliged to disappoint them on a former occasion,
and was determined not to do so again. Captain Jem,
an old Indian, and his wife Susan were the paddlers.
Their two small children had to accompany us, as they 40 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
could not be left at home alone. There was a third
paddle, which the Bishop and I took by turns, and we
became quite skilful in handling it We left Chilliwhack at 9 a.m., and did not reach Maple Ridge till'
6 p.m., very tired and cramped and cold. The cost of
the canoe was six dollars, so you see how expensive
travelling is out here. We ran against a snag (a log, one
end of which is fast in the river bottom, the other end
slanting up out of the river), but our Indian woman was
equal to the occasion. With bare feet she climbed on
to the snag, pushed the canoe off, and then jumped or
rather crept back again. We had service on Thursday
morning at Maple Ridge, and in the afternoon went
about four miles up the river, landing on the other side
at Derby to see a church and parsonage built there
about twenty-one years ago, when that place was selected
for the capitaT. Tcânhot say much for the architectural
beauty of the church, but it is in good repair. The boat
we went in was of the very crankiest description, dug
out of a log, and it leaked so much that the Bishop and
I had to bale the whole time. I am not given to be
nervous, but I own to having felt very thankful to be on
dry land again. Immersion in the Fraser means almost
certain death, even for the best swimmers, the water is
so intensely cold, and the undercurrent very strong."
On May 6th the following programme is outlined :—
| We are off to-morrow for Trenant, staying there till
Tuesday; the following Sunday we shall be at Burrard
Inlet for the dedication of the new church. The third
Sunday in May we shall be at home, and on the last
Sunday go down the North Arm. After that we go up
the river, and shall be at Chilliwhack for a Sunday, and
then go on to Hope, where we intend to camp out under
canvas for some time ; thence on to Yale, where we
shall be for the two last Sundays in June."
The visit to Trenant, or Ladner's Landing, as it NEW  WESTMINSTER. 41
is generally called, is referred to in a letter under
date of May 16th.
" On Saturday, May 7th, we left by the steamer, taking
our horse Punch with us, and in almost an hour reached
Trenant. In the afternoon I rode Punch and the Bishop
Mr. Bell's horse to make a few visits. The corduroy
roads are bad enough, but where not so made are still
worse. It is not till May that people can ride at all
without getting 'mired.' The Bishop's horse in one
place refused to jump a ditch, and walked deliberately
into the mud, into which he disappeared all but head
and shoulders, the Bishop having only just time to roll
off first. We got back at 8.30, tired with our long day,
including a rough ride of fifteen miles. Next morning,
Sunday, after eleven o'clock service at the school, the
Bishop and Mr. Bell rode to Mud Bay, fifteen miles
distant, for afternoon service. I could not go for lack
of a third horse to ride. This was a very tiring day for
the Bishop, not so much from the length of the ride
(thirty miles), as from the nature of the roads making
the riding very slow. The following day, Monday, I
was able to borrow a horse, and we all three rode out to
a small hill, which it is wished to obtain as a cemetery,
and then on to a cannery further down the river, returning to Trenant by water. On Tuesday afternoon we
were to return home, and there being no particular
business cut out for that day, we congratulated ourselves
on the prospect of a quiet time till two o'clock, when
the steamer would call. The Bishop had just sat down
with his book, and I with my work, when the lady in
whose house we were staying rushed in to say the next
house was on fire. Off we flew, and found that Mr.
Bell had just arrived before us. All three then set to
work to extinguish the fire. There was ODly one man
on the premises, working in the garden ; the owner of
the house was absent at his cannery, and his wife, who
was at home with a three-year-old child, was naturally
very much alarmed.    Mr. Bell got through a trap-door 42 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
between ceiling and roof, and the Bishop on a ladder
outside There was a difficulty in getting water, as the
tide was out, and I had to cross a shore of soft mud.
We managed to extinguish the fire before aid came from
the cannery, though but for our being on the spot the
house must have been burnt down."
On Sunday, May 15th, S. James' Church, Granville, was dedicated, and proved the commencement
of a great work, one of the most important in the
diocese. The Bishop, accompanied by the Rev.
G. Ditcham, was met at the church doors by the
members of the church committee, and the service
of dedication then took place. Immediately after
Holy Communion was celebrated, the Bishop
being both celebrant and preacher. The church
was much admired, and was declared to be a credit
both to the architect and to the diocese. It is
worthy of note that the Communion vessels used,
a handsome double set, including alms dishes,
were presented to the diocese by the Rector of
S. James', Wednesbury, England. They were
afterwards burnt in the Vancouver fire in 1886.
The visit to the North Arm of the Fraser River
is thus described by Mrs. Sillitoe—
"May 28, 1881.—We started from here yesterday
morning at nine o'clock in a little steamer, the Princess
Louise, which carries cargo. The crew consisted of the
captain (a German) and his two sons, one of ten years
old, who was steersman, the other of twelve, who was
engineer. As rain was falling heavily, we had to take
shelter in the pilot house ; but before long the weather
cleared, and the sun broke out. After various stoppages
to deliver cargo, we arrived at 12.30 at the house of an
English family, with whom we were to stay that night.
The Bishop had promised when next he went up the
North Arm to visit the Indian chief at his ranche.   So NEW  WESTMINSTER. 43
after dinner we again started in the steamer. Though
the distance in a direct line to the chiefs residence is
very short, yet, there being no road, and the ground
very soft, we had to go a distance of eight miles by
water before reaching his ranche. A shrill whistle from
the steamer brought down Pete, who piloted us through
a very soppy meadow to the chiefs house. Similano,
the chief, and his wife Sh'alee, came out to meet us, and
after shaking hands, we went into the house. We were
ushered into a large room, with a kind of bunk running
all round. Bunk and walls alike were covered with
matting, which the Indians make. The matting was so
clean that I seated myself without hesitation, while the
Bishop (through an interpreter) talked with Similano,
Sh'alee in the mean time squatting on the not too clean
floor. She had her hair hanging down in two plaits,
the parting dyed a deep brown. After a while I
expressed a wish to see the blankets they make from
the hair of the mountain goat, and Sh'alee fetched two
bright-coloured mats—curious, but not very pretty. All
round the room were bundles of reed mats. George,
the engineer, told me that they are kept for a. potlatch,
the Chinook word for a gift. (Cultus potlatch is the
expression for a gift, no return for which is expected.)
" A potlatch is a large party to which the giver invites
all his tillicums (friends), and gives away his presents.
Sometimes it is a flour potlatch, when numbers of bags
of flour are given away, sometimes blankets or mats.
At one potlatch I heard of lately, two hundred pairs
of blankets were given away by a chief. The giver is no
loser, as he seems always to get an equivalent at other
potlatches.
" Our visit ended, we shook hands all round and left.
Noticing outside a strong platform on high poles, we
found on inquiry that at a potlatch the blankets are
thrown from this platform, and scrambled for by the
guests. We examined curiously some canoes in process
of manufacture, being dug out of the trunk of a tree,
and our remarks afforded Similano great amusement, 44 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
making him go off into fits of laughter. We did not
get back from our expedition till seven o'clock.
" The following morning, Sunday, we started at half-
past nine for the church, picking up on the way, as we
did again in the afternoon, various boat-loads who would
form the congregation.
I In the evening we again embarked, and steamed up
the river homewards, arriving about eight o'clock." NEW  WESTMINSTER.
CHAPTER VII.
SUMMER CAMP AT YALE.
June-July, 1881.
THE summer of 1881 was spent by the Bishop
chiefly under canvas at Yale, with the special
purpose in view of ministering to the spiritual
needs of the navvies working on the railway in
course of construction at that place.
Yale bore at this time a most unenviable reputation. Pay day was signalized by the most fearful
riots, with which the all too slender police force was
powerless to contend. Drunkenness and disorder
filled the place day and night. Fires kindled by
lights held in hands unsteady with drink were of
almost daily occurrence, the jail was overflowing,
and the justices weary. Tattered, dirt-bespattered
drunkards rolled about the streets, wallowing in
the mud, cursing and fighting, and driving all
respectable people into the recesses of their homes,
while saloon after saloon was added to the number,
already terribly in excess of the needs of the
community.
It was in such a society that the Bishop and
Mrs. Sillitoe decided to spend their summer ; and
as the whole visit has been graphically described
by Mrs. Sillitoe, we cannot do better than quote
from her account. 46 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
" We left home on the first day of June. It was a
real June day too, bright and sunshiny. Our first day's
journey was not a very long one ; it extended only to
Maple Ridge, a settlement fifteen miles up the Fraser.
The steamer land'eHfus there about 10 a.m., and the
captain promised to call for us again on his next ' up
trip.' We passed three very pleasant days in this place.
The steamer, according to promise, called for us on
Saturday morning, and landed us late in the afternoon
at Chilliwhack, where we had promised to spend
Whitsuntide. Mr. Baskett is in charge of Chilliwhack
and the surrounding districts, and we stayed with him at
the parsonage."
Here let us interrupt Mrs. Sillitoe's narrative
a moment to mention another incident in the
Bishop's Sunday work, which illustrates both his
manner of dealing with individuals and also the
influences against which the Church had continually to be fighting.
An old Indian chief, named Whalem, had been
inveigled into joining the Church of Rome, and
had been rebaptized. He was also given to understand that his change of religion would result in
a speedy recovery from a sickness under which
he was suffering. This consummation, however,
fortunately or unfortunately, was not realized, and
Whalem now desired to be readmitted into the
English Church. The Bishop had a long " palaver "
with him, and told him that if he returned his recantation must be made publicly, and he must also
give substantial proof of his sincerity. Whalem
said he was weak and insensible at the time he
was perverted, and promised to remain faithful for
the future.
This proselytizing by priests of the Church of
Rome was often a sore annoyance. Not all the
Indians  were   as   staunch   as   the   young   chief NEW  WESTMINSTER. 47
belonging to Mr. Good's mission, who replied to
the priest's assurance that Protestantism would
surely end in hell, that if Mr. Good was leading
him thitherward, he would go along and take his
chance.
But we must return to Mrs. Sillitoe's guidance.
IA picnic had been arranged for Whit Monday, and
up to the very time of starting the weather, which for
the last few days had been very wet, made us doubt if
it would be wise to venture further. We did, however,
make a start at 10 a.m., and were rewarded by soon
seeing a clear sky. Our destination was Cultus Lake,
some eight miles further on. A very slow and jolting
ride over some rough ground brought us to the Chilliwhack river—a rushing, foaming mountain torrent. It
was decided to have lunch here, and I was considerably
surprised to hear that we were to proceed by canoe up
the river. This seemed hardly possible. Soon two
canoes appeared, each manned by two Indians, who
had long poles for punting the canoes along. The
canoes were the smallest and crankiest I have been in.
Very gingerly we got in, and I was much amused by
one of our Indians remarking, 'Hyas cumtax' ('She
very much understands '), which referred to the manner
in which I got in. The way to get into a canoe is to
step in, and without another movement collapse at the
bottom. It was very exciting work this making our
way up the river. The poles with which the Indians
punted bent till one thought they must snap in two.
We had to land about a mile before the lake was reached,
as the canoe could proceed no further. Following a
narrow trail, across which many fallen trees were lying,
we were not long in finding Cultus Lake. It is very
beautiful, surrounded by mountains, but we had seen
finer ones on our last autumn trip in the interior. ' The
canoe ride,' as it is termed in this country, was the
principal feature on our return journey. We seemed
almost to fly through the water, and the skill with which 48 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
the Indians turned and guided the canoe was simply-
wonderful.
"We left Chilliwhack on Wednesday afternoon, and
were landed at Hope between three and four o'clock
next morning. It had been a moonlight night ; we had
made capital time from Chilliwhack, as we had raced
the greater part of the way with a rival steamboat, and
we should have reached Hope that night, only that, when
two miles short of our destination, some driftwood got
foul of our rudder, and for some ten minutes we were at
the mercy of the Fraser in full flood, with difficulty
avoiding either bank. Then the captain 'guessed we
had better tie up,' and proceeded forthwith to do so,
much to our chagrin.
"It was useless to undress, as we might at any
moment be clear and proceed, so we settled ourselves
on a sofa and armchair. The cabin being very near the
screw, we required no waking when the vessel began to
move on, and, not having any delay occasioned by
dressing, we were ready to land at once. We had sent
on our tents a week before, and we found them pitched
ready for us in a field adjoining the church. They were
already occupied by our Chinaman, Sing, who bestirred
himself on our arrival, under the impression that it must
be quite time to get up. We, however, begged him not
to disturb himself or us for the next four hours at least,
and then turned in to our couch of fir twigs, fragrant as
the proverbial 'roses.' When we had refreshed ourselves
with sleep and breakfast, and got all straight, we proceeded to call on all our friends in the village. Our
camp consisted of four tents—two of our own and two
which had been borrowed. Ours were used as bedroom
and drawing-room, the others as dining-room and for
Sing to sleep in.    All cooking was done in the open air.
" The first night in camp is rarely a success, and ours
was no exception to the rule. First of all, it rained,
and we were not sure that the rain would not find an
entrance. In the second place, it blew, and we were
not quite sure that the tent would not be blown away, NEW  WESTMINSTER. 49
and leave us sub frigido Jove. In the third place,
Punch was very restless, and spent the night galloping
about, and now and then catching his feet in the tent
ropes, and arousing the ire of Sam and Bran, the dogs
who shared our calico quarters. Mr. Sheldon arrived
next morning, and was not over pleased to find that an
Ashantee hammock, in a rather ragged tent, was all the
accommodation we could offer him. It still continued
to rain very heavily, and, fires having become necessary,
the Bishop and Mr. Sheldon had to go into the forest to
bring in logs for fuel. But, though fires made our circumstances a little less cheerless, they could not dry a
two-acre field, or keep off the rain as we went from tent
to tent, so we were always more or less wet Sing was
greatly amused at the hammock having to serve as a
bed, and sententiously remarked, 'Him very good catch
fish ; him no good bed.'
" The weather partially clearing on Saturday afternoon,
we took a walk to dry and air our clothes, visiting some
falls about three miles distant along the Hope trail, the
only exciting incident of our walk being the crossing of
a stream on a log which served as a bridge. Just as we
had turned in for the night there arrived by steamer
from New Westminster a gready welcomed joint of beef.
" There was every appearance of Sunday being a fine
day, despite the fall of the "barometer. The services
were Matins, Sermon, and Holy Communion at n a.m.,
and Evensong and Sermon at 6 p.m. Before evening
the barometer vindicated its character, for the rain fell
heavier than before, and our evening congregation was
in consequence a small one So as not to have any
cooking on Sunday, we had kept our joint for Monday's
dinner, but when Monday came bitterly did we regret
this. The first news with which Sing greeted us in the
morning was that ■ the joint had disappeared. We
wondered whether Punch had been carnivorously inclined, but as our Chinaman said he had noticed a
strange dog prowling about, Punch was given the benefit
of the doubt.   The dog must have been very agile, for So MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
the meat was hung at least eight feet from the ground,
and Sing's slumbers must have been somewhat heavy, as
the dog must have sprung at his prey within a foot of
the Chinaman's pig-tail. On Monday afternoon we took
another walk, and on our return were told that the dog
had again paid us a visit, and this time taken a fancy to
our bacon. We thereupon instituted a search to find
some traces of the culprit, and had not far to look, for
just outside the fence lay the remnants of a bag of
oatmeal, which our nimble visitor must, with no little
difficulty, have dragged there and contemptuously
abandoned, not fancying its contents. The following
day, whilst we were out, he again got into the tent, and,
finding nothing better to his taste, carried off our bread.
" On Thursday, June 14th, we left Hope by steamer,
and in three hours reached Yale.
"Arrived at Yale, our tents were pitched behind the
church, and it was not very long before we were straight
and snug again."
After describing work in Yale and a temporary
return to New Westminster to fulfil various engagements, Mrs. Sillitoe proceeded to describe the
departure from Yale in order to be within easier
reach of the railway camps.
" These cannot well be worked from Yale, so we found
a very good camping ground about seventeen miles off,
and by the side of a running stream. On our drive up
the heat was intense, and I have never seen anything to
equal the clouds of dust we met with. The road the whole
way follows the course of the river, which above Yale is
a rushing torrent quite unnavigable. The road at the
best of times is a very dangerous one, there being nothing,
in case the horses swerve or shy, to prevent them rolling'
down into the river below. Just now it is worse than
ever, having been cut up by the railway works and
plentifully strewed with large stones from the blasting
operations which they necessitate.    It is, moreover, so   NEW  WESTMINSTER.
1
narrow that one holds one's breath while passing another
team. One conveyance stands still on the road's very
edge, while the other creeps past on the inside an inch
at a time, and with one wheel up the bank There are
places where one may pass more easily, and at these the
drivers wait when they see another team coming; but
some of the worst places occur where one cannot see
ahead, and it is here that there is the difficulty and danger.
Another source of danger is to be found in the fact that
the blasting is perpetually going on, a loud report and a
shower of stones being sometimes the first and only notice
you receive of the discharge. I was told the other day
by a gentleman in Yale that nobody who can avoid it
now drives over the first thirteen miles of the road. ' If
you are riding,' he said, ' you can dodge the rocks flying
about, but if you are driving you are powerless.'
" The Fraser runs through the Black Canon, about two
hundred feet below our camp, and the ' Line ' on the
other side passes along the face of the mountain, and
where even that is impossible, through tunnels. The
men are working on small sections, which can only be
reached from above by means of ladders in some instances, and in others by ropes. The work consists
entirely in blasting. It is a great amusement, as soon
as we notice the men beginning to run, to watch the
blasts go off. The rocks fly in all directions, and roll
down into the torrent below. The day after our arrival
we determined to make the tour of the camps. We
started about 10 a.m., and had a very hot, dusty walk
down to the bridge, a distance of four miles. Here,
however, the hard work only began. We called in at
' Camp 8 ' at the bridge, but the men were just going in
to dinner, so we did not stay. At ■ Camp 10 ' there is
quite a number of houses. The men there are at work
in the big tunnel, sixteen hundred feet long, and several
of the officers have their wives living in camp.
" We called on all the wives, had some lunch, and the
Bishop arranged for a service on the following Monday.
We then proceeded up the mountain, over a fearfully 52 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
rough trail, with the sun blazing down upon us. A
sharp descent brought us to ' Camp n.' Here I was too
tired even to enter, but sat outside in the shade of a tent
while the Bishop interviewed the authorities. It was
about three o'clock when we trudged on again, climbing
up the steep rocky path. The heat of the sun on the
one side and of the rocks on the other was fearful, and
we were cheered by meeting two men riding, who told us
that the worst had yet to come. And so indeed we
found it, for the trail continued to ascend almost to the
top of the mountains. Here we found the camp of one
of the Government engineers, and near it a stream of
the coldest and most delicious water I ever tasted.
From this point we could look down upon our own
camp on the other side of the river, still in a blaze of
sunshine, whereas for us the sun had now set. A steep
zigzag descent brought us to a fork in the trail, and we
had to go about half a mile down the river again to
get to 'Camp 12.' Then followed another hard clirnb,
for about three quarters of a mile, and a still steeper
zigzag descent brought us to ' Camp 13,' with the most
exquisite waterfall I have ever seen. Here we had
supper, and promised to pay a visit on the following
Tuesday, that the Bishop might hold a service first, and
later on in the evening assist in giving the men an
entertainment. The boat was soon manned to take
us across, a very large one—the A. Onderdonk, named
after the contractor for the section, and manned by
six men besides the captain. The river is a fearful one
to cross, and this is the last of the boats remaining, the
rest from other camps having broken away and been
carried down. The course taken in crossing is a somewhat erratic one. ■ The crew row for quite a long
distance in an eddy up the shore, or rather under the
rocks. As soon as they turn to cross, the stream catches
the boat, and carries her down at a tremendous rate,
the men meanwhile rowing with all their might, the
captain steering with an oar. They strike an eddy on
the other side, and have to row some distance up to the NEW  WESTMINSTER.
53
landing. A walk of about half a mile brought us to our
camp, very tired, and very glad to be back again. I am
the only woman who has ever walked over that trail,
and not many men have done it either.
"We were obliged next day to return to Yale for the
Sunday services. We left again at three o'clock on
Monday afternoon, and arrived at the big tunnel at
six. They had promised to have everything ready for
service at seven, to allow our getting to our camp by
daylight, but it was eight o'clock before they had the
supper cleared away, and the room ready. We employed
the interval in seeing the tunnel, going in on a lorry
drawn by a mule. They had penetrated to a distance
of four hundred feet at either end. The noise inside
was deafening, the drills being worked by machinery,
and shouting our loudest we could hardly hear one
another speak. The men work in two shifts of twelve
hours each—the day-shift lasting from 7 a.m. to 7 p.m.,
■with only twenty minutes for lunch, and the night-shift
from 7 p.m. to 7 a.m. There was a good congregation,
which surprised me, as I should have thought that after
twelve hours' work in the close atmosphere of the tunnel
and the deafening noise of the engine, the men would
have been too tired for anything but their beds. We
did not get away till 9 p.m., and it was already dark.
I cannot say I should wish to repeat that six-mile drive
home, for in broad daylight it is bad enough. Twice the
horses got frightened and started off, but a good driver
and a good brake soon stopped them. In about the
worst part of the road two men were lying drunk, and
we had to go on the very outside to pass them. Had
the horses swerved in the least we must have gone
over into the river fifty feet below. We had not much
difficulty in finding our tents, and were very glad to
turn in.
"Tuesday was a bright day, and we sat under the
trees, the tents being unbearably hot, and wrote letters
and worked. Shortly before seven we started off for ' Camp
13,'    The boat's crew was on the watch for us, and as 54 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
soon as they saw us began to get the boat ready. She
had got below a small ' riffle ' in the river, and they set
to work hauling her up with a rope, two men in the boat
keeping her off the rocks with the oars. Suddenly the
rope broke, and off she went with the two men in her
at a fearful rate down the river. There did not seem
to be a chance for the boat to escape capsizing in such
a torrent We commenced running along the road to
watch. The men seemed to keep cool, and guided the
boat cleverly past the rocks which stand up in the middle
of the stream. Several times the boat got into an eddy,
and it seemed as though they might get her to shore, but
again the stream caught her, and whirled her along.
The excitement of watching was intense. Twice they got
into a whirlpool, and the boat spun round like a top.
We watched them right through the Black Canon, and
then a bend in the river hid them from view, but we
continued to run on, remembering a part opposite
' Camp ii,' where the river broadens a little, there is
a good eddy, and where Indians can cross in canoes.
At one time we saw a log in the stream looking just like
a capsized boat ; but on we went, hoping almost past hope
that as they had got safely through the Black Canon, they
might escape, and just opposite 'Camp n' we saw
the boat tied up, looking as quiet and serene as if it
were her proper place, and she had not made such a mad
rush down the river. The men had landed and started
across the trail home. The boat will have to stay down
where she is till she can be brought across, and will then
have to be carried up the road, which, I imagine, from
her size, will be no easy matter. This mishap to the
ferry effectually prevented our service, and in fact has
cut us off from all communication with the camps."
It is no wonder that, with all the work open to
him in Yale and its neighbourhood, the Bishop felt
almost overpoweringly the need of more men to
take advantage of such grand and pressing opportunities.    Before starting he had written— NEW  WESTMINSTER. 55
" Oh, the opportunities Yale just now affords !
Hundreds of men are now going up every week, and
what can one man do, and he only a deacon ? I purpose
being there all June and July, but we want ten men, and
then we might do something. There is not a fitter illustration in the whole mission-field of the Lord's lament,
'The harvest truly is plenteous, but the labourers are
few.' "
And now that he returned he felt the need
weighing on him with a thousand-fold its former
force. In writing home an urgent appeal for help,
he expresses in striking language his personal sense
of the awful burden God had given him to bear in
taking the oversight of such a work.
" I have acted," he writes, " and purpose always to act,
God helping me, on the principle that the work is not
ours, but His ; that it is His will the work should be
done, that He Himself is the real doer of the work.
Only He moves some to come out to the field of labour,
while He moves others who stay at home to provide
those temporal means which enable the work to be
prosecuted. Their obligation is as great as ours, and
I doubt not they feel it as deeply. All, therefore, I need
do, as God's husbandman, is to mark out the ground, to
describe to those at home its character and capacity,
and to explain how it may be most profitably tilled.
I cannot doubt but that He will direct me in this, and
for His work's sake enable me to carry it out. I am not
so foolish as to suppose that my judgment will always be
right, or my plans always allowed to succeed. We are
all apt to lean on the arm of flesh ; and so often as this
is the case must come failure and disappointment. But
guided by the judgment of the All-wise, and relying on
the arm of the Almighty, with His glory only in our mind,
then the work will be allowed to prosper in our hands,
and the dew of the Divine Blessing will rest on it and ^gSSSB
MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
CHAPTER VIII.
A VISIT TO CARIBOO.
August, 1881.
Of the first part of this journey the Bishop gives
his own account as follows :—
S We should never have started had we listened to the
gloomy vaticinations of anxious friends. They painted
the perils~~o7~the^ad in most ghostly colours, and
ransacked the pages of history (an unwritten history at
present, and existing only in the memories of the 'oldest
inhabitants ') for illustrations of the dire results of amateur
coaching on the waggon-road. All kindly meant, no
doubt, but scarcely helpful or to the point. For the
point was to get to Cariboo, or rather, Cariboo was the
point to get to, and, unless we could drive ourselves,
the point was unattainable.
"In the first place, the public stage travels day and
night and makes but few stoppages, and would give us
no opportunities of making the acquaintance of people
on the road, which was an important part of our purpose ■
and in the second place, the stage charges would be .£15
a piece each way, and this was altogether beyond our
means. So, having already one horse and what is here
called a buckboard, we decided to buy a second horse
and drive ourselves, rather than give up the journey.
"It does not take long to buy a horse in this country,
and, having had an eye on a particular one for some   NEW  WESTMINSTER.
57
time, an exchange of proprietorship and ^12 made our
team complete. On August 12 th all was ready for a
start from Yale, and with many words of caution, and
a farewell almost as sorrowful as an Ephesian elder's, we
set out on our drive of four hundred miles.
" There are few things more dull than a diary, and
I will therefore spare you the infliction of days and hours
further than clearness makes necessary, and aim rather
at a connected narrative broken chiefly by Sundays, and
otherwise only as interest shall seem to warrant.
" The first fifty-seven miles of our journey lay through
the Fraser Canon, a narrow gorge in the Cascade
Mountains, through which the river has at some time
forced a passage by some power which it seems a weak
expression to call supernatural. Here is a river five
hundred and fifty miles from its source, without reckoning its windings, contracted between sheer rocky walls
that approach each other in some places within fifty
yards. Its depth is unknown, for so impetuous is the
current that the heaviest plummet is carried furiously
away before it can reach the bottom. And this at the
lowest stage of water ; while in June and July, when the
winter snows are melting, there is in some parts of this
canon a vertical increase of water to the extent of ninety
feet It is scarcely conceivable that salmon can make
head against this torrent dashing along at the rate of
eighteen or twenty miles an hour, with long stretches
• where the straight walls offer no opportunity for an
eddying resting-place. And yet in every little eddy they
were to be seen in such marvellous numbers that I am
almost afraid to speak of them lest I should be accused
of romancing. There was positively not room enough
for them ; they jostled one another out of the stream ;
in fact, there was more fish than water. Supposing a tub
were filled with salmon, and then as much water poured
in as there was room for—this would give you an idea of
the appearance of the eddies as we saw them during the
whole course of our first day's drive. Perhaps even a
more striking illustration of the abundance of the fish is 58 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
afforded by the fact that the Indians were selling them
to the canneries for one halfpenny each. We get them
even cheaper than that, for there is a cannery within a
hundred yards of our house at Sapperton, from the proprietor of which we have carte blanche to send for a
salmon when we want one. Unfortunately, we are away
from home during the best of the season, and although,
up-country, at roadside houses there is the same cheapness, and you get salmon at breakfast, dinner, and supper
—toujours saumon, in fact—yet the culinary arrangements
have the Chinese stamp too rudely impressed upon them,
and one never sees a boiled fish.
"... If the character of the river is extraordinary,
equally so is that of the road, and, to people with nerves,
equally terrible. There are places here and there where
the river is lost sight of, and the road passes safely
enough through woods which form a perfectly secure
barrier on either side, but for the most part the canon
is so narrow and the cliffs so precipitous that the road
had to be cut out of the rock, and in some places the
rock is not only beneath one's feet and on one side, but
overhead as well ; while, on the other hand, the Fraser
is sometimes so near that in high water it overflows the
road.
" Here and there bluffs formed by spurs of the mountains have proved impassable by excavation, and then the
road is built out from the face of the cliff and supported
by struts. There are two such places between Yale and
Lytton—China Bluff and Jackass Mountain—and after
driving four times over them last year, I don't mind
acknowledging that nothing could induce me to do it
again but the call of duty. The risk is too great to run
except of necessity. Not that these particular places are
the most dangerous, for one may just as well fall five
hundred feet as fifty. But the danger is more obvious.
It is pressed rather too forcibly upon one's attention, and
suspended conversation, a moment's introspection, a
quick glance over horses and harness and wheels, and
a 'taking fresh hold,' generally of things inward and NEW  WESTMINSTER.
outward, teach one with a force often wanting ii
that ' there is but a step ' between life and death. The
width of the road is eighteen feet, ample enougrî^&it'*
might be supposed—to drive upon, and perfectly secure
if it were across a plain, just as a plank is wide enough
to walk upon when it lies upon the ground. But elevate
the plank twenty feet above the ground and flank it with
a wall, and it takes a Blondin to traverse it successfully.
" And so this eighteen-feet road, with a precipice on
one side and an abyss on the other, seems to dwindle
to a ribbon under the most favourable aspect, and it
becomes something very little short of appalling when
one comes face to face with ten yoke of oxen and a pair
of freight waggons. By the rule of the road the heaviest
team always takes the inside, and the oxen therefore
invariably go to the wall. The light team looks anxiously
for a lucky spot where nature or accident may have added
a few inches to the width, and there, pulling up, awaits
the rencontre. The dangers of the road teach men consideration, and in all our travelling up and down, we
could name but one instance of anything but the most
uniform courtesy and goodwill.
"An amusing circumstance which occurred on one
of the first days of our drive illustrates the primitive
character of the administration of justice in the country
districts of the province. We had passed without stopping
at a farmhouse where a number of people were assembled,
and had driven on perhaps half a mile, when a shout
behind us drew our attention to an Indian furiously .
galloping in our wake. We pulled up and allowed him
to overtake us, and he handed me a scrap of paper on
which was written, a Have you got a Bible with you ? '
My acquaintance with Chinook is still in its infancy, and,
though not a complicated language, its intelligibility was
not increased by the gasping utterance of a man out of
breath with hard riding, and I utterly failed to elicit
from the messenger any explanation of the purpose of
his mission. However, the fact that a Bible was in
requisition was sufficient reason for turning back, and 6o MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
fortunately we had been overtaken at a portion of the
road where turning back was not an impossibility.
Arrived at the farmhouse, we found a court sitting, and
a magistrate hearing a complaint of assault. The
magistrate was a teamster. He had come along that morning in the course of one of his journeys, not expecting
to be called upon to exercise his judicial functions, and
was unprovided with the legal instrument for administering oaths. The farmhouse being equally unproductive,
the course of justice seemed likely to be arrested, when
lo ! a deus ex. machina ! A bishop surely must have a
Bible with him ! But since the machine was whirling
away the deus at the rate of eight miles an hour, it was
necessary to send post-haste after him, and there was no
time for more than the brief message we received. We
soon had our ' pack ' unstrapped, and produced the book,
. and when the witnesses had been sworn, left the court
sitting, and went our way.
" Magistrates are not always so particular as this as to
the character of the volume used on such occasions.
There is a tradition that the book long used in one of
the courts of this province was a copy of ' Gulliver's
Travels,' and that the mistake was only discovered by
a Jew, who, a little fastidious about kissing the New
Testament, opened the volume that he might get at the
right end, and naturally objected to swear on it at all.
"The second day out from Yale we reached Lytton,
the dreariest, dullest, and driest place in the country.
A great scarcity of water prevails, and there is consequently but little cultivation. Five days out of six a
strong wind prevails, and the sand gets into one's eyes,
and into one's throat, and down one's neck, and plays
havoc with one's temper, and since the hotels are the
worst managed houses on the road, one has comfort
neither indoors nor out. Nevertheless, we were obliged
to spend a Sunday there on the Indians' account. We
had Matins and a Celebration in the court house for
the white people at nine o'clock, and service in the
Indian church at eleven.   The  native  catechist said NEW WESTMINSTER. 6t
prayers in the Indian tongue, and then I celebrated
Holy Communion, administering to twenty men and
eight women—as devout a body of communicants as
I ever ministered to. I could not preach, however,
for want of an interpreter, the catechist not being yet
competent for the office.
" We drove on in the afternoon seventeen miles to
where there is a cluster of houses occupied by the
C.P.R. engineers and their families. Here we had
evensong, and I preached.
" We had now left the valley of the Fraser, and were
following the Thompson. The Thompson River is
chiefly interesting in a missionary point of view from
the fact that it is the central field of our Indian Church
work. From a few miles above Yale to Lytton, and
then branching off in two directions up the Fraser and
Thompson Rivers to Lillooet and Kamloops respectively,
one language prevails, called commonly 'Thompson,'
but more correctly, ' Neklakapamuk.' Into this language
the greater part of the Prayer-book has been translated
and printed through the instrumentality of the S.P.C.K.
During fifteen years these people have been under
instruction, so far as one missionary could cover so
large a district. Churches exist in many of the villages,
and a kind of service is held regularly by the chiefs and
head men of the tribes, although they can do no more
than repeat memoriter what they have learned at the
mouth of the missionary, no opportunities of secular
instruction having been afforded them as yet by Church
or State. That they are capable of such is evidenced
by the fact that there are individuals who by their own
endeavours have learned both to read and write. A
remarkable instance of this natural ability is furnished
by a young man of whom I have frequently written.
John Teetleneetsah lives on the Thompson, a few
miles above Spence's Bridge. There he has built himself a house more comfortable than many in which
white men live. He frequently writes me letters on the
subject of his farm and about Church matters ifp|i||I 62 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
neighbourhood. This mission has been carried on by
the Rev. J. B. Good, who has just resigned. I earnestly
hope an endeavour will be made to establish a new
departure, and provide these Indians with the one thing
they require to lift them above their present civilization,
namely, simple but efficient secular education.
"This is all, however, by the way. We are on the
road to Cariboo, and must get forward.
" Two days' journey from the Thompson River brings
us to Clinton, a busy little town almost in the centre of
the province. It has two hotels, a large store, a school,
and a court-house. Alas ! no church. It is very prettily
situated in a broad valley at an elevation of three
thousand feet above the sea, and has a climate so
bracing and dry that the inhabitants enjoy a perfect
immunity from all those varieties of domestic insect life
which sometimes seriously embitter existence on a
lower level.
"... They have never had a resident clergyman or
minister of any kind in Clinton, but depend for religious
services upon the stray visits of missionaries located in
districts around. If I am successful in establishing a
mission station at Kamloops, Clinton can occasionally
be served from there.
| Immediately on leaving Clinton, the road enters
what goes by the name of ' Green Timber,' a high tableland about fifty feet across, covered chiefly with low
brushwood, and abounding in lakes. At present wholly
unutilized and too elevated for grain produce, this
district might, at small expense, be made available for
the pasture of unlimited herds of cattle in the days, not
far hence, when bunch-grass shall have become extinct
" I must not omit to notice in the interest of lovers of
nature a most remarkable natural feature about fourteen
miles from Clinton, called by the people ' The Chasm.'
It consists of a deep fissure of rock about fifteen hundred
feet wide at the top and about nine hundred feet deep.
The road passes round the point of its commencement,
and from thence one looks along the length  of it a NEW   WESTMINSTER. 63
distance of about a mile, though it is said to extend much
further. The sides of the chasm are perpendicular cliffs
of rock for about halfway down, below which sand blown
over the edge on either side has accumulated in sloping
banks, on which is a growth of fir trees. The cliffs are
clean cut, but here and there on the face of them are
patches of a smooth and rounded character, evidently
acquired under the action of fire. The cliffs themselves
are of sandstone, with veins (apparently) of iron running
through them at various heights. Along the margin
the ground seems full of human bones in larger and
smaller fragments, with specimens here and there of
pointed flints. I hazard no conjecture on the origin of
this wonderful freak of nature or its ghastly accompaniments. I am not afraid to be silent when more scientific
heads than mine have been puzzled.
"On emerging from Green Timber we come upon
a beautiful open country of rolling hills, of which Lake
La Hache forms a kind of centre. Here agriculture and
dairy farming are in full force, and nothing is wanted but
a market to multiply a hundred-fold the present produce
of the district. Cariboo is at present the farmer's only
market, the cost of freight being too high to enable
them to compete in the lower country, and unfortunately
the Cariboo market is failing, for the reason that mining
itself is failing, chiefly from want of encouragement
by the Government. This was our second day from
. Clinton, and we had driven since morning forty-six
miles, when we arrived at a comfortable farmhouse by
the roadside, occupied by a large family of Church
people. This was a log house, most substantially built,
consisting of one great room in front, which served for
dining-room by day, while round it were ranged, head to
foot, clean, inviting looking beds to be occupied by the
men of the family by night, and a wide open fireplace at
one end, in front of which an ox could have been roasted
whole; behind this room were three or four smaller
rooms and a kitchen. Just the kind of place to reach
late at night, tired and hungry, where one can feel the 64 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
horses will be well looked after, and can sit down by the
fire while the good wife prepares a supper of ' bunch-
grass ' beef of their own rearing, with wholesome homemade bread and rich butter and cream, all made
pleasanter by the welcome, not only expressed, but
made evident in the kind faces and manner of host and
hostess, and the interest manifested by them all in one's
self and journey.
" On the next day, by the margin of the lake (wherein
are to be caught trout of from fifteen to thirty pounds in
weight !), we passed through the same open rolling prairie
country, with a farmhouse every six or seven miles, and
great fields of grass and oats ready to gather for the
harvest. Then across another ' divide,' and down once
more into the valley of the Fraser at Soda Creek, about
two hundred miles higher up its course than where we
left it at Lytton.
" It was Sunday again, and we gathered a congregation in the large room of the hotel, our numbers being
augmented by the arrival during the day of the mail
from Cariboo. A scarcity of Prayer-books prevailing,
the service partook of a somewhat old-fashioned ' parson
and clerk ' character, the latter rôle being courageously
and indefatigably sustained by Mrs. Sillitoe.
" For the next two days our road lay along the river
—sometimes on the very brink, sometimes high up the
benches or terraces, which are a peculiarity of this river
and its tributaries. . . . They are of sand and gravel,
and full of gold, for which they are being worked profitably by Chinamen in many places, but the proportion of -
dirt to gold is so great that a large supply of water is
absolutely necessary, and until means are devised for
cheaply pumping the Fraser water to the level of the
benches, mining operations will not be extensively
pursued.
" Fifty-four miles separate Quesnelle Mouth from Soda
Creek, and along the road are some of the largest and
most prolific farms in the province. Oats are the chief
production, but wheat, too, will ripen in most seasons, NEW  WESTMINSTER. 65
though early frosts sometimes surprise it. The fields
are of prodigious extent, and though not so large as
many in California, are to be found not infrequently of
a hundred, a hundred and fifty, or even two hundred
acres. Quesnelle Mouth is the junction with the Fraser
of another large river which drains the western slope
of the district of Cariboo. It is the chief forwarding
station for the supplies of the Hudson Bay Company's
stations in the north, and though still a town of some
consequence, its fortunes have waned through the establishment of depots on the coast, and the advantages of
quicker and cheaper communication by sea. Its enormous
distance from the more settled parts of British Columbia
completely shuts it out from any share in general trade.
It is nearly two thousand feet above the level of the sea,
and before us was an ascent of two thousand two hundred
feet more in the sixty miles that still separated us from
Cariboo.
"We had not appreciated the elevation much before,
but now every mile seemed to make a difference. We
had lovely weather, and the road was mostly smooth and
hard, and driving in the dry, bracing air was very exhilarating. Moreover, a drive of four hundred miles is
not an everyday occurrence, and now it was drawing to
a close our hearts were naturally lifted up with thankfulness for the abundant prosperity and gracious protection accorded to us, and occupied besides with bright
anticipations of the place and people we had come so
far to see."
Here the Bishop's description stops. A drive
of twenty-six miles on Wednesday brought him
to Boyd's, and the next day, starting off at 8 a.m.
and visiting various farmhouses by the way, he
succeeded in getting over the remaining thirty-
four miles, and reached the residence of Judge
McCreight at Richfield by evening.
The description of the journey is thus completed
by Mrs. Sillitoe— 66 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
" We had just one week to stay in Cariboo, and we
began our visit very lazily, for our first evening was
spent sitting over a fire and talking with our host
Although it was August, there were sharp frosts every
night, and there seemed little prospect for the strawberry
crop in the garden outside, for the plants were only just
coming into blossom, while the first radishes of the
season had that day been pulled for us. A night's rest,
however, in such a climate, over four thousand feet above
the sea level, made us as brisk as possible again.
"Our first visit was to S. Saviour's Church, which
stands in the middle of the street at one extremity of
the queer-looking town of Barkerville, which in the
irregularity of its houses resembles in many respects an
old German village. The church and the houses are
all on stilts (so to speak) of various heights, for the
reason that the process of hydraulic mining above the
town is gradually washing the mountain into the creek
below, and every year when the freshet comes down,
it brings with it and leaves behind a large deposit of
debris, locally called 'tailings,' which during the last
twelve years has raised the bed of the creek twenty feet
above its original level. The town, built in the first instance on the margin of the creek, has had to be raised
correspondingly, but the houses being of wood, this is
not a difficult matter. One store building that could not
be so treated is now buried up to the roof. The side-walk
is from six to ten feet above the level of the street, and
varies with the height of the houses, so that walking
along one is constantly ascending or descending a
few steps, and it is necessary to keep a careful look out
Besides which, in many places the side-walk comes to a
sudden end, without any warning or any barrier to
prevent one tumbling over into the road below. How
they manage in high water, when the street becomes a
rushing stream, I don't know, but I heard of two children
falling off and being nearly drowned before they were
seen and rescued.
"The church was built eight years ago, and it was NEW  WESTMINSTER. 67
only used during one winter, and has since been shut
up. In spite of this it looks as new as though it had
just come out of the builder's hands.
"The services during our stay were remarkably
hearty, and seemed to express the thankfulness of the
people for again being able to take part in the services
of their church. It made us regret that our stay was
to be so short. On Sunday evening there was a general
request for another service on the following Wednesday,
with which the Bishop of course complied. The altar
was covered with a dilapidated red cloth, and the alms
dish was an old tin plate. A concert had been arranged
to take place the evening of our last day in Barkerville,
towards raising funds for putting down a second floor to
the church, and repairs to the adjoining rooms. Mr.
Blanchard, the clergyman in charge of Yale, had shortly
before been up to Barkerville, and as the result of his
visit, a petition had come to the Bishop for a resident
priest, and a list of subscriptions towards stipend
amounting to over $800. . . . The Bishop promised that
as soon as the Yale Mission station could be filled,
Mr. Blanchard should be at liberty to proceed to
Cariboo. . . .
" But to return to our doings. Early in the week we
visited a mine about six miles distant. We had dinner
in a miner's cabin, and though we were unexpected, the
dinner that was very soon ready seemed almost the work
of a conjuror. Chicken, beef, strawberries, and peaches
were among the delicacies .set before us (all canned, of
course), and tea, without which no meal is complete in
this country. After dinner we went down the j Brothers '
mine on Jack o' Clubs Creek. It is one hundred and
eighty feet deep. We saw the process of getting out the
earth and sending it to the surface to be washed.
Some of it was ' panned ' out, as it is termed, for me,
and, much to the annoyance of the miners, who are most
generous, the pan showed but few 'colours.' Still I
carried away with me some specimens of gold dust. The
' Brothers ' mine connects with the ' Sisters,'  and we 68 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
crawled through the low passage between the two, and
came up to the surface by another shaft. Next day we
went to see the wash-up of an hydraulic claim, and the
same day went down another shaft, popularly known as
llSum tunnel ' from the amount of slime and mud in it.
I brought away two very pretty specimens of gold.
" On Wednesday night the church was crowded for
service, and so on Thursday night was the 'Theatre
Royal,' a large building put up years ago for theatricals
and concerts, not only all Barkerville, but numbers from
the surrounding creeks, some six or eight miles distant,
being present, besides a large number of Indians. The
dogs had all accompanied their masters to the concert,
and loudly joined in the applause. All efforts to quiet
them or turn them out only made matters worse.
"We left Richfield on Friday, and a large party
assembled to see us off. Just before starting a note
was brought me, which, upon opening, I found to be
from the principal residents asking me to accept a
beautiful gold nugget, the largest found in the ' Brothers '
during our stay in Cariboo. This nugget I have now in
the shape of a bracelet, made as a broad gold band,
with ' Cariboo ' in raised letters on it, and I shall always
greatly value it in remembrance of our first visit. We
stayed for a few hours in Stanley, and spent the night at
Beaver Pass, a few miles further on. Next morning,
before starting, the Bishop married a couple. Sunday
we spent at Quesnelle Mouth, holding services in the
schoolroom, and the congregation was so large that
many had to leave, not finding room. Our journey
down was not so enjoyable as that on our way up.
" From Quesnelle Mouth to Clinton we had rain every
day, and the roads were so fearfully muddy that we
were obliged to walk the horses nearly all the way.
The drivers of ox-teams told us they could only make
four or five miles a day, having constantly to take the
oxen out of the one waggon to hitch them on to the other
team.
"We spent Sunday at Clinton, where the Bishop had NEW  WESTMINSTER. 69
Celebration and Morning and Evening Prayer. We
reached Boston Bar on Wednesday night, and here made
arrangements to leave our horses, as we were to return
in a week for our journey through the Nicola Valley.
The stage was quite empty, so we ascended to the very
elevated seat beside the driver. Our friends need not
have been so urgent on us to go by the stage and so
avoid the great danger of driving ourselves, for we
encountered more dangers in the twenty-five miles in
this conveyance than on all the journey beside. Twice
we were very near having an accident—the first time
from a blast going off below us without any warning, so
close as to blow the dust right in our faces, and of course
frightening the horses ; and a little later, while quietly
driving along, a nut came off the whiffletree and fell on
the heels of one of the leaders, and then the more he
kicked the more the whiffletree flapped about, frightening
both him and his three companions, till they galloped
off, and it was some time before the driver could get
them in hand again. Fortunately, the stages are very
heavy and have powerful brakes, otherwise we should
have been over the bank before the horses could have
been stopped.
" We arrived in Yale late that afternoon, and the
steamer landed us in New Westminster next evening.
We were very glad to have a few days at home again." MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
CHAPTER IX.
THE CHURCH CONFERENCE AT NEW
WESTMINSTER.
September, 1881.
I HOTEL SILLITOE " was the name often applied
to the residence of the Bishop of New Westminster,
and no sobriquet was ever more appropriate. It
was seldom, indeed, that the house was not full of
visitors, and the sick, convalescent, and homeless
clergy and laity, were always sure of the heartiest
welcome from the Bishop and his wife.
The Bishop reached home on September 16th,
and the first meeting of a conference called by
him was on Monday, the 19th.
One sentence in the Bishop's address was prophetic.
"I venture to look forward," the Bishop said, "to
the day when besides the great confederation which
joins together politically the various provinces of the
Dominion, there will be a confederation, too, of the
Church of England in Canada, joined together in the
unity of the spirit and by the bond of peace, and
strengthened in her work by the happy realization of
the fundamental truth that we are 'all of us members
one of another,' living stones of one temple built upon-
' the faith once delivered to the saints.'"
It was the Bishop's joy in the last year of his NEW  WESTMINSTER. 71
life to see this prediction fulfilled—nay, more, to
help materially by his personal influence to secure
its fulfilment.
Among other subjects dealt with in the address
were the means of securing clergy and their stipends
for various parts of the diocese—a perennial question this—the supply of churches and parsonage
houses, insurance and repair of Church property,
registration of births, marriages, and burials, the
Christian education of the young, the formation
of a Diocesan Endowment Fund, and the establishment of a Diocesan Synod.
The subject of religious education was ever in
the Bishop's mind.
" I may say," he said, " that this is a subject never
absent from my thoughts. I feel its incalculable importance as much as any of you ; and months before I
ever set foot in the country, I occupied myself in laying
plans for the education of both boys and girls."
He described the result of his efforts. Columbia
College for girls had been only moderately successful, the support of Church people not being commensurate with that which had been expected.
In a new country, where free education prevails,
where few people are at all wealthy, and where
a good secular education is provided in the public
schools, it is difficult to convince people of the
fatal defect in a non-religious system of teaching ;
and perhaps, after all, the real remedy will come in
time rather from the clergy finding opportunity to
teach Church children for an hour a day in the
public schools than in the maintenance of separate
schools. With regard to a school for boys, the
Bishop had plans, not, however, sufficiently matured
to be laid before the conference. 72 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP OF
It is greatly to be regretted that the Bishop's
• recommendation with regard to diocesan endowment was not carried out. Parochical endowments
are unadvisable in a land where parishes are continually changing shape, size, and character, but
the suggestion that " there should be immediately
started a Diocesan Endowment Fund, on ever so
small a scale, which should be allowed to accumulate and be invested in the names of a missionary
board, who should have the management of it,
and apply the interest only in augmentation of
insufficient incomes, or in starting new parishes,"
is exactly what is wanted to secure to every
colonial diocese in time freedom from pressing
insufficiency of funds, independence of the grants
of our great missionary societies, and a proper
regard for the future as well as for the needs of
the present*
The formation of a synod was a step requiring
careful consideration, so, much as the Bishop
desired to hasten the provision of this means of
constitutional Church government, he deemed it
best for the present, to appoint a committee to
study the whole question' and report on the
difficulties to be encountered and the way to overcome them.
Of the general work of the diocese the Bishop
spoke as follows :—
| To pass in general and brief review the work of
the diocese, I would say that we had very much reason
to ' thank God and take courage.' There is no district
that is not showing signs of growth, if all are not
growing alike. Everywhere I have found earnest
hearts and willing hands, and, best of all, a sense of
the necessity for sacrifice if any good work is to be
done.    Personally, I have no language to acknowledge
* A Diocesan Fund was eventually established. NEW  WESTMINSTER. 73
the kindly warmth of the greeting which has awaited
me in every corner of the diocese ; it makes me sometimes afraid lest I should be unable to make the return
of spiritual help which so much heartiness deserves..
And indeed, ' I can, of mine own self, do nothing,' but
I try to humble myself by the recollection that it is only
the grace of God in me that can make me acceptable
to any of you, and I know that that grace in me God
can make sufficient for all His Church's needs."
No sooner was the conference over than another
special and no less important task was taken in
hand in preparation for the ensuing ordination.
We cannot do better than give the following
account written at the time by one present :—
" The whole staff of the diocese was present. The
Bishop, realizing most acutely the dangers that beset the
clergy in their lives of comparative isolation in this
extensive diocese, knowing how much the spirituality of
the work depends upon the maintenace of a high tone
of piety and devotion in all to whom the care of souls is
•committed, and deeply alive to the importance of fostering
a spirit of brotherly kindness between himself and his
spiritual sons, 'yea, rather, brethren beloved,' is aided
by his zealous and honoured wife at no little cost and
trouble in the preparation he makes for affording a
retreat whilst the examination of candidates proceeds.
" At 6 a.m. the calling bell arou|§s|all from slumber,
and by seven the chapel is occupied by silent worshippers
preparing for the Eucharist, celebrated by the Bishop
himself every morning at 7.30.
" It is needless to any one acquainted with the Bishop's
regard for order and reverence, to add that the administration of Holy Communion is invested with the
solemnity and impressiveness that befit the Divine
Mysteries.
"At eight breakfast is partaken of in silence, whilst
each in turn reads from some book of an edifying character.
This season we read Milman's ' Love of the Atonement.' 74 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
... At ten the examination of the candidates is conducted by the Archdeacon. . . . Dinner at i p.m. with
reading in turn, as also at tea, which is at six. ... It is
with almost a feeling of reluctance that one returns to the
custom of making such occasions periods of social
relaxation and common talk. Friday is passed in a still
more marked manner, though it is generally termed
' a quiet day.' Absolute silence is enjoined on all by the
Bishop, himself not excluded, from the rising of the sun
till the breakfast on the day following. On the walls
are posted the proceedings in which all are expected to
take part ; . . . subjects for meditation suitable to the
ministerial life, and earnest addresses by the Bishop and
others are given in the chapel, concluding with a special
service at 7.30, to which the parishioners generally are
invited. So the day of separation from the world, of
self-communing, and personal exhortation passes away,
—but not so, we trust, the deeper insight into ourselves,
the high resolve, the kindled desire and the chastened
spirit. . . .
"The ordination on Sunday last was an event to be
remembered. Three were to be admitted to the
diaconate, and one to the priesthood,—in itself a circumstance of no light moment in the present condition
of the diocese.
"A large congregation was gathered at 11 a.m.,
Mattins and Holy Communion having taken place at
8 a.m. The Bishop and clergy entered while the processional hymn, 'When God of old came down from
heaven,' was being sung, after which the Bishop ascended
the pulpit and announced his text, Matt. i. 23 : ' God
with us.' The burning words which fell from his lips,
weighted and tremulous as they evidently were from the
anxious sense of responsibility resting upon him as chief
pastor admitting so many as co-workers with himself in
his arduous field of labour, will not pass away with the
occasion that called them forth ; they all live in the
recollection of many who will not forget the impression
that fell on all as he turned to address the candidates, NEW WESTMINSTER. 75
or that eloquent, ' not I, but the grace of God within me,'
that brought his discourse to a sudden close, amidst a
scarcely suppressed sob from many overpowered by the
force and power of his words."
It is not hard, even after the lapse of fourteen
years, to imagine the impression made by the
direct appeal of the following exhortation :—
" Oh, dear young brethren, who are to take upon you
this day the yoke of Christ, . . . remember that wherever your Lord sends you He goes with you. He does
not bid you go in your own strength, but in His. Your
weakness in Him is omnipotent power; your foolishness
in Him omniscient wisdom. ' You can of your own
selves do nothing, but you can do all things through
Christ strengthening you.' You can ' bind up the brokenhearted' by His love working in you; you can 'preach
deliverance to the captives' by His Spirit operating
through you ; by the light of His word you shall recover
sight to the blind, and by the authority of His commission you shall heal those whom sin hath bruised. ' God
was in Christ reconciling the world unto Himself,' and
Christ in you will carry on the work. But you must have
faith. Yes, faith is the connecting link that joins you to
Christ. 'According to your faith will it be unto you.'
' If you have faith as a grain of mustard seed,' you shall
be able to remove mountains of prejudice and corruption, and cast out devils of unbelief, hard-heartedness,
and pride. Believe in your commission, believe in your
sacred calling, believe in the reality of that glorious
heritage of grace which by the love of Christ has been
mercifully preserved from age to age, and then Christ
Himself will ' add to your faith virtue, and knowledge,
and temperance, and patience, and godliness, and
brotherly kindness, and charity,' and if these things be
in you and abound, they make you to be not idle nor unfruitful unto the knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ."
The candidates at this ordination were the Rev. 76 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
C. Blanchard, ordained priest, and Messrs. A. H.
Sheldon, R. C. Whiteway, and T. H. Gilbert,
admitted deacons. The last named was an
accession to the Church from the ranks of the
Methodists.
The new clergy were distributed as follows : Mr.
Blanchard to Cariboo, where the people had enthusiastically risen to the occasion in the matter
of providing a stipend ; Mr. Sheldon to the curacy
of Holy Trinity Church, New Westminster ; Mr.
Whiteway to the Indian Mission at Yale ; and Mr.
Gilbert to the charge of Maple Ridge and Langley.
Several of the newly licensed clergy had a
narrow escape on proceeding to their destinations,
for the steamer in which they travelled was burned
to the water's edge, and although able to save their
lives, they had to endure the loss of most of their
effects.
Unfortunately, being " burned out " is not a rare
experience for colonial settlers. NEW  WESTMINSTER.
CHAPTER   X.
TRIP TO THE NICOLA VALLEY,  THOMPSON
RIVER, AND WORK AT  HOME.
OCTOl
l-December,
The Bishop only escaped participation in the
accident referred to at the close of the last chapter
through having been obliged to defer his up-country
trip for two or three days, but on October 5th he
left home to pay his first visit to the Nicola Valley
and Kamloops. A short abstract of this journey
is given as follows :—
"After visiting the settlement at Nicola in severe
weather, Kamloops was reached on the 18th, and next
day a Confirmation was held in the Court House, the
Rev. J. B. Good having gone on previously to prepare the
candidates. A meeting of Churchmen and others was
held on the 20th, at which the Bishop announced that
a lady was coming out from England to undertake
school work in the district. . . . From Kamloops the
Bishop and party travelled to Cache Creek.
" On his way down from Kamloops the Bishop paid
a visit to an Indian farm on the south side of the
Thompson, nine miles above Cook's Ferry. The farm
is in the occupation of a young man named Teetle-
neetsah (referred to in Chapter VIII.), who, although not
the chief of this tribe, ought to be, if intellectual and
industrial superiority were among the qualifications for
the office. ... A boat had been provided to convey 78 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP   OF
the Bishop and Mrs. Sillitoe across the river, and a salute
of an uncertain number of guns greeted them on landing. Teetleneetsah and his wife conducted them with
much ceremony to the house, and chairs of state,
covered with bear-skins, were provided for them at one
end of a large room, Teetleneetsah occupying a place
by the Bishop's side, and his wife by Mrs. Sillitoe, while
the opposite extremity of the room was occupied by
about forty Indians of the neighbourhood, with their
chief prominently in front. The room was gaily decked
with evergreens, and on the walls were some pictures of
no mean order—one a life-size portrait of Mary, Queen
of Scots, and another a representation of Balmoral
Castle ; besides which were one or two sketches by the
hand of Teetleneetsah himself. After the usual compliments, the chief informed the Bishop that the next
building to be erected was a 'Church house,' which
they hoped to have ready for use this winter, and they
would be glad of a flag and a bell. The Bishop
promised to supply these, and then gave a short address,
complimenting the Indians generally and Teetleneetsah
in particular, on their progress and industry, which, if
persevered in, would, he said, enable them in the future
to take a position second to none in every useful and
profitable pursuit. A short service concluded the
proceedings."
Flag and bell were duly sent, and an interesting
letter of thanks was received in acknowledgment
of the welcome gifts, together with a present of
fur for Mrs. Sillitoe.
" 89 Mile Ranch, Thompson River,
"January 18, 1882.
" To Bishop and Mrs. Sillitoe, New Westminster.
" We received some time ago the flag and the
bell sent us, for which please accept our sincere thanks.
Mr. Campbell, of 89 Mile Stables, read us also the
piece you put in the Gazette regarding our tribe.   We NEW  WESTMINSTER. 79
cannot thank you enough for the praises we received,
and we will always try to do right towards the white
people, and will be most happy to receive another visit
from yourself and Mrs. Sillitoe when you will come
again on your tour to the mainland. We just commenced to put up the 'Church house,' and we are
sawing lumber ourselves—two of us sawing timber and
two more putting it up. We had a big meeting on
Christinas Eve in Teetleneetsah's house, praying to
Jesus Christ, and Teetleneetsah reading to us all he
could. We do not forget Sundays ; we 'are holding
service every Sunday. We do not forget either the
good advice we received from you.
" Simichulta wishes to be remembered regarding what
you sent him, and says every time he sees it he remembers you. Also Mrs. Teetleneetsah thanks Mrs.
Sillitoe for the work-basket sent her. We would write
to you long time ago but we were trying to get hold of
something in the shape of fur—a foxskin, silver grey,—
but after many hunts all we could get of any account at
all was what we send you along with this letter. It is
sent by Simichulta, the chief, and Teetleneetsah, second
chief, and they will count themselves happy if you will
accept it as a small gift, and we are sorry we could not
get anything better; and we will be expecting your
answer to this short note as soon as convenient, and
also your advice.
"The chief Simichulta's youngest daughter is very
sick, and two other young lads of our tribe are not
keeping well at all for some time back. We are having
good winter up here—the mildest for years as yet ; our
stock is doing very well out on the mountains. We
remain
" Your obedient servants.
I X Simichulta's mark,
I     John Teetleneetsah.   (Signed.)
" X Dick Blimdouse's mark."
Arrived in New Westminster once again, the
Bishop found himself confronted by work amply 8o MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
sufficient to keep him busily employed during the
winter.
The synod committee kept up meetings as frequently as was necessary, and got through an
immense amount of work. There were many
different questions needing solution, such as—
1. The expediency of applying for State recognition.
2. The position of the diocese relatively to the
mother Church.
The misunderstandings, rife at the time, in connection with the Church in South Africa, made it
all the more necessary to proceed very warily.
Scylla and Charybdis threatened equally ; for, if it
were necessary to pay due heed to the special legislative power of the province of British Columbia,
it was equally advisable to remember the source
whence all the Church's gifts and endowments
were derived. The Bishop of Tasmania was at
the time declaring that "the 'Church of England'
is, outside of England, a misnomer," and was
strongly advocating the formation of independent
Churches in communion with the mother Church.
On the other hand, the Chief Justice of Cape
Colony, in alluding to the Grahamstown case,
expresses himself thus :—
" I feel bound to express my individual opinion as to
the necessity of legislation, whether Imperial or Colonial,
to regulate the relative rights of the Church in S. Africa
and the Church in England in respect to their endowments under private deeds of trust, and to legalize the
transfer, to the Church of S. Africa, of property secured
by the law for the uses of the Church of England."
It will thus be seen that the synod committee
had thorny work before it, and wise and strong NEW  WESTMINSTER. 81
counsels were necessary to prevent the idea of a
diocesan synod coming to shipwreck altogether.
It was not till the end of February, 1882, that
the draft constitution of the proposed synod was
ready for printing and distribution, and the wise
step was then taken of calling together a general
conference of Churchmen to consider it again.
Of this conference we shall speak in due course,
but, in sending out the copies of the draft constitution, the Bishop wrote—
" It is of the highest importance that the constitution
of the synod should be adopted by as full a meeting of
Churchmen as possible, and it is hoped, therefore, that no
one will fail to be present except for the most urgent
reasons. It is suggested that Churchmen unable to
come should give written authority to sign the constitution on their behalf to some friend who expects to be
present."
No more democratic form of government could
be imagined than that of a diocese under a constitution drawn up and sanctioned in such a
manner.
In other ways, the Bishop was at this time
devoting himself to the social and moral development of the laity of New Westminster. Two instances may be mentioned out of many.
First, he flung himself heart and soul into the
movement for reducing the number of liquor
saloons, by which New Westminster was being
demoralized. Fifteen saloons to a population of
2500 seemed a sufficiently large allowance for a
not very thirsty community ! and so large a provision could only result in bringing many, hitherto
strong, within the reach of almost irresistible
temptation.
But if in this way the Bishop exemplified his 82 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP   OF
desire to save men from the false pleasure which
lured them to perdition, on the other hand he was
strenuous in endeavouring to secure for men the
true pleasure which would lift up their lives into
a region far removed from sordidness and vice.
We shall have reason often to mention the
passionate love of Bishop Sillitoe for music, and
his great gifts in this respect were used in the
highest of all ways—the raising of the standard of
the Church's service to the highest level attainable
with the material at his disposal. There was no
recreation so delightful to the Bishop to the end
of his days, even when worn with illness and
wearied out with a long journey, as to take the
conductor's bâton, and infuse into the choir of
Holy Trinity Church something of his own estimate of the quality of the praise we are bound
to offer to Almighty God. And it may also be
said with truth that to no one so much as to
Bishop Sillitoe is the city of New Westminster
indebted for the creation and maintenance of a
high musical standard, and a sincere appreciation
of the most beautiful among the arts.
It was at the close of this year that a very-
interesting presentation was made by the Bishop
to Holy Trinity Church, New Westminster, a
presentation serving to link the church in that
old Westminster by the Thames with its smaller
namesake on the Fraser, and also connecting the
diocese with the illustrious name of Dean Stanley.
During the rectorship of the Rev. John Sheepshanks (now Bishop of Norwich), the church of
Holy Trinity had received the gift of a beautiful
altar cross from the Mayor of Coventry, in which
city Mr. Sheepshanks was preaching for his
colonial work. The benefaction, valued as it was
by many, was  not by any means  unanimously NEW  WESTMINSTER. 83
approved, and the report of the churchwardens in
1875 announces with sorrow that some sacrilegious
fanatic had stolen the cross from the church. According to rumour, it was thrown by the thief into
the Fraser, and was of course never recovered.
Its place was filled by the best substitute which
could be obtained, and no further objections were
raised.
In the mean time, however, the see of New Westminster was created, and Dr. Sillitoe appointed
and consecrated. In November, 1881, we have the
following letter written to the churchwardens : —
" Dear Sirs,
" During the term of office of your predecessors,
I made them an offer of an altar cross and four pedestals, presented to me by the late Dean of Westminster,
England, as a mark of sympathy and union between the
old and new cities. The altar cross is made of wood
which had formed part of the Abbey of Westminster
from the time of King Henry V. The pedestals were
those which had for many years supported the altar
slab in King Henry VII.'s Chapel. These were valuable gifts, and their value is now increased by the recent
death of the donor. It seemed to me that the most
suitable place in which we could treasure these mementoes of the old church of England, was the parish church
of the chief city of the diocese, and hence my offer. . . .
I now hereby renew it to you, and I do so without
further conditions than that, with respect to the cross,
due precautions shall be taken for its safe custody,
and with respect to the pedestals, that I shall be consulted as to the use to which they are put
" A. W. New Westminster."
The gift was unhesitatingly and gratefully accepted by the churchwardens, and Dean Stanley's
cross was placed above the altar, where it stands
to-day.    It bears the following inscription :—
J 84 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
"Presented to the first Bishop of New Westminster
by Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, Dean of Westminster, being
a portion of a rafter of Westminster Abbey of the date
of King Henry the Fifth."
It will ever remain a token of the famous Dean's
breadth of sympathy, and of his intolerance of
sectarian prejudice of every kind.
The history of the pedestals referred to is as
follows : Up to about thirty years ago there was
no altar in Henry VII.'s chapel. The marble
slab existed, but the pedestals were missing.
Drawings of them, however, were in possession of
the Dean, and in accordance with these he had
new pedestals modelled and the altar erected.
About fifteen or sixteen years ago, in overhauling
the contents of a lumber room in the roof of the
Abbey, the original pedestals were discovered, and
were at once substituted for the new ones, which
were given by the Dean to the newly-consecrated
Bishop of New Westminster. A further interest
attaches to them, inasmuch as it was at this altar
(before the substitution of the original pedestals)
that the Revisers of the Old and New Testaments
assembled for a celebration of the Holy Communion, previously to commencing their labours
on June 22, 1870.
Unfortunately no place has yet been found for
them in the Cathedral, although it was the Bishop's
desire that a new altar should be constructed in
which the pedestals should form the supports. It
is to be hoped that this wish may in time be
carried out.
So the year 1881 passed away, bearing with it
its burden of many cares and anxieties, but leaving
much good work accomplished, and foundations
laid for work yet to come. NEW  WESTMINSTER.
CHAPTER  XI.
FINANCIAL ANXIETY.
The year 1882 is marked by the absence of
journeys on the Bishop's part into the more
"distant portions of his diocese. Two causes contributed to this.
First of all, the Bishop was engrossed at home
with an overwhelming amount of parochial and
diocesan business. The preparations for the formation of a synod demanded increasing attention
and care ; the negotiations for the transfer of
property from the old diocese of Columbia to the
new diocese of New Westminster dragged their
slow length along in the most unpromising way,
and the absence of Archdeacon Woods in England
threw upon the Bishop much extra work of a
parochial kind.
But, in the second place, the Bishop had begun
to realize what to the lay mind is often an inscrutable mystery, that a Bishop's income is not a purse
of Fortunatus, from which he may draw to an unlimited extent for the needs of himself and everybody about him.
It must be remembered that a Colonial diocese
is destitute of much that the Church at home has
received as her inheritance from bygone ages.    It I
86 MEMOIR OF THE BISHOP  OF
has no endowments for its clergy, few churches to
supply the needs of a population coming in like
the tide, no parsonages and schoolrooms to serve
all the various purposes of a parish, and the
parishioners are for the most part poor and struggling, and unable to contribute much in support of
religious ministrations.
Thus the Bishop has added to his pioneer work
of building up new churches and parishes the
grinding anxiety of providing for the maintenance
of the existing work and of keeping up the scanty
stipends of the clergy. In such circumstances he
soon finds an income, which looks large enough on
paper, shrink to very modest dimensions indeed.
Bishop Sillitoe had now had time to discover
this fact, that an income of less than $3000 required
careful guarding to make it hold out to the year's
end, and that it was absolutely requisite to resist
the encroachments of the diocesan work upon his
own private funds.
At a meeting of the synod committee in March,
1882,- the Bishop was obliged to make an important statement with regard to the manner in
which he had been obliged to draw upon his own
resources, and subsequently he published the following explanation, which it is believed will be
of interest at the present day to many Churchmen
in the diocese, as well as to those all over the
world who have the interest of the Colonial Church
at heart :—
"The statement made by the Bishop at the last
meeting of the synod committee demands the careful
attention of Churchmen. It points to a state of things,
unavoidable perhaps in the peculiar circumstances of
a new diocese, but nevertheless involving such a
measure of personal hardship and injustice as to require NEW  WESTMINSTER.
87
the immediate application of some remedial measures, if
only of a partial character.
" The foundation of the Bishop's statement was a letter
from the manager of the Bank of British Columbia,
calling his attention to the fact that his private account
exhibited a debtor balance of $3234, and suggesting the
necessity of a speedy reduction of the overdraft. The
Bishop took advantage of the meeting of the general
synod committee to lay before them the circumstances
that had placed him in this unenviable position. He
produced a statement showing that since his arrival in
the diocese he had spent no less a sum than $4253 on
Church account out of private funds. Two-thirds of this
was swallowed up by necessary repairs to the property at
Sapperton, and though this might at first sight appear
to come naturally within the limits of individual expenses,
two simple considerations may be set against such a
consideration.
" In the first place, the Bishop is not a settler establishing himself in the country voluntarily in search of
material prosperity. To such an one his home is his
own concern and no other man's. He comes of his
own accord, and his coming is a matter only of the most
indirect interest to others. Whether or no the time was
ripe for a division of the old diocese and the erection of
a new bishopric is doubtless a question which comes
. into consideration, but certainly not into that of the new
Bishop. He supposes, naturally enough, that this
question has been affirmatively decided before the
invitation reached him to take the oversight of the
diocese ; and he has a right to expect that the diocese
which asks him to devote to it his services will make
proper provision for the fulfilment of his duties without
unnecessary and undue personal sacrifice. And when
it is remembered that the endowment of the see ($2880
per annum) was raised independent of any contribution
whatever from the persons most deeply interested, i.e.
the Churchmen of the diocese themselves, the expenditure by the Bishop of a considerable sum for a suitable 88 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
residence, out of an already inadequate income, was
not an encouraging inauguration of his episcopate.
"But there is another consideration in the same
connection. When a man lays out money on a property
which is his own, he has the satisfaction of the security
that his heirs will enjoy the benefit, if not himself. But
this property is not the Bishop's. He has not even a
life tenure of it, for if his health were to fail, and he
obliged to resign, the property immediately falls to his
successor in office without compensation to himself or
family. Repairs following on the occupation of a
residence by a clergyman are undoubtedly his affair,
so far as tenants' obligations go, but it is not a usual
thing to charge a new incumbent with all the dilapidations of his predecessor. Moreover, there is a further
obligation on this property in the shape of a mortgage
of $2000, of which the Bishop has had to assume the
obligation, and on account of which there is an item of
$430 for repayment of mortgage and interest
" Travelling expenses have consumed more than $600
over and above the offertories collected on the road.
The expenses of the last conference, rent of the Gazette
office, and other items, make up the total. But in
addition to all these the Bishop has had to render himself personally liable for all the legal expenses which
have been incurred since his incumbency of the see,
amounting to between $600 and $700.
"Again, we say these circumstances were perhaps
unavoidable in a new diocese in a poor country, but
they are not the less unsatisfactory or intolerable on that
account, and no one can be surprised or complain at
the decision arrived at by the Bishop in regard to them.
"Considering rightly that all retrenchment should
begin at home, the Bishop has largely reduced his own
domestic establishment He has determined to relinquish for the present all visitations except at the
expense of the parish requiring his services, and has
given notice to his legal adviser that he will incur no
further liability on account of diocesan business.    The NEW  WESTMINSTER. 89
visitation of the diocese has been already so complete
(Kootenay alone remaining unvisited) that this part of
the Bishop's decision will entail but little inconvenience.
It was in contemplation to hold an Indian Industrial
Exhibition in the autumn, and the abandonment of this,
or, at any rate, its postponement for a year, will probably
occasion some disappointment. Work, so far as present
means allow, is fairly organized in every district. Confirmations were held last year at Chilliwhack, Yale, and
Kamloops ; and most of such other business as can arise
can be dealt with by correspondence.
"By far the most important matter involved is the
delay in the completion of the transfer of property from
the old diocese to the new. But even here it is difficult
to see how the Bishop could have acted otherwise than
he has. To go on incurring expense would be to go on
inflicting personal injustice for the public benefit, and
it would be none the less injustice because it was self-
inflicted. The synod will probably meet in the autumn,
and the property of the diocese will be the most appropriate business it can first take up."
It will be seen later that the Bishop was able
to undertake more work abroad than he had at
first anticipated, but still the anxiety of carrying
on the Church's work with very insufficient means
pressed very heavily upon him all through the
third year of his episcopate. MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
CHAPTER   XII.
REVIEW OF THE YEAR'S WORK.
THE inability of the Bishop, through the financial
situation, to pay his usual up-country visitations,
was to a large extent atoned for by the splendid
volunteer mission to the railway camps carried
on during the year by Father Hall and Father
Shepherd of the Society of S. John the Evangelist,
which, to our regret, we are unable to describe here.
The diary for this year shows every day fully
taken up by labours of more or less importance.
Here an ordination by which another missionary
district obtains the services of a resident priest ;
here and there a confirmation, sometimes attended
with no little difficulty, as, for instance, that at
Trenant in July, after which there was a row home
which occupied no less than seven hours against
the Fraser at its fullest and strongest. Temperance
work in New Westminster also occupied a good
deal of time with very happy results, while the
two successful concerts given by the Choral Union
afforded testimony to the reality||>| the association's
first year's work. The diocesan conference, the
clerical synod, the clergy retreat, and the first
meeting of the diocesan synod were, each in its
respective way, evidence of a very real growth in NEW  WESTMINSTER. 91
the organization of diocesan work ; while that the
extremities were not allowed to suffer from lack of
attention is shown by visits paid to various places
up and down the river. A fortnight's camp at
English Bay enabled the Bishop to minister to the
spiritual needs of Granville and hold confirmations
there. Chilliwhack was visited September 10th,
and Yale had its turn in November.
Maple Ridge, too, was visited a few days before
Christmas on the occasion'of the opening of the
new church of S. John the Divine.
Besides these visits paid within the diocese, the
Bishop was also enabled to take a short trip to
Victoria to confer with his brother Bishop of
Columbia, and also to make a long-promised
excursion into the sister Church of the United
States for the purpose of assisting Bishop Paddock
in his convocation. Arriving in Seattle on June 21st,
Bishop Sillitoe spent a very busy week literally
overflowing with engagements, not only bringing
encouragement and friendly greeting to his fellow-
Churchmen "across the line," but also learning
much himself, and imparting valuable information
respecting the needs of his own diocese. The
Bishop came back deeply impressed with the
reality and power of the work going on in the sister
diocese, while not failing to note the points—few in
number, it is true—in which our American cousins
seemed to lay themselves open to criticism. One
thing comes in for lavish and unstinted praise,
viz. the energy and business-like zeal with which
the " Women's Auxiliary " was engaged in furthering the work of the American Church.
It was the Bishop's privilege this year to
entertain the Governor-General of Canada (the
Marquis of Lome) and the Princess Louise, and
the fact of his having once been chaplain to Her
J 92 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
Royal Highness' sister, the lamented Princess
Alice, made the visit one of great interest and
pleasure on both sides. This royal visit extended
from September 29th to October 1st, and the
Bishop omitted to show their excellencies few of
the beauties of the royal city.
We come now to the Bishop's first annual report,
in which there is proof that he has obtained a real
grasp of the work with him and before him, in
spite of the almost killing worry consequent on
slender resources. The growth of Church principles
is evidenced on every hand, and the clerical staff
during the year contained one clergyman whom
the Bishop had received from the ranks of the
Methodist ministry and another whom he had
received from the fold of Rome.
The report opens as follows with a reference to
the synod :—
" I congratulate you most heartily upon the accomplishment of this important work of organization, and
I am most thankful for the relief it affords me from
the burden of much of my responsibility. Hitherto I
have been obliged by circumstances to fulfil the duties
of a multitude of offices entirely foreign to the spiritual
oversight of the diocese, which is my proper function,
and to which I would gladly devote all my time and
energy. Now, I may hope, and increasingly more and
more, to transfer the care of financial and other secular
matters to the hands of trusty laymen, willing and more
competent than myself to deal with them. The distance
which separates us prevented a full representation of the
laity of all our parishes at the first meeting of the synod,
but it was a source of much satisfaction to me that all
our clergy were able to be present."
^ir;|4©.f the clergy.;h'ë. had to say that as the losses
just balanced the gains, the staff remained just as NEW  WESTMINSTER. 93
in the preceding year; but he confessed an incalculable obligation to Father Benson for sending
the two mission clergy, " who, besides their special
mission work among the railroad hands, gave us
much brotherly help in many of our parishes, as
well as at the meeting of synod, and also conducted
a retreat for clergy, which, in its results, was perhaps
the most far-reaching of all their work."
Of finances the Bishop wrote at length, giving a
full account of all the difficulties mentioned in a
previous chapter, but at the same time cordially
recognizing the great assistance given to the
diocese both by private friends at home and by
the great Church societies, the S.P.G. and the
S.P.C.K.
In educational matters he gave an encouraging
account of Columbia College for girls, which
although not yet self-supporting had gained ground
during the year, while advance was marked in the
opening of the new Mission School of All Saints',
Nicola, into which Mr. John Clapperton and other
laymen threw great energy and heartiness of
support.
The negotiations for the opening of a boys'
school in New Westminster failed at the last
moment, and the Bishop had to consider the
subject de novo.
In Granville, whether due to the bracing sea air
or not, there was a life and vigour prophetic of the
future position of the Church in Vancouver (as
Granville was subsequently called), and S. James'
Church, Granville, began to be known as an
example to the diocese for taste and orderliness.
In Yale, where the irreligion and public depravity
had been a byword throughout the province for
many years, the Church, under Mr. Horlock's
supervision, had become influential and powerful ; 94 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP   OF
and the opening of a reading-room and club in
connection with the Church supplied a very urgent
want, and kept many from yielding to temptation.
In Barkerville, where Mr. Blanchard had been
called to minister, there was an earnest congregation, about whom the incumbent could write in a
tone of cheery optimism, and who certainly did
their part well in raising money for the support
of the Church's ministration.
In the Chilliwhack district, Mr. Gilbert kept
both S. Thomas', Chilliwhack, and the new church
at Cheam supplied. At Trenant the debt on the
church was paid off, and Mr. Bell's work found
abundant encouragement; while the dedication of
the church at Maple Ridge has already been
recorded.
At the same time, the Bishop, after speaking
of the work already accomplished, was careful to
point out the new work ready for the " labourers "
who had yet to be found.    He says—
" I have used all my influence with the S.P.G. the last
three years to induce them to help us at Kamloops, but
so far in vain, and I am disposed to wait no longer, but
to send forth a labourer at once in faith that the Lord
of the harvest will provide him his hire. It is an
enormous field that would tax the energy of two men,
but if we cannot provide two, we must find one who will
do the work of two, and I hope he will be forthcoming."
Of the need for a special Chinese Mission the
Bishop says—
"Our responsibili tes' towards these heathen sojourners
are in no wise diminished. There are about seven or
eight thousand of them in our midst, and no endeavour
whatever is made to evangelize them. I have again
applied to S.P.G. on their behalf, but even without this NEW  WESTMINSTER. 95
aid I feel that something must be done. A native
Chinese missionary, at present working in San Francisco, has offered himself to me, but an engagement
with him will involve the responsibility of $930 or
$1000 a year. I am still considering whether or not
to incur this obligation."
The Indian work had been a subject of deep
anxiety to the Bishop, especially since the loss
to the diocese of the Rev. J. B. Good, but the
visit of the Fathers had already suggested to him
a plan for the future if only the men and the
means were forthcoming.
He was able to state that through the generosity
of a lady in England he hoped shortly to appoint
a priest to take charge of the Fraser River Indian
Mission.
I Of the Lytton Mission I can only say that work is
necessarily suspended during the vacancy in the post,
excepting such ministrations as Mr. Whiteway is able to
afford in the town of Lytton itself. Every effort is being
made to find a thoroughly efficient man for the mission ;
in fact, I hope two men may be appointed, the society
having consented to a division of their grant for this
purpose.
"In association with this work there is a good prospect
of a branch of the sisterhood of All Hallows', Ditching-
ham, being established in the diocese, with the object of
supplying an industrial education for Indian girls. With
this and a similar institution for boys, we shall take the
first step towards dealing in a practical way with the
problem of Indiap improvement. . . ."
The report, which, all things considered, is most
encouraging and hopeful, concludes witiifa. humble
acknowledgment of the abundant grace and mercy
of Almighty God, and also of the generous support 96
MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP   OF
and co-operation of clergy and laity within the
diocese, and hosts of friends outside. The Bishop
had so far got acquainted with his work that he
knew not only the fields of labour, but the
characteristic difficulties of each, and he cheerfully
braced himself with the Christians' impregnable
armour to face and conquer them. NEW   WESTMINSTER.
CHAPTER   XIII.
A  TOUR IN  THE  INTERIOR.
1883.
The year 1883 was one of very great activity and
considerable progress, marked by a very extensive
journey into the interior, and by a new start in
the important Indian missions at Yale and Lytton.
Many other incidents of the year are deserving of
notice, but we must pass them by with only the
briefest mention. The Bishop was able this year
to carry out the project (long entertained) of
opening a boys' school at New Westminster, and,
on All Saints' Day, Lome College was inaugurated
with good (though, unfortunately, delusive) prospects
of success. Confirmations were held as usual in
various parts of the diocese, and two ordinations
at New Westminster, at which three clergy were
added to the working staff of the diocese. The
annual meeting of synod was held in October,
when a very important charge was delivered by
the Bishop, dealing with the financial position of
the diocese, the appointment of attorneys for S.P.G.
for the diocese, the marriage laws, and other
pressing questions. On the vexed question of his
financial responsibility, the Bishop spoke very
strongly, as was only too necessary. Yet, after ten
years, this question was still the canker eating away
at the Bishop's heart, and it is not too much to say 98 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
that the worry consequent on financial difficulties
did more than physical disease to shorten the
Bishop's life.
The return of Archdeacon Woods from a busy
tour of deputation work in England, towards the
beginning of June, opened the way for the Bishop
to make his long-contemplated visit into the
remote interior of the diocese.
A start was made, even before the Archdeacon s
return, early on the morning of May 16th, when
the Bishop and his indefatigable wife left the wharf
at Sapperton for Chilliwhack, Yale, and the interior.
Nicola was reached on the 26th, in time for a
full day's services on the Sunday. The following
days were occupied with an examination j of the
pupils of the Mission School, and in visiting the
settlers in the valley. The school was shown to
have thoroughly justified its establishment, and
seemed to be highly valued by the settlers.
On the return journey to Spence's Bridge a call
was made upon Naweeseskan, an old Indian chief.
He was lying at home alone and very sick. Except
himself all the men were in the mountains herding
horses and cattle. Naweeseskan has perhaps done
more for the improvement of his people than any
other chief in the district. He is opposed to the
ruinous custom of potlatcltes, and is able, therefore,
to spend money on substantial buildings and home
comforts. The whole village presented a striking
contrast ;.to the miserable shanties that constitute
the houses of Indians generally. The houses are
all first-class log buildings with shingle roofs, and
the church would be a credit to any prosperous
white settlement. It is to this tribe belongs the
so-called " Prophetess Mary," a victim of catalepsy,
who claims to have received a revelation from
heaven while in a trance. NEW  WESTMINSTER. 99
Spence's Bridge was reached on June 2nd, and
arrangements were made for next day's services.
On Sunday, June 3rd, there was a large gathering
of Indians in their little rough chapel at 8 a.m.
Between sixty and seventy were present, some
having come up from Nicomen, and a few from
Pakeist. Prayers were said in Indian by one of
the watchmen, and then the Bishop celebrated the
Holy Communion, and gave an address through
the interpreter.
On June 6th a departure was made for Ashcroft,
where service was held for the household, and two
sermons preached in the Indian church. We have
here an interesting glimpse of the Bishop's method
of work among the Indian population. One of the
watchmen had died, and at the next Indian service
his cap and badge were formally returned to the
Bishop, who thereupon had to make selection of a
successor and duly invest the chosen one with the
insignia of his office. The choice fell on Harry
Nitaskut, a native of Lytton, but long a resident
of Ashcroft, were he acted as whipper-in of Mr.
Cornwall's pack of hounds. Four Indian children
were also baptized, and a marriage solemnized
between two young people of the tribe. A preliminary examination of the bride and bridegroom
was held to elicit their ideas of the sanctity of the
marriage tie, and they were warned that the union,
ratified in the Church, was indissoluble, except for
just cause, by the Church herself. The young lady
seems to have been very shy, and it was only after
much persuasion that she could be induced to make
a public profession of her love. This, however,
being at length accomplished—the suggested postponement of the ceremony possibly had something
to do with it—the prescribed vows were exchanged,
and the pair were pronounced man and wife. MEMOIR OF THE BISHOP  OF
Other services were held here during the week,
and on Thursday an early start was made for a
drive of fifty-three miles, which had to be accomplished before evening. There were several fresh
arrivals in the Green Timber to be called on, and a
long halt had to be made in the middle of the day
for the horses' sakes. The road, however, was in
splendid order, and no difficulty was experienced
in reaching the Hundred-Mile House by half-past
six, eleven hours from Clinton, including three
hours and a half rest on the way. Here was found
a candidate for Confirmation, who was examined
and her Confirmation appointed for the following
Sunday at a house sixteen miles up the road,
where service was to be held. A short drive of
sixteen miles, and two or three calls along the
road, occupied Saturday afternoon, and about six
o'clock Mr. McKinley's house on Lac la Hache
was reached. Mr. Blanchard—the clergyman in
charge of Cariboo—arrived from the opposite
direction about half an hour previously.
The drive along the margin of William's Lake
was inexpressibly beautiful. The road follows the
course of the valley past one or two comfortable
Indian settlements till the lake is reached, and
then mounts up by a steep incline to a picturesque
bluff some three hundred feet above the lake, past
which a prettily wooded flat is traversed for two
or three miles, until, around the foot of the lake,
the valley expands into a seemingly limitless
garden of meadowland and cornfield. At this
farm the travellers received an hospitable welcome ;
and after supper—though the visit was unexpected
—a congregation of some five and twenty men was
soon gathered together, and a short mission service
held, the hymns being well taken up.
The Bishop was much struck by the beauty and NEW   WESTMINSTER. loi
productiveness of the Lac la Hache Valley, but
the next day the journey was resumed, and the
Hundred-and-Fifty-Mile House reached.
A meeting held the following day to consider
the building of a church affords an illustration of
the vague ideas entertained respecting the Church,
and of the weakness induced everywhere by
sectarian differences. The meeting was not restricted to Churchmen, and while all wanted a
church, the general opinion leaned to the idea of
a public church for the use of all denominations.
The Bishop explained that he could not use the
Diocesan Fund for such a building, but that of
course he would rather see a church of any kind,
if used for public worship only, than no church at
all. So the committee was appointed to consider
cost and obtain contributions.
Barkerville was reached on the 25th, and it was
a great refreshment once more to be within a real
church, and enjoy the privilege of daily services.
It was more than five weeks since Yale had been
left behind, six hundred miles had been travelled,
and this was the first Church of England building
the travellers had seen, except here and there the
humble temples of the Indians.
The Bishop was much pleased to note the
success of the work which he had inaugurated in
the previous year. Adjoining the church was the
Rectory, from which Mr. Blanchard could watch
the movements of the greater number of his
parishioners, and although the building only contained three rooms, it was commodious enough for
a bachelor, and warm enough to keep him comfortable in the by no means unknown temperature
of 400 below zero. This severity of climate is due,
not to latitude, but to elevation, since Barkerville
is in the neighbourhood of four thousand feet above io2 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
the sea level, while the only approach to it is over
a divide five hundred feet higher still. There was
considerable snow on this divide when the Bishop
crossed, the last week in July.
The Bishop was still more gratified at the evidence of spiritual progress on the Sunday. Ten
years of spiritual famine had been a sore trial for
f|njany, and there could have been but little wonder
if some had been altogether exhausted by it, or
permanently enfeebled. But lost ground seemed
to have been quickly recovered and new ground
occupied. Large congregations attended all the
services, and the Confirmation in the evening was
very impressive. Four of the male candidates
were adults.
On July 16th the Bishop pursued his journey
southward as far as Hundred-and-Fifty-Mile
House, and here, for the first time, found the road
impeded by fire. The stage, however, had gone
through ahead of them, so they drove on without
much anxiety. Service was held at Hundred-and-
Fifty-Mile House in the evening. A drive of forty-
six miles next day necessitated an early start. A
halt was made at the Blue Tent for a baptism, and
other calls made during the day. At the farmhouse
where the last halt was made, the evening was spent
in preparing a woman for Confirmation, and next
day the sacred rite was administered, and Holy
Communion celebrated for the family and neighbours. The following evening saw the journey to
Seventy-Mile House completed, and here a burial
awaited the Bishop. The travellers arrived for the
Sunday at Clinton.
Almost immediately after leaving Clinton a
shroud of smoke was entered, with which the party
was enveloped for many days. Almost every
object was obscured ; the sun seemed obliterated, NEW  WESTMINSTER. 103
breathing became a difficulty, and the loveliest
landscape in the world seemed converted into a
dismal wilderness.
Ashcroft was reached on July 27th. Various
services and classes were held during the next few
days.    Of the Confirmation the Bishop writes—
"I do not like the work of preparation of Indian
candidates, for I am not accustomed to it, and don't
understand it ; but these poor souls have been waiting
so long that I could not for shame wait longer. When,
when am I going to have a man from England for the
Indian work? I cannot keep it going myself. If it
languishes, it will not be through my fault, though I
shall have to accept all the responsibility and blame."
Next day the Bishop passed on from Ashcroft
to Cache Creek, making several calls by the way,
and after a night's rest at Savona's, Kamloops
came in sight the following afternoon.
Of this latter part of the journey the Bishop
gives us the following account :—
" It was fearfully hot at Ashcroft. There is no water
in the neighbourhood and the earth gets so hot that
the air passing over it becomes heated. Moreover,
the whole country was on fire. We drove into the
smoke about twelve miles out from Clinton, and we
have never been out of it till to-day, and now only comparatively. . . .
"It may not seem to some people that driving
ordinarily not more than twenty or thirty miles a day in
a fairly comfortable trap need exhaust an ordinarily
healthy man, and yet, whatever any one may think, a
day's journey under such conditions as ours is quite
enough work for twenty-four hours. After breakfast
comes a visit to the stables, and in most instances such
a job as cleaning the collars—a matter otherwise unlikely
to be attended to.    Then the axles require oiling, and 104 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
if you don't see it done, or do it yourself, the men will
put on axle-grease instead of oil, and give you a rare job
the next day cleaning your axles ; or (as has happened
three times this trip) they will put on harness oil, for
no other reason than that they see a can of it in your
box, and they can't conceive that you should take the
trouble to clean your harness, so conclude that this is
for the axles. Then the ' pack,' or luggage, has to be •
strapped on, and this I never suffer any man to do for
me. If your pack is not on tight, or you are not sure
that it is so, you have to keep one eye behind all the
time. We have only once lost anything this year, and
I have never been able to understand how it happened.
Well, then you 'hitch up.' You may as well do it
yourself, because you must look over everything when
done, or they will send you away with twisted traces, or
the martingales strapped on to the collars, or some such
mistake. Then your day's journey begins. The roads
are fairly good, but nevertheless there is seldom a
hundred yards when you can venture to take off your
attention. It's either going up hill, and you have to
see that both horses are doing their share of the work,
or it's going down hill, and then you have to watch
everything ; or, if you get a bit of level and straight road,
you have to iook out for rocks, over which you may
spring an axle or dent your wheel. Then you come to â
creek, and you pull up and unstrap your bucket, and
water your horses ; and then you drive on till you come
to your midday halt, and there is unhitching to do,
stabling and feeding. Then there comes a 'second half-
day just like the first, except for the matter of oiling
axles. When you reach your journey's end, you don't
feel any cacoëthes scribendi, not a bit. . . .
" I try hard not to think of money, but the thought
will creep in sometimes. The responsibility of seeing
people paid is very heavy. Men are continually coming
into this colony, and a very good class of men, I am
glad to say. Another district—the Kootenay District—
is being opened out ; a number of miners and farmers, NEW  WESTMINSTER. 105
the latter comprising English gentlemen, are going in.
This means more work for me and longer journeys.
All this points to our living some day in a more central
part than New Westminster."
The Bishop attended to the spiritual needs of
Kamloops, and proceeded on his journey. Travelling by way of Grand Prairie and Salmon River
Valley, the whole of which was literally on fire,
and the road so encumbered with fallen, burning
trees as to render progress very tedious and somewhat dangerous, Spallumcheen was reached on
the 10th, and a kind welcome found at the house
of Mr. Fortune. This stage completed the one
thousand miles. As the community here was a
very scattered one, the Sunday service was held
at 2 p.m., when a large congregation assembled,
and the Bishop preached a harvest thanksgiving
sermon.
Of the remainder of the journey we have Mrs.
Sillitoe's account—
" There could, I think, be scarcely imagined a more
dismal picture than was presented by the tract of country
situated around the head of Okanagan Lake. The
smoke here was denser than anywhere else, and the
country, naturally bare and destitute of trees, and
parched with the long drought, derived increased
dreariness from the overhanging shroud of smoke that
effectually concealed everything beyond a distance of a
quarter of a mile, and completely blotted out the sun.
" The following day, however, a change occurred. A
storm was evidently gathering throughout the day, and
in the evening it burst with all the fury of a cyclone, the
roar of which we could hear a full quarter of an hour
before it fell upon us, tearing huge branches off the
stronger trees, and levelling the weaker ones with the
ground, and raising a cloud of dust that darkened
the air even worse than before.    In about half an hour io6 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
the wind ceased, and for a few minutes there was a dead
calm, succeeded shortly by a second outburst as heavy
as before, but from the opposite quarter. Very little
rain fell, but the atmospheric disturbance had worked
a wonderful change in the appearance of things. The
smoke had been rolled away, and in place of a dismal
waste there was a fair prospect of harvest fields and
craggy hills and grassy vales. . . . For us the storm
came most opportunely, for our next day's journey from
Mr. Vernon's to the Mission is one of the most beautiful
drives in the country, and to have been deprived of its
enjoyment would have been a very great disappointment.
Even apart from the lovely scenery, it rejoiced one's
heart once more to see the sun shining in the clear
blue sky. . . .
"At the Mission we had to part company with our
buckboard, for the waggon-road goes no further ; a trail
—and unquestionably the worst in British Columbia—
is the only means of reaching the country to the south
of this. Along this trail we started next morning, under
the guidance of a good-natured friend, who, much to his
own hindrance in time and convenience, volunteered to
pilot us and drive our pack-horse as far as Penticton.
" There are some curious roads in British Columbia.
Even the waggon-road (par excellence) itself, much vaunted
as it is, is pretty full of places where its purposes would
have been more effectually attained by a little less
engineering and a little more common sense, not to say
anything about defects of management, which seems to
aim at the largest possible expenditure for the most
meagre of results. But the trails ! The trails give one
the idea of having been constructed for the purpose of
being abandoned. They are very good here and there,
where Nature alone is responsible for them; otherwise
they give one the impression that human ingenuity had
been exercised in rendering them as tortuous and
difficult as possible.
" But of all the trails the roughest and steepest and
worst is that we were now on.    It speaks volumes for NEW  WESTMINSTER. 107
the enterprise of men that they ever go on them at all,
and volumes more for the surefootedness of animals that
men ever go over safely. And yet this is the trail over
which the mail is taken once a month, and one would
suppose that there was implied in that a sufficient argument for its being kept in efficient repair at the public
expense.
"... Here Mr. Wade kindly welcomed us in the
absence of Mr. and Mrs. Ellis, who only reached home
the following Sunday. On Sunday, August 19th, we
had celebration of Holy Communion at 7.30, Mattins,
Litany, and Sermon at ten, and a mission service in the
evening. On Tuesday, with an Indian guide, we set off
on the last stage of our journey southwards, and reached
Osoyoos, thirty-five miles distant, in ten hours and a
half. Osoyoos, on the Canadian side of the line,
consists of but two families, and it was arranged therefore that service should be held on the United States
side of the line, where a considerable number of people
reside, and where was also the encampment of the troop
of United States cavalry that had formed the escort of
General Sherman. About ten o'clock we started in a
row-boat for the foot of the lake, and proceeding to the
camp, found arrangements made for the accommodation
of quite a large congregation.
"The service was held alfresco under a leafy awning
in front of the officers' quarters. Sacks of oats formed
the seats, and an erection of camp chests the pulpit.
The sacrament of baptism was first administered to four
children, and then, in the absence of sufficient Prayer-
books, a mission service was held, with hymns, and the
Bishop preached.
" After being hospitably entertained by the American
Collector of Customs, the Canadian visitors returned
across the line on horseback We took four days to
return to the Mission, having only to make Okanagan
by next Sunday. . . .
" The next day we were again bowling along in the
buckboard, and after four days' trail-riding, nor heat, io8 MEMOIR  OF THE  BISHOP  OF
nor dust, nor smoke could have wrung a complaint from
us. We were not tried, however, for the road to the
head of the lake is in splendid order ; there was no dust
or smoke, and the day was pleasantly warm. The
magnificent scenery displayed itself to advantage, and,
in addition to all, there was the joy of feeling that our
faces were really turned towards home at last.
" We reached Coldstream in the evening. On Sunday,
September 2nd, Mr. Vernon's men were engaged with
the hay harvest twelve miles up the valley, consequently
our gathering was but a small one."
After recording visits to Grand Prairie, Kamloops, Nicola, and Indian settlements, and work
done at each place, Mrs. Sillitoe continues—
" Sitnday, September i6lh.—The Bishop celebrated
Holy Communion in S. John's Church, Yale, at 8 a.m.,
and preached morning and evening, preaching also in
the Indian church in the afternoon, and addressing the
Sunday school children. At Evensong there was also
a Confirmation.
" On Monday morning the Bishop and Mr. Sillitoe
left Yale by the William Irving, and landed at New
Westminster at midnight."
The whole journey lasted exactly four months,
and extended over a distance of 1682 miles. The
Bishop preached forty-eight times, and celebrated
Holy Communion thirty-one times, baptized fifteen
persons, and confirmed twenty-nine. The whole
sum raised by offertories and donations amounted
to $403.50, and the expenses to $230.
The expenses would have amounted to far more
but for the generous hospitality extended to the
travellers in almost every district, both by Churchmen and others, and by innkeepers as well as by
private individuals.    And in this acknowledgment NEW  WESTMINSTER. 109
must be included the worthy blacksmith at Spal-
lumcheen, who would accept no remuneration for
a long half-day's work. These many acts of kindness formed a refreshing compensation for the
weariness, hardships, and dangers of the road,
and that it needed some compensation will be
vouched for by any one who, whether for pleasure
or profit, has travelled in the interior of British
Columbia during the summer of 1883.
One result of this extended tour was to convince
Bishop Sillitoe of the need of organizing three new
missionary districts, and of appointing a resident
clergyman to each, with as little delay as possible.
How this desire was brought to a happy fulfilment
we shall see in future chapters. MEMOIR OF THE BISHOP  OF
CHAPTER  XIV.
WORK AMONG THE INDIANS.
THE Indian work of the diocese had a large share
of the Bishop's thoughts in 1883. The resignation of the Rev. J. B. Good had necessarily drawn
the Bishop into closer personal relationship with the
Indians and their spiritual needs, and during the
journey just described he had seen a great deal of
the work that might have been going on provided
the men and the means had been at hand.
In the/iearly part of the year the Rev. G.
Ditcham went, at the Bishop's request, on a tour
of inspection through the whole of the district
comprised in the Lytton Mission. Commencing
at Chapman's Bar, he travelled, on foot all the way,
to Lytton, and from there to Nicola, Ashcroft, and
Lillooet. Visiting each village, he questioned the
chiefs and watchmen on the moral and religious
condition of their people, inspected the churches,
and made a careful enumeration of the members
of the Church baptized and confirmed. His report
was on the whole very satisfactory, but all along
the line of railway construction the Indians were
found suffering grievously from the increased temptations to drink, which the increase of licensed
houses had naturally brought about.
The same fact is elicited by the evidence of
others at the time. NEW  WESTMINSTER. in
In most of the Indian villages many material
improvements were observable. Churches had
been finished, and some attempts at any orderly
arrangement and adornment of the houses had
been carried out. The pleasure of the people at
having a clergyman to visit them was shown by
the most open and cheerful welcome, and the
enthusiasm in the prayers and close attention in
the address was very cheering. Every now and
then was heard the " Oh ! oh ! oh ! " of" some one
in the congregation, and occasionally several
voices would exclaim together, " Good, good ! "
" Good is the word ! " " The talk is good ! " When
taught by such a story as that of the Roman
sentry standing at his post till death, they would
show all the eagerness and attention of children.
An account in the Gazette goes on—
" Oh, but what weak Christians many of them were !
The Church needs, to train them by her ancient discipline, at the same time remembering that they are only
children in Christ, bearing patiently with them. The
Indian missionary should be that alone, doing nothing
else, and should be on his beat continually. He will
have many enemies, but at the same time will find not.
a few friends."
The following further extract from the Gazette
speaks of the sad condition of the Indians at the
time—
" So many are the crooked ways by which bad intoxicating liquors find their way into the hands of Indians
that in this province at least a change in the law is
required at once. Something should be done, and that
quickly, to stop a traffic which is a heavy expense to the
exchequer, and causes untold misery to the Indians who
wish to live quiet and orderly. From one end of the
country to the other, from Cariboo to the sea, in every I
ii2 -MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
town and settlement, is heard the one complaint.
Whisky finds its way in abundance to every rancherie.
In New Westminster men well known to be in the
business go at large. At Burrard Inlet the mad cries
and demon shrieks of drunken Siwashes sound over the
water ; at Yale there is no trouble in obtaining the '. chain
lightning ; ' while tales are told such as this of the hell it
causes in the villages higher up the river.
" A drunken son had his father down on his back and
beat his head on the floor; three men tried to hang
themselves ; the whole rancherie was drunk, and this in
one day. The chiefs say they are powerless to stop it,
and so great is the evil that it has outgrown the ability
of the whole country to put an end to it under the
present laws."
During the year a great deal of good work
was accofnplished by the Rev. D. H. W. Horlock,
acting under a commission from the Bishop. He
visited the Spuzzum Indians at the beginning of
July, and was warmly welcomed.
The Bishop's efforts to provide supervision for
some part of this immense field of work were rewarded at last by the offer of two English clergy
to come out as missionaries to the Thompson
River Indians. One was the Rev. Richard Small, "
then chaplain to the House of Mercy, Ditching-
ham, the present head of the Lytton Mission ;
the other was the Rev. H. G. Fiennes-Clinton, late
Principal of Bishop's College, Calcutta, and Vice-
Principal of the Missionary College of S. Boniface,
Warminster, now Rector of S. James' Church,
Vancouver. This accession to the ranks of the
Bishop's aides-de-camp greatly cheered and brightened his heart, and gave him fresh stimulus in the
further development of the diocesan work.
We append Mr. Horlock's interesting report,
and a copy of the statement signed by all the -"I
NEW  WESTMINSTER. 113
male householders of the tribe in the presence of
the magistrate of Boston Bar.
" Left Yale February 28th by handcar borrowed from
the C.P.R. Co., and worked by Mr. Wright, the two
Indian interpreters, and myself. We arrived at the
crossing of the Fraser about three o'clock, and with some
difficulty procured a boat to cross. Arrived at Boston
Bar, I called on Mr. Pearson, J.P., to whom I had written
by the previous mail, asking him to give notice to the
Indians at Yankee Flat of my coming. He assured me
that the whole tribe would be in waiting for me on the
following morning, and kindly consented to accompany
me on the visit. Mr. Pearson also called my attention
to the affairs of a tribe living three-fourths of a mile from
Boston Bar, and asked me to visit them. I did so
immediately, and found that they had half built a church,
being obliged to relinquish it for want of funds to purchase the necessary materials. I found there a young
man apparently dying of pleuro-pneumonia. Here, as
everywhere else, the Indians are without medical attendance. The chief being absent at work, I left word for
him to call on me in the morning. He did so, and
complained bitterly of the spiritual destitution in which
he and his tribe were placed. I hear on all hands that
he is a really good man, and has been making the most
strenuous efforts to keep his tribe from the usual effects
of approximation to the white man—drunkenness and
fornication. At his urgent request, I consented to visit
the tribe the following day and give them a service and
address.
" Crossed the river 8 a.m. on Friday and worked the
handcar to the settlement There we found the whole
tribe assembled—numbering about forty adults and twenty
children—in the chief's house. The Indian service was
very creditably performed, after which I addressed the
tribe concerning the proposed school, and found a
perfect unanimity as to the expediency of establishing it.
I also expressed a hope that a church would also be MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
built ere long, which they seemed exceedingly anxious
to effect. After I had finished, the chief, who is a
splendid fellow, asked permission to speak. He said
neither himself nor his people could think what 'the
Church ' was doing to leave him thus entirely alone and
neglected ; certainly it was not acting according to our
Blessed Lord's commands. All he said was in sorrow, not
in anger. I replied with the oft-repeated excuse of ' no
men '—God only knows how my soul revolts against it.
I promised to do all I could for them—of course, it is
but little. In common with all other tribes I have
visited, almost none were baptized. I shall have to visit
the place again in a fortnight to baptize the infants. How
can one see a great field of work like this and not try
to do it ? And how can I do it ? The whole tribe are
excessively anxious to have a school established, and a
church, and I believe would do all in their power to help.
" Business ended, I baptized a dying old man, and
then left for Boston Bar. About six of the chief men of
the tribe accompanied me in their canoe, to attend the
other service. The Indian service was sung very sweetly,
the most musical I have ever heard, the chief who
conducted it showing really great untaught musical
ability. I promised this tribe I would endeavour to get
them the necessary lumber for completing their church
as soon as possible. ... I had to listen to the same
bitter complaints repeated, and to reply in the same strain,
of course. ... I left Boston Bar at 2.30 and arrived at
Yale at 5.15—a fine run of twenty-five miles. I must
try to visit these tribes once a month, till something is
managed permanently. . . . One cannot help feeling
that the Church will have to answer for many souls lost
during these past years of trouble and grievous temptation to the Indian tribes."
The statement referred to above is as follows :—
" We, the undersigned Indians of Yankee Flat, desire
a certain sum of money due to us from Mr. Onderdonk
to be paid over to the Lord Bishop of New Westminster, NEW  WESTMINSTER. 115
for the purpose of building and establishing a day-school
for our children in the neighbourhood of our village."
It was signed by twenty-three householders of
the tribes and by the witnesses to the act, and so
forwarded to the Indian Superintendent
We append a description, by the Bishop, of the
Indian Mission and its needs and possibilities.
" The Indian Mission at Lytton—S. Paul's Mission,
as it is called—includes all Indians speaking the
'Thompson River' tongue, and extends from about
eight miles above Yale to the foot of Nicola Lake, a
hundred and twenty-three miles along the main waggon
road, with an offshoot from Lytton in the direction of
Lillooet, and another from Spence's Bridge as far as
Ashcroft.
" The number of the people is variously estimated at
from two thousand to two thousand five hundred, of
whom about one-fourth have received baptism, and
about one-tenth have been confirmed. These are the
results of the sixteen years' work of the Rev. J. B. Good,
who resigned the Mission last year. . . . This year we
hope to invoke God's blessing on a faithful endeavour
to bring the widest influence of Christianity to bear
upon this people, not only to build them up in spiritual
things, but to minister also to their mental and physical
improvement and elevation. The Mission staff in this
wide and important field has consisted hitherto of but
two persons, for whose support the S.P.G. has made
annual grants of ^300 and £$0 respectively. The
catechist resided at Lytton, where his labours were
limited to saying prayers in the absence of the missionary.
He was a catechist only in name, because he was never
able to acquire sufficient knowledge of English to study
for himself, and was not, therefore, more perfectly
instructed than the congregation. Mr. Good resided for
a while at Lytton, but for the last six years of his incumbency he occupied the Mission House at Yale, visiting
J L
116 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
the Lytton district from time to time as other duties
allowed. Under these circumstances, the wonder is that
the Church retained any hold at all upon the people, and
it is the most eloquent testimony to their steadfastness
that they accepted thankfully such desultory and deficient
ministrations as were afforded them, and are to this day
true and loyal to their first instructors in the faith.
" Now for the due administration of such a mission it
is equally imperative that the missionary should occupy
some central headquarters, and that he should at frequent
intervals visit the distant villages ; and so the first conclusion arrived at was, that at least two men must be
associated together in the work. I obtained the consent
of S.P.G. to a division of their grant of ^300, to which
I propose adding ^100 more from private sources, and
I have found (D&lpltwo devoted men who, for the
reduced stipend, have given themselves to the work. . . .
Not hastily or unadvisedly, but after long and prayerful
consideration, have these appointments been made, and
I earnestly plead, on behalf of these new fellow-labourers,
for a share in the intercessions of the Church that their
devotion and labours be not in vain.
" For a priest's house at Lytton I am indebted to the
generosity of the Rev. R. C. Whiteway, who has placed
his cottage at the disposal of the mission. With a little
enlargement, at a cost of about ^"50, it can be made
sufficiently commodious for the purpose. One of the
clergy will reside at Lytton permanently, while the other
journeys to and fro through the district. The one in
residence will, in the first place, be responsible for the
daily offering of the Sacrifice of praise and prayer, and,
secondly, will combine with his spiritual ministrations
the elementary instruction of young men and boys. This
department of the Mission we propose gradually to
extend by making provisions for the accommodation of
pupils from distant villages, by the erection of workshops,
and by associating with the Mission priests a lay brother
competent to give instruction in the technical and industrial branches of education. NEW  WESTMINSTER. 117
I When we shall have been allowed to accomplish this,
we shall have wrought a social revolution in the land, for
we shall have elevated the people from the servile condition of hewers of wood and drawers of water and given
them an equal chance in the race of life. Whether they
are capable of this is, of course, a question which we
must expect to have raised. I have no doubt about it,
or I should be less hopeful about making the experiment.
There are already examples enough of self-improvement under the present very limited opportunities to
warrant the highest expectations, and the opinion is
shared by all who have brought unprejudiced observation
to bear upon Indian character, amongst whom I may
venture to include our late Governor-General, There is
another branch of the work to speak of before I have
done, and one, though second in order, by no means
second in importance. If the men are to be raised
socially, industrially, physically, the women must be raised
too.
" The girls of the present generation will be the wives
of the young men and boys we are going to educate, and,
apart altogether from their right inherent to equal privileges, we must raise them mentally and spiritually if we
would not have them unconsciously neutralize our efforts
on behalf of the other sex. But there is a higher view
than this to take, for if, amongst ourselves, the influence
of woman is perhaps the strongest auxiliary for refining
and purifying the nature of man, why may we not expect
an equally happy result to follow the cultivation in these
dusky maidens, of the more gentle and tender instincts
and attributes of womanhood ?
"And by the good Providence of God this auxiliary
work has been placed within reach of accomplishment.
A year ago a call to undertake it was heard at Ditching-
ham, and was immediately responded to, and three Sisters
of the Community of All Hallows' are ready to come out
as soon as we have provided the necessary premises.
They come at their own expense, and maintain themselves, if necessary, for a year or more, and the cost to the ii8 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
Church amounts to no more than the hire or erection of
a suitable house, and the purchase of furniture. It is
not yet decided whether to hire or to build. At the
close of railway construction (that is, within twelve
months), various buildings will be for sale which could
easily be adapted for the purpose, though there are none
such actually at Lytton. On the other hand, special
buildings would be most convenient, and Lytton the
most suitable site. The maintenance of pupils in the
institution will be the most serious expense, for I cannot
put the cost per head at less than ^20 per annum,
and the Indians themselves must not be depended on to
contribute much.
" Now I have done. I have striven to write without
exaggeration ; I have even denied myself the expression
of the enthusiasm I feel in the contemplation of this
work (an enthusiasm warranted, I believe, by the grandeur
of the possible results), because I would not risk the loss
of a single practical mission helper by an apparently
over-coloured picture. I know what I feel, and that the
future will justify me.
"I ask only God's blessing; with that all we need
besides will follow." NEW  WESTMINSTER.
CHAPTER   XV.
PROGRESS OF DIOCESAN  ORGANIZATION.
1883-1884.
THE Bishop was fortunate throughout his episcopate in the possession of a strong Home Committee, which was ever at work presenting the
claims of the diocese before the English public,
and sending out help in men and means. In 1884
the work of the diocese had so increased in extent
and interest that the Home Committee decided
upon the printing and issuing of a quarterly paper,
which should contain the latest news from the seat
of work. To these quarterly papers for the history
of the next few years the writer of this memoir is
very largely indebted.
The visit of Archdeacon Woods to England in
■1882, and his long tour of deputation work, were
of the greatest service in arousing interest in New
Westminster among the English parishes, and his
return in 1883 left the committee without any one
to carry on what had now become a necessary
work, viz. that of pleading personally for the wants
of the diocese.    To quote the report—
" The committee had to face this difficulty, and, after
careful consideration, came to the conclusion that it was
necessary to employ a clergyman who should devote at
least half the year to travelling as a deputation for the 120 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP OF
mission, and doing the other necessary work in connection with the Mission Guild."
The clergyman appointed to this important
office, the Rev. H. H. Mogg, was, as a former
worker in British Columbia, enabled to speak from
personal observation, and to describe the needs of
the diocese the more readily from having himself
felt them.
It would be difficult to say to what an extent
the work of this committee lightened the labours
of the Bishop. Certainly there was ever the most
loyal co-operation ; on the one hand, the single
desire to carry out consistently and cheerfully the
wishes of the head of the Mission ; on the other
hand, the readiness to trust to the proved judgment and tried affection of friends at home. The
Bishop's committee consisted of personal friends,
and the friendship, which in many cases dated
from before his consecration, continued unbroken
till death—aye, and beyond.
While on this head, it may be mentioned that
this year, mainly through the untiring energy of
an English worker—Miss Lansdale—a mission-
boat was sent out for conveying missionaries from
place to place, and for visiting and holding services
on board ships in the harbours. The funds had
been collected in the autumn of 1884, and the boat
was built at Bristol—a good, strong, seaworthy
sailing-boat, about seventeen feet long, fitted with
sails, oars, centre-board, and all the necessary gear,
and manageable, if necessary, by one man.
While this important aid to the missionary work
of New Westminster was on its way out, the
Bishop was energetically engaged—although the
winter was far from over—in the oversight of
the districts immediately around the see city. NEW  WESTMINSTER. 121
The Bishop paid an interesting visit to Surrey
from the end of July to about August 9th.
Mr. Bell's parish was about twenty-seven miles
long by about fifteen wide, and embraced two
municipalities. Of Trenant, the western municipality, we have frequently heard already ; the
eastern portion was called Surrey—a poor district,
but one in which the Church was making great
advances. The services hitherto had been held in
the Town Hall (let not the reader form his idea
from the English equivalent of this), but, by dint
of great self-sacrifice, the building of a church had
at last become feasible, and one part of the Bishop's
purpose in coming was to lay the foundation-stone.
This was done with full masonic rites, and Christ
Church, Surrey, was auspiciously begun for a
scattered flock, many of whom had not been inside
a church for many years.
Baptisms and Confirmations were also administered by the Bishop, and when his visit was over,
the people laboured so enthusiastically on their
church that on September 29th—the Feast of
S. Michael and All Angels—it was ready for
opening, just seven weeks from the laying of the
foundation-stone.
About this same time a desire, long entertained
by the Bishop, was carried out in the inauguration
of" a Mission in the Spallumcheen and Kamloops
district. The importance of the step had been
pressed upon the S.P.G. from year to year, but at
last the progress of railway construction compelled
action, and the Rev. D. H. W. Horlock was removed from Yale, which was now a rapidly decaying place, with a daily diminishing population, to
take charge of the Kamloops Mission.
The Mission extended from Clinton on the
north to Okanagan on the south, and embraced 122 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP OF
Cache Creek, Savona's, Grand Prairie, and Spallumcheen. One hundred miles in one direction,
and seventy-five in the other, it was sufficiently
large to^fully task the energies of three men,
especially as th^failway was running through
seventy or eighty miles of it. Kamloops was fixed
upon as the head and centre of the Mission.
The fir§tg service was held in the temporary
church at Kamloops on September 7th, when the
Bishop officiated. Mr. Horlock entered upon the
permanen£|duties of the mission a fortnight later,
and his first coadjutor was found in the Rev. A.
Shildrick, transferred from Maple Ridge. A new
worker was also promised in the Rev. H. Irwin, I
expected early in 1885.
It will be seen that the diocese was gradually
attracting to itself a staff of clergy more adequate
for the work the Bishop had before him ; but in a
diocese every day becoming more populous and
important, and a hundred and sixty thousand
square miles in extent, even thirteen clergy was
not an extravagant provision.
Under these circumstances, it was a bright day
for the Mission and the Bishop when, in October,
the staff was reinforced by the arrival of the Rev. -
H. Edwardes for the Indian Mission, Lytton ; three
Sisters from the Community of All Hallows',
Ditchingham, for school work at Yale ; and Miss
Boyce for school work at Nicola. The prospects
of the Indian Mission now looked rosy indeed, and
the new impetus given to it will be appreciated
when we come to the Bishop's account of the Indian
gathering this year at Lytton.
But in spite dffjthe brighter outlook in many
directions, financial anxiety had not ceased to
paralyze, to a large extent, the Bishop's activities.
The following letter addressed to the Secretary of NEW  WESTMINSTER. 123
the Home Committee will show the Bishop's position in this respect :—
S New Westminster,
" November 3, 1884.
" My dear Mogg,
S For my own part I am afraid that my report
this time must be a melancholy one. We held our
quarterly Executive Committee meeting last week. Our
bank balance amounts to .£147, including all special
donations, which of course ought to be reserved for their
particular purpose. We required, however, .£146 ioj.
for actual stipends, and the committee decided that it
was better to appropriate the special funds rather than
leave the stipends unpaid. We, therefore, paid the
stipends in full, but bills to the amount of ^75 had to
be laid over. The simple fact, therefore, is that the
diocese at this moment is insolvent. Understand particularly that I am not finding fault with you. I am
aware of the circumstance that you have drawn no
salary as organizing secretary during the year, and I
require you to publish this circumstance with the rest of
my letter. I am finding fault with no one except it be
myself for not using my own pen to better purpose ; but
I abhor writing begging letters, especially to individuals,
though I suppose I must descend to it, if money is not
otherwise forthcoming.
" On December 31st a similar amount will be due
for stipends, the bill will have to be paid, and we ought
to replace the special donations which have been appropriated. Further than this, we are under engagements
to pay ^50 towards a church at Mud Bay now nearly
completed, and ^£50 towards new buildings for Lome
College. I have exhausted local effort for this year,
and must depend, therefore, wholly upon home contributions being remitted in time. . . .
" Ever yours sincerely,
"A. W. New Westminster."
Meanwhile, not   only were  those  outside  the  .
diocese   called   upon   to   bestir   themselves,   but 124 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
Churchmen within the diocese were also invited
to rise to the needs of the occasion. At the
request of the Bishop, Archdeacon Woods undertook to organize what has since become a most
important part of the diocesan machinery—the
Diocesan Mission Fund. The Archdeacon put
forth an appeal for prompt help, reminding Churchmen that grants from outside were only for a time,
and might at any time fail or be withdrawn.
We may conclude this general review of the work
of the year with a reference to the meeting of
synod on November 20th. The Bishop preached
a very able sermon at the opening of synod from
the text, a Look not every man on his own things,
but every man also on the things of others," and
afterwards delivered his address, in which he dealt
with the general condition of the diocese, the appointment of attorneys for S.P.G., the need of
canons dealing with the solemnization of holy
matrimony, the subject of periodical collections
within the diocese for various public objects, such
as S.P.G., S.P.C.K., and the Diocesan Fund, and the
need for a proper arrangement of the boundaries
of parishes. All these subjects were duly discussed, and such others as were brought up by
individual members of the synod, various committees appointed, and a very good and useful
session brought to a conclusion in one day.
From all these details of diocesan organization
and work, which it was necessary to mention, we
may now turn to the more interesting subject of
the Bishop's journeys, in the spring and summer
to Lytton for the great Indian gathering, in the
autumn to Cariboo. NEW  WESTMINSTER.
CHAPTER XVI.
THE INDIAN  GATHERING AT LYTTON.
" At length, the night has passed away, and the dawn of
a new and, we all hope, a more prosperous day has broken
upon the long-neglected Indian Mission in this diocese."
So writes the Bishop in commencing an article
to the Mission Field with regard to what was in
some respects the most interesting diocesan event
of 1884.
The Bishop continues—
" It was in July, 1882, that I announced to the S.P.G.
the resignation of the Rev. J. B. Good, which took
effect in September following. The officers of the
Society will know the efforts that have been continually
made ever since in the direction of a reorganization of
the Mission, and I cannot hope for a better opportunity
than this of acknowledging the sympathetic and patient
consideration with which the Society has waited for the
development of the plan of reorganization which I laid
before it two years ago. To have hurried that plan to a
premature execution would have been fatal to its success,
but nevertheless to have been allowed so long a time
for preparation demands a thankful acknowledgment. I
would not have it supposed that during two years no
work has been done. Far from that, for apart from
the permanent residence at Lytton of the Rev. R. C. 126 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
Whiteway, I am much indebted to the Rev. G. Ditcham
and the Rev. D. H. W. Horlock for the willing and
valuable assistance they have rendered me, sometimes at
the expense of much personal inconvenience. Still, the
work has been necessarily desultory, and, in consequence,
imperfect and unsatisfactory.
"With the greater thankfulness, therefore, I record
the end of the interregnum and the happy inauguration
of a new period in the life of the Mission. For two long
years, and often with a desponding heart, I have been
encouraging the Indians to look forward to the ' good
time coming ' when Church work, and specially education,
would be resumed among them, and with greater earnestness than ever. And therefore, when the good time had
come, it seemed fitting to usher it in with some amount
of ceremony and observance. To this end, I summoned
the Indians, far and near, as many as were able, to meet
me in June, at a favourite camping-ground of theirs
near Lytton, that I might introduce to them the Rev. R
Small, and publicly induct him into his office. I was
desirous, too, of impressing upon their minds the reality
of their fellowship with us in the Body of Christ, and
therefore invited to be present the Archdeacon of
Columbia and other clergy, engaged chiefly in white
work, as well as a few representatives of the laity."
After describing the journey by steamer, rail,
and road to Lytton, one of the party writes—
" On Friday, the 30th, we reached our camping-ground
about 2 p.m., having ridden in from Lytton, a distance
of about fourteen miles, a ride full of interest in every
mile from the time we crossed the wooden bridge which
spans the Thompson at its junction with the Fraser, and
thence climbed up, on some surefooted Indian horses,
hills which had literally in places to be climbed by the
aid of steps cut in their sides; and as we rose higher
and higher, we were able to look down on and trace for
a considerable distance the course of the Thompson as   NEW  WESTMINSTER. 127
it came down on our right to join the Fraser, which,
facing us in our course, lay on our left. We could see
for ourselves the geography of the land into which we
were entering, how it lay in the fork between the two
rivers. We passed in our ride two well-laid-out farms
of no great extent, but rich to profusion through the
fertility of the virgin soil, irrigated from some of the
many cool, clear, rippling streams which crossed our
trail every few miles.
"On reaching Pootanie we found our tents already
pitched, and every preparation made for our comfort.
Some few Indians came out to meet us, but there
was no formal reception until later in the afternoon,
after a short rest and such refreshment as cool water,
grateful shade, and not unsubstantial 'tea,' were well
calculated to afford. Having formally announced their
intention, the Indians then came from their encampment towards the Bishop's reception-tent—a bell-tent
pitched under the shade of a great pine tree—and
marching past in single file, spoke to and shook hands
with each member of our party, many of them, both
men and women, recognizing Archdeacon Woods, who
had visited the Hope, Yale, and Lytton Missions some
years before the division of the diocese. The formalities
of the reception over, there was little to be done until
the next day, when there would be plenty of work for
all. The Bishop announced the hours of the different
Church services, the Sunday work was planned out, and
other arrangements made clear, so that all should know
what they had to do, and how far they were at liberty to
follow their own devices. And now while we wait for
the real work, which has brought us so far, to begin on
Saturday morning, let us look round and observe the site
of our camping-ground. Gentle swelling hills, covered
with rich verdure—not grass in the sense in which the
wordis used in reference to cultivated pasture land, but yet
every inch of the ground covered with a thick, rich, soft
carpet of green, so thick and soft that to lie down on it
was as restful as the most luxurious couch, so rich that 128 MEMOIR  OF  THE BISHOP   OF
the hundreds of horses belonging to the whole encampment, some tethered, but the greater part free, find
ample pasture, while the wild flowers innumerable, and
of so many various kinds, give an added beauty to what
in itself is so lovely. On one small hill are two tents
appropriated to the Bishop, Mrs. Sillitoe, and Miss Woods;
on another are the tents assigned to the rest of the
party ; while the bell-tent stands midway between. Lower
down, and on more level ground, is the awning—it
cannot be called a tent—under which the table for meals
is built. The word built is used advisedly, for the table
consists of so many stout legs driven into the ground,
and slabs laid on top ; while benches run down each side,
built after the same fashion as the table; the seat of
honour at the head of the table being a round log sawn
off so as to make a seat, and set up on end. The whole
encampment is looped round by a stream of water of icy
coolness and crystal clearness. Across a little valley
stood the tents of the interpreter, Meshell, and his
family and following, while the general camp of Indians
was entirely out of sight, though close at hand, for one
had but to walk a few hundred yards from the bell-tent
and from the side of any of the low hills to look down
upon a sight not easily, once seen, to be forgotten. A
large low-lying plain, quite level throughout its whole
extent, marked off from the forest and brush on its
farthest border by the stream already described, was the
place chosen by the Indians for their encampment.
Our first view of it was after nightfall when the camp
fires were lighted, and the work of the day being over,
cooking, feasting, smoking, chatting, singing, or rest, pure
and simple, varied the aspect of each group of tents.
"The work of the day—what was it? What had
brought this crowd of Indians, men, women, and
children, to the number of close on a thousand, from
their different homes situated miles away in all directions ?
They were here to gather what was to them a valuable
harvest of edible roots of various kinds, and the fact of
their being thus assembled in one central spot afforded NEW  WESTMINSTER. 129
the Bishop his opportunity. Apart from the immediate
proximity of both wings of our encampment stood the
altar, with altar cross, flower vases, altar lights, and all
that was needful for the due and reverent celebration of
Holy Communion. The altar stood upon a slightly
elevated platform, carpeted, as was the ground all round,
with layers of young pine branches, the whole being
under a screen, or, in ecclesiastical terminology, a balda-
chino, erected by the Indians before our arrival.
"On Saturday, the 31st, the greater part of the day
was devoted to examining the credentials of those Indians
who desired to present themselves for Holy Communion
on Whit Sunday. Each Indian on being brought under
Christian teaching is given a printed paper certifying
that he is a catechumen belonging to a certain mission or
section of a mission. When baptized, he is given another
paper ruled for three separate entries, the first of which
is filled in with the date and place of baptism. In due
course, if all goes well, the second is filled in with the
date of Confirmation, and the third with the date of his
first Communion. These papers had to be examined
one by one, the chief of a tribe, if a Christian, or the
captain or watchman of a village being required to
bear testimony that there was no charge against him.
If all proved satisfactory, he was given a ticket signed
by the priest who had examined his case. Among all
who presented themselves as desirous of communicating,
but two cases of any difficulty occurred. The examination of credentials occupied the three priests present a
considerable part of the day. Throughout the afternoon and late into the evening new arrivals called for
further examinations, so that the work may be said to
have extended over the whole Saturday. In the course
of the afternoon, the Bishop addressed the Indians on
various subjects of interest and practical utility, suggesting to the men some questions (specially in relation to
schools and education) for discussion by themselves in
council. The women he addressed by themselves.
"Whit Sunday, June 1st, was indeed a glorious day, i3o MEMOIR  OF  THE BISHOP  OF
one to be rememembered with thanksgiving by all who
that day were gathered together in the secluded valley
of Pootanie. It could not be but that one's mind was
carried back to the first Whit Sunday, when ' the day of
Pentecost was fully come.' True, there was no sound
from heaven as of a rushing mighty wind, no cloven
tongues like as of fire, but none the less there was the
felt presence of God the Holy Ghost.
" The accredited messengers of God were there with
the message of His Gospel and the Sacraments ordained
by Christ Himself, to assure these Indians, many of them
already Christians and inheritors of the kingdom of
heaven, but many of them still heathen, yet with
sufficient fight and knowledge to comprehend the full
meaning of the assurance that ' the promise is to you
and to your children, and to all that are afar off, even as
many as the Lord our God shall call.' When at the six-
o'clock celebration—we believe the first in that place—
one hundred and eleven Indians received the most comfortable sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ, who
could doubt but that a great and real work was being
done among them ? . . . On Whit Sunday there were
three celebrations, the High Celebration being by the
Bishop, at 10.30. At the afternoon service the whole
body of Indians was present, and Evensong having
been said, the Rev. Richard Small, the Rev. G. Ditcham,
and the Ven. the Archdeacon of Columbia gave short
addresses—a plan adopted by request of the Indians
themselves. At this service nineteen children were
baptized by the Bishop.
"On Monday, June 2nd, the Bishop, the Rev. R.
Small, and Mr. Cantell remained another day in camp
to further certain details of work, the rest of the party,
with the exception of Mrs. Sillitoe, turning their faces
homeward, and reaching New Westminster on the evening of June 3rd."
The foregoing account may well be supplemented by some extracts from the Bishop's own
description. NEW  WESTMINSTER. 131
" On Friday, May 30th," he says, " we were all
assembled in camp at a place called by the Indians
Pootanie, about fifteen miles from Lytton, among the
mountains, between the Thompson and Fraser rivers,
about three thousand feet above the sea-level.
" I have not time for topographical word pictures, but
I verily believe there are artists in England who would
not think it too far to have come for one look at Pootanie.
The first glance around was one of wondering admiration,
the second afforded the fullest justification of our presence,
for the extent of the Indian camp showed that large
numbers had responded to my call, and a great opportunity was before us. The Indian camp was on a flat at
the upper end of a narrow valley, and beyond it the
ground rose suddenly in benches and terraces. On the
first of these was MesheU's camp, and ours on the next,
and between the two, in a little natural amphitheatre, was
erected a canopy of evergreens, under which, on a raised
platform, was the altar.
"A flag floated over nearly every tent, in most
instances the diocesan flag, blue, with gold cross and
mitre ; and the whole scene was bright and picturesque
and, to most of us, novel.
" A fifteen-miles' ride and two thousand six hundred
feet altitude above our breakfast level made the dinner
gong a pleasant sound, and the Indians were thoughtful
enough to send us a message to the effect that they
would not expect us to receive them until after we had
rested; and having formed a procession in their own
camp, we presently saw them approaching us from
below, in Indian file, of course, with stately tread, the
men coming first, the women following.
" They wound up the hill in zigzag lines, the men uncovering as they approached. We stood in a line, and
shook hands with each as they passed by. There were
about nine hundred of them, and the ceremony occupied
just an hour. After the reception we had Evensong, and
the Indians returned to their camp."
The Bishop goes on to describe the work of L
132 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
Saturday, the examination of credentials, etc., an
account of which has been already given.
"In the afternoon," he resumes, "all the women and
girls assembled under the shade of a gigantic pine, at the
foot of which my tent was pitched. I addressed them
on the subject of domestic life, the duties and responsibilities of their sex, and the cultivation of womanly
virtues ; and explained to them the object of the girls'
school shortly to be established at Yale under a
branch of the Ditchingham Sisterhood. Mrs. Sillitoe
then distributed among them handkerchiefs, aprons,
picture cards, etc., gifts for the purpose from friends in
England.
" After this was held a meeting of chiefs, captains, and
watchmen, to whom I explained the plan of the Mission .
as reorganized under Mr. Small and Mr. Edwardes and
the Ditchingham Sisters, particularly insisting on the
principle of self-support as regards both the church and
education. I requested them to discuss the plan among
themselves, and to report the result to me on Monday.
It subsequently transpired that they sat in council over
this discussion till three o'clock in the morning !
" They then presented me with a list of cases occurring
within their several jurisdictions of delinquency in various
forms, and I arranged to hold a court of inquiry on
Monday. The Sunday services were then announced,
and the meeting closed with a potlatch, or distribution
of knives, fishhooks, pictures, and tobacco."
Omitting the account of the Sunday services,
which have already been sufficiently described, let
us come to the picture presented of a Bishop's
court among the Indian converts.
" On Monday, after breakfast, ... the whole throng
ot men, women, and children gathered on the slope in
front of my tent to ' assist ' at the court of inquiry. The
' cause list ' included two cases of matrimonial difficulty, NEW  WESTMINSTER. 133
one of drinking and gambling, one of practising ' medicine magic,' and a long-pending charge against the late
catechist It is creditable to the delinquents to say that
they all put in an appearance, although, of course, they
could not have been compelled to do so, nor were any
of them under constraint
"The matrimonial cases were easily arranged, and
I had the happiness of restoring harmony to two wigwams. The drinking and gambling case was the more
serious, inasmuch as the accused was no less a personage
than the recognized chief of all the Thompson River tribes.
It speaks volumes for the honesty and courage of these
Church officers that they did not hesitate to present even
their superior chief as an offender against the laws of
morality.
" A lecture on the responsibility of his office and his
Christian obligations was patiently listened to by the
old chief. He then made a very humble, public acknowledgment of the justice of the charges, expressed his
penitence, and only asked us to give him a little time in
which to prove his sincerity. He then signed a written
declaration to abstain both from whisky and gambling,
and I told him I should require in two months' time
certificates of his good behaviour in these respects.
" The charges against the catechist were fully proved,
and he was deposed from his office. The 'medicineman' proved the most difficult to deal with, chiefly
because, as of old, his profession brought him 'much
gain.' He denied ever receiving more than $10 for
his work, and claimed that, after all, his work was
chiefly one of prayer. There was evidence,' however,
that he had received as much as $50 in some cases,
and I pointed out to him that on the ordinary occasions
of prayer he did not find it necessary to strip himself
naked, and dance and howl, as his custom was when
officiating as medicine-man. He positively refused to
abandon the practice, and there was no alternative,
therefore, but to excommunicate him, and, further, to
' threaten with excommunication any who employed his 134 MEMOIR  OF  THE BISHOP  OF
services. I do not venture to hope that the remedy
will be altogether effectual, but it will mitigate the evil.
Another remedy, and a better one, I would like to be
able  to   adopt,  viz.  the  appointment   of  a   medical
matters, they informed me that they were quite prepared
to contribute to the support of schools, and wished me
to say how much I expected them to give. . . . The
appointment of a new chief, the registering of the
baptisms of the previous day, and issue of certificates,
together with some minor matters, concluded the day.
Next morning, after a short farewell charge, I called
for three cheers for the Queen—a name of mingled
mystery and confiding love to Indian ears—to which
they responded heartily in English fashion, and then we
broke up camp and returned to Lytton."
One more account of this remarkable meeting
must be given, coming as it does from one of the
Indians present, and written  after the  Bishop's
death.
"In June, 1884," the account runs, "our Bishop came
up to Lytton with Mrs. Sillitoe to go to Pootanie. . . .
Mr. Hughes and I went to Pootanie ahead of the
Bishop's party to choose a good place for the camp.
Mr. Hughes when he saw Pootanie was very glad, and
said it was the best place the Bishop could come to.
All the hills were covered with fine flowers, red, blue,
white, and green. We had horses ready to meet the
Bishop at Lytton, and we sent notice all round to the
Indians belonging to the English Catholic Church. At
once they came to Pootanie as fast as they could, some
of them hardly taking time to bring their blankets
and food.
" The first 'day in camp the Bishop rested quietly in
his tent, being tired from the long journey. The following day all the Indians dressed up to go to his tent to NEW  WESTMINSTER. 135
shake hands with him. They walked in a straight line
to his tent. When they had finished shaking hands
we looked where they had been walking, and it was a
very big trail, because the Indians were so many. The
same day we built a rough church and altar, the clergy
and Indians all working together. The church was
built of green brush and flowers, and we hung up all
our flags."
sdf MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP   OF
CHAPTER XVII.
THE REPORT FOR  1884.
In the report issued at the end of 1884, the prevailing note is unmistakably that of disappointment—a disappointment all the keener inasmuch as
it appeared to the Bishop that the gloominess of
the outlook was attributable to causes within the
control of Churchmen in the diocese.
There was disappointment with regard to the
synod, which was poorly attended by the lay
delegates, and the Bishop speaks out with great
plainness and candour as to the failure of the laity
to rise to their opportunities in this matter.
"Eighteen lay delegates," he says, "had been elected,
but of this number only eight put in an appearance. . . .
But further, with regard to the business transacted, it is
the merest euphemism to say that expedition characterized the whole proceedings. The Committee on S.P.G.
Attorneys recommended the Executive Committee to
attend to the business. The Committee on Marriage
Laws 'respectfully recommended' the Bishop to look
into them and get them altered if lie thought it
necessary, and they added three other 'recommendations' to whom it might concern, extremely good as
to the matter of them, but devoid of practical force. . . .
Now, the question is pre-eminently a layman's question.
The laity called for the synod in the first instance, and
it was granted to them, although by many amongst us 1
NEW  WESTMINSTER. 137
regarded as inopportune. It is, therefore, not unreasonable to require that the laity shall take an interest in the
synod, ana that the lay members shall cheerfully and
patiently devote themselves to the business of the
diocese.
" If the synod is simply to pass resolutions recommending the Executive Committee and the Bishop to do the
work, we can do the work without such a recommendation at all. ..."
A similar feeling of disappointment pervaded his
lordship's remarks on Church schools, in the cause
of which he had sacrificed so much time and money.
" It seems to be entirely ignored," he says, " that these
institutions exist, not as private speculations, but for the
promotion of religious education on Church principles.
It is simply a question as to whether such an object is
desirable or not. I established these schools because I
believed that it is, and because I was encouraged to do
so by the repeated solicitations of Church people. I am
naturally, therefore, disappointed at finding Church
children sent indiscriminately to Roman or to free
schools, while our own are left to languish for want of
support, and I myself am consumed with anxiety on
their account."
Other subjects called for equally plain expressions of feeling, the uniform depression of the
Bishop's statement being only broken by a more
hopeful forecast of the prospects of the Indian
work and schools.
The great anxiety which no doubt clouded the
Bishop's estimate of the whole diocesan work was
the serious financial outlook resulting from the
decrease of offerings both in England and within
the diocese.    On this point the Bishop writes—
"While I would be the very last to regard the
financial prosperity of the diocese as an absolute test of 138 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
its success, nevertheless I am strongly of opinion that
where a Church fails to attract the willing and hearty
support of its members, the circumstance betokens a want
of confidence and harmony for which there must be a
cause, and for which it is the duty of all, and especially
for those in authority, to seek a remedy."
One cause to which the Bishop called special
attention, whether rightly or wrongly the present
writer has no knowledge, lay in a direction upon
which he speaks trenchantly and with characteristic
courage.
"There is, however, another way of reading our
financial embarrassment, and one which the solemn
obligations of my office forbid me to overlook, viz. as
affording an indication of the relationship existing
between pastor and people. And herein, again, I must
guard myself from being misunderstood. I do not for
one moment allow that the personal relationship of any
one to his parish priest is a lawful or proper measure of
his obligation to support his Church. A man's duty in this
respect belongs to a region far removed from all personal
considerations. Nevertheless, unfortunately for human
nature, we know only too well that personal relationship
is the pivot on which a large proportion of our religious
contributions turns, and the first and commonest indication of friction in the running of the parochial machine
is often the failure or falling off of contributions. It
would be childish to ignore that there is friction of a
serious character in some of our parishes, and such
friction as ought to be avoided, and could be avoided ;
for in every instance at present in my mind, self-will and
no principle whatever is the originating cause of it Self-
will is equally unlovely, whether in priest or people, but
it is undoubtedly less excusable in the former, who
should have the more evenly balanced and more perfectly
sanctified mind. ' It is impossible but that offences will
come, but woe unto him through whom they come.'
The responsibility, whether to priest pr layman, is a. NEW  WESTMINSTER. 139
terrible one, while the insignificance of the matter in
dispute is an aggravation of the scandal and a wanton
outrage to common sense.
" The shepherd is quick to complain if his flock do
not follow him, but he complains also when they follow
him in the path of self-will. He claims that to him is
committed the cure of souls, and his conscience must
not be fettered in the exercise of it. My brothers, there
is a cure of souls of higher responsibility than yours,
that is, your Bishop's, and his conscience is to him a
matter as solemn as your own. You can, by submission,
throw your responsibility on to him ; he cannot dispose
of his own. He may certainly err, but the blame is his,
not yours, if you have yielded to his judgment ; whereas
your errors are his responsibility if he has suffered them
to continue.
" And to my lay brothers may I not justly say that in
their contentions there is more of self-will than of
principle, more self-assertion than argument ? ' We will
not have these things so,' is neither convincing nor provocative of charity. It is possible to compel peace
with a sword, but it is only the peace of a slumbering
volcano, a breathing time for the vanquished to prepare
again for the contest A true peace is one for which
both sides long, and for sake of which both sides are
. ready to yield."
Be the cause what it might, the Bishop had to
bid the friends of the Mission at home and abroad
to face the unpleasant fact that the diocese was
practically bankrupt, and its chief pastor compelled
to meet urgent liabilities out of his own private
resources.
" It is not within the bounds of reasonable expectation,"
he writes, " that I should go on doing this, even if I were
in a position, which I am not, to afford it. I am under
no obligation to contribute more than one-tenth of my
income for Church purposes, whereas during the last five
years I have contributed more than one-fourth." i4o MEMOIR  OF THE  BISHOP  OF
That this was a time of grievous anxiety to the
Bishop was fully borne out at the time by the testimony of Mr. Justinian Pelly, treasurer to the Home
Committee, then on a visit to the diocese, and who
worked indefatigably to improve financial matters.
He wrote as follows, under  date of January 31,
"... Since I arrived here I have occupied myself
in making a complete investigation of the financial
position of the Mission, and I now send you, under
separate cover by book post, an abstract of the Mission
accounts, from the time the Bishop entered upon his
duties. I have endeavoured to put this abstract in such
a form as shall be intelligible to persons not versed in
accounts, as it is the opinion of the Bishop, subject to
the concurrence of the English committee, that it would
be expedient to have it printed and circulated among all
interested in the diocese. . . . There are some remarks
regarding the several items of expenditure, which I
venture to submit to the committee. ' Travelling Expenses ' is necessarily a very heavy item. The cost of
the journey of each employé coming from England was,
until last year, ^70. By arrangements with steamship
owners in England, and with railroads in America, the
cost has latterly been reduced to under ^50, and
negotiations are in progress for still greater reduction.
Travelling expenses in the diocese are likewise very
heavy. To those unacquainted with the condition of
■ the country, it may be surprising to be told that the
ordinary charges at the roadside inns, where only the
very roughest accommodation is to be had, far exceed
those of first-class hotels in England. The distances,
moreover, from place to place are very great. With
regard to the journeys of the Bishop, he has been treated
with great liberality by the innkeepers and by the
authorities of the railway company, who have given him
a free pass over the line so far as completed, and have
been equally liberal with regard to other clergy when NEW   WESTMINSTER. 141
travelling on ministerial duties. Moreover, the special
' donations and offertories which the Bishop has received
in his journeys up-country have frequently exceeded
and generally equalled his outlay. These contributions
appear on the credit side of the account, under the head
'Offertories,' and are included in the sum of $5151
appearing there. I would here venture to remark on what
appears to me the largeness of the sum so contributed
by offertories, donations, and sales of work in the diocese,
and for the general purposes of the Mission, as this does
not include what was raised in the several parishes for
church-building, maintenance of services, and clergy
stipends. I find from the annual parochial returns
that these in the four years, 1881-1884, amounted to
$23,193.57.
" With regard to ' General Expenses,' I have looked
through the several items charged under this head, and
could not discover any outlay beyond what was absolutely
necessary. Freight and duty on mission goods, included
under this head, is either recouped by sales of work, or
benefits the parishes for which the goods are destined,
without appearing in the accounts.
"The finances of the Mission are managed by an
Executive Committee of which the Bishop is president,
and the strictest economy is exercised."
As the months went on the situation did not
become less acute, and the quarterly paper issued
in July, 1885, makes the following announcement :—
" Owing to the very unsatisfactory state of our funds,
the Bishop has felt it his duty to come home next year-
and try to stir up more interest in his diocese. The
necessity of this step comes at a most inconvenient
time, for the completion of the C.P.R. especially
demands his presence in the diocese to try to meet
the fresh demands which will be made p&jfhe Church
for her ministrations to the new sejtt&s from England.
" More men will mean more money. At present some
work will have to be given up, and though one of the 142 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP   OF
saddest things in mission life is to give up work, yet it
is better to do this than to get into debt We are doing
our best to avoid this, and to keep clear of owing money
—though there are clergy out there now, hard-working
men, who have not received the wretchedly small stipends
due to them in full for the last six months. It is much
better that our readers should know this. So many
promised to collect for us and have given it up; so
many were eager for boxes, but have become tired ;
so many clergy who gave offertories now say that they
really cannot manage to give us a sermon once a year.
Is it that the love of many is becoming cold? Is the
interest in the welfare of our poor diocese so small that,
at a critical time like the present, our old friends will not
rally round us ? . . . May God raise us up some helpers
speedily, that the work may not fail."
It is a melancholy story, and by this time probably to the reader monotonous, but the reality
was monotonous too, and it is just as well that this
fact should be appreciated.
In the fall of, the year came another letter
from the Bishop, dated September 24, 1885, on
the now too familiar subject. We quote this at
length—
"My dear Mr. Mogg,
" My quarterly contribution to the paper 'can- %
not be a cheerful one. I am bitterly disappointed at the
failure of support from home, and while I am cast down
at the prospects of the Church here, I cannot help feeling
some indignation as well at being left to do the best
I can with obligations which home support, a year or
two ago, encouraged me to incur.
" It would probably have been better had the money
then given us been withheld. We certainly could not,
in that case, have enlarged our borders as we wished to
do, and as was really necessary to be done, but we
should not have been in our present position of financial
collapse.     It is only another proof, were any needed, of NEW WESTMINSTER. H3
the falsity of the principle of giving out of a temporarily
excited interest, rather than out of a sense of duty and
a love of God.
"I hope I shall be forgiven for writing somewhat
severely, but it must be remembered that, on the strength
of contributions in former years, I have opened up
missions and brought men out from England to occupy
them ; I have established schools, and sent for teachers
to superintend them ; and then suddenly, and without one
word of warning, contributions fail, and no alternative is
left us but to abandon much promising and prosperous
"I am not exaggerating. Two churches are now
closed, and a third will be closed at the end of a
month ; two have been reduced to fortnightly services.
One school was closed last June, and another is to be
closed at Christmas. We are in debt to the clergy for
stipends, due on June 30th last, about ^90, and we
have about £,10 in hand to meet this and the stipends
falling due on the 30th inst ; and I have had to borrow
money on the mortgage of Church property to meet
liabilities which could not wait, and have made advances
myself to the very utmost of my ability.
" I have no heart to write of work while this financial
burden is weighing on me. A responsibility, heavy
enough under any circumstances, becomes almost intolerable in such a case.
" 'Why not come home and beg yourself? say some
people. I cannot afford to come home at present, but,
further, it ought not to be necessary for me to come
home. Where is the use of great missionary organizations like S.P.G. and C.M.S., or of the multitude of
lesser ' committees,' ' councils,' and ' agencies,' if,_ after
all, the Bishops have to do the begging? I maintain
that we are sent by the Church to do her work, and our
reports of the work doing and to be done ought to be
sufficient. It is a degradation of our office to have to
make 'appeals' to conjure pence out of people's pockets
wherewith to do God's work. 144 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
" There is something wanting in a system that requires
such appeals, but the supply of what is wanting is a
subject altogether too big to be entered upon here, even
if it were within my capacity to discuss it.
" I append a summary of the treasurer's statement, to
show that (in the single item of stipends) we have in
hand about ^20 to meet about ^"220.
■ Yours faithfully,
"A. W. New Westminster."
This has been a short and dull chapter, but it
will not have been dull in vain if only Church
people in England can be induced to think of the
way in which our colonial Churches are starved in
their tender infancy, rendered puny and weak for
want of the nourishment a rich Mother Church
has it in her power to give, and if they can be induced to think, too, of the way in which a Bishop's
heart is crushed within him at the apparent indifference of those who have sent him forth.
Our dear old Church has had her martyr-bishops
who have freely shed their blood in savage lands,
but it has had, and still has, its martyrs also of
another type—martyrs whose life-blood is pressed
out of them drop by drop.
Still there was another side to the shield, and
though the Bishop's heart was made sore within
him by these and other trials, there were not
wanting signs of great things, both achieved in
the past and promised for the future. The opening
of the C.P.R. during this year was a determining
crisis in the history of the colony, and brought the
Mission into closer touch with the rest of the Church
work in Canada, while opening up the country more
effectually to the ministrations of the Church. The
Indian Missions went on apace at Yale and Lytton.
In both places church-building proceeded rapidly, NEW   WESTMINSTER. 145
priests and people working enthusiastically together,
and many converts were gathered into the fold by
baptism. On every hand we see during this year
that the influence of the Bishop's work was felt,
and producing a far larger harvest of good than
was at first sight apparent. MEMOIR  OF THE  BISHOP  OF
CHAPTER   XVIII.
FROM KAMLOOPS TO  THE COLUMBIA.
Here is a narrative by Mrs. Sillitoe of an eventful
journey.
"A new city having sprung up during the last few
months on the Columbia river, where the C.P.R.
crosses it the second time, the Bishop decided to
take advantage of an opportunity which occurred
to go up and pay Farwell a visit On Friday, May
ist, we were up at 6 a.m., to be ready for the steamboat Peerless. We left Kamloops about 10 a.m., with
a very large cargo on board, and a very rough crowd
of passengers, numbering, Chinese included, nearly two
hundred. The men were on their way up to work on
different parts of the railway line. We spent a pleasant,
lazy day, going slowly up the South Thompson river,
often getting on the sand-bars—for the river was very low.
Our progress was so slow that, instead of arriving at
Eagle Pass at 10 p.m., it was six the following morning
ere we arrived at that landing.
" It was 9 a.m. before we were able to ' hitch up ' our
horses and drive off. The morning had been misty, and
so we were unable to see much of the Lesser Shuswap
Lake, on the shores of which we had been landed. The
day was very warm, and the sun scorching, yet all
around snow lay on the ground, quite thick in the
more sheltered places. The trees all along the road were
wonderful.    The timber of British Columbia is generally   NEW  WESTMINSTER. 147
very fine, in some places extraordinarily large, but never
had we seen anything to equal this amongst which we
now were—cedars for the most part so tall and straight
that the tops were scarcely visible. About seven o'clock,
when still three miles from our destination, we were
stopped at a camp with the news that it would be
impossible for us to proceed at present, as forest fires
were raging ahead, and the road was blocked with fallen
trees. They were expecting every moment the return of
a party who had been engaged all day in clearing the
road. Soon we met the ' boss,' who told us the fire was
very bad, but that there were only a few more trees to
clear away, and that he would send out a fresh gang of men
and get us through if possible. We put-to the ponies,
and, following the men, came up to them whilst they were
chopping out the two last trees. It was by no means
pleasant waiting in the midst of such fire and smoke,
one's eyes streaming with tears, yet unable to withdraw
them from the falling trees, which were liable to come
down at any moment. Against one large cedar we
were especially warned to be on our guard, and whilst
watching this, down fell another between ourselves and
the choppers, not many yards from either of us. How
those men worked ! Englishmen have little idea how,
under ordinary circumstances, Canadian axemen can
chop, but when working, as they then were, with almost
superhuman efforts, it was a sight requiring to be seen
to be believed.
"At last the road was clear, and the boss told the
Bishop to whip the ponies ' all he knew how,' and gallop
through. This he did, though at first it looked impossible, the bushes burning fiercely on either side, and
the flames blowing right across the road, the dense
smoke making everything else look dark. We did as we
were told, and the ponies seeming fully to understand
that this was a time for a special effort, galloped, and we,
with our heads bent down, went through safely, the large
cedar falling directly after. About 9 p.m. we reached
Griffin Lake, and here we stopped for the night, being 148 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
not sorry to have some rest, for we were thoroughly tired.
Our start next morning was to be not later than six, for we
had still seventeen miles to drive, and wished to reach the
Columbia river in time at least for an afternoon service.
Between Griffin Lake and the Columbia, four lakes have
to be crossed on scows, and one's progress can be but slow.
| Griffin Lake is about a mile and a half wide, and
this we got across all right, though the water had risen
considerably during the night, making the landing very
difficult. A short drive brought us to the second.and
largest, Three Valley Lake, three miles long, and here
the unpleasant news reached us that a gale was blowing
round the point, and it would be impossible to cross till
the wind fell, which it might do about eleven o'clock.
Our party was six in number, and we determined to go
as far as the point and see for ourselves, but on each
attempt to get round we were blown back, and so there
was nothing else to be done but to tie the scow to a tree
which had fallen into the lake, and to wait for the wind
to abate. For two hours we remained tied up, and then
made another effort, this time a successful one, and
reached the end of the lake. Half a mile more brought
us to Summit Lake. All these lakes are very beautiful,
the two last with high rocky banks, and into Summit
Lake a lovely waterfall comes tumbling from a great
height. Our progress was so slow that it was 4 p.m.
ere we reached the Columbia. Here we found a most
kind hostess in Mrs. Wright, the wife of the contractor
of the Eagle Pass Road, over which we had just travelled,
which within the last two years had been made from
Eagle Pass Landing to the Columbia river, a distance of
forty-seven miles. During this day we had had to drive
through several fires, the last being not half a mile from
Mr. Wright's house. This being in the vicinity of a
shed where a large quantity of charcoal was stored,
required to be watched by a number of men, whose
absence diminished the number of our evening congregation. Mr. Wright's house stands on the west shore
of the Columbia. . . . NEW  WESTMINSTER. 149
" Directly opposite, on the east shore, stands Farwell,
the latest-born city in British Columbia, consisting of
about eighty houses, some of them substantial log buildings, and gradually degenerating down to the shanty,
built wholly of split cedar planks, and every kind of tent.
Whisky selling was the principal trade, and hitherto a
good deal of lawlessness had prevailed. The piers of the
bridge over the Columbia are built, but the bridge itself
is not finished, and the river is crossed in small boats,
which, considering the swiftness of the current, is by no
means a pleasure unmixed with danger. Boats are frequently swept down by the stream and swamped in passing
the piers; Two days before our arrival, a boat with three
men was swamped in going through the bridge, and the
men left clinging to the piles. First one boat, then
another, going to the rescue, met with the same fate, till
seven men were all clinging on for dear life, whilst the rushing stream threatened every moment to carry them away.
At last a boat succeeded in reaching them, and all were
rescued twenty minutes after the first boat was upset.
Three men out of five had that week been drowned
whilst trying to get on board the steamer Kootenay, then
making her first trip up the Columbia.
" On Monday we crossed to Farwell to see the place
and visit a few people, and to make arrangements for a
service to be held the following day. During the evening the fires approached so close to the house that,
though no danger was anticipated, it was thought advisable to dig a trench and bury a quantity of powder
kept in the storehouse. On Tuesday morning the men
keeping watch over the fires came in to have a sleep.
They had been on watch since Sunday morning, and
were worn out ; besides, the fire was thought to be well
under control. Though only the beginning of May, the
weather was intensely hot, and we were glad to stay in
the cool log-house all the morning. About one o'clock a
cry was raised that the fires were upon us, and running
to the door, we found the bushes and trees blazing and
roaring not eighty yards away.   The house is closely i5o MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
surrounded on three sides by trees, no clearing having
been made around, and it was very necessary to take
prompt measures, or everything would soon be burnt up.
Happily a large staff of men was at hand, and as there
was no possibility of extinguishing the fire, it was thought
best to burn the trees and brush immediately round the
buildings, leaving a burnt space across which the forest
fire would not be able to pass. Before doing this, however, the roofs were covered with blankets, which were
kept wet with water 'packed' up from the river. Oh,
the excitement of that afternoon and evening ! And
how thankful every one felt that the powder had been
buried ! It was, indeed, a grand, awful sight to see the
fire catching tree after tree, running up the trunks like
a flash of lightning, and bursting into a mass of flame as
it caught the foliage at the top, roaring and crackling in
the most deafening manner. From thirty to forty men
must have been at work arresting the course of the fire,
keeping it in check by shovelling on sand and snow (of
which a quantity remained in the hollows), and by pouring on buckets of water. As night came on the danger
to the house was lessened, as a space had by this time
been burnt round it ; but now the almost greater danger
threatened from the trees, which by this time were burnt
through, and were falling in all directions. Now it was
that the wonderful skill of the axemen was noticeable.
They marked every tree likely to fall on the house—
though it is very difficult to know which way a burning tree
will fall. Three men worked at felling each tree, two
chopping and one sawing, till either the tree fell or they
were obliged to give up on account of the intense heat.
There was one tree leaning so much towards the buildings as to make it impossible for them to fell it so as to
make it fall in another direction, so they decided it must
fall between the houses, and to accomplish this they
had first to fell a cotton-wood tree standing in the way.
"The tree was thirty-three inches in diameter, as
I afterwards ascertained by measurement, and the
three men took exactly seven minutes to fell it.    They
Li NEW  WESTMINSTER. 151
afterwards brought down the burning tree just where they
intended, without the buildings being touched. Then
on they went to another tree—a sound one, apparently,
a puff of smoke only now and then issuing from the bark,
showing that there was fire within. They chopped at it
for awhile, when, all at once, a solid mass of flames
burst out from the centre, and salamanders though the
men seemed to be, they had quickly to get away. The
scene was indeed weird, even more so than in the daytime, when the fire raged more fiercely. Fire on all sides
as far as the eye could reach, each tree standing out
clearly in the bright red light. Every minute a crash
and a roar as one tree after another fell to the ground.
I could not but admire the self-command of our hostess,
who, in the absence of her husband, had so much extra
anxiety and responsibility, but nevertheless did not for a
moment lose self-possession and coolness, but was continually out and around watching how matters were
going. The men worked hard during the whole of that
night The next morning broke on a scene of desolation, the coolness of night causing the flames to die
down, leaving only the smouldering flame and thick
smoke, with every minute the crash and roar of a falling
tree. One tree in falling grazed the house, but happily
did little damage. All that day the men worked, for the
fires became fiercer as the sun waxed hot.
"In the afternoon we crossed the river to Farwell,
and the Bishop held service at the hotel, recrossing the
same evening. On the further bank of the Columbia
the fire had been increasing all day, but no steps were
taken to arrest its progress, because, first of all, it was
nobody's business, and secondly, because the town was
considered safe. Alas ! for their supposed security !
During j,the night a strong wind began to blow, increasing to a gale, and we were startled, while dressing,
with a cry that Farwell was in flames. Rushing out,
we saw that this was indeed the case, and from house
to house the fire rushed with awful rapidity, driving out
the inhabitants, who had not time to save any of their 152 MEMOIR   OF THE BISHOP   OF
belongings, but had to fly for their lives. The strong
wind was meanwhile bringing large pieces of burning wood
across the river, and a look-out had to be kept on the
buildings, which once actually took fire. In about half
an hour the fire had burned itself out, leaving about
thirty buildings standing out of eighty. During that day
a scene of utter lawlessness prevailed, those who had
saved anything having it appropriated by those who had
nothing left, and the rescued whisky-kegs becoming
common property.
" We had intended to leave the Columbia in time to
catch the Saturday's boat from Eagle Pass, as we were due
in Kamloops on Sunday. But this was not possible.
The road was blocked with fallen trees, and men could
not be spared to clear them away, the house being by no
means out of danger. It was not, therefore, till midday
on Sunday, after a morning service, that we said goodbye to. our kind and hospitable hostess, and started, not
knowing, indeed, how far we might be able to get without being stopped; for information had come that the
fires were very bad along the whole road. For the first
seven miles we had an escort with an axe, and very
thankful we were for his help in unhitching the horses
and getting the buckboard across two bumt-out culverts
and some fallen trees.
"We crossed the lakes without trouble, reaching
Griffin Lake about 7.30, where we found a number of
teams waiting to get over the road. After an all too
short night's rest, we started at 6 a.m., hoping, oh ! so
heartily, that the road might be clear, knowing with
satisfaction that when we had accomplished the first ten
miles, we should afterwards have one, or perhaps two,
teams ahead. We, therefore, hurried on, as, being only
our two selves in the buckboard, company would be
very desirable in getting over our difficulties.
" Our hopes were, alas ! futile. Hardly had we driven
a mile before we found a tree fallen right across the road,
with no possibility of getting round it, -so we unhitched,
and the Bishop chopped out the smaller branches.    He NEW  WESTMINSTER. 153
then made the ponies jump over, and we proceeded to lift
over the buckboard. Never had it seemed so heavy
before, and, indeed, once or twice I felt almost hopeless.
But time and perseverance accomplish most things, and
so with this, though a number of bruises bore testimony
that the task was by no means an easy one. Other logs
we encountered, but were able to get round some, and
we were fortunate in getting the help of men to get past
others. The ten miles ended, we believed our troubles
to have come to an end, and drove on with lighter hearts
over the fresh wheel-tracks, but the first man we met
informed us that the fires were so bad three miles
further on that we should be stopped, and that a large
bridge had been burnt during the night This was not
cheering ; but thinking that where one team had gone
another might follow, we proceeded, but were soon
stopped by our friend, the overseer, who had conducted
us through the first fire on our journey up. He recom-
. mended us to turn back, as we could not possibly get
through until the next day. He said that not only was
the bridge burnt, but the trees were falling so fast that
it would be dangerous to go near where the repair party
was already at work.
" Still, we pushed on, for the steamboat was to leave
the landing that evening. Reaching the fire, the Bishop
alighted, leaving me in the buckboard while he walked .
on. After a long, anxious wait, I heard his voice calling
■ me to come on, and he brought the welcome news that
the road was clear to the bridge if we could drive through
very hot fires, and that the men would try and lift over
the buckboard. Well, we got through, I know not how,
and reaching the bridge, found quite an assemblage ; for
besides the repair party, there were two teams, a band
of wild cattle, and a loaded pack-train, waiting on the
other side. It seemed a big gap over which to lift the
buckboard, but many hands make light work, and to cross
the bridge did not take a quarter of the time it had
taken us to cross some of the trees. Before the steamer
had been many minutes at the landing, we had taken leave 154 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
of our friends, and retired to a fairly comfortable cabin.
I was soon asleep, or as much asleep as the case would
admit, whilst the steamboat was going from one camp
to another landing freight. A cry of ' Fire ! ' aroused me.
At first I thought it must be a dream, but the cry being
repeated again and again, I looked out and saw that we
had returned to Eagle Pass, and the place was aglow with
the flames of a burning shanty. I did not need the cry
of a man from on shore to remind me that the steamboat
was lying close to a shed where powder was stored. It
seemed, indeed, as if our enemy were following us to
the end of our journey. The night was calm, no wind
blowing, so the fire burnt itself out, fortunately without
spreading, no attempt being made to put it out. ' It's
only a Chinaman's ; let it burn,' I heard one white man
say ; though the agonized cry of the poor Celestial with
his house on fire was dreadful to hear.
"After this our journey was uneventful, and we
reached Kamloops in the afternoon of Saturday, with
hearts full of thankfulness at having been safely brought
through so many dangers." NEW  WESTMINSTER.
CHAPTER  XIX.
GENERAL SURVEY,  1885-1886.
One or two events of the year 1885 have been
described at length, but the notice of interesting
journeys and events has by no means been exhausted. For instance, we have an account of a
nine hundred miles' drive into the Cariboo country
undertaken by the Bishop and Mrs. Sillitoe from
July to September. Inasmuch, however, as the
ground has been covered once or twice before,
and the narrative embraces only such now familiar
incidents of up-country travel as forest fires, washouts, miry roads, and break-downs, together with
the incessant recurrence of services, baptisms, and
confirmations, which, of course, formed the primary-
object of the Bishop's visitations, we will leave the
reader to imagine for himself this arduous, but no
. longer novel, journey.
Almost immediately after the return from this
tour in Cariboo, took place the consecration of the
new Indian church at Lytton on October 19th.
We cannot do better than give Mr. Small's account
of this festive event, cheering alike to the Mission
priests, and to the Bishop, who was beginning to
see his efforts on behalf of the Indians bearing fruit.
" You will be glad to hear," writes Mr. Small, " that
our Indian church at Lytton—entirely rebuilt by the
labour of the Indians themselves—was consecrated by the
J 156 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
Bishop on October 19th. I really never dreamed, when
ministering in the old dilapidated church a year ago,
that within twelve months it would be my happiness to
find a bright, clean, waterproof building, with a sanctuary
which in decency would compare with many, if not most,
of the churches in which I have ministered at home.
Meshell, our interpreter, and the chief agent in the
whole matter, has been most faithful in following out
the directions given by Mr. Edwardes's practical and
tasteful mind, and in the final arrangements, the completeness was due to the personal help and-instruction
given by him and Mr. Clinton. On the Thursday
previous to the consecration, the Governor-General,
who was passing through Lytton, received a deputation
and address from the Indians in the unconsecrated
church. Sis excellency's reply was eminently grave
and practical, and in it he promised the Indians an
organ for their church, to be sent by the C.P.R. when
the traffic is opened through. On the day of consecration
we had Mattins, followed by the Consecration Service
and Holy Communion at 9 a.m. Many services and
a Confirmation took place; and in the evening, after
the Bishop had left for Kamloops, the congregation
gathered again in church, and at this service six infants
and children were baptized."
The Bishop's report for 1885 also refers to a few
other interesting items in the year's work.
1. Of Columbia College he has to report that,
owing to the disadvantages of inadequate ^àîtëlSj
unsuitable premises, of too frequent changes of lady
principals, and the competition of the Government
free schools, it had been found impossible to maintain the institution as then established, but with the
help of S.P.G., and the kind promise of another
Sister from Ditchingham, he felt that he might
purchase commodious premises at Yale, and hand
over the education of girls to the Sisters with every
prospect of success. NEW   WESTMINSTER. 157
2. Another matter referred to was the departure
for England of Mr. Justinian Pelly, after a stay of
some months in the diocese. During his visit Mr.
Pelly was most assiduously engaged for the Bishop
in lay work of the most valuable character. In
alluding to his departure, the Bishop speaks of it
as a terrible loss, both to himself personally and to
the diocese at large.
However, it was a consolation to feel that Mr.
Pelly was carrying his unequalled interest in the
diocese with him to England, and would there
continue to labour for the same ends. There was
a further occasion for congratulation in the fact
that his place as a visitor would be taken by Canon
Thynne, a consistent friend of the Mission from the
outset, and now desirous of strengthening his ties
with the diocese by engaging in mission work for
six months among the miners.
The effects of visits such as this was of considerable value to the diocese in keeping it in touch
with sources of assistance in the old country. At
this stage of the diocesan history, the home organization, carried on under the direction of Mr. Mogg,
was doing excellent work. Centres of interest
were formed in various parts of England, and guilds
established for the deepening of zeal in the workers.
It was to assist in this movement that the Bishop
desired to visit England, but the same cause which
impelled him to undertake the journey—viz. the ne-,
cessity of raising funds—also seemed for a long time
to bar the way, for he could not afford the journey.
Under date of March 10, 1886, the Bishop writes
as follows :—
"My dear Mogg,
" I am sorry to say that I have been obliged to
postpone my visit to England.   I hoped to have been able
1 158 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP   OF
to start next month, but I am so badly off that I could
only come by borrowing the money for my travelling expenses, and this I am unwilling to do.
" I have had to pay out so much for public purposes
that I cannot save a penny ; and, indeed, if I come this
year at all, it will have to be by stopping at home and
economizing to the last degree. And yet I ought to
go and visit the Granite Creek mines if I go nowhere
else.
" The winter is probably a better time than summer
for week-night meetings, but as regards Sundays, they
are difficult to be had between Advent and Easter."
To make matters worse, the year 1886 was a
year of considerable strain upon the diocese.
On Whit Sunday, June 13th, the city of Vancouver was visited by one of those disastrous
conflagrations which seem at some time or other
to visit all towns on the American continent, and
practically the whole city was left in ashes. Only
six houses, it is said, were left standing, and a
thousand people were left homeless. The loss
included the church of S. James', which was in
the charge of the Rev. H. G. F. Clinton, who lost
books, clothes, furniture, and everything, with
nothing insured, while the church itself was only
insured for the sum of $750. It was a strange
coincidence, with perhaps some hidden sign of
blessing, that the fire occurred on the day that the
Church was celebrating the coming down of the
Holy Spirit under the outward symbol of tongues
of fire. The necessity for rebuilding this church
came as an added anxiety to the already overburdened Bishop.
During the year it became imperatively necessary
to place the position of the diocese prominently
before the lay Church people. To every known
Churchman an appeal was sent asking what each NEW  WESTMINSTER.
159
would give, not to his own parish, but to the
general work of the diocese. In writing to meet
some objections to the appeal raised by some, the
Bishop remarks as follows :—
" Amongst the duties of the Bishop are some which
involve expense, as, e.g. the management of property, the
legal costs of which amount to a large sum annually.
There are three ways of dealing with these expenses :
(1) Let the Bishop pay them out of his own pocket ;
(2) Let the parishes generally contribute to the payment
of them ; (3) Don't pay them at all. I need scarcely
say that they have been dealt with hitherto in the first
mentioned way. There is a simplicity about this solution
of the difficulty which quite accounts for the complacency with which the parishes have hitherto quietly
acquiesced in the arrangement I say the 'parishes,'
because whatsoever help I have hitherto received in
this direction has been altogether individual in its
character, while my contention is that it should be
parochial. ... I firmly believe that the successful
administration of a diocese, specially in regard to its
finances, depends in a most important measure upon
the full appreciation and practical observance of this
principle It admits of a simple illustration. A citizen
of New Westminster is required to pay municipal taxes,
but his payment in this respect does not exempt him from
" the payment of provincial taxes, nor do these again
set him free from the imposts levied by the Dominion
Government The municipality corresponds with the
parish, the province with the diocese, while the Dominion .
stands for the whole Church, especially in its mission
field ; and every Churchman is liable under these several
ecclesiastical organizations, as is every citizen under the
. corresponding political ones."
The necessity for doing something above what
had already been done was obvious enough. The
completion   of   the   C.P.R.   was   bringing   large i6o MEMOIR  OF  THE BISHOP   OF
numbers of settlers into the province, and from
every direction urgent and touching calls were
being received for the ministrations of the Church
—calls which considerations of distance made it
peculiarly difficult and expensive to answer.
Here is one specimen letter received from a
prominent and influential layman at Donald.
"June 2, 1886.
"Right Rev. and Dear Sir,
"I am induced to trouble you thinking that
you would be pleased to learn what I have to communicate, and hoping you may have it in your power to meet
the views of the people residing here, both as affects
educational and religious matters.
" All last year there were quite a number of families
with their children at this place, yet not once were they
visited by a clergyman. It has been decided by the
C.P.R. that Donald is to be the most important station
this side of Winnipeg. Large machine shops and round
houses are to be maintained, and some three hundred
and fifty or four hundred men will be kept here by the
C.P.R. Many of these fill important positions, and
members of all classes coming in have families, but the
superintendent tells me that they object to this place as
being unfit as a dwelling-place for their families, there
being no schools, no churches, nor any facilities for
bringing up their children in the way they should go.
" That this place should be so neglected is the cause
of much comment Should you feel like running up
here to see the country and people, what I can do I will
freely do to make you comfortable.
"Yours very faithfully,
" A. W. Vowell."
Unremitting efforts to meet such pressing wants
were made throughout this year, and, as the
statistics for the year show, not by any means
unsuccessfully.    The number of clergy shows a NEW  WESTMINSTER. 161
gratifying increase, and, by performing double
duty, the clergy made themselves go a considerable way in supplying the lack of Church privileges.
As an example of this, we may take the case of
Mr. Croucher, who had charge of Maple Ridge and
Ladner's Landing, two settlements twenty-four
miles apart. To minister to these two localities, he
had for some time to use a little skiff totally un-
suited to breast the rapid flood of the Fraser
river. In December, 1885, Mr. Croucher nearly
lost his life in his efforts to perform this double
duty. Returning from Ladner's Landing, the tide
running swiftly out, and the wind blowing strongly
against it, the boat capsized, and after struggling
for three quarters of an hour in the deadly cold
water, Mr. Croucher's cries were heard by the workmen in a salmon cannery near, during a stoppage
of the machinery.
Good, however, came out of this perilous adventure, for by the kind efforts of friends of the
Mission in England, a steam launch was bought
and sent out from England for the use of Mr.
Croucher and the Bishop in their visits to the settlers
along the banks of the Fraser. The Eirene, as this
new aid to the mission work was called, proved
indeed a messenger of peace among the settlers,
many of whom were living in a state of practical
heathenism.
Moreover, what the Eirene effected on the water,
namely, a saving in every direction of time and
power, the C.P.R. was the means of effecting on
the land ; for in spite of the need of economy, the
Bishop was obliged to pay Sunday visits up-country
for the purpose of Confirmations. Take for example the week from March 30th to April 7th.
"Leaving home on March 30th, the Bishop reached 162 MEMOIR   OF THE BISHOP  OF
Yale the same afternoon, and at Evensong held a Confirmation in S. John's Church of three girls belonging to
the Sisters' school, and five Indians, and later in the
evening addressed a gathering of Indians in the Indian
church. The next day he reached Kamloops, travelling
^Dyitrain as far as Savona's, and the remaining twenty-five
miles by handcar. On Saturday, April 3rd, two persons
were confirmed in the temporary church at Kamloops.
The following morning the Bishop celebrated and
preached, and left in the afternoon by handcar for
Savona's, where he held service and preached in the
evening. On Monday morning Lytton was reached at
9 am. Flags were flying, and people were dressed in
their best and brightest garments. The Indians were
found already gathered in church for a Confirmation, the
watchmen representing the different tribes being present
to receive the Bishop at the church door. Twelve men
and six women were confirmed ; and in the afternoon the
Bishop, accompanied by the Rev. H. Edwardes and Mr.
William Meshell, drove down to the S. Paul's Mission
House, where he was received by the Rev. R. Small and
the Rev. E. L. Wright On Tuesday, the 6th, there
was a Confirmation of three men and five women, and
two infants were baptized. On Wednesday the Bishop
baptized eighteen adults. Thursday was devoted to an
inspection of the Mission premises and the examination
of the pupils of the school. On Friday the whole staff of
the Mission House, with the pupils, accompanied the
Bishop down the river by canoe to Reefer's Station,
where the Bishop took train, and reached home in the
evening. During the journey the Bishop confirmed
twenty men and sixteen women, and baptized eighteen
adults and two infants."
In the year 1886 two meetings of the Diocesan
Synod were held—one in March, and a second in
November, previous to the Bishop's departure for
England.
On the morning of November 3rd the Bishop   NEW  WESTMINSTER. 163
celebrated Holy Communion in S. Mary's Church,
Sapperton. A large number, both of clergy and
laity, had assembled to say "Good-bye," and to pray
for God's blessing on the journey. The parting,
thus appropriately made, was soon over, and the
Bishop sped on his way over that great highway of
Canada, the C.P.R.
Thus the Bishop temporarily left his diocese,
thinking anxiously of all he had to accomplish
before seeing once more the glorious peaks and
canons of the Rocky Mountains.
Quebec was reached in time to sail by the
Parisian on November 19th ; and at length the
welcome coast of England came in sight once
more, and Liverpool was reached on the first
Sunday in Advent, November 28, 1886.
The visit itself we must pass over, as every
reader knows what the visit of a colonial Bishop
is like—an endless series of appeals, sermons, and
lectures, with but the merest fraction of time for
rest. The great outstanding features of his stay
were the annual meeting of the Mission in London,
at which the Marquis of Lome spoke, and the ever-
memorable Jubilee Service at Westminster Abbey,
at which the whole Empire lifted up its heart to
God for our Queen's glorious and happy reign. L
MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
CHAPTER  XX.
THE RETURN  TO  THE DIOCESE.
1887.
EVERYWHERE throughout the diocese, upon his
return, the Bishop was warmly welcomed by his
people.
At Donald an address, signed by some forty
persons, was presented at the C.P.R. station, in the
darkness of a stormy night, to greet the Bishop.
The next day, being Sunday, the Bishop recommenced diocesan work by celebrating Holy Communion, and preaching morning and evening to
crowded congregations in the new church—fitly
called S. Peter's—the first church in the Rocky
Mountains.
At Kamloops the visit was marked by a Confirmation on the Monday, and a conference with
the clergy on the Wednesday. A parish conversazione was also held, and an address of
welcome presented on behalf of the citizens of
Kamloops.
The more official welcome was given in New
Westminster, where a large number of friends,
including the Executive Committee of the diocese,
met the Bishop and Mrs. Sillitoe on October 17th.
An address was presented, and, what was more,
the affectionate greetings of all emphasized the
gladness of heart with which the inhabitants of NEW  WESTMINSTER. 165
New Westminster again saw their Bishop and his
wife.
The year was marked by one other event deserving of notice.
On the Festival of S. Andrew an interesting
ceremony took place in the church of the Holy
Trinity, New Westminster, when a beautiful pastoral staff was presented to the Bishop in the
name of the clergy and communicants of the
diocese, as a token of personal love and esteem,
and with the sincere hope that it would be many
years before it passed into the hands of another.
The Bishop accepted the staff, and having laid
it upon the altar, dedicated it to the service of
God. He then gave a short address to the congregation, which gathered up in a few words the
ideal he held of the episcopal office, and which
he faithfully, to the best of his power, endeavoured
to fulfil.
At least from the fourth century, he stated,
the pastoral staff had been by all branches of the
Church accepted as the symbol of episcopal rule
—a rule, not autocratic as by a rod of iron, but
as defined by the proper meaning of the word
régula, a straight edge. A pastoral staff consisted
of three portions, the central being the rod signifying the Bishop's rule over the flock committed to
his charge by the Chief Shepherd, by drawing the
straight lines of the Church's faith once delivered
to the saints, so that his charge might stay in the
old paths and walk therein. Another portion, the
crook, typified the duty of the Bishop to seek
the lost ones wandering from the fold, and with
love and sympathy and tenderness draw them once
more into the Church ; and also to guide those who
otherwise might stray away into the world without.
The third portion, the point, symbolized the most i66 MEMOIR  OF  THE BISHOP  OF
painful portion of the episcopal duty, the exercise
of Church discipline. As the clergy and laity, he
concluded, had of their own accord presented him
with this staff after eight years of episcopal rule,
he judged that it was a sign that his rule had been
commendable to them. "^
NEW  WESTMINSTER.
CHAPTER   XXI.
STEADY PROGRESS.
The year 1888, like 1887, was broken into by a
visit to England, and it is only necessary here
briefly to indicate its leading events. The very
first day of the year was marked by the consecration of S. James' Church, Vancouver, built in the
place of the building swept away by the great
Vancouver fire. The Bishop's Confirmation tours
were as numerous as ever, though compressed into
a smaller portion of the year, and, these over, a
start was made for England immediately after
the meeting of synod in April.
The object of this visit was to attend the Lambeth Conference, of which it is only necessary to
say that to our Bishop, as to every Churchman,
the spectacle of one hundred and forty-five Bishops,
assembled together from the ends of the earth,
united by the tie of a common faith and a common
purpose, was deeply impressive, and furnished
emphatic testimony to the vigorous growth and
practical unity of the Anglican Communion.
With regard to the remainder of the stay the
Bishop writes—
" I was occupied, as last year, in visiting as many as
possible of the parishes from which we derive most of
our support, and this occupied me continuously during
the months of August, September, and October."
*J i68 MEMOIR   OF THE BISHOP  OF
The diocese was reached once more on November
nth, when the mountain church of Donald came
into view, and as it was Sunday morning, the party
was able, while the train waited, to join in a
service of thanksgiving and praise. Unhappily,
the Bishop came back not in the best of health,
and in fighting sickness ended the year.
The work of the year 1889 was of a perfectly
unexciting, if not absolutely humdrum character.
The tenth year of an episcopate could hardly be
so full of varied interest as the first, and as the
Bishop had learned by this time the exact amount
of work of which he and his staff were capable, all
that he had to do was to do it, as well as under
the circumstances was possible. But humdrum
work, sometimes called drudgery, is not the less
valuable because it fails to appeal to men's love
of the sensational, so that if we here give but the
barest résumé of the work of 1889, it is not because
it was less important than that of the preceding
nine, but because the ground has already been
covered in former chapters.
In one way the year was well marked—in the
increase that took place both in the number of clergy
and of churches in the diocese.
On Sunday, January 13th, an ordination was
held in Holy Trinity Church, New Westminster,
when the Rev. W. B. Allen, of Chilliwhack, was
ordained priest, and Mr. Wright admitted to the
diaconate.
With fresh clergy fresh churches were not long
in springing up. The new church at Donald, built
amid the bracing air of the mountains by men
who seem to have inhaled with that air the spirit
to become pioneers in the Church's work, was
consecrated by the Bishop on Sunday, February
24th,  at   a   service  the impressiveness  of which NEW  WESTMINSTER. 169
remained long after as a stimulus to those who
took part therein. The Bishop seems to have
spoken on this occasion on the sacredness of the
House of God with more than his usual force and
fervour.
At Kamloops, too, a new church had been erected,
to the unfeigned gratification of those who had
worshipped so long in a barn. The first service
was held in the new edifice on the same Sunday
as witnessed the Consecration Service at Donald,
and the Bishop was able to be present and hold
a Confirmation on the following Wednesday.
Again, in Vancouver, while the new parish of
Christ Church was developing rapidly, the Rector
of S. James', so far from feeling his work narrowed
by the loss of a portion of his old parish, succeeded
in building two Mission churches at some distance
from the mother-church—S. Michael's on Mount
Pleasant, and S. Paul's on Hornby Street.
Thus new work was pushed forward on every
hand, and the character of the Bishop's work,
during the first half of the year, was that of continual itinerancy, confirming the work already
achieved, and inspiring the clergy to fresh efforts
in the future.
Soon after reaching home, from an extended tour
in the Okanagan country, the Bishop called together
his synod, and in his address touched on many
of the points raised in the Lambeth Conference, and.
committees were appointed to deal with several
of them. In the matter of forming a Provincial
Synod for the whole of British Columbia, no practical result was so far attained, the diocese of
Caledonia being in practice more distant from the
other dioceses than some of the eastern sees.
The great event of the year, and one which was
fraught   with   far-reaching   consequences—to  the' i7o MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
parish of New Westminster advantageous, to the
Bishop personally physically ruinous—was the exchange effected between Archdeacon Woods, Rector
of Holy Trinity, and the Bishop ; whereby the
former became rector of the little suburban church
of S. Mary's, Sapperton, and the latter assumed
the responsibilities of the parish of Holy Trinity.
To the Archdeacon it was the means of obtaining
a much-needed rest, to the parish it was the means
of having the Bishop constantly in its midst, and
the parish church recognized as a quasi-cathedral ;
but to the Bishop himself it was the undertaking
of a burden far too heavy for his strength, even
assisted as he was, for the greater portion of his
incumbency, by a staff of two curates.
But, for the time, the impetus given to the parochial work was immense. The Bishop entered
upon his new duties as rector on July 19th, and
Mr. Irwin became assistant-curate a week later.
The old rectory building was demolished, and the
contract let for the building of a new house, which
should be the official residence of the Bishop.
Mrs. Sillitoe writes at the time—
"The Bishop has now, in addition to his episcopal
work, the charge of the parish of New Westminster, and
this keeps him very busy—in fact, far too busy—for
whilst we are living a mile and a half distant from the
church, it is difficult to get through all the work. Our
new house in New Westminster is being built, but we
shall not be able to get into it till Christmas. As it
is built of wood, we can move in as soon as it is finished.
Sorry as I shall be to leave our present home, the knowledge that if we lived here the work would be too much
for the Bishop, reconciles me to the change. It will
be very nice to have a new house, but I fear it will have
the effect of making my belongings look very shabby."
Meanwhile, the new work did not prevent the  bishop's household. NEW  WESTMINSTER. 171
accomplishment of the usual episcopal duties, and
this year, for the first time in three years, he was
able to be present at the annual gathering of the
Lytton Indians at Pootanie.
On November 1st (All Saints' Day) a landmark
in the Bishop's work was' reached in the completion of the tenth year of his episcopate.
The occasion was fitly marked by a special
service in Holy Trinity Church, on All Hallows
E'en, when the Bishop summed up the encouragements and lessons of his ten years' work in a
striking sermon from the text, "Of myself I can
do nothing." A few days later, in memory of the
same interesting event, a reception was tendered
to the Bishop and Mrs. Sillitoe in the Opera
House, which was of more than parochial interest,
since representatives from many of the outlying
districts attended to offer their congratulations.
It is a significant comment on this tenth anniversary which is furnished in the statistics of the
close of this year. The Bishop was able thankfully
to chronicle the receipt of a material increase of
funds. In the parish of Christ Church, Vancouver,
no less than $7000 was raised during the year.
And on every hand there were signs that Church-
people, naturally so slow in such matters, were
beginning to realize the part they were called upon
to play in building up the Church in the West.
Dr. Sillitoe's ten years' unremitting toil, although
not spent to obtain dazzling or immediate returns,
had not failed in bringing forth much fruit to the
glory of God and the service of man. MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
CHAPTER   XXII.
PAROCHIAL WORK.
THE record of 1890, to correspond with the Bishop's
dual position as Bishop and Rector, must consist
of two stories : the one, describing his progress with
the parish work of Holy Trinity, New Westminster,
the other, his efforts to perform his episcopal duties.
To secure a closer touch with his new parish,
the Bishop had felt the need of building a See
House in the city, and it was an event of no little
local interest, when, on April 16th, the removal
was made from S. Mary's Mount. The "flitting"
was effected by dint of hard work in one day,
although the interior fittings were as yet incomplete. A Benediction Service was held in the
house on the evening of April 23rd, to which were
invited all the members of the Parish Workers'
Association, to the number of nearly seventy. The
house was open to visitors on three afternoons and
evenings in the following week, and a large number
of friends availed themselves of the opportunity of
inspecting it.
No sooner had the Bishop secured a house for
himself, than he determined also to secure a home
for the various organizations which the parochial
work necessitated. The Sunday School, Trinity
Church Club, Sewing Guild, etc., were all practically NEW  WESTMINSTER. 173
homeless until the Bishop planned the erection of
a hall, which, with good acoustic properties, should
give to all the manifold agencies of the Church " a
local habitation."
The hall, dedicated to S. Leonard—was completed
and opened on June 3rd, with an inaugural concert
given by the Choral Union, of which the Bishop
was the leading spirit. What might be called the
parochial inauguration took place on June 5th,
when the Bishop gave an address of welcome, and
spoke hopefully of the future usefulness of the new
hall.
Moreover, the quickening of the Church's vitality
in the neighbourhood of Holy Trinity Church did
not prevent the claims of other portions of the
city from coming under consideration. New Westminster was at this time growing in size and population daily, and like many western cities where the
" real estate " is in the hands of a not over-generous
few, growing more on the outskirts, where the land
was comparatively cheap, than at the centre, where
the purchase of corner-lots demanded capital.
Consequently, the small beginnings of a future
new parish were made by the commencement of
service in the West End School-House, kindly
- lent for the purpose by the school trustees. But
activity in the parish in no way interfered with
the visitation of the diocese, as this year we find
even more places visited than usual, though we
must resist the temptation to describe any of them. MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
CHAPTER XXIII.
WORK IN THE INDIAN  MISSIONS.
At the end of 1890, the Bishop felt considerable
perplexity as to the way in which the work of the
diocese would go on in face of the various changes
which the year had brought about.
" My report for 1890," he writes, "will not be one of
unmixed satisfaction. Though there has been much to
rejoice at, in growth and prosperity, there has been much
sadness, on the other hand, at the departure from among
us of some of the most devoted of our labourers. The
loss in one year of Mr. Croucher, Mr. Small, who
went to Corea, and Mr. Edwardes, who joined the Universities Mission to Central Africa, whose faithful service
has extended over half the fife of our diocese, seems at first
sight almost like the irremediable break-up of our staff,
and yet it is, I suppose, with the diocese as with the
world at large, one drops out and another takes his
place; a gap appears in the ranks, it is noticed for a
moment, and in a moment more it is filled, and things
go on as before, and we learn to see how God hath so
ordered life and His Church that no one of us is necessary
to the accomplishment of His purpose and plan. That
plan is one, embracing all ; and while each has his little
part to play, it is his part only and no more, and his
part ended, another is forthwith raised up, and the one
plan progresses unbroken and undisturbed."
But there was, nevertheless, progress along the NEW   WESTMINSTER. 175
whole line. The clerical staff was seventeen, as
compared with fourteen a year ago ; an increase of
three also appears in the list of lay-readers, and a
corresponding increase in Church members, communicants, baptisms, marriages, and offertories. The
only decrease was in the number of comfirmees
—chiefly among the Lytton Indians, where the
resignation of Mr. Small created a vacancy very
difficult to fill.
Indeed, the Bishop's great anxiety this year was
with respect to the Indian Mission and the finding
of a suitable successor to Mr. Small.
"The history of our Indian Mission," the Bishop
writes, " has been a very broken one this year. The loss
of Mr. Small was a difficult one to repair in any case,
but we have hitherto been unsuccessful in finding a
successor at all. I gave notice of the vacancy, many^
months ago, to my representative, in England ; but though
many applications were received, there were none that
Mr. Mogg could entertain, and, but for Mr. Wright's
willing devotion, we should have been landed in a very
serious difficulty. As it is, he is working single-handed,
with the help that I have been able to afford him from
New Westminster.
" The Indian school at Yale," the Bishop continues,
"has not only made that progress, which we have now
come to regard as a matter of course, but we have also
been able largely to extend its accommodation, by the
addition of a new building at a cost of over $3500,
towards which a grant was made by the Dominion
Government of $1500."
Of the opening of this new wing we have an
interesting account in a letter written by one of
the sisters. From this letter we take the following
extract :—
I His Lordship and Mrs. Sillitoe arrived on Monday,
December 29,  1890, and, as only two days could be 176 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP   OF
spared for Yale, we had to crowd a good deal into Tuesday.
About 6 p.m. a large number of Indians began to assemble,
marshalled by ' George,' our mission servant and interpreter, and waited in perfect order till the procession
had formed in the hall. From thence it started; the
Bishop in cope and mitre, preceded by Aimie, a little
half-breed girl of twelve, as crossbearer, dressed, like her
confirmed companions, in white veil and red pinafore.
Another child came after the Bishop, carrying the school
banner, then four choir-children, then the remainder of
the school, the sisters, and finally a troop of Indians.
The last, nearly seventy in number, walked in couples
and in reverent order and silence. Upstairs wound
the long procession, numbering just a hundred in all,
singing the 67th Psalm, going first to the children's
dormitory and infirmary, then downstairs again to the
refectory and schoolroom, suitable prayers and responses
being said in each ; ending with a short service in the
little chapel, where there was hardly standing room. It
had been arranged that the Benediction was to be
followed by the annual Christmas tree for our children,
in which this year their compatriots were to have a share.
It was quickly lighted, and the presents were distributed
by the good Bishop and other kindly helpers, and then
the tree was removed, and the dusky crowd comfortably
seated for the magic lantern—an exhibition of English .
cathedrals and abbeys—shown by the Bishop, and explained to the Indian spectators by the interpreter."
Thus progress at Yale was gratifying enough,
but meanwhile Lytton was a sore trial of faith and
patience. Every month the appeal was made, and
still remained apparently unanswered.
" No suitable priest has yet been found for the Indian
work. There never was a clearer-voiced call, ' Come over
and help us,', than is contained in the appeals from the
diocese for a really earnest, devoted man. There is really
work for three men, and now only one is keeping it going. Photo: Thompson.}  NEW  WESTMINSTER. 177
The Indians will be scattered, and, amid the enticements
of the Romans on the one hand, and the denunciation of
the Salvationists on the other, these poor, childish people
are sore let and hindered. Midst the thousands of
single priests in England, who are not specially tied by
the circumstances of their lot, surely one can be found
to go forth to this great work. It means self-denial and
hard work—it does not mean good pay—but it means a
great sphere for showing devotion to our blessed Lord."
The enforced return of Dr. Pearce, the medical
missionary, to England, just when his work was
beginning to tell, made the outlook still more
gloomy.
Mr. Wright, in bad health, was doing his utmost
to cope with the difficulties of his position, but
with a district two hundred and twenty miles long,
it was impossible to do much. Moreover, Indian
work specially needed personal care, or it was liable
to develop in unexpected and undesirable directions.
On one occasion Mr. Wright wrote—
" I have just heard of an Indian woman, who was
supposed to have died and has come to life again just as
she was being put into a coffin. I suppose, some trance.
When she came to, she said she had been to a place
where some people were miserable and some happy, and
all the happy ones belonged to the Church of England !
This has had a great effect upon the unbaptized Indians,
who now say they are all coming to us. Great care will
have to be exercised about their preparation for Baptism
under such circumstances."
At last the welcome announcement was made,
though not until near the close of the year—
"The senior priest's vacancy at Lytton is filled.
God has answered our prayers, and in a way we least
expected. The Rev. R. Small has offered to return to
his old work, and the Bishop has readily accepted his offer. 178 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
Christmas, at latest, will see him back among the Indians,
who so dearly love him. This is joyful news indeed,
and let us not forget to thank God for His goodness.
Mr. Small offered, of himself, to come back, as he
heard his post was not filled, and the Bishop of Corea
would not stand in his way. This action on the Bishop's
part is most generous, and demands our gratitude. Thus
the difficulty in regard to one vacancy is at an end. We
still have to send out an earnest, devoted assistant.to
Mr. Small, either priest or deacon. He would have to
live in the Mission House, and be ready to enter into
the system of community life, which means some roughness and self-discipline."
To compensate for the lack of regular pastoral
visitation from which the Lytton district suffered
this year, the Bishop gave a considerable part of
his own time to this particular branch of work.
A few extracts from letters will give some idea
of what the work was.
Of the developments of the Mission and up-
country districts, the Bishop writes—
" A railway is now being constructed from Sicamous to
Enderby, and on past Lansdowne to Vernon on Lake
Okanagan. This railway is bringing all these places into
prominence, and opening up a district which, from a
missionary point of view, is at the present moment as
interesting as any we have. Enderby and Vernon are
about twenty-five miles apart, Lansdowne lying between
the two.
"At Lansdowne we have a church and a small
parsonage ; at Enderby the people are prepared to
build, but have not determined which site to accept out
of the several that have been offered ; at Vernon the
people are taking steps to obtain a site.
" Churches in these places are very unpretentious
buildings, costing not more than ^250, with a seating
capacity of about a hundred, but even this apparently .
small amount is a considerable tax upon the few Church NEW  WESTMINSTER. 179
people who have to provide it, especially when it is
remembered that they already contribute to the stipend
of their clergy as well. . . .
" An incident of missionary life to close with. I heard
of a dying man who wished to see a clergyman. He was
in a hut or cabin eleven miles down the track. There
was no train, nor any road, but the chief engineer of the
line, who happened to be there, procured me a handcar
and a crew to take me down and back. A handcar on
a single fine of railway, where freight trains run independently of time-tables, and where curves are as
sharp as they have to be in this gorge of the Fraser river,
is an exciting kind of travelling. In many places the
track overhangs the river at a height of several hundred
feet ; at others it is carried over deep gullies or ravines
on wooden trestles, of which our friends have seen illustrations in our lantern show, and the platform of a handcar, without a rail to hold on by, and five men occupying
the space of about five feet square, is a position from
which one can appreciate without effort the ' chances of
this mortal life.' Without misadventure, however, my
' crew ' covered the eleven miles in an hour.
" The sick man was a Churchman from the north of
Ireland, who has been twenty years in this country, and
has naturally lost sight of all old-country relations and
friends. He is suffering from heart disease, and may be
taken at any moment, and being dependent entirely
upon chance visits of trackmen passing up and down the
line for help, he more than probably will be alone at
his death. I helped him as well as I could, and tried
to persuade him to allow himself to be taken down
to the coast, but he said he would rather die where he
was than in a 'charity hospital,' and I am afraid he
probably will."
" Temmelch Creek Camp,
"August 15, 1891.
" My dear Mogg,
" I shall not have time to send you a full account
of our visit to the Indian district for publication in the I So MEMOIR-OF THE BISHOP  OF
September Record, but you shall have a few lines by way
of summary. This is our last camp, and I am waiting to
commence work while the people are building a stone
altar in the church tent. This is the first time we have
had to revert to the ancient type of altar. Hitherto we
have had a village church within reach, or have been
able to procure a few boards for an altar table.
"Our camp here is three miles from the nearest
village church or Indian ranch, but the rock about is all
of a slaty character, and slabs of it are very convenient
for our purpose. I have endeavoured to cover as much
ground as possible in the trip, my first object having
been to impress upon the Indians generally the fact that
we had not abandoned them. . . . Consequently, we have
' gone forward ' every two or three days, halting at convenient places for assembling the flock. At each camp
we have had congregations of from fifty to sixty. Most
days we have commenced with a celebration at 6.30 and
taken three services during the day, for instruction,
baptism, confirmation, etc. Once or twice the afternoons have been too hot to sit out in places where shade
was not procurable, and our evening sessions have been
prolonged by the light of the camp fire until long after
dark.
" It is impossible to speak in terms of exaggeration of
the attention and patience of these people They simply
never tire of instruction. Such responsiveness is the
great charm of the work, and gives it an attraction which
is certainly too often wanting in the missionary's experience among white people.
" All the more strongly, therefore, is borne in upon me
the necessity for supplying the vacancy—the necessity
for finding the man ordained of God to take up the
work. . . ."
Here, too, are some extracts from Mrs. Sillitoe's.
vivid description of the same visitation.
11 am writing under difficulties, with a tiny gold
pencil and my paper on my knee, under the shadow of NEW  WESTMINSTER. 181
the church We are camped out near an Indian village
on a dry, dusty, and exceedingly barren flat, under a
burning sun, with not a tree nearer than on the steep
mountain sides which surround us. I am hardly correct
in calling this a barren flat, for on it thrives a vigorous
growth of cactus, and with the utmost care one cannot go
many yards without getting one's shoes full of the sharp
prickles. One night in rolling over in bed I got my side
full of them.
"... On Wednesday, July 29th, we drove down the
waggon-road about fifteen miles, and after crossing the
Thompson river in an exceedingly ramshackle»canoe, and
climbing the steep bank, we arrived at this our first
camp, Pakyst. Meshell was there already, and had our
tents pitched. As it was getting dusk, I lost no time in
unpacking our blankets, and as on account of the great
heat we needed none for covering, we had a less hard bed
than would otherwise have been the case. After that we
had our supper of bread and marmalade by the light of
a candle, the candlestick consisting of three nails in the
top of a piece of wood driven into the ground. After
supper we retired to bed rather than to sleep, for a strong
gale had sprung up, which threatened to carry our tent
away, and in the course of the following day the threat
was carried out, and I had to fly about in all directions
gathering up my scattered belongings. We have stayed
three whole days in this camp, and the programme has
been much the same as at Ashcroft. . . .
"Pakyst was a comfortless, hot camp, and it was
without any regret that we left it on Saturday, August
1 st, walking three miles down the railway track to
Spatsum station, while the tents and pack were sent on
horses over the trail. The west-bound train was due at
Spatsum at 3 a.m. on Sunday, and the long, weary night
did we spend sitting on the platform ; and as if that were
not enough, the train was an hour and a half late, so not
till 4.30 did we get away. Spatsum is only a flag station,
and about ten o'clock the man in charge brought us a
lantern, telling us to wave it, and he then retired.    It 182 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
was 6.30 on Sunday morning before we reached Lytton.
... It seems impossible that animals on four legs can
walk as slowly as these Indian horses do. Arrived in
camp, we found lots of Indians ready to help, and in a
wonderfully short time the tents were pitched, a thick
carpet of brush laid, and it was just getting dusk when
we sat down to our supper, spread on the ground in
front of our tent. After supper the Bishop arranged for
the next day's proceedings with the Indians, while I
made up the bed. Then we sat down over the camp
fire, admiring the dim outline of the surrounding
mountains, and the picturesque encampment about two
hundred yards away in a grove of large pine trees,
everything looking weird and ghostlike in the light of
three camp fires. Then the stillness was broken by the
sound of a bell summoning to prayer, and the whole
camp gathered, and the low monotony of the voices
sounded not unmusical, and wonderfully solemn and
impressive, borne to us on the evening breeze. The
Indians are most regular in their attendance at the daily
offering of prayer and praise, both morning and evening,
but are not as diligent as they might be in teaching the
prayers to their children and to those adults who have
not managed to pick them up, and the Bishop has had
to speak very seriously to them about this. At 10 p.m.
we turn in, but alas ! there are many disturbances. First
of all, the camp fire spreads, a most dangerous proceeding during the dry, hot weather, and it has to be beaten
^uÉ$knd later on there is an ominous pitter-patter on
the tent, increasing to a steady downpour, and the
Bishop has to go outside and loosen the ropes. Then
a careful look round is necessary, for if anything is
touching the tent, in comes the wet; even the cabin
bags had to be taken down.
" It was still raining at six o'clock next morning, and
the celebration had to be postponed, as our second, tent,
used as a church tent, is only big enough for the altar,
and the congregation has to be in the open. About ten
o'clock the rain cleared off, but it had lost us a day, as we NEW  WESTMINSTER. 183
had intended moving on that afternoon. All the day
the Bishop spent with the Indians, giving instruction,
catechizing the children, conferring with the chiefs and
watchmen, and there was besides the interesting ceremony of the election of two new watchmen.
"The following day, August 5th, we commenced
with a celebration at 6.30, after which the horses were
hunted up ; but with all the haste possible we did not
get away till 11.30, too late to allow of our reaching
the next rendezvous, N'chakup Camp, the same day.
So we rode about twelve miles, passing on our way
an Indian lying in his tent, ill from the bite of a
rattlesnake. These reptiles are said to be very numerous
in these parts, but from the fact that recovery from the
bite is possible if the right remedy be used in time, I
imagine they are not so deadly as in other countries.
I am afraid I shall shock you if I describe the remedy ;
but remember it is a case of life or death. The bite is
usually on the foot or leg, and a tight string is at once
tied above the wound to prevent as far as possible the
circulation of the poison in the blood. After that
the patient is dosed with raw spirit until the system
becomes saturated. The poison causes intense pain, and
it takes a long time for it to work its way out As there
is a strict law in force in British Columbia forbidding the
sale of liquor to Indians except on an order from a
clergyman, doctor, or J. P., it is no easy matter for them
to obtain the required remedy in time. It is curious that
the Indians, who are skilled in the use of herbs, should
not yet have discovered an antidote. Our camping-
ground on the night of the 5 th was a most unpromising
one—near the bed of the creek, with nothing but rocks
and sand, and it was too late to allow of much brush
being collected, so our bed was none too soft, and the
tent was badly pitched, so did not entirely keep out the
rain which fell during the night Towards six o'clock in
the evening we reached N'chakup Camp, leaving the
proper trail about half a mile back. Oh, if you could
have seen that last half-mile I think your hair would have 184 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP   OF
stood on end ! First we skirted round a sandy, gravelly
bluff—the trail was, I am sure, not more than six inches
wide, and at every step the horses sent the stones and
sand rolling down the precipice. Then we started zigzagging down the mountain side, and it was no easy
matter to stick on the horses' backs. My contempt for
Indian horses on a good road is unbounded, but in
dangerous places and broken-away trails, my contempt
changes to confidence and admiration.
" For grandeur of scenery N'chakup Camp is unrivalled ; in other ways it was not well chosen. There
was no shade and the ground was sandy. Certainly the
Indians did their best for us, covering the sand with brush,
and bringing Cottonwood trees and planting them around,
but the shade these threw was a very poor apology for
the real article, and the inside of the tent during the day
was like a furnace. Happily, the surrounding mountains
are high, and the sun disappears at 5.30 p.m. It rises,
however, at 6.30 am., and it is well to clear out of the
tent as soon as possible after that.
" At N'chakup Camp we spent three whole days, and
every moment of the Bishop's time, except what was
grudgingly snatched for meals, was devoted to the Indians.
. . . One afternoon we crossed the river in order that the
Bishop might visit a sick child. The Fraser is extremely
swift, and the boat had to be towed a long distance up
the shore before the crossing was attempted. I have
pretty strong nerves, and like being in a canoe ; but this
craft was an exceedingly cranky and leaky flat-bottomed
boat, and was besides overloaded, and two or three times
I thought we should have capsized. The sick child was
lying under a kind of shelter made of rush mats. She
was about seven years old, and did not look ill, but was
lying quietly sleeping ; and in this way her parents said
she had been lying for the past three weeks, taking
nothing but an occasional spoonful of cold water. We
could give them but little advice, but sent them from the
camp some condensed milk to mix with the water. Near
the sick child sat an old Indian, stone blind, who was led NEW  WESTMINSTER. 185
forward to shake hands with us by his equally ancient
spouse. A decrepit old pair they were, and not pleasant
to look at. Our return journey across the river was not
beset with so many dangers, as we were the only passengers, and pleasanter,- as the sun had set.
" On Monday we were up early so as to start before
the sun got hot; but although we breakfasted at 6.30,
we did not get away till nine, and then rode on till
3 p.m. in such heat as I do not care to recall. Not
wishing to repeat the experience, we started next day
directly after breakfast, leaving the pack to follow, and
succeeded in reaching Lytton at midday. Here, by a
curious coincidence, we met the Sister Superior on her
way back from England. We were four days late in
returning to Lytton, and the Sister seven hours late,
yet we arrived within ten minutes of each other. It
was but poor -hospitality wé had to offer, as the house
had been shut up for over a week, and we could not
expect the pack for an hour or two, but in our delight
everything else was forgotten. The afternoon, however,
was not entirely devoted to talk, as there was plenty to
be done. The camp kitchen had to be gone through and
stores replenished, clothes had to be washed, and callers
to be received.
"Next morning we were up at four so as to start
the Sister off by the five-o'clock train, and by eight
o'clock we were jogging down the road. We had now
two additions to our party—Mali, one of the Indian girls
from Yale, who was spending her holidays at Lytton ; and
Philip, the Lytton church servant, whose duty it was to
shepherd the horses. His work proved no sinecure, for
the horses were always trying to run home. In recommending him, Meshell said that although not very young,
he was a capital worker, and could stay awake all night
if we wished. As we had never curtailed the night's rest
of any of our Indians, we considered the recommendation uncalled for. When, however, I found what an
intense desire the horses evinced to return home, I could
see that Philip had a good deal of staying awake to do ; 186 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
and, poor man, he was not even allowed the peaceful
enjoyment of the services, for every now and then there
would be a stampede, and off would fly Philip in pursuit.
Our camp that night and the following was at Staziani,
at the foot of Jackass Mountain, not a hundred yards from
the old Mission House. When the headquarters of the
Indian Mission was moved to Lytton, the place was sold
to an Indian, and looked well cared for. There was not
time to get through all the work before midday on Friday,
August 15th, when we left for our next camp, so the five
couples to be married followed the Bishop down the
road. On the way one of the watchmen met us to ask
the Bishop to baptize a dying child, a little mite of three
months old. Such a disappointment we had that day :
we were riding a short distance ahead of the pack, and
a bear crossed the road behind us, but in front of them,
and we never saw it. Temmelch Creek was our last
camp, where we stayed till the 19th. The ground was
rough and rocky, but it was near a lovely creek full of
delicious trout, which we greatly appreciated. We had
intended breaking up camp on the 18th, but the
Indians required so much instruction and preparation
that we were obliged to stay an extra day. Very unfortunate it was for us, as all Monday it rained, and it
was most troublesome work getting everything dry before
packing up. We left behind a memorial of our camp in
. the altar which the Indians had built with the flat stones
out of the creek. We had a most pleasant trip in the
canoe across the Fraser, and then a steep climb up the
bank on the other side brought us back to civilization
in the shape of the C.P.R. Hotel at North Bend. On
August 20th the Bishop, accompanied by Meshell only,
went down to Spuzzum, and his day there brought the
trip to a conclusion."
Of the other events of the year, the daily tasks
at New Westminster and the routine of Confirmations in the country parishes, there is no need now
to speak. Suffice it to say that, all things considered, the diocese was now in a condition to excite NEW  WESTMINSTER. 187
admiration and astonishment among those who knew
the difficulties which had been encountered. The
Rev. Allan Pitman, who stayed for some months
of 1891, expresses in the Mission Field his delight
in the work he saw proceeding. In concluding his
article, he says—
" I cannot help it if these remarks seem too laudatory ;
they ought to have shown me something I could criticize.
Or perhaps it is that the sun of that land, where it is
always shining, where the air is always fresh, where the
sound of the water falling, rushing, gliding, is ever within
hearing, where all life seems freer, where the sadness of
the Indian past is altogether obscured by the promise of a
golden future—perhaps it is this and things like this which
have made me strike the ' major ' with never a note from
. the ' minor.' That I must leave to those who can play the
whole piece ; but I guarantee that any one who visits
the diocese of New Westminster will be as startled and
delighted as I was with the amount of work and love
which must have been poured out on the diocese, and the
rich return it has yielded." MEMOIR   OF THE BISHOP   OF
CHAPTER    XXIV.
ILLNESS AND WORK.
1892.
It was in this year that the illness began from
which the Bishop never fully recovered. Just as
the prospects of the diocese looked brighter than
at any time since the foundation of. the see, and
all were looking forward to greater progress still,
the mysterious la grippe, which had wrought such
havoc in other lands, made its presence known in
this distant western diocese, and violently attacked
among the very first the Bishop, one of those who
could least be spared from active life.
The Bishop's illness commenced at the beginning
of February, and though he was able to be out
two or three days at the beginning of March, he
broke down again on March 5th, and was sent to
bed again. He forced himself through a visit to
Yale, and an ordination at S. James', Vancouver,
on March 27th, and then got away again till
April 8th for a few days' rest.
From this time onward, although the Bishop was
by no means strong, the record of work shows little
if any diminution from that of preceding years.
Indeed, the Bishop seems to have gone over the
greater portion of the diocese, including three
visits to Nelson.
Of visits to Kamloops, Lytton, Ashcroft, Donald,
I NEW  WESTMINSTER. 189
Golden, Vernon, Penticton, Surrey, and other places,
it will not be necessary to say more than that they
resembled the past visits which have already been
described.
An interesting visit was also paid to Nelson,
where the Bishop introduced the Rev. A. J. Reid to
his new flock, and where vigorous signs of Church
life showed themselves. Nelson is an important
centre of a large and growing mining district.
The Bishop, later in the year, paid two other
visits to this remote portion of his diocese, and
had the satisfaction of seeing his plans rapidly and
successfully developing.
One other incident in the itinerary of this year
deserves more than passing mention, viz. the
great Indian gathering at Hope. In itself the
gathering was similar to those which took place at
Pootanie in preceding years, but it had a special
interest through the presence of the venerable
Bishop of Columbia, Dr. George Hills, then on the
eve of departure from the diocese he had ruled
so indefatigably for thirty-five years, and of the
Rev. J. B. Good, who was the Indian missionary in
charge at the time of Bishop Sillitoe's appointment.
Not only was it a great delight to the Bishop and
Mr. Good to renew acquaintance with their old
friends of the interior, but it was a great source of
both delight and profit to the Indians to see once
more among them those who had been in very
truth their first fathers in God. It was a witness
to them and to all of the continuity of the Church's
work, and of that unity of faith which binds men together in every land in one § Communion of Saints."
It was shortly after this that the Bishop went out
to meet Bishop Hills at Mission to speak on behalf
of the diocese of New Westminster the words of
farewell to its former chief pastor,  and  present I90 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP   OF
him with an album, which would bring some of the
old faces from time to time before his eyes.
It was a great comfort to the Bishop at this
time to feel that his efforts in supplying ministrations to every part of the unwieldy diocese had
not been altogether unproductive. Although by
no means over-manned, the diocese was at this
time better equipped with clergy than at any time
since its formation.
The return of three former workers in the diocese,
in the persons of Mr. Small, Mr. Edwardes, and Mr.
Croucher, was a telling instance of the magnetic
attraction possessed by New Westminster. Two
new clergy were also admitted to the priesthood
on March 27th, the Revs. E. F. Lacey and F.
Yolland. Besides these, the Rev. A. J. Reid (as
we have seen) came to take up the new work at
Nelson, the Rev. A. R. Macduff from Lahore to
work at Ashcroft, the Rev. A. A. Dorrell to fill the
long-vacant vicarage of Trenant, and the writer of
the present sketch to work at the cathedral and
do other work in the city of New Westminster.
This other work included two new efforts upon
which the Bishop had long set his heart, the
evangelization of the Chinese and the establishment of a new district church in New Westminster.
The work among the Chinese, difficult and slow
as it necessarily is, had been long crying out for
support. In Vancouver and New Westminster
the placid, persevering, long-suffering Celestials
had been gathered in considerabe numbers, and
scattered in smaller communities over the province,
working in the cities as laundrymen, cooks, market-
gardeners, and store-keepers, in the country places
as miners, and along the Fraser taking their part
in the important industry of catching and canning
the salmon.    There was, perhaps, on their part no NEW  WESTMINSTER. 191
consciousness of the need for mission work—indeed,
there was little visible sign of their belief in any
religion whatever—nor was there any great enthusiasm among the Church people of the diocese on
behalf of a mission. Rather, sad it is to say, there
was a sort of unchristian conviction that such a
mission was a mistake and a needless waste of
money. But, nevertheless, upon the Bishop's heart
the responsibility weighed heavily, and he was glad
indeed to find some one ready to take up the work.
Of that work it is not needful to write at length.
Disappointing in some respects, small and feeble,
perhaps, it has nevertheless done something to
teach Church people the practical value of missionary
work, to make known among the Chinese that the
Church cares for tlteir souls as well as for those of
whites and Indians, and, at any rate, to be a kind
of standing protest in the face of the world against
a Christianity which regards the Chinaman as
outside the pale of evangelistic work.
The centre of this work naturally gravitated to
Vancouver, where the Chinese most do congregate.
Here a school, for which the nucleus already
existed in a class established by the Rev. H.
Hobson, Rector of Christ Church, was organized,
.from which a Chinese catechist from Honolulu, Mr.
S. Ten Yong, worked in a large circle, including
the two principal cities of the mainland.
The work in connection with the West End
Mission in New Westminster was easier and more
immediately productive. The ground had lain as
it were fallow, and the response of the people to
the efforts made on their behalf was spontaneous
and generous. Twice this year the Bishop came
up to the little church to administer the rite of Confirmation. By the end of the year the necessity
for enlargement had become pressing.   To complete 192 MEMOIR   OF  THE BISHOP  OF
the mention of the work now, we may add that by
the Easter of 1893 the church had been enlarged
to three times its former size. By the end of 1893,
from paying half the stipend of the clergyman in
charge, it undertook the whole ; and at Easter, 1894,
only a month or two before the Bishop's death, it
was constituted a new parish, under the name of
S. Barnabas'.
To go back to 1892, we find the Bishop making
one other" effort towards supplying a religious
education for boys. New premises were secured
in Vancouver, and energetic efforts made to ensure
success. But, apparently, success was not to be.
So far the history of the diocese has shown that
until the people generally care a great deal more
for religious education than they do at present, it
is hopeless to attempt to compete with the public
school system. Perhaps some other way will have
to be found to make religion a part of an ordinary
education, which need not involve the costly experiment of separate schools.
At any rate, this effort shared the fate of its
predecessors, and died a natural death in the
course of a few months.
Another matter, however, which had long been
on the Bishop's mind, was brought to a satisfactory
consummation. This was the constitution of Holy
Trinity Church, New Westminster, as the Cathedral
Church of the diocese.
A committee had been appointed in October,
1891, to draw up the constitution and agreement
between the Bishop and the Vestry of Holy
Trinity Parish. After long and thoughtful discussion, and much labour in studying the constitution
of other cathedrals, the task was brought to a happy
conclusion, and on September 28, 1892, the Vestry
of Holy Trinity Church passed the following résolu- NEW  WESTMINSTER. 193
tion,  accepting the conditions laid down by the
Bishop :—
" Resolved that this vestry consents to the said constitution and ordination of Holy Trinity Church as the
Cathedral Church of this Diocese; and agrees to the
conditions set forth in the said agreement, and authorizes
the Rector and Churchwardens to sign the same on its
behalf."
The following is a copy of the deed of constitution :—
" To all to whom these presents shall come,
" Acton Windeyer, by Divine permission, Bishop of
New Westminster, in the Name of the Father, and of the
Son, and of the Holy Ghost, greeting.
"Whereas it hath ever been by authority of Holy
Scripture and of the Primitive Church, an ancient custom
to establish new Bishoprics in populous cities, more
easily resorted to by the inhabitants of the Dioceses, or
in the seats of civil governments, or ancient capitals, of
states or provinces,
"And whereas, upon the division of the Diocese of
British Columbia, a new see was created under the name
or title of New Westminster, which said city of New
Westminster was then the sole city within the limits of
the new diocese, and was, and still is, the seat of the
County Government of the District of New Westminster,
and the original capital of the Colony of British Columbia,
" And whereas Her Majesty, by and with the advice
and consent and Vestry, they hereunto consenting,
appropriate and attach to the see and Bishopric of
New Westminster, the Rectory and Rectorship of the
said parish church of the Holy Trinity, reserving always
to us and our successors our Episcopal rights,
" Moreover, it is hereby expressly provided, that
certain conditions contained in the resolution of the
vestry meeting held on the 28th day of September,
one thousand eight hundred and ninety-two before-
mentioned, shall be formulated in an agreement, which 194 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
shall be signed by us, and by the Rector and Churchwardens of the parish of the Holy Trinity, before thirty
days next ensuing from the date of these presents shall
have expired and the said conditions shall be faithfully
observed and performed at all times hereafter, otherwise
these presents shall be void and have no effect.
■ In witness whereof we the said Bishop have hereunto set our hand and Episcopal seal on the fourteenth
day of October, in the year of our Lord, one thousand
eight hundred and ninety-two, and of our consecration
the thirteenth.
" (Signed) A. W. New Westminster.
" E. M. N. Woods 1   witnesses S [Seal.]
E. A. JENNS J     VVlmeSSeS-
Of this year's meeting of synod' there is nothing
which calls for special mention. It was held in
New Westminster on November i6th and 17th,
was largely attended, and harmoniously conducted.
The principal reference in the Bishop's address
was to the constitution of the cathedral which is
described above.
It was a subject of congratulation to the Bishop
that in spite of the drawback of his illness the
diocese had made such progress both in the number
of its clergy and the results of their work. This
thought finds emphatic expression in the Bishop's
summary of the year's work.
Profiting by this knowledge, and by the desire
to make the diocese and its needs better known
to the Dominion of Canada generally, the Bishop -
accepted an invitation from the Domestic and
Foreign Missionary Society of Canada to visit in
the following spring the principal cities in the
eastern provinces, to lecture upon the work and
needs of the Church in the Far West. Of this visit
we shall speak briefly in the next chapter. NEW  WESTMINSTER.
CHAPTER   XXV.
TOUR IN EASTERN CANADA AND GENERAL
SYNOD.
The first day of 1893 saw the Bishop enthroned
in his newly constituted cathedral. The ceremony
took place after the Te Deum at Mattins, and was
conducted by the Archdeacon of Columbia, who at
the same time was installed as Canon in the chair
of St. Nicolas. The episcopal throne was subscribed
for by the ladies of Holy Trinity Church, and is a
beautiful piece of work, of oak, and nicely carved.
As mentioned in the last chapter, a promise had
been given by the Bishop to visit Eastern Canada
on behalf of the Domestic and Foreign Missionary
Society. The tour commenced in weather such
as, fortunately, British Columbia does not often see,
but a letter of Mrs. Sillitoe's, dated April 13th, will
give a fair outline of the trip :—
" My dear Friends,
"... When we left on February 4th there was,
beside the cold, a heavy snowfall, and we hadnot proceeded
many miles on our journey before we began to be delayed.
We were, in spite of all delays, comparatively fortunate,
for before we had been twenty-eight hours on the road
we had caught up with the trains which had left the day
before and the day but one before us.   At Donald we 196 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
were all moved into the first train, and instead of being
almost the sole occupants of the Pullman, we had rather
a crowded car. From Donald we made slow progress,
the train having to be sent on in sections, in spite of our
having two engines, and by breakfast-time on Monday
morning we were only at Field, which'we should have
reached on the previous evening in time for supper.
From Field up to the summit of the pass to the
Rockies, a distance of seven miles up a very steep grade,
we had four engines, one of which, ' Jumbo ' by name,
is an unusually powerful one, used for pushing the trains
up this grade. But, although we had four engines and
only six cars on the train, the cold was so intense that
the wheels would not grip the rails, and it took us over
an hour to make the ascent. The scenery was never
seen to better advantage ; there had been an unusually
heavy snowfall, and the sun was shining brightly, the
sky of an unclouded and dazzling blue. We spent all
day in the Rockies, being delayed at every station with
thawing out frozen pipes, and also in repairing the mail
car, the back of which had been pushed out in the
struggle up the steep ascent. Tuesday morning found
us steaming over the plains of the North-West, which look
terribly monotonous in an unbroken expanse of snow as
far as the eye could see. Our only excitement was caused
by herds of antelope, which were often seen quite close
to the line. Swift Current, where we stayed for twenty
minutes, was the coldest place I have ever been in;
indeed, so cold was it that, although we went out for a
walk, we had to hurry back again to the car, not being
able to stand it. I do not know what the temperature
was the day we passed through, but for several days
before the thermometer had stood at 650 below zero,
and with a blizzard blowing at the time it was impossible
to venture out. One poor man who went a short distance
to report a train snowed up got frozen to death, and was
found stiff in an upright condition. To give you an idea
of what such cold is, going out in it makes one's eyes
water, and each tear immediately becomes solid ice.   In NEW WESTMINSTER. 197
Winnipeg we were delayed five hours in order to be
joined with the train that left Vancouver twenty-four
hours after us. We walked up to the hotel for dinner,
a distance of about one and a half miles ; and although
it was only 350 below zero, I got my cheeks very
sore. From Winnipeg on nothing of importance
happened. As we were bound for Toronto, we had to
change cars at North Bay, and, unfortunately, instead
of the change taking place at 6 p.m., as it should have
done, it came at 4 a.m. We reached Toronto at 2 a.m.
on Saturday, thirty-three hours late, and we had been
travelling since 2.30 p.m. on the previous Saturday. We
were the guests of the Bishop and Mrs. Sweatman, and
as we had been expected early the previous morning
they had arranged for a large ' At Home ' from four to six
that afternoon. Happily we reached the house in time
for it The next day the Bishop preached in the morning at St Thomas', and in the evening at St. Alban's
Cathedral, holding meetings during the week both in
Toronto and Guelph. The second Sunday we spent in
Hamilton, returning again to Toronto for more meetings.
In Canada there is a wonderfully useful organization of
women called the Women's Auxiliary to the Domestic
and Foreign Mission Board, a branch of which is to be
found in almost every parish. The wonderful organization of this body makes it a very powerful auxiliary to the
Church. Wherever we went I addressed meetings of the
Women's Auxiliary, so as in some measure to relieve
the Bishop. Our third Sunday was spent in London,
Ontario. It is most amusing how they have tried to
copy in every way the older namesake. The Bishop,
for instance, preached in the morning at St Paul's
Cathedral, on Monday we drove through Piccadilly,
and over the River Thames across Westminster Bridge.
During the week we visited Brantford and Port Hope,
and by Sunday reached Montréal
"From Montreal we went to Richmond, Quebec,
Lennoxville (the Church boys' school and college for the
diocese of Quebec), Sherbrooke, Kempville, and finally 198 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
Ottawa. We should have visited three more towns, but
in Ottawa the Bishop became so ill that the doctor forbade further work, and he was obliged to cancel his three
last engagements. We stayed nearly a week at Ottawa,
and at the end of that time got permission from the
doctor to start off home. Unfortunate permission, as it
proved, for either the Bishop was worse than the doctor
realized, or else he caught fresh cold leaving. He was
very ill all the journey home, and on arriving our doctor
pronounced him to be suffering from pneumonia, and sent
him straight off to bed, where he still is, though that is
more than a fortnight ago ; and although he is now on
the mend, his progress is very slow."
From the effects of this illness the Bishop never
really recovered,  and  although  with indomitable
will he persisted in rising to the call of duty, it
was obvious that every effort was made painfully j
and laboriously.
These efforts, however, were by no means few
or far between. The combined labour as Bishop
and as rector of Holy Trinity was enough to take
the strength of the most vigorous of men, yet the
Bishop's illness was not permitted to interfere with
the arrangements for Confirmations made in all
parts of the diocese. A visit to the Kootenay
country is, under no circumstances, an easy one to
take, yet in order to introduce the Rev. H. S.
Akehurst—who had come to succeed Mr. Reid—
to his flock, the Bishop once again made the
acquaintance of Nelson, at the beginning of
August. The following account is given in the
Gazette :—
" The Bishop left home on Monday, August 7th, and
travelled direct to Field, the most easterly point in the
diocese, on the railway line, exactly five hundred miles
from New Westminster.   The Rev. J. C. Kemm met the NEW  WESTMINSTER. 199
Bishop at Field, and a service had been arranged for the
evening of the 8th, which was held in the C.P.R. Reading
Room,-and was well attended.... While the Bishop was at
Field, the Rev. H. S. Akehurst arrived from Qu'Appelle,
and after a stop over of a day, proceeded with the
Bishop by way of Revelstoke and the Columbia river to
Nelson, where the party arrived on the evening of the
10th. Friday and Saturday "were occupied in calling
upon members of the congregation in Nelson, and on
Sunday services were resumed for the first time since the
departure of Mr. Reid. The Bishop celebrated Holy
Communion at 8 a.m., and preached both morning and
evening, Mr. Akehurst taking the rest of the service.
Nelson maintained its reputation for excellent choir
singing, and the services, especially in the evening, were
very hearty. On Monday evening a social meeting
was held, at which the Bishop formally introduced
Mr. Akehurst, and an address of welcome was presented
to him on behalf of the congregation. . . . After five
days spent at Nelson, the Bishop with Mrs. Sillitoe and
Mr. Akehurst started to visit other points on Kootenay
Lake. Numerically these ' points ' are many, for the
real estate fiend has blocked out town sites every few
miles without regard to anything but his own aggrandisement, a feat in which he is only too successful, for it is
no exaggeration to say that one-tenth of the money sunk I
by the unwary investor in those embryo cities that will
■never be born could have accomplished such a development of mineral resources of the district as would have
advanced by many years the prosperity both of the
country and of the investors themselves. There are, for
example, largely advertised ' towns ' on the lake which
consist of a shack and a tent or two. There are
' towns ' where instead of new buildings going up, the
existing buildings are being torn down to be removed elsewhere. And yet the maps of these ' towns '
are to be seen posted in every real estate office
throughout the land, and lots are being sold at prices
which will  certainly   never  be warranted   during  the 2oo MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
present century. It is waste of breath probably to preach
caution to the man to whom the hope is held out of cent
per cent on the purchase of a town lot, but it would be
' largely in his interest if a fee, say of $1000, were
required for the registration of a map of a new town site.
Such a fee would have relieved the country of most of
the bogus town sites that exist, and would have saved
many thousands of dollars to the pockets of a too-confiding public.
" Kaslo, however, forms an exception to this criticism.
It has taken hold, and has evidently ' come to stay.' The
site itself is convenient and spacious, the buildings substantial, and the stores furnished in a manner equal to
any in the province. The growth of this town has been
phenomenal. In June, 1892, it had no existence, in
October it had a population of 3000. Since then it has
been overshadowed by the cloud of the [ silver question,'
and having been caught in the very bud of its youthfulness,
it has felt the check more seriously than older places
have done. Nevertheless its very youthfulness, when the
reaction sets in, will give it opportunities of vigorous
revival above places of maturer development. . . .
" Friday and Saturday were employed in visiting the
people and making arrangements for Sunday's services.
The only church at present is one built for the
Presbyterians, which was kindly placed at the disposal of
the Bishop. A celebration of Holy Communion was
held in a private house, and services in the church at
11 and 7.30. A large congregation attended in the
morning, but in the evening the building was packed
with over two hundred people, many having to stand
throughout the service. It was impossible to estimate
the proportion of Church people present, but there is
good ground for believing that they form the most
numerous body in the town. At a business meeting
presided over by the Bishop, the vestry was organized,
and an undertaking given that $30 a month could be
contributed to the stipend fund. For the present a room
will be hired for the use of the congregation, and no NEW  WESTMINSTER. 201
attempt will be made to build before next year. The
Town Site Company have made an offer of one hundred
feet square for a church, but no selection has as yet been
made. A further offer was made to the Bishop of a five-
acre block for hospital or school purposes, objects which
must be delayed until church accommodation is provided.
" On the return journey Lytton was visited again."
This visit to Lytton had a special object, which
was nothing less than the consummation of a three
years' endeavour to provide a Church hospital for
Indians.
As long ago as 1890 Miss Rosetta Lansdowne
of Manchester, a devoted friend of the Mission, had
appealed for funds for such an institution. In
the course of this appeal she wrote—
" On being admitted to Christ's religion in Holy
Baptism an Indian is required to renounce many of his old
customs ; among these, and perhaps the hardest of all, is
to give up the medicine-man. These men are supposed
to possess supernatural powers. He pretends to go in
search of the spirit of the sick person in order to fetch
it back. Having succeeded in this, he places it in the
body of the patient after which he is expected to recover.
The mode of proceeding is to cover his head with a
piece of rush matting to prevent his seeing, then to use
the incantations—dancing, howling, and singing. When
he has found the spirit he replaces it, dipping his hands
into a basin of cold water, and then passing them round
the face of the sick person, keeping up a continual
muttering. In cases of extreme danger three or four
men act together, on the principle that unity is strength.
I suppose what we should call 'public opinion' is on
the side of the medicine-man, and we all know the
strength of that in England. When therefore we are
told that ' the first adult publicly baptized by the Bishop,
though prostrated by sickness for several months,
has resolutely refused the offers of the medicine-man
and the solicitations of his friends,' we may feel that it 202 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
has been ' a triumph of faith.' A fully qualified medical
man, Dr. A. Pearse, went out as medical missionary,
November, 1888, the S.P.C.K. having promised the
Bishop a stipend for him of ^150 for the first year, and
;£ioo for the second and third. He writes, 'The
Indians are subject to many of the worst constitutional
diseases, more particularly to consumption, which often
runs a rapid course ; and from the same causes, together
with dirt and injury, the eyes frequently suffer. During
the past five months I have attended about a hundred
and fifty cases of illness, and the result of my efforts
so far gives me great encouragement. They have no
idea of cleanliness, or of making a poultice or dressing
a wound, though they are quite willing to submit to
treatment. A small hospital placed at some central
point would help our work very much.' "
Miss Lansdowne gradually accumulated a sum
of $500, to which the Bishop added $100 collected
during his eastern tour, and a grant of $500
obtained from the Indian department at Ottawa.
This amount covered the cost of building, while
various friends in the diocese contributed sums
towards the furnishing, and Sister Frances, of S.
Luke's Home, Vancouver, gave valuable help in
superintending the furnishing and supplying a
nurse.
It was, therefore, a source of great gratification
to the Bishop, so familiar with the trials of sickness
himself, to declare open this House of Refuge
for the sick Indians of the district, who, however
superstitious, ignorant, and uncivilized, were yet
members of the same great family of the All-
Father.
The opening took place on August 26th, and is
thus described—
"A large gathering of the white and Indian inhabitants of Lytton and the neighbourhood took part   NEW  WESTMINSTER. 203
in the opening of the new Indian hospital on Saturday
evening in the Mission grounds. The Benediction of
the building was performed by the Lord Bishop of
New Westminster, assisted by the clergy of the Mission
and the Rector of Esquimalt. A procession, consisting
of the clergy, acolytes, the Bishop, vested in cope and
mitre, and the visitors, passed round the hospital, singing
Ps. xviii., after which the various wards and offices
of the house were visited, and special prayers said in
each. Subsequently the visitors were entertained at
the hospital in a most pleasant way by Sister Frances,
who has kindly consented to undertake the work in
connection with the hospital for some time. The little
building is an ornament to Lytton, and reflects great
credit upon all who have so generously given help
towards its construction and support, both in money
and kind, and also upon Mr. E. Disney, the builder.
" In one day Sister Frances, assisted by a band of
willing helpers, had converted the empty building into
a model cottage hospital."
No sooner had the Bishop arrived home from
Lytton than it was time for him to leave again to
attend the General Synod of the Canadian Church
in Toronto. After the trying journey in the spring,
and the exertions necessary after his recovery, it
was really more than the Bishop should have under-
' taken, but his energy deceived not only all around
him, but himself also, and he went.
The following letter and its prefatory note from
the Monthly Record, published in England, shows
this to have been the case :—
"Since the last publication of the Monthly Record,
the Bishop's health has been gradually restored, and,
with great thankfulness to Almighty God, a complete
recovery can now be announced to his friends.
" It appears to have been a far more serious attack
than we at home thought it to be, and it makes us all 204 MEMOIR OF THE  BISHOP  OF
the more thankful that he has been spared to carry on
the important work of the diocese at a very critical time.
From all accounts, there seldom, if ever, has been a
more depressed state of commerce in the colony ; and
the Church suffers. An extract from a letter lately
received from the Bishop gives a graphic account of
the present situation—
" ' New Westminster, B.C.,
" ' September 7, 1893.
" ' My dear Mogg,
" ' Before I leave for Toronto, to attend the
meeting of the General Synod, I must get a letter
written for the October meeting of the committee. I
cannot sufficiently thank you all for many kind expressions of sympathy, as well as for the forbearance
which spared me the trouble of letter writing when I
was unequal to it
" ' This year has been quite the most trying of my
episcopate, personally and officially. My terrible
journey through the eastern provinces in February,
March, and April was in itself labour enough for a year,
as my subsequent illness testified. In that time I
travelled nearly ten thousand miles, preaching every
Sunday twice, and sometimes three times, and lecturing
afternoons and evenings nearly every day but Saturday.
There was little wonder I came home a wreck. That
God granted me recovery is, I venture to hope, a sign
that my work for Him is not yet done.
" ' But apart from personal labour and trial, the year
has been throughout the province the most disastrous
in its history. There has been, comparatively, no
business done. The lumber trade is at a standstill ;
mining is unprofitable on account of the silver crisis;
large numbers of people have been compelled to leave,
being unable to gain a livelihood. In every town in the
province there are hundreds of houses unoccupied and
stores unlet To give you an illustration—the Endowment Fund of the Bishopric includes five stores or shops
in New Westminster.   Two are empty, the tenant of one NEW  WESTMINSTER. 205
has paid no rent this year as yet, and I have had to
reduce the rent of the other two to $35 a month, in place
of $60 they were paying two years ago. ,
" ' Happily the salmon-canning industry has had a
good year—a better one, indeed, than has ever been
known. The fish have been running prodigiously, and
kept running during the whole open season. But we
must wait for a general revival of trade before we can
expect a general improvement Meanwhile, the Church
is the first to suffer. Offertories have diminished one
half, and there is not a parish in the diocese which
has not difficulty in meeting expenses. I have collected
literally nothing this year for the Diocesan Fund, and
but for what I collected in the' east, our Chinese work
must have been suspended. I worked chiefly for that
and the Indian hospital. . . . The question of main7
tenance now arises.' "
To reach Toronto in time for the General
Synod, which opened on September 13th, the
Bishop had to hurry his up-country visits ; but he
reached the synod in time, and took an important
part in its deliberations.
It is impossible yet to estimate rightly the importance of this historic gathering. The attainment of the consolidation of the whole Church.
in Canada, from the Atlantic to the Pacific, the
creation of the two Archbishoprics of Canada and
Rupertsland, are in themselves sufficient to mark
an epoch in the Colonial Church. That men of
varying and even opposing schools of thought
should alike sink their differences and hail consolidation was a notable sign of the times in
Canada. A deadlock was indeed threatened on
one occasion, and it is to the credit and honour
of the Bishop of New Westminster thalfue played
no small part in composing the differences that
threatened to render the meeting of the synod a
failure. L
206 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
' At the thanksgiving service held at the close of
the synod the sermon was preached by Bishop
Sillitoe from Eph. iii. 20, 21, and in a few words
at the beginning of his discourse he well gathered
up the reasons for thankfulness as to the past
and joyful anticipation as to the future.
" What," he asked, "is the work that we have accomplished ? We call it the consolidation of the Church in
the Dominion of Canada. Three years have been spent
in preparation for this—three years of patient deliberation and communion of minds and hearts, consummated
in the act of the past week, which has welded together
the scattered fragments of which the Church in the
Dominion has been hitherto composed. And we are
here to praise and thank our God for what He has
enabled us to do. And rightly and properly so. But
the thought that is in my heart at the present moment,
and with which I desire to inspire your minds as well, is
a thought of the insignificance of that which we have
accomplished in comparison with the possibilities of
the grace and power of the Holy Spirit. It is a fault of
our nature to be satisfied in spiritual attainment, and
the fault is equivalent to a limiting of Divine grace and
power. Search the universe, and you will never find a
halting-place. Forward ! Onward ! is the eternal law,
and it is the law of the unseen world as much as of the
seen. It is a law of the spiritual world as much as of the
natural. It is a law of Christ, it is the law of the individual soul. Human ends may be attained, human aims
may be accomplished, but myriads of efforts could not
exhaust the immeasurable grace of God. ' God is able to
do exceeding abundantly above all that we ask or think,
according to His power that worketh in us.' What a
limitless field is opened to us here ! What an expanse
of opportunity ! How is it possible for the thought of
attainment to enter in ? Here is association with the
Infinite, association with the Omnipotent ! We marvel at
the achievements of scientific research in the application NEW  WESTMINSTER. 207
of steam and electricity to the uses of men. What are
these in comparison with the power of grace which God
has given us by the Spirit through the Church ? "
The Archbishop of Rupertsland, in addressing
his synod a year or two ago, spoke gratefully of
the assistance Bishop Sillitoe had rendered in word
and action towards bringing the first General Synod
of the Canadian Church to a successful issue.
In a similar manner, the Bishop of Nova Scotia
bore testimony before his synod at Halifax.
"Well do I recall," said the Bishop, "his strenuous
endeavour to avoid not only the impending deadlock,
but the threatened failure to consummate the consolidation of the Church, when the Bishops and elected
delegates met in the city of Toronto in September last ;
for it was largely owing to his pleading with his fellow-
Bishops, and his advocacy of a conciliatory attitude
towards those whom some of us looked upon as taking a
position unwarranted by facts, that harmony was restored,
and peace came to cement and perfect our union."
Commenting on this, the Canadian Church
Guardian says—
" We feel sure that every one who took part in that
• historic meeting will be glad to find this now open tribute
paid to the late Lord Bishop of New Westminster, whose
strong personality and wise judgment, as well as winning
manner, impressed itself upon all who were present, and
won so great a benefit for the Church in Canada."
And had the Bishop done nothing more for
Christ and His Church, he would not have departed this life with scanty sheaves of harvest
for the Master's garner.
But the labour went on, in spite of almost continuous sickness. Confirmations at Penticton and
Vernon were held on his way home.   Arrived home, 208 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
there was a meeting of the Diocesan Synod to be
faced, with all its attendant anxieties.
It met, the Bishop's last synod, on November
15 th and 16th, but, owing to the Bishop's illness
and inability to leave his room, the session was
constituted by a quorum meeting in the Bishop's
library. This being done, the synod resolved
itself into committee of the whole to debate the
subjects set down upon the agenda paper. After
the discussions were completed, the reports were
presented again to the Bishop in his room, and the
synod adjourned, many feeling that the Bishop had
bravely and from a sense of duty subjected himself
to a strain which was physically beyond his powers.
But his willingness thus to endure enabled the
diocesan business to be carried on, and the'votes
of sympathy and thanks passed to him and Mrs.
Sillitoe were no mere formal expressions of feeling.
Thus concluded the practical work of a year
which the Bishop may well have felt to be the
most laborious in his episcopate, including, as it
did, two difficult and tiring journeys to the east
in the interests, not of his own diocese alone, but
of the whole Church of Canada, and indeed of
the whole Church of God.  Photo: Alfred Ellis and Watery.} NEW  WESTMINSTER.
CHAPTER   XXVI.
IN  HARNESS  TO  THE  LAST.
At the beginning of this year the Bishop was
hopeful that his illness was over and that the
opportunity of vigorous work had returned.
But others were not so hopeful, and even the
English committee, though far away from him, were
not reassured by the bright optimism of his letters.
In February Mr. Mogg writes—
" The committee, knowing the state of things, begged
him to give up for some months, and an offer was
made to meet the expenses attending an entire rest.
His answer overflowed with gratitude; he pointed out
the difficulties of leaving, and continued, ' I cannot go
away until I have given the parishes the opportunity
of Confirmations. . . . We must try and make up for
the falling off last year. Again, I do not think I need
go away for six months. I am now very well, my
only trouble some symptom in my heart, which last
year's attacks seem to have left rather shaky ; but quiet,
and, above all, peace of mind, are the best relief for
this.' He felt, whether wisely or unwisely, he could
not give in. God had placed him in his responsible
position, and as long as any strength remained, he
would be at his post and fight on with undiminished
hope.    This was emphatically his character." 2io MEMOIR  OF  THE BISHOP  OF
So, weak as he was, he started out on his round
of Confirmations.
First of all, he visited Trenant to hold Confirmation there. This passed off happily, and the Bishop
greatly cheered the vicar in his difficult work
during the short stay he made before proceeding
to Victoria. Immediately after this, with com-
pletest self-forgetfulness, he went off to Tacoma,
Washington, to officiate at the funeral of his old
friend, Bishop Paddock. He little dreamed that
in three months Bishop Paddock's successor would
act in a similar capacity beside his own grave.
On returning home to New Westminster he had
at once to leave for a Confirmation at Kamloops,
arriving early in the morning after a whole night's .
travelling, and returning again the night following.
On Palm Sunday, though feeling very ill, he took
the early celebration at the cathedral, and morning service with sermon, and then went over to
Vancouver for a Confirmation at S. Paul's. Here
he broke down, and was compelled to omit the
usual address after the laying on of hands. Taking
the Rector of S. Paul's back with him, to officiate
for him in his stead at the cathedral (for at this
time the Bishop was. taking the cathedral services
almost single-handed), he returned to New Westminster, and was at once ordered to bed. Here
he remained over Easter, and was prevented from
fulfilling various Confirmation engagements for
Holy Week.
But as soon as he was the least bit stronger he
moved up to Lytton, believing that the bracing air,
which he had always found so beneficial before,
would suffice to restore him. Lytton had always
been a favourite resting-place for him.
The Rev. H. Edwardes, writing of this visit,
says— NEW  WESTMINSTER. 211
" It was my privilege to have the Bishop and Mrs.
Sillitoe as my guests shortly before his death. He came
to Lytton, which place he always loved, despite its evil
winds, hoping to build up his health again, but day by
day we could see there was no improvement, and that he
was growing weaker and more nervous and sleepless.
But he still struggled daily with the work of his diocese,
and with miserable worrying difficulties which would
follow him, dictating his letters to me when he was
utterly unfit for any worry, or work, or correspondence
at all."
Meanwhile, he had determined upon the cutting
off of one great source of labour and wony in the
resignation of his post as Rector of Holy Trinity,
' New Westminster. That post he had accepted
under circumstances which entitled him to believe
that it would be to the great advantage of the
parish. This it undoubtedly proved, but the
double work, and its attendant worry, was fatal
to himself, and for some time his resignation had
appeared inevitable.
Early in the year he had written in his report—
" It is already, I think, generally known that I have
determined to divest myself of the office of rector of the
parish. I had anticipated that it would hejjjjbssible to
hold the office nominally, while the duties should be
performed by a deputy, but I have learned that there is
more in a name than I had thought ; and having convinced myself that the parish could be better served by
an actual rector permanently resident, I am now about
making such an appointment. What little hesitancy
I may feel in taking what appears to be a retrogressive
action in this matter is amply compensated for by the
satisfaction of having accomplished the work of establishing so successful a mission in the parish as St. Barnabas',
the consummation of which work I still hope to see in 2i2 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
the elevation of the Mission into independent parochial
life before I lay down my office."
Both these wishes were realized at Eastertide,
when the Rev. A. Shildrick, late incumbent of
Kamloops, was licensed to the Rectory of Holy
Trinity, and the Mission district of S. Barnabas'
was constituted a separate parish under the present
writer.
Leaving Lytton on May 5th, the Bishop once
more set out for the coast for Confirmations at
Vancouver and New Westminster. The journey
was managed better than had been expected, but
a very bad night followed with no sleep. The
Confirmation at S. Michael's, Vancouver, was
successfully administered, and a second one at
Christ Church, although the Bishop's voice sounded
very weary. In the evening he left for New
Westminster, and again a sleepless night followed,
with a sense of weakness in the morning. Several
hours' rest during the next day enabled him to
confirm at the cathedral in the evening for the
two parishes of S. Mary's, Sapperton, and S.
Barnabas', New Westminster, and on the 8th he
left again for Lytton.
Mr. Edwardes writes—
"He returned to Lytton decidedly worse after the
excitement and exertion of services, confirmations, and
worrying meetings in New Westminster. A number of
Indians had been prepared for Confirmation, and so again j
he braced himself up to give them the precious Gift. On
Whit Sunday we had all ready for him at the Indian Church
by 8.50 a,m., when he came to the door supported by
Mrs. Sillitoe. The Indian churchwardens and sidesmen
received him, and the big congregation rose as he
entered. It was a touching and anxious service for all
of us, a service full of self-sacrifice, for he could hardly NEW   WESTMINSTER. 213
get through it, and his words to the confirmed Indians
were very brief and to the point. We are proud and
thankful that his last public act of service was for the
poorest and most ignorant, but by no means least loved,
of his scattered flock.
" He had intended to celebrate the Holy Eucharist
later that morning in the Lytton Chapel for the white
people, but was utterly unable to do so. . . . The last
time he celebrated the Holy Mysteries was at the altar
in the little Mission Chapel on Ascension Day. On
Monday in Whitsuntide he left us for Yale by the
doctor's orders, and the end came rapidly after that.
Compared with the terrible time of suffering which
clouded his last days, the time at Lytton was for him a
season of rest and peace, and for that we are thankful
indeed."
Removed to Yale, he became decidedly worse,
with sickness off and on during the day, followed
by sleepless nights. It was, says an account
written shortly afterwards—
"A time of terrible sufferings, a literal fighting for
breath. His almost ceaseless cry was, ' O God, help
me ! ' At other times he would be whispering prayers,
and at one of the worst attacks he repeated aloud a
psalm of praise. This continued till Sunday, May 27th,
and his delirious condition seemed hopeless. The parsonage at Yale, where the Bishop stayed, is close to the
church, and on Trinity Sunday, as he sat in his bedroom
with Mrs. Sillitoe, he followed Mattins and Evensong,
joining in all the responses. During some of the periods
of delirium the only thing that soothed him was the reading of psalms and chapters of Holy Scripture by the hour
together. The doctors had now ascertained the real
cause of his malady, which they held to be incurable.
With their consent, Mrs. Sillitoe telegraphed to Victoria
for the Bishop's old friend and medical attendant,
Dr. Hanington. He came and remained several days,
during which he fought the terrible blood-poisoning, 214 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
superintending the nursing himself. After five days an
improvement manifested itself, and there was a return to
consciousness. Again the doctor's untiring efforts brought
him through a collapse from extreme weakness which had
all but taken him away. It was during this time that
accounts reached New Westminster of his serious condition. The Archdeacon thus writes of it : ' Then there
came a time of almost unbearable anxiety to us all here.
The river rose in a few days, owing to the rapid melting
of the snow on the mountains, to such a height that railway bridges, permanent way, telegraph lines were so
injured that traffic was interrupted and telegrams could
not be forwarded ; so that, though we knew of his illness,
we could get no definite intelligence as to his actual
state.'
" The whole of the lower part of Yale was under water.
At Ruby Creek steamers took the place of the train, carrying passengers to New Westminster, and then by train to
Vancouver. Entire places were under water, and it was
no uncommon sight to see wooden houses sailing down
the Fraser at a great speed. The realization of what
this would mean to a colony already suffering from failure
of trade, without doubt added to the anxiety of the
Bishop, and hastened his end. Still, there seemed real
improvement, and on Friday, June ist, he was considered strong enough to start for his home. He was
carried to the train by Doctors Hanington and McGuigan,
attended by Mrs. Sillitoe and a nurse. They were astonished at the way in which he stood the journey, and
felt quite hopeful about him, holding out prospects of
his being in time able to get away for complete change.
He reached New Westminster on board one of the river
steamers, which had been sent by the C.P.R. to connect
the broken links of the railway. Mr. Abbot, general
superintendent of the line, had sent his private car to
bring him down ; but, though the car reached Yale, it
was unable to return because of the floods. Towards
night on Saturday the pains returned, and the laboured
breathing.    All Sunday he was growing worse, and in
L NEW  WESTMINSTER.
the afternoon the doctor's verdict was given that there
■ was no hope. His first thought, when he was told, was
for Mrs. Sillitoe. * My poor little wife,' he said, ' this
comes very hard upon you.' He then said how he
trusted she would be an example to others, showing
how a Christian should bear sorrow. Then he spoke
of the affairs of the diocese as being left, he hoped,
fairly in order. His domestic chaplain, Mr. Croucher,
who had given the Bishop unfailing attendance since
the time of his coming to Yale, and had accompanied
him to New Westminster, suggested his receiving the
Holy Sacrament. The Bishop at first demurred, thinking a communion in the evening inconsistent with the
practice and teaching of his life, but upon the chaplain's
urging the immunity of the sick from the Church's rule,
and the desire he and others felt to receive the Communion with him, he consented. He made immediate
preparation, and joined devoutly in the responses all
through the service. This was the last act he performed
in full consciousness. On this Sunday notice was given
in more than one church that the daily celebration
would be with special intention on behalf of the Bishop,
and in five of the churches arrangements were made to
have ceaseless intercessions offered from 6 a.m. to midnight each day. The circle of the whole twenty-four
hours could have been easily completed had it been
possible to communicate with outlying parishes. As it
was, New Westminster, Sapperton, and Vancouver shared
the sad yet blessed and hopeful privilege between them.
Describing this period, the Archdeacon writes—
" ' We all knew he whom we loved so dearly, and so
deservedly valued, had entered the borderland, but none
could tell whether it was to be for life or death. We
asked (if it might be God's will) life, and "Thou
grantedst him a long life, even for ever and ever."
Once during that anxious week I saw him for a few
minutes, but he did not seem to know me. When
I stood beside him and laid my hand on his head to
give him my blessing, he bent his head reverently, was 2i6 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP   OF
silent for a few moments, his delirious talk ceasing, and
then raised his eyes to mine, but still, so far as I could
judge, not knowing who I was.'
" Monday and Tuesday during this week were days of
pain, but on Wednesday the Bishop was restful. It was
during the closing half-hour of the last two hours' watch
that was being kept at S. James', Vancouver, on the
Saturday night, that he quietly breathed his iast, and
entered on the Lord's day, the blessed and more lasting
joy of Paradise."
Expected as the departure had been, it came
that Sunday morning with a great shock, not
only upon those who were numbered among his
flock, but to all of every class and every creed
who admired and reverenced the man and his work.
A day or two before his death one of the
Vancouver papers had the following words in its
editorial :—
" The very deepest interest is taken in the condition of
his lordship, Bishop Sillitoe. Beloved by those to whom
he especially ministers, he has endeared himself to all
creeds, and has formed a large part of the highest and
best life of this portion of the province. The cutting
short of so useful a career would be deplorable. At this
time, when cant and fanaticism seem to be holding then
carnival, broad-minded men like his lordship are wanted
to teach the lesson of charity that is of the very essence
of religion. Prayers are being offered up in the various
Episcopal churches for the Bishop's recovery, and all his
friends are asked to participate in the services." (The
World, June 5 th.)
And immediately after the sad event had
become known another secular paper stated as
follows :—
E The death of Bishop Sillitoe is an event which will
be regretted by many besides those who are members
of the  Church  to  which the  late  Bishop  belonged. NEW  WESTMINSTER. 217
In his death the Church of England in this province
loses not merely one of its chief pastors, but also one of
its most energetic leaders. Zealous for the interests of
his Church, Bishop Sillitoe set a worthy example to the
clergy and laymen of his diocese. The welfare and
prosperity of the Church was a sentiment which pervaded every action of his life. In a vast diocese like
that of New Westminster even the ordinary performance
of the duties of the Episcopal office is sufficient to
absorb all the energy which the incumbent of it may
possess. But Bishop Sillitoe did not remain satisfied
with the carrying out of the mere perfunctory obligations
imposed upon him. 'To spend and be spent' in the
service of the Church was his motto. The necessities of
the diocese, the need for more clergy and Church buildings, in order that the widely scattered settlements might
be afforded spiritual ministrations, were ever before
Bishop Sillitoe. Not merely did he strain every effort
to make the Church more effective for the end for which
it was founded 5 there is every reason to believe that
the anxieties and disappointments which he suffered as
the result of his perception of the inadequacy of the means
at his disposal had also a serious effect on a frame not
robust. But he has laid well the foundations, and those
who may come after him will find their abilities and zeal
taxed to the utmost, if they carry out to the full those
works to the planning of which Bishop Sillitoe devoted
the best efforts of his life. His example will remain,
though he has passed away."
Owing to the floods, which cut New Westminster
for a time completely off from Eastern Canada,
the news travelled slowly ; but it evoked a
unanimous outburst of sorrow and regret, all the
more sincere, perhaps, because but a year before
Churchmen there had seen him at work actively
among them, lecturing and preaching, from city
to city, in order that he might disseminate knowledge respecting his distant diocese.    From the 218 MEMOIR   OF THE  BISHOP  OF
many notices in Canadian Church papers that
from the Church Guardian may be quoted here
as representative of all :—
" The sad news of the severe loss which has fallen
upon the whole Church of England in Canada through
the death of the Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of New
Westminster, on the 9th of June, only reaches us on
the 22nd instant, owing, doubtless, to the interruption
of mail and telegraphic communication through the late
floods in British Columbia. We cannot express how deeply
we feel the loss which has befallen the Church. It is
not our custom to write words of eulogy of the dead,
great or small, but there are occasions when expression
of loss through the removal, in God's providence, of
leaders is not only expected, but is just. And this is one
of such occasions, for the late Lord Bishop of New
Westminster was a Bishdp in every sense of the word—
apostolic, self-denying, laborious, and devout, and one
who in his short episcopate (as we reckon time) has built
securely, and must have left behind him an undying
record. We feel, too, that the Church in Canada owes
him a debt of gratitude, for we think that it was, under
God's good guidance, largely through his influence that
a direct conflict was avoided in regard to the formation
of the General Assembly of the Church in Canada, and
that that important event was finally carried through.
The loss, humanly speaking, is appalling ; but faith looks
beyond the present, and realizes that God overrules as
well the destiny of individuals as that of the Church,
and that He can and will provide a worthy successor for
the first good, able, and devoted Bishop of this now
bereaved See."
And in England, where, however, the Bishop
was less known, the regret was real and profound.
The Home Committee announced the sad news
in the following appropriate words :—
" ' Grant them grace to witness to the Faith '—thus have NEW  WESTMINSTER. 219
ever prayed the members of our Guild ; and God, in a
special way, has answered the prayer in the case of our
first Bishop. It has been granted to him to witness to
the Faith even unto death. In all our sorrow, in the
bitter personal grief which so many of us feel that we
shall no more welcome him home amongst us, we would
first try and thank God for thus allowing him the lofty
privilege, at times permitted to the saints, to die rather
than give up his work and the fulfilment of his duty to
His Holy Church. The words of the telegram received
on June nth have a touching, simple pathos seldom
found in such messages : [ Bishop asleep.' A brief
sentence, but the essence of a lengthy statement full of
information. ' Asleep ' after that toiling life of activity,
never sparing himself, refusing to leave his post, though
pressed to do so, and warned by medical opinion of the
probable result. Others wanting rest were encouraged
to go back to the old country, but, thoughtless of himself, he stayed on, not only weakened by repeated attacks
of pneumonia, but worried by the effect on the Church
of the commercial depression under which the Colony
has for some time been suffering."
And, last to be mentioned, but by no means
least prized by Mrs. Sillitoe, I place the following
letter, received from the Lytton Indians, who
had received so much love from the departed
Bishop :—
"June io, 1894.
" The Indians very sorry because the Bishop is die,
because he loves them very much and takes care of
them. They awful sorry Bishop die, because they all
feel they belong to him. The people hear he die last
night, and that what they are awful sorry for. From
to-day they will pray all the time for his happiness in
Paradise. They want these three days to say prayers
for him till the funeral.    They are sorry they have lost 220 MEMOIR OF THE BISHOP  OF
their things through the water, but more sorry the Bishop
is die. They want Mrs. Sillitoe to let them know if she
is well or not, because we love the Bishop very much,
and we love Mrs. Sillitoe too, and they will all pray to
God that He will comfort her in her sorrow." NEW  WESTMINSTER.
CHAPTER  XXVII.
AT  REST.
The tolling of the cathedral bell early on that
Sunday morning informed the outside world that
the first Bishop of New Westminster had completed
his labours on earth. Within the See House loving
hands dressed the dead Bishop in his robes, and
gathered around the private altar to find comfort
in the Communion of Saints realized through
Communion with Christ in the Sacrament of His
Body and Blood.
All day the bereaved parishioners and citizens
came to have one last look at him whose loving
presence they had lost.
The body lay thus in simple state till it was
bome by the priests of the diocese to the cathedral,
after Evensong on the Tuesday. At the gate
of the cathedral grounds the little procession
was met by the Archdeacon of Columbia, who,
with the impressiveness which came from knowing
himself a dying man (he did not survive the
Bishop long), recited the opening sentences of the
Burial Service.
The body was then laid in the chancel immediately   before   the   altar,   and   a  watch service,
which, like the other arrangements for the funeral,
had been long before provided for by the Bisfe5pl$
himself, was commenced by the Archdeacon, and 222 MEMOIR  OF  THE BISHOP  OF
kept up all through the night and following
morning.
At 7.30 a.m. there was a plain celebration of
the Holy Communion, and at nine o'clock a full
Choral Celebration exactly like those at which the
Bishop had so often officiated and had taught his
people to love. With eyes closed to shut out the
sight of the flower-laden coffin, it was difficult to
believe the Bishop was not there in the living
flesh. Indeed, the choir he had trained with so
much enthusiastic self-sacrifice must have felt
him present. The celebrant was the Bishop of
Columbia, Dr. Perrin, and a very large number
of people, both clergy and laity, communicated.
Immediately after the celebration, about 11.30,
the Burial Service was resumed by Bishop Perrin,
and with deep feeling the psalms chanted and
the two hymns sung. The hymns were, "The
Saints of God ! their conflict past " and " For
all the Saints who from their labours rest." Then,
many being moved to tears, the body, borne by
the clergy, was carried for the last time from the
church, while the strains of the "Dead March"
pealed forth from the organ.
The funeral cortège was, perhaps, the largest
the city of New Westminster ever beheld. The
body was carried by relays of bearers, representing
the three city parishes of Holy Trinity, S. Barnabas',
and S. Mary's, Sapperton, and the churches of
Vancouver. The choir, members of the Women's
Auxiliary and other parochial organizations followed.
Then came delegations from the Westminster Bar,
the Grand Lodge of Freemasons (of which the
Bishop had been an influential member), the City
Council, and other public bodies. Finally came
the mourners and a long line of private carriages
containing friends of the deceased Bishop. NEW   WESTMINSTER. 223
When the grave was reached, it was found to
be already almost covered with floral offerings of
all kinds, tokens of respect laid by many hands,
while at the head of the grave there shone in the
sun a large cross twelve feet in height, made entirely
of golden blossoms of the broom.
The service at the grave was said by Bishop
Barker of Colorado, U.S.A., and at the close the
hymn "Now the labourer's task is o'er" was
impressively sung by the choir. The filling in
of the grave was done by the clergy, each one
present taking a turn, and then the newly raised
mound was covered with the beautiful flowers
brought from the church.
So the tired body was left in peace while the
thoughts of the bereaved ones went out in thankfulness to God for a noble life worthily ended, and
a noble labour worthily rewarded.
But " dead, he yet speaketh ; " and the diocese,
under the new ruler given her by God, will go
forward inspired and heartened by the memory of
him who was called upon to lay the foundations.
Men of all types and schools of thought were
ready to bear testimony to the value of the work
he had done.
On the Sunday following the Bishop's death,
the Rector of Christ Church, Vancouver, in the
course of his sermon, thus summed up the loss
the diocese had sustained :—
' I cannot let this opportunity pass without saying at
least one feeble word as to the loss which this diocese
has sustained in the death of Bishop Sillitoe. Called
to preside over it at a time when it was little more than
a vast and virgin 'forest, like a wise master-builder he
laid its foundations broad and deep—foundations that
are likely to stand the test of time.    For years he toiled 224 MEMOIR  OF THE BISHOP  OF
in this laborious field with a zeal and devotion and
self-denial that are beyond all praise. And he toiled
to the very last. It is scarcely more than a month since
he was in our midst administering to our candidates the
rite of Confirmation. It is not too much to say that
he died in harness—even to say that he died a martyr
to his deep sense of duty. No one, I am sure, could
know Bishop Sillitoe intimately without being charmed
by his genial and friendly manner, and without being
impressed by his zeal, earnestness, and manliness. Such
qualities—the gifts of the Eternal Spirit—are not likely
soon to die or to be forgotten. Through them, though
dead, he yet speaketh, and will speak for many years
to all who knew him. . . ."
And one who knew the Bishop still more
intimately, the Rev. H. Edwardes, of Lytton, has
written a testimony which I cannot forbear
quoting—
"Speaking for myself," he writes, "it is difficult to
know what to say. But throughout the ' Upper Country '
the Bishop was appreciated very highly indeed for his
manly qualities and his indefatigable travel and work.
Every man on the road—hotel-keepers, farmers, teamsters,
roadmen—knew him and respected him as a friend and
as a man. It was the same on the railway, few men
being so familiarly known, and withal so respected as
the Bishop throughout the rough days of construction.
"How well I remember when I first met him at
the old S. Paul's Mission House in the depths of the
Fraser Canon in 1884, and the kind brotherly manner
in which he bade me welcome, and made me feel that
he was not only my Bishop, but my brother.
"And how patiently and laboriously he took his
part in our Indian work whenever he could visit us
there or at Lytton !. We generally had a large number
of Indians ready for him to baptize and confirm, and
administer discipline to — oh! such a dense, stupid,
apparently brainless crowd — and hour after hour the NEW  WESTMINSTER. 225
Bishop would patiently teach and catechize them when
my own little stock of patience had run dry hours before,
and my temper had grown rusty. I remember one
night, as he was deep in such a class of catechumens,
a lamp in the kitchen adjoining burst, and in a moment
the room was in flames, which were making their way
through the roof of cedar shakes. There was immediately a scene of excitement and confusion, no one
quite knowing what to do until the Bishop's common
sense came to the rescue, and he set us to throw earth
over the flames. He was very soon back at his teaching
and examining, as though nothing had happened.
" No man was so popular up the Cariboo Road and
amongst the Cariboo people as the Bishop. He and
Mrs. Sillitoe were always welcome guests, and everywhere made themselves at home with the people they
visited. Very rough times they often had on the road,
sometimes driving in great danger through raging forest
fires, and sometimes unharnessing the horses, and themselves lifting the well-known buckboard over fallen
trees. In all kinds of places the Bishop was ready to
hold service for the benefit of any handful of men he
came across, in bar-rooms, stores, hotels, stations, on
the roadside, in railway camps and cars, anywhere
where his message would be received. Often he carried
a concertina, and would himself accompany the Canticles
and hymns at these impromptu services. . . . May I
say in conclusion that I know no man I loved more
truly, no man more generously forgiving and more ready
to forget aiso.
" It was that which made one love him so, I think.
His manly courage, his ready sympathy, his delightful
unselfishness, his keen sense of humour, his quiet dignity,
combined with higher qualities still, made up a splendid
character. We have not only lost our Bishop, but our
friend. British Columbia has been fortunate in the
possession of a Bishop of such powers and character as
Bishop Sillitoe, and so say hardheaded business and
working men of all creeds wherever I go in my travels
m q 226 MEMOIR   OF THE  BISHOP   OF
in British Columbia. . . . God grant him eternal rest
and peace."
Of other and similar personal testimony from
both Indians and whites, from both cultured and
unlearned, there is no lack.
One writes to Mrs. Sillitoe—
" It may seem selfish to obtrude my own thoughts and
feelings at such a time, and yet I feel that you will care
to know that I can never cease to thank God for the
Bishop. His wise and loving direction at a time when
my mind was most unsettled regarding religious questions
has without doubt saved my life from shipwreck, and it
is to him I owe my present happiness in God's service."
And another—
" Our dear Bishop was always considerate for the views
and perhaps the prejudices of others. I can never forget
the kindness and courtesy with which he always received
me, even when asking him to do things with which he
could not agree. ... It may surprise you to know that
he was the only clergyman to whom I ever went for consolation when in trouble."
And another—
I As one who has received from Bishop Sillitoe much
spiritual assistance, much for which there must be always
very deep thankfulness, I can assure you that I must
always bear a very grateful remembrance of him."
Once again—
B No one knows, dear Mrs. Sillitoe, what he has been
to us, how lovingly he has led us on to higher things."
And for the Church at large no words can more
fitly sum up the Bishop's character and work than
the following passage from the address of the
Bishop of Nova Scotia to his synod :— NEW   WESTMINSTER. 227
"A man of solid learning and many gifts, he never
spared himself in any way if he might do or say something which would further the work committed to his
trust, the establishing and extending of the Church in
the newly created diocese, including all the southern
half of the mainland of British Columbia, and containing
an area of one hundred and eighty-six thousand square
miles, a territory about eight times the size of this diocese.
Is it any wonder that fourteen years and a half of such
work, in such a field, should have quite sufficed to cut
short, before its time, a life full of great blessing, and to
arrest a career which contained the elements of greatness ?
Another warm heart has ceased to beat; another encouraging presence has been withdrawn ; another cheering
voice has been hushed ; another workman's task is ended ;
another leader of God's host is fallen. ' They shall enter
into peace ; they shall resUin their beds, each one walking
in his uprightness.' "
There are many aspects of the Bishop's life
which this imperfect memoir has not touched. If
it were a record of the Bishop's life, rather than
the story of a Bishop's work, these pages would
be incomplete without separate chapters telling
of Bishop Sillitoe's work as musician, his work as
Mason, his work as citizen. So full of charm as
a host was he, that we should have had to tell of
that unfailing humour which made his table a
feast of mirth, and his home the attraction of so
many varied types of men.
But these things live in the memory of many,
and are not to be reproduced in any written word.
So we bring to an end this chronicle of an
Episcopate characterized by unceasing toil, if not
by romantic adventure, and fruitful to all time
in the lesson of duty heroically done in face of
obstacles innumerable.
With such  a Bishop's grave  amongst  us   the 228     THE BISHOP  OF NEW  WESTMINSTER.
diocese can never be poor. As we gaze upon it
under the shadow of the mighty trees of the
Western forest it speaks to us of the continuity
of a cause which marches on victoriously, though
every standard-bearer fall in the fight. We know
that while God has given rest to His servants, their
work is not done, nor can their graves be cold.
" Cold graves, we say ?   It shall be testified
That living men, who burn in heart and brain,
Without the dead were colder.    If we tried
To sink the past beneath our feet, be sure
The future would not stand.
Who dared build temples without tombs in sight ?
Or live without some good man's benison ?
Or seek truth, hope for good, and strive for right,
If looking up, he saw not in the sun
Some angel of the Martyrs»all day long
Standing and waiting ? " APPENDIX
Mr. Gowen has referred in the foregoing chapters to
the important part taken by Bishop Sillitoe in the
organization of a General Synod of the Chinch in
Canada, so successfully accomplished in September,
1893.
An extract from the summary of the Bishop's sermon
at the Thanksgiving Service on that occasion has been
quoted. His concluding words are so full of faith, and
hope, and thankfulness, and so characteristically clear
and to the point, that we feel sure they will interest our
readers, and we here append them—
" ' God is able to do exceeding abundantly above all
that we ask or think' Graft these words inwardly in
your hearts. Read, mark, learn, and inwardly digest them.
Then ask and think, not according to the limited horizon
of our own senses, but according to the infinitude of
Divine will and power. What can we learn herefrom
respecting the work that we have accomplished ? Well,
looking into the past, perhaps we have accomplished much.
But, looking forward to the future, what is left to be
done ? The Church is one from east to west. Now she
can speak with one voice from ocean to ocean. Now, at
length, she has become a power in the land. Praise be
to God for the manifestation of His grace ! Praise be
to Him for that ! He hath given abundantly of His
blessing ! But He can give exceeding abundantly above
all that we ask or think So let our demands go up
fearlessly for more grace and blessing; so let our
thoughts expand in the realms of faith, unwavering, unsatisfied, till we be filled with all the fulness of God, 230
APPENDIX.
till His whole power be manifested in His Church and
in each individual soul.
" Let us believe in the mission of the Church and in
the mission of each individual Churchman; let us
believe in the real indwelling of the Holy Spirit in the
Church and in each one of us. An indwelling of power,
an indwelling of responsibility. Above all, let us believe
in the possession of the Truth of God—a sacred trust
in behalf of all that are in error, as well as all that are
in ignorance. While we rejoice in the unity wherewith
God has blessed us, let us never forget that it is not
we only that are to be one, but that all are to be one,
according to His will. This is our mission, and we may
not be satisfied so long as it is unattained. All that we
have done is not enough, so long as God has more for
us to do. We have touched the outer circle of organic
unity amongst ourselves. We have drawn a circumference of united action. At the centre is God, the
Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. At the centre only is
perfect unity. There alone is our end; there only
is the full accomplishment. Now towards this centre
must every diocese converge, and every Churchman in
every diocese, each one a separate ray, sparkling and
bright with holy endeavour and unselfish aim, hastening
on by the attractive power of the indwelling Spirit, until
all shall be absorbed in the eternal being of God, and
He shall be all in all."
We also gladly insert a letter from Mrs. Jephson, of
Ayot St. Peter Rectory, Welwyn, which speaks for itself
of the good and lasting influence left by the Bishop in
this little Hertfordshire village.
The Rev. Henry Jephson and his people have for
many years, with their prayers and intercessions, sent an
extraordinary amount of help and sympathy to New
Westminster, and have helped to cheer the hearts of
many clergy and workers in that distant diocese.
Mrs. Jephson says—
" Although it is nearly twelve years since Bishop
Sillitoe first spoke on Foreign Missions at Welwyn, his APPENDIX. 231
words are still graven on my memory, and have been
the means of guiding all sorts and conditions of people,
who have desired to help our missions in some way, but
yet were held back by the thought that their offerings
might be too small and poor.
"He always explained so well what is meant by the
true 'spirit of missions,' and how useless large sums
given spasmodically were, compared with a little, done
earnestly and with quiet conviction.
" Although he was always most grateful for the least
thing done for his diocese or himself, he did not
believe much in money given from a personal interest in
himself, or in the particular part of the country in which
he worked. He used to say that at first, in the early
days of the diocese, he had positively suffered from
such gifts, for they gradually diminished, and at last
ceased. Having a most trustful and hopeful nature,
he unfortunately believed that these large subscriptions
would always be forthcoming, and would embark on
some cherished scheme on the strength of them. But
he found that subscriptions often gradually diminish as
interest flags, and the elements of novelty and romance
become too familiar to attract. Direct personal appeal
was only possible at long intervals.
"The Bishop gave offence several times by refusing to
preach about his own diocese and its needs.
'"The pulpit is not the place,' he said, 'from which
to plead any cause but the great one of the Christian's
duty.    That I will tell you about.'
" It was only at meetings he would enter into details
of his needs, and he never thought any gathering too
unimportant for his very best efforts.
" We all in Ayot remember a Sunday evening on the
village green, after a hard day's work, how he stood
under one of the trees surrounded by the poor people
and the children, all listening eagerly to every word he
spoke to them.
" His pleading tone, when speaking of his Master's
work, quickly drew out the sympathies of his audience— 232
APPENDIX.
not to himself—but to the importance and seriousness
of their duty to spread the knowledge of salvation.
" He had a way of effacing himself whenever he spoke
of missionary work, and I can only account for his
lasting influence in this place by the very fact that he
put duty and high motive so conspicuously in front of
everything else. It made us all feél ashamed of anything
less than heart and soul work.
| The first time he came to the Rectory, his sunny,
cheery manner, and his simple ways and habits, made
every one feel at home with him at once.
"Always dignified in, and conscious of, his high office,
nothing could be simpler than the manner of his life.
He carried usually a small valise containing just a
few necessaries, and a neat case with his robes of office,
which he tried to have of the very best he could afford,
but for his own personal use not a luxury of any kind.
"These are perhaps but little things, but surely an
index of the character of the man who laid down his
life for his Master's work.
"With his dying lips he commended to us a certain
part of his Indian work which he had much at heart,
and which he had hoped to see started and flourishing
before he was called away.
" We must always thank God for what he was allowed to
do here, and is doing, for, as his teaching was not of the
sort that passes away with the teacher, we may surely
venture to say this." A Selection of Works
IN
THEOLOGICAL  LITERATURE
PUBLISHED  by
Messrs. LONGMANS, GREEN, & CO.
London : 39 Paternoster Row, E.C.
New York : 91 and 93 Fifth Avenue.
Bombay : 32 Hornby Road.
Abbey and Overton.—THE ENGLISH CHURCH IN THE
EIGHTEENTH CENTURY; pBy Charles J. Abbey, M.A., Rector
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Lincoln. Crown Svo. js. 6d.
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[continued. IN THEOLOGICAL LITERATURE. 13
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