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The Klondike official guide : Canada's great gold field, the Yukon district; with numerous maps and illustrations… Ogilvie, William, 1846-1912 1898

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Official Guide
Canada's Great Gold Field
THE YUKON DISTRICT
PREPARED   BY
WM. OGILVIE
Astronomer of the Department of the Interior, Dominion Land Surveyor
and Explorer
With  Numerous  Maps  and  Illustrations
AND
REGULATIONS  GOVERNING  PLACER  MINING
Published  fey authority of the Department of the Interior
of the Dominion of Canada
TORONTO
THE HUNTER, ROSE CO., LIMITED Entered according to the Act of the Parliament of Canada in the year one thousand eight
hundred and ninety-eight, by The Hunter, Rose Co., Limited, at the Department of
Agriculture.
/5 3, J A 4
0 327
Copyright in the United Stat
All rights reserved.
Thb Hunter, Ross Co.. 1 PREFACE.
ERY few places have attracted the attention of the world to the
same extent as that fraction of the Yukon District of the
Dominion of Canada known as Klondike, This interest was
aroused within the past few months, and has grown so vastly
that scores of thousands are directing their gaze thitherwards,
hopeful of fortune and happiness.
* (q>W That the fullest information be accorded all so inclined,
the Hon., The Minister of the Interior, directed that a hand
book containing the completest possible information be issued as soon
as practicable. Naturally this task fell to myself, as I had been more
associated with that region than any other Canadian official. The work
was commenced about the middle of December last, a few days after
my return thence ; and when it is considered that maps had specially to
be prepared, photographs selected and put in shape for reproduction,
besides much original matter written, and many previous reports by
others and myself read, and extracts bearing on that district made, put
in order, and connected in an intelligible way with the recent matter, it
can be understood why in some respects this book is not as finished as I
would like, more especially when we recollect that most of the work fell to
myself, as my notes taken in the field as they were, often when my fingers
were benumbed with cold and my senses almost paralyzed with long exposure to fierce wintry winds on the bleak mountain tops, were only decipherable by myself, and there was no time to transcribe them into legible hand.
Taken as a whole, I venture to hope the book will fill a great gap,
though there may be a few places left unstopped. These, however, can be
readily filled by those inclined to think for themselves. The extracts from
previous reports have been revised and extended to what was known at time
of writing; so, if reference is made to those reports, differences will be found.
The recent part is as full as I thought it necessary to make it
To go into detail enough to leave no question unanswered, would take
much more time than I had at my command. vi PREFACE.
I know from experience that  the many-headed propound questions,
various, relevant and irrelevant, and were I inclined, could fill this volume \
with specimens of such, unique in their way.    Many, many queries   of that
kind are ignored on these pages, but I look for the sympathy of practical,
self-reliant men and women.
The maps have been very hurriedly prepared, and embrace in a crude
way all the available information, both from actual survey, and observations
and reports.
■ On the large map, showing the various routes, it will be noted that
where the route follows a stream or other waterway it can be fairly closely
located. When it is overland, we must not assume more than that the line
of route marked in a general way indicates where it is intended to put a
road. This is because no survey has been made of such routes, or if it has
no returns of it were available.
WILLIAM  OGILVIE.
Ottawa, January 27th, 1898.
^_ CONTENTS.
Large Map of Western Pat   of the Domini
Author s Preface
Railway Communication -
The Yukon District     -
Mr.  Ogilvie's Exploration of  1887
From Dyea Inlet to the Alaska Boundary
Survey of Fortymile River
Description of the Yukon
Agricultural Capabilities of the Yukon Bas
Minerals -
Metals Found on the River
The Government of the Yukon Territory
More Recent Discoveries   -
Map of the Western Portion of the Domina
Seven Sectional Maps North-Western Canac
Other. Minerals Found in the Yukon Distr:
Hints on Prospecting ...
ROUTES—Prince Albert
Edmonton
Cariboo and Cassair
Taku    -
White Pass
Dyea or Chilcoot Pass
Dalton
James and Hudson Bay
Ocean and River Route    -
Food Supplies,  etc.
Tents     - - - - -
REGULATIONS—Governing Placer Minim
Governing Lease to Dre Railway and Steamboat
Communication
BY AN
ALL CANADIAN ROUTE.
Since the following pages were written the Canadian Government has completed arrangements which will, during the coming season, remove the great
difficulties which have heretofore stood in the way of travel and transport to the
Yukon District. The route to be opened is by steamer from Victoria or Vancouver
to Wrangel, thence by the Stikine River to Telegraph Creek, thence overland 150
miles to Teslin Lake, thence down Teslin Lake, the Hootaluqua, Lewis and Yukon
Rivers to Dawson City. Large steamers run the year round to the mouth of the
Stikine River. From that point a sleigh road to Teslin Lake will be open for travel
with stopping places every 25 miles, on the 10th March. Persons going in can
thus reach Teslin Lake and make their preparations to go down from that point by
water when the ice goes out, which is usually about May 15th. While those who
wish to prospect in the south-eastern part of the Yukon District may find to their
advantage to go by one of the overland routes, the great bulk of the travel to
Dawson City and its neighborhood will find an easy route by way of the Stikine
and Teslin Lake.
River steamers will ply all summer from the mouth of the Stikine to Telegraph Creek. A wagon road with abundance of transportation facilities will be
available from Telegraph Creek to Teslin Lake, and steamers will be plying on
this lake and the Hootaluqua, Lewis and Yukon Rivers. On the First day of
September a railway will be in operation from Telegraph Creek to Teslin Lake so
that from that time until the ice forms in the Fall, generally about October 20th,
there will be an uninterrupted steamboat and railway connection to Dawson City.
Persons travelling by this route, or any of the all Canadian overland routes
described in the following pamphlet, will avoid payment of duties if their outfits
are purchased in Canada.
VL_. Canada, s Great Gold Field
THE YUKON DISTRICT
THE YUKON DISTRICT comprises, speaking generally, that part of
the North-west Territories lying west
of the water shed of the Mackenzie River ; most of it is drained by the Yukon
River and its tributaries. It covers a
distance of about 650 miles along the
river from the coast range of mountains.
The first people from civilization to
enter the country were the traders for
the Hudson Bay Company. In the
year 1840 Mr. Robert Campbell was
commissioned by Sir George Simpson
to explore the Upper Liard and to cross
the height-of-land in search of any river
flowing to the westward. After ascending the river to its head waters he
struck across to the head of the Pelly
River, thence down the Pelly to the
confluence of the Lewes, at which point
he turned back, his men having become
discouraged by the stories of the Wood
Indians encamped there, who represented that the lower portion of the
river was inhabited by a tribe of cannibals. In 1847 Fort Yukon was established at the mouth of the Porcupine
by Mr. A. H. Murray, another member
of the Hudson Bay Company;
In 1848 Campbell established Fort Selkirk at the confluence of the Pelly and
Lewes Rivers ; it was plundered and destroyed in 1852 by the Coast Indians, and
only the ruins now exist of what was at one time the most important post of the
Hudson Bay Company to the west of the Rocky Mountains in the far north. In 1869
the Hudson Bay Company's officer was notified to leave Fort Yukon by the United
States Government officers, they having ascertained by astronomical observations
that the post was not located in British territory. The officer thereupon ascended
the Porcupine to a point which was supposed to be within British jurisdiction,
where he established Rampart House ; but in 1890 Mr. J. H. Turner of the United
States Coast Survey found it to be 20 miles within the lines of the United States.
Consequently in 1891 the post was moved 20 miles further up the river to be within
British territory. IO CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
The next people to enter the country for trading purposes were Messrs. Harper
and McQuesten. They have been trading in the country since 1874 and have
occupied numerous posts all along the river, the greater number of which have
been abandoned. Mr. Harper was located as a trader at Fort Selkirk, and Mr.
McQuesten is in the employ of the Alaska Commercial Company at Circle City,
which is the distributing point for the vast regions surrounding Birch Creek, Alaska.
In 1882 a number of miners entered the Yukon country by the Dyea Pass ; it is
still the only route used to any extent by the miners, and is shorter than the other
passes though not the lowest. In 1883 Lieutenant Schwatka crossed this same
pass and descended the Lewes and Yukon Rivers to the ocean.
The history of the Yukon District within recent years will be best described by
the following extract from the annual report of the Deputy of the Minister of the
Interior for the year 1895 :
"In the year 1887 the Hon. Thomas White, then Minister of the Interior,
authorized the organization of an expedition having for its object the exploration of
that region of the North-west Territories of Canada which is drained by the Yukon
River. The work was entrusted to Dr. George M. Dawson, now the Director of
the Geological Suryey, and Mr. Wm. Ogilvie, the well known explorer and surveyor.
Dr. Dawson devoted the whole of that season, and Mr. Ogilvie a period covering
nearly two years, to obtaining geological, topographical, and general information,
•chiefly respecting the tract of country lying adjacent to the 141st meridian of longitude, which by the Treaty of St. Petersburg is designated as the boundary line
from the neighborhood of Mount St. Elias to the Arctic Ocean between Alaska
and the adjoining possessions of the British Crown which now form part of the
North-west Territories of Canada.
1 ' The explorers found that in proximity to the boundary line there existed
extensive and valuable placer gold mines, in which even then as many as three
hundred miners were at work. Mr. Ogilvie determined, by a series of lunar
. observations, the point at which the Yukon River is intersected by the 141st merir-
dian, and marked approximately the same on the ground. He also determined and
marked roughly the point at which the western affluent of the Yukon, known as
Fortymile River, is crossed by the same meridian line, that point being situated at
a distance of about twenty-three miles from the mouth of the creek. This survey
proved that the places which had been selected as the most convenient, owing to
the physical conformation of the region, from which to 'distribute the supplies
imported for the various mining camps, and from which to conduct the other business incident to the mining operations—places situate at the confluence of the
Fortymile River and the Yukon, and to which the names of Fortymile and Cudahy
havebeen given—are well within Canadian territory. The greater proportion of the
mines then being worked Mr. Ogilvie found to be on the Canadian side of the international boundary line, but he reported the existence of some mining fields to the
south, the exact position of which with respect to the boundary he did not have
the opportunity to fix.
"The number of persons engaged in mining in the locality mentioned has steadily
increased year by year since the date of Mr. Ogilvie's survey, and it is estimated
that at the commencement of the past season not less than one thousand men were
so employed. Incident to this mineral development there must follow a corresponding growth in the volume of business of all descriptions, particularly the importation of dutiable goods, and the occupation of tracts of the public lands for mining
purposes which according to the mining regulations are subject to the payment of
•certain prescribed dues and charges. The Alaska Commercial Company, for many
years subsequent to the retirement of the Hudson Bay Company, had a practical
monopoly of the trade of the Yukon, carrying into the country and delivering at
various points along the river, without regard to the international boundary line or
the customs laws and regulations of Canada, such articles of commerce as were
required for the prosecution of the fur trade and latterly of placer mining, these
>1_ THE YUKON DISTRICT.
From Photo, by W. Ogilvi
Mr.  Harper, Yukon Pioneer.
remembered that the country produces
none of the articles consumed within
it except fresh meat, that a large
revenue was being lost to the public
exchequer under the then existing
conditions.
' I For the purpose of ascertaining
officially and authoritatively the condition of affairs to which the correspondence referred to in the preceding
paragraph relates, the Honourable the
President of the Privy Council, during
the spring of 1894, despatched Inspector Charles Constantine, of the North-
West Mounted Police Force, accompanied by Sergeant Brown, to Cudahy
and the mining camps in its vicinity.
The report made by Mr. Constantine
on his return established the substantial accuracy of the representations already referred to. The value of the
total output of gold for the season of
1894 he estimated at $300,000, a very
large sum considering the relatively
short period to which mining operations are, by the nature of the climate,
confined.
" The facts recited clearly establish—first, that the time had arrived
when it became the duty of the Gov-
being the only two existing industries. With
the discovery of gold, however, came the organization of a competing company known as
the North American Transportation and Trading Company, having its headquarters in Chicago and its chief trading and distributing post
at Cudahy. This company has been engaged in
this trade for over three years, and during the
past season despatched two ocean steamers
from Seattle to St. Michael, at the mouth of the
Yukon, the merchandise from which was, at the
last mentioned point, transhipped into river
steamers and carried to points inland, but chiefly
to the company's distributing centre within
Canadian territory. Importations of considerable value, consisting of the immediately requisite supplies of the miners, and their tools, also
reach the Canadian portion of the Yukon District from Juneau, in the United States, by way
of the Dyea Inlet, the mountain passes, and the
chain of waterways leading therefrom to Cudahy. Upon none of these importations had
any duty been collected, except a sum of $3,-
248.80 paid to Inspector Constantine in 1894,
by the two companies mentioned above, and
it is  safe   to  conclude,  especially  when it  is
From Photo, by W. Ogilvi
Frederick W.  Hart, Yukon Pioneer.
J i2 CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
ernment of Canada to make more efficient provision for the maintenance of
order, the enforcement of the laws, and the administration of justice in the
Yukon country, especially in that section of it in which placer mining for
gold is being prosecuted upon such an extensive scale, situated near to the
boundary separating the North-west Territories from the possessions of the
United States in Alaska ; and, second, that while such measures as were necessary to that end were called for in the interests of humanity, and particularly for
the security and safety of the lives and property of the Canadian subjects of Her
Majesty resident in that country who are engaged in legitimate business pursuits,
it was evident that the revenue justly due to the Government of Canada, under its
customs, excise and land laws, -and which would go a long way to pay the expenses of government, was being lost for the want of adequate machinery for its
collection.
"Accordingly in June last a detachment* of twenty members of the Mounted
Police Force including officers was detailed for service in that portion of the
North-west Territories.    The officer in command, in addition to the magisterial
Leroy N. McQuesten, One of the Yukon Pio.
and other duties he is required to perform by virtue of his office and under instructions from the Department of Mounted Police, was duly authorized to represent "
where necessary, and until other arrangements car be made, all the departments
of the government having interests in that regio . Particularly he is authorized
to perform the duties of Dominion lands agent, collector of customs, and collector
of inland revenue. At the same time instructions were given Mr. William 0<rilvie
the surveyor referred to as having, with Dr. Dawson, been entrusted with the
conduct of the first government expedition to the Yukon, to proceed again to that
district for the purpose of continuing and extending the work of determining the
141st meridian, of laying out building lots and mining claims, and generally of
performing such duties as may be entrusted to him from time to time. Mr. Ogil-
vie's qualifications as a surveyor, and his previous experience as explorer of this
section of the North-west, peculiarly fit him for the task.
it 1 * Ti.e detachment was made up as follows :—Inspector C. Constantine, Officer Commanding
Yukon Detachment N. W. M Police; Inspector, D. A. E. Strickland ; LsistfnJLrge^n, A E^
Wills ; 2 Staff Sergeants ; 2 Corporals ; 13 Constables. S      ' - THE YUKON DISTRICT. I4 CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
" As it appears quite certain, from the report made by Mr. Ogilvie on his return to Ottawa in 1889, and from the report of Mr. Constantine, that the operations of the miners are being conducted upon streams which have their sources in
the United States Territory of Alaska, and flow into Canada on their way to join
the Yukon, and as doubtless some of the placer diggings under development are
situated on the United States side of the boundary, it is highly desirable, both for
the purpose of settling definitely to which country any land occupied for mining or
other purposes actually belongs, and in order that the jurisdiction of the counts
and officers of the United States and Canada, for both civil and criminal purposes,
' may be established, that the determination of the 141st meridian west of Greenwich from the point of its intersection with the Yukon, as marked by Mr. Ogilvie
in 1887-88, for a considerable distance south of the river, and possibly also for
some distance to the north, should be proceeded with at once, j Mr. Ogilvie's instructions require him to go on with the survey with all convenient speed, but in
order that this work may be effective for the accomplishment of the object in view
the co-operation of the Government of the United States is necessary. Correspondence is in progress through the proper authorities with a view to obtaining
this co-operation. It may be mentioned that a United States surveyor has also
determined the points.at which the Yukon River and Fortymile River are intersected by the 141st meridian."
Since the date of the above report, Mr. D. W. Davis has been appointed collector of customs for the Yukon district.
The business of the Department of the Interior having grown to such proportions that Inspector Constantine was no longer able to deal with" it and discharge the numerous other duties assigned to him, Mr. Thomas Fawcett, Dominion Topographical Surveyor, has been appointed gold commissioner, surveyor and.
general agent of the Minister of the Interior for the district. Accompanying him
and acting under his instructions are two Dominion land surveyors, Jas. Gibbons
and E. D. Bolton, with their parties.
MR. OGILVIE'S EXPLORATION OF Ï887.
Mr. W. Ogilvie describes as follows his trip down the Yukon River in 1887.
The first news I received on landing at Chilkat was that there was trouble in
the interior, on the Lewes River, in the vicinity where I intended to go. A miner,
who had recently arrived from the interior, stated that there had been a fight
between the Indians and the miners at the mouth of Stewart River. The result of
the affair, he alleged, was that four Indians and two white men had been killed,
and that the Indians had come up the river as far as the canon to lie in wait for any
white men who might be going into the country. I did not have an opportunity of
questioning him, as he had gone to Juneau the day before I arrived. The rumour
seemed to me to be somewhat improbable ; but true or false, it was an unpleasant
one to hear, and the only way to verify it was to go and see whether the Indians
were hostile or not. Happily the whole story proved to be untrue. I subsequently
learned from the miners in the interior that he had had difficulties with-them, in
consequence of which he was ordered in mid-winter to leave the region, which the
miners consider equivalent to a sentence of death. Strange to say, he succeeded
in getting out alive, making a distance of upwards of 500 miles of the most' dangerous and difficult travelling. He started in the month of February, I think, and
reached the coast in the month of May. It is reported that on his way out he had
more trouble with an Indian whom he hired to accompany him. Another miner
named Williams started from Stewart River for the coast in the month of December, carrying a message from Harper, McQuesten & Co., and mail from the miners.
1 his man had the advantage at intervals of the assistance of the miners a few of
whom were scattered along the river in the vicinity of the Teslin (the Newberry of
Schwatka).    At the summit of the coast range he was detained by a snow storm THE YUKON DISTRICT.
for three days, and the hardships he suffered brought on pneumonia,  from the
effects of which he died.
It is said by those fan
upper altitudes of the coast
ar with the locality that the storms which rage in the
inge during the greater part of the time, from October
to March, are terrific. A man caught in one of them runs the risk of losing his
life, unless he can reach shelter in a short time. During the summer there is nearly
always a wind blowing from the sea up Chatham Strait and Lynn Canal, which lie
in almost a straight line with each other, and at the head of Lynn Canal are Chilkat CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
Looking Down Chilkoot Pass
and Chilkoot Inlets. The distance from the coast down these channels to the open .
sea is about 380 miles. The mountains on each side of the water confine the
currents of air, and deflect inclined currents in the direction of the axis of the
channel, so that there is nearly always a strong wind blowing up the channel.
Coming from the sea, this wind is heavily charged with moisture, which is precipitated when the air current strikes the mountains, and the fall of rain and snow is
consequently very heavy.
After landing at Chilkoot the weather continued very wet for three days, so
that I could not do anything in the way of commencing the survey, and during the
delay myself and party were employed in making preparations for carrying the
instruments, provisions and other baggage up to the head of Dyea Inlet, a distance
of 20^2 miles. This was accomplished by securing the services of two boats
belonging to a trader, which were towed to the head of the Dyea Inlet by the
United States gunboat " Pinta," to the commander of which (Capt. Newell) I owe |
a debt of gratitude for his very obliging and attentive treatment of myself and
party.
FROM DYEA INLET TO THE ALASKA BOUNDARY.
On the 30th of May I commenced the survey by connecting Pyramid Island in
Chilkat Inlet with Chilkoot Inlet at Haines mission. At this point a Protestant
mission was established some years ago ; but it is now abandoned, owing, as
I was informed, to the very unpleasant conduct of the Chilkoot Indians. I could
•not learn that they had committed any overt act of hostility, but it appears the
missionary tried to relieve the sufferings of a sick Indian child. Unfortunately, •
the child died, and the father attributed the death to the missionary, and from that
time acted in so suspicious a manner towards the children of the latter, that he
considered it unsafe to remain in the vicinity, and moved into Juneau.
The teacher of the United States Government school for Indians at Haines
mission, Col. Ripinsky, told me he had got into trouble in the same way.    A sick
	 THE YUKON DISTRICT. l7
Indian to whom he administered medicine at first became much worse, in consequence, apparently, of the treatment, and during this time the patient's relatives
walked about in an exciting manner, manifesting very unpleasant signs of hostility.
Fortunately the man finally recovered, but Col. Ripinsky has no doubt that his life
would not have been safe had he died.
The latitude and longitude of a point near Pyramid Island were determined in
1869 by a United States Coast Survey party, who were sent out to observe the
eclipse of the sun in the month of August of that year. The position then determined^ given in the "Alaska Coast Pilot" as latitude 59° ii'43".o, longitude 135°
2i °4" -5- The longitude was determined by chronometers, thirteen having been
used by the expedition. Where the point was fixed I could not ascertain, so I took
the centre of the island. This island is pyramidal in form, as seen from the southwest or north-east, and about 500 yards long by 200 wide. It is composed of sand
and clay, and rises about 80 feet above high tide, being evidently the result of
glacial action. At low tide there is very little water on the north side of the island,
and it is only a question of a few years until it will cease to be an island altogether,
owing to the constant accumulation of drift brought down by the streams flowing
into the inlet. s
To carry the survey from the island across to Chilkoot Inlet I had to get up on
the mountains north of Haines mission, and from there could see both inlets.
Owing to the bad weather I could get no observation for azimuth, and had to prol
duce the survey from Pyramid Island to Dyea Inlet by reading the angles of
deflection between the courses. At Dyea Inlet I got my first observation, and
deduced the azimuths of my courses up to that point. Dyea Inlet has evidently
been the valley of a glacier ; its sides are steep and smooth from glacial action ;
and this, with the wind almost constantly blowing landward, renders getting upon
the shore difficult.     Some long- sights were therefore necessary.     The survey was
Looking Up Chilkoot Pass from a Point \}i MiU
From Photo, by W. Ogilvi
above Tide-water (Raining.) ÏS CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
made up to the head of the inlet on the 2nd of June. Preparations were then
commenced for taking the supplies and instruments over the coast range of mountains to the head of Lake Lindeman on the Lewes River. Commander Newell
kindly aided me in making arrangements with the Indians, and did all he could to
induce them to be reasonable in their demands. This, however, neither he nor any
one else could accomplish. They refused to carry to the lake for less than $20 per
hundred pounds, and as they had learned that the expedition was an English one,
the second chief of the Chilkoot Indians recalled some memories of an old quarrel
which the tribe had with the English many years ago, in which an uncle of his was
killed, and he thought we should pay for the loss of his uncle by being charged an
exorbitant price for our packing, of which he had the sole control. Commander
Newell told him I had a permit from the Great Father at Washington to pass
through his country safely, that he would see that I did so, and if the Indians interfered with me they would be punished for doing so. After much talk they
consented to carry our stuff to the summit of the mountain for $10 per hundred
pounds. This is about two-thirds of the whole distance, includes all the climbing
and all the woods, and is by far the most difficult part of the way.
On the 6th of June 120 Indians, men, women and children, started for the
summit. I sent two of my party with them to see the goods delivered at the place
agreed upon. Each carrier when given a pack also got a ticket, on which was inscribed the contents of the pack, its weight, and the amount the individual was to
get for carrying it. They were made to understand that they had to produce these
tickets on delivering their packs, but were not told for what reason. As each pack
was delivered one of my men receipted the ticket and returned it. The Indians did
not seem to understand the import of this ; a few of them pretended to have lost
their tickets ; and as they could not get paid without them, my assistant, who had
duplicates of every ticket, furnished them with receipted copies, after examining
their packs.
While they were packing to the summit I was producing the survey, and I met
them on their return at the foot of the canon, about eight miles from the coast,
where I paid them. They came to the camp in the early morning before I was up,
and for about two hours there was quite a hubbub. When paying them I tried to
get their names, but very few of them would give any Indian name, nearly all, after
a little reflection, giving some common English name. My list contained little else
than Jack, Tom, Joe, Charley, &c, some of which were duplicated three and four
times. I then found why some of them had pretended to lose their tickets at the
summit. Three or four who had thus acted presented themselves twice for payment, producing first the receipted ticket, afterwards the one they claimed to have
lost, demanding pay for both. They were much taken aback when they found that
their duplicity had been discovered.
These Indians are perfectly heartless. They will not render even the, smallest
aid to each other without payment ; and if not to each other, much less to a white
man. I got one of them, whom I had previously assisted with his pack, to take
me and two of my party over a small creek in his canoe. After putting us across
he asked for money, and I gave him half a dollar. Another man stepped up and
demanded pay, stating that the canoe was his. To see what the result would be,
I gave to him the same amount,as to the first. Immediately there were three or
four more claimants for the canoe. I dismissed them with a blessing, and made
up my mind that I would wade the next creek.
While paying them I was a little apprehensive of trouble, for they insisted on
crowding into my tent, and for myself and the four men who were with me to have
attempted to eject them would have been to invite trouble. I am strongly of the
opinion that these Indians would have been much more difficult to deal wtth if they
had not known that Commander Newell remained in the inlet to see that I °-ot
through without trouble. &
While making the survey from the head of tide water I took the azimuths
^—, THE YUKON DISTRICT.
J 2o CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
and altitudes of several of the highest peaks .around the head of the inlet, in order
to locate them, and obtain an idea of the general height of the peaks in the coast
range. As it does not appear to have been done before, I have taken the opportunity of naming all the peaks, the positions of which I fixed in the above way.
The names and altitudes appear on my map.
While going up from the head of canoe navigation on the Dyea River I took
he angles of elevation of each station from the preceding one. /would have done
B1Ï t•*£eIUP' but u°Und many °f the c°^ses so short and with lo littie
mcrease m height that with the instrument I had it was inappreciable.    From these
|_^ THE YUKON DISTRICT. 21
angles I have computed the height of the summit of the Dyea Pass, above the
head of canoe navigation, as it appeared to me in June, 1887, and find it to be
3,378 feet. What depth of snow there was I cannot say. The head of canoe
navigation I estimate at about 120 feet above tide water. Dr. Dawson gives it as
124 feet.
I determined the descent from the summit to Lake Lindeman by carrying the
aneroid from the lake to the summit and back again, the interval of time from start
to return being about eight hours. Taking the mean of the readings at the lake,
start and return, and the single reading at the summit, the height of the summit
above the lake was found to be 1,237 feet. While making the survey from the
summit down to the lake I took the angles of depression of each station from the
preceding one, and from these angles I deduced the difference of height, which I
found to be 1,354 feet> or 117 feet more than that found by the aneroid.    This is
From Photo, by J. J. McArthur.
—Looking Down and Across Boulder Creek.
quite a large difference ; but when we consider the altitude of the place, the sudden
changes of temperature, and the atmospheric conditions, it is not more than one
might expect.
While at Juneau I heard reports of a low pass from the head of Chilkoot Inlet
to the head waters of Lewes River. During the time I was at the head of Dyea
Inlet I made inquiries regarding it, and found that there was such a pass, but could
learn nothing definite about it from either whites or Indians. As Capt. Moore,
who accompanied me, was very anxious to go through it, and as the reports of the
Dyea Pass indicated that no wagon road or railroad could ever be built through it,
while the new pass appeared, from what little knowledge I could get of it, to be
much lower and possibly feasible for à wagon road, I determined to send the cap-
lmmit of the pass is 15 miles, and the
_J fl
22 CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
tain by that way, if I could get an Indian to accompany him. This, I found, would
be difficult to do. None of the Chilkoots appeared to know anything of the pass,
and I concluded that they wished to keep its existence and condition a secret.
The Tagish, or Stick Indians, as the interior Indians are locally palled, are afraid
to do anything in opposition to the wishes of the Chilkoots ; so it was difficult to
get any of them to join Capt Moore ; but after much talk and encouragement from
the whites around, one of them named "Jim" was induced to go. He had been
through this, pass before, and proved reliable and useful. The information obtained from Capt. Moore's exploration I have incorporated in my plan of the
survey from Dyea Inlet, but it is not as complete as I would have liked. I have
named this pass "White Pass," in honour of the late Hon Thos. White, Minister
of the Interior, under whose authority the expedition was organized.    Commencing
Skaguay Bay—Steamer Quadra
From Photo, by W. Ogilvi
i Foreground.
at Dyea Inlet, about two miles south of its north end, it follows up the valley of
the Skaguay River to its source, and thence down the valley of another river which
Capt. Moore reported to empty into the Takone or Windy Arm of Tagish Lake.
Dr. Dawson says this stream empties into the eastern arm of the Tagish Lake, and
in that event Capt. Moore is mistaken. Capt. Moore did not go all the way
through to the lake, but assumed from reports he heard from the miners and others
that the stream flowed into Windy Arm, and this also was the idea of the Indian
"Jim" from what I could gather from his remarks in broken English and Chinook
■Capt. Moore estimates the distance from tide water to the summit at about 18
miles, and from the summit to the lake at about 22 to 23 miles. He reports the
pass as thickly timbered all the way through. "
The timber line on the south side of the Dyea pass, as determined by barometer reading, is about 2,300 feet above the sea, while on the north side it is about
1,000 feet below the summit. This large difference is due, I think, to the different
•conditions in the two places.    On the south side the valley is narrow and deep THE YUKON DISTRICT. 24
CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
and the sun cannot produce its full effect. The snow also is much deeper there,
owing to the quantity which drifts in from' the surrounding mountains. On the
north side the surface is sloping, and more exposed to the sun's rays. On the
south side the timber is of the class peculiar to the coast, and on the north that
peculiar to the interior. The latter would grow at a greater altitude than the coast
timber. It is possible that the summit of White Pass is not higher than the timber
line on the north of the Dyea Pass, or about 2,500 feet above tide water, and it is
possibly even lower than this, as the timber in a valley such as the White Pass
would hardly live at the same altitude as on the open slope on the north side.
Capt. Moore has had considerable experience in building roads in mountainous
countries. He considers that this would be an easy route for a wagon road compared with some roads he has seen in British Columbia. Assuming his distances
to be correct, and the height of the pass to be probably about correctly indicated,
the grades would not be very steep, and a railroad could easily be carried through
if necessary.
After completing the survey down to the lake, I set about getting my baggage
down too. Of all the Indians who came to the summit with packs, only four or
five could be induced to remain and pack down to the lake, although I was paying
them at the rate of $4 per hundred pounds. After one trip down only two men
remained, and they only in hopes of stealing something. One of them appropriated a pair of boots, and was much surprised to find that he had to pay for them on
being settled with. I could not blame them much for not caring to work, as the
weather was very disagreeable—it rained or snowed almost continuously. After
the Indians left I tried to get down the stuff with the aid of my own men, but it
was slavish and unhealthy labour, and after the first trip one of them was laid up
with what appeared to be inflammatory rheumatism. The first time the party
crossed, the sun was shining brightly, and this brought on snow blindness, the
pain of which only those who have suffered from it can realize. I had two
sleds with me which were made in Juneau specially for the work of getting
over the mountains and down the lakes on the ice. With these I succeeded in
bringing about a ton and a-half to the lakes, but I found that the time it would
take to get all down in this way would seriously interfere with the programme
arranged with Dr. Dawson, to say nothing of the suffering of the men and myself,
and the liability to sickness which protracted physical exertion under such uncomfortable conditions and continued suffering from snow blindness expose us to. I
had with me a white man who lived at the head of the inlet with a Tagish Indian
woman. This man had a good deal of influence with the Tagish tribe, of whom
the greater number were then in the neighbourhood where he resided, trying to get
some odd jobs of work, and I sent him to the head of the inlet to try and induce
the Tagish Indians to undertake the transportation, offering them $5 per hundred
pounds. In the meantime Capt. Moore and the Indian "Jim" had rejoined me.
I had their assistance for a day or two, and "Jim's" presence aided indirectly in
inducing the Indians to come to my relief.
The Tagish are little more than slaves to the more powerful coast tribes, and
are in constant dread of offending them in any way. One of the privileges which
the coast tribes claim is the exclusive right to all work on the coast or in its vicinity, and the Tagish are afraid to dispute this claim. When my white man asked
the Tagish to come over and pack they objected on the grounds mentioned. After
considerable ridicule of their cowardice, and explanation of the fact that they had
the exclusive right to all work in their own country, the country on the north side
of the coast range being admitted by the coast Indians to belong to the Tagish
tribe just as the coast tribes had the privilege of doing all the work on the coast
side of the mountains, and that one of their number was already working with me
unmolested, and likely to continue so, nine of them came over, and in fear and
trembling began to pack down to the lake. After they were at work for a few-
days some of the Chilkoots came out and also started to work.     Soon I had quite
f—H THE YUKON DISTRICT. 25
a number at work and was getting my stuff down quite fast. But this good fortune was not to continue. Owing to the prevailing wet, cold weather on the
mountains, and the difficulty of getting through the soft, wet snow, the Indians
soon began to quit work for a day or two at a time, and to gamble with one
another for the wages already earned. Many of them wanted to be paid in full,
but this I positively refused, knowing that to do so was to have them all apply for
their earnings and leave me until necessity compelled them to go to work again.
I once for all made them distinctly understand that I would not pay any of them
I 26 CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
until the whole of the stuff was down. As many of them had already earned from
twelve to fifteen dollars each, to lose which was a serious matter to them, they
reluctantly resumed work and kept at it until all was delivered. This done, I paid
them off, and set about getting my outfit across the lake, which I did with my own
party and the two Peterborough canoes which I had with me.
These two canoes travelled about 3,000 miles by rail and about 1,000 miles by
steamship before being brought into service. They did considerable work on Chilkoot and Dyea Inlets, and were then packed over to the head of Lewes River
(Lake Lindeman), from where they were used in making the survey of Lewes and
Yukon Hivers. In this work they made about 650 landings. They were then
transported on sleighs from the boundary on the Yukon to navigable water on the
Porcupine.
In the spring of 1888 they descended the latter river, heavily loaded, and
through much rough water, to the mouth of Bell River, and up it to McDougall
Pass. They were then carried over the pass to Poplar River and were used in
going down the latter to Peel River, and thence up Mackenzie River 1,400 miles ;
or, exclusive of railway and ship carriage, they were carried about 170 miles and
did about 2,500 miles of work for the expedition, making in all about 1,700 landings in no easy manner and going through some very bad water. I left them at
Fort Chipewyan in fairly good condition, and, with a little painting, they would go
through the same ordeal again.
After getting all my outfit over to the foot of Lake Lindeman I set some of
the party to pack it to the head of Lake Bennett. The stream between these two
lakes is too shallow and rough to permit of canoe navigation, and everything had
to be portaged the greater part of the way.
I employed the rest of the party in looking for timber to build a boat to carry
my outfit of provisions and implements down the river to the vicinity of the international boundary, a distance of about 700 miles. It took several days to find a
tree large enough to make plank for the boat I wanted, as the timber around the
upper end of the lake is small and scrubby. My boat was finished on the evening
of the nth of July, and on the 12th I started a portion of the party to load it and
go ahead with it and the outfit to the canon. They had instructions to examine
the canon and, if necessary, to carry a part of the outfit past it—in any case,
enough to support the party back to the coast should accident necessitate such
procedure. With the rest of the party I started to carry on the survey, which may
now be said to have fairly started down the lakes. This proved tedious work,
on account of the stormy weather.
In the summer months there is nearly always a wind blowing in from the
coast ; it blows down the lakes and produces quite a heavy swell. This would not
prevent the canoes going with the decks on, but, as we had to land every mile or
so, the rollers breaking on the generally flat beach proved very troublesome. On
this account I found I could not average more than ten miles per day on the lakes,
little more than half of what could be done on the river.
The survey was completed to the canon on the 20th of July. There I found the
party with the large boat had arrived on the 18th, having carried a part of the
supplies past the canon, and were awaiting my arrival to run through it with the
rest in the boat. Before doing so, however, I made an examination of the canon.
The rapids below it, particularly the last rapid of the series (called the White Horse
by the miners), I found would not be safe to run. I sent two men through the
canon in one of the canoes to await the arrival of the boat, and to be ready in case
of an accident to pick us Up. Every man in the party was supplied with a life-
preserver, so that should a casualty occur we would all have floated. Those in the
canoe got through all right ; but they would not have liked to repeat the trip.
They said the canoe jumped about a great deal more than they thought it would',
and I had the same experience when going through in the boat.
The passage through is made in about three minutes, or at the rate of about THE YUKON DISTRICT. CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
72 miles an hour. If the boat is kept clear of the sides there is not much danger
in high water ; but in low water there is a rock in the middle of the channel, near
the upper end of the canon, that renders the passage more difficult. I did not see
this rock myself, but got my information from some miners I met in the interior,
who described it as being about 150 yards down from the head and a little to the
west of the middle of the channel. In low water it barely projects above the' surface. When I passed through there was no indication of it, either from the bank
above or from the boat.
The distance from the head to the foot of the canon is five-eighths of a mile.
There is a basin about midway in it about 150 yards in diameter. This basin is
circular in form, with steep sloping sides about 100 feet high. The lower part of
the canon is much rougher to run through than the upper part, the fall being
apparently much greater. The sides are generally perpendicular, about 80 to 100
feet high, and consist of basalt, in some places showing hexagonal columns.
The White Horse Rapids are about three-eighths of a mile long. They are
the most dangerous rapids on the river, and have seldom been run through in
boats except by accident. They are confined by low basaltic banks, which, at the
foot, suddenly close in and make the channel about 30 yards wide. It is here the
danger lies, as there is a sudden drop and the water rushes through at a tremendous rate, leaping and seething like a cataract. The miners have constructed a
portage road on the west side, and put down rollways in some places on which to
shove their boats over. They have also made some windlasses with which to haul
their boats up hill, notably one at the foot of the canon. This roadway and the
windlasses must have cost them many hours of hard labour. Should it ever be
necessary, a tramway could be built past the canon on the east side with no great
difficulty. With the exception of the Five Finger Rapids these appear to be the
only serious rapids on the whole length of the river.
Five Finger Rapids are formed by several islands standing in the channel and
backing up the water so much as to raise it about afoot, causing a swell below for
a few yards. The islands are composed of conglomerate rock, similar to the cliffs
on each side of the river, whence one would infer that there has been a fall here in
past ages. For about two miles below the rapids there is a pretty swift current,
but not enough to prevent the ascent of a steamboat of moderate power, and the
rapids themselves I do not think would present any serious obstacle to the ascent
of a good boat. In very high water warping might be required. Six miles below
these rapids are what are known as " Rink Rapids." This is simply a barrier of
rocks, which extends from the westerly side of the river about half way across.
Over this barrier there is a ripple which would offer no great obstacle to the descent
of a good canoe. On the easterly side there is no ripple, and the current is smooth
and the water apparently deep. I tried with a 6 foot paddle, but could not reach
the bottom.
On the nth of August I met a party of miners coming out who had passed
Stewart River a few days before. They saw no sign of Dr. Dawson having been
there. This was welcome news for me, as I expected he would have reached that
point long before I arrived, on account of the many delays I had met with on the
coast range. These miners also gave me the pleasant news that the story told at
the coast about the fight with the Indians at Stewart River was false, and stated
substantially what I have already repeated concerning it. The same evening I met
more miners on their way out, and the next day met three boats, each containing
four men. In the crew of one of them was a son of Capt. Moore, from whom the
captain got such information as induced him to turn back and accompany them
Next day, the 13th, I got to the mouth of the Pelly, and found that Dr. Dawson had arrived there on the nth. The doctor also had experienced many delays,
and had heard the same story of the Indian uprising in the interior. I was pleased
to find that he was in no immediate want of provisions, the fear of which had  3o CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
caused me a great deal of uneasiness on the way down the river, as it was arranged between us in Victoria that I was to take with me provisions for his party to do
them until their return to the coast. The doctor was so much behind the time
arranged to meet më that he determined to start for the coast at once. I therefore
set about making a short report and plan of my survey to this point ; and, as I
was not likely to get another opportunity of writing at such length for a year, I
applied myself to a correspondence designed to satisfy my friends and acquaintances for the ensuing twelve months.    This necessitated three days' hard work.
On the morning of the 17th the doctor left for the outside world, leaving me
with a feeling of loneliness that only those who have experienced it can realize. I
remained at the mouth of the Pelly during the next day taking magnetic and
astronomical observations, and making some measurements of the river. On the
19th I resumed the survey and reached White River on the 25th. Here I spent
most of a day trying to ascend this river, but found it impracticable, on account of
the swift current and shallow and very muddy water. The water is so muddy that
it is impossible to see through one-eighth of an inch of it. The current is very strong,
probably eight miles or more per hour, and the numerous bars in the bed are constantly changing place. After trying for several hours, the base men succeeded in
doing about half a mile only, and I came to the conclusion that it was useless to
try to get up this stream to the boundary with canoes. Had it proved feasible I
had intended making a survey of this stream to the boundary, to discover more
especially the facilities it offered for the transport of supplies in the event of a survey of the International Boundary being undertaken.
I reached Stewart River on the 26th. Here I remained a day taking magnetic
observations, and getting information from a miner, named McDonald, about the
country up that river. McDonald had spent the summer up the river prospecting
and exploring.    His information will be given in detail further on.
Fort Reliance was reached on the 1st of September, and Fortymile River
(Cone-Hill River of Schwatka) on the 7th. In the interval between Fort Reliance
and Fortymile River there were several days lost by rain.
At Fortymile River I made some arrangements with the traders there (Messrs.
Harper & McQuesten) about supplies during the winter, and about getting Indians
to assist me in crossing from the Yukon to the head of the Porcupine, or perhaps
on to the Peel River. I then made a survey of the Fortymile River up to the
canon. I found the canon would be difficult of ascent, and dangerous to descend,
and, therefore, concluded to defer further operations until the winter, and until
after I had determined the longitude of my winter post near the boundary, when I
would be in a much better position to locate the intersection of the International
Boundary with this river, a point important to determine on account of the number
and richness of the mining claims on the river.
I left Fortymile River for the boundary line between Alaska and the Northwest Territories on the 12th September, and finished the survey to that point on
the 14th. I then spent two days in examining the valley of the river in the vicinity of the boundary to get the most extensive view of the horizon possible, and to
find a tree large enough to serve for a transit stand.
Before leaving Toronto I got Mr. Foster to make large brass plates with V's
on them, which could be screwed firmly to a stump, and thus be made to serve as
a transit stand. I required a stump at least 22 inches in diameter to make a base
large enough for the plates when properly placed for the transit. In a search
which covered about four miles of the river bank, on both sides, I found only one
tree as large as 18 inches. I mention this fact to give an idea of the size of the
trees along the river in this vicinity. .' I had this stump enlarged by firmly fixing
pieces on the sides so as to bring it up to the requisite size. This done, I built
around the stump a small transit house of the ordinary form and then mounted
and adjusted my transit. Meanwhile, most of the party were busy preparing- our
winter quarters and building a magnetic observatory.    As  I had been led to ex-
L
-—- THE YUKON DISTRICT, CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELDS.
^J
pect extremely low temperatures during
so as to be as comfortable as circumstances
11 adopted precautionarymeasures,
d permit during our stay there.
an see
: place
rith the
SURVEY OF FORTYMILE RIVER, FROM   ITS  MOUTH TO  THE  INTERNATIONAL
BOUNDARY LINE.
On the 9th of February I started with the survey from where I had left it in
the summer, as already mentioned.
During the progress of this work the weather was cold, and as the days were
only four or five hours long the progress was necessarily slow, so that I did not
complete the survey to the boundary until the 12th. The distance from the mouth
of the Fortymile River up it to the boundary is, by the river, twenty-three miles.
I marked the approxmiate intersection of the river by the boundary by blazing trees
on both sides and marked on some of the trees the letters "A" and "C" on
the west and east sides, respectively, for Alaska and Canada.
The natural features of the ground here afford also a good mark. On the
north side of the river two small creeks fall into Fortymile River, almost together,
and between them there is a sharp rocky mound about 150 feet high. -This mound
stands about where the boundary crosses the river, and from this point one
northwards up the valleys of the creeks for several miles. This is the firs
on the Fortymile where such a distant view can be had.
I returned to the post at the mouth of the river, and spent two days v
traders Harper and McQuesten and the miners who were camped around.
Harper, McQuesten & Co. moved from Stewart River down to this point in the
Spring of 1887, so as to be where most of the miners were located. On Fortymile
River, in the season of 1886, coarse gold was found, the first discovered on the
Yukon or any of its tributaries. Coarse gold is the desideratum of all gold miners, and as soon as the news of the discovery spread to the other mining camps,
where nothing but fine or- dust gold had yet been found, they all repaired to the
coarse gold diggings on Fortymile.
About one hundred miners wintered in the country, most of whom camped at
Fortymile. A few wintered down at the old trading post built by Francois Mercier of Montreal, and named by him Belle Isle. This post is just above where
Lieut. Schwatka located the International Boundary, but it is about twelve miles
below the boundary by my survey and observations.
When I was at Fortymile River the miners were very anxious to see me, and
to know our mining regulations and laws. I explained everything they inquired
about as fully as my knowledge and the documents at my disposal would permit.
Many of them who were used to the United States system of each mining community making its own by-laws, based on the general mining law of the country,
and electing their own recorder to attend to the regulations and see them carried
out, thought some of our regulations rather stringent and hard. I heard their
statements and answered such of them as I could, and also promised to lay their
views before the Department. This I have already done in a report sent by me in
the spring of 1888. As this report is of purely administrative import, it is not
necessary to quote it here.
During the winter there were many cases of sickness at Fortymile, most of
them scurvy.     There were three deaths, only one of which was due to scurvy.
I returned to my quarters  on  the   17th  February, and immediately set the
party at work drawing the canoes and instruments, and about four months' provisions, down to Belle Isle, about fifteen miles down the river from my house,
ihis was to be our starting point for the Mackenzie River.
DESCRIPTION OF THE YUKON, ITS AFFLUENT'STREAMS, AND THE ADJACENT
T will now give from my own observation and from information received, a
more detailed  description of the   Lewes River, its affluent
sources of the adjacent country.
.nd the 1 THE YUKON DISTRICT.
33
For the purpose of navigation a description of the Lewes River begins at the
head of Lake Bennett.    Above that point,  and between it and Lake Lindeman,
there is only about three-quarters of a mile of river, which is about fifty yards
wide, and two or three feet deep, and is so swift and rough generally, that naviga-
. tion is out of the question.
Lake Lindeman is about five miles long and half a mile wide. It is deep
enough for all ordinary purposes.     Lake Bennett* is twenty-five and a half miles
long,  the upper fourteen of which is about half a mile wide.     About midway
in its length an arm comes in from the west, which Schwatka appears to have
* A small saw-mill has been erected at thé head of Lake Bennett ; lumber for boat building
sells at $100 per M. Boats 25 feet long and 5 feet beam are $60 each. Last year the ice broke
up in the lake on the 12th June, but this season is earlier and the boats are expected to go down
the lake about the 1st of June., t
34 CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
mistaken for a river, and named Wheaton River. This arm is wider than the
other arm down to that point, and is reported by Indians to be longer and heading
in a glacier which lies in the pass at the head of Chilkoot Inlet. This arm is, as
far as seen, surrounded by high mountains, apparently much higher than those on
the arm we travelled down. Below the junction of the two arms the lake is about
one and a half miles wide, with deep water. Above the forks the water of the
east branch is muddy. This is caused by the streams from the numerous glaciers
on the head of the tributaries of Lake Lindeman. J-'~--W$SËi
A stream which flows into Lake Bennett at the south-west corner is also very
dirty, and has shoaled quite a large portion of the lake at its mouth. The beach
at the lower end of this lake is comparatively flat and the water shoal. A deep,
wide valley extends northwards from the north end of the lake, apparently reaching to the canon, or a short distance above it. This may have been originally a
course for the waters of the river. The bottom of the valley is wide and sandy,
and covered with scrubby timber, principally poplar and pitch-pine. The waters of
the lake empty at the extreme north-east angle through a channel not more than
one hundred yards wide, which soon expands into what Schwatka called Nares
Lake. * Through this narrow channel there is quite a current, and more than 7
feet of water, as a 6 foot paddle and a foot of arm added to its length did not
reach the bottom.
The hills at the upper end of Lake Rennet rise abruptly from the water's
edge.    At the lower end they are neither so steep nor so high.
Nares Lake is only two and a half miles long, and its greatest width is about
a mile ; it is not deep, but is navigable for boats drawing 5 or 6 feet of water ; it
is separated from Lake Bennett by a shallow sandy point of not more than 200
yards in length.
No streams of any consequence empty into either of these lakes. A small
river flows into Lake Bennett on the west side, a short distance north of the fork,
and another at the extreme north-west angle, but neither of them is of any consequence in a navigable sense. The former seems to be what Schwatka referred to
as Wheaton River.
Nares Lake flows through a narrow curved channel into Tagish Lake. This
channel is not more than 600 or 700 yards long, and the water in it appears to be
sufficiently deep for boats that could navigate the lake. The land between the
lakes along this channel is low, swampy, and covered with willows, and, at the
stage in which I saw it, did not rise more than 3 feet above the water. The hills
on the south-west side slope up easily, and are not high ; on the north side the
deep valley already referred to borders it ; and on the east side the mountains rise
abruptly from the lake shore.
Tagish Lake is about a mile wide for the first two miles of its length, when it
is joined by what the miners have called the Windy Arm. One of the Tagish
Indians informed me they called it Takone Lake. Here the lake expands to a
width of about two miles for a distance of some three miles, when it suddenly
narrows to about half a mile for a distance of a little over a mile, after which it
widens again to about a mile and a half or more.
Ten miles from the head of the lake it is joined by the Taku Arm from the
south. This arm must be of considerable length, as it can be seen for a long distance, and its valley can be traced through the mountains much farther than the
lake itself can be seen.    It is apparently over a mile wide at its mouth or junction.
Dr. Dawson includes all these arms under the common name of Tagish Lake.
This is much more simple and comprehensive than the various names given them
I *raXflle.rs- These waters collectively are the fishing and hunting grounds
of the Tagish Indians, and as they are really one body of water, there is no reason
why they should not be all included under one name.
called ChaeribounCro_s?nWaterS betWee" Lake Bennett and Tagïsh Lake constitute  what is now
rxr  36
CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
From the junction with the Taku Arm, or the easterly arm, to the north end of
the lake, the distance is about six miles, the greater part being over two miles
wide. The west side is very flat and shallow, so much so that it was impossible in
many places to get our canoes to the shore, and quite a distance out in the lake
there was not more than five feet of water. The members of my party, who were
in charge of the large boat and outfit, went down the east side of the lake and
reported the depth about the same as I found on the west side, with many large
rocks. They passed through it in the night in a rain storm, and were_ much
alarmed for the safety of the boat and provisions. It would appear that this part
of the lake requires some improvement to make it in keeping with the rest of the
water system with which it is connected.*
Where the river debouches from it, it is about 150 yards wide, and for a short
distance not more than 5 or 6 feet deep. The depth is, however, soon increased to
10 feet or more, and so continues down to what Schwatka calls Marsh Lake. The
miners call it Mud Lake, but on this name they do not appear to be agreed, many
of them calling the lower part of Tagish Lake "Mud Lake," on account of its
shallowness and flat, muddy shores, as seen along the west side, the side nearly
always travelled, as it is more sheltered from the prevailing southerly winds. The
term " Mud Lake " is, however, not applicable to this lake, as only a comparatively small part of it is shallow or muddy ; and it is nearly as inapplicable to
Marsh Lake, as the latter is not markedly muddy along the west side, and from the
appearance of the east shore one would not judge it to be so, as the banks appear
to be high and gravelly.
Marsh Lake is a little over nineteen miles long, and averages about two miles
in width. I tried to determine the width of it as I went along with my survey, by
taking azimuths of points on the eastern shore from different stations of the survey;
but in only one case did I succeed, as there were no prominent marks on that shore
which could be identified from more than one place. The piece of river connecting
Tagish and Marsh'Lakes is about five miles long, and averages 150 to 200 yards in
width, and, as already mentioned, is deep, except for a short distance at the head.
On it are situated the only Indian houses to be found in the interior with any pretension to skill in construction. They show much more labour and imitativeness
than one knowing anything about the Indian in his native state would expect. The
plan is evidently taken from the Indian houses on the coast, which appear to me to
be a poor copy of the houses which the Hudso'n Bay Company's servants build
around their trading posts. These houses do not appear to have been used for
some time past, and are almost in ruins. The Tagish Indians are now generally
on the coast, as they find it much easier to live there than in their own country.
As a matter of fact, what they make in their own country is taken from them by
the Coast Indians, so that there is little inducement for them to remain.
The Lewes River, where it leaves Marsh Lake, is about 200 yards wide, and
averages this width as far as the canon. I did not try to find bottom anywhere as
I went along, except where I had reason to think it shallow, and there I always
tried with my paddle. I did not anywhere find bottom with this, which shows that
there is no part of this stretch of the river with less than six feet of water at
medium height, at which stage it appeared to me the river was at that time.
From the head of Lake Bennett to the canon the corrected distance is ninety-
five miles, all of which is navigable for boats drawing 5 feet or more Add to this
the westerly arm of Lake Bennett, and the Windy Arm of Tagish Lake, each about
hiteen miles in length, and the easterly arm of the latter lake, of unknown length,
but probably not less than thirty miles, and we have a stretch of water of upwards
ot one hundred miles m length, all easily navigable ; and, as has been pointed out,
easily connected with Dyea Inlet through the White Pass.
 ^° streams of any importance enter any of these lakes so far as I know.    A
* The middle of the lake is deep enough for any craft that can sail the lakes above. 1
THE YUKON DISTRICT.
Dalto
From Photo, by J. J. McArthur.
—Looking South.
river, called by Schwatka " McClintock River," enters Marsh Lake at the lower
end from the east. It occupies a large valley, as seen from the westerly side of the
lake, but the stream is apparently unimportant. Another small stream, apparently
only a creek, enters the south-east angle of the lake. It is not probable that any
stream coming from the east side of the lake is of importance, as the strip of
country between the Lewes and Teslin is not more than thirty or forty miles in
width at this point.
The easterly arm of Tagish Lake is, so far, with the exception of reports from
Indians, unknown ; but it is equally improbable that any river of importance enters
I it, as it is so near the source of the waters flowing northwards. However, this is
a question that can only be decided by a proper exploration. The canon I have
already described, and will only add that it is five-eighths of a mile long, about ioo
feet wide, with perpendicular banks of basaltic rock from 60 to 100 feet high.
Below the canon proper there is a stretch of rapids for about a mile ; then
about half a mile of smooth water, following which are the White Horse Rapids,
which are three-eighths of a mile long, and unsafe for boats.
The total fall in the canon and succeeding rapids was measured and found to
be 32 feet. Were it ever necessary to make this part of the river navigable, it will
be no easy task to overcome the obstacles at this point ; but a tram or railway
could, with very little difficulty, be constructed along the east side of the river past
them.
For some distance below the White Horse Rapids the current is swift and the
river wide, with many gravel bars. The reach between these rapids and Lake
Labarge, a distance of twenty-seven and a half miles, is all smooth water, with a
strong current. The average width is about 150 yards. There is no impediment
to navigation other than the swift current, and this is no stronger than on the lower
part of the river, which is already navigated ; nor is it worse than on the Saskatchewan and Red Rivers in the more eastern part of our territory. 38 CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
About midway in this stretch the Takhini River* joins the Lewes. This river
is, apparently, about.half the size of the latter. Its waters are muddy, indicating
its passage through a clayey district. I got some indefinite information about this
river from an Indian who happened to meet me just below its mouth, but I could
not readily make him understand me, and his replies were a compound of Chinook,
Tagish and signs, and therefore largely unintelligible. From what I could understand with any certainty, the river was easy to descend, there being no bad rapids,
and it came out of a lake much larger than any I had yet passed.
Here I may remark that I have invariably found it difficult to get reliable or
definite information from Indians. The reasons for this are many. Most of
those it has been my lot. to meet are expecting to make something, and consequently are very chary about doing or saying anything unless they think they will
be well rewarded for it. They are naturally very suspicious of strangers, and it
takes some time, and some knowledge of their language, to overcome this suspicion and gain their confidence. If you begin at once to ask questions about
their country, without previously having them understand that you have no unfriendly motive in doing so, they become alarmed, and although you may not meet
with a positive refusal to answer questions, you make very little progress in getting desired information. On the other hand, I have met cases where, either
through fear or hope of reward, they were only too anxious to impart all they
knew or had heard, and even more if they thought it would please their hearer. I
need hardly say that such information is often not at all in accordance with the
facts.
I have several times found that some act of mine when in their presence has
aroused either their fear, superstition or cupidity. As an instance : on the Bell
River I met some Indians coming down stream as I was going up. We were
ashore at the time, and invited them to join us. They started to come in, but very
slowly, and all the time kept a watchful eye on us. I noticed that my double-
barrelled shot gun was lying at my feet, loaded, and picked it up to unload it,
as I knew they would be handling it after landing. This alarmed them so much
that it was some time before they came in, and I don't think they would have come
ashore at all had they not heard that a party of whitemen, of whom we answered
the description, were coming through that way (they had learned this from the
Hudson Bay Company's officers), and concluded we were the party described to
them. After drinking some of our tea, and getting a supply for themselves, they
became quite friendly and communicative.
Again, on the Mackenzie River, while two Indians were coming ashore at my
camp, I picked up a telescope to look for a signal across the river. In looking for
it I had to point it towards the Indians, who immediately turned and fled. Next
day I called at the Indian encampment and explained through my interpreter what
I had really done.   When they understood it, it caused the camp much amusement.
At Fort Good Hope, on the Mackenzie, I heard of an old Indian who had been
a great deal on the Hare Indian River and could give valuable information regarding it. I asked to have him brought in, that I might question him. In the meantime I set about-getting an observation for azimuth, and was busy observing when
he came. The interpreter asked me what I was doing ; I told him. He asked
what I was looking up so much for ; I said I was looking at a star. As the time
was early in the evening, and the sun well up in the sky, he at first doubted my
statement, but, finally believing, he explained to the Indians around what I was
doing, and pointed out to them where the star was. They looked up in an awed
manner, and walked off. When I finished my observation and inquired for the old
man, I was told that he was not inclined to see me. I found him, but he refused
to answer any questions, saying that there was no usé in telling me anything, for THE YUKON DISTRICT.
39
when I could see stars during daylight I could just as easily see all the river, and
nothing could convince him to the contrary.
I cite these as instances of what one meets with who comes in contact with
Indians, and of how trifles affect them. A sojourn of two or three days with them
and the assistance of a common friend would do much to disabuse them of such
ideas, but when you have no such aids you must not expect to make much
progress.
Lake Labarge is thirty-one miles long. In the upper thirteen it varies from
three to four miles in width ; it then narrows to about two miles for a distance of
seven miles, when it begins to widen again, and gradually expands to about two
and a-half or three miles, the lower six miles of it maintaining the latter width.
The survey was carried along the western shore, and while so engaged I determined the width of the upper wide part by triangulation at two points, the width
of the narrow middle part at three points, and the width of the lower part at three
points. Dr. Dawson on his way out made a track survey of the eastern shore.
The western shore is irregular in many places, being indented by large bays, especially at the upper and lower ends. These bays are, as a rule, shallow, more especially those at the lower end.
Just above where the lake narrows in the middle there is a large island. It is
three and a-half miles  long and about half a mile in width.     It is  shown  on
I Schwatka's map as a peninsula, and called by him Richtofen Rocks. How he
came to think it a peninsula I cannot understand, as it is well out in the lake ; the
nearest point of it to the western shore is upwards of half a mile distant, and the
• -extreme width of the lake here is not more than five miles, which includes the
depth of the deepest bays on the western side. It is therefore difficult to understand that he did not see it as an island. The upper half of this island is gravelly,
and does not rise very high above the lake. The lower end is rocky and high, the
rock being of a bright red colour. 4°
CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
At the lower end of the lake there is a large valley extending northwards,
which has evidently at one time been the outlet of the lake. Dr. Dawson has
noted it and its peculiarities. His remarks regarding it will be found on pages
156-160 of his report entitled "Yukon District and Northern portion of British
Columbia," published in 1889.
The width of the Lewes River as it leaves the lake is the same as at its entrance, about 200 yards. Its waters when I was there were murky. This is
caused by the action of the waves on the shore along the lower end of the lake.
The water at the upper end and at the middle of the lake is quite clear, so much
so that the bottom can be distinctly seen at a depth of 6 or 7 feet. The wind
blows almost constantly down this lake, and in a high wind it gets very rough.
The miners complain of much detention owing to this cause, and certainly I cannot
complain of a lack of wind while I was on the lake. This lake was named after
one Mike Labarge, a Canadian from the vicinity of Montreal, who was engaged by
the Western Union Telegraph Company, exploring the river and adjacent country
for the purpose of connecting Europe and America by telegraph through British
Columbia, and Alaska, and across Bering Strait to Asia, and thence to Europe.
This exploration took place in 1867, but it does not appear that Labarge theri, nor
for some years after, saw the lake called by his name. The successful laying of
the Atlantic cable in 1866 put a stop to this project, and the exploring parties sent
out were recalled as soon as word could be got to them. It seems that Labarge
had got up as far as the Pelly before he received his recall ; he had heard something of a large lake some distance further up the river, and afterwards spoke of
it to some traders and miners who called it after him.
After leaving Lake Labarge the river, for a distance of about five miles, preserves a generally uniform width and an easy current of about four miles per hour.
It then makes a short turn round a low gravel point, and flows in exactly the
opposite of its general course for a mile, when it again turns sharply to its general
direction. The current around this curve and for some distance below it—in' all
four or five miles—is very swift. I timed it in several places and found it from six
to seven miles an hour. It then moderates to four or five, but is generally
swift to the Teslin River, thirty-one and seven-tenths miles from Lake Labarge.
The average width of this part of the river is about 150 yards, and the depth is
sufficient to afford passage for boats drawing at least 5 feet. It is, as a rule,
crooked, and consequently a little difficult -to navigate.
The Teslin* was so called by Dr. Dawson—this, according to information
obtained by him, being the Indian name. It is called by the miners ' ' Hootalinkwa"
or Hootalinqua, and was called by Schwatka, who appears to have bestowed no
other attention t© it, the Newberry, although it is apparently much larger than the
Lewes. This was so apparent that in my interim reports I stated it as a fact.-
Owing to circumstances already narrated, I had not time while at the mouth to
make any measurement to determine the relative size of the rivers ; but on his way
out Dr. Dawson made these measurements, and his report, before referred to, gives
the following values of the cross sections of each stream: Lewes, 3,015 feet ;
Teshn, 3,809 feet. In the same connection he states that the Lewes appeared to
be about 1 foot above its lowest summer level, while the Teslin appeared to be at
its lowest level.    Assuming this to be so, and taking his widths as  our data  it
*The
limited amount of prospecting that has been done
factory, fine gold having been found in all parts of the rive]
1      '  '""s development,,'--1'
nthis
iaid to be very satis-
The lack of supplies is the great
theaVd^reilthtT bd' W^^^^B^^^^^^^^^S
the difficulties attending access and transportation, the great drawback to the entire Yukon Dis-
er^eurS ^J^TL ^^ ""T* "V^^T and the scarcity of supplies. The Government bemg aware of the requirements and possibilities of the country, has undertaken the
task of making preliminary surveys for trails and railroads and no douhtlr, thJf „«? f,,f ,.!> lut
avenue for better and quicker transportation facilities 3 opened up ^   &B ** THE YUKON DISTRICT. 4I
would reduce his cross section of the Lewes to 2,595 feet. Owing, however, to
the current in the Lewes, as determined by Dr. Dawson, being just double that of
the Teslin, the figures being 5.68 and 2.88 miles per hour, respectively, the discharge of the Lewes, taking these figures again, is 18,644 feet, and of the Teslin
ii)436 feet.    To reduce the Lewes to its lowest level the doctor says' would make
I its discharge 15,600 feet.
The water of the Teslin is of a dark brown colour, similar in appearance to
. the Ottawa River water, and a little turbid. Notwithstanding the difference of
volume of discharge, the Teslin changes completely the character of the river below
.the junction, and a person coming up the river would, at the forks, unhesitatingly
pronounce the Teslin the main stream. The water of the Lewes is blue in colour,
and at the time I speak of was somewhat dirty—not enough so, howevei
vent one seeing to a depth of two or three feet.
, to pre-
Many years ago, sixteen I think, a man named Monroe prospected up the Taku
"and learned from the Indians something of a large lake not far from that river.
I He crossed  over and found it,  and spent some time in  prospecting, and then
recrossed to the Sea.    This man had been at Fortymile River, and I heard from the
-miners there his account of the appearance of the lake, which was not detailed
enough to be of service.
Assuming this as the main river, and adding its length to the Lewes-Yukon
"below the junction, gives upwards of 2,200 miles of river, fully two-thirds of which
runs through a very mountainous country, without an impediment to navigation.
It is reported to be better timbered than the Lewes.
Some indefinite information was obtained as to the position of this river in the
neighbourhood of Marsh Lake tending to show that the distance between them was
only about thirty or forty miles. 42 CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
Between the Teslin and the Big Salmon, so called by the miners, or D'Abbadie
by Schwatka, the distance is thirty-three and a-half miles, in which the Lewes preserves a generally uniform width and current. For a few miles below the Teslin it
is a little over the ordinary width, but then contracts to about two hundred yards,
which it maintains with little variation. The current is generally from four to five
miles per hour.
The Bic Salmon I found to be about one hundred yards wide near the mouth,
the depth not more than four or five feet, and the current, so far as could be
seen, sluggish. None of the miners I met could give me any information concerning this stream ; but Dr. Dawson was more fortunate, and met a man who had
spent most of the summer of 1887 prospecting on it. His opinion was that it
might be navigable for small stern-wheel steamers for many miles.* The valley, as
seen from the mouth, is wide, and gives one the impression of being occupied by
a much more important stream. Looking up it, in the distance could be seen many
high peaks covered with snow. As the date was August it is likely they are always
so covered, which would make their probable altitude above the river 5,000 feet or-
Dr. Dawson, in his report, incorporates fully the notes obtained from the miners. I will trespass so far on these as to say that they called the distance to a
small lake near the head of the river 190 miles from the mouth. This lake was
estimated to be four miles in length ; another lake about 12 miles above this was
estimated to be twenty-four miles long, and its upper end distant only about eight
miles from the Teslin. These distances, if correct, make this river much more
important than a casual glance at it would indicate ; this, however, will be more
fully spoken of under its proper head.    .
Just below the Big Salmon, the Lewes takes a bend of nearly a right angle.
Its course from the junction with the Takhini to this point is generally a little east
of north ; at this point it turns to nearly west for some distance. Its course
between here and its confluence with the Pelly is north-west, and, I may add, it
preserves this general direction down to the confluence with the Porcupine. The
river also changes in another respect ; it is generally wider, and often expands into
what might be called lakes, in which are islands. Some of these lakes are of considerable length, and well timbered.
To determine which channel is the main one, that is, which carries the greatest
volume of water, or is best available for the purposes of navigation, among these
islands, would require more time than I could devote to it on my way down ; consequently I cannot say more than that I have no reason to doubt that a channel
giving six feet or more of water could easily be found. Whenever, in the main
channel, I had reason to think the water shallow, I tried it with my paddle, but
always failed to find bottom, which gives upwards of six feet. Of course I often
found less than this, but not in what I considered the main channel.
Thirty-six and a quarter miles below the Big Salmon, the Little Salmon—the
Daly of Schwatka—enters the Lewes. The river is about 60 yards wide at the
mouth, and not more than two or three feet in depth. The water is clear and of a
brownish hue; there is not much current at the mouth, nor as far as can be seen
up the stream. The valley which, from the mouth, does not appear extensive,
bears north-east for some distance, when it appears to turn more to the east. Six
or seven miles up, and apparently on the north side, some high cliffs of red rock,
apparently granite, can be seen. It is said that some miners have prospected this '
stream, but I could learn nothing definite about it.
j Lewes River makes a turn here to the south-west, and runs in that direction
six miles, when it again turns to the north-west for seven miles, and then makes a
short, sharp turn to the south and west around a low sandy point, which will, at
orront fZw 'otÎ0n °f thG m°Uth °f thîS stream in l895 leads me to believe this opinion is THE YUKON DISTRICT. 44 CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
some day in the hear future, be cut through by the current, which will shorten the
river three or four miles. ,
Eight miles below Little Salmon River, a large rock called the Eagle s Nest
Rock, stands up in a gravel slope on the easterly bank Of the river. It rises about
five hundred feet above the river, and is composed of a light grey stone. What the
character of this rock is I could not observe, as I saw it only from the river, which
is about a quarter of a mile distant. On the westerly side of the river there are
two or three other isolated masses of apparently the same kind of rock. One of
them might appropriately be called a mountain ; it is south-west from the Eagle's
Nest and distant from it "about three miles.
Thirty-two miles below Eagle's Nest Rock, Nordertskiold River enters from
the west'. It is an unimportant stream, being not more than one hundred and
twenty feet wide at the mouth, and only a few inches deep. The valley, as far as
•can be seen, is not extensive, and being very crooked, it is hard to tell what its
general direction is.
The Lewes, between the Little Salmon and the Nordenskiold, maintains a
width of from two to three hundred yards, with an occasional expansion where
there are islands. It is serpentine in its course most of the way, and where the
Nordenskiold joins it is very crooked, running several times under a hill, named by
Schwatka Tantalus Butte, and in other places leaving it, for a distance of eight
miles.    The distance across from point to point is only half a mile.
Below this to Five Finger Rapids, so-called from the fact that five large
masses of rock stand in mid-channel, the river assumes its ordinary straightness
and width, with a current from four to five miles per hour. I have already described Five Finger. Rapids ; I do not think they will prove anything more than a slight
obstruction in the navigation of the river. A boat of ordinary power would probably have to help herself up with windlass and line in high water.
Below the rapids, for about two miles, the current is strong—probably six
miles per hour—but the water seems to be deep enough for any boat that is likely
Six miles below this, as already noticed, Rink Rapids are situated. They are
of no great importance, the westerly half of the stream only being obstructed.
The easterly half is not in any way affected,- the current being smooth and the
water, deep.
Below Five Finger Rapids about two miles a small stream enters from the
east. It is called by Dr. Dawson Tatshun River. It is not more than 30 or 40
feet wide at the mouth, and contains only a little clear, brownish water. Here I
met the only Indians seen on the river between Teslin and Stewart Rivers. They
were engaged in catching salmon at the mouth of the Tatshun, and were the -poorest and most unintelligent Indians it has ever been my lot to meet. It is needless
to say that none of our party understood anything they said, as they could not
speak a word of any language but their own. I tried by signs to get some information from them about the stream they were fishing in, but failed. I tried in the
same way to learn if there were any more Indians in the vicinity/but again utterly
failed. I then tried by signs to find out how many days it took' to go down to
Pelly River, but although I have never known these signs to fail in eliciting information in any other part of the territory, they did not understand. They appeared
to be alarmed by our presence ; and, as we had not yet been assured as to the
rumour concerning the trouble between the miners and Indians we felt a little
apprehensive, but being able to learn nothing from them we had to put our fears
aside and proceed blindly.
Between Five Finger Rapids and Pelly River, fifty-eight and a half miles, no
streams of any importance enter the Lewes ; in fact, with the exception of the Tatshun, it may be said that none at all enter.
About a mile below Rink Rapids the river spreads out into a lake-like expanse, with many islands ; this  continues for about three miles, when it contracts
■£J* THE YUKON DISTRICT. #
46
CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
to something like the usual width ; but bars and small islands are very numerous
all the way to Pelly River. About five miles above Pelly River there is another
lake-like expanse filled with islands. The river here for three or four miles is
nearly a mile wide, and so numerous and close are the islands that it is impossible
to tell when floating among them where the shores of the river are. The current,
too, is swift, leading one to suppose the water shallow ; but I think even here a
channel deep enough for such boats as will navigate this part of the river can '
be found.    Schwatka named this group of islands " Ingersoll Islands.
At the mouth of the Pelly the Lewes is about half a mile wide, and here too
there are many islands, but not in groups as at Ingersoll Islands.
About a mile below the Pelly, just at the ruins of Fort Selkirk, the Yukon
was found to be 565 yards wide ; about two-thirds being ten feet deep, with a current of about four and three-quarter miles per hour ; the remaining third was more
than half taken up by a bar, and the current between it and the south shore was
very slack.
Pelly River at its mouth is about two hundred yards wide, and continues this
width as far up as could be seen. Dr. Dawson made a survey and examination of
this river, which will be found in his report already cited; "Yukon District and
Northern British Columbia."
Just here for a short distance the course of the Yukon is nearly west, and on
the south side, about a mile below the mouth of the Lewes, stands all that remains
of the only trading post ever built by white men in the district.* This post was
established by Robert Campbell, for the Hudson Bay Company, in the summer of
1848. It was first built on the point of land between the two rivers, but this location proving untenable on account of flooding by ice jams in the spring, it was, in
the season of 1852, moved across the river to where the ruins now stand. It appears that the houses composing the post were not finished when the Indians from
the coast on Chilkat and Chilkoot Inlets came down the river to put a stop to the
competitive trade which Mr. Campbell had inaugurated, and which they found to
seriously interfere with their profits. Their method of trade appears to have been
then pretty much as it is now—very one-sided. What they found it convenient to
take by force they took, and what it was convenient to pay for at their own price
they paid for.
Mr. Campbell's first visit to the site of Fort Selkirk was made in 1840, under
instructions from Sir George Simpson, then Governor of the Hudson's Bay Company. He crossed from the head waters of the Liard to the waters of the Pelly.
It appears the Pelly, where he struck it, was a stream of considerable size, for he
speaks of its appearance when he first saw it from "Pelly Banks," the name given
the bank from which he first beheld it, as a " splendid river in the distance." In
June, 1843, he descended the Pelly to its confluence with the larger stream, which
he named the "Lewes." Here he found many families of the native Indians—
"Wood Indians," he called them. These people conveyed to him, as best they could
by word and sign, the dangers that would attend a further descent of the river,
representing that the country below theirs was inhabited by a tribe of fierce cannibals, who would assuredly kill and eat them. This so terrified his men that he had
to return by the way he came, pursued, as he afterwards learned, by the Indians,
who would have murdered himself and party had they got a favourable opportunity.
It was not until 1850 that he could establish, what he says he all along be- '
heved, " that the Pelly and Yukon were identical." This he did by descending the
river to where the Porcupine joins it, and where in 1847 Fort Yukon was established by Mr. A. H. Murray for the Hudson Bay Company. Mr, Campbell then
named the river he had discovered and explored from the height of land to the
junction with the Porcupine, "Pelly River," and had it delineated and so named on I
a map ot that part of the country, drawn by J. Arrowsmith, the geographer for the
Hudson s Bay Company, in 1853.    '
With Terence to the tales told him by the Indians of bad people outside of
' Knocked down by the Indians in 1894. THE YUKON DISTRICT. I
48
CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
their country, I may say that Mackenzie tells pretty much the same story of the
Indians on the Mackenzie when he discovered and explored the'river in 1789. He
had the advantage of having Indians along with him whose language was radically
the same as that of the people he was coming'among, and his statements are more
explicit and detailed. Everywhere he came in contact with them they manifested,
first, dread of himself and party, and when friendship and confidence were established they nearly always tried to detain him by representing the people in the
direction he was going as unnaturally bloodthirsty and cruel, sometimes asserting
the existence of monsters with supernatural powers, as at Manitou Island, a few
miles below the present Fort Good Hope, and the people on a very large river far
to the west of the Mackenzie, probably the Yukon, they described to him as monsters in size, power and cruelty.
In our own time, after the intercourse that there has been between them and
the white's, more than a suspicion of such unknown, cruel people lurks in the minds
of many of the Indians. It would be futile for me to try to ascribe an origin for
these fears, my knowledge of their language and idiosyncrasies being so limited.
Nothing more was ever done in the vicinity of Fort Selkirk* by the Hudson
Bay Company after these events, and in 1869 the Company was ordered by Capt.
Charles W. Raymond, who represented the United States Government, to evacuate
the post at Fort Yukon, he having found that it was west of the 141st meridian.
The post was occupied by the Company, however, for some time after the receipt
of this order, and until Rampart House was built, which was intended to be on
British Territory, and to take the trade previously done at Fort Yukon.
Under present conditions the Company cannot very well compete with the
Alaska Commercial Company, whose agents do the only trade in the district, t and
they appear to have abandoned—for the present at least—all attempt to do any
trade nearer to it than Rampart House, to which point, notwithstanding the distance and difficulties in the way, many of the Indians on the Yukon make a trip
every two or three years to procure goods in exchange for their furs. The clothing
and blankets brought in by the Hudson Bay Company they claim are much better
than those traded on their own river by the Americans. Those of them that I saw
who had any English blankets exhibited them with pride, and exclaimed " good."
They point to an American blanket in contempt, with the remark " no good," and
speak of their clothing in the same way.
On many maps of Alaska a place named " Reid's House" is shown on or near
the upper waters of Stewart River. I made enquiries of all whom I thought likely
to know anything concerning this post, but failed to elicit any information showing
that there ever had been such a place. I enquired of Mr. Reid, who was in the
Company's service with Mr. Campbell at Fort Selkirk, and after whom I thought,
possibly, the place had been called, but he told me he knew of no such post, but
that there was a small lake at some distance in a northerly direction from Fort Selkirk, where fish were procured. A sort of shelter had been made at that point for
the fishermen, and a few furs might have been obtained there, but it was never
. regarded as a trading post.
Below Fort Selkirk, the Yukon River is from five to six hundred yards broad,
and maintains this width down to White River, a distance of ninety-six miles.
Islands are numerous, so much so that there are very few parts of the river where
there are not one or more in sight. Many of them are of considerable size, and
nearly all are well timbered. Bars are also numerous, but almost all are composed
of gravel, so that navigators will not have to complain of shifting sand-bars.    The
*This is now a winter port for steamboats of the North American Transportation and Trading
Company, plying the Yukon and ,ts tributaries. There is also a trading post here owned by
Harper, who was at one time of the firm of Harper & McQuesten, traders.
tSincethe date of this report the North American Transportation and Trading Comnanv
—r known in the Yukon Valley as "Captain Healy's Company," has established5 number of
n the 4-i THE YUKON DISTRICT. 5°
CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
current, as a general thing, is not so rapid as in the upper part of the river, averaging about four miles per hour. The depth in the main channel was always found
to be more than six feet.
From Pelly River to within twelve miles of White River the general course ot
the river is a little north of west; it then turns to the north, and the general course
as far as the site of Fort Reliance is due north.
White River enters the main river from the west. At the mouth it is about
two hundred yards wide, but a great part of it is filled with ever-shifting sand-bars,
the main volume of water being confined to a channel not more than one hundred
yards in width. The current is very strong, certainly not less than eight miles per
hour. The colour of the water bears witness to this, as it is much the muddiest
that I have ever seen.*
Mr. Harper, of the firm of Harper, McQuesten & Co., went up this river with
sleds in the fall of 1872, a distance of fifty or sixty miles. He describes it as possessing the same general features all the way up, with much clay soil along its
banks. Its general course, as sketched by him on a map of mine, is for a distance
of about thirty miles a little north-west, thence south-west thirty or thirty-five
miles, wfhen it deflects to the north-west running along the base of a high mountain
ridge. If the courses given are correct it must rise somewhere near the head of
Fortymile River; and if so, its length is not at all in keeping with the volume of its
discharge, when compared with the known length and discharge of other rivers in
the territory. Mr. Harper mentioned an extensive flat south of the mountain range
spoken of, across which many high mountain peaks could be seen. One of these he
thought must be Mount St. Elias, as it overtopped all the others ; but, as Mount
St. Elias is about one hundred and eighty miles distant, his conclusion is not tenable. From his description of this mountain it must be more than twice the height
of the highest peaks seen anywhere on the lower river, and consequently must be
ten or twelve thousand feet above the sea. He stated that the current in the river
was very swift, as far as he ascended, and the water muddy. The water from this
river, though probably not a fourth of the volume of the Yukon, discolours the
water of the latter completely ; and a couple of miles below the junction the whole
river appears almost as dirty as White River.
Between White and Stewart Rivers, ten miles, the river spreads out to a mile
and upwards in width, and is a maze of islands and bars. The survey was carried
down the easterly shore, and many of the channels passed through barely afforded
water enough to float the canoes. The main channel is along the westerly shore,
down which the large boat went, and the crew reported plenty of water.
Stewart River enters from the east in the middle of a wide valley, with low
hills on both sides, rising on the north side in steps or terraces to distant hills of
considerable height. The river half a mile or so above the mouth is two hundred
yards in width. The current is slack and the water shallow and clear, but dark
coloured.
While at the mouth I was fortunate enough to meet a miner who had spent
the whole of the summer of 1887 on the river and its branches prospecting and
exploring. - \ He gave me a good deal of information of which I give a summary.
He is a native of New Brunswick, Alexander McDonald by name, and has spent
some years mining in other places, but was very reticent about what he had made
or found. Fifty or sixty miles up the Stewart a large creek enters from the
south which he called Rosebud Creek, and thirty or forty miles further up a considerable stream flows from the north-east, which appears to be Beaver-R4ver, as marked
*The White Riv
no doubt this would
cover a great extent
treatment of the su
Northern portion of
very probably flows over volcanic deposits a
:count for the discolouration of its waters.
' the Upper Yukon basin drained by the Lew
set is given by Dr. Dawson, in his report
itish Columbia." P
s sediments would indicate;
'he volcanic ash appears to
md Pellv Rivers. Very full
itled  "Yukon District and THE YUKON DISTRICT. CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
iuntry.    From the head of this stream he floated
" s estimated his progress at forty o~
on the maps of that part of the c<
down on a raft, taking five days t.   - ,     ,       ,
fifty miles each day, which gives a length of from two hundred to two hundred and
fifty miles. This is probably an over estimate, unless the stream is very crooked,
which, he stated, was not the case. As much of his time would be taken up M
prospecting, I should call thirty miles or less a closer estimate of his progress.
This river is from fifty to eighty yards wide, and was never more than four or five
feet deep, often being not more than two or three ; the current, he said, was not at
all swift. Above the mouth of this stream the main river is from one hundred to
one hundred and thirty yards wide, with an even current and clear water. Sixty or
£ seventy miles above the last mentioned branch another large branch joins, which is
possibly the main river. At the head of it he found a lake nearly thirty miles long,
and averaging a mile and a half in width, which he called Mayo Lake, - after one
of the partners in the firm of Harper, McQuesten & Co. He explored the lake
and the head of the river, but did not see the river again until he reached the lower
part near its mouth. '_" ,-^wi
Thirty miles or so above the forks on the other branch there are falls, which
McDonald estimated to be between one and two hundred feet in height. I met
several parties who had seen these falls, and they corroborate this estimate of their
height. McDonald went on past the falls to the head of this branch and found
terraced gravel hills to the west and north ; he crossed them to the north and found
a river flowing northward. On this he embarked on a raft and floated down it for
a day or two, thinking it would turn to the west and join the Stewart, but finding
it still continuing north, and acquiring too much volume to be any of the branches
he had seen while passing up the Stewart, he returned to the point of his departure, and after prospecting among the hills around the head of the river, he started
westward, crossing a high range of mountains composed principally of shales with
many thin seams of what he called quartz, ranging from one to six inches in
thickness.
On the west side of this range he found a river flowing out of what he called
Mayo Lake, and crossing this got to the head of Beaver River, which he descended
as before mentioned.
It is probable the river flowing northwards, on which he made a journey and
returned, was a branch of Peel River. He described the timber on the gravel terraces of the watershed as small and open. He was alone in this unknown wilderness all summer, not seeing even any of the natives. There are few men so constituted as to be capable of isolating themselves in such a manner. Judging from
all I could learn it is probable a light-draught steamboat could navigate nearly all
of Stewart River and its tributaries.
From Stewart River to the site of Fort Reliance,* seventy-three and a quarter
miles, the Yukon is broad and full of islands. The average width is between a
half and three-quarters of a mile, but there are many expansions where it is over
a mile in breadth ; however, in these places it cannot be said that the waterway is
wider than at other parts of the river, the islands being so large and numerous.
In this reach no streams of any importance enter.
About thirteen miles below Stewart Rivera large valley joins that of the river,
but the stream occupying it is only a larg-e creek. This agrees in position with
what has been called Sixtymile River, which was supposed to be about that distance above Fort Reliance, but it does not agree with descriptions which I received
of it ; moreover, as Sixtymile River is known to be a stream of considerable length,
this creek would not. answer its description.
Twenty-two and a half miles from Stewart River another and larger creek
une side ; it agrees with the descriptions of Sixtymile River, and
e time a trading post occupied by Messrs. Harper & McQuesten.
enters from the
~JZF THE YUKON DISTRICT.
befoi
i half .
i Fc
> Kloi
' Rive
mall i
(Deer River of Schwatka) enters from the east. It
hundred yards wide at the mouth, and shallow ; the water is clear and transpa
and of beautiful blue colour. . The Indians catch numbers of salmon here. '
had been fishing shortly before my arrival, and the river, for some distance up,
full of salmon traps.
A miner had prospected up this river for an estimated distance of forty n
pin the season of 1887. I did not see him, but got some of his information at se
hand. The water being so beautifully clear I thought it must come through a 1
lake not far up ; but as far as he had gone no lakes were seen.    He said the
1 rent was comparatively slack, with an occasional " ripple" or small rapid. "W
he turned back the river is surrounded by high mountains, which were then c
ed with snow, which -accounts for the purity and clearness of the water.
It appears that the Indians go up this stream a long distance to hunt, t
could learn nothing definite as to their statements concerning it.
large
'here
then portaged across to the heads of Miller and Glacie
The trip from Cudahy or Fortymile to the post at
ascending Fortymile River some distance, making a sh
down with its swift current.    Coming back on the Yul
1 of Sixtymile River is made by
y the whole of the round trip is
t Dawson Cit; g.
54
CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
Twelve and a half miles below Fort Reliance, the Chandindu River, as named
by Schwatka, enters from the east. It is thirty to forty yards wide at the mouth,
very shallow, and for half a mile up is one continuous rapid. Its valley is wide
and can be seen for a long distance looking north-eastward from the mouth.
Between Fort Reliance and Fortymile River (called Cone Hill River by
Schwatka). the Yukon assumes its normal appearance, having fewer islands and
being narrower, averaging four to six hundred yards wide, and the current being
more regular. This stretch is forty-six miles long, but was estimated by the
traders at forty, from which the Fortymile River took its name.
Fortymile River* joins the main river from the west. Its general course as
far up as the International Boundary, a distance of twenty-three miles, is southwest ; after this it is reported by the miners to run nearer south. Many of them
claim to have ascended this stream for more than one hundred miles, and speak of
it there as quite a large river. They say that at that distance it has reached the
level of the plateau, and the country adjoining it they describe as flat and swampy,
rising very little above the river. It is only a short distance across to the Tanana
River—a large tributary of the Yukon—which is here described as an important
stream. However, only about twenty-three miles of Fortymile River are in Canada ; and the upper part of it and its relation to other rivers in the district have no
direct interest for us.
Fortymile River is one hundred to one hundred and fifty yards wide at the
mouth, and the current is generally strong, with many small rapids. Eight miles
up is the so-called canon ; it is hardly entitled to that distinctive name, being
simply a crooked contraction of the river, with steep rocky banks, and on the
north side there is plenty of room to walk along the beach. At the lower end of
the canon there is a short turn and swift water in which are some large rocks ;
these cannot generally be seen, and there is much danger of striking them running
down in a boat. At this point several miners have been drowned by their boats
being upset in collision with these rocks. It is no great distance to either shore,
and one would think an ordinary swimmer would have no difficulty in reaching
land ; but the coldness of the water soon benumbs a man completely and renders
him powerless. In the summer of 1887, an Indian, from Tanana, with his family,
was coming down to trade at the post at the mouth of Fortymile River ; his canoe
struck on these rocks and upset, and he was thrown clear of the canoe, but the
woman and children clung to it. In the rough water he lost sight of them, and
concluded that they were lost ; it is said he deliberately drew his knife and cut his
throat, thus perishing, while his family were hauled ashore by some miners. The
chief of the band to which this Indian belonged came to the post and demanded
pay for his loss, which he contended was occasioned by the traders having moved
from Belle Isle to Fortymile, thus causing them to descend this dangerous rapid,
and there is little doubt that had there not been so many white men in the vicinity
he would have tried to enforce his demand.
The length of the so-called canon is about a mile. Above it the river up to
the boundary is generally smooth, with swift current and an occasional ripple. The
amount of water discharged by this stream is considerable ; but there is n
pect of navigation, it being so swift and broken by small rapids.
) pros-
*Fortymile townsite is situated on the south side of the Fortymile F
the Yukon.    The Alaska Commercial Company has a station here whic
charge of L. N. McQuesten; there are also several blacksmith shops, restaurants," billiard haï
bakeries an opera house, and so on. Rather more than half a mile below Fortymile townsite tl
town of Cudahy was founded on the north side of Fortymile River in the summer of 1802 It
named after a well-known member of the North American Transportation and Trading Compan
' bears comparison with its neighbour across tl
pans of very materially reducing the cost of suppli
1 Transportation ar>d Trading Company has erected a saw-m
10 established here immediately upon the arriv
In population and e
t of busii
ind living.    The North Ame
'"l30,™6^^-6110."3^  F°rt C°nst'a..-— •■—«:„,,; lu
)f the Mounted Police detachment in the latter p_rt.of July, 1895. THE YUKON DISTRICT.
'm'.'P,'»'.^-^ .
KB   f/»H|   %/~'W%M* ^WÊ
fil        i
T_lj!p^w
r_k^£^
pi ]
Eg
Slplf   j
ÏPÉÎ
_P^_M/fci£^
>r Sy<w                 ; ;|
p^SM^
É*^B
PR, IK» -6 CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
From Fortymile River to the boundary the Yukon preserves the same general
character as between Fort Reliance and Fortymile, the greatest width being about
half a mile and the least about a quarter.
Fifteen miles below Fortymile River a large mass of rock stands on the east
bank. This was named by Schwatka "Roquette Rock," but is known to the traders as Old Woman Rock ; a similar mass, on the west side of the river, being
known as Old Man Rock. j I
The origin of these names is an Indian legend, of which the following is the
version given to me by the traders :—
In remote ages there lived a powerful shaman,, pronounced Tshaumen by the
Indians, this being the local name for what is known as medicine man among the
Indians farther south and east. The Tshaumen holds a position and exercises an
influence among the people he lives with, something akin to the wise men or magi
of olden times in the East. In this powerful being's locality there lived a poor
man who had the great misfortune to have an inveterate scold for a wife. He bore
the infliction for a long time without murmuring, in hopes that she would relent,
but time seemed only to increase the affliction ; at length, growing weary of the
unceasing torment, he complained to the Tshaumen, who comforted him, and sent
him home with the assurance that all would soon be well.
Shortly after this he went out A.o hunt, and remained, away for many days endeavouring to get some provisions for home use, but without avail ; he returned
weary and hungry, only to bè met by his wife with a more than usually violent outburst of scolding. This so provoked him that he gathered all his strength and
energy for onte grand effort and gave her a kick that sent her clean across the river.
On landing she was converted into the mass of rock which remains to this day a
memorial of her viciousness and a warning to all future scolds. The metamorphosis Was effected by the Tshaumen, but how the necessary force was acquired to
send her across the river (here about half a mile wide), or whether the kick was administered by the Tshaumen or the husband, my narrator could not say. He was
altogether at a loss to account for conversion of the husband into the mass of rock
on the west side of the river ; nor can I offer any theory unless it is that he was
petrified by astonishment at the result.
Such legends as this would be of interest to ethnologists if they could be procured direct from the Indians, but repeated by men who have little or no knowledge
of the utility of legendary lore, and less sympathy with it, they lose much of their
Between Fortymile River and the boundary line no stream of any size joins the
Yukon ; in fact, there is only one stream, which some of the miners have named
Sheep Creek, but as there, is another stream further down the river, called by the
same name, I have named it Coal Creek. It is five miles below Fortymile, and
comes in from the east, and is a large creek, but not at all navigable. On it some
extensive coal seams were seen, which will be more fully referred to further on.
At the boundary the river is somewhat contracted, and measures only 1,280
feet across in the winter ; but in summer, at ordinary water level, it would be
about one hundred feet wider. Immediately below the boundary it expands to its
usual width, which is about 2,000 feet. The cross sectional area at the boundary,
measured m December, 1895, is 21,818 feet. There is a channel 600 feet wide,
not less than 22 feet deep, and one 400 feet wide, not less than 26 feet deep.
During summer level those depths would not be less than 4 feet deeper, and the
cross sectional area 27,000. The discharge at this first level is approximately 96,000
cubic feet per second, at summer level it approximates 135,000 cubic feet; at
flood level it approaches 180,000 cubic feet or more, possibly reaching, for short
times, 225,000. &
For the sake of comparison, I give the discharge of the St. Lawrence and THE YUKON DISTRICT. 5g CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
Ottawa Rivers, being the mean of the years 1867 to 1882 ; St.- Lawrence, mean
Qoo 000 feet; Ottawa, at Grenville,. mean 85,000 feet,
The current, from the boundary down to the confluence with the Porcupine, is
said to be strong, and much the same as that above ; from the Porcupine down for
a distance of five or six hundred miles it is called medium   and the remainder easy
On the 22nd September a small steamboat named the New Racket passed
my camp on her way up to Fortymile River with supplies ; she was about forty
feet long and nine or ten feet beam, with about two feet draught. The boat was
wholly taken up with engine and boiler, the berths for the crew being over the
eno-ine room. The propelling power was a stern wheel, driven by two engines of
lar&o-e size for such a small boat. It was claimed for her by her captain, A. Mayo,
of the firm of Harper, McQuesten & Co., that she could make ten miles an hour
in dead water. She was then twenty-two days out from St. Michael Island, near
the mouth of the river. Mr. Mayo claimed that this was longer than usual, on
account of the boiler tubes being out of order and leaking badly, so that it was
impossible to keep more than fifty pounds pressure, while that generally used was
about double. That this was true was apparent from the fact that it took her
about five hours to make four miles ; and at one place below my camp she hung
for over an hour without making any progress at all, nor could she pass that point
until she stopped and bottled up steam.
AGRICULTURAL CAPABILITIES OF  THE YUKON  BASIN.
The agricultural capabilities of the country along the river are not great, nor
is the land which can be seen from the river of good quality.
When we consider further the unsuitable climatic conditions which prevail in
the region it may be said that as an agricultural district this portion of the country
will never be of value.
My meteorological records show over eight degrees of frost on the 1st of
August, over ten on the 3rd, and four times during the month the minimum temperature was below freezing. On the 13th September the minimum temperature
was 16°, and all the minimum readings for the remainder of the month were below
freezing.
Along the east side of Lake Bennett, opposite the Chilkoot, or western arm,
there are some flats of dry gravelly soil, which would make a few farms of limited
extent. On the west side, around the mouth of Wheaton River, there is an extensive flat of sand and gravel, covered with small pine and spruce of stunted growth.
The vegetation is poor and sparse, not at all what one would desire to see on a
place upon which he was thinking of settling. At the lower end of the lake there
is another extensive flat of sandy soil, thinly clad with small poplars and pines. The
same remarks apply to this flat as to that at Wheaton River.
Along the westerly shore of Tagish Lake there is a large extent of low, swampy
flats, a part of which might be used for the production of such roots and cereals as
the climate would permit. Along the west side of Marsh Lake there is also much
flat surface of the same general character, on which I saw some coarse grass which
would serve as food for cattle. Along the east side the surface appeared higher '
and terraced, and is probably less suited to the requirements of the agriculturalist.
Along the head of the river, for some miles below Marsh Lake, there are flats on
both sides, which would, as far as surface conformation goes, serve for farms.
The soil is of much better quality than any heretofore seen, as is proved by the
larger and thicker growth of timber and underbrush which it supports. The soil
!> ^ 1pes the character of detritus, and more that of alluvium, than that  seen
e approach the canon the banks become higher and the bottom lands
with some escarpments along the river.    At the canon the bank on the
above.
"^■1 THE YUKON DISTRICT.
59
west, side rises two hundred feet and upwards above the river, and the soil is light
and sandy. On the east side the bank is not so high, but the soil is of the same
character, and the timber small and poor, being nearly all stunted pine.
Between the canon and Lake Labarge, as far as seen from the river, there is
not much land of value. The banks are generally high, and the soil light and
sandy. At the head of the lake there is an extensive flat, partly covered with timber, much larger and better than any seen above this point. Poplar eight and ten
inches in diameter were not uncommon, and some spruce of fifteen and sixteen
inches, and many of upwards of a foot in diameter, were also noticed. The soil,
however, is light, and the vegetation, especially the grass, thin and poor.
Some miles down the lake an extensive valley joins that of the lake on the
west side. This valley contains a small stream. Around this place there is some
land that might be useful, as the grass and vegetation is much better than any
"seen so far.
On the lower end of the lake, on the west side, there is also a considerable
IB_ntwhich might be utilized ; the soil in parts of it is good. I saw one part where
jjlÉiÉrnber had been burned some time ago ; here, both the soil and vegetation
were good, and two or three of the plants seen are common in this part of Ontario,
but they had not the vigorous appearance which the same plants have here.
Northward from the end of the lake there is a deep, wide valley, which Dr.
Dawson has named " Ogilvie Valley." In this the mixed timber, poplar and spruce,
is of a size which betokens a fair soil ; the herbage, too, is more than usually rich
for this region. This valley is extensive, and, if ever required as an aid in the sustenance of our people, will figure largely in the district's agricultural assets.
Below the lake the valley of the river is not as a rule wide, and the banks are
often steep and high.    There are, however, many flats of moderate extent along Co CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
the river, and at its confluence with other streams.    The soil of many of these is
ain About forty miles above the mouth of the Pelly River there is an extensive
flat on both sides of the Lewes. The soil here is poor and sandy, with small open
timber At Pelly River there is a flat of considerable extent on which the ruins of
Fort Selkirk stand. It is covered with a'small growth of poplar and a few
spruce. The soil is a gravelly loam of about eight inches in depth, the subsoil
being gravel, evidently detritus. This flat extends up the river for some miles,
but is all covered thickly with timber, except a small piece around the site of the
fort.
On the east side of the river there is also a large plateau, but it is two or
three hundred feet .above the river, and the soil appears to be poor, judging from
the thinness and smallness of the trees. This plateau seems to extend up the
Pelly for some distance, and down the Yukon for ten or twelve miles. As seen
from the river, it reminds one of the slopes and hills around Kamloops in British
Columbia, and like them, though not well suited to agriculture, might yield fair
pasturage should such ever be required.
A serious objection to it, however, for that purpose, if it is not watered on the
surface by ponds, is that the river is difficult of access, as the plateau on the side
towards the river is bounded by a perpendicular basalt cliff, which, without artificial
arrangement, would completely bar approach to the water. This cliff is more than
two hundred feet high at the confluence, and becomes lower as we descend the river
until, at the lower end, it is not more than sixty to eighty feet high.
Between Pelly and White Rivers there are no flats of any extent. At White
River there is a flat of several thousand acres, but it is all timbered, and the surface of the soil is covered with a thick growth of moss, which prevents the frost
ever leaving the ground. This has so preserved fallen timber and the foliage of the
trees that much of it is lying on the surface nearly as sound as when it fell. On
this account the vegetable mould on the gravel is thin and poor. The standing
timber also bears witness to the coldness of the soil by its slow and generally small
growth. A few trees near the bank, where the sun can heat the soil, are of fair
size, but further back they are generally small.
At Stewart River there is another large flat to which the same general remarks
are applicable. Thence, to the site of Fort Reliance, there are no flats of any importance. High above the river in some places there are extensive wooded slopes,
which, when cleared, would be well suited for such agricultural purposes as the
climate would permit.
At Fort Reliance there is a flat of probably 1,500 acres in extent; but although
Messrs". Harper & McQuesten lived there for some years, it appears they never
made any agricultural experiments, believing that they would be futile.
At the Fortymile River there is a flat of about four or five hundred acres in area,
on which (he soil is of better quality than on many of the other places mentioned.
On this Messrs. Harper & McQuesten erected their dwelling and store-houses.
They gave it as their opinion that only very hardy roots would live through the
many cold nights of the summer months, and that the season is so short that even
if thjy survived the cold they would not attain a size fit for use.
The river is not generally clear of ice until between the 15th of May and the
1 st of June, and heavy frosts occur early in September, and sometimes earlier.
At the boundary there are two flats of several hundred acres each, one on the
west side, the other three mile_; above it on the east side. Both of these are covered with poplar, spruce and white birch, also some willow and small pine.
In making preparations for the foundations of our house at our winter quarters
near the boundary we had to excavate in the bank of the river, and in an exposed   ■■
place where the sun's rays could reach the surface without hindrance from trees or
other shade we found the depth to the perpetually frozen ground to be not more
Oian two feet.    In the woods where the ground was covered with over a foot of
?»> THE YUKON DISTRICT.
Photo, by W. Ogilvie.
Harper & Ladue's
I moss the frozen ground is immediately below the moss.    On this the timber is gener-
I ally small, and of very slow growth, as is evident from the number of annual rings
of growth.    I have seen trees of only three or four inches in diameter which were
upwards of one hundred and fifty years old.
It is difficult to form an estimate of the total area of agricultural land seen, but
I it certainly bears a very small proportion to the remainder of the country.    I think
I ten townships, or 360 square miles, would be a very liberal estimate for all the
? places mentioned.    This gives us 230,400 acres, or, say, 1,000 farms.    The available land on the affluents of the river would probably double this, or give 2,000 farms
'■ in that part of our territory, but on the most of these the returns would be meagre.
Without the discovery and development of large mineral wealth it is not likely
that the slender agricultural resources of the region will ever attract attention, at
least until the better parts of our territories are crowded.
In the event of such discovery some of the land might be used for the production of vegetable food for the miners ; but, even in that case, with
facilities which the district commands, it is very doubtful if it c
ably with the south and east.
My meteorological records for 1895-6 show as follows :—
npete profit-
40°         "             9 times.
September, 1895—32° and below, 18 times.
40°         ' '            29 times.
May, 1896—Lowest temperature 5° ; 3 times
32° and below, 18 times.
xst,
2nd and 3rd
40°         ' '           30 times.
Highest temperature 62° ; twice,
18th
and 23rd. 62 CANADA-'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
June, 1896—Lowest temperature 28° ; twice, 1st and 2nd.
32° and below,    4 times.
40° " 17 times.
Highest temperature 80° ; on the 30th.
July, 1896—Lowest temperature 33° ; on the 27th.
40° and below, 9 times.
Highest temperature 81° ; twice, 1st and 2nd.
August, 1896—Lowest temperature 27°.2 ; on the 31st.
32° and below,  twice.
400 § 13 times.
Highest temperature 76° ; on the 14th.
September, 1896—Lowest temperature 40.8; on the 30th.
32° and below,   8 times.
40° " 23 times.
Highest'temperature 63° ; on the 17th.
During the summer of 1897 at Dawson,  temperatures as high as 90° were
observed in the shade in July, but this was an exceptionally dry, warm month.
On my way down the river in 1895 I observed the temperature of the river
water at various points as follows :—
Lake Bennett, -        -        August   8th,   1895,  49°
Lake Marsh, - - "
Above Teslin River,        - "
Teslin River, -        - "
Big Salmon, -        - "
Yukon, just below, - "
Pelly River, - - "
Yukon, above White River,        "
White River, -        - "
Yukon, above Stewart,   - "
Stewart River,        -        - "
Sixtymile River,     -        - "
Klondike River,      -        - "
Yukon, at Reliance, - "
Fortymile River,    -        - J||||p&
Yukon River, -       .- "
Yukon, at boundary,      '-  Septemb
" " -  October        1st,       "      39°
" " - "        16th,      "      32°
The proximity of such a large body of water at those temperatures must have
a beneficial effect on vegetation, and consequently we will have more success near
the river than elsewhere. An old miner settled on Fortymile River, above the
boundary, tried for several years to raise potatoes, but was baulked every year by
frost, until he found a hillside on which the sun did not shine until about midday.
This allowed the stalk to gradually get rid of the frost and recover before the heat
of the sun's rays blasted them.
In this place he raised tubers developed enough to reproduce, but not as dry
and well flavoured as we would wish.
In the town of Fortymile, close to the Yukon, potatoes, radishes, turnips,
cabbage and lettuce have been grown with fair success, especially the last named.
Another garden in a fairly situated, well sheltered spot at Cudahy gave fair
radishes, turnips, cabbage and lettuce. Very fair potatoes were grown on an
island at the mouth of the Sixtymile, in the Yukon, by Mr. Harper. He had also
a garden at Selkirk (mouth of the Pelly), in which he planted potatoes for several
years, but to protect them from frost went to the expense of having a    '
13th,
'     55°
19th, ■
'     53
19th,
'     54
20th,
'     49°
20th,
'     53°
22nd,
'   • 56°
26th,
55 •
26th,
'     52°-
26th,
:   .55"
26th,
'   56°
27th,
'   46°
28th,
'     49°-
28th,
'     55°
30th,
'     S2"
30th,
'     54 •
I 2th,
'     46°
24th,
'      39°
mi THE YUKON DISTRICT.
63
when
pawning made of heavy cotton which he lowered on them every clear night v
g frost threatened.    Without this they would not have ripened.
Oats have been sown at Fortymile for several years but never ripened, though
they develop enough to make fair fodder. Some wheat at Cudahy, in 1896,
developed fine straw and a large head, but no kernel before frost killed it.
Some timothy grass at the same place grew to about half the size it does in
Ontario or Quebec.
TIMBER FOR USE IN BUILDING AND MANUFACTURING.
The
'. amount of this class of timber in the district along the river is not at all
I important.     There is a large extent of forest which would yield firewood, and timber for use in mines, but for the manufacture of lumber there is very little.
To give an idea of its scarceness, I may state that two of my party made a
■thorough search of all the timbered land around the head of Lake Bennett, and
down the lake for over ten miles, and in all this search only one tree was found
=' suitable for making such plank as we required for the construction of our large
boat.    This tree made four planks 15 inches wide at the butt, 7 at the top, and 31
feet long IISI^P
Such other planks as we wanted had to be cut out of short logs, of which some,
10 to 14 inches in diameter and 10 to 16 feet long, could be found at long intervals.
The boat required only 450 feet of plank for its construction, yet some of the logs
' had to be carried nearly 200 yards, and two saw-pits had to be made before that
quantity was procured, and this on ground that was all thickly wooded with spruce,
pine, and some balsam, the latter being generally the largest and cleanest-trunked.
These remarks apply to the timber until we reach the lower end of Marsh
Lake.     On the head of the river, near the lake, some trees of fair size, 12 to  14
Dawson, April,  1
From Photo, by W. Ogilvie. 64 CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
inches in diameter, and carrying their thickness very well, could be got, but their
number was small, and they were much scattered.
At the cahon the timber is small and scrubby ; below it there were a few trees
that would yield planks from 7 to 10 inches wide, but they have been nearly all cut
by the miners, many of whom made rafts at the head of Lake Bennett, floated
down to White Horse Rapids, and there abandoned them for boats which they then
built.
The great bulk of the timber in the district suitable for manufacture into lumber is to be found on the islands in the river. On them the sofl is warmer and
richer, the sun's rays striking the surface for a much longer time, and more
directly than on the banks. ^SpÊÊm
At the confluence with the Pelly, on the east side of the river, there is a grove
of spruce, from which some very nice lumber could be made, and on the islands
below this much of the same class of timber exists. Near White and Stewart
Rivers there is a good deal of nice clean timber, but it is small. It is said there
is more good timber on Stewart River in proportion to the ground wooded than on
the main river.
Between Stewart River and the boundary there is not so much surface covered
with large trees as on many of the flats above it, the valley being generally narrower, and the sides steeper than higher up the river. This, of course, precludes
the growth of timber.
To estimate the quantity of timber in the vicinity of the river in our territory
would be an impossible task, having only such data as I was able to collect on my
way down. I would, however, say that one-fourth of the area I have given as
agricultural land would be a fair conjecture. This would give us two and a half
townships, or ninety square miles, of fairly well timbered ground ; but it must be
borne in mind that there is not more than a square mile or so of that in any one
place, and most of the timber would be small and poor compared with the timber
of Manitoba and the easterly part of the North-west Territories.
At the Boundary Line I required, as has already been explained, a tree 22
inches in diameter at the ground on which to erect my transit. An exhaustive
search of over three square miles of the woods there, though showing many trees
of convenient size for' house logs, and many for small clean planks, showed only
one 18 inches in diameter at a distance of five feet above the ground.
It may be said that the country might furnish much timber, which, though not
fit to be classed as merchantable, would meet many of the requirements of the only
industry the country is ever likely to have, viz., mining.
MINERALS.
Under this head I will first mention coal. A thin seam of this was found on
Lewes River, about six miles above Five Finger Rapids. This seam was about
three feet thick and at that stage of water was 8 or 10 feet above the river. It
could be traced for several hundred yards along the bank. Dr. Dawson made an
examination of this seam, and I quote from his report regarding it: "This exposure includes, within 60 feet of the base of the bluff, at least three coal beds, of
which the lowest is about three feet thick. This and the other beds contain some
good-looking coal, of which a thickness of about a foot sometimes occurs, but the
greater part of the material is so sandy and impure as to be useless." This exposure
has since been located and claimed by Mr. Harper. He had a shaft driven into
the hill about 20 feet, from which he took some coal for lccal forge use, and claimed
it served the purpose well. The coal that far in was hard and bright but is scattered in irregularly thin seams through a soft sandstone rock. This rock has to be
taken out with and separated from the coal. This shaft does not include all the
coal veins, as they appear to be scattered through this hill-side for many feet. As
far as this shaft goes there appears to be a slight dip to the east
lJ THE YUKON DISTRICT.
65
At Rink Rapids thin seams of coal were seen in some shale on the east bank
|bf the river. They were unimportant, being only an inch or so thick, but they
show a probable continuation of the first mentioned bed, and a likelihood that a
«search would reveal an exposure of some value.
No other trace of coal was seen until Coal Creek, five miles below Fortymile
|River, was reached. In the drift at the mouth of this creek I picked up specimens
i|bf coal much weathered and worn. I made inquiries of the Indians in the vicinity,
rout they manifested surprise at my showing it to them and burning some of it before them. They professed entire ignorance of the existence of any such stuff up
the creek, and said they had never seen or heard of it, though they must, however,
have seen it at Belle Isle, near which place there is some on a creek that comes in
from the west. Some of this Messrs. Harper & McQuesten had brought to the
post and burned there, and they had also sent some to San Francisco to be tested.
On Eldorado Creek.—Looking N. W. s
From Photo, by W. Ogilvie.
i Bonanza Valley.
METALS  FOUND  ON THE RIVER.
About two miles up Fortymile River there are large exposures of a white and
a gray limestone, containing many thin seams and pockets of galena. One of the
seams as seen on the bank is of considerable extent, but as to its length there is
no evidence, as it is all covered with drift. Two specimens were sent out and
have been assayed by Mr. G. C. Hoffman, of the Geological Survey, with the following result: Specimen marked IL, from Fortymile, about *"■■
MHBpÉtains : gold,  a distinct trace ; silver, 38^
"^Specimen marked III., from exposure on Fortymile River, about three-quarters of a mile up, contains neither gold "™ •■-•■■■
and a half miles
ounces to   the   ton of .2,000
silver.
M,- 66
CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
Were these seams properly surveyed the former might be found of sufficient
extent and value to warrant development. _
Specimen marked I., from north bank of Yukon River, opposite the mouth of
Klondike River, about five miles above Fort Reliance, contains : gold, a trace ;
silver, 3to-V ounces to the ton.
Mr. Harper told me he had sent out specimens of the latter ore to ban t ran-
cisco some years ago for assay, and that it was pronounced good, but he could not
give the value. I did not make an examination of the seam, but it appeared to be
extensive.     It is of a bluish colour on the surface, and earthy in appearance.
Specimen marked IV., from near station 634 of survey, or near Chandindu
River, ten or twelve miles below Fort Reliance, contains : gold, a trace ; silver,
o. 117 ounces to the ton. Nothing was observed at this point to indicate an extensive quantity of this ore.
It must be borne in mind that these specimens were found by accidenL A
closer examination of the localities might reveal valuable seams. I have described
the specimens found in the order of their value. Though none of them are rich, they
show that through an extensive district there are at least indications of wealth.
The order in which they were picked up on the river is, I., IV., and II. and III.
together on Fortymile River. From I. to III. is about forty miles in an air line.
I was informed that gold and silver-bearing specimens of quartz had been found
on Sixtymile River, but I can give no details. . I was also informed that a specimen of gold-bearing quartz was picked up some years ago, high up on the side of
the bank of Yukon River, opposite the mouth of White River. It was sent to
ind assayed, showing the enormous value of $20,000 to the ton.
vas picked up above high water mark, so that it must have been
• its origin, or have been transported there by a glacier, the bank
)o feet high.     No further details regarding this specimen could be
This specimen '
found at or nea
being about 1,21
learned..
An extensivs
s ledge of gold-bearing quartz is reported on the westerly side of
the river, about two miles above Stewart River, but regarding it I could learn
nothing definite. It may be a continuation of the same ledge which yielded the
foregoing specimen."
While on Lake Bennett building our boat I found an extensive ledge of quartz
and sent specimens of it out by Dr. Dawson. The assay showed that they contained only traces of gold. The ledge is 66 to 80 feet wide, and can be easily
traced on the surface for three or four miles. A small creek cuts through it about
a mile from the lake, and in this creek are found colours of gold.
While we were working at our boat an expert, employed by some California
capitalists, came in with an old man who had made a descent of the river the previous summer. The old man and his party were storm-staid on what he called
Lake Bennett, and while so delayed he found an enormous exposure of what he
thought was gold-bearing rock. He took out specimens of it, and had them assayed at San Francisco. The result was so promising ($8.80 of gold, and 92
cents of silver to the ton) that he enlisted the interest of some capitalists who sent
him out with the expert to locate and test it thoroughly. The old man described
the exposure so minutely and circumstantially that one could scarcely disbelieve
his statement. They looked for the ledge for some davs, but could find nothing '
resembling what he described. They then called upon me and requested my aid.
As I was making all possible haste to keep my appointment with Dr. Dawson at
Felly River I was loath to lose time in aiding the the search, but, on account of
the importance of the matter, and the old man's earnestness and importunity, and
influenced further by a certificate of assay which he had, showing the specimens
to have yielded the amounts stated (about equal to the celebrated Treadwell mine
at Juneau, Alaska, the rock of which he said his mine much resembled), I at last
consented. •"
I spent a day and a night searching with him and his associates, bdt we failed    '
1EZW THE YUKON DISTRICT. 68 CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
to find anything like what he described. The old man told so many conflicting
stories, and seemed to know so little of the lake, that I became convinced he
was astray, and had been hoaxed by some one with a piece of the Treadwell rock.
I then left them to shift for themselves. The expert took the same view of the
matter, and, as he was in charge of the search, ended it there.
I afterwards, on Lake Tagish, saw a place much resembling that described.
It is on the south side of the lake, and just east of its junction with the Takone
arm. I was strongly of opinion that this is the place he referred to, and would have
examined it to verify my impression, but the wind was too strong and the lake too
rough to allow of crossing over.
These are all the indications of ore in situ which I saw or heard of.
The gold heretofore found and worked in this district has been all placer
gold. Search was made for it occasionally by us along the lakes and river as we
descended, but with the exception of the colours mentioned at the quartz ledge on
Lake Bennett, none was found until after we had passed Lake Labarge, about six
miles below which, at a sharp, short bend in the river we found in a bar many colours to the pan. It may be said generally that colours are found anywhere on
the river between that point and the boundary, and also on the tributaries which
have been prospected.
It is probable that we have not less than 1,400 miles of stream in our part of
the district, upon all of which gold can be found.
About eighteen miles below the Teslin I saw the first place that had been
worked for gold. Here a hut had been erected, and there were indications that a
party had wintered there. Between it and Big Salmon River six other locations
were met with. One of them named Cassiar Bar was worked in the season of
1886, by a party of four, who took out $6,000 in thirty days. They were working
there when I passed in 1887, but stated that all they could get that season was $10
per day, and that it was then (3rd August) about worked out. At the time of my
visit they were trying the bank, but found the ground frozen at a depth of about
three feet, though there was no timber or moss on it. They had recourse to fire
to thaw out the ground, but found this slow work.
Two of this party subsequently went down to Fortymile River, where I met
one of them. He was a Swede, and had been gold mining for upwards of twenty-
five years in California and British Columbia. He gave me his opinion on the district in these words : " I never saw a country where there was so much gold, and
so evenly distributed ; no place is very rich, but no place is very poor ; every man
can make a 'grub stake' (that is enough to feed and clothe him for a year) which
is more than I can say of the other places I have been in."
In .conversation with Mr. T. Boswell, who, as already stated, had prospected
the Teslin or Newberry River, in the summer of 1887, I learned that the whole
length of that river yielded fine gold, generally at the rate of $8 to $10 per day ;
but as the miners' great desideratum is coarse gold, they do not remain long in a
country in which only fine gold is found—generally no longer than is necessary to make a "grub stake," unless gold is in unusually large quantities. Mr.
Boswell, therefore, went to the lower part of the river, having heard the reports
of rich finds.
Stewart River was the first in the district on which r
done. In 1886 there were quite a number of miners 01
gold, and they all appear to have done fairly well. Tin
not ascertain.
I may say that it is generally very difficult to get any exact, or even approximately exact, statement of facts or values from miners. Many of them are inveterate jokers, and take delight in hoaxing: the higher the official or social position of
the person they hoax the better they are pleased. I have several times found that
after spending hours getting information from one of them it would be all contradicted by the next one I met.     Another cause of difficulty in getting trustworthy
mng to any extent was
it engaged in washing
• exact number I could
a
\EIf THE YUKON DISTRICT.
From Photo, by W. Ogilvie.
Looking N. W. from Head of Bonanza Creek.
information from them is that in a certain sense they consider every government
official or agent their enemy, and that he is in the country to spy upon their doings,
and find out their earnings, which latter the great majority of them are very much
averse to have known.
So far as I could see or learn, they do not even disclose to each other their
•earnings for the season.     I met one or two who told me that they had made a cer-
ï tain amount in the season, but on enquiry among the rest these statements were
J ridiculed and declared untrue. As a rule they are very generous and honest in
their dealings with their fellow men, but a desire for correct geographical or statistical knowledge does not actuate very many of them ; hence the disagreement
and often contradiction in their statements.
I have heard the amount of gold taken from off Stewart River in   1885 and
' 1886 estimated at various amounts. One estimate was $300,000, but this must
be excessive. The highest amount I heard as representing one man's earnings
was about $6,000. This may be true, as many agree that $30 per day, per man,
was common on many of the bars of the river, and instances of as high as $100
per day having been earned were spoken of.
The only mining done on Stewart River was on the bars in the river ; the bench
I and bank bars were all timbered and frozen, so that to work them would entail a
resort to hydraulic mining, for which there was no machinery in the country.
During the fall of 1886, three or four miners combined and got the owners of
I the " New Racket" steamboat to allow the use of her engine to work pumps for
sluicing with. The boat was hauled up on a bar, her engines detached from the
wheels, and made to drive a set of pumps manufactured on the ground, which supplied water for a set of sluicing boxes. With this crude machinery, in less than a
month, the miners cleared $1,000 each, and paid an equal amount to the owners
-of the boat as their share. 7o CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
Alexander McDonald, who has been mentioned before, reported to me that"
the gold on the upper river was somewhat coarser than that on the lower, but not
enough so as to be called " coarse gold." He seemed to be satisfied with the result of his season's prospecting, and intended spending the next season there. This
man wandered around the country prospecting alone until 1894 (I think), when his
dead body was found on the bank of the Yukon River, and buried where it was
found. It appears he started off alone as usual on a prospecting trip up the Yukon,
and on the way, it is supposed, he was taken sick, as the body was found wrapped
in his blankets', and bore the appearance of dying while asleep.
Many of the miners who had spent 1886 on Stewart River, and 1887 on
Fortymile River, seemed to think the former the better all round mining field, as
there' were no such failures there as on Fortymile, and they declared their intention to make their way back to the Stewart for the season of 1888.
Fortymile River is the only river in the district on which, up to the fall of
1888, coarse gold had been found, and it may be said that much of it can hardly
claim that distinctive title. The largest nugget found was worth about $39. It
was lost on the body of a miner who was drowned at the canon. Several other
nuggets of much less value have been found, but the number of pieces which one
could call " nugget " are few.
The miners term Fortymile a " bed-rock " creek—that is, one in the bed of
which there is little or no drift, or detrital matter, the bottom of the river being
bed-rock. In many places this rock has been scraped with knives by the miners,
in order to gather the small amount of detritus and its accompanying gold.
Very little of the gold on this creek was found in Canadian territory, the coarsest gold being found well up the river. The river had been prospected in 1887 for
upwards of one hundred miles, and gold found all the way up. The great point
with a miner is to find where the gold comes from. To do this he has to reach a
point on the river where there is none ; then he knows, he has passed the source,
and will search in side valleys and gulches. The theory seems to be that the gold
is stored up somewhere and dribbled out along the river.
Pieces of gold-bearing quartz had frequently been picked up along the river
in the shallow drift, but none had been found in place, nor did it appear to me that
much search had been made for it. Near the mouth of the river there is an extensive flat of detrital matter through which a couple of small creeks flow. This is all
said to be gold-bearing, and, it was thought, would pay well for sluicing. Accordingly a couple of claimants had staked off claims at the mouth of the creek, and
intended to try sluicing in the season of 1888. I have not heard how the venture
succeeded.     It was abandoned in 1889 through high water.
During the season of 1887 some miners prospected Pelly River, bût I have no
information as to their success. Dr. Dawson mentions the fact of their being
there, but does not appear to have got any statistics from them.
Big and Little Salmon Rivers have also been prospected, with the usual result
that more or less gold has been found everywhere.
I think it may, with confidence, be asserted that rich finds will yet be made of
both coarse gold and gold-bearing quartz. It is not likely in the nature of things
that such a vast extent of country should have all its fine gold deposited as sediment, brought from a distance in past ages of the world's development. If this is
not the case, the matrix from which all the gold on these streams has come must
still exist, in part at least, and will no doubt be discovered, and thus enrich this
otherwise gloomy and desolate region.
There are many bank and bench bars along the river which would pay well if
sluiced, but there is no convenient or economical way of getting water on them,
ana there is no pumping machinery as yet in the country. One bank bar of large
extent, called Rogers' Bar, just below Old Man Rock, attracted attention in the
spring of 1888, and some miners were thinking of getting in an engine and pumps
to work it.     I made an estimate of the size of engine required for their needs, and
'"^P
"IS THE YUKON DISTRICT. 72 CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
computed the probable cost of the plant laid down, but it does not appear that
they made any further move.
This bar is more than fifty feet above the water. It fronts on the river for
more than two miles, and is in places nearly two miles deep. It is believed that in
past ages the Old Man and Old Woman rocks were connected and formed a barrier across the river, over which there was a cataract. Below this the fine gold
remained, while the sand and gravel were in part carried further down. So
impressed were some persons with the prospect of rich finds on this bar that
they thought of bringing water across from the high level of Fortymile River, a
distance of over thirty miles ; but when I went up Fortymile River to the boundary
I saw that it could not be done without the aid of force pumps, and I explained
this drawback to them. This bar is said to yield four to six cents to the pan, ,
which, with plenty of water for sluicing, would pay well, while its large extent
would warrant considerable outlay. Doubtless there are many other bars as rich
as this one, though not as large.
Platinum is generally found associated with gold. This is particularly the
case on Fortymile River.
As very few outside of mining communities understand anything of the nomenclature of the craft, or of the methods employed to separate the very small quantities of the precious metal from the baser material with which it is associated, a
short description will not be out of place.
When a miner " strikes " à bar he " prospects " it by washing a few panfuls
of the gravel or sand of which it is composed. According to the number of
"colours " he finds ,to the pan, that is, the number of specks of gold he can see in
his pan after all'the dirt has been washed out, he judges of its richness. Many of
them have had so much experience that they can tell in a few minutes, very nearly,
how much a bar will yield per day to the man.
The process of " placer " mining is about as follows : After clearing' all the
coarse gravel and stone off a patch of ground, the miner lifts a little of the finer
gravel or sand in his pan, which is a broad, shallow dish, made of strong sheet
steel ; he then puts in water enough to fill the pan, and gives it a few rapid whirls
and shakes ; this tends to bring the gold to the bottom on account of its greater
spécifie gravity. The dish is then shaken and held in such a way that the gravel
and sand are gradually washed out, care being taken as the process nears completion to avoid letting out the finer and heavier parts that hnve settled to the bottom.
Finally all that is left in the pan is whatever gold may have been in the dish and
some black sand which almost invariably accompanies it.
This black sand is nothing but pulverized magnetic iron ore. Should the gold
thus found be fine, the contents of the pan are thrown into a barrel containing
water and a pound or two of mercury. As soon as the gold comes into contact
with the mercury it combines with it and forms an amalgam. The process is continued until enough amalgam has been formed to pay for "roasting" or "firing."
It is then squeezed through a buckskin bag, all the mercury that comes through
the bag being put back into the barrel to serve again, and what remains in the bag
is placed in a retort, if the miner has one, or, if not, on a shovel, and heated until
nearly all the mercury is vaporized. The gold then -remains-in-a-lump, .with some
mercury still held in combination with it.
This is called the "pan " or "hand" method, and is never, on account of its
slowness and laboriousness, continued for any length of time when it is possible to
procure a "rocker," or to make and work sluices.
A " rocker " is simply a box about three feet long and two wide, made in two
parts, the top part being shallow, with a heavy sheet iron bottom, which -is
punched full of quarter-inch holes. The other part of the box is fitted with an inclined shelf about midway in its depth, which is six or eight, inches lower at its
lower end than at its upper. Over this is placed a piece of heavy woollen blanket.
I he whole is then mounted on two rockers, much resembling those of an ordinary THE YUKON DISTRICT. 74 CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIE1
cradle, and when in use they are placed on two blocks o
may be readily rocked. After the miner has selected h
most convenient place to set up his " rocker, which mu
of water. Then he proceeds to clear away all the stones
ering the finer gravel and sand in a heap near the " rock
top is filled with this, and with one hand the miner rod
he ladles in water. The finer matter with the gold falls
the blanket, which checks its progress, and holds the fir
the sand and other matter pass over it to the bottom of tr
that what comes through is washed downwards and finall
the bottom of the box are fixed thin slats, behind which s
catch any particles of gold which may escape the blanket,
the large nuggets are found in the upper box, their weigh
the lighter stuff has passed through, and the smaller ones
at the outward end of the bottom of the box. The piece
taken out and rinsed into a barrel ; if the gold is fine, mei
torn of the barrel, as already mentioned.
Sluicing is always employed when possible. It re
water with sufficient head or fall. The process is as folic
and formed into a box of suitable width and depth. Slat;
torn of the box at suitable intervals, or shallow holes bo
order that no particle could run along the bottom in a
running over a hole. Several of these boxes are th
siderable slope and are fitted into one another at the ei
stream of water is now directed into the upper end of the
having been collected, as in the case of the rocker, it is
box and is washed downwards by the strong current oi
tained by its weight, and is held by the slats or in the
fine, mercury is placed behind the slats, or in these holes
about three times as much dirt can be washed as by the
three times as much gold is secured in a given time,
with they are burned, and the ashes washed for the gold
Unfortunately, on Lewes and Pelly Rivers there is n<
the aid of pumps, there being no streams with fall eno
current in the sluice boxes.
There is very little reliable information as to the amo
taken out of the district since its discovery and developnv
best estimate which I can form on the subject:
aod supply
ivel, gath-
ow box on
i the other
loles on to
>ss the bot-
and escape
e-pipe.    A
*A great many of the
resort to a method lately adopted,
face, thus thawing the ground unti
brought to the surface arid heaped
sper
i a pile
and profitably the year round. This method has been found very
pay streak is at any great depth from the surface. In this way tl
has been so commonly advanced by miners and others, that in tl
year are lost in idleness. Winter usually sets in very soon afte
continues until the beginning of June, and is decidedly cold. Th
degrees below zero, but in the interior there is so little humidity
is more easily endured than on the coast. The temperature runs
as low in the winter ; it is quite a common thing for the thermome
the shade. There is continuous daylight from the middle of May
but in the depth of winter there is little more than three hours of
four. So that constant daylight for a portion of the year and all
portion might very well create doubts in one's mind as to what p
should be given to sleep. In the summer months it is possible for
s the power to endure the physical strain.    Constant dayli
ind in this
nng opera THE YUKON DISTRICT. 76 CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
■ Stewart River was pretty well worked for two seasons, 1885-86, by about forty
men, some of whom made at least $5,000. Assuming that they averaged half that
amount, we have $100,000 as their earnings. Fortymile River, the only other
stream from which any large quantity has been taken, was worked in the summer
of 1887 by about three hundred men, many of whom spent only a few weeks on the
river, some only a few days. The statement made by those of whom I inquired
was that all who worked on the river for any length of time made a " grub stake."
Putting this at the lowest value I placed on it, $450, and assuming that two hundred and fifty men made each this sum, we have $112,500 as the amount taken out
on this stream.     I have heard the sum placed at $130,000.
All the gold taken from the other streams by prospectors would not amount to
more than a few thousand dollars, so that it is probable the total amount taken
out of the whole district is in the vicinity of a quarter of a million dollars, of which
about half was taken out in our territory.
I learned that the prevailing high water interfered very much with the success
of the miners in the season of 1888, and that many of them left the country in the
fall. It is probable, however, that a few will remain prospecting until something
rich is found.
As Dr. Dawson has reported on the geology of the region along the Lewes,
and Mr. McConnell has made an examination of the Yukon from Porcupine River,
it is needless to do more than to refer their reports. I may briefly state, however, that the whole course of the river in Canada is through a mountainous country, the rocks of which, as far as seen, are principally granite, schists, shales and
some limestone, the latter at Lake Labarge. There is also some basalt at the :
cation and at the confluence with Pelly River.
Just below Coal Creek a range of high mountains comes in from the south- I
east, and continues down the river past the boundary. These mountains are com- i
posed principally of limestone, with occasional exposure of shale and sandstone.
While going down the river with the survey I located some prominent peaks !
by triangulation, and determined their height.    Unfortunately, I could not, owing j
to cloudy weather, get as many as I wished.   Those located are shown on my map I
of the survey.    I have named a few of them, as they have not, to my knowledge,
been previously named.
One of them, seen from the south end of Lake Labarge on the east side, 1 i
have named Mount Dawson, after Dr. Dawson of the Geological Survey. Its |
altitude above the lake was taken from two points on the east side, from which its j
distance was, respectively, 724.5 and 773 chains. .The height, as deduced from the j
observed angles of elevation of the top from each station, was, respectively, 3,238 1
and 3,263 feet. Part of this difference is no doubt due to want of precision in the
instrument used, and part to the fact that the same point may not have been I
sighted on from both stations. The latter height is probably the nearer to the
truth. The altitude of the lake I have put at 1,959 feet, which would make the 1
height of the mountain 5,222 feet above the sea.
Another peak near the boundary I have named Mount Morrison, after a 1
member of my party ; and another Mount Gladman, after another member. 1
These two peaks are the highest seen from the river in the vicinity of the bound- 1
ary. Mount Morrison was ascended and its height determined by aneroid barom- J
eter, the mean of the readings at starting from and returning to the river being I
compared with the reading at the top. The difference between the two readings 1
at the river was about fifty feet. The height thus determined was 2,390 feet,!
which gives the altitude above sea 3,180 feet. Mount Gladman was apparently al
little higher. J
The only people doing business in the country outside of gold mining were 1
Messrs. Harper, .Questen & Co. They have been trading at several points on the 1
river pretty constantly since 1874. They occupied Fort Reliance for some years, I
and in 1886 they established a post at Stewart River to meet the demands of thé 1
■jlJ  ¥
78 CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
miners who were working there. They did not anticipate the rush to the country
that took place in that year, and their supplies ran short, so that all were for some
months on the verge of starvation. Unfortunately, too, scurvy broke out in the
camp, and there was much suffering.
In 1887 they established a post at Fortymile River, whither nearly all the
miners had gone, coarse gold having been discovered there during the previous
fall. During the winter of 1887-88 they did business at both these posts, Messrs.
Harper & McQuesten being in charge of Fortymile, and Mr. Mayo at Stewart River. The latter post was kept open principally for the Indian trade,
though had there been no miners there it is probable they would have abandoned
it. I could not learn definitely the amount of their sales to the miners in 1887, as
it is a delicate question to ask a person who is selling foreign goods in Canadian
territory to reveal to a Canadian employed by the Government the amount of his
trade. Very likely, had I asked the question, I would have received a short answer, though in every other way I am under great obligation to Messrs. Harper &
McQuesten for acts of kindness and attention, both sought and unsought.
A person who had a good idea of the amount of their business during the
season estimated their sales at $60,000, and from facts which came under my own
observation I consider this not far from the truth.
Until the miners visited the country the trade done by this firm was confined
to barter with the natives for furs. I understand that they do a sort of commission business for the Alaska Commercial Company-;—that is, the company supply
goods at a certain advance on San Francisco prices, and deliver them at the trading
post at a certain rate per ton. In payment they take whatever pelts have been
collected at a certain pre-arranged price, varying according to the state of the fur
market. I understand, however, their freight charges remain constant, and are
$30 per ton for goods paid for in furs, and $125 per ton for goods paid for in cash,
the latter being the goods imported for the use of the miners.
Their prices for goods in 1887 were not exorbitant, yet there must have
been a fair profit. They were: Flour, $17.50 per hundred pounds; bacon, $40
per hundred ; beans, $18 per bushel ; sugar, $30 per Hundred, and tea, $1.25 per.
pound. Both of these gentlemen came into the country in the summer of 1873,
Mr. Harper crossing the mountains from the Cariboo gold fields in British Columbia, and descending Laird River to the Mackenzie. He went down the latter river
and up the Peel, whence he crossed to the waters of the Porcupine, which he
descended to the Yukon ; he then went up the latter to White River, where he
wintered.
Mr. McQuesten came in at the same time by way of Peace River, trading for
a short time around Lake Athabasca before he descended the Mackenzie.
The principal furs procured in the district are the silver-gray and black fox,
the number of which bears a greater ratio to the number of red foxes than in any
other part of the country. The red fox is very common, and a species called the
blue is abundant near the coast. Marten, or sable, are also numerous, as are lynx;
but otter are scarce, and beaver almost unknown.
It is probable that the value of the gray and black fox skins taken out of the
country more than equals in value all the other furs. I could get no statistics concerning this trade for obvions reasons.
Game is not now as abundant as before mining began, and it is difficult, in
fact impossible, to get any close to the river. . The Indians have to ascend the
tributary streams ten to twenty miles to get anything worth going after. Here on
the uplands vast herds of caribou* still wander, and when the Indians encounter a
herd they allow very few to escape, even though they do not require the meat.
When they have plenty they are not at all provident, and consequently are often in
*There were no caribou in this locality last year. THE YUKON DISTRICT.
p||§k      '"■
Ev
jâ
MpS^^B
-ft^^-liw^     HtH
I5T
BP^y -HF-^-i
■    i      '^Ph-'-^B
HSLs,            ^H
■iiy
1 ■$ ■ ^n
^««2
P^-y i
Animal Remains found in the Pay-Streak on Bonanza and Eldorado Creeks, and Section
of Wood found 12 Feet below the Surface on Bonanza Creek.
J 8o CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
want when game is scarce. They often kill animals which they know are so poor
as to be useless for food, just for the love of slaughter.
An Indian who was with me one day saw two caribou passing and wanted me
to shoot them. I explained to him that we had plenty, and that I would not destroy them uselessly, but this did not accord with his ideas. He felt displeased
because I did not kill them myself or lend him my rifle for the purpose, and remarked in as good English as he could command : " I like to kill whenever I see it.'
Some years ago moose were very numerous along the river, but now they are
very seldom seen, except at some distance back from it. Early in the winter of
1887-88 the Indians remained around the miners' camps, and subsisted by begging
until all further charity was refused. Even this for some time did not stir them,
and it was not until near Christmas that sheer hunger drove them off to hunt.
One party went up the Tatonduc some fifteen or twenty miles, and in a short time
was revelling in game, especially caribou. The other party did not succeed for
some time in getting anything, although a large district was searched over, but
finally went up Coal Creek about twenty miles, and there killed eighteen moose in
one day. They brought in two thousand pounds of the meat to the post, and sold
it for ten cents per pound to the miners, with whom it was in great demand on account of the prevalence of scurvy in the camp.
A boom in mining Would soon exterminate the game in the district along the
The ordinary caribou runs in herds, often numbering hundreds. It is easily
approached, and, when fired at, jumps around awhile as though undecided what to
do ; it then runs a.short distance, but just as likely towards the hunter as from him,
stops again, and so on for a number of times. At last, after many of them have
been killed, the remainder start on a continuous run, and probably do not stop
until they have covered twenty or thirty miles. When the Indians find a herd they
surround it, gradually contracting the circle thus formed, when the animals, being
too timid to escape by a sudden rush, are slaughtered wholesale.
There are four species of bear found in the district—the grizzly, brown, black,
and a small kind, locally known as the " silver-tip," the latter being gray in colour,
with a white throat and beard, whence its name. It is said to be fierce, and does not
to wait to be attacked, but to attack on sight. I had not the pleasure of seeing
any, butheard many "yarns" about them, some of which, I think, were "hunters' tales." It appears, however, that miners and Indians, unless travelling
numbers, or especially well armed, give them as wide a berth as they conveniently
Wolves are not plentiful. A few of the common gray species only are killed,
the black being very scarce.
The arctic rabbit or hare is sometimes found, but they are not numerous.
There is a curious fact in connection with the ordinary hare or rabbit which I ha'
observed, but of which I have never yet seen any satisfactory explanation. Their
numbers vary from a very few to myriads, in periods of seven years. For about
three years one may travel for days without seeing more than a sign of them;
then for two years they are numerous, and increase for two years more, until finally the country is alive with them, when they begin to disappear, and in a few
months there are none to be seen. If it is an epidemic that carries them off, it is
strange that their carcasses are never observed in any number.
It appears the martens are also subject to a periodical increase and decrease
and in this case a satisfactory explanation of the cause is also wanting.
The mountain sheep (Big Horn) and mountain goat exist everywhere in the
territory ; but, as they generally frequent the sides of the highest mountains, they
are seldom seen from the river. There is a beautiful species of pure white Big
Horn found in the mountains on the head of Coal Creek, and presumadly elsewhere
'n that region.
Birds are scarce.    A few ravens were seen along the river, and three or four THE YUKON DISTRICT.
J white-headed
82 CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
remained in the vicinity of the boundary all w
ive and noisy on stormy days than at other times,  ;
dismal sound amid the roar of the elements.-
A few magpies were seen near  Nordenskiold  R
eagles were also noticed.
During the winter, near the boundary, numbers of small birds, somewhat
resembling the " chick-adee," were seen, but they were much larger and had not
the same note. Of owls, not a specimen was met with anywhere. Partridges
were very scarce, only half a dozen or so of the ordinary kind being noticed ; but
at the head of the Tatonduc and Porcupine, ptarmigan were abundant. Wild
geese and ducks are plentiful in their season, and of ducks there are many more
species than I have seen in any other part of the territory. Most of these were
observed on the head of the Porcupine ; but, having no means of preserving the
skins, I had to come away without specimens. A very beautiful- species of loon or
diver was met with on the Porcupine. It is smaller than the great northern diver,
but marked much the same on the body, the difference being principally in the head
and neck—the bill is sharper and finer and the head smaller ; but its chief distinguishing feature is the neck, which is covered with long, beautiful dun-coloured
down for more than half its length from the head downwards. I tried to kill one
so as to get the skin as a specimen, but after I had fired three times at close range
with heavy shot it seemed as lively as if I had not fired at all. I then killed it with
my rifle, but the bullet so tore and'mangled the skin that it was useless.
With the exception of a small species, locally called the arctic trout, fish are
not numerous in the district. Schwatka calls this trout the grayling, but from the
descriptions and drawings of that fish which I have seen this is a different fish. It
seldom exceeds ten inches in length, and has fins very large for its size, which gave
it, when in motion, the appearance of having wings. Its dorsal fin is very large,
being fully half the length of the body, and very high. It is of a brownish gray
colour on the back and sides, and lighter on the belly. It is found in large numbers in the upper part of the river, especially where the current is swift, and takes
any kind of bait greedily. The flesh is somewhat soft and not very palatable.
Lake trout are caught in the lakes, but, as far as I saw, are not n
large size. They take a troll bait readily, and a few were caught in
ing down the lakes, but the largest did not weigh more than six or
Salmon came up, I was assured by several Indians, natives of the di
Lake Labarge, and are never found above it, but Dr. Dawson reports their dead
bodies along the river for some miles above the canon. I mention this to show the
unreliability of information received from the natives, who frequently neither
understand nor are understood.
On the way down salmon were first seen twenty or twenty-five miles above Five
Finger Rapids. One can easily trace their passage through the water by the slight
ripple they make on the surface, and, with care, they can be taken by gently placing
a scoop net in their way and lifting them out when they enter it. After coming up
the river two thousand miles they are poor, and would not realize much in the
market. At the boundary, in the early winter months, the Indians caught some
that were frozen in on small streams, and fed them to their dogs. Some of these
I saw ; they were poor and spent.
I had very little opportunity to learn anything of the' language, manners,
customs or religion of the natives on my way through their countrv, my time with
of
way com-
1 pounds.
lem being so short, and none of the whites whom I met i
Dssess any information upon which I could draw. I got a
lay or may not be facts, I shall not report them. The s
however, pretty well establish that by one of their law
the di
the mother.
Since the foregoing '
have occurred in the Yuki
t seemed to
few items, but as they
atements of everyone
s inheritance is through
is originally written, numerous a
1 District.    In those days the adm
V^&t THE YUKON DISTRICT.
From Photo, by W. Ogilvie
raise water for sluicing.—Skookim Jim, an Indian,
standing on frame.
: hands
|which all cu
é adjustment.
| the miners themselves, being dispensed by meetings at ;
terested attended, and all had a vote in the decision or
ain the parties meant well, but often queer views were
I taken, and it might be said that a man who was personally unpopular fared badly,
I and that, too, without the parties who decided feeling that they had gone the least
| bit astray. Nothing else could be expected as this is human nature the world over.
Now the Canadian Government has a properly organized staff of officers resi-
Ifdent in the country to attend to all matters pertaining to the proper administration
I of justice without favour to any,' and we may unhesitatingly take up our abode
I there, looking to as mnch protection for life and property as in any other part of
the continent.
In
î of this the folio
% statement i:
nade
THE GOVERNMENT OF THE YUKON TERRITORY.
The Government of Canada has defined that portion of the North-West Territories, which is to be officially known as " The Yukon Territory," and has provided
for it an organized government.    This Territory is bounded on the south by the
," 6oth parallel of latitude, on the east by the watershed between the basins of the
Yukon and Mackenzie Rivers, and on the west by the 141 meridian west of Greenwich or the International Boundary line, and on the north by the waters of the
Arctic Ocean.
All south of the 60th parallel of latitude is in the Province of British Columbia,
except the coast strip of Alaska, known as  " South-eastern Alaska," and law will
no doubt be administered there by the government of that Province.
HJgphisj of course, differs from the ordinary machinery of Government in Canada,
febut is just what is required at present and for the next few years. 84
CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
" Commissioner of
exception  of. the
erritory."
Supreme
- him for
le Yukon
n to meet
i Ottawa.
i the Ter-
The chief official is known  as  the
All the  Government  officials,   with   th<
Court are under, his control, and any one  of thei
cause.    The detachment of North-West Mounted Poltce
Territory is under his orders, and he is given ample powe
any difficulty that may arise, without haying to wait for
This Officer reports frequently to the Minister of the Intel
is thereby kept fully informed concerning everything that
ritory.
There is a Judge for the Territory. That is to say, one of the Judges of the
Supreme Court of the North-West Territories has been sent to administer the ordinary laws of Canada aad the North-West Territories in the Yukon District.
A Gold Commissioner has been sent up to the headquarters of the Territory.
His duties are in relation to the granting of mining claims, titles, permits for cutting timber on Government lands and the settlement of disputes between conflicting
claimants.    He is an officer of the Department of the Interior.
The Registrar of the ' ' Yukon Lands Registrar District " is a lawyer whose
duties combine clerkship of the Court and the registration of titles.
There are four Land Surveyors acting under the instructions of the Gold Commissioner, and, like him, they are officers of the Department of the Interior.
There are also a uumber of Customs Officers stationed at various points along
the lines of entry into the Yukon Territory, and there is a force of Mounted Police
at present nnmbering ioo, but will immediately be increased to 250.
The Mail Service of the Territory is performed at present by the Mounted
Police.    A monthly mail is despatched each way i.e., between the Coast and the
Police Stations are to be established in the Spring on the Stikeen River, on the
t the Junction of the White and Dyea Passes, at Tagish Lake,  at
at Selkirk, Daw-
ese points, so law
and order will be preserved at all points through
have established themselves.
Dalton Ti
the White Horse Rapids, at the mouth of the Hootalinqu;
son and Cudahy, and patrols will traverse the country bet
\c*à_. THE YUKON DISTRICT.
From Photo, by W. Ogilvie.
Sluicing on Bonanza Creek.—Claim No. 2 below Discovery and Showing Mode
of Washing Gravel.    At this Point $8,000 were taken- out of a Hole
14 Feet Wide and Twenty-Four Feet Long. MORE   RECENT   DISCOVERIES.
Facts and Information, with Advice, Suggestions,
Etc., Etc.
Some of the earliest efforts of min
some British Columbia miners who endei
Yukon watershed from the Cassair Dis
were, however, not successful from
in the Yukon District were made by
ured to reach the southern part of the
:t of British Columbia. These efforts
|s point of view, nothing came of them.
873.Mr. Arthur Harper, Frederick Hart, Samuel Wilkinson, George W.
Finch, and Andrew Kansellar, left British Columbia to prospect the Liard, Mackenzie, Porcupine and Yukon. They made their way from Peace River in the vicinity of Fort St. John to the head waters of a stream known as the Nelson, an
affluent of thé Liard, down which they went in the winter and early spring months
to a point where they considered it feasible for canoe navigation. As soon as thé
river opened they started in their dug-out canoes, prospecting as they went, the
result of Harper's prospecting being, as he summed it up to me, "nothing on the
Nelson, prospects on the Liard, nothing on the Mackenzie, good prospects on the
Peel, some on the Porcupine, and prospects everywhere on the Yukon. In the
fall they made their way from Fort Yukon, at the mouth of the Porcupine, up to
White River about 400 miles, where they remained during the winter prospecting the White, and the streams in its vicinity. Finding nothing sufficient to
pay them for their trouble, and provisions being very scarce, they in the spring
returned down the river, making their way to St. Michaels, where some of them
entered the service of the Alaska Commercial Company, then trading in the Yukon
Valiey.
In the fall of 1874 Fort Reliance was erected by Leroy Napoleon McQuesten,
and the next summer—that is, the summer of 1875—Harper joined him in partnership, and they continued to trade in partnership until 1889. Through Harper's
correspondence some. British Columbia miners came into the country prospecting,
and in the early eighties prospecting in that country was begun in earnest, and in
the last half of that decade a fair amount of success was achieved, especially on the
Stewart River. The gold found upon these rivers is fine gold and requires the use
of mercury for its separation from the sand, and although it was found in paying
quantities—as high as $100 per day being made in some instances—fine gold never
satisfied the old miners and prospectors. This caused a continuous search for
coarse gold, and it was found in 1886 on the Fortymile River about 23^ miles
above the mouth, or a few hundred yards above the International Boundary Line.
This directed the attention of the miners in the district of Fortymile, and it continued to be the field of prospecting and exploration until 1891, when'coarse gold
was found on the head of Birch Creek, below the International Boundary Line.
The existence of coarse gold was known in this district as early as 1864, for in a
letter dated "Fort Yukon, 2nd October, 1864," written by a clerk in the service of
the Hudson Bay Company at that post, to his father in Ontario, it is stated :—
" I had some thoughts of digging the gold here, but am not sure about it. . I do not think it is
paying quantities at the Fort, but if I could only get time to make an expedition up the Yukon, I
,n abundance, but I am always on the voyage or busy at the Fort during
/inter nothing can be done in the way of gold hunting.    I think that next
ay-trip down the Yukon, I shall he able to go up the river     There is a
(86)     .
the sumnv
fall, after
_.- THE YUKON DISTRICT. 87
jf.sin.all river not far from here that the minister, the Revd. McDonald, saw so much gold on a year
? or two ago, that he could have gathered it with a spoon. I have often wished to go but can
I never find the time. Should I find gold in paying quantities I may turn gold digger, but this is
merely a last resort, when I can do no better."
It was mainly through the direction of the Canadian Missionary, the Vener-
jable Archdeacon McDonald, above mentioned, that this field was opened.
These two points, Fortymile and Circle City, divided between them the attention of all the miners in the country up until 1896, when the discovery of Bonanza
^and Eldorado was made by George W. Carmack through the advice of Robert
\ Henderson, an old miner, who had been prospecting on the Indian River
|and Gold Bottom Creek Valleys, and finding Carmack fishing at the mouth o. the
Klondike described to him the riches' of Gold Bottom and advised' him to try it.
Carmack did so but was not satisfied, and on his return trip tried the creek known
I to the Indians as Tha-tat-dik, or, in English, Muffler Creek, since named Bonanza
!by the miners. On this, on the claim now known as " Discovery Claim," he found
good prospects, and staked claims for himself and Indian associates, which led to
the speedy staking of the whole creek and its branches and gulches. As soon as
[the season permitted these two creeks were thoroughly prospected and developed,
and found to be so rich that the term applied to that district, " Klondike," is now
known over the whole world. Prospecting has gone on in that region to such an
[extent that there are now numerous other creeks known and partially developed
'there, notably, Dominion, Sulphur, and Quartz Creeks, affluents of Indian Creek,
which flows into the Yukon some 25 or 28 miles above Klondike. Recent reports
,' from these creeks confirm their value, and on one of them as high as $9 per pan
has been found. Of course, that is an exceptionally rich pan, but it appears from
the rumours which have lately come out that they are rich and extensive—it is alleged being some 20 miles each in length. This, I think, may safely be cut in
two,.as miners' miles are generally short.
Photo, by W. Ogilvie. 88 CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
Several other creeks have been prospected, flowing directly into the Yukon
between Klondike and Indian, and rumour says they are good. One creek, known
as Mooseskin Creek, which flows into the Yukon about 1% miles below Dawson,
is reported good. Rumour asserts that from four to six feet in depth of pay dirt
has been found, but no definite width had then been determined, ranging from
eight (8) or ten (10) cents per pan to as high as eighty (80) cents. With this
depth and richness and a reasonable width, say from forty (40) feet upwards,
this creek is good enough to rank with ' the best. How much of it is gold
bearing is not yet determined. In my opinion not more than a few miles at the
mouth will be found so. It comes out of a range of high limestone mountains
which are of such recent geological formation as to preclude the idea of gold being
found in them. Indian Creek is practically unexplored as yet. A few miles of the
main creek have been prospected and gold found in the sand, but with the exception of the three creeks mentioned—Dominion, Sulphur and Quartz—I do not
know of any others having been prospected which flow into it. It is highly improbable that no more will be found in the valley of that stream, and special attention is invited to this creek.
As we proceed up the Yukon, or Pelly, as named by the late Robert Campbell
of the Hudson Bay Company's service, other creeks join the Yukon at short intervals, many of them of considerable extent, and I have no doubt but that they
will be found to yield much encouragement to the prospector. Last June (1897)
Robert Henderson, before mentioned, discovered a new creek said to be 40 miles in
length, which joins the Yukon from the east some 2\ miles below Stewart. For a
few days there was quite an excitement concerning this creek, gold having been
found at several points on it in paying quantities in the surface gravel, but the
excitement fell almost as suddenly as it arose, and the creek was practically abandoned. Why this was I never could learn, as only a few prospectors' holes had
been put down when the bulk of prospectors abandoned it in disgust, and returned
to Dawson. It may yet be found well worthy of attention, in fact, many creeks
in the district have been prospected by two or three different parties, abandoned,
and finally found to be good. As an instance of this we may cite MUler Creek on
the upper waters of Sixty-Mile. This creek was pretty well prospected by two
different parties two different seasons, and abandoned. The third party, however,
struck pay, and it proved to be the richest creek known in that country until the
discovery of Bonanza and Eldorado, so that from this we may predict some hope
for Henderson Creek yet.
Stewart River itself is a stream from 100 to 200 yards in width, and it is said
about 400 miles in length. Its affluents will aggregate as much more, say 800
miles, or in round numbers say 1,000 miles. The smaller streams and gulches will
aggregate possibly as much more, say 2,000. Now the Stewart River enjoys the
reputation among the old hands in the district of being the best paying dirt in the
country. When it was first mined on, many miners took from $30 to $100 per
day out of the bars along the river, by ordinary rockers, and since that time prospectors never failed to find what is called a grub stake, that is, sufficient to purchase provisions, clothing, and other necessaries for one year, on its bars.
They are cleaned off from year to year, and the wash of the river seems to
renew the deposit of gold. Now this gold must come from somewhere, and prospecting never yet revealed from where. Special attention is directed to this stream
as being one of the largest and most promising fields in that district.
Little prospecting has been done on the Pelly River, and not much success has
attended what has been done, which may partly be attributed to the fact that little
or no bedrock work was done. The few who tried it appear to have done only
surface prospecting. |
This river and its affluents will likely furnish as much,  if not more, stream   j
and gulch than Stewart River   and while it cannot be asserted that the prospects
on it are as favorably reported on as those of the Stewart, it can be said that much
less attention has been bestowed on them.
V^ PAID-UP
CAPITAL
The
Canadian
BanK        $6,000,000
of
Commerce
HON. GEO. A. COX, ROBERT KILGOUR,
PRESIDENT. VICE-PRESIDENT.
B. E. WALKER,
J. H. PLUMMER,
The Canadian Bank of Commerce, having been appointed agents of the Canadian
Government for the
YUKON DISTRICT (Klondike)
to receive the royalty on gold and to transact other banking business for the Government,
will establish an agency at
DAWSON CITY
at the earliest date in the coming spring that the means of travel will permit.
DRAFTS AND LETTERS OF CREDIT
payable at Dawson City may be obtained on application to the Bank's representatives
and correspondents.
Persons residing in Great Britain should communicate with the Bank of Scotland,
London
Residents of Canada and the United States may apply personally or by letter to
any of the branches, agencies or correspondents of the Bank mentioned below.
BRANCHES IN CANADA:
Cayuga Gait Orangeville Sarnia
Chatham Goderich Ottawa Sault Sti
Collingwood Guelph Paris Seaforth
Dresden Hamilton Parkhill Simcoe
Dundas London Peterboro' Stratfon
Dunnville Montreal St. Catharines Strathro
Agencies in the United States :
The Canadian Bank New Orleans :
i6 Exchange Place. of Commero
Correspondents :
The Bank of Scotland, London, England.
The North Western National Bank, Chicago.
The Bank of British Columbia in British Columbia, a
San Francisco, Cal., and Portland, Ore. Vn|| _J <
u
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O
o
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O
O
Pu
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■ J r
U^ WORTH WESTERN   CANADA f
NORTH WESTERN CANADA NORTH WESTERN  CANADA NORTH   WESTERN  CANADA "worth westrn canada NORTH  WESTERN CANADA NORTH WESTERN CANADA
1\
J 1 Kl©md>k[
st/
m
Parties going to or residing in the Sir
Klondike would find it to their Sir
Sir1 interest to communicate with the Sir*
' ^aiMîtoMireiFf ^
v»/ AviicmuLiiLU-icm^auiiii isii s> sj>
I Lnffe tasiraieef
I ©dDMpaEy cool
Si? HEAD OFFICE, TORONTO SI?
St> St/
Way    GEO. GOODERHAM, J. F. JTJNKIN, VÉ/
VJV President. General Manager.    JI£
}K GEO. A. STERLING, }K
Mr Secretary. W
^ Authorized Capital, $2,000,000 y|/
W f
$ RECORD OF TEN YEARS Ç
%|# Income Assets       Business in Force    yff
SI?   Dec 31st, 1887       -       27,964        155,877       2,536,000   Sfr1
S)/1   Dec. 31st, 1892   -     - 230,281 g36,Ôé7       8,136,989   \j/
tf>   Dec 31st, 1897       -     448,000      1,306,466     11,867,229   ^
Vlr* Total Payments to Policyholders, over $600,000        m
si> st/
J/ Here are the Facts
You ape Going* to the Yukon District
YOU WILL REQUIRE
NUTRIMENT, with  no unnecessary  Bulk or Weight.
EVERY NECESSARY REQUISITE, with plenty of variety.
RIGHT GOODS AT RIGHT  PRICES.
Food and Comfort Supplies being OUR SPECIALTY, we
meet   the situation completely with these goods, and a
full supply of all other essentials.
Concentrated Soups,
Beef Bouillon  Capsules,
Extracts of Beef
(Solid and Fluid),
Meat and Fish Pastes,
Compressed   Evaporated
Vegetables,
Evaporated Fruits,
Condensed Coffee,
Extract of Coffee,
Cocoa Essence,
Condensed Cream,
Condensed Milk,
Condensed Coffee and
Milk,
Saccharine,
Crystallized Eggs,
Klondike Yeast,
Klondike Biscuits,
Concentrated Vinegar,
Lime Fruit Tablets,
Lemonade Crystals,
Damp-proof Matches,
Non-explosive Fire
Kindlers.
A Strong, Rich Cup of Tea
is quickly prepared  with  our
In Sealed Lead i-a lb. and i lb. Packets.
"KOLONA"
PURE CEYLON TEA
TORONTO is the Distributor for the Province of Ont
the bulk of supplies required in the Klondike and Yukon Dist:
best market in which to purchase.
the great producing centre i
ind therefore the cheapest and
Eby, Blain Company,
Wholesale  Importing and
Manufacturing  Grocers
Toronto, Can.
V4  go
CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
There is no reason why the branches and gulches of this river system should
not yield in parts good pay, as it lies in the gold bearing zone running through and
from British Columbia to the 141st meridian.
A small creek flowing into the Yukon or Lewes from the west or left side a
few miles above the mouth of the Pelly, has been worked by several old timers for.
the last three or four years, with a fair amount of success. Another stream, join-,
ing the Lewes or Pelly about 30 miles below the mouth of the Pelly, good prospects
are reported on, but how authentic these reports are cannot at present be said.
Last summer newspaper reports aroused much excitement concerning the Pelly,
and the enormous finds which it was alleged had been made there ; in fact, one find';
was fabulous in its richness, but these do not appear to be more than newspaper
reports.
The Teslin, or Hootalinqua of the miners, some 200 miles farther up, in 1886
and 1887, was worked on and good pay found on the bars all along it.    Just south I
of the head of this stream is the Cassair District of British Columbia, in which rich I
finds were made many years ago, and which old miners to-day assert is one of the
best districts in America, were there better facilities for food supply.     During
1885, 1886 and 1887, much mining was done on the Yukon  River itself on the.;!
bars and banks along it.    This extended from a few miles below the Teslin downJ
to near the Pelly.    One bar on the river, called Cassair Bar, near the Big Salmon J
River, was worked in 1886, and was so rich that four men cleaned up $6,000 ini
thirty days.    Others came along after this party had left and took away more. j
The original party re-worked it in 1887, and took off $10 per man per day.    Many |
of the bank claims yielded good pay too, and all furnished fair wages.    The dis- |
covery of coarse gold for the time stopped all attempts to further develop those bar j
and bank diggings on the main river, but there cannot be any doubt that they will
yet be profitably worked.
On the head waters of the Lewes silver has been found and some gold, but as
the attention of most of the miners entering the country was directed to points!
further down, very little prospecting has been done here. I have seen several
specimens of silver bearing ore which it is alleged came from this part of the country, and one old Californian in 1894 assured me he had found, in the vicinity of
Tagish Lake, one of the richest silver bearing veins he ever heard of. That there!
was some truth in this assertion I do not doubt, as he showed me specimens of
the ore.
On the head waters of the Alsek River, which flows into the Pacific Ocean be-.|
tween Lituya and Yakutat Bays, gold was found in 1896, but the party finding it
was not prospecting ; the find was due to an accident.    He was crossing the river!
on horseback, his horse stumbled, threw him into the water, which was icy cold.B
He made his way as quickly as possible to the shore, and in climbing out grasped S
a small tree which came away by the roots.    In the dirt which came with it he saw
some yellow stuff which he picked up and found to be gold.    This he preserveJB
and exhibited to me at Cudahy, a few months later.     He had something like $1 in
coarse gold, which he found at this spot.
Midway on what is now known as the Dalton Trail, between the summit-of
the Coast Range and Selkirk, fine gold has also been found in the small streams
which that trail crosses.     This find also was not the result of any organL^^B
search, but entirely due to accident.
With these facts before us we may confidently assert that we have here a
region situated in the North-West Territories upwards of 300 miles in length and. j
500 or more miles wide, along the southern boundary, for this zone extends soutfH
eastwards into British Columbia, and we may reasonably assume westward to and j
across the 141st meridian, for some of the streams heading on and near it dis- !
charging into the Pacific Ocean west of Mount St. Elias, yield gold on their lower '
stretches, and we may reasonably assume the upper parts are gold bearing too. I
Farther inland gold has been found on the upper waters of the Tanana   near the THE YUKON DISTRICT.
V 92 CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD. \
head waters of the Fortymile, and in 1873 and 1874 Harper and Harte found some
gold on the south branch of White River, in the vicinity of the boundary line, all
of which is a justification for this assumption. Thus we may conclude with reason
that all that portion of the North-West Territory westward from the easterly limit
of the Yukon water system to the 141st meridian, will prove more or less gold
bearing.
The westerly boundary of this region—the 141st meridian, or International
Boundary—is upwards of 300 miles in length ; the southern boundary—the 60th
parallel of latitude—is about 500 miles long, and the north-east boundary, an
irregular line from the 60th parallel to the 141st meridian, in latitude 65° approximately, is upwards of 600 miles long. These three lines bound an area of about
125,000 square miles, over which gold is scattered more or less profusely.
At many of the points mentioned it will pay well for working even under present
conditions, and at many others it will pay well when we have such facilities as we
expect to have during the next year for entering and developing that region.
Attention may be directed to the fact that the whole of that vast District owes its
now world-wide reputation to the richness of 140 claims in the Klondike Division.
-00 of these are on Bonanza Creek, and about 40 on Eldorado. To use a mining
term, many of those claims are "world-beaters," and if the indications now known
are worth anything at all they are worth from sixty to seventy millions of dollars'
in those two creeks.
Taking this division as a whole, including the three creeks named, affluent to
Indian Creek, a district some 35 miles in length and 25 or more miles in width, if
the indications can be relied on, there are one hundred million dollars in sight in
that area. No one can guarantee this amount, but the prospects so far developed
point to that sum pretty conclusively. This district is exceptionally rich. Nothing has ever been found like it heretofore in that country, in fact, in very few
countries has anything been found like it, and while we cannot confidently assert
that other finds as valuable as it will be made, it is altogether improbable that gold
is scattered over such a vast extent, and only rich at a point which is less than the
140th part of the total area. If we add to this part of the northern area of British
Columbia we increase it nearly two-fold, and the comparative area of the Klondike
District is much lessened !
Taken all together we have a vast field with fair prospects, as fair it may be
claimed as any other equally extensive region in the world. The natural conditions
are not as favorable as in many other parts, but time and enterprise will no doubt
agreeably modify many of them, and the reward may be great.
OTHER MINERALS FOUND IN THE YUKON DISTRICT.
Pieces of native copper have from time to time been brought in from the White
River region by Indians.    It is asserted by them that they found the copper on that '1
stream.    Possibly this is so, but it is yet undetermined.     However, copper is being I
found on the head of Copper River in that vicinity, and these two streams head in
the same area and it is probable that the Indians are correct.    Mineral bearing lodes  j
found in the vicinity of the mouth of the Klondike show traces of copper.     On the I
Fortymile a few miles above the mouth there are some seams of lead ore or galena," 1
containing silver; as high as 36^ ounces to the ton of 2,000 pounds has been as- f
sayed from it.    Low grade specimens of asbestos have been found in the vicinity 1
of Cudahy in an exposure of serpentine rock there.    Commercially it is worth 1
nothing, but shows that mineral exists in the country and may yet be found |fl
commercial value.     Iron has not yet been found in place, but one may infer from |
the abundance of black sand, as the miners term it—that is, magnetic iron ore
ground to powder—in the gold-bearing streams that it will yet be found in place in
some part of the country.    In Hunker Creek it is exceedingly abundant and very
coarse, almost as coarse as fine gravel.    Coal abounds in the country.    A short  Î THE YUKON DISTRICT. 93
distance above the Five Fingers Rapids several small coal seams crop out. They
are close together, and although the seams are thin individually, collectively they
may yet be worked with profit. Specimens of this coal were assayed in Ottawa by
the Chemist of the Geological Survey Branch of the Department, with the following
Hygroscopic water  6.03
Volatite combustible matter  36.92
Fixed carbon  49.03
Ash  8.02
On Coal Creek, which joins the Yukon about four miles below Cudahy, extensive coal seams have been found and located. On a small creek named Cliff
Creek, which joins some five or six miles below this, another extensive seam has
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„_:_"■'~___J
t Boundary       From Photo, by W. Ogilvie.
;ional Boundary and the South Bank of Moose Creek.—
■ears as a White Streak through the Woods.—White
tit in Centre is " The Dome."
been found and located. Coal is found in the drift in the streams between those and
on another creek known as Flat Creek, below Cliff Creek. On Twelve Mile and
Fifteen Mile Creeks—so named because they were supposed to be that distance
below Fort Reliance—coal is also found, some six or eight miles from the Yukon
River. Coal is reported at the head of the Klondike, and the report was accompanied
by specimens of the mineral. I have heard it stated that coal is also seen in the
drift of some of the upper streams of the Stewart River, the inference being that
there is a continuous coal bearing strata running from the Yukon River in the
«jBg&itv of the Boundary Line south-eastwards through British Columbia, and possibly through that Province into the North West Territories. Specimens of the
coal from Coal Creek and Cliff Creek were sent out for assay, and the Geological
Survey Chemist reports on it as follows :
/ 94 CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELDS.
" The material at the time of its receipt was found to be completely disintegrated. It had evidently lost a certain proportion of the hygroscopic water originally
contained in it ; hence the following analysis must be considered as more nearly
representing the composition of the fuel in an air-dried condition than a
in its native state.
' ' Approximate analysis by fast coking of selected material gave :
Hygroscopic water        7- 24
Volatite combustible matter     4'-75
Fixed carbon      48.91
Ash (brownish yellow)        2.40
"It yielded by slow coking a non-coherent coke, by fast coking a slightly
fritted coke.
' ' The results' of the examination of the fuel led to the inference that the materials of the seam in question represented a lignite of superior quality."
These coals are all of the same quality. So far as I know no good cooking
coal has yet been found in that country. One thing will be noticed in connection
with the Coal Creek coal is the remarkably low percentage of ash that it yields.
No specimens yet tried, as far as I know, gave more than 5%, and some of it went
below 1%.
Approximate tests made with some of the surface coal from Coal Creek determined a ton of it, 2,000 pounds, to be equal to about 2^ cords of the spruce wood
generally used as fuel in that region. A good sample of the coal would probably
be equal to 3 cords. A cord of this wood will weigh nearly a ton and a half. For
steamboat use this coal possesses a tremendous advantage both in space and
weight.
The existence of silver I have previously mentioned on the upper stretches
of the Lewis and its affluents.
Should lime be required in the reduction of ores or for building purposes, it
will be found in abundance on Coal Creek, quite convenient to the Yukon River,
as that stream pierces a range of cretaceous mountains, to which I have already
referred.
HINTS ON PROSPECTING.
Having found a creek which we determine to prospect, we search for some
sharp angle in it where the creek runs obliquely against a steep bank. In a place
like this you are more apt to find gold than in other places in the creek valley
True, it is only found on the surface and may be no indication of what is to be
found below, for the gold found on the surface may have come from the hillside
drift, the clay and sand which came with it being washed away by the creek waters ; I
but you will sooner determine the fact whether or not there is gold in the valley
at a point like this. Having satisfied ourselves that there is gold in sufficient
quantity to warrant further prospecting, you now take the risk of sinking a "hole,"
as it is termed, to bed rock. The most convenient season to do this is early in the
winter when the surface water is all frozen, otherwise it will interfere with your I
progress by flowing into your pit and putting out your fires, or at least preventing
their most efficient action. If you cannot wait for this season choose some high spot
where you will not likely be bothered with inflow of water. You will have a few
feet more digging to do to bed rock, but you are more certain of reaching it. If
you want to sink where the best pay is likely to be found, try just below the junction of some creek, gulch, or ravine with the main stream or valley. The
heavier parts from both streams are held here. Experience shows that the best
claims are generally just below a "forks," as it is termed. Having reached
bed   rock you may find pay, or you may not.     If you think the surface prospects THE YUKON DISTRICT
Barracks, Cudahy.
by W. Ogilvie.
I warrant you in extending your operations, select some other point in the creek valley and sink a hole to bed rock again.     Continue in this way until the character of
' that part of the valley is determined, but it may be that you will "cross-cut" the
whole valley, as it is termed, and find nothing ; yet, this does not warrant you in
assuming that there is nothing in that creek. I have known places where this was
done without anything being found, and yet a few yards above or below a single
hole found rich pay.
To work the claim  properly, if the  gravel  is  deep,  it  is   necessary to do
- this by what is termed burning, that is, you thaw the frozen ground out with
fire. This is a tedious and costly process and requires much more labor in
procuring the wood and attending to the fires, disposing of the waste dirt, as it is
called, that is, the non-paying dirt, than that connected with the actual paying
dirt. Several schemes are now under way with a view to obviating these hindrances to mining in that country. Proposals to thaw out by steam are being tested,
also by coal oil. This latter, if it can be perfected will be much the cheapest and
most effective, as coal oil can be purchased in that country for about $i per gallon,
and later on, no doubt, much less. One scheme which has been proposed to me, it
is asserted, will thaw one cubic yard of dirt with less than one gallon of coal oil.
This, if successful, will certainly be a cheap and expeditious way of mining in that
country. I am not in a position at present to give the details of this method, as it
is only in the embryo state, but the results so far are encouraging.
Some of the proposed methods by steam appear practicable when used on a
large scale ; but, so far, it appears it does not realize expectations on a small scale,
but this will no doubt he overcome by experiment.
I cannot advertise any particular scheme proposed as against any other, but have
no doubt each exponent of any method will soon advertise it himself. My object is
simply to call attention to the fact that some method other than firing as it is now
used is speedily necessary. In places where the ground is shallow—that is, not
more than 10 feet deep—what is called ground sluicing is resorted to.    A ditch is g6 CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
dug through the claim, a dam constructed in the upper end of it, and the water is
directed through the ditch. The water soon wears away the ice-bound dirt down
to the bed of gravel below. The heat of the sun melts the frozen dirt on the sides
of the ditch, and it is thrown into the stream and carried down and away from the
claim. In this way a part of the claim, 25 or 30 feet in width, is cleaned down to
the gravel; sluice boxes are then erected and the gravel is shoveled into them, and
any gold which it may contain is retained by the ripple bar in the boxes, while the
gravel and sand are by the force of the current of water carried onwards and down
to the tailings at the end of the line of sluice boxes. When bed rock is reached on
this line another portion of the gravel is stripped of the muck and washed in the
same way. It is evident that when the muck and gravel are too deep this method is
impracticable, in which case the pay streak has to be "drifted " out by burning,
which is done as follows :—
A hole is cut in the surface moss and debris down to solid ground. In this
hole, which should be about 3 feet wide and 6 feet long, a fire is made, and when
the fire has gone out the ashes and ground which it has thawed are thrown out ; .
another fire is built, and the process repeated until bed rock is reached. The average rate of descent is about one foot per day. Bed rock reached, we now drift
sideways—that is, we build our fire against the side of the hole or shaft which we
consider the best pay will be found on, and proceed as when sinking the shaft,
moving about one foot per day, as before stated. The fire will thaw out much
more dirt than there is pay in, unless our pay streak is very deep, and we have carefully to separate the pay from the non-pay dirt, and hoist out only the pay dirt.
When we reach a distance of 20 to 30 feet from our shaft we have to put down
another, and continue trom it as before.
The greater part of the heat from our fire does us no good used in this way, and
it is most desirable that some other method of thawing be developed as soon as
possible.
As to the quantity that will pay, it is considered that 10 cents to the pan with
three or four feet of dirt is excellent pay. Less, of course, pays in a less degree
and more in a greater, but that is considered good pay in that country even
under present conditions. A little experience will soon enable one to determine
just how much there is in a pan. To the uninitiated 10 cents to the pan looks
little more than a few specks of gold in one corner of the bottom, except in the case
of flake gold, which may be so thin that a cent's worth of it will apparently cover
the whole bottom of the pan, and the beginner will think he has struck something
very rich. A little water poured into the pan soon shows us the difference between
flake gold and coarse, though it may not be apparent to the eye. The flake rises
in the agitated water and sinks slowly, which, of course, heavier gold will not do.
The lumber for sluice boxes, by which the gravel is washed as before described,
has to be whip sawed. This involves a lot of tedious, difficult work. The only
mill in the country was too much taken up with sawing lumber for building purposes to devote any attention to sluice box lumber. Hereafter saw mills may be
more convenient. Sluice boxes require carefully-selected lumber, as free as possible from knots or knot holes. This, of course, those who go mining will soon
ascertain for themselves and also quickly learn the best way to get over these
difficulties.
Hillside prospecting has been resorted to already there and some fair claims
found. This is conducted on the same principles as gulch prospecting, with the difference that there is much less depth of dirt on the hillside as a rule than in the
bottom of a gulch. It is well to bear in mind that hillside claims are inconvenient to work ; the water has either to be brought down along the hillside
from a high level on the creek, which may necessitate a very long ditch. The
working of them will be sure to conflict with the working of the gulch claims, and
their location until after the gulch or creek claims are worked out is not desirable. THE YUKON DISTRICT.
97
lited extent in that coun-
great   many   lodes of low
Quartz prospecting has been prosecuted to a ve
try,   but  that  little   has   revealed   that there are
grade gold-bearing rock there, some of it too low to be considered at all i
connection with milling for some time to come. Time, no doubt, will develop improved means and methods of meeting and combating the peculiar conditions existing there, and rendering profitable the most of this rock. The hillsides, for
a height of about 1,000 feet above water level, are thickly covered with an undergrowth of scrub and moss. This practically precludes attempts at prospecting for
quartz except in a few isolated spots. The mountain tops themselves, or the crests
of the ridges, are bare of timber, but are covered with a sub-arctic moss which almost completely conceals the character of the rock. This, of course, is easily
gotten over by smashing a few specimens here and there with a hammer, but prospecting for quartz in this way, to be prosecuted successfully, requires much more
geological knowledge and technical training than the vast majority of the miners
are possessed of, besides a keenness of observation that is rather rare. I think
a small diamond drill plant would be about the most effective and satisfactory way
of prospecting for gold-bearing rock. It could readily be used, no matter what the
surface was like. I have often thought that some sort of a modification of it would
be more convenient for prospecting for placer gold than the present method of burning down. By the time a few quartz mills'are established there will no doubt be
very many extensive and valuable quartz lodes discovered ; as it is highly improbable that all the gold-bearing rock has been weathered or ground down, depositing
its gold in the gulches, much of it must yet remain in the hills and mountains of
the region of the diggings. The only question being, is it concentrated enough
to pay for working, or scattered about in thin stringers, as the miners term it, at
such distances apart as to preclude any idea of mining enterprise in that direction.
Attention is called to the fact that many of the lodes found, and doubtless many
i-Rock Clift on Glacier Creek, Tributary
V g8 CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
to be found, are so situated that water is practically not available during 6 or 7
months of the year. The small streams all freeze solid and remain so from
November until May, and maybe longer. This will necessitate some other method
of milling than the old one of pounding the rock in a box filled with water, and
those contemplating quartz mining will do well to take this question into consid-
A few remarks on the value of gold found in that country will not be out of
place here. As a rule it ranges in "fineness," technically termed, from .723 to .875,
that is, from about $15 per ounce, Troy weight, after melting, to about $18 per
ounce, Troy weight, after melting. Before melting, and thus cleaned of the sand
and quartz associated with it, the value per Troy ounce runs from fourteen dollars and ninety-two cents ($14.92) to seventeen dollars and ten cents ($17.10) on
Bonanza and Eldorado, and as high as seventeen dollars and sixty-four ($17.64) in
other places. The value of pure gold is twenty dollars and sixty-seven ($20.67)
per ounce, Troy weight. The other part of the metal as it is mined is principally
silver and copper. The low quality of Bonanza and Eldorado is more than compensated for by its quantity.
While prospecting the miner had better take a geologist's hammer with him.
It is small and devised specially for that purpose. He also requires a shovel and
a pick. As to food, bedding, &c, his own judgment will have to decide for him
what he considers necessary. One thing he must guard against during the summer months are the mosquitoes, which plague the life out of anyone and everyone
in the country for at least three months. During the evenings the temperature
sometimes goes low enough to render them torpid for a short time, but when the
weather is at all cloudy they are a continual torment, and a good supply of mosquito netting should be laid in. For this purpose the ordinary mosquito netting on
sale is too coarse in the mesh, and I would recommend fine silk tissue. It excludes
all flies, however, large or small, is not hurtful to the eyes as the coarser mosquito
netting is, does not give one that sense of suffocation which mosquito netting
generally does, and lasts much longer. A good pair of gum boots are actually
necessary while prospecting. Much of the lower ground is swampy valley, with
ice-cold water in it ; and it is necessary to warmly clothe the feet ; the other part
of the body only requires protection from the mosquitoes. As to food, one has
very often just to put up with what one can get there, which very often is not very
varied, consisting principally of pork, bacon, beans, flour and tea. Later on, I
will give some information as to the quality and kinds of food required and the
amounts to be taken.
As to lumber, the only lumber of any value found in that region is scattered
along the bottoms of the river valleys and streams. A few hundred feet up on the
hillsides timber diminishes in size. The cause of this is that the ground is eternally frozen, being covered with a thick deposit of moss to a depth of two or more
feet, and immediately under this the ice can be found at any time in the year.
Now, trees growing on this naturally grow slowly. The season during which they
grow is very short, being only three or four months, and the temperature in which
they grow is extremely low. These causes combined produce trees not more
than three inches in diameter, nearly two centuries old. The trees immediately
adjacent to the banks of the streams and on islands often attain a diameter of
fifteen or eighteen inches, but a few hundred feet away trees just the same a°-e are
not more than three or four inches in diameter. This is due to the warmth of the
water in the streams, and the opening of the bed of the stream permitting more
direct access of sunlight and heat to the surface near it. Even under those conditions suitable sluice-box lumber is widely scattered, and generally found in sheltered nooks in the valleys, facing the south. The best place to look for sluice-
box lumber is in some deep gulch running in the direction of the meridian sun.
Those searching for lumber had better confine their efforts to such gulches, as
those facing the north yield nothing but scrub such as I have described. THE YUKON DISTRICT.
w from Boundary Line, Look
Sixtymile River.
ROUTES.
I will now give a short outline sketch of the different routes proposed from
the eastern and southern portion of this continent to that country.
PRINCE ALBERT ROUTE.
The first route to be noticed is the one starting from Prince Albert, Saskatchewan, or, we will say, generally, from the Saskatchewan District, following the
old Hudson Bay Company's route via Green Lake, Beaver River, Lake Isle a la
Crosse, Portage la Losche, and Clearwater River to Fort McMurray, at the foot
of the rapids on the Athabasca River, whence the route is common to the next one
to be described. I have no personal knowledge of this route, but the following,
quoted from the Saskatchewan Times of December 21, 1897, may be of interest in
connection with it. I may state that Prince Albert has railway communication
with the Canadian Pacific Railway at Regina.
I Prince Albert to Green Lake by good wagon road, 140 miles.
"Green Lake to Portage la Losche, 220 miles by boats.
"Passing Portage la Losche (good road), 12 miles.
"Descending Clearwater River, 80 miles.    Total, 450 miles by boats.
" It will be seen that this   route,  after traversing Green Lake, follows the
course of Beaver River to  Isle  a la Crosse; then through Deep River and Clear
Lake, Buffalo Lake, and Methy River and Lake to  Portage la Losche     This.por-
taee is  12 miles in length,  but presents no great difficulty to the transport of
belts   etc    the road being good and draft animals procurable.    From this portage
the course of the Clearwater River is followed without interruption, except for one
V or two insignifi
Murray."
CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
portages, to its junction with the Athabasca near Fort Mc-
THE EDMONTON  ROUTE.
The next route in order is the Edrhonton route, down the Mackenzie to Fort Mc-
Pherson, thence to Dawson as follows : Leaving Edmonton, to which we get by
railway, we have to make our way by cart or buckboard some 96 miles to Athabasca Landing.
From Athabasca Landing down stream the Athabasca River is free of hindrance to navigation for about 120 miles, when we reach Pelican Rapids. These
are not difficult to navigate; the only trouble in them arises from low water and
some rocks in the channel.    When the water is high there is no dangei
in or about them nearly
them there.    A fair-sized
appears they take their name from the presence of peli
all summer ; both times I went down the river I sav
canoe can be run down those rapids with safety.
One hundred and sixty-five miles below the landing Grand Rapids are
reached. This is the rapid of the river, and partakes more of the nature of a cataract than of a rapid. In the middle of the channel there is an island, over which
the Hudson Bay Company have constructed a tramway on which to transport the
outfits for all the northern posts. The steamboat landing is about one and a half
miles above the island, the intervening water very shallow, with many rocks and
very rapid current. Through this the company has made a channel by removing
rocks. Between this steamboat landing and Fort McMurray the company does all
its transport with large boats, locally known as sturgeon nosed or sturgeon boats,
from the fact that both bow and stern are spoon-shaped and somewhat resemble a
sturgeon's nose. These boats are capable of floating about ten tons each, and
are each manned with a crew often or twelve men, and'when loaded draw upwards
of two feet of water. The time of their ascent and descent varies much with the
height of water, as in some of the rapids more or less portaging has to be clone,
which varies with the depth of water. Below the island in Grand Rapids there is
nearly two miles of rough water, which in low water requires much care in navigating to avoid rocks and shallows.
Between Grand Rapids and Fort McMurray there are ten rapids. I obtained
from the pilot of the steamboat (a man who was acknowledged by all I inquired of
to possess as complete and reliable knowledge of the river from the Landing to
Lake Athabasca as any man in the country) the names of those rapids and the best
way to run down them.
The first in the order of descent is named "Brule Rapids." It is about 25
miles below Grand Rapids. In it the river spreads out from 250 or 300 yards in
width to upwards of 400. In mid-stream the water is shallow, so much so that
large trees ground on their way down. The channel is on the left side of the
river, and quite close to the shore. It is not more than one-fourth of a mile long,
and by keeping not more than twenty or thirty yards from the shore there is no
danger in its descent. It appears the rapid takes its name from the presence of an
extensive brûlé. About sixteen miles below it comes " Boiler Rapids." This is
quite an extensive rapid though only the lower part of it is very rough. In high
water the left side affords the safest channel to run in, and in low water the right
side. It takes its name from the fact that the boiler intended for the Hudson's Bay
Company's steamer on the lower river was lost in the rapid through the wrecking
of the scow which contained it on its way through in 1882. At the foot of this
rapid there is much rough water, which requires a good-sized canoe for its safe
descent.
In sight of the lower end of the above comes "Drowned Rapids." The
channel here is on the left side, quite close to the shore, and were it not for three
or four large swells caused by rocks, it might be run down by anyone without any
apprehension of danger.     It takes  its name from the fact that a man  named THE YUKON DISTRICT. .
Thompson was drowned some years
ago by the swamping of his canoe in
running through it. I had the misfortune, in 1884, to lose a member of my
party in a similar manner, though I
have gone through them myself twice,
and ran no risk that I was aware of.
Less than a mile from this rapid we
enter "Middle Rapid." This is not
very rough, but is somewhat shallow
and stony. The channel in this is on
the right side.
The next rapid is known as " Long
Rapid," and the channel here is also
on the right side. The water is not
very rough in it.
Next in succession is "Crooked
Rapid," from the fact that in it the
river makes a very short turn round a
limestone point. The channel is on
the right side, and is not rough, with
the exception of a small ' ' chute " just at
the head ; this requires care in a canoe.
"Stony Rapids" come next; in
them the channel is on the right side,
and is not very rough.
The next is appropriately known
as   the   "Cascade,"   the  river falling
Ora Wold, Boi
From Photo, by W, Ogilvi
Inspector Strickland's Boy, at Cudahy,
over a ledge of rock about three feet
high. The channel is on the left side,
and certain stages of water permit fair-
sized canoes to descend it without
much risk.
The last rapid worthy of note is
known as " Mountain Rapid," by reason of the high banks in its vicinity.
It is rather rough, but there is a good
channel which at the head is on the left
side, in the middle there is a piece of
smooth water through which a crossing
is made to the right side, which is quite
smooth, while the left side is very
rough.
The last of the .series is known
as " Moberly Rapid." It is only a
ripple caused by some rocks on the left
side of the river, in the midst of a swift
current. On the right side the water
is smooth enough for the passage of
the smallest craft.
From the head of Grand Rapids
to Fort McMurray is upwards of 85
miles, which is altogether too bad for
the present steamer to ascend.     It is
_J/ io2 CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
the opinion of some that with proper appliances she might succeed in doing so, but
it appears to me that such a project would involve much expensive labour and considerable risk.
From McMurray to Fort Chipewyan on Lake Athabasca, a distance of about
180 miles by the shortest channels, but nearly 200 by the channel the steamboat
has to pass through in ordinary stages of water, there is neither obstacle nor hindrance to its passage. This steamer also makes her way up Peace River as far as
the fall, about 220 miles from Chipewyan, the only hindrance in this distance being
the Little Rapid, about 100 miles from Chipewyan, and even this, except in very
low water, is not serious.
From Chipewyan to Smith's Landing on Great Slave River there are no serious
obstacles to navigation. There is a slight ripple in the channel between the lake
and Great Slave River, caused by a ledge of rock across the outlet of the lake, and
in low water the steamer sometimes touches bottom, but never so much as to detain her for any long period. In Great Slave River there are one or two places
where rock ledges cause a ripple, and in low water the greater part of the channel
is shallow, but in all these places there is a part where the water is deep enough
co afford the steamer easy passage at all times.
From Smith's Landing to Fort Smith, about fourteen miles by the land or portage route and about sixteen by the river, there are numerous and bad rapids aggregating about 240 feet fall, which puts all thought of navigating it'out of the question.
In continuing the statement of my route I may as well conjoin with it such information as I observed and gathered on my way concerning the navigability of the
water route from Fort Smith to the Arctic Ocean and part of Great Slave Lake.
On my arrival at Fort Smith I found the Hudson Bay Company's steamer
" Wrigley " there loading for her down trip. I arrived there on the afternoon of
the 30th July, and spent the greater part of that night getting observations to determine its geographical position. The following evening the " Wrigley" started
for Fort Resolution on Great Slave Lake, and on the way down I obtained much
information of value from Captain Bell, commander of the steamer, concerning the
depths of water and obstacles in the route. To render this information more intelligible I will premise with a short description of the " Wrigley" and the route she
travels over. This steamer was built at Fort Smith by the Hudson Bay Company
in 1886, and made her first trip in 1887. The magnitude of such an undertaking,
small as she is, can be appreciated when we know that every bit of lumber used in
her construction had to be sawn by hand. All her machinery had to be transported
upwards of 100 miles by horses over pretty bad roads, and then taken nearly 300
miles in scows, and 300 on the Company's steamer " Grahame." Her dimensions
as given me by Captain Bell are eighty feet keel, fourteen feet beam, five to six
feet draught at stern when loaded and four to five at bow. Her propeller is a
four-and-a-half feet four-bladed screw with adjustable blades. Her engine, manufactured by the John Doty Engine Co. of Toronto, with about 60 pounds pressure,
will drive her about eight miles an hour, but she can be driven ten. In the course
of a season the requirements of the Company's service necessitate her travelling
about 6,500 miles, and her maximum load is about thirty tons. In this connection
I will here state that the two steamers plying on the Athabasca, Peace and Great
Slave Rivers are named respectively "Grahame" and "Athabasca" (the latter
above Grand Rapids on the Athabasca and on Lesser Slave Rivers) are flat-bottomed stern wheelers capable of carrying one hundred and forty tons if required ; with
this load I was told they would draw two-and-a-half to three feet of water. Loaded light they draw less than two feet. They are said to be capable of steaming
twelve miles an hour in dead water, but do not try more than ten. The "Grahame" was built at Fort Chipeweyan in 1882 and 1883, and as in the case of the
" Wrigley " all the lumber for her had to be sawn by hand. The "Athabasca"
was built at Athabasca Landing, but in her construction the aid of a Waterous
portable saw-mill was obtained. THE YUKON DISTRICT. io4
CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
Going down the Great Slave River, Capt. Bell kindly pointed out to me the
shallow places, and gave me the depths of water in each of them. Just below Fort
Smith there is an extensive bar, but there is a channel through it which always
affords plenty of water for the passage of the "Wrigley." The shallowest place in
the river is alongside an island known as " Big Island." The lowest water Capt.
Bell ever experienced in the country, which, by the way, is generally admitted to
have been unusually low, gave six feet here ; in average water there is nine feet,
and at date of my passage (ist August) there was thirteen feet. This shoal is
about 200 yards across, and is on the left side of the island. The other channel is
much the widest, but is full of sand bars, and unless in very high water the
" Wrigley " could not get through it. Capt. Bell found in all the other parts of
the river from twelve to thirty-six feet of water at average height. As is usual in all
such places, there are bars across all the mouths where they empty into the lake.
On the one through which the steamer enters the lake there is in very low water
five and a half feet and in high water eight ; medium gives from six to seven, but
this varies a good deal with the force and direction of the wind—a south-westerly
wind lowering it and north-easterly raising it. Owing to the displacement of the
channel marks by a violent storm a few days before our arrival, the boat ran
aground on the bar, with no other result than a couple of hours' detention.
Capt. Bell informed me that in his passages around and across the Great
Slave Lake he has done much sounding, and found generally as follows : Two miles
from shore four fathoms, six miles twenty fathoms. ' In mid-lake on the way from
the mouth of the Great Slave River to the head of Mackenzie River he generally
found upwards of forty fathoms, and in places sixty fathoms gave no bottom. In
the arm of the lake on which Fort Rae is situated he found fifty miles below Rae
twenty fathoms, thirty miles from Rae three fathoms, eighteen miles two fathoms,
and seven miles seven feet, which continues up to Rae. The bottom in this arm
he found muddy, with many boulders in it.
At the entrance to the river from the lake, the river is very wide and consequently shallow. Search was made here for a suitable channel for the steamer,
and of course the notes furnished refer exclusively to this channel. In ordinary
low water this channel affords about six feet, in very low water only five feet. In
ordinary high water, such as when I passed, there would be about nine feet, but in
1888 there must have been thirteen or fourteen feet. Capt. Bell thinks this shoal
is the result of ice shoves by the ice on the lake, as quite close to it on both sides
there is twelve to fourteen feet of water. It consists of gravel, and is, he says,
only about two hundred yards across, so that improving it would not-be a very
difficult undertaking.
Five miles below this there is another shoal known as ' ' Trout Island Shoal. "
On this in low water there is six feet of water, but it appears the depth is very
irregular, which Capt. Bell thinks is due to the bottom being scraped by ice and
deposited in heaps. He thinks a proper search would show a deep channel all I
through here, but it would be very crooked, as it would wind about those gravel
heaps. This shoal extends about a»mile and a half. Through " Beaver Lake" in
low water there is ten feet in depth, in ordinary water twelve and in high water
fourteen.     Of course, this refers to the shallowest places in it.
Providence Rapid, situated a little above Fort Providence, gives five feet in the
shallowest places in low water, in ordinary stages six to seven feet. This extends
for about two miles. Here, as in the forementioned places, a good channel could
be found, but it would be very crooked, so much so that a steamer descending
could not keep in it. From this rapid down to Rapid Sans Sault the least depth in
the lowest water was found to be twelve feet.
Rapid Sans Sault is caused by a ledge of rock extending across the river.
Near the easterly shore the water drops over this a few inches and causes quite a
commotion across the easterly half of the river. In the westerly half there appears
to be a greater depth of water and smoother current.     It need hardly be said that THE YUKON DISTRICT.
the steam-boat channel is on the westerly side in the smooth water. Over the
ledge the lowest water found by Capt. Bell, in a year remarkable for the low state
of all the rivers in the country, was six feët. a'a^-tî?^'
Over the ledge of the Cascade Rapids, which are caused by an obstruction similar to that at Rapid Sans Sault, Capt. Bell found nine feet in low water, and eleven
in good water.    The rapid is near the head of the " Ramparts."
Close to the Ramparts there is another rapid known as "Rampart Rapids";
this also is caused by rock bottom in the river. In it in lowest water Capt. Bell
gives the depth as eleven feet, and in high' water fifteen. This extends about half
a mile.
In his various passages of the Ramparts, Capt. Bell has sounded without finding bottom with forty fathoms, which was the length of his sounding line. I have
mentioned in my report for 1889 that Sir Alexander Mackenzie found fifty fathoms
Between the Ramparts and the delta, where the steamer leaves the main channel, less than twelve feet depth was never found, but Capt. Bell says that less
might be found. Through the channels of the delta to Peel River no difficulty
was ever experienced with the steamer.
In Peel River up to the bar, five miles below Fort McPherson, average depth
of water about fifteen feet, on bar in low water about six feet, medium water seven
feet.
Count de Sainville, a French gentleman who went down the Mackenzie in
1889, and spent much time in making an examination and rough survey of the delta
of the Mackenzie and Peel Rivers, and the coast line in the estuary of those streams,
was good enough to give me all the information in his power. His description of .
the country in this vicinity is interesting, and will be given later oh. He assured
me the most easterly channel of the delta is the main one, and he never found less io6 CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
than twelve feet feet depth in it down to tide water.    The tides do not come up
more than ten or twelve miles above the ocean, and the rise is not more than a
couple of feet.    What depth might be found beyond the mouth of the river he is
not prepared to say, but bars there may naturally be looked for.    This gentleman
purposes making further and more complete examinations which will, no doubt, be
of much interest and value.    He promised to send me a copy of his map of the delta,
which he told me would differ much from what is usually shown on our maps.    I
have not yet received it nor do I expect it for some months to come.
Before resuming the narrative of my journey, I will give some notes I obtained
from Capt. • Segur, of the steamer "Athabasca," and Capt.  Bell of the steamer
" Wrigley," giving the times over the various parts of their runs.
Steamer "Athabasca," 2nd June, 1891, ran from Athabasca Landing down to
landing of Grand Rapids, about 163 miles, in eighteen hours, with six large boats
in tow.    Up trip started on 6th June, running time to Athabasca Landing forty-eight
hours.    Second trip down, 13th July, running time down fifteen hours and forty-
five minutes.     1^1890, her first down trip, made  the  2nd of June, was  done in
twenty hours and fifty minutes, and the return, roth June, in fifty hours.   This run
was made in very low water.
The " Wrigley's " log shows the following averages between Fort Smith, the
most southerly part of her run, and Fort McPherson, the most northerly ; the distance between them is about 1,270 miles.    From Smith to Resolution, nearly all on
Great Slave River, average running time about eighteen hours ;   between  Resolution and Providence about seventeen hours, of which one hundred and twenty-one
is in Great Slave  Lake ;   between Providence and Simpson about fourteen hours,
Simpson to Wrigley about ten and a half hours, Wrigley to Norman about fourteen hours,  Norman   to Good   Hope   about   thirteen   hours,   Good Hope to McPherson   about twenty-four and a half hours.    The total running time is  123^
hours, a trifle over ten and a quarter miles per hour.
On her " up " runs the following averages have been made, McPherson to Good
Hope forty hours, Good Hope to Norman thirty-four hours,  Norman to Wrigley
thirty-nine hours, Wrigley to Simpson nineteen hours, Simpson to Providence about
twenty-eight and a half hours, Providence to Fort Rae, not certain, appears to be
about thirteen hours, Providence to Resolution about twenty hours, Resolution to
Smith about thirty-five hours,  Resolution to ■ Rae about fifteen hours and return
about the same, as it is all lake water.    The duration of these runs varied somewhat by the force and direction of the wind.    The total running time from McPherson to Smith, as shown above, is 215}^ hours, which gives a rate of 5.9 miles per
hour.    The mean of the up and down rates is a fraction over eight miles per hour,
which is said to be her normal speed.
I have given the distance between those posts in my report of 1889,  but for
convenience of reference will here recapitulete them going down stream :
Miles.
Chipewyan   to   Smith        .-..__ 102.5
Smith to Resolution      --_..._    190.5
Resolution to Providence   ------ 167.0
Providence to Simpson -        -        -        -        -        -    157.5
Simpson to Wrigley -        -        -        -        - -        - I34.0
Wrigley to Norman       -        -        -        - -        -        _    180.3
Norman to Good Hope      - - 169.5
Good Hope to McPherson      ------    274.7
Total -        -   .    -        -        _        .        .     1,376.0
From Fort McPherson, on Peel River, the ordinary route is over the portage,
about 80 miles long, to Le Pierre's House on the Bell River.
This portage traverses a bad country for summer travel, being both mountainous and swampy.    The Hudson Bay Company used it during winter for the trans- THE YUKON DISTRICT. io8 CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
port of supplies and furs to and from Rampart House and Le Pierre's House, while
those posts were in existence (I understand they are now abandoned).     Over this I
portage during summer the mosquitoes swarm in myriads during warm days, but
often it is cool enough to subdue their troublesome propensities.
If we are fortunate enough to find Indians at McPherson to help over the portage our time of transit is proportionately abridged, but that we will do so depends
much on the time we get there. Should we reach there during the fishing season
they will be loth to accompany us ; and even if we found them disengaged, several
days may be wasted inducing them to go.
To avoid this portage we may go up a stream, called Trout, Poplar or
Rat River, flowing from the watershed of the Yukon into Peel River, some 14
mile below McPherson.    For about 20 miles this is tranquil and easy of ascent.
There is a lake about 18 miles up which is such a maze of islands, that unless I
we have a good guide much time may be lost in finding the river on the other side.
Going up keep the right-hand or northerly channel. A few miles above the lake
we reach the base of the mountains in which this stream rises, and through which
we have to go about 24 miles to McDougall Pass. In this last distance the river
falls between 1,100 and 1,200 feet, and is consequently very rough. Except in spring
freshet it is very shallow and is also very rocky. The best way to get up this, in
fact, it might be said the only way (in parts, at least), is to wade in the water and
haul our boat along by hand.
McDougall Pass is a broad, flat valley, joining the valley of the Trout, or Pop- ■
lar, and the valley of Bell River. Two creeks run in it, one flowing into Trout and
the other into Bell River. One cannot very well mistake the pass, on account of its
width and flatness, and the fact that the creek joining Trout River flows into it
through a narrow gate-like gorge in the rocks. Over the pass to Bell River is 8
miles, and it is probable everything will have to be carried across it. The creeks
are all too small to take a loaded boat through except in high water.
Down Bell River to La Pierre's House is about 40 miles of easy water, deep
enough for such boats as we are likely to take with us.    From Là Pierre's House
down Bell River to the Porcupine is between 30 and 40 miles, and down the Porcupine to the Yukon is 225 miles in an air line, and probably 350 by the river.     In
1873, Mr. James McDougall of the Hudson Bay Company made soundings in those j
two rivers to determine if steamboats could go up to  La Pierre's House.    The
water was unusually low at the time, and he found five shallow places between La
Pierre's House and the Yukon.    The first of those from La Pierre's House, known!
as Sinclair Rapids, a short distance below the house, gave in the shallowest place,
three feet six inches.    Next, a short distance below Bell River, in the Porcupine, 1
he found only two feet eight inches, but he considers this easy of improvement, be-||
ing a barrier of soft sand-stone rock only about 150 yards across.    The other three
places are between the boundary and the Yukon, and are in the order of descent;!
three feet ten inches, three feet six inches, and three feet four inches.    At one of
those points there is an island, and he naturally .took the widest channel for the
deepest, but afterwards was informed that the narrowest channel was quite deep.    1
I may say that it was by the Trout River and McDougall Pass that Harper j
and his associates made their way from Peel River to Bell River, and he informed
me the only way they could get their boat along in the upper part of Trout Rivera
was to wade up the stream and haul it after them, often dragging it over rocks||
and shallow places where there was not sufficient water to float it. This was aboutH
July 1st, 1873.    They reached Yukon on the 15th.
I came through this route on my way from Bell River to Peel River in June ?
1888, and found much ice and snow in McDougall Pass at that time. Several!
small lakes in the pass were still covered with solid ice on the 15th of that month, j
On my way down the rough part of Trout River I generally sat astride the stern of j
the canoe, my feet hanging in the water, and they often touched bottom. I did!
this to find the shallow places, and check the rate of the canoe in going-over them.!
L THE YUKON DISTRICT. 109
I may here mention that very bad places may be gone down in this way, or,
still better, if we have poles, by putting them on the bottom and arresting the speed
of the boat, we can, with a little experience, keep it under perfect control and put
it just where we want to. Of course in deep water this does not apply, but in deep
water we do not run risk of breaking our boat, though she may be swamped.
From the mouth of the Porcupine, up the Yukon to Dawson is about 300
miles, and if we are fortunate enough to find a steamer at Fort Yukon, this will
be passed in about a week, but if we have to make our own way up, it will take at
least three weeks, or it may be a month, much depending on the weather and stage
of the water, also much on the kind of boat we have.
When we take into consideration the fact that the ice remains on Great Slave
Lake until about the first of July, unless we pass that body of water by sleighs it
will be seen that we cannot reach Dawson much earlier than the middle of August.
If we secure passage down the Mackenzie by one or other of the small steamers
plying on that river we will probably shorten the time of our journey 8 or 10 days;
but it is well to bear in mind that these boats were not intended to make regular
trips, nor do they. They are run in the interest and for the convenience of the
owners, the Hudson Bay Company and Roman Catholic Mission.
On the Yukon River it is pretty safe to assume we shall not have long to wait
for a steamer next summer, there will be so many running between St. Michael's and
Dawson ; but it can hardly be asserted that any one line of boats will make regular
trips, for their time of arrival and departure at and from St. Michael's, the ocean
port near the mouth of the river, is subject to much interference by winds and tides.
Another proposed route from Edmonton follows the road to Athabasca Landing
as already referred to, thence up the Athabasca River about 69 miles to Lesser'
Slave River, up that river about 60 miles, the lower 20 miles of which is all rapids
and in low water difficult of ascent. Along Lesser Slave Lake some 65 or 70 miles
to Lesser Slave Lake Post, at the head of the lake.
Looking up Yukon River from 3 Miles below Fortymile. - Cudahy and Fortymi
Di.~,tance, Rock Point on Right 1,300 Feet above Water. no CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
Another part of this route, and the part which appears to have been adopted
by the people in the vicinity of Edmonton, runs north westward from Edmonton to
Lesser Slave Lake Post at the west end of Lesser Slave Lake. This distance is
about 200 miles, of which about 50 brings us to the crossing of the Pembina
River, an inconsiderable stream about 70 yards wide, and not difficult to cross ;
about 26 more brings us to the Athabasca River, which is about 200 yards wide
and generally deep enough for a boat drawing 2 or 3 feet of water. The first 20-
or 30 miles of the distance from Edmonton is over fine prairie country, and a few
miles farther on we strike the great northern forest. The part between the Athabasca and Lesser Slave Lake is reported somewhat hilly, which is verified by its
appearance from Lesser Slave Lake, but doubtless a way suitable for a road of any
kind can be found over it. Years ago the Hudson Bay Company had a pack trail
from Edmonton to Lesser Slave Lake Post, by nearly the same route as the pro- .
posed one, but it has been abandoned for the river route many years.
Sufficient lumber of suitable quality will be found along this route for its needs.
The surface" is described as ridgy and swampy alternately.
A road is now in progress over this country.
For a more detailed account of this part of the North West see report of Dr.
G. M. Dawson, Appendix 1, in the Geological Survey Report for 1879-80.
I will just cite it to say that gold is found in paying quantities on the Upper
Athabasca.
From Lesser Slave Lake Post we have a fair cart road, cut out some years
ago by the Hudson Bay Company to. Peace River, a distance of about 86 miles,
through a well-wooded country with some patches of prairie and swampy meadow
in it, and from Peace River westward to Fort Dunvegan, a distance of about 60
miles, we pass over a magnificent piece of park-like country, but at Dunvegan we
again strike the edge of the great northern forests, and from there to the Liard
River the country is somewhat hilly, intersected by very deep gulches and valleys
and all densely wooded, alternating ridges covered with fair timber and swamp
covered with moss and scrub. From Dunvegan to Dawson in an-air line is about
900 miles, and from Dunvegan to Pelly Lake on the head of the Pelly River in an
air line is about 600 miles, and at present there is no available continuous route.
Examination of the intervening country will presumably be soon made. To
follow up the valley of the Peace, as I believe it is proposed, and cross the mountains into British Columbia, will lengthen the route to Pelly Lake materially, making it 700 miles or more, but it will deflect it into an old gold mining district—the
head waters of the Peace—where good pay may yet be found.
A few years ago some miners were working on the Peace in the vicinity of
Fort St. John, and it will be remembered that it was from the head of Peace River   •
that Harper and his associates started in  1872.    The first two or three hundred '
miles of either of these routes will not be very difficult, but the remaining portion   ;
will likely prove more mountainous and difficult, and probably similar, in surface
characteristics at least, to the north-western portion of Canada, and Alaska—that
is, mountain ridges alternating with deep valleys and swamps, which will much increase the length df any route constructed through it.
CARIBOO  AND  CASSAIR  ROUTE.
A route is being proposed from some point on the Canadian Pacific Railway
in the interior of British Columbia, through what is called the Cariboo or Cassair
District., Time will no doubt develop the necessity for such a route as this, as the
country all along it will be found generally good from the mineralogist's point of I
view, and in the future will no doubt be part of a continuous railway system from
the boundary line northwards to the Yukon.
From some point on the Canadian Pacific Railway, about midway across British Columbia to the Stikine River at or near Telegraph Creek, is about 500 miles in
an air line, and presumably this does not offer any more serious obstacles to the
construction of a road than a like distance in any other part of the Province. THE YUKON DISTRICT.
The remaining routes to be mentioned all leave some point on the coast, and
we make our way northward by ship to whatever point we wish to make our departure from for the interior.
STIKINE ROUTE.
First, we will glance at the proposed Stikine route. From Victoria to Port Simpson, the most northern port in British Columbia, a distance of upwards of 600
miles, sailing is easy, through continuous inland tidal waters. If we have to make
our way entirely in British vessels we can take a river steamer at Port Simpson,
and watching for a favourable opportunity to cross Dixon Entrance, (some 60
miles across), 170 miles brings us to the mouth of the Stikine River. Up this river
about 150 miles brings us to a point where it is hoped in a few months we will have
' a good road, if not a railway, giving communication with the head of Teslin Lake.
From the river to the head of the lake is about 150 miles. Down this lake about
65 miles, and down the river of the same name—or, as it is known by the miners,
the Hootalinqua—about 135 miles to the Lewis River. A track survey of this lake
and river was recently made by Mr. Arthur St. Cyr, D.L.S., for the Canadian Government, and the distances given 'are his. He says the lake and river are easily
navigable for ordinary river boats. He went down in October when the water was
10 to 12 feet lower than high water mark, from which we may safely assume that it
is safely navigable all the way. He got into shallow water two or three times, but
only where there was more than one channel, and he took the wrong one. Trial
found the other channel deep enough for ordinary river boats. From the mouth of
the Hootalinqua to Dawson is about 330 miles, with only one hindrance to continuous easy navigation, that is, the Five Fingers. These are not long, consisting of
simply a dip which is caused by barriers of rock standing in the channel, backing
the water up so that the water above the rocks is a foot or two higher than that îm-
I mediately below.    Almost everyone runs these; many however, in descending, ship CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
water, but I fancy this is due to the fact that they hurry their boat through, making
her cut into the swell below instead of raising on it as she would do if allowed to
drift through. In 1895, on my way down, I ran down the left side of the river at
this point and found good, smooth water all the way through. The channel was
somewhat crooked, but not enough so to cause any difficulty or anxiety in keeping
the boat in the right place. The channel generally run is on the right-hand side, and
here there is quite a dip and a large swell at the foot. It may be found, however,
that at another stage of the water the channel on the left side would be impassable.
When I went there in 1895 the river was some five feet higher than the average at
the same daté, and this may account for the easy passage on that side. From
there to Dawson there is nothing in the way, except we wish to run over a ripple
some six miles below the Five Fingers, called Rink Rapids. At this point a
rocky barrier extends about halfway across the stream, and on the left-hand side there
is some rough water, but the right-hand is perfectly smooth and affords a channel of
six feet in depth almost anywhere. The overland trip to Teslin Lake is over a
hilly, undulating* country, which offers no serious obstacle to the construction of a
railway; in fact, it might be said a railway could be constructed oyer it almost as
quickly as a wagon road. It is expected that next summer there will be easy means
of ingress by this route. It is reported that a company is now engaged putting
horses and sleighs on it, forming a continuous through line from the mouth of the
Stikine to Teslin Lake.
The Hudson Bay Company's steamer " Caledonia " made two trips from Port
Simpson to the Stikine River, and up it to Telegraph Creek, in 1896, and two in
1897. Her running time from Simpson to Wrangel, at the mouth of the Stikine,
averaged about 16 hours. She draws when loaded 4 feet, and only on the tidal
flats at the mouth of the river was she bothered by shallow water. At some points
short bends with a swift current required the aid of a line to surmount, but this
was more to keep her in the channel than to help up. THE YUKON DISTRICT.
bring down lots  of driftwood, which <
elost v
mpel
Sudden rises in the   ri
tying up until it abates.
Her average time of ascent was about 37 hours, exclusive of the ti
ing up. Her average time of descent was about 14 hours, including time wooding
up and all stops. This boat is 150 feet long, 24 feet 4 inch beam, two engines,
cylinders 16-inch bore and 6 feet stroke ; steam pressure allowed 130 lbs ; average
■■ used 90. Wheel makes ordinarily 24 revolutions per minute in dead water, but
ascending swift current as many as 35 are made. Her average rate in dead water
is about 10^ miles per hour. Her rate up the Stikine is about 4 miles per hour
and down about 12^.
TAKU  ROUTE.
The next route in order northward is the proposed Taku route.    From  Fort
Wrangel, at the mouth of the Stikine, to the mouth of the Taku Inlet, is about 160
Boundary Line.
miles, or nearly 800 miles from Victoria or Vancouver. This inlet is about 18
• miles in depth, and near its upper end the Taku River discharges its waters. During
June, July and part of August the stage of water will permit the use of good-sized
boats, and it is claimed for it that steamboats drawing three or four feet of water
•can ascend it some 60 miles during this term. This remains to be proved, however; but there is no doubt that we can ascend it to The Forks in a fair-sized boat
.carrying two or three tons. From The Forks, some nine miles up, to the confluence of the Slocoh and Nakinah, we can continue in fair stages of water, but from
there everything has to be packed. The Indian route from this point to the head
of Teslin Lake passes over a mountainous country, with, in some places, very steep
climbing, for a distance of eight or nine miles, when we reach an elevated plateau,
as it may be termed, over which travel is easier, to the head of the lake. Several miners attempted entry by this route, and some came out, but all unite in con- CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
demning it as a pack trail. It may be that a road will be constructed through
this way, as one is now in contemplation, but for a convenient present route,
for unaided individual effort, it need not be considered. The head of Taku Inlet
is generally pretty well filled with ice from the Taku glacier discharging a couple
of miles above the mouth of the Taku River, which in summer renders it a
somewhat risky harbour, and in winter this ice sometimes freezes together and
blocks the whole head of the inlet.
The navigability of the river is also very uncertain. No attempt has yet
been made, and while it is admitted it might be navigable two or three months, it
is not stated as a general fact. From the head of Teslin Lake we have already
described in connection with the Stickine route.
WHITE PASS.
Some ioo miles further up the coast we come to the White Pass and Dyea
Pass. The first of these starts at the mouth of the Skaguay River, some two miles
from the head of Dyea Inlet. For about four miles the route goes over an alluvial
flat covered with fair timber, and from this point to the summit, about 11 miles, it
follows along the hillside bordering the valley, ascending and descending over
rough, broken, rocky surface, crossing and recrossing the little river several times,
until at the summit, although we are only 2,600 feet above the sea, (the summit on
the travelled trail is 200 or 300 higher) we aggregate possibly 5,000 feet actual
climbing. As this route has been travelled considerably there will be no difficulty in
finding one's way on it, but it may be of interest to give the following details.
From the wharf at Skaguay for 3^ miles we have easy travelling over an
alluvial flat rising about 140 feet. Here we leave the flat and go up a gulch to
Black Lake, about   1 yi  miles,  and rise  about 400 feet.    We continue along the THE YUKON DISTRICT.
hillside up and down to the summit of Porcupine Hill, about 1,000 feet above
Black Lake, and 3^ miles distant from it. From here we descend about 500 feet
in one mile, when we cross the Skaguay River, and from there ascend about 300
feet in 2^ miles, crossing the creek again, and ascending the hillside 1,000 feet in
about pi miles, which we keep along about one mile on a high level to the foot of
the steep summit slope, going down about 100 feet to it. Up it we go about 900
feet to the summit on the trail. The surface travelled over is very irregular and
rough ; most of the way we are continually going up and down hill over knolls
and gulches on the hillside. From the summit to the head of Lake Bennett,
about 24 miles, the route winds through a rocky, glaciated country, much
broken by valleys, so that we aggregate much more clirnbing in this last part.
However, during the months of February, March and April—and May, it may also
be claimed—much of this will be filled, with snow, the surface smoother and less
difficult to travel over, and it may be found that this is the better route of the two.
THE DYEA OR CHILCOOT PASS ROUTE.
The Dyea Pass leaves the head of Dyea Inlet and for the first eight miles
from tide water up to the foot of the canon the route is easy ; nothing worse than
a few rocks which were left in the terminal moraine of a glacier have to be encountered, and this only for a short distance here and there. The rise in this is
about 300 feet. From the foot of the canon the route winds along the hillside, and
a few steep, short climbs have to be made as we go along, until we come to the
second crossing of the creek. This is the worst part of this trail, for it is all
heavily"wooded and the surface rough and covered with decayed vegetable matter which in spots is worked into deep mud by the animals passing over it. The
worst spots have been crosslaid.
At the lower   end of the cài
cross the creek to the. n6
CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
Unless in very high water this is not difficult, as the water is only a couple of feet
deep, but the current is strong and the water icy cold. The width is only 30 or 40
yards. About ioj4 miles from tide water we cross the creek on a bridge at the
head of the canon, which is about 700 feet above the sea. In the intervening distance the highest point is about 800 feet above sea level. We keep up the right or
west side of the creek about 1 yi miles to Sheep Camp, when we again cross the^
creek to the east side ; in this last distance we rise about 300 feet. From there to
Stone House, about ^ of a mile, we rise nearly 600 feet and pass over a rough
surface covered with immense rocks which by some convulsion of nature have been
detached from the mountain side and rolled down to the bank of the creek.
Through and over these we have to clamber a considerable portion of this distance.
From Stone House the surface is more even and the travelling easier, as we have
risen above the timber and scrub,and out of the mud which is found on the timbered ground. About half a mile from Stone House we ascend a sharp hill on the
right or west side of the. creek, the top of which is about 600 feet above Stone
House. From this point we have easier travelling and rise about 900 feet over
an easy grade to a place named " Scales." From this there is a sharp ascent to
the summit of nearly 500 feet over a surface thickly covered with broken rocks which
makes very difficult travelling, more especially when there is not enough snow to
thoroughly cover all the surface ; with a little freshly fallen snow here this part is
difficult, and in spots dangerous.
After the snow has covered all the rocks the route follows the bed of the creek
and is a more uniform slope, easy, in fact, until we reach the foot of the steep slope
at the summit. After the warm weather sets in in the spring the snow from Sheep
Camp up gets soft, and on a warm or rainy day it is very difficult to travel through.
When it turns cold the surface gets hard and we may have to cut steps in the
steep places to get up.
Messrs. Healey & Wilson, traders at Dyea, some years ago cut a pack trail from
WÊÊmÊÈËÈÈËÊÊt
Looking Eastward from East Side of Yukon River, n THE YUKON DISTRICT.
their post to Sheep Camp. This is now in a fair state for that country. What
rights they claim on it I do not know, but I have not heard of their interfering
with the public use of it, at least as far as miners are concerned.
A wire rope tramway is in course of erection to take freight from Stone House
to and over the summit, and it may be that this will obviate much difficulty'and
hardship.
From the summit to Lake Lyndeman, a distance of about 8*4 or 9 miles, there
is a descent of about 4,300 feet, but at only one point is it steep, and that for a
very short distance. It is just at Crater Lake, and is only a couple of hundred
feet in all. The trail the Indians used to travel keeps along the hillside and avoids
this sharp descent, not reaching the level of the lake rill nearly a mile farther on.
Now the trail goes right down to the lake and a ferry over it saves about a mile of
packing. A short portage brings us to another lake over which a ferry will take
us about a mile more if we choose, and again another portage of a few rods brings
us to another lake which may be ferried over, thus taking about 3 miles out of our
8 or 9. These lakes are not open before the.middle of June or first of July, and
remain open until November. j
Horses have been driven over the pass to Lake Lyndeman, but there is very
little for them to eat on the north side of the summit, or on the south side for that
matter, and all contemplating taking those animals should take plenty of fodder
with them. The carcasses of a good number of them are now lying along this
trail, brought about by a neglect of this precaution. From the landing at Lake
Lyndeman we have to go down this lake about 5 miles, and from the lower end a
portage of about ^ of a mile over a high sandy ridge brings us to navigable water
on Lake Bennett, to which the White Pass trail also brings us, and from here' on
the route is common to both. The wire tramways mentioned will probably, if successful, be carried over the summit and may be down to Lake Lyndeman. ji8 CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
Once down to the lakes our only detention will arise from fierce winds which
often blow on them for days at a time,, which, when with us, often render it too
rough for small boats, and when against us effectually stop all travel.
Lake Bennett is about 251^ miles long, and for the first 11 or 12 miles is
about y a mile in width, and the remainder from one to three. It is probable that
the coming season will see several steamboats in those lakes, which will much
obviate delay by winds. Lake Nares is about 2j^, and Tagish about 17. Six or
.seven miles from the head of Tagish Lake what is known as Windy Arm rises
from the south. Down this arm strong winds are almost constantly sweeping, which render navigation for small boats very often Unsafe. This often
causes delay for days. From the foot of Tagish Lake to the head of Marsh
Lake, a distance of about five miles, the river is deep and smooth. On
this stretch is situated the Canadian Customs Office and detachment of Mounted
Police. Marsh Lake is nearly 20 miles in length, and from the foot of it to
the canon, about 35 miles, we have nothing to dread. The canon may be run
through with a fair-sized boat not too heavily loaded. The only things to be
avoided are the three swells right at the foot. These we may avoid by deflecting
our course a little to the left, but all the rest .of the distance, to be safe, we should -
keep exactly in the centre of the channel on top of the rushing water which piles up
in the middle. It is well at this point to portage some provisions past so that in
case of accident we may have something to fall back upon. Many boats are injured in their passage through the canon, but this has happened chiefly through
want of sufficient power to keep steerway on them. In this case they drift off the
main body of the water, catch in the side eddies, are whirled round and dashed
against the rocks on the sides. Where there are a number of boats together this
may be avoided by the crews clubbing together, putting out with plenty of oars and
running each boat through separately. A few hundred yards below the canon we
strike a rapid which is- somewhat rough, but with ordinary care not dangerous.    A THE YUKON DISTRICT.
ing up Yukon Valley fi
Boundary.
■couple of hundred yards, brings us to an equally sharp turn to the right. This is
the head of White Horse Rapid. Now, this has been gone through by many, but
At present I think it can be positively stated that about thirty men have lost their
lives in attempting to run it. During the summer of 1895, J3 deaths were traced
-at this point through boats being swamped ; besides this, the majority of boats
which ran through took more or less water, and in many cases the contents of the
boats were lost, the crews escaping with their lives. I would urge all to portage
past this. There is a good portage on the left side of the river, and it is only a
'sngth. The boat can be lowered by ropes, re-
1 safety. From there to Lake Lebarge, a dis-
s smooth and deep. Lake Lebarge is about •
; at the upper lakes, we may be wind-bound
From the foot of the lake to the mouth of the Hootalinqua is
most of which is very strong current, with a few rocks in the river
little over three-eighths of a
loaded at the foot, and we. pass on ir
tance of about 24 miles, the river i
31^2 miles in length, and here, too, a
for days at a tim
about 31 miles,
■channel.    These reveal their position by the
ing over them, and there is no difficulty in avoidi
Hootalinqua down has been already described.
The following table of distances from the h
-dary Line is quoted from my report of 1889 :
Northern Boundary, British Columbia.. . 10.00
Foot of Lake Bennett  25.7
Foot of Carriboo Crossing  28.3
Foot of Tagish Lake  45-2
Head of Marsh Lake -  5°-°
Foot of Marsh Lake  69.1
Head of Canon  94-8
Foot of White Horse Rapids  97-2
"Takhina River  "i-8
which the current makes ii
rrom the mouth* of the
ad of Lake Bennett to the 1
n River    187.8
Salm
Pelly River  375.2
Dawson   S49-o
Fortymile   599.0
Boundary Line   639.3
3 120 CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
DALTON ROUTE.
The next route is known as the Dalton route. To traverse this we leave Chilkat
at the head of the westerly arm of Lynn Canal.
Mr. J. J. McArthur, D. L. S., made a reconnaissance survey of this route last
summer for the Dominion Government, and a short report by him on it is inserted :
" During the winter months, after the Chilkat River is frozen, Haine's Mission
is the better landing place, but at other times Pyramid Harbour is the more convenient. To Kluwan—a good-sized Klinkit village—there are two trails. One
leaves Pyramid Harbour and follows the river flat, mostly to the left of the stream,
and the other, from Haine's Mission, follows the side hill to the right. Except
during extreme high water the first mentioned is the better. There are hay marshes
along the valley. In March last, Dalton delivered 15 tons of supplies at his
" Cache " at the end of the Klaheena flats, a distance of forty miles, his four-horse
Looking West fr
team drawing eighty hundred in one sleigh load, and he has frequently ridden the  \
distance in one day.    As the trail is at present, in the summer time, an ordinary,
saddle horse can make Dalton's trading-post, about 90  miles from salt water, in
three days.
"The Minister.asked me to suggest a site for a customs house.    Dalton's
Cache is a beautiful spot and well situated on the travelled route.    This point is, I
think, well within our territory.   The Coast Indians have hunting trails up Boulder
Creek and the tributaries of the Chilkat, and they do considerable trading with the I
interior Indians.    Should smuggling be attempted on those routes, the customs |
house might be moved up to the height of land.    The distance is about seventy j
miles from salt water, and there is no timber within several miles.
I From Rainy Hollow to Glacier Camp, a stretch of about fifteen miles, would
be the most difficult part of the route in winter, as there is no wood, and the snow ! THE YUKON DISTRICT. Il CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
would be much deeper than further north. There is very little swamp land between
Pyramid Harbour and Dalton's, and animals never get mired. The Indian village
Weskutaheen is a mile and a half west of the post. They are Sticks and a very
docile people. On the trail, fifteen miles north of Dalton's, is Kluksku Lake, about
three miles in length, which is connected by a creek about a mile and a half long
with Lake Dezadeash. This is a large body of water, and the trail follows it- for
twenty-five miles. It could be used for winter travel. In fact, between salt water
and Five Fingers, one hundred miles of a winter trail would be on ice. From Dalton's to Hutshi village (three houses and a graveyard) a distance of about seventy
miles, the trail is hard except in one or two places, and at very slight expense could
be made into a first-class bridle path ; as it is, a saddle horse can make forty miles
in a day. Fish abound in the Klukshu, Dezadeash and Hutshi Lakes, and the
Alsek is one of the greatest salmon streams I have met with. From Hutshi to
Five Fingers the trail is hard, and is the best portion of the route. From Dalton's north there is an abundance of dry wood, and hay marshes are numerous.
The trail from Hutshi to Selkirk, broken by Dalton and me this summer, crosses
several high, moss-covered ranges, and could never be made a quick trail. On
this trip, when about sixty miles south from Selkirk, we crossed the Tahte River,
which is a good-sized stream, flowing west through a broad valley, which depression continues to the east as far as Nordenskiold. I am not certain whether it is a
branch of the White River. I regret that, owing to my caches having been lifted
by mistake, it was impossible for me to explore it to the west, as it may furnish an
easy railway or wagon route to the mouth of White River, or some point below
Selkirk."
JAMES AND HUDSON BAY ROUTE.
We will now examine the so-called Hudson Bay route, which leaves the Canadian Pacific Railway at Mattawa, about 200 miles up the Ottawa River from Ottawa city. Thence up the Ottawa River to Lake Temiscamingue, some 36 miles,
and up that lake some 70 miles to its head. Part of this distance is now covered
by a branch of the Canadian Pacific Railway. From the head of Lake Temiscamingue to James Bay, a distance of nearly 500 miles, a route once much travelled
by the Hudson Bay Company's employees. From Mattawa to the foot of Lake
Temiscamingue, some 36 miles, the Canadian Pacific Railway will take us in an
hour or two, and up the lake we can go by steamer, there being several on it.
From Mattawa to the head of the lake, about 100 miles, we ought to go in a day;
from there on we.have no modern facilities for travel, and will find the rate much
slower. The following extract from my report of 1890 gives in detail, from the
head of the lake to Moose Factory, the nature of the route.
■ ' We leave the head of the Lake Temiscamingue by a part of the Ottawa
River, locally known as the Quinze River, from the fact that fifteen portages have '
to be made on it to get to the lake at its head, known as Quinze Lake.
"All this is now avoided by a waggon road from Baie dePère, on Lake Temiscamingue, to a bay on Quinze Lake. The length of this road is said to be about
20 miles. I was unable to get my canoes and all my supplies through by this
route, and had to go by the Quinze River. This caused two and a half days of
very heavy work.
"A few notes on this part of the journey will not be out of place.
"The first portage going up the river is on the south side, and about 120 yards
long ; the second, on the same side, about 250 yards long ; the third, on the north
side, about half a mile long,   and over some rough ground.    These three are all
within sight of each other.    Above the third there are  about three miles of slack
current to the fourth portage, which is on the north side of the river, and more than  *
two miles long..   In the ordinary height of water this is broken into three shorter- -
ones by crossing the river, but my guides thought the current too strong- and the  I
water too rough to do this with my canoes.    About a mile above this the fifth port   I
I THE YUKON DISTRICT.
I mm 124
CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
age occurs on the north side of the river ; it is only ioo yards long, but is over a
sharp hill. Two hundred yards or so above this is the sixth.portage, on the north
side of the island ; it is about 150 yards long. In coming down stream with medium height of water, both of these can be safely run past in ordinary canoes. Three-
fourths of a mile above this is the seventh portage, on the south side of the river.
It is over a very rough, rocky surface and leads us from the river to a small lake,
over which we sail about half a mile to another portage, over rough, rocky ground
to the river again. The first of these is about 300 yards long, the other about 400;
but in high water the latter is reduced about half. These two portages cut off a
sharp bend in the river, in which there is said to be some very rough water. A mile
or so of easy water in the river brings us to the ninth portage. It is on the north
side of the river, is upwards of 1,000 yards long, and passes over rough ground.
In low water this is cut into two or three by crossing the river.
I The next portage is also on th.e north side, is 650 yards long, and on tolerably
good ground. There is about three-fourths of a mile between it and the last. A
mile or so above this, on the north side, is the eleventh and last portage we had to
make on this part of the river.    It is 450 yards long and is on level ground.
' ' A mile above this puts us into Quinze Lake, up the north arm of which we
go on a nearly north course about thirteen miles. The upper three or four miles is
shallow. We leave this lake by a small river called Rivière Barrier, of an average width of 100 to 150 yards, and a slack current, up which we go about 2^
miles to a portage 300 yards long, which passes a series of shallow, rocky rapids.
At the head of this portage we enter Lac Barrier, up which we go on a course
nearly north-west about 15 miles to the mouth of a small river, called Lonely River,
on the west side of the lake. This is the first stream of any noticeable size entei -
ing on this side. Beyond it there is a large island in the lake, which has the appearance of being the end of the lake. Just past this island the lake narrows, and
then bifurcates—one arm running nearly west, the other nearly east. The
westerly arm extends about six miles, and I do not know how far the other reaches.
This lake is in no place that I saw much more than a mile wide. Its lower end is
shallow and weedy.
" The route follows Lonely River, up which we go about eight miles to Long
Lake. The river is about 100 yards in average width, and has a moderate current.
At one point it is only 2)4 to 3 feet deep for a distance of 100 yards, but all the
rest seemed to be upwards of five feet deep in low water. It is serpentine in its
course, and the distance between the two lakes (Lake Barrier and Long Lake) I
would not estimate at more than five miles in a direct line.
"The arm of Long Lake, which we enter from Lonely River, is about a mile
wide, 2*4 long, and is generally shallow and weedy. The course up it is a little
south of west. The main body of the lake, where this arm joins it, lies nearly
north-west and south-east. South-east it extends six or eight miles, and is surrounded by high, rocky hills. North-west we go about 3^ miles to a narrow part
of the lake, about 60 yards wide and 100 long, in which there is quite a stiff current during high water.    This and above it is known as the Narrows.
"These narrows continue for more than a mile, when the lake again widens.
About ten miles above the narrows a deep bay extends from the south-westerly
shore for several miles in a south-westerly direction. Looking down this bay,
many hills can be seen. Prominent among these is one named " Shew-me-ness,"
which is said to be the highest hill in that part of the country ; its top is bare of
timber. I was told the natives formerly (and to some extent still) considered it a
holy hill, and it was customary for their medicine men to occasionally retire to its
summit to fast and meditate. Two miles and a half or so past this bay, on the
south-westerly shore, and soon after passing a couple of small, rocky islands, we
reach the mouth of a creek. Here there is a portage of about 300 yards to a small
lake nearly a mile long and one-fourth wide. A sail over this south-westerly to its
extremity brings us to the east end of the height of land portage, over which we THE YUKON DISTRICT.
I25
go in a westerly direction about half a mile to a small lake, the waters of which
flow by the Abitibi River northwards to James Bay. In high water it flows both
to the Abitibi and Ottawa, and, it is said, the channel giving vent to the Ottawa is
yearly growing deeper.
"We cross this lake in a north-westerly direction about iyi miles, and leave
it by a small crooked creek, known as Snake Creek, which passes through a grassy
marsh. This creek is upwards of a mile long, but in a straight line it cannot be
more than one-fourth of that distance from the last mentioned lake (or what we
may call Summit Lake), to a very irregularly-shaped lake called Island Lake, north
about eight miles, passing numberless and beautiful islands which are ever presenting new aspects of beauty, and revealing views of the distant hills around the lake, .
which, though not grand, are serenely beautiful.
"Here we enter a deep, narrow bay, which trends eastward, and on about a'
mile and a half further we enter the river which discharges the water of the lake.
Down this for about a mile we come to a portage to pass a rapid in the stream.
This rapid is about 140 yards long, with a fall of six feet or so. Three hundred
yards below this again there is a third rapid and portage 170 yards long, with a
fall of seven or eight feet ; about 300 yards below this there is another rapid and
portage 170 yards long, with a fall of ten feet. These three places are known as
the ' Three Carrying Places.'
"Below this the course ot the river is a little east of north, and somewhat
serpentine for a distance of about seven miles, at the end of which is another rapid
and portage 40 yards long, with a fall of about five feet in low water, but hardly
any fall in high water. Below this, for about 3^ miles, the course is about northeast and serpentine. In this twelve miles of river the current is nowhere swift
(except in the rapids).
" Here we enter a lake called Upper Lake, and keeping close to the west shore
; between some rock  islands and enter a deep bay extending southward.
St. Michaels from the East.
From Photo, by W. Ogilvie
J 126
CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
We cross this on a north-westerly course about i% miles, then continue along the
westerly shore about half a mile, when we cross the mouth .of another deep bay on
a nearly north-west course, about two miles, to the northerly shore of the lake.
Skirting the shore a little over half a mile we enter a small stream, which in a few
yards expands into a small lake, and running along the west shore of this we find
an outlet to the river, of which there are several channels, which, however, unite
just below here.
" Upper Lake is very irregularly shaped ; islands are as numerous in it as in
Island Lake, and the scenery as beautiful. These lakes will compare for beauty with
any places I have ever seen ; and I feel confident, were they easily accessible, they
would soon become places of resort in the tourist season.
" About 2)4 miles from this lake, in a generally north-easterly direction, there
is a cataract in the river, and a portage of 40 yards to pass it. Here the stream
narrows from 200 yards and upwards to less than a tenth of that, and falls through
an opening resembling a gateway, in a ridge of granitic rock, a height of about
twelve feet. Below this the course of the river is nearly north for 5 miles to Lake
Abitibi, and from the mouth of the river to the Hudson Bay Company's trading
post on the lake is about 2^ miles in a north-easterlv direction.
" The post is situated on a long flat point projecting into the lake, at its extreme east end. Formerly all the supplies for this post were brought from Moose up
the Abitibi River, but for some years past they have been taken from Mattawa over
the route I have just described, which considerably reduces the labour and expense
of furnishing the post.
" LAKE ABITIBI.
" Like all the other lakes along this route, this lake is irregularly shaped. It
varies in width from a couple of miles to fourteen or fifteen. There are very many
bays and numerous islands, most of which are rocky and many of them of considerable extent.
"The route generally traveled from the post down the lake lies along the south
shore for about 17^ miles, and then crosses to a point on the north shore on a
nearly west course. The distance on this course is about 3^ miles, but the lake
here is only a couple of miles wide.
" Skirting the south shore for a distance of nearly five miles we reach the
'Narrows,' which are about two miles long, and in parts not more than 300
yards wide. At the west end of the \ Narrows ' a large island makes two chan- '
nels of exit—the one to the north avoids a portage across a long peninsula, which
projects from the south shore many miles northward. By this route, however,
there is a large expanse of open water to be crossed, which in windy weather becomes too rough for ordinary canoes, and causes much delay. The south channel
passes through a bay with numerous islands in it, which afford such shelter that it
can be crossed almost at any time. The course is generally between south-west
and west for about 5^ miles, when we reach the peninsula already mentioned. , At
this point we make a portage of about one-fifth of a mile on a westerly course to
a small lake about 300 yards across, from which another portage of about 150 '
yards brings us again to Lake Abitibi. Here we can in moderate winds cross
straight to the head of Abitibi river, which, as seen from the portage, is just south
of a small rocky island about two miles out, and nearly due west. The distance
across is about 5^ or 6 miles. In windy weather, with a southerly or westerly
wind, we can skirt the south and west shore of the lake to the same point, but
with a northerly or north-westerly wind the water is too rough for an ordinary
canoe.   ■
"ABITIBI RIVER.
"At its head this river averages about 150 yards wide, with a moderate current. For the first five miles it runs generally south-westerly to the first portage
which  is  on the south side, and we pass a fall and rapids.    The fall I should say THE YUKON DISTRICT.
127
is about twenty-eight feet high, and the total difference of level thirty-five feet.
The portage is about a quarter of a mile long, and is not rough.
' ' The course of the river is now for some distance nearly west. About two
miles below the first fall there is a swift rush through a very narrow passage in a
ridge of rock. Here the water is rough, but can be safely run in a good-sized
canoe. Beyond this the water is smooth, with an easy current for about ten miles
to a short rapid, easily run ; then there is a mile of smooth water, and then about
a mile of swift, rough water, which only requires watchfulness in keeping off the
rocks to be safely run in any canoe.
' ' About a mile below this a considerable stream comes in on the north side.
My guide told me it was called ' Mis-ta-ago-sipi,' but he had not command of
enough English to tell me what it meant, nor did I afterwards learn. Two miles
or so below this there is a small rapid, easy of descent, and about4j^ miles further
a fall of four or five feet and a portage on the south side 100 yards long. Two
hundred yards below this there is another fall of seven or eight feet, and a portage
on the south side also about 100 yards long. For about the next four miles the
river runs between south and south-west to a river which enters from the south. I
understood the guide to say that this stream has its head near the Rivière Blanche,
which flows into Lake Temiscamingue close to the Quinze River, and that Indians
sometimes go through to Lake Temincamingue that way. This stream is 60 to 70
yards wide at the mouth. -
"Here the river turns to a northerly direction, and about five miles from the
last stream we come to a fall of about fourteen feet, which, I understand, is called
' Iroquois Falls.' It is said it derived this name from ap adventure of some Iroquois Indians, many years ago, who were raiding the country, and compelled two
native women to act as their guides. The women, to save their own people, lulled
the suspicions of the raiders when they heard the noise of the fall, by assuring them
that the noise they heard was caused by the entrance of an affluent stream over a
high fall, believing which they went on to their destruction.
From Photo, by W. Ogilvi
Alaska Commercial Co's Wharf, St. Michaels.
Js 128
CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
i Another version of this story which I heard was that the enforced guides
were men who assured their captors that the rapids could be easily run by keeping
in a certain part of the channel, and to prove their sincerity took the lead in a canoe,
but so acted that all their enemies went over the falls, while they, from their local
knowledge, were able to escape.
"The first version seems to be a stock story, and is told of several other cataracts ; and to speak for myself, I do not think either version very probable, as Indians, as a rule, are not apt to run much risk, certainly not in a strange country.
" The portage past this is on the south side, and is about 140 yards long. The
coursé of the river is serpentine, and ranges from about north-west to north-east,
and about 9^ miles below Iroquois Falls we come to a rapid half-a-mile or so in
length, with a fall of four or five feet. The only danger in this is from rocks, of
which there are many, and it requires a sharp outlook to avoid a collision with
them, especially in low water. The general direction of the river below this rapid
is a little west of north, and the current is smooth and easy for about i8}4 miles,
when there is a small ripple 40 or 50 yards long. After passing this the general
direction is the same for nearly seven miles, when it turns sharply to the west,
and we immediately enter the Long Sault Rapids. The first three miles of this is
only a very swift current, which ends at a barrier of granitic rock, through a narrow opening in which the river tumbles down about seven feet. The portage here
is about 40 yards long, and is on the south side. Below this there is about three-
eighths of a mile of rough water, with very large rocks in it, when the water again
takes a plunge of about five feet. The portage here is on the south side, and is
100 yards in length. This is succeeded by over .half-a-mile of bad rapids, rough
'   and stony.
" Below this for two or three miles there is swift and shallow, but not dangerous, water.    In all this rapid I would estimate a fall of about 40 feet.
" In the bad part, the course of the river turns from west to generally north,
and continues so for about yj4 miles, when it again turns sharply to the southwest. Just at the turn a stream 50 to 60 yards wide enters on the northside. As
my guide was gone I could not learn anything concerning it. About 5^ miles
from this stream there is a short rapid, midway in which is an island. Fair-sized
canoes can safely descend this rapid, but there is a portage on the island about
60 yards long. Continuing on a south-westerly course about 3^ miles brings us
to the next rapid and portage. The portage is on the southerly shore, and is 100
yards long. Like several of the falls already mentioned, this one is only a contraction of the river by a ridge of granite rock, the water-way through it being only
one-sixth or one-eighth of the average width of the river. The fall is only about
three feet, but it is much too rough for any canoe to pass through.
"The river here begins to change from its south-westerly direction and gradually curves around to a course nearly north. About a mile below this rapid a river,
quite as large as the Abitibi, joins it from the south. It is known as Frederick
House River, and is said to have its source in a lake not far from the head of Montreal River, which flows into Lake Temiscamingue.
"The course of the river from here down for about eighteen or nineteen miles
is a little west of north, when it again takes a short turn to the west and passes
through another granite ridge, forming two very bad rapids. To pass these there
are two portages on the north side of the river—the first 170 yards long, the second
190. The fall in the first is about ten feet, in the second four or five ; between
them there is a pond about 200 yards across. After passing these the course is
again northerly, and for a mile or two the current is smooth and easy, but after that
the presence of many granitic islands in the river renders it swift, but not rough.
About two miles of this brings us to another rapid, where again the course changes
from northerly to- westerly, and we pass through a granite ridge. The first port-
jsterly shore, about 100 yards long, and over level ground. The
rer, and is about 100 yards long, and is known as
next is across ar
island i THE YUKON DISTRICT.
From Photo, by W. Ogilvie-
the .Island Portage. The distance between them is 50 or 60 yards. 1 ran past the
first one in my canoe. It is easy to run down, but somewhat difficult to stop at
the island before you are swept into the next rapid, which would quickly engulf a
canoe. The fall in this rapid is seven or eight feet. The course of the river is
again northerly ; the current is very easy and the width about 200 yards. About
fourteen miles from Island Portage a small river joins from the west, known as Red
Whitefish River. Three miles further down, the river again turns westerly, and
passes over a succession of rapids, of which I got the following description from an
employe of the Hudson Bay Company : Two miles below the turn is the first rapid,
which is a very bad one. The portage past it is on the easterly side of the river, is
about half a mile in length, with level, good roadway, and is called the Lobstick
Portage. The next one is a little more than half a mile below this, on the westerly
side of the river, and is known as the Burnt Wood Portage. . It is about 300 yards
long and over a very rough, rocky surface. The rapids are very bad. . This is
succeeded by about a mile of calm water to the next portage, on the westerly shore,
about 100 yards long, and over a rock. It is called the Clay Falls. It is along
the face of a clay slope, and is close to the water's edge in high water ; it is about
200 yards long. Next comes the Birch Portage, about 100 yards below the Clay
Falls. It is on the easterly side of the river, about 300 yards long, and over good
ground. Close to this is the Oil Portage on the same side, also over good ground.
"In high water it is dangerous to cross from Lobstick to the Burnt Wood, and
on this account another route is often travelled. This is known as the Little Lakes
Road. It leaves the river on the east side just where the river turns westerly, and
300 or 400 yards above a large rock standing on the east side of the river, close
to where a small creek enters. Once the end of it is found there is no trouble in
following it, as it is a well-beaten pathway.     First there is a portage upwards of a i30
CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
mile and a half to a small lake, about 6oo yards across ; thon a portage of about
400 yards to another lake, 700 yards or so across, in a westerly direction, where
thj next portage is about 400 yards long, but as it is very crooked it might easily
be shortened to about half that. The next lake is only about 200 yards wide. It
is crossed in a north-westerly direction to another portage, 700 yards long, to a
pond 250 yards across, at the extreme westerly end of which we find a portage
2,700 yards, or a mile and a half long, which brings us again to the river ioo yards
or so below the Oil Portage. This last portage is the greater part of its length in
the valley of a creek,and is very rough and difficult to travel over.
"The aggregate distance portaged over on this way is upwards of 8,000 yards,
or nearly five miles ; while by the river route it is only about 2,000 yards, or less
than a mile and a quarter. Notwithstanding this, the lake route is much travelled
—I suppose because most of the canoes in the vicinity are small, and five miles of
hard travel and a certainty of life at the end are pleasanter than one aiiJ a quarter
wichout that certainty.
"Below the'Oil Portage there is a pond-like expanse in the river before it
plunges down the canon. This is a veritable canon, being not more than 20 to 30
yards wide, with perpendicular banks, generally much higher than the channel is
wide. It is upwards of two miles in length, and, as I only saw the end of it, I
cannot say much in description, of it. I was informed that parts of it cannot be
seen from the bank, owing to their height and steepness, and as no one would
care to pass through it simply to possess the privilege of describing it, it is likely
to remain unpictured for some time. As scenery it is grand and impressive when
viewed from either end. The portage past it is on the east side, and is over two
miles long and somewhat difficult, on account of four or five bad hills on it. Below
the caflon there is another pond-like expanse in the river, which is succeeded by a
rapid 400 or 500 yards long, and safe enough for ordinary canoes to run, but requiring alertness at the foot, as it is shallow and stony. The current is now
smooth and easy ; course between north and north-east for six miles, which brings
us to the Hudsons Bay Company's trading post on this river, named New Post.
' - From New Post, down for about sixteen miles, the Abitibi preserves a generally uniform width (150 yards), with smooth, easy current, and general direction
a little west of north, when its navigability is again interrupted by a succession of
rapids, which necessitate a portage (on the east side) of fully two miles, with two
bad hills at the north end. This portage is sometimes divided into two (one about
a mile, the other less than a quarter), but it does not appear that the difference is
considered of much advantage.
" About a mile below this portage is another, also on the east side, 900 yards
long. The rapid here is not very rough, and can be run in light canoes, but mine
were too heavily laden. Below this portage there is about a quarter of a mile cf
swift, rough water to run before we get into smooth water again, which, however,
only continues about two miles, when there is another portage, also on the east
side, and about 900 yards long. Parties going up sometimes ascend this and the
preceding rapid in their canoes by keeping in shore and poling.
I Five miles below the last mentioned rapid we come to the head of a long
one, in which the river widens to about 600 yards, or about three times its average width, and is correspondingly shallow. This rapid is not very rough, but is
somewhat dangerous, by reason of its shallowness and the numerous rocks in it.
The first part is about three miles long, after which 'it gets smooth, but is still
swift and shallow for about 2^ miles, when it again becomes a rapid resembling
the upper part, and continues so for about 3^ miles. This rapid is sometimes
called Long Rapid, but oftener the ' Pudding,' from the resemblance some islands
standing in it bear to a plum pudding. In this the course of the river is about
north, but below it it swerves a little eastward.
"A river called by the Indians 'Abitibi Shi-sipi,'or 'Little Abitibi River,'
flows in from the east about four miles below this.     It is upwards of 100 yards THE YUKON DISTRICT.
wide at the mouth, but is shallow. Continuing the same course about seven miles
brings us to a shallow rapid of no especial importance, called Blacksmith's Rapids.
One party told me it was so ' named because a drunken blacksmith was drowned
here some years ago, but others gave as the origin of the name the existence of
a bed of lignite coal, which latter derivation I suppose to be the true one.
" About a mile below this a river enters from the east, 20 yards or so wide ;
and about 2^_ miles from this another river, about 40 yards wide at the mouth,
enters from the west. My guide called it ' O-nak-o-whan-i-Sipi,'but could not,
owing to his ignorance of English, tell me what that meant. About a mile below
this, what appeared to be a small river was seen on the east side.
' ' The general course of the river here is nearly north-east for many miles
back ; but its character changes, in that there are now numerous islands in it, and
it is wider and often shallow, with some swift currents in the shallow places.
The same course and character continue for about 29 miles below O-nak-o-whan-
i-Sipi, when it spreads into three or four branches and passes down shallow rapids to the Moose, or, as the Indians there call it, the 'Mi-tag-ami' River. One
of these branches can be run in canoes when the water is high enough, but in
low water it is too shallow. I passed down the westerly shore, the water barely
floating the canoe, though it only drew ten or eleven inches. This continues for
nearly a mile, where just above a rocky point, which throws the water outwards
and makes a bad swell (and on account of rocks, a passage can hardly be made
anywhere else) there is a portage of about 500 yards. Below this there are still
about 300 yards of rapid, which must be descended carefully and slowly on account
of shallowness and rocks.    Just below this we enter Moose River.
MOOSE RIVER.
' From its confluence with the Abitibi the cc
about a mile wide,
of the stream is about north-
le, shallow.     The greater part of the
Nulato, Lower Yukon, Alaska.—Stea
i_
U CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
channel, for some miles near and below the Abitibi, is not more than two to four
feet deep, with many gravel bars, and two or three small rapids.
" From the mouth of the Abitibi to Moose Factory> the Hudson Bay Company's
trading post, is about twenty miles. A history of this place would hardly serve any
useful purpose in a report such as this, and I will only remark that the post has
been in existence about two centuries, and has been for many years, and is now, the
port of entry for the whole of James Bay district.
" Moose is situated on the east side of an island, the surface of which rises
about twenty feet above high tide. The top soil is generally a mixture of silt and
vegetable mould. The island is about half a mile in width, and about two miles long.
Owing to its position,, the many islands in the river here, and the fact that the deep
water is in the westerly channel, strangers would very likely pass on to the bay
without noticing the factory. To write down a description of the route to be followed would be somewhat tedious. The only way to do it comprehensively would
be by courses and distances, which I am not in a position to give exactly.
" It is said tne channel on the easterly side of the islands, although shallow, will
float a canoe well enough, and by that route it would hardly be possible to pass the
factory without seeing it. From the easterly side of Moose Island to the east shore
of the river, at right angles to the general course, is 81 chains (1,782 yards), but in
this distance there are two extensive sand bars. Between Moose Island and the
westerly shore there are several islands, and the westerly channel, exclusive of
them, appears to me to be as wide as that east of Moose Island ; so altogether, the
river here must be considerably over two miles from shore to shore.
" The easterly, or South Channel, as it is locally termed, is the one by which
all the traffic is carried on.
' ' From Moose Factory to where the shore line of James Bay turns sharply
eastward is 12}^ miles. This part of the river is between two and three miles wide,
with many timbered islands and sand bars."
The following extracts from the Hudson Bay Company's Journal at New Post
show the duration of the navigable season for a period of 13 years :
r here clear of ice 20th April ;   first snow 18th October ; river set
1878—Riv
nth December
1879—Riv
cember.
18S0— Riv
vember.
18S1—Riv
December.
r clear
1 May
ith'May; first sr
2th May ;   first :
18th Octobi
3th Octobei
1st Noven
iber
: De-
r set 3rd December,
river set 16th  No-
Tiber.
1884—River clear (date not stated, but appears to have been about 1st May) ;
;t snow 18th October ; river set 7th December.
1885—River clear 4th May; first snow 20th October; river set 24th November.
1886—River clear 20th April ; first snow 15th October ; river set (not stated).
1887—River clear 3rd May ; first snow 24th October ;   river set (not stated).
1888—River clear nth May ;   first snow   19th  October;   river set 20th No-
1889—River clear 27th April ;   first I
' 23rd October
;et  16th No-
1890—River clear 9th May.
I passed New Post on 20th October, and the temperature of the water was
460. I may here state that the temperature of the river water was taken every day
up to Lake Abitibi, where, on the 28th October, it was 42° ; but that day and night
a strong, cold north-west wind blew, which lowered it to 39° in twenty-four hours,
end at Abitibi  post it was the same on the morning of the 30th.     In Upper and'* THE YUKON DISTRICT.
Photo, by W. Ogilvie.
Island Lakes it was from 44° to 46°, according to the depth of the water. In the
little lake at the summit it was 45°, although quite a lot of snow had fallen during
the day. The first snow-fall I saw during the time I was in the field was nth
October, 1890 (the day I left Moose), and the weather all the'way to Mattawa was
continuously rainy with occasional showers of snow. The temperature of the lakes
this side of the watershed was from 440 to 48° between the 1st and 18th November
—the latter temperature being in the deep part of Lake Temiscamingue, which
generally does not freeze up until late in December.
Another part of the proposed route starts from Missinaibi on the C.P.R.,
thence down the Missinaibi River to James Bay at Moose Factory, some 400 miles.
Arriving at Moose Factory on the south end of James Bay, we now have a distance
of nearly 900 miles across Hudson Bay, which is only open about half of the
year ; thence up Chesterfield Inlet and Baker's Lake, a distance of about 200
miles ; thence over an unknown and barren country, between 300 and 400 miles to
the end of Great Slave Lake, which is frozen from early in December until very late
in June, the ice attaining a thickness of from four to six feet. This lake is about
350 miles in length, and in some places as much as 40 miles in width, so that the
wind sweeping down it or up it lengthwise gets up quite a rough sea. This route
might be amended and made more of an all-water route by making' Montreal or
other seaport the point of departure and going round by the Atlantic Ocean and
Hudson Straits, and thence across Hudson Bay to Chesterfield Inlet, and from
there on as above. At the lower end of the lake we enter Mackenzie River, which
has been described in connection with the Edmonton route ; and the remarks there
apply equally to this one.     ^^ ^ rjver ^^
The last route to be referred to is the Ocean and River route
Starting from Victoria or Vancouver, or some port in the United States, we
make our way by an ocean steamer to St. Michaels,
1 distance of about \ i34
CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
miles from Victoria or Vancouver. The steamer approaches St. Michaeis a greater
or less distance as she draws more or less water. A boat drawing 12 feet of water
or less may come within a mile of it—one of greater draught has to anchor further
out. The cargo is discharged on "lighters," towed by small steamers to the
warehouses of the several companies. From here up to Dawson or other points on
the Yukon, passage is made on stern-wheel steamers, of which there are at present
seven or eight. Four belong to one of the trading companies, three to the other,
and one or two to other parties. The time taken in ascending the river from St.
Michaels to Dawson, supposing we have fair weather continuously, is from 14 to 18
days. The steamer has to fight its way up this long stream against a stiff current,
\.ith, in low water, shallow places at several points, also there is much time lost
procuring wood. Much of the fuel at present used is cut by Indians, and piled up
a'ong the banks. For the first 500 miles upwards the fuel consists entirely of
dritcwood, as there is no timber in the vicinity of the river large enough to be
utilized for that purpose. Above this point timber is plentiful, but green. The
boat is tied up to-the beach, all hands available sent ashore, trees cut down, generally carried on board in long lengths, and sawn into proper lengths for furnace
use on board. Much of this is entirely green, as what little dry wood was scattered
along the bank of the river has been pretty well used up. In the future much delay
will be caused to steamers on this account, as the wood gets further and further
from the river. Heretofore, there were only three or four steamers plying on the
river. Next summer there will probably be 25 or 30. Now these will use up in a
single trip all the wood cut, as the steamers now on the river use from 16 or 18
cords per day to 24 or 30.
Through the kindness of Capt. Kennedy of the Alaska Commercial Company's
steamer "Alice," I am able.to give her dimensions and the log of one of her trips.
Capt. Barr of the North American Transportation and Trading Company kindly
gave me from his logs the distances from point to point along the river as he deduced them from the travelling rate of the steamer. I am inclined to think his distances are overestimated and that a survey of the river will prove it shorter than he
Dimensions of steamer "Alice " :
Length 165 feet ; beam 32 feet ; depth 8 feet.
Compound tandem engines, but no condenser, high pressure cylinder, 14 inch
bore, low pressure, 22 inch. Length of stroke 6 feet. Steam pressure 150 to 180
pounds, consumption of wood per day 16 to 18 cords. She can carry about 500
tons, but when so loaded draws too much water for the river (about 5^ feet).
In 1896 she made a trip from St. Michaels to Fortymile as follows ; the distances \
are by Captain Barr.
St. Michaels to mouth of Yukon, 72 miles, 9 hours 40 minutes.
Mouth of Yukon to Nulato, 576 miles, 81 hours 30 minutes.
Nulato to mouth of Tanana, 249 miles, 36 hours 30 minutes.
Mouth of Tanana to Fort Yukon, 456 miles, 60 hours 25 minutes.
Fort Yukon to Circle City, 88 miles, 21 hours 10 minutes.
Circle City to Fortymile, 156 miles, 47 hours 40 minutes.
Fortymile to Sixtymile, 97 miles, 19 hours 15 minutes.
This makes the total running time from St. Michaels to Fortymile 255 hours
and 25 minutes, or ten (10) days 15 hours 25 minutes, the distance being 1,597
miles. In addition she must have lost 4 to 6 hours at least per day cutting wood
and loading it.
In the same summer, some weeks later, th
tons, and towing a barge with nearly as much, j
Mouth of, river to Nulato, 102 hours 55
Nulato to Tanana, 37 hours 20 minutes.
Tanana to Yukon, 69 hours 50 minutes.
Yukon to Circle City, 31 hours 20 minutes.
ime steamer loaded with about 400
t over the same course, as follows :
At Circle City i
left the barge THE YUKON DISTRICT.
gss
and came up to Fortymile in 47 hours and 40 minutes. Going down, her running
time from Sixtymile to Fortymile was 4 hours and 10 minutes. Fortymile to Circle
City, 13 hours, and her actual time from Sixtymile to St. Michaels was 4 days 10
hours.
Nearly all future trips will have to be made on wood cut by the crews—green
at that.
After we get up the river some 1,300 miles we strike what is known as the
Yukon Flats. These flats were no doubt the site of a lake ages ago, now filled
up with numberless islands and channels, most of which are too shallow, crooked
and narrow for steamboat passage. The sand and mud drifts about in them,
changing the course of the steamboat channel, and every year appears to be getting
more and more difficult of navigation. In the summer of 1895 water remained
high until well into September ; the result was that one of the Alaska Commercial
Company's steamers, the "Arctic," made five passages from the mouth of the river
to Fortymile. This is the record season, it has never been repeated since. The
fastest round trip on record, from and to St. Michaels, was made by the same
Company's steamboat "Alice," in 1897: It took less than 22 days. As a rule,
the trip occupies a month. We may generally count on several days detention at
St. Michaels. There high winds render it impossible for river steamers to make
their way over Behring Sea to the mouth of the river. The same detention may
be caused on the return trip, and the steamer may have to lie in the mouth of the
river for days. Then, again, the channel at the mouth is shallow and crooked,
and as it is only open for 3 or 3^ months in the year it is impossible to mark it,
and even if we could do so it is not permanent, for the ice drifting about in the
shallow water in Behring Sea often ploughs up the mud in ridges, making barriers
across places which were heretofore good, deep water. On one occasion, in 1896,
a boat ran on to a barrier near the mouth of the river and lay there for 14 days
before the wind and tides combined raised the water high enough to enable her to
Unalaska froi
From'Photo, by W. Ogilvie I
136 CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
float. To enter the country by this route we need not contemplate arrival at Dawson much earlier than the middle of July. The ice in the river breaks about the
middle of May, but Behring Sea, as a rule, is not open until the last ten days of
June,—indeed, in 1896 it was not until the 7th of July that the ocean steamer could
approach St. Michaels.
For further details concerning expenses in entering by this route I would refer
to the Alaska Commercial Company, 310 Sanson St., San Francisco, or the North
American Transportation and Trading Company, of Chicago. The Canadian Pacific
Coast Navigation Company—offices at Victoria and Vancouver—I understand,
are putting steamers on this route, both ocean and river, also the Canadian Pacific
Railway. By addressing queries to them I have no doubt parties will obtain the
fullest information at their command as to their facilities and terms. This route of
course involves no personal hardship, other than what may be due to ten or twelve
days' sail on the ocean, but it reduces the working season available there by about
two months. Going in by the south, one can reach Dawson about the middle of
May, going in this way about the middle of July. As soon as access is convenient
and sufficient over some one or more of the passes in the south, so that freight can
be taken down stream, it is easy to see that this route must be abandoned to a
very great extent.
FOOD  SUPPLIES,   ETC.
For the information of those who have never been in that country I give some
notes on the amount of provisions required, first stating that you will require at
least 50 per cent, more in that region than you would in a more southern latitude.
The cold suffered (often intense) for at least seven months in the year conduces to
a vigorous appetite. This is a provision of nature, for in order to keep warm the
human system has to pile on fuel just as much as any other apparatus where heat
is required.
All supplies required for the Yukon by persons going in on the Pacific side can
be obtained at the cities of Victoria or Vancouver. The merchants at these places
have had many years experience in outfitting miners and prospectors, and know
exactly what a man should take with him, according to the conditions under which
he is going to travel or work, and know from many years testing, and from the
experience of northern explorers who frequent the B. C. cities, what class of goods
are most desirable and useful, and those best calculated to complete a traveller's
outfit. Many things that are excellent for more southern districts, and which are
sometimes sold to inexperienced explorers, are not fitted for the more northern
districts of what was once Hudson Bay Company's territory.
The merchants of these coast cities have studied and are thoroughly familiar
with the requirements of the country, for many parts of which, including the Kootenay, Cassiar mines, and other districts, they have outfitted exploring parties for
many years past ; by purchasing in either of those two cities for the Pacific journey,
a considerable percentage of cost is saved in freight duties, etc. The Canadian
customs duties on goods purchased out of the Dominion range from 25 to 30 per
cent, alone, so that aside from the question of paying freight on extra baggage,
it is obvious that a considerable saving is made by purchasing necessary outfit in
Canada and at the nearest point to the Yukon Territory where such supplies can
be procured. Those who go into the mountains or into the Yukon from the east
side of the Rocky Mountains, across the plains via Calgary and Edmonton, will
find the same conditions to apply. The merchants at the principal points have had
a wide experience in outfitting people for the mountains. During the past season
many, have chosen this route, and purchased necessary supplies at Calgary and
Edmonton, at both of which towns there are large outfitting establishments. As
between the two cities of Calgary and Edmonton a traveller can choose for himself. The cost of the several articles he will require will probably be found, freight
included, to be about the same.     It will be well to remember, therefore, that it is Tl
THE YUKON DISTRICT.
137
better that Yukon outfits should be purchased at Victoria, lor Vancouver, if the
purchaser is going in on the Pacific side, and at Calgary or Edmonton, or other
Canadian point, if he is proceeding by. the plains route. The articles that should
be taken are :
Of flour we require  at least 450 pounds   for a  year's consumption.    This
should be of fairly good grade.    It need not necessarily be fine flour, but should be
good medium. Oatmeal or rolled oats, 50 pounds ; corr
latter I do not consider so necessary as oatmeal, as oatmeal is a warming food.
Bacon fYgood fat), 250 pounds ; hams, 50 pounds ; evaporated dried apples, 25
pounds ; dried peaches, 25 pounds, and if you have a fancy for any other kind of
dried fruits you can take them along, or substitute them' c~-
b or other of the 138
CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
above. Good black tea, 25 pounds. In that country you will find a cup of good,
hot, black tea after a long, cold tramp, very invigorating—in fact, it proves "the
cup that cheers but not inebriates." Coffee', 10 pounds ; sugar (good granulated),
100 pounds. If you take the ordinary brown sugar in the winter it freezes into a
hard lump and is very difficult to manipulate. Not so with granulated ; it remaining dry, of course remains powdered. Beans, 120 pounds. There are several
kinds of beans of which you may make choice according to your taste, but the
ordinary bean sold there is the brown bean, about twice the size of the small white
one. Pot barley, 10 pounds; rice, 15 pounds; extract of beef, two dozen four
ounce tins. I have found Johnson's Fluid Beef to be very good. Baking powder,
12 or 15 pounds; salt, 30 pounds; pepper, one pound; mustard, one pound;
compressed vegetables, 10 or 12 pounds, depending upon the kind you take.
Canned fruits may or may not be taken, but they are bulky and heavy, consequently inconvenient and in winter a source of trouble in that country, as the contents
freeze solid and require a very long time to thaw. You should also take 10 or 15
or more pounds of baking soda, as you may think necessary. In case of scurvy
one might provide lime juice, more or less as their taste suggests, but the dried
fruits already named are antiscorbutic in their action and if we wish to make further provision in that direction we might take two or three dozen tins of good
orange marmalade, and a similar quantity of strawberry or raspberry jam. These,
as put up by some firms, are very good. Dried potatoes are put up in several
forms and are good. 25 or 30 pounds of these should be taken. Other vegetables
are put up also from which you may select as you fancy, but you should take the
above quantity of potatoes and 8 or 10 pounds of dried onions. Take along also
a few dozen yeast cakes, you may have a chance to use them once in awhile, and
their weight and cost are trifling.    For convenience I recapitulate, in list form :-
Flour 45° pounds.
Oatmeal    50       n
Cbrnmeal   25       n
Bacon (Good, fat) 250       |
Hams    So
Evaporated dried apples
Dried peaches ,	
Tea	
Coffee	
Sugar	
Beans	
Barley (pot)	
Ric
; Extract Beef, say  6 pounds.
Baking powder  12 n
Salt  30
Pepper.  1 11
Mustard... ;  1 »
Compressed vegetables .... 12 n
Canned fruits, say  30 y
Jams in tins, 1 lb. each .... 24 n
Baking soda  10 11
Potatoes and Onions  35 n
Total weight I,3I9 pounds.
This will prove ample and to spare for any healthy, vigorous man, work as I
hard as he may, but it is well to have a little too much rather than too little.     It is
well also to bear in mind that there is much waste connected with the ordinary I
transport and use of provisions under the conditions generally attending prospecting and the cooking incidental to it.    It will be noticed that the above list contains I
no canned meats.    These are sometimes convenient when making a journey, and
their use is largely a matter of taste.     Some relish them, while others have ' ' no
use " for them.    In this line, as in some other matters, each will consult his own |
tastes and means.    Packed in tins as they are, they are somewhat inconvenient to
pack, and the tin adds considerably to the weight.    For preservation it is absolutely necessary that the stuff be hermetically sealed.     It is a pity some more con-  i
venient mode of putting up were not adopted, lessening the weight, while not risk- J
ing spoiling by contact with the air.    The cost of this outfit will, of course, vary I
considerably, according to time and place of purchase, but in any of the cities or
towns where you are likely to purchase all. your requirements will likely cost no   I
more than $200.00, and may be less.    At the prices ruling on the Yukon it will be I
more than double that; $450.00 is rated as a fair  "grub stake," that is your  i
requirement tor one year. THE   YUKON   DISTRICT. 139
' The following list and prices are furnished by an Edmonton firm, subject, of
course, to fluctuations in the ruling prices elsewhere, which will not, however,
affect the gross amount very much. Taken as a whole the amount will not differ
much from the same list at other points.
4 Sacks flour, 98 lbs. each,   $10 00            Brought forward - $153 07
2olbs. Corn meal          -        - 70
4olbs. Rolled oats        -        - 1  30 Buttons, needles and thread - 25
25lbs. I. Rice      -        -        ■ 1 75 1 Camp cook stove - - 5 00
ioolbs. Beans      -        -        - 4 50 1 Gold pan      - 75
75lbs. G. Sugar            -        - 4 87 1 Knife and fork     ... 15
75-bs. Evap. apricots, peaches, 2 Spoons         - 5
and apples         -        - io 25 1 Large granite spoon - - 15
6 Pkgs. Yeast cakes   -        - 50 1 Large fork -         - - - 10
2olbs. Candles     -        -        - 3 00 1 Granite cup           - - - 15.
i5olbs. Bacon     -        -        - 16 50 1 Granite plate        - - - 15
25lbs. Butter       -        - 3 75 1 Whet stone           - 10
iolbs. Baking powder           - 2 50 1 Pick and handle - - 1  25
3 Pkgs. Soda      - 30 i' Hatchet and handle - - 75
2olbs. Salt - 40 1 Axe and handle    - - - 1  25
lib. Pepper          - 25 1 Whip saw    -        - - 9 00.
J_llb. Mustard     ... 25 1 X Cut. saw -        - - 3 50
^lb. G. Ginger  -        -        - ' 25 1 Hand saw   -        - - - 1 00
10 Pkgs. Evap. Vegetables 2 00 1 L. H. Shovel        - - - 1 00
2 Doz. Cond. Milk      -        - 4 50 2olb. nails       -        - - - 1 00
iolbs. Tea -        -        -        - 4 00 2 Files    -        -        - - - 40
25lbs. Coffee       -        -        - 10 00 1 Draw knife -        - - - 75
y2 Doz. Abbey's effervsc't. salt 3 60 1 Plane -        -        - - " - 90
Laundry soap      -        -        - 1  00 Brace and bits    •     - - - 2 00
Matches      -    •   -        -        - 80 3 Chisels      . -        - - - 75
Evap. Potatoes and onions 4 00. 1 Butcher knife       - - - .        25
2 Pair Heavy blankets          - 14 00 1 Compass      -  .     - - - 50
• 2 Suits underwear       -        - 5 00 Rope      -        -        - - - 1  50
2 Cottonade shirts       -        - 1  50 1 Fry pan        -        - - - 25
2 Sweaters           -        -        - 3 00 1 Hammer      -        ... _ go
1 Heavy suit        -        -        - 7 50 1 Auger           - 65
1 Pair pants         -        -        - 2 00 1 Bake kettle       •   - - •     - 1  50
1 Pair overalls    -        -        - 1  25 1 Best copper kettle - - 6 00
1 Mackinaw suit          -        - 1000 1 Steel pail     -        -. - 75
2 Pair Arctic sox - - 1 50 1 Granite wash basin - - 40
6 Pair wool sox - - - 1 50 1 Candle lantern - 35
2 Pair mitts - - - I 00 1 lb. Quicksilver ... QO
2 Pair moccasins          -        - 3 00 1 Pair Goggles        - - - 25
'   3 Towels     -        -        -        - 75 ! Caulking iron - - - •      75
1 Pair rubber boots, hip      - 5 00 iolbs. Pitch   - - - - 1  00
1 Pair laced boots, miner's 500 15-bs. Oakum - - - 2 00
Mosquito net       -        -        - 5° Sundries          - - - - 2  18
$153 07 $203 20
A few words on packing, or putting up the goods for transport may be of use
to many. Flour should be put in a good cotton sack, 50 pounds in a sack ; two of
I those are then put into a good strong -gunny sack. For ordinary transport this is
not more than enough, and for prospecting- tours one of the 50 pound sacks inside
the gunny sack will be found quite sufficient. Sugar, beans, rice, barley meal and
bacon may be packed in the same way, with advantage. -40
CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
ing seems to rot the
is as brittle as glass.
In the
I would not recommend oiled cotton for covering, the oi
cotton fibre and render it easily torn, besides in cold weather il
and the result is we have no covering at all in a few days.
The gunny cloth, if good and heavy, will exclude quite a lot of t
case of flour a thin layer of it will get wet and form a dough which excludes water
almost perfectly ; that amount of flour is, of course, lost, but that is provided for
in the amount above given. In wet weather sugar will have to be carefully looked
after, as once wet the action seems to continue until the whole is converted into
syrup if the temperature permits, and if it does not it is frozen into a mass as
hard as rock. These remarks may be in a good degree applied to salt, and I would-
say emphatically look after your sugar and salt. Compressed tea offers the advantage of less bulk, and if it is not taken, get tea put up in pound tins as some of it
used to be. This is convenient in use, as only a small quantity of it is opened at
one time, and we obviate deterioration of a large amount of it through exposure.
The other articles may be packed in cases for transport into the country, and
then put up to suit convenience. Care should be exercised that none of the cases
weigh much over one hundred pounds until we have better transport facilities than
at present exist. That is about all the ordinary untrained man wants to handle,
and for some months to come there will be much manual labour in connection with
transport there.
Bedding and other things of that kind one will have to provide as suits his
peculiar needs.
In the way of clothing, the principal difference between that country and this
is that one requires much heavier underclothing.    The ordinary woollen garments, J
such as worn by lumbermen and others in this climate, are sufficiently heavy for 1
that, except when travelling on the open or on the rivers, in which case some sort
of fur is necessary, more especially if it is blowing.    Ordinary woollen coats will
not keep out the winds, and when the thermometer is 40 or 50 below zero, and a I
20 to 30 mile wind blowing, one is not very long exposed before considerable suf- 1
fering ensues.    Good heavy woollen mitts, with a pair of deerskin mitts over them, j
is all that is required.     In the way of bedding a good heavy fur blanket is almost |
indispensable; ordinary woollen blankets, no matter how many one has, will not keep  \
warm.    But in this there is a wide latitude, depending on differences of physical
constitution.    I have seen two men in the same tent at the same time with the same ]
amount of bedding, one sleepless from cold and the other comfortable, hence, as I |
said before, each will have to determine for himself as suits his temperament; of -
course the less one can do with the more convenient it is.
Blankets have been made in that country of fox, lynx, wolf and bearskin. I
They are very expensive, costing from $60 to $120, depending upon the nature of %
the fur and the size of the blanket. In the future, however, they are absolutely J
out of the question, for the supply of fur there is constantly diminishing, and it is 1
only a question of a year or two until none will be found in the vicinity of the dig- -1
gings, nor anywhere near them. These should be procured, if possible, here, j
Lynx makes a very durable, light, warm blanket, and I would recommend it above I
all others on account of its lightness and warmth. Fox is good, but not so "dur- .1
able as lynx. Wolf is also good, but heavier, and not so warm as lynx, and the f
same may be said of bearskin. I have no doubt that necessity will induce manu- J
facturers to devise some cheap substitute for fur. Sleeping bags are made which 1
will be useful and comfortable. Of these I would say choose the c
you the most thickness between you and the ground, of course not 1
covering. Often in winter, when camping out, more cold is felt from"below"than j
above. Waterproof clothing is not suitable for that country in the winter. The
intense frosts so harden it that it cracks, and soon breaks into pieces. A good, !
large raccoon skin overcoat is very desirable. It is cheap and durable. While 1
travelling in cold winter weather your knees will give you more trouble than any J
other part of the body'.    I have found a fur covering for them resembling a section!
; that gives %
leglecting the I THE YUKON DISTRICT. i4r
• of the leg of a pants, about one foot long, and fastened to your under garment so
as to cover the knee, is all that is required. Whatever material is used it should
be wind-proof and thick. The other things that one may require will have to
suggest themselves to each one for himself, but too much need not be taken. Do
not load yourself down with extras. Rubber boots are indispensable during the
spring, summer and fall months. These can be procured in the country at from
$10 to $14 per pair, that is, miners' boots, which come up the full length of the leg.
Shorter ones cost less, of course. These may be taken as they can be procured
cheaper, but there is nearly always a good assortment on hand at the trading
points.
In the way of hardware one requires a couple of good chopping axes. Axes
are sold with a double bit—that is, a double edged axe of which one may
be kept in fair order for chopping and the other used for rougher work. A brace
and set of bits is indispensable, ranging from % to _f| inches in size. Hammer
and wire nails, different sizes, are also indispensable ; the more you can take of
these the better, but of course the quantity will have to be regulated by your transport facilities. A small hand-saw is absolutely necessary, with an assortment of
screw nails of different sizes, and suitable screw drivers, and a 1 or 1 % inch auger
will prove very useful. A miners' pick is also indispensable, and a miners' shovel.
Of rope we require 25 or 30 pounds of assorted sizes, from one-quarter inch up to
one inch, and if we contemplate building a boat for ourselves, a whipsaw, oakum
and pitch. Of the latter, 10 to 20 pounds may be taken and 5 to 10 of the
oakum. The other articles of hardware, such as dishes, knives, forks, spoons,
kettles, etc., each one will have to select for himself. His supply should be based
on his prospecting intentions and the length of time he expects to be absent
from points of trade.
A rifle and shotgun may prove useful and are a sort of necessity, but as a rule
they prove of very little use, as game is seldom met with, and what little there is,
one has no time to follow. Hunting is an art which requires long experience to
develop.    Occasionally one obtains a shot at a moose or cariboo, but these are
. often accidental, and your gun may be carried for years without benefiting you one
dollar. Still, by all means take them along. You may require them, you never
know when, and -when you do require them you require them in earnest. Fishing
hooks and lines may be taken, but of these it may be said as of the guns.
Needles, thread, and yarn and cloth for mending and patching, are required,
of course, and each one will have to determine for himself theamount he needs.
You cannot make a mistake by taking more than you actually contemplate using,
as the weight and bulk is unimportant. A small medicine chest is imperative.
For contents of this I would suggest medical advice. What would suit one,
another would not require, and each will have to have determined for himself and
for his peculiar case just what he should take. Paper, envelopes, pens, ink and
pencils are necessary, as you should never neglect to write whenever possible ; by
all means keep up the connection with home. If you can procure powders for
making ink take them, as most of the inks sold are injured by frost, besides the
liability to break your bottle when it does freeze.
A pocket compass is useful, and if you take one take a good one, with a
needle not less than an inch and a-half to two inches in length, and when selecting
take the needle which takes the longest time to settle after being put oscillating.
The one which settles quickly is useless. It may be stated generally that the magnetic needle points east of true north from 32^  degrees at Lake Lyndeman to 360
i  at the boundary. tt>/?i
In moving about the country a boat is absolutely necessary. There are no regular lines of steamers on the main river at present, though possibly there may be the
coming season, and if there are they will only take us along the main stream from
I one of the minor streams' to another, as we may desire.    Landed at the mouth of a
I small stream, we require some sort of a boat to make progress in.    Now boats
i f
142
CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
made there are necessarily heavy and imperfect in construction, also of bad form.
I would advise taking some light, easily portable boat from here or elsewhere, as
one may procure it easiest and best. In my opinion the best boat for general use
in that country is of the canoe form, many of which are built in the Province of
Ontario and elsewhere. The pattern. I would suggest is commonly known as the
Peterborough, or Rice Lake canoe, of which many kinds are made. Bass wood is
the best wood for all round use.    I give the dimensions of some of them.
A 17 foot canoe, 41 inches wide and 17 inches deep, will weigh about 130 or
140 pounds when dry. This canoe will carry twelve or fourteen hundredweight,
and two or three men. Of course this will load it pretty well, and if our load is
bulky it requires some experience to stow it away in a boat of that size. Practice
soon overcomes this.
An 18 foot canoe, 43 inches wide and 18 inches deep, will weigh a little more,
and carry a hundred or two hundred more pounds easily.
A 19 foot canoe, 46 or 47 inches wide and 18 inches deep, will weigh when dry
about 175 or 180 pounds, and will easily and safely carry eighteen or twenty hundredweight .and two or three men.
Larger ones are made of which I give some figures.
Length. Width. Depth.      Weight. Capac
i feet
49
50
inches    18 ii
18
135 lbs.
140    "
2200 lbs.
2500    "
51.00 to $57.00
54.00 to 60.00
57.00 to 63.00
60.00 to   66.00
The abovi
paragraphs pr<
2850 at 12  draft 1 . <* Q
.     a j    r_ r cost $58.00.
5120 at 20 draft J °
3200 at 12" draft ) . _,,
°,        .     „ ,    ,. > cost $60.00.
5600 at 20 draft J
weights
:eding the lis
furn
ished
from
cost $75.00.
ï by the makers.    The weights in the
/. own observation after the canoe had
. 6500 at 20" draft J
The
1 actual use the water the wood absorbs will increase it 1
been used awhile,
to 20 pounds.
The freight rates on those canoes from where they are made in Ontario to Van-
' ; about $2.65 per 100 pounds space weight, with a minimum weight charge
of 800 pounds, or, in other words, you are charged for the space the boat
occupies. Now, by nesting them, that is, taking several of the different sizes, the
smaller ones inside the larger ones, say a 22 foot, 21 foot, 19 foot, and 18 foot,
space weight, crate and all, about the limit—800 pounds—costs $21.20, or
about $5.30 each. If you wish to pay for actual weight the charge is about $10.50
per hundred pounds. Nesting is by far the best way to send them, and large parties going can have their canoes put up that way with lessened risk in transport,
and less cost than if sent singly. This I would advise to be done. In ordering a
canoe, order with an 18 or 19 foo,t canoe 5 or 6 good, specially heavy paddles,
not less than 5 feet 9 inches long. If any of the makers manufacture poles for poling, I would advise those to be taken along too. They should be made of good,
straight-grained white ash or other light, strong wood, from 8 to 10 feet in length,
about \yi inches thick at the lower end or point, tapering to about i}( or iyi at
the top on which a round knob should be left, say 1% inches in diameter. The
point should have a socket steel point put on over the wood and fastened to it with
a screw, so as to be easily taken off. These will prove convenient on our journeys
for other uses than poling, and much more durable and handy than any we may
get in the country. Also procure a canvas cover of sufficient size to cover
the   canoe   completely,   so   made   that it can be  fastened down when necessary THE YUKON DISTRICT.
«43
and i
Mowing it away. This may be ordered from the makers
Lv having the benefit of their own and others' experience. It
fid, and often save us unloading our boat during a rainy period,
e of these boats is easy work. In making our way up stream
we have to resort generally to poling or tracking, as the current is generally too
swift to be surmounted by paddling. Poles can be got in the country, but if they
can be procured at the makers, as above stated, by all means take them. Unless
they are iron-shod they soon what is called "brush" at the point, that is.
the soft wood bruises and get brushy. This has to be cut off from time to time,
and the pole is soon reduced in length by this constant wearing. By ail means get
them icon pointed, or steel is still better. Several kinds of points are made, but a
good blacksmith will easily and quickly turn out a half-dozen or more socket points
to be fastened on with a screw or nail at very little expense, and any kind, so long
as it covers the end of the pole, and is capable of being- securely fastened to it, is
1
the bottom
sired while sti
ng the
lllifies the effe<
ted this is a very difficult and laborious
into the knack of it, and it is wonderful
se men who are accustomed to this work.
>een done, but the unaccustomed would
of that. Where the water is deep, that
pth, or where the bottom is too soft for
nd is difficult to withdraw ; in fact, the
ite the boat to keep her away from the point.    This is by far the easier
m 2'_ to 3 miles per hour, if they so desire, and haul the boat up bad
av at a good smart rate.    After the pair on the line have kept up this gait
ln-hour or an hour they become warm and somewhat tired.    With a party
i the line take their places in the boat.    When the
>r canoe, such as I have described, 25 or 30 miles
make tl umber, of course, will have an easier time, and less a
harder time, but two men can do a good day's work in this way. Myself and a
man have made 24 mUes up stream in a day in this way, and made a survey while
canoe of 45 or 48 inch beam, with 10 or is hundredweight and two men, the line
should not be more than one-eighth of an inch in thickness. Of course, its quality
should be first-class. There are lines made which suit this purpose admirably,
known as cod-lines.    I cannot give the numbers of the various sizes, but simply
Thus'
tetw^T
ailed, and those 01
perd
■ally be a
ay, and a
>le to haul a boat i44 CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELD.
say a line one-eighth of an inch thick is sufficient to haul a boat of that size with a
load anywhere that a boat can be taken. Of course, a heavier boat requires a
somewhat heavier line, but I have seen boats 40 to 45 feet long and 9 feet beam,
loaded with 8 or 10 tons, drawing two feet of water, hauled up strong currents by
a line not more than one-fourth of an inch in thickness. The objection to a heavier line is that its weight sags it, and unless the current is very strong it is continually sinking into the water, which increases its weight. This renders it liable
to catch on sticks, tree tops, rocks or other things which are generally found plentifully strewn along the river banks. The men. on shore will soon acquire the
knack of flinging the line over any obstacle of that kind providing it is not too
heavy. A sharp, upward jerk will hoist it feet above anything we desire to avoid if
given at the right time. To do this the bow of the canoe should be turned across
current just before the line is thrown up. This holds the canoe out against the
effect of the pull on the line, often a high tree top or other obstacle can be passed
easily by turning the boat out into the current ; this runs her up and out, so that if
the obstacle is close to shore it is passed without any attention from the men
hauling.
Care should be taken when the boat is running up in an eddy below a point
with a swift current rushing past it, to enter the boat or canoe into the current as
nearly as possible bow on, and not across the current ; by entering this way into
the current gradually, no time is lost and no risk is run. I have known several
boats to be swamped by running them up the eddy as far as possible, and suddenly
turning them into the swift current ; the result being the water boiled over the side
of the boat and filled her. Had the men given way on the hauling line in time this'
would not have happened, or had the line parted as a light line would have done,
all would have been well. I call particular attention to this and its attendant risks.
A little practice will soon enable one to do this. Take plenty of line for that purpose, but do not take it too heavy. As a rule, not less than 60 feet of line should
be out even under the best conditions, and in rough water, or along a bad shore,
more is required. Not less than 120 feet should be ready for use when required,
so fastened that whenever required it can be let out quickly and free from knots
and twists. There are several ways of doing this. One is to have the line wound
around a reel or bit of board at the front end, which the hauling man can pay out
as he deems necessary, and wind in again when he sees fit. Cotton line is unsuitable. The water has a bad effect on it. It soon cuts and rots, and is not so strong
as good jute line.
TENTS.
Of course each one has his own idea of a tent, but experience has taught me
that the simpler the tent is in construction the better. I would suggest a bell tent
not less than 10 feet in diameter, with a 10 ounce duck roof, and an eight ounce
duck wall. The wall to be 2^ or 3 feet in height, with a foot or more of sod cloth.
The pitch of the tent should be pretty sharp to throw off the rain. I would not
have it less than 9 or 10 feet in height. Better than this, a square tent, called the
1 Egyptian " tent, 10 feet on each side, with a 10 ounce roof and 8 ounce wall, as -
in the bell tent. Of course a smaller tent may be ordered, but this will prove a
good serviceable size, and will not be too heavy to pack around, and will accommodate three or four men conveniently. The square, or Egyptian tent, will accommodate four men and quite an amount of outfit, j One man can hoist one of these
tents readily by driving in four stakes in the form of a square at the proper distance
apart, fastening four of his guy lines on them, inserting his pole and raising the tent.
Afterwards he can adjust the other guy lines and fasten them as required. A pole
can always be got; it is needless to carry them. I would advise a large party taking several of these tents instead of one large one. They are easier to carry about
and the party can separate, break itself into units, so to speak, for prospecting
purposes. For a party of two a smaller tent will do. Tents should be provided
before entry.     Material for their construction is expensive, and the supply limited THE YUKON DISTRICT. 145
in that country. The cost of making them is also much more than here. If possible have the door made mosquito-proof. This is easily done by attaching a piece
of cotton gauze or very light cotton cloth to each side of the door, which can be
folded together and tied up with tape fastened to the walls to support it. This
will prove a great comfort. To exclude them effectually we must load down our
sod cloth well, or they will make entry that way. They will get in in most surprising ways and places.
■In conclusion, I would say, make your outfit as simple and serviceable as possible. Do not meddle with notions, designed to overcome this, that or the other
difficulty, as they very often create more trouble than that we take them to obviate. Metallic boats I would specially warn against. They may be light, capacious
and useful, but they are easily fractured and difficult to mend, while a wooden boat
can be mended at almost anytime and place, and breaks and fractures may be confidently looked forward to. If bass wood canoes are taken, some pieces of the planking should be taken along for mending with. Some rough lengths, which would not
be of much service in the construction of a boat or canoe, can easily be carried in
the bottom. When a break is made in a canoe, if the parts are not too much
fractured, they may be coated with white lead on the broken edges, pushed back
to their original positions, a piece of the planking cut to overlap the fracture,
coated with white lead, put over it on the inside and nailed and clinched tight to it.
This makes it as strong as ever. Should the break be too bad to do this with, the
fractured parts should be cut out neatly with a bevel on the cut edge ; a piece of
planking cut bevelled edge to fit this hole is put into it, after coating the edge with
white lead, and another piece put over it on the inside, as before, so as to lap over
the cut joint, and nailed and clinched, will make the boat as sound as new, and it
is only the work of an hour or less. REGULATIONS
(Approved by Order in Council of 18th fanuary,
it off and flatted or faced
cate, and no other.
" Legal post" shall mean a stake standing not less than four feet  above the ground and
flatted on two sides for at least one foot from the top.    Both sides so flatted shall r
least four inches across the face.    It shall also mean any stump or tree
to the above height and size.
" Close season " shall mean the period of the year during which placer mining is generally
suspended. The period to be fixed by the Mining Recorder in whose district the claim is
situated.
" Mineral " shall include all minerals whatsoever other than coal.
"Joint Stock Company " shall mean any company incorporated for mining purposes under a
Canadian charter or licensed by the Government of Canada.
" Mining Recorder " shall mean the official appointed by the Gold Commissioner to record
applications and grant entries for claims in the Mining Divisions into which the Commissioner
may divide the Yukon District.
FREE  MINERS  AND  THEIR  PRIVILEGES.
1. Every person over, but not under eighteen years of age, and every joint stock company,
shall be entitled to all the rights and privileges of a free miner, under these regulations and under
the regulations governing quartz mining, and shall be considered a free miner upon taking out a free
miner's certificate. A free miner's certificate issued to a joint stock company shall be issued in
its corporate name.    A free miner's certificate shall not be transferable.
2. A free miner's certificate may be granted for one year to run from the date thereof or from
the expiration of the applicant's then existing certificate, upon the payment therefor of the sum of
$10.00, unless the certificate is to be issued in favour of a joint stock company, in which case the
fee shall be fifty dollars for a company having a nominal capital of $100,000 or less, and fora
company having a nominal capital exceeding $100,000, the. fee shall be one hundred dollars.
Only one person or joint stock company shall be named in the certificate.
3. A free miner's certificate shall be on the following form :
DOMINION OF CANADA.
FREE MINER'S CERTIFICATE.
(Non-transferable. )
Date  No	
Valid for one year only.
This is to certify that ' of	
of and is entitled to all the rights and primming regulations of the Government of Canada, for on«
of..
... has paid me. this day the
ileges of a free miner, under
year  from   the	
This
■tificate shall also grant to the holder thereof the privilege of fishing and shooting,
subject to the provisions of any Act which has been passed, or which may hereafter be passed for
the protection of game and fish ; also the privilege of cutting timber for actual necessities, for
building houses, boats, and for general mining operations ; such timber, however, to be for .the
exclusive use of the miner himself, but such permission shall not extend to timber which may
have been heretofore or which may hereafter be granted to other persons or corporations.
4. Free miner's certificates may be obtained by applicants in person at the Department of
the interior, Ottawa, or from the agents of Dominion Lands at Winnipeg, Manitoba ; Calgary,
Edmonton, Prince Albert, in the North-west Territories ; Kamloops and New Westminster, in the
Province of British Columbia ; at Dawson City in the Yukon District ; also from agents of the
Government at Vancouver and Victoria, B.C., and at other places which may from time to time be
named by the Minister of the Interior.
5. If any person or joint stock company shall apply for a free miner's certificate at the
agent's office during his absence, and shall leave the fee required  by these regulations  with the
r ot,her Person in charge of said office, he or it shall be entitled to have such certificate
1; and any free miner shall at any time be entitled to obtain a
cing to run from the expiration of his then existing free miner's
n he applies for such certificate he shall produce to the agent, or in
(146)
officer o
from the date of such applic
free miner's certificate com __
certificate, provided that when fi
REGULATIONS. 147
case of his absence shall leave with the officer or other person in charge of the agent's office, such
existing certificate. a a
6. If any free miner's certificate be accidentally destroyed or lost, the owner thereof may, on
payment of a fee of two dollars, have a true copy of it, signed by the agent, or other person by
whom or out of whose office the original was issued, Every such copy shall be marked "Substituted Certificate ; and unless some material irregularity be shown in respect thereof, every
original or substituted free miner's certificate shall be evidence of all matters therein contained.
7. No person or joint stock company will be recognized as having any right or interest in or
to any placer claim, quartz claim, mining lease, bed-rock flume grant, or any minerals in any
ground comprised therein, or in or to any water right, mining ditch, drain, tunnel, or flume, unless he or it and every person in his or its employment shall have a free miner's certificate unexpired. And on the expiration of a free miner's certificate the owner thereof shall absolutely forfeit
all his rights and interest in or to any placer claim, mining lease, bed-rock flume grant, and any
minerals in any ground comprised therein, and in or to any and every water right, mining ditch,
drain, tunnel, or flume, which may be held or claimed by such owner of such expired free miner's
certificate, unless such owner shall, on or before the day following the expiration of such certificate, obtain a new free miner's certificate. Provided, nevertheless, that should any co-owner fail
to keep up his free miner's certificate, such failure shall not cause a foSJaJare or act as an abandonment of the claim, but the interest of the co-owner who shall fail to keep up his free miner's
certificate shall, ipso facto, be and become vested in his co-owners, pro rata, according to their
former interests ; provided, nevertherless, that a shareholder in a joint stock company need not
be a free miner, and, though not a free miner, shall be entitled to buy, sell, hold, or dispose of
any shares therein.
8. Every free miner shall, during the continuance of his certificate, but not longer, have the
right to enter, locate, prospect, and mine for gold and other minerals upon any lands in the Yukon
District, whether vested in the Crown or otherwise, except upon Government reservations for
town sites, land which is occupied by any building, and any land falling within the curtilage of
any dwelling house, and any land lawfully occupied for placer mining purposes, and also Indian
9. Previous to any entry being made upon lands lawfully occupied, such free miner shall give
adequate security, to the satisfaction of the Mining Recorder, for any loss or damage which may
be caused by such entry ; and after such entry he shall make full compensation to the occupant or
owner of such lands for any loss or damage which may be caused by reason of such entry ; such
compensation, in case of dispute, to be determined by a court having jurisdiction in mining disputes, with or without a jury.
10. A creek or gulch claim shall be 250 feet long measured in the general direction of the
creek or gulch. The boundaries of the claim which run in the general direction of the creek or
gulch shall be lines along bed or rim rock three feet higher than the rim or edge of the creek, or
the lowest general level of the gulch within the claim, so drawn or marked as to be at every point
three feet above the rim or edge of the creek or the lowest general level of the gulch, opposite to
it at right angles to the general direction of the claim for its length, but such boundaries shall not
in any case exceed 1,000 feet on each side of the centre of the stream or gulch. (See Diagram
No. 1).     ' 8ÊTS
11. If the boundaries be less than one hundred feet apart horizontally, they shall be lines
traced along bed or rim rock one hundred feet apart horizontally, following as nearly as practicable the direction of the valley for the length of the claim.    (See Diagram No. 2).
12. A river claim shall be situated only on one side of the river, and shall not exceed 250 feet
in length, measured in the general direction of the river. The other boundary of the claim which
runs in the general direction of the river shall be lines along bed or rim rock three feet higher than
the rim or edge of the river within the claim so drawn or marked as to be at every point three feet
above the rim or edge of the river opposite to it at right angles to the general direction of the
claim for its length, but such boundaries shall not in any case be less than 250 feet, or exceed a
distance of 1,000 feet from low water mark of the river.    (See Diagram No. 3).
13. A "hill claim " shall not exceed 250 feet in length, drawn parallel to the main direction
of the stream or ravine on which it fronts.    Parallel lines drawn from each end of the base line at
KpffPjfëJes thereto, and running to the summit of the hill (provided the distance does not exceed
1,000 feet), shall constitute the end boundaries of the claim.
14. All other placer claims shall be 250 feet square. SSïïFl5s§i
15. Every placer claim shall be as nearly as possible rectangular in form, and marked by two
legal posts ficmWfixed in the ground in the manner shown in diagram No. 4. The line between
the two posts shall be well cut out so that one post may, if the nature of the surface will permit,
be seen from the other. The flatted side of each post shall face the claim, and on each post shall
be written on the side facing the claim, a legible notice stating the name or number of the claim,
or both if possible, its length in feet, the date when staked, and the full Christian and surname of
the locator.
16. Every alternate ten claims shall be reserved for the Government of Canada. That is to
say, when a claim is located, the discoverer's claim and nine additional claims adjoining each
other, and numbered consecutively, will be open, for registration. Then the next ten claims of
250 feet each will be reserved for the Government, and so on.    The alternate group of claims CANADA'S GREAT GOLD FIELDS.
DIAGRAM   NO.   I.
PLAN  OF CREEK  OR GULCH
SECTIONAL  PLAN  OF A CREEK  CLAIM.
1
SECTIONAL PLAN OF A  GULCH  CLAI THE YUKON DISTRICT.
DIAGRAM  No. 2.
PLAN SHEWING SIDE  BOUNDARIES  LESS THAN
100  FEET APART.
DIAGRAM   No. 4.
SHOWING  HOW CLAIMS  ARE TO  BE STAKED.
PLAN  OF A CREEK OR GULCH  CLAIM. i5o REGULATIONS.
reserved for the Crown shall be disposed of in such manner as may be decided by the Minister o
the Interior.
17. The penalty for trespassing upon a claim reserved for the Crown shall be immediate
cancellation by the Mining Recorder of any entry or entries which the person trespassing may
have obtained, whether by original entry or purchase, for a mining claim, and the refusal by the
Mining Recorder of the acceptance of any application which the person trespassing may at any
time make for a claim. In addition to such penalty, the Mounted Police, upon a requisition from
the Mining Recorder to that effect, shall take the necessary steps to eject the trespasser.
18. In defining the size of claims, they shall be measured horizontally, irrespective of inequalities on the surface of the ground.
19. If any free miner or party of free miners discover a new n
Jbe established to the satisfaction of the Mining Recorder, creek, ri
lowing size shall be allowed, namely :—
To one discoverer, one claim, 500 feet in length.
To a party of two discoverers, two claims, amounting together to 1,000 feet in length.
To each member of a party beyond two in number, a claim of the ordinary size only.
20. A new stratum of auriferous earth or gravel situated in a locality where the claims have
been abandoned shall for this purpose be deemed a new mine, although the same locality shall
have been previously worked at a different level.
21. The forms of application for a grant for placer mining, and the grant of the same, shall
be those contained in Forms " H " and " I " in the schedule hereto.
22. A claim shall be recorded with the Mining Recorder in whose district it is situated, within
ten days after the location thereof, if it is located within ten miles of the Mining Recorder's office.
One extra day shall be allowed for every additional ten miles or fraction thereof.
23. In the event of the claim being more than one hundred miles from a Recorder's office, and
situated where other claims are being located, the free miners, not less than five in number, are
authorized to meet and appoint one of their number a "Free Miners' Recorder," who shall act
in that capacity until a Mining Recorder is appointed by the Gold Commissioner.
24. The " Free Miners' Recorder " shall, at the earliest possible date after his appointment,
notify the nearest Government. Mining Recorder thereof, and upon the arrival of the Government
Mining Recorder, he shall deliver to him his records and the fees received for recording the claims.
The Government Mining Recorder shall then grant to each free miner whose name appears in the
records, an entry for his claim on form " I " of these regulations, provided an application has
been made by him in accordance with form " H " thereof. The entry to date from the time the
"Free Miners' Recorder" recorded the application.
25. If the " Free Miners' Recorder" fails within three months to notify the nearest Government Mining Recorder of his appointment, the claims which he may have recorded will be cancelled.
26. During the absence of the Mining Recorder from his office, the entry for a claim may be
granted by any person whom he may appoint to perform his duties in his absence.
27. Entry shall not be granted for a claim which has not been staked by the applicant in person in the manner specified in these regulations. An affidavit that the claim was staked out by
the applicant shall be embodied in form " H " in the schedule hereto.
28. An entry fee of fifteen dollars shall be charged the first year, and an annual fee of fifteen
dollars for each of the following years. This provision shall apply to claims for which entries
have already been granted.
29. A statement of the entries granted and fees collected shall be rendered by the Mining
Recorder to the Gold Commissioner at least every three months, which shall be accompanied by
the amount collected.
30. A royalty of ten per cent, on the gold mined shall be levied and collected on the gross
output of each claim. The royalty may be paid at banking offices to be established under the
auspices of the Government of Canada, or to the Gold Commissioner, or to any Mining Recorder
authorized by him. The sum of $2,500.00 shall be deducted from the gross annual output of a
claim when estimating the amount upon which royalty is to be calculated, but this exemption shall
not be allowed unless the royalty is paid at a banking office or to the Gold Commissioner or Mining Recorder. When the royalty is paid monthly or at longer periods, the deduction shall be
made ratable on the basis of $2,500.00 per annum for the claim. If not paid to the bank, Gold
Commissioner or Mining Recorder, it shall be collected by the customs officials or police officers
ohen the miner passes the posts established at the boundary of a district. Such royalty to form
part of the consolidated revenue, and to be accounted for by the officers who collect the same in.
due course. The time and manner in which such royalty stiall be collected shall be provided for
by regulations to be made by the Gold Commissioner.
31. Default in payment of such royalty, if continued for ten days after notice has been posted
on the claim in respect of which it is demanded, or in the vicinity of such claim, by. the Gold
Commissioner or his agent, shall be followed by cancellation of the claim. Any attempt to defraud
the Crown by withholding any part of the revenue thus provided for, by making false statements-
of the amount taken out, shall be punished by cancellation of the claim in respect of which fraud
or false statements have been committed or made. In respect to the facts as to such fraud or
false statements or non-payment of royalty, the decision of the Gold Commissioner shall be final.
\fter the recording of a claim the removal of any post by the holder thereof, or by any
ting in his behalf for the purpose of changing the boundaries of his claim, shall act as a. I
of the claim. Tl
REGULATIONS. 151
33. The entry of every holder of a grant for placer mining must be renewed and his receipt
relinquished and replaced every year, the entry fee being paid each time.
34. The holder of a creek, gulch or river claim may, within sixty days after staking out the
claim, obtain an entry for a hill claim adjoining it, by paying to the Mining Recorder the sum of
one hundred dollars. This permission shall also be given to the holder of a creek, gulch or river
claim obtained under former regulations, provided that the hill claim is availableat the time an
application is made therefor.
35. No miner shall receive a grant of more than one mining claim in a mining district, the
boundaries of which shall be defined by the Mining Recorder, but the same miner may also hold
a hill claim, acquired by him under these regulations in connection with a creek, gulch or river
claim, and any number of claims by purchase ; and any number of miners may unite to work their
claims in common, upon such terms as they may arrange, provided such agreement is registered
with the Mining Recorder and a fee of five dollars paid for each registration.
36. Any free miner or miners may sell, mortgage, or dispose of his or their claims, provided
such disposal be registered with, and a fee of two dollars paid to the Mining Recorder, who shall
thereupon give the assignee a certificate in the form " J " in the schedule hereto.
37. Every free miner shall, during the continuance of his grant, have the exclusive right of
entry upon his own claim for the miner-like working thereof, and the construction of a residence
thereon, and shall be entitled exclusively to all the proceeds realized thereform, upon which, however, the royalty prescribed by these regulations shall be payable ; provided that the Mining Recorder may grant to the holders of other claims such right of entry thereon as may be absolutely
necessary for the working of their claims, upon such terms as may to him seem reasonable. He
may also grant permits to miners to cut timber thereon for their own use.
38. Every free miner shall be entitled to the use of so much of the water naturally flowing
through or past his claim, and not already lawfully appropriated, as shall, in the opinion of the
Mining Recorder, be necessary for the due working thereof, and shall be entitled to drain his own
claim free of charge.
39. A claim shall be deemed to be abandoned and open to occupation and entry by any person
when the same shall have remained' unworked on working days, excepting during the close season, by the grantee thereof or by some person on his behalf for the space of *seventy-two hours,
unless sickness or other reasonable cause be shown to the satisfaction of the Mining Recorder,
or unless the grantee is absent on leave given by the Mining Recorder, and the Mining Recorder,
upon obtaining evidence satisfactory to himself, that this provision is not being complied with; may
cancel the entry given for a claim.
40. If any cases arise for which no provision is made in these regulations, the provisions of
the regulations governing the disposal of mineral lands other than coal lands, approved by His
Excellency the Governor in Council on the 9th of November, 1889, or such other regulations as
may be substituted therefor, shall apply.
I (or we) .' of hereby
apply, under the Yukon Placer Mining Regulations, for a grant of a claim for placer minjng as
defined in the said regulations, in (here describe locality) and I (or we) solemnly swear :—
1. That from indications I (or we) have observed on the claim applied for, I (or we) have reason to believe that there is therein a deposit of gold.
2. That I (or we) am (or are) to the best of my (or our) knowledge and belief the first to ob-
3. That the said claim was previously granted to (here name the last grantee) but has remained unworked by the said grantee for not less than	
4. That I (or we) am (or are) unaware that the land is other than vacant Dominion Lands.
5.' That I (or we) did on the ..day of : mark
out on the ground, in accordance in every particular with the provisions of the mining regulations
for the Yukon District, the claim for which.I (or we) make this application, and in so doing I (or
we) did not encroach on any other claim or mining location previously laid out by any other
PerS6n'That the length of the said claim, as nearly as I (or we) could measure is feet,, and
that the description of this date hereto attached, signed by me (or us) sets (or set) forth in detail,
to the best of my (or our) knowledge and ability, its position.
7. That I (or we) make this application in' good faith, to acquire
pose of mining to be prosecuted by myself (or us) or by myself and a
Sworn before mel
tms::.V.V:.V.day <Si«Mtun') t52 REGULATIONS.
FORM I.—GRANT FOR PLACER MINING.
No	
Department of the Interior,
Agency 18	
In consideration of the payment of the  fee of fifteen dollars prescribed by clause 28 of
the mining regulations for the Yukon District, by (A. B.) of.-	
accompanying his (or their) application No dated 18        , for a mining claim in
 (here insert description of locality). '''-EipmEM
The Minister of Interior hereby grants to the said (A. B.) for the term of one
year from the date hereof, the exclusive right of entry upon the claim (here describe in
detail the claim granted) for the miner-like working thereof, and the construction of a residence
thereon, and the exclusive right to all the proceeds realized therefrom, upon which, however, the
royalty prescribed by the regulations shall be paid.
The.said (A. B.) shall be entitled to the use of so much of the water
naturally flowing through or past his (or their) claim, and not already lawfully appropriated, as
shall be necessary for the due working thereof, and to drain his (or their) claim, free of charge.
This grant does not convey to the said (A. B.). any right of ownership in
the soil covered by the said claim, and the said grant shall lapse and be forfeited unless the claim
is continuously and in good faith worked by the said (A. B.) . . or his (or their)
The rights hereby granted are those laid down in the aforesaid mining regulations, and no
more, and are subject to all the provisions of the said regulations, whether the same are
expressed herein or hot.
Mining Recorder.
FORM  J.—CERTIFICATE  OF  THE ASSIGNMENT  OF A PLACER  MINING  CLAIM.
No	
Department of the Interior,
Agency 18....
This is to certify that (B. C.) of has (or have) filed an assignment in due form dated 18        , and accompanied by a registration fee of two dollars,
of the grant to (A. B.) of of the right to mine in. . . .(here insert
description of claim) for one year from the 18.. . .
This certificate entitles the said (B. C.) to all the rights and privileges
of the said (A. B.) in respect to the claim assigned, that is to say, to the
exclusive right of entry upon the said claim for the miner-like working thereof and the construction of a residence thereon, and the exclusive right to all the proceeds realized therefrom (upon
which, however, the royalty prescribed by the regulations shall be paid) for the remaining portion of the year for which the said claim was granted to the said (A. B.)	
that is to say, until the day of 18....
The said (B. C.) shall be entitled to the use of so much of the water
naturally flowing through or past his (or their) claim, and not already lawfully appropriated, as
shall be necessary for the due working thereof and to drain his claim, free of charge.
This grant does not convey to the said (B.C.) any right of ownership
in the soil covered by the said claim, and the said grant shall lapse and be forfeited unless the
claim is continuously and in good faith worked by the said (B.C.) or his
(or their) associates.
The rights hereby granted are those laid down in the Yukon Placer Mining Regulations, and
no more, and are subject to all the provisions of the said regulations, whether the same are
expressed herein or not.
REGULATIONS
Mining Recorder
GOVERNING. THE ISSUE OF LEASES TO DREDGE FOR MINERALS IN THE BFDS
OF RIVERS IN THE PROVISIONAL DISTRICT. OF YUKON
NORTH-WEST TERRITORIES.
(Approved of by Order in Council No.-12$, of the iSth fanuary, i8ç8.)
The following regulations are adopted for the issue of leases to persons or companies who
have obtained a free miner's certificate in accordance with the provisions of the regulations governing placer mining in the Provisional .District of Yukon, to dredge for minerals other than coal
in the submerged beds or bars of rivers in the Provisional District of Yukon, in the North-west T.
REGULATIONS. 153
I. The lessee shall be given the exclusive right to subaqueous minmg and dredging for all
minerals with the except lonof coal in and along an unbroken extent of five miles of a river following its sinuosities, to be measured down the middle thereof, and to be described by the lessee in
such manner as to be easily traced on the ground; and although the lessee may also obtain as
many as five other leases, each for an unbroken extent of five miles of a river, so measured and
described, no more than six such leases will be issued in favour of an individual or company, so
that the maximum extent of river in and along which any individual or company shall be given the
exclusive right above mentioned, shall under no circumstances exceed thirty miles. The lease
shall provide for the survey of the leasehold under instructions from the Surveyor General, and
for the filing of the returns of survey in the Department of the Interior within one year from the
date of the lease.'
2. The lease shall be for a term of twenty years, at the end of which time all rights vested in
or which may be claimed by the lessee under his lease, are to cease and determine. The lease
may be renewable, however, from time to time thereafter in the discretion of the Minister of the
Interior.
3. The lessee's right of mining and dredging shall be confined t<
in the river below water mark, that boundary to be fixed by its posit
in the year of the date of the lease.
4. The lease shall be subject to the rights of all persons who have received or who may receive entries for claims under the Placer Mining Regulations.
5. The lessee shall have at least one dredge in operation upon the five miles of river leased
to him, within two seasons from the date of his lease, and if, during one season when operations
can be carried on, he fails to efficiently work the same to the satisfaction of the Minister of the
Interior, the lease shall become null and void unless the Minister of the Interior shall otherwise
decide. Provided that when any company or individual has obtained more than one lease, one
dredge for each fifteen miles or portion thereof shall be held to be compliance with this regulation.
6. The lessee shall pay a rental of $100.00 per annum for each mile of river so leased to him.
The lessee shall also pay to the Crown a royalty often per centum on the output in excess of $15,-
000.00, as shown by sworn returns to be furnished monthly by the lessee to the Gold Commissioner
during the period that dredging operations are being carried on ; such royalty, if any, to be paid
7. The lessee who is the holder of more than one lease shall be entitled to the exemption as
to royalty provided for by the next preceding regulation to the extent of $15,000.00 for each five
miles of river for which he is the holder of a lease ; but the lessee under one lease shall not be
entitled to the exemption as to royalty provided by the next two preceding regulations, where the
dredge or dredges used by him have been used in dredging by another lessee, or in any case in
respect of more than thirty miles.
8. The lessee shall be permitted to cut free of all dues, on any land belonging to the Crown,
such timber as may be necessary for the purposes of his lease, but such permission shall not extend to timber which may have been heretofore or may hereafter be granted to other persons or
9. The lessee shall not interfere in any way .with the general right of the public to use the
river in which he may be permitted to dredge, for navigation or other purposes ; the free navigation of the river shall not be impeded by the deposit of tailings in such manner as to form bars or
banks in the channel thereof, and the current or stream shall not be obstructed in any material
degree by the accumulation of such deposits.
10. The lease shall provide that anv person who has received or may receive entry under the
Placer Mining Regulations shall be enti'tled to .run tailings into the river at any point thereon, and
to construct all works which may be necessary for properly operating and working his claim. Provided that it shall not be lawful for such person to construct a wing-dam within one thousand feet
from the place where any dredge is being operated, nor to obstruct or interfere in any way with
the operation of any dredge.
II. The lease shall reserve all roads, ways, bridges, drains and other public works, and all
improvements now existing, or which may hereafter be made, in, upon or under auy part of the
river, and the power to enter and construct the same, and shall provide that the lessee shall not
damage or obstruct any public ways, drains, bridges-, works and improvements now or hereafter
to be made upon, in, over, through or under the river ; and that he will substantiaflSg|age or cover
and protect all the cuts, flumes, ditches and sluices, and all pits and dangerous places at all points
where they may be crossed by a public highway or frequented path or trail, to the satisfaction of
the Minister of the Interior. .
12. That the lessee, his executors, administrators or assigns shall n
or sublet the demised premises, or any part thereof, without the e
first had and obtained. ADVERTISEMENTS.
and
Miners
Prospectors'
Supplies
Nf^##^########^%
m?*r
#
CLOTHING, Sleeping Bag's, Dunnage Bags, Carrying Sleds»
Rifles, Revolvers, Cartridges, Powder, Shot, Gold  Belts, etc.
Plates, Knives, Forks, Spoons,
Butcher Knives.
Pans, Rope, Steel, Drills, Drilling
Hammers, Sledges, Picks, Mortars»
Axes, Saws, Grindstones, Bellows»
Forges, Crowbars, Oakum, Pitch, Axe,
Pick and Hammer Handles, etc., etc.
Rice Lewis & Son
(LIMITED)
COR. KING AND VICTORIA STS.
TORONTO
CANADA ADVERTISEMENTS. ii
The Grand Trunk
Railway System
Is the Quickest, Most Direct and Popular Route to the
KLONDIKE
AND
Yukon Gold Fields
fROM the Eastern part of Canada and the Eastern States travellers pass through the principal
cities and towns in Canada.and from New York and Pennsylvania States Passengers are
carried, via Niagara Falls, over the New Single Arch Double Track Steel Bridge which
spans the Niagara River and from which a full view of the Falls is obtained from the
train. All trains westbound pass through the thickly populated part of Canada, entering the
United States at Port Huron, travers' ig ihe states of Michigan, Indiana, and part of Illinois,
bringing the traveller to Chicago, the great commercial metropolis of the Western States, thence
via their connecting lines through a panorama splend.ir of scenery to the North Pacific Coast
(Victoria, B.C., Seattle, Wash., etc.), and.by ste, i_néï from there to Fort Wrangel, Dyea, etc.
Klondike pamphlets and maps, containing exhaustive descriptive matter as to the Yukon
district, and all information furnished upon application to any Grand Trunk Agent, or to
T. WYNNE, Travelling Passenger Agent, 19.; Washington St., Boston, Mass.
J. D. ricDONALD, City Passenger and Ticket Agent, 285 Main St., Buffalo, N.Y.
R. BUSHBY, Travelling Passenger Agent, Cortland, N.Y.
F. P. DWYER, Eastern Passenger Agent, 273 Broadway, New York, N.Y.
D. O. PEASE, District Ps&^OHger Agent, Hontreal.
M. C. DICKSON, D;_^'ict Passenger Agent, Toronto.
CHAS. 1*1. HAYS,       GEO. B. REEVE,     W. E. DAVIS,
General Hanager, General Traffic Manager,        Gen. Pass, and Tkt. Agt.
MONTREAL. MONTREAL. MONTREAL.
GEO. T.  BELL, E. H. HUGHES,
Asst. Gen. Pass, and Tkt. Agt. Asst. Gen. Pass, and Tkt, Agt.
MON 1 REAL. CHICAGO. ADVERTISEMENTS.
I
-YUKON SUPPLIES--
SUCH AS..,.
Evaporated Potatoes
Sliced Potatoes K)\ PACKED EXPRESSLY TO
Granulated Potatoes >Q< WITHSTAND  ADVERSE
Evaporated Onions H CLIMATIC CONDITIONS.
Evaporated Vegetables ()()      QUALITY THE BEST.
Compressed Soups (v)
Beef Bouillion, Etc. >(K PUT UP IN
Condensed Cream }(){ HERMETICALLY SEALED
Condensed Milk l/U   TINS and CONVENIENTLY
Condensed Coffee tyty     PORTABLE PACKAGES.
Condensed Cocoa
Concentrated Vinegar
We are Importers and Packers of
unquestionably the finest Tea
in Canada.    Black or Mixed.
KURMA TEA
PACKED ONLY IN AIR TIGHT LEAD PACKETS.
We can also quote on all lines of General Groceries as
required by Expeditionary parties.
WRITE VS....
-DAVIDSON & HAY
WHOLESALE GROCERS AND IMPORTERS
36 Yonge Street TORONTO, ONT. ADVERTISEMENTS.
There are many potent reasons why
you should bring an ample supply of
Abbey's Effervescent Salt with you to
the Klondike. Abbey's Effervescent Salt
is a regulator of health. Its use anywhere is beneficial. Its use in the Klondike will prevent Scurvy and Constipation. Scurvy is due to the use of
salt meat, bad water and imperfect
hygienic conditions, and especially to the
want of fresh vegetables or fruits. All
these causes and conditions exist in the
Klondike. The constituents of Abbey's
Effervescent Salt are such that its constant use will prevent this dreaded disease. The necessity for keeping the
system clear is also especially to be
considered   in   a   region   such   as   the
Klondike, where peculiar conditions exist which will bring about Constipation, by reason of the diet and the enforced irregularity of living in that
section.     Abbey's   Effervescent Salt is
absolutely without  equal  as  a  remedy
and   preventive   of   Constipation.    You
should carry at least a half-dozen bottles
(large size) with you for these reasons,
as well on account of its excellence, as
for  the   reason   that  a bottle  contains
from 40 to 50 doses, and its contents are
in the most compact granular form.
une   beneficial !
î salt contained '
in the juices of fresh fruits. These
salts are the foundation of «^ Ji
ABBEY'S EFFERVESCENT*
SALT. The scarcity of fresh
fruits in winter time makes Ab-
! bey's Effervescent Salt all!
• the more necessary to the '
5 health.
All   druggists   sell  this  standard J
* English preparation at 60c a li
^j bottle; trial size, 25c H_
Two   selections  from   numerous
Canadian endorsations :
The Canada Lancet: " This preparation deserves
every good word which is being said of it. There is no doubt but
that the daily use of Abbey's Effervescent Salt will be a great
preventive and aid in warding off attacks of disease."
J. A. S. Brunelle, M.D., CM., Montreal, Professor of Surgery, Laval University Medical
Faculty; Surgeon to the Hotel Dieu, etc., says :
ake care ot it ta your J
own interests. ABBEY'S EFFERVESCENT SALT is the*
best known regulator of health.
It's daily use will keep your
spirits bright and your health good
—keep you in a money- !
» making mood. All dtug- \
J gists sell this standard Eng- j
_ lish preparation at 60c a 2
■ large bottle ; trial size, 25c ■ ADVERTISEMENTS.
Klondike Outfits
JOHN  LECKIE
76 WELLINGTON ST. WEST,
, GRANVILLE ST., VANCOUVER, B.C. TORONTO
w
ATERPROOF DUCK SLEEPING BAGS
nd  sizes.
PURE WOOL BLANKETS,
Grey, 10 and 12 lbs. ; also Arctic Stockings.
W1NDPROOF DUCK  TENTS,
best  quality, any size  or   style made to  order.
WATERPROOF  CANVAS  BAGS,
to hold provisions, etc., any size made.
WATERPROOF  CANVAS  COVERS,
with   or without  tie  ropes, to protect  goods  on board boats,
waggons, sleighs, etc., any size.
DUNNAGE BAGS AND KNAPSACKS,
waterproof,   to   pack clothing, blankets, etc., best  styles.
WATERPROOF SHEETS, OILED WATERPROOF CLOTHING,
yellow or black, best in the  market.
CANVAS  WATER   BUCKETS,
mounted, with rope, etc.
CANVAS  FEED  BAGS  FOR HORSES, patent.
BOAT SAILS AND RIGGING, ROWLOCKS,   etc.
HANILLA AND TARRED ROPES, best quality, TACKLE BLOCKS, all sizes.
GUM BOOTS,
hip and knee, duck foundation, snag-proof, with and without
leather soles and heels, with hob nails, made specially for miners.
FISHING   NETS,
mounted, ready for use, any length.
FISHING LINES, TROLLING LINES,   HOOKS, SPOON  BAIT, ETC., ETC.
CAULKING COTTON, OAKUM, SEWING TWINES, NEEDLES, ETC., ETC.
N.B.==AI1 canvas goods above specified as waterproof are guaranteed
to be ABSOLUTELY WATERPROOF, and will neither mildew nor rot,
as these goods will not absorb moisture under any conditions and the
most intense cold will not cause them to crack.
Keep in stock Cotton Ducks from 14 inches to 72 inches wide, in
various weights and best qualities only.
... SEND  FOR PRICE LISTS ... 1%
ADVERTISEMENTS.
Canadian Goods for Canada's
...Klondike...
Mixed Pickles
Mustard Pickles
Chillie Sauce
Royal Club Sauce
Tomato Catsup
BRANDS
Jams aud Jellies
Marmalade
Mince Meat
Maple Syrup
Maple Sugar
Raspberry Yinegar ■
Lytle's Standard Vinegars ^i
ENGLISH AND CANADIAN  MALT
WHITE  WINE  AND   CIDER
)m Are Unsurpassed
All goods  carefully prepared for Klondike shipment.
Insist  on   your  grocer   supplying  these   goods  and
TAKE   NO OTHERS
W. A. LYTLE &  CO.
MANUFACTURERS
TORONTO,   ONT. ADVERTISEMENTS.
IV|in,ers' Supplies.
The Largest Stock of Hardware in Canada, Including the Following Requisite Articles, Endorsed
by this Official Guide:
Repeating Rifles.
Winchester Rifles.
Winchester Cartridges.
Klondike Picks.
Prospecting Picks.
Chisels.
Oakum.
Gold Pans.
Poll Picks.
Axes.
Shovels.
Pocket Knives.
Dirks.
Gold Miners' Scales.
Miners' Loops or Magnifying Glasses.
Web Belts.
Money Belts.
Pack Straps.
Shot Guns.
Smith & Wesson Revolvers.
Iver Johnson Revolvers.
U.M.C. Loaded Shells.
Drifting Picks.
Pocket Compasses.
Cutting Chisels.
Klondike   Boat Caulking
Irons.
Hammers.
Handsaws.
Rowlocks.
Planes.
Augers.
Butcher Knives.
Table Cutlery.
Sheaths and Belts.
Whipsaws.
Tiller and Box.
Packed, Ready for Carrying, in Small Boxes.
Caverhill, Learmont & Co., 'SSSSof'
% ADVERTISEMENTS..
THIS ADVERTISEMENT is specially
directed  to all  persons going  to the
•_^
i
71
i
7i
ta
1
1
loidffl
f^ T is a well known fact that the climate there is more
"▼" severe in every way than our own, and any person
^^ going there insufficiently protected T2 f\ f\ j
from the cold and bitter winds is a ■** i *-^ ^ "^
and only goes to suffer untold hardships of which the
ordinary mortal has little conception. At this point our
Company comes to the front with our world-renowned
Fibre Chamois, which we claim is the only positive protection that has or can be offered to the traveller going to
that region of ice and snow. We claim that it is impossible for the cold winds to penetrate clothing lined with
Fibre Chamois, and the same properties prevent the heat
of your body from escaping, thus keeping you warm and
comfortable. Our Fibre Chamois Blankets are the acme
of perfection for that trip. Why pay transportation on an
extra 8 or io lb. blanket when you can get more solid
protection and heat from our blanket weighing i| lbs.,
thus saving about 8 lbs. straight. Take your pencil and
figure what it will cost you to take 8 lbs. of extra, useless
freight to the Klondike; enquire the cost of a Fibre
Chamois. Blanket and see  what  you  are  saving.
VOU   CAN  GET these goods in the  celebrated Righy
Waterproofed make if you want it, at about same price.
See that our Star Label is on each blanket, and, if your dealer has not the
blankets, buy two yards of the genuine Fibre Chamois and make^them
yourself in about ten
For Sale at all Leading Dry Goods Stores
Price 25 cents per  yard ADVERTISEMENTS.
Wabash Railroad
If you arc contemplating a trip to the
Klondike. poi„aT„ .Alaska
please consider the merits of the great Wabash Railway. The short and true route via Detroit and
Chicago, to all the Gold Fields in the Far North.
The Wabash with its superb and magnificent
train service is now acknowledged to be the most
perfect railway system in America; the only line in
Canada running the celebrated free chair car. All
trains run solid from Buffalo to Chicago, passing \
through St. Catharines, Hamilton, Woodstock, Lon- '
don and Chatham. i
Time Tables,  Maps and  all   information   cheer- '
fully  furnished   on   application   to Wabash   Railroad «
Office,  North East Corner King  and Yonge  Street, '
Toronto. i
C.  S.  CRANE J.
General Passenger and Ticket Agent
H.  V.  P. TAYLOR
Assistant General Passenger and Ticket Agen
St. Louis, Mo.
RICHARDSON
Canadian Passenger Agent
N,E, Cor. King and Yonge Sts.
Toronto, Ont. ADVERTISEMENTS.
Vimbod
FLUID
BEEF
(Ox-Strength  in  a Tea  Cup)
Klondike Expeditions Need That
The ideal package for this purpose is our 16 OZ. Tin with
Penny=lever Top, which can be opened -and closed without injury to  the tin or  contents.
The  most convenient   and  economical package;
makes 60 cups of Fluid Beef.
Best_a_
For Strength and Flavor
Vimbos Fluid Beef is prepared in Edinburgh, Scotland,
and is  guaranteed   to   be   of prime   quality.
It will   pay  you  to   write  for quotations before   laying
in supplies.  .
Tie llimlias Fluid Beef Co., Limited, of Edinburgh and LondM
CANADIAN OFFICE:
HENRY WOODLEY, JTanager.        53 St. Francois Xavier St., MONTREAL. ADVERTISEMENTS.
E. Q. PRIOR & CO.
LIMITED LIABILITY
VICTORIA -- BRITISH COLUMBIA
Established 1859
IRON,  HARDWARE, WAGONS, SLEIGHS
Miners'Outfits a Specialty
WE CARRY A VERY HEAVY STOCK OF ALL KINDS OF
AXES GRANITE WARE ROCKER  IRONS
AUGERS HAMMERS ROPE
CHISELS HATCHETS ROWLOCKS
COOKING UTENSILS ICE CREEPERS SAWS
COMPASSES KNIVES SHOVELS
EYE PROTECTORS NAILS SLEIGHS
FILES OAKUM STEEL
FRY PANS PITCH STOVES
GOLD PANS PICKS TALLOW
GOLD SCALES PLANES ETC., ETC., ETC.
 We  have been outfitting miners, for the Cariboo, Cassiar and
Yukon Gold Fields for the last 30 odd years, and therefore know exactly
what style of goods are required and how they should be packed.
Buy from us and Save 30 per Cent. Duty
which you will have to pay on your outfits if • you buy in Seattle or
San Francisco. We make no charge for packing, and we furnish free
of charge all Custom House Papers which are necessary for passing
into the Yukon.
We  call   miners' attention  specially to our "MASCOT"
SLEIGH, which is the only Sleigh endorsed by
experienced Yukon Miners.
CALL AND INSPECT OUR GOODS AT
Cor. Government and Johnston Sts., Victoria, B.C. ADVERTISEMENTS.
iÈ
THE STROHMAYR
..PATENT SLEEPING BAG..
GILLESPIE, ANSLEY & DIXON, Toronto, Can.
_5th Jan.
1898.
Sleep.
made by 67
Ansley & Dixon ofT
ronto,
and con
ideritaconv
ement,
GILLESPIE,   !
ANSLEY &
DIXON
Nos. 54 and 56
Wellington
Street West      I
TORONTO, Can.
difficulty;!
A practical and proper sleeping- bag- has
offered in Canada until we submitted the. "
Patent Sleeping Bag." '
The fault of sleeping bags has been ths
keeping them sweet and  clean.    When
used, it has been possible to pull them inside out, but
most all are too bulky, especially when a fur lining has
In the " Strohmayr Bag" you pull a few buttons, and
you no longer have a sleeping bag, but in its place you
have a large fur rug, with new uses for camp comfort.
This sleeping bag has to be seen to be appreciated, for
nothing so good, so clean, or so warm has been produced before. It is made up with outside cover of waterproof, also wind-proof duck, lined with Dog, a fur perfectly adapted for the purpose, being short and strong.
We are also showing a very complete line of Klondike supplies at best possible prices, as follows :—
Yukon Bag, regulation shape, with any lining, laced
up front with Hood.
Wolf Robe, 8x9 feet, as used by Mounted   Police.
Natural Black Dog Coat, with Capot.
Coon Coat, with Capot.
Duck Pea Coat, lined with Spotted Dog, Natural
Black Dog or Sheep-.Skin.
Wolf or Muskrat Band, Duck Top Klondike Cap.
All Muskrat Klondike Caps.
Cloth Caps, plainer with patent Eye Protectors..
"Mattassàna Buffalo Moccasins, waterproof,- and will ADVERTISEMENTS.
Klondike : Complete : Outfit
-COMPRISING-
"ALASKA BRAND" EIDERDOWN SLEEPING BAGS
(WATERPROOF)
DUCK AND MACINAW CLOTHING
Such as we supplied to Canadian Government exploring parties, Including Hon. Mr. Sifton
and Major Walsh's, and Northwes^ Mounted Police for the Yukon.
d Wholesale by
JAMES ^. WOODS
...75 Queen Street..
OTTAWA, Ont...
Lumbermen's
Supplies
Prospector's Waterproof Rawhide Boot, Laced on Side
SEND FOR CATALOGUE
Toronto Office   -     85 King Street West
(DR. JAEGERS)
Montreal Office. . -   -   -    290 Guy Street
Vancouver, B.C. Office - 536 Hastings St.
J. F. CARRUTHERS, Agent ADVERTISEMENTS. xiv
| P. Navigation Co. TSISSi3
LIMITED
VANCOUVER  ROUTE.
Victoria to Vancouver—Daily, except Monday, at i o'clock.
Vancouver to Victoria—Daily, except Monday, at 13.15 o'clock, or on arrival of C.P.R. No. 1 train.
NEW WESTMINSTER ROUTE.
Leave Victoria for New Westminster, Ladner's and Lulu Island—Sunday at 23 o'clock ; Wednesday and Friday at 7 o'clock. Sunday's steamer to New Westminster connects with
C.P.R. train No. 2 going East Monday.
For Plumper Pass—Wednesday and Friday at 7 o'clock.
For Moresby and Pender Islands—Friday at 7 o'clock.
Leave New Westminster for  Victoria—Monday at 13.15 o'clock; Thursday and Saturday at
For Plumper Pass—Thursday and Saturday at 7 o'clock.
For Pender and Moresby Islands-—Thursday at 7 o'clock.
NORTHERN ROUTE.
Steamships of this Company will leave for Fort Simpson and intermediate ports, via Vancouver,
the 1st and 15th of each month at 8 o'clock.    And for Skidegate on first of each month.
BARCLAY SOUND ROUTE.
Steamer Tees leaves Victoria for Alberni and Sound Ports the 10th, 20th and 30th of each month.
KLONDIKE ROUTE.
Steamers leave weekly for Wrangel, Juneau, Dyea and Skagway.
The Company reserves the right of changing this Time Table at any time without notification.
JOHN  IRVING, Manager.
G. A. CARLETON, General Agent.
Victoria, Feb. 1st.
Christie's Klondike Biscuits
^h        Are put  up  in   twenty-five  pound   tin-lined   cases
^i only.      They  are   the  most   suitable   biscuits   for
•"^ prospectors   or campers  ever  made.
CHRISTIE, BROWN & CO.
Price Reasonable biscuit  manufacturers
We are the only makers TORONTO,  CANADA
Canadian Mining Stocks and Properties
Investments Made or Investigated.
Any Information Desired will be Cheerfully and Promptly
Furnished  by the  Undersigned.
SECRETARY OF E    STRACHAN  COX
THE   DIAMOND JUBILEE STQCK AND   gHARE  BR0KER
MINERAL   DEVELOPMENT
COHPANY, Limited
9 Toronto Street     -    =    -    Toronto, Ont.
Cable Address-" REVELYN " Codes Used-BEDFORD-McNEIL and M0RE1NQ & NEAL
m ADVERTISEMENTS.
Wellington
Goal ....
Vi/
The Best Household Coal
on the Pacific Coast,
nined only by
R. Dunsmuir & Sons,
VICTORIA, B.C. WELLINGTON, B.C.
H
I
II
u
m
HEAD OFFICE;
COMAX COAL
The Best Steam Goal on the Pacific Coast
MINED  ONLY  BY
The Union Colliery Co. of B.C.
LIMITED LIABILITY
Head Office—VICTORIA, B.C. COMAX,  B C.
COMAX COKE
The only Coke manufactured in British Columbia
MANUFACTURED   BY
The Union Colliery Co., Comax, B.C.
HEAD OFFICE, VICTORIA, B.C. ADVERTISEMENTS.
CONCENTRATED FOODS
PREPARED   BY
BOVRIL
LIMITED
These Goods are Indispensable
i KLONDIKE EXPLORER'S OUTFIT.
ind Strength Producing Foods, the best ii
They are all Health Preserving
who require great physical endurani
BOVRIL in tins
Is simply Pure Beef in its most concentrated form, and ready for immédiat*
CARTRIDGE RATIONS
Packed in Tins, with Rounded Ends, and Opener Attached.
BLUE.
Length    -    -    -    -
Gross Weight     -     14^ c
As supplied for the use of the Troops in the late Ashanti and Benin Expedi
Independent State of the Congo, etc., etc.
BLUE OR RED RATION
Containing in one compartment same as in the Cartridge Ration, and a C
preparation in another compartment.
RED.
» Length
s Weight
As supplied for the
e of the Troops in the Ashanti and Benin Expediti
BACON RATION
Made  from  Pure Irish Ba
weighing tin and all, 9 c
In addi
the following other foo<
DRIED VEGETABLES    -   -    DRIED POTATOES
DRIED ONIONS   -   DRIED TURNIPS, Ete.
With all their Original Flavor Retained, and packed in Self-opening Tins.
Lime Juiee Nodules
In the oackag-ing- of these goods the minimum in bulk and weight has been secured, and they
s therefore ?hemo?t convenient of all food supplies for Prospectors, Explorers or Surveyors
I Manufactured
BOVRIL
SO Fapringdon Street
LONDON, ENGLAND
27 St. Peter Street
MONTREAL, CANADA ADVERTISEMENTS.
The Merchants Bank of Halifax
INCORPORATED 1
Capital Paid Up, $1,500,000.00 Rest, $1,175,000.00
HEAD OFFICE HALIFAX, NOVA SCOTIA
THOS. E. KENNY, President D. H. DUNCAN, Cashier
Branches in the Province of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince
Edward Island, Quebec  and   British  Columbia, and  at  St. Johns, Nfld.
BANKERS AND CORRESPONDENTS
London  Bank of Scotland   |   San Francisco Hong Kong and Shanghai Bkg. Cor'pn
a and Japan.'.'.'.'.'.Hong Kong and Shanghai Bkg. Cor]
A General Banking Business Transacted.
Sterling Bills of Exchange Bought and Sold.
Letters of Credit, etc., Negotiated.
Money Deposited with the Bank of Scotland, Bishopsgate Street, London, can be Transferred by Draft, Letter of Credit or Cable to any Branch of this Bank.
BRANCHES IN BRITISH COLUHBIA
VANCOUVER    =    =     NELSON     =    -    =    ROSSLAND
Lockerby Bros.«H$H$H$®
TEA IMPORTERS AND
WHOLESALE GROCERS
.Klondike Supplies a Specialty.
Full Line of Evaporated and Desiccated
Vegetables.
Canned Meats, Fruits and Vegetables.
Nos, 77 and 79 ST. PETER STREET
and 51 and S3 ST. SACRAMENT STREET
— Montreal, P.Q. Y\
ADVERTISEMENTS. .    xviii
i •* Special Klondike Clothing
"ROOSTER pi>AMf.„
Rubberized
Duck Coats
..and Pants
Lined With Mackinaw Rain and Wind Proof.
Light,  Warm and Durable.
The Best Possible Klondike Suit.
Mackinaw Jackets, Pants, Drawers, etc.
Specially Made for Klondike.
Extra Comfortable Shirts of Every Kind and Description.
Extra Strong Riveted Overalls and Jumpers
Specially Made for Miners.
Every " ROOSTER  BRAND " Garment is the Best of the Kind.
MANUFACTURED BY
Robert C. Wilkins
198 flcGill Street, MONTREAL
OUTFITTER   FOR THE KLONDIKE ADVERTISEMENTS.
Klondike Goods t»-»-»-»-»-»-»-»-»-»-
Beal Bros.
 MAKE	
HAIR LINED  BOOTS> moccasins, larrigans,
^ SHOEPACKS AND LEGGINGS.
nil    TATVMPn   MOCCASINS,   LARRIGANS,   BOOTS
U1L   ÎAIMMKU  and LEGGINQSi
MINERS' BOOTS OF ALL KINDS.
LUMBERMEN'S BOOTS OF ALL KINDS.
t  REQUIRED IN FOOTWEAR FOR
...KLONDIKE, MINERS' OR LUMBERHEN'S TRADE....
BEAL BROS.
TANNER5 AND LEATHER MERCHANTS
52 Wellington Street East  . ...Toronto,   Ontario
POLSIN
\ili\
TORONTO,
CANADA.
MANUFACTURERS I
ENGINES!:
■ AND -WiRSsIl
BOILERS
-FOR EVERY SERVICE.!.' ADVERTISEMENTS. xx
<£ A Liberal and a Conservative Policy for Canada
SUCH IS THE FREE ACCUMULATION
POLICY OF THE
.. Royal =Victoria..
Life Insurance Company
Head Office MONTREAL Capital $1,000,000
A Liberal Policy Under Conservative Management
The Best for the Insured and Best for the Company
LIBERAL ADVANTAGES OF THE FREE
ACCUMULATION POLICY
1st.. Freedom of occupation including: military or naval service in the defence of Canada.
2nd. Freedom of residence (excepting: in the tropics).     S^MîM
3rd. Freedom of travel (excepting: in the tropics).
4th. Incontestable with above exceptions.
5th. Indisputable if premiums paid and age admitted.
6th. Incorrect AGE DOES NOT forfeit the policy.
7th. Paid up Insurance after three years.
8th. Loans on the policy after three years at 6 per cent, interest.
9th. 30 days grace for payment of premiums, policy, continued in force during: grace.
10th. Re-instatement of policy within six months.
nth. Immediate payment of death claims on satisfactory proofs of death.
12th. Policy payable in Canada in the currency of Canada.
BOARD OF DIRECTORS
JAMES CRATHERN, Esq., Director Cana
of Commerce.
HON.  SIR J. A. CHAPLEAU, K.C.M.G.
Prov. Quebec, Vice-President Credit Fon
ANDREW F. GAULT,  Esq.,  Director B
Montreal.
HON.   L.   J.   FORGET,   President  Mont,
Railway Co.
JONATHAN HODGSON,  Esq.,  Director
Bank of Canada.
HON. JAMES O'BRIEN,  Director City :
T. G. RODDICK, Esq., M.P., President Britisl
JOHN CASSILS, Esq., Director Merchants
SAMUEL FINLEY, Esq., Director of Molsc
REV. R. H. WARDEN, D.D., General Aj
Treasurer Presbyterian Church in Canada.
GASPARD LeMOINE, Esq., Director Quebe.
DAVID MORRICE, Esq., Director Canadian
OFFICERS OF THE COMPANY
President, JAMES CRATHERN
Vice-Presidents, HON. SIR J. A. CHAPLEAU, ANDREW F. GAULT.
Medical Director, T. G. RODDICK, M.D.
Treasurer and Acting Secretary, C. J. HODGSON.
General Manager, DAVID BURKE, A.I.A,, F.S.S.
For Agencies or Information concerning Life Policies or Annuities apply
to the HEAD OFFICE, MONTREAL.
m ADVERTISEMENTS.
Miners' KLONDIKE Outfits
When in Montreal Visit our Warerooms
MÊmm
BE^
Sleeping Bags, Dunnage Bags, Oiled Clothing, Waterproof Sheets,
Klondike Boots, Fishing Tackle, Canvas, Bope, Blocks, Kit-Bags,
, Knapsacks, Belts, Packstraps, Rubber Goods, Hammocks.
• Eider-down Sleeping» Bags and Hoods. (These are the best for cold weather). J
We have fitted out a great number bound for the Gold Fields, and our goods have been used by
it expeditions and have given entire satisfaction.
We h
ried s
• TENTS—(Our own special make), double or single as required.    Finished specially for hard usage.
MINERS' TOOLS—The latest on the market.
FOLDING STOVES (with cooking utensils of all kinds).
Shot Guns, Revolvers, Rifles—See our latest, Rifle and Shot Gun combined.
Headquarters—34 and 36 Victoria Square
MONTREAL, CANADA.
The "Sonne" Awning Jent and Tarpaulin Co.
MANUFACTURERS AND IMPORTERS.
1 ADVERTISEMENTS.
K
EMP'S .**
OOTENAY      SUPPLES
LONDIKE    *
Granite, Steel or Tin Cooking Utensils, Gold Pans, Etc.
Kemp Manufacturing Company
Tl
Ename
led
Sheel
fletal Ware,
Stamped Steel Ware,
Steel
Kitchen
Si
iks,
Stan
ped T
n Ware, Household Qoods,
Gal va
nizers
Copper
Goods,
Machit
îe Oilers, Etc.
	
TORONTO,
CANADA
y ADVERTISEMENTS.
How to Go! When to Go! What to Take! Where to Outfit!
For advice on all these important matters, and for purchasing supplies
of best quality at lowest prices, with suitable packing for the journey,
go to the Pioneer Outfitters of British Columbia.
OPPENHEIMER BROS., u. ||
IMPORTERS, WHOLESALE GROCERS AND
MINERS' OUTFITTERS
J 00 and  J 02 Powell St, Vancouver, B.C.
"Who have had" 35 years' practical experience in outfitting miners and survey
parties. The most reliable information cheerfully afforded. Get our circular
and give us the address of your friends to whom we will mail it free of charge.
Remember that goods purchased in Canada are admitted into the Klondike free,
of duty.     American goods must pay duty.
M. R. SMITH & CO.
BISCUIT MANUFACTURERS
VICTORIA, B.C.
Established 1858.
We make a Special Biscuit for the Klondike, carefully prepared with finest vegetables
in a condensed form and packed in tins. This is an excellent food for mining- camps and those
taking long journeys.    Our Dog Biscuits are the cheapest and best in the market. • Try them.
SSrTlùs is the largest  biscuit   factory in Western  Canada.
Awarded Three Cold tyedals and Six Silver tyedals at B.C. Exhibitions. Awarded Medal an.d Diploma at Colonial
and Indian. Exhibition, London, England, 1896.   Contractors to H.M. Navy, the Dominion Government, etc.
ALUMINUM GAMP COOKING OUTFITS ^-^
C. T CHRISTIE S (
I n
ADVERTISEMENTS.
NEW- Latest Great Scientific Discovery
..AIR
Harnessed and
Compressed
Scientists Puzzled.
Scientists Converted.
Proved Practical.
155 H.P. Plant Installed.
Cheap Installation.
Last a Life-time.
No Repairs.
No Attendance.
Constant Pressure.
Air 5 Times Drier Than
Atmosphere.
Can be Transmitted
Many Miles at Small
Loss.
Send for Particulars to Ttje
Taylor Hydraulic
Air Compressing
Company Limited
Temple Bldg., MONTREAL, Can.
or The Taylor Air
Compressing
Company R|
SPOKANE, WASH., U.S.
The Taylor j..
Hydraulic....
Air Compressor ADVERTISEMENTS.
KLONDIKE CANOES
OC<XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX>C<>0<XXXX>0<>
OUR   CATALOGUE   COVERS
EVERYTHING  THAT  FLOATS
TAKE A DIP INTO IT
<XXXX>O<XXXXXXXXXXXXXX>0<XX><>0O0C>00
The Peterborough
Canoe Company
Peterborough, = Ont., Can.
THE LEADING MANUFACTURERS
OF ALL KINDS
Canoes
....SKIFFS....
STEAM LAUNCHES
And any Craft that Floats
Tents, Camp Furniture
and Camp Equipage
We have been building Canoes for
rir, W. Ogilvie and other Government
Explorers since 1884.
Send  for our  CATALOGUE, and  send
in your Order.
W. H. HILL, President
J. Z. ROGERS, Manager ADVERTISEMENTS.
KLONDIKE
Outfit and start from VANCOUVER
because    <£    <&    *g
1. VanCOUVer   is the nearest port to Alaska.
2. VanCOUVer   goods are the Cheapest and Best on the Coast.
3      VsnPOUVPr   goods pay no Customs Duties, being Canadian
—^—«__________        make, and the Klondike being in Canada.
JEL     VflnrnilVPI*    Merchants have long experience of the North-
 ! " ern Trade,  and,   having gone through the
Cassiar and Cariboo rushes, know how to outfit and pack
their goods. *^P1I|
*5      VfUlPnilVPP   runs  its own  Steamers,  and all north-going
_J ____«__        Steamers as well call at Vancouver.
fi      VatlPnilVPI*   *s ^e on^y Canadian Port where Passengers
* :__^^_,        can step direct from Train into Steamer.
T     Vn nPnilUPt*    Freight is last on board, and first disembarked.
Practical men know the value of this pointer.
8      VflllPnilVPf*   is a place o'f issue of Miners' Licenses.    Those
* who  pass    Vancouver   without  a   Miner's
License cannot get one till they reach Dawson City.
^**Maps and Information Free from
W. GODFREY,
President Board of Trade,
VANCOUVER, BRITISH COLUMBIA. ADVERTISEMENTS.
Shorey's Patent
Blizzard Résister Suits
Made under Patent No. 1062
are the Most Comfortable
Garments Sold.
Shorey's Miners' Suit
Hade in all Shades
of riackinaw,
Warmly Lined,
With or Without
Capot,
Also in Khaki Duck.
These Goods can be
Purchased at
Vancouver - = B. C.
Victoria
Kamloops
Ashcroft
Nanaimo
Glenora
ejAOREV^
KLONDYKE
SHIRT
Shorey's Arctic Suit
Made in all Shades
of Heavy JTackinaw,
With or Without
Capot.
These Goods  can
be Purchased at
Edmonton,    N.W.T.
Calgary "
Prince Albert    |
Winnipeg flan.
and all Eastern
Towns.
..See that Shorey's Guarantee Card is in the Pocket of Every Garment.. ADVERTISEMENTS.
gook's Friend
Baking Powder
<j£ <ê£ <j£
Equal in Purity to the Purest*
All Ingredients Perfectly Healthful
Regular Grade put up in Cartoons*
^fcvljf " *^     ^     ^
Extra Quality.
Highest Leavening Power Attainable
In Tin Cans Only.
feâ»    <=£     «£$•
UNIFORMLY EXCELLENT QUALITY for over THIRTY
YEARS has enabled the COOK'S FRIEND to
maintain the HIGHEST POSITION
IN   THE   ESTIMATION    OF
CONSUMERS.
NO BETTER BAKING  POWDER CAN BE MADE.
^t <M <M <M
PREPARED   ONLY   BY
W. D. MeLAREN, Montreal
PROPRIETOR OF THE  TRADE  MARK.
On Sale by the Trade everywhere. ^londil^e Outfitters Take Jlotice. ADVERTISEMENTS.
Complete Outfits.
Groceries and Provisions for Mining
and Exploring Expeditions
Packed in 50 lb. bags or packages, and compressed to the
smallest possible compass.    (See Mr. Ogilvie's Report.) j^j*
Ol tr StlPCfaltV    's Evaporated Vegetables  and Fruits absolutely free from
^ '     moisture, and warranted to retain their natural flavor and
properties in any climate, including- :
APpks
picots
peaches
Pt«nes
Etc.
WE
Coffee
Cocoa
«^Condensed and Solidified Soups, Bouillons, Beef Extracts and Fluid Beef, Etc.
Every description Canned Fruit, Vegetables, Meat, Fish, Beans, Pork, Flour,
Honey, Etc.
Buy at Headquarters and SA VE MONEY.
WARREN BROS. & CO.,
Wholesale Grocers and Importers,   -   35 & 37 Front St. L, TORONTO, CANADA. ADVERTISEMENTS.
ITumfortable Klondike iTlothing
Is the appropriate name of the numerous
lines made specially for
THE KLONDIKE TRADE
Hudson  Bay Knitting Company  of  Montreal
TH VfH ^ are manafactafei's °f a number of   PATENT lines which  are
^\J-t    especially  adapted for that trade,  as well as heavy Duck and
Mackinaw Clothing,  Leather, Corduroy   and  Moleskin Jackets^
with heavy fur lining, and including everything required for
Complete Clothing Outfits
Those intending   to seek their   fortunes   in   Klondike should   see our   lines
before making purchases elsewhere.
OTTAWA AGENT—J. W. WOODS
THE  ALASKA  EIDERDOWN  SLEEPING  BAG  is 'way  ahead  of  a«
others—the only perfect bag on the market for Klondike climate.
Controlled by J. W. Woods and ourselves.
SATISFACTION  GUARANTEED
Hudson Bay Knitting Go.
... MONTREAL... ADVERTISEMENTS.
Incorporated by Letters Patent for the Dominion of Canada
The Yukon
Company
HON. JAS. J. QUERIN
* PRESIDENT
of MONTREAL, Limited
Capital, (subject to increase) $40,000.00
Shares, $10.00 Each
This Company has sent ten men into the Yukon
District to take up and to work placer mining claims.
It has secured the concession to dredge for gold
in twenty-five miles of the North Saskatchewan River.
It has also secured quartz mining privileges in
the Yukon District.
The Company has made contracts with its envoyées, dated August 8th, 1897, and with its promoters dated January 31st, 1898.
A limited amount of stock will be sold.
Apply to the President, 909 Dorchester Street,
MONTREAL. j
Every citizen in Canada should make an effort to
secure a portion of the golden inheritance of which
this country has become possessed within the last year.
If he cannot go himself, he should invest some
money with some company to send now, and take up
claims in the Yukon District.
Intending shareholders may send for Prospectus. ADVERTISEMENTS.
...Scurvy
in the
Klondike ! ! !
USE
MONTSERRAT Lime Fruit Juice.
It is a universally acknowledged fact that
MONTSERRAT Lime Fruit Juice
is the only pure article of its kind on the market, it
is also the ONLY kind of Lime Juice supplied to the
British Army and Royal Navy.
MONTSERRAT LIME FRUIT JUICE is a certain preventive of that fatal and most dreaded of all diseases,
SCURVY, and no wise man ought to go to the Klondike
without a good supply of
Montserrat Lime Fruit Juiee
AND	
Montserrat Lime Fruit Tablets
SOLE  CONSIGNEES:
Evans & Sons, Limited,
Wholesale
Druggists
Jean Baptiste Street, - HONTREAL, » CANAnA
23 Front Street West, - TORONTO, / TjJjfrJ
137 Pearl Street,       -        -        BOSTON, MASS. ADVERTISEMENTS.
CANOES AND BOATS
FOR
SURVEYORS AND PROSPECTORS
Capacity 800 to 6,000 pounds.
12 to 25 feet long.
Dean's Sectional Canoes
Saves 75 per cent. Freight Charges.
Occupies One-third the Space.
Read Mr. Ogilvie's Testimony of Canoe shipped to him.
February ist, 1898.
Mr. Walter Dean,  1751 Queen St. West.
Dear Sir,—I have examined your Sectional Canoe, and consider it convenient
and serviceable for those travelling to the Klondike.
Yours truly, W. Ogilvie.
WALTER DEAN, 1751 Queen St. W., TORONTO, «*
Send for Catalogue.
Telephone 543é.
L_ ADVERTISEMENTS.
TheC.Turnbull
Company
za^Of GALT, Limited
MANUFACTURERS OF
41* *5* *gh 41* 41* 4* 4* 41* 41* 4*
Men's Full Fashioned
Lambs'WooU£
Underclothing
Special Lines for the Klondike
3 ply Extra Heavy Shirts and Drawers .
3 ply Extra Heavy Sweaters in Colors .
2 ply Shetland and   Natural   Shirts  and Drawers.
Made in all sizes up to 50 inches.
All our goods have Woven Label
J   WARRANTED TURNBULL'S   J
J FULL FASHIONED. J
If your dealer cannot supply these goods, write us direct.
THE C. TURNBULL CO., Limited      GALT, ONT. ADVERTISEMENTS.
w* MAPLE LEAF SAW WORKS *
GALT, ONTARIO, CANADA
Highest Award at the
World's Columbian
■ Exhibition, Chicago,
1893	
All of our MAPLE LEAF
SAWS are tempered under
our Secret Process, which
toughens and refines the steel.
It gives a finer and keener
cutting edge and will hold
it twice as long as any other
'We are the only
i  the  World   using
SHURLY & DIETRICH, Gait, Ontario ADVERTISEMENTS.
PATENTS
DESIGNS
©wen 1R. £\>ans
parent attorney
(Foreign Hember Chartered Institute Patent Agents, England)
Successor to the late F. H. REYNOLDS
TRADE MARKS
TEMPLE   BUILDING, St. James St.
MONTREAL
COPYRIGHTS
"you're Not Going-?
■*■ Then why not make
-X-.4MORE  MONEY H-
At home by using a
National Cash Register
Ask any of the 140,000 USePS
What leaks they stop
What mistakes they prevent
What a pleasure they are
GEO. I. RIDDELL, Sales Agent
Hossin. Block, King St. W.,    -   Toronto
™ D. PIKE S
LIMITED
TENTS and AWNINGS
SPECIALTIES :
Miners' and Prospectors' Outfits
  Yukon should call and see
:d   for   both   water and  overland
with Dunnage Bags, Sleeping Bags, in fact
everythi
123 KING ST. EAST
TORONTO, CANADA
Special Safes
for  the  mining-
districts—to meet
the special
requirements  of
miners and
mining companies.
$ J. & J. Taylor
Toronto Safe Works
Head Office—Toronto,  Ont.
Warerooms at Montreal,  Que.
Winnipeg,  Man.
Vancouver, B.C.
•-V^'%^%%^/%^%^^'%^V%'%%'»
IN THE KLONDIKE.
You want warmth without weight.
Our system of clothing provides it.
was fitted out by "Jaeger" Co. and
tested their woollen clothing in  late
North Pole Expedition.    See his verdict in " Farthest
North."    We can supply you with same garments.
Send for Illustrated Price List to
WREYFORD & CO.,
NANSEN
JAEGER DEPOT
85 KING ST. W.
TORONTO xxxvii ADVERTISEMENTS. •
The"Slater Mining Boot" j
for Prospectors, Miners, Explorers, Hunters, <f
Weight 24 ozs., wears like wire.
Made of Rawhide, mineral tanned to resist water, never hardens nor cracks.
Laced clear to 15 in. top, with waterproof bellows tongue, waterproof Horsehide
Sole, cone hob nailed. Extra strong Goodyear Welt.
Takes place of rubbers for all wear.
Two pairs of Rawhide Laces with every
pair of boots.
Money can't buy finer, lighter, stronger
Boots' Stamped on sole—$8.00— J
Sold by Slater agents, or the J&y
makers, •    jJmjr'''.'■■
Geo. T. Slater        ^^%'_
& Sons £31l     ^^»
MONTREAL, Can<^^^^g«^^^^^
L
KLONDIKE-YUKON.
"TELFORD  SYNDICATE."
This Company is under the personal management of Mr. E. M. Telford, whose two
years' experience in Dawson City makes him particularly adapted to prospect and
mine in this country. Mr. Telford, with party fully equipped, leaves for the Klondike
early in March. No stock will be offered to the public till claims have been acquired
and reported on. Intending .investors will do well to keep the " Telford Syndicate **
jn mind, as no party starts under more promising conditions.
Further particulars apply
GEO. PARKER, op, SCRUTTON & SON,
See.-Treas. Telford Syndicate, Old Broad St.,
TORONTO,   -   CANADA. LONDON, B. C,   -   ENGLAND.
IF YOU GO     %      ^~
There are certain of our specialties you must have. We are headquarters for
Klondike Groceries, and have some prospectors supplies that cannot be had
elsewhere.
 Evaporated Vegetables, in packages, 1 doz. assorted packages in each
sealed tin.   Vegetable Soups.   Bouillon in Capsules.   Pea Soup in Casings.
Evaporated Carrots, Potatoes, Cabbage, Celery, Onions, Apples, Prunes,
and Apricots, at closest wholesale prices.
We have two l^londiKe Lists.   List No. 1 includes bare necessities; List No. 2 has a few convenient
additions.    If you intend to njake the trip, arrange with, us for your grocery supplies.
The Grange Wholesale Supply Co,, Limited, 126KTORONTeo.East' ADVERTISEMENTS.
Take the Best
Such is the advice given by nR. WM. OGILVIE
in his report on Klondike Supplies.
Miners who follow the above advice will buy the
-Canada Fibre Company-
LIMITED
SLEEPING BACS <&<&<&
For there is no doubt of its SUPERIORITY OVER
ALL OTHERS.
The Bag is made of Strong Waterproof Duck, well Padded with Eiderdown, and has two interlining^ of warm
material, besides a Heavy Wool Kersey sewn on as inside lining.
Weight, 15 lbs. Size, 6 ft. 9 ins. It is not bulky arid can be easily
turned inside out.
All Government expeditions have been provided  w.ith  Eiderdown
Bags, and are at present using them.     The  one  we   now  offer  is  an
improvement on all others in use, and  therefore  is  in   great  demand.
Ask your Outfitter for our Bag" and take no other
and if you cannot get one from him write us direct.
None Genuine Without Our Name Inside.
CANADA FIBRE COMPANY, Limited
HIANUFACTURERS OF
DOWN, COTTON AND WOOL COMFORTERS
Office and Works—582 William Street MONTREAL  P.Q.
3
J i
ADVERTISEMENTS.
Klondike • ..
Sleeping Bags
We manufacture a hand-made woollen sleeping bag
with water proof cover which envelops a man from
head to foot, and is constructed especially for the
Yukon district. It is light weight and absolutely
wind and water proof, is strong- and well made
throughout, being rivetted and stayed with leather
gussets. Extra clothing and several days' provisions
for  short  trips   may  be  packed   in   it.
It has a great advantage over fur and feather
bags, provision being made- for ventilation, thereby
preventing the clothing from becoming damp from
perspiration.    Nansen discarded his furs on that account.
The miner or prospector having one of
these bags does not need to carry either Man»
kets or  bedding.
Purchasers will save money by buying our bags,
there being a duty of 35 per cent, on the retail'
price  of all  American   bags  imported  into  Canada.
Samples may be seen at our offices
H w w w (t> (t>
riillichamp, Coyle & Co.
13 St. Helen St., Montreal, Que.       45 Bay St., Toronto, Ont. ADVERTISEMENTS.
j    /|iyN1[NQ  pRopERTIES managed, sold,  purchased
*    All J    on shares.     Outfits and Guides furnished at short notice.
è INVESTMENT AND GENERAL  FINANCIAL  AGENTS
Correspondence solicited on all matters relating to British Columbia and  Yukon  Mines  and  Investments
Special Attention  Given to the Outfitting an,d Transportation of
fyiners for th.e Klondike
 ^^mmmmmmmmmm^mmmmmm^mi
Authorized Capital, $500,000 in $5 Shares        # J
Gold Miners'
Forwarding and
Investment Company
t
Limited
^
1 VICTORIA, BRITISH COLUMBIA, CANADA     I J
#* ** i
Cable Address—"YUK0NDYKE," Victoria
Code used—BEDFORD McNEILL'S
BANKERS:  Bank  of  British  Columbia, Victoria
BRANCHES:   Vancouver, B.C., Can.; Seattle, Wash., U.S.A.
Contractors for all kinds of flining Work, machinery and Supplies    £
Forwarders, Shipping and  Commission Merchants £
CHARLES F. JONES,       i
r General  Manager    J
ri xli
ADVERTISEMENTS
the BROWN BROS-
LiniTED
64-68 King St. East, TORONTO
Stationers, Bookbinders.. Manufacturers 0f
Account Book^s, Leather Goods, Etc.
DEPARTMENTS
Blank Books ; Office Supplies ; Leather
Goods ; Paper and Stationery ; Typewriter» Supplies; Binders' Material,
Leather Cloth, Board, etc. ; Printers' Supplies, Paper, Cards, Headings, etc.; Bookbinding, every Style of the Art. Unsurpassed for Style and Durability. Prices right.
Established 40 Years.
The Barber & Ellis Co.,
Limited.
niHITIUBFJffEgS
ENVELOPES,  PAPER BOXES,
PAPETERIES,  WRITING TABLETS,
Etc., Etc.
flos. 43, 45, 47, 49 Bay Street, TORONTO.
—FOR SALE
KLONDIKE MINES   -*   B.C. MINES
And Mining Shares in all the principal Joint Stock Companies
Correspondence Solicited. -^— AT LOWEST PRICES.
Cable Address-" More." CODES USED-Bedford McNeill's, Moreing- & Neal's, A.B.C., and Clough's.
A. W. riORE & CO., Minin#roakedrsstock
86 Government St.,      -      VICTORIA, B.C.
NIAGARA RIVER LINE.
NIAGARA NAVIGATION CO., Limited
TORONTO, CAN.
R. H. McBRIDE, J
Steamers "Chicora
HON. SIR FRANK SMITH, I
Corona," "Chippewa," River Str. "Ongiara"
BUFFALO, NIAGARA FALLS and TORONTO, CAN.
The,
iIyLine6
i the ro
i of Fall
y Nia,
's Mon
Connections at foot of Rapids with New York Central R.R. and Niagara Falls & Lewiston
R.R. (Electric) on American side, and Michigan Central R.R. and Niagara Falls Park R.R. on
Canadian side. Connections at Toronto with Canadian Pacific Ry., Grand Trunk System, and
Richelieu & Ontario Navigation Co's steamers.
Tickets at all offices of Vanderbilt Lines and principal offices in Niagara Falls and Toronto.
The Paper used in this
Book is the
CANADA PAPER
COMPANY'S
Celebrated
"PHOTO BOOK."
W. & D. DINEEN
s—flatters anil Furriers
TORONTO, ONT.,
are now occupying their New and' Handsome
Premises on the N. W. Corner of Yonge and
Temperance Streets. Parties going to the
Klondike can buy Fur Coats, Rugs, Fur
Caps, or Cow Boy Felt Hats in any grade
required. Being large manufacturers and importers, prompt service and right prices can be
<L ADVERTISEMENTS. xliï
Klondike Outfitting
We are showing large ranges of suitable Clothing for the
 Prospector and the Miner.....
Comprising the most practical and approved ideas of
travellers in the North.
OUR SAMPLES INCLUDE—
t
Ay.   MACKINAWS— >f
'jfy In Hoods, Coats, Shirts, Drawers and Pants, \f/
in plain and fancy. ïà'f
SLEEPING BAGS— \f/
yiW In  Waterproof or Plain  Duck,  Rubber and ufâ
%|J Rubbered  Cloth,   lined  with  heavy all-wool Mr
/A\ Blankets or Fur. vl>
/|\ SUITS- ^/
/i\ Waterproofed or plain  Duck and   Corduroy ^k'j
•Jj^ Suits, lined with Canadian Frieze, Mackinaw }?£
/i\ or heavy Tweeds, and manufactured in  our Vl#
usual thorough manner. à*j.
%
WE INVITE YOUR INSPECTION
AT OUR WAREROOMS:
W. E. SANFORD MFG. CO., Limited, Hamilton, Ont.
W. E. SANFORD MFG. CO., Limited, Toronto, 47 Bay Street.
W. E. SANFORD MFG. CO., Limited, Winnipeg, Man.,
Corner Princess and Bannatyne Streets.
G. C. SHAW & CO., Victoria, B C, 62 Wharf Street.
115 to 121 King- Street Bast, Toronto, Ont'
ÎO James Street North, Hamilton, Ont.
154 Dundas Street, London, Ont.
93 St. Paul Street, St. Catharines, Ont.
388 Tallbot Street, St. Thomas, Ont.
.Oak Hall, 13 Sandwieh.St., "Windsor, Ont.
OAK HALL ADVERTISEMENTS,
Blankets
* No article in a Klondike Miner's outfit
<eiP is more important than his Blankets***
THEY SHOULD BE
Of proper stock, and of the best manufacture, and capable of resisting the
extreme weather of the Arctic Region,
A Pointer to Outfitters.
When making your purchases ask for the Slingsby Manufacturing
Company's Blankets, and you will then have the best. We are the largest
manufacturers of Blankets in the Dominion of Canada, and have given particular attention to the heavy special goods required for the Yukon trade,
and the experience we have gained in manufacturing these goods has perfected our methods and made our Blankets to excel.
We make all weights, sizes and colors—
White Blasts up to 15 lbs, per pair.
Grey Blankets up to 20 lbs, per pair.
High Colored Blankets up to 15 lbs, per pair.
All our Blankets have the quality, finish  and style of border to give
satisfaction to the user, and to suit the taste of the connoisseur.
We sell only to the wholesale trade.
WRITE   FOR   PARTICULARS	
Slingsby Manufacturing Co., Limited,
BRANTFORD,       -       -       ONTARIO. ADVERTISEMENTS.
The"Alaska Mining Boot"
Design Registered, May 20th,  1896.
Made with Patent Leather Insole.
Patented, July 29th,  1893.
Specially constructed to stand  the  climate
and wear of that country; made with Bath
Rubber or Leather Outersoles.
No prospector should   leave without a pair
of them.
ALSO MANUFACTURERS OF
CAMPING   BLANKETS, AIR PILLOWS,
RUBBER GLOVES AND MITTENS, Etc.
The Canadian Rubber Co. of Montreal
MONTREAL
TORONTO and WINNIPEG
PCltoinidgfe ©Mttffte
"TESLIN" Folding Stove   4   4
28x22x13 inches, folds into a package 28x22x4 inches.
"DAWSON" Folding St ve .* a*
No. 20 20xl2£xl2£ inches, folded 20xl2£x2f inches.
No. 24.—24xl2|xl2 inches, folded 24xl2£x2f inches.
*h *h Five Lengths of Stove Pipe telescope into one. We
make every variety of Tin Ware, Enamelled Ware, Steel
Fry Pans, Gold Pans, Etc., Etc.
Catalogues can be obtained from our Warehouses at London, Toronto, Winnipeg,
Montreal or Vancouver, and our goods from dealers in all parts of Canada.
^e McCLARY MANUFACTURING CO., Limited.
J ADVERTISEMENTS.
*j> THE SOAP FOR ALL PURPOSES, AND WHICH IS SO
PURE THAT IT CANNOT POSSIBLY INJURE THE TEN-
DEREST SKIN OR FINEST FABRIC.
You Run no Risk with "Sunlight"
«* It has obtained 28 Gold Medals and other honors for
PURITY and EXCELLENCE.
USED ALL OVER THE
CIVILIZED GLOBE. * *
Has a sale four times larger than any
other Soap in the World.
we IklonMfce /UMning, TTrabftig
anb transport Corporation
Ximfteo
28 LEADENHALL ST., LONDON
30 BROAD ST., VICTORIA, B.C.
Correspondence relating to transportation and trading on the Yukon
and its tributaries, or relating to transportation from Victoria or Vancouver
to the Gold fields of the north, should be addressed to the Victoria office.
LONDIKE SUPPLIES
THE WIGHTMAN SPORTING GOODS CO.
403 ST. PAUL ST., HONTREAL
The Klondike Waterproof   Sleeping Bag
Ing Bags, Waterproof Moccasins, Strong hnow Shi
sers
Straps, Air Pillows, Patent Snow Shoe Straps, Folding Beds, Waterproof
Blankets, Mosquito Nets, ilosquito Salves, Hosquito Netting, lien's Hip
Rubber Boots, Aluminum Camp Sets, the best of everything in the Line
of Pishing Tackle, Tents, < ADVERTISEMENTS.
The MiWWalker
Wagon Works Company
Of Walkerville, Ont., Limited
MANUFACTURERS OF THE OVERRATED
MBllinieir W&tqpra
In all its various kinds and styles suitable for farm
and team use. Having introduced all the latest improved machinery for the purpose of facilitating the
production of such vehicles    .   .  ■ .	
We^Carilusriy^ClainiSuperiority
in carrying capacity, ease of running and durability.«^e^
General and local agencies are or will be established in
all parts of the Dominion. ADVERTISEMENTS.
We insure men going even to the Klondike, so
you can stay at home or go North, young man, ^
and still be under th.e protection of the
I. O. F.
COST  TO JOIN  THE  I.O.F.
A Candidate for initiation  into an existing Court, and taking $1,000 of Mortuary
Benefit, must pay the following fees :—
i.—The Deposit fee, which must accompany his Application for Membership..   $1.00
—The Initiation Fee, which must be n
—The Registration Fee, which is 50 cer
If taking $2,000 Mortuary Benefit, the cost would be..
If taking $3,000 Mortuary Benefit, the cost would be. .
If taking $4,000 Mortuary Benefit, the cost would be..
If taking $5,000 Mortuary Benefit, the cost would be..
THE BEST FRATERNAL SOCIETY IN THE WORLD.
THE MAGNIFICENT BENEFITS PAID.
p (189,6)    »   820,941 91
years         2,754,039 14
 __ years       3,462,142 79
Benefits paid from organization to 31st October, 1897       4,925,244 12
THE GROWTH OF THE MEMBERSHIP.
1881.... 369   Date of Re-organization
Benefits paid last
Benefits paid last
Benefits paid last
Membership 3
Membership 3:
Membership 3isi ueo, isvi
Membership 31st Deo., 1896
4,781
32,'303   Increase; 5 years [JS:'r.'.\'.'dVft.\' 26.'499
02,838   Increase, 5 years     70,535
THE INCREASES DURING 1896.
vse In Benefits Paid      »      135,941 73
«e In Assessment Income  228.932 00
,se In Total Income   347,901 19
n»e In Net Assets   438.114 34
ise in Snrplns Funds  455,110 92
ise in Assurance in Force     20,763,500 00
Total
fe
siS
Surplus      De.
th
Year.
bx.
OSL     peR/
1
Î   2
Jfjj
$ ,,,40,000
$j§!
*t£     A
;
Tsls
ill   • J
;
s&î I
&& s
1
£349
180,130 3I
at   5
£t4
t%,i$ ~
\IPS            6
;
TO^M
13?'!« ??
ÛÏ    \
fiMjaf
'
zx
11%   \
„ „, 32
 , n„ „„„„,„,
11»,. ' maw-nor
<u—~
JAHES MARSHALL,
General Manager ft
Britain, 24 Charing
London, England.
Chicago, Illinois.
Great ADVERTISEMENTS.
W. Kahnert's Klondike Outfit
WD KAHNERT & GO., Furriers, 83 King St. West, Toronto
.For Printing:
Bookbinding
OF EVERY
DESCRIPTION
GO TO
The Hunter,
Rose «rf <& **
Company lw.
25 WELLINGTON STREET
WEST   = -   TORONTO, ONT. i
ADVERTISEMENTS
River Steamboat
Machinery
BU,LTBYWATEROUS,'
BRANTFORD,
CANADA
Stern Wheel Marine Engines
With double port, balanced piston valves and adjustable cut-off. We build
these engines with steel beam bed plate or heavy steel plate for wooden timbers, with all wood strapped connecting rod or I beam rods wood fitted, forged
steel shafts, cranks and cast steel wheel flanges.    In
Marine Boilers
We build the Safety Water Tube Boiler, the Square Fire Box with return
tubes, the Scotch Water Back Return Flue, the "Clyde" Baffle or Dry Back
Returu Flue ; the Direct Draft Round Fire Box, and the Standard Locomotive
direct draft.
Both Engines and Boilers are built under inspection of Dominion Government Steamboat Inspector for work called  for  by specification, and
stamped and certified by them before shipment.
Upright flarine Engines
Single, Steple Compound, and Fore and Aft Compound Engines and Boilers
for all classes of machinery.
Get our new Catalogue and Price List of Mining Machinery, Wood-working
Machinery, Brick Machinery, Water Wheels, Portable Grist Mills,
Threshing Machinery, with full code for convenience of wire orders.
WATEROUS
BRANTFORD, CANADA ADVERTISEMENTS
YUKON
Saw Mills
B.B. MILL
COMPLETE
14 h.p. capacity.
500 feet per hour.
Standard  Mill  En
gine
oiler
.
j\
Hé
::W$fn
-5§|
èmX
W\
mÈsÊ
^Wi
4 H.P. YUKON ENGINE ONIWHEELS.
'heels; 10,600 lbs.
Supplied without
woodwork when desired, and with very
light cable feed in
place of rack.
For the Chilcoot and White Passes
we supply a Sectional Water-tube
Boiler, weighing about 1,500 lbs.
for 15 h.p., and 3,500 lbs. for 60 h.p.
Also an Upright Engine on steel
posts. Can be packed in .150 lb.
parcels, and smaller fly wheels in
four parts. Log seats, being girder
steel, are light but unbreakable.
WE HAVE BUILT
Portable Saw Hills
for mule-back transportation for
years, and can outfit you better than
anyone in Canada or the States.
We are making special provision
for the YUKON trade, and although,
our orders to date (1st February,
1898) are large, we shall be able
make prompt shipments.
orks opened, 1896
waterous, gsar* li ADVERTISEMENTS.
Clothing for Men ana" Boys
Our productions include all the fashionable styles and are of that handsome, durable, and thoroughly reliable garments which appeal to the common
sense of every man in the country.
Every garment is designed, cut and made on our own premises. We are
the largest retailers of men's and boys' clothing in Canada.
PHILIP JAMIESON,
Outfitter for Men and Boys " Head to Foot"
Corner Queen and Yonge Streets,      -       -      TORONTO
3£? London Foundry Co.,
LONDON, ONTARIO. Limited
we make:
Portable Forges of all kinds,
N|iners' Forges, Tuyere irons,
Iron, and Wooden N[in,ers' Wheelbarrows,
arçd other liners' Supplies.
Send fop Illustrated Catalogue.
FOR ADVERTISING RATES
IN SUBSEQUENT EDITIONS
OF THE
WonMfce official <3ut6e
Both in Canada and the United States
ADDRESS
The Hunter, Rose Co*, Limited,
TORONTO, CANADA ADVERTISEMENTS.
+ +
+   Manufacturers of *•
!   GOLD f
!    GOODS. |
| Gold Watch Cases, *
| Gold Filled "Watch Cases, |
* Gold Rings, *
* Gold Chains, *
* Gold Lockets, *
I Gold Medals, |
* Gold Buttons, Thimbles, *
* Gold Pins, Bracelets, *
* Gold Emblems, Seals, *
| Rolled Gold Plated Jewelry, *
* and all other Gold Goods. *
This Trade Mark Is a Guarantee
se***********************
Manufacturers of 4.
SILVER !
GOODS.!
* Sterling Silver Table Ware, *
* Silver Plated Table "Ware, %
% Sterling Silver Novelties, *
* Sterling Silver Souvenirs, *■
* Sterling Silver Toilet Articles, *
I Sterling Silver Jewelry, *
* Sterling Silver MEDALS, *
* Sterling Silver and Cut Glass %
* Goods, *
'* Sterling Silver Watch. Cases, *
I Sterling Silver Tankards, *
+ Sterling Silver Trophies, *•
Jjf Enamelled Club and Class Pins, 4.
* etc' %
of Quality.
*"     THE TRADE
ONLY
SUPPLIED.
Hold us Responsible for the Quality of all Goods Bearing this Trade Mark.
•* *
I   IMPORTERS %
* AND MOUNTERS OF *
* *
I DIAMONDS, I
$ EMERALDS, |
J SAPPHIRES, *
I RUBIES, I
I PEARLS, OPALS. %
* Î
j| Our very best Selections in J
* these Goods can be seen at any £
t responsible jewelry store in J
I  Canada. %
Our Complete 1898-1900 Illustrated Catalo
ELGIN
WATCHES.
WALTHAM
WATCHES.
OMEGA
WATCHES.
WATERBURY
WATCHES.
* IMPORTERS AND 4-
%   MANUFACTURERS OF      *
$ WATCH MATERIALS, %
I JEWELERS' TOOLS,  |
%       clocks,    -m-     %
% OPTICAL GOODS,         %
* *
* Marine and Field Glasses, +
+ Gold and Silver Head Canes, *■
4. Jewelers' Cases and Trays, 4.
% Jewelers' Paper Boxes,                   j£
* Grobet's Celebrated Swiss Files, *
4> Engravers' Supplies and every- 4.
]£ thing   appertaining   to  the ^
* ■Watchmaking and Jewelry +
4> Trades.                                    +
I Price Lists Supplied
Jvery Legitimate Jeweler.
CORRESPONDENCE SOLICITED THROUGH THE TRADE ONLY.
P. W. ELLIS & CO-, Toronto. Canada.
31 Wellington St. East and 40 Front St. East.
jj ADVERTISEMENTS.
"The
Golden
Pastures"
prepared with the necessary requisites to
com weather. Having a full stock, of our own
_ _. the following goods, viz :—Sleeping Bags,
,_~ Jc Saddles, Tump Lines, Harness of all Kinds, Klondike Boots and
Shoes, Oil and Bee? Skin Moccasins, Mexican and English Riding Saddles, Trunks, Valises, Bags, Satchels,
Robes, Dog Harness, Belts, etc.
S. & H. BORBRIDGE, Rideau and Spares Sts., OTTAWA
THE   GILMOUR
BANK ST., OTTAWA, ONT.
FREEMAN I. DANIELS, Manager       DANIELS & SEGORD, Proprietors
"TTHIS NEW, FIRST-CLASS HOTEL, is situated on
^, Bank Street, one of the main business streets, and
in the finest residential parts of the city. The location makes it a quiet and home-like house for families and
tourists. ' The rooms are all large and airy, lighted by gas
and electricity, and heated by steam. Passenger elevator.
The Gilmour is furnished and fitted up in the most modern
style. Electric cars pass the Hotel to all parts of the city.
Accommodation for 200 guests.    Rates, $2.00 per day.
THE GRAND UNION
PINUS CURES PILES
Registered MADE BY
PINUS MEDICAL CO.
OTTAWA, ONT.
Sent by mail on receipt of price
I ADVERTISEMENTS.
** THE ALL CANADIAN   1S1 AXTnil/n
** ROUTE TO THE******   IVLUlMJllVEl
VIA
BEAVER LINE
ROYAL MAIL STEAT1SHIPS
 AND  J j*
Canadian : Pacific B&É^
Railway
THE CHEAPEST AND HOST
DIRECT ROUTE
Sailing Weekly from
Liverpool
.HOW TO REACH THE KLONDIKE..
The best, easiest and cheapest route from points in Europe
to the Klondike is by the Beaver Line Royal Mail Steamships
whose steamers make regular weekly sailings from Liverpool (on
Saturdays) for St. John, New Brunswick, calling at Moville, Ireland, and Halifax, Nova Scotia, during the winter months, and for
Quebec and Montreal in summer, and thence directly across
Canada by the Canadian Pacific Railway. By this route, there is
a greater choice of roads leading to the gold fields than is offered
by any other line, there are fewer transfers, and the trouble and
delay usually attendant upon vexatious customs regulations in
foreign countries are almost entirely avoided.
The magnificent steamships of the Beaver Royal Mail Line
have been specially built for the Atlantic passenger trade and
afford superior accommodation for all classes of travellers. Close
connection is made at the ports of landing with the Canadian
Pacific Railway whose fast express trains cross the continent of
North America with but one change of cars at Montreal. The
Canadian Pacific line traverses the well settled portions of Quebec,
the new districts of Northern Ontario past the gold fields of the
Lake of the Woods, the broad wheat lands and vast stock ranges
of Western Canada and the Mountains of British Columbia in
their grandest parts, to the Pacific Coast.
For Rates of Passage, Sailing Lists and Descriptive Pamphlets with flaps giving
full particulars, and to book passages, apply to
LIVERPOOL—D. & C. McIver, Managers, 22 Water Street.
' LONDON—W. M. Borradaile, 16 St. Helen's Place.       Thos. Cook & Sons, Ludgate Circus.
Archer Baker, Agent C.P.R., 67 King William Street, E.C., 30 Cockspur Street, S.W.
Sewell & Crowther, Agents G.T.R., 18 Cockspur Street, W.C.
Or any Beaver Line Agent in the Principal Towns and Cities;
D. W. CAMPBELL,  General Manager, 18  Hospital Street, MONTREAL 1 'Il
lv                                                  ADVERTISEMENTS.
f    S. Qreenshields
[    Son & Co.
Montreal and Vancouver, B. C.
|   Dry Goods   %
Wholesale
Have in Stock at VANCOUVER»-
A Large Assortment of
Blankets and Men's	
Underwear
Specially Made to Suit the
KLONDIKE Trade   PURCHASED- 6 ^JÀÀjX^    i 9 f <£
From     ^^^X^-^J<JX^^t^--A^_	
Place of Purchase IM-*>-^~£<i^il--xkJ*~
Price   ' J "	
Later Catalogued Prices Klondike...
Gold Fields
HUDSON S BAY COMPANY
INCORPORATED A.D. 1670
=
Fully Equipped Stores
Miners and Prospectors
At WINNIPEG VICTORIA
CALGARY VANCOUVER
EDMONTON and Other Points
Full Information will toe given at any of the Offices of the Company
In Canada, or» at the LONDON OFFICE, 1 LIME STREET, E.C.
'%.

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