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Travels through the United States of North America, the country of the Iroquois, and Upper Canada, in… La Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, François-Alexandre-Frédéric, duc de, 1747-1827 1800

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'^ffl AND
IN THE YEARS 17Q5, 1796, AND 1797 |
Printed by T. Gillet, Saliibur)-Square,
THE Duke delaRbcHEFOucAULT Liancourt,
a man, who, at all times, has been diftinguifhed
As one of the moft amiable, the moft virtuous, and the
belt informed of all the French nobility, has made a
Journey for pbilbfophical and commercial obfervatiori
throughout a great part of North America, and has
communicated the fubftance of his obfervations to
the World, in the valuable Narrative which is here
prefented to the Britifh Public.
Although no longer a dependency of the Britim
Empire, the thirteen provinces of the American Com-
^monwealth are not regarded by Britons, as a land of
ftrangers. The mutual animofities of the war of the
American revolution are already extinguished. Britons
and Americans now think of each other only as brethren ; a kindred defcent, a common language, congenial character, a Strong alliance of institutions, av09*
and manners, render them to one another reciprocally
intcrefting, perhaps much more than, in fimflajr circumstances, any third nation would be to either. As
the hiftory of the Spaniards, who firft entered SoutJjL
America, engages our curioSity more than that oj?~
the horfe,s, the dogs, or the fugar-canes, which thejf
carried with them; as the hiftory of the nations of
polifhed Europe is more interefting than that of the
Tartars and Tonguli; as accounts of the fortunes of
H 2 a ion.
a fon, a father, a brother, a lover, in a diflant land,
are more anxiouSly expected, and more eagerly heard,
than if it were but a cafual acquaintance to whom they
related : fo, in the fame manner, and for the fame
reafons, every new communication respecting North
America, and its inhabitants of Britifh defcent, is
naturally, in an extraordinary degree, attractive to.
the curiofity of the people of this country. M. de la
Rochefoucault's details concerning colonial life and
manners are, hence, adapted to imprefs a Britifh imagination, as agreeably as if their fubjeet were the rural
oeconomy of Wales, of Yorkshire, cr of the Highlands of Scotland, and that, till now, though fo nearly
interesting, yet utterly unknown.
Belides fuch motives of affection and curiofity, there,
are reafons of a lefs refined nature, which engage the
commercial people of England, to litten eagerly to^all
authentic accounts refpec~ting America. A great an<i
increasing intercourfe of trade and emigration is car~
ried on between thefe two countries. The lands and
national debts of the American Republic are familiarly bought and fold in London. The produce of
American plantations, the planks from American Sawmills, the Ships built in American dock-yarcls, are, in
a large proportion, dellined for the ufe of Britain/
A very numerous emigration of'induftrious, reftlefse
or enterprising perfons, are conftuntly paffing from
Britain to America. The transfer of property between the two countries is great and inceflant. It
would be impoSriblc to manage the commercial buli-
ziafL,,..        '~^=r.
nets which thus arifes between the two countries with
any adequate mercantile intelligence, if continual enquiries were not diligently made into all circumstances that can influence produce,'manufacture, and
demand in the market, efpecially in America, where
all things are as yet much more uncertain, and more
imperfectly known than in Britain. The political
relations and correfpondence between Britain and
America confpire to the fame effect; for there are
.many occasions, upon which a British politician, inattentive to the progrefs of things in America, would
be entirely incapable of providing for the true political interests of the Britifh empire.
It is, however, to  the  philofophical enquirer, of
whatever nation, that fuch details as the following
volumes contain,   concerning the State  of life and
manners, in America, are likely to be the moft acceptable and instructive.    The progrefs of colonization ';   the firit diffusion of new inhabitants through
unappropriated wattes; the fluggiSh aukwardnefs of
infant   husbandry;   the   rclapfe   into   barbarifm,   of
thofe outcasts from polifhed fociety, whom their fortune conduces into regions, where they can converfe
only with  the wildneis of rude  nature, and where
they are destitute of all the accommodations of the
arts; the Simplicity of government and of life and
manners, that is natural in countries where population is fcanty, and in which the fubdivifions of labour,
and all the complex accommodations of fociety, are
unknown ; the curious contrail between colonial and
~«= VI
favage manners, and the effects of the collision between barbarifm and civility; topics interesting to
philoSbphy, above almoft all others in the hiftory of
ijmman nature, and, of all, the moft imperfectly
known ; are to be now, for the firft time, fully elucidated, by a vigilant and unremitting obfervation of
the phafes of focial life in America. For the pur- ]
pofes of afcertaining and illustrating the moft important principles of general polity and jurifprudence,
how often have philofophers in vain attempted to
explore the forgotten and unrecorded beginnings of
civil life ! How often lamented, that the moft interesting period in the progrefs of fociety, Should thus
be prior to the age of enlightened observation t How
often, and how ridiculoufly laboured to fupply the
deficiency of records, by that fort of theory which
has been pompouSly christened Conjectural Hiftory \
The account of the firft population, meafurement,
and tillage of the plains of Egypt, ASIyria, Hindoftan,
or China, is no longer to be recovered from oblivion : even the exact circumstances of the fettlement
of the firft Egyptian colonies in Greece; of the firft
Lydian, Greek, and Phrygian colonies in Italy; of
our Teutonic ancestors in Germany and Britain,
muft remain unknown. But, a keen attention to
what is now paSTing in the back Settlements of North
America, and to that inceSIant emigration from Europe and from the more populous American provinces, by which thofe back fettlements are filled^
will, at laft, amply fupply to philosophical enquiry*
what had Seemed to be irrecoverably loft, and wm
fcnable us to fill up an important chaSin in the hiftory
of the human fpecies. It is the vegetable unfolding itfelf from the feed i it is the opening mind, in
the firft months of infancv ; it is the form of con-
fummate Strength or beauty, rifing under the artift's
hand, from the Shapelefs block of marble \ rather
than the full-grown plant, the mature man, or the
finished Statue; that the moft delightfully interests
the philoSbpher of refined penetration, and the man
of tafte, who to foundneSs of reafon unites a vivid
delicacy of fentiment, and of imagination. Of all
the pages of philofophical hiftory, none can deferve
to be read with fuch earneft curiofity, as thofe which
difplay the nafcent energies of focial life.
Of Such inducements to attend to any information
concerning the progrefs of induftry, wealthy and civil
policy in North America, it is impoSTible for any
one to be infenfible in reading the following journal.
M. de la RocHEFOUCAULT Liancourt is a traveller
of no ordinary discernment and diligence in enquiry.
As the friend, and, in fome Sort, the agricultural pupil
of that intelligent philofopher, Mr. Arthur Young,
.he travelled with views nearly Similar to thofe by which
Mr. Young was guided in fo many tours and peregrinations, and in the composition of fo many journals
of husbandry. The quality of the foil, the advantages for cultivation, the numbers, the induftry, the
intelligence of the huibandmen ; the advances which
they have made in transforming'the'vaft forefts and
a 4 favannahs
An r
==*==£ WzZM
Savannahs of interior America into cornfleids &)A
meadows ; their modes of clearing and culture ; the
quantity of produce which they obtain ; their mills,
and other means of manufacture for the market; the
o^,- tunities of profitable fale,' have been marked
and recorded by M. de la Rochefoucault Liancourt,
in all thofe American provinces through which he
travelled, with an accuracy and.fullnefs of infornaa-
tion which feem to rival Mr. Young's tour through
France and Italy, or even Sir John Sinclair's more
elaborate Statistical collections concerning Scotland.
Commerce Shares his attention with rural ceconomy ;
he viSited the lakes, the bays, the creeks, the points
of the influx of the navigable rivers into the fea,
and thofe beyond which navigation cannot afcend
toward their fprings; he furveyed the Store-houfes ;
he marked the artifices of the traders ; he entered the
dwellings of the inhabitants of every different rank,
partook of their fare, and Slept or watched in their
places for reft; he travelled without any thing of
that encumbering apparatus of wealth or grandeur,
which hides the realities of life from thole it environs, even at thofe times when their refearches are
the moft diligent, and, as they think, the moft fuc-
cefsful. He listened, and enquired, and looked around
him, even with all the bufy affiduity of Sterne's Inquisitive Traveller. He was not one of thofe who
are willing to content themfelves with gueffes and
with general language; but was, on every occaSion,
careful to obtain, if pofiible, ftatcrnents admitting of TRANSLATOR S   PREFACE.
-the firictcit accuracy of number and calculation.   If
unable to look'around on thofe fcenes of wild and ma-
jeftic nature, with the fublime and picturefque imagination of a poet; if unendowed with the Skill of a
ibientiflc naturalist;   M. de la Rochefoucault Lian-
court cannot, however, fail to appear to every reader,
to have been eminently qualified to make fuch obfer-
vations as are beft adapted for the instruction of the
farmer, the merchant, the colonial emigrant, or the
political ceconomift : And it was precifely a traveller
of this character who was wanted to give us the moft
defirable new information concerning the progreSIive
fettlement of America. With the account of trade and
induftry, he unavoidably combines Sketches, details,
and Slight cafual touches, refpecting the familiar life
of the Americans, which every reader will find highly
amufing  and inStruclive.    He  exhibits pictures of
Indian  ntanners, which, though mournful, and dif-
gufting to tafte, are, yet, intcrefting to philoSbphy,
in conjunction with his accounts  of the fettlers before whom the Indian tribes are gradually vanishing
from the earth.    With his Statements respecting the
provinces of the American   Republic, he  prefents
alfo a multiplicity of important details concerning
the Britifh colonial poSSeftions of Canada.    He tells
all that he   could learn,   without being restrained,
even by considerations of perfonal delicacy, or the
Secrecy of honour, from making public feveral things,
which, though acceptable to us, were certainly not
intended to be thus proclaimed  to all Europe, by
thofe who communicated them to him. Concerning
the intercourfe, the emulation, the mutual jealouSies,
the dark projects reciprocally meditated, between
the Americans and the Britifh q0lonifls and foldiery
of Upper Canada, he gives a variety of information,
which we Should, otherwife, never have obtained.
The character and predominant opinions of M. dela
Rochefoucault Liancourt himielf, are, in this volume,
very frankly anti amply displayed. In his character,
great native rectitude and benignity of difpofitifllif
appear to be aflbciated with fome of the philofophi-
cal affectations of the new School, and with fomewhat
of that never-failing gallantry and politenefs which
ufed to mark the manners of the old French nobility.
Although a victim to the Revolution, he Still approves thofe principles of political reform, upon
which the firft movements toward it were made i
Though an outcaft from France, he Still takes a
Warm patriotic intereft in the glory of the French
nation. Hence, he inclines, at times, to encourage
the milder clafs of thofe political fentiments, which
the fagacity of Government finds it prudent to dif-
courage in Britain, as little adapted to promote the1
general welfare. And whenever the views, the interests, and the public fervants of the Britifh GovenU
ment come to be mentioned, he ufually fpeaks the
language of a foreigner and a foe**
* In a very few places it has -been found expedient to infert
iMkials for proper names, and to fubftitute aftcrifks for fentimentsi
Throughout the whole of his American journies,
there appears to have reigned in the mind of this illuf-
trious exile, a melancholy caft of imagination, with
a peevifh irritability of feeling, fuch as it was very
natural for misfortunes like his, to produce. Every
fcene of beneficent conduct from great landholders
toward their dependents, brings to his remembrance,
his own endeavours to enlighten and blefs the pea-
fantry upon thofe eftates in France, which once were
his own. He Shrinks in agony from the exultations
with which Britifh officers tell him of the ruin of the
naval force of republican France. He complains of
a dirty room, a hard bed, a fcanty meal, as if it were
a grievous misfortune. He has a peculiar quick-
nefs of eye at difcovering Sloth, knavery, and mif^-
chief, wherever he travels. The wounds which his
fpirit had fuftered were Still freSh or feftering; and
were, therefore, liable to be grievouSly inflamed and
imtated by the flighteft degree of new laceration.
He, not un frequently, breaks forth into expreflions-
of keen anguiSh, or more fubdued and penSive
forrow, which, being the voice of nature and of
truth, muft prove to every reader inexpreflibly interesting.
In one or two instances where obvious fuppremon would hare
infinuated more than the original paragraph, the original has been
retained. The motives of the writer, in thefe places, are fo obvious, and his conclufious fo palpably unjuft, that to have fof-
tened or fupp/effed would have been a bad compliment to the
tenderftaading of the Britifh Reader,
S|      it
It isj amidft all this, impdfiible not to admire this
amiable nobleman, for labouring to divert the taediurri
of his exile, by enquiries of a tendency fo beneficialj
and for accommodating his mind, in fo considerable
a degree, to the hardships of his condition. | Perhaps
he could nOt have been more ufefully employed, in
any conceivable profperity of his fortunes. He appears to have been content to ride on horfebackj
without a fervant, and to travel about without aught
of the pomp of greatneSs^ or the luxury of opulence,
juft as if he had never been more than a plain farmef
on. manufacturer in France.
The Stile is naturally Simple, and devoid of all
affectation. The Translator has not, in his verSion^
made any attempt to clothe the work in laboured
elegances or ornaments which it did not originally
wear. Faithfulnefs, Simplicity, and correctnefs of
Englifh phrafeology, are the chief qualities, by which
he has afpired to distinguish his work. He leaves it
to the reader, to judge, how far he may have been
fuccefsful or otherwife.
The English Edition has been illuftrated by correct
copies of the Maps, given in the author's original
work, and a clofe infpection will Shew, that thefe.
Maps not only correct former Maps of America in
many points, but exhibit in their proper places, for
the firft time, a great variety of new Towns and Settlements.
The Indexes will render it eafy to refer to the volumes, for any Single particular of the information
which they contain.
It cannot, for a moment, be doubted, but the
book of fo illuftrious a traveller—free as it is from
all blemifhfes of affectation or negligence,—filled
with information the moft recent and important,—
concerning a country than which there is no one elfe
more an object of Britifh curiofity,—.communicating
nothing but what is plainly of the higbeft authenticity,—dwelling chiefly on 1hofe topics of enquiry and
information, which are the moft fafhionable, and the
moft attractive, to policy, trade and induftry,—and
intermingling fuch allurements of pathetic fentiment,
and of perfonal anecdote, as never fail to pleafe,:—will,
from all thefe recommendations, be veryr favourably
received by the BritiSh Public.
London, Septeriiber, 1799*
N. B. This Tranjlation has heen faithfully made, with-
put omijfion or alteration, from the laft Paris Edition,
Qublifhed by the bookfeJIers DuPont, Buiffbn, and Charles
THE  np
»©-»$. <5<
WHEN I began46 wrale a journal of my Travel,
it was my intention to confine it folely within
the circle of my friends : but fome of them being of
opinion that the publication of it would be of genett^
advantage, I fubmitted-to their advice, and refolved
to publiili it on my arrival in I&frope. In chufing a
patronefs for my book, it was natural for me to felect
that pcrfon who claimed the Iargeft Share of my
efteem and gratitude;—who has been endeared to
me Still more by her unparalleled misfortunes. There
could be no occasion for calling to remembrance, the
atrocious murder of a couSin ; as it is too well known,
and held ip juft abhorrence. But perhaps it is neceflary
to remark, that his virtue was fo exalted as to render
him unfuSpicious of fo nefarious a crime, and that his
internal confcioufnefs induced him to Slight the advice
which his friends gave both to him and me, at the
time when an order was iSIiied for arresting us; and
£?hich, in all probability, was not the only mandate
concerning us from the fame quarter.    He would not
rttsn xvi
quit France ; but I, who was lefs confident and lefs
virtuous, fled frorn the poignard, while he fell by its
Stroke !
On my arrival in Europe, and while I was emr
ployed in preparing this work for the public, I received an account of my aunt's death, which cut off
al} the fond hopes I had entertained of once more beholding her, pven Qn her death-bed. It will readily
be fuppofed, that the idea of withdrawing from her
the dedication of my book, could not enter my
afBicted mind. I have Still preferred it for hei\ "vyitbi
a fympa-thetic rgsgarcl. Although established uTage
may hereby be violated, yet he who is fenfible thati
neither friendship nor gratitude ends with death,
\$U eafily conceive the pleafure, melancholy as it
njay be, which I receive from the performance of
this lalt facred duty to a departed friend, who had fo
many claims upon my warmeft affections.-—tr :
My dear and unfortunate Aunt,
f~^\ IVE me leave refpectfully to prefent you
:with an account of my Travels through the
United States of America.    It is an offering of Sincere
attachment and gratitude; and I am confident you
will receive it kindly.   How often have I, in the courfe
of this work, lamented with painful anxiety, that I was:
not near you ; that I was prevented by dreadful cir-
eamftances, from taking a Share with your amiable, and
lovely daughter, in affording you that attention and
comfort of which your feeling and afflicted heart Stood
fo much in need !    Undoubtedly my fervices could
never have been equal to his, whofe fate we deplore:
but I am bold to think, that in the tendernefs of
my feelings,  and in your own heart, you would in
me have recognized a fon.    I have fometimes thought
that you  miffed me; that after recollecting every
thing which makes me indebted to your goodnefs,
your advice, and example, you have not entirely removed me from your thoughts.    You will eafily believe that this was one of the reflections which has
given me the greateft degree of pleafure.    The cer-r
Vol. I. c tainty DEDICATIONS
tainty of holding unalterably a place in the affection
of an efteemed object, in fpite of misfortune and fepa-
ration, has a peculiar effect in animating the heart of
that man who has nothing to reproach himfelf with.
% The observations you .will find in the work itSelf
are not fo perfect as they might have been j but you
know what difficulties-a4m?etter, who withes to convey information, has to combat.  He is always obliged
to be fatisfled with the ahfwers given to his quef-
tkms : he does mot often.fed a man at leifuneJor dip- give the mfonnatton: that is requirel : the
perfon'fcviio is questioned about the objects of his own;'
tmSiTiefs, frequently inows :ik§- 'more than is neceJJary.
to cacoyM. ion, .and is incapable of .e<tBaireiriasw^Js ideas
tomrother, even on the;Hibie£tofrrhis mwm ocejaba^
t4oh. rMhd it 'happens &iU. more frequency that party-r:
Sjpiist, ielf^ntereft, or prejudice, deprive thofe anfivcrs.
<fcfnall manner ofria-uth and candour.    The traveller
iiiffifiifelf is often  deficient m making ^Ke • properjen->
quirks ; fee ofteft views things with prejudice, im-i
bifoldfrom a certain;uyfte-m, and scxx>rd>ijig3bj:rivhich^
he reMil'ates'vail ibis::questions,' and■ all the anTwerS
he receftgbs".    To thefe real diflcafiltles are ^eiquentlyj
added thofe which' arife out of the pei'fonaiifituatiouK
©if-Hketraveller, from tbe.'crrcusB&ances of the md4
mei¥fe, - or (mm forae ophdbasr?which he may have
alreadyj foran ed,: foefdrefe makes- .hisie.nqukies;.    It is
tiafy i-feelo-re to-conceive h'ow^dimcnk'it is for a pets
fon T#ho travels to- -acquire a full and accurate account
of-every--thing-;- - DEDICATION*
X( I do not' fay/ that'in this tour, I have had the
good fortune to keep clear of the rocks iagainft which
fo many havefbtick. But I may rfay that I naive done
every thing in my power to jnfert:nothin;g." byt what
is authentic. As far as I poffibly could, I-have-made
enquiries concerning the fame thing oxdeveral meoy
of different interests and opinions. I have done nay
utmoSt endeavour to get lid of every partial opinion;
I might have previously formed; in Short, I have
fought after truth by every means in my power. The
idea of writing only for !you, for ijjy friends,- and for
my Self, has madiarcna'e.'fWl more Strict and attentive'
with regard to the materials which I collected, and
the accounts I afterwards made.from them. I have
like wife Stated, almo$ on every occaiion, the fourees'
from which I drew, them ; in order to , engage:* your
approbation, or Shew where doubts ought to be entertained. I have not, knowingly, Stated any thing
that was erroneous ; but, Sjjtill, I am far from fuppofrng-
that I have efpaped every kind of error. I have frequently in been unable to obtain an account of certain circumftances, concerning which I
had in another place, acquired very full information?
Although fome books of travels in America may contain fewer facts than I have collected; yet I do not
the lefs, on that account, perceive .the defects of nrsR
tour, which I might with more cunning, but with
lefs fairnefs, have concealed from my friends.
" The territory of the United .States is perhaps thej
$nly country in the world which it is mot: ^difficult
c 'I
(L. n
"to be made acquainted with, unlefs you have traverfed
it yourfelf. It is a country altogether in a State of
progreSIive advancement. What is to-day a fact, with
regard to its population, its management, its value,
and trade; will no longer be fo in Six months to
come ; and Still lefs in fix months more. It is like a
youth, who from the State of a boy is growing into
manhood, and whofe features, after the expiration of
a year, no longer refemble the original picture that
had been drawn of him. The accounts given by
travellers at prefent, and perhaps for many years to
come, can only ferve as the means of enabling distant
poSterity to form a comparifon between the State which
the country Shall then be in, and what it formerly
was. In this point of view it appears to me, that fuch
accounts are far from being ufelefs.
" Every day I travelled, I wrote down the accounts, juft as I received them. Whenever I remained for fome time in the fame place, I put together what information I had collected, and arranged
it in a better order. I have been in many places
oftener than oncq; confequently the obfervations
made concerning them have been written at the dif-
ferent times I happened to be there. It would have
been eafy enough to have put them together into one
article : but in that cafe I Should not have written
merely a Journal of my travels, which was what I had
wiShed to do; that being perhaps the only kind of
wdrk which does not require greater talents than
mine; and where truth can be the principal merit/.
(i I have
iffiil have fometimes made remarks which had properly no connexion with my tour : it is a great fatijsS
faction to him who writes for his friends, that he is
lore of their fympathizing affection, though he Should
give himfelf up to the fentiments and feelings of the
" No doubt, I ftand in need of forgivenefs, for
paving occafionally yielded to an imperious neceSIity
arid for having been carried away by the force of im-
preffions which were only of a perfonal nature. My
friends will view thefe deviations with indulgence^
and perhaps they will even experience favour with
thofe readers to whom my preSent Situation may be
" With regard to the ftile of this work ; probably
my endeavours to make it as perfpicuous as poSIible,
which has been my chief object, has been productive,
in fome places, of tedious prolixity, and frequent
tautology. To write with as much purity and cor-
rectnefs as we are capable of, we want more leifure
than he can fpare, who binds himfelf to commit to
paper every day the obfervations he has made, whatever may be his Situation.
fc I have fometimes made ufe of English terms, and
Sometimes turned them into French ; always taking
pains, however, to tranflate them as correctly as poffi-
ble : this I have done whenever I found it practicable, and never loft Sight of the true meaning. StHJt
there are fome words, which, wheniranSlated, do not
perfe&ly convey the Signification thatrattached to them
iM"-*i ISJL
in English : for example—the word cleared .'.Hgja&ftes
apiece of land wjbere-fome great; treesj -have-been felled,
afidothers haye had an iacifion cut round ;t hem in the
bark, and the ^branches lopt offhand' burr*t?cin orde?
that corn may be fown. This is not perfectly explained by the word Sclairci, which only means that
fome bsaaehes have lkeejr$ cut off, either for the pur-
pofe of forwarding: the growtla of thofe that remain,
or of adding to a-, pleafant profpect? The term de-
frichi always Signifies cultivated ground from wlhich
the roots have been taken away i but that I&nd which
in America is called cleared, is frequently not culti-?
vated. The French translation of the term .fiore. is
magazin; but it is frequently expreSIed by the wor<J
houtique'i and yet neither of thefe words conyeysnts
meaning completely, according to the partkailar character, object and ufe of a Store in America, and efpe*
ciall.y in places thinly iahabated. The words piagazm
and boutique may be met with/repeatedly in. books ^of
travels, but the reader will* abie from theme
to form an idea of the meaindng which belongs to
fhrnmoxdjiore in America. A Store is a Shop or place
where all kinds of commodities" intended for con-
famption are to be found, and fold by retail ; nothing
is.' excluded from it: here are: candles cand matches,
as well as fluff and tape,i The,word feHler has never
the fame meaning with habitant. The fettler, in general, is • a man who repairs to a. particular .plac-e^
with an intention of fettling; in it ; but he is not
always tEeinhabitant of it.   A tract of."land is-JaSf
to Dedication.
to be Settled, when a fufheient number of inhabitants have fixed themfelves in it: but the meaning
of this kind of fettlement can never be exprefled by
the words habiie, peuple or itablii. In order to exprefs
certain circumftances and fituations in a new Slate,
it is no extraordinary thing to be obliged to adopt
new terms. Therefore, my dear friend, you will, without doubt, forgive me for having attempted to introduce new words into our language.
*c In a word, dear Aunt, whatever imperfections
this work may pofSefs, I offer it to you with confidence ; although to others it may be indifferent, I
am certain, that to you it will be abundantly interesting."  TRAVELS
e   • CANADA, &c. ■ '   .'   :-:
IN THE YEA11S  1795,  1796, AND   1797-
A™" RESIDENCE of five months in Philadelphia has afforded me a degree of
previous information relative to the United
States, from which I cannot fail to derive ef-
fential fervice in the courfe of my intended
journey. I have had the good fortune to meet
with an agreeable young Englishman, who is
well informed, is a pleafant companion, and is
uncommonly fond of travelling. His name is
Guillemard, and he is defcended from ot*c
of thofe French families, with which our unhappy differences in religious matters enriched
England. He has been induced to vifit this
part of the world, folely by a wifli to obtain
accurate information relative to America,
without any view whatever of pecuniary ad-
Vol. I. B •   vantage
through which we parted about a fortnight
ago. In this place I Shall infert the journal of
that little tour, which, although it bears no
proportion in length to the account that I pro-
pofe to write of the remainder of my travels,
will not, I truft, prove wholly uninteresting.
ON the twentieth of April Mr. Guillcmard,
Caleb Lownes, and myfelf, fet out on horfe-
back from Philadelphia, through Ridge Road,
>n our way to Norris Town. This road, like
all the public roads in Pennfylvania, is very
bad, for provision is brought to that city from
all parts in large and heavy laden waggons.
The conftant paffage of thefe waggons destroys the roads, efpecially near the town,
where feveral of them meet. Ridge Road is
alfnoft imp affable.
The district of the city extends about four
or five miles north and South, and is bounded
on the eaft by the Schuylkill. This extent
was originally affigned to it by William
Penn, when he formed the plan of the city.
He promifed to every fettler, who fliould'pur-
chafe five thoufand acres of land in the country, one hundred acres within the city-district,
and two town-Shares • a promife which was
faithfully fulfilled by him and by his fuccef-
fors, as long as any town-Shares and acres of
lan,d within the district remained for distribution. William Penn kept only five or Six:
thoufand acres for himfelf. This land is in its
foil of a very indifferent quality, but its vicinity to the town occafions it to be bought
with great eagernefs. It is covered with COUn-
try-jhoufes, which, in point of architecture, are
yery Simple; from their great number they
however enliven and embellish the whole
neighbourhood. Very few of them arc without a fmall garden; but it is rare to obferve
one, that has a grove adjoining, or that is Surrounded with trees; it is the cuftom of the
country to have no wood near the houics.
Cuftoms are fometimes founded in reafon,
but it is difficult to conjecture the defign of
this practice in a country, where the heat in
fummer is  altogether intolerable, and where
B 3 the
ffi! 6
■    H
the Structure of the houfes is defignedly adapt-
ed to exclude that exceffive heat.*
Land in this neighbourhood is worth about
eighty dollars an acre ; three years ago it was
worth only forty-two. Two miles from the
city, Ridge Road interfects the entrenchments,
which the Englifb constructed during the laft
war, for the purpofe of covering Philadelphia,
after they had penetrated into Pennsylvania
through the Chefapeak. The remains of thefe
works are Still viflble. But the prefence of
the EngliSh is more Strongly testified by the
ruins of many half burnt and half demolished
houfes, fo many expreffive monuments of that
inveterate animofity, with which the war was
carried on, and which was highly difgraceful to
the generous fentiments of a people, who well
know, that every evil inflicted on an enemy,
even in time of war, without the plea of ne-
cefnty or advantage, is a crime.    Alas!  the
* The redfon is, becaufe' the country was univerfally
wooded, when the building of thefe houfes was firft begun ; and in a country thus wooded, to clear the fpace
round the dwelling-houfe was juft as natural, as to plant
round the houfe }n a country otherwife bare of wood.-r-
evils of fiich a State, however alleviated, will
Still be far too numerous.
As the country on this Side of Philadelphia
poSTeffes more variety than on any other, it is
here we difcover the moft agreeable proSpects,
Some of which are truly charming ; and more
So, the nearer we approach the SchuylkilL
The contrail between the rocks, which form
the banks of this river, and the numerous
meadows and adjacent corn fields, gives this
proSpect a mixture of romantic wildnefs, and
cultivated beauty, which is really delightful.
The road we have entered does not join the
Schuylkill, except near the falls.    This nam
has been very improperly given to a flight in
equality in the level of the Stream, produced
hy pieces of rock of unequal Size in the bed of
the river, which, as they accelerate the motion
of the water with a certain  noife, obstruct,
no doubt, the navigation; yet fo far are they
from forming any considerable water-fall, thai
they are entirely covered at high water; and
at that time fmall veSTels, which ply along the
right bank,   pafs  thefe falls>   although  not
without danger.    A fmall  rivulet,  which, a
Short distance above thefe falls, runs into the
Schuylkill, turns feveral tobacco, muSlardy
chocolate, paper, and other mills; none of
which are considerable buildings; but their
great variety enlivens and beautifies the land-
fcape. Above the falls, a Mr. Nicholson
poffeffes large iron-works, a button manufactory, and a glafs-houfe. But none of thefe
works are yet completed. The buildings,
however, which appear to be well constructs
ed, are nearly all finished. A particular building is affigned to every different branch of labour ; an(i the largeft is defigned for the habitation of the workmen, of whom Mr. Nichol-
fon will be obliged to keep at leaft a hundred. Thefe buildings are on the right bank,
and the warehoufe, which is to receive the
manufactures, is on the oppofite fide. The
pieces of rock, which occafion the falls, form
an eafy communication acrofs the river, and
would greatly facilitate the construction of a
bridge, were fuch a project to be carried into
The Situation of this fettlement is extremely
well chofen; for, on the very fpot where the
navigation of the river is intercepted, all the
materials neceffary can be procured from both
fides S-,
iides of the water. The fand required for the
glafs-houfe is brought from the banks of the
Delaware ; the caft-iron from the higher parts
of ,the Schuylkill, and the pit-coal (which is
fold in Philadelphia at two Shillings, or four
fifteenths of a dollar per buShel) from Virginia.
'The completion of the canal, which is to unite
the Schuylkill with the Delaware, will greatly
facilitate the fale of the manufactures. The
want of thefe commodities, which have hitherto been drawn chiefly from Europe, enfures
them a certain market; in Short, every thing
promifes fuccefs to this undertaking. All
thefe natural advantages however muft vanifh,
if ever there Should arife a want of money,
large and prompt Supplies of which are requisite to give activity to the whole : I as well as
judgment, induftry and economy.
There is in America a fcarcity of perSbns
capable of conducting a bufinefs of this kind.
There are alfo but few good workmen, who
are with difficulty obtained, and whole wages
are exorbitant. The conductors of Mr. Ni-
cholfon's manufactories are faid to be very-
able men. But then a whole year may elapfe,
before the workmen fall into a proper train of
bufinefs, i
bufinefs, fo that Mr. Nicholfon's Situation does-
not afford the moft flattering profpects of fuc-
cefs, if his returns be not rapid, as well as large.
The conductors of the manufactories being
abfent, we were not able to.obtain more ample information concerning this establishment,
ind for the fame reafoh we could not learn,
whether it be intended to make ufe of the
fame machines, which are ufed in the great
iron-works in Europe. The whole road from
Philadelphia to Roxborough is full of granite,
and covered with a fort of mica, which is reducible to the fineSt duff.
About half a mile from Mr. Nicholfon's
buildings, on the bank of the Schuylkill, is
the houfe of one Robertson, where we intended firft to Stop.
Eobertfon, a quaker, and brother of Caleb
Lownes's wife, is a miller and-farmer on hi$
own account. He poffeffes an eState of two
hundred and fifty acres, of which thirty only
are covered with wood. The land is, on the.
whole, of very^ inferior quality in this district.^
There is but little wheat cultivated here, the
common grain being maize, called in America
Indian corn, rye, and fome oats.    An acre ge-
nerally yields from twenty-five to thirty bufhels
of maize, from eighteen to twenty bufhels of
rye, and about ten buShels of wheat. Mr.
Robertfon manures his land; but it is a Surprising fact, that he fetches his dung from Philadelphia at the high price of three dollars a
load, containing about five cubic feet, when
he might eafily procure it in abuhdance on his
own farm. Seven Such loads are allowed to
every acre, and his land is manured every three
or four years. His meadows are fuperior to the
reft of his grounds ; in common with all other
American farmers, he mixes platter of Paris
with his feed. Four oxen and two horfes are
Sufficient to do the work of this farm, a part
of which is So Steep, as to be incapable of cultivation. Day-labourers are procured here
without much difficulty; they receive four
Shillings a day with board, or five Shillings and
nine pence without it. The price of Indian
corn is five Shillings a bulhel, of wheat from
nine to twelve, and of barley Six. Hay is generally fold at Sixteen or eighteen dollars a tun,
but at this time it is thirty-three. Common
meadows yield about three tuns, but thofe in
a good Situation, which are properly cultivated,
111 ed, and fown with clover or other grafs,
times produce eight tuns. Mr. Robertfon
buys lean cattle, from the fattening of which
he derives a profit of fixteen, twenty, or twenty-five dollars a head. Robertfon however af-
ferts, that hay is the moft lucrative produce
arifing from the meadows; at lealt it is that
which, with equal profit, requires the leaft toil.
I am aftoniflied at the Shallow arguments the
farmers of this country offer, to juftify this favourite SyStem, of avoiding whatever requires,
labour. On this principle Mr. Robertfon will
riot kqcp a dairy, or rnake either butter or
cheefe, though, were he to try the epmerimem;,
he would foon experience its advantages. It
appears, that this cuStom partly arifes from the
Scarcity and great expence of labourers, but
Still more from the prevailing indifference and
indolence of the farmers, who prefer the indulgence of this difpofition to a fmall advantage. It is alfo, in fome meafure, to be attributed to the national character, in which
indolence is a very Striking feature. In point;
of agricultural knowledge, Robertfon is but
little fuperior to the fervant, who conducts hi§
bufinefs; he is filled with prejudices, and is^
even ignorant of many things, which in Europe are considered as the a b c of hufbandry.*
He appears, however, to be far more Skilful,
as a miller. His mill, which is faid to be the
firft that was built in America, is worked by
a rivulet, called WiSIahiccon, which turns
twenty-five other mills, before it reaches Ro*
bertSbn's. It has three water-courfes, and
three feparate mills, two of which work for
the manufactory, as they call it, and one for
the public. The latter grinds all the corn
which is brought hither, without the leaSt al-
teration of the mill-Stones, in its paSSing from
the grain to the flour; which naturally renders the meal very indifferent: the miller's
due is one tenth, according to the law of the
land.    Robertfon does  not grind  any Indian
O' J
corn on his own account, nor has he any kiln
to dry it.    Meal  from this corn is not bad, if
* This indifference to improvement, of which .the
Duke complains, is always to be obferved while agriculture is in its infancy in a country, and while there is
enough of land, but little accumulated ftock. It is the
characteristic of a particular ftate of fociety; and does
not originate from the accidental and peculiar caufes, to
which he afcribes it.—Tranflatar.
H fpeedily ufed; but it is not fit for being long
kept, and yields but little.
The corn is brought' hither in waggons, and
the cranes, inftead of turning it out of th<
veffel, lift it up from the waggons into the
granary, which is very fmall: and the corn
lies in heaps, the Several floors being low, dark
and dirty.
Robertfon grinds yearly from forty-five to
about fifty thoufand bufhels of corn, which
he procures from Virginia and New-York;
and fome is even brought from the upper part!
of Pennsylvania. There are, however, fo many
mills along the Schuylkill, that he receives but
little from that part of the country. The grain
procured from the other Side of the bay comes
by Philadelphia, from which it is brought to
J J. o
the mill, which is large enough to contain
f DO
about ten thoufand buShels. Six horfes ard
constantly employed in carrying the meal to
Philadelphia, and bringing back corn in re-
turn, inis journey is often performed twice
a day. The water of the WiSIahiccon is never
frozen, nor does the mill ever ceafe working,
except in a cafe of the utmoft neceffity. Mr,
Robertfon employs about his mill five mem
three of whom he pays ; he gives one hundred
and twenty dollars a year to the firft, and
eighty to each of the other two. The reSt
arc apprentices, who receive nothing but victuals, clothes, &c. A barrel of flour is at this
time * worth ten dollars. Robertfon complains of the quality of the grain of laft year,
which, he Says, is not heavy, but in general
hollow. I have, however, feen Some very good
grain of laSt year. I heard him fay that grain,
attacked by the Heflian ily, notwithstanding
it becomes bad and hollow, yields flour, which,
though Somewhat indigestible, is not quite un-
wholefome. The banks of the Schuylkill were
vifited laft year by great numbers of thefe flies,
The county-rates are the fame at Roxbo-
rough as in the whole district of Philadelphia*
of which this place forms a part, namely, from
£.vc to fix Shillings per cent, upon all property.
The other taxes have of late been reduced to
little or nothing. A perfon in affluent circumstances pays but one or two. Shillings towards the repair of the high-roads. Poor-rates
are quite unknown, as there are Seldom any
poor in the country; and a fmall fum has been
* Twentieth of April, 1795.
£ 1
laid up in the bank for the fupport of the
poor,—if there Should be any ; which Stock
yields annually about forty or forty-two dol*
lars, and thefe are added to the capital. There
is alfo a moderate tax of fix or feven Shillings
on every hundred pounds a man is worth,
which he pays as an offering towards the public fervice of the Slate, that he may remain
undisturbed in the enjoyment of his property. And this is fix miles from Philadelphia
furely this mult be a happy country.*
The WilTahiccon Slows between hills, which
re high and covered with wood. A fine wa-
ter-fall of about feven or eight feet, and as
broad as the bed of the rivulet, fupplies Robertfon with more water than would be required for turning many more mills. The
banks of the rivulet bear a wild arid romantic
appearance, and the brook, winding in the
molt beautiful meanders through the woods
* lt is the proportion between, on the one hand, what
may be gained in every fituation,  with the diverjity of
fuch fituations—and, on the other band, what is to be paid
for public protection, with the degree of fecarity and com
fort fuch protection may give ;—which is the fole and
precife point upon which an eftimation like that which
the Duke here makes.—Tranfiator,
and rocks, forms a grand, yet gloomy, profpect,
which catches and detains the eye, and difpofes
the mind to penfive reflection. The various fitua-
-tions of this fublunary life prefent to us the fame
objects in very different points of view. How
different are the impreflions I now feel, from the
pleafing fenfations with which memory and hope
once enlivened my fancy—but 1 will depart,
and be happy, that I may not enhance my mif-
fortunes by painful reflections.
From Roxborough we proceeded on to Spring-
mill. After having left the banks of the Schuylkill, we travelled through a tract of country interfered by a regularly alternate fucceflion of
hills and vallies. We found here Several badly
watered meadows, which are capable of great
improvements. The farms here are very dole
to one another; all the land is cultivated ; very
little wood is to be feen, at lealt, without going
to a distance from the highway. As we pro*
ceed, the country becomes extremely beautiful.
The corn-fields are now green, the leaves beghj
to fprout forth, and the fruit-trees are covered
with bloffoms ; all nature revives, her face glows
with life and beauty ; and my temper has , not
yet attained So great a degree of apathy, as to
render me infenfible to the charms of this fea-
foh, which always captivated me with irrefiftible
power. Yet the uninterrupted and high fences
of dry wood greatly disfigure the landfcape, and
produce a tedious famenefs.    Thefe might be
eafily replaced by trees which  endure- the froft,
■J i J
as thorns are fuppofed here (I think without any
j aft ground) to be unfuitable to the climate.
Some of the fields along the road are bordered
with tliaga or cedar, but thefe experiments are
rare; and, in general, the land is inclofed with
double fences of wood. The country is covered
with neat houfes, furrounded with painted railings ; which indicate profperity, without reminding us of thofe European eftates, which are
cither enriched bv a refined agriculture, or orna-
mented with coftly and elegant country-feats.
-. Near Spnngmill we again faw the Schuylkill.
Springmill confiits of eighteen or twenty habitations, which lie clofe to each other, and are
moftlv either farms or mills ; it is fituated in a
valley, far moiie extenfive and fpacious than any
iaoe have hitherto, paffed ; and the foil is alfo Su-
perior. The greateSl part is grafs land, extending as far as the river ; while the oppoflte bank,
Steep, woody, and even fomewhat rocky, forms
a beautiful NORTH AMERICA, CAN/ADA, &C
a beautiful cOntraft with the charming plains of
Springmill. The profpect up and down the
river is extenfive, and. Strikingly, variegated* by
green meadows and dark mountains, fc;
Springmill is the place,f.where is fituated the
farm,   mentioned by Brissot vyi Iris travels,  a§
being cultivated  by a frenchman,  whofe , Skill
and philofophy he highly praifes.     This Frenchman,  of whofe name Briffot gives only the initial,-is Mr. Legaux.   His farm has been fold on
account of his inability to pay the fecond installment of the purchafe-money.    He now actually
rents fifteen acres, which he has converted into
a vineyard.    But the prefent moment  is
means the time, in which vineyards appear to the
grcatejt advantage; the vine  fcarcejy begins to
bud, and is almoSl without life.   Thefoil'is very
good, and, as far as, we were able to judge, well.
chofen, both  on account of its Sunny Situation   \
and interior quality ;  and the cleanlinefs, as weU
as Skill, with which the ground is managed, is
very remarkable.     No kitchen-garden can be in
better order;  the vine-props are, already fixed in
the ground.    The fifteen acres give employment
to fix labourers,  whom Mr. ' Legaux  procures
without much trouble ; he pays them three
C 2
lings and nine pence, and provides them victuals,
His dwelling is a fmall Stone cottage, one Story
high, about twenty feet in breadth and ten feet
deep ; a very indifferent, dirty kitchen, feparated
by a wainfcot partition from a real alcove, which
contains a miferable bed, constitutes all the apartments of this cottage. In the fmall room were
jumbled together in one confufed heap, books,
furniture, papers, glaffes, bottles, and philosophical instruments. The fight of a man of liberal education reduced to fuch penury, excites
a painful fenfation.
Mr. Legaux was not at home on our arrival;
we were informed that he was in Philadelphia,
as, no doubt, we were Sufpected as unwelcome
visitors. He was, however, at a neighbour's;
and we had no fooner left his houfe to remount
our horfes, than we were called back, and he
haStened up to us. To an unfortunate man, reduced to Such a State of retirement, the vifit of
three Strangers is an occurrence not to be Slighted.
He knew that one of the three Strangers was a
Frenchman, for I had left my card. The view
of a countryman at fo great a distance from our
native land, is far more pleafing than that of ally
other perSbn.   It is fo at leaSt to me, though the
pleafing SenSation I feel on fuch occasions, is frequently embittered by the thought, that at this
unfortunate period of the revolution a Frenchman is Sometimes the very worSt company which
a Frenchman can meet.
Mr. Legaux accoSted us with a countenance
which apparently beSpoke content. His dreSs
perfectly corresponded with the relt of his establishment. A long coarfo flannel waiftcoat,
black breeches, and Stockings full of holes, and
a dirty night-cap, formed his whole attire. He
is a man of about fifty or fifty-five years of age ;
his eyes are very lively, and his whole phyfiogno-
my indicates cunning rather than goodneSs of
heart. In the courfe of the Short conversation
we had with him, he told us, that the cruel and
rigorous conduct of the perfbn of whom he had
bought the eftate, which he poSfeSfed at the time
of poor BrhTot's vifit (this was his expreffion),
had compelled him to Sell it again, and to rent
the Small vineyard which he was now cultivating. He considers the fuccefs of this enterprize
as certain, and thinks that it will prove very lucrative to him. He affured us that his wines
arc already very good, though the oldeft of them
had not yet been in the cellar more than two
C 3 years. 12
Ft I X
years. They are Medot vines; and one vine of
the Cape of Good, Hope, for which he paid forty
guineas, has already produced nearly two hundred layers. He faid that his wine is of a peculiar
flavour, yet more like the " vhide Grave'' than
any other wince He pays a rent of Sixty-two
dollars for his fifteen acres. This is, in few
words, the fubftance of all we could learn concerning his nlantation. On our alking him why
he fettled in America nine years Since ? he acquainted us that he was an advocate in the parliament of Metz, but left his fituation and his
country to affift his friend, Mr. Foulqui,er, in
his functions, as intendant of Guadaloupe, and
that this intendant having been- Strongly fuf-
pectcd of mal-administration in the colonies, ha*d
exculpated himfelf by throwing all the blame on
him, Legaux, whofe purity of fentiments had
ever been ebual to his zeal for his ungrateful
friend. None of his cxpreffions befpoke that
tranquillity and peace of mind, which a man
might be fuppofed to. enjoy who thus withdraws
from the world to lead a fequeftered life, and
cultivate the ground. He even appeared diffa-
tisfied with every one, efpecially with the Americans, of whom he repeated twenty times that
wTe could never entertain too much fufpicion.
Although this man received us kindly, and fpoke
many handfome things of my family as well as of
myfelf, affuring me that he had heard a great
deal about me previously to my leaving France,
yet I was difpleafed w ith him, and he excited in
me rather difapprobation of what he termed his
misfortunes, than compafiion for his prefent Situation, though my frame of mind was much in"fa»
p CD J
vour of the latter. ,iW"hat I heard concerning
him, on my return to Philadelphia, has confirm?
ed me in my opinion. He is a worthlefs, litigious
man, who, during the nine years he has refided
in America, has been engaged in upwards of two
hundred law-Suits, not one of which he has gained. However Strong may be our prepofleflion
againSt America, it is highly improbable that juf-
tice Should fo obftinately be denied to a foreigner.
On the contrary, it is much more likely that a
man who has entered or ^defended two hundred
actions, mult have been actuated Solely by a litigious difpofition, and that none of his claims
were well grounded ; efpecially if he himfelf conducted the Suit, which is extremely probable, as
he was .formerly a lawyer. Mr. Legaux's reputa-
tion at Philadelphia is not of the heft complexion,
C 4
f \ut; and I verily believe that "if an enquiry were made
into the affairs of Guadaloupe, the refult would
not prove favourable to this fage, this philanthropist, this philofopher, (^on whom poor Briffot paffes
fo high an eulogium,) who cannot live in peace
with his neighbours, but quarrels with every one
about him.
We left the Schuylkill by Springmill, to Strike
to the fhorteft road to Norris Town : the land is
of the fame defcription with that which we
had juft paffed. On the road from Roxborough
to Norris Town we had now and then a view of
the river, and at times alfo of a more distant range
of fmall hills, riling in the form of an amphitheatre ; this is a branch of the Valley-hills,
which form a part of the Blue Mountains.
Norris Town is the chief town of the county
of Montgomery, about feven miles from Philadelphia. This chief town of the county confifts
of ten buildings, in one of which the felTions are
held; in another the judges reSide when they
come to hold the aSIizes; a third is the county
jail; three others are inns; the reft are farm
houfes, Shops, or habitations of labourers. All
the houfes arc Strorigly built of Stone. Norris
Town, fituated on an eminence, about a quarter _
ter of a mile from the Schuylkill, enjoys a grand
and very extenfive profpect; and forms itfelf, even
viewed at a distance, a very Striking and conspicuous object. The quarter-feSfions are held here
regularly, but the circuit-courts only once a year,
and at times only every two or three years, when
there are no caufes. The jail was built about two s
or three years ago, after that of Philadelphia.
But, thanks to the penal code of Pennsylvania,
it is Seldom inhabited by any other peribn than
the keeper. When we vilited it, a Frenchman
was confined there on Strong fufpicion of having
forged a bank note : he is to remain in this pri-
fon until the next quarter-Seffions, when he will
be either acquitted or removed to Philadelphia,
unleSs the circuit Should happen to be held in
that town. The prifon-gate was open, and the
prifoner might have effected his efcape without
any difficulty, had he been the leaft inclined to
do fo. But he did not eScape, either from a,reliance on his innocence, which I wifh may be
the caSe, or from the rifk of being taken again.
It is no eaSy matter to difcover the neceSIity, nay,
the utility of fuch confidence as this, which is
more nearly allied to indolence than humanity.
It is juft as diSficult to aSiign  a reafon why a
* rn
\(   h
-'--ii 26
Frenchman, who is a villain, or at leaft a mart
of fo bad a character as this prifoner, who in
France would have attempted twenty times to
efcape from prifon, yet remains quietly in Norris
Town, where the doors Stand open to him. Pretenders to philofophy, and Briffot for one, will
fay, that the certitude of impartial jultice being
administered to him, retains the prifoner more
effectually in his prifon than fetters ; that in a
republic every one confiders himfelf as the guardian of the law, even againft himfelf, &c. All
this may Satisfy thofe who are contented with
words', but is not Sufficient to explain this extraordinary fact to him who prefers found argument to unphiiofophical jargon. It may perhaps
belt be accounted for from the circumftance that
this man would find it impoffible to fubfiSt any
where elSje but in prifon.
The foil about Norris Town is very good, which
is here Somewhat more the object of culture than
near Roxborough, yet is not even produced here
in great quantity. The fyltem of agriculture is
much the fame, and the average produce nearly
the fame, perhaps fome what greater. The beft
land is worth from forty-eight to fifty-two dol-
lars; the inferior fort from twenty-fix to thirty.
Labour is cheaper here than at Roxborough and
Springmill. The price of provisions is lower
than in Philadelohia, though not much; there
being no nearer market than that town, all the
produce of this country is carried thither. Beef
is fold at, from fix to feven pence a pound, bacon at one Shilling a pound, and flour five one-
half dollars the hundred weight.
The county-rates of Montgomery amount to
no more than about three Shillings for every hun-
dred pounds, and one fhilling towards the repairs
of the roads J thus a per centage of four Shillings
on all taxable property is the total amount of the
public taxes.    Poor-rates are feldom neeeffary,
though this place is not pofleffed of the fame re-
fourcc of a fund, eSlablifhed for that purpofe, as
Roxborough.    There are at prcfent no paupers
here; and when there are, a rate of one Shilling
is fully fufheient for their maintenance.    Each
pauper is boarded in fome family or other, and
his board and lodging are paid for by the pariSh.
It is the duty of the overfeers to take care that
the pauper be well treated, and that the parish
be not impofed upon by improper charges.    All
the poor confift of perfons afflicted by Sicknefs, or
.rendered incapable of labour by'old age.
i 28
The canal, intended to join the Schuylkill with
the Delaware, begins at Norris Town, and half
a mile of it on this fide is completely finished.
Its bed, wThich was parallel to the river, is about
eighteen or twenty feet in breadth, and three feet
deep.    The canal is opened  about three miles
farther.   Here marble rocks are to be cut through,
which Slope down to the river.    This is a laborious, as well as very expensive, undertaking; as
every cubic toife of rough Stone cofts nine Shillings, and fifty workmen only are employed in
this work.    The canal, wtien finished, will be
of great advantage to Philadelphia ; but when
will it be finifhed ! It is begun near the town on
a very bad plan;  in fome places it is filled up
with fand that has been wafhed together to the
height of fen feet, which can never keep water.
It is reported, that Mr. Watson, an English engineer, who fuperintends the construction of this
canal,   very particularly  recommended  that   it
might be dug on the oppofitc bank of the Schuylkill, as it would be much more folid there ; but
as it wTas much to the interest of the directors of
the company, that the canal Should pafs through
their eitates, they were deaf to every other pro-
pofal, and the canal is now executed on the moSt
difficult and moft circuitous plan, with little
profpect of Succefs. The money for conftru(t>
ing the canal, began already to fall Short of *the
Sum required, and feveral fubfcribcrs kept back
their Subfcriptions beyond the limited time of
payment, even at the hazard of forfeiting the Sum
already paid, as well as all claims to the advantages refulting from the completion of the canal,
rather than they would incur the rifk of finking
a further Sum, when the legislative power, apprised of the obstacles which obstructed the completion of the work, granted a lottery to raife a
fum of four hundred thouSand dollars, intended
for the execution of all practicable plans of inland navigation, one hundred and thirty-three
thouSand dollars of which are to be appropriated
to the completion of the Schuylkill canal. If
the meafure of a State lottery can ever be juftified
by the vaft utility of the object to which the
money it produces is applied, it certainly is fo in
the prefcnt inftance. But among a corrupt people, crimes and vices are generally encreafed by
the institution of a lottery; and can the legislature of Pennsylvania flatter itfelf, that it will not
considerably add to the corruption and immorality
of the inhabitants  by an establishment fo ex-
frpmp v 30
i I
tremely dangerous, and of which a very immoderate ufe has already been made in America r
After having viewed the Canal, as far as it is
at preSent finished, we viiited the quarries which
yield the marble, of which nearly all the chimney-
pieces in Philadelphia, as well as the ornaments
of many Street-doors, Steps before the houfes, and
windows are formed. This marble is black and
white, and very hard. It is found in great abun-
dance in the quarries, which have hitherto ojjiry
been opened in thefe places, and not to any great
extent. It is, however, true, that we faw the
principal quarry only, and that many others have
been opened in the neighbourhood. We were
even told of a quarry where the marble is all
white, but it was at too great a distance to be
vifited by us. That which we faw is in the district of Plymouth, where there is alfo a mill with
two faws for cutting marble, which lies on the
rivulet Plymouth. The mill contains nothing
worthy of notice, but its fituation is, extremely
picturefque and pleafant.
The whole tract of country from Norris Town
to within one or two miles from Roxborough;-
is covered with lime-Stone, more or lefs perfect,.
The Strata are moftly inclined, forming an angle
11 X
of forty-five degrees, and in fome places inter-
Sperfed with hard quarry-Stone, and even with
flints. Wc found in the road a great quantity
of hard Stone; a quarry, or variety of the granite-
Stones, which contain about three or four cubic
feet, feem to be wafhed up by the water. Between Roxborough and Philadelphia granite is
again found, and the earth is covered with mica.
We are again in the fame inn, at which we
put up before. The landlord is making a well,
and the ground, where they are digging it, being
very looSe, he lines it with a large wooden cylinder, five feet in diameter, and within the cylinder
constructs a wall eighteen inches thick.
May the 6th, 1/Q5.
From Norris Town to Trap the country is
much varied, very hilly, highly cultivated, with
little wood-land, many orchards and meadows,
water in abundance, brooks, Springs, and creeks
of every fize; two of the latter, which are by
no means fmall, we forded, namely, the Shipack,
eleven miles from Norris Town, and the Pachiom-
ming, two miles farther on; they were both
fome what deep. The roads are very bad, and no
attempts are made to repair them; we cannot,
«A Al
I #
therefore, be Surprized at hearing, that fo many
Stage-coaches are overturned.
Trap is a village in the diitrict of Providence,
which is the largeSt and moft affluent in the
whole county. The foil, which is very good, is
cultivated in the fame manner as in other places ;
more land lies in grafs here, than we have feen
any where Since we left Philadelphia. There
are four different churches in this district, where,
as in all the other States, the minister is paid by
thofe only who belong to his feet. The fpeakers
among the people called Quakers are the only-
ones wTho preach gratis. The manner of paying
for divine Service is the fame as in Philadelphia;
people pay for their feats in the church.
The provision produced in the district: of Providence is fold in the market of Philadelphia.
The taxes in this district, as well as in the county,
amount to about eighteen pence for every hundred pounds of taxahle property, with the exception of the poor-rates. The poor are rather
numerous in this district, and fix hundred and
forty dollars arc raifed yearly for their fupport.
The common price of labour is three Shillings
and fix-pence a day, with board ; and the price
of land fluctuates between thirty-two and forty- North America, canada, &c*
feven dollars per acre, in proportion to the State
of its inclofures, cultivation, and buildings. Bread
made of rye or Indian corn is the common food
of the labourer, who, in addition to this, has
meat three times a dav.
We arrived at Trap, and intended to dine at
Pottfgrove; but we were under the necefhty of
returning by the fame road we had come. The
Servant, who Should have joined us an hour before, did not arrive; and as we knew this delay
muSt have been occasioned by fome accident, we
were determined to learn what it was. We met
him about a mile from Trap, leading both his
norfes by the bridle, but without the baggage,
which had fallen off four miles farther back, and
our poor Jofeph being unable to procure any af-
fiftance, and Suppofing that we Should be uneaty
on his account, had left it in the care of a woman, and had proceeded thus far to inform us of
his misfortune. We therefore returned the other
four miles, and placed the baggage again on the
horfc, but in So indifferent a manner, that after
we had travelled two miles, it was again likely
to fall off. Mr. Guillemard,- taking every thing
into confideration, convinced us, that the horfe
was too heavily, as  well as unfkilfully laden,
Vol. I. D and
/{III Fe
and we therefore refolved to procure a waggcsv
fjo convey our baggage to the inn.
During our Slay at the inn, to which wTe returned, wre learned, in the courfe of converfation
with afurgeon, that the number of gentlemen
of his profeflion is pretty confiderable in this differed: ; that one is to be met with every Six or feven
miles; that their fee for a vifit at the distance of
two miles, is one Shilling, and every additional:
Bgiile a<}ds one Shilling more, befides the charge for
medicines; that inoculation of children for the
fmall-pox is very common ; that the fee for this
operation amounts to two dollars ; that the molt
a phyfician of known abilities can make, in this
part of the country, is one thoufand three hundred dollars a year, but that very few make fo
much, in confequence of which, all medical men,
with few exceptions, follow fome other employment befides their profeflion, and become either
farmers or Shop-keepers, to increafe their income.
Although the inn, at which we put up, was
not that which had been pointed out to us, anslf
was, in fact, no better than a fmall, miferable ale-
houfe lately opened; yet we met with very good
accommodation. We had tea and coffee for
breaj^falt; bacon, tongue, and eggs for dinner,
and every thing tolerably clean. Whilst we were
contriving the means of fending our baggage to
Reading, the Stage-coach happened to pafs, and
took charge of it: we then continued our journey to Pottfgrove.
The road thither is exactly of the fame de-
fcription with that between Norris Town and
Trap. The ground where it confifts of fand, is
good, but extremely bad where the foil is rich,
having been entirely Soaked through by the rain,
which fell the day before yefterday; the foil
Confifts, in general, of a ferruginous earth, particularly near Pottfgrove. The landfcape is beautiful along this road, abounding with a great variety of fine views, wonderfully enlivened by th
verdure of the corn-fields and meadows. We
paSTed through fome parti of the country, w7here
the grafs was fine, Strong, and thick, in Short, as
good as it could poffibly be. If agriculture were
better understood in theSe parts ; if the fields were
well mowed and well fenced; and if fome trees
had been left Standing in the middle or on the
borders of the meadows, the moft beautiful parts
of Europe could not be more pleafing. But
thefe eternal fences of dead wood, thefe dry
maize-ftubbles of laft year, thefe decayed tifees,
which are left Standing until they are rotten?,
and the abfolutc want of verdant trees in the
corn-fields and meadows, greatly impair the
beauty of the landfcape, but without being able
entirely to deftroy its variety and charms.
The country about Pottfgrove is Still more
pleafant; the plain, in which this fmall market-
town is fituate, is more extenfive than any we
have hitherto feen, and, at the fame time, is in
the higheSt degree of cultivation. The for eft-
mountains^, which are in fight on the left and in
the front, form  beautiful borders  to this land-
In the neighbourhood of Pottfgrove we again
difcovered the Schuylkill, which we had left
near Norris Town. Along its whole courfe its
banks are delightful, and all the land, through
which it paffes, is good. I do not know a finer
river in point of water and views. If European
taSte and magnificence adorned the banks of the
Schuylkill wkh country-feats, it would not be
excelled either by the Seine or the Thames.
PottSgrove is a market town, and originally
laid out by a quaker-family, of the name of Pott.
About forty years ago they purchafed land of the
State at a very low price, and fold it afterwards
at w
at a considerable profit, according as it was
more or lefs fought after. It is now worth
thirty dollars in the town, and from thirty to
thirty-feven in the adjacent country. The family of Pott have eftablilhed confiderable iron
forges, and by means of thefe much increafed
the fortune, which they acquired by the fale of
the lands. They are generally SuppoSed to be
very rich. Pottfgrove confifts at prefent of about
thirty well built houfes, and belongs to the dif-
trict of Douglas, which forms a part of the county
of Montgomery. The poors-rate are very inconsiderable, and all neceffaries of life are cheaper
here by nearly half than at Philadelphia.
As I alighted from my horfe, I difcovered a
Frenchman, among the feveral perfbns who were
ftanding at the door of the inn, by a certain
characteristic deportment, which is eafily dif-
eernible in individuals of all nations, but more
particularly fo in a Frenchman. An involuntary
movement, Some natural feeling, drew me to*
wards him. His name is Gerbier ; he is a nephew of the celebrated advocate of Paris, by
whom he was brought up, and the Son of a famous advocate at Rennes, of whom he has received no intelligence during thefe laft ten months.
D 3 In
sy. feap'''" "i*uiam 38
In St. Domingo, where he refided formerly as a
merchant, he married a Creole, a friend and
fchool companion of Madame de Montule,
with whom he lives in one of the houfes of this
It is impoSfible to meet with a Frenchman in
thefe times, without being called upon to liften
fp the hiftory of his loffes, his misfortunes, and to
his refentments naturally refulting from them.
Mr. Gerbier's account of his misfortunes, however, was very Short, though they appear to me
very great. As to his refentment, he expreffed
himfelf on this point as a man of fenfe, who
wifhes not to entertain any. He feemed melan^
choly and dejected, yet poSTeffmg a Strong mind.
Misfortunes, borne with patience and refignation,
are ever fure to excite compaffion: I heartily
Sympathife in thofe, which have fallen to his lot.
He ppSTeSfes a fmall portion of land in Afylum,
whither he intends to remove, as foon as his wife
has recovered from her lying-in. He Spoke with
much praife of M, de Blacons, of the excellent Mr. Keating, of M. De Montule, and
of Du Petit Thouars. He appeared to me a
mild and worthy man, but rather too much dc-
prefled by misfortune ; for, at his age, and with.
H his
1 * V* NORTH AMEtlrbA, CANADA, &C.
his abilities, he might find numerous reSburces fh
this country. After he had left me, he received a
letter from his mother, a lady turned of Seventy.
She informed him, that She and his father were
both well; that they had fortunately efcaped the
dreadful guillotine, the drownings and Shootings,
which would ever difgrace the French revolution ; that they could not fend him any money
at that time, but that they would pay any Sum,
for which he chofe to draw on them. This wife
and fenfible letter, was written, however, in the
language of liberty. The poor young man was
happy to perceive, that I participated in his joy ;
and yet this glimpfe of Sun-Shine was not able to
diSperfe the profound melancholy which clouded his mind. I muft obferve, that Mr. Gerbier's
mother, in the defcription which She gave of the
Situation of France, fpoke of great diftreSs, and
efpecially of the depreciation of aflignats, wMch
was fo great, that a fowl coft two hundred
livres in paper money, and three livres in Specie.
The inn at PottSgrove is very good ; it is ker>*
by a German. The inhabitants of this boroul^
are moltly Germans. Here we found fhe ftag#*
coach, by which we had fent our luggage; but
the letter-cafe,   which   contained Mr.   Guiffie-
D 4 mard's travels through
mard's money, had been left behind in Trap.
Endeavouring to think of every thing, my tra^-
veiling companion thinks, in fact, of nothing.
Thus we are obliged to fend back to Trap, to
fetch the letter-cafe, even if it be not Stolen, a
point which we Shall learn to-morroyv at Readily '$■,-      - .^.--      ' .   .,--;.
On Thurfday, the 7 th,
We Stopped at the White Horfe, four miles
from Pottfgrove. This inn is kept by a French^
man, a native of Lorrain, who has married an
American woman, the daughter of a native of
Avignon, by a woman from Franche-Comte.
The whole family fpeak bad EngliSh and bad
French, but probably good German. They pay
a rent of eighty-fix dollars for fifty acres of land
and the houfe ; their owner lives very near, and
keeps a Shop. The houfe and the land, which
is of very good quality, would have been worth
fixty dollars more, had it been let to a private
family. But the lhopkeeper had -very juftly
calculated, that a good tavern fo near his houfe
was of more value to him than fixty dollars,
and that a well frequented inn could not but
procure cuftomers to his Shop, from whom he
would be  likely to  derive  advantages far exceeding the fum which he thus facrificed.
The good people of the inn enquired with
much eagernefs for news from France. My
friend told them, that it would be obliged to
fuftain another and more dreadful campaign.
f( How! a Still more dreadful one than the preceding campaign," they exclaimed, " notwithstanding the Englifh were beaten laft year?"
" There are many other enemies," replied my
friend, " Ruffians, Auftrians." " Aye,- aye," faid
tbo^vgood people, " all thofe who do not like
liberty; but the French will neverthelefs triumph, if it pleafe God, over all the f ."
Thefe are the Sentiments, and fuch is the language of moft Americans ; and indeed this muft
be the opinion of all, who are not acquainted
with the crimes, attending our revolution; and
even they who are So, very juftly impute them
{o the various factions, and carefully diftinguiSh
and feparate them from the caufe of liberty.
The principles and conduct of the coalefced
powers are treated with the fame degree of indignation as thofe of the terrorists. The lefs
informed clafs of men confider the matter in
$us Jight, and, in fact, in this light it Should be
il TRAVELS through
confidered by all, who are able to lay afide for a
moment their grief and their misfortunes, and
to contemplate the true nature of the cafe with
a calm, unbiaffed mind. Liberty is now Struggling with defpotifm. If the caufe of liberty
prove triumphant, it will be able to organize
itfelf, and to acquire regularity and order; it
will ceafe to be anarchy, and become true national freedom. If defpotifm triumph, it will
organize itfelf for no other purpofe, but to enclave the world.
The Situation of tnis borough, and likewife J
of all other places on the road from Pottfgrove
to Reading, is delightful. Indeed the country
appears to become more lively and populous,
the nearer we approach the latter town. Corn
and faw mills are numerous here; and there
are many creeks with Strong currents, whicr|
turn the wheels of fome iron-forges. The mountains, which rife on the banks of the Schuylkill,
and feparate Reading from the other part of the
county, begin to form a ridge, which at firft
Stretches along under the name of Oley Hills,
and afterwards takes that of Lehi-hill. Thofe;
marks of the increasing improvement of the
country, which are obfervable as far as Bethlem
and the Delaware, are alSb perceivable here.
Log-houfes, constructed of trunks of trees, laid
one upon another, the interftices of which are
filled up with clay, are feen no longer, having
been replaced by framed houfes, conSitting however of balks, properly hewn and Shaped, and
covered with boards ; and even buildings of a
{till better construction are already to be feen in
fome parts> They now build only with Stone
and brick, and no woodland remains to be converted into arable ground. The wood that is
Handing is left for confumption. Oak fells at
three dollars and half, and hickory at four dollars and half a fathom. A few miles from
Reading the price of land is from twenty-five
to thirty dollars, if covered with wood; and
from one hundred and ten to one hundred and
thirty dollars if graSs-land. Day labourers receive three Shillings, carpenters and maSbns four
Shillings a day.
We overtook: the Stage-coach again at the
White Horfe, where the paffengers breakfafted.
It appears Somewhat ftrange to Europeans, to
fee the coachman eat at the Same table with
the paflengers; but it would feem equally
ftrange to Americans, to fee the coachman eat^
.5 ing by himfelf. It is futile to argue againft the
cuftoms of a country ; we muft fubmit. Equality, pretended equality, which widely differs
from true freedom, is the foundation of this
cuftom, which, in fact, injures nobody; it is
for the fame reafon, that the fervants, who wait
at dinner or breakfaft, are feated, except while
they are ferving you, and that the landlord attends you with his hat on his head. A man may
be allowed to diSlike this cuftom, without pof-
feSfing any extravagant Share of weak pride. An
inn-keeper, a Shoe-maker, a taylor, are naturally
at liberty to wait on people, or to let it alone;
but if they choofe to wait on others, they Should
keep at a proper distance, and obferve the re-
fpe<6t, which becomes their fituation. It muft
be obferved, however, that many an inn-keeper
in America is a captain or a major; nay, I have
feen drivers of Stage-coaches, who were colonels :
fuch things are very common in America. There
is much greater propriety in the cuftom that
prevails in England, where the tradefman is
treated with politenefs and refpe£t by his employers, whilft he, in return, obferyes the due
decorum of his fituation^ without meanly facri-
ficing that noble principle of liberty, which ever^e
Englishman cherishes with cOnScious pride:  it
will foon be the fame in France.
Reading, the chief town of the county of
Berks, which contains about thirty thoufand inhabitants, is Situate on the banks of the Schuylkill. The building of the firft houfes commenced in 1752. The family of Penn repur-
chafed the land, which they had originally dif-
pofed of, for the purpofe of building on this
Spot the chief town of the county. It confifts
at prefent of about five hundred houfes; a few
of thofe which were firft built are Still Standing ; they are log-houfes, and the interftices between the trunks of the trees are filled up with
Stone or plafter. In confequence of the flight
manner in which they were finished, feveral of
them have tumbled down; vanity has pulled
down others; but all thofe built within thefe
few laft years are of Stone or brick, and have a
neat appearance. The town is improving in
point of buildings 5 the Streets are broad and
Straight, and the foot-paths are Shaded by trees,
planted in front of the houfes.
This town has little or no trade, and fcarcely
any manufactures. There is one, at which a
considerable number of coarfe hats are fabricated
of wool, procured from Philadelphia, to which
place the hats are fent for fale ; with a few tan-
yards, which prepare leather for the confumption
of the town and neighbouring country. The
population of Reading is eftimated at about two
thoufand five hundred fouls, confiSting chiefly
of lawyers and inn-keepers. Some new houfes
Were built in the courfe of laft year ; but no in-
creafe of the number of inhabitants has been ob-
ferved for feveral years. They are all either
Germans, or of German defcent; great numbers
of the inhabitants of the town and neighbouring country do not understand a word of English, and yet all the public acts, and all the judicial proceedings are drawn up and conducted in
the Englifh language. Hence it often happens,
in the courfe of law-fuits, that the judges un-
derftand no German, and the parties, witneffes,
and jurymen, no Englifh, which renders the
conftant attendance of interpreters neceflary, to
repeat to the judges the deposition of the witneffes, and to the jurymen the fumming-up of
the judges. The administration of juftice is
therefore extremely imperfect. Many law-fuits,
however, having no other object than to fatisfy
the hatred and paffion of the moment, by drag-
°in£ i wM
i i
ging an adverfary before the judge, both parties are frequently fatisfied with the fentence,
of whatever complexion it may be. How many
differences might be fettled on amicable terms,
but for this revengeful difpofition to proceed to
extremities, which prevails in all countries, and
enfures to lawyers a certain fubfiftence; or ra*
ther how many law-fuits might be accommai-
dated, but for the great number of lawyers and
courts of juftice ! Law-fuits are very frequent
in Reading, and originate chiefly in debts, quar-*
rels, and affaults.
There is a printer in Reading, who publishes
a German gazette weekly; the price*is a dollar
a year. The fale extends as far as Pittfburg,
and does not exceed one thoufand one hundred
copies. Every one here, as well as in all other
parts of America, takes an interest in State affairs, is extremely eager to learn the news of
the day, and difcuffes politics as well as he is
There are three churches in Reading ; one
for the people called Quakers, another for Roman Caiholy^s^ and the third for Lu&berans. The
two laft are much frequented by Germans, in
whofe uative language the fermons are delivered.
vi Wm
Every one pays for the fupport of that form of
worfhip, which he has chofeti for himfelf, fre-
quently without attending it, which is   to his
tafte,   to  which he   is accuftomed, or   which
fome  whim   or   other   moves  him   to   prefer*
Generally fpeaking, few  men  go to  church j
at  leaft few of the firft clafs.    Religious worship is left chiefly to the women, who, forming the leaft bufy clafs of mankind, are the moft
afliduous   frequenters  of the   theatres and the
churches.    The Lutheran church is much re-
forted to in the morning, and the Roman Catholic fervice in the evening.    The ministers,
who are paid by fubfcription, receive about four
hundred dollars per annum.    Being without political importance, and confined to their ecclefi-
aftical functions,   they are  religious,  humane,
and tolerant.    If their conduct were otherwife,
their parishioners would change them juft  as
readily as withdraw their employment from a
Shoe-maker, who Should make bad Shoes. They
live in perfect harmony with one another. The
fermons delivered in the different churches are
chiefly of a moral caft.   Lutherans, Roman Catholics, and Quakers intermarry with each other.
Mr. Read, the gentleman to whom we had a
letter of introduction, has ten children, two of
whom only have been baptized; the reft are
left to choofe their religion for themfelves, if
they think proper, when they arrive at years of
The fortunes of thofe, who are accounted
people of property in Reading, are in general
moderate. An income of eighteen hundred or
two thoufand dollars a year is deemed large;
and at leaft a part of fuch incomes is always
earned by fome ufeful employment. Here are
indeed fome gentlemen pofleffed of large property, but then this has been generally obtained
by commerce, or elfe accumulated in the town
itfelf by dishonourable means, namely, by buying up, at a low price, demands againft poor
Small proprietors, and driving them from their
pofleSiions by judicial proceedings. The number of people, who have made fortunes in this
manner, is not great; yet there certainly are
about three of them in the town, who poSTefs
capitals amounting to two hundred and fifty or
three hundred thoufand dollars.
The fentiments of the inhabitants of this town
and the neighbouring country are very good,
and breathe a warm attachment  to the federal
Vol. I.
government. There is no democratic fociety.
Reading fent about eighty volunteers on the
expedition againft PittSburg, forty of whom
were equipped to ferve as cavalry. They all
belonged to rich families, and were engaged in
bufinefs ; but either their own zeal, or the influence of their relations, impelled them to devote themfelves to the public good. In confe-
quence of this public fpirit, a fociety has been
formed at Reading, called the Fire Society,*
the members of which enter into an obligation
to keep at their common expence two fire engines, and each at his own expence two buckets, a bafket, and a fack, and to attend at the
firft alarm of fire. This fociety, which refem-
bles that of Philadelphia, and many others of
the fame defcription, which are very common
all over America, fpares government an ex-
pence, which otherwife it would be obliged to
incur, and enfures a more fpeedy afiiftance to
fufferers, than any public institution could pofifthly afford. It will perhaps be faid, that this
fociety originated from the perfonal intereft of
* The eftablifhment of a company for infurance from
lofs by fire, may be expected to follow next, in the pro-
grefs of improvements at Reading.—Tranjlator. —•—5MMMB5S
every individual member or fubfcriber: be it fo;
for what elfe is public fpirit, but private intereft
properly understood ?
Some public buildings, fuch as a large houfe
for the different officers of the county, and the
archives, a prifon, and a feSfions houfe, have
been very lately built at the expence of the
county. The taxes are very fmall. Of three
lawyers, with whom we pafled the greateft part
of our time at Reading, not one could inform
me of the exact total amount of the taxes, but
they all agreed, that they are very inconsiderable, or next to nothing. The county-taxes
and poor-rates, taken all together, may perhaps
amount to about Sixpence in the pound, or a
fortieth part of the yearly income. On parti-,
cular occasions, or when public buildings are to
be erected, they are doubtlefs higher, but never
fo high as to take from a rich man more than
twelve dollars a year.
There are weekly two market days in Reading, and the market is well fupplied with provision. In fuch districts as lie near the market,
the price of building-ground, two hundred feet
in depth, is twenty-five dollars per foot ; in
lefs populous parts of the town only ten  dol-
E 2 lars. 51
fetfs. The rent for large convenient houfes, at
fome diftance from the town, amounts to one
hundred and fifty dollars. The price of land is
about twenty-two dollars an acre, and near the
town from thirty-two to thirty-fix dollars.
Meadows near the town coft one hundred and
fifty dollars. A'great number of them belong
to the family of Penn in right of purchafe ;
for it is well known, that all lands and tenements* which this family held in fee, were redeemed by the State, on granting indemnification more or lefs adequate to their value.
The Schuylkill does not flow through the
town, but at a diftance of about five thoufand
paces. A project is formed for extending the
town to the bank of the river, and it will certainly be carried into effect, as foon as the canal,
Which is to join the Schuylkill with the Suf-
quehannah, Shall be finifhed, a part of which is
already completed. Reading will then become
a considerable Staple for inland traffic. A toler-
ably extenfive corn-trade is already carried on
here. In winter, when the navigation is obstructed by ice, the neighbouring farmers, who
happen to be in want of money, bring their corn
to town.    The wealthy inhabitants buy it at a
low price, lay it up in granaries,  and fend it to
Philadelphia as foon as the river is navigable,
as it  is, in  general, for veffels of one hundred
or two hundred tons burthen, except when &
is frozen.
The banks of the Schuylkill are exquifitely
beautiful near Reading, indeed more fo than in
any other part of its courfe. On the fide opposite to the town arifes a range of richly cultivated hills, covered with as many houfes as
can be expected in this country. Beyond thefe
heights are mountains of more considerable elevation : and beyond thefe arc feen the lofty
fummits of the Blue Mountains. The whole
form a profpect at once pleafing and fublkne.
A exeat number of brooks run into the Schuyl-
kill, and turn many paper, faw, plafter, and oil-
mills in the vicinity of Reading. The inhabitants of the town are temperate, induftrious and
prudent people. A tradefman clears as much
money in a few years, as enables him to buy a
plantation in the back country, where he either
fettles himfelf, or fends one of his children.
Perfons who quit Reading and its vicinity generally retire to the country around Sunbury
and Northumberland. Some poor Germans from
E 3 time
time to time arrive here from Europe, get rich,
purchafe a plantation, and retire.
They marry here very young. Few women
remain unmarried beyond the age of twenty
years : and marriages are very fruitful. The
mortality among children is, upon an average,'
much lefs here than in Philadelphia. The
country is healthful. Perfons grey with age are
numerous, and epidemical difeafes rarely break
out. Living is cheaper here, by one half, than
in Philadelphia.
We had letters to MefTrs. Read and Bridle,
and cannot fpeak with fufficient praife of the
handfome reception we experienced from thefe
gentlemen. They anfwered all our queftions
with a degree of patience as obliging on their
part, as it was advantageous to us. The day we
Stopped at Reading was fpent at Mr. Bridle's,
where we found Mr. Read, Judge Rush, brother to Doctor Rush of Philadelphia, and President of the district, General Rover, who, during the laft war, ferved constantly under La
Fayette, and holds now the place of Regif-
trar, Mr. Eckard, an actuary, and Mr. Evans,
who is a lawyer as well as Meffrs. Read and
Bridle.  The converfation was pleaSant enough.
It conftantly turned upon the political Situation
of Europe, of which every one will talk, and
which is rightly understood by none. But it
is the topic of the day, to the difcuffion of which
we muft fubmit. Excellent principles of government, a warm attachment to France, abhorrence of the crimes which have been committed, and fervent wilhes for her welfare,
formed the prominent features of the conversation. Several very acute and judicious obfer-
vations on the fubject of England were made,
which did not befpeak great partiality for that
country. The gentlemen fpoke with enthufiafm
of Washington, with gratitude and efteem of
La Fayette, and, in Short, difplayed the moft
laudable feelings. During a walk we met fome
ladies, who, to judge from the manner in which
their attendants conducted themfelves, muft be
of very little importance in fociety. Mr. Bridle,
who, without faying a word, gave us tea in the
evening, feemed fcarcely to have eaten his din
The civility of our friends in Reading was
not confined to a kind reception ; they alfo offered us letters to gentlemen at Lancaster, and
in other places on our road, which, though we
E 4 were
u; : t
/ Hh/HP
were already provided with a tolerable number,
we accepted with the fame fatisfaction as they
were offered.
One of thefe letters procured me an introduction into the farm of Angelico. I was de-
firous of being more accurately acquainted with
the State of agriculture and hufbandry about
Reading, which, in Philadelphia, had been pointed out to me as the moft perfect in all PennSyl*
vania, and I therefore wifhed to converfe with
one of the beft informed farmers ; Mr. Evans
had been named to me as fuch. He fuperintends
and manages the farm of Angelico for Mr. Ni-
cholson in Philadelphia, who bought it three
years ago of Governor Mifflin. This farm,
which lies three miles from Reading on the way
to Lancafter, confifts of nine hundred acres,
four hundred only of which have hitherto been
cultivated, and fifty of thefe lie in pafture.
From fixty to feventy acres con lift of the fineft
meadows, fome of which are fown with clover.
They are watered at pleafure, partly by the Angelico, a fmall brook from which the place takes
its name, and partly by a very copious fpring,
which waters fuch parts as are not within reach
of the Angelico.   The grafs is fine, Strong, and
bufhy, and the only care taken of it confifts in a
flight irrigation. Thje reft of the land is under
the plough, and produces wheat, rye, buckr
wheat, oats, and Indian corn, but without any
fixed rotation of drops. The land is of the belt
quality, being a rich clay, from twenty-four to
twenty-eight inches deep. Some places are Stony.
More or lefs manure is laid upon the foil every
three years. From four to five cart-loads of
dung, about fifteen hundred weight each, are
generally allotted to an acre; but the dung is
far from being in a State to anfwer the intended
purpofe. The produce of the firft year, after
the ground has been cleared, is twenty-five
bufhels of wheat, forty bufhels of rye, forty
bufhels of barley, eighty bufhels of oats, twenty-
five bufhels of Indian com, per acre. It would
produce considerably more, if the wood were
felled in a more careful manner, and the ground
fomewhat deeper tilled. It is the cuifom, and
confequently the general opinion, that the
ground muft not be ploughed deeper than four
or five inches. I have converfed with Mr. Evans
on this fubject, who could not help allowing,
that the above opinion is erroneous. He was
entirely of my way of thinking; but it is the
cuftom, and that has more weight than the
cleareft reafoning. Newjy cleared land fometimes produces better crops after the fecond and
the third year's tillage, than at the firft; and
this generally happens when the ground has not
been cleared with fufficient care. The ufual
produce of this land is ten bufhels of wheat,
twenty of rye, twenty of barley, forty of oats,
and eighty of Indian corn. This district has not
fuffered from certain infects, called lice, which
occafion fometimes considerable mifchief to the
crops; nor had the Heflian fly much damaged
the corn here. The plough-fhare is of iron ;
it has but one broad fide bent towards the right.
It is ill contrived, and turns up the ground very
imperfectly. Two horfes are able to draw the
plough ina pretty Strong foil. The work of the
farm is performed by five men, fix horfes, and
twelve oxen. Mr. Evans's wife and children
manage the bufinefs of the houfe, of a pretty
considerable dairy, and of the poultry-yard,
which is much better Stocked with fowls than
American farms ufually are. The butter which
is not confumed in the houfe, is fent in winter
to Philadelphia ; but in fummer they make good
cheefe, which is fold for ten pence a pound.
The corn is either fold in Philadelphia or Reading. Mr^ Evans fattens fome oxen, but their
number does not exceed eighteen, though he
poSTeSTes feventy acres of meadow land; thefe
oxen, together with his twelve cows and fix
horfes, confume almoft all his hay, for he fells
very little. He keeps it in barns, and fometimes in Stacks made after the Englifh manner,
but fo very badly, that they generally tumble
down. Every acre of meadow, if mowed twice
a year, yields from three to four tuns of hay,
and the price of this article was laft year fourteen dollars a tun.
Mr. Evans keeps no more than forty or fifty
Sheep. This fmall number affords an additional
proof of the prejudices, which prevail in this
country ; " to keep many of them," Mr. Evans
obferved, " would be the certain means of
lofing them all." On my mentioning to him
the example of England, he faid, " I know all
this, but it is the cuftom here, and a wife cuftom it is ; for our neighbour, Mr. Morgan,
who would keep more, and had a good Shepherd
from Europe, loft them all. We do not wifh
for more than are neceSTary to fupply us with
wool I
wool for our own cloathing, and that of our
people, and on that account keep no more."
The ftate of agriculture is here exactly the
fame as in the remoteft provinces of France,
Prejudices, maxims handed down from father to
fon, uftges, ignorance, and confequently obfti-
nacy, govern every thing. The Sheep are tolerably good, and yield excellent wool. Before
I faw them, I aiked the Shepherd, whether the
wool was Short or long ? he anfwered, " that
it grew longer towards the time of Shearing it."
I explained to him the meaning of the terms,
long and Short wool, the difference between the
Sheep which produce it, the different purpofes
they are fit for in the manufactories, and, confequently, the reafons why, in different parts
cf England, one fort of Sheep is kept in preference to another. He listened to me, and re*
plied, " of all this we know nothing here." It
is the cuftom not to keep a ram upon the farm ;
they enquire where a good one may be found,
and either hire him or fend the ewes to him.
Mr. Evans fattens his oxen with hay, and flour
of Indian corn, of which he allots to each,
twice a day, Six quarts, or fix-Sixteenths of a
bufhel: his oxen afe tolerably good, but not re*
markably fo. In my prefence he fold feventeen,
which were all he had at that time, and among
which was an old bull and a fine cow. For
thefe he received nine hundred and fix dollars;
the cow alone cofl: forty-two; She was three
years old, large Sized, of a good fort, and was
bought for breeding in another part of the
Turnips for feeding cattle are cultivated only
in gardens like pot-herbs, to the extent of a
quarter or half an acre. The cultivation of
cabbages and turnips in the fields is unknown.
Potatoes are planted in great abundance. The
art of getting good dung is as little known here
as all other branches of agriculture, which require the leaft judgment. There is no hole in
the farm-yard to collect the dung; nothing is
done to improve it by the urine from the different- Stables* or to prevent the rain from waffling away its Strength ; it lies in the farm«-yard in
large heaps, does not rot, but is entirely dried up.
In other refpects this is one of the fineft
eftates that can be defired. The foil, the fitua-
tion, and every thing considered, leave nothing
to wifh for but a more Skilful cultivation, of
which which it is as capable as any other fpot in the
world. In point of profpedt and picturefque
effect, its Situation is charming, being in a large,
delightful valley, which is well watered, and
furrounded by a multitude of the moft pleafant
hills, partly cultivated, and partly covered with
A faw-mill forms a part of this eftate ; it is
constantly employed either for the ufe of the
eftate, for the pofleffor, or the public. The
price of labour is three fhillings for one hundred
feet of plank. The mill has but one faw,
though there is a fufficient quantity of water
for at leaft three. This water, which can be
difpofed of at pleafure, might very conveniently
turn feveral other mills, and thus encreafe both
the value of the eftate, and the induftry of the
country ; as the produce is fure to meet with a
ready Sale either in Philadelphia or Reading.
The fences and farm-buildings, which Governor
Mifflin left in very bad condition, are now re-
pairing, and will foon be in very good order.
Mr. Nicholfon pays Mr. Evans, who accounts to him for the outgoings and expendi-
O O i
ture, but who has not yet remitted him any
money.    He intends, undoubtedly, by this ma
nagement, to put the eftate into a good condition, and to raife its value beyond that which
landed property has hitherto acquired in America. At this time a bufhel of wheat fells for
fifteen Shillings, Indian corn for three Shillings,
and oats for five Shillings. Labourers are eafily
procured here in fufficient number for all the
purpofes of agriculture. From the account I
have given of this eftate, it is evident, that its
value would be very considerable, if it were better managed.
The five hundred acres, which lie uncultivated, fupply the neceffary timber for repairing
the houfe and out-buildings, and alfo wood for
fuel; which, as I have already mentioned, is
fold at Reading from three and a half, to four
and a half dollars per cord, according to the
.quality of the wood. The expence for felling,
cutting it, and carrying it to Reading, amounts
to one dollar two-thirds. Mr. Evans is of opinion, that this tract of land Should neither be
cultivated, nor the wood fold for fuel, becaufe
the trees, if fuffered to grow, encreafe the value
of the land far beyond what it can be worth,
if applied to any other ufe. I know not how
far he may be right.    To form a correct opinion
on this Subject, it would be neceffary to traverfe
the wood, to be acquainted with the wants and
customs of the country; and befides, it is well
known, that in France, where the management
of woods is Singularly well understood, the rearing of trees is deemed one of the moft difficult
My friend, Mr. Guillemard, who is more fond
of his bed, and lefs partial to farms, than I am,
fuffered me to leave Reading fome hours before
him ; he overtook me at Angelico, and thence
we entered upon our journey to Lancafter.
There is no public conveyance yet eftablifhed
by the State between Lancafter and Reading,
though thefe are both considerable towns. The
fiage-coach  goes from Reading to HarriSburg,
o o o Or
Situate on the Sufquehannah, and on the road to
PittSburg. Another Stage-coach goes from Har-
riSburg to Lancafter, which forms a circuit of
eighty miles ; though, by the direct road, the
diftance is only thirty-one miles. There is, indeed, a poft, which goes twice a week from
Bethlem to Lancafter, and panes through Reading, but is of no ufe to travellers. This poft,
which makes a journey of eighty miles, fre*-
quently arrives without bringing one Single letter;
ter; every thing evinces, that the country is yet
in an infant State, but Shews, at the fame time,
that it is proceeding, by large and rapid Strides,
to a State of considerable Strength.
The country between Reading and Lancafter
abounds with mountains and vallies. The former are not high, but run in ranges. The vallies are chearful, well watered, abound with
fine meadows, and are tolerably well inhabited.
Almoft all the inhabitants are Germans, or, at
leaft, of German defeent. The greateft part Speak
no other language than German. The houfes
are fmall, and kept in very bad order ; the barns
are large, and in very good repair. The general
appearance of the country, which is very rich
and pleafant, refembles that near the Voghefian
Mountains, except that here the mountains are
not fo high. We continually meet with brooks
or creeks, with numerous mills and a luxuriant
verdure. The road is tolerable, except in fome
places, where it is miry, or rough with Stones,
Four miles from Lancafter the hills decreafe in
height, and two miles from the town they terminate in a plain.
On our way we flopped at Ephrata, where
We vifited the Dunkers, a fort of monks well
Vol. I. F known
mm 66
known in America by the folitary life they lead,
though their number is but fmall. We had a
letter to Father Miller, the Dean of the fociety. The houfe, which is built of a very indifferent fort of Stone, and badly roofed with
laths, is the residence of feveral hermits, the remains of fixty, who formed the fociety about
forty years ago. A few yards from this houfe
Stands the nunnery of the order, which contains ten or twelve nuns, fubject to the fame
The venerable Father Miller is an old man,
not far from eighty years of age. His eyes Still
fparkle with a degree of fire, and his imagination is Still lively. Our curiofity led us to enquire after the institution of the houfe, and the
doctrines of the order. Father Miller fatisfied
this curiofity in a manner the moft tedioufly
diffufe, by giving us a minute account of every
point, however trifling,'of the doctrine and hiftory of the Dunkers! This hiftory is a tifTue of
abfurdities, like that of all monks. A ridicujj
lous compound of ambition, and of the defire
of infulating themfelves apart from the State, is
common to them all. The Dunkers were instituted in the fame place where they at prefent
IV «w
reflde, by one Conrad Peysel, a German, who,
however, foon perceived, as well as themfelves,
that the life of an anchorite is neither the moft
pleafant, nor the moft ufefui in the world. He
collected them into a fociety, and conducted them
to Pittfburg, which, at that time, was a wild,
uninhabited place. The prior, who fucceeded
Peyfel, intended, according to fome, to fubject
his monks to a Stricter difcipline ; but, by the
account of others, he propofed to accuftom them
to a wandering life ; diflenfions arofe among
them, and they paffed fome years in a ftate of
continual difagreement ; they then difperfed,
and afterwards united again in the fame place
where they were firft eftablifhed. The old
monk told us, that they obferve a Strict rule,
and live with the utmoft frugality ; and that a
communion of property is obferved among them
without the leaft fupremacy, or any other dif-
tin<5tion whatever; he told us, that he goes
himfelf to church regularly at midnight. They
have made the vow of poverty and chaftity;
there are, however, fome, who marry, in which
cafe they quit the houfe, and live with their
wives elfewhere in the country. Others leave
the houfe without marrying ; but thefe, Father
F 2 Miller
1 lu
Miller obferved, violate, by fo doing, the oath
they have taken ; yet they cannot be profecuted
for want of a law to that effect. They wear a
long gown made of grey cloth for the winter,
and of white linen for the fummer, tied round
the waift with a Strap of leather. They let the
beard grow, and Sleep on a bench, " until,"
faid Father Milled, " they Sleep in the grave."
This was his expreflion. The fpirit of the pre-
fent age, and the country they inhabit, being
equally averfe to a monastic life, Father Miller
perceives, with as much certainty as concern, the
impending diffolution of his order, which has
fome other establishments in one or two counties of Pennfylvania. As to the doctrines of the
order, they are a medley of the moft abfurd tenets of the Anabaptifts, Univerfalifts, Calvinifts,
Lutherans, Jews, Methodiftsj and Roman Catholics. They lament the fall of our firft parent, Who would rather have for his wife a carnal being, Eve, than let the celeftial Sophia, a
being thoroughly divine, bear a child. She would
have communicated only with the fpiritual nature of Adam; and thus a race would have
been engendered all pure, and without the lea.#
corporeal ingredient. They lament the indulgence,
=—^^ggaa^fe": NORTH AMERICA, CANAj&A, &C.
gence, which God Shewed in regard to this de-
fire of Adam, who acted on this occafion as
brutes might do. However, God, according to
their doctrine, has merely deferred the period of
this State of perfection ; it is certainly to arrive,
and the Dunkers forefee the time, when, after
the general refurrection, the divine Sophia will
defcend into every one of us. All this is to
their fancy as evident and clear as the Song of
Solomon. Wre wafted nearly two hours in
listening to the idle prate of the old monk
who was happy to entertain us on this fubject,
and particularly enraptured at the idea, that the
Sophia would defcend into him.
Another, monk of the fame order, whom we
met with, feemed to be lefs imprelTed with this
hope. He was a printer, a man of thirty years
of age, who had lived thirteen years in this
houfe. He told us, that the difcipline of the
order is by no means fo Strict, as the old monk
pretended ; that they divide their earnings only
if they choofe; that they live juft as they
pleafe, and drink coffee and tea. He did not
appear fo enthufiaftic a friend to the vow of
ehaftity as Father Miller ; and to our questions,
whether many brothers married,   and whether
F 3 they 70
they were fuppofed to offend by fo doing, an-
fwered, " that many did, and that, in his opinion, they acted rightly ; B for," faid he, " are
not women trulv charming r"    Before  we left
J o
Father Miller, whofe accounts the information
of the young monk already Shewed to have
greatly exaggerated every thing, we had an
opportunity of convincing ourfelves, that he
had misftated even the particulars of their way
of living; for we found in a room, contiguous
to his, a nice feather-bed, in which, he could
not help confefling, he Slept fometimes, and in
which, by the affertion of the young Dunker,
he Sleeps every night. In the church we found
a place as much distinguished from the reft, as
that of any prior of a convent of benedictine
monks can be. Monks are every where the
fame men, and live by deceiving others; they
are every where impoftors i in Europe, and in
America, men are the fame, when placed in the
fame Situation. In point of furniture and outward appearance the houfe bears a near refem-
blance to a capuchin convent, difplaying every
where an oftentatious poverty by half-hidden
beds of down. We did not vifit the nunnery,
as we Should have met  there  only the fame
follies, and the fame naufeous filth ; befides,
the nuns, being old, could not in the leaft interest our curiofity, and we knew already enough
of thefe Dunkers. They are a good-natured
fort of people, they live upon the produce of an
eftate of three hundred acres, injure nobody,
are laughed at in the country, and yet tolerably
well beloved.
The foil between Reading and Lancafter is
full of fmall lime-ftones, and Slates, which are
frequently found of a very large Size. Near
Lancafter the quantity of lime-Stone encreafes :
the whole country abounds with iron-mines;
and the iron-works, which are very numerous
between Bethlem and Reading, become more
ftrikingly fo between Reading and Lancafter,
though many of them do not Stand near the
road. We intended to vifit the iron-work of
Mr. Colman, one of the moft considerable in
the whole district; but finding that it was too
much out of our road, we relinquished the design.' All we could learn was, that the workmen receive from eight to ten dollars a month,
befides board and lodging. The founder has five
Shillings per tun. The price of caft-iron is thirty
Shillings, and of iron in bars forty Shillings a tun.
F4 The It
The high price of grain in this place is faid to
have much leflened the profits arifing froj&r
We had left the fervant, with the baggage
horfe, at Reading, on account of his back being
fore. My friend Guillemard intended at firft to
make the tour from Lancafter to Harrifburg.
without the fervant, and to fend him by the
Straight road to Northumberland, but Jofeph
wifhed to fee Lancafter. Mr. Guillemard's
kindnefs could not refufehim this fmall favour ;
he accordingly fet out for Lancafter fome hours
after us, and brought the horfe thither; we had
leflened his burthen, at leaft by eighty pounds^
and had fent feveral of Mr. Guillemard's effects
to Philadelphia. The pack-faddle had been
mended, and yet the poor horfe's back was
worfe than before. This is an accident truly
difagreeable, and by no means unimportant; for
the dilpofition of my. fellow traveller does not
allow us to hope a fpeedy end to our fufferings.
We muft have patience, a virtue of material ufe.
in all Situations, while on the contrary impa»;
tience never ferves any good purpofe.
Lancafter, the Wth of May,
We reached Lancafter at nine o'clock at
night, the ufual fupper-time. The groom arrived the next morning with the difabled horfe.
A delay in Lancafter, while the cure of the
horfe was effected, proved the more unpleafant,
as out of the twelve gentlemen, to whom we
had letters of introduction, three only were in
town. General Hand, who lives a mile from
Lancafter, happened to be there. We accordingly paid him a vifit, and faw him, as well as
his lady and children. But, by not returning
our vifit, he gave us a pretty clear proof, that
he was not very defirous of our repeating it. Mr.
Bridle, though in town, was indifpofed ; and
Mr. Montgomery, to whom we had a letter
from Mr. Bridle, of Reading, was not at home,
when we called at his houfe. This concurrence of unpleafant circumStances led us to the
firm determination of removing at once the ob-
ftacles, which, Since our departure from Philadelphia, had obstructed the execution of our plan.
In occurrences of a more ferious complexion
than this incident, experience has convinced me,
that the fuccours of the moment, with which
irrefolute and indolent people are fo well pleafed,
far from actually clearing the way of difficulties, merely places them at a greater, diftance,
but, in fact, encreafes them. I was alfo fenfi-
ble, that it is by far the belt and eafieft way,
in all Similar Situations, to do without every
thing, which may prove troublefome. My
friend Guillemard is determined, to act upon
the fame principle; and we have refolved to
reduce our baggage to what our three horfes
can conveniently carry, and to fend the reft
back to Philadelphia. Thus relieved from all
uneafinefs, our minds will be more capable of
receiving the new knowledge, which we Shall
ufe every opportunity to ^collect. Here we gathered our information from the landlord's family at the inn, where we had put up.
This inn, the Swan, has been kept by Mr.
Slow thefe thirty years.p He was a man of very
considerable property, but, fome time back, was
much reduced by misfortunes; having engaged
in iron-works, and other bufinefs, he was defrauded, and nearly ruined, and found himfelf
under the neceffity of felling all the property he
had acquired. Grief undermined his constitution ; but his wife, poffefied of more fortitude,
(as women generally are^) roufed his dejected
fpirits. His honefty had never been impeached,
and his Situation in life, as innkeeper and member of the affembly of Pennfylvania, had made
him known, and had obtained him friends, who
affifted him with money, and procured him
credit. One of them purchafed fifteen hundred
acres of land, which he pofTeffed near Wilkf-
barre, on the Sufquehannah, and, when the
bargain was Struck, told him, that he Should
only confider himfelf as his truftee, and return
the land for the fame money. His circumftances
improved ; he has not only repaid the money
for the lands near Wilkfoarre, which are again
in his poffeSfion, but has alfo purchafed others
near Northumberland, married one of his daugh-
ters, obtained commissions in the army for two
of his Sons, and thus recovered his former prof-
perity. We had letters to him : he happened
to be in Philadelphia ; but his wife and two of
his Sons were at home, who furnifhed us with,
perhaps, as much information, as we might have
been able to procure, had we met with all the
other perfons to whom we had letters of recommendation.
Lancafter is the largeft inland town  on the
continent w    WB
continent of America. It Stands twenty miles
from the Sufquehannah, and half a mile from
the Conawango, a large Stream, Stocked with
fiSh, but not navigable. This district was pre-
fented to the family of Mr. William Hamilton, by the Penns, their relations. The town
began to be built in 1731, with a view of its
being the chief of the county. The land is
not fold by the Hamiltons, but leafed out for 1
a ground-rent, which they have raifed in proportion to the encreafed demands, and the riling price of land in everyplace. As W. Hamilton has Still a great quantity of land left
about the town, he difpofes of it in the fame
manner; and his yearly income, compofed of
unredeemable rents, amounts at prefent to four
thoufand dollars. During the war the payment
of thefe rents was collected with difficulty ; Mr.
Hamilton, as well as the family of Penn, belonging to the Tory party.
The population of Lancafter confifts of about
fix or feven thoufand fouls. Inftead of increasing, it rather decreafes at prefent, in confe-
quence of the continual emigration of fuch inhabitants, as by their induftry have acquired a
fufficient fortune, to purchafe landscin the lefs
inhabited districts of Pennfylvania, or in the
moft diftant part of Maryland, and whom the
high price of land, in the county of Lancafter,
prevents from fettling here.'
Near the town, and even at fome diftance
from it, the price of land is at prefent from fifty
to eighty dollars per acre. Within thefe laft
three years, it has been more than doubled. Ge-
neral Hand bought, five years ago, the eftate on
which he refides, two miles from the town, for
twenty-five dollars per acre, and has lately re-
fufed one hundred, which were offered him.
Mr. Scott, fon-in-law of Mr. Slow, bought
lately an eftate, for which he paid one hundred
dollars per acre. The price of land has rifen
nearly in theTame proportion throughout America, at leaft in all its cultivated parts. Mr,
Slow, about five years ago, purchafed an eftate
near Northumberland for forty Shillings per
acre, and laft year fold it again for fifty-four
Shillings. With the profits he purchafed a>
pretty little eftate, fitnate half a mile from
Lancafter, between the road and the creek.
This eftate, which contains one hundred and
fen acres, is now in a fine State of cultivation.
About eighteen or twenty acres lie in grafs, and
-.. _ „.—..^acc-e. 78
form the moft beautiful meadows; twenty-five
are covered with wood, and the reft are under
the plough. He lays from twelve to fourteen
tuns of dung on each acre : no land lies fallow ;
but he entertains the fame prejudices as the reft
of the farmers in favour of flat ridges, and
againft Sheep. -His fon, in whofe company I
furveyed the eftate, confeffed, that the theory
and practice which prevail in Europe do not
agree with the huSbandry of the Americans,-but
he is neverthelefs zealoufly wedded to their prejudices, and caufes them to be clofely followed,
not onlv on his father's eftate, of which he has
the management, but alfo on his own near
The land, in the environs of Lancafter, exceeds in fertility that in the neighbourhood of
Reading. An acre yields, upon an average, fifteen bufhels of wheat, and other grain in proportion.
Every thing is much dearer in Lancafter than
in Reading. Day labourers are paid four Shillings
per day, and are eafily procured. The inhabitants
are the fame good natured kind of people as at
Reading, and equally laborious. ■& In the town,
as well as the neighbouring country, are a great
number of tan-yards, and many mills, from
which the flour is fent to Philadelphia in waggons. Returning, thefe waggons commonly
bring merchandize, which is expedited from
this place to every part of the back country.
The road has hitherto been very bad; a turnpike-road, which is about to be made, and which
will probably be completed this autumn, will
doubtlefs much facilitate and promote the com-,
munication. The mealmen feem already to familiarize themfelves with the idea .of paying an
additional toll of two or three dollars, and of
providing larger wheels for their waggons. If
the Sufquchannah Shall be made navigable as far
as Wright, an event that cannot be far distant;
the meal-trade will grow Still more considerable
in this district, at leaft until the projected plan
of rendering the Suatara and the Delaware navigable, by means of the Schuylkill, Shall be
carried into effect.
In a recently fettled and free country, it is
feldom poffible to come at any certain refults of
calculations, relative to trade and commerce.
Thus the number of waggons, which are fent
from Philadelphia to Lancafter and the neighbouring country, with flour and other provi-
<y fion, is not exactly known : yet it is certain,
that frequently from feventy to eighty waggons
pafs through Lancafter in a day, arid it is generally believed, that Mr. WitHins, who fome
years back* at his own expence, built abriJge on
the road to Philadelphia, a mile from Lancaster*
on condition of his being entitled to take a toll
or pontage, clears that way every year one
thoufand ^x hundred and fifty dollars, the whole
mount of the fum he laid out in constructing
the bridge. A perfon on horfeback pays him two
:n pence, though he
nas a ngnt to take eighteen pence tor the latter.
The gentlemen who have contracted for the construction of the turnpike-road, are authorized
by government to re
tage, as Soon as tl
n tne above toll or pon
i n " II   v\a   l*t\W\r\ 1 — rfn
iii-iii uc cuiuyicLcu.
Though the number of houSes does not en*
creafe at Lancafter, yet the town gains much
in outward appearance. The houfes in general
are larger than in Reading, and constructed ekher
of brick or ftone. Rent is much the fame as at
Reading,    There are numerous quarries in the
IblUIl V   Ui     lUC     uvj yr ii.      TTXJ.XV.U    YiCivl     a     J .LCi/ , ~ijlC
rchift) that is very hard, yet eafily cut, but can-
not be obtained in pieces of any large fize. This NORTH AMERICA, CANADA, &C
Stone is fold by the rod, containing Sixteen feet
in length, eighteen inches high, and eighteen
wide ; the price is one dollar, delivered in town
free from expence, and a quarter of a dollar to
take it out of the quarry. The turnpike-road
has considerably encreafed its fale.
The difpofition of the generality of the inhabitants of Lancafter is of the fame good caft as
that of the inhabitants of Reading. There ex*
ifts here, however, a democratic fociety, but it
confifts only of twelve members, not five of
whom ever attend the meetings. The enter-
prife againft PittSburg, which no American
mentions without confcious pride, efpecially in
'thefe parts, where the militia bore a Share hi
it, has ruined the Jacobin clubs and focieties.
The disapprobation of the Senate, the enquiry
fet on foot by the reprefentatives of the people,
(notwithstanding the propofal of the committee, that they be reprimanded, was not carried)
and efpecially the circumftance, that the President, who is generally efteemcd and reflected,
nay, revered to a degree of enthufiafm in America, perfonally reprobated them, have completed
their destruction.
The  city of Lancafter  is furrounded  with
meadows, which are well watered.   It gave me
Vol. I.
•h V
much fatisfaction to fee a wheel, purpofely deigned to rail'e the water neceSTary for that pur-^
pofe. The town itfelf is rather dull. It has
more the appearance of a city than Reading 3
the houfes Stand nearer each other, and are more
numerous; broad ftone pavements, run in front
of the houfes, and the Streets that are not paved,
are at leaft covered with gravel, and kept clean*
The feffions-houfe is a good building, neat and
elegant. There are two or three well bui^ff;
churches in the town. The number of places
of worfhip amounts, in the whole, to feven.
The Swan inn is undoubtedly better than any-
inn in Philadelphia; lefs magnificent than the
excellent Englifh inns, yet of very fimilar design ; none, at leaft, can be more cleanly. A
great number of fervants are kept, and the $p$
mily of the landlord, whofe manners befpeak a
liberal education, are generally reflected, and
enjoy that consideration, which in all countries
Should be beftowed on honeft men, whatever
their occupations, if not contrary to morality.
Innkeepers are here men of the firft rank. How
many Europeans would Shake their heads, were
it fo in their own countries! It is a general cuftom in America, to dine with the innkeeper and
his family, and to conform to the dinner hout
' mmeM*
which he fixes. This cuftom, which, at times,
proves extremely difagreeable, is, on the contrary, very pleafant in this houfe, for it is im-
poflible to meet with a family in all America
of Superior breeding, or which forms a more
agreeable fociety, than that of Mr. Slow.
One of the two fons, who holds a commif-
fion in the army, was at home. He Serves in
one of the regiments, which, under the order$
of General Wayne, act againft the Indians, and.
was wounded in an engagement laft autumn,
in which thofe people were repulfed by the
Americans. The particulars of this war are by
no means interesting. The Americans Speak of
the ignorance of the Indians, in point of tactics,
with the fame contempt that the English ex-
prefs for American tactics, and the PruSfians,
Auftrians. and French for the tactical knowledge of the EngliSh. All that I have been
able to learn of thefe Indians interests me in
their favour. The Americans are waging war
againft them, in order to drive them out of a
country, which belongs to them; and the Americans, who inhabit the frontiers, are greater
robbers, and more cruel than the Indians, againft
whom it is alleged as a crime, that they exer-
cife the right of retaliation.    They are, more-
over, incited by the EngliSh againft the Ameri-
' J o o
cans, and become thus, in their untutored State,
victims of the ambition and difcord of thefe two
civilized nations. Captain Slow aSTured me, that,
among the Indians Slain on the field of battle,
many white people have been found, who were
Englishmen ; that many active officers on horfe-
back have been feen at the head of the Indians,
who were alfo Englishmen, and that the Indian'
army is fupported by the EngliSh garrifons.
Thefe affertions, however, tend merely to prove
the fupinenefs of the Americans, both in regard
to the English and Indians. Captain Slow af-
fured me, that even in Kentucky, he never
met with any land, which, in point of rich-
nefs, can be compared with the foil of thofe
parts, efpecially in the country, on the river
Miami; that the Stratum of vegetative earth is
from twenty to twenjty-five feet thick ; and that
the fields, in which the Indians have fown
maize and beans, befpeak a very careful cultivation, and r)romife the richeft crops, that ever
came within his obfervation.
Before I conclude the article of Lancafter, I
muft not emit to mention two Frenchmen, who
have fettled here from the French colonies in the
Weft Indies.    The one is a miniature painter,
who I
north America, canada, &c.
who fells his coarfe pictures for three guineas
each, and contrives to vend many ; the other is
a very indifferent mufician, who charges three
guineas a month for his leffons, and has feveral
pupils. At every Step we take in America,
either in towns or in the country, it becomes
more and more evident, tha/ any one may make
| his fortune, who will take the pains ; and nothing can afford a Stronger proof of the truth of
this remark, than a perfonal acquaintance with
the crowd of foreigners, who enjoy the reputation of being exceedingly clever, and who are
amaffing fortunes under the aufpices of this frequently ufurped title.
In the inn, at Lancafter, I met with Mr.
Brown, member of the congrefs for Kentucky ;
he was on his way to Philadelphia, where the
congrefs meets next month. I Sifted him a little
reflecting the prefent State of Kentucky. The
refult of the information I obtained is, that the
foil is every where excellent, and frequently
yields, for the firft harveft, from one hundred
to one hundred and ten bufhels of Indian corn,
and from fifty to fifty-five bufhels of, wheat an
acre ; that the price of land is fix dollars per
acre, of flour eleven dollars per barrel, and of
Indian corn,edne-fjxth of a foliar per bufhel%
G 3 that
\ n
that the population, which, in 1790> confifted
of ninety thoufand fouls, amounts at prefent to
one hundred and fifty thoufand; that, in the
courfe of laft year, twenty-five thoufand per-
fons fettled there; that the Indians attempt no
longer any inroads in that part of the United
States, which, though occupied the laft of all,
advances more rapidly towards a State of pro*
fperity than any other district in America.
From Lancafter we proceeded to May Town,
The road from Lancafter to this place lies chiefly
through a woody tract of country, which af-
fumes a wilder appearance than we have hitherto
feen. Cultivated land appears more rarely as we
proceed, except a few vallies, which Still lie in
grafs, or are fown with Indian corn. In proportion as the diftance from Lancafter encreafes,
houfes of brick or ftone are lefs frequently feen.
We met with fcarcely any but log-houfes; every
where we obferve German farms, fmall houfes,
and large barns. Cows and oxen, which feemed
tolerably good, we found grazing in the woods
and near the road ; and alfo faw, at times, Sheep,
but never more than eight or ten of them to*
gether. From their thicknefs, you would fup-
ppfe the woods to be no more than thirty years
old : and yet it is highly improbable, that new
plantations NORTH AMERICA, CANADA, &C.
plantations Should have been made at a time
when wood-lands were every where converted
into tillage-ground. Thefe woods, as well as
thofe which Seem older, confift of oak, hickory,
black aSh, acacia, chefnut, cherry and apple-
trees, a few Spindle-trees, fome cedars, and
Weymouth-pines. Were it not for the known
partiality of man for whatever it is difficult to
procure, it would be impoffible to account faf
the introduction of the Italian poplar into America, which abounds in fo great a Variety of
beautiful trees, as may well excite the envy of
Europe. Great numbers of thefe poplars, which
fcrve for not one ufeful purpofe, have been
planted in America. They border all the Streets
in Philadelphia, and all the roads about the
All the cultivated land between Lancafter and
May Town is inciofed with fences of dry wood$
which Spoil the landfcape, and coiifume vaft
quantities of timber, though it already begins
to grow dear. Sooner or later this ufelefs wafte
will certainly he regretted.
May Town is a fmall village. Sixteen miles
from Lancafter, built on a fpot entirely without water, where either chance, or the intereft
pf a few individuals, threw together a dozen
G 4 houfes,
i\ Y
houfes, the number of which has not been en-
creafed Since the origin of the establishment,
and, to all appearance, never will be. This
little village is inhabited entirely by Germans,
who have Still remained fuch. Land in this
neighbourhood cofts twelve or thirteen dollars an
acre, and is in a tolerable State of cultivation.
The road from May Town to Middle Town
becomes more dreary and unpleafant as we proceed ; fix miles from the former place we fell
in with the fuperb river Sufquehannah, on a
Tpot where the rapids proceeding from the Corn wan go render it unnavigable, or, at leaft, the
navigation fo extremely dangerous, that it is
attempted but by very few veiTels. In order to
free this navigation from all danger, which is
of the utmoft importance both to the prefent
and the future wealth and profperity of the
country, a canal has been begun, which will
run half a mile above and below thefe rapids,
and thus keeps the navigation open at all times
for veffels to work up or drop down the river.
This canal, the undertaking of a private gentleman, to whom the State of Pennfylvania has
advanced thirteen thouSand three hundred and
ihirty-three dollars, and alfo granted leave to
eftabliSh a toll, is nearly completed.    Nothing
remains ■MM
remains to be constructed but the locks, yet a
difference of opinion exifts as to the time of its
completion. We intended to view the canal ;
but my fellow-traveller being a little indifpofed
we were the more ready to give up this project,
as from a view of the canal we could not have
derived any additional, or more exact information, than we had already obtained.
The road from this place to Middle Town
affumes a wilder and more romantic appearance
at every Step we advance. The forefts and rocks
reach down to the Sufquehannah. A great
number of trees, waShed loofe by the water a
long time ago, lie, half rotten, along the banks
of the river; others lie rooted up, broken, or
felled in the midft of the wood, without its
having occurred to any one, to ufe them for
any beneficial purpofe ; and they have been fuf-
fered to lie here, to be taken poffeffion of by the
firft comer. The oppofite bank is likewife covered with wood, and bounded by mountains of no
considerable height. From time to time we faw,
through viftas naturally opening among them
the Blue Mountains. The river is, in general,
from two to three thoufand fathoms broad, full
of confiderable iSlets, which are of an irregular
level at the. furface, and encreafe the width of
its its bed. It is full three miles broad, e^cluflve
of an iflet in it, at the fpot where the Suatara
falls into it.
Middle Town is feated on the latter, about
half a mile diftant from its confluence with the
Sufquehannah.    From the above- mentioned ra-
pids of the Conawango ufually interrupting the
navigation on this large river, Middle Town becomes the Storehoufe of all the grain, which is
produced in the country Situate along its upper
courfe, and not confumed there,    From one
hundred and fixty to one hundred and eighty
thoufand buShels of wheat are yearly bought up
by the corn-dealers, on the fpot where it grows,,
conveyed  to Middle Town,  and deposited  in
granaries there.    The millers of the furround-
ing country ufually buy it here, grind it intp
flour, and fend it to Philadelphia.    The grand
project of inland navigation, for the execution
of which the government of Pennfylv^nia has
grapted a lottery, is defigned to join the Suatara with the Schuylkill, by means of a canal of
about fixty miles in length, a third of which is
already completed.    In regard to that part, indeed, it does not appear that the common welfare has been chiefly attended to by thofe, who*
wera entrufted with the management of this
important concern. When this canal Shall be
|finished, the flour, which is now carried to Philadelphia by land-conveyance, will be transported thither by water, with much lefs trouble
and expeiice. The carriage amounts, at prefent, from fourteen and a half to fifteen Shillings per barrel.
The completion of the canal is much wifhed
for at Middle Town, as the inhabitants hope to
derive from it advantages, which muft encreafe
in proportion as the  districts, that fend their
grain thither, Shall become more populous, and
confequently attain a higher State of cultivation.
The banks of the Suatara, as far as we have
feen them, are truly delightful.    This  river,
though called here but a creek, is as broad as
the Seine near Rouen.   On the northern bank,
from its mouth up to Middle Town, Stand fome
alehoufes and warehoufes to receive the grain,
as it arrives.   A little farther up Stands the mill
of Mr. Frey, a German, advanced in years,
who fettled here as a miller, about ten years
ago.    This mill, which has four courfes, is of
a happy and Simple construction ; all the operations upon the corn, as well as the meal, are
effected by machines, with the fole exception
of {he bolting^ which is done nearly as in London, w
don, and at the Perriers', in Paris.    The management of this operation is confided to a lad,
who receives the meal craned up in tubs, fpreads
it out on the loft, and distributes it among the
different   meal bags.    "  Mr. Frey," he faid,
" is no friend of Evans's machine; he does not
-like the construction."    This was the only motive I could learn.    The mill grinds for Mr.
Frey himfelf about thirty thoufand bufhels of
wheat a year ; he fends the flour as far as Newport.    Four journeymen and one apprentice do
the bufinefs about the mill; they are all Germans ; their wages are from feven to ten dollars per month ; they feem fenfible and active
people.    Mr. Frey keeps, independent of the
mill, which alfo grinds corn for the public, a
Shop in the city, which  is about a quarter of a
mile diftant.   His houie is the only ftone building in the town, which contains about thirty
houfes built with wood.
From its Situation and trade, Middle Town
Should be the chief town of the county ; but, in
this cafe, Mr. Frey would have been obliged to
Sacrifice about three or four ground Shares for
the erection of public buildings, which he did
not choofe to do, though he poflefres a great
many fhares.    Harrifburg is therefore become
St the
the chief town of the county. The inhabitants
of Middle Town and the neighbouring country
we may eafily conceive, are highly difpleafed
with old Mr. Frey, for having thus neglected
the interefts of the town; but he laughs at
them, becaufe he is rich, and grows daily
richer, by felling them his decayed Stores.
The price of land is here from twenty-feven'
to thirty dollars. A day labourer gets three
Shillings and nine pence per day, and beef fells
at five pence per pound. The inn, where we
took up our quarters, is good; but on our going to reft, a Stranger entered our bed-room
according to American cuftom, to go to bed,
and we were told, that we might think our-
felves extremely fortunate, that we were not
obliged to Share one of ounheds with him.
Middle Town is dift&nt twenty-feven miles
from Lancafter. Three Frenchmen have fettled in this fmall place. One is a goldfmith and
watch-maker, and is faid to have much bufinefs ; another is a phyfician, and earns like wife
his fubfiftence; the calling of the third I have
not been able to learn; he probably aflifts the
other two in confuming their earnings.    We
o o
have experienced  here a fcorching heat, and
frequently i  if
ff    '»
frequently two thunder-Storms in one day ; the
falling of rain always encreafes the heat.
Wednefday, the 13th of May.
Mr. Harris, lord of the manor on whie|^
HarriSburg Stands, availed himfelf of Mr. Frey's
error, to procure his town the advantages, that
the former neglected. No fooner was it in
contemplation, to form the tract of country,
feparated from Lancafter, into a diftinct county, than he offered to the government of Pennsylvania, to facrifice not only a toll on the Suf-
quehannah, of which he was poSfeSTed, and the
profits of which he lawfully enjoyed, but alfo
feveral thoufand acres of land, in and about
the town, referving to himfelf only twenty
ground Shares. This offer induced the government of Pennfylvania, to make this the chief
town of the county, though it has neither an
anchoring place for the Ships, that fail up and
down the river, nor can afford them the fmalleft
Shelter. The new county obtained the name
of Dauphin. The firft houfes were built here
in 1785 ; and their number at prefent amounts
to three hundred. The formation of this town
being of a more recent date than that of any
jfthef, the buildings were, from the very
of a better construction than any where
and fuch as were not originally good h
have Since been rebuilt.    Very few log-h
are,  therefore, to be found in HarriSburg :
qn the contrary, many fubftantial and han
edifices ; and though this town is fmaller
of later establishment than  Reading and
Other places, yet it is more compact, and
much better appearance.   A malignant epi
fever has made the fame havoc in HarriSbu
the yellow fever did in Philadelphia, and
whole twelvemonth checked  the  progrefs of
building. As the fever did not return laft year,,
however, building is  again going on ; but the
prejudice of the town being infalubrious Still remains, whether it be really fo, or, as the inhabitants affirm, merely a fcandalous report, propagated by the jealouSy of the neighbouring towns.
The unhealthinefs of the place being imputed
to the Stagnation of fome water, which was made
to turn a mijl, it was propofed to the miller, to
throw down the dam, and an indemnification
was offered him.   He demanded, laft year, four
thoufand dollars ; but this fum not having been
fflifed foon enough, in his opinion, he this year
taifed his demaaad in proportion to the encreafed
defire of destroying his dam, and infiited on the
payment of eleven thoufand dollars. The inhabitants, enraged at this exorbitant demand,
and, at the fame time, earneftly wifhing for the
demolition of the dam, unanimoufly refolved to
deftroy it, and appointed a commimon, to award
a juft indemnification to the miller, which has
been determined at the fum he firft demanded.
All the inhabitants feem to have concurred in
this proceeding, which, though not to be applauded, is lefs cenfurable, on account of the
miller's enormous rapacity. The unanimity,
with which this tranfaction was accomplished,
enfures its impunity; and the miller will be cautious of entering upon a prefecution^ as the
grand jury would certainly throw out his bill.
He has no one to blame but himfelf for the destruction of his dam; and the public opinion,
which, by a more prudent conduct, he might laft
vear have engaged in his favour, is now decided-
ly againft him. Yet with many of the demo-
lifhers themfelves it remains a matter of doubt,
whether the demolition of the dam have any
way increafed the falubrity of the place.
A prifon and a feffions-houfe have been built'
at Harrifburg, and a plan is in agitation to form
O' i o
an anchorage for Ships.    The inhabitants exert
their utmoft efforts, to procure to-this place all
the advantages of which it is fufceptible, and
even indulge a hope, that the feat of the government of the ftate will be removed to their
town. They form a central point, at leaft for
the population of Pennsylvania ; and are lefs
diftant from the remote weftern parts than any
other county on this Side the Sufquehannah,
and on thefe local advantages they ground their
hopes. It is, however, to be wished, that their
notion, of determining the feat of the legislature
by a pair of compaSfes, may be confined to men
who cannot influence the decision ; and that it
may be rightly understood, how much better it
is for the deputies to travel one hundred miles
further, than to remove the feat of government
from Philadelphia, which is the m