Open Collections

BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

An ethnological survey of Canada. - First report of the committee, consisting of Dr. George Dawson (Chairman… British Association for the Advancement of Science 1897

Item Metadata

Download

Media
bcbooks-1.0342314.pdf
Metadata
JSON: bcbooks-1.0342314.json
JSON-LD: bcbooks-1.0342314-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): bcbooks-1.0342314-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: bcbooks-1.0342314-rdf.json
Turtle: bcbooks-1.0342314-turtle.txt
N-Triples: bcbooks-1.0342314-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: bcbooks-1.0342314-source.json
Full Text
bcbooks-1.0342314-fulltext.txt
Citation
bcbooks-1.0342314.ris

Full Text

Array 440 report—1897.
An Ethnological Survey of Canada.—First Report cf the Committee,
consisting of Dr. George Dawson (Cliairmdn and Secretary), Mr.
E. W. Brabrook, Professor A. C. Haddon, Mr. E. S. Hartland,
Dr. J. G. Bourinot, Abb£ Cuoq, Mr. B. Sulte, Abb£ Taxguay,
Mr. C. Hill-Tout, Mr. David Boyle, Rev. Dr. Scadding, Rev.
Dr. J. Maclean, Dr. Ner£e Beauchemin, Rev. Dr. G. Patterson,
Professor D. P. Pexhallow, and Mr. C. N. Bell.
A1TEXPTX FAGS
J.—The Growth of Toronto Children, by Dr. Fbaxz Boas 443
II.—The Origin of the FreTich Canadians, by B. Sultb       . .':. #       .       ,       . 449
This Committee was nominated at the Liverpool meeting last year, with
the object of initiating an ethnological survey of Canada on lines corresponding with those already followed by the Committee for the Ethnographical Survey of the United Kingdom, as well as to continue, so far as
may be possible, work of the kind carried on since the Montreal meeting
(1884) by the Committee on the North-Western Tribes of Canada. It
comprises three members of the Committee for the Ethnographical Survey''
of the United Kingdom, including the Chairman and Secretary of that
committee. Fourteen members resident in Canada were also nominated,
but one of these, Mr. Horatio Hale, has since died.
In nominating the Canadian members some regard was given to geographical position, so that the principal regions of the Dominion would be
represented. This, while necessary under the circumstances, has to some
extent prevented an interchange of ideas as complete as might be desired.
Some correspondence and discussion on the general scope of the work and
the plans to be followed have, however, taken place. Messrs. E. W.
Brabrook and E. S. Hartland have contributed valuable information and
suggestions respecting the work of the similar committee for the United
Kingdom, and several Canadian members have evinced a strong interest
in the survey now to be undertaken.
It has not yet, however, been found practicable actually to initiate
any systematic observations, to print and distribute the necessary schedules,
or to provide sets of instruments for physical measurements, no funds
being available for these purposes. It is believed that a number of
observers may be enlisted in several of the numerous lines of inquiry
which appear to be open to the Committee, embracing both the immigrant
European population of Canada and its aborigines.
Of suggestions received from members of the Committee the following
general considerations presented by Professor D. P. Penhallow, of McGill
University, may be quoted:—
'The very unstable character of our population and the extensive
mixture of races to be met with in a given community require that we
should adopt somewhat different lines of procedure from those employed
by the Committee for the United Kingdom. Therefore, while we might
wisely adopt the main lines of investigation employed by the Committee
for Great Britain, as embodied in their report for 1893 (" B.A. Report,*
1893, p. 621), and while these lines of investigation might be applied to ' ON THE ETHNOLOGICAL SURVEY OF CANADA.      . 411
both Indians and Europeans, they should be conducted with reference
*°-
' (a) Indian communities.
1 (1) Displacement of tribes from their original locations through the
intervention of Europeans.
' (2) The absorption of tribal remnants into existing tribes.
1 (3) The infusion of French or other European blood.
* (6) European communities or families.
* (1) The precise European locality whence they originated.   -
* (2) The American locality of most continuous residence and of first
settlement.
' (3) The environment at date of investigation. £%
* For the treatment of folklore as ethnological data, I do not think we
can do better than adopt methods suggested by Mr. Gomme in his very
valuable paper as embodied in the Report on Ethnographical Survey,
Great Britain (" B.A. Report," 1896, Section H, p. 626, <fec).
1 The great extent of country to be dealt with and the great length of
time required to reach anything of the nature of complete results would*
seem to make it desirable that we proceed in the most systematic manner.
The results might therefore be collated by— .
4 (1) Families or tribes. #
*(2) Parishes.
1 (3) Towns or villages.
'(4) Provinces and, as far as possible, a given locality should be
studied exhaustively before another is undertaken.'
After some consultation with the members of the Committee who '
could most easily be communicated with, the following letter was addressed to the Committee generally :—
'Sir,—You have doubtless received some time ago from Mr. G.
Griffith, Assistant General Secretary of the British Association for the
Advancement of Science, a notification of your nomination as a member
of the committee to organise an ethnological survey of Canada. It is
hoped that you will be willing to take an active part in this important,
work, and, although it may not be possible to do much more than establish
some plan of operations before the date of the forthcoming meeting of the
Association in Toronto in August next, that you will now assist and
advise in the perfecting of such plan.
1 The project is based upon that being carried out by another committee of the Association nominated some years ago to " organise an
ethnographical survey of the United Kingdom." This committee has
already made several valuable and interesting reports, and has enlisted
various local scientific societies and a number of individuals in the work.
' The chief objects of investigation in the United Kingdom are set out
as follows:—
1 (1) Physical type of the inhabitants.
* (2) Current traditions and beliefs ;
i (3) Peculiarities of dialect;
' (4) Monuments and other remains of ancient culture; and
* (5) Historical evidences as to continuity of race,
' It has been sought to discover, in the first place, the most suitable 442t report— 1897. -    §f§
localities for investigations; i.e^ those which are in large measure
secluded from the change and mingling of population incident to large
cities, and to select those villages and places where the people have
remained for some generations, at least, comparatively undisturbed and
homogeneous in character. In this way it is believed that the ethnographic elements going to make up the population of the United Kingdom
may be traced, and the changes induced by the mingling of the various
elements under different local conditions may be advantageously studied.
'As applied to Canada, it is obvious that an inquiry of the kind
cannot be conducted on exactly the same lines. It resolves itself, in the
first instance, into two distinct branches :-—     -     \
' (1) That dealing with tiie white races, and      J
* (2) That dealing with the aborigines or Indians. Both are important
and likely to yield results of great interest; but, while the second has
already been recognised and pursued to some considerable extent, the
first has remained almost untouched*   g^t
'In regard to the first, it is obvious that it includes two specially
fruitful fields, one relating to the older centres of French colonisation
in Quebec and Acadia, and the other to the half-breed population of
Manitoba and the North-West, where French and Scottish immigrants
have mingled with the native races.
4 In Quebec and in the Acadian Provinces the researches of Abbe*
Tanguay have already placed on record the origin and descent of most of
the old French families, and the basis thus established is an excellent one
on which to build up a knowledge of any changes, whether physical or in
language, customs and beliefs, due to the new environment in which the
original French colonists have lived and increased. With that object it
is desired to make, in the first place, a list of those localities in which
development of the kind has been most uninterrupted and continuous,
and in these to obtain the co-operation of some local observers who may
be willing^to devote time to special inquiries along fixed lines, of which
the details may be subsequently elaborated.
.' There are also, it is believed, many places in the older provinces of
Canada in which English, Scottish, Irish, and other settlers have been so
long established as to give rise to special peculiarities worthy of note.
1 Respecting the aborigines or Indians of the eastern part of Canada,
it may be stated that their language is now fairly well understood,
while their customs, folklore and traditions, where these have not already
been recorded, have largely passed away. But much remains as a profitable subject of investigation, particularly in respect to the location of
ancient settlements and places of resort, burial places, routes of travel,
<fcc. There are also many events connected with their early intercourse
"with the whites of which traditional accounts might yet be gathered with
advantage.
'In the western part of Canada the investigation of all matters
^relating to the Indian tribes constitutes the most important branch of the
work proposed; and although in most places great changes have occurred
in recent years a vast amount of valuable material yet remains to' be
recorded, connected not only with their language, but also with their
traditions, art, customs, mode of life, and physical characteristics. The
time is rapidly passing away in which investigations of the kind may be
made to advantage, and no effort should therefore be spared to collect ON THE ETHNOLOGICAL SURVEY OF CANADA.        443
everything connected with these people. It may confidently be stated
that no actually observed fact respecting them is without some definite
value.
I With slight verbal changes the same main heads of investigation as
have been already cited appear to be applicable to the native races; but,
in addition, many other special lines of inquiry might be followed, such
as the displacement of native tribes by the whites, the coalescence of
diminished tribal communities in later years, and the absorption of the
weaker of these by the stronger. Photographic records of all kinds will
in connection with the native races possess great importance, i
' The above suggestions of a general and preliminary kind are offered
to the members of the Committee with the object of eliciting an expression of opinion, and further and more detailed plans such as may appear
to be best for the objects in view. As no money grant is at the disposal
of the Committee, the work must in the meantime, at least, be carried on
entirely by the efforts of volunteers; but some means may, it is hoped,
be found of obtaining a small fund applicable to the purposes of the
Committee.
' In the meantime it is hoped that every member of the Committee
will assist with advice in regard to the best organisation, not only for the
collection, but also in 'respect to the collation and eventual publication of
the facts.
' Yours faithfully, ~
Jffe (Signed)   'George M. Dawson.'
The Committee have been so fortunate as to obtain from Dr. Franz
Boas and Mr. B. Suite respectively the subjoined valuable contributions
in the line of its investigations. 'The Growth of Toronto Children,'
by Franz Boas; ' Origin of the French Canadians,' by B. Suite. The first
constitutes an interesting example of the importance attaching to accurate
physical measurements. The second explains the nature of the foundations upon which further study of the French element of the Canadian
population must rest.
APPENDIX I.
The Growth of Toronto Children.   By Franz Boas.
In 1891, when active preparations for the World's Columbian Exposition were being made, Professor F. W. Putnam, director of the Peabody
Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnography, and then chief of the
Department of Anthropology of the.Exposition, placed me in charge of
the Section of Physical Anthropology. At an early time during the
preparation of the exhibits we agreed upon a plan to represent as fully
as possible the growth and the development of American children.
Valuable material was available, but it seemed desirable to extend the
investigations over regions in which heretofore no observations had been
collected. I submitted our plans to Mr. James Hughes, superintendent
of public schools in Toronto, Ont., and to Professor Earl Barnes, of
Leland Stanford, Jr., University., Through the interest taken by these
gentlemen I have been enabled to obtain series of measurements of the
school children of Toronto and of Oakland, CaL The former series
was taken under the supervision of Dr. Alexander F. Chamberlain; the 444
REPORT—1897*
latter, under the direction of Professor Earl Barnes. In both of these
series the same plan, excepting details, was followed.
The measurements embrace the following data : Stature without shoes,
finger-reach, height sitting, weight. A series of special measurements of
the head were taken, which, however, include only a few hundred individuals. The following statistical data were collected : Age, in years and
months; place of birtn; nationality of grandparents ; place of birth of
parents ; occupation of parents; number and ages of brothers and sisters -;
order of birth of the child measured; and the mental ability as judged
by the teacher.
In treating this material I have endeavoured to exclude a certain
series of errors. The number of children of various ages which have been
measured is not equal. The series begins with comparatively few children.
The number increases from year to year, until, beginning with the ninth
year, it decreases again. It follows from this fact that among tiie six-?
year-old children, for instance, there are more of the age six years and
eleven months than of six years and no months ; and that, on the other
hand, among the fifteen-year-old children there are more of the age
fifteen years and no months than of fifteen years and eleven months. In
treating the various series of observations all children between six and
seven, seven and eight, &c, have been grouped together, and usually the
series is assumed to represent sizes for the average ages; that is, for
six and a half, seven and a half, &c. On account of the varying frequency for the several months, this is not quite correct. Among the
younger children the average will be a little more than six and a half,
seven and a half, &c, while among those near the upper limit I judge it
will be a little less than fourteen and a half, fifteen and a half, &c. By
tabulating the various frequencies of various months for the children of
Toronto the following results were obtained :— | w>-
Average Ages.
Boys
Gifls     .
YRS. XL iTBS. It. }YRS. M.
. .   5 6-7 I   6 M     7 M
.6 6-17 6-18 5-7
YRS. M.
8 6*7
9 5*1
YRS. M.
9 5-7
10 5-8
YRS. M.
10 5*8
11 5-7
YRS. M. YRS. M.
11 5-5    12 5-8
IS 5-5   13 5*5
YRS.M.
13 6*7
13 5*3
YRS.M.
14 5-1
15 5-3
YRS.M.
15 4*9
16 4-3
The error resulting from this series may be very easily corrected by
adding to the average a correction proportional to the deviation of period.
While the average may be corrected in this manner without much
difficulty, the variability of the series for the whole year is affected in a
much more complex manner. (I call the variability the square root of
the mean of the squares of the individual deviations.) We will suppose
that the variability did not change much in the course of one year, which,
at certain periods of life is, however, not the case. Since* the values of
the average increase from month to month, it is clear that the range of
variation for the early periods must begin at a lower point than for the
later periods, so that the variation for the total year covers a wider series
than the variations at a given moment do. It is possible to make the
necessary reduction by a consideration of the number of individuals
measured for all the different periods, and of the varying amount of variation. The amount of reduction due to this cause is shown in the following table, which refers to the measurements of American children, the
series including measurements taken in Boston, Milwaukee, Toronto,
Worcester (Mass.), St. Louis (Mo.), and Oakland (CaL). * ,--1—
ON THE ETHNOLOGICAL SURVEY OF CANADA.
Variability of American Boys.
445
Age
Variability
Corrected
variability
5-5
I
9-5     10*5
18-5    135
± 6-32 ±6-80*7-71
±4*80 ±4*92 ±5*22]±5*53!±5*66 ±590'
±4-40'±4-62 ±4-93 ±5-34 ±5-19 ±5-75 ±619 ±6-66 ±7-54
I I I. I I I I I
14-5
±8-66
15*5    16*5
17-5
±8-87! ±7*75 ±7*23
±8-49 ±8*78!±7*73 ±7-22
.11       !
18-5
±6-74
I have preferred to calculate in the Toronto series the reduced
amounts of variabilities in a different manner. I have grouped the bbser-
tions according to quarterly periods, and calculated the variabilities for
each of these periods. A comparison of the variabilities of these periods
and of the full year periods are shown in the following tables :—
Boys.
Variability for
v                                                                                        f      ^ff*         '       -
-
5-5   j
6-5
7-5
8-5 I   9*3     10*5
11-5
12-5     13*5
14-5
15*5
1. The whole year
2. Quarterly periods
±5-12
±4-70
±4-82 ±5-08
±4*65 ±4-77
1       1       !
±5-58 ±5*59 ±6*15'±6*15
±538 ±5-35 ±6-02 ±6*08
±6-80 ±7-79
±6-61 ±7*61
±8-65
±8*22
±9-00
±8*91»
* Six-monthly periods.
•; t7                                        Girls.
Variability for
<^Wm        "^J
~
5-5
6-5
7-5    • 8-5
9*5     10-5     11*5     12-5
13-5     14*5 j 15-5
16*5
1 1. The whole year .
1 2. Quarterly periods
[±4-80
±4*62
±4-80
±5-30  ±5-53
±6*21 ±5-84
± 5-32 ! ± 620 '±6-52 ±6-96
±5 18 ±5*89 ±6-38 ±6*90
±7-17 ±6-35'±5-86
±6-85  ±6-13 ±5-73
1            I
±5-35
±6*63
In the following tables I give the averages of our series, with the corrections due to the considerations outlined in the preceding remarks. In
interpreting these averages it must be understood that the average sizes
do not represent the typical values of the measurement, because during
childhood the distribution of the measurements is asymmetrical. Owing
to the fact that children do not all grow at the same rate, but that some
are retarded in development, while others are advanced beyond their age,
the rate of growth differs in such a manner that the general distribution
of the measurements does not follow the law of probabilities.. I will explain this by considering the growth of sixteen-year-old girls. A great
many of these girls will have reached the adult stage, and will have ceased
growing, while others are not developed according to their age, and continue to grow. If we consider for a moment only those girls who as adults
will have a certain stature, we recognise that many will have this stature,
while others will still be shorter ; that is to say, the distribution of their
statures will be asymmetrical. The same is true of all the other statures,
and it will be seen for this reason that the whole distribution will be
asymmetrical. On account of this peculiarity of the distribution of sta-
tures during the years of growth, the average values of the measurements
must not be considered as the types of development for, the various ages, 446
REPORT—1897.
but as the nearest indices which can be obtained of the typical values.
The following table shows the statures of Toronto children as compared
to those of American children:— ^1
Statures of Boys.
Ages
5*5
• 6*5
7*6
8*5
9*5
10-5
11-5
12-5
13-5
14-5
15*5
16-5
Toronto         •
American      •      .
106*2
105-9
111-1
111-6
116-8
116-8
121*8
122*0
126*7
126*9
131-5
131*8
135*9
136*2
140-1
140-7
145-4
146-0
151-5
152*4
157*6
159-7
Statures of
Girls.
Ages     ...
5*5
6*5
7-5
8*5
9-5
10*5
11-5
12*
13*5
14*5
15-5
16*6
Toronto        •      •
American      •      •
105-2
104*9
110*4
110-1
116-0
1161
120-7
121*2
125*3
126-1
130-9
131-3
136*1
136*6
141*9
142-5
148*0
148*7
153-3
153*5
156*0
156*5
156*7
158*0
Variabi
lity of Boys' Statures. "
Ages      •     •
5*5
6*5
7*5
8*5
9*5
10*5
11-5
12*5
13-5
14*5
15*5
16*5
Toronto .      •      .
American       1      1
±5*12
±4*80
±4*82
±4*92
1
±5-08
±5*22
±5*58
±5-53
±5-59
±5*66
±6*15
±5*90
±6*15
±6*32
±6*80
±6*80
±7*79
±7*73
±8*55
±8*66
±9*00
±8-87
±7-75
Variability of Girls9 Statures.
Ages      •      1
5*5
6*5
7*5
8-5
9*5
10*5
11*5.
12-5
13-&
14*5
15*6
16*5 j
Toronto ...
American       . '   .
±4-80
±4*64
±4*80
±5*07
±5*30
±5*25
±5-53
±5-58
±5-32
±5-73
i
±6*20
±6-18
±6*52
±6-83
±6*96
±7*57
±7*17 ±6*35
±7*37 ±6*69
±5*86
±5*96
±5-85
±5*79
I have classed the material collected in the Toronto schools according
to the order of birth of the children, in order to investigate if there is any'
difference between the first-born children and later-born children. An
investigation of this subject, based upon material collected in Oakland,
CaL, showed that a difference of this character exists, the first-born
children, beginning with the sixth year, being taller and heavier than
later-born children. The following table contains the results of this investigation, based on the Toronto material:— v^SAhh
Differences hetween Average Statures of Boys and Statures of Children of
Various Orders of Birth, and their Mean Errors (mm.). I *;:
Age
First
Second-
Third-
Fourth-
Fifth-
Sixth-
Seventh-
Eighth*
Ninth.
Years
born
born
born
born
born
born
born
born "
born
5*5
+6±7-2
±0±6*1
-3±6'6
+6±7*8
—2±9*0
-16 ±11*8
-14±12*7
-13±14-0
6-5
+ 7±4*7
-3 ±4-4
-4±5-0
+2±5*6
+ l±6-2
-4 ±8-3
-13±8*9
-16±10*2
-4 ±11*6
7*5
+3±4*0
+2±4*4
±0±5-0
±0±5-5
—5 ±6*6
+ 2±6'9
+l±8-5
-6 ±9*8
-13±12*4
8*5
+ 2±4*2
+4±4-5
-2±4*8
±0±5-6
—10±6*6
±0±7*2
-8±7*2
-6 ±9*6
-19±121
9*5
+4 ±4*1
-7±4*6
±0±51
±0±5*6
-13±6*3
—11 ±6*9
-10 ±8*3
+3±9-5
-13±ll*a
10*5
-S±4*7
+5±5*5
-1±5*6
-6 ±6*2
-8±7*1
+6 ±7*4
-5 ±9*5
—15 ±10*8
+6±14*J
11*5
-1±5*0
+ 3±5-4
-2 ±5*9
—8±6*3
-2±6-9
—8±7*6
+6±10*1
-5±ll-8
-15±15-i
12*5
-2±5*7
+l±6-3
+2±6'5
-6±7-9
+ 3±10-1
-4±81
-ll±9-6
-16 ±12-2
-2±16*«
{  13*5
+ 7±6-3
+ ll±7-8
-13 ±9-1
-1±9*3
+ 2±121
-14±ll-6
-31 ±15*9
+ 18±16*6
+ 9±22*6
14-5
+5±10*2
+1±10*8
+5±11'1
+ 2±13-6
-14±12*7
-12±16*8
-15 ±20*6
-5±24*1
...
15*5
-1±14*2
-l±20-0
-32±20*6
-8±18*4
+2±21*3
—
—   ,
—
1
+2*3±1*6
+0*8±1*7
—
-'
~
—
- ;
-
— ON THE ETHNOLOGICAL SURVEY OF CANADA.
447
It appears, therefore, that the result is not quite certain, since the
error is great as compared to the average difference.    Since for later-born
children the errors of the average are very great, I have not carried out,
the calculation.   I have calculated the same differences, and their mean
errors, for the statures of girls:—
Differences between the Average Statures of Girls and the Statures of
First-born Girls, and their Mean Errors.
Ages
Ages
6*5
.    + 3± 47
13*5
.    + 9± 6-7
75
.    +  3±  45
14*5
.    + 4± 7-2
8*5
.    +14±  4*6
15*5
.    - 8±  83
9*5     i   .
.    + 7±  4*6
16*5        .      ,
•    + 4±103
10*5
.    + 1±  5*1
.    +  6±  5-1
Average .      <
11-5        ,   '   ,
>       .   +5*3 ± 1-9
125
.    + 6± 6*1
This result is much more certain than that obtained by means of the
measurements of boys. When we combine both we find that the difference
of stature between the average of all the children and the average of the
first-born children is in favour of the latter. The amount is 3*6 mm.,
with a mean error of 1*2 mm. It is therefore certain that first-born
children are somewhat taller than later-born children, but the amount of
the difference is not definitely known.
It is of interest to investigate the constitution of. families. I have
done so by recording for each year the number of children according to
the order of their birth.
Total Number of Children examined according to the Order of Birth.
j Order
•4*
■
•a
a
•J"
U
CO
•* •
to
15
QO
5
o
"3
M
3
t
*a
fte
/a
00
ja
Total
3,392
2,880
2,385
1,858
1,368
1,021
790
511
360
226
116
60
29
14
6
1
s
1
15,019
Per
cent.
22*6
19*2
15*9
12-4
9-1
6*8
6-3
3*4
2-4
1*5
0-8
0-4
0*2
0*1
_
_
_
mmm
Mean
error
±0*3
±0*3
±0*3
±0*3
±0*2
±0*2
±0-2
±0-1
±0*1
±0-1
±0-1
—
—-
—*
From these data we can obtain an insight into the constitution of
families vin Toronto. The difference between the number of first- and
second-born children shows the numbers of mothers having one child
only; the difference between the second- and third-born children gives
the number of mothers who have two children, &c. In this manner the
following table has been obtained :—    ^'^-Jh'"■
Number of
Number of
Children
Children
1    -it  •
.   151 ±0*6
9    .                               3*9±0*3
2    .
.   14-6 ±0*6
10    .
3*2±03
3   .if 1
.   15-5 ±0-6
11    .
1-7 ±0*2
4    .
•   14-5*0*6
12    .
0-9±0-2
5   .       .       ,
.   10*2*0*5
13   .
0*4 ±0*1
.6*.
1     •     68±05
14    .
0-3
7   .
.     8-2 ±0*5
15    .
,     0*1
8   .
I      •     4*5 ±0-4
16   .
►                 4
,     0*1
It is of interest to compare the number of children according to the
order of their birth in Various cities.   I have tabulated for this purpose 448
RETORT—1897.
the number of children in Oakland, Cal., according to the order of their
birth, and found th3
following result:
—
Toronto
Oakland, Cal.
I Number of first-born children   .
„         second-born children       .
w         third-born         w     .    # .
„          fourth-born       ,t     .    *  .       .       .       .j
„         fifth-born and later	
per cent.   .
22 6
192
159
124
300
percent*
26*4
223
170
12-3
22-0
It appears from this table that families in Toronto are much larger
than those in Oakland, Cal. There are 26*4 per cent, of first-born children
in Oakland as compared to 22*6 per cent, of first-born children in Toronto,
while fifth-and later-born children form only 22 per cent, of the total
population in Oakland, and in Toronto they form 30 per cent. This
indicates that the size of the families is considerably smaller in Oakland
as compared to those in Toronto. It is difficult to judge what the social
causes of this phenomenon may be. The general conditions of life and
the nationalities composing the population certainly have a great influence
upon the size of the families. In order to investigate this question I
have tabulated the Toronto girls according to their order of birth and the
nationalities to which they belong. The results of this tabulation are
given in the following table :—
Nationalities of Grandparents of Toronto Girls.
Order of Birth
English
***] toh|°aial
American
German
French
Miscellaneous
Cases
1
1st
2nd
3rd
4th and 5th
6th and later
39*0
41*0
40-8
44*4
47*3
16*5
151
16*7
171
16*4
239
23-8
235
23*6
230
12*4'
11-4
105
7*3
51
35
3*3
3-0
2-7
30
'20
2*4
2*8
2*0
21
0*4
06
09
0-4
03
2*3
2*4
2*5
2-4
2-7
6,753 j
5,8781
4,883
6,728
6,388 ■
Total.       . -    .
42*5 j   16-4
236 |     9*3
31
2*3
0*5
2-5  J30,63o!
That is to say, the percentage of Scotch, Irish, American, German,
French, and miscellaneous grandparents remains the same for all the
children, no matter what the order of their birth may be. There is,
however, a fundamental difference in the distribution of English and
Canadian children. Among the first-born children 39.per cent, of the
grandparents are of English birth. Among the later-born children 47
per cent, are of English birth. This indicates that in families' whose
grandparents are of English birth we find a greater number of children
than among the other nationalities. The reverse is the case among the
Canadians. There is a decided decrease in the number of grandparents
of Canadian birth among the later-born children. This indicates that
the families of Canadian descent are small. It is very peculiar that
these differences are found only among the English and Canadians, and
that there are no differences in distribution among all the other nationalities. |?M'i OX THE ETHNOLOGICAL SURVEY OF CANADA.   !      449
This table is of importance also as showing that the difference in
stature of first-born children and of later-born children cannot be ascribed
to the influence of differences in nationalities. The change of proportion
of English and Canadian blood in the grand total is so slight that we
cannot possibly assume that.it will materially modify the average stature
of the people We may therefore safely say that the difference in
stature of first-born and later-born children is not influenced by complications resulting from the influence of nationalities.*
APPENDIX IL
Origin of the French Canadians.   By B. Sulte.
We intend to explain the formation of a certain number of French
people into settlers on the St. Lawrence during the seventeenth century,
and from which has sprung the present French Canadian population.
(1) Acadia was peopled without any kind of organisation between
16 36. and 1670, or thereabouts. No one has yet satisfactorily demonstrated where the French of that colony came from, though their dialect
would indicate their place of origin to be in the neighbourhood of the
mouth of the river Loire. They are distinct from the French Canadians
in some particulars, and not allied by marriages with the settlers of the
St. Lawrence.
Brittany never traded with Canada, except that, from 1535 to 1600,
some of the St. Malo navigators used to visit the Lower St. Lawrence and
barter with the Indians, but there were no European settlers in the whole
of that pretended .New France. Afterwards the rigime of the fur companies, which extended from 1608 to 1632, was rather adverse to colonisation, and we know by Champlain's writings that no resident, no 'habitant/
tilled the soil during that quarter of a century. The men who were
employed at Quebec and elsewhere by the companies all belonged to Nor?
mandy, and, after 1632, twelve or fifteen of them married the daughters
of the other .Normans recently arrived to settle for good. Brittany
remained in the background after, as well as before, 1632. This is confirmed by an examination of the parish registers, where seven or eight
Bretons only can be found during the seventeenth century. ,
(2) The trade of Canada remained in the hands of the Dieppe and
Rouen merchants from 1633 to 1663. It consisted solely in fish and fur,
especially the latter. Therefore any man of these localities who wished
to go to Canada to settle there was admitted on the strength of the charter
of the Hundred Partners, who were bound to send in people brought up
to farming in order, to cultivate the soil of the colony, but who did
nothing of the kind, except transporting the self-sacrificing emigrants*
There is even indication that the transport was not free. The other sea*
ports of France having no connection with Canada before 1662, five or
six families only came from these ports.
(3) When the business of the Hundred Partners collapsed about 16609
Paris and Rochelle came in for a certain share of interest, as they were
the creditors of the expiring company, and soon we notice immigrants
arriving from the neighbouring country places of those two cities.
The settlers (1633-1663) came, as a rule, individually, or in little
1897. o G 450 report—1897.
groups of three or four families related to each other, as many immigrants
from various countries do at the present day.
From an examination of family and other archives, extending now
over thirty years of labour, we make the following deductions :—
Perche, Normandy, Beauce, Picardy, and Anjou (they are here in
their order of merit) contributed about two hundred families from 1633 to
1663, the period of the Hundred Partners' regime. By natural growth
these reached the figure of 2,200 souls in 1663.
In 1662-63 there came about one hundred men from Perche and 150
from Poitou, Rochelle, and Gascony, with a small number of women.
This opens a new phase in the history of our immigration by introducing
Poitou and Rochelle amongst the people of the northern and western
Province of France, already counting two generations in the three districts of Quebec, Three Rivers, and Montreal.
(4) After 1665 the city of Paris, or rather the small territory encircling it, contributed a good share. The whole of the south and east of
France had no connection with Canada at any time. Normandy, Perche,
Maine, Anjou, Touraine, Poitou, Saintonge, Angoumois, Guienne, and
Gascony—on a straight line from north to south—furnished the whole of
the families now composing the French Canadian people.
(5) From 1667 till 1672 a committee was active in Paris, Rouen,
Rochelle, and Quebec to recruit men, women, and young girls*for Canada.
This committee succeeded in effecting the immigration into Canada of
about four thousand souls. Half of the girls were from country places in
Normandy, and the other half were well-educated persons, who did not
go into the rural districts, but married in Quebec, Three Rivers, and.
Montreal
Since these people were brought to Canada by the organised efforts of
a committee, we might expect to find some detailed record of their arrival
and origin, but as yet no such information is known to exist; We are
merely told by contemporary writers of that period how many arrived at
such and such a date, and the port of embarkation—that is all. Happily,
the church registers, notarial deeds, papers of the courts of justice, and
several classes of public documents show abundantly the places of origin
of those who actually established their families here.
(6) In 1673 the King stopped all immigration, and this was the end
of French attempts to colonise Canada. The settlers, of course, remained
as they were, and in 1680 the whole population amounted only to 9,700
souls. Double this figure every thirty years, and we have the present
French population of the Province of Quebec, Ontario, and that of the
groups established now in the United States.
(7) The bulk of the men who came during 1633-1673 were from rural
districts, and took land immediately on their arrival here. It is noticeable that a large number of them had besides a trade of their own, such
as that of carpenter, cooper, blacksmith, so that a small community of
twenty families possessed among themselves all the requirements of that
kind that could be useful.
No land was given to those who did not show qualification for agricultural pursuits, and they were placed for three years in the hands of an
old farmer before the title of any property was signed in their favour.*
(8) In regard to troops disbanded in Canada at various dates much
misunderstanding exists. The real facts are as follows :—Before 1665 no
soldiers, therefore no disbandment;  from 1665 to 1673 a few isolated rf^m
ON  THE  ETHNOLOGICAL  SURVEY  OF CANADA. * 451
cases ; the regiment of Carignan came to Canada in 1665 and left in 1669,
with the exception of one company, which eventually was disbanded here;
from 1673 to 1753 the garrisons of Canada consisted, as a rule, of about'
three hundred men in all, under an infantry captain, sometimes called
the Major when no longer young.
Besides that {detachment/ as it was called, an addition of six or seven
companies was sent in the colony during the years 1684-1713, on account
of the war. From 1753 to 1760 the regiments sent under Dieskau and
Montcalm (seven-year war) do not seem to have left any number of men
in the country. Therefore the ' military element* had very little to do j
in the formation of our French population.
(9) The date of the arrival of most of the heads of families will never
be ascertained accurately. In order to face that difficulty with chances
of success I have resorted to the following plan :—Prepare an alphabetical
list of all the heads of families, and afterwards, when consulting the old
archives and various sources of information, be careful in comparing your
list with any date or other indication you may find. In this manner it
turns out that a man was married in 1664 in Quebec, was a witness before
the court in 1658, made a deed in 1672, in which he states that 'before
leaving Alenc/m. in 1652 to come to Canada.' . . . The date of '1652*
and * Alengon' are the very things I want; therefore I erase ' 1664 * and
■ 1658/ previously entered, and keep the oldest date, with the name of
the locality. This process is slow but not the surest, but still it is the best
yet found to reach a fair approximate estimate. Finally, I hope to publish
that tabular statement in a couple of years .from now.
(10) On the subject of uniformity of language, which is so remarkable
amongst the French Canadians, we may observe that it is the. best
language spoken from Rochelle to Paris and Tours, and thence to
Rouen. Writers of the seventeenth century hare expressed the opinion
that French Canadians could uOerstand a dramatic play as well as the
elite of Paris; no wonder to us, since we know that theatricals were
common occurrences in Canada, and that the 'Cid* of Corneille was
played in Quebec in 1645, the ' Tartuffe' of Moliere in 1677, and so on.
The taste for music and love for songs are characteristics of the French
Canadian race. The facility with which they learn foreign languages is
well known in America, where they speak Indian, Spanish, and English
as wrfl as their own tongue.
^Awthrojpoinetric Measurements in Schools.—Report of the Committee,
cdnsi$thig of Professor A. Macauster (Chairman), Professor B.
WiNDiir^Sgcre^ary), Mr. E. W. Brabrook, Professor J. Cleland,
and Dr. J. G^Garsok.
The work done  by this Committee during the past year has consisted
solely in the distribution to applicants of the Rules for Measurement'
drawn up by the Committee, and in advisisgthose responsible for physicalA
measurements in schools as to points respecung^which they had written
for advice.    A further supply of printed directions nas been procured, the
first set having become exhausted.
The Committee ask for their reappointment and for a furtbes^grant
for printing and postage of bl.y the grant for that sum received several
years ago having been exhausted.
6 6 2

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/cdm.bcbooks.1-0342314/manifest

Comment

Related Items