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Oceanic origin of the Kwakiutl-Nootka and Salish stocks of British Columbia and fundamental unity of… Hill-Tout, Charles, 1858-1944 1898

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Array   ■HI
X.—Oceanic Origin of the Kwakiutl-JSfootka and Salish Stocks of British
Columbia and Fundamental Unity of Same, with Additional Notes
on the Dini.
By Charles Hill-Tout,
Buckland College, Vancouver, B.C.
(Communicated by Sir J. Bourinot and read May 25th, 1898.)
The classification of the aboriginal tribes of this continent on linguistic lines has resulted in giving us, according to Dr. Brinton, some 160,
more or less, distinct stocks or families. Fifty-eight of these, according
to Major Powell are found north of Mexico, of which no less extraordinary
number than 39 are found clustered along the western littoral between
Alaska and Lower California. That is to say, that more than two-thirds
of all the linguistic slocks in North America are found in the comparatively restricted portion of land lying between the Kockies and the Coast.
Various theories have been offered by ethnologists to account for this
singular bunching of stocks in this limited territory, the most plausible of
which is that put forward by the late Horatio Hale. This, briefly, supposes these isolated idioms to have had their origin in the natural language-making faculty of young children ;\ that is to say, the author
thinks that in former days when the country was less densely populated
than at present, and families and settlements were separated by wider
intervals from one another, that cases would "occur where two or more
young children of different sexes, left by the death of their parents to
grow up secluded from all other society, would be compelled to frame a
language of their own, which language would in course of time become
the mother-tongue of a new linguistic stock. But while this view, coming as it does from such a veteran as Mr. Hale, deserves the most careful
consideration at our hands, and while it may very possibly account for
the origin of some of these diverse stocks, it has, I think, been felt by most
students of American origins that it does not adequately account for the
origin of all. For while the genial climate and the spontaneous fruitful-
ness of the soil in California render it possible for isolated groups of
orphans to grow into strong and extensive stocks, a more rigorous climate and a less bountiful nature such as are found north of this favoured
region scarcely permit of such origin for the stocks which lie beyond the
40th or 45th parallel of latitude. Ten years' residence in British Columbia
leads me to believe that such a solution of the problem is wholly inadmis-
1" Proceedings " of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, 188 EOYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA
sible under the climatal conditions characteristic of this region. Prior
to the advent of the whites scarcity of food and winter famines were by
no means uncommon incidents in the life of the aborigines, as we learn
both from themselves and from their traditional histories ; and if adults
and experienced foragers found a difficulty in procuring winter supplies
small chance would there be for lost or abandoned children of tender
years to do so. It is true that where these diverse stocks attain their
maximum density the conditions required by Mr. Hale's theory are found
to obtain, but the number of stocks north of this favoured region is yet
sufficiently great to preclude the possibility of their having sprung into
existence in this manner. In the comparatively limited area of British
Columbia alone we have, according to the received classification, seven
distinct stocks to account for ; that is, twice the number that is found elsewhere throughout those thousands of broad miles that make up the rest
of British North America, and about the same number as are found scattered over that vast region which stretches on the one hand from the
eastern slopes of the Eockies to the Atlantic seaboard and on the other
from the 30th parallel north to the frozen waters of the Arctic ocean. It
remains then to account for the presence of these numerous northern
stocks by some other hypothesis than that suggested by Mr. Hale, and the
following linguistic notes on some of the stocks of this region are offered
in the belief that the evidence they furnish of the extra-American affinities
of our coast tribes yield us a less conjectural solution of this interesting
problem.
And I cannot help here in the first place pointing out that, apart
from the positive evidence of the fact which I have to offer, there is nothing antecedently impossible or even improbable in the hypothesis of an
extra-American origin for our west coast tribes ; and the disfavour with,
which this view is held by some of our eastern Americanists has long been
a matter of astonishment to me. That wide-spread Oceanic race which
has spread itself from Madagascar on the west to Hawaii on the east, and
from Formosa on the north to Easter Island on the south, may well have
made some settlements on our western shores which are but J800 miles
from their present easternmost colony ; which distance is but a little more
than one-tenth of the interval between the most remote divisions of this
stock ; and less than one-fourth of the distance the ancestors of the Easter
Islanders themselves passed over in sailing thither, if we bring them from
the common centre and original home of their race. Thirty-four generations ago the great Polynesian navigator Maui was sailing far and wide
over the Pacific waters in his great double canoes each of which was
capable of carrying from 200 to 300 people. We know he reached the
Fijian group and from thence sailed away and discovered Ata and the
other islands of the Tongan group ; from whence he sailed to New Zealand,
left a portion of his people there, and returned to Tonga again ; and [hill-tout]     OCEANIC ORIGIN OF THE KWAKITJTL-NOOTKA 189
making this his headquarters undertook and accomplished two more long
voyages. Might not he or some of his companions have visited our
shores at this time ? At all events while Polynesian migrants were navigating the- waters of the Pacific and covering thousands of miles
in their course the probability that some of them touched upon our
shores and effected settlements there was strong enough to make the matter
worthy of investigation and save it from the contempt it has met with at
the hands of some Americanists. And again, why so much objection to
an Asian origin for some of our northwestern stocks on the part of eastern investigators, who have never studied our western tribes in their own
home and who have to rely upon the labours of others for their information concerning them ? Major Conder has recently stated in his articles
on Central America that hundreds of words in the Central American language are identical in sound and significance with those of Eastern Asia,
and has convinced himself of the truth of the Chinese and Japanese
accounts in their histories of their voyages in former times to Western
America. However this may be, no one can study the D£ne language of
British Columbia and compare its radicals with those of archaic Chinese
and cognate tongues, and not feel a conviction growing in his mind that it is
to East Asia that we must look for the origin of some at least of our West
American stocks ; and when he perceives the marked facial and other
physical and psychical resemblances between some of the coast Indians and
the Chinese and Japanese resident in our province, he cannot resist the belief that these resemblances are something more than fortuitous accidents.
One of the commonest remarks one hears from travellers from the Orient
as they pass through our midst is that our Indians are astonishingly like
the Asiatics they have left behind; and the observant Kennan in his
account of his journey through Siberia\ has expressed himself thus on
this head :   "It will be seen from the illustrations that the Kachinski
feminine  type is  distinctly Indian All  of the Kachinski
Tatars that we saw in the Minusinsk district if they were dressed in
American fashion would be taken in any western State for Indians without hesitation or doubt." If, as we know, the Eskimo have passed from
America to Asia along that natural bridge which every year unites Cape
Prince of Wales to East Cape, or along that other old-time inter-ethnic
highway, the Aleutian Isles, why may not Asian hordes have passed in
former times from Asia to this continent by the same lines of travel ?
That they really did so the marked mongoloid features which characterize
so many of our west coast Indians and the linguistic evidence from the
De"ne" and other sources leave no room for doubt.
In treating of the physical characteristics of the British Columbia
coast tribes in his second report to the British Association on the Indians
of this region, Dr. Boas writes thus: " The habitus of the northern tribes
1 Siberia and the Exile System, p. 400, Vol. II.   George Kennan.
J 190
ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA
of this region is similar to that of East Asiatic tribes—a fact which was observed by R. Virchow, who examined a number of Bilqula who visited Berlin in the winter of 1885-S6. This similarity is very marked among the
Tlingits Haida, Tsimshian, Kwakiutl and Bilqula, to a less extent among
the Nootka. while the coast Salish and the Salish of the interior [generally
speaking] show a different type." \ Father Morice remarks also in his notes
on '•'Dene' Roots": "The facial similarities of the Mongolians and some
American natives are so striking that I know of persons who mistook in my
presence British Columbia Indians for Chinese."z It is extremely interesting to learn that linguistic investigation fully bears out these remarks.
The Salish approximate more nearly both physically and linguistically to
the Malayo-Polynesians; the Nootka more so than their congeners the
Kwakiutl, who with the Bilqula, Tsimshian and Haida-Tlingit show unmistakable evidence of Asian contact both in habitus and speech. I know
of no other instance in the whole field of ethnology where linguistic and
physical data so clearly coincide, as in this case.. I shall have occasion in
the course of my paper to refer to this again.
In offering the evidence I have gathered of the fundamental unity of
the stocks here considered, heretofore regarded as distinct, and of their relationship to the Malayo-Polynesian, I cannot do better than make, in the
first place, a few introductory remarks upon what has, in the course of my
studies, appeared to me to be some of the leading causes of the wide differences found in the morphology and still more in the lexicography of the
languages of this region, and which have not always been taken into
account by investigators when comparing the languages of native stocks
among themselves or with those of ea^ra-American families.
Comparisons of vocabularies qua vocabularies furnish little or no reliable proof of a common origin for the terms found in them; they can at
best yield but presumptive evidence of affinity ; -and that for tho obvious
reason that the vocables of our aboriginal tongues are rarely comparable
with those of other linguistic families. They are very largely polysyn-
thetic in form and unless the investigator is able to resolve these syntheses
into their components and discover the radicals he will invariably be led
astray. On the other hand comparisons instituted on lines strictly morphological, as demanded by some of our leading philologists, will in a great
number of cases yield but little better results on account of the repeated
admixture of stocks which has taken place in this country and the consequent break-up and remodelling of language. Cases are not wanting
where the vocabulary shows affinity with one stock and the grammatical
structure with another. The Kwakiutl-Nootka is an instance in point.
Its vocabulary for the most part is, like the Salish, of Malayo-Polynesian
1 Fifth Report of the Committee of the British Association on the Northwestern
tribes of Canada, 1889, pp. 11 and 12.
2Trans. Canadian Institute.   Vol. III., p. 147.   1889. |hill-tout]     OCEANIC ORIGIN OF THE KWAKITJTL-NOOTKA 191
origin, but the post-position of its particles and its general structure mark
its affinity to the De'ne' of the interior on one hand and East Asian stocks
on the other. The same to a less extent is true of the other, two northern
stocks, the Tsimshian and the Haida-Tlingit, whose vocabularies contain
scores of typical Oceanic terms but whose grammar is undoubtedly East
Asian in structure ; the simple forms and syntax of the Haida relating it
to the Japo-Corean ; affinities with which people the strong facial similarities of the Haida show them no less clearly to have.
American philology is largely a law unto itself. Its languages constitute a family of their own, and rules and methods that may be advantageously applied to classical tongues are often found to be wholly inapplicable and useless to a family like the American whose genius and laws
are so radically different. Much of the linguistic work of our good missionaries, to whom the philologist is so largely indebted for his knowledge
of American tongues, is marred and of less value to us on account of their
efforts to force the native grammar through classical moulds, under the
mistaken idea that this is the correct and only way to treat it. It is
neither by a comparison of vocabularies nor of grammars alone that the
true relations of American stocks to one another or to those beyond our
shores will ever be pointed out, but rather by the study of the radical elements which underlie the ponderous syntheses or compounds that constitute the speech of our typical American stocks, and the resolution of
these, as far as is now possible, into their original constituents. At the
bottom of every one of these compounds there will be found one or more
constant primaries or roots. It is by the discovery and comparison of
these that we shall best discover the relations of our numerous tribes to
each other and to outside stocks. This is the method which Father
Morice has so successfully followed in his studies of the Dene' and which
has made it possible for me to discover striking and far-reachingiexico-
graphical and morphological similarities in this highly-complex and typical American language to the tongues of East Asia, some of which I
pointed out in a former paper ; and this is the method I have followed in
my comparisons in this paper wherever an analysis was possible to me.
The evidence of affinity which a single one of these radicals furnishes is
worth a score of mere vocabulary resemblances ;1 for these latter may nos-
sibly be fortuitous, but the common use in different languages of the same
radicals cannot be ; they point incontestably, notwithstanding differences
of grammar, to a common source and origin. And if in addition to identity of radical elements employed in the same way and with the same significance in the compared tongues, there be found identity of compound
1 Compare, for example", the radical ku in the various syntheses for finger, nail,
toe, hand, etc., in both Oceanic and Columbian stocks as given below, or the-ma.,
radical in " light" compounds, and the value of radical comparison will be readily 192 ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA
forms and similarities in structure, so much the better, though to my mind
the proof of relationship stands in no need of this additional evidence.
" Polysyntheticism " or " incorporation " is the feature most generally
regarded as characteristic of American aboriginal speech. But this is true
only to a very limited extent of many American tongues; and in some
this feature is wholly absent. In British Columbia we have but one truly
incorporative language—the Dene". Of the others we may say that the
nearer one approaches the coast the less is this characteristic discernable.
Next to the D6n6, though in a much less degree, the Kutonaqa, the other
interior stock, which borders on the Dene and Algonkin, displays this feature most. Adjoining these and west of them are the interior tribes of
the Salish ; and it is interesting to note that incorporative forms are much
commoner in the speech of these inland tribes than in that of their congeners on the coast. From all of which it would appear that polysyntheticism is not native to the speech of the coast tribes but has been acquired
in a variable degree by contact with their more eastern neighbours the
Dene". Believing as I do, from the evidence I will presently offer, that the
De'ne is the oldest of British Columbia stocks ; and that the coast tribes are
more recent arrivals; and regarding polysyntheticism as a characteristic
rather of the more ancient speech of the continent than that of all modern
stocks, this is exactly the state of things we ought to find. The longer a
stock has been in the country and the longer its language has been subjected to those influences which are regarded by philologists as peculiarly
American the less will it conform to its original modes of expression and
the less will it resemble its parent stock. This is seen again and again in
the tongues of British Columbia. To cite but one instance. That isolated
division of the Salish, the Bilqula, was formerly regarded as a separate
stock so different is its language from that of the other Salish divisions, by
contact with alien stocks.
Taking polysyntheticism, then, as the characteristic of the speech of
the aboriginal races of this continent we find in this very feature one of
the most potent factors of differentiation. Languages originally one, may
under the influence of polysyntheticism become in a few generations so
totally different in vocabulary and grammar as to appear to have no relationship one with another. The chief aim of the speaker of an incorporative tongue like the De'ne" or Algonkin is to express in a single word not
only the object or action contemplated but also every possible modification
that each is capable of undergoing. This is seen in the extraordinary
particularizing, discriminating power of their nouns and verbs which are
rarely differentiated into distinct parts of speech. In the case of the noun
the speaker not only denominates the object but informs you at the same
time and in the same expression whether it is round or square, little or big,
solid or hollow, long or short, smooth or rough, soft or hard, present or
absent, near by or far off, and a score of other qualities or characteristics. [hill-tout]     OCEANIC ORIGIN OF THE KWAKIUTIy-NOOTKA 193
In the verbal forms we find the same thing. Let us take for instance the I
verb "to break." In the place of the single English term the De'ne' language, Father Moriee tells us, possesses no less-than 110 discriminating
substitutes not one of which could be indifferently used for the other.
They are expressive first of the object or agent employed in the action, as
the fist or the feet; a stick or a whip, &c. ; secondly of the manner in
which the object has been affected, whether it has been broken in one place
or in many, in the middle or otherwise, purposely or by accident, violently
or by gentle pressure, &c.; and thirdly of the form and character of the
object itself, whether it is round or square, small or large, soft or hard,
&c. Again in the locomotive verb " to go," if we were to place under this
term the words which are used in Deng to signify the action of going we
should have a collection of totally different words according as the locomotion took place on two or four legs, by running or hopping, creeping
like a snake or leaping like a frog, swimming, skating, laughing, weeping,
in a canoe, up the stream or down the stream, and a host of other modifications. And if we were to chose-the verb " to put" and seek the Dene"
equivalent Father Moriee affirms that the paradigm of this single verb
alone would contain over 3,000 verbs all of which differ in meaning as
well as in material structure ;* and according to the Rev. T. Hurlbut the
no less astounding number of verbal forms than 17 millions may be found
in the paradigm of a single Algonkin verb.2 -
Many of the early collectors of native words, upon whose work we
have frequently to rely in our investigations were wholly unaware of the
true character of the Indian verb and set down against the English but
one form as its equivalent. It will easily be seen how misleading vocabularies of this kind can be. Another pitfall for the unwary collector is the
unsuspected existence of a great number of synonymous terms with
which some at least of our Indian languages abound, any one of which
may, with almost equal propriety, be employed by the native speaker and
thus recorded by the collector, to the exclusion of all others. Time and
again I have noticed instances of this kind in going over the ground of
earlier investigators, some of which have caused me no little embarrassment and trouble in my own studies.
To this wealth of synonymous expression is due also much of the dialectical difference we find in the speech of related tribes. Much, for instance, of the lexicographical dissimilarity in the Kwakiutl and Salish
arises from this cause. Since the separation of the Kwakiutl from the
Salish, the former have in numberless instances given the preference to one
of these synonymous terms, the latter to another. Like ourselves these
stocks have two common forms, for instance, by which they indicate thirst
1 Vide " Dene Languages," Transactions of Canadian Institute. Vol. I., Part II.
p. 181.   1891.
2 Quoted by Whitney in his " Life and Growth of Languages," p.  60
J 194 ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA
in themselves. They say indifferently "I am thirsty" or "lam dry."
Again, I was puzzled one.day to find that the verb "to give" in two
closely related divisions was entirely different. Upon inquiry I learnt
that one was not the verb "to give" at all but a synonymous expression
and really meant "hand over"—" Give me that food," and "hand over
that food " is in effect the same. If we take the word for " beaver " we
find no less than three synonymous terms in use among the Salish for this
animal. The Ntlakapamuq gave me the form qkopa which is a compound
of the words qtlukt and shupa meaning respectively " wide " and " tail."
In other vocabularies of this tribe I find the term snooya or shenilya.
"Upon inquiry I find this latter term has a variety of meanings. Its
primary sense is " treasure " or " wealth " or " riches." Beaver-skins were
in old fur-trading days a standard of value, hence beaver-skins are
" riches " or " treasure," and hence the application of the term to the living
animal. The third term skelo seems to have been superceded in this tribe
by the other two, and yet skelo is clearly the original term as it is common
to most of the Salish divisions and to one, at least, of the Kwakiutl. Instances of a like kind could be multiplied by scores. But great as are the
changes wrought, in the vocabulary in this way, still greater and wider
ones spring, as I have said, from the particularizing power of the nouns
or name words. In a typical American tongue there are few name words
that are simply denotive as most of ours are; they are generally conno-
tive, descriptive or predicative. In the British Columbia tongues with the
exception of the Dene' and to a less extent the Kutonaqu, this is not a
marked feature ; and even in these two it is clearly not an original, native-characteristic but one acquired since their advent and settlement in this
country for by far the greater number of their nouns are denotive in
character. Even in the Dene" which is second only to the highly-complex
Algonkin in its incorporative processes, four-fifths of its name words are
either monosyllabic in foi*m and of simple import, or are simple compounds
of these in juxtaposition. Examples of this descriptive class of nouns
may be seen in the following: " Iron " by some of the De'ne' tribes is
called satson meaning literally " beaver-dung "; by others it is termed
ifitsi=" bear-dung." One tribe of the Salish knows it under the compound swilewulalem=" hard thing." "Raven" is called by some of the
Dend 'tatson="feathers-dung." "Winter" in the mouth of one division
is yac'-ke' = " snow-on," and something quite different in the mouth of
others. Some of the Nootka say tsoietsh=" season-when-everything-
clean." " Meat" or " flesh " among the Ntlakapamuq is the same term as
that applied to "deer." One division of the Den<5 says for "leg"
khe'-tcen= "feet-handle." For "prairie" one tribe says "grass-on," another "grass-country." "Moon" among many tribes is expressed by a
synthesis meaning "night-its-sun." The Tlingits express the idea of
"yellow " by kyetlhotleyiquate which literally means "dog-dung-color." [hill-tout]     OCEANIC ORIGIN OF THE KWAKIUTL-NOOTKA 198
Wolf among one tribe of the Salish is tattciolmiq=" people-of-the-woods " ;
other tribes express it by different syntheses; " Salt" among the Haida
is known under the term tangagaga=" dry-sea." | Island" among the
Tsimshian is called leksda=" sitting-alone." "Beaver" in one tribe of the
Dene' alone is known under four different names according to its age.
There is the generic tei m tsa, but when the creature is under two years
it is called tsa-tsel; later it is known by the term khoq, each of which is
descriptive of some quality or characteristic ; and when it reaches three
years its name is changed again to oetqol'il which signifies that it is of
mating-age. Among the Algonkin in one tribe the beaver is called by a
term which means "feller-of-trees," in another "he-that-pops-his-head-
out-of-the-water," signifying thereby that he is an air-breathing, water
animal.
The following will serve for examples of the predictive class:
" Plough " in Dene1 is thus rendered pe-yoen-oelqoel, which literally means
"with-earth-one-cleaves." "Seat" is u-kwoet-tsoezta=uit-on-one-sits."
Horse is known to some tribes, as "the-beast-whose-hoofs-are-solid," to
others as " the-dog-that-carries," to a third as " the-beast-that-carries-a-
living-burden-on-its-back" ; others know it again under the descriptive
forms of "the-wonderful-domestic-animal," the "elk-dog," "the domestic
elk," and so forth. Some of the Algonkin say for " bed " niba-gau=" used-
for-sleeping " : and a *' hand-saw " they call kishkibo-jigan=" used-for-cut-
ting-crosswise." An extreme instance of these compound forms is seen in
the following which was recorded by the Rev. E. Mayhew, preacher for
some time among the Indians on Martha's Vineyard : " Mtp-pahk-nuh-to-
pe-pe-nau-wut-chut-chuh-quo-ka-neh-cha-e niu-nu-mun-no nok " and which
means in English " Our-well-skilled mirror-makers."
It is unnecessary to multiply these examples ; sufficient have been,
given to make it very clear that words formed on this principle must,
necessarily give rise to an indefinite number of dissimilar forms and soor*
bring about wide lexicographical differentiation in the speech of the different divisions of a stock, particularly when the fancy of the speaker is-
allowed such free play as in the formation of some of the examples given,
above. In a language that has to describe an object in order to name it
there is scope enough t o effect two-thirds at least of all the dissimilarities
found to-day in the vocabularies of our 160 stocks, which I venture to
predict will be reduced to less than half that number when comparisons
are instituted on the lines herein suggested.
But there is yet another source of lexical difference to mention which
has perhaps played as important a part in the differentiation of dialects
if not of stocks as those already noted. In languages like the American
where incorporation gives rise to words of from two to twenty or more
syllables speech would soon become impossible if fusion and contraction -
were not perforce resorted to. Syncope steps in and reduces these pon-
Sec. II., 1898.   13. 196
ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA
derous polysyntheses into more convenient forms. Shortening of words
by the elimination of vowels is a common feature in the Heillsuk" division
of the Kwakiutl, indeed it constitutes the chief difference to be found in
the dialects of this stock, as for example qk'um from qak'um ; k' ks from
kayoks, which again is a contraction from kalo-kish. But elimination is
not confined to vowels alone. We find tl'eqsioala contracted into tlesela;
matlmatem into patlem 1 goakelaioq inlo qo-analaq. Again, if we take
the phrase ek-i-g-ki-kame which signifies in English " he is a good chief "
and subject it to a close analysis we find that syncope has been severely at
work here also. " Ek "=good, " i" is. the remnant of a primitive verb of
being whose full form is lost, " g " stands for the demonstrative pronoun
"this" whose uncontracted form is "giada," "ki" is a contraction of a
phrase meaning " best among all" and is now employed as the sign of the
superlative of adjectives. Another word is Nakaztli the present Dene' name
for the village at Stuart's Lake. This is a contraction from the following
expression : Atna ka poetl tiztli, and signifies in English " the river was
covered with floating arrows of the Atna or dwarfs," and has reference to
an old legend. Other examples are sa=" for me " from two primitively
independent and distinct parts of speech, pronoun and preposition, viz.:
s-oep-a ; na=" for thee" from n-oemp-a; hwotl=" with him " from nwo-
poe-tl. I have already shown how the Ntlakapamuq contracted qtlak't,
shupa=a broad." "tail" into qk-opa=" beaver," and numerous other instances might be cited if it were necessary.
Yet one other source of trouble to the investigator who would institute comparisons between different vocabularies remains to be mentioned.
Many of our Indian tongues—the Salish is one—form the plural of
many of their intransitive verbs from a totally different stem from that
from which the singular is derived ; and frequently when a comparison of
the singular shows no affinity whatever it is readily discovered in the
plural; but when but one of these has been recorded, as is frequently the
case, it is easy to see that the comparative philologist will be embarrassed
and perhaps led astray.
It is commonly claimed by classic philologists that the numerals of a
tongue are amongst the most constant elements of a language and constitute with the pronominal one of the best and surest tests of affinity. This
is an idea derived from a comparison of the speech of a group of related
tongues like the Aryan family, the members of which had long lived
together and unified their language before separation took place. It does
does-not hold good even of such closely related stocks as the Malayo-
Polynesian in which only the first five numerals are common to each division, and the pronominal elements as diverse as they well can be. And in
such uncultivated tongues as the American where such latitude in name
formation is permissible ought we to expect to find much similarity ?
Even within the same stock the numerals are often wholly dissimilar in [hux-tout]     OCEANIC ORIGIN OF THE KWAKIUTL-NOOTKA 197
form and meaning. And the reason of this is not far to seek ; the ideas
are differently expressed. Among some Indians "one" signifies " a small
thing" ; among others " a beginning," and with those who count upon
the little finger first, " the little one," " the youngest" ; in another it signifies " undivided " ; in another " alone " ; and yet again in another the
word for " thumb " and " one " are identical terms. " Three " means with
some the '• middle finger " ; with others "the longest finger," &c. " Five"
= "the hand," "the closed fist," or "all." "Six" is sometimes " five-
one," at others "one more," &c. Nine is variously expressed as "one
left," " one less than," " one wanting," and so on. I need hardly remark
that lexical sameness is impossible under these circumstances.
I have spoken hitherto in the main of the causes which bring about
lexicographical discrepancies in our native tongues; it remains to add a
few words on the causes of morphological differences, a point on which
British Columbia stocks are competent to offer valuable suggestions, differing as most of them do from characteristic eastern stocks.       '
Every year as our knowledge of the speech of the various aboriginal
tribes that now people this continent increases, we are learning more and
more how faulty and inapplicable was the hasty generalization that the
American tongues are morphologically one. There is but one feature that
can be said with any approach to truth, to be shared by the most of them
and that in a very variable degree, and that is the tendency to polysyntheticism, and in some even this connecting link as I have said is wanting. Still regarding this as the distinguishing characteristic of American
speech, the one element in common that unifies to a certain extent groups
of otherwise wholly dissimilar tongues and alone justifies the term
" American Family," it is not surprising that this peculiar and widespread principle should be the cause of much of the morphological change
which has been effected in the language of those stocks whose radicals
incontestably show them to be of Oceanic or Asian origin.
Just as the analytical tendency in the modern representatives of the
Aryan family would undoubtedly influence and modify the morphology .
of any language brought into contact with it so has the opposite tendency
of the primordial speech of America influenced and modified all later
stocks that have come within the sphere of its influence. As already
stated this tendency to polysyntheticism is found in a very variable degree in British Columbia tongues. It is truly characteristic of one only,
the Dene\ This stock is undoubtedly the oldest in the province, and possibly on the whole coast. It has apparently been displaced and driven to
its present quarters by more recent and more warlike tribes. Evidence is
not wanting in support of this view. First, we have that from their complex language which displays, like their eastern neighbours the Algonkins,
a marked preference for incorporative forms, although as Fathers Moriee *
and Petitot have both pointed out there are not wanting traces of an 198
ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA
earlier and simpler syntax, and the monosyllabic form of their radicals,
together with other remarkable similarities, stamp it as belonging originally to the monosyllabic family of Eastern Asia.
And secondly there is the evidence from their present peculiar geographical position. This stock is now divided into two great divisions, a northern and a southern, between which are found, at irregular intervals, several
smaller intervening groups of the same people.. This, it seems to me, points
to a time when the Dene race occupied the whole littoral between Mexico
and Alaska. A glance at Major Powell's Linguistic Chart of the native
races of North America will show that the other tribes lie like a wedge between the northern and southern division, the smaller Deng groups being
scattered throughout the western portion of this wedge. Our knowledge
of the character of the present Dene" tribes of British Columbia entirely
precludes us from entertaining the belief that this division was effected by a
voluntary separation or migration. It is quite certain that no body of
De'ne' since they have been known to us possessed the requisite qualities
to force their way south, to the position occupied by their congeners in the
United States; and though it may be urged against this that the Hupa
bands in California held all the neighbouring tribes tributary to them ;
and that the Apache have established a record for bravery and fortitude
second to none in the country ; yet these admitted moral differences in the
southern divisions are due not so much, I am disposed to think,- to an
original superiority and valour in the migrants as to the different conditions of their southern existence ; and in this respect these southern
groups form a most interesting example of the changes which environment can effect in a race or people. Cut off and separated from their
northern brethren by the intrusion of alien and warlike hordes from
Oceania, surrounded on all sides by hostile neighbours, it was a case of
fight or be exterminated. Life under such conditions could end in but
one of two results, extermination or the development and engendering of
just those qualities which now characterize the southern De'ne' and differentiate them so markedly from their pusillanimous northern brethren.
And while the advent of the great Shoshonean stock, whether from the
west or from the southeast, doubtless completed the separation and
pressed the De'ne farther south, the Salish entering by the Fraser pushed
the northern branch still farther north and east and so made the separation final and complete.
That the separation was forced and of remote date is clear from the
fact that neither division has any knowledge of the existence of the other,
which would scarcely be the case if the southern De'ne' had voluntarily
migrated from the north ; and that the separation took place from the
north and not from the south is equally clear from a tradition among
some of the eastern Dens' (according to Father Moriee) that the days were
formerly exceedingly short, so short, indeed, that sewing the edge of a l-toot]     OCEANIC ORIGIN OF THE KWAKIUTL-NOOTKA 199
skrat skin was all that one woman could do between sunrise and sunset.
s tradition undoubtedly points to a former residence in the extreme
th. and marks at the same time the line of migration traversed by the
j; in which sense it is wholly in keeping with the evidence from their
juage, which, as I have remarked before, possesses undoubted Asian
tribes have been slave holders from time immemorial. Many of the
Dene' would have been pressed into servitude by the more warlike
and energetic immigrants just as were the Britons in England by the
Saxon and Angles. Their women would have been taken for wives,
and the result of this union would be that the offspring would speak
a tongue which was neither the father's nor the mother's, but an
odd fortuitous mixture of each and nowhere alike in any two centres.
From this broken speech there would grow up in the course of a genera:
tion or two just such languages as the Kwakiutl-Nootka and other northern stocks where the morphology inclines to one family and the lexicography to another. In the case of the wide-spread Salish body they came
apparently in greater numbers and with intent to settle, their womenkind
in all probability, accompanying them, for we find less disorder in their
speech, both morphology and lexicography agreeing substantially with
that of the Malayo-Polynesian. The advent of other and possibly later
bodies of immigrants with, it may be, considerable intervals of time between them—for the islands of the Pacific were not settled in a day—coming from different centres and speaking very probably different dialects,
would result in a new admixture of blood and a further disruption of
speech, which in course of time would give rise to just that diversity of
language we find prevailing among the native population of this coast.
That the speech of two stocks on this coast had its origin in this way
is certain as I shall show in this paper ; that the speech of their immediate
neighbours to the north and south has been much modified by the same
cause is equally certain; and that the speech of many other stocks on
this coast will be found, on further inquiry on the lines I have suggested,
to have had a similar origin, I regard, from the evidence I have incidentally gathered, in my work on the northern stocks, to be more than probable.
That admixture of the coast tribes with the Dene" has taken place as I
have supposed, the following citations from Dr. Franz Boas's report to the
British Association on the physical characteristics of the northwest tribes
of Canada makes indubitably clear. We learn from him that two distinct
physical types are found here, one which he regards as the Coast Indian 200 ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA
type and which I would call the Oceanic, and the other, as the Dene". He
writes thus: " Two maxima of frequency occur, while_cases between the
two maxima are quite rare The primary maximum of the
Bilqula [the northernmost division of the Salish] agrees very closely with
that of the Oregonian Tinneh [more properly Dene] while it will be seen
that the secondary maximum coincides very nearly with the maximum of
the first group embracing the northern tribes and those of Vancouver
Island.    The resemblance of the two maxima of frequency to the types of
the Coast Indians and of the Tinneh is very far-reaching The
explanation of these phenomena must be sought for in the mixture of the
two types of people.1 .... We know that a mixture of these two
people has taken place among the Bilqula Among the Bilqula, in Washington and throughout Oregon we find a type present of a
stature ranging from 166 to 172 cm. with a cephalic index of from 84 to
87, and a facial index of from 83 to 86. Among the Bilqula and in Oregon this is the prevailing type while in Washington it is of secondary
importance. In these regions Tinneh are the main mass of the population.
They were present in Washington and form a considerable element among
the Bilqula. Therefore it must be assumed that this type represents the
Tenneh, .... It is worth mentioning that the Tlingit of Alaska,
who have intercourse with the Tinneh appear also taller and more
brachycephalic."2
Given the conditions I suppose, a primitive stock already in possession
of the soil and successive invasions and settlements of Oceanic hordes such
as we know were navigating the waters of the Pacific in the early centuries tif our era; intercourse and admixture of these in marriage, with
the consequent and inevitable break-up of the original speech of both
peoples in the mouths of their offspring; the springing up of new and
distinct forms in each centre, coupled with the tendencies to divergence
and change which we have seen characterize American speech ; and we
have a cause more than sufficient to originate the 39 stocks now found on
this coast. And as if to confirm this view a modern instance of the birth
of a new language under similar conditions has recently been brought to
notice. The occupation of Mount Mlanji in Central Africa and the building of Fort Lister which was garrisoned by Sikh soldiers from India gave
rise to " a most extraordinary language, being a mixture of Hindustani,
Swahili, Yao and Chinyanja. It is one of the newest languages on earth,
it cannot be more than a year old, but it is well understood by the people.
The vocabulary is limited and as for the grammar it is yet unformed, but
I am confident that should the soldiers remain in this country another
five years the philologist will be delighted to study Indo-African languages of the future and to trace their origin and the marvellous words
1 The italics are mine.
2 Vide Seventh Report of the B. A. i
, S. on the Northwest Tribes of Canada. 1891. [hill-toot]     OCEANIC ORIGIN OF THE E1WAKIUTL-NOOTKA 201
composing them." - The opinion of this writer is fully justified by the
development of a similar speech in this part of the world whose origin and
history is well known, viz., the Chinook jargon. This speech which had
its rise at the end of the lasf'century in the exigencies of the fur-trade is
now the common medium of communication between the different stocks
themselves as well as between traders and missionaries and Indians. It is
a conglomerate of terms taken from half a score or more different languages imposed on a native Chinook basis with a syntax of simple juxtaposition. But just as out of this hodge-podge, this "blind confusion " of
hap-hazard terms that constitute the Chinook vocabulary, we can trace
the origin of most of the words employed in it, so, I contend, when the
syntheses which disguise the origin of the languages of the American Indians, are resolved into their primaries or radicals and due allowance is
made for differences of pronunciation, for the difference of sensibility in
the ears of vocabulary collectors, and for the differences caused by the
permutation of letters, we can trace the origin of many of these languages
themselves. And this I unhesitatingly affirm, from the result of my own
investigations, is the only way in which the origin of the stocks of this
country will ever be discovered,. While the genius of American speech
incorporates its primitive elements into ponderous syntheses and thus
effectually disguises them, while noun, adjective, adverb, and preposition
are subject to conjugation and partake of the character of the verb, while
every word is more or less a sentence in itself a comparison based on grammatical likeness alone can only result, as it so often has, in disappointment
and waste of labour.
I am not alone in thus regarding the study of American tongues.
The late H. Hale, whose wide knowledge and ripe experience in matters
philological entitle his judgments to the highest consideration, held the
same opinion ; and Mr. J. H. Trumbull in, one of the most profound and
suggestive papers ever published on the study of Indian languages has
enunciated like views. His extensive and critical knowledge of one of our
most important and typical stocks, the Algonkin, gives his opinions great
weight. He writes in this connection thus : " To single out and fix the
primary meanings .of the verbal roots should be the ultimate aim in the
study of every Indian tongue What excessive synthesis has
done searching analysis must undo To determine and classify
the primary verbs in any one language would be to bring a larger contribution to linguistic science than has often been made by students of the
American tongues ; back of these verbs and of the primary demonstratives are the ultimate roots.   These may not now be, possibly they never
will be, attainable But if order is ever to be brought out of
this blind confusion—if any satisfactory classification of the hundreds of
2 This statement appeared in the London Times about two years ago which paper
quoted it from an article in the British Central African Gazette. 202
ROYAL SOCIETY C
km
languages and dialects now so loosely grouped is to be established, if the
genetic relation of one of these to another is to be demonstrated even in
those cases where, on grounds independent of language, the probability of
such relation is greatest—analysis must first do its work, until, at last, it
shall have determined and classified the earlier traceable constituents of
speech, though compelled to stop short of the discovery of ultimate
roots." j And if such words as these can be applied to the study and
comparison of American stocks among themselves, which are regarded by
some authorities as morphologically one, assuredly such a system of comparison will be doubly necessary when American stocks are compared with
those of other parts of the world.
In the comparisons here instituted I have chosen purposely those
words only of simple import such as are common to all languages the
world over. The limitations imposed upon me in this short paper have
made it necessary to restrict the number of words or radicals offered ;
but sufficient have been given to place the question of an Oceanic origin
for the ancestors of the Salish and Kwakiutl-Nootka beyond all doubt. It
will be observed that the compound forms are often purer than the independent forms which are frequently derived from a totally different root.
It will also be seen that where the Kwakiutl-Nootka terms differ from the
Salish, cognate or synonymous terms are usually employed, and I doubt
not that if our vocabularies were more comprehensive and our knowledge
of the languages greater we could find corresponding forms where they
are now lacking.
The interchange of letters is very wide and seems almost to cover the
whole alphabet though I do not despair of discovering later some law of
permutation at the bottom of this seeming confusion. For the present I
must say of our Columbian stocks what Tregear has said of the extra-
Polynesian, "no attempt has yet been seriously made to arrange their
multitudinous diversity." There are certain well-marked interchanges as
in the Oceanic groups, but these cover only a comparatively small number of the permutations which take place even within the dialects of the
same stock.   Before a compreh
have full and complete vocabularies from all th
and this at present we do not possess.
With regard to the authorities for the tei
indebted for my Oceanic material to Walace'f
given in the 10th edition of his " The Malay Arc
"The Polynesian Race," and to Tregear's mom
' Comparative Dictionary," without which latte:
be foi
idivisio
aulatei
must
Fu
' Bri
lolm
from Dawson and Tolmie's Comparative Vocabularies; froi
of the B. A. A. S. on the Northwest Tribes of Canada;
the Reports
from Hall's
Vide Essay by Mr. J. H. Trumbull,   Trans. Am. Phil. Assoc. [HI
jt]     OCEANIC ORIGIN OF THE KWAKIUTL-NOOTKA
203
Grammar on the Kwakiutl; from Dawson's vocabulary of same ; and
from notes and vocabularies collected with considerable care by myself.
To bring out the full force of the evidence of affinity in the stocks compared I have considered it well to give a fairly comprehensive list of the
terms and radicals selected for comparison in both Oceanic and Columbian
stocks. In the Columbian 1 have given all that I have been able to possess
myself of. With the exception of the Niskwalli dialect I am at present unable to offer any Salish terms found in the divisions of this body south of
British Columbia. Some thirty different tribes are, however, represented.
Under " Sumas," the Fraser River tribe I am most familiar with, I have
lumped the other twenty or so divisions found below Spuzzum, the dividing line of the Fraser tribes. The dialects of those below this line differ
but slightly one from the other. In the tribes above Spuzzum the dialectical differences are so great that they cannot hold convei-se with those
below ; and in the old day the two divisions were frequently at war with
one another. The Oceanic material in my possession was too extensive to
compare in full; I have, therefore, confined my selections to concurrent
forms only, purposely omitting the divergent ones. This fact must be
borne in mind in judging of the affinities; for a large number of the
omitted forms diverge from the typical Polynesian more widely than do
the Columbian terms themselves. It is necessary to remember this that
the full force of the relationship may be seen. After the comparison of
each term I add such notes as seem to me necessary to bring out the correspondences, but I have made these as brief as possible.
OCBA}.
FACE.
Columbia!
Mata, Maori
Ku.kumae                                 ~\
Maka, Hawaiian
.   Kow-komai                                1 „
in synthesis =■= umae                j-
Maku, Santa Cruz
Muka, Malay
c. f. aumae, umae = cheek       J
Mucha, Tagil
Uwaka  Morella
Itlhloblh                                      1
Matsha, Nieobar
Hitlotl, in syn.—utl=uk             J-1
c f ko-koma =■= mask-for-face       J
Rae-mata, Mangarevan
Salish.
Mata, Fiji, Ysabel, Florida, &c, &c
Musha, in syn. osh, Bilqula
Maf, Rotunta
Mooth,     "        osh, Thaildtl
Matinotin, Teor
Moos,      "       osh, Sishiatl
TJhamo, CajUi
Smoos,     "       osh, Staktamish
Wamo, Camarian
Smos ten "       osh, Penilatch
Kowmea-Jawbone, Mangarevan
Tsaa-tsus, Sindhomish
'Auvae = chin, Samoan
Sa-tsos, in syn. os, Squamish
Kouahe = cheek, Tongan
St'kosh = side-face, Sumas, &c, &c
Kouvae = chin, Marquesan
Sk'-loos, in syn. osh, Okanakan
Kauwae     "    Maori
Skt-lush,    "       osh, Nllahapamuq
TJwa = face, Lariki
Shku-tlos,   "      osh, Lillooet
Auae =«= part of lower jaw, Tahitian
c. f. Meka-(lqtsatl) = tongue, Squai ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA
Oceanic.
Auwae = chin, Hawaiian
Kauae = jaw, Paumotan
Kane = chin, Maoriori
• FACE. Salish.
Matin = head, Tshehalis
Suama = cheek, Snanaimuq
Suala = cheek, Sumas, &c, &c
Jawai = jaw, Maori Ko-zopae = cheek, NUakapamuq
Skot-lush = side-face     "
Ski-tlusha = face, Shuswap
It will be noticed that two distinct roots are employed in both groups.
I have no doubt that umae in one form or another is found in all the divisions of the Salish. The word is not one of those commonly recorded.
But as it is found in the NUakapamuq it will be also found among its
neighbours the other interior tribes ; and as it is in the Sumas it will be
found with slight modification in all the Fraser tribes below the NUakapamuq. The Snanaimuq of Vancouver's Island possess it also ; so that it
is quite safe to assume that it is a form common to all the Salish. The
affinity of this term to the corresponding forms in Polynesia is direct
and clear, v, w, p, m, I being common interchanges in Oceanic and Columbian stocks alike. The Mata forms will require a little explanation.
Throughout the comparisons it will be seen that the isolated Bilqula have
preserved many of their Oceanic words in a purer and less modified form
than the other divisions of the Salish. In this instance we see a case in point,
the Mushaof the Bilqula corresponding with the Maori or Hawaiian forms
as closely as does the Tagal or the Nicobar. The other Salish and the
Nootka forms are all variants of this as their synthetic forms plainly
show. The prefix we find in the interior dialects signifies " side." This is
clear from the Sumas group and the Ntlakapamuq. " L " or " tl" is one
of the commonest interchanges of " m," only it is necessary to bear in
mind that "tl" is also an interchange of "k." The difference between
these two " tl '"s is scarcely appreciable to a white man's ears, hence the
same symbol for the two sounds. Father Moriee is the only investigator
who discriminates between these two sounds but his symbols are not convenient for use. In the "prefix for "tongue" in Squamish we probably
have the pure form for " face." Its exact meaning in this compound I
have been thus far unable to determine. The employment of this term in
both Oceanic and Columbian groups in the same way in the following
word is I think very suggestive and convincing.
OCEA
n
EYE.                    Columbian
Mata, Maori
k'ks, k'uks
\ Kwakiutl
Maka, Hawaiian
Kayaks, kaiukash
Mata, Samoan
Macha, Formosa
Ku ssi, Kusai
) Nootka
Maso, Malagassy
in syn. -ksutl
c. f. Mata-ki =■= a
spy,
Tongan
Salish.
Matin, Teor
Kelo-kish in syn. -otlakos
Bilqula
Maten, Dyak
77$
Kaawum, Thailoil ASIC ORIGIN OF THE KWAKIUTL-NOOTKA
Kane
Wh
,Tor
Nu-k'-tloosh-ten
, Makapar
nuq
in syn. -tlush,
Nooka-tloosh-tii
i, Lillooet
in syn. -aloosh,
Lillooet
(Senuk) tloosb-
en, Shewsh
map
Tetin-moos, Stakiamish
c.f. Kain-tla
fc^JpaSw
D6-koala
Ut
osee
Kwak
utl
Du-kwila
j
Natsa = to see,
Nootka
Saijsh
Kunam = to se
», Thatl.
a-karu = to stare, Maori
Kono-hi =■= to resemble, &c, Mangarevan
Karo == to look at, Aliu
Kana == to stare, Matacula
Kilo = to look at, Hawaiian
Kilo = to look aslant, Tongan
Ilc-ilo = to look at, Samoan
Kelo-pak-mata = eye-lid{ Malay
Kero = to see dimly, Maori
Karo-i-te-mata = imperfectly visible,
Mangarevan
Mala-kite = a seer, Maori
Kalo = to evade a blow by watching,
Mangarevan
Kalo-fagi = a hiding-place, Tongan
'Alo = to conceal, Samoan
Pu-kana = to glare, &c, Maori
Poha = open, Mangarevan
Po-aha = open, a clear passage, Maori
Po = to appear, Mangarevan
Bo-gi =■= to squint, Tongan
Pu-kano-hi == eye, Maori
Mata = to see, Tongan
"Eye" like "face" is derived from two different roots. In some
groups these are compounded, in others only one is employed. With the
exception of the Kwakiutl-Nootka the affinities are self-evident. These
are interesting as examples of the fusion and contraction I alluded to in
the earlier part of this paper. The first form given is syncopated almost
beyond recognition, but the intermediate forms make its restoration quite-
simple. The Bilqula who apparently borrowed it from the Kwakiutl
gives us the key. K'ks is really an abbreviation of the synthesis Kalo-
Kisha or more properly Kalo-masha; where the " k" has replaced the
" m," a not uncommon interchange in British Columbia or in Polynesia.
This Kalo masha has its fellow in the Kari-mata of the Sikayanan form
for " eye." The first of the Niskwalli forms Kalu'sh is a similar compound not quite so severely syncopated. When the syntheses of the interior Salish are resolved we find they employ the same term alike for
"eye " and " face," just as do the Polynesian groups. Their synthetic forms
make this quite clear. While their substantive forms of the verb "to
see" is the Polynesian maka pure and simple, with m interchanged for
Kunam = to see, Sish.
Kuakt == to see, Squam.
Kuatch = to see, Matsgui
Kunat = to see, Songes •
Wekem = to see, Ntlak.
Wakem = to see, Shew.
Waken      to see, Okana. 206 ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA
w. The Nootka forms are simply variants of the Kwakiu
synthetic form of the Bilqula is clearly the Mata of Poly
last letter of the Kelo, tlakos or tlaks having changed
equivalent 11" or " tl."
Oceanic.
Ihu, Maori
Isu, Samoan
NOSE.
c.f. oks-tae = tip of
Ihu, Tahitian, Hawaiian
Ihu, Tongan, Mangarevan
Ishuda, Dufaure Islands
Hi-ntsas koa maks = bridge
of the nose J
Mtsa, Nitsu ^
in  svn  1 "a^ta = P°lnt,    end,
• l-puks^smell \Nootka
c.f. Hopa-ahta = with round point j
Anahta-is =■= with small nose or
point (is = small) J
Uthuna, Fiji
Sa
LI3H.
Muk, Samang
Maqsa, Bilqula
TJsnut, Gani
Mek-sun, TluxU.
Ku-mor, Salayer
Pent.
Iuka, Morella
Sish.
Hi-ruka, Liang
"        Snan.
c.f. Maka-hu =»= point or nose of canoe,
Hawaiian
Muk-sun, Squam.
Ihu-vaka = bow of canoe, Paumotan
Nek-sun, Songis in
;yn. eksun
Mata = point, end,.&c, Maori
Sps.aks, Ntlakap. in
syn. aks
Puta-in = nose, Raratongan
Speseks, LUI. in sy
a. aleks
Mata = the point of anything, Samoan
Spsaks, Shew, in sy
n. aks
Maka = "       "    "        "       Hawaiian
"      Okana. in syn. aks
cf Mata-are = the top or crest of a wave
Tahitian
Muksel, Sumas, &c
dec, &c
c.f. Pe = mucus from nose, Maori, Sa
moan, Tahitian, Hawaiian &c., &c
Muksul, Matsqui
With pae in thefollowing : Alkitl-pa =
c.f. Esu-muksel == 1
jridgeofnc
" to bleed from the nose "
Ai-wa-kai-nis-pae" = nostril
Kwa-wil-pae = perforation of septum of
nose, in Kwakiutl
A moment's consideration will make the affinities underlying this
word quite clear and certain. Throughout the'Polynesian groups mata or
mate besides signifying "face" has a secondary meaning of "point,"
"end," "extremity." The Salish dialects one and all appear to use this
form in its secondary meaning of point, as do also the Nootka in their
synthetic forms; the ahta being merely a reduced mahta; initials and
finals being invariably elided in composition to permit of bringing a
compound into manageable length as already pointed out.   The Nootka UN OF THE KWAKIUTL-NOOTKA 207
i affinity clearly to the common Polynesian
i" like the Sasake and Api. Under the sense
, the connecting link, between them and the
a variant of muks. " p " and " m " commonly
erior Salish forms and in the Raro-tongan.
dependent forms; the one affiliates with the
y a compound of ihu and maka for which
i the Oceanic groups as may be seen in the
Oceanic.
Upoko, Jtfaori
Poo, Hatmiian
Upoo, Tahit.
Ulu-poko = skull, Tongan
Upoko, Mangar., Marquesan
Boko = skull, Macassar
Obaku = head, Bouton
Nepek= Aneilyum
Pochok = head, the crown, Malay
Hutu = head, Galela
Uhu = head, Salayer
Ka-hutu = head, Mysol
Atu = head, Tarawan
Batcha = head, Manicolo
Uru = head, Maori
Ulin = head, Tear
Ulu = head, Samoan, Salayer, Camarian
Ulu = head, Guaham, Marianne Islands
Uruk = head, Liang
Uruka = head, Morella
Keha = front of skull, Maori
Ma-kara =■= head, Maori
Mata-mata = headland, Maori
Booc == hair, Ilocan
Makawa = head of hair, Maori
Bok = head of hair, Matu
Ma'ave = a good head of hair, Samoan
Hua = hair, Batumerah
Ma-kave = filament, fibre, Mangar.
Makave = a ringlet, Mavgaian
Hutu = hair, Tidore
Bulwa = hair, Bouton
Peleah = hair, Mysol
Kaiola == hair, Liang
HEAD, HAIR, Colum
Haita, hiumis
«= to c
mb the
Kun-klae = crown of the head J
Teduh. tenah, in syn. -a&h, Bilqula
Utuh-osh, Thatl.
Mo osh, Thatl
Moosh, Sish.
Shioos, Pent. .
Sheiyis, Snan.
Smoos, Squam.
Tsasus, Songes
Tsatsus, Sumas, &c, &c.
Skeius = top of head, Sumas, &c, &c
Smuk-awas = back of head, Sumas, &c.
Skeia-kulok = crown of head.Suwws, &c.
Skei-ulok = crown of head, Malsqui
Somuk = skull, Matsqui
Skheioos = head, Nisk.
Skap-kun = head, Shew.
Komukun = head, LUI.
Kum'kun = head, Ntlakap.
Tsa-sllia-ken = head, Okana.
Saia, tzia = hair, Kwak.
in syn. -hape, Kwak.
Hap'-siup, Nootka
Melh-koa, Bil.
Ma-kan, Thatl.
Shi-ken, Pent.
Sma-ken, Sish.
Skomai, Squam.
Sia-ten, Song.
Skeiap-ken, NUakap.
Ma-ken, LUI.
Kau-ten, Shew. 208 ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA
HEAD, HAIR. Salish.
Kap-ken-ten, Okana.
Ma-kun, Kwant.
Kaw-ma-kun, Kull.
Mo-kel, Sumas, dec, &c, &c
I have placed the words for " head " and " hair " together because ii
both Oceanic and Columbian groups there is a wide interchange of terms
There is less uniformity in both groups in these terms than in t
ing ones. This in- the British Columbia dialects is due to th
there are separate words for the different parts of the head,
the Salish, "face "and "head" are frequently expressed by
terms when spoken of generally, in other divisions the form expressive
of the top part of the head has been given. There are also special forms
for the back of the head and the crown. Besides these there are
many synonymous expressions. The same holds good of the Polynesian.
In Maori alone there are 20 different forms for head only. Uniformity
could scarcely be looked for under these circumstances. Still there is
abundant evidence of affinity. It will be seen that the independent form
in the Kwakiutl for " hair " is seen in several of the Salish compounds for
both "hair" and "head." In the mouths of the Sumas group of the
Fraser Salish it signifies the upper or top part of the head. It may possibly connect with the Polynesian tei = high, lofty; or with hei = a
garland for the hair, &c, &c.    The synthetic form of the
i preced-
fact that
ulu,
appear to be akin to the keha or kea of the Ma<
somuk = " skull" common to the greater number if n
ish tribes is related to the upoko forms of the Polynesia
radical in the synthesis " ciown-of-the-head " is to tl
forms. As far as the vocabularies show the Thatlotl
who use the utu radical, but this cannot be really the case,
bably be found also in the other dialects as well. The Bilqu
a variant of it. The interior Salish forms for " head " ai
tracted as the Lillooet synthetic form -uk shows and are tl
Somuk of the Sumas group. The synthetic form
Kwakiutl is clearly the -kave of Polynesian.
qo doubtthat
,11 of the Sal-
8t as the ulok
uruk, uruka
the only Salish
It will pro
as pr
haii
Oceanic.
TOOTH.
Gi gi, Malay
Niho, Maori
Nifo, Samoan
Neihin. Aneityum
Ni, ngi, Sataval
Ni-chi, Bouton
Niki, Liang, dec, &c
Nusbi, Saw
Nitcho, Sikayana
irly
\Kr»
iNootka
Gi-geis, Thatl.
Yenas, Snan.
Yinis, Pent. [hill-tout]     OCEANIC ORIGIN OF THE KWAKIUTL-NOOTKA
1
209
Nissy, Vaiqueno
Lesin, Wahai
Gi gi, Salayer, Baju
Ngisi, Menado
Nisi, Wayapo
Nisi-nen, Massaralty
Isi, Sanguir
Nikin, MoreUa
Ing, Tidore
Nuhsi, Sam
c,f. Ngi = to laugh, Maori
TOOTH. Salish.
Yinis, Skquam.
Tsenes, Song.
Yelis, Sumas, dec, dec, dec.
Dzudis, Nisk.
Obsin, Tshehalis.
Rei-tshi-min, LUI.
Aei-te-men,' Okana.
Helah, Shew.
Hioh, in plural hi-hi-oh, Ntlak.
c.f. Ni-em =«= to laugh, show the teeth,
Pent.
Yen-em = to iaugh, show the teeth, Snan.
The affinities of the two groups as seen in this word are clear and obvious and need no pointing out. It may, however, be interesting to note
that " d " = " n " in the Niskwalli; the interchange is quite common in
this division. We find the same interchange also in Fiji in some words. In
the. Lillooet we find "r" taking the place of "n" through "1"; and
in the neighbouring Okanakan the initial | a" before the diphthong is
really a softened «r" or "1." A modified "a" frequently interchanges
with " 1" which is not a fully developed letter in the Columbian stocks
any more than it is in Polynesian. An instance in point will be seen
in the Kaawum = Kolum in the Thatlotl for eye as given above, and in
the following term for " ear."
The three following terms are very interesting in their far-reaching
connections.
Oceanic.
EAR.
Columbian.
Taringa, Maori
Besbaya,
Talia, Tahitian
Pes-bayio in sy
n. tola,
Taliga, Sam. and Tonq.
Pispaio in syn.
tlala
Taia, Motu
c.f. Wha-tlala-i
iin = I hear
Talanha, Guaham
Terina, Liang
Papai,
Tfirena, Saparua
Alina, Ulawa
Puhpi
Karina, San Oristoval
Salish.
Telina, Mbrella
Koaana, Thatl.
Karin, Teor
Skuena, Pent.
Tainga, Tagal
' Kulana, Sish.
Toli, Salayer and Sanguir
Konen, Snan.
Telinga. Sulu Isl.
Kolan, Squam.
Turi, Menado
Kwolum, Song.
Dalina, Api, dec, &c
Kuol, Surnas, eU
., etc., etc
Kulinda, Natalava
Kulada, Nisk.
Aliaa, Malanta
Toenne, KuU.
Telila, Cajeli
Tlana, Ntlakap
c.f. Koele = noise, Hawaiian
Toli. Ntlakap. ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA
I, Mao
= sound, Hawc
Fio.pi0 || to make a noise, Hawaiian
Pahu =•= sound, Hawaiian
Pa = to be heard as sound, Hawaiian
Pa = to strike or reach one's ears, Haw.
Pai = to make a noise, Hawaiian
Pihe = sound of wailing, Hawaiian
Ba = sound, Tongan
Pese =«= to sing or shout, Samoan
Pia-pio = an outcry, etc., etc., Samoan
Paiyi = to sing, Maori
Pie = to call, Maori
The affinities here are very strong and clear with the exception of the
Kwakiutl-Nootka independent forms, which would appear to relate to "the
Polynesian2?a or pe radical. The connection between "sound " and " ear "
is obvious and there can be no doubt that these terms are related. The
unity, however, of the Kwakiutl-Nootka and Salish is clear from the
synthetic forms.
Oceas
TONGUE.
Alan, Mysol
Kilum, kelem
Aran, Mpsol
Gyilem in sjm. atl
Lila. Bugis
c.f. Tatlila = to laugl
Arero, Maori
Salala = to sing
Hilat, Bali
Nano-ya = to sing
Alele, Rotuma
Alelo, Sam., Haw.
Tchup, tsop
Elelo, Tongan
c.f. Nunuk = to sing
Lela, Malagasy
P'atl = taste
Aledo, Sikiyana
Lidah, Malay, Bouton, Salayer, Sia
m, etc.                            Sali
Rilah, Ratahan
Tihtsa in syn. laits, I
Dila, Sulu Is.
Teqthuatl, Thatl.
Delah, Baju
Teqthatl, Snan.
Warero, Maoriori
Tequthual, Sish,
Maki, Tagal, etc
Pent.
Maka, Liang, MoreUa
Meka-lqtsatl, Squam.
Mecolo, Teluti
Teqsetl, Songes
Kelo, Garam
Toqthis, Matsqui, etc
Tatla, Ntlakap.
Tatla, LUI.
Teqtcb, Okana.
Koele = noise, Hawaiian
Etl-wuk, BUg. [Hit
re]     OCEANIC ORIGIN OF THE KWAKIUTL-NOOTKA
1
211
Oceanic-
i, Haw., to cry, etc
TONGUE.
Alalt
Fa'a-'ala-'ala, to mock, Samoan
Lolo, to shout, Motu
Rara, sound, etc., Maori
Ara, to invoke the gods, Tahitian
Lau, to talk, etc., Tongan
Orerorero, to dispute, Tahitian
Kelo, talk, tongue, etc., Gar am
Korero, to talk, Maori
Kole, entreat, etc., Tongan
Korero, to interpret. Paumotan
Kara, to call, Maori
'Alaga, to shout, cry out, eta, Samoan
Kalaan, to call aloud, Hawaiian
Kala, to proclaim, a public cryer, Haw
Kalaga, to shout, etc., Tongan
Gala, to cry out, etc., Tongan
Karanga, to say, etc., Raro-tongan
Karakia, prayers, eta, Mangaian
Kalaga, a great cry, Futuma
Garang, a loud voice, etc., Malay
Kara-kara-ivisa, a hoarse noise, Fiji
Tai, to cry, sound, etc., Tahitian, etc
Ta-tai, to rehearse, Tahitian
Ta-tagi, to weep, etc., Paumotan
Ta-toga, to converse, etc., Tongan
Tatangi, to jingle, etc., Maori
Wa-wa, mouth, etc., TJlawa
Bawa, mouth, etc., Macassar
Waha, mouth, etc., Maori, etc
Wa-wa-ro, sound, etc., Maori
Hari, to dance, sing, etc., Maori
Tari, to dance, sing, etc, Malay
Sali, to dance, Solomon Is.
Tangi, to sing, etc., Mangaian
Tani, to sing, etc., Marquesan
Salish.
K-ky-ala = to speak ; literally  woman
speaks, KwakivM
B'gu'ala = to speak;  literally a man
speaks, Kwakiutl
Kwal = to speak, Kwantlin
Koel =■= to speak, b>nan.
Kula = to call, name, sing, Kwak.
Kelut = to speak, Shew.
Koalot = to speak, LUI.
Koal, = to speak, Matsqui
Koai = to speak, Thatl.
Kul-koalelt = to speak, Okana.
Khela = to speak, Sumas- etc-, etc
Koa-kul = to speak, Songes
Wa wa =■= to speak, Nootka
Wawi = to cry, Ntlakap.
Wo wo = to sing, Thatl.
Kuna = to sing, Okana.
Lolo = to sing, Pent.
Akela-kup =■= sound, etc., Sumas, etc, etc
Koanatz = to cry, Bilqula
Wulalem = to laugh, Shew.
Hu-alem = to laugh, Kwantlin
Leum = to laugh, Sumas, etc
Tilam H to sing, Sumas, etc
Teilum = to sing, Snan.
Teilim = to sing, Nisk.
Atlum = to sing, Ntlakap.
Atl-atle-muil = a singer, Ntlakap.
Atla-atlat = to couqh, Ntlakap.
Ta-alum =«= to sing, Sumas, etc
Stalen =■= to sing, Sish-
Tetalem = to sing, Snan
Tetlaelem = to sing, Songes
Atlum = to sing, LUI.
Wum-atla = to dance, Squam.
Kiny-ales = to dance, Sish.
Koi-ales = to dance, Snan.
Koales = to dance, Songes
Kway-ala = noise of crying, Kwakintl
Dumi-ala = sound of a bell, Kwakintl
Kwa-kw-'ala = sound the Indian makes,
i.e., the Indian language, Kwak.
Ma-ma-tla-ki-ala = the white man's language, Kwak.
The correspondences here are so many and obvious that I shall not
attempt to point them out.   I will merely say that if any one is doubtful
of the Polynesian affinities of the Kwakiutl-Nootka-Salish after a careful
Sec. II., 1888.   14. ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA
examination of these terms, it will be s
me in my comparisons any further.
Oceanic- WATE
Wai, Maori
Wai ■=■ spring, Fiji
Wai, Haw., Bum, Ceram, etc
Yai, Alfuros
Woya,*jSTcmw Is.
■Waar, Dorey
"Welo, Teluti
.Aki, Sanguir, Sian, Galela, Tidore
Akei, Menado
Hoi, Vanquero East
Kuai, Malanta
Ue, Baki
Aer, Salayer
c.f. Ua, = rain, Maori
Hoak = sea, Tear
Sawah = sea, Saparua
Bei = water, Aurora
U-lan = rain, lit. sky water, Gani
Hu-lani =rain, Batumerah, etc
Uwal = water, Macassar
Tolun = rain, Wahai
Usa = rain, Vaturana
Uta = rain, Malanta
Utha -= rain, Fiji
Uha, Florida
Coi
Waam, wap
c.f. wa-wa-(kula) =■= spring
(kula causative particle akin to
similar forms in Polynesian) '
Yukwa = rain
Kwa-sila = shower
Tsu-kwa = mud
Tsu-kwa-(kula) =-= storm
Wa-kaloos = rainbow
Iu = tide
Tcaak, tsuuk
c.f. Auk == lake
Salish-
Khla,; BUqula
Kaea, Thatl.
Seuouth, Pent.
Seuouth, Sish.
Ka, Snan.
Ka, Sumas, etc., etc, etc
Stak, Squam.
Koaa, Songes
Koa, Ntlakap.
Ko, LUI, Nisk.
Koa, Shew.
Sbiwutlk, Okana.
c.f. Wap = bridge ove;
Sti-pais = rain, Kvll.
\ Nootka
Awa, Maori
Wai, Maori
Ava =■= a boat-passage Into a lagoon,
Ava = an entrance to a harbour, Tali.
Awa = a harbour, etc., Hawaiiai
Ava =■= strait, narrows, Marqu.
Awa = channel   or  river,   Maoriori,
Wai = river, Tidore
Wailolun = river, Teluti
Weyoh = river, Mysol
Welo 6 water, Teluti
Tolun == water, Wahai
Wayl = water, Batamurah
Garu =«= scum, froth, Mangarevan
Qualo = to swim, Fijian
Wa, in all divisions of Kwak.
c.f. Wae = mouth of river
Opening, channel, Kwak.
Anaquom, BU.
Kuten, Thatl.
Stolau, Pent.
■ Stalo, Snan.
Staolo, Sish.
Stak, Squam. [hill-tout]     OCEANIC ORIGIN OF THE KWAKIUTL-NOOTKA
OCEANIC.
Sol, Mysol,
Laut, Malay, Wahai, etc., etc
Lautau, Lariki
Olat, Cajeli, Wayapo
Wolat, Gani
Belot, Mysol
Alu, =«= wave, billow, Tahitian
Nolo = sea, Tidore
Tasok =«= sea, Gah
Hoak =sea, Ttor
Ngara= wave, Maori
Galu = wave, Samoan, Tongan
3EA. Salish.
Kou, Ntlakap.
Stuwauh, LUI.
Setatkua, Shew.
Shatitk, Okana
Stoluk, Nisk,
Solut, Bilq.
Kuotl-ko, Thatl.
Kuotl.ko, Pent
Kuotl-ko, Sish.
Kuatl-koa, Snan.
Kuotlk, Squam.
Kokoe, Ntlakap.
c.f. Palasku = lake, Ntlakap.
Kotl, LUI.
Kulae = wave, Kwak.
Nalu = wave, Haw.   Wet damp, moist   Zuk zuk, Nllak.
Sluk, Sumas, etc, etc
Tsa-tsum = damp, Sumas, etc
Tsu-(kua) = mud, Kwak,
Tsu-(kua-kula) = storm, Kwak.
Tsu-uk = water Nootka
Hu hu, Tongan
Hu =mud, Maori
Sau = dew, Samoan
Hau = dew, Tahitian
Au = dew, Rarotongan
The correspondences in the above group of " water" radicals are very
clear and interesting. It will be seen that the Salish forms for river differ from the Kwakiutl and Polynesian, affiliating rather with the extra-
Polynesian for "water," "sea," &c. It will also be observed that the
Kwakiutl synthetic forms for " water " is the same radical as the prefix in
the Salish " river " forms. The correspondences between the " sea " forms
is very close ; the Bilqula as usual showing the purest form. The ko
radical of the Salish is very likely borrowed from the Dend, which has
similar forms.
Ocba
nc
FIRE, &c.                 Columbia
Ahi, Maori.
Hai-(kala)
Ai, Rarotongan,
Savu,
etc
Kwilta
Hai, Rotto
c.f. Hi-unk="summer
Afi, Samoan
literally " hot season "
Apui Kayan
in syn. koa, niha, hwa
Goifi, Guaham
Wha, Bouton
Inik, in syn. hauk
Hai, Garam
c.f. Kupa = warm
Kua-fi, Chamon
Hai, Vaiqueno
Salish.
Apoi, Silong, Matu, et
., etc., etc
Deoh, Naib, Bilq.
Lap, Mysol (coa
it)
Whoa-uith, Thatl.
Yap, Mysol (interior)
Haiuk, Snan. 214
ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA
FIRE, &c. Salish.
Haiuk, Sumas, etc., etc., etc
Yaiofl, in syn. tsap, Squam.
Tcu-whap, Okana.
Thaikh, Kwantlin
Kwei-ih, Thatl.
Oiyap, Ntlakap.
Rulap, LUI,
c.f. Shenk-oiya-nk =■= summer-time, Ntlak.
Whaa-kwila = embers, Sumas, etc
Wha-tsep = sparks, ashes, Sumas, etc
Tlk-ap = kettle, Shew.
Tlk-ap =■= kettle, Okana,
Haiaka = kettle, Ntlakap,
, etc     At-hai = night, Kwakiutl
Lap or aap = sunset, evening, Ntlakap.
Lap-it = evening, Kwakiutl
Tup-shitl = evening, Nootka
Rap = evening, LUI.
Rap = evening, Shew.
Kye-laup =■= evening, Okana.
Zul-koa = hot, Kwakiutl
K6-hoa = warm, Kwakiutl.
Tl'upa = warm, Nootka
Koas = warm, Thatl., Pent.
Koa-koas = warm, Snan.
Koa-koas = warm, Matsqui
Koa-kus = warm, Sumas, etc, etc., etc
Kuas = warm, Squam.
Koales = warm, Songes
Kamp = warm, LUI.
Skoats = warm, Shew.
Kualt = warm, Okana.
Kua-itch-ip = soot, Matsqui
Kua-tlups = soot, Kwakiutl
The main points to observe in the comparison of these " fire " terms
are the use of the two forms alike in both groups, viz., hai and lap ; and
the striking similarity in the method of employing these radicals to signify
" evening " or " sunset. This feature must be regarded as furnishing evidence of a high order of a psychical character. It is interesting to note
the number of syntheses into which the " lap" radical enters. In the
NUakapamuq term for " fire " we see a transposition of the two radicals in
Mysol for " smoke." The same compound is seen in the Lilong, Matu and
other dialects for " fire."
Oceanic.
Api, Solor, etc., etc
Yaf, Teor, etc
M,Brissi W.
Hao, Camarian
Uku, Gani, etc
c.f. Hi-hi = sunbeams, Maori
Hi = to dawn, Maori
Pe-hi = fire stick, Maori
Yap hoi = smoke, Mysol
Asap = smoke, Malay
Ahi-ahi = evening, Maori
Afi-afi =«= evening, Samoan
Ai-ai = evening, Rarotongan
Ahi-ahi = evening, Paumotan, eh
Wha = night, Salu Is.
Horip = hot, Teor
Galap af= dark, Malay
Gilap = to shine, glitter, Sunda
Gelap = ashes, Mysol
Ap-ai =■= ashes, Wayapa, Cajeli
Habu = ashes, Malay
Orapu = ashes, Bouton
Abu = ashes, Menado
• Lavu =■= ashes, Amblau
Laf tain = ashes, Tobo, etc jxtout]     OCEANIC ORIGIN OF THE KWAKIUTL-NO
Tsam, tsami
c.f. Oma = infant, i.e., a suckling or breast child
c.f. Ama-shotl =
Umae == a nurs:
■ chest
lg mother
, Tahitian, etc
,, Marquesan, etc
. uma, Hawaiian
. ™ chest, Samoan
, Mangarevan, etc
. = shoulders, etc., Tongan
Urns, BUq.
cf. Sk'ma=«=chest, BUq.
Kumilh, Tshehalis
Skubo, Nisk.
Skuma, Thatl.
Skuma, Songes
Sk'ma, Snan.
Skuma, Sumas, etc etc, et
. Skeam,£iH.
Skaam, Shew.
Skaams, Okana.
c.f. Kumae =
Ntlakap.
nfant,
BELLY, ETC.
Tiki =•= lower part of back, Maori
Kona = lower abdomen, Maori
Kona = lower abdomen, Tahitian
Kona = drunk, abdomen, Tongan
'Ona =*= drunk, abdomen, Samoan
Kona = drunk, Marquesan
'Ona = drunk, Hawaiian
Kona = lower abdomen, Mangarevan
Kune kune = to conceive in the womb,
Fiji
Kaleh — body, Salayer
Karoko = body, Bouton
Koli = body, Sulu Is.
Tena = body, Malagassy
Tina = body, Maori
Anana =•= body, Lariki
Sanawala = body, Awaiya
Awah = body, lavan
c.f- Opa = a bundle, heap, etc, Maori
Opu = belly, Tahitian
Poho *= the chest, breast, etc., Maori
Poso = heart, Tagal
Poso =*= to pant, Macassar
Puhu = stomach, Maori
Pa = bunch, etc, Maori
Tiki, t'kyae
Taikyae in syn. na
cf. Okona = body
Taatca
in syn..inakae
cf. Body in syn. pa
Kul, BUq.
Koaoa, Thatl.
Kula, Sish.
Koala, Snan.
Kul, Squam.
Kula, Songes
Koala, Sumas, etc., etc., etc
Skul-tsenenk, Okana.
Kuole-t'ki = body, Tshehalis
Keihl = body, Kull.
Wulank, Shew.
Rolain, LUI.
Siwonuq = body, Ntlakap.
c£ Opoae |= chest, KwdkiuB.
Poa = chest, Kwakiutl
Alos = belly in syn., BUq.
Alos = chest in syn., BUq. ROYAL SOCIETY i
Aloa   -j    nant, Samoan
I the seat of the affections
Aro = front, or face of a person, Ta
Alo =«= the abdomen in great  perse
ages, Tongan
Aro =»= the abdomen in great perse
ages, Samoan
Alo = frontior face, breast, belly, e
Alo = in the presence of, etc, I'olunl
Aro = protection, defence, Malagasy
Aro = presence, etc, Mangarevan
Aroga = visage, etc., Paumotan
Ao = in front of, Marquesan
Aro aro = presence, Rarotongan
Alo-fa = love, pity, etc, Samoan
Aro-ha = love, affection, etc, Maori
Aro-ha = compassion, love, etc, Tahi-
Lo-ha = affection, etc., Haw.
Alo-o/a = compassion, Tongan
Aka-aroa = love, etc., Marquesan
Aro-ha = love, etc., Paumotan, Manga-
Alus = chest, Shew.
Ales __ chest, Okana
Shotl = chest, Nootka
c£;also, 'Anoaikh = to
Hatl-men = to love, Li
Anaha-minsh = to love
-kook :
Hoku, Hawaiian
Hetu, Marquesan
Etu, Raro-longan
Fetu, Samoan
Whetu, Maori
Tokun, Teor
Toen, Mysol
Kohin, Ahliago
Tulin, Cajali
cf. Tahu = to kindle a light, Maori
Tao = to kindle a light, Maori
Tu'u = to be lighted as a lamp, Ten
Tutu = to be lighted as a lamp, San
Tuhulu = a torch, etc, Tongan
Mehme-khtl, BUq.
Kud-sen, Thatl. and [hill-tout]     OCEANIC ORIGIN OF THE KWAKIUTL-NOOTKA 21
Oceanic STAR, &c Salish.
Tutu = to set on fire, etc, Maori Sku-ko-sent, Shew.
Squ-ko-sent, Okana.
Koko-shinat, LUI.
For the affinities of the Columbian suf-   Nkoku-shen, Ntlakap.
fix " sen " cf. the following : cf. Sta-tu =*= fight, etc, Sumas, etc., etc
Sengi-sengi = twi-light, Sam. Tutou = light of a lamp,.etc, etc, Squan
Senga-vale = to shine dimly, Sam.
Sina =«= white, grey, etc., Tongan
Hana-hana = splendour, glory, etc,   Tatu = light, etc, Snan.
Tahitian
Hana = to glow, Maori Ma-hin = moon, Shew.
Hana = brilliant, shining, Mangarevan   Ma-han =moon, Shew.
Hina-po = twilight, Mangarevan
Thina = torch, lamp, Fiji
Sina =*= white, hoary, Sam.
Hina = moon, glimmering light, Maori
-Marhina = to shine dimly, Maori
Ma-hina = the moon, Tongan
Ra-hina =«= day, lavan
Sinar = a ray of light, to shine, etc,
Malay
Sinar-bulau = moonlight, Malay
Ina = grey, hoary, Mangaian
Ma-sina = the white moon, Samoan
Ma-hina = the moon, Hawaiian
In some of the foregoing Polynesian terms it will be seen that the radical "ma " is a common prefix. We learn from Fornander that" ma " was the
ancient Polynesian word for " moon." This radical enters into compounds
with the significance of " light," &c, &c, in both Oceanic and Columbian
groups. The " mehme-" of the Bilqula is this same radical reduplicated.
It occurs frequently in compounds in the interior Salish. A short comparison of these will be interesting and profitable.
Ma-ra-ma = moon, light, etc., Maori Ma ma = light, bright, brightly, etc.,
Ra-ma = a torch, lamp, etc., Maori Ntlakap.
Ma-la-ma = moon, lamp, light, Samoan Ma ma = light, bright brightly, etc.,
Ma = clear, pure, etc, Samoan LUI-
Ma-ra-ma =■= moon, Tihitian Ma-qha-ten = moon
Ma-la-ma = light, Hawaiian literally = instrument of light
Ma-hina = moon, Hawaiian above, Ntlakap.
Ma ma = fire, to shine, light, etc, Tong. Ma-hin = moon, Shew.
Ma ama = light of day, Marquesan Ma-ma-kun = lighening, Ntlak.
Mea-ma = moon, Marquesan Mehme-khtl = star, BUq.
M&-lan& = light, New Britain .Ma-oniunuq = dawn; literally, light is
Ma-la = light, Kayan coming, Ntlakap.
Ma mar = yellow light, Tagal Ma-mit = white fish, Shew. ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA
Oceanic
LIGHT, dec                   Columbian.
Whaka-ma ma = to enlighten, Maori
Ma-ta-wil   =   sunrise;   literally,   1
Faka-ma ma =* to lighten, Tongan
grows or increases, /Sumas, etc, etc
Ma = light, Maori
La-titl = dawn, Matsqui
Am a = anything that gives light,
.Marc;
Mah-tena = I enlighten, Ntlakap.
Ma-sina =•= morn, Samoan
Ma ma-tla = white (man), Kwakiutl
Ma-la-ma-lama = daybreak, Fiji
Ma-ma-tla = white (man), Nootka
Sha-ma = white (man), Ntlakap.
Sha-ma = white (man), LUI.
Na sa = day, Nootka
Na-la =-= day, Kwakiutl
A more intimate knowledge of the Columbian dialects woi
give us many more terms in which " ma" enters as t
radical. Still the number I have collected makes it perfectly i
" chance " has no place here. The " ma " of British Columbia i
Polynesian as the " ma " of Fiji.
HOUSE.
Whare, Maori
Fale, Samoan
Hale, Hawaiian
Are, Rarotongan
Wale, Magindano
Vale, Florida, etc
Lalem, Sumas, etc., etc.,
Alen, Songes
(S)atl, Bilq.
Etl in syn., Kwakiutl
Lam, Squam.
Lalem, Snan.
Aya, Thatl.
Alal, Niskwalli
SMALL, LITTLE, Etc
Iti-iti g= small, Maori
Ma iti iti = a youth, boy, Maori
To iti= little finger, Maori
Iti-iti = small, Samoan
Iti-iti = small, Tahitian
Iki = small, Haw.
Iti = small, Marqu.
Iti === small, Mangar.
Tei ti = a child, infant, etc., Mang
Si si =■= small, Aniwan
Kitikia = small, Malag.
Iti ki = small, Eddy Stone Is.
Chi = small, Malay
Ichi ichi = small, Ternate
Ki iti = small, Wahai
Ki ki = small, Fate
The correspondences here are dir
Kai-kte, Bilq.
Tei-teia, Thatl.
Tlai-thoi, Pent.
Kai-qualo, Sish.
Ttlai-tse(mats), Snan.   = littl
Akail, Sumas, etc., etc
Atsin, Squam.
.  Tei-Teaitl, Songes
Kwaiks, LUI.
Tci-tca(mat), Okana.   m little
Chi-(mamaet) =■= little childre
cf the "mat" forms with the
the Maori. The Ntlakap. is i
to mark plural 1
[hill-iout]     OCEANIC ORIGIN OF THE KWAKIUTL-NOOTKA             219
Oceanic        GOOD
GOODNESS.        Columbian.
Aikh, Kwakiutl
la, BUq.
Ai, Thatl.
Ai-ai-ta, Pent.
Baik, Malay
Ai, Sish.
Mo-pia, Bolanghitan
Ai, Snan.
Pia, Situ Is.
Haatl, Sqam.
Fiar, Gam
Aie, Songes
la, Liarg, Morella
Ai, Sumas, etc, etc., etc., etc
Mai, Lariki. Camarian
Heist, Kull.
Fia, Teluti, Matabello
Am a, LUI.
la, Wahai, etc
la, Shew.
Phian, Teor
la, Ntlakap.
Fei, Mysol
Hast, Okana.
Pai, Maori
Aka-pai = to cherish, Mangarevan
Ma-pia, Sian
BAD,
BADNESS, Etc
Hala = wicked, Hawaiian
Lakh = not good                     \KwoMutl
Hum-tlel = bad                       '
Hara = sin, crime, etc, Tahitian
Hala
Thala =
Hala =
Hala =
Hala =
Salah =
Hala =
Sala =
Ma'i =
Mai, dii
= wicked, bad, etc., Maori
= to err, etc., Tongan
fault, Mangarevan
sin, etc, Rarotongan
■= to err, etc, Fiji
hatred, etc, Malagassy
■■ guilty, etc., Kayan
base, mean, etc, lavan
= wrong, Malay
■■ wrong, Kisa
to sin, etc, Tagal
etc, Samoan
i, etc., Tahitian
Pi-shak, Nootka
Tleq, Thati.
Mai, Pent.
Mai, Sish.
Kai, Snan.
Kai, Squam.
Kal, Songes
Thist = not good, Ntlakap.
Kal, £i«.
Ky-ast = not good, Shew.
Ky-ast = not good
Khel, Sumas, etc., etc., etc
SICK, SICKNESS.
Kunono = weak, feeble, Hawaiian
Kaero = sickness, Maori
Mai mai = a scrofulous person, Tahitian
Mai, = sick, disease, etc, Hawaiian
Mai mai = feebleness, etc, Hawaiian
Maki = a sick person, etc., Maori
Mate = sick, dead, Paumaton
Maihe = a boil, sore, etc, Hawaiian
Maika = weary, lame, Hawaiian
Mahoki = sickness to death, Tongan
Maki = sickness, etc., Rarotongan
Maki = sick, ill, etc., Mangarevan
Kwonoq, Ntlakap.
Kwanuk, Kwakiutl
Tho-hoala, Kwakiutl
Tsehka, Kwakiutl
Ka-kai, Snan.
Ka-kal-thut, Pent.
Teitl, Nootka
Ga-tak, Thatl.
Haiti, Songes
Ky-eap = not well, Shew.
Skelelt, Okana.
Haiti = cold, Songes
Haiti = cold, Snan. ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA
Maki-te  kakai = sick,
Mangarevan
Emehe = sick, Aneityun
Mait = ill, New Britain
Mai = sickness, Sish, and Pent.
Ka-kei = sick, Sumas, etc, etc,
Kei-a-kel-am = weak, Sumas, etc., etc
Maki = dead, Kisa
Mate = die, dead, etc., Paumot., Motu.,
Pati = death, Java
Meci = to die, Lifu
Mat = to die, Duke of York Is.
Mait = ill, New Britain
Mat = dead, New Britain
Macha =■= dead, Formosa
Ko-mata = dead, Aniwan
Make =■= dead, hurt, wounded, Hawaiia;
Mate = dead, sick, ill, etc., Maori, Sam
etc
Mate = dead, te
c, Marqu.
Tlal, Kwakiutl
Tlel, Kwakiutl
Kaii, Thatl-
Koi, Sish.
Kai, Snan.
K'oi, Squam.
Kai, Songes
Zuk, Ntlakap.
Ouk, LUI.
Ka hak, Nootka
K'tsak, Shew.
A point to be observed in the last three groups of words is the
interesting interchange of terms in both stocks. The terms employed in
some of the Salish for " bad," is the same used in Kwakiutl for " dead."
There is a curious mixture of the moral with the material sense of these
words. The " mai " of the Pentlatch and Sishiatl signifies here " bad "
in the sense of "sickness," agreeing thus with the "mai" = "sickness"
of the Polynesian. The " ka-kei" forms are the equivalent of the " maki "
of the Polynesian, the labial here having given place to the post-lingual—
an interchange common alike to Columbian and Oceanic stocks.
Oceank
TO EAT, FOOD.
Col
Hamu = to eat fragments of food, Haw. Hama = to eat
Samu = to chew, Samoan.
Homau = to eat, Malg.
Komo = to eat, Baliyon.
Kamu = to taste, Matu
Tamu = a guest, Java
Jamu = to glut, satiate, Malay
Hamu = to eat food of one kind only,
Tongan
Ama = to devour, Tahitian
Hamu = gluttonous, Tahitian
Amu = to eat, Tahitian
Kame = food, Maori
Kamu = to eat, Maori
Hama-p-ik = he eats
Hama-p-dum = dinner hour
Haam-ut = crumbs
Ham ikul-azi = kitchen
Huma-p-un= I eat
Ham-iksil-in = I cook
Hum-ut = dining companion
"1
In both groups the stem is alike, Ham or its equivalent. [hill-tout]     OCEANIC ORIGIN OF THE KWAKIUTL-NOOTKA
TO COME, &c
Mari, Malay
Mai-ve, Bouton
Mai-ka, Salayer
Mai, Sulu Isl, Gani, Wahai
Omai, Cajeli, Balumerah
Ikomai, Wayapo
Gumahi, Massaratty
Buo-ma, Amblaw
Ino ker6, Tidore
Kul6, Ahtiago and Tobo
Haere-mai, Tahitian, Tongan, Hawaiian
Mai, New Britain, Formosa, Pellew, Motu
Maio, Eddystone Is.
Moi, Yap
Wai, Tehiti
' Mai, Lariki, Saparua, Gah
Gomari, Matabello
Jog mah, Mysol
Oi mai, Morella
Uimai, Liang
Mai ki, Maori = to depart, etc
Mai, Maori=hither, towards the speakei
Mai, Samoan, Haw = particle denoting
action towards the speaker
Mai, Haw. = ditto from the speaker
Awhe, Maori = to go round
Guawi, Maori = to go
Aiwa, Maori = to wander
Maeawha, Maori = to wander
Kaewa, Maori = to wander
Mae wa, Maori = to wander
Kukewa, Maori = to wander
Haere-wai, Maori = to come hither
Haere, Maori = verb of motion
Aere, Rarotongan = to go or come
Ere. Mangarevan = to go, etc
Aera-mai, Sikayana= "come here"
Hele, Haw. = to move in any way
Hele-mai, Haw. = to come or go
Hoo-hele Haw. = to desire to go on
Ahuwai, (M) = to come hither, to come
Puku, (M) = to come down, cf. with
Lillooet form
Wae, {M) = foot
Waea, {M) = weary
Kai-lis = come here
= to go
Kai-etla =
La-ik-tsi =
Towhet = to walk
Towa = to walk
Kasat = to walk
Iatshitl = to walk
Thakwa = come
Ya-tsuk = to walk
Tla, Nisk.
Kei-sa, Tsheh.
Kul, Thatl.
Qutl, Sishiatl
Kolem, Okan. = to walk
Ku-tsats, Shew. == to leave
Kwa-tchatch, LUI. = to leave
Ku-sat (plu.), Shew, =«= to walk
Qua-shit, Ntlak. = to walk
Mewa, Snan. = to come
Umi, Kwant. = to come
Mai-ka, Squam. = to come
Mei-la, Pent. = te come
Oiwa, Ntlak$r= to come
Uiwha, Ntlak. = come here
Mai-tla, Sumas, etc. = come here  |
Tshlaiwh, Bil. = to come
Eimash, Nisk. = to walk
Imih, Kwant. = to walk
Eimash, Snan. = to walk
Eedash, Thatl. =■= to walk
Mai-tu-kuh, LUI. = to walk
Amaih, Sumas, etc. = to walk
Amath, Squam. = to walk
Amai, Pent = to leave, or walk
Aemes, Sish. = to leave or walk
Amash, Sish = to leave
Amash, Thatl. = to leave
Amash, Squam. = to leave
Iaa, Songes = to leave
La ayil, Sumas, etc. = to go awa}'
Nash-awa, Ntlak. = to go away
Tla-litluh, Bil. = to go away
Tsu-ish, Kull. = to come
Hu-ish, Kull. =P to go
These terms supply another instance of the fundamental unity of
the Kwakiutl and Salish.    The " kai " forms of the Kwakiutl are variants 222 ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA
of the mai of the Salish and Oceanic groups. But it is in the verb " to
walk " that the common forms appear most plainly, kasat, kutsats, kooat-
ch'atch, kusat, quashit are all variants of the same form. These last four ■
belong to the interior Salish, and are not found in the coast dialects.
The interior Salish have from time immemorial been separated from the
Kwakiutl by intervening hostile tribes, and could not, therefore, have
borrowed the term. Moreover, this is not an isolated instance. Throughout my studies I have perceived that the relations of the two stocks
are much more clearly brought out by a comparison with the interior
Salish than with the coast Salish who border on them, and with whom
they have long been in contact. Dr. Boas was himself conscious of this
same underlying similarity in lexical forms between the interior Salish
and the Kwakiutl, and was puzzled to account for it, not perceiving its
true explication.
The mai forms speak for themselves. They are as numerous and
constant in *the Columbian as in the Oceanic groups; for it must be
remembered that under " Sumas, etc., etc.," are included about 20 other
" divisions" or tribes of the Salish of B. C. which, as I have remarked
before, speak dialects only slightly differing from its own.
NAIL, FINGERS, TOES, HAND, Etc
Oceanic
Ko-ko-wana, Sulu Is., = finger
Limam kokon, Cajeli, =g finger
Lemnati kokoli, Amblaw, = tinge
Lio
wa kuku-alima, Batur
Numonin tutulo, Gah, = finger
Kukur, Wahai, = finger
Kanin ko, Mysol, = finger
Uun, Sparua, = finger
Lima hato, Larika, = finger
Rimaka hatu, Liang, = finger
Limaka hatui, Morella, = finger
Ko-nui, .Maori, = thumb =«= big fingei
Ko-iti, Maori, = little finger or toe
Ko-roa, Maori, = long finger
To, Maoriori = toe, finger
Ku ku, Maori, = to nip, grate, etc
Ha-kuku, Maori, to scrape
Kuku, Savu, = finger-nail
Mati-kuku, Mangarevan, = i
Kuku, Fiji, = finger or toe-i
Columbian.
Koa-koa-skyanae, = hand, finger
Koa-Koa-tsana = hand, finger
Ko-na = thumb = big finger
Koa-Koa-'sitse = toes
Ko-ma-sitse = big toe
>r Tsum-tsum-skyanae = nail
Ku-kuae = foot
In syn. tsana =-= hand  -Sitse
Tshu-tltsha =■= nail
Tshu-tetsha = toes
Kwi-ku-nikso =•= hand
In synthesis -nuk = hand
Tsa-tsa-lak-muk-uma — finger
Tsa-tsa-tlak-tima = toes
Kho-laka = finger, Lillooet
Khu-likoya = finger Snan.
Kho-aukodja = finger, Pent.
Sku-telhsek = finger, Bilqula
Sku-tlhsetl = toes, BUqula
Sloakgis = finger, Matsqui
Lahkst = finger, Ntlakap.
Lahlihkst = finger, Shew.
Khoa-oa-djishin = toes, TfuiU. [hill-tout]     OCEANIC ORIGIN OF THE KWAKIUTL-NOOTKA
Oceanic      NAIL, FINGERS, &c—Con.      Columbian.
Kuku, Malay, = claw
Cucu, Pampang, Tagal, = claw, nail, etc
Kuku, Tongan, to hold fast in Hie hand,
to clench
Ku ku mo, Tongan, = covetous, niggardly
Ku ku, Tongan,= to squeeze, tongs, etc
Ko-mata-mata, Maori, = toe
Go-goh, Javan, = to catch fish in shal-
Khu-laiko-shin = toes, Pent.
Sku-akst = hand, Lillooet
Stu-mkhst = thumb, Okana.
Stu-mqen = toes, Okana.
Ku-ta-tsinodja =«= hand, Thatl.
Ku-teshinoya = hand, Sishiatl
Koh-ko-anekst = nail, Shews.
Kuhk'-ankhst = nail, Okana
low water w
th the hand
Kuqk'-anakaa = nail, Lillooet
Koa-k'einkst = nail, Ntlakap.
'U 'u, Samoan,
= to grasp, etc
Ko-alchis = nail, Matsqui
Gugn-ba, Motu
= to squeeze
vith
ight
Kuku-va, Fiji, = to hold fast
Kohi, Tongan, = to claw, etc
cf. naka, Maori, = to split, crack
Aka, Hawaiian, = to be split, knuckle-
joints
Ataa,  Tahitian, = split, divided, rent
asunder
Koko-miri, Maori, = to stroke, pat, etc
Mai kuku, Maori, = finger-nails
Mai kuku, Paumotan, =•= hoof
' Mate 'u 'u, Sam., = finger-nails
Makiau, Haw., = finger-nails
Naku, Maori, = to scratch
Naku, Haw., = to root up
Natu, Tah., = a scratch, etc
Ko-miri, Maori, to rub with the hands
Ko-ku-elchis = nail, claw, etc
Sumas, etc
Ko-ku-elithil = toes, Sumas, etc
Utsu-tlikak = hand, Bilqula
Sku-tlhsetl = toes, Bilqula
Sko-aht = foot, Sheieshwap
Kho-laikoya = nail, Pent.
Kho-alantsis = nail, Snan.
K'qho-yekoyatch = nail,
Squam,
Koa-lootsis =-= nail, Thatl.
Ko-ku-elsis = nail, Kwantlin
Ko-na = thumb, BUqula,
Ski-laka = thumb, LUlooet
Tsku-laka =-= thumb, LUlooet
Aku, Tong., = to scratch
Naku, Marq., = to pinch with the nail
Raka, Maori, = to scrape, scratch, etc
Laka, Macassar, = to divide, separate
Laka = lines drawn at right angles in a
game, Malagassy
Ragap, Aneityun, = divided as fingers
and toes
Laka laka = dishevelled hair
cf. Koe = to divide off, to separate, Ha-
Akaa = hand, LUlooet
cf. with Hawaiian and Tahitian, aka, ataa
Ko-kae = to divide, separate into parts,
Haw.
To-toe = to split, divide, etc., Maori
Toi = to divide, Mangarevan
To-to = foot, Solomon Is.
3 224 ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA
It will be observed that both Oceanic and Columbian stocks alike
link the term for " hand " with the radicals expressive of " fingers " or
" nails." In the Columbian dialects the suffixes in these terms, though
they differ so widely, all signify " hand " or "foot," as the case may be ;
and it is instructive to study the dialectical differences here offered in the
different divisions.
The correspondences throughout are very striking and full of
interest. There is no doubt that we see in the -tsana = hand of the
Kwakiutl a variant of the Polynesian lima ; the ko-ko-wana of the Sulu.
Islands being practically an identical form. We see the connecting link between the Nootka and Salish in the lak, laka, &c, forms common to both
in the syntheses for hand, &c. This laka would appear to be connected
with the corresponding forms in Polynesian which have a primary sense
of division, separation.
Below I give the second personal pronoun " thou." It can scarcely be
said to be an example of the others, for although correspondences are not
wanting throughout, they are not so constant and obvious as in the second
personal pronoun.
Oceanic
Koe, Maori
Tau = thy, Maori
Ooe = thou, Hawaiian
Oi = thou, Motu
Kaaw = thou, Mo.tu
Ko = thou, Fiji
Akoa, Fiji
Kow, Pelew
Kwe, Mille
Sia, Sunda
'Oe, Samoan
Oe, Tahitian, Haw, Tong.
Koe, Mangarevan, Paumotar
Akoi, Aniwan
A koe, &
THOU, THY.
X Kwakiutl
cf. Noku = of me, Maori
Nogua == I, me, Kwakiutl
Nokua =■= thou, Songes
Soua, so-wuk, Nootka
Tino, ino, Bilqula
Nuae. Pent.
Nuaela, Sish.
Ten-6ua, Snan.
Tel-oua, Matsqui
Nou, Squam.
Nokua, Songes
Snoa, Lillooet
Aoi, Ntlakap.
An-uae, Shus.
Han-uae, Okana.
Dug-oi, Nisk.
Noua, Kwant.
ua = thy, LUI.
No = thy, Bil.
Nuela
Sish
As I pointed out in the introductory part of thi
in the American tongues do not afford, for the reas
positive test of relationship throughout, yet the co:
are too striking to be the result of blind chance.   I re]     OCEANIC ORIGIN OF THE KWAKIUTL-NOOTKA
Wha, Maori
Fa, Samoan
Maha, Tahitian
Va, Fiji
Pat, Kayan
Ampal, Lampong
Fai, Teluti
Ha, Cajeli
Fut, Mysol
Hatsi, Bourgainville
Ampat, Baju
Pobits, Yengen
Opats, Sulu Is.
Foat, Gah
Kopa, Sian
Fet, Tobo
Wat, York Is-
Oceanic
Pulab, Javah
Mopuru, Bolang
Polo, Wayapo
Ruluh, Bisayan
Hulu, Rotti
Sapuloh, Malay
Talau = to count, Maori
Tekau = ten, Maori
Painduk = ten, Yengen
' Put-usa, Sevang
3UR. Colum
Mo, mu, Kwakiutl
Mo, Nootka
Mos, Bil.
Mosa, Thath.
Hosena, Pentl
Ho senalae, Sish.
Hathinis, Snan.
Hao tsen'oi, Squam.
Bas, Asbos, Nisk.
Nesala, Songes
Mm, Ntlakap.
Hootein, LUI.
Mos, Shew.
Mos. Okana.
EN. Columbiai
Oponaae, Thatl.
Opanalae, Sisli.
Apen, Snan.
A pel, Matsqui, etc
Open, Opopeu, Squam.
Apen, Songes
Open-akst, Ntlakap.
Opn-kst, Shew.
Open-khst, Okana.
Ape), Sumas, etc
Paduts, Nisk.
Here again in the radical for 4 we see the same forms common to
the Kwakiutl and the interior Salish; in 10 it is not so, the Kwakiutl being a synthetic form difficult of analysis.
Oceai
WIND, BREATH, &c.       Columbia]
Ha = breath, Maori
Hau = wind, Maori
cf. Hau-whenna = land wind
Puhi = to blow, Marquesan
Puhi-puhi = to breathe, Paumotan
Hapu = asthma, etc., Hawaiian
Puka = lungs, Maori
Pu = to blow, Maori
Puhi = to blow away, Tahitian
c.f. Pupuhi = to blow the fire, Taint
Pu = trumpet, etc., Hawaiian
Pu = trumpet, etc., Marquesan
Poahau = squall, Maoriori
Yu-(ala) = wind Kwak.
Yue = wind, Nootka
Shu-hom = wind, Nisk.
Naut = wind, Ntlakap.
Snaut = wind, LUI.
Senaut, = wind, Okana.
Pu-ham, Thatl.
Pa-ham, Pent.
Pu-ham, Sish.
Spu-ham, Squam.
Sphu-ala, Songes
Spehlo, Matsqui
Spuhls, Sumas, etc ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA
MOUNTAIN, HILL, STONE. Columbian.
c.f. Taekai = land, Maori
Puke, Maori
cf. Pukai = a heap, Maori
Pukei =-= mountain, Marquesan
Pukid = mountain, Bisayan
Buke = hillock, Tongan
Toko, teko = stone, Maori
Koma = stone, Maori
Kamaka = stone, Maori
Mauna =■= hill, Hawaiian
Mouna = hill Marquesan
Maka = stone, rock, Tongan
Kikai, Kwak.
Takut, Thatl.
Nukie, Kwak.
cf. Skumsh =■= ground, land, Kwak.
Tukught = stone, BU.
Thutla =■= stone, Nisk.
Sman'k, Snan.
Muksi = stone, Nootka
Muk-wiut, Okana.
Smant, Sish.
Smanat, Squam.
Smant, Snan.
Sk'um, Ntlakap.
SkTim, LUI.
Tsk-om, Shew.
Smalet, Matsqui
Smnt, BU.
These terms speak for themselves. We see here again that the isolated
Bilqula have kept a purer form than their congeners, tukught being but a
slightly modified form of the Maori toko and both having the significance
of "stone." The nuk- muk- of British Columbia find their counterparts
in the Oceanic puk- and buk-, " m " " n " " p " and " b " being in all the
groups common interchanges. Whatever doubt may arise concerning the
affinities between the Oceanic and Columbian stocks none can exist concerning the affinities of the Kwakiutl-Nootka and Salish. We are not
surprised to see that the Bilqula and Thatlotl closely resemble the
Kwakiutl-Nootka forms ; they are neighbours and the latter may well
have borrowed from the former. But what of the interior Salish tribes
between whom and the Kwakiutl-Nootka no intercourse since their original separation has taken place. This correspondence is yet another link
in the chain of evidence which indubitably marks the fundamental unity
of the two groups.
Oceanic LAND, EARTH, GROUND. Columbian.
Taekai, Maori
Whenua, Maori
Enua, Rarotongan
Henua, Marqu, Paumot., etc
Fenua, Futuna, TahUian
Fanua, Samoan
Honua, Hawaiian
cf. Tanu = to bury, plant, etc.,
Tshams, skumsh
Takya, tikia, Kwak.
Tsa'-kumts, Nootka
Temuq, Squam,
Temuq, Ntlakap.
Temaq, ML, Okana.
Temuq, Sumas and a score others
Tanguq, Songes [hill-tout]     OCEANIC ORIGIN OF THE KWAKIUTL-NOOTKA
YES.
COLUM
Laa, Kwakiutl
Haa, aha, Nootka
Oah, oua, Bilqula
A a, Squam.
Ae, eh, Ntlakap.
Ae, eh, LUI,
A ah, Songes
Ae, Matsqui
Eh, ae, Sumas and Fra
far as Yale
Whae, Nisk.
Unae, Kull.
Eh, laa, Yale and Frasei
Yale
Kye, i, hi, ki, aui, Kwak.
Wek, i, hi, aui,
Ky in syn., Okana
Ta, Ndakap.
Taa, Shew.
Taa, KuU.
Whas, LUI.
Ky- in syn., Shew.
Aua, Songes
Wha, Nisk.
Whaa, 2%atf.
Owa, Snan.
Oua, Kwantlin
Mail-ta, ZfcfceA.
Oua, Jfafegmn
Oua, Sumas and aU Fraser River tribes below
Yale, numbering about 20
| Nootka
Ae, .Maori
Ai = probably, Samoan
E'oe = yes, Samoan
Ae, e = yes, Tahitian
Ae = yes, Hawaiian
Ae = yes, Marquesan
E = yes, Mangarevan
Eh = yes, Mangarevan
E = yes, Maoriori
Ae = yes, Mangaian
A =■= yes, Rarotongan
Eh = yes, Pawto, Nias
la = yes, JSji
le = yes, Malagasse
NJa H yes, StMida
Ina = yes, .Maori
Ana = yes, Maori
Oceanic
Kaua, ilfaori
Kei, ilfaori
Te, Maori
Te, Hawaiian
Te, Mangarevan
Tai, Jbn^an
Ti, Malagasy
Tsi, Malagasse
Mai, Hawaiian, = do not
I-Kai, Tonoan
Ai-ta, Tahitian
Ai-e, ifar'e/wesan
Aua, Hawaiian, negative particle
Aua = do not, Samoan
Auaa, Tahitian
Aua, .Maori
Auaka, .Maori, = do not
Aua, Marquesan
Aua, Mangaian
Compare the ky=not, of the interior Salish, in the term ky-ast=not
good (given under " Bad "), with the ky or ki of the Kwakiutl.
In speaking of the negative forms in which "i," or "i" modified is
found, Fornander says : " I would consider all these different forms as
merely dialectical variations of a common original negative whose form
was probably ' i'; some of the dialects having prefixed a ' t' or a ' k.' " 1
With this statement before us, it is interesting to note that the Rev. Mr.
i The Polynt 228 ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA
Hall, for many years missionary among the Kwakiutl, writes thus on the
Kwakiutl negative: | Correctly speaking, ' i' is the negative, and the
consonants are prefixed when euphonic."I
These negative and affirmative particles are so striking in their correspondences, particularly the former, with its threefold forms of " i,"
" te I and " oua," that he would be a rash man who would say they are
merely fortuitous resemblances. It is not too much to say that if the
greater portion of the terms herein compared were submitted to a Polynesian scholar, and mixed together without reference to the sources from
which they were drawn, he would be wholly unable to determine by inspection which were Oceanic and which were Columbian. It is impossible '*•
to explain these marvellous and far-reaching similarities without admitting an Oceanic origin for these Columbian stocks. The data here offered
in support of this fact constitutes but a fraction of what I have gathered
in my investigations, extending over years, and my own conviction of
the relationship existing between the Kwakiutl-Nootka-Salish and the
Polynesian arises as much from the cumulative force of the thousand and
one little correspondences which are scarcely susceptible of illustration in
a brief paper like this, as from the more obvious and striking ones given.
The morphology of the Salish, I may add, is nowhere radically different
from that of the typical Oceanic groups, and at times most remarkable
correspondences occur. All the Salish dialects, like those of Polynesia, •
make use of particles and auxiliary verbs in verbal inflection. Prepositional and conjunctive terms with common use, significance and form
abound. The articles and demonstratives show close resemblance, being
frequently absolutely identical. The position of the adverb and adjective is the same. It is my intention to offer later a paper on these
structural similarities. I will content myself at this time with calling attention to a very interesting feature of the Squamish dialect which
I but lately discovered. When any member of this division of the
Salish is asked to what sept or family he belongs, he answers " ti-Squa-
mishan," or " ti-Snoqhan," or " ti-Stamishan," and so on, as the case may
be, meaning thereby that he is a member of or belongs to the Squamish,
Snoq, or Stamis septs. Now. several of the Oceanic groups employ the
same, or a slightly modified prefix, in exactly the same sense. Under
" ngati," Tregear writes thus in his Maori comparative dictionary : " A
prefix to names of tribes, it signifies 'descendants of or 'from.' Ati is
also used thus." This prefix has the same significance in Tahitian, Mangarevan, Mangaian and Paumotan, as, for example, in Mangarevan, ati-
Tane = " descendants of Tane." It is impossible to consider the common
use of a prefix of this kind without regarding it as a strong link in the
chain of evidence of common origin and one wholly beyond the work of
chance.
i Trans. Royal Soc. Canada, Section II., Vol. VI., 1888. [hill-tout]     OCEANIC ORIGIN OF THE KWAKIUTL-NOOTKA 229
In bringing my paper to a close I would like to point out that it is
premature, in my opinion,'at this stage of our investigations, to attempt
to say to which of the Oceanic groups the Columbian stocks under consideration belong. I believe it would be wholly misleading to jump to
the conclusion that because the Columbian terms approximate more
nearly to the speech of the mixed races of Oceania, rather than to that
of the pure Polynesians, they have, therefore, sprung from these. The
probability is all the other way. In colour the Kwakiutl-Nootka-Salish -
correspond very closely to the Polynesians. I have seen members of the
Squamish tribe whom I. could with difficulty distinguish from some of the
Samoans who returned from the Chicago fair this way, and camped at
the Squamish village here. There is nothing in the appearance of our
Salish tribes here, generally speaking, to make their kinship with the
Polynesians an improbability as far as colour goes. I have seen dark-
hued faces among the inland Salish, but, as a rule, they are lighter than
the Italians who sometimes co-habit with them. And the anatomical
data given by Wallace agrees substantially with that of the coast
Indians given by Dr. Boas. I see, rather, in this approach to similar
forms among the eatfra-Polynesians and Columbians the result of similar influences at work in their-respective tongues than a direct relationship. There is no doubt that the divergence in the speech of the
extra-Polynesian groups is due to the fact that the Polynesian words
and language have been imposed upon their own. The greater prevalence of consonantal forms is undoubtedly due to this. The Fijian
dialects, for example, display'just the same characteristics as do those of
the Kwakiutl or Salish, though perhaps in a less degree. We know for
certain that the cause here was due to a mixture of two Oceanic races
speaking different tongues. I have already pointed out that the same
cause has been at work in the Kwakiutl-Nootka and Salish. There is
also another cause of divergence from the vocalic forms of Polynesian here
in British Columbia. Our climate is exceedingly moist, our atmosphere
very humid. Bain, fogs and damp are prevalent on the coast for a large
portion of each year. These conditions could not fail to affect the soft
vocalic character of a language like the Polynesian. The " throaty "
quality, the harsh guttural sounds of our coast languages are mainly due
to this cause. Farther south, and even in the interior within a couple of
hundred miles of the coast, where these conditions do not prevail, we find
the language much softer and more labial. The difference between the
coast and interior Salish is enormous. I have known the interior people
to mimic and laugh at the speech of the coast, which to them is barbarous.
When these adverse influences and the principles of change in the languages themselves, which I pointed out in the earlier part of this paper, are
taken into consideration, it is truly marvellous that so many correspondences remain.    Were it not that amid all the mutations which languages r
2SO ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA
are capable of undergoing, the basal elements of speech, the radicals or primaries remain almost intact, it would be well-nigh useless to look for the
origin of most of our American stocks. But while these are so invariably
constant we need never despair, and if any one doubts of this constancy
and persistence of roots in language, let him examine the dialects of the
great De'ne' or Athapascan stock, the northern and southern divisions of
which have been so long separated by intervening tribes, that have
occupied their present settlements for many centuries at least; that they
not only have no knowledge of each other's existence, but their dialects
differ as widely as do the languages of the modern Aryan races of
Europe; notwithstanding all of which, the great majority of the radicals
of the southern branch find their exact counterpart in those of the north.
It is because I have been so deeply impressed with the persistence and
constancy of the radical elements of our American tongues that I repeat
these are the only safe lines on which to institute comparisons, and the
only ones we can follow with profit on this continent.
I append a few specimens of our tribal, place and personal names.
Some of our Polynesian scholars may be able to detect the Oceanic
elements in them. That these elements really exist in them-no one, I
think, can doubt after a brief examination of them.
Sha-lana = God, heaven, divine, etc., Haida.
Het-gwau-lana = Name of God of the lower regions, Haida.
Tle-tsa-ap-le-tlana = Name of one of the lesser deities of the Bilqula.
Mas-mas-a-lanih = Name of one of the lesser deities of the Bdqula.
Koo-ho-tlanae = Ancestral name of the Bilqula.
Tsqoah-kanae = Place and tribal name of the Bilqula.
Sha-nt-lani = Name by which the day is known in Haida.
Kani-sltsua = Name of the Thunder-bird deity in Kwakiutl.
Kanha-da = Name of one of the gentes of the Isimshian.
O-kanakan = Name of one of the tribes of the Salish.
Kane-a-keluh = Name of the divine culture-hero of the Kwakiutl.
Kia-kunag = Name given to the Sun deity by the Kwakiutl.   It signifies " our
chief or supreme one."
The resemblance in form and meaning in these " Kane " words to the
Kane = " God," or " heavenly chief," of the Polynesians, is very striking
and suggestive, as is no less the suffix " lana," or " lani," found in Salish,
Kwakiutl and Haida alike. This term is used as an honorific suffix
in identically the same sense in Polynesian, particularly among the Ha-
waiians, whose kings and queens have it invariably added to their names-
It may be seen, for example, in the name of the present ex-queen of Hawaii. The significance of the common use of the same radical in the two
groups is further strengthened by the fact that in Polynesian it has the
sense of "divine," "heavenly" and is the same word as their lani or
rangi = "sky," "heaven," etc.    One has but to compare this "lani" or [hill-tout]     OCEANIC ORIGIN OF THE KWAKIUTL-NOOTKA 231
-" rangi " with the " lani" of sha-ut-lani = day of the Haida, where " lani |
has exactly the same sense, to be thoroughly satisfied of the common origin of these terms.    I add a few more :
Kem-kem-ala-otla = Name of a minor deity of the Bilqula.
Kom-kom-ki-li-kya = Name of a minor deity of the Bilqula.
Tium-ki-li-kya = Name of a minor deity of the BUqula.
Kula-lias = Name of a minor deity of the BUqula.
Ha-li-ki-li-ki-la = Name of a divine ancestor of the Kwakiutl.
Ma-ma-li-li-aka = Place and tribal name of the Kwakiutl.
A-wa-i-tle-la = Place and tribal name of the Kwakiutl.
A-wa-oo = Place and tribal name of the Kwakiutl.
Wi-we-ki = Place and tribal name of the Kwakiutl.
Tanakakw = Place and tribal name of the Kwakiutl.
Wi-we-ekum = Place and tribal name of the Kwakiutl.   

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